WorldWideScience

Sample records for jealousy

  1. Sexual Jealousy

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    David M. Buss

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Sexual jealousy is a basic emotion. Although it lacks a distinctive facial expression and is unlikely to solve problems of survival, it evolved because it solves adaptive problems of mating. Some adaptive functions are similar in men and women at one level of abstraction, such as warding off potential mate poachers and deterring relationship defection. Other functions are sex-differentiated, such as increasing paternity probability for men and monopolizing a mate's economic commitments for women. Dozens of studies have documented sex-differentiated design features of jealousy: The relative upset about sexual and emotional aspects of infidelity; processing speed and memorial recall of sexual and emotional infidelity cues; physiological distress to sexual and emotional infidelity cues; qualities of same-sex rivals that evoke jealousy, such as superior job prospects versus greater physical attractiveness; triggers of mate retention tactics; jealous interrogations following the discovery of infidelity; and whether an infidelity produces forgiveness or breakup. Although showing all the hallmarks of evolved functionality, sexual jealousy also leads to tremendous destruction, from humiliation to homicide. By these scientific theoretical and empirical criteria, sexual jealousy is properly considered not only "basic" but also "one of the most important emotions".

  2. Jealousy Protest

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    Sybil L. Hart

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this article, nascent jealousy’s ultimate foundation is theorized as an adapted psychological mechanism that evolved in the environment of evolutionary adaptedness (EEA to prepare 1-year-olds for defending against premature weaning upon the closely spaced birth of a sibling. This position rests on evidence that nascent jealousy is expressed through jealousy protest, a constellation of caregiver-directed protests and bids for exclusive attention, and evidence that its onset occurs at approximately 9 months of age. Given that the period of human gestation is 9 months, we propose that jealousy protest’s form and timing were compelled by the possibility that the end of an infant’s first year could be met by competition with a newborn sibling. That possibility placed infants at risk of malnutrition and mortality due to entailing the loss of exclusive access to mother’s milk, while infants were at an age when they were still heavily reliant on breast milk for survival. At this juncture, threat posed by the birth of a sibling was compounded by conditions of the EEA, where the sole viable source of breast milk was an infant’s mother, and her supply of milk was sufficient for sustaining only one child at a time. We conclude by offering suggestions for future research and discuss implications for the theory of parent–offspring conflict as a foundation of adaptations in children.

  3. Jealousy and Relationship Closeness

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    Mark Attridge

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This study confirmed a hypothesis from the Emotion-in-Relationships conceptual model, which predicts that greater interdependence between relationship partners—or closeness—creates the potential for jealousy. The study also sought to better define the positive side of romantic jealousy in addition to its more negative attributes. College students in premarital relationships (N = 229 completed a questionnaire, including 27 different measures and the Multidimensional Jealousy Scale. Select data were obtained from 122 cases at 3-month follow-up. Each jealousy scale was tested for associations with demographic (age, sex, and race, person (life satisfaction, loneliness, romantic attachment styles, love styles, and romantic beliefs, and relationship (affective, closeness, and social exchange theory constructs. Results clearly distinguished emotional/reactive jealousy as mostly “good” and cognitive/suspicious jealousy as “bad.” Behavioral jealousy was associated with few measures. Implications are discussed for the interdependence model of relationships and the transactional model of jealousy.

  4. Correlates of Jealousy.

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    Bringle, Robert G.; And Others

    The Self-Report Jealousy Scale was developed to measure individual differences regarding a person's propensity to reach in a jealous manner to a variety of jealousy-evoking situations. The scale possesses good psychometric properties. Studies are reported which administered the Self-Report Jealousy Scale with various personality scales. The…

  5. College Men and Jealousy

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    Knox, David; Breed, Rhonda; Zusman, Marty

    2007-01-01

    Cultural meanings (e.g. the green eyed monster) and research interests have traditionally focused on female jealousy. In contrast, this research focused on male jealousy. Two-hundred ninety-one undergraduates at a large southeastern university completed a confidential, anonymous forty-four-item questionnaire on jealousy. Men reacted differently…

  6. Obsessive versus delusional jealousy.

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    Batinic, Borjanka; Duisin, Dragana; Barisic, Jasmina

    2013-09-01

    Although obsessive jealousy is a highly disturbing disorder, frequently it goes unrecognized, as most attention is paid to delusional jealousy, being the more prominent clinical phenomenon. In order to distinguish obsessive from delusional jealousy, the basic clinical characteristics of these two types of jealousy are presented, as well as the mechanism of their respective genesis, and the differences which we must be aware of in order to prevent misdiagnosis and consequent wrong treatment choices. The theoretical considerations are supported by case presentations providing a clear picture of the phenomena discussed. Unlike delusional jealousy, characterized by the presence of strong, false beliefs that the partner is unfaithful, individuals with obsessive jealousy suffer from unpleasant and irrational jealous ruminations that the partner could be unfaithful, accompanied by compulsive checking of partners' behaviour, which is recognised by the patient as ego-dystonic. This jealousy resembles obsessive-compulsive phenomenology more closely. Despite the differences, both forms of jealousy result in significant distress for patients and intimate relationships, and carry the risk of abuse, homicide and/or suicide. Delusional jealousy is a psychotic disorder and should be treated mainly with antipsychotics, while obsessive jealousy resembles obsessive-compulsive disorder and should be treated with SSRIs and cognitive-behavioural therapy. Regardless of the presence or absence of insight into the disorder, one of the key factors in the treatment of pathological jealousy is to motivate the sufferers for pharmacological and psychotherapeutic interventions.

  7. Jealousy and Moral Maturity.

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    Mathes, Eugene W.; Deuger, Donna J.

    Jealousy may be perceived as either good or bad depending upon the moral maturity of the individual. To investigate this conclusion, a study was conducted testing two hypothesis: a positive relationship exists between conventional moral reasoning (reference to norms and laws) and the endorsement and level of jealousy; and a negative relationship…

  8. Forensic importance of jealousy.

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    Muzinić, Lana; Goreta, Miroslav; Jukić, Vlado; Dordević, Veljko; Koić, Elvira; Herceg, Miroslav

    2003-06-01

    The aim of the investigation is to define as clearly as possible specific forensic psychiatric characteristics of persons who committed homicide and or attempted due to jealousy (the nature and severity of psychopathology, the level of responsibility, danger for the community, intensity and nature of aggression, the victimologic dimension, the relation of alcohol and jealousy). A retrospective method based on forensic psychiatric expertises in the period 1975-1999 was used. They encompassed 200 examinees that committed murder or attempted it. The results show the connection of psychotic jealousy with the highest degree of danger in diagnostic categories of paranoid psychosis and paranoid schizophrenia. The time span from the first manifestations of jealousy until the actual commitment of a crime is the longest in personality disorders and the shortest in schizophrenia. Exogenous provoking situations were dominant for committing homicide due to jealousy in personality disorders. Acute alcohol intoxication has a specific significance in crime due to jealousy in the same diagnostic category. Clear criteria were designed for forensic psychiatric evaluation of murder and attempts of homicide caused by jealousy, which will be of help in everyday practice in the field forensic work and treatment.

  9. JEALOUSY IN OTHELLO

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    Sanja Merzić

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The intent of this paper is to address the theme of jealousy in Shakespeare’s tragedy Othello, the Moor of Venice (Othello through various characters, especially focusing on characters of Othello and Iago. Also, this paper will show how an emotion strong as jealousy can destroy not only its carrier but everyone that surrounds him/her if used without control.

  10. Jealousy, Romantic Love, and Liking.

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    Mathes, Eugene W.; Severa, Nancy

    The studies reported in this paper had two purposes: (1) the construction of a measure of jealousy and (2) the use of this measure to test some of the prevalent beliefs concerning jealousy, thus providing construct validity data for the scale and expanding empirical understanding of jealousy. Using the rational approach to test construction, a…

  11. Jealousy in dogs.

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    Harris, Christine R; Prouvost, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    It is commonly assumed that jealousy is unique to humans, partially because of the complex cognitions often involved in this emotion. However, from a functional perspective, one might expect that an emotion that evolved to protect social bonds from interlopers might exist in other social species, particularly one as cognitively sophisticated as the dog. The current experiment adapted a paradigm from human infant studies to examine jealousy in domestic dogs. We found that dogs exhibited significantly more jealous behaviors (e.g., snapping, getting between the owner and object, pushing/touching the object/owner) when their owners displayed affectionate behaviors towards what appeared to be another dog as compared to nonsocial objects. These results lend support to the hypothesis that jealousy has some "primordial" form that exists in human infants and in at least one other social species besides humans.

  12. Jealousy, Gender, Sex Roles, and Dependency.

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    Madden, Margaret E.; And Others

    One hundred adults ages 18 to 42 completed measures of jealousy and dependency in romantic relationships and of sex role traditionalism. Traditionalism and jealousy were correlated, as predicted, but dependency and jealousy were not. For men, but not for women, traditionalism and jealousy were positively correlated. Dependency and traditionalism…

  13. Pathological Jealousy: An Interactive Condition.

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    Seeman, Mary V

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this review is to describe the psychopathology, antecedents, and current management of pathological jealousy from an interpersonal perspective. The Google Scholar database was searched with the following terms: delusional jealousy; morbid jealousy; paranoid jealousy; pathological jealousy; Othello syndrome; delusional disorder-jealous type; conjugal paranoia. From a total of 600 articles, 40 were selected based on their currency and pertinence to the interpersonal aspects of jealousy. Findings were that delusional jealousy is equally prevalent among men and women, with a greater prevalence in the elderly. Antecedents to this condition can be neurologic, drug related, and/or psychological, most often preceded by low self-esteem and excessive dependence on a romantic partner. Pathological jealousy can be triggered by the behavior of the partner and maintained by reasoning biases and by the psychological benefits that it initially bestows on the relationship. In the long run, however, it poses dangerous risks to the patient, the partner, and the imagined rival so that involuntary hospitalization is sometimes required. Treatment recommendations include couple therapy, a strong cognitive focus, antipsychotic medication, and interventions which enhance self-esteem of both partners and which address the solidarity of the existing relationship. Treatment effectiveness does not yet have a firm evidence base.

  14. Obsessive Jealousy: A Case Report

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    João Miguel Ferreira Perestrelo

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Jealousy is common between humans but can assume pathological characteristics. Aims: To report a case of obsessive jealousy and to review the concept and clinical features of the condition. Methods: A clinical cases of obsessive jealousy was obtained and a literature review of the theme was shortly surveyed. Results and Conclusions: The clinical case presents a man with morbid jealousy with obsessive features who was hospitalized after a  suicide  attempted.  During  his  hospitalization he was medicated with fluvoxamine and clonazepam reporting a decrease of the ruminative thoughts and anxiety. A correct diagnosis  of  obsessive-compulsive  disorder (OCD and its differentiation from a delusion,  obsessive  or  overvalued  idea  are  essential for an adequate approach and treatment.

  15. Romantic Jealousy and Relational Satisfaction: A Look at the Impact of Jealousy Experience and Expression.

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    Andersen, Peter A.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Finds that cognitive jealousy is a more potent predictor of relational satisfaction than emotional jealousy, individuals using integrative communication and/or expression of negative affect to communicate jealousy are most likely to be satisfied with their relationships, and jealousy expression accounts for significantly more variance in…

  16. Jealous love and morbid jealousy.

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    Maggini, Carlo; Lundgren, Eva; Leuci, Emanuela

    2006-12-01

    Jealous love and morbid jealousy, although inextricably linked, cannot be considered the same: jealous love (trait jealousy) is the behavioral and cognitive-affective precondition of morbid jealousy (state jealousy). Love is jealous when it is devoured by the desire for the exclusive and total possession of the partner, whose unconditional and continued presence is avidly requested. This type of love, in addition, is permeated by the need to know what the other is thinking, in order to scrutinize every minimal flaw in the faithfulness of the partner even in his or her innermost thoughts and fantasies; in it, jealousy is virtually always present, even in the absence of a triggering event, because captative love, by its very nature, includes the expectation of a conflict which inevitably actually takes place in reality. Finally, jealousy emerges as an emotional event (jealous flash) in response to a more or less significant change in the behavior of the partner, and reveals to the jealous individual a dimension which was previously latent or inexistent. This intense and brief experience, leaves a more or less blurred memory behind, and tends to progressively repeat itself and take root as a feeling.

  17. Reactions to Hypothetical, Jealousy Producing Events.

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    Hansen, Gary L.

    1982-01-01

    Asked subjects (N=220) how they would feel about their mates' behavior in eight hypothetical situations designed to measure jealousy. Responses indicated that jealousy is likely to be a major issue. Sex role orientation is most consistently related to jealousy with sex role traditional subjects being the most jealous. (Author)

  18. Sex differences in jealousy : The case of Internet infidelity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groothof, H.; Dijkstra, Pieternel; Barelds, D.P.H.

    2009-01-01

    Studies investigating the events that elicit men's and women's jealousy consistently show that men's jealousy, more than women's jealousy, is triggered by a mate's sexual infidelity, and women's jealousy, more than men's jealousy, is triggered by a mate's emotional infidelity. Internet infidelity

  19. Prefrontal cortex, dopamine, and jealousy endophenotype.

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    Marazziti, Donatella; Poletti, Michele; Dell'Osso, Liliana; Baroni, Stefano; Bonuccelli, Ubaldo

    2013-02-01

    Jealousy is a complex emotion characterized by the perception of a threat of loss of something that the person values,particularly in reference to a relationship with a loved one, which includes affective, cognitive, and behavioral components. Neural systems and cognitive processes underlying jealousy are relatively unclear, and only a few neuroimaging studies have investigated them. The current article discusses recent empirical findings on delusional jealousy, which is the most severe form of this feeling, in neurodegenerative diseases. After reviewing empirical findings on neurological and psychiatric disorders with delusional jealousy, and after considering its high prevalence in patients with Parkinson's disease under dopamine agonist treatment, we propose a core neural network and core cognitive processes at the basis of (delusional) jealousy, characterizing this symptom as possible endophenotype. In any case,empirical investigation of the neural bases of jealousy is just beginning, and further studies are strongly needed to elucidate the biological roots of this complex emotion.

  20. Envy and jealousy in Classical Athens

    OpenAIRE

    Sanders, E. M.

    2010-01-01

    Emotions differ between cultures, especially in their eliciting conditions, social acceptability, forms of expression, and co-extent of terminology. This thesis examines the psychological sensation and social expression of envy and jealousy in Classical Athens. Previous scholarship on envy and jealousy (Walcot 1978, Konstan and Rutter 2003) has primarily taken a lexical approach, focusing on usage of the Greek words phthonos (envy, begrudging spite, possessive jealousy) and zêl...

  1. [Alcoholic jealousy: an old and current dilemma].

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    Jiménez-Arriero, Miguel Angel; Hernández, Belén; Mearin Manrique, Ignacio; Rodríguez-Jiménez, Roberto; Jiménez Giménez, Mónica; Ponce Alfaro, Guillermo

    2007-01-01

    The relation between alcohol and jealousy is a deeply rooted belief within the general population as well as in the medical, and particularly psychiatric, environment. Furthermore, in recent years there has been a growing interest on the forensic aspects of pathological jealousy, since they are a frequent cause of severe violence, homicide and suicide. Some authors have described a high prevalence of pathological jealousy in alcoholic patients, even awarding it a pathognomonic value in alcoholism. Nevertheless, recent studies do not completely support this relation, and draw attention to other factors. Results from the various studies contain several definitions and classifications of pathological jealousy, and although most of them highlight the prevalence of jealousy in alcoholic patients, they question its pathognomonic quality. Also, the presence of pathological jealousy in subjects with psychiatric disorders other than alcoholism is suggested, indicating the existence of predisposing and triggering factors which could explain the development of pathological jealousy. Yet, the important methodological difficulties in the published articles and the shortage of studies do not allow the confirmation of the alcoholic etiology in pathological jealousy; this is the reason why considering alcoholic jealousy as a separate entity is debatable. In this sense, the best diagnosis in these patients would be paranoid disorder combined with alcoholic dependence, hence, a dual diagnosis.

  2. Jealousy: novel methods and neural correlates.

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    Harmon-Jones, Eddie; Peterson, Carly K; Harris, Christine R

    2009-02-01

    Because of the difficulties surrounding the evocation of jealousy, past research has relied on reactions to hypothetical scenarios and recall of past experiences of jealousy. Both methodologies have limitations, however. The present research was designed to develop a method of evoking jealousy in the laboratory that would be well controlled, ethically permissible, and psychologically meaningful. Study 1 demonstrated that jealousy could be evoked in a modified version of K. D. Williams' (2007) Cyberball ostracism paradigm in which the rejecting person was computer-generated. Study 2, the first to examine neural activity during the active experience of jealousy, tested whether experienced jealousy was associated with greater relative left or right frontal cortical activation. The findings revealed that the experience of jealousy was correlated with greater relative left frontal cortical activation toward the "sexually" desired partner. This pattern of activation suggests that jealousy is associated with approach motivation. Taken together, the present studies developed a laboratory paradigm for the study of jealousy that should help foster research on one of the most social of emotions. (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved

  3. Jealousy during Dating among Female College Students

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    Khanchandani, Laveena; Durham, Thomas W.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between several situational and personality variables and jealousy in dating relationships among 100 college women volunteers who completed a series of questionnaires about themselves and their dating situations. Six research questions were examined. Results showed that jealousy was lower for women in a steady…

  4. The Role of Jealousy in Marriage.

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    Bringle, Robert G.; And Others

    Questionnaires were completed by 131 married couples to determine the role of dispositional jealousy on marital success. The total jealousy in the marriage was found to be negatively related to several indices of marital success. Further analyses indicated that marital outcomes were negatively associated with the husband's perception of the wife's…

  5. Developing the Spouse Emotional Jealousy Scale

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    Kizildag, Seval; Yildirim, Ibrahim

    2017-01-01

    The Spouse Emotional Jealousy Scale (SEJS) has been developed in order to measure spousal jealousy levels of married individuals in the frame of this study. In the process of developing the SEJS, which is the aim of this study, data was gathered from married people living in Ankara. SPSS and LISREL 8.7 were used for data analysis. After…

  6. Romantic Jealousy and Self-Esteem.

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    Palisi, Anthony T.

    1992-01-01

    Like a fire out of control, jealousy can reduce a marriage to rubble. It can leave self-esteem ruined. Although oversimplified, the pathologically jealous person regards even slight signs as conclusive evidence of betrayal. Where jealousy arises exclusively within a relationship then a counselor might examine the jealous person's self-concept and…

  7. Toward the Management of Heterosexual Jealousy

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    Francis, Janice L.

    1977-01-01

    Despite the apparent universality of the jealousy phenomenon, communication in couples is inhibited by the social disapproval associated with its occurrance, and consequently discrepancies such as those evidenced in this study may pass entirely unobserved. As a result, jealousy problems remain unresolved and may serve to trigger further…

  8. Follower Jealousy at Work: A Test of Vecchio's Model of Antecedents and Consequences of Jealousy.

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    Thompson, Geir; Buch, Robert; Glasø, Lars

    2018-01-02

    The present study tests the validity of Robert P. Vecchio's seminal work on antecedents and consequences of jealousy. Specifically, we examine whether antecedents such as in-group status, supervisory considerateness, and supervisory differentiation of subordinates are associated with jealousy. In addition, we examine whether jealousy is associated with the outcome variable of social loafing. Leaders (n = 73) and their followers (n = 303) working in business organizations in Norway contributed data. Multilevel analyses showed that a high-quality working relationship with one's supervisor was inversely related to reports of jealousy. In addition, supervisors who displayed high levels of considerateness, for example, by providing followers with positive emotional support, were better able to reduce subordinate jealousy. This is a novel observation since previous research failed to demonstrate such a relationship. Finally, jealousy was positively associated with social loafing, suggesting that jealous followers engaged in an active counterproductive resistance response. The present study contributes to the extant literature by identifying unexamined antecedents of jealousy and a dysfunctional behavioral response to jealousy in the form of social loafing in the workplace.

  9. The Emotional Components of Jealousy: A Multivariate Investigation.

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    Ray, Lisa

    To investigate the emotional parameters of jealousy and to examine the differences between male and female labeling of jealousy, 288 college undergraduates completed the Emotional Parameters of Jealousy Questionnaire. The questionnaire consists of 59 statements that refer to emotions experienced by a person in a situation in which he/she feels…

  10. Jealousy and Trust: Unexplored Dimensions of Social Exchange Dynamics.

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    McDonald, Gerald W.; Osmond, Marie Withers

    Little effort has been made to systematically assess the determinants and consequences of marital jealousy which affect marital, familial and extra-familial expectations, interactions and behavior. A preliminary attempt to rectify this omission provides a conceptual/theoretical perspective on jealousy dynamics in marriage. Marital jealousy, a…

  11. An Investigation of Romantic Jealousy among Black Undergraduates.

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    McIntosh, Everton G.

    1989-01-01

    Examined relationship between jealousy and self-esteem, insecurity, external locus of control, and sex in undergraduates (N=128) from a predominantly Black university. Determined self-esteem and insecurity accounted for 28 percent of variance in jealousy; external locus of control did not account for significant amount of variance in jealousy.…

  12. Overcoming Jealousy: An Experiential Analysis of Common Factors.

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    Barrell, James J.; Richards, Anne C.

    1982-01-01

    Investigated key aspects of the experience of jealousy through the recorded experiences of a study group consisting of three males and three females. Results indicated that jealousy is a complex experience which may be accompanied by a variety of negative feelings. Provides suggestions for overcoming jealousy. (RC)

  13. Understanding the Role of Uncertainty in Jealousy Experience and Expression.

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    Afifi, Walid A.; Reichert, Tom

    1996-01-01

    Confirms the value of uncertainty for understanding jealousy. Finds that subjects were more likely to experience and less likely to directly express jealousy at high, versus low, levels of relational state uncertainty. Highlights the importance of differentiating jealousy experience from expression, and corroborates recent evidence showing a…

  14. Jealousy and relationship satisfaction among Indonesian dating adults.

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    Himawan, Karel K

    2017-12-01

    This study aimed to explore the link between jealousy and relationship satisfaction among dating adults in Indonesia. A survey of 150 adults showed that, while the overall level of jealousy was not significantly correlated with relationship satisfaction, correlations exist between relationship satisfaction and certain aspects of jealousy. © 2017 The Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  15. Individual Differences in Preventive Jealousy Determine Men's Jealousy after Subliminal Exposure to Rivals Wearing High- or Low-Status Clothes.

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    Massar, Karlijn; Buunk, Abraham Bram P

    2016-02-01

    This study investigated sex differences in jealousy after subliminal exposure to rivals wearing high-status or low-status clothes. It was expected that individual differences in preventive jealousy would moderate the relationship between a rival's characteristics and jealousy. Participants (Men: n = 54, M age = 21.6 yr., SD = 3.5; women: n = 71, M age = 20.7 yr., SD = 1.9) completed a parafoveal subliminal priming paradigm as well as questionnaires about jealousy and preventive jealousy. As predicted, women were not affected by their rival's status, but women high in preventive jealousy reported more jealousy than women low in preventive jealousy. However, whereas men low in preventive jealousy reported equal amounts of jealousy after exposure to a high-status and a low-status rival, surprisingly, and contrary to the expectations, men high in preventive jealousy reported most jealousy after exposure to a low-status rival. To explain these unexpected results, threats to self-esteem were discussed.

  16. Prevalence of delusional jealousy in psychiatric disorders.

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    Soyka, Michael; Schmidt, Peggy

    2011-03-01

    Delusional jealousy is a known risk factor for violence and homicide, but little is known about its prevalence in psychiatric disorders. We therefore reviewed retrospectively the psychopathological symptoms at admission and discharge, assessed with the AMDP system, of all patients admitted to the Psychiatric Hospital, University of Munich, Germany, from January 2000 through December 2008 (n=14,309). We identified 72 cases of delusional jealousy (0.5% of the whole sample). The prevalence was highest in schizophrenia and other psychoses (1.3%), and more of the patients with delusional jealousy were men (43 of 72, 59.7%). One-fifth (15 of 72, 20.8%) of the patients with delusional jealousy were aggressive at admission (vs. 6.2% of the total sample). We conclude that delusional jealousy is a comparatively rare phenomenon that is most frequent in schizophrenia and related psychoses. Quite a number of affected patients are aggressive, which may indicate a risk of future violence. © 2011 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  17. Jealousy at work: The role of rivals' characteristics.

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    Zurriaga, Rosario; González-Navarro, Pilar; Buunk, Abraham Pieter; Dijkstra, Pieternel

    2018-03-26

    The present study examined rival characteristics that may evoke jealousy in the workplace, differences between men and women in this regard, and the relationship between jealousy responses and intrasexual competitiveness and social comparison orientation. Participants were 426 male and female employees. By means of a questionnaire, participants were presented with a jealousy-evoking scenario after which jealousy responses to 24 rival characteristics were assessed. Findings showed that a rival's social communal attributes evoked highest levels of jealousy, and that, compared to men, women reported more jealousy in response to a rival's physical attractiveness. Overall, as individuals had higher scores on intrasexual competitiveness and social comparison orientation, they also experienced more jealousy in response to their rival, regardless of his or her characteristics. These findings suggest that those characteristics that are highly valued in employees may backfire when employees perceive co-workers as rivals. © 2018 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Swings and roundabouts: management of jealousy in heterosexual swinging couples.

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    de Visser, Richard; McDonald, Dee

    2007-06-01

    Swinging involves consensual mutual involvement in extra-dyadic sex. Jealousy in swinging couples is an interesting topic for social psychological research, because it is a common and acceptable response to a romantic partner's real or imagined infidelity. This qualitative study examined the management of jealousy among four active heterosexual swinging couples living in southern England. Participants highlighted the importance of discussion and negotiation to develop a shared couple identity and shared rules and boundaries that allowed them to manage jealousy so that they could better enjoy swinging. Rather than seeking to eliminate jealousy, swingers may manage their feelings of jealousy in order to increase sexual excitement and arousal. This study adds to our understanding of jealousy among swingers and the broader issue of jealousy in intimate relationships.

  19. Sex Differences in Jealousy in Response to Actual Infidelity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John E. Edlund

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The present studies address two criticisms of the theory of evolved sex differences in jealousy: (a that the sex difference in jealousy emerges only in response to hypothetical infidelity scenarios, and (b that the sex difference emerges only using forced-choice measures. In two separate studies, one a paper-and-pencil survey with a student sample and the other a web-based survey targeting a non-student sample, men and women showed significant sex differences in jealousy in response to actual infidelity experiences; men experienced more jealousy in response to the sexual aspects of an actual infidelity, whereas women experienced more jealousy in response to the emotional aspects of the infidelity. Sex differences emerged using both continuous measures of jealousy as well as the traditional forced-choice measure. Overall, our results demonstrate that sex differences in jealousy are not limited to responses to hypothetical infidelity scenarios; they also emerge in response to actual infidelity experiences.

  20. Height, Relationship Satisfaction, Jealousy, and Mate Retention

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    Gayle Brewer

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Male height is associated with high mate value. In particular, tall men are perceived as more attractive, dominant and of a higher status than shorter rivals, resulting in a greater lifetime reproductive success. Female infidelity and relationship dissolution may therefore present a greater risk to short men. It was predicted that tall men would report greater relationship satisfaction and lower jealousy and mate retention behavior than short men. Ninety eight heterosexual men in a current romantic relationship completed a questionnaire. Both linear and quadratic relationships were found between male height and relationship satisfaction, cognitive and behavioral jealousy. Tall men reported greater relationship satisfaction and lower levels of cognitive or behavioral jealousy than short men. In addition, linear and quadratic relationships were found between male height and a number of mate retention behaviors. Tall and short men engaged in different mate retention behaviors. These findings are consistent with previous research conducted in this area detailing the greater attractiveness of tall men.

  1. Coping with Jealousy: The Association between Maladaptive Aspects of Jealousy and Drinking Problems are Mediated by Drinking to Cope

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    DiBello, Angelo M.; Neighbors, Clayton; Rodriguez, Lindsey M.; Lindgren, Kristen

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has shown that both alcohol use and jealousy are related to negative relationship outcomes. Little work, however, has examined direct associations between alcohol use and jealousy. The current study aimed to build upon existing research examining alcohol use and jealousy. More specifically, findings from current jealousy literature indicate that jealousy is a multifaceted construct with both maladaptive and adaptive aspects. The current study examined the association between maladaptive and adaptive feelings of jealousy and alcohol-related problems in the context of drinking to cope. Given the relationship between coping motives and alcohol-related problems, our primary interest was in predicting alcohol-related problems, but alcohol consumption was also investigated. Undergraduate students at a large Northwestern university (N = 657) in the US participated in the study. They completed measures of jealousy, drinking to cope, alcohol use, and alcohol-related problems. Analyses examined associations between jealousy subscales, alcohol use, drinking to cope, and drinking problems. Results indicated that drinking to cope mediated the association between some, but not all, aspects of jealousy and problems with alcohol use. In particular, the more negative or maladaptive aspects of jealousy were related to drinking to cope and drinking problems, while the more adaptive aspects were not, suggesting a more complex view of jealousy than previously understood. PMID:24138965

  2. Coping with jealousy: the association between maladaptive aspects of jealousy and drinking problems is mediated by drinking to cope.

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    Dibello, Angelo M; Neighbors, Clayton; Rodriguez, Lindsey M; Lindgren, Kristen

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has shown that both alcohol use and jealousy are related to negative relationship outcomes. Little work, however, has examined direct associations between alcohol use and jealousy. The current study was aimed to build upon existing research examining alcohol use and jealousy. More specifically, findings from current jealousy literature indicate that jealousy is a multifaceted construct with both maladaptive and adaptive aspects. The current study examined the association between maladaptive and adaptive feelings of jealousy and alcohol-related problems in the context of drinking to cope. Given the relationship between coping motives and alcohol-related problems, our primary interest was in predicting alcohol-related problems, but alcohol consumption was also investigated. Undergraduate students at a large Northwestern university (N=657) in the US participated in the study. They completed measures of jealousy, drinking to cope, alcohol use, and alcohol-related problems. Analyses examined associations between jealousy subscales, alcohol use, drinking to cope, and drinking problems. Results indicated that drinking to cope mediated the association between some, but not all, aspects of jealousy and problems with alcohol use. In particular, the more negative or maladaptive aspects of jealousy were related to drinking to cope and drinking problems, while the more adaptive aspects were not, suggesting a more complex view of jealousy than previously understood. © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Attachment and Jealousy: Understanding the Dynamic Experience of Jealousy Using the Response Escalation Paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huelsnitz, Chloe O; Farrell, Allison K; Simpson, Jeffry A; Griskevicius, Vladas; Szepsenwol, Ohad

    2018-04-01

    Jealousy is a complex, dynamic experience that unfolds over time in relationship-threatening situations. Prior research has used retrospective reports that cannot disentangle initial levels and change in jealousy in response to escalating threat. In three studies, we examined responses to the Response Escalation Paradigm (REP)-a 5-stage hypothetical scenario in which individuals are exposed to increasing levels of relationship threat-as a function of attachment orientations. Highly anxious individuals exhibited hypervigilant, slow escalation response patterns, interfered earlier in the REP, felt more jealousy, sadness, and worry when they interfered, and wanted to engage in more vigilant, destructive, and passive behaviors aimed at their partner. Highly avoidant individuals felt more anger when they interfered in the REP and wanted to engage in more partner-focused, destructive behaviors. The REP offers a dynamic method for inducing and examining jealousy and introduces a novel approach to studying other emotional experiences.

  4. Clinical features of delusional jealousy in elderly patients with dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Mamoru; Sakamoto, Shinichi; Ikeda, Manabu

    2015-06-01

    Delusional jealousy is a psychotic syndrome characterized by a belief in the infidelity of one's spouse that reaches delusional intensity. Although delusional jealousy has been described in relation to organic psychosis, little is known concerning the actual role of delusional jealousy in dementia. The aim of the present study was to investigate the clinical features of delusional jealousy and possible mechanisms whereby delusional jealousy arises in patients with dementia. We studied 208 consecutive outpatients with dementia (diagnosis based on DSM-III-R criteria; mean [SD] age of 77.0 [8.0] years; study period: September 2011-August 2012). Delusional jealousy was defined as a false belief derived from a pathological jealousy that makes the patient believe that his or her spouse is unfaithful. The prevalence of delusional jealousy was compared between Alzheimer's disease, dementia with Lewy bodies, and vascular dementia. Patients with and without delusional jealousy were compared in terms of general characteristics. In addition, each patient with delusional jealousy and their primary caregivers were interviewed about the clinical features of the syndrome. Of the 208 patients with dementia, 18 (8.7%) showed delusional jealousy. The prevalence of delusional jealousy in patients who had dementia with Lewy bodies (26.3%) was significantly higher than that in patients with Alzheimer's disease (5.5%) (P jealousy in regard to gender (P = 1.00), age (P = .81), educational attainment (P = .29), presence of other persons living with the couple (P = .22), and Mini-Mental State Examination score (P = .47). On the other hand, delusional jealousy was preceded by the onset of serious physical diseases in nearly half of the patients. Delusional jealousy resolved within 12 months after treatment in 15 of 18 patients (83%). Although delusional jealousy is a considerable problem in dementia, the prognosis of delusional jealousy in demented patients appears to be relatively benign

  5. The expression and understanding of jealousy in children with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauminger, Nirit

    2004-01-01

    We investigated the expression and understanding of jealousy in 16 high-functioning children with autism and 17 typically developing children matched for IQ, chronological age, gender, and maternal education. We examined the expression of jealousy via children's behaviors, verbalizations, and affects demonstrated during two jealousy-provoking triadic scenarios (drawing and playing) enacted among the child in the experimental group (autism or typical), that child's main caregiver (mostly mothers), and a familiar peer or sibling. The two scenarios corresponded with the two types of jealousy described in past studies: social-comparison jealousy (drawing scenario) and social-relational jealousy (playing scenario). To tap children's understanding, we asked them to identify jealousy from a picture, to provide examples of times they felt jealous, and to offer suggestions for coping with jealousy. The main results revealed that children with autism expressed jealousy in situations similar to their typical age mates but manifested it in different behaviors. Moreover, children with autism revealed a less coherent understanding of the feeling. We discuss the meaning of the gap between demonstrating and understanding jealousy in light of the two central theoretical views conceptualizing the core emotional deficit in children with autism.

  6. Marital Jealousy: A Structural Exchange Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Gerald W.

    Although the experience of jealously is among the most common of experiences in intimate relationships, little theoretical or empirical work has been done from a sociologial perspective to increase our understanding of this aspect of male-female relationships. An investigation of marital jealousy as a sociological rather than a psychological…

  7. Jealousy Graphs: Structure and Complexity of Decentralized Stable Matching

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    REPORT Jealousy Graphs: Structure and Complexity of Decentralized Stable Matching 14. ABSTRACT 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: The stable matching...Franceschetti 858-822-2284 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) Standard Form 298 (Rev 8/98) Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39.18 - Jealousy Graphs: Structure and...market. Using this structure, we are able to provide a ner analysis of the complexity of a subclass of decentralized matching markets. Jealousy

  8. A review of sex differences in sexual jealousy, including self-report data, psychophysiological responses, interpersonal violence, and morbid jealousy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Christine R

    2003-01-01

    The specific innate modular theory of jealousy hypothesizes that natural selection shaped sexual jealousy as a mechanism to prevent cuckoldry, and emotional jealousy as a mechanism to prevent resource loss. Therefore, men should be primarily jealous over a mate's sexual infidelity and women over a mate's emotional infidelity. Five lines of evidence have been offered as support: self-report responses, psychophysiological data, domestic violence (including spousal abuse and homicide), and morbid jealousy cases. This article reviews each line of evidence and finds only one hypothetical measure consistent with the hypothesis. This, however, is contradicted by a variety of other measures (including reported reactions to real infidelity). A meta-analysis of jealousy-inspired homicides, taking into account base rates for murder, found no evidence that jealousy disproportionately motivates men to kill. The findings are discussed from a social-cognitive theoretical perspective.

  9. [Jealousy in close relationships: personal, relational and situational variables].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirtaş, H Andaç; Dönmez, Ali

    2006-01-01

    In this study, the effects of personal, situational, and relational variables (such as age, gender, gender role orientation, duration of relationship, relational satisfaction, and physical attractiveness of the partner) on jealousy are investigated. A sample of 454 individuals currently involved in dating or marital relationships (48 % married, 52 % unmarried) completed the Romantic Jealousy Questionnaire, Bem Sex Role Inventory, and Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. Stepwise regression analyses and 2 (gender) x2 (gender role orientation) x2 (relational type) ANOVA's were submitted for analyzing the data. Analysis indicated that unmarried people reported higher levels of jealousy than married people (F1-446 = 5.029). Married women reported less jealousy than unmarried women and married women reported more jealousy than married men. Age, relational satisfaction level, expectation level about the duration of the relationship, and physical attractiveness of the partner were unique predictors of the reported level of jealousy (R2 = 0.12; adjusted R2 = 0.11; P physical, emotional, and cognitive responses to jealousy compared to men. Women used more constructive (F1-446 = 6.27) and less destructive strategies than men (F1-446 = 6.27). Unmarried people used more destructive strategies than married people (F1-446 = 3.84). Age, self-esteem, and the duration of the relationship were unique predictors of coping strategies. The present study revealed that jealousy was a multidimensional variable. In particular, relational type, self-esteem, age, relational satisfaction, and sex are highly correlated with jealousy.

  10. Systemic lupus erythematosus presenting as morbid jealousy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravindran, A.; Carney, M. W.; Denman, A. M.

    1980-01-01

    A patient fulfilling the diagnostic criteria for systemic lupus erythematosus and presenting with morbid jealousy is described. There was evidence of cerebral lupus. Her physical and mental symptoms responded to a combination of chlorpromazine and steroids. The morbid mental process was probably caused by her physical condition while the content of her disordered thought and behaviour was determined by her introverted premorbid personality, religiosity, unhappy childhood experiences and frustrated desire for children. PMID:7413541

  11. Perspective taking in children's narratives about jealousy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldrich, Naomi J; Tenenbaum, Harriet R; Brooks, Patricia J; Harrison, Karine; Sines, Jennie

    2011-03-01

    This study explored relationships between perspective-taking, emotion understanding, and children's narrative abilities. Younger (23 5-/6-year-olds) and older (24 7-/8-year-olds) children generated fictional narratives, using a wordless picture book, about a frog experiencing jealousy. Children's emotion understanding was assessed through a standardized test of emotion comprehension and their ability to convey the jealousy theme of the story. Perspective-taking ability was assessed with respect to children's use of narrative evaluation (i.e., narrative coherence, mental state language, supplementary evaluative speech, use of subjective language, and placement of emotion expression). Older children scored higher than younger children on emotion comprehension and on understanding the story's complex emotional theme, including the ability to identify a rival. They were more advanced in perspective-taking abilities, and selectively used emotion expressions to highlight story episodes. Subjective perspective taking and narrative coherence were predictive of children's elaboration of the jealousy theme. Use of supplementary evaluative speech, in turn, was predictive of both subjective perspective taking and narrative coherence. ©2010 The British Psychological Society.

  12. [Sex differences in sexual versus emotional jealousy: evolutionary approach and recent discussions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirtaş Madran, H Andaç

    2008-01-01

    Sex differences in jealousy have been reported widely in the social psychological, clinical psychological, psychiatric, and anthropological literature. Many of the studies conducted on jealousy have focused on the sex differences in the level of reported jealousy. Most research has reported that there is no difference between men and women regarding the level of reported jealousy, but there are some sex differences between sexual and emotional jealousy. Evolutionary psychologists divide jealousy into 2 dimensions based on their observations and empirical research findings: Sexual jealousy and emotional jealousy. Sexual jealousy is knowing or suspecting that one's partners has had sexual relationship with a third person, whereas emotional jealousy is triggered by partner's emotional involvement with and/or love for another person. The parental investment model, which extended Darwin's explanations of sexual selection, provides a useful theoretical framework for studying sexual and emotional jealousy. According to this model sexual selection is driven by differential parental investment by men and women; men should experience more sexual jealousy than women and women should experience more emotional jealousy than men. Considerable research has focused on testing this hypothesis and, with a few exceptions, the results are generally consistent with the evolutionary account. In this study, firstly, a brief definition of the sexual and emotional jealousy will be given. Then, sex differences in sexual and emotional jealousy will be explained according to the evolutionary theory. Finally, the results of empirical studies and critiques of the evolutionary model will be given.

  13. An exploration of jealousy in nursing: a Kleinian analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Alicia M; Traynor, Michael; Glass, Nel

    2014-06-01

    It is well established that nursing practice produces considerable anxiety, and it can also give rise to envy and jealousy. While envy in nursing was identified in the literature more than 50 years ago, there remains a paucity of articles addressing either envy or jealousy for nurses. In a recent research study on current experiences of clinical practice, we analysed a fragment of nurses' speech via Klein's theory of jealousy. The results revealed that the nurses expressed jealousy at the privilege afforded to doctors. We argue that it is important to acknowledge jealousy in nursing practice because it has the potential for 'spoiling' effective care delivery and as such, can have detrimental ramifications in the health system. Also, jealousy may keep the nurse from fully focusing on their nursing practice in that it divides the nurse's attention and so limits the nurse's treatment of the patient. Nurses' jealousy of doctors is a taboo topic in nursing, and yet it warrants serious consideration due to the potential deleterious consequences that can arise when this dynamic is present. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. [Othello syndrome--jealousy and jealous delusions as symptoms of psychiatric disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soyka, M

    1995-12-01

    Jealousy as a psychopathological symptom has long been neglected by psychiatric research. Despite the obvious difficulty to prove or exclude the infidelity of a spouse, delusional jealousy can clearly be considered as pathological, but the evaluation and classification of non-psychotic jealousy remains a challenge. Typical psychopathological symptoms which usually accompany pathological jealousy and the prevalence of delusional jealousy in different psychiatric disorders are described. In delusional jealousy neuroleptic treatment is necessary. Positive results have been reported especially with pimozide. For non-psychotic jealousy various forms of psychotherapy have been advocated to improve self-esteem or to treat other psychological disorders. Other possible interventions are alcohol therapy or family counselling. Many studies show that jealousy is a frequent motive in homicide with the spouse being nearly exclusively the victim. Finally some forensic aspects of jealousy are discussed.

  15. Sex Differences in Jealousy in Response to Actual Infidelity

    OpenAIRE

    John E. Edlund; Jeremy D. Heider; Cory R. Scherer; Maria-Magdalena Farc; Brad J. Sagarin

    2006-01-01

    The present studies address two criticisms of the theory of evolved sex differences in jealousy: (a) that the sex difference in jealousy emerges only in response to hypothetical infidelity scenarios, and (b) that the sex difference emerges only using forced-choice measures. In two separate studies, one a paper-and-pencil survey with a student sample and the other a web-based survey targeting a non-student sample, men and women showed significant sex differences in jealousy in response to actu...

  16. What do love and jealousy taste like?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Kai Qin; Tong, Eddie M W; Tan, Deborah H; Koh, Alethea H Q

    2013-12-01

    Metaphorical expressions linking love and jealousy to sweet, sour, and bitter tastes are common in normal language use and suggest that these emotions may influence perceptual taste judgments. Hence, we investigated whether the phenomenological experiences of love and jealousy are embodied in the taste sensations of sweetness, sourness, and bitterness. Studies 1A and 1B validated that these metaphors are widely endorsed. In three subsequent studies, participants induced to feel love rated a variety of tastants (sweet-sour candy, bitter-sweet chocolates, and distilled water) as sweeter than those who were induced to feel jealous, neutral, or happy. However, those induced to feel jealous did not differ from those induced to feel happy or neutral on bitter and sour ratings. These findings imply that emotions can influence basic perceptual judgments, but metaphors that refer to the body do not necessarily influence perceptual judgments the way they imply. We further suggest that future research in metaphoric social cognition and metaphor theory may benefit from investigating how such metaphors could have originated.

  17. Sexual dimorphism in stature (SDS), jealousy and mate retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Gayle; Riley, Charlene

    2010-10-02

    Previous research has investigated the manner in which absolute height impacts on jealousy and mate retention. Although relative height is also important, little information exists about the potential influence of sexual dimorphism in stature (SDS) within established relationships. The current study investigated the relationship between SDS and the satisfaction, jealousy and mate retention behaviors reported by men and women. Heterosexual men (n = 98) and women (n = 102) completed a questionnaire. Men in high SDS relationships reported the lowest levels of cognitive and behavioral jealousy, although the impact of SDS on relationship satisfaction was less clear. SDS was not associated with the overall use of mate retention strategies; SDS did however affect the use of three specific strategies (vigilance, monopolization of time, love and care). SDS did not affect women's relationship satisfaction, jealousy (cognitive, behavioral, or emotional) or the use of mate retention strategies (with the exception of resource display).

  18. Women's Fertility Status Alters Other Women's Jealousy and Mate Guarding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, Ashalee C; Alquist, Jessica L; Puts, David A

    2017-02-01

    Across three studies, we tested the hypothesis that women exhibit greater jealousy and mate guarding toward women who are in the high (vs. low) fertility phase of their cycle. Women who imagined their partner with a woman pictured at high fertility reported more jealousy than women who imagined their partner with a woman pictured at low fertility (Studies 1 and 2). A meta-analysis across studies manipulating fertility status of the pictured woman found a significant effect of fertility status on both jealousy and mate guarding. Women with attractive partners viewed fertile-phase women as less trustworthy, which led to increased mate guarding (Study 2). In Study 3, the closer women were to peak fertility, the more instances they reported of other women acting jealously and mate guarding toward them. These studies provide evidence that women selectively exhibit jealousy and mate guarding toward women who are near peak fertility.

  19. [Delusional jealousy and obsessive love--causes and forms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogerts, Bernhard

    2005-02-10

    Obsessive love and delusional jealousy as persistent mental disorders, are well-known but rare psychiatric conditions, the prevalence of which is estimated to be less than 0.1%. Delusional jealousy should not be confused with exaggerated "pathological" jealousy, which is characterized by excessive suspicion and possessiveness on the part of individuals who, as a rule, suffer from considerably disordered self-esteem. As a paranoid development, delusional jealousy occurs in particular among male chronic alcoholics. As in all delusional disorders, trivial events are evaluated with unshakeable certainty as proof of the correctness of the delusive notion. Obsessive love is seen predominantly in women. In the differential diagnosis, other mental disorders such as schizophrenia, manic or organic brain syndrome must be excluded.

  20. Sex differences in jealousy: evolutionary mechanism or artifact of measurement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSteno, David; Bartlett, Monica Y; Braverman, Julia; Salovey, Peter

    2002-11-01

    Two studies are presented that challenge the evidentiary basis for the existence of evolved sex differences in jealousy. In opposition to the evolutionary view, Study I demonstrated that a sex difference in jealousy resulting from sexual versus emotional infidelity is observed only when judgments are recorded using a forced-choice response format. On all other measures, no sex differences were found; both men and women reported greater jealousy in response to sexual infidelity. A second study revealed that the sex difference on the forced-choice measure disappeared under conditions of cognitive constraint. These findings suggest that the sex difference used to support the evolutionary view of jealousy (e.g., D. M. Buss, R. Larsen, D. Westen, & J. Semmelroth, 1992; D. M. Buss et al., 1999) likely represents a measurement artifact resulting from a format-induced effortful decision strategy and not an automatic, sex-specific response shaped by evolution.

  1. A systematic review of romantic jealousy in relationships

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez-León, Nancy Consuelo; Peña, Juan José; Salazar, Hernán; García, Andrea; Sierra, Juan Carlos

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Romantic jealousy is a complex emotion activated by a real or perceived threat to the relationship. Romantic jealousy is an important phenomenon in public health, as it brings consequences for the subject, the couple and the rival, even to the point of death. This theory-based study performed a systematic review of the research published in major international databases and platforms, as of December, 2016. The results of 230 studies that met the inclusion criteria were classified in ...

  2. An examination of envy and jealousy in nursing academia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleary, Michelle; Walter, Garry; Halcomb, Elizabeth; Lopez, Violeta

    2016-07-01

    To discuss envy and jealousy and how their positive and negative aspects among nurse academics affect the workplace. In nursing academia, jealousy and envy are common emotions, engendered by demands for high productivity, intense competition for limited resources, preferences for particular assignments and opportunities for promotions. When these feelings are moderate and part of everyday rivalry, competition and ambition benefit the organisation. However, jealousy and envy can have serious consequences including damaged relationships and communication, and the undermining of colleagues' performance. Strategies are recommended to provide opportunities for self-reflection and consideration of how the workplace affects nursing academics' wellbeing and professional performance. Jealousy and envy can be damaging emotions in the workplace. The embittered, hostile person can undermine and damage relationships, disrupt teams and communication, and undermine organisational performance. Discussing the positive and negative effects of envy and jealousy provides an opportunity for nursing academics to self-reflect and to consider others and their own personal and professional performance. Understanding how jealousy and envy impact on the work environment, workplace relationships and individual/team performance is important especially for early career and seasoned nursing academics alike.

  3. Relations between different types of jealousy and self and partner perceptions of relationship quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barelds, D.P.H.; Barelds-Dijkstra, P.

    2007-01-01

    The present paper examines the relationships between relationship quality and three different types of jealousy, including both partners' levels of jealousy and perceptions of relationship quality. It was expected that jealousy in response to a direct threat to the relationship-that is, reactive

  4. An inventory and update of jealousy-evoking partner behaviours in modern society.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Pieternel; Barelds, Dick P. H.; Groothof, Hinke A. K.

    2010-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to identify the most important jealousy-evoking partner behaviours and to examine the extent to which these behaviours evoke jealousy. Based on the literature, a questionnaire was constructed containing 42 jealousy-evoking partner behaviours, including a partner's

  5. Jealousy in adolescents' daily lives: How does it relate to interpersonal context and well-being?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lennarz, H.K.; Lichtwarck-Aschoff, A.; Finkenauer, C.; Granic, I.

    2017-01-01

    Past studies have shown that jealousy peaks in adolescence. However, little is known about how and when adolescents experience jealousy in their daily lives. The current study aimed to examine the relation between state jealousy, the more general propensity to feel jealous, the interpersonal

  6. Personality, birth order and attachment styles as related to various types of jealousy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buunk, Abraham (Bram)

    1997-01-01

    The relationships between jealousy, personality, attachment styles and birth order were examined in a sample of 100 Dutch men and 100 Dutch women. Three types of jealousy were examined: reactive jealousy (a negative response to the emotional or sexual involvement of the partner with someone else),

  7. Relationship jealousy and its relation to emotional attachment and sexuality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanja Temnik

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The research objective was to study the emotion of relationship jealousy in context of emotional attachment and sexuality. Two main theories that try to explain the nature of this complex emotional state are the evolutionary paradigm and the so-called "double-shot" hypothesis. According to evolutionary psychologists, jealousy is an evolved adaptation, activated by threats to a valuable relationship, functioning to protect it from partial or total loss. The "double-shot" hypothesis on the other hand emphasises the importance of different beliefs men and women hold about emotional vs. sexual infidelity. Slovenian data suggests that (a emotional infidelity is the primary jealousy trigger in both sexes; (b jealousy is influenced by the socio-cultural context (the degree of sexual permissiveness and sex role egalitarity seem to be of special importance, but not by characteristics of the individuals` early life situation; (c marital status influences the tendency towards sexual or emotional jealousy in romantic relationships; (d this tendency also depends on whether the individual comes from a rural or urban environment. Because the results seem to be affected by the linguistic formulation of jealousy and each infidelity type, special attention should be directed towards a precise conceptualisation of these terms. Beliefs about the typical relationship between the emotional and sexual aspect of human relations as well as participants` self-reports indicate that men find it a lot easier to separate both types of attachment than women. In Slovenia, the degree of sexual permissiveness as well as the degree of sex role egalitarity seem to be relatively high and comparable to certain other European countries. The results support the so-called "double-shot" hypothesis, but not the evolutionary theory of jealousy as a sex-specific innate module.

  8. Rejection Sensitivity, Jealousy, and the Relationship to Interpersonal Aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Anna M; Russell, Gemma

    2018-07-01

    The development and maintenance of interpersonal relationships lead individuals to risk rejection in the pursuit of acceptance. Some individuals are predisposed to experience a hypersensitivity to rejection that is hypothesized to be related to jealous and aggressive reactions within interpersonal relationships. The current study used convenience sampling to recruit 247 young adults to evaluate the relationship between rejection sensitivity, jealousy, and aggression. A mediation model was used to test three hypotheses: Higher scores of rejection sensitivity would be positively correlated to higher scores of aggression (Hypothesis 1); higher scores of rejection sensitivity would be positively correlated to higher scores of jealousy (Hypothesis 2); jealousy would mediate the relationship between rejection sensitivity and aggression (Hypothesis 3). Study results suggest a tendency for individuals with high rejection sensitivity to experience higher levels of jealousy, and subsequently have a greater propensity for aggression, than individuals with low rejection sensitivity. Future research that substantiates a link between hypersensitivity to rejection, jealousy, and aggression may provide an avenue for prevention, education, or intervention in reducing aggression within interpersonal relationships.

  9. Examining how gender and emoticons influence Facebook jealousy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Michael B; Nicolas, Sylis C; Howser, Molly E; Lipsett, Kristen E; Robinson, Ian W; Pope, Laura J; Hobby, Abigail F; Friedman, Denise R

    2015-02-01

    Facebook use among young adults is widespread, and understanding how it affects romantic relationships has practical, real world implications. Both gender and amount of time spent on Facebook have been associated with online jealousy. Emoticons can be used online to clarify messages and are often used in mixed gender interactions. A series of studies was used to examine whether gender and emoticons interacted to influence Facebook jealousy. Interestingly, results differed based on qualitative and quantitative responses. With quantitative responses, a main effect was found only for gender. Females displayed more Facebook jealousy than males. With qualitative responses, an interaction was found. Males were more jealous when a winking emoticon was present, while females were more jealous when no emoticon was present. This research supports evolutionary work in suggesting that specific cues may differentially influence jealousy responses in males and females. It should be mentioned that although differences were noticed, they may be contingent upon the research methods utilized and that mixed methods may best address issues involving jealousy in young adults.

  10. Jealousy in adolescents' daily lives: How does it relate to interpersonal context and well-being?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennarz, Hannah K; Lichtwarck-Aschoff, Anna; Finkenauer, Catrin; Granic, Isabela

    2017-01-01

    Past studies have shown that jealousy peaks in adolescence. However, little is known about how and when adolescents experience jealousy in their daily lives. The current study aimed to examine the relation between state jealousy, the more general propensity to feel jealous, the interpersonal contexts in which jealousy arises, and different forms of social comparison. The impact of jealousy on perceptions of well-being was also explored. We used an experience sampling method during two weekends with 68 adolescents (M age  = 13.94; 64.70% girls). Jealousy was common: On average, 90% of our sample experienced jealousy in 20% of the assessments. Adolescents reported more jealousy with peers than with family. Additionally, they experienced more jealousy when in online contexts than when in face-to-face peer contexts. The normative nature of jealousy, its developmental function and relation with well-being, and implications for understanding jealousy triggered in (highly social) online contexts are discussed. Copyright © 2016 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Jealousy and the threatened self: getting to the heart of the green-eyed monster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSteno, David; Valdesolo, Piercarlo; Bartlett, Monica Y

    2006-10-01

    Several theories specifying the causes of jealousy have been put forth in the past few decades. Firm support for any proposed theory, however, has been limited by the difficulties inherent in inducing jealousy and examining any proposed mediating mechanisms in real time. In support of a theory of jealousy centering on threats to the self-system, 2 experiments are presented that address these past limitations and argue for a model based on context-induced variability in self-evaluation. Experiment 1 presents a method for evoking jealousy through the use of highly orchestrated social encounters and demonstrates that threatened self-esteem functions as a principal mediator of jealousy. In addition to replicating these findings, Experiment 2 provides direct evidence for jealousy as a cause of aggression. The ability of the proposed theory of jealousy to integrate other extant findings in the literature is also discussed. 2006 APA, all rights reserved

  12. Disarming jealousy in couples relationships: a multidimensional approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheinkman, Michele; Werneck, Denise

    2010-12-01

    Jealousy is a powerful emotional force in couples' relationships. In just seconds it can turn love into rage and tenderness into acts of control, intimidation, and even suicide or murder. Yet it has been surprisingly neglected in the couples therapy field. In this paper we define jealousy broadly as a hub of contradictory feelings, thoughts, beliefs, actions, and reactions, and consider how it can range from a normative predicament to extreme obsessive manifestations. We ground jealousy in couples' basic relational tasks and utilize the construct of the vulnerability cycle to describe processes of derailment. We offer guidelines on how to contain the couple's escalation, disarm their ineffective strategies and power struggles, identify underlying vulnerabilities and yearnings, and distinguish meanings that belong to the present from those that belong to the past, or to other contexts. The goal is to facilitate relational and personal changes that can yield a better fit between the partners' expectations. 2010 © FPI, Inc.

