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Sample records for japonicus maxim leaves

  1. Larvicidal Activity of Isodon japonicus var. glaucocalyx (Maxim ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    Purpose: To determine the larvicidal activity of the essential oil derived from Isodon japonicus var. ... Methods: The essential oil of I. japonicus var. glaucocalyx aerial parts was obtained by ..... µg/mL; G. silvatica leaves, LC50 = 117.9 µg/mL.

  2. Antioxidant phenolic compounds isolated from wild Pyrus ussuriensis Maxim. fruit peels and leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Daren; Guo, Jie; Yu, Huimei; Yan, Jiao; Yang, Shengxiang; Li, Xiang; Zhang, Yamei; Sun, Jinzhu; Cong, Jie; He, Shuliang; Wei, Dongsheng; Qin, Jian-Chun

    2018-02-15

    Thirteen phenolic compounds were isolated from pear (Pyrus ussuriensis Maxim.) peels and leaves extracts by using various column chromatography techniques with a guided DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) radical-scavenging assay, the result of antioxidant activity of phenolic compounds is then verified by measurement of ROS (reactive oxygen species). The isolated compounds were identified as rutin (1), (-)-catechin (2), orobol (3), daidzein (4), tricin 4'-O-[threo-β-guaiacyl-(7″-O-methyl)-glyceryl] ether (5), tricin 4'-O-[threo-β-guaiacyl-(7″-O-methyl-9″-O-acetyl)-glyceryl] ether (6), 5,7,3',5'-tetrahydroxyflavanone (7), artselaeroside A (8), trilobatin (9), 3-(2,4,6-trihydroxyphenyl)-1-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-propan-1-one (10), quercetin-3-O-(3″-O-galloyl)-α-l-rhamnopyranoside (11), apigenin (12) and quercetin (13) on the basis of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy along with comparison with literature data. Among these compounds, quercetin and quercetin-3-O-(3″-O-galloyl)-α-l-rhamnopyranoside exhibited potent DPPH radical-scavenging activity with IC 50 (Half Maximal Inhibitory Concentration) value of 6.06 and 9.60μg/mL, respectively. The results revealed that P. ussuriensis could be used in the fields of food and medicine to prevent human aging diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Bacillus endozanthoxylicus sp. nov., an endophytic bacterium isolated from Zanthoxylum bungeanum Maxim leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Li; Xi, Jia-Qin; Cao, Yong-Hong; Wang, Xiao-Yan; Zheng, Shuai-Chao; Yang, Cheng-Gang; Yang, Ling-Ling; Mi, Qi-Li; Li, Xue-Mei; Zhu, Ming-Liang; Mo, Ming-He

    2017-10-01

    A Gram-stain-positive, rod-shaped, motile bacterium, designated as 1404 T , was isolated from leaves of Chinese red pepper (Huajiao) (Zanthoxylum bungeanum Maxim) collected from Gansu, north-west China. Spores were not observed under a range of conditions. Strain 1404 T was observed to grow at 15-45 °C and pH 6.0-10.0 and in presence of 0-5 % (w/v) NaCl concentration. The cell wall of strain 1404 T was found to contain meso-diaminopimelic acid, and the predominant respiratory quinone was identified as MK-7. The major polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine and an unidentified phospholipid as well as three unidentified polar lipids. The major fatty acids profile of strain 1404 T consisted of iso-C15 : 0 (25.6 %), anteiso-C15 : 0 (18.4 %) and iso-C14 : 0 (12.1 %). Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain 1404 T was affiliated to the genus Bacillus and was closely related to Bacillusoryzisoli 1DS3-10 T , Bacillusbenzoevorans DSM 5391 T and Bacilluscirculans DSM 11 T with sequence similarity of 98.3, 98.2 and 96.9 %, respectively. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was determined to be 39.4 mol%. DNA-DNA hybridization values indicated that relatedness between strain 1404 T and the type strains of closely related species of the genus Bacillus was below 41 %. Therefore, on the basis of the data from the polyphasic taxonomic study presented, strain 1404 T represents a novel species of the genus Bacillus, for which the name proposed is Bacillus endozanthoxylicus sp. nov. The type strain is 1404 T (=CCTCC AB 2017021 T =KCTC 33827 T ).

  4. Taxonomy Icon Data: Lotus japonicus [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Lotus japonicus Lotus japonicus Lotus_japonicus_L.png Lotus_japonicus_NL.png Lotus_japonicus_S.png Lotus_jap...onicus_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Lotus+japonicus&t=L ...http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Lotus+japonicus&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Lotus+jap...onicus&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Lotus+japonicus&t=NS ...

  5. Antihyperlipidemic effect of Acanthopanax senticosus (Rupr. et Maxim) Harms leaves in high-fat-diet fed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishida, Miyako; Kondo, Momoko; Shimizu, Taro; Saito, Tetsuo; Sato, Shinji; Hirayama, Masao; Konishi, Tetsuya; Nishida, Hiroshi

    2016-08-01

    Metabolic syndrome is a major risk factor for a variety of obesity-related diseases. Recently, the effects of functional foods have been investigated on lipid metabolism as a means to reduce lipid content in the blood, liver and adipose tissues associated with carnitine O-palmitoyltransferase (CPT) activity. Acanthopanax senticosus (Rupr. et Maxim) Harms (AS) is a medicinal herb possessing a wide spectra of functions including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-fatigue actions. Despite much research being focused on the cortical roots of AS, little information is available regarding its leaves, which are also expected to promote human health, for example by improving abnormal lipid metabolism. Here, we explored whether AS leaves affect lipid metabolism in mice fed a high-fat diet. The administration of AS to BALB/c mice fed a high-fat diet significantly decreased plasma triglycerides (TG). CPT activity in the liver of these mice was significantly enhanced by AS treatment. These findings indicate that AS leaves have the potential to alleviate increase in plasma TG levels due to high-fat diet intake in mice, possibly by increasing mitochondrial fatty acid β-oxidation, especially via CPT activation. Consequently, daily intake of AS leaves could promote beneficial health effects including the prevention of metabolic syndrome. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Phenolic Compounds from the Leaves of Stewartia pseudocamellia Maxim. and their Whitening Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, Hyun Jung; Noh, Hye-Ji; Na, Chun Su; Kim, Chung Sub; Kim, Ki Hyun; Hong, Cheol Yi; Lee, Kang Ro

    2015-05-01

    The half-dried leaves of Stewartia. pseudocamellia were extracted with hot water (SPE) and partitioned with n-hexane (SPEH), dichloromethane (SPED), and ethyl acetate (SPEE) successively. SPE and SPEE showed significant inhibitory effects against melanogenesis and tyrosinase activities. By bioassay-guided isolation, ten phenolic compounds were isolated by column chromatography from SPEE. The whitening effect of the isolated compounds from SPEE were tested for the inhibitory activities against melanogenesis using B16 melanoma cells, in vitro inhibition of tyrosinase, and L-3,4-dihydorxy-indole-2-carboxylic acid (L-DOPA) auto-oxidation assay. A cytotoxic activity assay was done to examine the cellular toxicity in Raw 264.7 macrophage cells. Of the compounds isolated, gallic acid and quercetin revealed significant inhibitory activities against melanogenesis compared to arbutin. In particular, quercetin exhibited similar inhibitory activities against tyrosinase and L-DOPA oxidation without cytotoxicity. These results suggested that SPE could be used as a potential source of natural skin-whitening material in cosmetics as well as in food products.

  7. Response Surface Methodology Optimization of Ultrasonic-Assisted Extraction of Acer Truncatum Leaves for Maximal Phenolic Yield and Antioxidant Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lingguang; Yin, Peipei; Fan, Hang; Xue, Qiang; Li, Ke; Li, Xiang; Sun, Liwei; Liu, Yujun

    2017-02-04

    This study is the first to report the use of response surface methodology to improve phenolic yield and antioxidant activity of Acer truncatum leaves extracts (ATLs) obtained by ultrasonic-assisted extraction. The phenolic composition in ATLs extracted under the optimized conditions were characterized by UPLC-QTOF-MS/MS. Solvent and extraction time were selected based on preliminary experiments, and a four-factors-three-levels central composite design was conducted to optimize solvent concentration ( X ₁), material-to-liquid ratio ( X ₂), ultrasonic temperature ( X ₃) and power ( X ₄) for an optimal total phenol yield ( Y ₁) and DPPH• antioxidant activity ( Y ₂). The results showed that the optimal combination was ethanol:water ( v : v ) 66.21%, material-to-liquid ratio 1:15.31 g/mL, ultrasonic bath temperature 60 °C, power 267.30 W, and time 30 min with three extractions, giving a maximal total phenol yield of 7593.62 mg gallic acid equivalent/100 g d.w. and a maximal DPPH• antioxidant activity of 74,241.61 μmol Trolox equivalent/100 g d.w. Furthermore, 22 phenolics were first identified in ATL extract obtained under the optimized conditions, indicating that gallates, gallotannins, quercetin, myricetin and chlorogenic acid derivatives were the main phenolic components in ATL. What's more, a gallotannins pathway existing in ATL from gallic acid to penta- O -galloylglucoside was proposed. All these results provide practical information aiming at full utilization of phenolics in ATL, together with fundamental knowledge for further research.

  8. The Lotus japonicus genome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabaceae, groundbreaking genetic and genomic research has established a significant body of knowledge on Lotus japonicus, which was adopted as a model species more than 20 years ago. The diverse nature of legumes means that such research has a wide potential and agricultural impact, for example...

  9. Bacillus zanthoxyli sp. nov., a novel nematicidal bacterium isolated from Chinese red pepper (Zanthoxylum bungeanum Maxim) leaves in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ma; Hong, Cao Yong; Yan, Wang Xiao; Chao, Zheng Shuai; Gang, Yang Cheng; Ling, Duo Jin; Kui, Zhou Xing; Qin, Xi Jia; Liang, Zhu Ming; He, Mo Ming

    2017-09-01

    A novel strain, 1433 T , was isolated from leaves of Chinese red pepper (Huajiao, Zanthoxylum bungeanum Maxim) collected from Gansu province in northwestern China, and was characterised by a polyphasic approach. Cells of strain 1433 T were observed to be Gram-stain positive, aerobic, asporogenous, rod shaped, motile and to have peritrichous flagella. The strain was observed to grow at a range of temperatures and pH, 4-45 °C (optimum 28-32 °C) and 6.0-10.0 (optimum pH 6.0-7.0), respectively. Growth was found to occur in the presence of 0-7% (w/v) NaCl [optimum 0-3% (w/v)]. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was determined to be 41.9 mol% and the cell wall peptidoglycan found to contain meso-diaminopimelic acid. The predominant menaquinone was identified as MK-7 and the major polar lipids as diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, an unidentified polar lipid and three unidentified phospholipids. The major cellular fatty acids were identified as iso-C 15:0 (31.6%), anteiso-C 15:0 (26.9%) and iso-C 14:0 (17.1%). Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain 1433 T is a member of the genus Bacillus and is closely related to Bacillus aryabhattai DSM 21047 T (99.4% sequence similarity) and Bacillus megaterium DSM 32 T (99.2%). DNA-DNA relatedness of the novel strain 1433 T with B. aryabhattai DSM 21047 T and B. megaterium DSM 32 T was 33.8 ± 2.8% and 28.9 ± 3.4%, respectively. On the basis of the polyphasic evidence presented, strain 1433 T is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Bacillus, for which we propose the name Bacillus zanthoxyli sp. nov. The type strain is 1433 T (= CCTCC AB 2016326 T  = KCTC33730 T ).

  10. Invasion Biology of Aedes japonicus japonicus (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Dina M.

    2014-01-01

    Aedes japonicus japonicus (Theobald) (Diptera: Culicidae) has recently expanded beyond its native range of Japan and Korea into large parts of North America and Central Europe. Population genetic studies begun immediately after the species was detected in North America revealed genetically distinct introductions that subsequently merged, likely contributing to the successful expansion. Interactions, particularly in the larval stage, with other known disease vectors give this invasive subspecies the potential to influence local disease dynamics. Its successful invasion likely does not involve superior direct competitive abilities, but it is associated with the use of diverse larval habitats and a cold tolerance that allows an expanded seasonal activity range in temperate climates. We predict a continued but slower expansion of Ae. j. japonicus in North America and a continued rapid expansion into other areas as this mosquito will eventually be considered a permanent resident of much of North America, Europe, Asia, and parts of Hawaii. PMID:24397520

  11. Legume and Lotus japonicus Databases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hirakawa, Hideki; Mun, Terry; Sato, Shusei

    2014-01-01

    Since the genome sequence of Lotus japonicus, a model plant of family Fabaceae, was determined in 2008 (Sato et al. 2008), the genomes of other members of the Fabaceae family, soybean (Glycine max) (Schmutz et al. 2010) and Medicago truncatula (Young et al. 2011), have been sequenced. In this sec....... In this section, we introduce representative, publicly accessible online resources related to plant materials, integrated databases containing legume genome information, and databases for genome sequence and derived marker information of legume species including L. japonicus...

  12. Studies on cytotoxic constituents from the leaves of Elaeagnus oldhamii Maxim. in non-small cell lung cancer A549 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Chi-Ren; Kuo, Yueh-Hsiung; Ho, Yu-Ling; Wang, Ching-Ying; Yang, Chang-Syun; Lin, Cheng-Wen; Chang, Yuan-Shiun

    2014-07-04

    Elaeagnus oldhamii Maxim. is a commonly used traditional herbal medicine. In Taiwan the leaves of E. oldhamii Maxim. are mainly used for treating lung disorders. Twenty five compounds were isolated from the leaves of E. oldhamii Maxim. in the present study. These included oleanolic acid (1), 3-O-(Z)-coumaroyl oleanolic acid (2), 3-O-(E)-coumaroyl oleanolic acid (3), 3-O-caffeoyl oleanolic acid (4), ursolic acid (5), 3-O-(Z)-coumaroyl ursolic acid (6), 3-O-(E)-coumaroyl ursolic acid (7), 3-O-caffeoyl ursolic acid (8), 3β, 13β-dihydroxyolean-11-en-28-oic acid (9), 3β, 13β-dihydroxyurs-11-en-28-oic acid (10), uvaol (11), betulin (12), lupeol (13), kaempferol (14), aromadendrin (15), epigallocatechin (16), cis-tiliroside (17), trans-tiliroside (18), isoamericanol B (19), trans-p-coumaric acid (20), protocatechuic acid (21), salicylic acid (22), trans-ferulic acid (23), syringic acid (24) and 3-O-methylgallic acid (25). Of the 25 isolated compounds, 21 compounds were identified for the first time in E. oldhamii Maxim. These included compounds 1, 4, 5 and 8-25. These 25 compounds were evaluated for their inhibitory activity against the growth of non-small cell lung cancer A549 cells by the MTT assay, and the corresponding structure-activity relationships were discussed. Among these 25 compounds, compound 6 displayed the best activity against the A549 cell line in vitro (CC50=8.56±0.57 μg/mL, at 48 h of MTT asssay). Furthermore, compound 2, 4, 8 and 18 exhibited in vitro cytotoxicity against the A549 cell line with the CC50 values of less than 20 μg/mL at 48 h of MTT asssay. These five compounds 2, 4, 6, 8 and 18 exhibited better cytotoxic activity compared with cisplatin (positive control, CC50 value of 14.87±1.94 μg/mL, at 48 h of MTT asssay). The result suggested that the five compounds might be responsible for its clinical anti-lung cancer effect.

  13. Extraction and Purification of Quercitrin, Hyperoside, Rutin, and Afzelin from Zanthoxylum Bungeanum Maxim Leaves Using an Aqueous Two-Phase System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Fengyuan; Li, Dengwu; Wang, Dongmei; Deng, Ming

    2016-07-01

    In this study, an aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) based on ethanol/NaH2 PO4 was developed for the extraction and purification of quercitrin, hyperoside, rutin, and afzelin from Zanthoxylum bungeanum Maxim leaves. These 4 flavonoids were 1st extracted from dried Z. bungeanum leaves using a 60% ethanol solution and subsequently added to the ATPS for further purification. The partition behavior of the 4 flavonoids in ATPS was investigated. The optimal ATPS conditions were: 29% (w/w) NaH2 PO4 , 25% (w/w) ethanol concentration, 1% (w/w) added amount of leaf extracts, no pH adjustment, and repeated 1 h extractions at 25 °C. Under the optimal conditions for the 10 g ATPS, the absolute recovery of quercitrin, hyperoside, rutin, and afzelin reached 90.3%, 83.5%, 92.3%, and 89.1%, respectively. Compared to the 60% ethanol extracts, the content of quercitrin (44.8 mg/g), hyperoside (65.6 mg/g), rutin (56.4 mg/g), and afzelin (6.84 mg/g) in the extracts increased by 49.9%, 38.8%, 45.6%, and 36.8% respectively. The extracts after ATPS also exhibited stronger antioxidant activities, the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl IC50 value (10.5 μg/mL) decreased by 41.8%, and the 2,2-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt value (966 μmol Trolox/g) and ferric reducing power value (619 μmol Trolox/g) increased by 29.8% and 53.7%, respectively. Furthermore, scale-up experiments indicated that a larger scale experiment was feasible for the purification of the 4 flavonoids. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  14. The WRKY Transcription Factor Genes in Lotus japonicus

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Hui; Wang, Pengfei; Nan, Zhibiao; Wang, Xingjun

    2014-01-01

    WRKY transcription factor genes play critical roles in plant growth and development, as well as stress responses. WRKY genes have been examined in various higher plants, but they have not been characterized in Lotus japonicus. The recent release of the L. japonicus whole genome sequence provides an opportunity for a genome wide analysis of WRKY genes in this species. In this study, we identified 61 WRKY genes in the L. japonicus genome. Based on the WRKY protein structure, L. japonicus WRKY (...

  15. Trissolcus japonicus (Ashmead (Hymenoptera, Scelionidae emerges in North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elijah J. Talamas

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Trissolcus japonicus (Ashmead is an Asian egg parasitoid of the brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stål. It has been under study in U.S. quarantine facilities since 2007 to evaluate its efficacy as a candidate classical biological control agent and its host specificity with regard to the pentatomid fauna native to the United States. A survey of resident egg parasitoids conducted in 2014 with sentinel egg masses of H. halys revealed that T. japonicus was already present in the wild in Beltsville, MD. Seven parasitized egg masses were recovered, of which six yielded live T. japonicus adults. All of these were in a wooded habitat, whereas egg masses placed in nearby soybean fields and an abandoned apple orchard showed no T. japonicus parasitism. How T. japonicus came to that site is unknown and presumed accidental.

  16. Entropy maximization

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. It is shown that (i) every probability density is the unique maximizer of relative entropy in an appropriate class and (ii) in the class of all pdf f that satisfy. ∫ fhi dμ = λi for i = 1, 2,...,...k the maximizer of entropy is an f0 that is pro- portional to exp(. ∑ ci hi ) for some choice of ci . An extension of this to a continuum of.

  17. Entropy Maximization

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    It is shown that (i) every probability density is the unique maximizer of relative entropy in an appropriate class and (ii) in the class of all pdf that satisfy ∫ f h i d = i for i = 1 , 2 , … , … k the maximizer of entropy is an f 0 that is proportional to exp ⁡ ( ∑ c i h i ) for some choice of c i . An extension of this to a continuum of ...

  18. Effects of rearing temperature and density on growth, survival and development of sea cucumber larvae, Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guangbin; Yang, Hongsheng; Liu, Shilin

    2010-07-01

    In laboratory conditions, effects of rearing temperature and stocking density were examined on hatching of fertilized egg and growth of auricularia larvae of Apostichopus japonicus respectively. Data series like larval length and density, metamorphic time, and survival rate of the larvae were recorded. Statistics showed that for A. japonicus, survival rate (from fertilized egg to late auricularia) decreased significantly with the increasing rearing temperature ( P26°C). Hatching rate was significantly different between 0.2-5 ind./ml groups and 20-50 ind./ml groups. Rearing larvae at the higher density had the smaller maximal-length, whereas needed longer time to complete metamorphosis. This study suggested that 21°C and 0.4 ind./ml can be used as the most suitable rearing temperature and stocking density for large -scale artificial breeding of A. japonicus’s larvae.

  19. Chamaebatiaria millefolium (Torr.) Maxim.: fernbush

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nancy L. Shaw; Emerenciana G. Hurd

    2008-01-01

    Fernbush - Chamaebatiaria millefolium (Torr.) Maxim. - the only species in its genus, is endemic to the Great Basin, Colorado Plateau, and adjacent areas of the western United States. It is an upright, generally multistemmed, sweetly aromatic shrub 0.3 to 2 m tall. Bark of young branches is brown and becomes smooth and gray with age. Leaves are leathery, alternate,...