  13. Jealousy increased by induced relative left frontal cortical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Nicholas J; Eastwick, Paul W; Harmon-Jones, Eddie; Schmeichel, Brandon J

    2015-10-01

    Asymmetric frontal cortical activity may be one key to the process linking social exclusion to jealous feelings. The current research examined the causal role of asymmetric frontal brain activity in modulating jealousy in response to social exclusion. Transcranial direct-current stimulation (tDCS) over the frontal cortex to manipulate asymmetric frontal cortical activity was combined with a modified version of the Cyberball paradigm designed to induce jealousy. After receiving 15 min of tDCS, participants were excluded by a desired partner and reported how jealous they felt. Among individuals who were excluded, tDCS to increase relative left frontal cortical activity caused greater levels of self-reported jealousy compared to tDCS to increase relative right frontal cortical activity or sham stimulation. Limitations concerning the specificity of this effect and implications for the role of the asymmetric prefrontal cortical activity in motivated behaviors are discussed. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Romantic Attachment and Subtypes/Dimensions of Jealousy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marazziti, Donatella; Consoli, Giorgio; Albanese, Francesco; Laquidara, Emanuela; Baroni, Stefano; Catena Dell’Osso, Mario

    2010-01-01

    The present study explored the possible relationship between romantic attachment and jealousy in 100 healthy subjects. The romantic attachment and jealousy were evaluated by means of, respectively, the “Experiences in Close Relationships” questionnaire (ECR), and the “Questionario della Gelosia” (QUEGE). The ECR anxiety scale was related to all QUEGE dimensions, while the ECR avoidance scale to three. Individuals with the preoccupied attachment style showed higher scores than secure subjects on the obsessionality, interpersonal sensitivity and fear of loss dimensions. Fearful-avoidant individuals had higher score than secure subjects on the fear of loss dimension only, while dismissing individuals had lower scores on the self-esteem dimension. These findings suggest that romantic attachment and jealousy are intertwined. PMID:20835357

  15. Neural substrates and behavioral profiles of romantic jealousy and its temporal dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yan; Yu, Hongbo; Chen, Jie; Liang, Jie; Lu, Lin; Zhou, Xiaolin; Shi, Jie

    2016-06-07

    Jealousy is not only a way of experiencing love but also a stabilizer of romantic relationships, although morbid romantic jealousy is maladaptive. Being engaged in a formal romantic relationship can tune one's romantic jealousy towards a specific target. Little is known about how the human brain processes romantic jealousy by now. Here, by combining scenario-based imagination and functional MRI, we investigated the behavioral and neural correlates of romantic jealousy and their development across stages (before vs. after being in a formal relationship). Romantic jealousy scenarios elicited activations primarily in the basal ganglia (BG) across stages, and were significantly higher after the relationship was established in both the behavioral rating and BG activation. The intensity of romantic jealousy was related to the intensity of romantic happiness, which mainly correlated with ventral medial prefrontal cortex activation. The increase in jealousy across stages was associated with the tendency for interpersonal aggression. These results bridge the gap between the theoretical conceptualization of romantic jealousy and its neural correlates and shed light on the dynamic changes in jealousy.

  16. The Evolutionary Psychology of Envy and Jealousy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, Vilayanur S.; Jalal, Baland

    2017-01-01

    The old dogma has always been that the most complex aspects of human emotions are driven by culture; Germans and English are thought to be straight-laced whereas Italians and Indians are effusive. Yet in the last two decades there has been a growing realization that even though culture plays a major role in the final expression of human nature, there must be a basic scaffolding specified by genes. While this is recognized to be true for simple emotions like anger, fear, and joy, the relevance of evolutionary arguments for more complex nuances of emotion have been inadequately explored. In this paper, we consider envy or jealousy as an example; the feeling evoked when someone is better off than you. Our approach is broadly consistent with traditional evolutionary psychology (EP) approaches, but takes it further by exploring the complexity and functional logic of the emotion – and the precise social triggers that elicit them – by using deliberately farfetched, and contrived “thought experiments” that the subject is asked to participate in. When common sense (e.g., we should be jealous of Bill Gates – not of our slightly richer neighbor) appears to contradict observed behavior (i.e., we are more envious of our neighbor) the paradox can often be resolved by evolutionary considerations which h predict the latter. Many – but not all – EP approaches fail because evolution and common sense do not make contradictory predictions. Finally, we briefly raise the possibility that gaining deeper insight into the evolutionary origins of certain undesirable emotions or behaviors can help shake them off, and may therefore have therapeutic utility. Such an approach would complement current therapies (such as cognitive behavior therapies, psychoanalysis, psychopharmacologies, and hypnotherapy), rather than negate them. PMID:28970815

  17. The Evolutionary Psychology of Envy and Jealousy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilayanur S. Ramachandran

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The old dogma has always been that the most complex aspects of human emotions are driven by culture; Germans and English are thought to be straight-laced whereas Italians and Indians are effusive. Yet in the last two decades there has been a growing realization that even though culture plays a major role in the final expression of human nature, there must be a basic scaffolding specified by genes. While this is recognized to be true for simple emotions like anger, fear, and joy, the relevance of evolutionary arguments for more complex nuances of emotion have been inadequately explored. In this paper, we consider envy or jealousy as an example; the feeling evoked when someone is better off than you. Our approach is broadly consistent with traditional evolutionary psychology (EP approaches, but takes it further by exploring the complexity and functional logic of the emotion – and the precise social triggers that elicit them – by using deliberately farfetched, and contrived “thought experiments” that the subject is asked to participate in. When common sense (e.g., we should be jealous of Bill Gates – not of our slightly richer neighbor appears to contradict observed behavior (i.e., we are more envious of our neighbor the paradox can often be resolved by evolutionary considerations which h predict the latter. Many – but not all – EP approaches fail because evolution and common sense do not make contradictory predictions. Finally, we briefly raise the possibility that gaining deeper insight into the evolutionary origins of certain undesirable emotions or behaviors can help shake them off, and may therefore have therapeutic utility. Such an approach would complement current therapies (such as cognitive behavior therapies, psychoanalysis, psychopharmacologies, and hypnotherapy, rather than negate them.

  18. Sex differences in jealousy: a contribution from attachment theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Kenneth N; Kelly, Kristen M

    2010-02-01

    Studies have found that more men than women endorse sexual infidelity as more distressing than emotional infidelity, whereas more women than men endorse emotional infidelity as more distressing than sexual infidelity. Some evolutionary psychologists have proposed that this sex difference can be best conceptualized as reflecting evolution-based differences in parental investment that produce a need for paternity certainty among men and a need for male investment in offspring among women. Nonetheless, a conspicuous subset of men report emotional infidelity as more distressing than sexual infidelity. Current theorizing explains between-sex differences but not within-sex differences. We hypothesized that attachment-style differences may help to explain both between- and within-sex differences in jealousy. As hypothesized, dismissing avoidant participants reported more jealousy regarding sexual than emotional infidelity (64.8%), and secure participants, including secure men, reported more jealousy regarding emotional than sexual infidelity (77.3%), chi(2)(3, N = 411) = 45.03, p jealousy relationship by attachment style. Implications of an attachment perspective are discussed.

  19. Jealousy reconsidered: a reply to DeSteno (2010).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edlund, John E

    2011-03-07

    In a recent commentary, DeSteno (2010) critiqued the work of Levy and Kelley (2010) which investigated the relationship of attachment style to the sex difference in jealousy. This commentary addresses the concerns raised by DeSteno; I briefly review some of the literature that was not addressed by DeSteno's commentary and discuss directions that future research may take.

  20. When Infants Lose Exclusive Maternal Attention: Is It Jealousy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Sybil L.; Carrington, Heather A.; Tronick, E. Z.; Carroll, Sebrina R.

    2004-01-01

    To characterize infant reactions to jealousy evocation, 94 6-month-olds and their mothers were videotaped in an episode where the mothers directed positive attention toward a lifelike doll, and in 2 contrasting interactions: face-to-face play and a still-face perturbation. Cross-context comparisons of affects and behaviors revealed that jealousy…

  1. Intimate Partner Jealousy and Femicide Among Former Ethiopians in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelstein, Arnon

    2018-02-01

    Ethiopian immigrant women in Israel are overrepresented as victims of femicide; they are killed at more than 16 times the rate of the general population. This article suggests integrating current theoretical and empirical models to explain Ethiopian femicide, and stresses that considering psychological or sociocultural explanations as risk factors alone is not enough to understand this phenomenon. We distinguish between risk factors and triggers for femicide against Ethiopian women. While sociocultural and even psychological changes are risk factors for femicide, one, two, or three main triggers may activate such potential risk factors, such as the woman's willingness (WW) to leave the intimate relationship, sexual jealousy (SJ), and formal complaints against the abusive partner. The first two triggers are jealousy oriented. To analyze this phenomenon in Israel, we examined all court decisions on intimate partner homicide (IPH) from 1990 to 2010. After reading former studies on IPH and identifying important variables that could explain the phenomenon, we first catalogued the data in every decision and verdict according to main independent variables mentioned in the literature. The study population consists of first-generation immigrants, N = 194: native Israelis (47%), new immigrants from the former Soviet Union (FSU; 31%), and Ethiopians (16%). Our analysis of court decisions reveals that triggers containing jealousy components are responsible for 83% of femicide cases committed by Ethiopian men, in comparison with native Israelis (77%) and immigrant Russian men (66%) who murdered their intimate partners. In addition, there is a significant correlation among motive (jealousy), method of killing (stabbing), and "overkilling" (excessive force).

  2. Greed, Envy, Jealousy - A Tool for more Efficient Resource Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Farjam, M.D.; Haselager, W.F.G.; Sprinkhuizen-Kuyper, I.G.; Uiterwijk, J.W.H.M.; Roos, N.; Winands, M.H.M.

    2012-01-01

    Highly social animals like humans developed features such as greed, envy, and jealousy through evolution. Assuming that the concept of envy has already been learned, experiments are performed in an artificial life environment. They show the benefits of envy for a multiagent system and how principles

  3. Reconsidering evolved sex differences in jealousy: comment on Harris (2003).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagarin, Brad J

    2005-01-01

    In a recent article, Harris (2003) concluded that the data do not support the existence of evolved sex differences in jealousy. Harris' review correctly identifies fatal flaws in three lines of evidence (spousal abuse, homicide, morbid jealousy), but her criticism of two other lines of evidence (self-report responses, psychophysiological measures) is based, in part, on a mischaracterization of the evolutionary psychological theory and a misunderstanding of the empirical implications of the theory. When interpreted according to the correct criterion (i.e., an interaction between sex and infidelity type), self-report studies (both forced-choice and non-forced choice) offer strong support for the existence of sex differences in jealousy. Psychophysiological data also offer some support, although these data are weakened by validity-related concerns. In addition, some refutational evidence cited by Harris (responses to real infidelity, responses under cognitive load) actually does not refute the theory. An integrative model that describes how jealousy might result from the interaction of sociocultural variables and evolved sex differences and suggestions for future research directions are discussed.

  4. An inventory and update of jealousy-evoking partner behaviours in modern society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkstra, Pieternel; Barelds, Dick P H; Groothof, Hinke A K

    2010-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to identify the most important jealousy-evoking partner behaviours and to examine the extent to which these behaviours evoke jealousy. Based on the literature, a questionnaire was constructed containing 42 jealousy-evoking partner behaviours, including a partner's extra-dyadic involvement with someone else by means of modern communication devices, such as the Internet. A second study examined the extent to which undergraduates and a community sample experienced jealousy in response to these partner behaviours. Results showed that explicit unfaithful behaviours evoked most feelings of jealousy, followed by a partner's emotional or romantic involvement with someone else by means of modern communication devices. In general, older individuals responded with less jealousy in response to a partner's unfaithful and suspicious behaviours. Clinical implications are discussed. (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Facets of morbid jealousy: With an anecdote from a historical Tamil romance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somasundaram, O.

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY Morbid jealousy is a symptom which occurs in many psychiatric conditions. The complex emotional aspects of jealousy have been discussed by earlier authors. The clinical, cultural, social, and forensic aspects, are touched upon. Morbid jealousy is a favourite topic among novelists and dramatists. “Othello” is a classic example. This topic is covered in one of the famous historical romances of the Tamil author, Kalki. PMID:21180423

  6. Proximal Foundations of Jealousy: Expectations of Exclusivity in the Infant's First Year of Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Sybil L

    2016-10-01

    In this synthesis, we summarize studies that yielded evidence of jealousy in young infants. To shed light on this phenomenon, we present evidence that jealousy's foundation rests on history of dyadic interactions with caregivers which engender infants' expectations of exclusivity, and on maturation of sociocognitive capacities that enable infants to evaluate whether an exchange between their caregiver and another child represents a violation of that expectation. We conclude with a call for greater study of the antecedents and sequelae of both normative and atypical presentations of jealousy. In addition, we recommend approaches that address jealousy across a range of relationships, both within and beyond those which include attachment figures.

  7. Sex differences in jealousy: a population-based twin study in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walum, Hasse; Larsson, Henrik; Westberg, Lars; Lichtenstein, Paul; Magnusson, Patrik K E

    2013-10-01

    According to the theory of evolved sex differences in jealousy, the challenge for women to ensure paternal investment increased their jealousy response to emotional infidelity, whereas paternal uncertainty exerted selective pressures that shaped men to become more distressed by sexual infidelity. Several studies have investigated whether the effect of these sexually dimorphic selection pressures can be detected in contemporary human populations, with conflicting results. To date, no genetically informed studies of sex differences in jealousy have been conducted. We used data from the Screening Across the Lifespan of Twins Younger (SALTY) sample, containing information concerning self-rated jealousy from 3,197 complete twin pairs collected by the Swedish Twin Registry. Intra-class correlations and structural equation models were used to assess the genetic influence on jealousy and to investigate sex differences at genetic level. We saw a highly significant sex effect on the relationship between infidelity types, indicating that men, relative to women, reported greater jealousy in response to sexual infidelity than in response to emotional infidelity. The twin models revealed significant heritabilities for both sexual (32%) and emotional (26%) jealousy. The heritabilities were of a similar magnitude in both sexes, and no qualitative sex differences could be detected. We show for the first time that variance in jealousy is to some extent explained by genetic factors. Even though our results from the mean value analyses are in line with the theory of evolved sex differences in jealousy, we could not identify any sex differences on a genetic level.

  8. Reactive, anxious and possessive forms of jealousy and their relation to relationship quality among heterosexuals and homosexuals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barelds, Dick P. H.; Dijkstra, Pieternel

    2006-01-01

    The present study examined the relationship between relational quality and three different types of jealousy-reactive, anxious and possessive jealousy. The sample consisted of 76 gay men, 79 lesbians, 70 heterosexual women and 70 heterosexual men. Findings show that different types of jealousy

  9. Friendship Jealousy in Young Adolescents: Individual Differences and Links to Sex, Self-Esteem, Aggression, and Social Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Jeffrey G.; Low, Christine M.; Walker, Alisha R.; Gamm, Bridget K.

    2005-01-01

    Children's vulnerability to jealousy surrounding their best friends was explored in 2 studies. Study 1 involved 94 adolescents who reported on their friendship jealousy on a newly created measure. Results indicated that the jealousy measure had sound psychometric properties and produced individual differences that were robust over time and free…

  10. Reported jealousy differs as a function of menstrual cycle stage and contraceptive pill use : a within-subjects investigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cobey, Kelly D.; Buunk, Abraham P.; Roberts, S. Craig; Klipping, Christine; Appels, Nicole; Zimmerman, Yvette; Bennink, Herjan J. T. Coelingh; Pollet, Thomas V.

    Previous research suggests that female jealousy is sensitive to hormonal variation and, more specifically, potentially moderated by estrogen levels. Here, we tracked self-reported jealousy using a within-subjects design, comparing jealousy when the same women were regularly cycling and using

  11. Mother-Stranger Comparisons of Social Attention in Jealousy Context and Attachment in HFASD and Typical Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauminger-Zvieli, Nirit; Kugelmass, Dana Shoham

    2013-01-01

    Affective bonding, social attention, and intersubjective capabilities are all conditions for jealousy, and are deficient in autism. Thus, examining jealousy and attachment may elucidate the socioemotional deficit in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Jealousy was provoked in 30 high-functioning children with ASD (HFASD) and 30 typical children (ages…

  12. Reported jealousy differs as a function of menstrual cycle stage and contraceptive pill use: a within-subjects investigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cobey, K.D.; Buunk, A.P.; Roberts, S.G.B.; Klipping, C.; Appels, N.; Zimmerman, Y.; Coelingh Bennink, H.J.T.; Pollet, T.V.

    2012-01-01

    Previous research suggests that female jealousy is sensitive to hormonal variation and, more specifically, potentially moderated by estrogen levels. Here, we tracked self-reported jealousy using a within-subjects design, comparing jealousy when the same women were regularly cycling and using

  13. Romantic jealousy in early adulthood and in later life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shackelford, Todd K; Voracek, Martin; Schmitt, David P; Buss, David M; Weekes-Shackelford, Viviana A; Michalski, Richard L

    2004-09-01

    Young men are more distressed by a partner's sexual infidelity, whereas young women are more distressed by a partner's emotional infidelity. The present research investigated (a) whether the sex difference in jealousy replicates in an older sample, and (b) whether younger people differ from older people in their selection of the more distressing infidelity scenario. We presented forced-choice dilemmas to 202 older people (mean age = 67 years) and to 234 younger people (mean age = 20 years). The sex difference replicated in the older sample. In addition, older women were less likely than younger women to select a partner's emotional infidelity as more distressing than a partner's sexual infidelity. Discussion offers directions for future work on sex differences and age differences in jealousy.

  14. Sharing motherhood: maternal jealousy among lesbian co-mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelka, Suzanne

    2009-01-01

    Previous research has not adequately addressed how gay and lesbian couples emotionally negotiate unequal biological ties to their children. Because each co-parent has the potential to be their child's biological parent and because same-sex couples highly value relationship equality, unequal biological ties to children may cause feelings of jealousy between co-parents. To counter this, increasing numbers of lesbian couples have been using in-vitro fertilization (IVF) to biologically co-mother, using the eggs of one partner and the womb of the other. While hardly common, this strategy can affect the emotional dynamics between the co-mothers and their children. This article explores how variables common to many lesbian-led families (including method of conception) may contribute to or protect against jealousy. Presented data comes from an 18-month ethnographic study of 30 lesbian-led families with young children living in a major northeastern city. Ten couples adopted infants, 10 couples used assisted insemination (AI), and 10 couples used IVF to biologically co-mother. Lesbians' use of IVF to co-mother has not been previously studied. Methods included in-depth interviews, participant observation, and self-administered questionnaires. Couples who adopted or used IVF reported less jealousy than couples who conceived using AI. Factors that correlate with the likelihood of experiencing maternal jealousy include both partners wanting to be a birth mother, perceptions of unequal biological ties to children, and infertility. Professionals serving lesbian co-mothers should be sensitive to the presence and absence of the above factors.

  15. Health, Anticipated Partner Infidelity, and Jealousy in Men and Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Arnocky

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Health has been identified as an important variable involved in mate choice. Unhealthy organisms are generally less able to provide reproductively important resources to partners and offspring and are more likely to pass on communicable disease. Research on human mate preferences has shown that both men and women prefer healthy mates. Yet to date, little research has examined how health relates to one’s own mating experiences. In the present study, 164 participants (87 women who were currently in heterosexual romantic relationships completed measures of frequency and severity of health problems, anticipated partner infidelity, and intensity of jealousy felt in their current relationship. Mediation analyses showed that health problems predicted greater anticipated partner infidelity and jealousy scores and that anticipated partner infidelity mediated the links between health and jealousy for both frequency and severity of health problems, controlling for both sex and relationship duration. These findings suggest that unhealthy people perceive themselves to be at a mating disadvantage, experiencing associated differences in perceptions and emotions surrounding their romantic partners’ fidelity.

  16. Relationship between short-term sexual strategies and sexual jealousy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathes, Eugene W

    2005-02-01

    In a classic study, Buss, Larson, Westen, and Semmelroth reported that men were more distressed by the thought of a partner's sexual infidelity (sexual jealousy) and women were more distressed by the thought of a partner's emotional infidelity (emotional jealousy). Initially, Buss and his associates explained these results by suggesting that men are concerned about uncertainty of paternity, that is, the possibility of raising another man's child while believing the child is their own. However, later they explained the results in terms of men's preference for short-term sexual strategies. The purpose of this research was to test the explanation of short-term sexual strategies. Men and women subjects were instructed to imagine themselves in a relationship which was either short-term (primarily sexual) or long-term (involving commitment) and then respond to Buss's jealousy items. It was hypothesized that, when both men and women imagined a short-term relationship, they would be more threatened by a partner's sexual infidelity, and, when they imagined a long-term relationship, they would be more threatened by a partner's emotional infidelity. Support was found for this hypothesis.

  17. Sex differences in the jealousy-evoking nature of a rival's body build

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Pieternel; Buunk, Abraham (Bram)

    This study among 185 college students showed that potential rivals with a relatively low waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) evoked more jealousy in women than in men. In contrast, rivals with a relatively high shoulder-to-hip ratio (SHR) evoked more jealousy in men than in women, particularly when the rival

  18. Private Feelings, Public Expressions: Professional Jealousy and the Moral Practice of Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yen-Hsin; Kristjansson, Kristjan

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the issue of personal factors that impinge upon education. More specifically, it addresses professional jealousy among teachers and how it affects the moral practice of teaching. Our focus is teachers' emotions in general and teachers' jealousies in particular, in the context of the ideal of the moral teacher. We identify and…

  19. Coping with the Green-Eyed Monster: Conceptualizing and Measuring Communicative Responses to Romantic Jealousy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, Laura K.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Examines communicative responses to romantic jealousy. Finds 12 superordinate categories and 67 tactics in communicative responses to jealousy. Develops measures for six types of interactive responses (integrative communication, distributive communication, active distancing, general avoidance/denial, expression of negative affect, and violent…

  20. Hormonal birth control use and relationship jealousy : Evidence for estrogen dosage effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cobey, Kelly D.; Pollet, Thomas V.; Roberts, S. Craig; Buunk, Abraham P.

    Women who use hormonal contraceptives have been shown to report higher levels of jealousy than women who are regularly cycling. Here, we extend these findings by examining if self reported levels of jealousy vary with the dose of synthetic estrogen and progestin found in combined oral contraceptives

  1. Friendship Characteristics, Threat Appraisals, and Varieties of Jealousy About Romantic Partners’ Friendships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy R. Worley

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the role of friendship sex composition, friendship history, and threat appraisals in the experience of jealousy about a romantic partner’s involvement in extradyadic friendships. Using a survey, 201 individuals responded to scenarios describing a romantic partner’s involvement in a significant friendship outside the romantic dyad. A partner’s involvement in a cross-sex friendship was associated with greater perceptions of threat to both the existence and quality of the romantic relationship than was a partner’s involvement in a same-sex friendship. Further, the specific forms of jealousy experienced about partners’ friendships were dependent on the threat appraisals individuals associated with the friendships. Appraisals of relational existence threat mediated the influence of friendship characteristics (i.e., sex composition and history on sexual jealousy and companionship jealousy, while appraisals of relational quality threat mediated the influence of friendship characteristics on intimacy jealousy, power jealousy, and companionship jealousy. This study points toward the central role of threat appraisals in mediating associations between rival characteristics and various forms of jealousy about a partner’s friendships.

  2. Jealousy and the Characteristics of One's Rival: A Self-Evaluation Maintenance Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSteno, David A.; Salovey, Peter

    1996-01-01

    Two studies provide support for a model of jealousy based on self-evaluation maintenance theory. Greater jealousy was reported when the domain of a rival's achievements was also a domain of high self-relevance to the participant. Notes sex differences in the impact of relationship partners on domains of self-definition. (LSR)

  3. Adolescents' Aggressive and Prosocial Behavior: Associations with Jealousy and Social Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culotta, Carmen M.; Goldstein, Sara E.

    2008-01-01

    The authors examined how relational aggression, physical aggression, and proactive prosocial behavior were associated with jealousy and social anxiety in a diverse sample of 60 middle school students. After the authors controlled for gender and race, jealousy predicted relational aggression and proactive prosocial behavior, but it did not predict…

  4. Children's Accounts of Sibling Jealousy and Their Implicit Theories about Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Julie A.; Halberstadt, Amy G.

    2008-01-01

    In two studies, fifth- and sixth-grade children's descriptive accounts of sibling jealousy were related to their implicit theories about relationships. Children's jealousy accounts were collected via structured interviews; their implicit theories were assessed by questionnaire. In both studies, children reported experiencing mild to moderate…

  5. Children's observed interactions with best friends : Associations with friendship jealousy and satisfaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deutz, Marike H F; Lansu, Tessa A M; Cillessen, Antonius H N

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the role of friendship jealousy and satisfaction in nine-year-old children's observed interactions with their best friends. One hundred five dyads (51 female, 54 male) participated in a 30-min closed-field observational setting and reported their jealousy and satisfaction within

  6. Associations among Friendship Jealousy, Peer Status, and Relational Aggression in Early Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, Caroline; Mayeux, Lara

    2018-01-01

    This study investigated the associations among peer status, friendship jealousy, and relational aggression in early adolescence, with a focus on peer status as a moderator of the association between relational aggression and friendship jealousy. Three hundred eighteen sixth-, seventh-, and eighth-grade students completed a sociometric assessment…

  7. Gender differences in rival characteristics that evoke jealousy in response to emotional versus sexual infidelity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buunk, Abraham (Bram); Dijkstra, Pieternel

    2004-01-01

    Previous research has shown that in men jealousy is evoked more by a rival's status-related characteristics than in women, whereas in women jealousy is evoked more by a rival's physical attractiveness than in men. The present study examined whether the occurrence of this gender difference depends

  8. Characteristis of jealousy in a group of university students at Bogota city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Consuelo Martínez-León

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study is a descriptive-correlational study. The objective of the study was to describe the level of jealousy, some of its features and its relationship with other variables such as depression and infidelity. It was done in a sample of 150 university students in Bogotá city. The instruments applied were the Interpersonal Jealousy scale (Mathes y Severa, adapted by Martínez & Rodríguez, 1996and the Beck Depression Inventory. The results indicated that jealousy scores tend to be distributed normally, 10% of the population achieved a score of pathological jealousy and 4,7% of the population had aggressive behaviour against her/his partner, himself or herself or her/his opponent. Besides, there are not significant differences between the level of jealousy comparing men and women. However, the mean scores tended to be higher in men. The study also found that people who have been unfaithful at some point in their lives tend to score higher on the scale of jealousy. The study’s results showed that there was a negative correlation between the time of the relationship and the jealousy score. It indicates that as the time of the relationship increases, the jealousy level decreases. On the other hand, the results confirm that when the time of the relationship is longer, the level of depression decreases.

  9. Reactive, anxious and possessive forms of jealousy and their relation to relationship quality among heterosexuals and homosexuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barelds, Dick P H; Dijkstra, Pieternel

    2006-01-01

    The present study examined the relationship between relational quality and three different types of jealousy-reactive, anxious and possessive jealousy. The sample consisted of 76 gay men, 79 lesbians, 70 heterosexual women and 70 heterosexual men. Findings show that different types of jealousy affect relationship quality differently and do so differently for homosexuals and heterosexuals. Among heterosexuals and especially gay men--but not among lesbians--anxious jealousy was negatively related to relationship quality. In contrast, among heterosexuals--but not among gay men or lesbians--reactive jealousy was positively related to relationship quality. The present study shows that distinguishing between different types of jealousy is necessary to entangle the diverse effects of jealousy on the quality of homosexual and heterosexual relationships.

  10. Normal and obsessional jealousy: a study of a population of young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marazziti, Donatella; Di Nasso, Elena; Masala, Irene; Baroni, Stefano; Abelli, Marianna; Mengali, Francesco; Mungai, Francesco; Rucci, Paola

    2003-05-01

    Jealousy is a heterogenous emotion ranging from normality to pathology. Several problems still exist in the distinction between normal and pathological jealousy. With the present study, we aimed to contribute to the definition of the boundary between obsessional and normal jealousy by means of a specific self-report questionnaire developed by us. The questionnaire called "Questionnaire on the Affective Relationships" (QAR) and consisting of 30 items, was administered to 400 university students of both sexes and to 14 outpatients affected by obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) whose main obsession was jealousy. The total scores and single items were analysed and compared. Two hundred and forty-five, approximately 61% of the questionnaires, were returned. The statistical analyses showed that patients with OCD had higher total scores than healthy subjects; in addition, it was possible to identify an intermediate group of subjects, corresponding to 10% of the total, who were concerned by jealousy thoughts around the partner, but at a lower degree than patients, and that we called "healthy jealous subjects" because they had no other psychopathological trait. Significant differences were also observed for single items in the three groups. Our study showed that 10% of a population of university students, albeit normal, have jealousy thoughts around the partner, as emerged by the specific questionnaire developed by us. This instrument permitted to clearly distinguish these subjects from patients with OCD and healthy subjects with no jealousy concern.

  11. Gender and Conflict Resolution Strategies in Spanish Teen Couples: Their Relationship With Jealousy and Emotional Dependency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perles, Fabiola; San Martín, Jesús; Canto, Jesús M

    2016-06-08

    Previous research has pointed to the need to address the study of violence in teen couples. However, research has not delved into the study of the variables related to the different types of violence employed by boys and girls. The purpose of this study was to test whether gender, jealousy, and dependency predict specific strategies for conflict resolution (psychological aggression and mild physical aggression). Another objective of the study was to test gender differences in the conflict resolution strategies used by Spanish teen couples and to test the association between these variables and jealousy and emotional dependency. A sample of 296 adolescent high school students between 14 and 19 years of age of both genders from the south of Spain participated in this study. Hierarchical regression models were used to estimate the relationship between psychological aggression and mild physical aggression, and jealousy, and dependency. Results showed that jealousy correlated with psychological aggression and mild physical aggression in girls but not in boys. Psychological aggression and mild physical aggression were associated with dependency in boys. Girls scored higher in psychological aggression and jealousy than did boys. Finally, the interaction between jealousy and dependency predicted psychological aggression only in girls. These results highlight the need to address the role of the interaction between dependence and jealousy in the types of violence employed in teen dating. However, it is necessary to delve into the gender differences and similarities to develop appropriate prevention programs. © The Author(s) 2016.

  12. Pathological jealousy and pathological love: Apples to apples or apples to oranges?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stravogiannis, Andrea Lorena da C; Kim, Hyoun S; Sophia, Eglacy C; Sanches, Cíntia; Zilberman, Monica L; Tavares, Hermano

    2018-01-01

    Pathological jealousy evokes emotions, thoughts, and behaviors that cause damage to social and interpersonal relationships. On the other hand, pathological love is the uncontrollable behavior of caring for a partner that results in neglecting the needs of the self. The aim of the present research was to assess the similarities and differences between the two psychopathologies of love. To this end, thirty-two individuals with pathological jealousy and 33 individuals with pathological love were compared on demographics, aspects of romantic relationship (jealousy, satisfaction, love style), psychiatric co-morbidities, personality and psychological characteristics (e.g., impulsivity). In a univariate analysis individuals with pathological jealousy were more likely to be in a current relationship and reported greater satisfaction. The avoidant attachment and the ludus love style were associated with pathological jealousy whereas the secure attachment and agape love style was associated with pathological love. Almost three-quarters (72.3%) of the sample met criteria for a current psychiatric disorder, however no differences emerged between the pathological jealousy and pathological love groups. In a binary logistic regression, relationship status and impairments in parenting significantly differentiated the groups. While both pathological jealousy and pathological love share similarities, they also present with unique differences, which may have important treatment implications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Jealousy in response to online and offline infidelity: the role of sex and sexual orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkstra, Pieternel; Barelds, Dick P H; Groothof, Hinke A K

    2013-08-01

    The goal of the present study was to examine the emotional content and intensity of jealousy in response to different types of infidelity (both online and offline unfaithful partner behaviors) among Dutch heterosexuals (n = 191) and homosexuals (n = 121). Based on previous research (Dijkstra, Barelds & Groothof, 2010), participants were presented with ten jealousy-evoking situations following which the intensity of two different emotional aspects of jealousy was assessed (betrayal/anger and threat). Results showed that scenarios describing a partner having sex with someone else or falling in love with someone else primarily evoked betrayal/anger-related jealousy, whereas scenarios describing an emotional connection between a partner and someone else primarily evoked threat-related jealousy. In addition, women experienced more jealousy than men in response to scenarios in which a partner engaged in potentially extra-dyadic online (but not offline) behaviors. Finally, compared to same-sex heterosexuals, homosexuals, both male and female, responded with less intense jealousy to scenarios describing a partner having sex with someone else. Implications for the treatment of (internet) infidelity are discussed. © 2013 The Scandinavian Psychological Associations.

  14. Sibling jealousy and aesthetic ambiguity in Austen's Pride and Prejudice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanly, Margaret Ann Fitzpatrick

    2009-04-01

    Jane Austen's most popular novel, Pride and Prejudice (1813), illuminates and is illuminated by psychoanalytic aesthetics. When Austen dramatizes unconscious oedipal/sibling rivalries, irony acts as a type of aesthetic ambiguity (E. Kris 1952). A psychoanalytic perspective shows that Austen uses a grammar of negatives (negation, denial, minimization) to achieve the dual meanings of irony, engaging the reader's unconscious instinctual satisfactions, while at the same time protecting the reader from unpleasant affects. Austen's plot, which portrays regressions driven by sibling jealousy, reveals that a new tolerance of remorse and depression in her heroine and hero leads to psychic growth.

  15. Partner violence and sexual jealousy in China: a population-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tianfu; Parish, William L; Laumann, Edward O; Luo, Ye

    2009-07-01

    Using data from a nationally representative survey in China, this article examines the prevalence and risk factors for partner violence with a special focus on the important role of sexual jealousy. Among women aged 20 to 49, 7.2% reported that they were hit by their partners in the past year. Comparison shows that the Chinese prevalence is modestly below the overall median for other societies. Net of other factors, jealousy exacerbates hitting for both men and women in a reactive pattern, with the jealous partner getting hit. This suggests a rethinking of the role of sexual jealousy in spousal violence in some social settings.

  16. Proximal Foundations of Jealousy: Expectations of Exclusivity in the Infant’s First Year of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Sybil L.

    2016-01-01

    In this synthesis, we summarize studies that yielded evidence of jealousy in young infants. To shed light on this phenomenon, we present evidence that jealousy’s foundation rests on history of dyadic interactions with caregivers which engender infants’ expectations of exclusivity, and on maturation of sociocognitive capacities that enable infants to evaluate whether an exchange between their caregiver and another child represents a violation of that expectation. We conclude with a call for greater study of the antecedents and sequelae of both normative and atypical presentations of jealousy. In addition, we recommend approaches that address jealousy across a range of relationships, both within and beyond those which include attachment figures. PMID:28232851

  17. Decision Strategies in Continuous Ratings of Jealousy Feelings Elicited by Sexual and Emotional Infidelity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achim Schützwohl

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Two studies (total N = 689 tested the assumption of DeSteno, Bartlett, Braverman, and Salovey (2002 that sex differences in jealousy predicted by the evolutionary view are an artifact of measurement because they are restricted to a forced-choice response format and do not emerge when using continuous jealousy ratings. In Study 1, men and women rated how much a mate's emotional and sexual infidelity contributed to their jealousy feeling. In Study 2, men and women rated the intensity of their jealousy feeling elicited by a mate's emotional and sexual infidelity. In one condition they were asked to make their ratings spontaneously whereas in the other condition they were instructed to make their ratings only after careful consideration. The results of both studies lend no support for the artifact-of-measurement assumption. The implications of the present finding for the assumption of DeSteno et al. (2002 are discussed.

  18. Heterogeneity of the jealousy phenomenon in the general population: an Italian study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marazziti, Donatella; Sbrana, Alfredo; Rucci, Paola; Cherici, Luca; Mungai, Francesco; Gonnelli, Chiara; Massimetti, Enrico; Raimondi, Francesca; Doria, Maria Rosaria; Spagnolli, Sabrina; Ravani, Laura; Consoli, Giorgio; Catena Dell Osso, Mario

    2010-01-01

    Despite the general agreement that normal jealousy is heterogenous, little is known about this specific topic. In the present study, we explored the possibility of distinguishing between four subtypes of "normal" jealousy (depressive, anxious, obsessive, and paranoid) amongst a cohort of 500 healthy university students by means of a specifically designed questionnaire, "Ouestionario della gelosia" (QUEGE). QUEGE is a self-report instrument of 30 items which explores the presence, frequency, and duration of feelings and behaviors related to jealousy. It was devised to investigate four hypothetical psychopathological profiles: depressive, paranoid, obsessive, and anxious. The factor analysis identified five rather than four clear-cut factors: self-esteem, paranoia, interpersonal Sensitivity, fear of being abandoned, and obsessionality. Women showed statistically significant lower levels of self-esteem and higher levels of obsessionality than men. Younger age (jealousy phenomenon in the general population.

  19. Gender, socioeconomic status, age, and jealousy: emotional responses to infidelity in a national sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Melanie C; Sabini, John

    2006-05-01

    The authors used a representative national sample (N = 777) to test the evolutionary hypothesis that men would be more bothered by sexual infidelity and women by emotional infidelity, the Jealousy as a Specific Innate Module (JSIM) effect. Our alternative conceptualization of jealousy suggests that there are distinct emotional components of jealousy that did not evolve differently by gender. The authors looked for effects of age, socioeconomic status (SES), and type of measure (continuous or dichotomous) on jealousy. The authors did not find age or SES effects. Forced-choice items provided support for our alternative view; both genders showed more anger and blame over sexual infidelity but more hurt feelings over emotional infidelity. Continuous measures indicated more emotional response to sexual than emotional infidelity among both genders. 2006 APA, all rights reserved

  20. A patient with coexisting narcolepsy and morbid jealousy showing favourable response to fluoxetine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wing, Y. K.; Lee, S.; Chiu, H. F.; Ho, C. K.; Chen, C. N.

    1994-01-01

    A 37 year old Chinese man suffered from coexisting narcolepsy and morbid jealousy which were precipitated by head injury 5 years previously. Fluoxetine 20 mg/day reduced his narcoleptic symptoms and morbid jealousy but not his sleepiness. On defaulting treatment, the patient's symptoms and marital problem recurred. A common central serotonin disturbance might be involved in mediating the sleep disorder and associated psychopathology. PMID:8140016

  1. The modern working of Iago: the seeds of jealousy to the challenge of new technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gina Troisi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The authors present a theoretical-clinical contribution about jealousy of the young between normality and pathology. They identify a third borderline area characterized by the shared right to control each other, in the couple's relationship. The control of the partner becomes forced and intrusive until reaching a psychopathological risk. Cyberspace gives the opportunity to express such risk. The potentials of new technologies collude with excessive jealousy, amplifying fantasies and making them fictitiously real by the disembodiment of cyberspace.

  2. The role of social network sites in romantic relationships: Effects on jealousy and relationship happiness

    OpenAIRE

    Utz, S.; Beukeboom, C.J.

    2011-01-01

    On social network sites (SNS), information about one's romantic partner is readily available and public for friends. The paper focuses on the negative (SNS jealousy) and positive (SNS relationship happiness) consequences of SNS use for romantic relationships. We examined whether relationship satisfaction, trait jealousy, SNS use and need for popularity predicted these emotional consequences of SNS use and tested the moderating role of self-esteem. For low self-esteem individuals, need for pop...

  3. Intention, false beliefs, and delusional jealousy: insights into the right hemisphere from neurological patients and neuroimaging studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortigue, Stephanie; Bianchi-Demicheli, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    Jealousy sits high atop of a list comprised of the most human emotional experiences, although its nature, rationale, and origin are poorly understood. In the past decade, a series of neurological case reports and neuroimaging findings have been particularly helpful in piecing together jealousy's puzzle. In order to understand and quantify the neurological factors that might be important in jealousy, we reviewed the current literature in this specific field. We made an electronic search, and examined all literature with at least an English abstract, through Mars 2010. The search identified a total of 20 neurological patients, who experienced jealousy in relation with a neurological disorder; and 22 healthy individuals, who experienced jealousy under experimental neuroimaging settings. Most of the clinical cases of reported jealousy after a stroke had delusional-type jealousy. Right hemispheric stroke was the most frequently reported neurological disorder in these patients, although there was a wide range of more diffuse neurological disorders that may be reported to be associated with different other types of jealousy. This is in line with recent neuroimaging data on false beliefs, moral judgments, and intention [mis]understanding. Together the present findings provide physicians and psychologists with a potential for high impact in understanding the neural mechanisms and treatment of jealousy. By combining findings from case reports and neuroimaging data, the present article allows for a novel and unique perspective, and explores new directions into the neurological jealous mind.

  4. Sexual and romantic jealousy in heterosexual and homosexual adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Christine R

    2002-01-01

    Several theorists have claimed that men are innately more upset by a mate's sexual infidelity and women are more upset by a mate's emotional infidelity because the sexes faced different adaptive problems (for men, cuckoldry; for women, losing a mate's resources). The present work examined this theory of jealousy as a specific innate module in 196 adult men and women of homosexual and heterosexual orientations. As in previous work, heterosexuals' responses to a forced-choice question about hypothetical infidelity yielded a gender difference. However no gender differences were found when participants recalled personal experiences with a mate's actual infidelity. Men and women, regardless of sexual orientation, on average focused more on a mate's emotional infidelity than on a mate's sexual infidelity. Responses to hypothetical infidelity were uncorrelated with reactions to actual infidelity. This finding casts doubt on the validity of the hypothetical measures used in previous research.

  5. Is Jealousy Danger or Escape in Partnerships in the Middle of Life?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gershon M. Breslavs

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, psychology delves more and more bravely into the socially most important and long-term mental phenomena, i.e. sentiments. Following the study of partnership or romantic love the issue of serious psychological study is jealousy in partnerships. The most essential issue is the role of jealousy in loving relationships, which is interpreted in various ways in popular and scientific literature. Since these relationships are studied more often on undergaduates’ samples, different research data seem contradictory, because young people have only a short-term and indefinite experience of partnerships. More long-term involvement in a romantic partnership could verify the hypothesis on the link between jealousy and love, which appears to clarify the role of jealousy in partnership not only in early adulthood, but also in middle adulthood. Both sentiments could be connected with such an important aspect of partners’ satisfaction as sexual satisfaction. The results of this research show a positive link between love and jealousy for 35–45 year-old males, but not for women, which revealed significant gender differences of the role of jealousy in long-term partnerships. At the same time, jealousy and love are positively connected with sexual satisfaction for both genders, but these links appear to be stronger for males. The data obtained have applied significance for family and couple counsel and psychotherapy, but many other factors should be studied and controlled at that, including the duration and the type of partnership, partners’ age, equality and symmetry in relationships, expectations, social tolerance, personal investments, own or adopted children, etc.

  6. Men's desire for children carrying their genes and sexual jealousy: a test of paternity uncertainty as an explanation of male sexual jealousy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathes, Eugene W

    2005-06-01

    In a classic study, Buss, Larson, Westen, and Semmelroth found that men were more distressed by the thought of a partner's sexual infidelity (labeled sexual jealousy) and women were more distressed by the thought of a partner's emotional infidelity (labeled emotional jealousy). Buss and his associates explained the results by suggesting that men are concerned about uncertainty of paternity, that is, the possibility of raising another man's child while believing that the child is their own. To test this explanation, the Desire for Children Scale was created. Its internal consistency and test-retest reliabilities were .86 and .89, respectively. Scores correlate with stated Number of Children Desired (convergent validity) but none of the Big-Five traits (divergent validity). It was hypothesized that for men scores on this scale would correlate positively with scores on sexual jealousy. The Desire for Children Scale and the two Sexual vs Emotional Jealousy items of Buss and his associates were given to 49 men and 55 women college students enrolled in psychology courses. Their average age was 19.9 yr. (SD= 3.7), and average year in school was 2.0 (SD= 1.2). Subjects volunteered to participate in the study in exchange for course credit. The hypothesis was confirmed and gives support to the uncertainty of paternity explanation.

  7. Emotion Regulation in Context: The Jealousy Complex between Young Siblings and Its Relations with Child and Family Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volling, Brenda L.; McElwain, Nancy L.; Miller, Alison L.

    2002-01-01

    Examined relations between sibling jealousy and child and family characteristics in families with toddler and preschool-age siblings. Found that positive marital relationship was particularly strong predictor of older siblings' abilities to regulate jealousy in sessions with mothers. Younger siblings' jealous affect with mothers related to child's…

  8. Fueling the Flames of the Green-Eyed Monster: The Role of Ruminative Thought in Reaction to Romantic Jealousy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, Christine L.; Cupach, William R.

    2000-01-01

    Examines factors predicted to influence individuals' responses to romantic jealousy. Details a study in which undergraduate students completed scales measuring relationship-specific linking, relationship-specific rumination, possessiveness, trust, and communicative responses to jealousy. Suggests that jealous rumination is an important cognitive…

  9. Intrasexual competition at work : Sex differences in the jealousy-evoking effect of rival characteristics in work settings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buunk, Abraham P.; 't Goor, Joel Aan; Solano, Alejandro C.

    Sex differences in jealousy-evoking rival characteristics in the relationship with a supervisor at work were examined in a community sample of 188 individuals from Argentina. Among men, the rivals' social dominance and communal attributes evoked the most jealousy, followed by physical dominance.

  10. Between-Sex Differences in Romantic Jealousy: Substance or Spin? A Qualitative Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola J. Fussell

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available An influential evolutionary account of romantic jealousy proposes that natural selection shaped a specific sexually-dimorphic psychological mechanism in response to relationship threat. However, this account has faced considerable theoretical and methodological criticism and it remains unclear whether putative sex differences in romantic jealousy actually exist and, if they do, whether they are consistent with its predictions. Given the multidimensional nature of romantic jealousy, the current study employed a qualitative design to examine these issues. We report the results of sixteen semi-structured interviews that were conducted with heterosexual men and women with the purpose of exploring the emotions, cognitions and behaviors that formed their subjective, lived experience in response to relationship threat. Interpretative phenomenological analysis revealed four super-ordinate themes (“threat appraisal”, “emotional episodes”, “sex-specific threat” and “forgive and forget” and unequivocal sex differences in romantic jealousy consistent with the evolutionary account. Self-esteem, particularly when conceptualized as an index of mate value, emerged as an important proximal mediator for both sexes. However, specific outcomes were dependent upon domains central to the individual's self concept that were primarily sex-specific. The findings are integrated within the context of existing self-esteem and evolutionary theory and future directions for romantic jealousy research are suggested.

  11. Becoming a Subject: A Memory Work Study of the Experience of Romantic Jealousy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darren Langdridge

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article we aim to contribute to psychosocial debates around selfhood by focusing empirically upon memories of jealousy and the ways in which potential subjectivities are both opened up and closed down. The paper presents a phenomenological narrative analysis of our research on jealousy produced through a memory work group. We identify three types of jealous memories (real, virtual and in-between and elucidate the narrative structure of jealous experiencing. Memories of jealousy invariably involved some anticipatory context in which the actors engaged with potential subjectivities, which were then disrupted when the physical or psychological presence of another became apparent, triggering powerful embodied feelings. We argue that much of the power of jealousy comes from the way in which it is ambiguous and anxiety provoking as a result of a challenge to perceived subjectivities. Our findings are discussed in relation to extant mainstream literature on jealousy and critical theories of subjectivity, embodiment and relationality. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs120258

  12. Between-sex differences in romantic jealousy: substance or spin? A qualitative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fussell, Nicola J; Stollery, Brian T

    2012-03-29

    An influential evolutionary account of romantic jealousy proposes that natural selection shaped a specific sexually-dimorphic psychological mechanism in response to relationship threat. However, this account has faced considerable theoretical and methodological criticism and it remains unclear whether putative sex differences in romantic jealousy actually exist and, if they do, whether they are consistent with its predictions. Given the multidimensional nature of romantic jealousy, the current study employed a qualitative design to examine these issues. We report the results of sixteen semi-structured interviews that were conducted with heterosexual men and women with the purpose of exploring the emotions, cognitions and behaviors that formed their subjective, lived experience in response to relationship threat. Interpretative phenomenological analysis revealed four super-ordinate themes ("threat appraisal", "emotional episodes", "sex-specific threat" and "forgive and forget") and unequivocal sex differences in romantic jealousy consistent with the evolutionary account. Self-esteem, particularly when conceptualized as an index of mate value, emerged as an important proximal mediator for both sexes. However, specific outcomes were dependent upon domains central to the individual's self concept that were primarily sex-specific. The findings are integrated within the context of existing self-esteem and evolutionary theory and future directions for romantic jealousy research are suggested.

  13. The Price of Distrust: Trust, Anxious Attachment, Jealousy, and Partner Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Lindsey M; DiBello, Angelo M; Øverup, Camilla S; Neighbors, Clayton

    2015-07-01

    Trust is essential to the development of healthy, secure, and satisfying relationships (Simpson, 2007a). Attachment styles provide a theoretical framework for understanding how individuals respond to partner behaviors that either confirm or violate trust (Hazan & Shaver, 1994). The current research aimed to identify how trust and attachment anxiety might interact to predict different types of jealousy and physical and psychological abuse. We expected that when experiencing lower levels of trust, anxiously attached individuals would report higher levels of both cognitive and behavioral jealousy as well as partner abuse perpetration. Participants in committed romantic relationships ( N = 261) completed measures of trust, attachment anxiety and avoidance, jealousy, and physical and psychological partner abuse in a cross-sectional study. Moderation results largely supported the hypotheses: Attachment anxiety moderated the association between trust and jealousy, such that anxious individuals experienced much higher levels of cognitive and behavioral jealousy when reporting lower levels of trust. Moreover, attachment anxiety moderated the association between trust and nonphysical violence. These results suggest that upon experiencing distrust in one's partner, anxiously attached individuals are more likely to become jealous, snoop through a partner's belongings, and become psychologically abusive. The present research illustrates that particularly for anxiously attached individuals, distrust has cascading effects on relationship cognitions and behavior, and this should be a key area of discussion during therapy.

  14. Siblings' Perceptions of Differential Treatment, Fairness, and Jealousy and Adolescent Adjustment: A Moderated Indirect Effects Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeser, Meghan K; Whiteman, Shawn D; McHale, Susan M

    2016-08-01

    Youth's perception of parents' differential treatment (PDT) are associated with maladjustment during adolescence. Although the direct relations between PDT and youth's maladjustment have been well established, the mechanisms underlying these associations remain unclear. We addressed this gap by examining whether sibling jealousy accounted for the links between PDT and youth's depressive symptoms, self-worth, and risky behaviors. Additionally, we examined whether youth's perceptions of fairness regarding their treatment as well as the gender constellation of the dyad moderated these indirect relations (i.e., moderated-indirect effects). Participants were first- and second-born adolescent siblings ( M = 15.96, SD = .72 years for older siblings, M = 13.48, SD = 1.02 years for younger siblings) and their parents from 197 working and middle class European American families. Data were collected via home interviews. A series of Conditional Process Analyses revealed significant indirect effects of PDT through sibling jealousy to all three adjustment outcomes. Furthermore, perceptions of fairness moderated the relations between PDT and jealousy, such that the indirect effects were only significant at low (-1 SD ) and average levels of fairness. At high levels of fairness (+1 SD ) there was no association between PDT, jealousy, and youth adjustment. Taken together, results indicate that youth and parents would benefit from engaging in clear communication regarding the reasoning for the occurrence of differential treatment, likely maximizing youth and parent perceptions of that treatment as being fair, and in turn mitigating sibling jealousy and maladjustment.

  15. Siblings’ Perceptions of Differential Treatment, Fairness, and Jealousy and Adolescent Adjustment: A Moderated Indirect Effects Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeser, Meghan K.; Whiteman, Shawn D.; McHale, Susan M.

    2016-01-01

    Youth's perception of parents’ differential treatment (PDT) are associated with maladjustment during adolescence. Although the direct relations between PDT and youth's maladjustment have been well established, the mechanisms underlying these associations remain unclear. We addressed this gap by examining whether sibling jealousy accounted for the links between PDT and youth's depressive symptoms, self-worth, and risky behaviors. Additionally, we examined whether youth's perceptions of fairness regarding their treatment as well as the gender constellation of the dyad moderated these indirect relations (i.e., moderated-indirect effects). Participants were first- and second-born adolescent siblings (M = 15.96, SD = .72 years for older siblings, M = 13.48, SD = 1.02 years for younger siblings) and their parents from 197 working and middle class European American families. Data were collected via home interviews. A series of Conditional Process Analyses revealed significant indirect effects of PDT through sibling jealousy to all three adjustment outcomes. Furthermore, perceptions of fairness moderated the relations between PDT and jealousy, such that the indirect effects were only significant at low (−1 SD) and average levels of fairness. At high levels of fairness (+1 SD) there was no association between PDT, jealousy, and youth adjustment. Taken together, results indicate that youth and parents would benefit from engaging in clear communication regarding the reasoning for the occurrence of differential treatment, likely maximizing youth and parent perceptions of that treatment as being fair, and in turn mitigating sibling jealousy and maladjustment. PMID:27867295

  16. Concomitant development of hypersexuality and delusional jealousy in patients with Parkinson's disease: a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poletti, Michele; Lucetti, Claudio; Baldacci, Filippo; Del Dotto, Paolo; Bonuccelli, Ubaldo

    2014-11-01

    Both impulse-control disorders and delusional jealousy (DJ) may be considered non-motor side-effects of dopamine agonist therapy in Parkinson's disease (PD). We aimed to investigate the possible concomitant development of these features in PD and their clinical correlates. We performed a cross-sectional investigation in 1063 consecutive PD patients with the Questionnaire for Impulsive Compulsive Disorders in Parkinson's disease and the Parkinson's Psychosis Questionnaire. 81 patients presented ICDs (prevalence 7.61%) and 23 patients presented DJ (17 males, 6 females; prevalence 2.16%). 9 male PD patients presented both DJ and ICDs (39.13% of patients with DJ, 11.11% of patients with ICDs; prevalence of 0.84% in the whole PD sample), with a concomitant onset of delusional jealousy and hypersexuality in 8 cases and a concomitant onset of delusional jealousy and pathological gambling in 2 cases. Hypersexuality and delusional jealousy may occur independently in PD patients "on" dopamine agonist therapy, but may develop together probably reflecting a common alteration of sexuality (sexual arousal and jealousy) The presence of both of these clinical features and sexuality more in general should be investigated when features of either one of them appear. Further confirmation is needed in larger samples of patients. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. How Brand Jealousy Influences the Relationship between Brand Attachment and Word of Mouth Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burcu İlter

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to understand the relationships between brand attachment and word of mouth communication (WOM, brand attachment and brand jealousy; brand jealousy and WOM; and the mediating role of brand jealousy on the relationship between brand attachment and word of mouth communication. The measurement model is analyzed via confirmatory factor analysis (CFA. Further, structural equation modeling was performed in order to test the construct relations in the theoretical framework of this study. Findings of the study show that even though as brand attachment increases positive word of mouth increases, however in the existence of jealousy even people that are attached to a brand they may not talk favorably about it, and in fact make negative word of mouth communication The present research is expected to extend the prior research contributing to the extant literature by investigating an emerging concept of brand jealousy and its possible antecedents (i.e. brand attachment and outcomes (i.e. negative and positive WOM.

  18. The role of inflexible friendship beliefs, rumination, and low self-worth in early adolescents' friendship jealousy and adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavallee, Kristen L; Parker, Jeffrey G

    2009-08-01

    Two focal social cognitive processes were evaluated in a structural model for their direct and indirect roles in early adolescents' jealousy surrounding their closest friend in a sample of 325 early adolescents (169 girls and 156 boys) ages 11-14 years. Individuals who are rigid and unrealistic about meeting their friendship needs were more vulnerable to feelings of jealousy than individuals who think more flexibly. Inflexible individuals also engage in more jealousy-driven surveillance and other problem behavior towards their friends. Stronger jealous feelings and behavior were related, in turn, to greater conflict with friends and to a vulnerability to emotional maladjustment. In addition, young adolescents who tended to ruminate over friendship problems were also more vulnerable to jealousy. Inflexible attitudes and friendship rumination were positively associated. Results extend recent models of friendship jealousy that focus only on early adolescents' self-worth.

  19. The green eyed monster in the bottle: Relationship contingent self-esteem, romantic jealousy, and alcohol-related problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiBello, Angelo M; Rodriguez, Lindsey M; Hadden, Benjamin W; Neighbors, Clayton

    2015-10-01

    Previous research suggests that both jealousy and relationship contingent self-esteem (RCSE) are related to alcohol use and alcohol-related problems. No work, however, has examined these two constructs together as they relate to motives for alcohol use and alcohol-related problems. The current study aims to build upon emerging literature examining different types of jealousy (i.e., emotional, cognitive, and behavioral), relationship quality (i.e., satisfaction, commitment, closeness), RCSE, and alcohol use. More specifically, the current study aimed to examine the associations between RCSE and drinking to cope and RCSE and alcohol-related problems, in the context of the different types of jealousy. Moreover, the current study aimed to assess whether the associations between RCSE, jealousy, and drinking outcomes vary as a function of relationship quality. Two hundred and seventy seven individuals (87% female) at a large southern university participated in the study. They completed measures of RCSE, relationship satisfaction, commitment, closeness, and jealousy as well as alcohol-related outcomes. Using PROCESS, moderated mediational analyses were used to evaluate different types of jealousy as mediators of the association between RCSE and drinking to cope/alcohol-related problems. Further, we aimed to examine whether relationship quality moderated the association between RCSE and jealousy in predicting alcohol-related variables. Results indicated that cognitive jealousy mediated the association between both RCSE and drinking to cope and RCSE and alcohol-related problems. Further, relationship satisfaction, commitment, and closeness were all found to moderate the association between RSCE and cognitive jealousy such that at lower, but not higher levels of satisfaction, commitment, and closeness, cognitive jealousy mediated the association between RCSE and drinking to cope and RCSE and alcohol-related problems. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Sex differences in jealousy: the (lack of) influence of researcher theoretical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edlund, John; Heider, Jeremy D; Nichols, Austin Lee; McCarthy, Randy J; Wood, Sarah E; Scherer, Cory R; Hartnett, Jessica L; Walker, Richard

    2017-09-01

    The sex difference in jealousy is an effect that has generated significant controversy in the academic literature (resulting in two meta-analyses that reached different conclusions on the presence or absence of the effect). In this study, we had a team of researchers from different theoretical perspectives use identical protocols to test whether the sex difference in jealousy would occur across many different samples (while testing whether mate value would moderate the effect). In our samples, we found the sex difference in jealousy to occur using both forced choice and continuous measures, this effect appeared in several different settings, and, we found that mate value moderated participant responses. The results are discussed in light of the controversy surrounding the presence of the effect.

  1. Elevated romantic love and jealousy if relationship status is declared on Facebook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orosz, Gábor; Szekeres, Ádám; Kiss, Zoltán G; Farkas, Péter; Roland-Lévy, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Declared relationship status on Facebook can serve as a public commitment and as an extra layer of a couple's security. However, the question arises: do those who report the relationship status feel stronger romantic love and jealousy toward their partners than those who do not share such information publicly? To test this assumption, profile information and questionnaire data of romantic love and jealousy were gathered from 292, 230 females) respondents that were in a relationship. Our results suggest that announcing the relationship status is associated with elevated romantic love and jealousy. Therefore, being "Facebook official" can be interpreted as a tie-sign indicating that the couple is "out of the market," and can promote their unity as a "digital wedding ring."

  2. Elevated romantic love and jealousy if relationship status is declared on Facebook

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gábor eOrosz

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Declared relationship status on Facebook can serve as a public commitment and as an extra layer of a couple’s security. However, the question arises: do those who report the relationship status feel stronger romantic love and jealousy towards their partners than those who do not share such information publicly? To test this assumption, profile information and questionnaire data of romantic love and jealousy were gathered from 292 (230 females respondents that were in a relationship. Our results suggest that announcing the relationship status is associated with elevated romantic love and jealousy. Therefore, being Facebook official can be interpreted as a tie-sign indicating that the couple is out of the market, and can promote their unity as a digital wedding ring.

  3. Organizational Bullying, Professional Jealousies, Power Play, And Gossiping In The Work Place: Basis For Institutional Transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DR. ROME B. MORALISTA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study determined the Bullying practices observed, the Professional Jealousies experienced, the Power Play Practices experienced and the gossiping activities as observed by the respondents. Descriptive –type of research was utilized in the study. Results showed that keeping on watching and tracking the lives of industrious and progressive people and being not happy in the promotion of others are most often observed. It is also most often practiced that people will do anything just to be promoted on get ahead of others. Gossiping and power play have significant relationship while bullying has no significant relationship with professional jealousies, power play and gossiping.

  4. Taming the green-eyed monster: temporal responsivity to cognitive behavioural and cognitive analytic therapy for morbid jealousy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellett, Stephen; Totterdell, Peter

    2013-03-01

    Credible evaluations of the psychological treatment of morbid jealousy are rare. The aim of this study was to evaluate temporal responsivity to cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) and cognitive analytic therapy (CAT) for morbid jealousy. The methodology involved matched A/B single-case experimental designs (SCED) with extended follow-up, in which two patients and their partners completed daily jealousy target symptom items across the phases of the study. Patients also completed traditional psychometric outcome measures at assessment, post-therapy, and at final follow-up. Both patients received the same number of assessment (n = 3), treatment (n = 13), and follow-up (n = 1) sessions.  Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) models of the patients' daily target symptom jealousy SCED data indicate the effectiveness of the CAT intervention and the ineffectiveness of the CBT intervention, but both therapies produced large effect sizes. The partner of the CBT patient felt less controlled following therapy, whilst the partner of CAT patient did not perceive any change to his partner. The discussion calls for a stronger evidence base for the psychological treatment of morbid jealousy to be constructed and debates the routine measurement of outcomes for partners of morbidly jealous patients. Measuring outcomes for partners of jealous patients is indicated.   CAT shows promise as an intervention for morbid jealousy. The evidence base for the treatment of morbid jealousy requires further development. © 2011 The British Psychological Society.

  5. Intergroup jealousy: Effects of perceived group characteristics and intrasexual competition between groups.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klavina, Liga; Buunk, A.P.; Park, Justin; Høgh-Olesen, Hendrik; Tønnesvang, Jan; Bertelsen, Preben

    2009-01-01

    An important aspect of intergroup conflict is competition for mates, especially among men. Because different outgroups pose different levels of threat, the group membership of rivals can be a characteristic that evokes jealousy. Outgroups perceived to pose greater threat to one’s mating resources

  6. Snapchat elicits more jealousy than Facebook: a comparison of Snapchat and Facebook use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utz, Sonja; Muscanell, Nicole; Khalid, Cameran

    2015-03-01

    Recent news in the media has suggested that younger people are using popular social media such as Facebook less and are quickly adopting newer media, such as the self-destructing app Snapchat. Snapchat is unique in that it erases messages several seconds after they have been sent, affording its users a higher level of privacy. Yet, little research exists on Snapchat use in general, let alone its broader psychological implications. This article offers a preliminary comparison of Snapchat and Facebook use and psychological effects on romantic jealousy. General motives for using Snapchat and Facebook are examined, as well as the nature of the content that Snapchat users most frequently share. Further, because of the differences in privacy and persistence of information, potential psychological effects in the domain of romantic jealousy are also examined, which has been widely studied on Facebook in the last few years. Findings show that the main difference in motives were that Snapchat was used more for flirting and finding new love interests, whereas Facebook was still the main social networking site used for keeping in touch with friends. Further, when presenting users with a series of potentially jealousy provoking scenarios, Snapchat elicited higher levels of jealousy than did Facebook. These findings are explained based on an affordance approach.

  7. Menstrual cycle effects on jealousy : A study in Curaçao

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buunk, A.P.; van Brummen-Girigori, Odette

    2016-01-01

    Most studies on changes in female behavior and preferences across the menstrual cycle have been conducted in samples comprised of largely white undergraduate students from Western populations. The present study examined cyclical shifts in reactive, preventive and anxious jealousy in a sample of 71

  8. Facial Resemblance Exaggerates Sex-Specific Jealousy-Based Decisions1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven M. Platek

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Sex differences in reaction to a romantic partner's infidelity are well documented and are hypothesized to be attributable to sex-specific jealousy mechanisms which are utilized to solve adaptive problems associated with risk of extra-pair copulation. Males, because of the risk of cuckoldry become more upset by sexual infidelity, while females, because of loss of resources and biparental investment tend to become more distressed by emotional infidelity. However, the degree to which these sex-specific reactions to jealousy interact with cues to kin are completely unknown. Here we investigated the interaction of facial resemblance with decisions about sex-specific jealousy scenarios. Fifty nine volunteers were asked to imagine that two different people (represented by facial composites informed them about their romantic partner's sexual or emotional infidelity. Consistent with previous research, males ranked sexual infidelity scenarios as most upsetting and females ranked emotional infidelity scenarios most upsetting. However, when information about the infidelity was provided by a face that resembled the subject, sex-specific reactions to jealousy were exaggerated. This finding highlights the use of facial resemblance as a putative self-referent phenotypic matching cue that impacts trusting behavior in sexual contexts.

  9. Autopsy-confirmed hippocampal-sparing Alzheimer's disease with delusional jealousy as initial manifestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujishiro, Hiroshige; Iritani, Shuji; Hattori, Miho; Sekiguchi, Hirotaka; Matsunaga, Shinji; Habuchi, Chikako; Torii, Youta; Umeda, Kentaro; Ozaki, Norio; Yoshida, Mari; Fujita, Kiyoshi

    2015-09-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is clinically characterized by gradual onset over years with worsening of cognition. The initial and most prominent cognitive deficit is commonly memory dysfunction. However, a subset of AD cases has less hippocampal atrophy than would be expected relative to the predominance of cortical atrophy. These hippocampal-sparing cases have distinctive clinical features, including the presence of focal cortical clinical syndromes. Given that previous studies have indicated that severe hippocampal atrophy corresponds to prominent loss of episodic memory, it is likely that memory impairment is initially absent in hippocampal-sparing AD cases. Here, we report on a patient with an 8-year history of delusional jealousy with insidious onset who was clinically diagnosed as possible AD and pathologically confirmed to have AD with relatively preserved neurons in the hippocampus. This patient had delusional jealousy with a long pre-dementia stage, which initially was characterized by lack of memory impairment. Head magnetic resonance imaging findings showed preserved hippocampal volume with bilateral enlarged ventricles and mild-to-moderate cortical atrophy. Head single-photon emission computed tomography revealed severely decreased regional cerebral blood flow in the right temporal lobe. The resolution of the delusion was attributed to pharmacotherapy by an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, suggesting that the occurrence of delusional jealousy was due to the disease process of AD. Although the neural basis of delusional jealousy remains unclear, this hippocampal-sparing AD case may be classified as an atypical presentation of AD. © 2015 The Authors. Psychogeriatrics © 2015 Japanese Psychogeriatric Society.

  10. Linguistic and Socio-Cognitive Predictors of School-Age Children's Narrative Evaluations about Jealousy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldrich, Naomi J.; Brooks, Patricia J.

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated children's narrative evaluations about jealousy in relation to performance on a higher-order perspective-taking task and assessments of receptive vocabulary and nonverbal intelligence. Eighty children (5;0-11;11) narrated a wordless picture book about a jealous frog, answered probe questions about the plot, and generated a…

  11. Jealousy in response to online and offline infidelity : the role of sex and sexual orientation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Pieternel; Barelds, Dick P. H.; Groothof, Hinke A. K.

    The goal of the present study was to examine the emotional content and intensity of jealousy in response to different types of infidelity (both online and offline unfaithful partner behaviors) among Dutch heterosexuals (n=191) and homosexuals (n=121). Based on previous research (Dijkstra, Barelds &

  12. Affective and Behavioral Features of Jealousy Protest: Associations with Child Temperament, Maternal Interaction Style, and Attachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Sybil L.; Behrens, Kazuko Y.

    2013-01-01

    This study explored variation in affective and behavioral components of infants' jealousy protests during an eliciting condition in which mother and an experimenter directed differential attention exclusively toward a rival. Variation was examined in relation to child temperamental emotionality, maternal interaction style, and attachment security.…

  13. Jealousy in the blink of an eye : Jealous reactions following subliminal exposure to rival characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Massar, Karlijn; Buunk, Abraham P.; Dechesne, Mark

    In the present experiment it was investigated whether the evaluation of rivals could be all unconscious process, engaged in automatically whenever a rival is present. To this end, participants were subliminally primed. with words relating to rival characteristics after which the), read a jealousy

  14. Jealousy in Sexual and Emotional Infidelity: A Study of Sex Differences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jealousy in Sexual and Emotional Infidelity: A Study of Sex Differences. ... Gender and Behaviour ... has been provided by Evolutionary Psychology (Buss, 1994, Buss et al., 1999). ... Sexual infidelity would raise questions about paternity and the risk of investing resources, both human and economic, in another person's ...

  15. Sex differences in the jealousy-evoking effect of rival characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, P; Buunk, BP; Buunk, Abraham (Bram)

    2002-01-01

    Four studies examined sex differences in the jealousy-evoking nature of rival characteristics. Study 1, among 130 undergraduates, made an inventory of all relevant rival characteristics that were spontaneously mentioned when asked about a rival to whom one's partner might feel attracted. On the

  16. The role of social network sites in romantic relationships: Effects on jealousy and relationship happiness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Utz, S.; Beukeboom, C.J.

    2011-01-01

    On social network sites (SNS), information about one's romantic partner is readily available and public for friends. The paper focuses on the negative (SNS jealousy) and positive (SNS relationship happiness) consequences of SNS use for romantic relationships. We examined whether relationship

  17. Phenomenology and predisposing factors of morbid jealousy in a psychiatric outdoor: a cross-sectional, descriptive study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satyajeet Kumar Singh

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Jealousy in a sexual relation has some advantage that it ensures propagation of one’s own gene as put by evolutionary psychologists. However, if this belief is based on unfounded evidence it may impair the relationship between partners and may be extremely distressful. Morbid jealousy may present as obsession, overvalued idea, or delusion as one of the symptoms in different psychiatric disorders. Aim: The aim of the study was to find the frequency of patients with morbid jealousy presenting in the Department of Psychiatry of Patna Medical College and Hospital (PMCH, the psychiatric diagnoses of such patients, frequency of different forms of morbid jealousy (obsession, overvalued idea, and delusion. Also, to assess predisposing or triggering factors for jealousy and to assess for suicidality in such patients and their partners. Materials and methods: All patients attending the Department of Psychiatry, PMCH were administered a screening questionnaire and if they qualified they were further administered the operational criteria for morbid jealousy. The psychiatric diagnosis was confirmed with the tenth revision of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems: Diagnostic Criteria for Research (ICD-10: DCR. Each patient was then administered a rating scale to quantify the psychopathology. Results: Out of 970 patients who attended outpatient department, 658 patients were administered the screening questionnaire, 174 qualified who were later assessed with the operational criteria for morbid jealousy. Fifty patients who fulfilled the criteria were assessed. The mean age of presentation for both sexes were 36.44 year (SD=13.12 years. Morbid jealousy was found to be twice as common in males as compared in females. Highest prevalence was found among participants who had higher secondary education, belonged to middle socioeconomic status, and having psychiatric diagnosis of schizophrenia followed by

  18. Treatment of obsessive morbid jealousy with cognitive analytic therapy: An adjudicated hermeneutic single-case efficacy design evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curling, Louise; Kellett, Stephen; Totterdell, Peter; Parry, Glenys; Hardy, Gillian; Berry, Katherine

    2018-03-01

    The evidence base for the treatment of morbid jealousy with integrative therapies is thin. This study explored the efficacy of cognitive analytic therapy (CAT). An adjudicated hermeneutic single-case efficacy design evaluated the cognitive analytic treatment of a patient meeting diagnostic criteria for obsessive morbid jealousy. A rich case record was developed using a matrix of nomothetic and ideographic quantitative and qualitative outcomes. This record was then debated by sceptic and affirmative research teams. Experienced psychotherapy researchers acted as judges, assessed the original case record, and heard the affirmative-versus-sceptic debate. Judges pronounced an opinion regarding the efficacy of the therapy. The efficacy of CAT was supported by all three judges. Each ruled that change had occurred due to the action of the therapy, beyond any level of reasonable doubt. This research demonstrates the potential usefulness of CAT in treating morbid jealousy and suggests that CAT is conceptually well suited. Suggestions for future clinical and research directions are provided. The relational approach of CAT makes it a suitable therapy for morbid jealousy. The narrative reformulation component of CAT appears to facilitate early change in chronic jealousy patterns. It is helpful for therapists during sessions to use CAT theory to diagrammatically spell out the patterns maintaining jealousy. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.

  19. Imaging, Behavior and Endocrine Analysis of "Jealousy" in a Monogamous Primate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maninger, Nicole; Mendoza, Sally P; Williams, Donald R; Mason, William A; Cherry, Simon R; Rowland, Douglas J; Schaefer, Thomas; Bales, Karen L

    2017-10-01

    Understanding the neurobiology of social bonding in non-human primates is a critical step in understanding the evolution of monogamy, as well as understanding the neural substrates for emotion and behavior. Coppery titi monkeys ( Callicebus cupreus ) form strong pair bonds, characterized by selective preference for their pair mate, mate-guarding, physiological and behavioral agitation upon separation, and social buffering. Mate-guarding, or the "maintenance" phase of pair bonding, is relatively under-studied in primates. In the current study, we used functional imaging to examine how male titi monkeys viewing their pair mate in close proximity to a stranger male would change regional cerebral glucose metabolism. We predicted that this situation would challenge the pair bond and induce "jealousy" in the males. Animals were injected with [ 18 F]-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG), returned to their cage for 30 min of conscious uptake, placed under anesthesia, and then scanned for 1 hour on a microPET P4 scanner. During the FDG uptake, males (n=8) had a view of either their female pair mate next to a stranger male ("jealousy" condition) or a stranger female next to a stranger male (control condition). Blood and cerebrospinal fluid samples were collected and assayed for testosterone, cortisol, oxytocin, and vasopressin. Positron emission tomography (PET) was co-registered with structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and region of interest analysis was carried out. Bayesian multivariate multilevel analyses found that the right lateral septum (Pr( b >0)=93%), left posterior cingulate cortex (Pr( b >0)=99%), and left anterior cingulate (Pr( b >0)=96%) showed higher FDG uptake in the jealousy condition compared to the control condition, while the right medial amygdala (Pr( b >0)=85%) showed lower FDG uptake. Plasma testosterone and cortisol concentrations were higher during the jealousy condition. During the jealousy condition, duration of time spent looking across at the pair

  20. Differential parenting and sibling jealousy: Developmental correlates of young adults' romantic relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauer, Amy J; Volling, Brenda L

    2007-01-01

    Data from a survey of 200 young adults assessed whether the early nonshared environment, specifically parental differential treatment, was associated with romantic relationship distress through its effects on sibling jealousy, attachment styles, and self-esteem. Individuals who received equal affection from their parents in comparison to their sibling reported equal jealousy between themselves and their sibling, had higher self-esteem, more secure attachment styles, and less romantic relationship distress. Receiving differential parental affection, regardless of whether the participant or their sibling was favored, was associated with more negative models of self and others, which in turn were associated with greater romantic relationship distress. Results indicate that early within-family experiences may be particularly relevant for later healthy romantic relationship functioning.

  1. Differential parenting and sibling jealousy: Developmental correlates of young adults' romantic relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauer, Amy J.; Volling, Brenda L.

    2009-01-01

    Data from a survey of 200 young adults assessed whether the early nonshared environment, specifically parental differential treatment, was associated with romantic relationship distress through its effects on sibling jealousy, attachment styles, and self-esteem. Individuals who received equal affection from their parents in comparison to their sibling reported equal jealousy between themselves and their sibling, had higher self-esteem, more secure attachment styles, and less romantic relationship distress. Receiving differential parental affection, regardless of whether the participant or their sibling was favored, was associated with more negative models of self and others, which in turn were associated with greater romantic relationship distress. Results indicate that early within-family experiences may be particularly relevant for later healthy romantic relationship functioning. PMID:19050748

  2. The Roles of Dominance, Jealousy, and Violent Socialization in Chinese Dating Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasley, Chandra Y; Durtschi, Jared

    2015-06-01

    Attitude toward women and relationship violence in Chinese societies has been shaped by a history of Confucian patriarchy. Studies suggest that this patriarchal orientation continues to influence modern-day dating behaviors and rates of relationship violence. This study examined through the lens of the intergenerational transmission of violence theory the effects of dominance and jealousy on the likelihood of physical assault and how violent socialization moderates these effects. A maximum likelihood path analysis with robust standard errors was conducted for a total of 915 individuals from Beijing, Shanghai, and Taiwan who participated in the International Dating Violence Study from 2001 to 2006. Results revealed that dominance and violent socialization were significantly associated with assault victimization and perpetration. Violent socialization also significantly amplified the associations between dominance and both minor and severe assault victimization. Jealousy, however, was only associated with severe assault perpetration. Clinical implications and further research directions are discussed. © The Author(s) 2015.

  3. Time to face it! Facebook intrusion and the implications for romantic jealousy and relationship satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elphinston, Rachel A; Noller, Patricia

    2011-11-01

    Young people's exposure to social network sites such as Facebook is increasing, along with the potential for such use to complicate romantic relationships. Yet, little is known about the overlaps between the online and offline worlds. We extended previous research by investigating the links between Facebook intrusion, jealousy in romantic relationships, and relationship outcomes in a sample of undergraduates currently in a romantic relationship. A Facebook Intrusion Questionnaire was developed based on key features of technological (behavioral) addictions. An eight-item Facebook Intrusion Questionnaire with a single-factor structure was supported; internal consistency was high. Facebook intrusion was linked to relationship dissatisfaction, via jealous cognitions and surveillance behaviors. The results highlight the possibility of high levels of Facebook intrusion spilling over into romantic relationships, resulting in problems such as jealousy and dissatisfaction. The results have implications for romantic relationships and for Facebook users in general.

  4. Psychophysiological responses to imagined infidelity: the specific innate modular view of jealousy reconsidered.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, C R

    2000-06-01

    Three studies measured psychophysiological reactivity (heart rate, blood pressure, and electrodermal activity) while participants imagined a mate's infidelity. The specific innate modular theory of gender differences in jealousy hypothesizes that men are upset by sexual infidelity and women are upset by emotional infidelity, because of having faced different adaptive challenges (cuckoldry and loss of a mate's resources, respectively). This view was not supported. In men, sexual-infidelity imagery elicited greater reactivity than emotional-infidelity imagery. But, sexual imagery elicited greater reactivity even when infidelity was not involved, suggesting that the differential reactivity may not specifically index greater jealousy. In two studies with reasonable power, women did not respond more strongly to emotional infidelity. Moreover, women with committed sexual relationship experience showed reactivity patterns similar to those of men. Hypothetical infidelity self-reports were unrelated to reactivity.

  5. Organizational Bullying, Professional Jealousies, Power Play, And Gossiping In The Work Place: Basis For Institutional Transformation

    OpenAIRE

    DR. ROME B. MORALISTA; Dr. GABRIEL C. DELARIARTE

    2014-01-01

    This study determined the Bullying practices observed, the Professional Jealousies experienced, the Power Play Practices experienced and the gossiping activities as observed by the respondents. Descriptive –type of research was utilized in the study. Results showed that keeping on watching and tracking the lives of industrious and progressive people and being not happy in the promotion of others are most often observed. It is also most often practiced that people will do anythi...

  6. Facial Resemblance Exaggerates Sex-Specific Jealousy-Based Decisions1

    OpenAIRE

    Steven M. Platek; Jaime W. Thomson

    2007-01-01

    Sex differences in reaction to a romantic partner's infidelity are well documented and are hypothesized to be attributable to sex-specific jealousy mechanisms which are utilized to solve adaptive problems associated with risk of extra-pair copulation. Males, because of the risk of cuckoldry become more upset by sexual infidelity, while females, because of loss of resources and biparental investment tend to become more distressed by emotional infidelity. However, the degree to which these sex-...

  7. The Effect of Vividness of Experience on Sex Differences in Jealousy

    OpenAIRE

    Sarah L. Strout; James D. Laird; Aaron Shafer; Nicholas S. Thompson

    2005-01-01

    Doubt has been raised about the validity of results that appear to demonstrate sex differences in the type of infidelity that elicits jealousy. Two studies explored proposed methodological weaknesses of this research. The first study distinguished participants who had experienced infidelity and those who had only imagined infidelity. The study found the classic sex differences when participants were “forced” to choose which kind of infidelity would be most upsetting, and these differences wer...

  8. Pathological jealousy: romantic relationship characteristics, emotional and personality aspects, and social adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Andrea Lorenada; Sophia, Eglacy C; Sanches, Cíntia; Tavares, Hermano; Zilberman, Monica L

    2015-03-15

    The aim of this study was to identify romantic relationship characteristics, emotional and personality aspects and social adjustment in subjects with pathological jealousy (PJ) and to compare them to control group. The participants, 32 individuals with PJ and 31 healthy volunteers completed measures of jealousy intensity, attachment type, love and relationship styles, personality, impulsivity, aggressiveness and social adjustment. Socio-demographic profiles were also obtained. Participants with PJ were significantly older than the control group, but no other important socio-demographic differences were observed. Participants with PJ were significantly more jealous and were predominately categorized with anxious-ambivalent attachment type, and Mania love style. They presented with elevated novelty seeking and harm avoidance, low self-directedness and cooperativeness, high levels of impulsivity and trait anxiety, and poor social adjustment. Multivariate analysis showed that jealousy intensity and trait anxiety were the variables that best distinguished participants with PJ from the control group. This study was limited by the cross-sectional design and relatively small sample size. PJ presents a particular pattern of attachment, love style, and personality structure, and deserves further attention as a specific potential disorder of the romantic bonding. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Australian gay men's satisfaction with sexual agreements: the roles of relationship quality, jealousy, and monogamy attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosking, Warwick

    2014-05-01

    This study examined whether relationship quality, dispositional jealousy, and attitudes towards monogamy were associated with gay men's satisfaction with the agreements they have in their relationships about extra-dyadic sex. Three types of sexual agreement were examined: closed (no extra-dyadic sex is allowed), monogamish (extra-dyadic sex is allowed only when both members of the couple are present), and open (extra-dyadic sex is allowed). Results from a 2010 survey of 772 gay men in relationships indicated that sexual agreement satisfaction was positively associated with levels of intimacy and commitment for all three types of sexual agreement, but was differentially associated with sexual satisfaction within the relationship, jealousy, and monogamy attitudes as a function of sexual agreement type. Mean levels of sexual satisfaction, jealousy, and monogamy attitudes also differed between types of agreement. These findings provided preliminary evidence that sexual agreement satisfaction may be influenced by different factors depending on the type of agreement, which has useful implications for professionals with gay male clients experiencing dissatisfaction with their agreement or with their relationship more generally.

  10. Sexual and Emotional Infidelity: Evolved Gender Differences in Jealousy Prove Robust and Replicable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buss, David M

    2018-03-01

    Infidelity poses threats to high-investment mating relationships. Because of gender differences in some aspects of reproductive biology, such as internal female fertilization, the nature of these threats differs for men and women. Men, but not women, for example, have recurrently faced the problem of uncertainty in their genetic parenthood. Jealousy is an emotion hypothesized to have evolved to combat these threats. The 1992 article Sex Differences in Jealousy: Evolution, Physiology, and Psychology reported three empirical studies using two different methods, forced-choice and physiological experiments. Results supported the evolution-based hypotheses. The article became highly cited for several reasons. It elevated the status of jealousy as an important emotion to be explained by any comprehensive theory of human emotions. Subsequent meta-analyses robustly supported the evolutionary hypotheses. Moreover, the work supported the evolutionary meta-theory of gender differences, which posits differences only in domains in which the sexes have recurrently faced distinct adaptive problems. It also heralded the newly emerging field of evolutionary psychology as a useful perspective that possesses the scientific virtues of testability, falsifiability, and heuristic value in discovering previously unknown psychological phenomena.

  11. Evidence from a homosexual sample for a sex-specific rival-oriented mechanism : Jealousy as a function of a rival's physical attractiveness and dominance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buunk, BP; Dijkstra, P

    2001-01-01

    Among heterosexual women in particular. a rival's physical attractiveness evokes jealousy, whereas among heterosexual men in particular. a rival's dominance evokes feelings of jealousy. The present study conducted with gay men and lesbian women examined whether these sex-differentiated responses

  12. More information than you ever wanted: does Facebook bring out the green-eyed monster of jealousy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muise, Amy; Christofides, Emily; Desmarais, Serge

    2009-08-01

    The social network site Facebook is a rapidly expanding phenomenon that is changing the nature of social relationships. Anecdotal evidence, including information described in the popular media, suggests that Facebook may be responsible for creating jealousy and suspicion in romantic relationships. The objectives of the present study were to explore the role of Facebook in the experience of jealousy and to determine if increased Facebook exposure predicts jealousy above and beyond personal and relationship factors. Three hundred eight undergraduate students completed an online survey that assessed demographic and personality factors and explored respondents' Facebook use. A hierarchical multiple regression analysis, controlling for individual, personality, and relationship factors, revealed that increased Facebook use significantly predicts Facebook-related jealousy. We argue that this effect may be the result of a feedback loop whereby using Facebook exposes people to often ambiguous information about their partner that they may not otherwise have access to and that this new information incites further Facebook use. Our study provides evidence of Facebook's unique contributions to the experience of jealousy in romantic relationships.

  13. Emotion regulation in context: the jealousy complex between young siblings and its relations with child and family characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volling, Brenda L; McElwain, Nancy L; Miller, Alison L

    2002-01-01

    Jealousy is a social emotion that has received little attention by developmental researchers. The current study examined sibling jealousy and its relations to child and family characteristics in 60 families with a 16-month-old toddler and an older preschool-age sibling. Sibling jealousy was elicited in social triads consisting of a parent (mother or father) and the two siblings. Positive marital relationship quality (i.e., love and relationship maintenance) was a particularly strong predictor of the older siblings' abilities to regulate jealousy reactions in the mother sessions. Younger siblings' jealous affect with mothers was linked to the child's temperament, whereas older siblings' jealous affect with mothers was related to the child's emotional understanding. Younger siblings displayed more behavioral dysregulation in the mother-sibling triads if there was greater sibling rivalry reported by mothers. Session order (i.e., which sibling was challenged first in the jealousy paradigm) had a strong effect on both the affect and behavioral dysregulation displayed by the older and younger siblings. Results are discussed with respect to the need for future research to consider social relationships as developmental contexts for young children's emotion regulation.

  14. Don't it make my brown eyes green? An analysis of Facebook use and romantic jealousy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscanell, Nicole L; Guadagno, Rosanna E; Rice, Lindsay; Murphy, Shannon

    2013-04-01

    Social networking Web sites, such as Facebook, have changed the way in which people communicate online. The present study examined the relationship between jealousy and Facebook use experimentally by asking participants to imagine viewing their romantic partner's Facebook page. We varied the hypothetical privacy settings and number of photos of the couple publicly available on Facebook. Results indicated that imagined privacy settings and the presence of couple photos affected negative emotions (jealousy, anger, disgust, and hurt). Furthermore, we found sex differences indicating that women felt more intense negative emotions after thinking about the fictitious scenario than did men, particularly when evidence of infidelity was public to others. These results have implications for sex differences in jealousy and suggest that the manner in which people employ Facebook privacy settings can be negative for romantic relationships.

  15. (Not) bringing up baby: the effects of jealousy on the desire to have and invest in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Sarah E; Delpriore, Danielle J

    2013-02-01

    The present research uses insights from evolutionary psychology and social cognition to explore the relationship between jealousy-both experimentally activated and chronically accessible-on men's and women's desire to start a family and invest in children. In our first two studies, we found that chronically jealous men and women responded to primed infidelity threat by exhibiting a diminished interest in infants (Study 1) and reporting less happiness upon receiving pregnancy news (Study 2) relative to controls. Study 3 extended these results by examining the effects of jealousy on desired parental investment. Consistent with the proposed theoretical framework, chronically jealous men, but not women, respond to infidelity threat by decreasing their desired level of parental investment relative to controls. Together, these results provide novel empirical support for the hypothesis that jealousy functions to attenuate the reproductive costs associated with partner infidelity.

  16. Changing me to keep you: state jealousy promotes perceiving similarity between the self and a romantic rival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slotter, Erica B; Lucas, Gale M; Jakubiak, Brittany; Lasslett, Heather

    2013-10-01

    Individuals sometimes alter their self-views to be more similar to others--traditionally romantic partners--because they are motivated to do so. A common motivating force is the desire to affiliate with a partner. The current research examined whether a different motivation--romantic jealousy--might promote individuals to alter their self-views to be more similar to a romantic rival, rather than a partner. Romantic jealousy occurs when individuals perceive a rival as a threat to their relationship and motivates individuals to defend their relationship. We proposed that one novel way that individuals might defend their relationship is by seeing themselves as more similar to a perceived romantic rival. We predicted individuals would alter their self-views to be more similar to a rival that they believed their partner found attractive. Importantly, we predicted that state romantic jealousy would motivate these self-alterations. Three studies confirmed these hypotheses.

  17. Pharmacotherapy for primary delusional jealousy, a retrospective observational study of 32 cases with Othello syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chen-Chung; Wang, Yen-Chin; Hwang, Tzung-Jeng

    2018-03-01

    To determine whether primary delusional jealousy can be treated effectively with antipsychotics or antidepressants, and whether any clinical variables are associated with response to pharmacotherapy, we carried out a retrospective case series observational study by reviewing clinical records of patients with an International Classification of Disease, 9th ed., diagnostic code of 297 (delusional disorders) who were treated at the Department of Psychiatry of a university affiliated hospital from January 2010 to December 2015. Only those records showing obvious delusional jealousy not secondary to other medical conditions, dementia, or schizophrenia were scrutinized thoroughly with respect to types of pharmacotherapy, treatment response, and other demographic and clinical variables likely to be associated with clinical outcomes. All except one of 32 patients, 16 men and 16 women, between 37 and 79 (60.9±10.6) years of age, were treated with low-dose antipsychotics. The general response was favorable as 19 (59.4%) were rated as good and 13 as inadequate responders (seven partial and six limited). Compared with antipsychotic monotherapy, concomitant therapy with antidepressants had a higher rate of good response, although statistically insignificant (75 vs. 53%, P=0.21). Younger age (P=0.01) and presentation at the index visit with their suspected unfaithful spouse were associated with a good response (P=0.036); comorbidity with delusions other than the jealous type was associated with a poor response (P=0.006). The overall outcome for delusional jealousy looks promising if the patients can accept pharmacotherapy in an outpatient setting.

  18. A Case Report of Gender Dysphoria with Morbid Jealousy in a Natal Female

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, G. Prasad; Aparna, B.

    2017-01-01

    Gender dysphoria is a new entity introduced in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorder V to address the distress of the previously labeled gender identity disorder patients. It is less commonly seen in natal females, often starting in their childhood. Adults and adolescent natal females with early-onset gender dysphoria are almost always gynephilic. This case report is presented to discuss the interesting evolution of the symptoms in gender dysphoria case with difficulties in adjusting to the assigned sexual role, relationship problems, morbid jealousy, and severe depressive features with suicidal ideations. PMID:29284816

  19. The Dark Triad and three types of jealousy : Its’ relations among heterosexuals and homosexuals involved in a romantic relationship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barelds, Dick P.H.; Dijkstra, Pieternel; Groothof, Hinke A.K.; Pastoor, Charlotte D.

    2017-01-01

    The current study examined the relations between the three Dark Triad (DT) traits and three types of jealousy, among both heterosexual and homosexual men and women involved in a romantic relationship (n = 439). It was hypothesized that the three DT traits would be related positively to those types

  20. Factors Associated with Jealousy over Real and Imagined Infidelity: An Examination of the Social-Cognitive and Evolutionary Psychology Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Christine R.

    2003-01-01

    Three hundred fifty-eight undergraduates completed anonymous questionnaires regarding jealousy over a mate's infidelity. More men than women predicted that sexual infidelity would be worse than emotional infidelity when given the forced-choice hypothetical measures used in previous work. When some of the implications of hypothetical infidelity…

  1. The Role of Inflexible Friendship Beliefs, Rumination, and Low Self-Worth in Early Adolescents' Friendship Jealousy and Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavallee, Kristen L.; Parker, Jeffrey G.

    2009-01-01

    Two focal social cognitive processes were evaluated in a structural model for their direct and indirect roles in early adolescents' jealousy surrounding their closest friend in a sample of 325 early adolescents (169 girls and 156 boys) ages 11-14 years. Individuals who are rigid and unrealistic about meeting their friendship needs were more…

  2. Gender differences in the jealousy-evoking effect of rival characteristics : A study in Spain and Argentina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buunk, Abraham P.; Castro Solano, Alejandro; Zurriaga, Rosario; Gonzalez, Pilar

    This study examines gender differences in the jealousy-evoking nature of rival characteristics in two Spanish-speaking countries (Argentina and Spain). A total of 388 Spanish students and 444 Argentinean students participated in the study. First, the cross-cultural validity of a Dutch scale

  3. A reproductive threat-based model of evolved sex differences in jealousy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagarin, Brad J; Becker, D Vaughn; Guadagno, Rosanna E; Wilkinson, Wayne W; Nicastle, Lionel D

    2012-08-10

    Although heterosexual women and men consistently demonstrate sex differences in jealousy, these differences disappear among lesbians and gay men as well as among heterosexual women and men contemplating same-sex infidelities (infidelities in which the partner and rival are the same sex). Synthesizing these past findings, the present paper offers a reproductive threat-based model of evolved sex differences in jealousy that predicts that the sexes will differ only when the jealous perceivers' reproductive outcomes are differentially at risk. This model is supported by data from a web-based study in which lesbians, gay men, bisexual women and men, and heterosexual women and men responded to a hypothetical infidelity scenario with the sex of the rival randomly determined. After reading the scenario, participants indicated which type of infidelity (sexual versus emotional) would cause greater distress. Consistent with predictions, heterosexual women and men showed a sex difference when contemplating opposite-sex infidelities but not when contemplating same-sex infidelities, whereas lesbians and gay men showed no sex difference regardless of whether the infidelity was opposite-sex or same-sex.

  4. [Jealousy between siblings in early childhood. Nursing assessment based on a case study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puig-Plana, María Pilar

    2010-01-01

    Childhood jealousy, when a little brother or sister is born, has always been a subject treated within the family environment. Parent's attitude in their interaction with their offspring may increase the response of the jealous child. The emotional expressions of the jealous child may lead to behaviour changes, that may occasionally put the physical integrity of the newborn at risk, since it is the most vulnerable in the family group. In view of the above mentioned, a case of a three-year-old child living with his parents and his nine-month-old sister, is presented. The child shows characteristic behaviour changes of jealousy, such as, rebelliousness, aggressiveness and hyperactivity. The brother's psychomotor discomfort leads to a proneness to accidents for the baby girl and the obvious parental concern. For these reasons nursing intervention in the family group was proposed, based on the theoretical Virginia Henderson Needs Model. The actions will come from the older brother and parents. The aim of the nursing intervention is to lead the behaviour changes in order to re-establish a safe and healthy family environment. Copyright 2009 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  5. A Reproductive Threat-Based Model of Evolved Sex Differences in Jealousy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brad J. Sagarin

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Although heterosexual women and men consistently demonstrate sex differences in jealousy, these differences disappear among lesbians and gay men as well as among heterosexual women and men contemplating same-sex infidelities (infidelities in which the partner and rival are the same sex. Synthesizing these past findings, the present paper offers a reproductive threat-based model of evolved sex differences in jealousy that predicts that the sexes will differ only when the jealous perceivers' reproductive outcomes are differentially at risk. This model is supported by data from a web-based study in which lesbians, gay men, bisexual women and men, and heterosexual women and men responded to a hypothetical infidelity scenario with the sex of the rival randomly determined. After reading the scenario, participants indicated which type of infidelity (sexual versus emotional would cause greater distress. Consistent with predictions, heterosexual women and men showed a sex difference when contemplating opposite-sex infidelities but not when contemplating same-sex infidelities, whereas lesbians and gay men showed no sex difference regardless of whether the infidelity was opposite-sex or same-sex.

  6. The Effect of Vividness of Experience on Sex Differences in Jealousy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah L. Strout

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Doubt has been raised about the validity of results that appear to demonstrate sex differences in the type of infidelity that elicits jealousy. Two studies explored proposed methodological weaknesses of this research. The first study distinguished participants who had experienced infidelity and those who had only imagined infidelity. The study found the classic sex differences when participants were “forced” to choose which kind of infidelity would be most upsetting, and these differences were more pronounced among participants who were recalling the actual infidelity of a partner. The second study explored the impact of the relatively brief, perhaps cursory response that is commonly evoked by questionnaires versus a slower, more vivid imagining of the infidelity experience. The classic forced choice results were found, and the vivid imagining produced effects that are more powerful. The overall results suggest that participants who had experienced infidelity or vividly imagined infidelity showed greater sex differences, suggesting that the usual format (filling out a questionnaire may not trigger the evolved mechanism for jealousy.

  7. Cognitive organization of emotion: differences between labels and descriptors of emotion in jealousy situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hupka, R B; Eshett, C

    1988-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to ascertain whether the cognitive organization of labels of emotion differs from descriptions of affective states. This was done in the context of determining whether the attributions of labels of emotion and descriptions of affective responses in jealousy situations differed according to the status of the interloper, presence of an audience to the untoward behavior, and sex of the respondent. The subjects, 300 male and female junior college students, read vignettes which placed them at a party where their mates passionately kissed interlopers of varying status, and whose transgressions were, or were not, observed by others. The subjects were required to indicate the likelihood that they would experience anger, disgust, fear, jealousy, sadness, and surprise, and 49 cognitive and physiological descriptions of the affective states referred to by the aforementioned labels of emotion. Different findings were obtained with the labels and descriptors of affective states. This was interpreted as support for the systems theory of G.E. Schwartz. The descriptions, but not the labels, indicated that men were most upset when the interloper was a best friend and least concerned when he was a stranger. In contrast, women were most upset when the interloper was someone of equal or lower status than themselves and least upset when the interloper was their best friend.

  8. Emotional and sexual jealousy as a function of sex and sexual orientation in a Brazilian sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Altay Alves Lino; Verderane, Michele Pereira; Taira, Juliana Tieme; Otta, Emma

    2006-04-01

    The goal of the present study was to compare the relative distress of homosexual and heterosexual Brazilian men and women on scenarios in which they imagined their partners sexually or emotionally involved with another person, using a forced-choice paradigm and continuous measures. Participants were 68 heterosexual men, 72 heterosexual women, 42 homosexual men, and 35 homosexual women. On the forced-choice questions heterosexual men (39 on one question and 37 on the other) were more upset than their female counterparts (21 on one question and 15 on the other) by scenarios of sexual infidelity than those of emotional infidelity. On questions using continuous measures no significant difference was found between pleasurable sex and attachment scenarios for heterosexual women or heterosexual men. On the highly upsetting scenarios heterosexual men discriminated between flirting and both pleasurable sex and attachment scenarios, being less disturbed by the former. In contrast, heterosexual women were equally distressed by the three scenarios. Scores for the homosexual men and homosexual women fell in between those of the heterosexual men and heterosexual women and did not show a clear cut preference for the sexual infidelity or the emotional alternative on the forced-choice paradigm. However, on the continuous measures of jealousy homosexuals resembled heterosexuals of the opposite sex. There was no evidence that jealousy would be less intense among homosexuals although reproductive outcomes were not at risk.

  9. Subduing the green-eyed monster: bridging the psychopharmacological and psychosocial treatment perspective in understanding pathological jealousy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samad, Farah Deena Abdul; Sidi, Hatta; Kumar, Jaya; Das, Srijit; Midin, Marhani; Hatta, Nurul Hazwani

    2017-07-04

    Human being is not spared from a broad-ranged emotional state, including being jealous. Jealousy has both affective-cognitive and behavioural-evaluative dimension where the person perceives, or experiences a real threat on a valued relationship. As this complex emotion becomes irrational and not amenable to reason, it later transforms into a dangerously 'green-eyed monster'. This perilous situation which is viewed as pathological jealousy is a form of delusion, which is maintained by a fixed and false reasoning in an originally entrusted intimate relationship. Pathological jealousy is equally prevailing among both gender, and with a greater ubiquitous among the geriatric population. The role of dopamine hyperactivity in the fronto-parietal-temporal region was implicated, with the anatomical mapping of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC), cingulate gyrus (CG), and amygdala involvement in the context of the disease's neurobiology. The etiology of pathological jealousy includes major psychiatric disorders, i.e. delusional disorder, schizophrenia, mood disorder, organic brain syndrome, and among others, the drug-induced psychosis. The role of relationship issues and psychodynamic perspective, i.e. psychological conflicts with dependence on a romantic partner, and low self-esteem are involved. Pathological jealousy inherits high-risk forensic psychiatry entanglement, which may warrant intensive intervention, including hospital admission and antipsychotic treatment. Treatment options include an early recognition, managing underlying neuropsychiatric disorders, psycho education, cognitive psychotherapy, and choosing an effective psychopharmacological agent. The management strategy may also resort to a geographical intervention, i.e. separation between both persons to complement the biological treatment. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  10. An exploratory study of the heterogeneity of the jealousy phenomenon and its associations with affective temperaments and psychopathological dimensions in a large Brazilian sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Amanda B; Köhler, Cristiano A; Stubbs, Brendon; Quevedo, João; Hyphantis, Thomas N; Koyanagi, Ai; Marazziti, Donatella; Soares, Jair C; Vieta, Eduard; Carvalho, André F

    2017-04-01

    Jealousy is a heterogenous emotion on a spectrum from normality to psychopathology. The relationship between different jealousy subtypes/dimensions and affective temperaments remain unknown. In addition, few large surveys have investigated the associations between jealousy subtypes and psychopathological dimensions. A Brazilian Portuguese version of the "Questionario della Gelosia" (QUEGE) was developed. We obtained data from an anonymous web-based research platform. Socio-demographic data was obtained and participants answered the QUEGE, the TEMPS-Rio de Janeiro, and the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R). 2042 participants (29% men, 71% female, mean age+SD: 28.9±8.8 years), took part in this survey. Confirmatory factor analysis provided a five-factor model for the QUEGE with self-esteem, paranoia, interpersonal sensitivity, fear of being abandoned, and obsessive dimensions. The anxious, irritable, cyclothymic, and depressive temperaments were independently associated with jealousy dimensions, whereas the hyperthymic temperament was associated with lower scores on the self-esteem jealousy dimension (N=2042, PJealousy subtypes were dissimilarly associated with SCL-90R psychopathological dimensions, whereas the 'obsessive' jealousy dimension was not significantly associated with SCL-90R dimension scores. We found no independent influence of gender across any jealousy dimension. A convenience web-based sample was employed. Cross-sectional design precludes the establishment of causal inferences. Our data indicate that a five-factor solution may provide the best-fit model for the QUEGE. Different jealousy subtypes were independently associated with affective temperaments and psychopathological dimensions. These associations reported herein should be confirmed in prospective studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. It's not just lunch: extra-pair commensality can trigger sexual jealousy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin M Kniffin

    Full Text Available Do people believe that sharing food might involve sharing more than just food? To investigate this, participants were asked to rate how jealous they (Study 1--or their best friend (Study 2--would be if their current romantic partner were contacted by an ex-romantic partner and subsequently engaged in an array of food- and drink-based activities. We consistently find--across both men and women--that meals elicit more jealousy than face-to-face interactions that do not involve eating, such as having coffee. These findings suggest that people generally presume that sharing a meal enhances cooperation. In the context of romantic pairs, we find that participants are attuned to relationship risks that extra-pair commensality can present. For romantic partners left out of a meal, we find a common view that lunch, for example, is not "just lunch."

  12. It's not just lunch: extra-pair commensality can trigger sexual jealousy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kniffin, Kevin M; Wansink, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Do people believe that sharing food might involve sharing more than just food? To investigate this, participants were asked to rate how jealous they (Study 1)--or their best friend (Study 2)--would be if their current romantic partner were contacted by an ex-romantic partner and subsequently engaged in an array of food- and drink-based activities. We consistently find--across both men and women--that meals elicit more jealousy than face-to-face interactions that do not involve eating, such as having coffee. These findings suggest that people generally presume that sharing a meal enhances cooperation. In the context of romantic pairs, we find that participants are attuned to relationship risks that extra-pair commensality can present. For romantic partners left out of a meal, we find a common view that lunch, for example, is not "just lunch."

  13. It’s Not Just Lunch: Extra-Pair Commensality Can Trigger Sexual Jealousy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kniffin, Kevin M.; Wansink, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Do people believe that sharing food might involve sharing more than just food? To investigate this, participants were asked to rate how jealous they (Study 1) – or their best friend (Study 2) – would be if their current romantic partner were contacted by an ex-romantic partner and subsequently engaged in an array of food- and drink-based activities. We consistently find – across both men and women – that meals elicit more jealousy than face-to-face interactions that do not involve eating, such as having coffee. These findings suggest that people generally presume that sharing a meal enhances cooperation. In the context of romantic pairs, we find that participants are attuned to relationship risks that extra-pair commensality can present. For romantic partners left out of a meal, we find a common view that lunch, for example, is not “just lunch.” PMID:22792327

  14. SEX DIFFERENCES IN THE SUBJETIVE EXPERIENCE OF JEALOUSY AMONG CHILEAN YOUNG PEOPLE: A TEST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANA MARÍA FERNÁNDEZ

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available In the present study we investigated sexual assymetries in the subjective experience of jealousy amongChilean young people. The sample included a total of 241 participants (132 females and 109 males thatanswered two forced-choice questions developed by Buss, Larsen, Westen & Semmelroth (1992, askingwether sexual or emotional infidelity would cause them the most distress. The evolutionary hypothesispredicted that men would be more distressed than women by the sexual infidelity, and that womenwould be more distressed than men by the emotional infidelity. The results support the evolutionaryprediction, providing an important tool to understand mate choice in Latin America, and are comparedto the results from other countries, analyzing some of the criticisms that have arised from socioculturalperspectives.

  15. The assessment of cyberstalking: an expanded examination including social networking, attachment, jealousy, and anger in relation to violence and abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strawhun, Jenna; Adams, Natasha; Huss, Matthew T

    2013-01-01

    Because the first antistalking statute was enacted in California in 1990, stalking research has been expanded immensely, yet been largely confined to exploring traditional pursuit tactics. This study instead examined the prevalence and correlates of cyberstalking behaviors while examining the phenomenon in a more inclusive manner than previous studies focusing on cyberstalking by including social networking avenues. In addition to a measure assessing cyberstalking-related behaviors, questionnaires assessing pathological aspects of personality, including attachment style, interpersonal jealousy, interpersonal violence, and anger were also provided to participants. Results indicate that, given preliminary evidence, cyberstalking-related behaviors are related to past measures of traditional stalking and cyberstalking, although prior attachment, jealousy, and violence issues within relationships are significant predictors of cyberstalking-related behaviors. In addition, unexpected gender differences emerged. For example, women admitted greater frequencies of cyberstalking perpetration than males, signaling that further research on frequency and motivation for cyberstalking among the sexes is necessary.

  16. ACERCA DE LOS CELOS EN PSICOANÁLISIS. UNA APROXIMACIÓN PROUSTIANA // ON JEALOUSY IN PSYCHOANALYSIS. A PROUSTIAN APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Lutereau

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo, en un primer momento, conside-raremos la variedad clínica de los celos, de acuerdo con un célebre planteo freudiano; luego, expondremos una diferencia clínica de relativa importancia, entre celos y envidia; por último, elucidaremos un tipo específico de celos, de acuerdo con un análisis de ciertos pasajes de En busca del tiempo perdido, de Marcel Proust, con el propósito de construir un fantasma escópico que los subtiende. // This paper, at first, considers the clinical variety of jealousy according to a famous Freudian concep-tion. Then, a relatively-important clinical difference between jealousy and envy will be discussed. Finally, a specific type of jealousy will be elucidat-ed according to an analysis of certain passages of ―In search of Lost Time‖ by M. Proust, in order to build the scopic fantasy that underlies it.

  17. ‘I am not very well I feel nearly mad when I think of you’: Male Jealousy, Murder and Broadmoor in Late-Victorian Britain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, Jade

    2017-01-01

    Abstract This article compares the representations of jealousy in popular culture, medical and legal literature, and in the trials and diagnoses of men who murdered or attempted to murder their wives or sweethearts before being found insane and committed into Broadmoor Criminal Lunatic Asylum between 1864 and 1900. It is shown that jealousy was entrenched in Victorian culture, but marginalised in medical and legal discourse and in the courtroom until the end of the period, and was seemingly cast aside at Broadmoor. As well as providing a detailed examination of varied representations of male jealousy in late-Victorian Britain, the article contributes to understandings of the emotional lives of the working-class, and the causes and representations of working-class male madness. PMID:29713114

  18. 'I am not very well I feel nearly mad when I think of you': Male Jealousy, Murder and Broadmoor in Late-Victorian Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, Jade

    2017-05-01

    This article compares the representations of jealousy in popular culture, medical and legal literature, and in the trials and diagnoses of men who murdered or attempted to murder their wives or sweethearts before being found insane and committed into Broadmoor Criminal Lunatic Asylum between 1864 and 1900. It is shown that jealousy was entrenched in Victorian culture, but marginalised in medical and legal discourse and in the courtroom until the end of the period, and was seemingly cast aside at Broadmoor. As well as providing a detailed examination of varied representations of male jealousy in late-Victorian Britain, the article contributes to understandings of the emotional lives of the working-class, and the causes and representations of working-class male madness.