  20. Presence and Potential Distribution of Aedes albopictus and Aedes japonicus japonicus (Diptera: Culicidae) in Slovenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalan, Katja; Ivovic, Vladimir; Glasnovic, Peter; Buzan, Elena

    2017-11-07

    In Slovenia, two invasive mosquito species are present, Aedes albopictus (Skuse, 1895) (Diptera: Culicidae) and Aedes japonicus (Theobald, 1901) (Diptera: Culicidae). In this study, we examined their actual distribution and suitable habitats for new colonizations. Data from survey of species presence in 2013 and 2015, bioclimatic variables and altitude were used for the construction of predictive maps. We produced various models in Maxent software and tested two bioclimatic variable sets, WorldClim and CHELSA. For the variable selection of A. albopictus modeling we used statistical and expert knowledge-based approach, whereas for A. j. japonicus we used only a statistically based approach. The best performing models for both species were chosen according to AIC score-based evaluation. In 2 yr of sampling, A. albopictus was largely confined to the western half of Slovenia, whereas A. j. japonicus spread significantly and can be considered as an established species in a large part of the country. Comparison of models with WorldClim and CHELSA variables for both species showed models with CHELSA variables as a better tool for prediction. Finally, we validated the models performance in predicting distribution of species according to collected field data. Our study confirms that both species are co-occurring and are sympatric in a large part of the country area. The tested models could be used for future prevention of invasive mosquitoes spreading in other countries with similar bioclimatic conditions. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Antimicrobial activities of endophytic fungi isolated from Ophiopogon japonicus (Liliaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Hanqiao; Xing, Yongmei; Chen, Juan; Zhang, Dawei; Guo, Shunxing; Wang, Chunlan

    2012-11-28

    Drug resistance in bacteria has become a global concern and the search for new antibacterial agents is urgent and ongoing. Endophytes provide an abundant reservoir of bioactive metabolites for medicinal exploitation, and an increasing number of novel compounds are being isolated from endophytic fungi. Ophiopogon japonicus, containing compounds with antibacterial activity, is a traditional Chinese medicinal plant used for eliminating phlegm, relieving coughs, latent heat in the lungs, and alleviating diabetes mellitus. We investigated the antimicrobial activities of 30 strains of O. japonicus. Fungal endophytes were isolated from roots and stems of O. japonicus collected from Chongqing City, southwestern China. Mycelial extracts (MC) and fermentation broth (FB) were tested for antimicrobial activity using peptide deformylase (PDF) inhibition fluorescence assays and MTT cell proliferation assays. A total of 30 endophytic strains were isolated from O. japonicus; 22 from roots and eight from stems. 53.33% of the mycelial extracts (MC) and 33.33% of the fermentation broths (FB) displayed potent inhibition of PDF. 80% of MC and 33.33% of FB significantly inhibited Staphylococcus aureus. 70% of MC and 36.67% of FB showed strong activities against Cryptococcus neoformans. None showed influence on Escherichia coli. The secondary metabolites of endophytic fungi from O. japonicus are potential antimicrobial agents.

  2. First record of the Asian bush mosquito, Aedes japonicus japonicus, in Italy: invasion from an established Austrian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidel, Bernhard; Montarsi, Fabrizio; Huemer, Hartwig P; Indra, Alexander; Capelli, Gioia; Allerberger, Franz; Nowotny, Norbert

    2016-05-16

    In 2011 we identified the Asian bush mosquito, Aedes japonicus japonicus (Theobald, 1901) (Diptera: Culicidae) for the first time in northern Slovenia and in the bordering Austrian federal state of Styria. Between May and July 2012 the distribution area of Ae. j. japonicus was already found to be extended westwards into Carinthia and eastwards towards Burgenland and bordering Hungary. In August 2012 the species was first detected in a western province of Hungary. In subsequent years, follow-up field studies demonstrated an active spread westwards throughout Carinthia, reaching the border to northern Italy. In July 2015 several aquatic-stage specimens of the species were discovered at three different sites in the Friuli Venezia Giulia region, north-eastern Italy. In September 2015, co-occurrence of Ae. j. japonicus and Aedes albopictus (Skuse, 1895) was observed in the same sample in that region. Ae. j. japonicus actively extended its geographic range from an established population in Carinthia (Austria) southwards to northern Italy by crossing Alpine ranges. Since Ae. albopictus and Aedes koreicus (Edwards, 1917) are already well established in northern Italy, it will be pivotal to monitor the consequences of a third invasive mosquito species trying to populate the same geographic region.

  3. The complete chloroplast genome sequence of Euonymus japonicus (Celastraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kyoung Su; Park, SeonJoo

    2016-09-01

    The complete chloroplast (cp) genome sequence of the Euonymus japonicus, the first sequenced of the genus Euonymus, was reported in this study. The total length was 157 637 bp, containing a pair of 26 678 bp inverted repeat region (IR), which were separated by small single copy (SSC) region and large single copy (LSC) region of 18 340 bp and 85 941 bp, respectively. This genome contains 107 unique genes, including 74 coding genes, four rRNA genes, and 29 tRNA genes. Seventeen genes contain intron of E. japonicus, of which three genes (clpP, ycf3, and rps12) include two introns. The maximum likelihood (ML) phylogenetic analysis revealed that E. japonicus was closely related to Manihot and Populus.

  4. The WRKY Transcription Factor Genes in Lotus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hui; Wang, Pengfei; Nan, Zhibiao; Wang, Xingjun

    2014-01-01

    WRKY transcription factor genes play critical roles in plant growth and development, as well as stress responses. WRKY genes have been examined in various higher plants, but they have not been characterized in Lotus japonicus. The recent release of the L. japonicus whole genome sequence provides an opportunity for a genome wide analysis of WRKY genes in this species. In this study, we identified 61 WRKY genes in the L. japonicus genome. Based on the WRKY protein structure, L. japonicus WRKY (LjWRKY) genes can be classified into three groups (I-III). Investigations of gene copy number and gene clusters indicate that only one gene duplication event occurred on chromosome 4 and no clustered genes were detected on chromosomes 3 or 6. Researchers previously believed that group II and III WRKY domains were derived from the C-terminal WRKY domain of group I. Our results suggest that some WRKY genes in group II originated from the N-terminal domain of group I WRKY genes. Additional evidence to support this hypothesis was obtained by Medicago truncatula WRKY (MtWRKY) protein motif analysis. We found that LjWRKY and MtWRKY group III genes are under purifying selection, suggesting that WRKY genes will become increasingly structured and functionally conserved.

  5. First record of Dinoderus (Dinoderastes japonicus in Italy (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluca Nardi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Dinoderus (Dinoderastes japonicus, a species native of the Eastern Palaearctic, is reported for the first time from Italy on the basis of a female specimen collected in a beech forest (Veneto Region, Treviso Province, Foresta del Cansiglio. The possible establishment of this alien species in Italy is briefly discussed.

  6. Do dart tags suppress growth of dusky kob Argyrosomus japonicus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    recapture and otolith-reading methods were compared. Mark-recapture data showed that A. japonicus are resident in an area between the Breede River Estuary and Cape Agulhas on the southeast coast of South Africa. Maximum recapture length was ...

  7. Estuarine habitat use by juvenile dusky kob Argyrosomus japonicus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The spatial and temporal area-use patterns of estuarinedependent juvenile dusky kob Argyrosomus japonicus in the Great Fish Estuary, South Africa, were examined using acoustic telemetry. In all, 29 individuals (307–400 mm total length) were surgically equipped with individually coded transmitters and monitored for a ...

  8. The dusky kob Argyrosomus japonicus is a large sciaenid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    nursery areas is to provide immature fish with ade- quate food and ... The feeding ecology of dusky kob A. japonicus was determined from the stomach contents of line-caught ...... LASIAK, T. A. 1982 — Structural and functional aspects of the.

  9. Differences in MITF gene expression and histology between albino and normal sea cucumbers ( Apostichopus japonicus Selenka)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Heling; Yang, Hongsheng; Zhao, Huan; Liu, Shilin; Wang, Tianming

    2012-01-01

    Albino Apostichopus japonicus occur both in the wild and in captivity. The offspring of albino A. japonicus also suffer from albinism. The formation of melanin in the melanocytes is dependant on microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF). To investigate the role of MITF in controlling albinism, we cloned the full-length MITF cDNA from A. japonicus and compared MITF mRNA expression in albino and normal A. japonicus. In addition, we used light and electron microscopy to compare histological samples of normal and albino A. japonicus. The body wall of albino adults was characterized by significantly lower levels of MITF expression and lower numbers of epidermal melanocytes, which also contained less melanin. In albino juvenile offspring, MITF expression levels were significantly lower 32 d after fertilization and there were fewer, and less developed, epidermal melanocytes. Thus, we conclude that albino A. japonicus have fewer melanocytes and a reduced ability to synthesize melanin, likely because of lower expression of MITF.

  10. Unexpected patterns of admixture in German populations of Aedes japonicus japonicus (Diptera: Culicidae underscore the importance of human intervention.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorothee E Zielke

    Full Text Available The mosquito Aedes japonicus japonicus, originally restricted to temperate East Asia, is now widespread in North America and more recently has become established in Europe. To ascertain the putative number of separate introductions to Europe and examine patterns of expansion we analyzed the genetic makeup of Ae. j. japonicus populations from five cemeteries in North Rhine-Westphalia and Rhineland-Palatinate, two western German federal states, as well as of specimens from populations in Belgium, Switzerland, and Austria/Slovenia. To do so, we genotyped individual specimens at seven pre-existing polymorphic microsatellite loci and sequenced part of the nad4 mitochondrial locus. We found evidence of two different genotypic signatures associated with different nad4 mitochondrial haplotypes, indicating at least two genetically differentiated populations of Ae. j. japonicus in Europe (i.e. two distinct genotypes. Belgian, Swiss, and Austrian/Slovenian populations all share the same genotypic signature although they have become differentiated since isolation. Contrary to expectations, the German Ae. j. japonicus are not closely related to those in Belgium which are geographically nearest but are also highly inbred. German populations have a unique genotype but also evidence of mixing between the two genotypes. Also unexpectedly, the populations closest to the center of the German infestation had the highest levels of admixture indicating that separate introductions did not expand and merge but instead their expansion was driven by punctuated human-mediated transport. Critically, the resulting admixed populations have higher genetic diversity and appear invasive as indicated by their increased abundance and recent spread across western Germany.

  11. Effect of electron beam irradiation on the quality of mackerel (Pneumatophorus japonicus) Meat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Dongxiao; Yang Wenge; Xu Dalun; Zhou Xingyu; Ou Changrong; Shi Huidong

    2012-01-01

    The effect of 3, 5, 7 kGy electron beam irradiation on the volatile basic nitrogen (VBN) and peroxide value (POV), the contents of histamine and unsaturated fatty acid (UFA) in Pneumatophorus japonicus meat with vacuum or ordinary package were measured during refrigeration. The results showed that electron beam treatment could effectively control the contents of histamine and VBN, postpone the oxidation of unsaturated fatty acid in P. japonicus meat. The shelf life of P. japonicus meat could be extended with electron beam irradiation. Before cold storage, it is appropriate that the P. japonicus meat were ordinary packaged and irradiated at the dose of 5 kGy. (authors)

  12. Unilateral compatibility and genotypic difference in crossability in interspecific hybridization between Dianthus caryophyllus L. and Dianthus japonicus Thunb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimura, M; Kato, J; Mii, M; Morioka, K

    2003-05-01

    Reciprocal interspecific crosses were carried out between six lines of Dianthus caryophyllus L. and one line of Dianthus japonicus Thunb. Although no seed was set when D. japonicus was used as the seed parent, six seedlings were successfully obtained from 2,380 immature ovules by applying the embryo-rescue technique. However, they showed seed parent-like morphology and no evidence for the hybridity by flow cytometry and RAPD analyses. When six lines of D. caryophyllus were used as seed parents, a total of 192 seedlings were successfully obtained without using the embryo-rescue technique. Among these seedlings, 12 out of 25 progenies obtained from the carnation line '98sp1651' were confirmed to be the hybrids. The remaining 13 progenies of this line, and the total 167 progenies obtained from the other carnation lines, had carnation-like morphology without any evidence of hybridity by flow cytometry and RAPD analyses. The progenies confirmed as hybrids had intermediate characters of the parents with respect to leaf width and flower size, but they had a uniform flower color, reddish purple, which was different from that of either parent. Since the hybrids obtained in the present study have some profitable characters such as vigorous growth in summer time, upright robust stem, broad leaves and early flowering, they are expected to be used for the breeding of carnation which is suitable for growing under the Japanese climate.

  13. Background and History of the Lotus japonicus Model Legume System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stougaard, Jens

    2014-01-01

    The combination of favourable biological features, stable transformation procedures, application of genetics and genome-based global approaches has established Lotus japonicus as a model legume and provided a platform for addressing important biological questions often, but not exclusively......, focusing on endosymbiosis. Several important discoveries have been made, and the Lotus community has contributed novel results, promoting our understanding of plant biology as well as our understanding of properties and characteristics typical for plants belonging to the legume family. Progress has been...

  14. Profit maximization mitigates competition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dierker, Egbert; Grodal, Birgit

    1996-01-01

    We consider oligopolistic markets in which the notion of shareholders' utility is well-defined and compare the Bertrand-Nash equilibria in case of utility maximization with those under the usual profit maximization hypothesis. Our main result states that profit maximization leads to less price...... competition than utility maximization. Since profit maximization tends to raise prices, it may be regarded as beneficial for the owners as a whole. Moreover, if profit maximization is a good proxy for utility maximization, then there is no need for a general equilibrium analysis that takes the distribution...... of profits among consumers fully into account and partial equilibrium analysis suffices...

  15. Taking Leave?

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    Planning a holiday? Then if you're a member of the personnel, you'll need to use the Laboratory's new leave system that will be put in place on 1 October. Leave allocations don't change - you are entitled to just as much holiday as before - but instead of being credited annually, your leave will be credited on a monthly basis, and this information will be communicated on your salary slip. The reason for the change is that with the various new leave schemes such as Recruitment by Saved Leave (RSL) and the Progressive Retirement Programme (PRP), a streamlined procedure was required for dealing with all kinds of leave. In the new system, each member of the personnel will have leave accounts to which leave will be credited monthly from the payroll and debited each time an absence is registered in the CERN Electronic Document Handling system (EDH). Leave balances will appear on monthly pay slips, and full details of leave transactions and balances will be available through EDH at all times. As the leave will be c...

  16. Evaluation of body weight of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus by computer vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hui; Xu, Qiang; Liu, Shilin; Zhang, Libin; Yang, Hongsheng

    2015-01-01

    A postichopus japonicus (Holothuroidea, Echinodermata) is an ecological and economic species in East Asia. Conventional biometric monitoring method includes diving for samples and weighing above water, with highly variable in weight measurement due to variation in the quantity of water in the respiratory tree and intestinal content of this species. Recently, video survey method has been applied widely in biometric detection on underwater benthos. However, because of the high flexibility of A. japonicus body, video survey method of monitoring is less used in sea cucumber. In this study, we designed a model to evaluate the wet weight of A. japonicus, using machine vision technology combined with a support vector machine (SVM) that can be used in field surveys on the A. japonicus population. Continuous dorsal images of free-moving A. japonicus individuals in seawater were captured, which also allows for the development of images of the core body edge as well as thorn segmentation. Parameters that include body length, body breadth, perimeter and area, were extracted from the core body edge images and used in SVM regression, to predict the weight of A. japonicus and for comparison with a power model. Results indicate that the use of SVM for predicting the weight of 33 A. japonicus individuals is accurate ( R 2=0.99) and compatible with the power model ( R 2 =0.96). The image-based analysis and size-weight regression models in this study may be useful in body weight evaluation of A. japonicus in lab and field study.

  17. Maximally incompatible quantum observables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinosaari, Teiko, E-mail: teiko.heinosaari@utu.fi [Turku Centre for Quantum Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Turku, FI-20014 Turku (Finland); Schultz, Jussi, E-mail: jussi.schultz@gmail.com [Dipartimento di Matematica, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Toigo, Alessandro, E-mail: alessandro.toigo@polimi.it [Dipartimento di Matematica, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Milano, Via Celoria 16, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Ziman, Mario, E-mail: ziman@savba.sk [RCQI, Institute of Physics, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dúbravská cesta 9, 84511 Bratislava (Slovakia); Faculty of Informatics, Masaryk University, Botanická 68a, 60200 Brno (Czech Republic)

    2014-05-01

    The existence of maximally incompatible quantum observables in the sense of a minimal joint measurability region is investigated. Employing the universal quantum cloning device it is argued that only infinite dimensional quantum systems can accommodate maximal incompatibility. It is then shown that two of the most common pairs of complementary observables (position and momentum; number and phase) are maximally incompatible.

  18. Maximally incompatible quantum observables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinosaari, Teiko; Schultz, Jussi; Toigo, Alessandro; Ziman, Mario

    2014-01-01

    The existence of maximally incompatible quantum observables in the sense of a minimal joint measurability region is investigated. Employing the universal quantum cloning device it is argued that only infinite dimensional quantum systems can accommodate maximal incompatibility. It is then shown that two of the most common pairs of complementary observables (position and momentum; number and phase) are maximally incompatible.

  19. [Principal component analysis and cluster analysis of inorganic elements in sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao-Fang; Xue, Chang-Hu; Wang, Yu-Ming; Li, Zhao-Jie; Xue, Yong; Xu, Jie

    2011-11-01

    The present study is to investigate the feasibility of multi-elements analysis in determination of the geographical origin of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus, and to make choice of the effective tracers in sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus geographical origin assessment. The content of the elements such as Al, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Mo, Cd, Hg and Pb in sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus samples from seven places of geographical origin were determined by means of ICP-MS. The results were used for the development of elements database. Cluster analysis(CA) and principal component analysis (PCA) were applied to differentiate the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus geographical origin. Three principal components which accounted for over 89% of the total variance were extracted from the standardized data. The results of Q-type cluster analysis showed that the 26 samples could be clustered reasonably into five groups, the classification results were significantly associated with the marine distribution of the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus samples. The CA and PCA were the effective methods for elements analysis of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus samples. The content of the mineral elements in sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus samples was good chemical descriptors for differentiating their geographical origins.

  20. Characterization of phenoloxidase from the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jingwei; Zhou, Zunchun; Dong, Ying; Guan, Xiaoyan; Wang, Bai; Jiang, Bei; Yang, Aifu; Chen, Zhong; Gao, Shan; Sun, Hongjuan

    2014-06-01

    Phenoloxidase (PO) is a crucial immune-related enzyme in invertebrates. In this study, three POs of the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus were detected in coelomic fluid using linear-gradient native-PAGE combined with catechol staining and then partially purified by gel excising. The results showed that the three POs had a color of mahogany (AjPO1), yellow (AjPO2) and purple (AjPO3) respectively with molecular weights smaller than 21kDa in native-PAGE after staining with catechol. Enzymatic activities analysis revealed that AjPO1, AjPO2 and AjPO3 had optimal temperature of 45, 95 and 85°C and pH of 5.0, 8.0 and 8.0, respectively. Kinetic analysis showed that the Km values of AjPO1 for catechol, l-DOPA, dopamine and hydroquinone were 3.23, 0.86, 3.98 and 1.20mmol/l, respectively, those of AjPO2 were 0.31, 0.38, 2.05 and 1.30mmol/l, respectively, and those of AjPO3 were 5.95, 1.28, 5.81 and 0.62mmol/l, respectively. These results suggest that the three POs are laccase-type phenoloxidase. The activities of all three A. japonicus POs were significantly promoted by Ca(2+), Mg(2+) and Mn(2+), and strongly inhibited by ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid disodium (EDTA), sodium diethyldithiocarbamate (DETC) and some common antioxidants. The inhibitions by EDTA and DETC suggest that the three A. japonicus POs are copper-containing metalloenzymes. Immune-responsive analysis showed that the total PO activities in coelomocytes (TPAC) increased greatly after lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge and declined significantly after polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (PolyI:C) challenge, implying that A. japonicus PO immune system, which is composed of several isoenzymes with different characteristics, is closely involved in the defense against the infection of Gram-negative bacteria and double-stranded RNA viruses. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. Transcriptome response mediated by cold stress in Lotus japonicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Ignacio Calzadilla

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Members of the Lotus genus are important as agricultural forage sources under marginal environmental conditions given their high nutritional value and tolerance of various abiotic stresses. However, their dry matter production is drastically reduced in cooler seasons, while their response to such conditions is not well studied. This paper analyzes cold acclimation of the genus by studying Lotus japonicus over a stress period of 24 h. High-throughput RNA sequencing was used to identify and classify 1077 differentially expressed genes, of which 713 were up-regulated and 364 were down-regulated. Up-regulated genes were principally related to lipid, cell wall, phenylpropanoid, sugar, and proline regulation, while down-regulated genes affected the photosynthetic process and chloroplast development. Together, a total of 41 cold-inducible transcription factors were identified, including members of the AP2/ERF, NAC, MYB, and WRKY families; two of them were described as putative novel transcription factors. Finally, DREB1/CBFs were described with respect to their cold stress expression profiles. This is the first transcriptome profiling of the model legume L. japonicus under cold stress. Data obtained may be useful in identifying candidate genes for breeding modified species of forage legumes that more readily acclimate to low temperatures

  2. Feeding behavior and digestive physiology in sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jiamin; Zhang, Libin; Pan, Yang; Lin, Chenggang; Wang, Fang; Kan, Rentao; Yang, Hongsheng

    2015-02-01

    The feeding behavior and digestive physiology of the sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus are not well understood. A better understanding may provide useful information for the development of the aquaculture of this species. In this article the tentacle locomotion, feeding rhythms, ingestion rate (IR), feces production rate (FPR) and digestive enzyme activities were studied in three size groups (small, medium and large) of sea cucumber under a 12h light/12h dark cycle. Frame-by-frame video analysis revealed that all size groups had similar feeding strategies using a grasping motion to pick up sediment particles. The tentacle insertion rates of the large size group were significantly faster than those of the small and medium-sized groups (Psea cucumber were nocturnal and their feeding peaks occurred at 02:00-04:00. The medium and large-sized groups also had a second feeding peak during the day. Both IR and FPR in all groups were significantly higher at night than those during the daytime (P<0.05). Additionally, the peak activities of digestive enzymes were 2-4h earlier than the peak of feeding. Taken together, these results demonstrated that the light/dark cycle was a powerful environment factor that influenced biological rhythms of A. japonicus, which had the ability to optimize the digestive processes for a forthcoming ingestion. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Maximizers versus satisficers

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew M. Parker; Wandi Bruine de Bruin; Baruch Fischhoff

    2007-01-01

    Our previous research suggests that people reporting a stronger desire to maximize obtain worse life outcomes (Bruine de Bruin et al., 2007). Here, we examine whether this finding may be explained by the decision-making styles of self-reported maximizers. Expanding on Schwartz et al. (2002), we find that self-reported maximizers are more likely to show problematic decision-making styles, as evidenced by self-reports of less behavioral coping, greater dependence on others when making decisions...