  19. Diagnosis, assessment and management of delusional jealousy in Parkinson's disease with and without dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perugi, Giulio; Poletti, Michele; Logi, Chiara; Berti, Caterina; Romano, Anna; Del Dotto, Paolo; Lucetti, Claudio; Ceravolo, Roberto; Dell'Osso, Liliana; Bonuccelli, Ubaldo

    2013-09-01

    Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) may present delusional jealousy (DJ). In a previous cross-sectional prevalence study we identified 15 cognitively preserved and five demented PD patients with DJ. The current study aimed at evaluating their clinical (motor and non-motor) characteristics and the pharmacological treatments associated with DJ, and its subsequent pharmacological management. Patients were assessed by neurologists and psychiatrists using the Hoehn and Yahr scale, the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale, the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale, the Beck Depression Inventory, the Hamilton Anxiety Scale and the Neuropsychiatric Inventory. Efficacy of DJ management was evaluated in follow-up visits. All patients were in therapy with dopamine agonists. A subgroup of five cognitively preserved patients developed DJ after a short period of treatment of therapy with dopamine agonists, while other patients developed DJ after a longer period of dopaminergic treatment. Psychiatric comorbidities were common in cognitively preserved and in demented patients. The pharmacological management included the interruption of dopamine agonists in two patients and the reduction of dopamine agonist dose plus the use of antipsychotics in other patients. These clinical data suggest that the management of medicated PD patients should include investigation for the presence of DJ and the evaluation of clinical characteristics potentially relevant to the prevention or the early recognition of delusions.

  20. Dopamine agonists and delusional jealousy in Parkinson's disease: a cross-sectional prevalence study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poletti, Michele; Perugi, Giulio; Logi, Chiara; Romano, Anna; Del Dotto, Paolo; Ceravolo, Roberto; Rossi, Giuseppe; Pepe, Pasquale; Dell'Osso, Liliana; Bonuccelli, Ubaldo

    2012-11-01

    Delusional jealousy (DJ) has been described in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) on dopaminergic therapy, but a role for dopaminergic therapy in DJ has not been established. The current cross-sectional study on DJ investigated its association with dopaminergic therapies compared with their associations with hallucinations and its prevalence in PD patients. Eight hundred five consecutive patients with PD were enrolled between January 2009 and June 2010. DJ was identified in 20 patients (2.48%) and hallucinations in 193 patients (23.98%). In the multivariate logistic regression analyses, dopamine agonists were significantly associated with DJ (odds ratio, 18.1; 95% CI, 3.0-infinity; P = .0002) but not with hallucinations (odds ratio, 0.73; 95% CI, 0.49-1.10; P = .133). These findings suggest that dopamine agonist treatment represents a risk factor for DJ in PD independent of the presence of a dementing disorder, and the presence of this additional nonmotor side effect should be investigated in this clinical population. Copyright © 2012 Movement Disorder Society.

  1. Delusional jealousy and person directed hostility: 5-year follow-up of a patient after anoxic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Rajendra; Faruqui, Rafey A

    2013-01-01

    This study presents a case report on the emergence of delusional jealousy and person-directed hostility in a patient following anoxic brain injury. The patient did not have a pre-injury history of mental illness, nor a family history of a psychotic disorder. This patient was followed-up over a 5-year period and his history of treatment response, violence risk management and successful rehabilitation are presented. This study also highlights issues in relation to continuation of treatment with antipsychotic medication, use of compulsory admission under the Mental Health Act and principles of risk assessment and risk management.

  2. Delusional Jealousy (Othello Syndrome) in 67 Patients with Parkinson’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataoka, Hiroshi; Sugie, Kazuma

    2018-01-01

    Othello syndrome (OS) is a type of paranoid delusional jealousy, characterized by the false absolute certainty of the infidelity of a partner. Because OS has infrequently occurred in patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD), the characteristics of OS in PD remain unclear. We reviewed the clinical characteristics of this syndrome in PD. We reviewed 67 patients who had PD with OS. OS was more common in men (45 patients) than in women (22 patients), and it frequently occurred in middle-aged patients. Until the onset of OS, the duration of PD (range, 2–19.8 years) and the duration of treatment with PD medications (range, 2 months to 18.5 years) varied. At the onset of OS, cognition was preserved in most patients. 42 of 47 patients had other psychiatric disorders in addition to OS, and 5 patients had isolated OS. Persecutory or other paranoid delusions developed in 34 patients with OS. OS was associated with PD medication in 25 of 26 patients, especially in patients, used the dopamine agonists. The dose of the PD medication associated with OS was decreased or these drugs were withdrawn to facilitate the treatment of OS. In most patients, OS disappeared or the severity of OS was reduced. OS is infrequent in patients with PD, but is likely to be easily detected because OS is commonly accompanied by persistent paranoid and sexual delusions. When clinicians encounter such patients, the withdrawal or reduction of dopamine agonists should be attempted, and if necessary, additional treatment with clozapine is recommended. PMID:29563893

  3. Delusional Jealousy (Othello Syndrome in 67 Patients with Parkinson’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Kataoka

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Othello syndrome (OS is a type of paranoid delusional jealousy, characterized by the false absolute certainty of the infidelity of a partner. Because OS has infrequently occurred in patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD, the characteristics of OS in PD remain unclear. We reviewed the clinical characteristics of this syndrome in PD. We reviewed 67 patients who had PD with OS. OS was more common in men (45 patients than in women (22 patients, and it frequently occurred in middle-aged patients. Until the onset of OS, the duration of PD (range, 2–19.8 years and the duration of treatment with PD medications (range, 2 months to 18.5 years varied. At the onset of OS, cognition was preserved in most patients. 42 of 47 patients had other psychiatric disorders in addition to OS, and 5 patients had isolated OS. Persecutory or other paranoid delusions developed in 34 patients with OS. OS was associated with PD medication in 25 of 26 patients, especially in patients, used the dopamine agonists. The dose of the PD medication associated with OS was decreased or these drugs were withdrawn to facilitate the treatment of OS. In most patients, OS disappeared or the severity of OS was reduced. OS is infrequent in patients with PD, but is likely to be easily detected because OS is commonly accompanied by persistent paranoid and sexual delusions. When clinicians encounter such patients, the withdrawal or reduction of dopamine agonists should be attempted, and if necessary, additional treatment with clozapine is recommended.

  4. A narrow waist versus broad shoulders : Sex and age differences in the jealousy-evoking characteristics of a rival's body build

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buunk, BP; Dijkstra, P; Buunk, Abraham (Bram)

    This study examined the role of waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) and shoulder-to-hip ratio (SHR) of the rival in evoking jealousy in an adult sample of 70 men and 69 women. Women paid more attention to the rivals' waist, hips, and hair, and men paid more attention to the rivals' shoulders. Potential rivals

  5. Coupling Longitudinal Data and Multilevel Modeling to Examine the Antecedents and Consequences of Jealousy Experiences in Romantic Relationships: A Test of the Relational Turbulence Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theiss, Jennifer A.; Solomon, Denise Haunani

    2006-01-01

    We used longitudinal data and multilevel modeling to examine how intimacy, relational uncertainty, and failed attempts at interdependence influence emotional, cognitive, and communicative responses to romantic jealousy, and how those experiences shape subsequent relationship characteristics. The relational turbulence model (Solomon & Knobloch,…

  6. Marital status as a candidate moderator variable of male-female differences in sexual jealousy: the need for representative population samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voracek, M

    2001-04-01

    Evolutionary psychological theories predict pronounced and universal male-female differences in sexual jealousy. Recent cross-cultural research, using the forced-choice jealousy items pioneered by Buss, et al., 1992, repeatedly found a large sex differential on these self-report measures: men significantly more often than women choose their mate's imagined sexual infidelity to be more distressing or upsetting to them than an imagined emotional infidelity. However, this body of evidence is solely based on undergraduate samples and does not take into account demographic factors. This study examined male-female differences in sexual jealousy in a community sample (N = 335, Eastern Austria). Within a logistic regression model, with other variables controlled for, marital status was a stronger predictor for sexual jealousy than respondents' sex. Contrary to previous research, the sex differential's effect size was only modest. These findings stress the pitfalls of prematurely generalizing evidence from undergraduate samples to the general population and the need for representative population samples in this research area.

  7. The profile of selected samples of Croatian athletes based on the items of sport jealousy scale (SJS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sindik Joško

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of jealousy in sport, as a negative emotional reaction, accompanied by thoughts of inadequacy when compared to others, is the issue of this article. This study had a purpose to define the characteristic profiles of the Croatian athletes, based on single items of Sport Jealousy Scale (SJS II, labeled by several variables: gender, type of sport, age group. Purposive sample of 73 athletes competing at Croatian championships in different sports (football, bowling, volleyball and handball were examined with Croatian version of SJS-II. Three clusters obtained are similarly balanced, according to the number of cases in each cluster. The most simply explained, clusters clearly differentiate the most jealous, moderately jealous and slightly/low jealous athletes. Among the features of the athletes in each cluster, in the most jealous (first cluster are the athletes from team sports, women and older athletes. Females, bowling athletes, athletes from individual (coactive sports and the youngest athletes are the least jealous (grouped in third cluster.

  8. El papel de la cultura del honor, del sexismo y de los celos en la respuesta a la infidelidad de la pareja (The role of culture of honour, sexism and jealousy in response to partner infidelity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús María Canto Ortiz

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate whether a culture of honour, sexism and jealousy influenced the type of infidelity (sexual or emotional experienced by the participants. A total of 170 university students (80 men and 90 women participated. They responded to six dilemmas indicating which type of infidelity most affected them (sexual or emotional using a culture of honour scale, a sexism inventory and a jealousy scale. There were differences between men and women only in two dilemmas. The influence of a culture of honour, hostile sexism, benevolent sexism and jealousy on sexual and emotional infidelity was analyzed. Women who scored high on a culture of honour, benevolent sexism and jealousy were those who felt most affected by sexual infidelity.

  9. Gender-Specific Jealousy and Infidelity Norms as Sources of Sexual Health Risk and Violence Among Young Coupled Nicaraguans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyce, Sabrina; Zeledón, Perla; Tellez, Ever; Barrington, Clare

    2016-04-01

    Gender inequity negatively affects health in Central America. In 2011, we conducted 60 semistructured interviews and 12 photovoice focus groups with young coupled men and women in León, Nicaragua, to explore the ways in which social norms around marriage and gender affect sexual health and gender-based violence. Participants' depictions of their experiences revealed gendered norms around infidelity that provided a narrative to justify male expressions of jealousy, which included limiting partner autonomy, sexual coercion, and physical violence against women, and resulted in increased women's risk of sexually transmitted infections, including HIV. By understanding and taking account of these different narratives and normalized beliefs in developing health- and gender-based violence interventions, such programs might be more effective in promoting gender-equitable attitudes and behaviors among young men and women in Nicaragua.

  10. Amor e ciúme na contemporaneidade: reflexões psicossociológicas Love and jealousy in the contemporary world: psychosociological reflections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauane Baroncelli

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo deriva-se da dissertação de Mestrado da autora que trata do ciúme nas relações amorosas contemporâneas. Partindo da perspectiva de que o ciúme na experiência amorosa é uma condição historicamente constituída, procuramos, neste estudo, investigar teoricamente as consequências que as práticas e princípios culturalmente estabelecidos na contemporaneidade têm sobre a experiência de ciúme dos indivíduos contemporâneos. Na busca desse objetivo, nosso estudo, a seguir, busca refletir sobre alguns impactos que o momento histórico atual tem produzido no domínio do amor, para, finalmente, discutir algumas maneiras de compreender o ciúme que se revela numa experiência amorosa que, nos dias de hoje, se vê marcada por intensa transitoriedade, flexibilidade e abertura.This work derives from the author's master thesis which focused jealousy in nowadays love relationships. Starting from the idea that the jealousy in love experience is a historically built condition, we search, in this study, for the consequences that different practices and principles established in contemporary culture to which individuals are exposed, have on their jealousy experience. Looking towards this objective, the present article tries to understand the peculiarities found in today's loving experience and the consequences that these peculiarities have in jealousy in love relationships which are, nowadays, characterized by an intense flexibility, transitiveness and openness.

  11. Children's responses to mother-infant and father-infant interaction with a baby sibling: jealousy or joy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volling, Brenda L; Yu, Tianyi; Gonzalez, Richard; Kennedy, Denise E; Rosenberg, Lauren; Oh, Wonjung

    2014-10-01

    Firstborn children's reactions to mother-infant and father-infant interaction after a sibling's birth were examined in an investigation of 224 families. Triadic observations of parent-infant-sibling interaction were conducted at 1 month after the birth. Parents reported on children's problem behaviors at 1 and 4 months after the birth and completed the Attachment Q-sort before the birth. Latent profile analysis (LPA) identified 4 latent classes (behavioral profiles) for mother-infant and father-infant interactions: regulated-exploration, disruptive-dysregulated, approach-avoidant, and anxious-clingy. A fifth class, attention-seeking, was found with fathers. The regulated-exploration class was the normative pattern (60%), with few children in the disruptive class (2.7%). Approach-avoidant children had more behavior problems at 4 months than any other class, with the exception of the disruptive children, who were higher on aggression and attention problems. Before the birth, anxious-clingy children had less secure attachments to their fathers than approach avoidant children but more secure attachments to their mothers. Results underscore individual differences in firstborns' behavioral responses to parent-infant interaction and the importance of a person-centered approach for understanding children's jealousy. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. O ciúme romântico e os relacionamentos amorosos heterossexuais contemporâneos Romantic jealousy and heterosexual contemporary loving relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago de Almeida

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo pretende discorrer a respeito do ciúme romântico heterossexual, na tentativa de compreender um dos sentimentos mais presentes na vida do ser humano. Mesmo que para muitos o ciúme possa representar uma manifestação de amor, ele é, na verdade, um sentimento que produz angústia em muitos parceiros e pode atingir formas doentias, e abalar a saúde mental. Mas também é inevitável, porque em maior ou menor grau, todos estão sujeitos a ele, o que nos obriga a ficar atentos para saber elaborá-lo em favor de nossa vida amorosa. É preciso conhecer profundamente esse sentimento para que se possa compreendê-lo, e elaborarmos estratégias profícuas de enfrentamento para lidarmos com esse fenômeno.The present study intends to discuss the heterosexual romantic jealousy, in an attempt to understand it, as one of the most present feelings in the human life. Even for many people the jealousy may represent a love manifestation, it is, actually, a feeling that produces anguish in many partners and it can reach unhealthy forms, and to affect the mental health. However, it is also inevitable, because in larger or smaller degree, all of us are subject to it, what forces us to be attentive to know to elaborate it in favor of our loving life. In order for us to understand this feeling, it is necessary to know it deeply so that we may be able to elaborate useful strategies of confrontation of this phenomenon.

  13. Inteligencia emocional, celos, tendencia al abuso y estrategias de resolución de conflicto en la pareja (Emotional intelligence, jealousy, propensity for abusiveness and conflict solving strategies in the couple

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiola Perles Novas

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyse the relationship between emotional intelligence, jealousy and the propensity for abusiveness and violent conflict-solving strategies between couples. The predictive capacity of these variables was analysed in a mixed sample of 294 people. The outcomes show that the variables evaluated are significantly associated with the conflict-solving strategies used by the couple. These strategies have a positive association with jealousy and the propensity for abusiveness, and a negative association with emotional intelligence. Similarly, all the variables analysed had a predictive capacity regarding the conflict-solving strategies, especially the couple’s perception regarding such strategies. These outcomes show the relevance of these variables in predicting violence between couples and are suggestive of interventions for its prevention.

  14. A ausência de ciúme como um ideal cultural: reflexões clínicas sobre a fragilidade subjetiva frente ao amor na atualidade The absence of jealousy as a cultural ideal: clinical reflections about the subjective fragility evoked by love in present times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marília Etienne Arreguy

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Discute-se largamente, na literatura psicanalítica e no meio acadêmico, de modo geral, sobre o declínio das tradições, do respeito às e respaldo social das instituições, e sobre a desqualificação da autoridade paterna na contemporaneidade. Tributário do romantismo e do individualismo forjados na modernidade, o amor romântico enquanto valor cultural e último refúgio subjetivo também se encontra em ruínas. A sexualidade enquanto absoluto prazer, multiplicidade e busca de sensações, é projetada cada vez mais como condição para as relações ditas amorosas. Diante desse cenário, partimos de uma discussão teórica e de vinhetas clínicas, a fim de argumentar que o ciúme é um afeto "fora de moda", cujas manifestações sintomáticas podem ser associadas ao modo como o erotismo é regido na atualidade. A ausência de ciúme desponta como um novo ideal para o amor, não mais apenas romântico, porém, antes de mais nada, narcísico, erótico, múltiplo e excessivo. A partir de estudos psicanalíticos sobre o amor e o ciúme, pretendemos então refletir como o modelo cultural narcísico atual permeado pelos restos de um romantismo recrudescente afeta a subjetividade. De modo ambíguo, a "ausência de ciúme" e seu oposto correlato "ciúme primitivo" oscilam entre si como expressões marcantes da fragilidade nas relações amorosas atuais.The decline of traditions, institutions and paternal authority in present times has been largely discussed in psychoanalytical literature. Heir of Romanticism and Individualism forged in modernity, romantic love as a cultural value and the last subjective refugee, has ruined. Sexuality understood as absolute pleasure and multiplicity of sensations has been more and more considered as a condition for love relationships. Considering this state of affairs, and based on a theoretical discussion and clinical vignettes, we argue that jealousy is "old-fashioned". The absence of jealousy points at a new

  15. Hormonal contraceptive congruency : Implications for relationship jealousy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cobey, Kelly D.; Roberts, S. Craig; Buunk, Abraham P.

    Research shows that women who use hormonal contraceptives (HCs) differ in their mate preferences from women who have regular cycles. It has been proposed that when a partnered woman either begins to use or ceases to use HCs, she may experience changes in her relationship since her preferences become

  16. Masculinidade e ciúme na perspectiva da teoria da sedução generalizada Masculinidad y celos desde la perspectiva de la teoría de la seduccíon generalizada Masculinity and jealousy according to the theory of generalized seduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Carvalho Ribeiro

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Partindo das contribuições freudianas sobre as relações do ciúme com a projeção e a homossexualidade, propõe-se no presente artigo uma retomada do papel do masoquismo primário e da identificação feminina como elementos definidores do ciúme masculino patológico. As condições originárias de constituição do psiquismo, vistas sob o ângulo da Teoria da Sedução Generalizada, proposta por Jean Laplanche, são relacionadas tanto ao masoquismo primário quanto à identificação feminina. A situação assimétrica entre o adulto, portador de uma sexualidade inconsciente, e a criança, destituída de recursos psíquicos para lidar com as mensagens sexuais do adulto, caracteriza, segundo esse autor, a situação antropológica fundamental.Partiendo de las contribuciones de Freud sobre las relaciones de los celos con la proyección y la homosexualidad, se propone en este artículo la reanudación de la función del masoquismo primario y de la identificación femenina como elementos definidores de los celos masculinos patológicos. Las condiciones originarias de la constitución del psiquismo, vistas desde el ángulo de la Teoría de la Seducción Generalizada propuesta por Jean Laplanche, están relacionadas tanto al masoquismo primario como a la identificación femenina. La situación asimétrica entre el adulto, que tiene una sexualidad inconsciente, y el niño, carente de recursos psíquicos para lidiar con los mensajes sexuales del adulto, caracteriza, según este autor, la situación antropológica fundamental.Taking Freud's ideas on the relation between jealousy, projection and homosexuality as a starting point, this article focuses on the role played by primary masochism and feminine identification in the formation of masculine pathological jealousy. The early conditions of psychic constitution, as seen by the Theory of Generalized Seduction, are linked to primary masochism and feminine identification alike. According to that

  17. Sex differences in the events that elicit jealousy among homosexuals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Pieternel; Groothof, Hinke A. K.; Poel, Gerda A.; Laverman, Teunis, T. G.; Schrier, Michiel; Buunk, Bram P.

    2008-01-01

    When individuals are asked which event would upset them more - a partner's emotional infidelity or a partner's sexual infidelity- among heterosexuals more men than women select a partner's sexual infidelity as the most upsetting event, whereas more more women than men select a partner's emotional

  18. Height predicts jealousy differently for men and women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buunk, Abraham P.; Park, Justin H.; Zurriaga, Rosario; Klavina, Liga; Massar, Karlijn

    Because male height is associated with attractiveness, dominance, and reproductive success, taller men may be less jealous. And because female height has a curvilinear relationship with health and reproductive success (with average-height females having the advantages), female height may have a

  19. Jealousy as a function of rival characteristics : An evolutionary perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, P; Buunk, BP

    Following from om evolutionary psychology, men and women differ in the characteristics they value in a partner. Men value physical attractiveness in women because a woman's physical attractiveness is related to her fertility, whereas women value dominance in men since dominance is related to a man's

  20. Doctors and nurses: gender relations, jealousy, and maladministration in wartime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyquin, Michael

    2011-01-01

    This article challenges a popular stereotype of Australian military history through the microcosm of a military hospital in 1915. It shows that interstate rivalries had survived federalism intact and explores how parochialism and a breakdown of relations between the health professions brought about an unseemly row. It revisits a scandal that is largely ignored in the public 'memory' of Australia's military and medical contribution to World War I.

  1. Jealousy and emotion: how partners react to infidelity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús M. Canto Ortiz

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available This present study explores the differences between women's and men's responses to (hypothetical infidelity,  and how these responses are influenced by the  characteristics of the couple's relationship. 372 subjects completed questionnaires (a itemising their jealous reaction to a partner´s hypothetical infidelity (emotional or sexual; and (b the state of their relationship. A survey of 250 women and 122 men revealed that the women reported higher intensity of emotional distress than the men. in regard to both emotional and sexual infidelity. There were no significant differences between men and women in their reports of which infidelity troubled them more: both genders are troubled more by emotional infidelity. We also report the influence that the type of relationship has on the emotions provoked by the infidelity.

  2. Sex differences in the events that elicit jealousy among homosexuals

    OpenAIRE

    Dijkstra, Pieternel; Groothof, Hinke A. K.; Poel, Gerda A.; Laverman, Teunis, T. G.; Schrier, Michiel; Buunk, Bram P.

    2008-01-01

    When individuals are asked which event would upset them more - a partner's emotional infidelity or a partner's sexual infidelity- among heterosexuals more men than women select a partner's sexual infidelity as the most upsetting event, whereas more more women than men select a partner's emotional infidelity as the most upsetting event. Because homosexuals' mating psychology is unlike that of heterosexuals, the present study examinend which of these two events is more upsetting in a sample of ...

  3. Sex differences in the events that elicit jealousy among homosexuals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Pieternel; Groothof, H.; Poel, G.A.; Haverman, T.TG; Buunk, Abraham (Bram)

    When individuals ale asked which event would upset them more-a partner's emotional infidelity or a partner's sexual infidelity-among heterosexuals more men than women select a partner's sexual infidelity as the most distressing event, whereas more women than men select a partner's emotional

  4. Health, Anticipated Partner Infidelity, and Jealousy in Men and Women

    OpenAIRE

    Steven Arnocky; Marlena Pearson; Tracy Vaillancourt

    2015-01-01

    Health has been identified as an important variable involved in mate choice. Unhealthy organisms are generally less able to provide reproductively important resources to partners and offspring and are more likely to pass on communicable disease. Research on human mate preferences has shown that both men and women prefer healthy mates. Yet to date, little research has examined how health relates to one’s own mating experiences. In the present study, 164 participants (87 women) who were current...

  5. SEX, SELF-ESTEEM, DEPENDENCY AND EXTRADYADIC SEXUAL EXPERIENCE AS RELATED TO JEALOUSY RESPONSES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BUUNK, BP

    A study of a heterogeneous sample of 250 mostly married individuals examined the impact of sex, self-esteem, emotional dependency and extradyadic sexual experience upon betrayal-anger, disappointment and self-doubt as responses to extradyadic sexual behavior of the partner. Women scored higher in

  6. Emotional intelligence, jealousy, propensity for abusiveness and conflict solving strategies in the couple

    OpenAIRE

    Perles Novas, Fabiola; San Martín García, Jesús; Canto Ortiz, Jesús; Moreno Jiménez, Pilar

    2011-01-01

    El objetivo del presente trabajo ha sido analizar la relación entre la inteligencia emocional, los celos y la tendencia al abuso sobre las estrategias violentas de resolución de conflictos en la pareja; así como analizar la capacidad predictiva de dichas variables en una muestra de hombres y mujeres de población general compuesta por 294 personas. Los resultados muestran que todas las variables evaluadas tienen una relación significativa con las estrategias propias de resolución de conflictos...

  7. Blind jealousy? Romantic insecurity increases emotion-induced failures of visual perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most, Steven B; Laurenceau, Jean-Philippe; Graber, Elana; Belcher, Amber; Smith, C Veronica

    2010-04-01

    Does the influence of close relationships pervade so deeply as to impact visual awareness? Results from two experiments involving heterosexual romantic couples suggest that they do. Female partners from each couple performed a rapid detection task where negative emotional distractors typically disrupt visual awareness of subsequent targets; at the same time, their male partners rated attractiveness first of landscapes, then of photos of other women. At the end of both experiments, the degree to which female partners indicated uneasiness about their male partner looking at and rating other women correlated significantly with the degree to which negative emotional distractors had disrupted their target perception during that time. This relationship was robust even when controlling for individual differences in baseline performance. Thus, emotions elicited by social contexts appear to wield power even at the level of perceptual processing. Copyright 2010 APA, all rights reserved.

  8. Effects of Popularity and Gender on Peers' Perceptions of Prosocial, Antisocial, and Jealousy-Eliciting Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayeux, Lara

    2011-01-01

    Perceived popularity is associated with both positive and negative characteristics, and adolescents' stereotypes associated with popularity reflect this paradox. The current study investigated adolescents' stereotypes associated with popularity and gender, as well as their liking for popular peers who engage in prosocial, antisocial, and…

  9. Jealousy and violence in dating relationships: gender-related differences among a Spanish sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastián, Julia; Verdugo, Alba; Ortiz, Beatriz

    2014-12-19

    The present study analyzes violent behavior (psychological, physical, and sexual violence) that may occur in dating relationships. Data was collected from couples of adolescents and young adults in a sample of 579 students from the region of Madrid, consisting of 319 females and 260 males aged between 12 and 22 years. A novel aspect of this study compared with the great majority of published studies is analysis of a) the frequency of violent behaviors (and not only their presence or absence) to study significant mean differences and b) potential gender and age related differences in the patterns of violence. Results indicate the high prevalence of violence in Spanish dating relationships. Specifically, females carry out more mild physical (p < .001) and psychological violence (p < .05), whereas males perpetrate more sexual violence (p < .001). However, with regard to victimization, no significant gender related differences in frequency were found between boys and girls in any type of violence. With regard to age, young adolescents perform (p < .05) and suffer (p < .01) significantly more jealous behavior, whereas the young adults of our sample commit and suffer more sexual violence (p < .05). Directions for future research are outlined, mainly concerning instruments used that ought to be more sensitive to the reality being measured.

  10. The role of culture of honour, sexism and jealousy in response to partner infidelity

    OpenAIRE

    Canto Ortiz, Jesús María; Moreno Jiménez, Pilar; Perles Novas, Fabiola; San Martín García, Jesús

    2012-01-01

    En esta investigación han participado 170 estudiantes universitarios (80 hombres y 90 mujeres). El propósito de este trabajo fue analizar si la cultura del honor, el sexismo y el grado de celos influían en el tipo de infidelidad (sexual o emocional) que más afectaba a los sujetos. Los participantes respondieron a seis dilemas en los que se les planteaban el tipo de infidelidad que más les afectan (sexual o emocional), una escala sobre escala sobre cultura del honor, un inventario sobre sexism...

  11. Are sex differences in sexual vs emotional jealousy explained better by differences in sexual strategies or uncertainty of paternity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathes, Eugene W

    2003-12-01

    In a classic 1992 study, Buss, Larson, Westen, and Semmelroth reported that men were more distressed by the sexual infidelity of a partner and women were more distressed by a partner's emotional infidelity. Buss, et al. suggested that men are concerned about uncertainty of paternity, that is, the possibility of raising another man's child while believing that the child is his own. However, data can be explained in terms of men's greater preference for short-term sexual strategies. This research yielded support for the latter explanation for the samples in this present research.

  12. Sex differences in jealousy in evolutionary and cultural perspective : Tests from the Netherlands, Germany, and the United States

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buunk, BP; Angleitner, A; Oubaid, [No Value; Buss, DM

    1996-01-01

    As predicted by models derived from evolutionary psychology, men within the United States have been shown to exhibit greater psychological and physiological distress to sexual than to emotional infidelity of their partner, and women have been shown to exhibit more distress to emotional than to

  13. Out of Lust or Jealousy: The Effects of Mate-Related Motives on Study-Time Allocation to Faces Varying in Attractiveness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weijian Li

    Full Text Available Although a growing number of empirical studies have revealed that activating mate-related motives might exert a specific set of consequences for human cognition and behaviors, such as attention and memory, little is known about whether mate-related motives affect self-regulated learning. The present study examined the effects of mate-related motives (mate-search and mate-guarding on study-time allocation to faces varying in attractiveness. In two experiments, participants in mate-related priming conditions (Experiment 1: mate-search; Experiment 2: mate-guarding or control conditions studied 20 female faces (10 highly attractive, 10 less attractive during a self-paced study task, and then were given a yes/no face recognition task. The finding of Experiment 1 showed that activating a mate-search motive led the male participants to allocate more time to highly attractive female faces (i.e., perceived potential mates than to less attractive ones. In Experiment 2, female participants in the mate-guarding priming condition spent more time studying highly attractive female faces (i.e., perceived potential rivals than less attractive ones, compared to participants in the control condition. These findings illustrate the highly specific consequences of mate-related motives on study-time allocation, and highlight the value of exploring human cognition and motivation within evolutionary and self-regulated learning frameworks.

  14. Out of Lust or Jealousy: The Effects of Mate-Related Motives on Study-Time Allocation to Faces Varying in Attractiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fengying; Li, Xinyu; Li, Ping; Jia, Xiaoyu; Chen, Haide; Ji, Haojie

    2015-01-01

    Although a growing number of empirical studies have revealed that activating mate-related motives might exert a specific set of consequences for human cognition and behaviors, such as attention and memory, little is known about whether mate-related motives affect self-regulated learning. The present study examined the effects of mate-related motives (mate-search and mate-guarding) on study-time allocation to faces varying in attractiveness. In two experiments, participants in mate-related priming conditions (Experiment 1: mate-search; Experiment 2: mate-guarding) or control conditions studied 20 female faces (10 highly attractive, 10 less attractive) during a self-paced study task, and then were given a yes/no face recognition task. The finding of Experiment 1 showed that activating a mate-search motive led the male participants to allocate more time to highly attractive female faces (i.e., perceived potential mates) than to less attractive ones. In Experiment 2, female participants in the mate-guarding priming condition spent more time studying highly attractive female faces (i.e., perceived potential rivals) than less attractive ones, compared to participants in the control condition. These findings illustrate the highly specific consequences of mate-related motives on study-time allocation, and highlight the value of exploring human cognition and motivation within evolutionary and self-regulated learning frameworks. PMID:26121131

  15. Out of Lust or Jealousy: The Effects of Mate-Related Motives on Study-Time Allocation to Faces Varying in Attractiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weijian; Zhang, Yuchi; Li, Fengying; Li, Xinyu; Li, Ping; Jia, Xiaoyu; Chen, Haide; Ji, Haojie

    2015-01-01

    Although a growing number of empirical studies have revealed that activating mate-related motives might exert a specific set of consequences for human cognition and behaviors, such as attention and memory, little is known about whether mate-related motives affect self-regulated learning. The present study examined the effects of mate-related motives (mate-search and mate-guarding) on study-time allocation to faces varying in attractiveness. In two experiments, participants in mate-related priming conditions (Experiment 1: mate-search; Experiment 2: mate-guarding) or control conditions studied 20 female faces (10 highly attractive, 10 less attractive) during a self-paced study task, and then were given a yes/no face recognition task. The finding of Experiment 1 showed that activating a mate-search motive led the male participants to allocate more time to highly attractive female faces (i.e., perceived potential mates) than to less attractive ones. In Experiment 2, female participants in the mate-guarding priming condition spent more time studying highly attractive female faces (i.e., perceived potential rivals) than less attractive ones, compared to participants in the control condition. These findings illustrate the highly specific consequences of mate-related motives on study-time allocation, and highlight the value of exploring human cognition and motivation within evolutionary and self-regulated learning frameworks.

  16. Evlilik Hayatında Kıskançlık - Dindarlık İlişkisine Psikolojik Yaklaşım

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulvahit İmamoğlu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the relationship between religiosity and jealousy among married couples, religious and moral aspects are discussed. The sample of this research was selected from the Marmara Region, Istanbul, Kocaeli and Sakarya provinces between the ages of 1840 randomly selected 447 participants are married. In our society, the level of jealousy between married couples is high. Jealousy is the perception to determine, the gender of the individual place of residence, income and education level, occupation and type of marriage were taken into consideration variables such as. According to research findings, jealousy and religiosity has a positive significant relationship. Excessive jealousy has directed couples to do some acts forbidden by religion and has affected couples’ religious and morality life negatively. However, as a social expectation jealousy that isn’t excessive has been seen necessary for marriage

  17. Sex Differences in Implicit Association and Attentional Demands for Information about Infidelity1

    OpenAIRE

    Jaime W. Thomson; Shilpa Patel; Steven M. Platek; Todd K. Shackelford

    2007-01-01

    Sex differences in reaction to a romantic partner's infidelity are well documented and are hypothesized to be attributable to sex-specific jealousy mechanisms that solve sex specific adaptive problems. There have been few cognitive-based investigations of jealousy, however. Here we investigated sex differences in implicit processing of jealousy-based information. In Experiment 1, we used the implicit association test (IAT) to investigate sex-differentiated biases in classifying sexual or emot...

  18. Competición intrasexual en el trabajo : diferencias sexuales en celos y envidia en el trabajo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buunk, Abraham P.; Zurriaga, Rosario; Gonzalez, Pilar; Castro-Solano, Alejandro

    From an evolutionary perspective, this article deals with sex differences in jealousy and envy evoking rival characteristics in a work setting and their relationship with intra-sexual competition. The sample consisted of 114 employees from various professional fields The rivals evoked more jealousy

  19. Clinician’s perceptions of and emotional responses to online infidelity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Pieternel; de Zeeuw, Heleen; Barelds, Dick P.H.; Buunk, Abraham P.

    2015-01-01

    Aim of the present study was to examine the degree to which mental health workers perceive twelve online partner behaviors as different types of infidelity and to examine the degree to which these behaviors evoke two types of jealousy, that is, fait accompli and anxious jealousy among mental. 248

  20. 2012 Military Family Life Project (MFLP): Tabulations of Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-31

    Mental health concerns for self/family member (e.g., PTSD, depression, anxiety) 14. Medical issues of self/family member 15. Jealousy /concerns...and loss Mental health concerns for self/family member (e.g., PTSD, depression, anxiety) Medical issues of self/family member Jealousy /concerns

  1. Sibling Squabbles: How to Cope With Your Children Fighting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branvold, Sharon L.

    1995-01-01

    This article discusses what is normal and what is not regarding sibling rivalry, jealousy, and squabbling, and it provides some guidance for parents on handling conflict. The article also discusses three major sources of sibling conflict (jealousy, being left alone together, and family trips) and offers suggestions for dealing with each case. (SM)

  2. Jealousy and emotion: how partners react to infidelity Celos y emociones: Factores de la relación de pareja en la reacción ante la infidelidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús M. Canto Ortiz

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available

    This present study explores the differences between women's and men's responses to (hypothetical infidelity,  and how these responses are influenced by the  characteristics of the couple's relationship. 372 subjects completed questionnaires (a itemising their jealous reaction to a partner´s hypothetical infidelity (emotional or sexual; and (b the state of their relationship. A survey of 250 women and 122 men revealed that the women reported higher intensity of emotional distress than the men. in regard to both emotional and sexual infidelity. There were no significant differences between men and women in their reports of which infidelity troubled them more: both genders are troubled more by emotional infidelity. We also report the influence that the type of relationship has on the emotions provoked by the infidelity.

    Esta investigación está orientada a conocer las diferencias entre hombres y mujeres en las situaciones desencadenantes de celos y cómo estas reacciones son afectadas por ciertas características de las relaciones de pareja. 372 personas (250 mujeres y 122 hombres han participado en esta investigación responden ante una hipotética infidelidad de su pareja (infidelidad emocional e infidelidad sexual con un supuesto rival y a un cuestionario sobre ciertos aspectos de su relación de pareja.

    Los resultados revelan que las mujeres experimentan una mayor intensidad emocional que los hombres cuando piensan sobre la infidelidad de su pareja, ya sea emocional o sexual. No hay diferencias importantes entre hombres y mujeres en cuanto al tipo de infidelidad que más les molesta: la infidelidad emocional. Además se ha analizado la influencia del tipo de relación de pareja que mantienen los participantes en la experiencia emocional provocada por la infidelidad.

  3. My Brother Warren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Eric

    1987-01-01

    The younger brother of a hyperactive, severely learning-disabled 21-year-old recounts his feelings regarding lack of parental attention, jealousy toward his older brother, embarrassment, and finally empathy for his older brother. (CB)

  4. One-sided and mutually aggressive couples: Differences in attachment, conflict prevalence, and coping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burk, W.J.; Seiffge-Krenke, I.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated concurrent links between adolescent romantic couples’ reports of aggression (relational and physical) and relationship functioning (e.g., attachment security, conflict prevalence, coping strategies, jealousy, and affiliative and romantic relationship quality) using a

  5. The Beauty and the Abuse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munar, Ana Maria; Caton, Kellee; Eger, Claudia

    2017-01-01

    section deals with one or several of the following themes: friendship love, romantic love, flirting, eroticism, sex, desire, dating cultures, committed relationships, paternalistic sexism, hostile sexism, sexual harassment, and jealousy. The vignettes have been anonymized but provide veridical accounts...

  6. Birth of a Second Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & ... from excitement to jealousy or even resentment. Younger toddlers, who can't verbalize their feelings, might regress ...

  7. Conflict Management of Gay Couples' Relationship in Semarang

    OpenAIRE

    Putri Aprilina, Noni; Naryoso, Agus

    2017-01-01

    Gay people in Indonesia are still a minority. The low population of gays causes jealousy and possessiveness to be the gay nature feeling of gay with each other. They will be very angry if their partner see theyre dating someone else (Aditya, 2009). Based on the above phenomenon can be concluded that gays also experience conflict in the relationship they live. Conflict experienced by gay is different from one another. Some show conflict-related issues of jealousy, usually higher sexual jealous...

  8. Žárlivost u homosexuálních, heterosexuálních a bisexuálních jedinců.

    OpenAIRE

    Potyszová, Kateřina

    2016-01-01

    In evolutionary psychology, the concept of jealousy is explained as the result of selection pressures causing individuals to develop certain mental tendencies in order to maximize their own viability and reproduction ability. Romantic jealousy is one of such tendencies; for men ensuring their fatherhood certainty, for women the maintenance of their partner's resources. Results of previous studies using the evolutionary approach pointed out that there are specific gender differences in the per...

  9. Attachment's Links With Adolescents' Social Emotions: The Roles of Negative Emotionality and Emotion Regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Tia Panfile; Laible, Deborah J; Augustine, Mairin; Robeson, Lindsay

    2015-01-01

    Recent research has attempted to explain the mechanisms through which parental attachment affects social and emotional outcomes (e.g., Burnette, Taylor, Worthington, & Forsyth, 2007 ; Panfile & Laible, 2012 ). The authors' goal was to examine negative emotionality and emotion regulation as mediators of the associations that attachment has with empathy, forgiveness, guilt, and jealousy. One hundred forty-eight adolescents reported their parental attachment security, general levels of negative emotionality and abilities to regulate emotional responses, and tendencies to feel empathy, forgiveness, guilt, and jealousy. Results revealed that attachment security was associated with higher levels of empathy, forgiveness, and guilt, but lower levels of jealousy. In addition, emotion regulation mediated the links attachment shared with both empathy and guilt, such that higher levels of attachment security were linked with greater levels of emotion regulation, which led to greater levels of empathy and guilt. Alternatively, negative emotionality mediated the links attachment shared with both forgiveness and jealousy, such that higher levels of attachment security were associated with lower levels of negative emotionality, which in turn was linked to lower levels of forgiveness and higher levels of jealousy. This study provides a general picture of how attachment security may play a role in shaping an individual's levels of social emotions.

  10. Risk Factors for Intimate Partner Violence During Pregnancy and Postpartum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellmuth, Julianne C.; Gordon, Kristina Coop; Stuart, Gregory L.; Moore, Todd M.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose This longitudinal investigation examined potential risk factors for intimate partner violence (IPV) among women during pregnancy and 6 weeks postpartum. Methods A sample of 180 pregnant women was collected in order to investigate 1) whether associations between partner alcohol misuse, partner jealousy, partner suspicion of infidelity, and stress were associated with IPV victimization, 2) the indirect effects of alcohol misuse on these relationships, and 3) factors related to changes in IPV victimization over time. Results At baseline, partner alcohol misuse was associated with each type of IPV victimization and the combination of partner alcohol misuse, partner jealousy, and partner suspicion of infidelity was most strongly associated with severe physical victimization. Partner alcohol misuse mediated the relationship between partner jealousy and psychological and severe physical victimization. At follow-up, partner jealousy and stress were related to women’s psychological victimization and partner alcohol misuse was related to women’s severe physical victimization. Conclusions Findings suggest that partner alcohol misuse is a risk factor for women’s IPV victimization during pregnancy and jealousy and stress may increase risk for some types of IPV. Findings also suggest that intervention should target parents early in pregnancy in order to reduce the risk for future IPV. PMID:23053216

  11. Online Mate-Retention Tactics on Facebook Are Associated With Relationship Aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brem, Meagan J; Spiller, Laura C; Vandehey, Michael A

    2015-10-01

    A measure of Facebook-related mate-retention tactics was developed to investigate the relationship between online behaviors and intimate partner aggression. One hundred and seventy-seven young adults (65 men, 112 women) completed questionnaires that included measures of online and offline mate-retention tactics, Facebook jealousy, Facebook surveillance, and intimate partner violence. A factor analysis yielded four subscales for the Facebook Mate-Retention Tactic Inventory (FMRTI): Care and Affection, Jealousy and Surveillance, Possession Signals, and Punishment of Infidelity Threat. The FMRTI total scores were positively correlated with Facebook jealousy, Facebook surveillance, and use of offline mate-retention tactics. The Jealousy and Surveillance subscale uniquely predicted intimate partner psychological and physical aggression over and above existing measures. Facebook mate-retention tactics fully mediated the relation between Facebook jealousy and both intimate partner psychological and physical aggression. The current study provides preliminary evidence for conceptualizing Facebook as an environment for the use of mate-retention tactics that have real-life implications for intimate partner violence. © The Author(s) 2014.

  12. Risk factors for intimate partner violence during pregnancy and postpartum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellmuth, Julianne C; Gordon, Kristina Coop; Stuart, Gregory L; Moore, Todd M

    2013-02-01

    This longitudinal investigation examined potential risk factors for intimate partner violence (IPV) among women during pregnancy and 6 weeks postpartum. A sample of 180 pregnant women was collected in order to investigate (1) whether associations between partner alcohol misuse, partner jealousy, partner suspicion of infidelity, and stress were associated with IPV victimization; (2) the indirect effects of alcohol misuse on these relationships; and (3) factors related to changes in IPV victimization over time. At baseline, partner alcohol misuse was associated with each type of IPV victimization and the combination of partner alcohol misuse, partner jealousy, and partner suspicion of infidelity was most strongly associated with severe physical victimization. Partner alcohol misuse mediated the relationship between partner jealousy and psychological and severe physical victimization. At follow-up, partner jealousy and stress were related to women's psychological victimization and partner alcohol misuse was related to women's severe physical victimization. Findings suggest that partner alcohol misuse is a risk factor for women's IPV victimization during pregnancy and jealousy and that stress may increase risk for some types of IPV. Findings also suggest that intervention should target parents early in pregnancy in order to reduce the risk for future IPV.

  13. Relations among Individual Differences in Reproductive Strategies, Sexual Attractiveness, Affective and Punitive Intentions, and Imagined Sexual or Emotional Infidelity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel N. Jones

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available We examined relations among Mating Effort, Mate Value, Sex and individuals' self-reported responses to imagined sexual or emotional infidelity. We asked participants to describe the (1 upset or bother (2 aversive emotional reactions (3 punitive impulses, and (4 punitive intentions they experienced in response to imagined sexual or emotional infidelity. The results replicated previously documented sex differences in jealousy. In addition, imagined sexual infidelity upset individuals higher in Mating Effort more than those lower in Mating Effort. Higher Mating Effort also predicted greater temptation, intention, and likelihood to engage in punitive behaviors in response to imagined sexual or emotional infidelity. We discuss these data in light of individual differences in relations between reproductive strategy and romantic jealousy. Additionally, we point to the importance of controlling for co-linearity between reactions to sexual and emotional infidelity, and the need for addressing related methodological problems within jealousy research.

  14. Delusional disorder-jealous type: how inclusive are the DSM-IV diagnostic criteria?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easton, Judith A; Shackelford, Todd K; Schipper, Lucas D

    2008-03-01

    Delusional disorder-jealous type is a new diagnostic category in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR; American Psychiatric Association, 2000) in which delusions concerning a partner's infidelity must be present. Therefore, patients who experience a jealousy disorder, but do not experience delusions will not fit the diagnostic criteria. Using a database of 398 case histories of jealousy disorders reported in the literature from 1940-2002, we examined the percentage of these cases that met the diagnostic criteria for delusional disorder-jealous type. Only 4% of the cases met all diagnostic criteria. This is the first systematic comparison of the prevalence of these disorders. The results provide evidence that the diagnostic criteria are not inclusive, as most individuals suffering with a jealousy disorder were excluded from the diagnosis.

  15. Study on Hearn's "Ingwa-Banashi"

    OpenAIRE

    Fujiwara, Mami; 藤原, まみ

    2002-01-01

    Ingwa-Banashi written by Lafcadio Hearn, is a kwaidan which tells of two amputated dead hands clinging to a girl's breasts. This work has been analysed mainly as a story about women's jealousy. However, this story features certain aspects of Hearn's style; fragmentation and body. In this paper I attempt to describe hitherto unanalysed aspects of Hearn's work.

  16. HIV risk and prevention among men who have sex with men in rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These included perceptions of traditional value systems and communities as homophobic; jealousy and competition between MSM; and the role of social media as a means of meeting other MSM. The second global theme, “HIV/AIDS knowledge, risk and experience”, focused on factors more immediately affecting HIV ...

  17. East Europe Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-21

    profes- sional papers and several monographs in the field of psychoanalysis , jealousy and separation, the anthropology of death, and the ontology and...the living have gone as far as possible from the normal man. Marx could not have dreamed that force would be used in a communist system, and he

  18. 02 Murray WEB 02.pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Owner

    (“Shame those eyes, just look at them, / swollen and red like export apples”). Similarly, like Catullus' jealousy of the attention the sparrow receives from Lesbia, so too, Naudé seeks to recapture his girlfriend's attention (“Come now, / it's getting dark.”). Despite these similarities, and Naudé's poem demonstrating an obvious ...

  19. When Black Girls Fight: Interrogating, Interrupting, and (Re)Imagining Dangerous Scripts of Femininity in Urban Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Jennifer; Edwards, Erica B.

    2018-01-01

    The recent death of Amy Joyner, a promising Wilmington, Delaware, high school sophomore demonstrates very clearly the ways in which Black girls are made vulnerable in urban schools. Joyner, an honor roll student, was jumped by a group of girls in the bathroom just before classes began. The alleged cause of the fight was jealousy over a boy. Black…

  20. Negative emotions and the meaningful sides of media entertainment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oliver, M. B.; Bartsch, A.; Hartmann, T.; Parrott, G.

    2014-01-01

    This unique volume brings together state-of-the-art research showing the value of emotions that many believe to be undesirable. Leading investigators explore the functions and benefits of sadness, anxiety, anger, embarrassment, shame, guilt, jealousy, and envy. The role of these emotions in social

  1. Manifestasies van die liefde in Langsaan die vuur (A. H. M. Scholtz ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Motives in this respect are inter alia: racism as a cause of lovelessness, love across ethnic barriers, jealousy as a generator of hatred, the human being as mere ... love, lack of love within the church and Christian community, the relationship between being treated with love and self esteem, emotional pain as a result of being ...

  2. What do YOUth feel? Understanding adolescents' momentary emotions and emotion regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lennarz, H.K.

    2018-01-01

    Adolescents experience many different emotions and have to learn to regulate them effectively to prevent the development of mood disorders. This dissertation showed that experience of emotions differed between persons and situations. Jealousy was most intensely experienced when with peers and in

  3. Self-Concept Education as a Motivator of Life Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liggins, James

    2012-01-01

    The idea that individual behavior is the result of society's influence on individual self-concept beliefs reflects more than a century of theory and research. Therefore, this study focuses on self-concept as a construct of primordial human characteristics such as emotion, aspiration, love, conflict, anger, jealousy, contradiction, guilt, and…

  4. Deja Vu and Moving the Conversation: Reactions to an Underutilized Partnership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galassi, John P.; Akos, Patrick

    2004-01-01

    Romano and Kachgal argue for greater collaboration between counseling psychology and school counseling. Although their proposal has considerable merit, a variety of barriers to collaboration - including professional jealousies and turf, the lack of knowledge and interest of most counseling psychologists in schools, and the availability of benefits…

  5. Self and partner personality and responses to relationship threats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Pieternel; Barelds, Dick P. H.

    2008-01-01

    Two studies examined the relations between three different types of jealousy and personality characteristics of self and partner in two large heterogeneous community samples of heterosexual couples (459 and 230 couples, respectively). It was expected that partners would resemble each other to some

  6. Pet dogs’ behavior when the owner and an unfamiliar person attend to a faux rival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicotra, Velia; Pelosi, Annalisa; Valsecchi, Paola

    2018-01-01

    While dog owners ascribe different emotions to their pets, including jealousy, research on secondary emotions in nonhuman animals is very limited and, so far, only one study has investigated jealousy in dogs (Canis familiaris). This work explores jealousy in dogs one step further. We conducted two studies adapting a procedure devised to assess jealousy in human infants. In each study 36 adult dogs were exposed to a situation in which their owner and a stranger ignored them while directing positive attention towards three different objects: a book, a puppet and a fake dog (Study 1: furry; Study 2: plastic). Overall, the results of both studies do not provide evidence that the behavioral responses of our dogs were triggered by jealousy: we did not find a clear indication that the fake dogs were perceived as real social rivals, neither the furry nor the plastic one. Indeed, dogs exhibited a higher interest (i.e. look at, interact with) towards the fake dogs, but differences in the behavior towards the fake dog and the puppet only emerged in Study 2. In addition, many of the behaviors (protest, stress, attention seeking, aggression) that are considered distinctive features of jealousy were not expressed or were expressed to a limited extent, revealing that dogs did not actively try to regain their owner’s attention or interfere with the interaction between the owner and the faux rival. Finally, a differentiated response towards the attachment figure (the owner) and the unfamiliar person (the stranger) did not emerge. Differently from what reported in human infants, dogs’ behavior towards the attachment figure and the stranger interacting with the potential competitor (in this case, the fake dog) did not significantly differ: in both studies dogs paid attention to the owner and the stranger manipulating the fake dog to the same extent. In conclusion, we do not exclude that dogs could possess a rudimentary form of jealousy, but we suggest that research on this topic

  7. The use of social networking sites for relationship maintenance in long-distance and geographically close romantic relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billedo, Cherrie Joy; Kerkhof, Peter; Finkenauer, Catrin

    2015-03-01

    Social networking sites (SNS) play an increasingly important role in maintaining geographically close romantic relationships (GCRR). However, knowledge about SNS use in long-distance romantic relationships (LDRR) is still lacking. The present study examined the relative importance of SNS in maintaining LDRR compared to GCRR, particularly with regard to the use of SNS to express involvement (via relational maintenance behaviors) and to gauge a partner's involvement (via partner surveillance and jealousy) in the relationship. An online survey was conducted among predominantly young adult Facebook users who were in a romantic relationship (N=272). Results showed that participants who were in a LDRR reported higher levels of relational maintenance behaviors through SNS than participants who were in a GCRR. Also, as compared to participants who were in a GCRR, participants who were in a LDRR used SNS more for partner surveillance and experienced higher levels of SNS jealousy.

  8. Relationship power and betrayal experience as predictors of reactions to infidelity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, Margit I; Frazier, Patricia A

    2005-12-01

    Explanations for sexual infidelity have been dominated by an evolutionary psychological theory of jealousy that finds its strongest support in research that employs a forced-choice hypothetical infidelity paradigm wherein participants imagine experiencing infidelity and choose whether sexual or emotional infidelity would be more distressing. Robust gender differences that support evolutionary psychological perspectives are consistently found using this paradigm, but recent work suggests that gender differences may be attenuated among actual infidelity victims. However, no research has used the forced-choice paradigm to compare real and hypothetical infidelity. This study uses this paradigm to compare reactions to imagined dating infidelity to those of infidelity victims. No gender differences are observed in response to the forced-choice question among victims of infidelity. Gender differences among participants who imagined infidelity are partially mediated by level of relationship power. Difficulties with the hypothetical forced-choice paradigm and implications for the evolutionary psychological theory of jealousy are discussed.

  9. Can manipulations of cognitive load be used to test evolutionary hypotheses?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, H Clark; Frederick, David A; Haselton, Martie G; Kurzban, Robert

    2006-09-01

    D. DeSteno, M. Y. Bartlett, J. Braverman, and P. Salovey proposed that if sex-differentiated responses to infidelity are evolved, then they should be automatic, and therefore cognitive load should not attenuate them. DeSteno et al. found smaller sex differences in response to sexual versus emotional infidelity among participants under cognitive load, an effect interpreted as evidence against the evolutionary hypothesis. This logic is faulty. Cognitive load probably affects mechanisms involved in simulating infidelity experiences, thus seriously challenging the usefulness of cognitive load manipulations in testing hypotheses involving simulation. The method also entails the assumption that evolved jealousy mechanisms are necessarily automatic, an assumption not supported by theory or evidence. Regardless of how the jealousy debate is eventually settled, cognitive load manipulations cannot rule out the operation of evolved mechanisms. ((c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Upset in Response to a Sibling’s Partner’s Infidelity

    OpenAIRE

    Dafni Hellstrand; Elisavet Chrysochoou

    2015-01-01

    Existing evidence suggests that the psychological design of romantic jealousy differs for men and women: Men are more likely than women to report greater upset in response to a partner’s sexual than emotional infidelity, whereas women are more likely than men to report greater upset in response to a partner’s emotional than sexual infidelity. However, the observed sex difference can be explained after the fact by both an evolutionary analysis of past reproductive costs and a social constructi...

  11. Understanding emotional problems: the REBT perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Dryden, Windy

    2008-01-01

    Rational emotive behaviour therapy (REBT) is an approach to counselling and psychotherapy rooted in the CBT tradition and one that has a distinctive perspective on emotional problems.\\ud \\ud Understanding Emotional Problems provides an accurate understanding of the REBT perspective on eight major emotional problems for which help is sought: anxiety, depression, shame, guilt, unhealthy anger, hurt, unhealthy jealousy and unhealthy envy.\\ud \\ud Rather than discussing treatment methods, Windy Dr...

  12. Witness and nonwitness children's violent and peaceful behavior in different types of simulated conflict with peers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballif-Spanvill, Bonnie; Clayton, Claudia J; Hendrix, Suzanne B

    2007-04-01

    The violent and peaceful behaviors of 115 children who had or had not witnessed domestic violence were measured in five types of simulated conflict. Witnesses did not differ from nonwitnesses in conflicts involving limited resources, jealousy over possessions, or intimidation; witnesses were significantly more violent in conflicts involving aggression and exclusion. The most violent responses were found among abusers' sons who had been excluded by peers. 2007 APA, all rights reserved

  13. The victims of bad boys. Why does evil fascinates so much? Guilty or innocent victims/Las víctimas de los chicos malos ¿Por qué el mal fascina tanto? Víctimas culpables o inocentes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salah-Eddine Abbassi

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The bad guys are men behind a charismatic and friendly attitude hide different feelings; jealousy, control, domain, etc., just to name a few. However, what is what engages the victim with a person like this? They are wholly innocent or have a degree of responsibility? And more importantly, how would you foresee this situation? These are questions that are reflected in the document without giving a single answer.

  14. L’INVISIBLE ET LE VISIBLE SELON ALAIN ROBBE-GRILLET (The Invisible and the Visible in the Work of Alain Robbe–Grillet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef Fulka

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The present text is an attempt to re-read Robbe-Grillet’s Jealousy in the perspective of what modern psychology calls “the theory of mind”. The author attempts to show that Robbe-Grillet’s literary procedure consists, at least in part, in presenting the characters as deprived of inner mental states, thus approaching the theory of “mindblindness”, presented in a different context, by the psychologist Simon Baron-Cohen.

  15. Madness in Shakespeare's Characters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuno Borja-Santos

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper begins with an introduction where the aims are explained: a psychopathological analysis of a Shakespearean character - Othello – followed by the discussion of the English dramatist’s importance in helping us understand madness in the emergent world of Renaissance. The main characteristics of Othello’s personality, which allowed the development of his jealousy delusion, are described. Finally, the conclusions underline the overlap of the symptoms developed by the character with the DSM-IV classification.

  16. Family Life Portrayal Viewed From Eminem’s Selected Lyrics

    OpenAIRE

    Patar Simbolon

    2009-01-01

    Skripsi berjudul “ From Eminem’s Selected Lyrics” ini menganalisa tentang hubungan Eminem dengan anggota keluarga lainnya seperti ayahnya, ibunya, isterinya, dan puterinya. Analisa mengenai hubungan tersebut dipaparkan melalui lirik-lirik lagu yang ditulis Eminem sendiri, dan telah dipilih berdasarkan isi dari lirik-lirik tersebut. Lirik lagu yang dipilih sebagai bahan untuk dianalisa adalah Evil Deeds, Cleaning Out My Closet, Kim, Jealousy Woes, Mockingbird, dan When I’m Gone. Selain itu, sk...

  17. TOXICITY BEHAVIORS IN ORGANIZATIONS: STUDY OF RELIABILITY AND VALIDITY OF TOXIC EMOTIONAL EXPERIENCES SCALE

    OpenAIRE

    Bektas, Meral; Erkal, Pinar

    2016-01-01

    In toxic organizations which are mostly destructive instead of being constrictive towards its employees, toxicity behaviors emerge as a result of the formal and informal relationships. Toxicity behaviors are often negatively affect motivation, job satisfaction or performance of the employees in workplace. Basic toxicity behaviors in organizations are: extreme jealousy, biting words, emphasis  superiority emphasis, getting angry, offending employees, strict control, heavy job workload, limited...

  18. Social communication impairments in children and adolescents with Asperger syndrome: Slow response time and the impact of prompting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaland, Nils; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Smith, Lars

    2011-01-01

    , and understanding intentions. The participants in the AS group showed significant impairments in social communication. They needed significantly longer response times to solve the tasks and required significantly more prompt questions than the control persons. When analyzing the AS participants' performances before......In the present study children and adolescents with Asperger syndrome (N = 13) and a matched control group of typically developing children and adolescents were presented with 26 vignettes of daily life situations, including irony, metaphors, contrary emotions, jealousy, social blunders...

  19. The Complexity of Romantic Relationship: A Quantitative Study of Women's Emotional Responses to Couple Conflicts in Light of Hormones and Evolutionary Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Karlestrand, Sølvi Dørum

    2013-01-01

    Women who use hormonal contraceptives have been shown to report more intense affective responses to partner infidelity than women with a natural cycle. Also, previous research suggests that female jealousy is sensitive to hormonal changes when naturally cycling, with a peak around ovulation, while women using hormonal contraceptives are less sensitive. This research is aimed at exploring women`s perception of couple conflicts in line with predictions derived from evolutionary theory. A fa...

  20. Poetics of Feelings in Seneca’s tragedies

    OpenAIRE

    Dikmonienė, Jovita

    2011-01-01

    The dissertation analyzes the expression of feelings in Seneca’s tragedies. This is the first research paper in Lithuania dedicated to Senecan dramas. The dissertation author looks for the links between Seneca’s philosophical works and poetic principles in his dramas. The paper focuses on the theoretical analyses of anger, fear, affection, jealousy, shame and guilt in Senecan and other Stoics’ philosophical works, and how these feelings are revealed in tragedies, characters’ experiences and m...

  1. Relations among Individual Differences in Reproductive Strategies, Sexual Attractiveness, Affective and Punitive Intentions, and Imagined Sexual or Emotional Infidelity

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel N. Jones; Aurelio José Figueredo; Erin Denise Dickey; W. Jake Jacobs

    2007-01-01

    We examined relations among Mating Effort, Mate Value, Sex and individuals' self-reported responses to imagined sexual or emotional infidelity. We asked participants to describe the (1) upset or bother (2) aversive emotional reactions (3) punitive impulses, and (4) punitive intentions they experienced in response to imagined sexual or emotional infidelity. The results replicated previously documented sex differences in jealousy. In addition, imagined sexual infidelity upset individuals higher...

  2. Which Infidelity Type Makes You More Jealous? Decision Strategies in a Forced-Choice between Sexual and Emotional Infidelity

    OpenAIRE

    Achim Schützwohl

    2004-01-01

    This study tested the prediction derived from the evolutionary psychological analysis of jealousy that men and women selecting the adaptively primary infidelity type (i.e., female sexual and male emotional infidelity, respectively) in a forced-choice response format need to engage in less elaborate decision strategies than men and women selecting the adaptively secondary infidelity type (i.e., male sexual and female emotional infidelity, respectively). Unknown to the participants, decision ti...

  3. Sex Differences in Feelings of Guilt Arising from Infidelity

    OpenAIRE

    Maryanne Fisher; Martin Voracek; P. Vivien Rekkas; Anthony Cox

    2008-01-01

    Although there is extensive literature regarding sex differences in jealousy due to infidelity, guilt resulting from infidelity remains unexplored. We hypothesize that men will feel guiltier from imagined emotional rather than sexual infidelity, as it is most important for their partner's reproductive success. Similarly, we predict that women will feel more guilt from imagined sexual rather than emotional infidelity. The findings indicate a different pattern; men feel guiltier following sexua...

  4. Transgenerational metamorphosis in Shakespeare’s Winter’s tale and the eurozone crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald Wooster

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Shakespeare’s The Winter’s Tale – set in Palermo, and also Bohemia - suggests that where there is close affection and love there also may be more exposure to envy, jealousy, uncontrolled anger,attempts to punish, and guilt. It involves inter-sibling and inter-group dynamics, attributions, misattributions, but also transgenerational metapmorphosis creating new meanings, and how envy and jealousy - if reconciled – may redeem guilt and generate psychic surpluses rather than only deficits. The paper outlines these but also relates such dynamics to the current crisis of the Eurozone and Kleinian splitting and projective identification. It suggests that the crisis is the first time Germany that Germany has been able to split from guilt (Schuld – especially for the Holocaust – and been able to project guilt for debt (also Schuld in German onto the peripheral European countries, and that transgenerational metapmorphosis will depend on recovering the good in credit as the inverse of debt. Keywords: Jealousy; Guilt; Debt 

  5. Chronic and Acute Relational Risk Factors for Dating Aggression in Adolescence and Young Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collibee, Charlene; Furman, Wyndol

    2016-04-01

    Dating aggression is a prevalent and costly public health concern. Using a relational risk framework, this study examined acute and chronic relational risk factors (negative interactions, jealousy, support, and relationship satisfaction) and their effects on physical and psychological dating aggression. The study also examined the interaction between chronic and acute risk, allowing us to assess how changes in acute risk have differing effects depending on whether the individual is typically at higher chronic risk. A sample of 200 youth (100 female) completed seven waves of data, which spanned 9 years from middle adolescence to young adulthood (M age at Wave 1 = 15.83). Using hierarchical linear modeling, analyses revealed both acute (within-person) and chronic (between-person) levels in jealousy, negative interactions, and relationship satisfaction, were associated with physical and psychological dating aggression. Significant interactions between chronic and acute risk emerged in predicting physical aggression for negative interactions, jealousy, and relationship satisfaction such that those with higher levels of chronic risk are more vulnerable to increases in acute risk. These interactions between chronic and acute risk indicate that risk is not static, and dating aggression is particularly likely to occur at certain times for youth at high risk for dating aggression. Such periods of increased risk may provide opportunities for interventions to be particularly effective in preventing dating aggression or its consequences. Taken together, these findings provide support for the role of relational risk factors for dating aggression. They also underscore the importance of considering risk dynamically.

  6. Sex Differences in Implicit Association and Attentional Demands for Information about Infidelity1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime W. Thomson

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Sex differences in reaction to a romantic partner's infidelity are well documented and are hypothesized to be attributable to sex-specific jealousy mechanisms that solve sex specific adaptive problems. There have been few cognitive-based investigations of jealousy, however. Here we investigated sex differences in implicit processing of jealousy-based information. In Experiment 1, we used the implicit association test (IAT to investigate sex-differentiated biases in classifying sexual or emotional infidelity information as being positive or negative. Men made significantly more errors when asked to classify as pleasant, words indicating sexual infidelity. In Experiment 2, we modified the Stroop task to include words that depicted infidelity-related topics in three priming conditions: sexual infidelity priming, emotional infidelity priming, and a no priming control. Men were significantly slower to respond after being primed with sexual infidelity scenarios. The effect of sexual infidelity priming was not word-category specific, suggesting that cognition about a partner's sexual infidelity hijacks general cognitive and attentional processing. These findings suggest that men may automatically classify information about sexual infidelity as negative and that the automatic negative processing of sexual infidelity takes precedent over other types of immediate cognition.

  7. Transgenerational metamorphosis in Shakespeare’s Winter’s tale and the eurozone crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald Wooster

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Shakespeare’s The Winter’s Tale – set in Palermo, and also Bohemia - suggests that where there is close affection and love there also may be more exposure to envy, jealousy, uncontrolled anger,attempts to punish, and guilt. It involves inter-sibling and inter-group dynamics, attributions, misattributions, but also transgenerational metapmorphosis creating new meanings, and how envy and jealousy - if reconciled – may redeem guilt and generate psychic surpluses rather than only deficits. The paper outlines these but also relates such dynamics to the current crisis of the Eurozone and Kleinian splitting and projective identification. It suggests that the crisis is the first time Germany that Germany has been able to split from guilt (Schuld – especially for the Holocaust – and been able to project guilt for debt (also Schuld in German onto the peripheral European countries, and that transgenerational metapmorphosis will depend on recovering the good in credit as the inverse of debt. Key words: Jealousy, Guilt, Debt.

  8. A retrospective study of murder-suicide at the Forensic Institute of Ghent University, Belgium: 1935-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Koning, Eva; Piette, Michel H A

    2014-04-01

    Murder followed by suicide (M-S) is a rare phenomenon that has been studied in several countries. Previous studies show that offenders of M-S are predominately men who live in an intimate relationship. Amorous jealousy is often the trigger to commit M-S. Shooting is the most common way to kill a partner and/or children. In general, women are likely to become victims. The aim of this study was to identify M-S and detect patterns of M-S in the district of Ghent and the surrounding areas, since no research on this event was conducted in Belgium. Over a period of 75 years, a total of 80 M-S incidents was recorded involving 176 individuals. Eighty-six percent of the offenders were males and 14% were females. Murder-suicides were mostly completed with firearms. The main motive for offenders to execute M-S is amorous jealousy (56%), followed by familial, financial, or social stressors (27%). In addition, three types of M-S were selected (e.g., spousal murder-suicides, filicide-suicides, and familicides-suicides). Our results suggest differences in these types of M-S in which younger couples' intentions were amorous jealousy; as for older couples the prominent motive was mercy killing; most likely women killed their children and only men committed familicides. Finally a study of the evolution during this period was carried out.

  9. Intrasexual vigilance: the implicit cognition of romantic rivalry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maner, Jon K; Miller, Saul L; Rouby, D Aaron; Gailliot, Matthew T

    2009-07-01

    Four experiments tested the hypothesis that concerns about infidelity would lead people, particularly those displaying high chronic levels of romantic jealousy, to display a functionally coordinated set of implicit cognitive biases aimed at vigilantly processing attractive romantic rivals. Priming concerns about infidelity led people with high levels of chronic jealousy (but not those low in chronic jealousy) to attend vigilantly to physically attractive same-sex targets at an early stage of visual processing (Study 1), to strongly encode and remember attractive same-sex targets (Study 2), and to form implicit negative evaluations of attractive same-sex targets (Studies 3 and 4). In each case, effects were observed only for same-sex targets who were physically attractive-individuals who can pose especially potent threats to a person's own romantic interests. These studies reveal a cascade of implicit, lower order cognitive processes underlying romantic rivalry and identify the individuals most likely to display those processes. At a broader conceptual level, this research illustrates the utility of integrating social cognitive and evolutionary approaches to psychological science. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. How Japanese companion dog and cat owners’ degree of attachment relates to the attribution of emotions to their animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koda, Naoko; Martens, Pim

    2018-01-01

    Recently, studies in the United States and European countries have shown that the degree of attachment is associated with the attribution of emotions to companion animals. These studies imply that investigating the degree of attachment to companion animals is a good way for researchers to explore animal emotions and then improve animal welfare. Although a promising area of study, in Japan, no empirical studies have examined the correlation between the degree of attachment and the attribution of emotions to companion animals. In this research, we aimed to assess companion animal owners’ attribution of six primary (anger, joy, sadness, disgust, fear and surprise) and four secondary (shame, jealousy, disappointment and compassion) emotions to their dogs and cats, as well as how the degree of attachment related to such attribution of emotions from a Japanese cultural perspective. The “Pet Bonding Scale” (PBS), which is used to determine the level of bonding between humans and animals, was introduced to measure respondents’ degree of attachment to their companion animals. The results of a questionnaire (N = 546) distributed throughout Japan showed that respondents attributed a wide range of emotions to their animals. Companion animals’ primary emotions, compared to secondary emotions, were more commonly attributed by their owners. The attribution of compassion and jealousy was reported at a high level (73.1% and 56.2%, respectively), which was surprising as compassion and jealousy are generally defined as secondary emotions. All participants were highly attached to their companion animals, and this attachment was positively associated with the attribution of emotions (9/10) to companion animals (all p animal emotions by analyzing the bonding between companion animals and owners in Japan, and it can therefore provide knowledge to increase Japanese people’s awareness of animal welfare. PMID:29304166

  11. How Japanese companion dog and cat owners' degree of attachment relates to the attribution of emotions to their animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Bingtao; Koda, Naoko; Martens, Pim

    2018-01-01

    Recently, studies in the United States and European countries have shown that the degree of attachment is associated with the attribution of emotions to companion animals. These studies imply that investigating the degree of attachment to companion animals is a good way for researchers to explore animal emotions and then improve animal welfare. Although a promising area of study, in Japan, no empirical studies have examined the correlation between the degree of attachment and the attribution of emotions to companion animals. In this research, we aimed to assess companion animal owners' attribution of six primary (anger, joy, sadness, disgust, fear and surprise) and four secondary (shame, jealousy, disappointment and compassion) emotions to their dogs and cats, as well as how the degree of attachment related to such attribution of emotions from a Japanese cultural perspective. The "Pet Bonding Scale" (PBS), which is used to determine the level of bonding between humans and animals, was introduced to measure respondents' degree of attachment to their companion animals. The results of a questionnaire (N = 546) distributed throughout Japan showed that respondents attributed a wide range of emotions to their animals. Companion animals' primary emotions, compared to secondary emotions, were more commonly attributed by their owners. The attribution of compassion and jealousy was reported at a high level (73.1% and 56.2%, respectively), which was surprising as compassion and jealousy are generally defined as secondary emotions. All participants were highly attached to their companion animals, and this attachment was positively associated with the attribution of emotions (9/10) to companion animals (all p animal emotions by analyzing the bonding between companion animals and owners in Japan, and it can therefore provide knowledge to increase Japanese people's awareness of animal welfare.

  12. How Japanese companion dog and cat owners' degree of attachment relates to the attribution of emotions to their animals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bingtao Su

    Full Text Available Recently, studies in the United States and European countries have shown that the degree of attachment is associated with the attribution of emotions to companion animals. These studies imply that investigating the degree of attachment to companion animals is a good way for researchers to explore animal emotions and then improve animal welfare. Although a promising area of study, in Japan, no empirical studies have examined the correlation between the degree of attachment and the attribution of emotions to companion animals. In this research, we aimed to assess companion animal owners' attribution of six primary (anger, joy, sadness, disgust, fear and surprise and four secondary (shame, jealousy, disappointment and compassion emotions to their dogs and cats, as well as how the degree of attachment related to such attribution of emotions from a Japanese cultural perspective. The "Pet Bonding Scale" (PBS, which is used to determine the level of bonding between humans and animals, was introduced to measure respondents' degree of attachment to their companion animals. The results of a questionnaire (N = 546 distributed throughout Japan showed that respondents attributed a wide range of emotions to their animals. Companion animals' primary emotions, compared to secondary emotions, were more commonly attributed by their owners. The attribution of compassion and jealousy was reported at a high level (73.1% and 56.2%, respectively, which was surprising as compassion and jealousy are generally defined as secondary emotions. All participants were highly attached to their companion animals, and this attachment was positively associated with the attribution of emotions (9/10 to companion animals (all p < 0.05. This study is one of the first to investigate animal emotions by analyzing the bonding between companion animals and owners in Japan, and it can therefore provide knowledge to increase Japanese people's awareness of animal welfare.

  13. Are you being sabotaged by your coworkers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrara-Love, R

    1998-10-01

    Men and women are both guilty of sabotaging coworkers, but men and women do it differently and for different reasons. Men tend to do it more overtly and for more work-related reasons. However, women are more covert; their reasons are motivated more by jealousy of another's success or their own insecurity. Once women are betrayed by another, they take it more personally than their male counterparts. Men confront the betrayer and move on; that is business. Women do not confront the betrayer and see betrayal in the workplace as being let down by their friends. Women need to treat business relationships and situations as business, not as friendships.

  14. Imaging, Behavior and Endocrine Analysis of “Jealousy” in a Monogamous Primate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maninger, Nicole; Mendoza, Sally P.; Williams, Donald R.; Mason, William A.; Cherry, Simon R.; Rowland, Douglas J.; Schaefer, Thomas; Bales, Karen L.

    2018-01-01

    Understanding the neurobiology of social bonding in non-human primates is a critical step in understanding the evolution of monogamy, as well as understanding the neural substrates for emotion and behavior. Coppery titi monkeys (Callicebus cupreus) form strong pair bonds, characterized by selective preference for their pair mate, mate-guarding, physiological and behavioral agitation upon separation, and social buffering. Mate-guarding, or the “maintenance” phase of pair bonding, is relatively under-studied in primates. In the current study, we used functional imaging to examine how male titi monkeys viewing their pair mate in close proximity to a stranger male would change regional cerebral glucose metabolism. We predicted that this situation would challenge the pair bond and induce “jealousy” in the males. Animals were injected with [18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG), returned to their cage for 30 min of conscious uptake, placed under anesthesia, and then scanned for 1 hour on a microPET P4 scanner. During the FDG uptake, males (n=8) had a view of either their female pair mate next to a stranger male (“jealousy” condition) or a stranger female next to a stranger male (control condition). Blood and cerebrospinal fluid samples were collected and assayed for testosterone, cortisol, oxytocin, and vasopressin. Positron emission tomography (PET) was co-registered with structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and region of interest analysis was carried out. Bayesian multivariate multilevel analyses found that the right lateral septum (Pr(b>0)=93%), left posterior cingulate cortex (Pr(b>0)=99%), and left anterior cingulate (Pr(b>0)=96%) showed higher FDG uptake in the jealousy condition compared to the control condition, while the right medial amygdala (Pr(b>0)=85%) showed lower FDG uptake. Plasma testosterone and cortisol concentrations were higher during the jealousy condition. During the jealousy condition, duration of time spent looking across at the pair

  15. Imaging, Behavior and Endocrine Analysis of “Jealousy” in a Monogamous Primate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Maninger

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the neurobiology of social bonding in non-human primates is a critical step in understanding the evolution of monogamy, as well as understanding the neural substrates for emotion and behavior. Coppery titi monkeys (Callicebus cupreus form strong pair bonds, characterized by selective preference for their pair mate, mate-guarding, physiological and behavioral agitation upon separation, and social buffering. Mate-guarding, or the “maintenance” phase of pair bonding, is relatively under-studied in primates. In the current study, we used functional imaging to examine how male titi monkeys viewing their pair mate in close proximity to a stranger male would change regional cerebral glucose metabolism. We predicted that this situation would challenge the pair bond and induce “jealousy” in the males. Animals were injected with [18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG, returned to their cage for 30 min of conscious uptake, placed under anesthesia, and then scanned for 1 h on a microPET P4 scanner. During the FDG uptake, males (n = 8 had a view of either their female pair mate next to a stranger male (“jealousy” condition or a stranger female next to a stranger male (control condition. Blood and cerebrospinal fluid samples were collected and assayed for testosterone, cortisol, oxytocin, and vasopressin. Positron emission tomography (PET was co-registered with structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, and region of interest analysis was carried out. Bayesian multivariate multilevel analyses found that the right lateral septum (Pr(b > 0 = 93%, left posterior cingulate cortex (Pr(b > 0 = 99%, and left anterior cingulate (Pr(b > 0 = 96% showed higher FDG uptake in the jealousy condition compared to the control condition, while the right medial amygdala (Pr(b > 0 = 85% showed lower FDG uptake. Plasma testosterone and cortisol concentrations were higher during the jealousy condition. During the jealousy condition, duration of time spent looking

  16. Which Infidelity Type Makes You More Jealous? Decision Strategies in a Forced-Choice between Sexual and Emotional Infidelity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achim Schützwohl

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This study tested the prediction derived from the evolutionary psychological analysis of jealousy that men and women selecting the adaptively primary infidelity type (i.e., female sexual and male emotional infidelity, respectively in a forced-choice response format need to engage in less elaborate decision strategies than men and women selecting the adaptively secondary infidelity type (i.e., male sexual and female emotional infidelity, respectively. Unknown to the participants, decision times were registered as an index of the elaborateness of their decision strategies. The results clearly support the prediction. Implications and limitations of the present findings are discussed.

  17. "Hedge Your Bets": Technology's Role in Young Gay Men's Relationship Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKie, Raymond M; Milhausen, Robin R; Lachowsky, Nathan J

    2017-01-01

    Technology is playing an increasingly pervasive role among young gay men in the process of meeting potential romantic or sexual partners. We investigated challenges posed by technology related to young gay men's relationships. Focus groups (n = 9) of young gay men aged 18-24 (n = 43) were transcribed verbatim, and thematic analysis was used to identify two major themes regarding challenges to relationship development and maintenance. Subthemes include unrealistic expectations of relationships, inauthentic self-presentation online, sexual primacy over romance, increased opportunities for infidelity, and jealousy. The implications of this study for sexual education and sexual health promotion are discussed.

  18. Uxoricide in pregnancy: ancient Greek domestic violence in evolutionary perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deacy, Susan; McHardy, Fiona

    2013-10-24

    Previous studies of ancient Greek examples of uxoricide in pregnancy have concluded that the theme is used to suggest tyrannical abuse of power and that the violence is a product of the patriarchal nature of ancient society. This article uses evolutionary analyses of violence during pregnancy to argue that the themes of sexual jealousy and uncertainty over paternity are as crucial as the theme of power to an understanding of these examples and that the examples can be seen as typical instances of spousal abuse as it occurs in all types of society.

  19. The necessity of conflict resolving in the contemporary world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krel Aleksandar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Whether collective or among individuals, conflicts between people are their doom, their fate and represent their dark side. Many people are marked by this ill fate, in a similar way as Cain was imprinted by the seal for the murder of his own brother. This well-known story from the Old Testament of Cain and Abel tells us about the basic matrix of every human conflict: emerged out of jealousy and various other problems, a conflict situation arises between the two sides, whereas the parties involved are not able to overcome it, and in time, this situation grows into an open conflict ending up in a tragedy.

  20. Domestic Violence in Zora Neale Hurston's Their Eyes Were Watching God: A Feminist Reading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parmis Tasharofi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Zora Neale Hurston's Their Eyes Were Watching God is one of the acclaimed boldly feminist novels of the 20th century. In general, this article draws on feminism and what looms large in feminism which is called sexism. In particular it focuses on domestic violence as a major sexist oppression. Domestic violence aroused by jealousy, anger, coercion, humiliation, threatening is manifest in verbal and physical abusing of women. Hurston skillfully depicts her heroine's undergoing of domestic violence by her husbands, each in different ways. This article aims to show that how the black heroine's battling with this violence purports to feminism and self-discovery of women.

  1. Perpetual memory. Episode Review «The entire history of you« of Black Mirror (2011)

    OpenAIRE

    Natacha Salomé LIMA

    2015-01-01

    What would happen if man could store and recovered all its memories at will? The entire history of you is an episode of the British television drama series which presents a futuristic scenario of a very old situation: jealousy. Human passions disturb our soul, trouble our reflections, and pushes us to action. Memory will be a privileged object for our analysis; not organic memory, but significant memory: this means the trace of memories that perform our body. We will try to analyze the possib...

  2. Distress in response to emotional and sexual infidelity: evidence of evolved gender differences in Spanish students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Ana Maria; Vera-Villarroel, Pablo; Sierra, Juan Carlos; Zubeidat, Ihab

    2007-01-01

    The authors studied gender differences in response to hypothetical infidelity in Spanish students. Using a forced-choice methodology, the authors asked a sample of 266 participants to indicate which kind of infidelity would be more distressing: emotional or sexual. Men were significantly more distressed by sexual infidelity than were women, and women were significantly more distressed by emotional infidelity than were men. Results supported the hypothesis that particular infidelity types, which resemble adaptive problems that human beings faced in the past, contribute to the psychology of jealousy. The results are consistent with previous cross-cultural research.

  3. Diferenças entre os sexos no ciúme romântico: um estudo brasileiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas de Francisco Carvalho

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The literature about romantic jealousy shows two principal theories in relation to the differences between sexes: specific innate module and socio-cognitive theory. This study intended to compare men and women answers using a questionnaire in the format of forced choice and the same questionnaire in the format of continuous measurement. 378 students participated, divided into two groups that answered the questionnaire in different formats. The differences between sexes was only evidenced on group 1 and few differences were found comparing men and women beliefs about infidelity and romantic relationship, on both groups. We pointed out the need for more studies in this field.

  4. Income Inequality and Happiness: An Inverted U-Shaped Curve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zonghuo; Wang, Fei

    2017-01-01

    Numerous studies agree that income inequality, rather than absolute income, is an important predictor of happiness. However, its specific role has been controversial. We argue that income inequality and happiness should exhibit an inverted U-shaped relationship due to the dynamic competing process between two effects: when income inequality is relatively low, the signal effect will be the dominating factor, in which individuals feel happy because they consider income inequality as a signal of social mobility and expect upward mobility; however, if income inequality level increases beyond a critical point, the jealousy effect will become the dominating factor, in which individuals tend to be unhappy because they are disillusioned about the prospect of upward mobility and jealous of their wealthier peers. This hypothesis is tested in a longitudinal dataset on the United States and a cross-national dataset on several European countries. In both datasets, the Gini coefficient (a common index of a society's income inequality) and its quadratic term were significant predictors of personal happiness. Further examinations of the quadratic relationships showed that the signal effect was only presented in the European data, while the jealousy effect was presented in both datasets. These findings shed new light on our understanding of the relationship between income inequality and personal happiness.

  5. Height among Women is Curvilinearly Related to Life History Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham P. Buunk

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available It was hypothesized that women of medium height would show a more secure, long-term mating pattern characterized by less jealousy, less intrasexual competition and a “slower” life history strategy. In three samples of female undergraduate students clear support was found for these hypotheses. In Study 1, among 120 participants, height was curvilinearly related to well-established measures of possessive and reactive jealousy, with women of medium height being less jealous than tall as well as short women. In Study 2, among 40 participants, height was curvilinearly related to intrasexual competition, with women of medium height being less competitive towards other women than tall as well as short women. In Study 3, among 299 participants, height was curvilinearly related to the Mini-K, a well-validated measure of “slower” life history strategy, with women of medium height having a slower life history strategy than tall as well as short women. The results suggest that women of medium height tend to follow a different mating strategy than either tall or short women. Various explanations and implications of these results are discussed.

  6. Psychopathological symptoms, social skills, and personality traits: a study with adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landazabal, Maite Garaigordobil

    2006-11-01

    The purpose of this study is two-fold: (a) to study the concomitant relationships between psychopathological symptoms, cooperation, social skills, and other personality traits; and (b) to identify the predictive variables of psychopathological symptoms. The sample consists of 322 adolescents aged 14 to 17 years old. This study uses correlational methodology. In order to assess psychopathological symptoms, cooperation, social skills, and personality traits, the following scales are used: the Symptom Checklist (SCL-90-R; Derogatis, 1983), the Cooperativeness Scale (CS; Rigby, Cox, and Black, 1997), the MESSY social skills scale (Matson, Rotatori, and Helsel, 1983), and the TPT Personality Test (Corral, Pamos, Pereña, and& Seisdedos, 2002). Pearson coefficients suggest that adolescents with many psychopathological symptoms have low levels of cooperative behaviors and social skills. They also score high in inappropriate assertiveness, impulsiveness, overconfidence, and jealousy-withdrawal and have low levels of emotional stability, sociability, and responsibility. Through multiple regression analyses, the following variables were identified as predictors of psychopathological symptoms: jealousy-withdrawal, low social integration, impulsiveness, and low self-concept. The role played by intervention programs promoting socio-emotional development to prevent psychopathological symptoms and enhance mental health is discussed.

  7. Income Inequality and Happiness: An Inverted U-Shaped Curve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zonghuo Yu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Numerous studies agree that income inequality, rather than absolute income, is an important predictor of happiness. However, its specific role has been controversial. We argue that income inequality and happiness should exhibit an inverted U-shaped relationship due to the dynamic competing process between two effects: when income inequality is relatively low, the signal effect will be the dominating factor, in which individuals feel happy because they consider income inequality as a signal of social mobility and expect upward mobility; however, if income inequality level increases beyond a critical point, the jealousy effect will become the dominating factor, in which individuals tend to be unhappy because they are disillusioned about the prospect of upward mobility and jealous of their wealthier peers. This hypothesis is tested in a longitudinal dataset on the United States and a cross-national dataset on several European countries. In both datasets, the Gini coefficient (a common index of a society’s income inequality and its quadratic term were significant predictors of personal happiness. Further examinations of the quadratic relationships showed that the signal effect was only presented in the European data, while the jealousy effect was presented in both datasets. These findings shed new light on our understanding of the relationship between income inequality and personal happiness.

  8. The socio-technical barriers to Solar Home Systems (SHS) in Papua New Guinea: 'Choosing pigs, prostitutes, and poker chips over panels'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sovacool, Benjamin K.; D'Agostino, Anthony L.; Jain Bambawale, Malavika

    2011-01-01

    This study explores the socio-technical barriers to Solar Home Systems (SHS) in Papua New Guinea. The authors collected primary data through semi-structured research interviews conducted over the course of February 2010-April 2010. Respondents included government officials, financiers, planners, commercial distributors and companies, teachers and rural villagers in addition to members of civil society, academics, consultants, and trainers. These interviews were supplemented with site visits to Port Moresby, Goroka, and Madang, and field research in the villages of Akameku, Asaroka, Lufa, Kundiawa, Okifa, Simbu, and Talidig. The study draws from these interviews and visits to discuss four types of barriers. Technical barriers relate to substandard equipment and logistical problems. Economic barriers include high rates of poverty, misconceptions about the role of currency, and lack of financing. Political barriers include poor institutional capacity and a government commitment to fossil-fueled grid electrification. Social barriers encompass unrealistic expectations about what SHS can provide along with jealousy, theft, vandalism, and unfamiliarity with solar technology. - Research highlights: → Solar Home Systems (SHS) are impeded by a collection of different barriers in Papua New Guinea. → Technical barriers relate to substandard equipment and logistical problems. → Economic barriers include high rates of poverty, misconceptions about the role of currency, and lack of financing.→ Political barriers include poor institutional capacity and a government commitment to fossil-fueled grid electrification. → Social barriers encompass unrealistic expectations about what SHS can provide along with jealousy, theft, vandalism, and unfamiliarity with solar technology.

  9. The Role of Facebook on the Romantic Relationships of Young People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Družeta

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Social networks have become part of everyday life. Their great popularity and diverse impacts on their users have attracted a growing amount of research. This research focuses on the contemporary issues of the growing popularity of social networks, especially Facebook, and its role on romantic relationships. The literature unanimously confirms that the large exposure of young people to Facebook is potentially affecting their behaviour and relationships in general, including romantic ones. Modern use of Facebook has led to the creation of new, "non-natural" elements in sentimental relationships that lead to increased jealousy, mistrust, insecurity, workload and surveillance. Because similar studies have not yet been conducted in Croatia, for the purposes of this study we have conducted a quantitative analysis using a survey on a sample of 92 students of Communication Science at Croatian Studies at the University of Zagreb, and four in-depth interviews with female students of the same program. The results highlight that Facebook has an impact on romantic relationships – from developing, and maintaining until its dissolution. Most notable are the problems of jealousy and partner surveillance.

  10. The socio-technical barriers to Solar Home Systems (SHS) in Papua New Guinea: 'Choosing pigs, prostitutes, and poker chips over panels'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sovacool, Benjamin K., E-mail: bsovacool@nus.edu.s [Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, National University of Singapore, 469C Bukit Timah Road, Singapore 259772 (Singapore); D' Agostino, Anthony L.; Jain Bambawale, Malavika [Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, National University of Singapore, 469C Bukit Timah Road, Singapore 259772 (Singapore)

    2011-03-15

    This study explores the socio-technical barriers to Solar Home Systems (SHS) in Papua New Guinea. The authors collected primary data through semi-structured research interviews conducted over the course of February 2010-April 2010. Respondents included government officials, financiers, planners, commercial distributors and companies, teachers and rural villagers in addition to members of civil society, academics, consultants, and trainers. These interviews were supplemented with site visits to Port Moresby, Goroka, and Madang, and field research in the villages of Akameku, Asaroka, Lufa, Kundiawa, Okifa, Simbu, and Talidig. The study draws from these interviews and visits to discuss four types of barriers. Technical barriers relate to substandard equipment and logistical problems. Economic barriers include high rates of poverty, misconceptions about the role of currency, and lack of financing. Political barriers include poor institutional capacity and a government commitment to fossil-fueled grid electrification. Social barriers encompass unrealistic expectations about what SHS can provide along with jealousy, theft, vandalism, and unfamiliarity with solar technology. - Research highlights: {yields} Solar Home Systems (SHS) are impeded by a collection of different barriers in Papua New Guinea. {yields} Technical barriers relate to substandard equipment and logistical problems. {yields} Economic barriers include high rates of poverty, misconceptions about the role of currency, and lack of financing.{yields} Political barriers include poor institutional capacity and a government commitment to fossil-fueled grid electrification. {yields} Social barriers encompass unrealistic expectations about what SHS can provide along with jealousy, theft, vandalism, and unfamiliarity with solar technology.

  11. Hormonal contraceptive use and mate retention behavior in women and their male partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welling, Lisa L M; Puts, David A; Roberts, S Craig; Little, Anthony C; Burriss, Robert P

    2012-01-01

    Female hormonal contraceptive use has been associated with a variety of physical and psychological side effects. Women who use hormonal contraceptives report more intense affective responses to partner infidelity and greater overall sexual jealousy than women not using hormonal contraceptives. Recently, researchers have found that using hormonal contraceptives with higher levels of synthetic estradiol, but not progestin, is associated with significantly higher levels of self-reported jealousy in women. Here, we extend these findings by examining the relationship between mate retention behavior in heterosexual women and their male partners and women's use of hormonal contraceptives. We find that women using hormonal contraceptives report more frequent use of mate retention tactics, specifically behaviors directed toward their partners (i.e., intersexual manipulations). Men partnered with women using hormonal contraceptives also report more frequent mate retention behavior, although this relationship may be confounded by relationship satisfaction. Additionally, among women using hormonal contraceptives, the dose of synthetic estradiol, but not of synthetic progesterone, positively predicts mate retention behavior frequency. These findings demonstrate how hormonal contraceptive use may influence behavior that directly affects the quality of romantic relationships as perceived by both female and male partners. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Gender-typical responses to sexual and emotional infidelity as a function of mortality salience induced self-esteem striving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldenberg, Jamie L; Landau, Mark J; Pyszczynski, Tom; Cox, Cathy R; Greenberg, Jeff; Solomon, Sheldon; Dunnam, Heather

    2003-12-01

    The authors propose that gender-differentiated patterns of jealousy in response to sexual and emotional infidelity are engendered by the differential impact of each event on self-esteem for men and women. Study 1 demonstrated that men derive relatively more self-esteem from their sex lives, whereas women's self-esteem is more contingent on romantic commitment. Based on terror management theory, it is predicted that if gender-differentiated responses to infidelity are motivated by gender-specific contingencies for self-esteem, they should be intensified following reminders of mortality. In Study 2, mortality salience (MS) increased distress in response to sexual infidelity for men and emotional infidelity for women. Study 3 demonstrated that following MS, men who place high value on sex in romantic relationships exhibited greater distress in response to sexual infidelity, but low-ex-value men's distress was attenuated. The authors discuss the implications for evolutionary and self-esteem-based accounts of jealousy as well as possible integration of these perspectives.

  13. «Desire is everything». Desires, dreams, obsessions of collectors and antiquarians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatrice Laghezza

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this essay is to intersect the figures of the collector and the antiquarian with the dynamics of desire, and identify the possible connections between the three themes. Therefore, a thematic and comparative approach was chosen, while the sample text were drawn from the Italian literature of the late nineteenth and twentieth centuries. The textual analysis will reveal the various desires moving collectors and antiquarians in search of the items that make up their collections: greed, pathological need of wealth, fantasies of martyrdom, love, ambition to excel, dreams of omnipotence, libido, jealousy, Illusion of immortality, attraction to the perverse, flâneuristic curiosity. But at the top of this list there is undoubtedly the desire to listen to literature’s description of life.

  14. Propiedades psicométricas de la Escala MESSY (versión autoinforme en niños argentinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Julia Ipina

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Psychometric properties of the MESSY Scale (self-assessment in Argentinean children This study examines the psychometric properties of the Matson Evaluation of Social Skills with Youngsters (Matson, Rotatori & Helsel, 1983, which assesses specific social skills involved in adaptive and non-adaptive behaviors. The factor structure and internal consistency were studied in a sample of children from Cordoba (n = 578 of 7 to 13 years old (M = 9.48, SD = 1.47 of both sexes (52.77% males. An exploratory study of data and variables was conducted; then the factor structure was studied. Results suggest that the structure of five factors was the simplest and theoretically most consistent: Aggressiveness/Antisocial Behavior, Appropriate Social Skills, Friendship, Overconfidence/Jealousy/Pride and Loneliness/ Social Anxiety. The internal consistent coefficients were good or acceptable in most dimensions. Gender differences observed in the dimensions and total score provide evidence of the validity of the instrument.

  15. Putting up emotional (Facebook) walls? Attachment status and emerging adults' experiences of social networking sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitzburg, George C; Farber, Barry A

    2013-11-01

    Social networking sites (SNS) like Facebook can increase interpersonal connections but also intensify jealousy, envy, and surveillance behaviors. Attachment styles may help explain differences in experiencing SNS. This study investigated the role of attachment in influencing emerging adults' perceptions and feelings about SNS and their disclosures on SNS. Disorganized and anxious attachment predicted subjects' use of SNS to avoid more personal face-to-face communication, suggesting individuals with these tendencies use SNS to hold relationships at a psychological arm's distance. Anxious attachment also predicted feelings of intimacy when using SNS, perhaps reflecting online needs for comfort from others. A case narrative is presented to show how those with insecure attachment patterns may struggle to avoid interpersonal conflict when being continuously presented with ambiguous social information. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. HOMICIDE FOLLOWED BY SUICIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SAMANTHA DUBUGRAS

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Homicide followed by suicide (H/S is a complex and poorly studied phenomenon. This research aims at identifyingH/S cases occurred in Porto Alegre from 1996 throughout 2004. Information on H/S was extracted from newspapers,police reports and interviews with the informants. From the 14 identified cases, men were the killers/suicides andwomen and children their victims. The most frequently used weapons were firearms. In general, the aggressor was animpulsive, aggressive individual showing problems within its primary supporting group, possibly suffering depressionand alcohol-addicted with criminal backgrounds (violence against the family. Events were mainly triggered by jealousy,threats or the end of a love relationship.

  17. Strategies of Human Mating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M. Buss

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Modern humans have inherited the mating strategies that led to the success of their ancestors. These strategies include long-term mating, short-term mating, extra-pair mating, mate poaching, and mate guarding. This article presents empirical evidence supporting evolution-based hypotheses about the complexities of these mating strategies. Since men and women historically confronted different adaptive problems in the mating domain, the sexes differ profoundly in evolved strategic solutions. These differences include possessing different mate preferences, different desires for short-term mating, and differences in the triggers that evoke sexual jealousy. The study of human mating is one of the “success stories” of evolutionary psychology.

  18. The Delusion of Enchantment in Miguel Cervantes’s Don Quixote and William Shakespeare’s Midsummer Night’s Dream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kodó Krisztina

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present article is to investigate the conceptual framework of magic and enchantment in the works of Miguel Cervantes de Saavedra and William Shakespeare. The works chosen for this comparative study are Don Quixote and Midsummer Night’s Dream. Shakespeare and Cervantes portray an ironic vision that may seem comic and grotesque on the surface, but in fact shows a violent and malign world. The portrayal of fantasy and realism parallel with the delusionary aspects of enchantment create an interplay between the ironic mockery and reality as seen through the experiences of the characters themselves. The delusions of enchantment experienced by the protagonists present a flawed world where jealousy, greed and corruption prevail.

  19. Partner dependency and intimate partner abuse: A sociocultural grounding of spousal abuse in Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adjei, Stephen Baffour

    2015-01-01

    While sociocultural scholarship has attempted an ecological explanation of intimate partner violence, it has largely been criticized for ignoring dispositional factors of both perpetrators and victims. Dependent personality and attachment-related emotional problems have been implicated in the ext......While sociocultural scholarship has attempted an ecological explanation of intimate partner violence, it has largely been criticized for ignoring dispositional factors of both perpetrators and victims. Dependent personality and attachment-related emotional problems have been implicated...... of dependency and attachment-related spousal violence as a form of a psychopathology. This article discusses partner dependency and jealousy-motivated spousal violence as socioculturally situated, dependent on contextual and relational conditions of meaning embedded in the communal society of Ghana....... It highlights Ghanaian communal personality, gendered socialization and meaning systems of marriage as salient sociocultural features for conceptualizing partner dependency and emotional-related spousal violence....

  20. About signs and symptoms: can semiotics expand the view of clinical medicine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nessa, J

    1996-12-01

    Semiotics, the theory of sign and meaning, may help physicians complement the project of interpreting signs and symptoms into diagnoses. A sign stands for something. We communicate indirectly through signs, and make sense of our world by interpreting signs into meaning. Thus, through association and inference, we transform flowers into love, Othello into jealousy, and chest pain into heart attack. Medical semiotics is part of general semiotics, which means the study of life of signs within society. With special reference to a case story, elements from general semiotics, together with two theoreticians of equal importance, the Swiss linguist Ferdinand de Saussure and the American logician Charles Sanders Peirce, are presented. Two different modes of understanding clinical medicine are contrasted to illustrate the external link between what we believe or suggest, on the one hand, and the external reality on the other hand.

  1. Penis Envy and the Female Oedipus Complex: A Plea to Reawaken an Ineffectual Debate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zepf, Siegfried; Seel, Dietmar

    2016-06-01

    Going along with Laplanche's assumption that there is no endogenous sexuality, the authors discuss Freud's concepts of the female Oedipus complex and penis envy and some of its proposed alternatives. The female oedipal conflict turns out to be the outcome of a projective identification with the Oedipus complexes of the mother and father. In the context of the rivalry with the mother, penis envy refers to the maternal power over the father's penis that the daughter wants to have in herself, while, in the context of the rivalry with the father, penis envy arises from the jealousy of the father's penis that the daughter believes is necessary to have on herself in order to satisfy her mother. The authors conclude that in Freud's day such insights were already available, which might have culminated in the conceptualization they present in this paper.

  2. Beliefs about power and its relation to emotional experience: a comparison of Japan, France, Germany, and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondillon, Laurie; Niedenthal, Paula M; Brauer, Markus; Rohmann, Anette; Dalle, Nathalie; Uchida, Yukiko

    2005-08-01

    This research examined the concept of power in Japan, France, Germany, and the United States, as well as beliefs about the emotions persons in power tend to elicit in others and about powerful people's regulation (specifically, inhibition) of certain emotions. Definitions of power were assessed by examining the importance of two main components: control over self versus other and freedom of action vis-à-vis social norms. Beliefs about both positive (pride, admiration) and negative (jealousy, contempt) emotions were measured. Analyses revealed that the concept of power differed across countries and that the definitions of power as well as country of origin significantly predicted beliefs about the emotions that are elicited in others by powerful people and also the regulation of expression of emotion by powerful people.

  3. Chain reaction. History of the atomic bomb; Kettenreaktion. Die Geschichte der Atombombe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mania, Hubert

    2010-07-01

    Henri becquerel tracked down in 1896 a strange radiation, which was called radioactivity by Marie Curie. In the following centuries German scientists Max Planck, Albert Einstein and Werner Heisenberg presented fundamental contributions to understand processes in the atomic nucleus. At Goettingen, center of the international nuclear physics community, the American student J. Robert Oppenheimer admit to this physical research. In the beginning of 1939 the message of Otto Hahns' nuclear fission electrified researchers. The first step, unleashing atomic energy, was done. A half year later the Second World War begun. And suddenly being friend with and busily communicating physicians were devided into hostile power blocs as bearers of official secrets. The author tells in this exciting book the story of the first atomic bomb as a chain reaction of ideas, discoveries and visions, of friendships, jealousy and intrigues of scientists, adventurers and genius. (orig./GL)

  4. A Comparative Study of Marketing Channel Multiagent Stackelberg Model Based on Perfect Rationality and Fairness Preference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaihong Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies channel consisting of a manufacturer and two retailers. As a basis for comparison, the first, multiagent Stackelberg model has been structured based on perfect rationality. Further, fairness preference theory will be embedded in marketing channel multiagent Stackelberg model, and the results show that if the retailers have a jealous fairness preference, the manufacturer will reduce the wholesale price, retailers will increase the effort level, product sales will be increased, and the total channel utility and manufacturers’ utility will be pareto improvement, but the pareto improvement of retailers’ utility is associated with the interval of jealousy fairness preference coefficient. If the retailers have a sympathetic fairness preference, the manufacturer increases wholesale price, retailers reduce the effort level, and the total channel utility, manufacturer’s utility, and retailers’ utility are less than that of the no fairness preference utility.

  5. The Potential Clash of Social Relationship between Muslim and Buddhist (Case Study on the Conflict of Buddha Statue in Tanjungbalai City, North Sumatra

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    Irwansyah Irwansyah

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Socio-religious conflicts that occurred in Tanjungbalai City allegedly caused by the establishment of Buddha Statue. This research aims to reveal how relations between Muslim and Buddhist in Tanjungbalai. This study classified as qualitative research. Fact were obtained through observation, interviews, and document review. The results showed social conflict occurred after the establishment of Buddha Statue. Tanjungbalai as one of “China town”, to trigger the social jealousy. In addition to the economic factors are controlled by China,  Tanjungbalai City the majority of Muslims, did not accept the establishment of 6 metre tall Buddha Statue that was on the fourth floor of the building Vihara Tri Ratna. Muslims aliancy movement asking for removal of the statue. Buddhists being defensive and worried that the Malays (Muslims think that the Buddhist same with “the Chinese”.

  6. There is no joy like malicious joy: schadenfreude in young children.

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    Simone G Shamay-Tsoory

    Full Text Available Human emotions are strongly shaped by the tendency to compare the relative state of oneself to others. Although social comparison based emotions such as jealousy and schadenfreude (pleasure in the other misfortune are important social emotions, little is known about their developmental origins. To examine if schadenfreude develops as a response to inequity aversion, we assessed the reactions of children to the termination of unequal and equal triadic situations. We demonstrate that children as early as 24 months show signs of schadenfreude following the termination of an unequal situation. Although both conditions involved the same amount of gains, the children displayed greater positive expressions following the disruption of the unequal as compared to the equal condition, indicating that inequity aversion can be observed earlier than reported before. These results support an early evolutionary origin of inequity aversion and indicate that schadenfreude has evolved as a response to unfairness.

  7. Contributions of Literature to Social Psychology

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    Anastasio Ovejero

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available There are two main kind of psychology: a intuitive psychology, and an academic and professional psychology. These two psychologies are different, but they can make important reciprocals contributions. And the best of the intuitive psychology, that in my opinion is in the literature and overall in the romance, can be very useful for professional psychologists. The main end of this paper is to show how the social psychologists can learn from the intuitive psychology of the great romances. This contribution of the romance to the social psychology is, at least, at these two levels. At the level of construction of the subjectivity and the modern subject and the, therefore, of the psychology’s arise, and at the level of some concrete subjects studied by the psychologists (romantic love, jealousy, infidelity, compunction, emotions, vengeance, human relations…

  8. Triadology of love in P. Florenskiy and S. Bulgakov’s studies

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    Pavenkov Vladimir Grigor'yevich

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This article covers the study of triadology of love in one of the Russian religious philosophical schools. This direction is represented by such names as P.A. Florenskiy, S.N. Bulgakov, N.O. Lossky, I.A. Ilyin. The founder of this direction was the Father Paul Florensky. In his treatise “The Pillar and Ground of the Truth” (1914 he examined such issues as relations in the Holy Trinity, the connection of Trinitarian pattern with Christian anthropological model, relations between the indiviaduals, the categories of love, jealousy, and friendship. S.N. Bylgakov considered the Christian triadology of love being based on concepts of the Image and the Prototype and relations between the Image and the Divine Prototype. The common idea of Florenskiy and Bulgakov's philosophy is the idea of the unity of anthropology and triadology of love.

  9. An examination of women's alcohol use and partner victimization experiences among women with protective orders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannon, Lisa; Logan, Tk; Cole, Jennifer; Walker, Robert

    2008-07-01

    This study examined associations of women's alcohol use with self-reported experiences of male-perpetrated intimate partner violence among a sample of women with protective orders. Participants were 676 women with a protective order against a male intimate partner from three rural areas and one urban area. Multivariate analyses indicated that women's substance use was associated with psychological abuse tactics and severity of physical and sexual victimization in the last year of the relationship. Women's alcohol use was associated with the severity of physical violence within the last year of the relationship, whereas illegal drug use had associations with the number of verbal abuse, degradation and jealousy/control tactics. There was a significant interaction of women's alcohol and drug use with the severity of sexual assault.

  10. Chain reaction. History of the atomic bomb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mania, Hubert

    2010-01-01

    Henri becquerel tracked down in 1896 a strange radiation, which was called radioactivity by Marie Curie. In the following centuries German scientists Max Planck, Albert Einstein and Werner Heisenberg presented fundamental contributions to understand processes in the atomic nucleus. At Goettingen, center of the international nuclear physics community, the American student J. Robert Oppenheimer admit to this physical research. In the beginning of 1939 the message of Otto Hahns' nuclear fission electrified researchers. The first step, unleashing atomic energy, was done. A half year later the Second World War begun. And suddenly being friend with and busily communicating physicians were devided into hostile power blocs as bearers of official secrets. The author tells in this exciting book the story of the first atomic bomb as a chain reaction of ideas, discoveries and visions, of friendships, jealousy and intrigues of scientists, adventurers and genius. (orig./GL)

  11. Attitudes towards poverty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Derdziuk

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Poverty, perceived as a lack of basic consumer goods, gives rise to a whole range of outcomes which affect not only the material dimension of human existence, but also influence social relations and references to spiritual values. Attitudes which could be associated with involuntary and unacceptable poverty include: doubt in the Divine Providence, bitterness, jealousy and envy, blaming others, lack of gratitude and in perceiving good, laziness, lack of initiative, escalating demands, gluttony and greed as well as meanness. However, joy, peace, freedom and solidarity with the poor, as well as work and enterprise, are symptoms of evangelical attitudes of the poor in spirit. Attitudes to poverty point to a wide range of human behaviours towards possessions and in effect, reveal an individual’s sense of value.

  12. EFFECT OF BYPASS FAT IN PRODUCTIVE AND REPRODUCTIVE PARAMETERS OF FEMALE CATTLE CROSSES INDICA SYNCHRONIZED WITH A CRESTAR® MODIFIED PROTOCOL - GUASDUALITO– VENEZUELA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quintero AD

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The objetive of this study was to evaluate the effect of bypass fat in productive and reproductive parameters in bovine females indicates crosses in the Fundación livestock farm; of the parish Guasdualito Venezuela, Apure state, making a modification to Crestar® protocol. The fat by pass was provided by 52 days, to cows with an average of 3 was provided7 years of age, with no health problems and body condition from 2.75 to 3.5 (scale 1-5. The animals were inseminated into two groups and found that the average final body condition in the Gyr and crossbred cows improved; there is a positive correlation strong between the intensity and duration of heat and that the presence of the calves contributes to find animals with jealousy of short duration and low intensity.

  13. Explanation and Analysis of the Reasons of Occurring Sedition in Kalila and Dimna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Khodadadi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Sedition is one of the political and social disorders in humankind societies. In case of occurring sedition, a society will involve in not only disturbance and chaos, but also it is possible to destroy the political system, so this factor is considered as severe threaten from creation and forming the political systems up to now. Most of the scientists considered the valuable book of Kalila and Dimna as political constitution which was written by Nasrollah Monshi and this important factor was expressed in different dimensions as evidenced by this statement. In this Article, it is attempted to be involved in explanation and analysis of the reasons of occurring the sedition such as jealousy, greed and avidity, aversion, pride and revenge in Kalila and Dimna.

  14. Sibling rivalry and the new baby: anticipatory guidance and management strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawicki, J A

    1997-01-01

    Sibling rivalry can be found in many families and frequently creates a stressful and challenging situation for parents. The arrival of a new baby often causes older siblings to feel displaced, frustrated, angry, and even unloved. Age, gender, personality and temperament, and parental behavior are factors that appear to influence the degree to which sibling rivalry occurs. Common reactions of older siblings to the birth of a new baby include aggression toward the newborn, behavioral regression, and attention seeking behavior, as well as independence and maturity. Anticipatory guidance is recommended to help parents adequately prepare their older child for the arrival of a new sibling. Strategies for managing sibling rivalry include open parent-child communication, equal treatment of siblings, non-intervention in sibling conflicts, distraction, and separation. Parents can minimize feelings of jealousy between siblings by providing a supportive, nurturing environment that allows each child to feel secure and loved.

  15. The Analysis of Pricing Power of Preponderant Metal Mineral Resources under the Perspective of Intergenerational Equity and Social Preferences: An Analytical Framework Based on Cournot Equilibrium Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meirui Zhong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper combines intergenerational equity equilibrium and social preferences equilibrium with Cournot equilibrium solving the technological problem of intergenerational equity and strategic value compensation confirmation, achieving the effective combination between sustainable development concept and value evaluation, thinking and expanding the theoretical framework for the lack of pricing power of mineral resources. The conclusion of the theoretical model and the numerical simulation shows that intergenerational equity equilibrium and social preferences equilibrium enhance international trade market power of preponderant metal mineral resources owing to the production of intergenerational equity compensation value and strategic value. However, the impact exerted on Cournot market power by social preferences is inconsistent: that is, changes of altruistic Cournot equilibrium and reciprocal inequity Cournot equilibrium are consistent, while inequity aversion Cournot equilibrium has the characteristic of loss aversion, namely, under the consideration of inequity aversion Cournot competition, Counot-Nash equilibrium transforms monotonically with sympathy and jealousy of inequity aversion.