  4. Maximal combustion temperature estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golodova, E; Shchepakina, E

    2006-01-01

    This work is concerned with the phenomenon of delayed loss of stability and the estimation of the maximal temperature of safe combustion. Using the qualitative theory of singular perturbations and canard techniques we determine the maximal temperature on the trajectories located in the transition region between the slow combustion regime and the explosive one. This approach is used to estimate the maximal temperature of safe combustion in multi-phase combustion models

  5. The host preference and impact of Argulus japonicus ectoparasite on cyprinids in Central Java, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kismiyati; Wulansari, P. D.; Dewi, N. N.

    2018-04-01

    The most widely cultivated freshwater fish are from Familia Cyprinidae, among others goldfish (Carassius auratus), koi (Cyprinus carpio) and comet goldfish (Carassius auratus auratus). One of the constraints of freshwater fish cultivation is ectoparasite infestation Argulus japonicus. Financial losses have been experienced by some farmers, caused by these ectoparasitic infestaions. This study was aimed to determine the impact of ectoparasite Argulus japonicus infestation on host (freshwater ornamental fish from Familia Cyprinidae), in order to find a preventive solution to treatment on the host. The results showed that prevalence of infested fish by Argulus japonicus were 57 % goldfish, 31 % comet fish and 65 % koi. Changes of histopathology on host were congestion, baoning degeneration, epithelium erosion and inflammatory cell infiltration. The image of infected leukocytes infested by Argulus japonicus were 8.5 % of lymphocytes, 4.7 % neurophils, 3.9 % monocytes, 1.45 % eosinophils and 0,17% basophils.

  6. Two new labdane diterpenes from fresh leaves of Leonurus japonicus and their degradation during drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchino, Hiroyuki; Daikonya, Akihiro; Kumagai, Takeo; Goda, Yukihiro; Takahashi, Yutaka; Kawahara, Nobuo

    2013-01-01

    Degradation of the components of Leonurus Herb was examined during drying. Compounds 1 and 2 were detected on TLC at lower temperature, but not at higher temperature. Their chemical structures were determined by spectral methods. They immediately decomposed even at 40°C in chloroform solution. They are believed to be transformed through a retro-aldol reaction. Compounds 1 and 2 have not been previously reported.

  7. Study on the Immunomodulation Effect of Isodon japonicus Extract via Splenocyte Function and NK Anti-Tumor Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung-A Hwang

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Here we investigated the potential immune-enhancing activity of Isodon japonicus on murine splenocyte and natural-killer (NK cells in vitro. The ethanol extract of I. japonicus significantly enhanced the proliferation of splenocyte and induced the significant enhancement of NK cells’ activity against tumor cells (YAC-1. In addition, I. japonicus increased the production of interferon (IFN-γ and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α, suggesting that the increase in NK cell cytotoxicity could be due to the enhancement of the NK cell production of both cytokines. Taken together, I. japonicus extract inhibited the growth of human leukemia cells (K562 by 74%. Our observation indicated that the anti-tumor effects of I. japonicus may be attributed to its ability to serve as a stimulant of NK anti-tumor activity. In addition, our results support the development of functional food studies on I. japonicus.

  8. Transcriptome sequencing and characterization for the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka, 1867.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huixia Du

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sea cucumbers are a special group of marine invertebrates. They occupy a taxonomic position that is believed to be important for understanding the origin and evolution of deuterostomes. Some of them such as Apostichopus japonicus represent commercially important aquaculture species in Asian countries. Many efforts have been devoted to increasing the number of expressed sequence tags (ESTs for A. japonicus, but a comprehensive characterization of its transcriptome remains lacking. Here, we performed the large-scale transcriptome profiling and characterization by pyrosequencing diverse cDNA libraries from A. japonicus. RESULTS: In total, 1,061,078 reads were obtained by 454 sequencing of eight cDNA libraries representing different developmental stages and adult tissues in A. japonicus. These reads were assembled into 29,666 isotigs, which were further clustered into 21,071 isogroups. Nearly 40% of the isogroups showed significant matches to known proteins based on sequence similarity. Gene ontology (GO and KEGG pathway analyses recovered diverse biological functions and processes. Candidate genes that were potentially involved in aestivation were identified. Transcriptome comparison with the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus revealed similar patterns of GO term representation. In addition, 4,882 putative orthologous genes were identified, of which 202 were not present in the non-echinoderm organisms. More than 700 simple sequence repeats (SSRs and 54,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs were detected in the A. japonicus transcriptome. CONCLUSION: Pyrosequencing was proven to be efficient in rapidly identifying a large set of genes for the sea cucumber A. japonicus. Through the large-scale transcriptome sequencing as well as public EST data integration, we performed a comprehensive characterization of the A. japonicus transcriptome and identified candidate aestivation-related genes. A large number of potential genetic

  9. Genome-wide identification of nuclear receptor (NR) superfamily genes in the copepod Tigriopus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Dae-Sik; Lee, Bo-Young; Kim, Hui-Su; Lee, Min Chul; Kyung, Do-Hyun; Om, Ae-Son; Rhee, Jae-Sung; Lee, Jae-Seong

    2014-11-18

    Nuclear receptors (NRs) are a large superfamily of proteins defined by a DNA-binding domain (DBD) and a ligand-binding domain (LBD). They function as transcriptional regulators to control expression of genes involved in development, homeostasis, and metabolism. The number of NRs differs from species to species, because of gene duplications and/or lineage-specific gene losses during metazoan evolution. Many NRs in arthropods interact with the ecdysteroid hormone and are involved in ecdysone-mediated signaling in arthropods. The nuclear receptor superfamily complement has been reported in several arthropods, including crustaceans, but not in copepods. We identified the entire NR repertoire of the copepod Tigriopus japonicus, which is an important marine model species for ecotoxicology and environmental genomics. Using whole genome and transcriptome sequences, we identified a total of 31 nuclear receptors in the genome of T. japonicus. Nomenclature of the nuclear receptors was determined based on the sequence similarities of the DNA-binding domain (DBD) and ligand-binding domain (LBD). The 7 subfamilies of NRs separate into five major clades (subfamilies NR1, NR2, NR3, NR4, and NR5/6). Although the repertoire of NR members in, T. japonicus was similar to that reported for other arthropods, there was an expansion of the NR1 subfamily in Tigriopus japonicus. The twelve unique nuclear receptors identified in T. japonicus are members of NR1L. This expansion may be a unique lineage-specific feature of crustaceans. Interestingly, E78 and HR83, which are present in other arthropods, were absent from the genomes of T. japonicus and two congeneric copepod species (T. japonicus and Tigriopus californicus), suggesting copepod lineage-specific gene loss. We identified all NR receptors present in the copepod, T. japonicus. Knowledge of the copepod nuclear receptor repertoire will contribute to a better understanding of copepod- and crustacean-specific NR evolution.

  10. Evaluation of raw nepodin extraction from Rumex japonicus and R. obtusifolius and their DNA polymorphisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minami, Motoyasu; Mori, Takako; Yonezawa, Takayuki; Saito, Yukiko; Teruya, Toshiaki; Woo, Je-Tae

    2018-01-01

    Nepodin, found in the roots of Rumex japonicus Houtt. (Polygonaceae), inhibits osteoclast differentiation and has an antidiabetic effect. We propose nepodin as an ingredient of new functional foods or as a drug candidate for reducing the risk of reduced locomotion resulting from diseases such as osteoporosis. Although there are no previous reports of R. obtusifolius L., which is found throughout Japan, having roots containing nepodin, we found nepodin in the roots of this species. Therefore, R. obtusifolius as well as R. japonicus was considered a candidate raw material for nepodin extraction. We also discuss the suitability of R. japonicus and R. obtusifolius as sources of raw nepodin for cultivation on the Ryukyu Islands. In this study, all specimens on the Ryukyu Islands were identified as R. japonicus. Conversely, all specimens on mainland Japan were R. obtusifolius. The DNA sequence of the chloroplast trnL-trnF intergenic spacer region and partial nuclear internal transcribed spacer was consistent with the identification of R. japonicus and R. obtusifolius by morphological characteristics of the perianth segments. Therefore, to avoid erroneous identification and misuse of the plant species used for extraction of raw materials, it is preferable to develop DNA markers for these two regions. The content of nepodin varied from undetectable to 0.34% of the fresh weight (%FW) in R. japonicus and from undetectable to 0.21%FW in R. obtusifolius. From a pharmacological perspective, as plants that might be suitable as raw materials for nepodin extraction, it became clear that both R. japonicus and R. obtusifolius can be used with the same expected extraction efficiency. Based on our findings, R. obtusifolius could not be confirmed as inhabiting the Ryukyu Islands. For this reason, to conserve the endemic genetic characteristics of the Ryukyu Islands and to prevent genetic pollution by R. obtusifolius, only R. japonicus should be cultivated on the Ryukyu Islands.

  11. Maximally multipartite entangled states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facchi, Paolo; Florio, Giuseppe; Parisi, Giorgio; Pascazio, Saverio

    2008-06-01

    We introduce the notion of maximally multipartite entangled states of n qubits as a generalization of the bipartite case. These pure states have a bipartite entanglement that does not depend on the bipartition and is maximal for all possible bipartitions. They are solutions of a minimization problem. Examples for small n are investigated, both analytically and numerically.

  12. Maximizers versus satisficers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew M. Parker

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Our previous research suggests that people reporting a stronger desire to maximize obtain worse life outcomes (Bruine de Bruin et al., 2007. Here, we examine whether this finding may be explained by the decision-making styles of self-reported maximizers. Expanding on Schwartz et al. (2002, we find that self-reported maximizers are more likely to show problematic decision-making styles, as evidenced by self-reports of less behavioral coping, greater dependence on others when making decisions, more avoidance of decision making, and greater tendency to experience regret. Contrary to predictions, self-reported maximizers were more likely to report spontaneous decision making. However, the relationship between self-reported maximizing and worse life outcomes is largely unaffected by controls for measures of other decision-making styles, decision-making competence, and demographic variables.

  13. Identification and molecular characterization of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) gene in the intertidal copepod Tigriopus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Chang-Bum; Kang, Hye-Min; Seo, Jung Soo; Park, Heum Gi; Rhee, Jae-Sung; Lee, Jae-Seong

    2016-02-10

    In copepods, no information has been reported on the structure or molecular characterization of the nitric oxide synthase (NOS) gene. In the intertidal copepod Tigriopus japonicus, we identified a NOS gene that is involved in immune responses of vertebrates and invertebrates. In silico analyses revealed that nitric oxide (NO) synthase domains, such as the oxygenase and reductase domains, are highly conserved in the T. japonicus NOS gene. The T. japonicus NOS gene was highly transcribed in the nauplii stages, implying that it plays a role in protecting the host during the early developmental stages. To examine the involvement of the T. japonicus NOS gene in the innate immune response, the copepods were exposed to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and two Vibrio sp. After exposure to different concentrations of LPS and Vibrio sp., T. japonicus NOS transcription was significantly increased over time in a dose-dependent manner, and the NO/nitrite concentration increased as well. Taken together, our findings suggest that T. japonicus NOS transcription is induced in response to an immune challenge as part of the conserved innate immunity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Schizosaccharomyces japonicus: A Polysaccharide-Overproducing Yeast to Be Used in Winemaking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Romani

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Mixed starter cultures made of Saccharomyces cerevisiae EC1118 and Schizosaccharomyces japonicus #13 were inoculated in commercial grape must, and the impact of different inoculum ratios (1:1; 1:100; 1:10,000 on growth and fermentation kinetics and on the analytical profiles of the experimental wines was here evaluated. Results obtained showed that S. japonicus #13 affects S. cerevisiae growth and fermentative capability only for S. cerevisiae/S. japonicus inoculum ratio 1:10,000. The analytical profiles of the wines produced by mixed starter cultures indicated that this non-Saccharomyces yeast modulates the concentration of malic and acetic acids and of some of the most important volatile compounds, such as β-phenyl ethanol, in an inoculum-ratio-dependent fashion. Moreover, all experimental wines obtained with S. japonicus #13 in mixed cultures reached concentrations of total polysaccharides significantly higher than those obtained with pure cultures of S. cerevisiae EC1118, and total polysaccharides increased with the increase of S. japonicus #13 cell concentration. Based on these results, S. japonicus #13 might be profitably inoculated in combination with S. cerevisiae EC1118 to enhance wine complexity and aroma and to improve wine stability by increasing the final concentration of polysaccharides.

  15. Is CP violation maximal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gronau, M.

    1984-01-01

    Two ambiguities are noted in the definition of the concept of maximal CP violation. The phase convention ambiguity is overcome by introducing a CP violating phase in the quark mixing matrix U which is invariant under rephasing transformations. The second ambiguity, related to the parametrization of U, is resolved by finding a single empirically viable definition of maximal CP violation when assuming that U does not single out one generation. Considerable improvement in the calculation of nonleptonic weak amplitudes is required to test the conjecture of maximal CP violation. 21 references

  16. Meat quality of Kuruma prawn (Marsupenaeus japonicus: preliminary evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Vonghia

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Among the peneids, Marsupenaeus japonicus, a cold-temperate species, carnivorous, is the mostly cultured prawn in Italy and in the Mediterranean Sea basin, thanks to the good adaptability to the temperature and salinity variations, to the good resistance to the manipulations (better resistance out of water, to its appreciate nourishing qualities and to the good growth rate (Lumare, 1998.Whereas the literature on cultured fish fillet is rich (Gjedrem, 1997; Lanari et al., 1999; Parisi et al., 2003, few are the information about the shrimp meat quality traits.Therefore, the present work aimed at typifying the variations of the meat quality characteristics in shrimps from semi-intensive (supplemented with an artificial diet or extensive rearing systems.

  17. Postmortem changes in physiochemical and sensory properties of red snow crab (Chionoecetes japonicus leg muscle during freeze storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joon-Young Jun

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In order to evaluate the maximal storable period of the raw crab for a non-thermal muscle separation, the quality changes of the leg meat of red snow crab (Chionoecetes japonicus during freeze storage were investigated. Fresh red snow crabs were stored at −20 °C for 7 weeks, and the leg muscle was separated by a no heating separation (NHS method every week. During the storage, considerable loss of the leg muscle did not occur and microbiological risk was very low. In contrast, discoloration appeared at 2-week storage on around carapace and the leg muscle turned yellow at storage 3-week. In physiochemical parameters, protein and free amino acids gradually decreased with storage time, expected that proteolytic enzymes still activated at −20 °C. At 4-week storage, the sensory acceptance dropped down below point 4 as low as inedible and notable inflection points in pH and acidity were observed. The volatile base nitrogen was low, though a little increase was recorded. These results suggested that the maximal storable period at −20 °C of the raw material was within 2 weeks and it was depended on external factor such as the discoloration. The present study might be referred as basic data for approaches to solve quality loss occurred in non-thermal muscle separation.

  18. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: Arctoscopus japonicus [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term Arctoscopus japonicus 名詞 一般 * * *... * ハタハタ ハタハタ ハタハタ Thesaurus2015 200906005405770421 C LS05 UNKNOWN_2 Arctoscopus japonicus

  19. Change of digestive physiology in sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka) induced by corn kernels meal and soybean meal in diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Haibo; Gao, Qinfeng; Dong, Shuanglin; Hou, Yiran; Wen, Bin

    2016-08-01

    The present study was conducted to determine the change of digestive physiology in sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka) induced by corn kernels meal and soybean meal in diets. Four experimental diets were tested, in which Sargassum thunbergii was proportionally replaced by the mixture of corn kernels meal and soybean meal. The growth performance, body composition and intestinal digestive enzyme activities in A. japonicus fed these 4 diets were examined. Results showed that the sea cucumber exhibited the maximum growth rate when 20% of S. thunbergii in the diet was replaced by corn kernels meal and soybean meal, while 40% of S. thunbergii in the diet can be replaced by the mixture of corn kernels meal and soybean meal without adversely affecting growth performance of A. japonicus. The activities of intestinal trypsin and amylase in A. japonicus can be significantly altered by corn kernels meal and soybean meal in diets. Trypsin activity in the intestine of A. japonicus significantly increased in the treatment groups compared to the control, suggesting that the supplement of corn kernels meal and soybean meal in the diets might increase the intestinal trypsin activity of A. japonicus. However, amylase activity in the intestine of A. japonicus remarkably decreased with the increasing replacement level of S. thunbergii by the mixture of corn kernels meal and soybean meal, suggesting that supplement of corn kernels meal and soybean meal in the diets might decrease the intestinal amylase activity of A. japonicus.

  20. The Lotus japonicus ndx gene family is involved in nodule function and maintenance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønlund, Mette; Gustafsen, Camilla; Jensen, Dorthe Bødker

    2003-01-01

    To elucidate the function of the ndx homeobox genes during the Rhizobium-legume symbiosis, two Lotus japonicus ndr genes were expressed in the antisense orientation under the control of the nodule-expressed promoter Psenod12 in transgenic Lotus japonicus plants. Many of the transformants obtained...

  1. Resource capture by single leaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, S.P.

    1992-05-01

    Leaves show a variety of strategies for maximizing CO{sub 2} and light capture. These are more meaningfully explained if they are considered in the context of maximizing capture relative to the utilization of water, nutrients and carbohydrates reserves. There is considerable variation between crops in their efficiency of CO{sub 2} and light capture at the leaf level. Understanding of these mechanisms indicate some ways in which efficiency of resource capture could be level cannot be meaningfully considered without simultaneous understanding of implications at the canopy level. 36 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Sustainability evaluation of different systems for sea cucumber ( Apostichopus japonicus) farming based on emergy theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guodong; Dong, Shuanglin; Tian, Xiangli; Gao, Qinfeng; Wang, Fang

    2015-06-01

    Emergy analysis is effective for analyzing ecological economic systems. However, the accuracy of the approach is affected by the diversity of economic level, meteorological and hydrological parameters in different regions. The present study evaluated the economic benefits, environmental impact, and sustainability of indoor, semi-intensive and extensive farming systems of sea cucumber ( Apostichopus japonicus) in the same region. The results showed that A. japonicus indoor farming system was high in input and output (yield) whereas pond extensive farming system was low in input and output. The output/input ratio of indoor farming system was lower than that of pond extensive farming system, and the output/input ratio of semi-intensive farming system fell in between them. The environmental loading ratio of A. japonicus extensive farming system was lower than that of indoor farming system. In addition, the emergy yield and emergy exchange ratios, and emergy sustainability and emergy indexes for sustainable development were higher in extensive farming system than those in indoor farming system. These results indicated that the current extensive farming system exerted fewer negative influences on the environment, made more efficient use of available resources, and met more sustainable development requirements than the indoor farming system. A. japonicus farming systems showed more emergy benefits than fish farming systems. The pond farming systems of A. japonicus exploited more free local environmental resources for production, caused less potential pressure on the local environment, and achieved higher sustainability than indoor farming system.