  16. Beckett and Begrudgery

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    Stephen Graf

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available For many literary critics, Samuel Beckett was above the hurly burly of the quotidian. His work was strictly universal, existing on the plane of the abstract and philosophical, rather than dealing with specific human foibles, particularly those peculiar to his native Ireland. But in the era immediately following the Second World War, Beckett was not averse to exploring one of the most peculiar of the peculiarly Irish traits: begrudgery. A virulent combination of jealousy, spite, and festering resentment, begrudgery prevailed in epidemic proportions in the Ireland of Beckett’s day. Beckett himself was not untouched by Irish begrudgery. His character Moran, the protagonist and narrator of the second book of Beckett’s Molloy, exhibits all of the characteristics of Irish begrudgery. After establishing what begrudgery is, and tracing its philosophical and the sociological origins with an eye to Irish history, this study will culminate in a close reading of Molloy.

  17. Health manpower vs. mindpower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mase, D J

    1976-12-01

    Applying mindpower to health care means planning. We can no longer afford to "guesstimate" ratios of assistants and aides to physicians, dietitians, therapists, or technologists. Mindpower also means education: First, of the consumer of our services, the patient (he must see that the health care team is made up of some two hundred occupations, not just of physician and nurse); then of our future health professionals (here the competent performance of certain tasks takes precedence over what is called "general" education). Although the recent knowledge explosion has stretched the curriculum considerably, a "professional degree" may yet mean more than a graduate degree. Mindpower is communication, cooperation, and collaboration on the job. It means being adaptable in emergencies, cutting out jealousy and pettiness, relying on preventive efforts, finding strength in unity.

  18. ASPEK-ASPEK SOSIOLOGIK SISTEM HUKUM NASIONAL (Tinjauan Kritis Terhadap Kasus Bank Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor Aziz Said

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available National law system professes the modern precept. The existence of modern law was integrally with the modern concept, which was the analytical legal positivism or the rechtdogmatiek and the political atmosphere which hegemony the XIX century, which is: “Liberalism”. Liberalism as a fundament of modern law focused in individual freedom and managing lives by preserving freedom and the sustainably. Liberal values and individual freedom have become paradigm inside the modern law system. And sociologic perspective, modern law existance with liberalism is a reflection of political interaction pattern, economic, social, and culture and preserving the interaction, it clearly that law contain with class characteristic. Law system was not integration media but creating and strenght the undistributed and social jealousy, and instituted privilege. The impact is law interaction no longer reflecting the equal relation but oriented to repressive based on power or asymmetry and negative sanction.

  19. ASPEK-ASPEK SOSIOLOGIK SISTEM HUKUM NASIONAL (Tinjauan Kritis Terhadap Kasus Bank Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor Aziz Said

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available National law system professes the modern precept. The existence of modern law was integrally with the modern concept, which was the analytical legal positivism or the rechtdogmatiek and the political atmosphere which hegemony the XIX century, which is: “Liberalism”. Liberalism as a fundament of modern law focused in individual freedom and managing lives by preserving freedom and the sustainably. Liberal values and individual freedom have become paradigm inside the modern law system. And sociologic perspective, modern law existance with liberalism is a reflection of political interaction pattern, economic, social, and culture and preserving the interaction, it clearly that law contain with class characteristic. Law system was not integration media but creating and strenght the undistributed and social jealousy, and instituted privilege. The impact is law interaction no longer reflecting the equal relation but oriented to repressive based on power or asymmetry and negative sanction. Keyword: liberalism, class freedom, repressive, right

  20. Are Sexual and Emotional Infidelity Equally Upsetting to Men and Women? Making Sense of Forced-Choice Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A. Lishner

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Forced-choice measures that assess reactions to imagined sexual and emotional infidelity are ubiquitous in studies testing the Jealousy as a Specific Innate Module (JSIM model. One potential problem with such measures is that they fail to identify respondents who find both forms of infidelity equally upsetting. To examine this issue, an experiment was conducted in which two groups of participants imagined a romantic infidelity after which participants in the first group used a traditional forced-choice measure to indicate whether they found sexual or emotional infidelity more upsetting. Participants in the second group instead used a modified forced-choice measure that allowed them also to indicate whether they found both forms of infidelity equally upsetting. Consistent with previous research, those given the traditional forced-choice measure tended to respond in a manner that supported the JSIM model. However, the majority of participants given the modified measure indicated that both forms of infidelity were equally upsetting.

  1. Male honor and female fidelity: implicit cultural scripts that perpetuate domestic violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandello, Joseph A; Cohen, Dov

    2003-05-01

    Two studies explored how domestic violence may be implicitly or explicitly sanctioned and reinforced in cultures where honor is a salient organizing theme. Three general predictions were supported: (a) female infidelity damages a man's reputation, particularly in honor cultures; (b) this reputation can be partially restored through the use of violence; and (c) women in honor cultures are expected to remain loyal in the face of jealousy-related violence. Study 1 involved participants from Brazil (an honor culture) and the United States responding to written vignettes involving infidelity and violence in response to infidelity. Study 2 involved southern Anglo, Latino, and northern Anglo participants witnessing a "live" incident of aggression against a woman (actually a confederate) and subsequently interacting with her.

  2. Sex Differences in Feelings of Guilt Arising from Infidelity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryanne Fisher

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Although there is extensive literature regarding sex differences in jealousy due to infidelity, guilt resulting from infidelity remains unexplored. We hypothesize that men will feel guiltier from imagined emotional rather than sexual infidelity, as it is most important for their partner's reproductive success. Similarly, we predict that women will feel more guilt from imagined sexual rather than emotional infidelity. The findings indicate a different pattern; men feel guiltier following sexual infidelity, whereas women feel guiltier following emotional infidelity. Results also show that both sexes believe their partners would have a more difficult time forgiving sexual, rather than emotional, infidelity, but women and not men report that sexual infidelity would more likely lead to relationship dissolution. These findings are discussed in view of evolved mating strategies and individual reproductive success.

  3. Upset in response to a Sibling's partner's infidelities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalski, Richard L; Shackelford, Todd K; Salmon, Catherine A

    2007-03-01

    Using data collected from people with at least one brother and one sister, and consistent with an evolutionary perspective, we find that older men and women (a) are more upset by a brother's partner's sexual infidelity than by her emotional infidelity and (b) are more upset by a sister's partner's emotional infidelity than by his sexual infidelity. There were no effects of participant sex or sex of in-law on upset over a sibling's partner's infidelities, but there was an effect of participant sex on reports of upset over one's own partner's infidelities. The results suggest that the key variable among older participants is the sex of the sibling or, correspondingly, the sex of the sibling's partner, as predicted from an evolutionary analysis of reproductive costs, and not the sex of the participant, as predicted from a socialization perspective. Discussion offers directions for future work on jealousy.

  4. Conflicto interpersonal: semejanzas y diferencias por estatus de pareja y reporte de violencia en mujeres de Hidalgo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa García Meraz

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the differences between Conflict and Violence report in two groups: women have experienced Intimate Partner Violence and women with no report; residents in Hidalgo, Mexico. The Conflict and Intimate Partner Violence (IPV scales were applied into a 619 participants, 314 attended health services for experience IPV, while 305 were users of medical care. We use a 3 * 2 design with Relationship Status (Courtship, Married and Cohabitation and sample type (IPV report/ without IVP report. The results demonstrate that women in dating relationships report more conflict related to jealousy compared with women in marriage or cohabitation. Meanwhile, all conflict areas are more reported for women that have experienced violence, with no differences by partner status.

  5. Kapoyt/blu: alla scoperta della storia armena di un colore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Bais

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The study begins with an analysis of the semantics of the Armenian word kapoyt, blue, taking into account its different uses in Armenian literature, e.g. its possible connection with natural elements (lakes, seas, sky, etc., clothes, diseases, precious stones, and toponyms. Great attention has been paid to the metaphorical meanings of kapoyt in Armenian tradition, which are related with feelings such as envy, jealousy, and sorrow. The second part of the study deals with the colour blue as a mean of artistic expression. On the one hand, the symbolism of blue has been investigated through the reflection on the aesthetics of colour found in the works of some Armenian Christian authors of the Middle Ages. On the other, we analyse different types of pigment used by Armenian artists in different times and in different schools, according to the information of ancient handbooks on colour production, and on the basis of data concerning the trade in colouring matters.

  6. Upset in Response to a Sibling’s Partner’s Infidelity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dafni Hellstrand

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Existing evidence suggests that the psychological design of romantic jealousy differs for men and women: Men are more likely than women to report greater upset in response to a partner’s sexual than emotional infidelity, whereas women are more likely than men to report greater upset in response to a partner’s emotional than sexual infidelity. However, the observed sex difference can be explained after the fact by both an evolutionary analysis of past reproductive costs and a social constructionist analysis of social and gender role training. Attempting to disentangle these competing perspectives, researchers have measured participants’ upset in response to a sibling’s or a child’s partner’s infidelities. In contrast to what a socialization perspective would predict, participants’ sex did not seem to affect their responses; the key variable was the sex of the sibling or the child, in line with a heuristic application of the evolutionary perspective. The present study attempted not only to test these competing hypotheses but also to extend previous work by involving participants with a gay or lesbian sibling and examining whether participants’ responses are triggered by their sibling’s or sibling’s partner’s sex. In line with an evolutionary perspective, participants’ sex did not assert an effect on their responses. The key variable seemed to be the sex of the sibling (rather than the sex of the sibling’s partner, with participants reporting greater levels of upset in response to the sexual than emotional infidelity of a gay brother’s partner and to the emotional than sexual infidelity of a lesbian sister’s partner. The ensuing discussion offers suggestions for future work on sex-specific triggers of jealousy.

  7. PSYCHOLOGICAL FEATURES OF SPOUSE’S EXPERIENCE OF SOME FAMILY CRISES

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    Valeriya Anatolyevna Ivanchenko

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available By this research authors tried to find any psychological features of spouse’s experience of some normative family crises. 24 married couples from Novosibirsk, aged 20 to 41 years, take a part in this research. There were 8 couples at the «Childless couple stage» and 16 couples at the stage «Family with young children».Purpose is an identifying of psychological characteristics of some normative family’s crisesMethodology based on using of psychodiagnostic testing with Family Adaptability and Cohesion Scale III (FACES III, test of Role expectations of partners (N.Volkova, test of  the interaction of the spouses in a conflict situation (Yu.E.Aleshina, L.Ya.Gozman, E.M.Dubovskaya and method of mathematical statistics with the Spearman rank criterion and the non- parametric Mann-Whitney U test.Results describe some psychological characteristics of spouses at the «Childless couple stage» and at the stage «Family with young children», include difference between men and women in this experience. The most important at the «Childless couple stage» is an attitude to expression of jealousy. If the family endures the crisis, spouses have an active negative reaction on an expression of jealousy. At the stage «Family with young children» at the forefront there are money disagreements, which prove an existence of family crisis from our point of view.   Practical implications are in the area of practical and scientific activity of family psychologists.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-7-14

  8. Social acceptability and perceived impact of a community-led cash transfer programme in Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skovdal, Morten; Mushati, Phyllis; Robertson, Laura; Munyati, Shungu; Sherr, Lorraine; Nyamukapa, Constance; Gregson, Simon

    2013-04-15

    Cash transfer programmes are increasingly recognised as promising and scalable interventions that can promote the health and development of children. However, concerns have been raised about the potential for cash transfers to contribute to social division, jealousy and conflict at a community level. Against this background, and in our interest to promote community participation in cash transfer programmes, we examine local perceptions of a community-led cash transfer programme in Eastern Zimbabwe. We collected and analysed data from 35 individual interviews and three focus group discussions, involving 24 key informants (community committee members and programme implementers), 24 cash transfer beneficiaries, of which four were youth, and 14 non-beneficiaries. Transcripts were subjected to thematic analysis and coding to generate concepts. Study participants described the programme as participatory, fair and transparent - reducing the likelihood of jealousy. The programme was perceived to have had a substantial impact on children's health and education, primarily through aiding parents and guardians to better cater for their children's needs. Moreover, participants alluded to the potential of the programme to facilitate more transformational change, for example by enabling families to invest money in assets and income generating activities and by promoting a community-wide sense of responsibility for the support of orphaned and vulnerable children. Community participation, combined with the perceived impact of the cash transfer programme, led community members to speak enthusiastically about the programme. We conclude that community-led cash transfer programmes have the potential to open up for possibilities of participation and community agency that enable social acceptability and limit social divisiveness.

  9. Psychometric Evaluation and Cultural Correlates of the Mate Retention Inventory–Short Form (MRI-SF in Iran

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    Mohammad Atari

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The current study investigated the psychometric properties of the Persian translation of the Mate Retention Inventory–Short Form (MRI-SF in Iran. We also investigated sex differences in the use of mate retention tactics and investigated the relationships between mate retention behaviors and a number of related cultural constructs. Participants (N = 308 ranged in age from 18 to 57 years. All participants were in a committed romantic relationship, with mean relationship length of 63.5 months (SD = 73.8. Participants completed the Persian translation of the MRI-SF and measures of religiosity, relationship satisfaction, self-esteem, and socioeconomic status. Cultural measures specific to Iran were also included, such as Mahr (for married individuals, self-perceived Qeiratiness (for men, and self-perceived jealousy (for women. Mahr is a mandatory amount of money or possessions paid or promised to be paid by the groom to the bride at the time of the marriage contract. Qeirati is a male-specific adjective in Persian meaning protective against unwanted attention toward a man’s romantic partner. Female jealousy is usually regarded the counterpart of male Qeiratiness in Iranian culture. The 19 mate retention tactics formed a two-component structure, consistent with previous research. Results demonstrate adequate internal consistency of 2-item assessments of mate retention tactics. Observed sex differences accorded with previous mate retention research and are discussed in reference to evolutionary perspectives on human mating. Several significant associations emerged between mate retention tactics and Iranian culture-specific variables and are discussed from a cross-cultural perspective.

  10. Foundations for self-awareness: An exploration through autism.

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    Hobson, Peter R; Chidambi, Gayathri; Lee, Anthony; Meyer, Jessica

    2006-01-01

    Developmental psychopathology holds promise for elucidating the structure of self-awareness. Here we studied social emotions in matched groups of children and adolescents with and without autism. Our aims were to determine whether there are potentially dissociable aspects of self-awareness, and to reconsider how the qualities of young children's engagement with other persons influences the development of their sense of self. Parent interviews yielded evidence that children with autism are limited in social-relational and emotional domains of self-awareness; for example, few were reported to show guilt, embarrassment, or shame. Yet according to parent report, most were affected by the moods of others, showed some degree of pity and concern, and manifested jealousy. When presented with videotaped scenes, participants with autism were similar to those without autism in identifying pride, guilt, and shame, and they were able to describe their own experiences of pride and, more rarely, guilt. In situations designed to elicit emotions, participants with autism were rated as showing pride, but they manifested lesser degrees and atypical qualities of guilt and coyness. Relatively few showed personal forms of self-consciousness when asked to pose for a photograph. We argue that in order for children to achieve depth in self-awareness, and to relate to themselves as occupying a distinctive stance within a framework of mutual self-other relatedness, they need to identify with the attitudes of other people. We interpret the present studies in terms of dissociations among three forms of social emotion: "person-centered" qualities of relational self-awareness that require identification and are specifically limited among children with autism, more diffuse modes of relational self-consciousness, and a third group of social emotions, epitomized by jealousy, situated in a separate developmental line. We propose a rebalancing of emotion theory that gives greater prominence to

  11. Multiple stabbing in sex-related homicides.

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    Radojević, Nemanja; Radnić, Bojana; Petković, Stojan; Miljen, Maletin; Curović, Ivana; Cukić, Dragana; Soć, Miodrag; Savić, Slobodan

    2013-07-01

    It is possible that sexually driven homicides are the consequence of sexual deviation, but more often than not the main cause of such homicides stems from a non-paraphilic person's emotional component. It is known that homicides which involve multiple stabbing are very often the result of the assailant's highly expressed affect. This study tries to establish whether such homicides are essentially related to the sexual motives of the murderer. This paper is conducted through a retrospective autopsy study that includes 766 cases of homicides. These were reviewed and analysed according to the motive of the homicide, as well as by method, age, and gender of the victim, and the relationship between the victim and the assailant. The motives of homicides are classified as non-sexual and sexual, including homicides related to rape, jealousy, amorous affairs outside of an established relationship, deviant sexual behaviour of psychiatric patients, paraphilia, and disturbed emotional relationships between the victim and the assailant. Cases include both hetero- and homosexual relationships. Multiple stabbing occurs significantly more frequently in sex-related homicides (≥ 3 stab wounds) than in other homicide types. When the criteria for multiple stabbing are changed (≥ 4, 5, or 25 stab wounds), the percentage of sex-related homicides rises in every group in relation to the increased number of wounds. Sensitivity and specificity are represented by ROC curves for 3, 5 and 7 stab wounds. The correlation coefficients between multiple stabbing and sex-related homicides regarding gender are all near 0.9. For female victims, all homicides committed by 25 and more stab wounds were found to be sex-related. Statistically, jealousy was the most frequent motive for sex-related multiple stabbing homicides. Regardless of age, homicides involving multiple stabbings should be considered sex-related, especially when the victim is female. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of

  12. How are they doing? Listening as fathers of children with autism spectrum disorder compare themselves to fathers of children who are typically developing.

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    Cheuk, Samantha; Lashewicz, Bonnie

    2016-04-01

    The growing prevalence of autism spectrum disorder is accompanied by ongoing efforts to understand and support parents in the face of challenges related to their child's autism spectrum disorder. Although fathers are increasingly hands-on in raising children, research focus on parenting children with autism spectrum disorder continues to be skewed toward experiences of mothers. Our purpose in this article is to contribute understandings of how fathers of children with autism spectrum disorder perceive themselves to be managing, and we undertake this by examining comparisons fathers of children with autism spectrum disorder make between their parenting experiences and experiences of fathers of typically developing children. A purposive sample of 28 fathers of children (aged 2-13 years) with autism spectrum disorder living in an urban center in Western Canada participated in in-depth interviews about their parenting successes and challenges. We found fathers speak of universal fathering experiences yet articulate their own sense of loss and efforts to come to terms with unanticipated demands associated with autism spectrum disorder. Fathers of children with autism spectrum disorder feel "pangs of jealousy" toward fathers of typically developing children, yet they are keenly attentive to their own child's development and convey a sense of gratitude for their child's capabilities and personality amidst an appreciation for trials and triumphs of fathering in general and fathering a child with autism spectrum disorder in particular. © The Author(s) 2015.

  13. Reading Romance: The Impact Facebook Rituals Can Have On A Romantic Relationship

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    Greg Bowe B.A. Mod

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Despite the fact that research has identified intimate relationships as being an important factor in how people look to present themselves on social networking sites, there still remains a lack of research in this domain. By comparing trends inside the rituals of the relationship status, public displays of affection and photographs on Facebook this paper examines how they can impact a relationship in the offline world by discussing the extent to which the design and features of the site can impact the emotional repertoire of its users. Results highlighted that the website has the potential to provide a new focus and channel for a person to depict where their relationship is going, feeling rules can be attached to certain rituals on the website. By focusing on the relationship statusoption and public displays of affection, it was emphasized that these rituals accentuate themes of possession and territory and can be used to configure a couple’s superiority. The discussion on photographs illustrated how the website can bring problems and jealousy to the relationship, particularly when the ‘ex-partner’ was taken into account.

  14. Oleg Grabar: the scholarly legacy

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    Robert Hillenbrand

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available After surveying the various necrologies and events celebrating the life and achievements of Oleg Grabar, the article reflects in a general sense on why his death has unleashed such a flood of memories, using Grabar’s own assessment of his work as a tool. The paper then underlines his extraordinary range and attempts to identify his special skills: his intellectual curiosity that drove him to pose questions rather than dictate answers; his openness to new theoretical and technological ideas and techniques; and his habit of thinking outside the box, a skill he made very much his own and that he did not learn from his teachers. His lack of professional jealousy and of the deformities that attend over-specialization were alike noteworthy. The paper then discusses his books in detail, especially The Formation of Islamic Art and The Mediation of Ornament, his acknowledged masterpieces which had wide circulation within the field and outside it. Finally, the paper anthologizes the comments of his students and colleagues on this remarkable and lovable man.

  15. Model for negotiation on contingency plans for distribution of natural gas; Modelo de negociacao para planos de contingencia energetica na area de gas natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sobral, Marcos Felipe Falcao; Morais, Danielle Costa [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The high consumption of Natural Gas (NG), the environmental and economic turbulences that occurred in recent years raises questions about the supply of the product in critical situations. Characteristic factors of natural gas, like the high cost of storage, show the need for the establishment of contingency plans that define what procedures should be adopted in the distribution of Natural Gas or redistribute among consumers in times of restriction of supply, substantial increase on demand or reduction in the ability of supply. These plans aim to define in advance the actions that will be adopted, providing business and consumer segments clear rules indicate the time to search for alternative sources in case of crisis. The current models can not yet address the problem of negotiation for the division of the product following the concepts proposed by the science of trading, making things like proportionality and envy-free are not observed. The aim of this study is to propose a model for distribution of quotas for supply of NG between different consumer segments. The proposed algorithm combines the procedures of Knaster, Steinhaus and Divide the Dollar, seeking an allocation that minimize the feeling of jealousy and provide an equitable distribution. (author)

  16. Mentalization of complex emotions in borderline personality disorder: The impact of parenting and exposure to trauma on the performance in a novel cartoon-based task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brüne, Martin; Walden, Sarah; Edel, Marc-Andreas; Dimaggio, Giancarlo

    2016-01-01

    Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is characterized by a range of interpersonal difficulties, which are, in part, related to adverse experiences during childhood. Unresponsive parenting and traumatization may cause functional impairment of mentalization, i.e. the ability to reflect upon own and others' mental states. However, the relationship of poor parenting, trauma and mentalization in BPD has not exhaustively been studied. Thirty patients diagnosed with BPD and 30 matched control subjects were asked to sequence a novel cartoon-based mentalization task involving complex emotions such as jealousy, shame, guilt etc. In addition, they were required to reason about cognitive and affective mental states of the cartoon characters. The quality of parental care was assessed using a self-report measure for recalled parental rearing style, and childhood trauma was measured in retrospect using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. Patients with BPD performed more poorly in all aspects of the cartoon task. Mentalizing skills, particularly relating to affective mental states, were uniquely associated with the quality of recalled parental care and childhood trauma. Together, the quality of parental care and the experience of childhood trauma negatively impact on mentalization in BPD, even in an experimental "offline" task. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. [Diagnostic inquiries in patients with a theta ground rhythm variant in the EEG].

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    Wendland, K L; Fenzel, G

    1992-09-01

    Basing on the examination of 82.767 EEGs, 118 patients with theta rhythm variant (GRV) were found out. From their case-histories all particulars taken to be important were gathered by means of a questionnaire. In addition to this 70 of these patients were interviewed, mostly in the course of a visit at home, in order to supplement the data by catamnestic informations. Moreover, attending family doctors were asked for informations, and from 14 patients elsewhere recorded EEGs were evaluated. With regard to its cycles per second, the GRV proved to be stable even for long periods, but as to its coming to the fore a slight changeability revealed. Concerning physical complaints, the patients primarily suffered from headache, giddiness, and liability to fainting fits, secondary they frequently were affected with vegetative disorders and stomach complaints. In view of the psychic aspect striking often came to light unrest, lack of vitality, disturbed social contacts, sexual problems, anxiety fits, depressive reactions, and suicidal thoughts. High sensitiveness and insufficient self-sureness in many cases were conspicuous attributes. In particular men often failed in establishing or maintaining intimate human relations, so that many of them remained single, made at best only few friends, and easily became outsiders. Inability to enforce own desires against opposition, liability of mood, ill-humor, discontent, or even jealousy frequently made their appearance. As to gainful employment and professional status several of them were less successful than their siblings and their parents.

  18. 'Struggling to be the alpha': sources of tension and intimate partner violence in same-sex relationships between men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldenberg, Tamar; Stephenson, Rob; Freeland, Ryan; Finneran, Catherine; Hadley, Craig

    2016-08-01

    In countries such as the USA, gay and bisexual men experience high rates of intimate partner violence. However, little is known about the factors that contribute to this form of violence. In this study, we examine gay and bisexual men's perceptions of sources of tension in same-sex male relationships and how these may contribute to intimate partner violence. We conducted seven focus-group discussions with 64 gay and bisexual men in Atlanta, GA. Focus groups examined men's reactions to the short-form revised Conflicts Tactics Scale to determine if each item was considered to be intimate partner violence if it were to occur among gay and bisexual men. Analysts completed a thematic analysis, using elements of grounded theory. The sources of tension that men identified included: gender role conflict, dyadic inequalities (e.g. differences in income, age, education), differences in 'outness' about sexual identity, substance use, jealousy and external homophobic violence. Results suggest that intimate partner violence interventions for gay and bisexual men should address behavioural factors, while also focusing on structural interventions. Interventions that aim to reduce homophobic stigma and redefine male gender roles may help to address some of the tension that contributes to intimate partner violence in same-sex male relationships.

  19. Physical and emotional abuse in romantic relationships: motivation for perpetration among college women.

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    Leisring, Penny A

    2013-05-01

    Intimate partner violence is extremely common in college samples. To inform prevention and intervention efforts, understanding the motivation for engaging in partner aggression is critically important. The predominant view in the domestic violence field has been that women's use of intimate partner violence occurs in the context of self-defense. However, there has been a dearth of solid evidence to support this claim. The present study explored the motivations for the perpetration of minor and severe physical aggression and for three types of emotional abuse (restrictive engulfment, denigration, and dominance/intimidation) among college women. A detailed definition of self-defense was used and motivations for women who were sole perpetrators of physical violence as well as motivations for women who had been aggressed against in their romantic relationships were examined. Anger, retaliation for emotional hurt, to get partner's attention, jealousy, and stress were all common reasons for perpetrating partner violence among college women. Few women indicated that self-defense was a motive for their abusive behavior. The results suggest that prevention and intervention efforts to reduce partner violence perpetration by women should include anger and stress management.

  20. Perpetual memory. Episode Review «The entire history of you« of Black Mirror (2011

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    Natacha Salomé LIMA

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available What would happen if man could store and recovered all its memories at will? The entire history of you is an episode of the British television drama series which presents a futuristic scenario of a very old situation: jealousy. Human passions disturb our soul, trouble our reflections, and pushes us to action. Memory will be a privileged object for our analysis; not organic memory, but significant memory: this means the trace of memories that perform our body. We will try to analyze the possibilities of our actions against the technological dangers and “progresses”. The scope of biopolitics presented by Michel Foucault in the 70venties could be taken up by the contemporary idea of the current decline of love, desire and sexuality. We will visit some of the Freudian early works to think how memory and the possibilities of remembrance are a singular construction of human being. This significant memory is capable of knotting remembrance, fantasy and desire. But memory could also become perpetual when it is object of manipulation producing devastating effects on human´s subjectivity.

  1. Post-stroke psychosis: how long should we treat?

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    Maria do Céu Ferreira

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To describe a rare case of a patient who developed psychotic symptoms after a right stroke that disappeared with antipsychotic treatment, but appears to need low-dose maintenance antipsychotic therapy. Case description: A 65-year-old man presented at the psychiatric emergency service with a history of persistent delusional jealousy, visual illusions and agitation with onset about 1 month after a right posterior cerebral artery ischemic stroke. These symptoms only disappeared with therapeutic dosages of an antipsychotic drug (3 mg/day of risperidone. At 2-year follow-up, he no longer had delusional activity and the antipsychotic treatment was gradually discontinued over the following year. However, 1 week after full cessation, the patient once more became agitated and suspicious and was put back on risperidone at 0.25 mg/day, resulting in rapid clinical remission. One year after the return to low-dose risperidone, the patient's psychopathology is still under control and he is free from psychotic symptoms. Comments: Psychosis is a relatively rare complication after stroke. To our knowledge, no cases of post-stroke psychosis that apparently require continuous low-dose antipsychotic treatment have been reported to date. Our case suggests that low-dose maintenance antipsychotic therapy may be needed for certain patients with post-stroke psychosis, especially for those with risk factors and non-acute onset.

  2. Abstract Word Definition in Patients with Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment

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    Kim, Soo Ryon; Baek, Min Jae; Kim, HyangHee

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate concrete and abstract word definition ability (1) between patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and normal adults and (2) between the aMCI subtypes (i.e., amnestic single-domain MCI and amnestic multidomain MCI; asMCI and amMCI) and normal controls. The 68 patients with aMCI (29 asMCI and 39 amMCI) and 93 age- and education-matched normal adults performed word definition tasks composed of five concrete (e.g., train) and five abstract nouns (e.g., jealousy). Task performances were analyzed on total score, number of core meanings, and number of supplementary meanings. The results were as follows. First, the aMCI patients scored significantly poorer than the normal controls in only abstract word definition. Second, both subtypes of aMCI performed worse than the controls in only abstract word definition. In conclusion, a definition task of abstract rather than concrete concepts may provide richer information to show semantic impairment of aMCI. PMID:26347214

  3. Abstract Word Definition in Patients with Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment

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    Soo Ryon Kim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to investigate concrete and abstract word definition ability (1 between patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI and normal adults and (2 between the aMCI subtypes (i.e., amnestic single-domain MCI and amnestic multidomain MCI; asMCI and amMCI and normal controls. The 68 patients with aMCI (29 asMCI and 39 amMCI and 93 age- and education-matched normal adults performed word definition tasks composed of five concrete (e.g., train and five abstract nouns (e.g., jealousy. Task performances were analyzed on total score, number of core meanings, and number of supplementary meanings. The results were as follows. First, the aMCI patients scored significantly poorer than the normal controls in only abstract word definition. Second, both subtypes of aMCI performed worse than the controls in only abstract word definition. In conclusion, a definition task of abstract rather than concrete concepts may provide richer information to show semantic impairment of aMCI.

  4. Interpersonal rivalries, gender and the intellectual and scientific making of psychoanalysis in 1940s Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapira, Michal

    2017-05-01

    This article examines the 1940s debates regarding the status and professional orthodoxy of psychoanalysis following Sigmund Freud's death, by exploring the Anna Freud-Melanie Klein Controversial Discussions in the British Psychoanalytical Society. Focusing on the work of now-forgotten analysts Melitta Schmideberg and Edward Glover, and on their relationship with Klein and her supporters, the article reveals how these neglected, yet important, debates were complicated by interpersonal and professional ties, processes of the professionalization, and changing gender norms. Although historians of psychoanalysis have not ignored the jealousies, resentments, and complex relationships between psychoanalysts, these scholars often continue to view these as separate from the processes of creating science. Here, instead, I view the personal and the intellectual in tandem, thus challenging the divide between scientific reason and affect. Rather than imposing a separation between the scientific and the personal, I suggest that we should explore how historical actors negotiated the divide themselves. Indeed, I demonstrate that the study of interpersonal contexts is an invaluable tool for understanding the development of psychological disciplines. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Erna and Melanie Klein.

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    Tabak de Bianchedi, Elizabeth; Etchegoyen, R Horacio; Ungar de Moreno, Virginia; Nemas de Urman, Clara; Zysman, Samuel

    2003-12-01

    Erna was one of the child patients treated by Melanie Klein in Berlin, employing her recently discovered play technique. Since Erna died in Chile, the authors considered the IPA Congress in Santiago an opportunity to present a paper as a homage both to Erna and, especially, to Klein. She learned much from that very disturbed child, which she later used to sustain the ongoing development of her theories. The paper explores biographic data relevant to understanding both the case and the theories. It analyses the case material to follow Klein in the discovery and the handling of the child's transference and the harsh expressions of hate, jealousy and envy, which are brought in, with sad consequences, by strong persecutory feelings. Klein's comparison of this case with that of Freud's Wolf-man is also considered, mostly to show that the similarities were less than originally claimed, and that Klein, perhaps, was introducing a theoretic shift which led her technique to gradually change from 'Nachträglichkeit' to the 'signification-resignification' pair, akin to Strachey's concept of the mutative interpretation. Lastly, the comprehension of Erna's strong psychotic traits and the links with later developments of the theory on psychosis are studied.

  6. Self-centeredness and selflessness: happiness correlates and mediating psychological processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dambrun, Michael

    2017-01-01

    The main objective of this research was to test central assumptions from the Self-centeredness/Selflessness Happiness Model. According to this model, while self-centered psychological functioning induces fluctuating happiness, authentic-durable happiness results from selflessness. Distinct mediating processes are supposed to account for these relationships: afflictive affects (e.g., anger, fear, jealousy, frustration) in the case of the former, and both emotional stability and feelings of harmony in the case of the latter. We tested these hypotheses in two studies based on heterogeneous samples of citizens ( n  = 547). Factor analyses revealed that self-centeredness (assessed through egocentrism and materialism) and selflessness (assessed through self-transcendence and connectedness to other) were two distinct psychological constructs. Second, while self-centeredness was positively and significantly related to fluctuating happiness, selflessness was positively and significantly related to authentic-durable happiness. Finally, distinct psychological processes mediated these relationships (study 2). On one hand, the relationship between self-centeredness and fluctuating happiness was fully mediated by afflictive affects. On the other hand, emotional stability and the feeling of being in harmony partially mediated the relation between selflessness and authentic-durable happiness.

  7. Self-centeredness and selflessness: happiness correlates and mediating psychological processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The main objective of this research was to test central assumptions from the Self-centeredness/Selflessness Happiness Model. According to this model, while self-centered psychological functioning induces fluctuating happiness, authentic–durable happiness results from selflessness. Distinct mediating processes are supposed to account for these relationships: afflictive affects (e.g., anger, fear, jealousy, frustration) in the case of the former, and both emotional stability and feelings of harmony in the case of the latter. We tested these hypotheses in two studies based on heterogeneous samples of citizens (n = 547). Factor analyses revealed that self-centeredness (assessed through egocentrism and materialism) and selflessness (assessed through self-transcendence and connectedness to other) were two distinct psychological constructs. Second, while self-centeredness was positively and significantly related to fluctuating happiness, selflessness was positively and significantly related to authentic–durable happiness. Finally, distinct psychological processes mediated these relationships (study 2). On one hand, the relationship between self-centeredness and fluctuating happiness was fully mediated by afflictive affects. On the other hand, emotional stability and the feeling of being in harmony partially mediated the relation between selflessness and authentic–durable happiness. PMID:28507820

  8. Perceptions of Eye Health and Eye Health Services among Adults Attending Outreach Eye Care Clinics in Papua New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, Anthea; Yu, Mitasha; Paudel, Prakash; Naduvilath, Thomas; Fricke, Tim R; Hani, Yvonne; Garap, Jambi

    2015-01-01

    To determine how people attending outreach eye care clinics in Papua New Guinea (PNG) perceive eye health and eye health services. An interview-based questionnaire was administrated to a convenience sample of 614 adult participants across four provinces and perceptions of eye health and eye health services were recorded. Presenting and near visual acuity were measured and cause of visual impairment (VI) determined. In this sample, 113/614 participants (18.4%) presented with distance VI, 16 (2.6%) with distance blindness, and 221 (47.6%) with near VI. Older participants and those with near VI were more likely to indicate that it is hard to have an eye examination due to travel time, lack of transport and transport costs. Female participants and those from underserved areas were more likely to report shame and fear of jealousy from others when asked about their attitudes towards spectacles. Participants reporting that they were willing to pay higher amounts for testing and spectacles/treatment also reported higher education levels, higher household incomes and were more likely to be male. A quarter of participants (25.9%) indicated that they did not like having an eye examination because their reading and writing was poor. People attending outreach eye care clinics in PNG reported finding it difficult to attend eye health services due to transport difficulties and anticipated high costs. Negative attitudes towards spectacles were also prevalent, and negative perceptions appeared more frequently among older participants and those with less education.

  9. Differential environmental factors in anorexia nervosa: a sibling pair study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, F; Troop, N A; Treasure, J L

    2000-06-01

    Previous studies have explored differences in psychosocial and familial factors between women who develop anorexia nervosa and those who do not. However, these studies have generally used between-group comparisons. This study looks at the environmental factors which may be antecedents of anorexia nervosa looking at sister pairs where one had anorexia nervosa and the other did not. A paired design was used to compare anorexic women with an unaffected sister on a number of background variables, including sibling interaction, parental care, peer group characteristics and other events unique to the individual. The Sibling Inventory of Differential Experience (SIDE) was used to determine non-shared environment. Out of an initial sample of 148 women with past or current anorexia nervosa, 28 were identified who had sisters with no reported history of eating disorders and who also consented to complete the questionnaire. Anorexic sisters perceived more maternal control and reported more antagonism towards and jealousy of their sisters than did unaffected sisters. In addition, anorexic women reported having had fewer friends and boyfriends than their sisters. These results confirm the perceived differences in background environment between women with and women without anorexia nervosa. These issues are discussed in relation to behavioural genetics, family dynamics and psychosexual development.

  10. Medical diagnosis through semiotics. Giving meaning to the sign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnum, J F

    1993-11-01

    Physicians are engaged in incorporating quantitative methods for making clinical decisions into their practices. An acquaintance with semiotics, the doctrine of signs, may complement this project. A sign stands for something. We communicate indirectly through signs, and by interpreting what signs mean we make sense of our world and diagnose and understand our patients. Thus, through association and inference, we transform flowers into love, Othello into jealousy, and staring eyes into thyrotoxicosis. Characteristically in diagnosis, beginning with an unstable inference, we test and otherwise ask questions likely to produce signs that support (or discredit) our hypothesis. In a literary sense, we join with the author to clarify and rewrite the text; creative interpretation is the key. Diagnosis is concluded through narration, by the meaning that is revealed by telling the story of the patient. Diagnosis will succeed only to the extent that we respect the principles and caveats of sign interpretation. The sign is both the key to the unknown and the master impersonator. The sign and its meaning are usually not the same; meaning has to be inferred. Because interpretations are made subjectively, they are circumscribed by the experience and bias of the clinician. Moreover, the contexts in which the sign appears shape the meaning of the sign and may change it altogether.

  11. The Effects of Continuities in Parent and Peer Aggression on Relational Intimate Partner Violence in the Transition to Young Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leadbeater, Bonnie J; Sukhawathanakul, Paweena; Holfeld, Brett; Temple, Jeffery R

    2017-04-01

    Past research suggests that exposure to parent psychological control and peer relational aggression and victimization experienced during adolescence is associated with relational intimate partner violence (IPV) in young adults (ages 22 to 29). However, the effects of continuities in these concerns across young adulthood have not been assessed. Relational IPV is characterized by behaviors intended to damage partner's emotional well-being and security in a romantic relationship (e.g., threatening to break up, purposefully ignoring, or causing jealousy). Six waves of data were collected biennially across 10 years from 662 participants (342 females) who were 12 to 18 years old in 2003. The 334 youth who were in a current romantic relationship at the sixth wave (T6, 10 years later) are the focus of this research. Tests of hypothesized structural equation models indicated that adolescent experiences of psychological control with fathers (but not mothers) predicted relational IPV at T6, but this association was no longer significant after accounting for continuity in father psychological control in young adulthood. Adolescent experiences of relational aggression and victimization with peers also predicted relational IPV at T6. This association remained significant for males, only, after continuity in experiences of relational aggression and victimization with peers in young adulthood was included in the model. Implications for the prevention of relational IPV in adolescence and young adults are discussed.

  12. RESPON MASYARAKAT DAN DAMPAKNYA TERHADAP LINGKUNGAN DARI PROGRAM SL-PTT PADI NON HIBRIDA DI KABUPATEN HULU SUNGAI SELATAN PROVINSI KALIMANTAN SELATAN

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    Ria Normanita

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Increasing the productivity of rice through the approach of Sekolah Lapang Pengelolaan Tanaman Terpadu (SL-PTT is one of the strategies that is expected to provide a greater contribution to the national rice production. Based on the results of research, the public response to the program of SL-PTT Non Hybrid Rice in Hulu Sungai Selatan was in the high category (85.71%. Factors affecting the public response to the program were the information, the field guides, the assistance component whereas those having no effects to the public response were the education, the practice, and the application of PTT. The environmental impact of the program of SLPTT Non Hybrid Rice was positive in the economic aspect, which could create welfare for farmers implementing the program. The Social aspect giving a positve impact was  through the transmission of technology adoption that could be applied to non-rice farmers who lived around the area of SL-PTT. The negative impact was the social jealousy among the people who could all not get involved in the program of SL-PTT Non Hybrid Rice.

  13. تاريخ القانون في المجتمعات القديمة (قانون حمورابي أنموذجاً History of Law in ancient societies (Law of Hammurabi as a model

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    Mustafa Fadhil Karim al-Khafaji مصطفى فاضل كريم الخفاجي

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Is a subject formed obsession from the first side among first researchers in the affairs of the ancient civilization and this is due to the importance of this issue , which stems from the jealousy of previous civilizations , reflecting the pioneering ancient Iraqi civilization Vngdo studied the evolution of human thought . It is the second given by many researchers are of great importance and overlapping text similarity between the Code of Hammurabi and the law of the Torah , which makes the need to study the law in order to study the monotheistic thought and demonstrate its development. Either the third is derived from the significant impact it has had this law in thought contemplative Greek also appeared in the canons of the Elders of Greece such as ( Solon and the other from here , we can define the importance of this issue in our research that it reflects the evolution of Iraqi civilization and Raadatha and impact which commit us to re- always reading for this exploration of thought and its impact .

  14. How do young people from so called “rough area” perceive the society where they are evolving?

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    Dalila Belgacem

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available What young people see from the society they are evolving in gives us a clue about and an understanding of the reasons why they sometimes become violent. Young people are revolted because they feel like a lot of things are unfair; they miss “moral values” and “points of reference”, as if nothing made “sense” anymore. Then, consumersociety leads some young people into confusing reality with fictional fact and ultimately creates envy and jealousy. With the evolution of society and the fact that traditional rites “disappear”, young people are faced with the only rite that still exists to “jump” from childhood to grow-up world: school. But those who are not going to school will have to find and search for other “ rites of passage ” and we think that this is a major risk for young people, because this is where they could be “separated” from the society. Having to deal with this evolution, young people have some problems finding people they can identify themselves with.

  15. PENYELESAIAN KONFLIK PERTANAHAN PADA KAWASAN PARIWISATA LOMBOK (STUDI KASUS TANAH TERLANTAR DI GILI TRAWANGAN LOMBOK

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    Zainal Asikin

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This research is aimed at exploring an appropriate solution for various conflicts in land use, particularly in optimizing the utilization of the neglected land in Gili Terawangan, Lombok Island. This solution is required to avoid potential horizontal conflicts among people, companies and government since 1993. Conflict over land in Lombok Island in general and Gili Terawangan particularly shows several factors; first, the wrong policy in the area of land (especially in tourist areas; second, the infirm attitude of the Party and the Government Land Office in the enforcement of laws; third, the jealousy of Gili Terawangan natives as cultivators; fourth, less responsibility employers (who acquire cultivating right; fifth, the absence of law protection for Gili Terawangan natives; sixth, the arrogant attitude of law enforcement officers. The comprehensive and final resolution to the conflicts of land use could only be achieved if: (i the people, who already control and use or manage the land from time to time, are provided certainty on managing and optimizing the land based on the principles of welfare, justice, equity, efficiency and sustainability; (ii the selection and determination of the companies that will be granted the right to cultivate (HGU and the right to build (HGB should be conducted based on the transparent principle. In this respect, the government could establish an independent team that involves all components of society and higher education.

  16. ANALISIS KEBIJAKAN: PROGRAM DOKTER KELUARGA DALAM PELAYANAN KESEHATAN RAWAT JALAN TINGKAT PERTAMA (RJTP DI SUMATERA SELATAN

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    Ekowati Retnaningsih

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: South Sumatra Province has launched family doctor program to provide health services for poor people in 2006. Government by APBN budged had paid the premium of health insurance for poor people by Askeskin program with capitation is Rp. 1.000,- each person for the service of health take care of the first level health service (RJTP in Puskesmas, on 2006. Meanwhile, province of South Sumatra by APBD budged have launch the program of family doctor which also give the service of health RJTP for poor people, its pay capitation is Rp.8.000,- each person. Objective: This research was to determine the application of family doctor program on membership, advantages of health service and financially aspects. Methods: This research is using policy analysis approach with qualitatively paradigm. The research design was a case study and explorative study. Results: This research were: 1 There was membership duplication of family doctor program and Askeskin program, 2 The family doctors hope all member of family doctor program was people non-poor, 3 There was duplication of the kind of family doctor program and Askeskin program health service, 4 The family doctors availlable to serve patient just at 2-4 hour, 5 There was budget duplication of family doctor program with Askeskin program, 6 The family doctor in puskesmas get double salary that can cause jealousy of another health provider. Key words: family doctors, membership, health services, financing

  17. Sujeição e agência em situações de violência contra as mulheres: trajetórias de superação e ressignificação

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    Érika Nunes de Medeiros Ferreira Borges

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we analyze some aspects related to the problem of violence against women from a qualitative research completed recently (2016 with women living in Goiânia, Goiás, who have gone through contexts of violence triggered by their partners – boyfriends or husbands. We explore the meanings attributed to the experiences, attentive to the subjective processes that signal a break and a reframing of the situation of violence suffered by the women, the research subjects. The study focuses on specific characteristics and similarities in the analyzed trajectories and allows to conclude that: (i despite the relative delay in understanding the context of violence in its early signs, (ii assigning idiosyncratic traits to partners such as explosive behavior or jealousy and (iii the reluctance and hesitation to seek help at moment of violence, this group of women managed to give a new meaning to their lives, indicating a desire to overcome what they went through, something already or very close to the outcome in the narratives of them all. Their overcoming points to a shift in power relations, as stressed by feminist studies dealing with the issue of violence. The notion of subjectivity as agency and not only as a subjection leads to the possibility, at least in some contexts, of resistance and freedom of action. It is about this dyad, subjection/agency related to the issue of violence against women, this article aims to deal with.

  18. What do young people want from sex education? The results of a needs assessment from a peer-led sex education programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrest, Simon; Strange, Vicki; Oakley, Ann; The Ripple Study Team

    2004-07-01

    This paper presents data on the need for sexual health information and advice of 4353 students aged 13/14 years in 13 English secondary schools. Data were collected by peer educators as part of a sex education programme, and through a questionnaire survey administered by researchers. Data illustrate young people's need for concrete information and advice on issues related to physical development and puberty; transmission of sexually transmitted diseases; accessing and using condoms and other contraception; using sexual health services; managing relationships and dealing with jealousy, love and sexual attraction; how people have sex; sexual pleasure; masturbation; and homosexuality. Differences between the concerns and interests raised by young people and current UK guidance on sex and relationships education are examined, and the implications of these findings for designing future policy and effective school based sex education programmes are discussed. The paper highlights some of the wider social norms around sex and sexuality that influence young people's understanding and sexual behaviour, and the importance of addressing these within sex education is noted. Factors influencing the processes of expressing and assessing needs are explored.

  19. Hitler's bible: an analysis of the relationship between American and German eugenics in pre-war Nazi Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Susan

    2009-06-01

    Throughout the last century the wellbeing of those with disability has been threatened by the idea of eugenics. The most notable and extreme example of this could be considered to have been carried out during World WarTwo, within Nazi eugenic programmes. These resulted in the sterilisation and killing of hundreds of thousands of disabled people. Through research of a wide range of sources it has been established that much of the inspiration and encouragement for this rapidly progressing movement in Germany initially came from America, most notably from California. American eugenicists expressed interest, and at times jealousy, at the speed of the progression in German eugenics. German Sterilisation laws were drafted following careful study of American experiments and research, while financial support from a number of American individuals encouraged further German research. Correspondence between influential leaders, including Hitler, Grant and Whitney, Verschuer and Popenoe, on both sides also added to the developing relationship. In conclusion, although there are a number of vital differences between the progress of the eugenics programme in America and in pre-war Nazi Germany, and eugenics in America never produced the massive genocide that occurred in Germany, it is clear that the research, encouragement and enthusiasm from America had a profound influence on the rapidly growing Nazi eugenics movement.

  20. Welcome by the Mayor of Valtetsi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papanikolau, N.

    Welcome by the Mayor of Valtetsi Mr. Chairman Ladies and Gentlemen The municipality of Valtetsi welcomes you and wishes success in your work. Arcadia is both a historical and modern region. Moreover, as a name it remained in the western culture recalling a harmonious and peaceful dream, a lost and desirable situation where the human being lived in balance with nature, a region where the person did not feel yet uprooted. For thousands of years the poetic voices retained vivid this eternal bucolic call of simplicity and accessible happiness. Gazing the starlit sky we will always see Kallisto, the daughter of Lykaona, king of Arcadia and her son Arcadian as they were both transformed in to the constellations Major and Minor Ursus because of the erotic libido of Jupiter and the jealousy of Hera. And we will always remember Centaurus Cheirona, the great schoolteacher of ancient heroes, who was the first to name the constellations according to mythology. Finally we would like to thank the patriot Mr. T. Tzioumi who returns to his beautiful village in Arcadia just like Antaios did. In the geographic place that inspired the arcadian ideal, such activities recall in the limelight Arcadia as was dreamed by Europe. Mr. Chairman, ladies and gentlemen, success in your scientific work. The Municipality of Valtetsi and I myself will be always next to you so that your stay at Arcadia will always remain vivid in your memory. Thank you. Nikos Papanikolaou Mayor of Valtetsi

  1. If I could just stop loving you: anti-love biotechnology and the ethics of a chemical breakup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earp, Brian D; Wudarczyk, Olga A; Sandberg, Anders; Savulescu, Julian

    2013-01-01

    "Love hurts"-as the saying goes-and a certain amount of pain and difficulty in intimate relationships is unavoidable. Sometimes it may even be beneficial, since adversity can lead to personal growth, self-discovery, and a range of other components of a life well-lived. But other times, love can be downright dangerous. It may bind a spouse to her domestic abuser, draw an unscrupulous adult toward sexual involvement with a child, put someone under the insidious spell of a cult leader, and even inspire jealousy-fueled homicide. How might these perilous devotions be diminished? The ancients thought that treatments such as phlebotomy, exercise, or bloodletting could "cure" an individual of love. But modern neuroscience and emerging developments in psychopharmacology open up a range of possible interventions that might actually work. These developments raise profound moral questions about the potential uses-and misuses-of such anti-love biotechnology. In this article, we describe a number of prospective love-diminishing interventions, and offer a preliminary ethical framework for dealing with them responsibly should they arise.

  2. Can staff attitudes to team working in stroke care be improved?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbon, Bernard; Watkins, Caroline; Barer, David; Waters, Karen; Davies, Steve; Lightbody, Liz; Leathley, Michael

    2002-10-01

    Teamwork is regarded as the cornerstone of rehabilitation. It is recognized that the skills of a multiprofessional team are required to provide the care and interventions necessary to maximize the patient's potential to recover from his/her stroke. Critical evaluation of team working is lacking in the literature. Indeed, there is no consensus on a precise definition of teamwork or on the best way of implementing it, beyond a general exhortation to members to work to the same therapeutic plan in a cohesive manner. The literature has highlighted many problems in team working, including petty jealousies, ignorance and a perceived loss of autonomy and threat to professional status. To determine if the use of team co-ordinated approaches to stroke care and rehabilitation would improve staff attitudes to team working. A pre-post design was adopted using 'The Team Climate Inventory' to explore attitudes to team working before and after introducing the interventions. Local Research Ethics Committee approval was obtained. Improvements in attitudes towards team working suggest that the introduction of team co-ordinated approaches (integrated care pathways and team notes) did not result in greater team working. The introduction of an integrated care pathway and team notes is based on an assumption that they would enhance team working. The results suggest that the introduction of team co-ordinated approaches (team notes and care pathways) do not improve attitudes to team working, teams appear to take a long time to establish cohesion and develop shared values.

  3. A longitudinal analysis of women's salivary testosterone and intrasexual competitiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Amanda C; Fisher, Claire I; Cobey, Kelly D; DeBruine, Lisa M; Jones, Benedict C

    2016-02-01

    Research on within-subject changes in women's intrasexual competitiveness has generally focused on possible relationships between women's intrasexual competitiveness and estimates of their fertility. While this approach is useful for testing hypotheses about the adaptive function of changes in women's intrasexual competitiveness, it offers little insight into the proximate mechanisms through which such changes might occur. To investigate this issue, we carried out a longitudinal study of the hormonal correlates of changes in intrasexual competitiveness in a large sample of heterosexual women (N=136). Each woman provided saliva samples and completed an intrasexual competitiveness questionnaire in five weekly test sessions. Multilevel modeling of these data revealed a significant, positive within-subject effect of testosterone on intrasexual competitiveness, indicating that women reported greater intrasexual competitiveness when testosterone was high. By contrast, there were no significant effects of estradiol, progesterone, estradiol-to-progesterone ratio, or cortisol and no significant effects of any hormones on reported relationship jealousy. This is the first study to demonstrate correlated changes in measured testosterone levels and women's reported intrasexual competitiveness, implicating testosterone in the regulation of women's intrasexual competitiveness. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. 7. Administrative structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    The basic systems of any society rarely can operate independently. Instead, they are dependent and often interdependent upon other entities. Such entities control the resources within their respective systems. Thus, coordination and control agencies require contracts or memoranda of understanding with these entities in order to assure access to the resources required during a crisis. These administrative structures include: (1) governmental institutions and agencies, including the military; (2) intergovernmental organisations; (3) nongovernmental organisations; (4) commercial private sector organisations; and (5) academic institutions. These dependencies create potential barriers to the provision of coordination and control including: (1) the complexity of the administrative structures with which coordination and control must interact; (2) the location of resources; (3) finding responsible person(s); (4) the competence and compatibility; (5) methods of access; (6) payment; (7) contracts and memoranda of understanding; (8) inventories of accessible resources; (9) competition for the mandate, power, and resources; and (10) jealousy. The need for potential interactions between administrative structures requires that agreements for the sharing of resources during crises be reached as part of planning and preparedness. Gaining an understanding of these relationships is an important area for research.

  5. When Do Personality and Emotion Predict Destructive Behavior During Relationship Conflict? The Role of Perceived Commitment Asymmetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemay, Edward P; Dobush, Sarah

    2015-10-01

    The current research examined whether perceived asymmetries in relationship commitment moderate the associations of personality traits and emotional states with enactment of hostile behavior during relationship conflicts. Participants included both members of 53 heterosexual romantic couples (Mage  = 25.5 years). Participants completed questionnaire measures assessing personality traits, emotional states, relationship commitment, and perceptions of their partner's commitment. Participants then had an observed conflict discussion with their partner, which was rated by a panel of objective observers for hostile behavior. When participants perceived that they were less committed than their partners, their enactment of hostile behavior was predicted by traits and states that are associated with antisocial and pro-social orientations (i.e., agreeableness, trait anger, chronic jealousy, and state negative emotion). In contrast, participants who perceived that they were more committed than their partners tended to refrain from hostile behavior, despite traits or states that may suggest hostile inclinations. These results suggest that perceiving that one is less committed than one's partner promotes behavioral expression of interpersonal dispositions and emotions, whereas perceiving that one is more committed than one's partner motivates inhibition of hostile behavior. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. A facial expression of pax: Assessing children's "recognition" of emotion from faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Nicole L; Russell, James A

    2016-01-01

    In a classic study, children were shown an array of facial expressions and asked to choose the person who expressed a specific emotion. Children were later asked to name the emotion in the face with any label they wanted. Subsequent research often relied on the same two tasks--choice from array and free labeling--to support the conclusion that children recognize basic emotions from facial expressions. Here five studies (N=120, 2- to 10-year-olds) showed that these two tasks produce illusory recognition; a novel nonsense facial expression was included in the array. Children "recognized" a nonsense emotion (pax or tolen) and two familiar emotions (fear and jealousy) from the same nonsense face. Children likely used a process of elimination; they paired the unknown facial expression with a label given in the choice-from-array task and, after just two trials, freely labeled the new facial expression with the new label. These data indicate that past studies using this method may have overestimated children's expression knowledge. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Patterns of work-related intimate partner violence and job performance among abusive men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mankowski, Eric S; Galvez, Gino; Perrin, Nancy A; Hanson, Ginger C; Glass, Nancy

    2013-10-01

    This study assesses different types of work-related intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration and their relationship to perpetrators' work performance and employment. We determine if groups of abusive men with similar patterns of work-related IPV exist and then examine whether the patterns are related to their characteristics, job performance, and employment outcomes. Participants were 198 adult men (60% Latino, 40% non-Latino) from batterer intervention programs (BIPs) who self-reported their lifetime work-related IPV and job outcomes. Five distinct clusters were identified and named based on the pattern (predominance or absence) of different work-related abusive behaviors reported: (a) low-level tactics, (b) job interference, (c) job interference with threatened or actual violence, (d) extreme abuse without jealousy and (e) extreme abuse. Analyses revealed significant differences between the clusters on ethnicity, parental status, partner's employment status, income, education, and (among Latinos only) acculturation. The probability of men's work-related IPV substantially impacting their own job performance was nearly 4 times greater among those in the extreme abuse cluster than those in the low-level tactics cluster. These data inform the development of employee training programs and workplace policies for reducing IPV that affects the workplace.