  3. Resource investigation of traditional medicinal plant Panax japonicus (T.Nees) C.A. Mey and its varieties in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shaopeng; Wang, Rufeng; Zeng, Wanyong; Zhu, Wenjun; Zhang, Xifeng; Wu, Chong; Song, Jia; Zheng, Yonglian; Chen, Ping

    2015-05-26

    Panax japonicus, the perennial herb in the Araliaceae family, was used as the natural medicinal herb by Chinese traditional doctors for more than thousand years. Its rhizome was mainly used as a tonic, anti-inflammatory and hemostatic agent in China. Most of the therapeutic effects of P. japonicus had been reported due to the presence of tetracyclic or pentacyclic triterpene saponins. Volatile oil, polysaccharides and amino acids had also been found in P. japonicus species and reported in the pharmacological functions. A three-year survey was conducted to determine the current resource status of P. japonicus (T.Nees) C. A. Mey and its varieties (P. japonicus var. major (Burkill) C.Y.Wu & Feng and P. japonicus var. bipinnatifidus (Seem.) C.Y.Wu & Feng) in 10 provinces of southern and southwestern China. Whole plants were sampled at 64 sites. Resource distribution, habitat type, morphological variation and market trend of them were studied and discussed. The natural resource in China is rarely available due to extensive exploitation and continual environment deterioration in recent decades, Abundance of P. japonicus was much lower than previous records, mainly found in Hubei, Sichuan, Guizhou and Yunnan province. Wild resources of P.japonicus var. major and P.japonicus var. bipinnatifidus were even scarcer, only found in Guizhou and Yunan province. Despite their dramatic rise of market trend, the artificial cultivation of them was still not fully developed in China, but progressed rapidly in Hubei province. In this study, we synthesized our understandings of the current resource state of P. japonicus׳s existence, variation and cultivation in China. This study will aid further investigations and increased protection of these plants, which are very valuable to traditional herbal medicine. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Guinea pig maximization test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    1985-01-01

    Guinea pig maximization tests (GPMT) with chlorocresol were performed to ascertain whether the sensitization rate was affected by minor changes in the Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA) emulsion used. Three types of emulsion were evaluated: the oil phase was mixed with propylene glycol, saline...

  5. Analysis of fatty acid composition of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus using multivariate statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qinzeng; Gao, Fei; Xu, Qiang; Yang, Hongsheng

    2014-11-01

    Fatty acids (FAs) provide energy and also can be used to trace trophic relationships among organisms. Sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus goes into a state of aestivation during warm summer months. We examined fatty acid profiles in aestivated and non-aestivated A. japonicus using multivariate analyses (PERMANOVA, MDS, ANOSIM, and SIMPER). The results indicate that the fatty acid profiles of aestivated and non-aestivated sea cucumbers differed significantly. The FAs that were produced by bacteria and brown kelp contributed the most to the differences in the fatty acid composition of aestivated and nonaestivated sea cucumbers. Aestivated sea cucumbers may synthesize FAs from heterotrophic bacteria during early aestivation, and long chain FAs such as eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) that produced from intestinal degradation, are digested during deep aestivation. Specific changes in the fatty acid composition of A. japonicus during aestivation needs more detailed study in the future.

  6. The evolution of plant chemical defence - new roles for hydroxynitrile glucosides in Lotus japonicus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Camilla

    Plants are sessile organisms well-known to produce a vast array of chemical compounds of which many are used in chemical defence against herbivores and pathogens. The biosynthesis of these plant chemical defence compounds poses a considerable risk of self-toxicity for the plant itself. Several...... on hydroxynitrile glucoside metabolism in the legume model plant Lotus japonicus. Lotus japonicus produces both cyanogenic and non-cyanogenic hydroxynitrile glucosides as chemical defence compounds. The cyanogenic glucosides linamarin and lotaustralin are stored in the cell vacuole as inactive glycosides and, upon...... function and evolution. Further, it contributes to our understanding of the formation and role of biosynthetic gene clusters in plant chemical defence. The bifurcation in hydroxynitrile glucoside biosynthesis and catabolism observed in Lotus japonicus makes it a very suitable model system to study...

  7. Tri-maximal vs. bi-maximal neutrino mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, W.G

    2000-01-01

    It is argued that data from atmospheric and solar neutrino experiments point strongly to tri-maximal or bi-maximal lepton mixing. While ('optimised') bi-maximal mixing gives an excellent a posteriori fit to the data, tri-maximal mixing is an a priori hypothesis, which is not excluded, taking account of terrestrial matter effects

  8. A Novel Phenolic Compound, Chloroxynil, Improves Agrobacterium-Mediated Transient Transformation in Lotus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Mitsuhiro; Cutler, Sean; Isobe, Sachiko

    2015-01-01

    Agrobacterium-mediated transformation is a commonly used method for plant genetic engineering. However, the limitations of Agrobacterium host-plant interactions and the complexity of plant tissue culture often make the production of transgenic plants difficult. Transformation efficiency in many legume species, including soybean and the common bean, has been reported to be quite low. To improve the transformation procedure in legumes, we screened for chemicals that increase the transformation efficiency of Lotus japonicus, a model legume species. A Chemical library was screened and chemicals that increase in transient transformation efficiency of L. japonicus accession, Miyakojima MG-20 were identified. The transient transformation efficiency was quantified by reporter activity in which an intron-containing reporter gene produces the GUS protein only when the T-DNA is expressed in the plant nuclei. We identified a phenolic compound, chloroxynil, which increased the genetic transformation of L. japonicus by Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA105. Characterization of the mode of chloroxynil action indicated that it enhanced Agrobacterium-mediated transformation through the activation of the Agrobacterium vir gene expression, similar to acetosyringone, a phenolic compound known to improve Agrobacterium-mediated transformation efficiency. Transient transformation efficiency of L. japonicus with 5 μM chloroxynil was 60- and 6- fold higher than that of the control and acetosyringone treatment, respectively. In addition, transgenic L. japonicus lines were successfully generated by 5 μM chloroxynil treatment.Furthermore, we show that chloroxynil improves L. japonicus transformation by Agrobacterium strain GV3101 and rice transformation. Our results demonstrate that chloroxynil significantly improves Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation efficiency of various agriculturally important crops.

  9. Larval mosquito habitat utilization and community dynamics of Aedes albopictus and Aedes japonicus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett-Healy, Kristen; Unlu, Isik; Obenauer, Peter; Hughes, Tony; Healy, Sean; Crepeau, Taryn; Farajollahi, Ary; Kesavaraju, Banu; Fonseca, Dina; Schoeler, George; Gaugler, Randy; Strickman, Daniel

    2012-07-01

    Aedes albopictus (Skuse) and Ae. japonicus (Theobald) are important container-inhabiting mosquitoes that transmit disease agents, outcompete native species, and continue to expand their range in the United States. Both species deposit eggs in natural and artificial containers and thrive in peridomestic environments. The goal of our study was to examine the types and characteristics of containers that are most productive for these species in the northeastern United States. In total, 306 containers were sampled in urban, suburban, and rural areas of New Jersey. Multiple biotic and abiotic factors were recorded in an attempt to identify variables associated with the productivity of each species. Based on pupal abundance and density of container types, results showed that tires, trash cans, and planter dishes were the most important containers for Ae. albopictus, while planter dishes were the most important containers for Ae. japonicus. Container color (black and gray), material (rubber), and type (tires) were correlated with species presence for Ae. albopictus and Ae. japonicus. These factors may play a role in the selection of oviposition sites by female mosquitoes or in the survival of their progeny. Differences in species composition and abundance were detected between areas classified as urban, suburban, and rural. In urban and suburban areas, Ae. albopictus was more abundant in container habitats than Ae. japonicus; however, Ae. japonicus was more abundant in rural areas, and when water temperatures were below 14 degrees C. Our results suggest many variables can influence the presence of Ae. albopictus and Ae. japonicus in container habitats in northeastern United States.

  10. Hemotropic mycoplasma infection in wild black bears (Ursus thibetanus japonicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iso, Takehiro; Suzuki, Jin; Sasaoka, Fumina; Sashida, Hinako; Watanabe, Yusaku; Fujihara, Masatoshi; Nagai, Kazuya; Harasawa, Ryô

    2013-04-12

    This is the first report on Mycoplasma infection in wild bears. We report a novel hemotropic Mycoplasma (also called hemoplasma) detected in a free-ranging black bear (Ursus thibetanus japonicus) in Japan. We then used real-time PCR to look for hemoplasma DNA in blood samples collected from 15 bears and found that eight (53%) were positive. Among these eight PCR samples, seven showed a melting temperature of around 85.5°C, while the remaining one showed a single peak at 82.26°C. Almost the entire region of the 16S rRNA gene as well as the 16S-23S rRNA intergenic transcribed spacer (ITS) region from the sample that showed a melting temperature of 82.26°C was successfully amplified by means of end-point PCR. The nucleotide sequences of the 16S rRNA gene and the ITS region were then determined and compared with those of authentic Mycoplasma species. Our examinations revealed the presence of a novel hemoplasma in Japanese black bears. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. N-glycan maturation mutants in Lotus japonicus for basic and applied glycoprotein research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Carina T.; Loke, Ian; Lorentzen, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Studies of protein N-glycosylation are important for answering fundamental questions on the diverse functions of glycoproteins in plant growth and development. Here we generated and characterised a comprehensive collection of Lotus japonicusLORE1 insertion mutants, each lacking the activity of one...... in the target glyco-genes. For example, both mass spectrometry and immunoblotting experiments suggest that proteins derived from the α1,3-fucosyltransferase (Lj3fuct) mutant completely lacked α1,3-core fucosylation. Mass spectrometry also suggested that the Lotus japonicus convicilin 2 was one of the main...

  12. MAXIM: The Blackhole Imager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gendreau, Keith; Cash, Webster; Gorenstein, Paul; Windt, David; Kaaret, Phil; Reynolds, Chris

    2004-01-01

    The Beyond Einstein Program in NASA's Office of Space Science Structure and Evolution of the Universe theme spells out the top level scientific requirements for a Black Hole Imager in its strategic plan. The MAXIM mission will provide better than one tenth of a microarcsecond imaging in the X-ray band in order to satisfy these requirements. We will overview the driving requirements to achieve these goals and ultimately resolve the event horizon of a supermassive black hole. We will present the current status of this effort that includes a study of a baseline design as well as two alternative approaches.

  13. Social group utility maximization

    CERN Document Server

    Gong, Xiaowen; Yang, Lei; Zhang, Junshan

    2014-01-01

    This SpringerBrief explains how to leverage mobile users' social relationships to improve the interactions of mobile devices in mobile networks. It develops a social group utility maximization (SGUM) framework that captures diverse social ties of mobile users and diverse physical coupling of mobile devices. Key topics include random access control, power control, spectrum access, and location privacy.This brief also investigates SGUM-based power control game and random access control game, for which it establishes the socially-aware Nash equilibrium (SNE). It then examines the critical SGUM-b

  14. Geospatial analysis of invasion of the Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus: competition with Aedes japonicus japonicus in its northern limit area in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoko Nihei

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The mosquito Aedes albopictus, indigenous to Southeast Asia and nearby islands, has spread almost worldwide during recent decades. We confirm the invasion of this mosquito, first reported in Yamagata city in northeast Honshu, Japan in 2000. Previously, only Ae. japonicus japonicus had been collected in this place, but 2 years later, the population of Ae. albopictus had increased, so more than 80% of the total number of larval colonies there consisted of this species. In contrast to Yamagata’s new residential area, now infested by Ae. albopictus, the original mosquito remains in the city but its habitats are generally closer to the surrounding mountains, where the normalized difference vegetation index is higher. The factors affecting the distribution of both species in Yamagata city were studied using geographical information systems (GIS based on data derived from field surveys, aerial photographs, satellite images and digital maps. The range of Aedes mosquito habitats was estimated and visualised on polygon maps and no significant differences were noted when the polygon area was calculated by GIS software in comparison with the satellite images. Although Ae. j. japonicus was expected to be rapidly overrun by Ae. albopictus, this did not happen. Currently, both species coexist; not only in separate sites, but also simultaneously in various water bodies, where larvae from both species have frequently been seen. However, the competitive relationship between these two Aedes species within a warming environment is an issue that should be closely monitored.

  15. A revision of the Indo-West Pacific spiny Lobsters of the Panulirus Japonicus group

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    George, R.W.; Holthuis, L.B.

    1965-01-01

    INTRODUCTION As a result of separate investigations on Panulirus japonicus (sens, lat.), the present authors independently came to the conclusion that more than one species was included under that name. The first author (George), when in 1958 studying specimens of the Western Australian spiny

  16. New Record of Gadella jordani and Redescription of Physiculus japonicus (Pisces: Moridae in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Koo Kim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe the morphological characteristics of two morids, Gadella jordani and Physiculus japonicus, belonging to the order Gadiformes, based on Korean specimens collected from the Korean ocean. Two specimens of Gadella jordani was first collected from Jeju Island, Korea and the East Sea, Korea, in 2013-2014. This species is characterized by 8, 67-69 dorsal fin rays, 66-71 anal fin rays, 5+13 gill rakers, no barbel on the lower jaw, no vomerine teeth, and a ventral luminous organ closer to the anus than to the interventral line. We described it as the first record to the Korean fish fauna, and proposed the new Korean name “Min-su-yeom-dae-gu-sok” for the genus Gadella, and “Min-su-yeom-dae-gu” for the species G. jordani. Physiculus japonicus was first reported by Koh and Moon in the year 1999 based on a single specimen in Korea. However, no study has been attempted to describe the morphological characteristics in Korea since then. In 2013-2014, three specimens of P. japonicus was collected from Jeju Island, Korea and the East Sea, Korea, and we redescribe P. japonicus in detail. This species is characterized by 9-10, 63-64 dorsal fin rays, 70-73 anal fin rays, 3+7-8 gill rakers, a short barbel on the lower jaw, and a ventral luminous organ equidistant between the interventral line and the anus.

  17. Influence of salinity on the early development and biochemical dynamics of a marine fish, Inimicus japonicus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Xu; Huang, Xuxiong; Wen, Wen

    2018-03-01

    Fertilised eggs of the devil stringer ( Inimicus japonicus) were incubated at different salinity levels (21, 25, 29, 33, and 37), and then the hatching performances, morphological parameters, and biochemical composition (protein, lipid and carbohydrate) of the larvae were assayed to determine the influence of salinity on the early development of I. japonicus. The tested salinity levels did not affect the times of hatching or mouth opening for yolk-sac larvae. However, the salinity significantly influenced the hatching and survival rates of open-mouthed larvae, as well as the morphology of yolk-sac larvae. The data indicated that 30.5 to 37.3 and 24.4 to 29.8 were suitable salinity ranges for the survival of embryos and larvae of I. japonicus, respectively. Larvae incubated at a salinity level of 29 had the greatest full lengths, and decreasing yolk volume was positively correlated with the environmental salinity. With increasing salinity, the individual dry weights of newly hatched larvae or open-mouthed larvae decreased significantly. Newly hatched larvae incubated at a salinity level of 29 had the greatest metabolic substrate contents and gross energy levels, while the openmouthed larvae's greatest values occurred at a salinity level of 25. Larvae incubated in the salinity range of 33 to 37 had the lowest nutritional reserves and energy values. Thus, the I. japonicus yolk-sac larvae acclimated more readily to the lower salinity level than the embryos, and higher salinity levels negatively influenced larval growth and development. In conclusion, the environmental salinity level should be maintained at 29-33 during embryogenesis and at 25-29 during early larval development for this species. Our results can be used to provide optimum aquaculture conditions for the early larval development of I. japonicus.

  18. Draft genome of the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus and genetic polymorphism among color variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Jihoon; Oh, Jooseong; Lee, Hyun-Gwan; Hong, Hyun-Hee; Lee, Sung-Gwon; Cheon, Seongmin; Kern, Elizabeth M A; Jin, Soyeong; Cho, Sung-Jin; Park, Joong-Ki; Park, Chungoo

    2017-01-01

    The Japanese sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus Selenka 1867) is an economically important species as a source of seafood and ingredient in traditional medicine. It is mainly found off the coasts of northeast Asia. Recently, substantial exploitation and widespread biotic diseases in A. japonicus have generated increasing conservation concern. However, the genomic knowledge base and resources available for researchers to use in managing this natural resource and to establish genetically based breeding systems for sea cucumber aquaculture are still in a nascent stage. A total of 312 Gb of raw sequences were generated using the Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform and assembled to a final size of 0.66 Gb, which is about 80.5% of the estimated genome size (0.82 Gb). We observed nucleotide-level heterozygosity within the assembled genome to be 0.986%. The resulting draft genome assembly comprising 132 607 scaffolds with an N50 value of 10.5 kb contains a total of 21 771 predicted protein-coding genes. We identified 6.6-14.5 million heterozygous single nucleotide polymorphisms in the assembled genome of the three natural color variants (green, red, and black), resulting in an estimated nucleotide diversity of 0.00146. We report the first draft genome of A. japonicus and provide a general overview of the genetic variation in the three major color variants of A. japonicus. These data will help provide a comprehensive view of the genetic, physiological, and evolutionary relationships among color variants in A. japonicus, and will be invaluable resources for sea cucumber genomic research. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  19. Comparative transcriptome analysis of three color variants of the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Jihoon; Park, Jongsun; Lee, Hyun-Gwan; Kern, Elizabeth M A; Cheon, Seongmin; Jin, Soyeong; Park, Joong-Ki; Cho, Sung-Jin; Park, Chungoo

    2016-08-01

    The sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus Selenka 1867 represents an important resource in biomedical research, traditional medicine, and the seafood industry. Much of the commercial value of A. japonicus is determined by dorsal/ventral color variation (red, green, and black), yet the taxonomic relationships between these color variants are not clearly understood. We performed the first comparative analysis of de novo assembled transcriptome data from three color variants of A. japonicus. Using the Illumina platform, we sequenced nearly 177,596,774 clean reads representing a total of 18.2Gbp of sea cucumber transcriptome. A comparison of over 0.3 million transcript scaffolds against the Uniprot/Swiss-Prot database yielded 8513, 8602, and 8588 positive matches for green, red, and black body color transcriptomes, respectively. Using the Panther gene classification system, we assessed an extensive and diverse set of expressed genes in three color variants and found that (1) among the three color variants of A. japonicus, genes associated with RNA binding protein, oxidoreductase, nucleic acid binding, transferase, and KRAB box transcription factor were most commonly expressed; and (2) the main protein functional classes are differently regulated in all three color variants (extracellular matrix protein and phosphatase for green color, transporter and potassium channel for red color, and G-protein modulator and enzyme modulator for black color). This work will assist in the discovery and annotation of novel genes that play significant morphological and physiological roles in color variants of A. japonicus, and these sequence data will provide a useful set of resources for the rapidly growing sea cucumber aquaculture industry. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of Bacillus baekryungensis YD13 supplemented in diets on growth performance and immune response of sea cucumber ( Apostichopus japonicus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Fajun; Tian, Xiangli; Dong, Shuanglin

    2014-10-01

    The effect of a potential probiotic on the growth performance and immune response of sea cucumber ( Apostichopus japonicus) was investigated. Bacillus baekryungensis YD13 isolated from sea cucumber culturing ponds was added to sea cucumber basal feed as a probiotic in different doses (0, the control; 1×104 (YD134), 1×106 (YD136) and 1×108 (YD138) CFU g-1 of diet), and administered orally to A. japonicus (initial mean wet weight 5.44 g ± 0.17 g). The sea cucumbers were fed in 20 aquaria, 5 each treatment, for 60 d. At the end of growth trial, 20 sea cucumbers from each treatment were challenged with Vibrio splendidus. A. japonicus in YD134 and YD136 exhibited significantly better growth performance than control ( P sea cucumbers of YD136. Accordingly, 1×106 CFU g-1 of YD13 in diet was recommended for the growth promotion and immune enhancement of A. japonicus.

  1. Habitat suitability index model of the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka): A case study of Shandong Peninsula, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhipeng; Zhou, Jian; Song, Jingjing; Wang, Qixiang; Liu, Hongjun; Tang, Xuexi

    2017-09-15

    A habitat suitability index (HSI) model for the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka) was established in the present study. Based on geographic information systems, the HSI model was used to identify potential sites around the Shandong Peninsula suitable for restoration of immature (25g) A. japonicus. Six habitat factors were used as input variables for the HSI model: sediment classification, water temperature, salinity, water depth, pH and dissolved oxygen. The weighting of each habitat factor was defined through the Delphi method. Sediment classification was the most important condition affecting the HSI of A. japonicus in the different study areas, while water temperature was the most important condition in different seasons. The HSI of Western Laizhou Bay was relatively low, meaning the site was not suitable for aquaculture-based restoration of A. japonicus. In contrast, Xiaoheishan Island, Rongcheng Bay and Qingdao were preferable sites, suitable as habitats for restoration efforts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Changes in collagenous tissue microstructures and distributions of cathepsin L in body wall of autolytic sea cucumber (Stichopus japonicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu-Xin; Zhou, Da-Yong; Ma, Dong-Dong; Liu, Yan-Fei; Li, Dong-Mei; Dong, Xiu-Ping; Tan, Ming-Qian; Du, Ming; Zhu, Bei-Wei

    2016-12-01

    The autolysis of sea cucumber (Stichopus japonicus) was induced by ultraviolet (UV) irradiation, and the changes of microstructures of collagenous tissues and distributions of cathepsin L were investigated using histological and histochemical techniques. Intact collagen fibers in fresh S. japonicus dermis were disaggregated into collagen fibrils after UV stimuli. Cathepsin L was identified inside the surface of vacuoles in the fresh S. japonicus dermis cells. After the UV stimuli, the membranes of vacuoles and cells were fused together, and cathepsin L was released from cells and diffused into tissues. The density of cathepsin L was positively correlated with the speed and degree of autolysis in different layers of body wall. Our results revealed that lysosomal cathepsin L was released from cells in response to UV stimuli, which contacts and degrades the extracellular substrates such as collagen fibers, and thus participates in the autolysis of S. japonicus. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. An optimal thermal condition for maximal chlorophyll extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu Jia-Jia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This work describes an environmentally friendly process for chlorophyll extraction from bamboo leaves. Shaking water bath and ultrasound cleaner are adopted in this technology, and the influence of temperature of the water bath and ultrasonic cleaner is evaluated. Results indicated that there is an optimal condition for maximal yield of chlorophyll.

  4. Identification and expression characterization of WntA during intestinal regeneration in the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoni; Sun, Lina; Yang, Hongsheng; Zhang, Libin; Miao, Ting; Xing, Lili; Huo, Da

    2017-08-01

    Wnt genes encode secreted glycoproteins that act as signaling molecules; these molecules direct cell proliferation, migration, differentiation and survival during animal development, maintenance of homeostasis and regeneration. At present, although the regeneration mechanism in Apostichopus japonicus has been studied, there is a little research on the Wnt signaling pathway in A. japonicus. To understand the potential role of the Wnt signaling pathway in A. japonicus, we cloned and sequenced the WntA gene in A. japonicus. Protein localization analysis showed that WntA protein was ubiquitously expressed in epidermal cells, the muscle and submucosa of the intestinal tissue. After stimulation and evisceration, the dynamic changes in expression of the WntA gene and protein showed that WntA was constitutively expressed during different stages of intestine regeneration in A. japonicus, with higher levels during the early wound healing stage and late lumen formation in the residual and nascent intestinal tissues, indicating its response to intestinal regeneration. Simultaneously, cell proliferation and apoptosis analysis showed that the patterns of cell proliferation were similar to the patterns of WntA protein expression during different intestinal regeneration stages in this organism. Taken together, these results suggested that WntA might participate in intestinal regeneration and may be connected with cell proliferation, apoptosis in different intestinal layers. This research could establish a basis for further examination of WntA functions in A. japonicus and Wnt genes in other echinoderms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Development of Dirofilaria immitis and Dirofilaria repens in Aedes japonicus and Aedes geniculatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia Silaghi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The mosquito-borne filarial nematodes Dirofilaria immitis and Dirofilaria repens primarily affect dogs but also cats, causing heartworm disease or subcutaneous dirofilariosis, respectively, and both may also cause zoonotic diseases in humans. Several mosquito species have been reported as competent vectors for these nematodes, but no data are available for the invasive mosquito species Aedes japonicus (Theobald, 1901. The objective of this study was to describe the development of both D. immitis and D. repens under standardised experimental laboratory conditions in mosquitoes. Methods For this purpose, both a laboratory strain and field-collected individuals of the invasive mosquito species Ae. japonicus and, for comparative purposes, a laboratory strain of Aedes geniculatus, a rare indigenous species sharing habitats with Ae. japonicus, and of the tropical species Aedes aegypti were used. Anticoagulated microfilariaemic blood was fed at a density of 3000 mf/ml to mosquitoes with a hemotek system. Blood-fed mosquitoes were incubated at 27 °C and 85% relative humidity, and specimens were dissected under the microscope at pre-set time points to observe developmental stages of both Dirofilaria species. Additionally, real-time PCRs were carried out in some microscopically negative samples to determine the infection rates. Results In field-collected Ae. japonicus infectious L3 larvae of both D. immitis and D. repens developed, rendering this mosquito species an efficient vector for both filarial species. Additionally, Ae. geniculatus was shown to be an equally efficient vector for both filarial species. Aedes japonicus mosquitoes from a laboratory colony were refractory to D. immitis but susceptible to D. repens, whereas Ae. aegypti was refractory to both filarial species. Conclusions To our knowledge, Aedes japonicus was for the first time shown to be an efficient vector for both D. immitis and D. repens, indicating that this

  6. Maximal Bell's inequality violation for non-maximal entanglement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, M.; Khanna, F.; Mann, A.; Revzen, M.; Santana, A.

    2004-01-01

    Bell's inequality violation (BIQV) for correlations of polarization is studied for a product state of two two-mode squeezed vacuum (TMSV) states. The violation allowed is shown to attain its maximal limit for all values of the squeezing parameter, ζ. We show via an explicit example that a state whose entanglement is not maximal allow maximal BIQV. The Wigner function of the state is non-negative and the average value of either polarization is nil

  7. Parental Leave in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostgaard, Tine; Christoffersen, Mogens; Weise, Hanne

    This artcle considders the political aims for different leave schemes and reviews studies af these schemes. The use of parental leave is sensitive to the financial loss involved in taking leave: a decrease in the benefit payments has had a significant influence on take-up, while, in general, fami......, families'' loss of income is less if leave is taken up by the mothers. Only few fathers participate in parental leave....

  8. Maximally Symmetric Composite Higgs Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csáki, Csaba; Ma, Teng; Shu, Jing

    2017-09-29

    Maximal symmetry is a novel tool for composite pseudo Goldstone boson Higgs models: it is a remnant of an enhanced global symmetry of the composite fermion sector involving a twisting with the Higgs field. Maximal symmetry has far-reaching consequences: it ensures that the Higgs potential is finite and fully calculable, and also minimizes the tuning. We present a detailed analysis of the maximally symmetric SO(5)/SO(4) model and comment on its observational consequences.

  9. Biological activities and biomedical potential of sea cucumber (Stichopus japonicus: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gun-Woo Oh

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Members of the phylum Echinodermata, commonly known as echinoderms, are exclusively marine invertebrates. Among the Echinodermata, sea cucumber belongs to the family Holothuroidea. The sea cucumber Stichopus (Apostichous japonicus (Selenka is an invertebrate animal inhabiting the coastal sea around Korean, Japan, China, and Russia. Sea cucumber has a significant commercial value, because it contains valuable nutrients such as vitamins and minerals. They possess a number of distinctive biologically and pharmacologically important compounds. In particular, the body wall of sea cucumber is a major edible part. It consists of peptide, collagen, gelatin, polysaccharide, and saponin, which possess several biological activities such as anti-cancer, anti-coagulation, anti-oxidation, and anti-osteoclastogenesis. Furthermore, the regenerative capacity of sea cucumber makes it a medically important organism. This review presents the various biological activities and biomedical potential of sea cucumber S. japonicus.

  10. Isolation and characterization of Lotus japonicus genes involved in iron and zinc homeostasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cvitanich, Cristina; Jensen, Winnie; Sandal, Niels Nørgaard

    . Legumes are frequently grown in soil with limited nutrient availability. Plants use finely tuned mechanisms to keep appropriated levels of iron and zinc in each of their organs. Several genes involved in iron and zinc homeostasis have been described in yeast, and a few orthologs have been studied...... in plants. We have used these sequences to search for L. japonicus ESTs and genomic loci that are likely to be involved in iron and zinc metabolism. We have identified sequences corresponding to ferritins, ferric reductases, metal transport proteins of the ZIP family, and cation transporters of the NRAMP......The goal of this project is to find ways to improve the nutritional value of legumes by identifying genes and proteins important for iron and zinc regulation in the model legume Lotus japonicus. Legumes are important staples in the developing world and are a major source of nutrients in many areas...

  11. Schizosaccharomyces japonicus: the fission yeast is a fusion of yeast and hyphae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niki, Hironori

    2014-03-01

    The clade of Schizosaccharomyces includes 4 species: S. pombe, S. octosporus, S. cryophilus, and S. japonicus. Although all 4 species exhibit unicellular growth with a binary fission mode of cell division, S. japonicus alone is dimorphic yeast, which can transit from unicellular yeast to long filamentous hyphae. Recently it was found that the hyphal cells response to light and then synchronously activate cytokinesis of hyphae. In addition to hyphal growth, S. japonicas has many properties that aren't shared with other fission yeast. Mitosis of S. japonicas is referred to as semi-open mitosis because dynamics of nuclear membrane is an intermediate mode between open mitosis and closed mitosis. Novel genetic tools and the whole genomic sequencing of S. japonicas now provide us with an opportunity for revealing unique characters of the dimorphic yeast. © 2013 The Author. Yeast Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Principles of maximally classical and maximally realistic quantum ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Principles of maximally classical and maximally realistic quantum mechanics. S M ROY. Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Mumbai 400 005, India. Abstract. Recently Auberson, Mahoux, Roy and Singh have proved a long standing conjecture of Roy and Singh: In 2N-dimensional phase space, ...

  13. Metabolic rates and biochemical compositions of Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka) tissue during periods of inactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Jie; Dong, Shuanglin; Tian, Xiangli; Wang, Fang; Gao, Qinfeng; Dong, Yunwei

    2010-03-01

    Estivation, hibernation, and starvation are indispensable inactive states of sea cucumbers Apostichopus japonicus in nature and in culture ponds. Generally, temperature is the principal factor that induces estivation or hibernation in the sea cucumber. The present study provided insight into the physiological adaptations of A. japonicus during the three types of inactivity (hibernation, estivation, and starvation) by measuring the oxygen consumption rates ( Vo2) and biochemical compositions under laboratory conditions of low (3°C), normal (17°C) and high (24°C) temperature. The results show that the characteristics of A. japonicus in dormancy (hibernation and estivation) states were quite different from higher animals, such as fishes, amphibians, reptiles, and mammals, but more closely resembled a semi-dormant state. It was observed that the shift in the A. japonicus physiological state from normal to dormancy was a chronic rather than acute process, indicated by the gradual depression of metabolic rate. While metabolic rates declined 44.9% for the estivation group and 71.7% for the hibernation group, relative to initial rates, during the 36 d culture period, metabolic rates were not maintained at constant levels during these states. The metabolic depression processes for sea cucumbers in hibernation and estivation appeared to be a passive and an active metabolic suppression, respectively. In contrast, the metabolic rates (128.90±11.70 μg/g h) of estivating sea cucumbers were notably higher (107.85±6.31 μg/g h) than in starving sea cucumbers at 17°C, which indicated that the dormancy mechanism here, as a physiological inhibition, was not as efficient as in higher animals. Finally, the principle metabolic substrate or energy source of sea cucumbers in hibernation was lipid, whereas in estivation they mainly consumed protein in the early times and both protein and lipid thereafter.

  14. Influence of flow velocity on motor behavior of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yang; Zhang, Libin; Lin, Chenggang; Sun, Jiamin; Kan, Rentao; Yang, Hongsheng

    2015-05-15

    The influence of flow velocity on the motor behavior of the sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus was investigated in the laboratory. Cameras were used to record sea cucumber movements and behavior analysis software was used to measure the distance traveled, time spent, upstream or downstream of the start position and the speed of movements. In general, the mean velocity of A. japonicus was below 0.7mms(-1). The maximum velocity recorded for all the sea cucumbers tested was for a large individual (89.25±17.11g), at a flow rate of 4.6±0.5cms(-1). Medium sized (19.68±5.53g) and large individuals moved significantly faster than small individuals (2.65±1.24g) at the same flow rate. A. japonicus moved significantly faster when there was a moderate current (4.6±0.5cms(-1) and 14.7±0.3cms(-1)), compared with the fast flow rate (29.3±3.7cms(-1)) and when there was no flow (0cms(-1)). Sea cucumbers did not show positive rheotaxis in general, but did move in a downstream direction at faster current speeds. Large, medium and small sized individuals moved downstream at the fastest current speed tested, 29.3±3.7cms(-1). When there was no water flow, sea cucumbers tended to move in an irregular pattern. The movement patterns show that the sea cucumber, A. japonicus can move across the direction of flow, and can move both upstream and downstream along the direction of flow. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Allene oxide synthase, allene oxide cyclase and jasmonic acid levels in Lotus japonicus nodules.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Zdyb

    Full Text Available Jasmonic acid (JA, its derivatives and its precursor cis-12-oxo phytodienoic acid (OPDA form a group of phytohormones, the jasmonates, representing signal molecules involved in plant stress responses, in the defense against pathogens as well as in development. Elevated levels of JA have been shown to play a role in arbuscular mycorrhiza and in the induction of nitrogen-fixing root nodules. In this study, the gene families of two committed enzymes of the JA biosynthetic pathway, allene oxide synthase (AOS and allene oxide cyclase (AOC, were characterized in the determinate nodule-forming model legume Lotus japonicus JA levels were to be analysed in the course of nodulation. Since in all L. japonicus organs examined, JA levels increased upon mechanical disturbance and wounding, an aeroponic culture system was established to allow for a quick harvest, followed by the analysis of JA levels in whole root and shoot systems. Nodulated plants were compared with non-nodulated plants grown on nitrate or ammonium as N source, respectively, over a five week-period. JA levels turned out to be more or less stable independently of the growth conditions. However, L. japonicus nodules formed on aeroponically grown plants often showed patches of cells with reduced bacteroid density, presumably a stress symptom. Immunolocalization using a heterologous antibody showed that the vascular systems of these nodules also seemed to contain less AOC protein than those of nodules of plants grown in perlite/vermiculite. Hence, aeroponically grown L. japonicus plants are likely to be habituated to stress which could have affected JA levels.

  16. EFFECT OF EXTRACTION METHODS ON ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITY OF SEA CUCUMBER (Stichopus japonicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Husni

    2014-05-01

    Both SM and CS exhibited their highest antifungal activity when extracted by HRE with 70% ethanol and by HRE with water, respectively, while their highest yields were obtained when extracted by PSE with water. SM has more antifungal than potassium sorbate but weaker than propyl paraben, while CS has more antifungal than the two antifungal agents. Keywords: Antifungal, heat reflux extraction, pressurized solvent extraction, Stichopus japonicus

  17. Activation of an endogenous retrotransposon associated with epigenetic changes in Lotus japonicus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fukai, Eigo; Stougaard, Jens; Hayashi, Makoto

    2013-01-01

    Long terminal repeat retrotransposons occupy a large portion of genomes in flowering plants. In spite of their abundance, the majority are silenced and rarely transpose. One of the examples of a highly active retrotransposon is Lotus Retrotransposon 1(LORE1), of the model legume Lotus japonicus...... significance of LORE1 as a member of chromovirus, a chromodomain containing clade of the Gypsy superfamily. Then we discuss possibilities and methodologies for using endogenous transposable elements as mutagens to generate gene tagging populations in plants...

  18. Diversification and specialization of β-glucosidases in the catabolism of hydroxynitrile glucosides in Lotus japonicus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lai, Daniela

    that involves specific β-glucosidases. If plant tissue is disrupted, cyanogenic glucosides come into contact with these β-glucosidases and are hydrolyzed, which results in the release of hydrogen cyanide gas. The work reported in this thesis is focused on the β-glucosidases that activated hydroxynitrile...... glucosides in the model plant Lotus japonicus. The work highlights how closely related β-glucosidases have evolved distinct substrate specificities and differential expression patterns to serve distinct physiological and ecological roles....

  19. Combined molecular and biochemical approach identifies Aspergillus japonicus and Aspergillus aculeatus as two species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parenicova, L.; Skouboe, P.; Frisvad, Jens Christian

    2001-01-01

    of the internal transcribed spacers (ITS1 and ITS2) and the 5.8S rRNA gene could not be used to distinguish between A. japonicus and A. aculeatus but did show that these two taxa are more closely related to each other than to other species of black aspergilli. Aspergillus niger pyruvate kinase (pkiA) and pectin...... variation when they were probed with the pelA gene. The secondary-metabolite profiles supported division of the isolates into the two species and differed from those of other black aspergilli. The strains classified as A. japonicus produced indole alkaloids and a polar metabolite, while the A. aculeatus...... lyase A (pelA) and Agaricus bisporus 28S rRNA genes, which were used as probes in the RFLP analysis, revealed clear polymorphism between these two taxa. The A. niger pkiA and pelA probes placed six strains in an A. japonicus group and 12 isolates in an A. aculeatus group, which exhibited intraspecific...

  20. Apoptosis induction is involved in UVA-induced autolysis in sea cucumber Stichopus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Hang; Fu, Hui; Dong, Xiufang; Feng, Dingding; Li, Nan; Wen, Chengrong; Nakamura, Yoshimasa; Zhu, Beiwei

    2016-05-01

    Autolysis easily happens to sea cucumber (Stichopus japonicus, S. japonicus) for external stimulus like UV exposure causing heavy economic losses. Therefore, it is meaningful to reveal the mechanism of S. japonicas autolysis. In the present study, to examine the involvement of apoptosis induction in UVA-induced autolysis of S. japonicas, we investigated the biochemical events including the DNA fragmentation, caspase-3 activation, mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) phosphorylation and free radical formation. Substantial morphological changes such as intestine vomiting and dermatolysis were observed in S. japonicus during the incubation after 1-h UVA irradiation (10W/m(2)). The degradation of the structural proteins and enhancement of cathepsin L activity were also detected, suggesting the profound impact of proteolysis caused by the UVA irradiation even for 1h. Furthermore, the DNA fragmentation and specific activity of caspase-3 was increased up to 12h after UVA irradiation. The levels of phosphorylated p38 mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) and phosphorylated c-Jun.-N-terminal kinase (JNK) were significantly increased by the UVA irradiation for 1h. An electron spin resonance (ESR) analysis revealed that UVA enhanced the free radical formation in S. japonicas, even through we could not identify the attributed species. These results suggest that UVA-induced autolysis in S. japonicas at least partially involves the oxidative stress-sensitive apoptosis induction pathway. These data present a novel insight into the mechanisms of sea cucumber autolysis induced by external stress. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Growth, metabolism and physiological response of the sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus Selenka during periods of inactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Rongbin; Zang, Yuanqi; Tian, Xiangli; Dong, Shuanglin

    2013-03-01

    The growth, metabolism and physiological response of the sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus, were investigated during periods of inactivity. The body weight, oxygen consumption rate (OCR), activities of acidic phosphatase (ACP), alkaline phosphatase (AKP), catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), and content of heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) in the body wall and coelomic fluid of A. japonicus were measured during starvation, experimental aestivation and aestivation. The results showed that the body weight of sea cucumber in the three treatments decreased significantly during the experimental period ( P sea cucumber reduced in starvation and experimental aestivation treatments, but increased gradually in natural aestivation treatment. The activities of ACP and AKP of sea cucumber decreased gradually in all treatments, whereas those of SOD and CAT as well as Hsp70 content decreased in the starvation and experimental aestivation treatments and increased in natural aestivation treatment. The sea cucumber entered a state of aestivation at 24°C. To some extent, the animals in experimental aestivation were different from those in natural aestivation in metabolism and physiological response. These findings suggested that the aestivation mechanism of A. japonicus is complex and may not be attributed to the elevated temperature only.

  2. Novel SINEs families in Medicago truncatula and Lotus japonicus: bioinformatic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadzalski, Marek; Sakowicz, Tomasz

    2011-07-01

    Although short interspersed elements (SINEs) were discovered nearly 30 years ago, the studies of these genomic repeats were mostly limited to animal genomes. Very little is known about SINEs in legumes--one of the most important plant families. Here we report identification, genomic distribution and molecular features of six novel SINE elements in Lotus japonicus (named LJ_SINE-1, -2, -3) and Medicago truncatula (MT_SINE-1, -2, -3), model species of legume. They possess all the structural features commonly found in short interspersed elements including RNA polymerase III promoter, polyA tail and flanking repeats. SINEs described here are present in low to moderate copy numbers from 150 to 3000. Bioinformatic analyses were used to searched public databases, we have shown that three of new SINE elements from M. truncatula seem to be characteristic of Medicago and Trifolium genera. Two SINE families have been found in L. japonicus and one is present in both M. truncatula and L. japonicus. In addition, we are discussing potential activities of the described elements. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Lotus japonicus flowers are defended by a cyanogenic β-glucosidase with highly restricted expression to essential reproductive organs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lai, Daniela; Pičmanová, Martina; Abou Hachem, Maher

    2015-01-01

    molecular modelling, and the observation that L. japonicus accessions lacking cyanogenic flowers contain a non-functional BGD3 gene, all support the key role of BGD3 in floral cyanogenesis. The nectar of L. japonicus flowers was also found to contain HNGs and additionally their diglycosides. The observed...

  4. Sterilization of Hulecoeteomyia japonica japonica (=Aedes japonicus japonicus) (Theobald, 1901) by high-energy photon irradiation: implications for a sterile insect technique approach in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balestrino, F.; Mathis, A.; Veronesi, E.; Lang, S.

    2017-01-01

    Hulecoeteomyia japonica japonica (=Aedes japonicus japonicus) (Diptera: Culicidae) (Theobald 1901), a container breeding invasive species in North America and Europe, is attracting particular attention for its high local abundances and possible roles in the transmission of human and animal pathogens. The preferential habitats of this species are forested and bushy areas, which renders control measures extremely inefficient. Use of the sterile insect technique (SIT) may contribute to the implementation of area-wide integrated pest management strategies, as has been successfully proven with other aedine mosquito species. The present study investigates the effects of irradiation at a dose of 40 Gy on fitness parameters in H. j. japonica. Irradiation was performed on 16–24- h-old pupae from a colonized strain (PA) using a True- Beam linear accelerator. Males from the PA strain were crossed with females of the same colony or with field-collected females. Irradiation induced a slight increase in mortality in male pupae, but did not alter the survival and mating abilities of emerging adult males. Rates of blood feeding and fertility were lower when PA strain males were kept with field-collected females rather than PA females. Irradiated males induced reductions in fertility (residual fertility: 2.6%) and fecundity in mated females. The data indicate that the SIT is a suitable technique to enhance the control of this species. (author)

  5. Genome-wide identification of whole ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters in the intertidal copepod Tigriopus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Chang-Bum; Kim, Bo-Mi; Lee, Jae-Seong; Rhee, Jae-Sung

    2014-08-05

    The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter superfamily is one of the largest transporter gene families and is observed in all animal taxa. Although a large set of transcriptomic data was recently assembled for several species of crustaceans, identification and annotation of the large ABC transporter gene family have been very challenging. In the intertidal copepod Tigriopus japonicus, 46 putative ABC transporters were identified using in silico analysis, and their full-length cDNA sequences were characterized. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the 46 T. japonicus ABC transporters are classified into eight subfamilies (A-H) that include all the members of all ABC subfamilies, consisting of five ABCA, five ABCB, 17 ABCC, three ABCD, one ABCE, three ABCF, seven ABCG, and five ABCH subfamilies. Of them, unique isotypic expansion of two clades of ABCC1 proteins was observed. Real-time RT-PCR-based heatmap analysis revealed that most T. japonicus ABC genes showed temporal transcriptional expression during copepod development. The overall transcriptional profile demonstrated that half of all T. japonicus ABC genes were strongly associated with at least one developmental stage. Of them, transcripts TJ-ABCH_88708 and TJ-ABCE1 were highly expressed during all developmental stages. The whole set of T. japonicus ABC genes and their phylogenetic relationships will provide a better understanding of the comparative evolution of essential gene family resources in arthropods, including the crustacean copepods.