  8. A Gender Comparison of Motivations for Physical Dating Violence Among College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmquist, JoAnna; Wolford-Clevenger, Caitlin; Zapor, Heather; Febres, Jeniimarie; Shorey, Ryan C; Hamel, John; Stuart, Gregory L

    2016-01-01

    There are limited empirical investigations that directly compare men and women's motivations, or reasons, for perpetrating physical dating violence (DV). In an attempt to further understand whether men and women have similar or different motives for physical DV, the purpose of the current study was to conduct a gender comparison of motives in a sample of male (n = 163) and female (n = 319) college students. Motivations for physical DV were classified according to seven broad categories proposed by Langhinrichsen-Rohling and colleagues: (a) power/control, (b) self-defense, (c) expression of negative emotion (e.g., anger), (d) communication difficulties, (e) retaliation, (f) jealousy, and (g) other (e.g., because it was sexually arousing, the influence of alcohol, the influence of drugs). The prevalence of physical violence perpetration in the overall sample was 29.4%. Results indicated that communication difficulties and self-defense were among the most frequently endorsed motive categories for both male and female perpetrated DV. In addition, results demonstrated gender similarity in all of the examined motive categories. Research and clinical implications are discussed. © The Author(s) 2014.

  9. The Characteristics of Romantic Relationships Associated with Teen Dating Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordano, Peggy C; Soto, Danielle A; Manning, Wendy D; Longmore, Monica A

    2010-11-01

    Studies of teen dating violence have focused heavily on family and peer influences, but little research has been conducted on the relationship contexts within which violence occurs. The present study explores specific features of adolescent romantic relationships associated with the perpetration of physical violence. Relying on personal interviews with a sample of 956 adolescents, results indicate that respondents who self-report violence perpetration are significantly more likely than their non-violent counterparts to report higher levels of other problematic relationship dynamics and behaviors such as jealousy, verbal conflict, and cheating. However, we find no significant differences in levels of love, intimate self-disclosure, or perceived partner caring, and violent relationships are, on average, characterized by longer duration, more frequent contact, sexual intimacy and higher scores on the provision and receipt of instrumental support. Finally, violence is associated with the perception of a relatively less favorable power balance, particularly among male respondents. These findings complicate traditional views of the dynamics within violent relationships, add to our understanding of risk factors, and may also shed light on why some adolescents remain in physically abusive relationships.

  10. Emotion as a Human Experience: The Psychotherapist’s Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Paulino

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Emotions are affective states of short duration, with concomitant vegetative symptoms, triggered by an internal or external perception. There are primary or universal emotions (happiness, sadness, fear, anger, surprise, disgust, secondary or social emo- tions (compassion, shame, guilt, contempt, jealousy, envy, pride, admiration and background emotions (wellbeing, malaise, calm, tension. Emotions are complex programs of actions shaped by evolution. The actions are completed by a cognitive program, but the world of emotions is primarily a world of actions carried out in our body from the facial expressions and body positions to the changes in the viscera and internal milieu. We can consider emotion as a primary value system of the brain, leading certain activations to be selectively reinforced. In clinical interviews we are often led from the line of verbal speech to the line of emotional speech. We use our own emotions or feelings as a way to detect discrepancies or incongruities in the relationship, probably between the channels of verbal, non-verbal and empathic communication. Carl Rogers made an important contribution to psychotherapy with his experience of unconditionally accepting the client, who comes to be heard, without prejudice or judgment. A feeling, an emotion, a reasoning were accepted with the same attention, care and respect. The forms of expression and the exact configuration of stimuli that can induce an emotion are different in different cultures and individuals. But what is striking is the similarity.

  11. Correlates of domestic violence perpetration reporting among recently-married men residing in slums in Pune, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalokhe, Ameeta S; Iyer, Sandhya R; Gadhe, Keshav; Katendra, Tuman; Paranjape, Anuradha; Del Rio, Carlos; Stephenson, Rob; Sahay, Seema

    2018-01-01

    Domestic violence (DV) is prevalent in low-income and slum-dwelling communities in India. To date, the focus of DV prevention in resource-poor settings has largely been with women. We herein aim to identify correlates of DV perpetration to help inform future primary prevention efforts that focus on behavioral change in men. Utilizing a cross-sectional design, potential correlates of DV perpetration were explored among a geographically-clustered random sample of 100 recently-married men residing in slums in Pune, India. In multivariable regression, DV perpetration was associated with less time spent alone in the relationship post-marriage (standardized β = -0.230, p<0.01), not attaining the "husband ideal" (standardized β = -0.201, p<0.05), poor resilience (standardized β = -0.304, p < .01), having limited definitions of behaviors constituting DV (standardized β = -0.217, p<0.05), and reporting greater jealousy if the participant's spouse were to talk to men outside the family (standardized β = 0.272, p<0.01). The identified correlates should inform components of future DV primary prevention interventions that target men as potential perpetrators or the couple as a unit.

  12. Delusional disorder and schizophrenia: a comparative study across multiple domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peralta, V; Cuesta, M J

    2016-10-01

    Delusional disorder (DD) is an under-researched condition and its relationship to schizophrenia (SZ) controversial. This study aimed to further characterize DD and to examine multi-domain evidence for the distinction between DD and SZ. Using univariate analyses we examined 146 subjects with DD, 114 subjects with paranoid SZ and 244 subjects with non-paranoid SZ on 52 characteristics from several domains including demographics, risk factors, premorbid features, illness characteristics, index episode features, delusional-related features, response to treatment and outcome. In a further step, we searched for independent associations of the examined characteristics with DD v. SZ. Univariate analyses showed that DD differed from either form of SZ in 40 characteristics, the pattern of findings indicated that paranoid SZ was much more similar to non-paranoid SZ than DD. Relative to subjects with SZ, those with DD were more likely to have drug abuse before illness onset, better premorbid sexual adjustment, later age at illness onset, higher levels of affective symptoms and lack of insight, poorer response to antipsychotic medication, better functioning in the domains of personal care, paid work and social functioning; last, subjects with DD had fewer but more severe delusions and higher ratings of conviction of delusional experience than those with SZ. Predominance of jealousy and somatic delusions was confined to subjects with DD. DD and SZ represent two distinct classes of disorders, the differential features of DD being of nosological, aetiological and therapeutic relevance.

  13. Child-rearing in an indigenous Sami population in Norway: a cross-cultural comparison of parental attitudes and expectations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javo, Cecilie; Rønning, John A; Heyerdahl, Sonja

    2004-02-01

    Semi-structured interviews of 76 Sami mothers and 58 Sami fathers, and 86 Norwegian mothers and 58 Norwegian fathers of four-year olds, revealed consistent cross-cultural differences in parenting. ANCOVA results showed that parental permissiveness was higher in the Sami group. Moreover, the effect of ethnicity was different for boys and girls (mothers' reports). Co-sleeping and self-regulation of food and sleep were commonly practiced in the Sami, but not in the Norwegian families. Sami children were more socially independent than their Norwegian peers. Indirect or internal types of control were used more by Sami parents, and they were less tolerant of child aggression, in the form of temper tantrums and displays of jealousy. These patterns are similar to those found in other indigenous cultures in the circumpolar region. The results are discussed with reference to the Individualism-Collectivism dimension. The study challenges the Individualism-Collectivism construct for apparently confounding the individualism common in European liberalism with the individual autonomy commonly encountered among hunting-gathering peoples.

  14. Exploring the potential of a conditional cash transfer intervention to reduce HIV risk among young women in Iringa, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Caitlin E; Brahmbhatt, Heena; Likindikoki, Samuel; Beckham, Sarah W; Mbwambo, Jessie K; Kerrigan, Deanna

    2014-01-01

    Cash transfer programs seek to alter structural determinants of HIV risk such as poverty and gender inequality. We sought to explore the feasibility and potential effectiveness of a cash transfer intervention for young women as part of combination HIV prevention in Iringa, Tanzania. Qualitative, in-depth interviews were conducted with 116 stakeholders and residents from the region, including key informants, service delivery users, and members of key populations. Most respondents felt a cash transfer program would assist young women in Iringa to have more control over sexual decision-making and reduce poverty-driven transactional sex. Respondents were divided on who should receive funds: young women themselves, their parents/guardians, or community leaders. Cash amounts and suggested target groups varied, and several respondents suggested providing microcredit or small business capital instead of cash. Potential concerns included jealousy, dependency, and corruption. However, most respondents felt that some intervention was needed to address underlying poverty driving some sexual risk behavior. A cash transfer program could fill this role, ultimately reducing HIV, sexually transmitted infections, and unintended pregnancies. As increased attention is given to economic and structural interventions for HIV prevention, local input and knowledge should be considered in a program design.

  15. Delusions in first-episode psychosis: Principal component analysis of twelve types of delusions and demographic and clinical correlates of resulting domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paolini, Enrico; Moretti, Patrizia; Compton, Michael T

    2016-09-30

    Although delusions represent one of the core symptoms of psychotic disorders, it is remarkable that few studies have investigated distinct delusional themes. We analyzed data from a large sample of first-episode psychosis patients (n=245) to understand relations between delusion types and demographic and clinical correlates. First, we conducted a principal component analysis (PCA) of the 12 delusion items within the Scale for the Assessment of Positive Symptoms (SAPS). Then, using the domains derived via PCA, we tested a priori hypotheses and answered exploratory research questions related to delusional content. PCA revealed five distinct components: Delusions of Influence, Grandiose/Religious Delusions, Paranoid Delusions, Negative Affect Delusions (jealousy, and sin or guilt), and Somatic Delusions. The most prevalent type of delusion was Paranoid Delusions, and such delusions were more common at older ages at onset of psychosis. The level of Delusions of Influence was correlated with the severity of hallucinations and negative symptoms. We ascertained a general relationship between different childhood adversities and delusional themes, and a specific relationship between Somatic Delusions and childhood neglect. Moreover, we found higher scores on Delusions of Influence and Negative Affect Delusions among cannabis and stimulant users. Our results support considering delusions as varied experiences with varying prevalences and correlates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Parenthood by design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleep, J

    1986-02-01

    Parenthood by design involves realistic preparation for practical aspects of parenting as well as the romantic illusions fostered by relatives, social pressure, and the media. The ideals do not mention the physical discomfort, exhaustion, jealousy, anger and frustration encountered in a normal puerperium. Many women have not returned to normal sexual activity, work and sports even by 6 weeks after delivery. Perineal discomfort is still experienced by 70% after 10 days, especially in cases of assisted vaginal delivery. Urinary incontinence is present in 20% up to 3 months after normal vaginal delivery. Many women report fatigue as the reason for not resuming sexual intercourse. Family interactions are stressed by the newcomer: rivalry on the part of the husband or siblings is common. Modern education in the attempt to train people for vocational competence has left out parenting. In England, midwives teach classes of 20 women for 5 contact hours in late pregnancy, and are expected to cover all aspects of pregnancy, labor, delivery, baby care, postnatal adjustment and support services. The schools have sex education, fostering freedom in life styles for young people, but little emphasis on responsibility. There are some community organizations such as the La Leche League, the National Childbirth Trust and the Meet-A-Mum Association that offer support during and after pregnancy. Accidental pregnancy with education as crisis intervention is inadequate for the future; parenthood by design would permit couples to experience parenthood as a period of growth based on a fuller understanding of practical reality.

  17. Racial and Ethnic Differences in Homicides of Adult Women and the Role of Intimate Partner Violence - United States, 2003-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrosky, Emiko; Blair, Janet M; Betz, Carter J; Fowler, Katherine A; Jack, Shane P D; Lyons, Bridget H

    2017-07-21

    Homicide is one of the leading causes of death for women aged ≤44 years.* In 2015, homicide caused the death of 3,519 girls and women in the United States. Rates of female homicide vary by race/ethnicity (1), and nearly half of victims are killed by a current or former male intimate partner (2). To inform homicide and intimate partner violence (IPV) prevention efforts, CDC analyzed homicide data from the National Violent Death Reporting System (NVDRS) among 10,018 women aged ≥18 years in 18 states during 2003-2014. The frequency of homicide by race/ethnicity and precipitating circumstances of homicides associated with and without IPV were examined. Non-Hispanic black and American Indian/Alaska Native women experienced the highest rates of homicide (4.4 and 4.3 per 100,000 population, respectively). Over half of all homicides (55.3%) were IPV-related; 11.2% of victims of IPV-related homicide experienced some form of violence in the month preceding their deaths, and argument and jealousy were common precipitating circumstances. Targeted IPV prevention programs for populations at disproportionate risk and enhanced access to intervention services for persons experiencing IPV are needed to reduce homicides among women.

  18. A Gender Comparison of Motivations for Physical Dating Violence Among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmquist, JoAnna; Wolford-Clevenger, Caitlin; Zapor, Heather; Febres, Jeniimarie; Shorey, Ryan C.; Hamel, John; Stuart, Gregory L.

    2015-01-01

    There are limited empirical investigations that directly compare men and women’s motivations, or reasons, for perpetrating physical dating violence (DV). In an attempt to further understand whether men and women have similar or different motives for physical DV, the purpose of the current study was to conduct a gender comparison motives in a sample of male (n = 163) and female (n = 319) college students. Motivations for physical DV were classified according to seven broad categories proposed by Langhinrichsen-Rohling and colleagues (2012): (a) power/control, (b) self-defense, (c) expression of negative emotion (e.g., anger), (d) communication difficulties, (e) retaliation, (f) jealousy, and (g) other (e.g., because it was sexually arousing, the influence of alcohol, the influence of drugs). The prevalence of physical violence perpetration in the overall sample was 29.4%. Results indicated that communication difficulties and self-defense were among the most frequently endorsed motive categories for both male and female perpetrated dating violence. In addition, results demonstrated gender similarity in all of the examined motive categories. Research and clinical implications are discussed. PMID:25392388

  19. Western Europe, state formation, and genetic pacification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Peter; Harpending, Henry C

    2015-03-06

    Through its monopoly on violence, the State tends to pacify social relations. Such pacification proceeded slowly in Western Europe between the 5th and 11th centuries, being hindered by the rudimentary nature of law enforcement, the belief in a man's right to settle personal disputes as he saw fit, and the Church's opposition to the death penalty. These hindrances began to dissolve in the 11th century with a consensus by Church and State that the wicked should be punished so that the good may live in peace. Courts imposed the death penalty more and more often and, by the late Middle Ages, were condemning to death between 0.5 and 1.0% of all men of each generation, with perhaps just as many offenders dying at the scene of the crime or in prison while awaiting trial. Meanwhile, the homicide rate plummeted from the 14th century to the 20th. The pool of violent men dried up until most murders occurred under conditions of jealousy, intoxication, or extreme stress. The decline in personal violence is usually attributed to harsher punishment and the longer-term effects of cultural conditioning. It may also be, however, that this new cultural environment selected against propensities for violence.

  20. La haine à l’œuvre dans Carpenter’s Gothic (1999 de William Gaddis Cultivating Hatred in Carpenter’s Gothic (1999 by William Gaddis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Sohier

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In Carpenter’s Gothic, hatred is given pride of place. William Gaddis delineates a society in which hatred proliferates. Characters are caught in the turmoils of their hatred whether it derives from the Vietnam War or from fundamentalist movements, from their individualistic quest for social recognition or from self-aggrandizement. We mean to develop a typology derived from psychoanalysis and anthropology so as to take into account all the different facets hate has in the novel. We shall devote analyses to jealousy caused by hatred, then describe the primary hate that underpins all types of relationships as a preliminary to questioning the excess that fuels Gaddis’s writing. Lastly, by referring to the author’s non-fictional work we shall put forward the thesis that the voluble protagonist is to a large extent the author’s mouthpiece. McCandless’s vindictive disquisitions on the course of the world will be seen as the equivalent of a tragic mask through which William Gaddis gives vent to his melancholia and intense detestation of the ways of the world.

  1. Western Europe, State Formation, and Genetic Pacification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Frost

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Through its monopoly on violence, the State tends to pacify social relations. Such pacification proceeded slowly in Western Europe between the 5th and 11th centuries, being hindered by the rudimentary nature of law enforcement, the belief in a man's right to settle personal disputes as he saw fit, and the Church's opposition to the death penalty. These hindrances began to dissolve in the 11th century with a consensus by Church and State that the wicked should be punished so that the good may live in peace. Courts imposed the death penalty more and more often and, by the late Middle Ages, were condemning to death between 0.5 and 1.0% of all men of each generation, with perhaps just as many offenders dying at the scene of the crime or in prison while awaiting trial. Meanwhile, the homicide rate plummeted from the 14th century to the 20th. The pool of violent men dried up until most murders occurred under conditions of jealousy, intoxication, or extreme stress. The decline in personal violence is usually attributed to harsher punishment and the longer-term effects of cultural conditioning. It may also be, however, that this new cultural environment selected against propensities for violence.

  2. Influence of Emotions on Decision-Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cida Sanches

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to verify whether emotions and feelings influence the decisions of entrepreneurs differently in terms of gender using data collected via instruments i.e. questionnaire and a semi-structured interview. The findings suggest that out of 13 factors under study, 8 showed significant differences in the responses given by the two groups: love, unfairness, compassion, dissension, individualism, insecurity, anger and surprise. Men tend to face a decision situation as an intellectual challenge. They avoid listening to other people and decide rapidly, as they understand these actions as a sign of capacity and independence. The results showed that male and female entrepreneurs are significantly affected by feelings and emotions. Women showed a greater tendency than men did towards the following factors: love, jealousy and dissension. This study contributes to the entrepreneurship liteature and broadens the empirical base of studies related to the influence of emotions and feelings of male and female entrepreneurs, providing a possible new perspective regarding decisions, taking into account the gender of the decision maker.

  3. Spatial distance regulates sex-specific feelings to suspected sexual and emotional infidelity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schützwohl, Achim; Morjaria, Sheena; Alvis, Shahin

    2011-09-15

    The present study investigates the hitherto neglected influence of the spatial distance between the jealous person, the partner, and a potential rival as a proximate contextual factor regulating emotion intensity. The study tested four predictions. (1) The jealousy mechanism responds with mild negative feelings at most as long as the partner is close to the jealous person. (2) The negative feelings increase when the partner is far from the jealous person but the rival is close. (3) The most uncomfortable feelings result when the partner and the rival are close together and both far from the jealous person. (4) Based on the evolutionary psychological considerations, men report stronger negative feelings than women when suspecting sexual infidelity. Conversely, women report stronger negative feelings than men when suspecting emotional infidelity. The results confirmed predictions 1 and 4. Reversing predictions 2 and 3, the close rival consistently elicited the most uncomfortable feelings. Implications and limitations of the present study are discussed and suggestions for future research are provided.

  4. Mate retention tactics in Spain: personality, sex differences, and relationship status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Miguel, Adelia; Buss, David M

    2011-06-01

    Mate retention is an important problem in romantic relationships because of mate poachers, infidelity, and the risk of outright defection. The current study (N=892) represents the first study of mate retention tactics conducted in Spain. We tested hypotheses about the effects of gender, relationship commitment status, and personality on mate retention tactics. Women and men differed in the use of resource display, appearance enhancement, intrasexual violence, and submission/self-abasement as mate retention tactics. Those in more committed relationships reported higher levels of resource display, appearance enhancement, love, and verbal signals of possession. Those in less committed relationships more often reported intentionally evoking jealousy in their partner as a mate retention tactic. Personality characteristics, particularly Neuroticism and Agreeableness, correlated in coherent ways with mate retention tactics, supporting two evolution-based hypotheses. Discussion focuses on the implications, future research directions, and interdisciplinary syntheses emerging between personality and social psychology and evolutionary psychology. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Personality © 2011, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Spatial Distance Regulates Sex-Specific Feelings to Suspected Sexual and Emotional Infidelity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achim Schützwohl

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates the hitherto neglected influence of the spatial distance between the jealous person, the partner, and a potential rival as a proximate contextual factor regulating emotion intensity. The study tested four predictions. (1 The jealousy mechanism responds with mild negative feelings at most as long as the partner is close to the jealous person. (2 The negative feelings increase when the partner is far from the jealous person but the rival is close. (3 The most uncomfortable feelings result when the partner and the rival are close together and both far from the jealous person. (4 Based on the evolutionary psychological considerations, men report stronger negative feelings than women when suspecting sexual infidelity. Conversely, women report stronger negative feelings than men when suspecting emotional infidelity. The results confirmed predictions 1 and 4. Reversing predictions 2 and 3, the close rival consistently elicited the most uncomfortable feelings. Implications and limitations of the present study are discussed and suggestions for future research are provided.

  6. Neuropsychiatric symptoms in Alzheimer's disease: past progress and anticipation of the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geda, Yonas E; Schneider, Lon S; Gitlin, Laura N; Miller, David S; Smith, Gwenn S; Bell, Joanne; Evans, Jovier; Lee, Michael; Porsteinsson, Anton; Lanctôt, Krista L; Rosenberg, Paul B; Sultzer, David L; Francis, Paul T; Brodaty, Henry; Padala, Prasad P; Onyike, Chiadikaobi U; Ortiz, Luis Agüera; Ancoli-Israel, Sonia; Bliwise, Donald L; Martin, Jennifer L; Vitiello, Michael V; Yaffe, Kristine; Zee, Phyllis C; Herrmann, Nathan; Sweet, Robert A; Ballard, Clive; Khin, Ni A; Alfaro, Cara; Murray, Patrick S; Schultz, Susan; Lyketsos, Constantine G

    2013-09-01

    Neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) in Alzheimer's disease (AD) are widespread and disabling. This has been known since Dr. Alois Alzheimer's first case, Frau Auguste D., presented with emotional distress and delusions of infidelity/excessive jealousy, followed by cognitive symptoms. Being cognizant of this, in 2010 the Alzheimer's Association convened a research roundtable on the topic of NPS in AD. A major outcome of the roundtable was the founding of a Professional Interest Area (PIA) within the International Society to Advance Alzheimer's Research and Treatment (ISTAART). The NPS-PIA has prepared a series of documents that are intended to summarize the literature and provide more detailed specific recommendations for NPS research. This overview paper is the first of these living documents that will be updated periodically as the science advances. The overview is followed by syndrome-specific synthetic reviews and recommendations prepared by NPS-PIA workgroups on depression, apathy, sleep, agitation, and psychosis. Copyright © 2013 The Alzheimer's Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Neuropsychiatric symptoms in Alzheimer’s disease: Past progress and anticipation of the future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geda, Yonas E.; Schneider, Lon S.; Gitlin, Laura N.; Miller, David S.; Smith, Gwenn S.; Bell, Joanne; Evans, Jovier; Lee, Michael; Porsteinsson, Anton; Lanctôt, Krista L.; Rosenberg, Paul B.; Sultzer, David L.; Francis, Paul T.; Brodaty, Henry; Padala, P. P.; Onyike, Chiadikaobi U.; Ortiz, L. Agüera; Ancoli-Israel, Sonia; Bliwise, Donald L.; Martin, Jennifer L.; Vitiello, Michael V.; Yaffe, Kristine; Zee, Phyllis C.; Herrmann, Nathan; Lyketsos, Constantine G.

    2013-01-01

    Neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) are widespread and disabling. This has been known since Dr. Alois Alzheimer’s first case, Frau Auguste D., presented with emotional distress and delusions of infidelity/excessive jealousy, followed by cognitive symptoms. Being cognizant of this, in 2010 the Alzheimer’s Association convened a Research Roundtable on the topic of NPS in AD. A major outcome of the Roundtable was the founding of a Professional Interest Area (PIA) within the International Society to Advance Alzheimer’s Research and Treatment (ISTAART). The NPS-PIA has prepared a series of documents that are intended to summarize the literature and provide more detailed specific recommendations for NPS research. This overview paper is the first of these living documents that will be updated periodically as the science advances. The overview is followed by syndrome specific synthetic reviews and recommendations prepared by NPS-PIA Workgroups on depression, apathy, sleep, agitation, and psychosis. PMID:23562430

  8. Kepemimpinan Transformasional Pendidikan Berbasis Total Quality Manajement (TQM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Bukhari

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Field of Education can be said as a field to the change of character, attitude based on moral values such as independence, justice, and humanity and it is not based on any negative emotion such as greed, jealousy, and hate. Leadership is one of the important factors to determine the implementation of education properly. In order to have those moral values in educational institution, concept of transformational leadership is necessary to implement. This concept emphasizes on the importance of a leader to have vision and environment which motivates his/her staff to get achievement beyond the expectation. If it is done properly, educational institution will at least achieve the success referring to the quality indicators; 1 Secured and regulated environment of educational institution 2 The institution has strong leadership mission, 3 There is a strong expectation to get achievement from all the stake holders, 4 There is ongoing human resources development, 5 There is an intensive communication and support from the society.

  9. Geosocial Networking App Use Among Men Who Have Sex With Men in Serious Romantic Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macapagal, Kathryn; Coventry, Ryan; Puckett, Jae A; Phillips, Gregory; Mustanski, Brian

    2016-08-01

    Geosocial networking (GSN) mobile phone applications ("apps") are used frequently among men who have sex with men (MSM) to socialize and meet sexual partners. Though GSN apps are used by some MSM in partnered relationships, little is known about how the use of GSN apps among MSM in serious romantic relationships can influence couples' sexual and relationship health. MSM in serious relationships (N = 323; M age = 40 years) were recruited through a popular GSN app for MSM. Participants completed open-ended items regarding the costs and benefits of app use to their relationships, discussions of app use with their partners, and preferences for relationship education related to app use. Reported benefits of app use included improving sex and communication with one's primary partner and fulfilling unmet sexual needs. Although approximately half had not discussed app use with their partners, citing app use as a "non-issue," many cited various drawbacks to app use, including jealousy and being a distraction from the relationship. Few described sexual health concerns as a drawback to meeting partners through apps. Regarding relationship education preferences, most wanted help with general communication skills and how to express one's sexual needs to a partner. Although GSN app use can enhance relationships and sex among partnered MSM, unclear communication about app use may contribute to negative relationship outcomes and could prevent partners from having sexual needs met. Relationship and sexual health education programs for male couples should consider addressing social media and technology use in their curricula.

  10. Flash!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, Govert

    2002-04-01

    About three times a day our sky flashes with a powerful pulse of gamma ray bursts (GRB), invisible to human eyes but not to astronomers' instruments. The sources of this intense radiation are likely to be emitting, within the span of seconds or minutes, more energy than the sun will in its entire 10 billion years of life. Where these bursts originate, and how they come to have such incredible energies, is a mystery scientists have been trying to solve for three decades. The phenomenon has resisted study -- the flashes come from random directions in space and vanish without trace -- until very recently. In what could be called a cinematic conflation of Flash Gordon and The Hunt for Red October, Govert Schilling's Flash!: The Hunt for the Biggest Explosions in the Universe describes the exciting and ever-changing field of GRB research. Based on interviews with leading scientists, Flash! provides an insider's account of the scientific challenges involved in unravelling the enigmatic nature of GRBs. A science writer who has followed the drama from the very start, Schilling describes the ambition and jealousy, collegiality and competition, triumph and tragedy, that exists among those who have embarked on this recherche. Govert Schilling is a Dutch science writer and astronomy publicist. He is a contributing editor of Sky and Telescope magazine, and regularly writes for the news sections of Science and New Scientist. Schilling is the astronomy writer for de Volkskrant, one of the largest national daily newspapers in The Netherlands, and frequently talks about the Universe on Dutch radio broadcasts. He is the author of more than twenty popular astronomy books, and hundreds of newspaper and magazine articles on astronomy.

  11. What to do with the results of psychological tests of Education students, in the area of Counseling?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marhilde Sánchez de Gallardo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available All students of Education, in the area of Counseling, at the University of Zulia have started their studies after approving the process of selection administered by the Department of Psychology. Data on 129 people who initiate their university studies when concluding diversified high-school and 57 students who entered by career switch, restarting studies, studying 2 careers. This study is descriptive, documentary, retrospective, cross-sectional was based on results obtained in previous studies where a low performance was determined; similarities in emotional intelligence and indicators (teenager correction, while the correction of adults, revealed a significantly greater average of emotional indicators those who enter by modality. In personality, were similarities in the efficiency in the processing of information, emotional resources to face challenges, enthusiasm, capacity of benefit, sensitivity, control of the behavior, level of tendency to the preoccupation, innovation, analysis of traditions, degree of self-sufficiency and tension. They reveal important differences, with greater grades in those of modality in aggressiveness, irritability, jealousy, dogmatism, will-forcing, little conventionalism and imagination. Significant differences were identified, with greater scores in the group that entered when culminating studies of diversified cycle, in affectivity, respect to the authority, and pursuit of group norms, boldness and facility in the social contacts, emotional expressiveness, group loyalty, situational attitude, and impulsiveness. It is recommended to present/display the results of individual way in order of promoting in the members of both groups to attend individual and/or group therapy, to foment the development of potentialities, to strengthen the psychological well-being, the resilience, to create support networks, to optimize personal resources. Also to investigate situations of familiar load, children, economy, that could

  12. Gender and representation in refugee communities: the experience of the Ikafe programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, L; Adoko, J

    1997-06-01

    The Ikafe camp established in 1994 in Uganda for 45,000 refugees from Sudan was treated as a rural development program by Oxfam UK/1. Refugees and Oxfam staff achieved registration, land allocation, distribution of food, water, sanitation, health care, and livelihood development, and the refugees successfully cleared land for cultivation, established nurseries, and instituted community-managed water and sanitation systems. All programming has been achieved through representative structures linked to Ugandan bodies. Despite Oxfam's attempt to provide women with equal representation and an equal voice in decision-making, only a low participation of women was achieved. Analysis of this situation revealed that women in the Sudan traditionally held positions of responsibility. However, in the refugee settlements women sometimes did not learn about meetings or meetings were held at inconvenient times or women lacked free time for meetings. The men feared that women would appropriate jobs the men considered their rightful positions, and women expressed jealousy of prominent women. The existence of a position entitled "Women's Representative" led the refugees to believe that all the other jobs were for men, and they considered the alien Ugandan structures appropriate only for voicing concerns, not for self-management. Thus, refugee representatives were often the men who could speak English. In response, Oxfam reformed the representative structure to insure sex equality and restructured the committee overseeing discipline on Sudanese lines. Oxfam learned that it is important to establish interim structures that can be adapted later and that it is not enough simply to create democratic election procedures and encourage people to elect women.

  13. Physical Spouse Abuse in a 28-Week-Pregnant Woman: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memarian, Azadeh; Ameri, Maryam; Shakeri, Mozhgan; Mehrpisheh, Shahrokh

    2016-05-01

    In some relationships, pregnancy is a risk factor for intimate partner violence (IPV). We present a case of a 34-year-old, 28-week-pregnant woman who was admitted to the emergency department with multiple traumas due to IPV. Her husband had hit her with a power cable after abusing methamphetamine. There were multiple ecchymoses and lacerations on her body. On questioning, the patient revealed a low socioeconomic status. The couple had been married for five years, and the abuse began 11 months earlier, after the husband became addicted to methamphetamines. In this instance of abuse, the husband was suspicious of the wife's pregnancy and believed that the child had been fathered by another man. Her husband's methamphetamine abuse had resulted in previous incidences of non-physical IPV, but, in the present incident, the combination of abuse coupled with partner jealousy resulted in physical abuse. During admission, there were no significant changes to the patient's health, and the fetus was deemed to be healthy and unharmed. After discharge, the patient decided to divorce her abusive husband. Screening and counseling for interpersonal and domestic violence is especially recommended during pregnancy to protect the mother and her fetus. In Iranian civil law, IPV is regarded as "osr-o-haraj" or severe and intolerable hardship, and women may cite it as grounds for divorce in cases such as spousal drug addiction and certain forms of spousal abuse. When intimate partner assault is repeated and petition for khula is presented to the courts, the court can order the man to divorce his wife and, if he refuses, the court judge can grant the khula without the husband's consent.

  14. Fred Hoyle's Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Jane

    2005-08-01

    Fred Hoyle was a Yorkshire truant who became the voice of British astronomy. For fifty years, he spoke out for astronomy in the newspapers, on government committees, at scientific meetings, in popular books and on the radio. He devised a never-ending history of the universe, and worked out how the elements were made. He founded a prestigious institute for theoretical astronomy and built a giant telescope, and if it rained on his summer holiday, he sat in his caravan and wrote science fiction novels for his legions of fans around the world. Fred Hoyle also claimed that diseases fall from the sky, that the big bang never happened, and that the Astronomer Royal should be abolished. When the outspoken Fred Hoyle spoke out for astronomy, some astronomers really wished he had kept his mouth shut. This book tells the behind-the-scenes story of Hoyle's widely acclaimed and deeply controversial role in the ideas, organization and public face of astronomy in post-war Britain. It chronicles the triumphs, acrimony, jealousies, rewards and bitter feuds of a field in turmoil, and meets the astronomers, contemplating cosmic questions, keeping secrets, losing their tempers, winkling information out of distant stars and, over tea on the lawn, discussing the finer points of libel law. Fred Hoyle's Universe draws on previously confidential government documents, recently released personal correspondence and interviews with Hoyle's friends, colleagues and critics, as well as with Hoyle himself, to bring you the man, the science, and the scandal behind the genial and genteel facade of the most exciting period in the history of astronomy.

  15. Linkages between gender equity and intimate partner violence among urban Brazilian youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Anu Manchikanti; Speizer, Ilene S; Moracco, Kathryn E

    2011-10-01

    Gender inequity is a risk factor for intimate partner violence (IPV), although there is little research on this relationship that focuses on youth or males. Using survey data collected from 240 male and 198 female youth aged 15-24 in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, we explore the association between individual-level support for gender equity and IPV experiences in the past 6 months and describe responses to and motivations for IPV. Factor analysis was used to construct gender equity scales for males and females. Logistic and multinomial logistic regression models were used to examine the relationship between gender equity and IPV. About half of female youth reported some form of recent IPV, including any victimization (32%), any perpetration (40%), and both victimization and perpetration (22%). A total of 18% of male youth reported recently perpetrating IPV. In logistic regression models, support for gender equity had a protective effect against any female IPV victimization and any male IPV perpetration and was not associated with female IPV perpetration. Female victims reported leaving the abusive partner, but later returning to him as the most frequent response to IPV. Male perpetrators said the most common response of their victims was to retaliate with violence. Jealousy was the most frequently reported motivation of females perpetrating IPV. Gender equity is an important predictor of IPV among youth. Examining the gendered context of IPV will be useful in the development of targeted interventions to promote gender equity and healthy relationships and to help reduce IPV among youth. Copyright © 2011 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Pathological spirit possession as a cultural interpretation of trauma-related symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecker, Tobias; Barnewitz, Eva; Stenmark, Hakon; Iversen, Valentina

    2016-07-01

    Spirit possession is a phenomenon frequently occurring in war-torn countries. It has been shown to be an idiom of distress entailing dissociative symptoms. However, its association with trauma exposure and trauma-related disorders remains unclear. This study aimed to explore subjective disease models and the relationship between pathological spirit possession and trauma-related disorders in the Eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo. Seventy-three (formerly) possessed persons (74% female, mean age = 34 years), referred by traditional and spiritual healers, were interviewed about their experiences of pathological spirit possession, trauma exposure, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, depressive symptoms, shame and guilt, psychotic symptoms, somatic complaints, and the impairment of psychosocial functioning. The most common disease model for pathological spirit possession was another person having sent the spirit, mostly a family member or a neighbor, out of jealousy or conflict over resources. Significant correlations were found between spirit possession over lifetime and PTSD symptom severity, feelings of shame and guilt, depressive symptoms, somatic complaints, and psychotic symptoms. Spirit possession during the preceding 4 weeks was associated with PTSD symptom severity, impairment of psychosocial functioning, and psychotic symptom severity. The results of this study indicate that pathological spirit possession is a broad explanatory framework for various subjectively unexplainable mental and physical health problems, including but not limited to trauma-related disorders. Understanding pathological spirit possession as a subjective disease model for various mental and physical health problems may help researchers and clinicians to develop culturally sensitive treatment approaches for affected individuals. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Sound Heart: Spiritual Nursing Care Model from Religious Viewpoint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadzandi, Minoo

    2017-12-01

    Different methods of epistemology create different philosophical views. None of the nursing theories have employed the revelational epistemology and the philosophical views of Abrahamic religions. According to Abrahamic religions, the universe and human being have been created based on God's affection. Human being should deserve the position of God's representative on earth after achieving all ethical merits. Humans have willpower to shape their destiny by choosing manner of their relationship with God, people, themselves and the whole universe. They can adopt the right behavior by giving a divine color to their thoughts and intentions and thus attain peace and serenity in their heart. Health means having a sound heart (calm spirit with a sense of hope and love, security and happiness) that is achievable through faith and piety. Moral vices lead to diseases. Human beings are able to purge their inside (heart) through establishing a relationship with God and then take actions to reform the outside world. The worlds are run by God's will based on prudence and mercy. All events happen with God's authorization, and human beings have to respond to them. Nurses should try to recognize the patient's spiritual response to illness that can appear as symptoms of an unsound heart (fear, sadness, disappointment, anger, jealousy, cruelty, grudge, suspicion, etc.) due to the pains caused by illness and then alleviate the patient's suffering by appropriate approaches. Nurses help the patient to achieve the sound heart by hope in divine mercy and love, and they help the patient see good in any evil and relieve their fear and sadness by viewing their illness positively and then attain the status of calm, satisfaction, peace and serenity in their heart and being content with the divine fate. By invitation to religious morality, the model leads the patients to spiritual health.

  18. PERVALE-S: a new cognitive task to assess deaf people’s ability to perceive basic and social emotions

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    JOSE MIGUEL MESTRE

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available PERVALE-S was developed to assess the ability of DP to perceive both social and basic emotions. PERVALE-S presents different sets of visual images of a real deaf person expressing both basic and social emotions, according to the normative standard of emotional expressions in Spanish sign language. Emotional expression stimuli were presented at two different levels of intensity (1: low; and 2: high because DP do not distinguish the same range of frequency adverbs as hearing people (HP do. Then, participants had to click on the more suitable emotional expression. PERVALE-S contains video instructions of a sign language interpreter to improve DP’s understanding about how to use the software. DP had to watch the videos before answering the items. To test PERVALE-S, a sample of 56 individuals was recruited (18 signers, 8 lip-readers, and 30 hearing people. Participants also responded to a personality test (HSPQ adapted and a fluid intelligence measure (RAPM. Moreover, four teachers from deaf center rated all deaf participants. Results: there were no significant differences between DP and HP in performance in PERVALE-S. Confusion matrices revealed that embarrassment, envy, and jealousy were worse perceived by participants (DP and HP. There were not significant differences of emotional perception performance among lip-readings, signers, and hearings. Regarding emotional perception ability (EPA, basic emotion performance was positively related to consciousness, and negatively with tension. Social emotion performance was positively related to age and fluid intelligence, and negatively related to dominance. When an adapted instrument for assessing EPA is developed without language implications, the performance among DP and HP are closer. This instrument could have experimental interest in order of eliminating language influences in EPA.

  19. Physical Spouse Abuse in a 28-Week-Pregnant Woman: A Case Report

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    Azadeh Memarian

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In some relationships, pregnancy is a risk factor for intimate partner violence (IPV. We present a case of a 34-year-old, 28-week-pregnant woman who was admitted to the emergency department with multiple traumas due to IPV. Her husband had hit her with a power cable after abusing methamphetamine. There were multiple ecchymoses and lacerations on her body. On questioning, the patient revealed a low socioeconomic status. The couple had been married for five years, and the abuse began 11 months earlier, after the husband became addicted to methamphetamines. In this instance of abuse, the husband was suspicious of the wife’s pregnancy and believed that the child had been fathered by another man. Her husband’s methamphetamine abuse had resulted in previous incidences of non-physical IPV, but, in the present incident, the combination of abuse coupled with partner jealousy resulted in physical abuse. During admission, there were no significant changes to the patient’s health, and the fetus was deemed to be healthy and unharmed. After discharge, the patient decided to divorce her abusive husband. Screening and counseling for interpersonal and domestic violence is especially recommended during pregnancy to protect the mother and her fetus. In Iranian civil law, IPV is regarded as “osr-o-haraj” or severe and intolerable hardship, and women may cite it as grounds for divorce in cases such as spousal drug addiction and certain forms of spousal abuse. When intimate partner assault is repeated and petition for khula is presented to the courts, the court can order the man to divorce his wife and, if he refuses, the court judge can grant the khula without the husband’s consent.

  20. Infant feeding in Eastern Scotland: a longitudinal mixed methods evaluation of antenatal intentions and postnatal satisfaction--the Feeding Your Baby study.

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    Symon, Andrew G; Whitford, Heather; Dalzell, Janet

    2013-07-01

    breast-feeding initiation rates have improved in Scotland, but exclusive and partial breast-feeding rates fall rapidly for several reasons. We aimed to examine whether antenatal feeding intention was associated with satisfaction with infant feeding method; and to explore the similarities and differences in infant feeding experience of women with different antenatal feeding intention scores. antenatal questionnaire assessment of infant feeding intentions, based on the theory of planned behaviour; two-weekly postnatal follow-up of infant feeding practice by text messaging; final telephone interview to determine reasons for and satisfaction with infant feeding practice. 355 women in eastern Scotland were recruited antenatally; 292 completed postnatal follow up. Antenatal feeding intentions broadly predicted postnatal practice. The highest satisfaction scores were seen in mothers with no breast-feeding intention who formula fed from birth, and those with high breast-feeding intention who breastfed for more than 8 weeks. The lowest satisfaction scores were seen in those with high intention scores who only managed to breast feed for less than 3 weeks. This suggests that satisfaction with infant feeding is associated with achieving feeding goals, whether artificial milk or breast feeding. Reasons for stopping breast feeding were broadly similar over time (too demanding, pain, latching, perception of amount of milk, lack of professional support, sibling jealousy). Perseverance appeared to mark out those women who managed to breast feed for longer; this was seen across the socio-economic spectrum. Societal and professional pressure to breast feed was commonly experienced. satisfaction with actual infant feeding practice is associated with antenatal intention; levels are higher for those meeting their goals, whether formula feeding from birth or breast feeding for longer periods. Perceived pressure to breast feed raises questions about informed decision making. Identifying

  1. PERVALE-S: a new cognitive task to assess deaf people’s ability to perceive basic and social emotions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mestre, José M.; Larrán, Cristina; Herrero, Joaquín; Guil, Rocío; de la Torre, Gabriel G.

    2015-01-01

    A poorly understood aspect of deaf people (DP) is how their emotional information is processed. Verbal ability is key to improve emotional knowledge in people. Nevertheless, DP are unable to distinguish intonation, intensity, and the rhythm of language due to lack of hearing. Some DP have acquired both lip-reading abilities and sign language, but others have developed only sign language. PERVALE-S was developed to assess the ability of DP to perceive both social and basic emotions. PERVALE-S presents different sets of visual images of a real deaf person expressing both basic and social emotions, according to the normative standard of emotional expressions in Spanish Sign Language. Emotional expression stimuli were presented at two different levels of intensity (1: low; and 2: high) because DP do not distinguish an object in the same way as hearing people (HP) do. Then, participants had to click on the more suitable emotional expression. PERVALE-S contains video instructions (given by a sign language interpreter) to improve DP’s understanding about how to use the software. DP had to watch the videos before answering the items. To test PERVALE-S, a sample of 56 individuals was recruited (18 signers, 8 lip-readers, and 30 HP). Participants also performed a personality test (High School Personality Questionnaire adapted) and a fluid intelligence (Gf) measure (RAPM). Moreover, all deaf participants were rated by four teachers for the deaf. Results: there were no significant differences between deaf and HP in performance in PERVALE-S. Confusion matrices revealed that embarrassment, envy, and jealousy were worse perceived. Age was just related to social-emotional tasks (but not in basic emotional tasks). Emotional perception ability was related mainly to warmth and consciousness, but negatively related to tension. Meanwhile, Gf was related to only social-emotional tasks. There were no gender differences. PMID:26300828

  2. Predictor variables of happiness and its connection with risk and protective factors for health

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    Maite eGaraigordobil

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Great thinkers, philosophers, scientists, and artists from History have often been concerned about one of the most important elements of life: happiness. The study had four goals: 1 To analyze possible differences in feelings of happiness as a function of sex and age; 2 To explore the relations of happiness with risk factors (psychopathological symptoms, behavior problems and protective factors (self-concept-self-esteem, cooperative behavior, social skills for health; 3 To identify predictor variables of happiness; and 4 To explore whether self-esteem mediates the relationship between happiness and psychopathological symptoms. The sample comprised 286 adolescents (14-16 years old. The study used a descriptive, correlational, and cross-sectional methodology. Seven assessment instruments were administered. The ANOVAs confirm that there are no sex differences, but happiness decreases as age increases. Pearson coefficients show that adolescents with more feelings of happiness had fewer psychopathological symptoms (somatization, obsession-compulsion, interpersonal sensitivity, depression, anxiety, hostility, phobic anxiety, paranoid ideation, psychoticism…, fewer behavioral problems (school-academic, antisocial behavior, shyness-withdrawal, psychopathological, psychosomatic, high social adaptation, high self-concept/self-esteem, many cooperative behaviors, many appropriate social skills, and few negative social skills (inappropriate assertiveness, impulsiveness, jealousy-withdrawal. Multiple regression analysis identified five variables predicting happiness: high self-concept, few symptoms of depression, many cooperative behaviors, high self-esteem, and low psychoticism. Results showed a partial mediational effect of self-esteem in the relation between happiness and psychopathological symptoms. The discussion focuses on the importance of implementing programs to promote feelings of happiness, as well as protective factors for health (self

  3. What Plato and Murdoch Think About Love

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    Shadi Shakouri

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available There are many interpretations of love and lots of scholars write and talk on love; however, what exactly is the meaning of love? Iris Murdoch’s works are an accumulation of emotional relationships and feelings of love. Her great subject is love, both sexual and non-sexual, and her characters are the portrayal of a small group of people caught up in convoluted ties of love and hate, with Eros ruling over them (Cohen 22. Murdoch was one of the most respected British writers and philosophers of the second half of the twentieth century and, of course, the postwar period. In Murdoch’s novels, love is one of the central themes—marriage, as the institution of love, more often binds than frees. Her characters are mainly ego-centric people who struggle to love and are often overwhelmed by the factor of self-obsession, jealousy, ambition, fascination with suffering and charismatic power. They are absolutely ordinary people with a consuming demand for love, and mental and physical exile. Murdoch was inspired by Plato’s ideas in many ways. Like art, here again Plato’s idea of love is more skeptical than Murdoch’s, whereas Murdoch kept it only as a way to the Good, creation, and happiness. Murdoch and Plato saw love more as a Freudian concept, the Eros, the word that comes from the name of the first Greek god of love. Both the philosophers, Plato and Murdoch, believed that this erotic longing and desires revived by Eros can led to a new direction, a way toward virtue and truth. Her protagonist or marginalized characters are usually tackling it with either vulgarity or the heavenly, which results in creation, art or salvation. Murdoch, as a major moral philosopher, usually grasps the chances to encapsulate her moral visions in her works, and created novels that should be counted as meditations on human love and goodness.

  4. HIV risk and prevention among men who have sex with men in rural South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maleke, Kabelo; Makhakhe, Nosipho; Peters, Remco Ph; Jobson, Geoffrey; De Swardt, Glenn; Daniels, Joseph; Lane, Timothy; McIntyre, James A; Imrie, John; Struthers, Helen

    2017-03-01

    Rural South African men who have sex with men (MSM) are likely to be underserved in terms of access to relevant healthcare and HIV prevention services. While research in urban and peri-urban MSM populations has identified a range of factors affecting HIV risk in South African MSM, very little research is available that examines HIV risk and prevention in rural MSM populations. This exploratory study begins to address this lack by assessing perceptions of HIV risk among MSM in rural Limpopo province. Using thematic analysis of interview and discussion data, two overarching global themes that encapsulated participants' understandings of HIV risk and the HIV risk environment in their communities were developed. In the first theme, "community experience and the rural social environment", factors affecting HIV risk within the broad risk environment were discussed. These included perceptions of traditional value systems and communities as homophobic; jealousy and competition between MSM; and the role of social media as a means of meeting other MSM. The second global theme, "HIV/AIDS knowledge, risk and experience", focused on factors more immediately affecting HIV transmission risk. These included: high levels of knowledge of heterosexual HIV risk, but limited knowledge of MSM-specific risk; inconsistent condom and lubricant use; difficulties in negotiating condom and lubricant use due to uneven power dynamics in relationships; competition for sexual partners; multiple concurrent sexual partnerships; and transactional sex. These exploratory results suggest that rural South African MSM, like their urban and peri-urban counterparts, are at high risk of contracting HIV, and that there is a need for more in-depth research into the interactions between the rural context and the specific HIV risk knowledge and behaviours that affect HIV risk in this population.

  5. THE VALUES EXISTING IN PENDNÂME-I ZARÎFÎ - PENDNÂME-İ ZARÎFÎ’DE YER ALAN DEĞERLER

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    Şerife AKPINAR

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In today’s world, the shifts happening in social and cultural values lead to alienation from traditions and societal collapses. Hence, the need for more teaching of values for the new generation arises. In this education, the school and the efforts of families are significant; however, these efforts should be enriched with works of art considering the interests of individuals. In these works, in addition to contemporary written texts, classical Turkish literature, which connects these days to our roots and will carry us into the future, should not be disregarded. Classical Turkish literature was called as high class literature for years, that’s why it was criticized, accused of being away from the society. However, recent research reveals that classical Turkish literature works address to the society, involve social, economical, and cultural values, and most of the time they give advice to people. Taking part especially in classical literature tradition, advice letters are advice books which are based on values, and tried to lead people into goodness, beauty, righteousness, indulgence, benevolence, and hospitality. In this study, it will be put emphasis on the values which are in Pendnâme-i Zarîfî, one of the advice letters written to guide people. This work is accepted as “a kind of etiquette book” written by one of the 18th century poet, Zarîfî. While the poet advices his readers against staying away from arrogance, hypocrisy, lie, gossip, ignorance, unlawfulness, jealousy, ambition, extravagance, greediness; he also encourages them to be righteous, generous, patient, modest, merciful, just, and keep secrets. In this way, it will be tried to contribute to the education of new generation with regards to the values appraised in Pendnâme-i Zarîfî, and it will be revealed that this work is a guiding light not just for the period it was written, but also for today’s people.

  6. Predictor variables of happiness and its connection with risk and protective factors for health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garaigordobil, Maite

    2015-01-01

    Great thinkers, philosophers, scientists, and artists from History have often been concerned about one of the most important elements of life: happiness. The study had four goals: (1) To analyze possible differences in feelings of happiness as a function of sex and age; (2) To explore the relations of happiness with risk factors (psychopathological symptoms, behavior problems) and protective factors (self-concept-self-esteem, cooperative behavior, social skills) for health; (3) To identify predictor variables of happiness; and (4) To explore whether self-esteem mediates the relationship between happiness and psychopathological symptoms. The sample comprised 286 adolescents (14–16 years old). The study used a descriptive, correlational, and cross-sectional methodology. Seven assessment instruments were administered. The ANOVAs confirm that there are no sex differences, but happiness decreases as age increases. Pearson coefficients show that adolescents with more feelings of happiness had fewer psychopathological symptoms (somatization, obsession–compulsion, interpersonal sensitivity, depression, anxiety, hostility, phobic anxiety, paranoid ideation, psychoticism…), fewer behavioral problems (school-academic, antisocial behavior, shyness-withdrawal, psychopathological, psychosomatic), high social adaptation, high self-concept/self-esteem, many cooperative behaviors, many appropriate social skills, and few negative social skills (inappropriate assertiveness, impulsiveness, jealousy-withdrawal). Multiple regression analysis identified five variables predicting happiness: high self-concept, few symptoms of depression, many cooperative behaviors, high self-esteem, and low psychoticism. Results showed a partial mediational effect of self-esteem in the relation between happiness and psychopathological symptoms. The discussion focuses on the importance of implementing programs to promote feelings of happiness, as well as protective factors for health (self

  7. Femicide in Turkey between 2000 and 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toprak, Sadik; Ersoy, Gokhan

    2017-01-01

    Although intimate partner violence (IPV) is an important problem that threatens women’s health, very few studies focus on the victim—perpetrator relationship or examine this relationship across Turkey. The aim of this study is to contribute to a better understanding of femicide cases in Turkey and to describe the socio-demographic, clinical, forensic, and criminological characteristics of femicide victims and offenders. This study analysed 162 femicide cases that occurred in 12 cities in Turkey from 1 January 2000 to 31 December 2010. Eighty women were killed by their partners (classified as intimate partner femicide, IPF), and 81 women were killed by one of their relatives, friends, or strangers (classified as non-intimate partner femicide, non-IPF). According to our results, the typical IPF victim is of child-bearing age, does not have a paid job, is married or divorced, is killed in a domestic setting due to injuries to the thorax or abdomen produced by an edged/pointed weapon or firearm, and is possibly a victim of overkill. The typical IPF perpetrator is close to his victim’s age, has a paid job, has no mental disability, owns a gun, and has threatened his partner or ex-partner previously because of jealousy/infidelity/honour or separation. The typical non-IPF victim is very similar to the IPF victim; however, her marital status can be single, married or divorced, and she is commonly killed by a relative. The surveillance and screening of femicide and IPV is an important step when analysing and attempting to prevent femicide. Second, the training and sensitization of health professionals are important. Moreover, health staff should be encouraged to participate in advocacy interventions. Third, gun ownership must be brought under control. PMID:28832596

  8. Xenophobic societal attitudes in a “new” South Africanism: Governance of public perceptions, national identities and citizenship

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    Johannes Tsheola

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article argues that xenophobia is not a natural state of being for any society; instead, it is a product of socialisation which becomes excessive with violent abuses of the out- group immigrants where such conduct is institutionalised through state apparatus. In this context, post-apartheid South Africanisms cannot be generalised as intrinsically xenophobic because the dreadful societal attitudes and violent abuses are evidently products of institutionalized governance for socialization of public perceptions of hostilities and animosities through the politics and struggles of politico-socio-economic resources. The coinage and officialdom of rainbowism was admission that construction of a new national identity around culture was a virtual impossibility; and, the result was usurpation of exclusionary citizenship that came to define insiders away from outsiders. This notion of citizenship promised access to state and pubic resources, which did not materialise, leading to frustration against government and targeting of out-group African immigrants. Hence, the apparent “felt” collective threat among in-group communities against out-group immigrants over the untenable alibi of job and women stealing as well as acceptance of below minimum wages are inherently functions of irrational jealousy. This article frames this argument through a rigorous examination of the theorisation of xenophobia as “new racism”, models of governance of xenophobic societal attitudes for public hostilities, animosities and violent abuse. Furthermore, it examines constructions of new South Africanism, African Renaissance, exclusionary citizenship, exceptionalism, differentness and the society’s frustration with politico-socio-economic resources exclusionism amidst constitutional inclusivity, tolerance, cultural pluralism, inviolate human rights and the political elitism’s hyperbolic public stunts of a better life for all.