  6. Antioxidative-related genes expression following perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) exposure in the intertidal mud crab, Macrophthalmus japonicus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kiyun; Nikapitiya, Chamilani; Kwak, Tae-Soo; Kwak, Ihn-Sil

    2015-09-01

    Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is a persistent environmental contaminant that is used as a surfactant in various industries and consumer products. The intertidal mud crab, Macrophthalmus japonicus, is one of the most abundant macrobenthic creatures. In this study, we have investigated the effect of PFOS on the molecular transcription of antioxidant and detoxification signaling in M. japonicus crab. The selected stress response genes were superoxide dismutases (CuZnSOD and MnSOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase (PHGPx), peroxiredoxin (Prx), and thioredoxin reductase (TrxR). Significant up-regulation of SODs and CAT was observed after 24 and 96 h exposure to PFOS at different concentrations. The gene expression levels of GPx, PHGPx, and TrXR were significantly up-regulated after exposure to PFOS for 96 h. The transcript levels of CAT and PHGPx were induced in dose- and time-dependent manners after PFOS treatments. However, Prx gene expression was significantly up-regulated in M. japonicus crabs exposed to 10 and 30 μg L-1 PFOS for 96 h. Additionally, PFOS toxicity in M. japonicus induced reduced survival rates at relatively high concentrations of PFOS exposure. Our findings support the contention that exposures to PFOS induced the response of genes related to oxidative stress and detoxification in M. japonicus crabs.

  7. Maximizing and customer loyalty: Are maximizers less loyal?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Lai

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite their efforts to choose the best of all available solutions, maximizers seem to be more inclined than satisficers to regret their choices and to experience post-decisional dissonance. Maximizers may therefore be expected to change their decisions more frequently and hence exhibit lower customer loyalty to providers of products and services compared to satisficers. Findings from the study reported here (N = 1978 support this prediction. Maximizers reported significantly higher intentions to switch to another service provider (television provider than satisficers. Maximizers' intentions to switch appear to be intensified and mediated by higher proneness to regret, increased desire to discuss relevant choices with others, higher levels of perceived knowledge of alternatives, and higher ego involvement in the end product, compared to satisficers. Opportunities for future research are suggested.

  8. Implications of maximal Jarlskog invariant and maximal CP violation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez-Jauregui, E.; Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico

    2001-04-01

    We argue here why CP violating phase Φ in the quark mixing matrix is maximal, that is, Φ=90 . In the Standard Model CP violation is related to the Jarlskog invariant J, which can be obtained from non commuting Hermitian mass matrices. In this article we derive the conditions to have Hermitian mass matrices which give maximal Jarlskog invariant J and maximal CP violating phase Φ. We find that all squared moduli of the quark mixing elements have a singular point when the CP violation phase Φ takes the value Φ=90 . This special feature of the Jarlskog invariant J and the quark mixing matrix is a clear and precise indication that CP violating Phase Φ is maximal in order to let nature treat democratically all of the quark mixing matrix moduli. (orig.)

  9. Goodbye, Mandatory Maternity Leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nation's Schools, 1972

    1972-01-01

    In precedent-setting decrees, courts and federal and State authorities have branded compulsory maternity leaves either unconstitutional or illegal. School administrators are urged to prod boards of education to adopt more lenient maternity leave policies -- now. (Author)

  10. Leaving home in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rikke Skovgaard

    2015-01-01

    The paper focuses on ethnic differences in the timing and patterns of leaving the parental home. Leaving home is a key transition in the life course of the individual, and extensive research has been conducted on the timing and patterns of leaving it. However, ethnic differences in these patterns...... of leaving home. Results showed that while some differences disappeared when controlling for covariates, others persisted, thus indicating ethnic differences in home-leaving patterns. A strong link between leaving home and marriage was substantiated for Turks, but not for Somalis. The home-leaving patterns...... of Somalis were much more similar to those of Danes. Overall, Turkish descendants were similar to Turkish immigrants but with some differentiation. The analyses identified the existence of ethnic differences in home-leaving patterns but also found evidence of a shift towards less traditional patterns, i...

  11. Phenomenology of maximal and near-maximal lepton mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez-Garcia, M. C.; Pena-Garay, Carlos; Nir, Yosef; Smirnov, Alexei Yu.

    2001-01-01

    The possible existence of maximal or near-maximal lepton mixing constitutes an intriguing challenge for fundamental theories of flavor. We study the phenomenological consequences of maximal and near-maximal mixing of the electron neutrino with other (x=tau and/or muon) neutrinos. We describe the deviations from maximal mixing in terms of a parameter ε(equivalent to)1-2sin 2 θ ex and quantify the present experimental status for |ε| e mixing comes from solar neutrino experiments. We find that the global analysis of solar neutrino data allows maximal mixing with confidence level better than 99% for 10 -8 eV 2 ∼ 2 ∼ -7 eV 2 . In the mass ranges Δm 2 ∼>1.5x10 -5 eV 2 and 4x10 -10 eV 2 ∼ 2 ∼ -7 eV 2 the full interval |ε| e mixing in atmospheric neutrinos, supernova neutrinos, and neutrinoless double beta decay

  12. Maximal quantum Fisher information matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Yu; Yuan, Haidong

    2017-01-01

    We study the existence of the maximal quantum Fisher information matrix in the multi-parameter quantum estimation, which bounds the ultimate precision limit. We show that when the maximal quantum Fisher information matrix exists, it can be directly obtained from the underlying dynamics. Examples are then provided to demonstrate the usefulness of the maximal quantum Fisher information matrix by deriving various trade-off relations in multi-parameter quantum estimation and obtaining the bounds for the scalings of the precision limit. (paper)

  13. Maximize x(a - x)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, L. H.

    1974-01-01

    Five different methods for determining the maximizing condition for x(a - x) are presented. Included is the ancient Greek version and a method attributed to Fermat. None of the proofs use calculus. (LS)

  14. Finding Maximal Quasiperiodicities in Strings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Pedersen, Christian N. S.

    2000-01-01

    of length n in time O(n log n) and space O(n). Our algorithm uses the suffix tree as the fundamental data structure combined with efficient methods for merging and performing multiple searches in search trees. Besides finding all maximal quasiperiodic substrings, our algorithm also marks the nodes......Apostolico and Ehrenfeucht defined the notion of a maximal quasiperiodic substring and gave an algorithm that finds all maximal quasiperiodic substrings in a string of length n in time O(n log2 n). In this paper we give an algorithm that finds all maximal quasiperiodic substrings in a string...... in the suffix tree that have a superprimitive path-label....

  15. On the maximal diphoton width

    CERN Document Server

    Salvio, Alberto; Strumia, Alessandro; Urbano, Alfredo

    2016-01-01

    Motivated by the 750 GeV diphoton excess found at LHC, we compute the maximal width into $\\gamma\\gamma$ that a neutral scalar can acquire through a loop of charged fermions or scalars as function of the maximal scale at which the theory holds, taking into account vacuum (meta)stability bounds. We show how an extra gauge symmetry can qualitatively weaken such bounds, and explore collider probes and connections with Dark Matter.

  16. Reproductive biology of Nemipterus japonicus (Bloch, 1791) from the coastal waters of Bintulu (South China Sea), Sarawak, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nettely, T; Rajaee, A H; Denil, N A; Idris, M H; Nesarul, M H; Amin, S M Nurul; Hena, M K Abu

    2016-07-01

    Samples of threadfin breams Nemipterus japonicus were collected from a village in Kuala Nyalau and a fish landing centre at Bintulu from April 2013 to March 2014. A total of 360 individuals of N. japonicus (214 male and 146 female) were used in this reproductive study.? The total length (TL) of individuals were measured to the nearest 0.1 cm and body weight (BW) was recorded to the nearest 0.1 g. Month-wise distribution of the sexes was significantly higher for males in September and March, while in the month of May the number of females was significantly higher (X(2) = 6.53; P Sarawak.

  17. Ecological effects of co-culturing the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus with the Chinese white shrimp Fenneropenaeus chinensis in an earthen pond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shun; Ren, Yichao; Pearce, Christopher M.; Dong, Shuanglin; Tian, Xiangli; Gao, Qinfeng; Wang, Fang

    2017-01-01

    Using net enclosures in an earthen pond, we established three culture treatments with the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus and the Chinese white shrimp Fenneropenaeus chinensis: monoculture of sea cucumbers (C), monoculture of shrimp (S), and co-culture of the two species (CS). We measured levels of suspended particulate matter in the water column; total organic matter, total organic carbon, total nitrogen, and carbon/nitrogen ratios in both settling particles and the sediment; and chlorophyll a levels in the sediment. We then compared these variables between the three treatments. We also examined growth, survival, and yield of the two species in the different treatments. From June to September, the mean monthly suspended particulate matter sedimentation rates in the CS and S treatments were significantly ( Pshrimp reared in the two systems. The bioturbation of the sediment and fecal production of the shrimp likely supplied natural food for the sea cucumbers. Co-culture of the two species is a viable option for increasing yield per unit area, maximizing use of the water body, and diversifying crop production.

  18. Negative leave balances

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Department

    2005-01-01

    Members of the personnel entitled to annual leave and, where appropriate, saved leave and/or compensatory leave are requested to take note of the new arrangements described below, which were recommended by the Standing Concertation Committee (SCC) at its meeting on 1Â September 2005 and subsequently approved by the Director-General. The changes do not apply to members of the personnel participating in the Progressive Retirement Programme (PRP) or the Part-time Work as a pre-retirement measure, for whom the specific provisions communicated at the time of joining will continue to apply. Â Negative balances in annual leave, saved leave and/or compensatory leave accounts at the end of the leave year (30th September) and on the date on which bonuses are credited to the saved leave account (31st December): Where members of the personnel have a leave account with a negative balance on 30Â September and/or 31Â December, leave will automatically be transferred from one account to another on the relevant dates i...

  19. Negative leave balances

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Department

    2005-01-01

    Members of the personnel entitled to annual leave and, where appropriate, saved leave and/or compensatory leave are requested to take note of the new arrangements described below, which were recommended by the Standing Concertation Committee (SCC) at its meeting on 1 September 2005 and subsequently approved by the Director-General. The changes do not apply to members of the personnel participating in the Progressive Retirement Programme (PRP) or the Part-time Work as a pre-retirement measure, for whom the specific provisions communicated at the time of joining will continue to apply.  Negative balances in annual leave, saved leave and/or compensatory leave accounts at the end of the leave year (30th September) and on the date on which bonuses are credited to the saved leave account (31st December): Where members of the personnel have a leave account with a negative balance on 30 September and/or 31 December, leave will automatically be transferred from one account to another on the relevant dates in or...

  20. Maximization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Garmroodi Asil

    2017-09-01

    To further reduce the sulfur dioxide emission of the entire refining process, two scenarios of acid gas or air preheats are investigated when either of them is used simultaneously with the third enrichment scheme. The maximum overall sulfur recovery efficiency and highest combustion chamber temperature is slightly higher for acid gas preheats but air preheat is more favorable because it is more benign. To the best of our knowledge, optimization of the entire GTU + enrichment section and SRU processes has not been addressed previously.

  1. Seasonal changes in food uptake by the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus in a farm pond: Evidence from C and N stable isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhenlong; Gao, Qinfeng; Dong, Shuanglin; Shin, Paul K. S.; Wang, Fang

    2013-03-01

    This study investigated the seasonal changes in carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) stable isotope values of several typical food sources of Apostichopus japonicus in a farm pond, including particulate organic matter (POM), macroalgae, benthic microalgae and animals such as nematode and copepod. The stable isotope technique was used to quantify relative contributions of various sources to the food uptake by A. japonicus. The results showed that significant changes occurred in the C and N stable isotope values of sea cucumber food sources due to the seasonality of micro- or macroalgae prosperity and the fluctuation of environmental conditions. The sea cucumber A. japonicus exhibited corresponding alterations in feeding strategy in response to the changes in food conditions. Calculation with a stable isotope mixing model showed that macroalgae was the principal food source for A. japonicus throughout the 1-yr investigation, with the relative contribution averaging 28.1%-63.2%. The relative contributions of other food sources such as copepod and nematode, POM, benthic microalgae to the total food uptake by sea cucumber averaged 22.6%-39.1%, 6.3% -22.2%, 2.8%-6.5%, and 2.8%-4.2%, respectively. Together these results indicated that the seasonal changes in food sources led to the obvious temporal differences in the relative contribution of various food sources utilized by A. japonicus. Such findings provide the basic scientific information for improving the aquaculture techniques of A. japonicus, particularly for optimizing the food environment of A. japonicus culture in farm ponds.

  2. Variations in otolith patterns, sizes and body morphometrics of jack mackerel Trachurus japonicus juveniles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanaji, Y; Kishida, M; Watanabe, Y; Kawamura, T; Xie, S; Yamashita, Y; Sassa, C; Tsukamoto, Y

    2010-10-01

    Variations in otolith patterns, sizes and body morphometrics of jack mackerel Trachurus japonicus juveniles were investigated. Under transmitted light, translucent (W(t)) and opaque otoliths (W(o)) were detected in juveniles collected from Wakasa Bay between July 2005 and April 2006, whereas only opaque otoliths (G(o)) were detected in Goto-nada Sea individuals between May and June 2006. Three groups of juveniles were distinguished based on differences in hatch season, otolith size and growth history, and body morphometrics. As T. japonicus has different spawning seasons according to spawning grounds, each group was estimated to hatch in different waters. Juveniles with W(t) otoliths were considered to have stayed in coastal habitat longer, as the hatch area was estimated to be near Wakasa Bay. Juveniles with W(o) and G(o) otoliths appear to recruit to coastal waters at larger size, since their hatch areas were estimated to be far from each collection area. Larger otoliths of W(t) were attributed to otolith accretion after the second growth flexion, which was observed only for W(t) . Standard length of W(t) fish at the second otolith growth flexion was estimated to correspond to recruitment size to coastal rocky reefs in Wakasa Bay. Body morphometrics were correlated with otolith size after removing body size effect, suggesting that morphological variations of T. japonicus juveniles were also associated with the timing of recruitment to coastal habitat. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  3. Anti-obesity effects of chikusetsusaponins isolated from Panax japonicus rhizomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okuda Hiromichi

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The rhizomes of Panax japonicus are used as a folk medicine for treatment of life-style related diseases such as arteriosclerosis, hyperlipidemia, hypertension and non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus as a substitute for ginseng roots in China and Japan. Obesity is closely associated with life-style-related diseases. This study was performed to clarify whether chikusetsusaponins prevent obesity induced in mice by a high-fat diet for 9 weeks. Methods We performed two in vivo experiments. In one, female ICR mice were fed a high-fat diet with or without 1 or 3% chikusetsusaponins isolated from P. japonicus rhizomes for 9 weeks. In the other, lipid emulsion with or without chikusetsusaponins was administered orally to male Wistar rats, and then the plasma triacylglycerol level was measured 0.5 to 5 h after the orally administered lipid emulsion. For in vitro experiments, the inhibitory effects of total chikusetsusaponins and various purified chikusetsusaponins on pancreatic lipase activity were determined by measuring the rate of release of oleic acid from triolein in an assay system using triolein emulsified with lecithin. Results Total chikusetsusaponins prevented the increases in body weight and parametrial adipose tissue weight induced by a high-fat diet. Furthermore, consumption of a high-fat diet containing 1 or 3% total chikusetsusaponins significantly increased the fecal content and triacylglycerol level at day 3 compared with the high-fat diet groups. Total chikusetsusaponins inhibited the elevation of the plasma triacylglycerol level 2 h after the oral administration of the lipid emulsion. Total chikusetsusaponins, chikusetsusaponin III, 28-deglucosyl-chikusetsusaponin IV and 28-deglucosyl-chikusetsusaponin V inhibited the pancreatic lipase activity. Conclusion The anti-obesity effects of chikusetsusaponins isolated from P. japonicus rhizomes in mice fed a high-fat diet may be partly mediated through delaying the

  4. Age determination and feeding habits of Nemipterus japonicus (Bloch, 1791) in the northern Oman Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Afshari, M.; Valinassab, T.; Seifabadi, J.; Kamaly, E.

    2013-01-01

    Age determination and feeding habits of the Japanese threadfin bream, Nemipterus japonicus, was carried out in the northern Oman Sea (Chabahar area), based on 212 specimens collected between September 2009 and May 2010. The minimum and maximum fork length and body weight were measured as 145, 258 mm and 55.31, 288.12 g. The relationship between Body Weight (BW) and Fork Length (FL) for all individuals was estimated as BW= 0.0001×FL2.83 (r2 = 0.9425, n= 212). The Vacuity Index (VI) was 55.2% t...

  5. Dihydroagarofuranoid Sesquiterpenes as Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitors from Celastraceae Plants: Maytenus disticha and Euonymus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alarcón, Julio; Cespedes, Carlos L; Muñoz, Evelyn; Balbontin, Cristian; Valdes, Francisco; Gutierrez, Margarita; Astudillo, Luis; Seigler, David S

    2015-12-02

    Natural cholinesterase inhibitors have been found in many biological sources. Nine compounds with agarofuran (epoxyeudesmane) skeletons were isolated from seeds and aerial parts of Maytenus disticha and Euonymus japonicus. The identification and structural elucidation of compounds were based on spectroscopic data analyses. All compounds had inhibitory acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity. These natural compounds, which possessed mixed or uncompetitive mechanisms of inhibitory activity against AChE, may be considered as models for the design and development of new naturally occurring drugs for management strategies for neurodegenerative diseases. This is the first report of these chemical structures for seeds of M. disticha.

  6. The Temporary Leave Dilemma -

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amilon, Anna

    2010-01-01

    Lone mothers have to take care of a sick child with little or no help from the child’s other parent and have to carry all costs connected to leave-taking. This paper empirically tests whether lone mothers take more temporary parental leave to care for sick children than partnered mothers...... and whether parental leave is associated with a signaling cost. The results from this study of Swedish mothers show that lone mothers use more temporary parental leave than partnered mothers. Further, within the group of lone mothers, those with higher socioeconomic status take less temporary parental leave...... than those with lower socioeconomic status, whereas no such differences are found within the group of partnered mothers. One possible interpretation is that signaling costs negatively influence the utilization of temporary parental leave for lone mothers....

  7. Maximizing Entropy over Markov Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biondi, Fabrizio; Legay, Axel; Nielsen, Bo Friis

    2013-01-01

    The channel capacity of a deterministic system with confidential data is an upper bound on the amount of bits of data an attacker can learn from the system. We encode all possible attacks to a system using a probabilistic specification, an Interval Markov Chain. Then the channel capacity...... as a reward function, a polynomial algorithm to verify the existence of an system maximizing entropy among those respecting a specification, a procedure for the maximization of reward functions over Interval Markov Chains and its application to synthesize an implementation maximizing entropy. We show how...... to use Interval Markov Chains to model abstractions of deterministic systems with confidential data, and use the above results to compute their channel capacity. These results are a foundation for ongoing work on computing channel capacity for abstractions of programs derived from code....

  8. Maximizing entropy over Markov processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biondi, Fabrizio; Legay, Axel; Nielsen, Bo Friis

    2014-01-01

    The channel capacity of a deterministic system with confidential data is an upper bound on the amount of bits of data an attacker can learn from the system. We encode all possible attacks to a system using a probabilistic specification, an Interval Markov Chain. Then the channel capacity...... as a reward function, a polynomial algorithm to verify the existence of a system maximizing entropy among those respecting a specification, a procedure for the maximization of reward functions over Interval Markov Chains and its application to synthesize an implementation maximizing entropy. We show how...... to use Interval Markov Chains to model abstractions of deterministic systems with confidential data, and use the above results to compute their channel capacity. These results are a foundation for ongoing work on computing channel capacity for abstractions of programs derived from code. © 2014 Elsevier...

  9. Lotus japonicus nodulation requires two GRAS domain regulators, one of which is functionally conserved in a non-legume

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heckmann, Anne Birgitte Lau; Lombardo, Fabien; Miwa, Hiroki

    2006-01-01

    A new nodulation-defective mutant of Lotus japonicus does not initiate nodule cortical cell division in response to Mesorhizobium loti, but induces root hair deformation, Nod factor-induced calcium spiking, and mycorrhization. This phenotype, together with mapping data, suggested that the mutation...... could be in the ortholog of the Medicago truncatula NSP1 gene (MtNSP1). The sequence of the orthologous gene (LjNSP1) in the L. japonicus mutant (Ljnsp1-1) revealed a mutation causing a premature stop resulting in loss of the C-terminal 23 amino acids. We also sequenced the NSP2 gene from L. japonicus...

  10. Effects of stomatal development on stomatal conductance and on stomatal limitation of photosynthesis in Syringa oblata and Euonymus japonicus Thunb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bing-Jie; Chow, Wah Soon; Liu, Yu-Jun; Shi, Lei; Jiang, Chuang-Dao

    2014-12-01

    During leaf development, the increase in stomatal conductance cannot meet photosynthetic demand for CO2, thus leading to stomatal limitation of photosynthesis (Ls). Considering the crucial influences of stomatal development on stomatal conductance, we speculated whether stomatal development limits photosynthesis to some extent. To test this hypothesis, stomatal development, stomatal conductance and photosynthesis were carefully studied in both Syringa oblata (normal greening species) and Euonymus japonicus Thunb (delayed greening species). Our results show that the size of stomata increased gradually with leaf expansion, resulting in increased stomatal conductance up to the time of full leaf expansion. During this process, photosynthesis also increased steadily. Compared to that in S. oblata, the development of chloroplasts in E. japonicus Thunb was obviously delayed, leading to a delay in the improvement of photosynthetic capacity. Further analysis revealed that before full leaf expansion, stomatal limitation increased rapidly in both S. oblata and E. japonicus Thunb; after full leaf expansion, stomatal limitation continually increased in E. japonicus Thunb. Accordingly, we suggested that the enhancement of photosynthetic capacity is the main factor leading to stomatal limitation during leaf development but that stomatal development can alleviate stomatal limitation with the increase of photosynthesis by controlling gas exchange. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Phenotypic and genetic characterization of bacteria isolated from diseased cultured sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus) in Northeastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    During the winter–spring from 2004 to 2006 in northeastern China cultured Japanese sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus suffered from a serious disease. Clinical signs included swollen mouth, skin ulceration and massive mortality. Clinical samples taken during this period were studied. Thirty-one bac...

  12. Effect of food on specific dynamic action (SDA) of green and red types of sea cucumber ( Apostichopus japonicus Selenka)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Jie; Jiang, Hongbo; Dong, Shuanglin; Tian, Xiangli

    2017-10-01

    Specific dynamic action (SDA), the energy expended on all physiological processes that is associated with meal digestion and absorption, is strongly affected by food type. Effects of formulated diet (FMD), macroalgae (ALG) and sea mud (SMD) diets on the postprandial metabolic response of the green type and the red type of sea cucumber ( Apostichopus japonicus) were studied in order to understand their feeding physiology. Food offered to A. japonicus was different in protein, lipid content and energy but not in meal mass. SDA of A. japonicus resulted in a 1.3-2.7 folds of increase in oxygen consumption that can persist for up to 4.8-31.7 h after digesting three different diets. In a given type of sea cucumber, the magnitude of SDA was the highest when fed with FMD, medium with ALG, and the lowest with SMD, which is probably due to the differences in diet components and protein contents. The red type sea cucumber showed greater SDA magnitude than the green type with each diet treatment, which might result from the difference in factorial scope between the two types of sea cucumber. However, the smallest magnitude or even no difference was observed between the two types of A. japonicus in SMD group, perhaps owing to the poor nutrition and digestion of sea mud.

  13. Differential gene expression in the intestine of sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus) under low and high salinity conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Libin; Feng, Qiming; Sun, Lina; Ding, Kui; Huo, Da; Fang, Yan; Zhang, Tao; Yang, Hongsheng

    2018-03-01

    Sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus is an important species for aquaculture, and its behavior and physiology can change in response to changing salinity conditions. For this reason, it is important to understand the molecular responses of A. japonicus when exposed to ambient changes in salinity. In this study, RNA-Seq provided a general overview of the gene expression profiles in the intestine of A. japonicus exposed to high salinity (SD40), normal salinity (SD30) and low salinity (SD20) environments. Screening for differentially expressed genes (DEGs) using the NOISeq method identified 109, 100, and 89 DEGs based on a fold change of ≥2 and divergence probability ≥0.8 according to the comparisons of SD20 vs. SD30, SD20 vs.SD40, and SD30 vs. SD40, respectively. Gene ontology analysis showed that the terms "metabolic process" and "catalytic activity" comprised the most enriched DEGs. These fell into the categories of "biological process" and "molecular function". While "cell" and "cell part" had the most enriched DEGs in the category of "cellular component". With these DEGs mapping to 2119, 159, and 160 pathways in the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes database. Of these 51, 2, and 57 pathways were significantly enriched, respectively. The osmosis-specific DEGs identified in this study of A. japonicus will be important targets for further studies to understand the biochemical mechanisms involved with the adaption of sea cucumbers to changes in salinity. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Phoretic mites and their hyperphoretic fungi associated with flying Ips typographus japonicus Niijima (Col., Scolytidae) in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.C. Moser; T.J. Perry; K. Furuta

    1997-01-01

    Flying Ips typographus japonicus from Hokkaido (Japan) carried 12 species of phoretic mites, three of which were not previously recorded in Europe. The mite biologies were diverse, including specialists feeding on microorganisms, beetle eggs, and nematodes which were common under beetle elytra. Hyperphoretic on these mites were seven distinct species of fungal spores...

  15. Lotus Base: An integrated information portal for the model legume Lotus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mun, Terry; Bachmann, Asger; Gupta, Vikas; Stougaard, Jens; Andersen, Stig U

    2016-12-23

    Lotus japonicus is a well-characterized model legume widely used in the study of plant-microbe interactions. However, datasets from various Lotus studies are poorly integrated and lack interoperability. We recognize the need for a comprehensive repository that allows comprehensive and dynamic exploration of Lotus genomic and transcriptomic data. Equally important are user-friendly in-browser tools designed for data visualization and interpretation. Here, we present Lotus Base, which opens to the research community a large, established LORE1 insertion mutant population containing an excess of 120,000 lines, and serves the end-user tightly integrated data from Lotus, such as the reference genome, annotated proteins, and expression profiling data. We report the integration of expression data from the L. japonicus gene expression atlas project, and the development of tools to cluster and export such data, allowing users to construct, visualize, and annotate co-expression gene networks. Lotus Base takes advantage of modern advances in browser technology to deliver powerful data interpretation for biologists. Its modular construction and publicly available application programming interface enable developers to tap into the wealth of integrated Lotus data. Lotus Base is freely accessible at: https://lotus.au.dk.

  16. Changes in pyridine metabolism profile during growth of trigonelline-forming Lotus japonicus cell cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Yuling; Matsui, Ayu; Sakuta, Masaaki; Ashihara, Hiroshi

    2008-12-01

    Changes in the profile of pyridine metabolism during growth of cells were investigated using trigonelline-forming suspension-cultured cells of Lotus japonicus. Activity of the de novo and salvage pathways of NAD biosynthesis was estimated from the in situ metabolism of [(3)H] quinolinic acid and [(14)C] nicotinamide. Maximum activity of the de novo pathway for NAD synthesis was found in the exponential growth phase, whereas activity of the salvage pathway was increased in the lag phase of cell growth. Expression profiles of some genes related to pyridine metabolism were examined using the expression sequence tags obtained from the L. japonicus database. Transcript levels of NaPRT and NIC, encoding salvage enzymes, were enhanced in the lag phase of cell growth, whereas the maximum expression of NADS was found in the exponential growth phase. Correspondingly, the activities of the salvage enzymes, nicotinate phosphoribosyltransferase (EC 2.4.2.11) and nicotinamidase (EC 3.5.1.19), increased one day after transfer of the stationary phase cells to the fresh medium. The greatest in situ trigonelline synthesis, both from [(3)H] quinolinic acid and [(14)C] nicotinamide, was found in the stationary phase of cell growth. The role of trigonelline in leguminous plants is discussed.

  17. The effects of dietary lead on growth, bioaccumulation and antioxidant capacity in sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Ren, Tongjun; Han, Yuzhe; Zhao, Yang; Liao, Mingling; Wang, Fuqiang; Jiang, Zhiqiang

    2015-09-01

    Three different diets amended with lead nitrate [Pb(NO3)2] (100, 500 and 1000mg Pb/kg dry weight) and a Pb-free control diet (1.03mg Pb/kg dry weight) were fed to sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus) for 30 days. The patterns of Pb accumulation over time were determined in various tissues (body wall, intestine and respiratory tree), as well as growth performance and antioxidant enzymes activities. Pb accumulation in body wall and intestine increased with time in all dietary Pb treatments. When fed the highest Pb diet, the body wall exhibited the greatest Pb burden (16.37mg Pb/kg tissue wet weight), while Pb content in the intestine (2.68mg Pb/kg tissue wet weight) and the respiratory tree (1.78mg Pb/kg tissue wet weight) were lower than Pb content in the body wall by day 30. The body weight gain (BWG), specific growth rate (SGR) and survival rate (SR) had not been affected by 30 days oral administration of Pb supplemented diet. However, the antioxidant enzymes activities [superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px)] of test groups were lower than control group in body wall and malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration in the body wall was opposite after 30 days in sea cucumbers. In summary, this work reports toxic effects in sea cucumber, A. japonicus, after dietary exposure to Pb. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Mechanical stress induces neuroendocrine and immune responses of sea cucumber ( Apostichopus japonicus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Jie; Li, Fenghui; Sun, Huiling; Gao, Fei; Yan, Jingping; Gai, Chunlei; Chen, Aihua; Wang, Qingyin

    2015-04-01

    Grading procedure in routine sea cucumber hatchery production is thought to affect juvenile sea cucumber immunological response. The present study investigated the impact of a 3-min mechanical perturbation mimicking the grading procedure on neuroendocrine and immune parameters of the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus. During the application of stress, concentrations of noradrenaline and dopamine in coelomic fluid increased significantly, indicating that the mechanical perturbation resulted in a transient state of stress in sea cucumbers. Coelomocytes concentration in coelomic fluid increased transiently after the beginning of stressing, and reached the maximum in 1 h. Whereas, coelomocytes phagocytosis at 3 min, superoxide anion production from 3 min to 0.5 h, acid phosphatase activity at 0.5 h, and phenoloxidase activity from 3 min to 0.5 h were all significantly down-regulated. All of the immune parameters recovered to baseline levels after the experiment was conducted for 8 h, and an immunostimulation occurred after the stress considering the phagocytosis and acid phosphatase activity. The results suggested that, as in other marine invertebrates, neuroendocrine/immune connections exist in sea cucumber A. japonicus. Mechanical stress can elicit a profound influence on sea cucumber neuroendocrine system. Neuroendocrine messengers act in turn to modulate the immunity functions. Therefore, these effects should be considered for developing better husbandry procedures.

  19. Seasonal biochemical changes in composition of body wall tissues of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Fei; Xu, Qiang; Yang, Hongsheng

    2011-03-01

    Seasonal Variation in proximate, amino acid and fatty acid composition of the body wall of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus was evaluated. The proximate composition, except for ash content, changed significantly among seasons ( P<0.05). Alanine, glycine, glutamic acid and asparagic acid were the most abundant amino acids. Total amino acid and essential amino acid Contents both varied clearly with seasons ( P<0.05). 16:0 and 16:ln7 were the primary saturated fatty acid (SFA) and monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) respectively for all months. EPA (20:5n-3), AA (20:4n-6) and DHA (22:6n-3) were the major polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). The proportions of SFA and PUFA yielded significant seasonal variations ( P<0.001), but MUFA did not changed significantly. The results indicated that the biochemical compositions of the body wall in A. japonicus were significantly influenced by seasons and that the body wall tissue is an excellent source of protein, MUFA and n-3 PUFA for humans.

  20. Action of trypsin on structural changes of collagen fibres from sea cucumber (Stichopus japonicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zi-Qiang; Tuo, Feng-Yan; Song, Liang; Liu, Yu-Xin; Dong, Xiu-Ping; Li, Dong-Mei; Zhou, Da-Yong; Shahidi, Fereidoon

    2018-08-01

    Trypsin, a representative serine proteinase, was used to hydrolyse the collagen fibres from sea cucumber (Stichopus japonicus) to highlight the role of serine proteinase in the autolysis of sea cucumber. Partial disaggregation of collagen fibres into collagen fibrils upon trypsin treatment occurred. The trypsin treatment also caused a time-dependent release of water-soluble glycosaminoglycans and proteins. Therefore, the degradation of the proteoglycan bridges between collagen fibrils might account for the disaggregation of collagen fibrils. For trypsin-treated collagen fibres (72 h), the collagen fibrils still kept their structural integrity and showed characteristic D-banding pattern, and the dissolution rate of hydroxyproline was just 0.21%. Meanwhile, Fourier transform infrared analysis showed the collagen within trypsin-treated collagen fibres (72 h) still retaining their triple-helical conformation. These results suggested that serine proteinase participated in the autolysis of S. japonicus body wall by damaging the proteoglycan bridges between collagen fibrils and disintegrating the latter. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Screen and effect analysis of immunostimulants for sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiye; Sun, Xiuqin; Zheng, Fengrong; Hao, Linhua

    2009-02-01

    Immunostimulants may improve disease resistance of aquaculture animals by promoting the nonspecific immunity response of the organisms. Five types of saccharides, including chitosan, yeast polysaccharide, burdock oligosaccharide, seaweed polysaccharide and lentinus edodes polysaccharide, were screened for potential use as immunostimulants by using spectrophotometry. The saccharides were injected into Apostichopus japonicus, a sea cucumber, and the lysozyme and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities of the coelomic fluid and epidermal slime were monitored in six consecutive days. The results show that the lysozyme activity of the animal’s coelomic fluid was significantly stimulated on day 2, day 4 and day 6 after the injection of the saccharides ( P<0.05). The effects of chitosan and yeast polysaccharide were the most notable. The lysozyme activity of the epidermal slime was significantly increased by chitosana, yeast polysaccharide, seaweed polysaccharide, and burdock oligosaccharide on day 1 and day 2 after the injection ( P<0.05). The SOD activity of the coelomic fluid was significantly promoted by the saccharides on day 2 and day 4 post-injection ( P<0.05), while the SOD activity of the epidermal slime increased on day 2. These findings indicate that chitosan and yeast polysaccharide are the most effective immunostimulants and potential healthy anti-disease feedstuff for A. japonicus.

  2. Assessment of respiratory and ion transport potential of Penaeus japonicus gills in response to environmental pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.A. ABDEL-MOHSEN

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to pinpoint the respiratory and ion transport potential of gills of Penaeus japonicus living in Abu-Qir Bay, East of Alexandria, Egypt. Our results revealed clear histological impairments in gill structure. These alterations were mainly represented by the presence of large vacuoles in gill axis and gill lamellae. In addition, narrow, disrupted gill lamellae with wavy cuticle and shrunk pillar cells were detected. Moreover, some cells clearly showed pyknosis. Gill ultrastructure also showed abnormal chromatin condensation inside the nucleus. Obvious alterations in the typical shape and structure of mitochondria were observed. Noticeably, the main characteristics of ion regulating gill epithelium were absent thus suggesting a low ion transport activity of P. japonicus gills. Statistically, this was further proved by the significantly higher activity levels of respiratory enzymes, namely, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH and succinate dehydrogenase (SDH compared to those of the ion transport enzymes, namely, adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase and carbonic anhydrase (CA in gills and haemolymph. SDH activity levels were higher than the corresponding levels of LDH in gills and its own level in haemolymph, indicating a contradictory effect of pollution on respiratory enzyme activity levels.

  3. Effects of water depth and substrate color on the growth and body color of the red sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Senhao; Dong, Shuanglin; Gao, Qinfeng; Ren, Yichao; Wang, Fang

    2015-05-01

    Three color variants of the sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus are recognized, the red one is highly valued in the market. When the red variant is cultured in ponds in China, its body color changes from red to celadon in 3-6 months. The effects of water depth and substrate color on the growth and body color of this animal were investigated. Juveniles of red A. japonicus were cultured in cages suspended at a range of water depths (20, 50, 100, 150 and 200 cm). The specific growth rate of red sea cucumbers was significantly higher in animals cultured at deeper water layers compared with those grown at shallowers. Body weights were greatest for sea cucumbers cultured at a depth of 150 cm and their survival rates were highest at a depth of 200 cm. A scale to evaluate the color of red sea cucumbers ( R value) was developed using a Pantone standard color card. All stocked animals in the 9-month trial retained a red color, however the red body color was much more intense in sea cucumbers cultured at shallower depths, while animals suspended in deeper layers became pale. In a separate trial, A. japonicus were cultured in suspended cages with seven different colored substrates. Substrate color had a significant effect on the growth and body-color of red A. japonicus. The yield were greatest for A. japonicus cultured on a yellow substrate, followed by green > white > orange > red > black and blue. All sea cucumbers in the 7-month trial retained a red color, although the red was most intense (highest R value) in animals cultured on a blue substrate and pale (lowest R value) for animals cultured on a green substrate.

  4. RNA sequencing analysis to capture the transcriptome landscape during skin ulceration syndrome progression in sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Aifu; Zhou, Zunchun; Pan, Yongjia; Jiang, Jingwei; Dong, Ying; Guan, Xiaoyan; Sun, Hongjuan; Gao, Shan; Chen, Zhong

    2016-06-14

    Sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus is an important economic species in China, which is affected by various diseases; skin ulceration syndrome (SUS) is the most serious. In this study, we characterized the transcriptomes in A. japonicus challenged with Vibrio splendidus to elucidate the changes in gene expression throughout the three stages of SUS progression. RNA sequencing of 21 cDNA libraries from various tissues and developmental stages of SUS-affected A. japonicus yielded 553 million raw reads, of which 542 million high-quality reads were generated by deep-sequencing using the Illumina HiSeq™ 2000 platform. The reference transcriptome comprised a combination of the Illumina reads, 454 sequencing data and Sanger sequences obtained from the public database to generate 93,163 unigenes (average length, 1,052 bp; N50 = 1,575 bp); 33,860 were annotated. Transcriptome comparisons between healthy and SUS-affected A. japonicus revealed greater differences in gene expression profiles in the body walls (BW) than in the intestines (Int), respiratory trees (RT) and coelomocytes (C). Clustering of expression models revealed stable up-regulation as the main pattern occurring in the BW throughout the three stages of SUS progression. Significantly affected pathways were associated with signal transduction, immune system, cellular processes, development and metabolism. Ninety-two differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were divided into four functional categories: attachment/pathogen recognition (17), inflammatory reactions (38), oxidative stress response (7) and apoptosis (30). Using quantitative real-time PCR, twenty representative DEGs were selected to validate the sequencing results. The Pearson's correlation coefficient (R) of the 20 DEGs ranged from 0.811 to 0.999, which confirmed the consistency and accuracy between these two approaches. Dynamic changes in global gene expression occur during SUS progression in A. japonicus. Elucidation of these changes is important

  5. Phylogeography of the sandy beach amphipod Haustorioides japonicus along the Sea of Japan: Paleogeographical signatures of cryptic regional divergences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takada, Yoshitake; Sakuma, Kay; Fujii, Tetsuo; Kojima, Shigeaki

    2018-01-01

    Recent findings of genetic breaks within apparently continuous marine populations challenge the traditional vicariance paradigm in population genetics. Such "invisible" boundaries are sometimes associated with potential geographic barriers that have forced divergence of an ancestral population, habitat discontinuities, biogeographic disjunctions due to environmental gradients, or a combination of these factors. To explore the factors that influence the genetic population structure of apparently continuous populations along the Sea of Japan, the sandy beach amphipod Haustorioides japonicus was examined. We sampled a total of 300 individuals of H. japonicus from the coast of Japan, and obtained partial sequences of the mitochondrial COI gene. The sequences from 19 local populations were clustered into five groups (Northwestern Pacific, Northern, Central, Southern Sea of Japan, and East China Sea) based on a spatial genetic mixture analysis and a minimum-spanning network. AMOVA and pairwise Fst tests further supported the significant divergence of the five groups. Phylogenetic analysis revealed the relationship among the haplotypes of H. japonicus and outgroups, which inferred the northward range expansion of the species. A relaxed molecular-clock Bayesian analysis inferred the early-to middle-Pleistocene divergence of the populations. Among the five clusters, the Central Sea of Japan showed the highest values for genetic diversity indices indicating the existence of a relatively stable and large population there. The hypothesis is also supported by Bayesian Skyline Plots that showed sudden population expansion for all the clusters except for Central Sea of Japan. The present study shows genetic boundaries between the Sea of Japan and the neighboring seas, probably due to geographic isolation during the Pleistocene glacial periods. We further found divergence between the populations along the apparently continuous coast of the Sea of Japan. Historical changes in the

  6. IMNN: Information Maximizing Neural Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charnock, Tom; Lavaux, Guilhem; Wandelt, Benjamin D.