  9. Romantic Relationship Quality in the Digital Age: A Study with Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Virginia; Muñoz-Fernández, Noelia; Ortega-Ruiz, Rosario

    2017-05-03

    Recent studies suggest that the online and offline behaviors young people display in romantic relationships are closely related. However, the differential effects of the dimensions of couple quality in the online context have not yet been explored in depth. The aim of this study was to explore online couple quality in young-adult relationships, and its association with romantic relationship satisfaction, also looking at effects of gender, age, and length of the relationship. 431 university students currently in a romantic relationship (68.2% females; mean age = 21.57) participated in this study. They completed different self-report measures to tap the online quality of their romantic relationships (online intimacy, control, jealousy, intrusiveness, cyberdating practices, and communication strategies) and level of satisfaction with those relationships. Results showed that participants more often reported online intimacy (M men = 2.49; M women = 2.38) than the negative scales of online quality (mean ranged from .43 to 1.50), and all the online quality scales decreased with age (correlations ranged from -.12 to -.30) and relationship length (correlations ranged from -.02 to -.20). Linear regression analyses indicated that online intimacy (b = .32, p = .001) and intrusiveness (b = .11, p = .035) were positively related to relationship satisfaction, while cyberdating practices (b = -.20, p = .001) and communication strategies (b = -.34, p = .001) were negatively correlated with relationship satisfaction. Moreover, gender and relationship length moderated some of these associations. Results indicate that while online quality and relationship satisfaction are related, the impact of different online quality dimensions on relationship satisfaction differs depending on a participant's sex, age, and relationship length.

  10. Upset Over Sexual versus Emotional Infidelity Among Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, and Heterosexual Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederick, David A; Fales, Melissa R

    2016-01-01

    One hypothesis derived from evolutionary perspectives is that men are more upset than women by sexual infidelity and women are more upset than men by emotional infidelity. The proposed explanation is that men, in contrast to women, face the risk of unwittingly investing in genetically unrelated offspring. Most studies, however, have relied on small college or community samples of heterosexual participants. We examined upset over sexual versus emotional jealousy among 63,894 gay, lesbian, bisexual, and heterosexual participants. Participants imagined which would upset them more: their partners having sex with someone else (but not falling in love with them) or their partners falling in love with someone else (but not having sex with them). Consistent with this evolutionary perspective, heterosexual men were more likely than heterosexual women to be upset by sexual infidelity (54 vs. 35 %) and less likely than heterosexual women to be upset by emotional infidelity (46 vs. 65 %). This gender difference emerged across age groups, income levels, history of being cheated on, history of being unfaithful, relationship type, and length. The gender difference, however, was limited to heterosexual participants. Bisexual men and women did not differ significantly from each other in upset over sexual infidelity (30 vs. 27 %), regardless of whether they were currently dating a man (35 vs. 29 %) or woman (28 vs. 20 %). Gay men and lesbian women also did not differ (32 vs. 34 %). The findings present strong evidence that a gender difference exists in a broad sample of U.S. adults, but only among heterosexuals.

  11. The perception of crime from Albanian families that come from rural areas (Case study in the city of Durres

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    Marjeta Milloshi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Crime in the family constitutes one of the major concerns of recent years in Albania. Violence in Albanian families remains unnoticed and is not declared by the majority of those affected. The worst is that there are deep rural areas where violence is accepted as normal within a family. Many studies have come to the conclusion that women who have higher education tend to be better prepared to cope with domestic disputes and solve the problems with communication, so are less likely to be victims of physical violence. The economic, cultural, emotional and social factors are sources that generate violence or crime within the family. The transition from a totalitarian to a democratic society brought not only functional changes, but also differences in their implementation. This was accompanied by misunderstandings of the individual crisis and human rights. This misunderstanding is often associated with deviant behavior or by criminal acts. Poverty, unemployment, jealousy, alcohol and drugs are some of the main reasons that cause domestic violence. Albania has long been considered a patriarchal society where men have more rights than women. This difference has led to a situation where husbands continue to see themselves as more superior, and tend to violate their women or children. In recent years poverty has even increased bringing domestic violence to alarming levels. But besides the major problem of growing violence within the family, the biggest problem is the failure of declaration, because of the mentality, shame, lack of trust in government bodies etc. This problem is even greater in rural areas, where there is a lack of police structures, while NGOs cannot cover the whole country. This study was concentrated in the city of Durres, where 600 surveys were undertaken to people of different ages. This paper is focused in the way of how domestic violence is seen by citizens of the city of Durres and those coming from rural areas.

  12. Delusional disorder: molecular genetic evidence for dopamine psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morimoto, Kiyoshi; Miyatake, Ryosuke; Nakamura, Mitsuo; Watanabe, Takemi; Hirao, Toru; Suwaki, Hiroshi

    2002-06-01

    Since delusional disorder is characterized by mono-symptomatic paranoid symptoms, it can be a good clinical model for investigating the dopaminergic mechanism responsible for paranoid symptoms. We examined neuroleptic responses, plasma homovanillic acid (pHVA) and genes of the dopamine receptor (DR) and its synthesizing enzyme (tyrosine hydroxylase: TH) in patients with delusional disorder and compared them with those of schizophrenic patients and healthy controls. (1) A relatively small dose of haloperidol was more effective for delusional disorder than for schizophrenia. (2) The pretreatment level of pHVA was higher in patients with persecution-type, but not in those with jealousy-type delusional disorder, compared with age- and sex-matched controls. This increased pHVA level was decreased eight weeks after successful haloperidol treatment. (3) The genotype frequency of the DRD2 gene Ser311Cys was significantly higher in patients with persecution-type delusional disorder (21%), compared with schizophrenic patients (6%) or controls (6%). (4) Patients homozygous for the DRD3 gene Ser9Ser had higher pretreatment levels of pHVA than those heterozygous for Ser9Gly. (v) A significant positive correlation was found between the polymorphic (TCAT)(n) repeat in the first intron of the TH gene and pretreatment levels of pHVA in delusional disorder. We suggest that delusional disorder, especially the persecution-type, includes a "dopamine psychosis," and that polymorphism of the DRD2, DRD3 and/or TH gene is part of the genetic basis underlying the hyperdopaminergic state that produces paranoid symptoms. Further studies on a large sample size are required.

  13. Hospital workplace experiences of registered nurses that have contributed to their resignation in the Durban metropolitan area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, L A; McInerney, P A

    2006-11-01

    Hospital workplace experiences of registered nurses that have contributed to their resignation in the Durban Metropolitan Area. The purpose of this research was to explore and describe the hospital workplace experiences that had contributed to the resignations of Registered Nurses in the Durban Metropolitan Area. The broad perspective governing this research is qualitative in nature. The researcher employed a phenomenological approach specifically because the researcher was interested in identifying, describing and understanding the subjective experiences of individual nurses at the two Private and two Provincial health care institutions selected to participate in the study - in respect of their decision (s) to resign from their employment, and/or to leave the nursing profession. Two semistructured interviews were conducted with each participant by the researcher. The researcher applied the principle of theoretical saturation and a total of fifteen participants were interviewed and thirty interviews were conducted. Experiential themes and subthemes in the data were identified by a process of meaning condensation, and the data were managed by means of a qualitative software package - NVIVO (QSR - NUD*IST). The resignations of registered nurses in the Durban Metropolitan Area were found to be linked to their respective hospital workplace experiences. These experiences related to their physical working conditions and environment and included the following: unsupportive management structures, autocratic and dehumanizing management styles, negative stereotypy of nurses and the nursing profession, lack of autonomy in the workplace, professional jealousies and fractures within the profession, sub-optimal physical working conditions and shortage of staff, equipment and lack of appropriate surgical supplies, concerns regarding occupational safety e.g. the increasing exposure of health care personnel to HIV and AIDS; lack of opportunities for promotion or continuing one

  14. Kurjus ja tema teisik / Evil and its Double

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    Anne-Marie Le Baillif

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper about theater fiction tries to enlighten the problem of the figurative representation of forces of evil. Incidentally we notice that some very actual productions are based on dramas from the 16th century transgressing the period and updating the figures of violence. On this way, assistance is leaded „behind the mirror“ and required to ask herself what is representing evil in our world? To try to understand the mechanism or a part of it we have chosen three figures of contemporary stage as example.  The first is La Furie, from Jean Virey du Gravier’s tragedy La Machabée (1596 and staging in 1985. This figure without any reality is only visible from the assistance but she manipulates all the figures of the play. Her nonexistence let her possibility to say truth.  The second is a muted figure in Wolfgang Mitterer’s opera Massacre (2003 witch is based on Marlowe tragedy Massacre à Paris (1596. She is mixing the old age and the new one and show explicitly the concordance amongst stages on which the character of the 16th century are performing and Iraqi’s war video.  The last one is Ariel in Thomas Adès’ opera The tempest (2004 based on Shakespeare’s eponym play (1611. This character has no representation as la Furie. Ariel is also fiction witch mixed evilness and goodness, an avatar of the two previous characters. In the present case Evil is shown as the will of Prospero who wants have revenge. Ades insist on the total obedience of Ariel, who brings out his incoherencies. Obviously, origin of evilness is not in the mind of the executor but in the contract that bind him to another force: jealousy of Duke of Milan who takes off Prospero from his throne because he was not an action man.  These characters make a bridge between the Renaissance and now a day and show how permanent is the question of evil. The man hopes through civilization get rid off from aggressiveness but he hasn’t found yet how to struggle against evil

  15. O Espírito Santo contra o feitiço e os espíritos revoltados: "civilização" e "tradição" em Moçambique

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    Peter Fry

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available Durante uma cerimônia conduzida por uma congregação zionista em Moçambique, para restaurar a fertilidade de um casal mediante o apaziguamento de um espírito enraivecido, foi-me dito que os brancos eram imunes a este tipo de problema pois estavam livres dos espíritos revoltados e da feitiçaria, sendo portanto mais capazes de cooperar entre si. Tal criticismo da "cultura africana" é disseminado entre muitas igrejas protestantes, em particular os Zionistas e Pentecostais, enquanto a Igreja Católica, através de sua noção de enculturação, tenta manter-se próxima à "tradição africana". O artigo examina os significados ligados à "tradição africana" e suas antinomias, "modernidade" e "civilização, em uma tentativa de demonstrar a ampla distribuição do desejo de controlar os males da feitiçaria e da bruxaria, assim como a inveja e ambição que as movem. O artigo se encerra com uma reflexão sobre a maneira como a análise antropológica falhou em considerar o sofrimento que tais crenças refletem e engendram.During a ceremony conducted by a Zionist congregation in Mozambique to restore the fertility of a barren couple by appeasing an angry spirit, I was told that whites were immune from these kinds of problems since they were free of angry spirits and witchcraft and more able to co-operate among themselves. Such criticism of "African culture" is widespread among many Protestant churches, in particular the Zionists and Pentecostals in general. Meanwhile, the Catholic Church, through its notion of enculturation, attempts to become closer to "African Tradition". The article examines the meanings attached to "African Tradition" and its antinomies, "Modernity" and "Civilization", in an attempt to demonstrate the widespread existence of a strong desire to control the evils of witchcraft, sorcery, and the jealousy and ambition that move them. The article ends with a brief reflection on the way in which much classical anthropological

  16. AN ANALYSIS OF KARNAVAL WRITTEN BY AHMET MİDHATEFENDİ AHMET MİDHAT EFENDİNİN “KARNAVAL” ROMANINI TAHLİL DENEMESİ

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    Özlem KAYABAŞI

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Ahmet Midhat Efendi is one of the most important writers oftheliterature of the Tanzimat period. In his works, Ahmet Midhat Efendiaimed to present the cultural changes of a nation. Carnaval is one of hisworks written with this repect. The writer initially presents what thecarnaval is, how it is performed, what kind of poeple participate it andhow they dress. Social panaroma is depicted as well. Concepts behind theclash of emotions such as love, jealousy, fidelity are explained. The novelis examined under the titles of plot, content, language and narration. Ahmet Midhat Efendi Tanzimat dönemi romancılığının önemliisimlerinden biridir. Yazdığı roman ve hikâyelerde bir milletin yaşadığıkültür ve medeniyet değişiminin izlerini yansıtmaya ve insanları budeğişime hazırlamaya çalışmıştır. Bu amaçla yazdığı romanlardan biri deKarnaval’dır. Yazar bu romanda öncelikle karnavalın ne olduğunu, nasılyapıldığını, karnavala kimlerin katıldığını, insanların nasıl giyindiklerianlatır. Sonrasında da sosyal hayatın içinden manzaraları anlatır. Aşk,kıskançlık, ihanet, sadakat gibi duyguların çatışması altında değişendeğerler anlatılır. Roman; zihniyet, yapı(olay örgüsü, kişiler, zaman,mekân, tema, dil ve anlatım başlıkları altında incelenmiştir.

  17. Homicídio seguido de suicídio: relato de caso Homicide followed by suicide: case report

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    Helena Dias de Castro Bins

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Examinar o fenômeno clínico de homicídio seguido de suicídio (HS a partir de um caso no qual o desfecho de suicídio não ocorreu por motivos alheios à vontade e às ações do sujeito. DESCRIÇÃO DO CASO: Trata-se do caso de um homem que matou sua namorada por ciúmes, por ocasião do término do relacionamento entre ambos, tentando, a seguir, o suicídio. No presente artigo, é dada especial ênfase aos aspectos forenses do caso, avaliado para fins de determinação de responsabilidade penal e acompanhado no Instituto Psiquiátrico Forense Dr. Maurício Cardoso, Porto Alegre (RS. COMENTÁRIOS: Ressalta-se que, ao se modificar o desfecho de um caso típico de HS, por não ter se consumado o suicídio do homicida, dois aspectos assumem relevância: as consequências legais a serem enfrentadas pelo sujeito e o manejo do impacto psíquico no sobrevivente. Do ponto de vista da prevenção, o conhecimento do fenômeno HS e dos fatores descritos como associados a ele justificaria uma constante atenção ao tema por parte dos profissionais de saúde mental. O presente relato foi autorizado pelo paciente através de termo de consentimento livre e esclarecido.OBJECTIVE: The clinical phenomenon of homicide followed by suicide (HS is examined through a case in which suicide was avoided despite the individual's will and actions. CASE DESCRIPTION: A man killed his girlfriend at the end of the relationship because of jealousy. After that, he attempted suicide. Special emphasis is given to the forensic aspects of the case, which has been assessed to determinate the individual's criminal responsibility and has been followed up at the Forensic Psychiatric Institute Dr. Maurício Cardoso, in Porto Alegre, state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. COMMENTS: When the outcome of a typical case of HS is modified and the suicide of the murderer is not accomplished, two aspects become important: the legal consequences to be faced by the murderer and the

  18. A dinâmica da violência doméstica: uma análise a partir dos discursos da mulher agredida e de seu parceiro Dynamics of domestic violence: an analysis from the perspective of the attacked woman and her partner's discourses

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    Leila Platt Deeke

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo analisa a dinâmica da violência doméstica a partir do discurso da mulher agredida e do parceiro autor da agressão. Foi elaborado a partir de uma pesquisa descritivo-exploratória com abordagem qualitativa, entre outubro de 2006 e janeiro de 2007, com trinta casais cujas mulheres haviam registrado na Delegacia da Mulher de Florianópolis (Santa Catarina duas ou mais queixas por agressão contra o parceiro. Em comparação com as mulheres, os homens tenderam a negar a ocorrência e a diminuir a frequência das agressões. Os motivos das agressões mais apontados como interferentes na dinâmica do casal foram o ciúme, o homem ser contrariado, a ingestão de álcool e a suspeita de traição. O estudo revela as características das agressões percebidas pelos membros do casal e a forma de eles entenderem os fatores que repercutem na dinâmica de violência doméstica, não atribuindo somente à mulher o papel de porta-voz.This article analyzes the dynamics of domestic violence from the perspective of both the attacked woman's and her partner´s speeches, the husband being the perpetrator. It was designed as a descriptive-exploratory research study with a qualitative approach, interviewing thirty couples in which the women had registered two or more complaints for aggression against the partner in the Woman's Police Station in Florianópolis (Santa Catarina, between October 2006 and January 2007. Contrary to many other studies, the majority of interviewees was active in the labor market. Men, compared with women, were more prone to deny the occurrence or to diminish the frequency of aggression episodes. According to the categories established by data analysis, the main reasons for aggressive behavior interfering in the couples' dynamics were jealousy, the man being contradicted, alcohol ingestion and "love cheating". The study discloses the characteristics of the aggressive behavior perceived by both members of the couple and the way

  19. The Impact of Sex Work on Women’s Personal Romantic Relationships and the Mental Separation of Their Work and Personal Lives: A Mixed-Methods Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellhouse, Clare; Crebbin, Susan; Fairley, Christopher K.; Bilardi, Jade E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Very limited research has been undertaken on sex workers’ personal romantic relationships and the impact the nature of their work has on their relationships. This exploratory study aimed to explore the impact sex work has on women’s personal romantic relationships and the use of mental separation as a coping mechanism to balance the two aspects of their lives. Methods Fifty-five women working in the indoor sex industry in Melbourne, Australia, were recruited to complete a self-report questionnaire about various aspects of their work, including the impact of sex work on their personal relationships. Questionnaires were completed anonymously and included both closed and open-ended questions. A further six women were interviewed to ‘member check’ the accuracy of the questionnaire findings. Results Most women (78%) reported that, overall, sex work affected their personal romantic relationships in predominantly negative ways, mainly relating to issues stemming from lying, trust, guilt and jealousy. A small number of women reported positive impacts from sex work including improved sexual self-esteem and confidence. Just under half of women were in a relationship at the time of the study and, of these, 51% reported their partner was aware of the nature of their work. Seventy-seven percent of single women chose to remain single due to the nature of their work. Many women used mental separation as a coping mechanism to manage the tensions between sex work and their personal relationships. Member checking validated the accuracy of the questionnaire data. Conclusion This exploratory study identified a number of ways in which sex work impacts negatively on women’s personal romantic relationships. The findings of this study support the need for further studies to be undertaken to determine if the findings are reflected in a larger, more representative sample of Australian sex workers and should be considered in the context of any future intervention and

  20. The Impact of Sex Work on Women's Personal Romantic Relationships and the Mental Separation of Their Work and Personal Lives: A Mixed-Methods Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellhouse, Clare; Crebbin, Susan; Fairley, Christopher K; Bilardi, Jade E

    2015-01-01

    Very limited research has been undertaken on sex workers' personal romantic relationships and the impact the nature of their work has on their relationships. This exploratory study aimed to explore the impact sex work has on women's personal romantic relationships and the use of mental separation as a coping mechanism to balance the two aspects of their lives. Fifty-five women working in the indoor sex industry in Melbourne, Australia, were recruited to complete a self-report questionnaire about various aspects of their work, including the impact of sex work on their personal relationships. Questionnaires were completed anonymously and included both closed and open-ended questions. A further six women were interviewed to 'member check' the accuracy of the questionnaire findings. Most women (78%) reported that, overall, sex work affected their personal romantic relationships in predominantly negative ways, mainly relating to issues stemming from lying, trust, guilt and jealousy. A small number of women reported positive impacts from sex work including improved sexual self-esteem and confidence. Just under half of women were in a relationship at the time of the study and, of these, 51% reported their partner was aware of the nature of their work. Seventy-seven percent of single women chose to remain single due to the nature of their work. Many women used mental separation as a coping mechanism to manage the tensions between sex work and their personal relationships. Member checking validated the accuracy of the questionnaire data. This exploratory study identified a number of ways in which sex work impacts negatively on women's personal romantic relationships. The findings of this study support the need for further studies to be undertaken to determine if the findings are reflected in a larger, more representative sample of Australian sex workers and should be considered in the context of any future intervention and support programs aimed at addressing the tensions

  1. The Impact of Sex Work on Women's Personal Romantic Relationships and the Mental Separation of Their Work and Personal Lives: A Mixed-Methods Study.

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    Clare Bellhouse

    Full Text Available Very limited research has been undertaken on sex workers' personal romantic relationships and the impact the nature of their work has on their relationships. This exploratory study aimed to explore the impact sex work has on women's personal romantic relationships and the use of mental separation as a coping mechanism to balance the two aspects of their lives.Fifty-five women working in the indoor sex industry in Melbourne, Australia, were recruited to complete a self-report questionnaire about various aspects of their work, including the impact of sex work on their personal relationships. Questionnaires were completed anonymously and included both closed and open-ended questions. A further six women were interviewed to 'member check' the accuracy of the questionnaire findings.Most women (78% reported that, overall, sex work affected their personal romantic relationships in predominantly negative ways, mainly relating to issues stemming from lying, trust, guilt and jealousy. A small number of women reported positive impacts from sex work including improved sexual self-esteem and confidence. Just under half of women were in a relationship at the time of the study and, of these, 51% reported their partner was aware of the nature of their work. Seventy-seven percent of single women chose to remain single due to the nature of their work. Many women used mental separation as a coping mechanism to manage the tensions between sex work and their personal relationships. Member checking validated the accuracy of the questionnaire data.This exploratory study identified a number of ways in which sex work impacts negatively on women's personal romantic relationships. The findings of this study support the need for further studies to be undertaken to determine if the findings are reflected in a larger, more representative sample of Australian sex workers and should be considered in the context of any future intervention and support programs aimed at

  2. Factores de riesgo y protectores del bullying escolar en estudiantes con bajo rendimiento de cinco instituciones educativas de Santa Marta, Colombia

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    F. Robert Ferrel Ortega

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo de investigación tiene como objetivo caracterizar factores del bullying escolar en estudiantes de 10° con bajo rendimiento, de cinco colegios del Núcleo Educativo N° 5 del Distrito de Santa Marta. El tipo de investigación es descriptiva, con diseño transversal y se trabajó con una población de 582 estudiantes y una muestra de 186, a quienes se les aplicó la Escala MESSY (The Matson Evaluation of Social Skills in Youngsters, de Matson, Rotatori y Helsel, 1983, previa validación en población escolar para este estudio. Los datos fueron procesados mediante el SPSS 17.0v. Se halló una concentración de altos porcentajes en el rango medio de los seis factores que mide la Escala: habilidades sociales adecuadas (59 %, asertividad inadecuada (77 %, impulsividad (75 %, sobreconfianza (49 %, celos/soledad (81 %, y Varios (83 %. Se concluyó que no existe bullying en esta población, pero se hallaron dos factores de riesgo: impulsividad (19 % y soledad (16 %; y, un factor protector (habilidades sociales adecuadas, 31 %. Se recomienda aplicar programas de prevención centrados en estos tres últimos factores. Abstract To characterize factors related to bullying in tenth grade students with low performance, taken as reference 5 from schools district No. 5 in Santa Marta. A cross-sectional study is conducted; 582 students and 186 students sampled, to whom a MESSY (Matson Evaluation of Social Skills in Youngsters de Matson Rotatori y Helsel 1983. Scale was applied, previous validity in school population for this research. Data was processed using SPSS 17.0v a highest percentages of 6 factors measured by Adequate Social Skills Scale in average level (59 %, inadequate assertiveness (77 %, impulsivity (75 %, overconfidence (49 %, jealousy/loneliness and others (83 %: As a conclusion, there is no bullying in this population, but two risk factors were found: impulsivity (19 % and loneliness (16 %; and protective factor (adequate

  3. Violência intrafamiliar: crimes contra a mulher na área metropolitana do Recife Violencia intra familiar: delitos contra la mujer en el area metropolitana de Recife Intrafamilial violence: criminal acts against women in Recife's metropolitan area

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    Zélia Maria de Melo

    2009-03-01

    /2006. The results revealed relevant aspects for violence acts, such as: alcohol beverage ingestion, jealousy, disruption of the marriage relationship by wife/partner invective, and gender rivalry.

  4. Healing of the haemorrhaging woman as a model for checkmating stigma of people living with HIV

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    Ruth O. Oke

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Diseases in human history are not just originating as a hit out of space. Some theologians contend that they must have originated with the human race. Apparently, it is inferred that they have come as a result of human disobedience to God in the Garden of Eden, or as a means of expression of his wrath. Other biblical perspectives ascribe disease to the work of the adversary or the Devil (Job 2:7, jealousy from others (Job 5:2 and self-indulgence (1 Sm 15:1�17, 16:14�15; 23, 1 Cor 10:1ff.. Stigmatisation of people with haemorrhaging condition (the issues of blood in the biblical accounts of the old Jewish society compares well with stigmatisation of people living with HIV (PLH in the current dispensation. It is needful to ask whether stigmatisation, discrimination and exclusion of the sick are a recent phenomenon. Landman observes that people with communicable diseases were separated from the rest of the congregation in the Old Testament dispensation. However, in the New Testament, a more charitable standpoint was anticipated because of the revolutionary stance of Jesus Christ in the Gospels. During his ministry, Jesus regarded the outcasts as integral members of the Jewish community. He in fact associated with and touched those who had dreadful diseases like leprosy (Mk 1:40�43, 2:1ff., Jn 8:1�9. Stigmatisation is associated with HIV in Nigeria and all over the world. However, the model of interaction set by Jesus with the Woman with the Issue of Blood in Mark�s narrative in the Gospel proposed a charitable standpoint which if adopted by the Nigerian society will go a long way in stemming the stigma associated with HIV. It is anticipated that these biblical indices will facilitate reduction, if not the eradication of stigma in the society. The text under study will be contextualised.Intradisciplinary and/or interdisciplinary implications: In this article, the African reading of the Bible is brought to the fore using a liberating

  5. Affairs of power: Restructuring California's electric utility industry, 1968-1998

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, William Allan

    This dissertation studies the process of change in the political economy of electric utilities. Following two decades of continual growth during the nation's post-World War Two economic and population boom, the electric power industry confronted increasing challenges to its traditional operating practices and cultural values, nowhere with greater intensity than in California. Pressure for change came from outside forces who opposed utilities' business practices, assailed their traditional vertically-integrated structure, questioned the political assumptions that sustained their monopoly status, and ultimately wrested away access to the once tightly controlled technology of electric generation and transmission. Because managers of both investor-owned and publicly-owned utilities continued to rely upon long-standing economic and technical assumptions derived from deeply held cultural values sustained by decades of business success, they were rendered unable to comprehend and unwilling to accommodate change. Persistent mistrust between the publicly-owned and privately-owned sectors further weakened the industry's ability to work cooperatively in the face of crucial challenges. Thus encumbered by endemic structural jealousy, technological path dependency, and organizational stasis, the industry did not respond with sufficient innovation to new social values and altering economic conditions, ultimately resulting in the discarding of the old political economy of regulated monopolism. Five precepts of economic history are identified as crucial elements of the process of change. First, the tension between protection and entry, and the related issue of access to technology, contributes to creation and modification of the political economy in which economic institutions function. Second, submission to governmental regulatory powers allows certain industries to control entry, restrict access, and protect themselves from the dynamics of competitive change. Third, an

  6. PENGENALAN SEJAK DINI PENDERITA MENTAL DISORDER

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    Mubasyaroh Mubasyaroh

    2014-08-01

    the disease of physical and mental disorder had first signs among others : worry, fear, bitter heart,  envy, apathetic,   jealousy,  covetousness,  angry  by eksplosif, asosial, chronic tensions, etc. Then  the  good mental  health,  means have positive feelings about themselves and able to resolve the problem and the pressure of everyday life and can form and maintain  a good relationship with other people. For this we have to understand the importance of maintaining physical health. But keep the mental health also is as important  as physical health. In fact, bad mental health will result in a bad physical health. Keywords: Mental Disorder, Soul,  Damage Mental Disorders.

  7. AḤWᾹL AL-QULŪB DALAM KITAB MINHᾹJ AL-ATQIYᾹ’ KARYA KIAI SALEH DARAT

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    Moh In’amuzzahidin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This article aims to elaborate the book of Kiai Saleh Darat’s Minhāj al-Atqiyā, a book of mysticism that is still used intraditional Islamic boarding schools (pesantren in Java. The focus of the study is aḥwāl al-qulūb (conditions of heart spiritual, which is part of 'ilm al-mu'āmalah, the second science after the' ilmal-mukāsyafah, a device used for the science to the after life. Aḥwāl al-qulūb can be devided two dimension: commendable and despicable. The commend able is like patience, gratitude, fear, hope, willing, asceticism, piety, qanā'ah, sakhā' (generous, Husnal-zan, Husnal-khulūq, Husnal-mu'āsyarah, sidq, and Ikhlas. Mean while, the despicable is as scared indigent, hate destiny, jealousy, envy, looking sublime, happy and eternal praise in the world, arrogant, riya, covetous, griping, and others. By knowing which ahwalal-Qulub which are commendable and despicable, will facilitate the followers of Sufismactors (Salik to go to the presence of God. In addition, this paper also will discover what it is contribution and relevance of Kiai Saleh Darat’s thought in modern era. Abstrak: Artikel ini bertujuan mengelaborasi kitab Minhāj al-Atqiyā’ Kai Saleh Darat, sebuah kitab tasawuf yang masih digunakan di pesantren-pesantren tradisional di Jawa.Fokus kajian adalah aḥwāl al-qulūb (kondisi spiritual hati yang merupakan bagian dari ‘ilm al-mu‘āmalah, ilmu kedua setelah ‘ilm al-mukāsyafah, sebuah piranti ilmu yang digunakan untuk menuju akhirat. Aḥwāl al-qulūb itu sendiri ada yang terpuji dan ada yang tercela. Adapun yang terpuji adalah seperti ṣabar, syukūr, khauf, rajā’, riḍā, zuhūd, taqwā, qanā‘ah, sakhā’ (dermawan, ḥusn al-ẓan, ḥusn al-khulūq, ḥusn al-mu‘āsyarah, ṣidq, dan ikhlāṣ. Sedangkan aḥwāl al-qulūb yang tercela adalah seperti takut fakir, benci takdir, dengki, iri, mencari keluhuran, senang pujian dan kekal di dunia, takabur, riya, tamak, bakhil, dan

  8. Les aspects matériels de la taxis byzantine The material aspects of the Byzantine taxis

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    Marie‑France Auzépy

    2008-06-01

    him – the Byzantine empire affirmed its equilibrium and quality as a chosen people. Until 1204, other nations envied the self-appointed quality of the Eastern Roman Empire: that of the image of the celestial court, as represented in ceremonial proceedings. This jealousy took on other forms after 1453, and we look at the European rulers who, like Louis XIV, wished to appear as heirs of the defunct empire and to revive its ceremonies.

  9. Qualidade de vida e depressão em mulheres vítimas de seus parceiros Quality of life and depression in women abused by their partners

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    Vanessa Gurgel Adeodato

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a qualidade de vida e depressão nas mulheres vítimas da violência doméstica; estabelecer o perfil socioeconômico da mulher agredida pelo parceiro e as particularidades das agressões sofridas. MÉTODOS: A amostra constituiu-se de 100 mulheres que sofreram agressão de seus parceiros e que prestaram queixa na Delegacia da Mulher do Ceará. Foram aplicados três questionários: o primeiro visa a obter dados demográficos e sobre a violência sofrida; o segundo (GHQ-28, sobre a qualidade de vida em geral; e o terceiro (Beck, quantifica o grau de depressão. RESULTADOS: O perfil da mulher agredida é: jovem, casada, católica, tem filhos, pouco tempo de estudo e baixa renda familiar. Álcool e ciúme foram os fatores mais referidos como desencadeantes das agressões, tendo 84% das mulheres sofrido agressão física. Foi observado que 72% delas apresentaram quadro sugestivo de depressão clínica; 78% tinham sintomas de ansiedade e insônia; 39% já pensaram em suicídio e 24% passaram a fazer uso de ansiolíticos após o início das agressões. CONCLUSÕES: A análise dos dados sugere que a violência doméstica está associada a uma percepção negativa da saúde mental da mulher.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate quality of life and depression among women who suffer domestic violence and to describe the socioeconomic profile of women who were abused by their partners and aspects of these abuses. METHODS: The study sample comprised 100 women who were abused by their partners and filed a complaint at the Police Office for Women of the state of Ceará, Brazil. Three questionnaires were applied: one for collecting demographic and violence data; the second one (GHQ-28 one to evaluate general quality of life; and the third one (Beck to quantify depression. RESULTS: Abused women are young, married, Catholic, have children, low schooling and low family income. Alcohol use and jealousy were the main reported factors leading to partner's abuse

  10. O crime passional na perspectiva de infratores presos: um estudo qualitativo Crimen pasional en la perspectiva de los prisioneros Passional crime in the perspective of prisoners: a qualitative study

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    Rosilene Almeida Santiago

    2010-03-01

    aspects of the passional crime, the experience of life in the prison and their effects. The qualitative analysis of handbooks and the interviews was carried through in two prisons of Salvador/BA. It occurred from categories apprehended in the narratives. It was verified that the criminals, if involved in a loving relationship and coming across with a rival or a situation of treason, are mobilized for the feelings of jealousy, love and hatred and for doubts that cause them a deep suffering and impels them to the crime. In a situation without exit, they transgress the law hitting and provoking body injuries, psychological violence and homicide. This act is followed by a judicial condemnation and by the experience of imprisonment, marked by suffering and stigmatization, which results in the feeling of regret and desire of going back to their project of life that was interrupted.

  11. Ground-water resources of Gregg County, Texas, with a section on Stream runoff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadhurst, W.L.; Breeding, S.D.

    1950-01-01

    Field work in the island of St. Croix, V. I., was carried on from December 1938 to April 1939 in connection with a test-drilling program for water sup- plies. The island is 21 miles long and has a maximum width of 6 miles. Its western part consists of a range of mountains flanked on the south by a rolling plain; its narrower eastern part is entirely mountainous. There are only a few small streams. The rolling and fiat lands are cultivated or are in grass, and the mountainous areas are either wooded or in grass. The average rain- fall of the island is 46.34 inches, but severe droughts and periods of excess precipitation are not uncommon. The island is made up of rocks of Upper Cretaceous age, mostly volcanic tufts and limestones known as the Mount Eagle volcanics; diorite intruded into the cretaceous rocks; and Oligocene to Miocene blue clays and yellow marls (the Jealousy formation and Kingshill marl, respectively). Alluvium is widely distributed. The Mount Eagle rocks were strongly folded in early Tertiary time and the Kingshill strata gently folded in post Lower-Miocene time along an east-northeast axis. Three early Tertiary cycles of erosion are recognized. After the folding of the Kingshill marl, streams followed the strike of the folded rocks in a westerly direction, but they gradually assumed southward courses across the marl plain and as a result a western area of old-age topography, a central area of late-mature topography, and an eastern area of early-mature topography have been created. Submerged reefs and emergent reefs and beaches indicate several fairly recent stands of the sea. Water for human consumption is obtained by collecting rain water in cis- terns, but water for other purposes is almost entirely supplied by wells which are generally less than 100 feet deep. Many dug wells are used, but in recent years drilled wells have been constructed. Most of them are discharged by wind-powered pumps of small capacity. Wells are developed in all the rocks

  12. BOOK REVIEW: A Journey with Fred Hoyle (Second Edition)

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    Wickramasinghe, Chandra; Sterken, Christiaan

    2013-12-01

    the accepted views on the origin of life (the primordial soup theory). This led to their two "heresies": disease-causing viruses come from space, and microbial life is omnipresent in interstellar space. They also opposed Darwinian theory, and launched a frontal assault on conventional theories of biological evolution on Earth. Hoyle, though, always played the role of devil's advocate until he was convinced that there were overwhelming arguments to support one of his radical propositions. All of this was done before the era of mass communication and powerful computers. The book also is a testimony about how scientists really work and how they cope with deep cultural bias, argumentation based on articles of faith, misrepresentations, standard dogmas, prejudices, jealousies, political intrigues, irrelevant squabbles in the "cloisters of universities" and politicised academies of science. Most interesting is also that, already in the first edition, reference is made to the detrimental impact of the practice of counting research papers and citations, to the role of the media in reporting on big science, and to how the publishing business works. The story also reveals that, despite high productivity, the continuity of their team was repeatedly threatened. In this context, Chandra Wickramasinghe's statement "my work was a solace" can be seen as pep talk for the ears of any desperate young scientist. This book is well worth reading, not only by astronomy students (and their supervisors), but also by any student in the physical sciences. The book is beautifully typeset in LaTeX by Stallion Press, and printed on fine glossy paper. It is a pity that the graphics are rather poor reproductions of the original graphs. More disturbing, though, is the number of typographical errors that were present in the first edition, and were not corrected for the second edition.

  13. Modern approach to treating mental patients in colonial chosun.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Bang Hyun

    2013-08-01

    Literature produced by the government and the private sector in the colonial era was reviewed to determine the knowledge of the people of colonial Chosun of mental illness and mental patients and the mental patient management system that they implemented or intended to implement. The results of this study show that the people of Chosun realized the need to sterilize mental patients because they considered mental patients very violent, dangerous and eugenically inferior and they believed that mental patients would eventually impede the prosperity of Chosun. The people of colonial Chosun had learned about the lifelong mental hygiene movement, which had knowledge of mental illness prevention. However, they also recognized that people who developed mental illness despite efforts to prevent such condition needed help from the modern system, especially from modern Western psychiatry. The primary responsibility to attend to mental patients was imposed on their family. The family had to understand the symptoms of mental illness according to the modern medical classification and how to deal with them. When the family could not afford to take care of its mentally ill family member due to the increase in the member's risk behavior such as frenzied-convulsive excitement, paranoia and delusion of jealousy, the family was also responsible for isolating him and connecting him with a mental hospital. The police and social workers were also responsible for observing and monitoring mental patients in their community and for connecting them with a mental hospital. The police made a list of mental patients within their area of jurisdiction and prohibited them from wandering based on the law. It was also considered desirable for mental patients who could not identify their family members to be sent to a mental hospital. Social workers were responsible for managing mental patient sanatoriums, and district commissioners sent to the police mental patients who had no family to look after

  14. El Médico de su Honra (The Doctor of his Own Honor by Calderón de la Barca: The Honor as a Cause of Exemption of the Penal Responsibility in the Baroque Spain

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    José Palacio González

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The notion of honor or reputation is at the very core of the Spanish theatre in the baroque period. This fact could not be correctly understood without taking into consideration the obsession about purity of blood, having got a relevant influence in the Spanish society daily life since the expulsion of the Jewish population and the taking over of Grenade in 1492, as well as the first rank role played by the clerical and political power against the reform movement into the Church. One additional element that should be included into this general frame of reference is the structural inability of the Spanish economy to take off, after the end of the middle-age, in a process leading to a beginning of industrial revolution, with the subsequent assumption of modern values that necessarily would come out of that process. The most telling example of the importance of the idea of honor in the Spanish baroque theatre is, with no doubt, The Doctor of his own honor (El medico de su honra, by Calderón de la Barca, which plot turns around the announced death of an innocent lady suspicioned of adultery, just because of an unhappy sets of events. In the play the jealousy is less determinant for the purpose of the plot that the need for the husband to eliminate any element of uncertainty, as far as his reputation is concerned. The King understands the husband’s motivation and forgives him. Such a conception of honor has left, till very recent times, a major mark in the evolution of the Spanish society, even at a legislative level. El concepto de honor o reputación es un elemento fundamental en el teatro barroco español. Este hecho no se puede entender correctamente sin tener en cuenta la obsesión por la pureza de sangre, concepto con una influencia relevante en la vida cotidiana de la sociedad española desde la expulsión de la población judía y la conquista de Granada en 1492, así como por el papel fundamental desempeñado por el poder clerical y pol

  15. Práticas de educação: relato de mães usuárias de um serviço público de saúde Prácticas de educación: relato de madres usuarias del servicio público de salud Mother's childrearing practices: maternal perceptions users of the public health service

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    Débora Silva de Oliveira

    2007-08-01

    calificación del cuidado parental. Sin embargo, las madres relataron hacer uso de estrategias de fuerza coercitiva, caracterizando situaciones de violencia física y/o psicológica en las relaciones con los hijos.This study investigated mother's parental practices, having as starting point the oral self-report of mothers of children aged up to 12 years old, obtained through semi-structured individual interviews. Its aim was to identify the difficulties faced during the rearing of children, as well as mother's parental practices. Mother's self-reports were submitted to content analysis, considering thematic categories, and revealed that the difficulties pointed out during the rearing of children were jealousy, and conflicts related to family rules. The mother's parental practices observed in this study were inductive strategies, of entertainment, of conflict avoidance and of coercive tone. The parameters regarding the use of those strategies were family influences, experiences concerning the rearing of the first child and effort to find the best way of proceeding. The importance attributed to those parameters related to the qualification of parental care was noted. However, the mothers reported use of strategies of coercive tone, which implies physical and/or psychological violence on their relashionships with child.

  16. Ahmet Efe’nin Çocuk Hikâyelerinde Değer Eğitimi ve Hikâyelerin Türkçe Eğitimine Katkısı Value Educatıon In Ahmet Efe’s Children Stories And Contrıbutıons Of These Stories To Turkısh Educatıon

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    Zekerya BATUR

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, Ahmet Efe’s children stories works are examinedfrom the aspect of value education and Turkish education. Efe’schildren stories are taken as examples. It is used the method of storymap for analizing those stories. Those stories are given value educationpart. Those stories contributed development of Turkish education.Ahmet Efe’s stories are analized and those values are found: dearment,God dearment, motherland dearment, family dearment, frienddearment, nature dearment, animal dearment, honesty, sincerity,goodness, helpful, the valve of work and production, the valve of mercy,the valve of pity, the valve of school life, life happiness in the thosestories. In those stories being critizing behaviors are: lie and cheat, notobeying advice, jealousy and anger, betroying trust, theft and greedy arefound and examined in the those stories. Consequently, with regard tovalue education it is seen that they have a rich content.Ahmet Efe’s works are examined in terms of their contributionstoTurkish education, and usage of proverb, idiom, reduplication,routines and echoic words. In these works intensive usage of proverbs,idioms, duplications, routins and echoic words is seen. Examinedstudied used effectively proverbs, idioms and sayings mold.In the light of this data it is deduced that Ahmet Efe’s works areresources which are to be benefited in the process of value educationand Turkish education. Bu çalışmada, Ahmet Efe’nin çocuk hikâyelerinde değer eğitimi ve hikâyelerin Türkçe eğitimine katkısı bakımından incelenmiştir. Örneklem olarak Ahmet Efe’nin yazdığı çocuk hikâyeleri alınmıştır. Bu hikâyelerin çözümlenmesinde ise hikâye haritası yöntemi kullanılmıştır. Hikâyelerin çocuk edebiyatı açısından taşıdığı özellikler “Değer Eğitimi” olarak belirlenmiş, sözcük çeşitliliği açısından ise Türkçenin gücüne katkısı ortaya çıkarılmaya çalışılmıştır. Ahmet Efe

  17. The use of colour name yellow in English and Serbian phraseologisms

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    Ratković Jelena R.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This work shows in what ways the colour name yellow is associated with extra-linguistic reality in the English language. In Serbian translations, we can see many similarities, but also the absolute impossibility of finding either formal or partial correspondents considering metaphorical phraseologisms, or pure idioms, such as for example, those in which this colour is associated with jealousy (He wears yellow stockings or cowardice (He's yellow. The most similar comparisons are those with the sunshine and gold, but there are those that, when translated into Serbian, sound strange, such as yellow as marigold or yellow as a crow's foot. Similarly, it would be strange to use this colour name describing a face (or a whole person looking unhealthy, where in Serbian we use comparison 'yellow as wax'. Metonymically, the colour transfers and labels the whole group of people who supposedly have such a colour, as can be seen from examples high yellow, yellow peril, yellow line. In the Serbian language, people from Asia are also sometimes called the 'yellow', and in Serbian, as well as in the English language, this term has derogatory meaning, but the English language is a bit richer in these phraseologisms, perhaps because people from this continent started to settle in the territory of English-speaking countries earlier than in our country. In the English language, people are qualified by the phraseologisms yellow admiral and yellow dog as well, and those are also pure idioms: it is only possible to translate them into the Serbian language by semantic correspondents - nickname for those who were promoted from captain to admiral and smuggler of alcoholic beverages (or, in another sememe 'the one who is in opposition to the Union of merchants or trade unions'. Common to both languages is the use of this colour name for descriptions of old things (or people, as can be seen from the phraseologisms 'the sere and yellow leaf', 'the paper yellowed with age' and

  18. Book Reviews

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    Redactie KITLV

    2003-04-01

    . Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann, 2000, xiv + 293 pp., Stephen Page (eds -John McCarthy, Bernard Sellato, Forest, resources and people in Bulungan; Elements for a history of settlement, trade and social dynamics in Borneo, 1880-2000. Jakarta: Center for international forestry research (CIFOR, 2001, ix + 183 pp. -Naomi M. McPherson, Michael French Smith, Village on the edge; Changing times in Papua New Guinea. Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press, 2002, xviii + 214 pp. -Gert J. Oostindie, Peter van Wiechen, Vademecum van de Oost- en West-Indische Compagnie Historisch-geografisch overzicht van de Nederlandse aanwezigheid in Afrika, Amerika, Azië en West-Australië vanaf 1602 tot heden. Utrecht: Bestebreurtje, 2002, 381 pp. -Gert J. Oostindie, C.L. Temminck Groll, The Dutch overseas; Architectural Survey; Mutual heritage of four centuries in three continents. (in cooperation with W. van Alphen and with contributions from H.C.A. de Kat, H.C. van Nederveen Meerkerk and L.B. Wevers, Zwolle: Waanders/[Zeist]: Netherlands Department for Conservation, [2002]. 479 pp. -Gert J. Oostindie, M.H. Bartels ,Hollanders uit en thuis; Archeologie, geschiedenis en bouwhistorie gedurende de VOC-tijd in de Oost, de West en thuis; Cultuurhistorie van de Nederlandse expansie. Hilversum: Verloren, 2002, 190 pp. [SCHI-reeks 2.], E.H.P. Cordfunke, H. Sarfatij (eds -Henk Schulte Nordholt, Tony Day, Fluid iron; State formation in Southeast Asia. Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press, 2002, xii + 339 pp. -Nick Stanley, Nicholas Thomas ,Double vision; Art histories and colonial histories in the Pacific. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999, xii + 289 pp., Diane Losche, Jennifer Newell (eds -Heather Sutherland, David Henley, Jealousy and justice; The indigenous roots of colonial rule in northern Sulawesi. Amsterdam: VU Uitgeverij, 2002, 106 pp. -Gerard Termorshuizen, Piet Hagen, Journalisten in Nederland; Een persgeschiedenis in portretten 1850-2000. Amsterdam: Arbeiderspers, 2002, 600 pp. -Amy E

  19. Sueño y realidad: expectativas personales y retos sociales

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    Arias Monge, Mónica

    2006-04-01

    .Abstract:The article narrates a biographical experience related to the live events, frustrations, aspirations and successes of a visually-impaired person, who (after conquering many obstacles finds a path to its greatest aspiration, its reason of being, understanding how to materialize its desires and dreams. An ambition sought bt all human beings, without distinction of ability or disability; seldom achieved because of a single or many reasons, but not because of our limitations, but because our lack of fortitude, probity or wisdom in the decisions we make to reach our personal realization.This is a story in which the author makes a self-examining analysis that gauges her existance, from a cultural, legal and political context or frame of reference, opposable to its personal life in the differents stages of its intellectual, professional, cultural and social development. In this aspect, it’s interesting how the different social outlooks are highlighted; some are linked to friendship and the family relationships, and others are cruel and respond to the lack of awareness, to a numbed collectivity, to selfishness and jealousy of certain social actors, who may be magnanimously dubbed “opportunists”. And finally, some other more auspicious circumstances, that in a solidary manner stimulate coexistence based on compromise and pluralism, in love towards one neighbor and in awknowledging the differences all human beings possess between themselves.In its pedagogic and cultural stories and life experiences, the author refers to the absence of institutional support and to the importance of the cooperation relationships based on affective bonds, which in turn have allowed the author reach its academic goals. Currently, the author is at the second year of its Doctorate Degree in Pedagogy, Diversity and Change in Education, Policies and Practices at the University of Barcelona.

  20. La violencia intrafamiliar, el uso de drogas en la pareja, desde la perspectiva de la mujer maltratada A violência intrafamiliar, o uso da droga no casal, desde a perspectiva da mulher maltratada The violence intrafamiliar, the use of drugs in the couple, from the mistreated woman's perspective

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    Rosa G. Vaiz Bonifaz

    2004-04-01

    ingest of alcohol and/or it drugs. The objectives of the present study are: to know the meanings that the woman attributes to the violence; to recognize the different factors related to the occurrence of the family violence and to identify like the consumption of drugs is processed in the couple. The study type is exploratory and descriptive, the qualitative methodology, the empiric cutting was used six women they constituted it who went to carry out its accusation to the Police station of Women from Lima. The discoveries show that the time of union oscillated between two months and eighteen years, happening the abuse in case the whole time of union. With regard to the type of suffering violence that of more magnitude was the physics; in a subtler way the psychological one, the sexual violence was not referred, the money and jealousies were referred as focuses desencadenantes of the discussions, those that are associated to the use of alcohol and it drugs in the aggressor. The established categories were: the type of violence undergone by the women, the context of the violence, the repercussion of the violence undergone by the women in its health and the reaction of violence undergone by means of the denunciation. As main conclusions we have that the violence against the women is revealed like social and sanitary topic, with repercussions in the morbi-mortality and in terms of warm of the women's life, in the field of the health, it is necessary to recognize the women in situations of violence, to consider as factors of risk for the couple the use of the alcohol and drugs, the women hide for shame the problem that you/they live, the personnel of health it should be able to diagnose the violence in their different forms, expressed by complaints or chronic pains without apparent causes.

  1. Holy Koran\\\\\\'s Pattern in the Cultural Communication of Islam and Christianity

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    Habibollah Arzani

    2016-01-01

    an announcement of  divine mercy and forgiveness, explained by Holy Koran. 4-        In this phase, if the Christians refuse to accept the truthfulness of Islam because of prejudice, jealousy or ignorance, the Holy Koran warns them to follow the realities of their religion and to be united with Islam based on the monotheism. 5-        If the warning is not followed and accepted, the Holy Koran invites the Christian, based on the logic  to consider their belief system and wants them to rethink with common sense about what they ignore or believe superstitiously and to follow the divine path. 6-        In this stage of communication, if the Christians continue to insist on their beliefs and ignorance, the Holy Koran warns them explicitly about the damnation, suffering and loss. 7-        At the end, if the Christians do not abandon their beliefs and try to influence the Muslims by creating division and confusion, the Holy Koran orders to wage war against them. It then curses them and warns them about suffering in this very world. Looking to these seven steps of communicating, it can be concluded based on the Holy Koran teachings that the pattern of the inter-cultural communication between Muslims and Christians is the monotheism and staying away from polytheism. The more this pattern is reinforced and highlighted, the more this closeness and communication will be constructive and efficient. The Holy Koran presents seven practices and solutions. If the Holy Koran accepts and respects some of the foundations of Christianity (such as the Holy Bible, Jesus Christ, the Apostles and the chastity of Saint Mary in these practices which are based on the monotheism and refusal of polytheism, it is because they are all centered around the monotheistic principles. Whenever there is a deviation from these principles, the Holy Koran warns and invites the people to consider their beliefs. It even orders explicitly to wage war to make the Christians return

  2. Book Review: Bakich,O. M. (2015. Valerii Pereleshin: Life of a Silkworm Toronto: University of Toronto Press

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    Kyoko I. Davis

    2016-07-01

    growth as a poet. As a polyglot, he engaged in translations of poetry to and from Russian, Chinese and Portuguese languages. He also wrote some pieces in an avant-garde style, the so-called futurism, as well as preserving his lyrical poetic style. There were some bright moments: émigré scholars and critics in the US, such as Alexis Rannitand Simon Karlinsky recognized Pereleshin as an authentic Russian poet, and offered praise and support. It is an important gesture by Bakich to highlight this aspect of Pereleshin’s life. Otherwise, his portrayal as a “tasteless” émigré poet from the east who lacked “Parisian culture” (171, according to one US literary professor, G. Struve, might be accorded more weight than it should. Pereleshin’s animosity toward I. Brodsky is also interesting from the perspective of literary history. Whether the result of his jealousy toward this Nobel Prize winner or his anti-Semitic sentiment is unclear; yet in any case, a careful reading of the text reveals that the core issue originated in the poetic language itself, not ethno-religious identity. Even the last country he could have called home offered no respite. Pereleshin faced many financial difficulties and the pain of unrequited love. In the end,he had three homelands, and experienced three exiles. Yet, before his departure for Brazil, he had already sensed that for him, Kitai (China in Russian should be his place to die, because of his fascination with the vivacious and affectionate people who “understood [him] and reciprocated [his] love.” (139 The title of this work is drawn from Pereleshin’s own words: “A tender, sticky web, /a fine material, /is produced by a silkworm/ twisting like an invisible snake/from its own self/ (There is nothing else.” (Silkworm, 29.12.1967, xiii Pereleshin spun more than two thousand poems in his life. Bakich has re-entered his world and has woven a veritable tapestry of his life and art, using the poet’s creative work as the warp

  3. Holy Koran's Pattern in the Cultural Communication of Islam and Christianity

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    Hamed Ehtemam

    2015-12-01

    an announcement of  divine mercy and forgiveness, explained by Holy Koran. 4-        In this phase, if the Christians refuse to accept the truthfulness of Islam because of prejudice, jealousy or ignorance, the Holy Koran warns them to follow the realities of their religion and to be united with Islam based on the monotheism. 5-        If the warning is not followed and accepted, the Holy Koran invites the Christian, based on the logic  to consider their belief system and wants them to rethink with common sense about what they ignore or believe superstitiously and to follow the divine path. 6-        In this stage of communication, if the Christians continue to insist on their beliefs and ignorance, the Holy Koran warns them explicitly about the damnation, suffering and loss. 7-        At the end, if the Christians do not abandon their beliefs and try to influence the Muslims by creating division and confusion, the Holy Koran orders to wage war against them. It then curses them and warns them about suffering in this very world. Looking to these seven steps of communicating, it can be concluded based on the Holy Koran teachings that the pattern of the inter-cultural communication between Muslims and Christians is the monotheism and staying away from polytheism. The more this pattern is reinforced and highlighted, the more this closeness and communication will be constructive and efficient. The Holy Koran presents seven practices and solutions. If the Holy Koran accepts and respects some of the foundations of Christianity (such as the Holy Bible, Jesus Christ, the Apostles and the chastity of Saint Mary in these practices which are based on the monotheism and refusal of polytheism, it is because they are all centered around the monotheistic principles. Whenever there is a deviation from these principles, the Holy Koran warns and invites the people to consider their beliefs. It even orders explicitly to wage war to make the Christians return

  4. EDITORIAL: Incoming Editor-in-Chief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lidström, Suzanne

    2012-04-01

    Professor Bárány stepped down, Roger has managed to increase the contributions in pretty much every subject area, with mathematical physics and quantum physics now being particularly popular sections. Forget the coveralls, Roger's shoes will be large ones to step into! I would like to conclude on a personal note. I have now known Roger for 25 years; during my student days, to my great jealousy, he travelled incessantly and, in my memories, at least, he was away somewhere exotic and exciting every week. There was one thing, however, that one could always guarantee, which was that Roger would return, pop his head around the door and say 'I think it is time we had a party!' I wish him the very best of luck as he prepares for his retirement, I trust that it will be long and happy. I hope that Roger will continue to don his party shoes and join us on many occasions in the future.