    2018-04-01

    This software trains artificial neural networks to find non-linear functionals of data that maximize Fisher information: information maximizing neural networks (IMNNs). As compressing large data sets vastly simplifies both frequentist and Bayesian inference, important information may be inadvertently missed. Likelihood-free inference based on automatically derived IMNN summaries produces summaries that are good approximations to sufficient statistics. IMNNs are robustly capable of automatically finding optimal, non-linear summaries of the data even in cases where linear compression fails: inferring the variance of Gaussian signal in the presence of noise, inferring cosmological parameters from mock simulations of the Lyman-α forest in quasar spectra, and inferring frequency-domain parameters from LISA-like detections of gravitational waveforms. In this final case, the IMNN summary outperforms linear data compression by avoiding the introduction of spurious likelihood maxima.

  7. Is the β phase maximal?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrandis, Javier

    2005-01-01

    The current experimental determination of the absolute values of the CKM elements indicates that 2 vertical bar V ub /V cb V us vertical bar =(1-z), with z given by z=0.19+/-0.14. This fact implies that irrespective of the form of the quark Yukawa matrices, the measured value of the SM CP phase β is approximately the maximum allowed by the measured absolute values of the CKM elements. This is β=(π/6-z/3) for γ=(π/3+z/3), which implies α=π/2. Alternatively, assuming that β is exactly maximal and using the experimental measurement sin(2β)=0.726+/-0.037, the phase γ is predicted to be γ=(π/2-β)=66.3 o +/-1.7 o . The maximality of β, if confirmed by near-future experiments, may give us some clues as to the origin of CP violation

  8. Strategy to maximize maintenance operation

    OpenAIRE

    Espinoza, Michael

    2005-01-01

    This project presents a strategic analysis to maximize maintenance operations in Alcan Kitimat Works in British Columbia. The project studies the role of maintenance in improving its overall maintenance performance. It provides strategic alternatives and specific recommendations addressing Kitimat Works key strategic issues and problems. A comprehensive industry and competitive analysis identifies the industry structure and its competitive forces. In the mature aluminium industry, the bargain...

  9. Scalable Nonlinear AUC Maximization Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Khalid, Majdi; Ray, Indrakshi; Chitsaz, Hamidreza

    2017-01-01

    The area under the ROC curve (AUC) is a measure of interest in various machine learning and data mining applications. It has been widely used to evaluate classification performance on heavily imbalanced data. The kernelized AUC maximization machines have established a superior generalization ability compared to linear AUC machines because of their capability in modeling the complex nonlinear structure underlying most real world-data. However, the high training complexity renders the kernelize...

  10. Genome analysis methods: Lotus japonicus [PGDBj Registered plant list, Marker list, QTL list, Plant DB link and Genome analysis methods[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Lotus japonicus Draft 2n=12 472 Mb 2008 Sanger (Clone-based) ... 315.1 Mb 3-5x Parace...l Genome Assembler 954 110,940 Kazusa Annotation PipelinE for Lotus japonicus (KAPSEL) 37,971 (v2.5) KDRI; http://www.kazusa.or.jp/lotus/ v2.5 v2.5 10.1093/dnares/dsn008 18511435 ...

  11. FLOUTING MAXIMS IN INDONESIA LAWAK KLUB CONVERSATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmawati Sukmaningrum

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to identify the types of maxims flouted in the conversation in famous comedy show, Indonesia Lawak Club. Likewise, it also tries to reveal the speakers‘ intention of flouting the maxim in the conversation during the show. The writers use descriptive qualitative method in conducting this research. The data is taken from the dialogue of Indonesia Lawak club and then analyzed based on Grice‘s cooperative principles. The researchers read the dialogue‘s transcripts, identify the maxims, and interpret the data to find the speakers‘ intention for flouting the maxims in the communication. The results show that there are four types of maxims flouted in the dialogue. Those are maxim of quality (23%, maxim of quantity (11%, maxim of manner (31%, and maxim of relevance (35. Flouting the maxims in the conversations is intended to make the speakers feel uncomfortable with the conversation, show arrogances, show disagreement or agreement, and ridicule other speakers.

  12. Anatomy of the aerial parts and chemical composition of the essential oil of Orthodon chinensis Maxim. from Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lo, V.N.; An, N.T.K.; Dung, N.X.; Nam, Vu Viet; Leclercq, P.A.

    1994-01-01

    The aerial parts of Orthodon chinensis Maxim. (syn. Mosla chinensis Maxim.) are used for the treatment of some common diseases (dyspepsia, diarrhoea, epidermophytosis, etc.) and for the production of traditional alcohol yeast. The anatomic structure of the stem and leaves has been studied and is

  13. Falling for Clay Leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kernan, Christine

    2002-01-01

    Describes an art project that integrated science and art education. Explains that students create ceramic bowls by using real leaves. Discusses the process of creating the ceramic bowls, including how to glaze the bowls. Includes a list of materials. (CMK)

  14. Maternity Leave Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strang, Lucy; Broeks, Miriam

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Over recent years many European Union countries have made changes to the design of the maternity leave provision. These policy developments reflect calls for greater gender equality in the workforce and more equal share of childcare responsibilities. However, while research shows that long period of leave can have negative effects on women's labour market attachment and career advancements, early return to work can be seen as a factor preventing exclusive breastfeeding, and therefore, potentially having negative health impacts for babies. Indeed, the World Health Organisation recommends exclusive breastfeeding up to 6 months of age to provide babies with the nutrition for healthy growth and brain development, protection from life-threatening ailments, obesity and non-communicable diseases such as asthma and diabetes. Therefore, labour market demands on women may be at odds with the health benefits for children gained by longer periods of maternity leave. The aim of this article is to examine the relationship between leave provision and health benefits for children. We examine maternity and parental leave provision across European countries and its potential impact on the breastfeeding of very young babies (up to 6-months of age). We also consider economic factors of potential extension of maternity leave provision to 6 months, such as costs to businesses, effects on the female labour market attachment, and wider consequences (benefits and costs) for individuals, families, employers and the wider society. PMID:28983432

  15. Gamma rays induce DNA damage and oxidative stress associated with impaired growth and reproduction in the copepod Tigriopus japonicus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Jeonghoon; Won, Eun-Ji; Lee, Bo-Young [Department of Biological Sciences, College of Science, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Un-Ki [Marine Ecological Risk Assessment Center, West Sea Fisheries Research Institute, National Fisheries Research and Development Institute, Incheon 400-420 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Il-Chan; Yim, Joung Han [Division of Life Sciences, Korea Polar Research Institute, Incheon 406-840 (Korea, Republic of); Leung, Kenneth Mei Yee [School of Biological Sciences and the Swire Institute of Marine Science, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong (China); Lee, Yong Sung [Graduate School of Biomedical Science and Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jae-Seong, E-mail: jslee2@skku.edu [Department of Biological Sciences, College of Science, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-07-01

    Highlights: • Mortality rate was significantly increased in response to gamma radiation. • A dose-dependent reduction in fecundity of ovigerous females. • Growth retardation, particularly at the nauplius stage. • Upon gamma radiation, T. japonicus showed an increased ROS levels. • Antioxidant genes and Hsps genes were upregulated at sublethal doses. - Abstract: Nuclear radioisotope accidents are potentially ecologically devastating due to their impact on marine organisms. To examine the effects of exposure of a marine organism to radioisotopes, we irradiated the intertidal copepod Tigriopus japonicus with several doses of gamma radiation and analyzed the effects on mortality, fecundity, and molting by assessing antioxidant enzyme activities and gene expression patterns. No mortality was observed at 96 h, even in response to exposure to a high dose (800 Gy) of radiation, but mortality rate was significantly increased 120 h (5 days) after exposure to 600 or 800 Gy gamma ray radiation. We observed a dose-dependent reduction in fecundity of ovigerous females; even the group irradiated with 50 Gy showed a significant reduction in fecundity, suggesting that gamma rays are likely to have a population level effect. In addition, we observed growth retardation, particularly at the nauplius stage, in individuals after gamma irradiation. In fact, nauplii irradiated with more than 200 Gy, though able to molt to copepodite stage 1, did not develop into adults. Upon gamma radiation, T. japonicus showed a dose-dependent increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, the activities of several antioxidant enzymes, and expression of double-stranded DNA break damage genes (e.g. DNA-PK, Ku70, Ku80). At a low level (sub-lethal dose) of gamma irradiation, we found dose-dependent upregulation of p53, implying cellular damage in T. japonicus in response to sub-lethal doses of gamma irradiation, suggesting that T. japonicus is not susceptible to sub-lethal doses of gamma

  16. Gamma rays induce DNA damage and oxidative stress associated with impaired growth and reproduction in the copepod Tigriopus japonicus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Jeonghoon; Won, Eun-Ji; Lee, Bo-Young; Hwang, Un-Ki; Kim, Il-Chan; Yim, Joung Han; Leung, Kenneth Mei Yee; Lee, Yong Sung; Lee, Jae-Seong

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Mortality rate was significantly increased in response to gamma radiation. • A dose-dependent reduction in fecundity of ovigerous females. • Growth retardation, particularly at the nauplius stage. • Upon gamma radiation, T. japonicus showed an increased ROS levels. • Antioxidant genes and Hsps genes were upregulated at sublethal doses. - Abstract: Nuclear radioisotope accidents are potentially ecologically devastating due to their impact on marine organisms. To examine the effects of exposure of a marine organism to radioisotopes, we irradiated the intertidal copepod Tigriopus japonicus with several doses of gamma radiation and analyzed the effects on mortality, fecundity, and molting by assessing antioxidant enzyme activities and gene expression patterns. No mortality was observed at 96 h, even in response to exposure to a high dose (800 Gy) of radiation, but mortality rate was significantly increased 120 h (5 days) after exposure to 600 or 800 Gy gamma ray radiation. We observed a dose-dependent reduction in fecundity of ovigerous females; even the group irradiated with 50 Gy showed a significant reduction in fecundity, suggesting that gamma rays are likely to have a population level effect. In addition, we observed growth retardation, particularly at the nauplius stage, in individuals after gamma irradiation. In fact, nauplii irradiated with more than 200 Gy, though able to molt to copepodite stage 1, did not develop into adults. Upon gamma radiation, T. japonicus showed a dose-dependent increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, the activities of several antioxidant enzymes, and expression of double-stranded DNA break damage genes (e.g. DNA-PK, Ku70, Ku80). At a low level (sub-lethal dose) of gamma irradiation, we found dose-dependent upregulation of p53, implying cellular damage in T. japonicus in response to sub-lethal doses of gamma irradiation, suggesting that T. japonicus is not susceptible to sub-lethal doses of gamma

  17. The Proteome of Seed Development in the Model Legume Lotus japonicus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam, Svend; Laursen, Brian S.; Ornfelt, Jane H.

    2009-01-01

    three developmental phases of legume seeds and the presence of embryo, endosperm, and seed coat in desiccated seeds. Furthermore, protein, oil, starch, phytic acid, and ash contents were determined, and this indicates that the composition of mature Lotus seed is more similar to soybean than to pea......We have characterized the development of seeds in the model legume Lotus japonicus. Like soybean (Glycine max) and pea (Pisum sativum), Lotus develops straight seed pods and each pod contains approximately 20 seeds that reach maturity within 40 days. Histological sections show the characteristic...... proteins corresponding to gene accession numbers were identified for the two phases, respectively. All of the proteome data, including the experimental data and mass spectrometry spectra peaks, were collected in a database that is available to the scientific community via a Web interface (http...

  18. Role of animal pole protuberance and microtubules during meiosis in sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus oocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Zhenguo; Chang, Yaqing; Sun, Huiling; Yu, Jiaping

    2010-05-01

    Fully grown oocytes of Apostichopus japonicus have a cytoplasmic protuberance where the oocyte attaches to the follicle. The protuberance and the oolamina located on the opposite side of the oocyte indicate the animal-vegetal axis. Two pre-meiotic centrosomes are anchored to the protuberance by microtubules between centrosomes and protuberance. After meiosis reinitiation induced by DTT solution, the germinal vesicle (GV) migrates towards the protuberance. The GV breaks down after it migrates to the oocyte membrane on the protuberance side. The protuberance then contracts back into the oocyte and the first polar body extrudes from the site of the former protuberance. The second polar body forms beneath the first. Thus the oocyte protuberance indicates the presumptive animal pole well before maturation of the oocyte.

  19. Antioxidation activities of low-molecular-weight gelatin hydrolysate isolated from the sea cucumber Stichopus japonicus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jingfeng; Wang, Yuming; Tang, Qingjuan; Wang, Yi; Chang, Yaoguang; Zhao, Qin; Xue, Changhu

    2010-03-01

    Gelatin extracted from the body wall of the sea cucumber ( Stichopus japonicus) was hydrolyzed with flavourzyme. Low-molecular-weight gelatin hydrolysate (LMW-GH) of 700-1700 Da was produced using an ultrafiltration membrane bioreactor system. Chemiluminescence analysis revealed that LMW-GH scavenges high free radicals in a concentration-dependent manner; IC50 value for superoxide and hydroxyl radicals was 442 and 285 μg mL-1, respectively. LMW-GH exhibited excellent inhibitory characteristics against melanin synthesis and tyrosinase activity in B16 cells. Furthermore, LMW-GH notably increased intracellular glutathione (GSH), which in turn suppressed melanogenesis. LMW-GH performs antioxidation activity, holding the potential of being used as a valuable ingredient in function foods, cosmetics and pharmaceuticals or nutriceuticals.

  20. Characteristics of the Japanese sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus's population in the Sea of Japan (Kievka Bay)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavrilova, G. S.; Sukhin, I. Yu.

    2011-06-01

    In Kievka Bay of the Sea of Japan, the population of the Japanese sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus inhabits the areas of coarse sediments and complex bottom topography. These distributional patterns are closely related to the species' ecology, i.e., to the demand for protection against the wave turbulence. The aggregationing coverage of the sea cucumber population is about 80 hectares, where ˜200 thousand animals were accounted for in the last years. The aggregation's area varies during the year, which is closely related to the species' biological peculiarities, such as their behavioral patterns and the redistribution of their food resources. A significant increase of the juvenile population occurred after the farm-reared sea cucumber spat were released in 2003.

  1. Rheological and structural properties of sea cucumber Stichopus japonicus during heat treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xin; Xue, Dongmei; Zhang, Zhaohui; Xu, Jiachao; Xue, Changhu

    2005-07-01

    Changes in tissue structure, rheological properties and water content of raw and heated sea cucumber meat were studied. Sea cucumber Stichopus japonicus was heated at 25°C , 70°C and 100°C water for 5 min. The structural changes were observed using a light microscope and the rheological parameters (rupture strength, adhesive strength and deformation) determined using a texture meter. Microscopic photograph revealed that the structural change of heated meat was greater than that of raw meat. The rupture strength, adhesive strength and deformation of raw meat were smaller than those of the heated meat. Meanwhile, rheological parameters showed positive correlation with heating temperature. These changes are mainly caused by thermal denaturation and gelatinization of collagen during heating. These changes were also evidenced in observations using a light microscope and differential scanning calorimetry.

  2. Proteome analysis of pod and seed development in the model legume Lotus japonicus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nautrup-Pedersen, G.; Dam, S.; Laursen, B. S.

    2010-01-01

    Legume pods serve important functions during seed development and are themselves sources of food and feed. Compared to seeds, the metabolism and development of pods are not well-defined. The present characterization of pods from the model legume Lotus japonicus, together with the detailed analyses...... of the pod and seed proteomes in five developmental stages, paves the way for comparative pathway analysis and provides new metabolic information. Proteins were analyzed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and tandem-mass spectrometry. These analyses lead to the identification of 604 pod proteins and 965...... and photosynthesis. Proteins detected only in pods included three enzymes participating in the urea cycle and four in nitrogen and amino group metabolism, highlighting the importance of nitrogen metabolism during pod development. Additionally, five legume seed proteins previously unassigned in the glutamate...

  3. Maximal Abelian sets of roots

    CERN Document Server

    Lawther, R

    2018-01-01

    In this work the author lets \\Phi be an irreducible root system, with Coxeter group W. He considers subsets of \\Phi which are abelian, meaning that no two roots in the set have sum in \\Phi \\cup \\{ 0 \\}. He classifies all maximal abelian sets (i.e., abelian sets properly contained in no other) up to the action of W: for each W-orbit of maximal abelian sets we provide an explicit representative X, identify the (setwise) stabilizer W_X of X in W, and decompose X into W_X-orbits. Abelian sets of roots are closely related to abelian unipotent subgroups of simple algebraic groups, and thus to abelian p-subgroups of finite groups of Lie type over fields of characteristic p. Parts of the work presented here have been used to confirm the p-rank of E_8(p^n), and (somewhat unexpectedly) to obtain for the first time the 2-ranks of the Monster and Baby Monster sporadic groups, together with the double cover of the latter. Root systems of classical type are dealt with quickly here; the vast majority of the present work con...

  4. Understanding mechanism of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus aestivation: Insights from TMT-based proteomic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Muyan; Li, Xingke; Zhu, Aijun; Storey, Kenneth B; Sun, Lina; Gao, Tianxiang; Wang, Tianming

    2016-09-01

    Marine invertebrate aestivation is a unique strategy for summer survival in response to hot marine conditions. The sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus, is an excellent model marine invertebrate for studies of environmentally-induced aestivation. In the present study, we used a tandem mass tag (TMT)-coupled LC-MS/MS approach to identify and quantify the global proteome expression profile over the aestivation-arousal cycle of A. japonicus. A total of 3920 proteins were identified from the intestine of sea cucumber. Among them, 630 proteins showed significant differential expression when comparing three conditions of sea cucumbers: non-aestivating (active), deep-aestivation (at least 15days of continuous aestivation), and arousal after aestivation (renewed moving and feeding). Sea cucumbers in deep aestivation showed substantial differentially expressed proteins (143 up-regulated and 267 down-regulated proteins compared with non-aestivating controls). These differentially expressed proteins suggested that protein and phospholipid probably are major fuel sources during hypometabolism and a general attenuation of carbohydrate metabolism was observed during deep aestivation. Differentially expressed proteins also provided the first global picture of a shift in protein synthesis, protein folding, DNA binding, apoptosis, cellular transport and signaling, and cytoskeletal proteins during deep aestivation in sea cucumbers. A comparison of arousal from aestivation with deep aestivation, revealed a general reversal of the changes that occurred in aestivation for most proteins. Western blot detection further validated the significant up-regulation of HSP70 and down-regulation of methyltransferase-like protein 7A-like in deep-aestivation. Our results suggest that there is substantial post-transcriptional regulation of proteins during the aestivation-arousal cycle in sea cucumbers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Characterization and expression analysis of a complement component gene in sea cucumber ( Apostichopus japonicus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhong; Zhou, Zunchun; Yang, Aifu; Dong, Ying; Guan, Xiaoyan; Jiang, Bei; Wang, Bai

    2015-12-01

    The complement system plays a crucial role in the innate immune system of animals. It can be activated by distinct yet overlapping classical, alternative and lectin pathways. In the alternative pathway, complement factor B (Bf) serves as the catalytic subunit of complement component 3 (C3) convertase, which plays the central role among three activation pathways. In this study, the Bf gene in sea cucumber ( Apostichopus japonicus), termed AjBf, was obtained by rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). The full-length cDNA of AjBf was 3231 bp in length barring the poly (A) tail. It contained an open reading frame (ORF) of 2742 bp encoding 913 amino acids, a 105 bp 5'-UTR (5'-terminal untranslated region) and a 384 bp 3'-UTR. AjBf was a mosaic protein with six CCP (complement control protein) domains, a VWA (von Willebrand factor A) domain, and a serine protease domain. The deduced molecular weight of AjBf protein was 101 kDa. Quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis indicated that the expression level of AjBf in A. japonicus was obviously higher at larval stage than that at embryonic stage. Expression detection in different tissues showed that AjBf expressed higher in coelomocytes than in other four tissues. In addation, AjBf expression in different tissues was induced significantly after LPS or PolyI:C challenge. These results indicated that AjBf plays an important role in immune responses to pathogen infection.

  6. Molecular characterization of muscle-parasitizing didymozoid from a chub mackerel, Scomber japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Niichiro; Okamoto, Mitsuru

    2015-09-01

    Didymozoids found in the muscles of marine fish are almost always damaged because they are usually found after being sliced. Therefore, identifying muscle-parasitizing didymozoids is difficult because of the difficulty in collecting non-damaged worms and observing their organs as key points for morphological identification. Moreover, muscle-parasitizing didymozoids are not easily found because they parasitize at the trunk muscles. Therefore, muscle-parasitizing didymozoid classification has not progressed because there are few opportunities to detect them. Our recent report was the first to describe the usefulness of sequencing analysis for discrimination among muscle-parasitizing didymozoids. Recently, we found a didymozoid in the trunk muscle of a chub mackerel Scomber japonicus. The present study genetically compares the present isolate with other muscle-parasitizing didymozoids. The present isolate differs markedly from the previously unidentified didymozoid from an Atlantic mackerel S. scombrus by phylogenetic analysis of 18S rDNA. It also differs from other muscle-parasitizing didymozoids from other host species based on phylogenetic analyses of 18S, 28S rDNAs, and coxI loci. These results suggest that sequencing analysis is useful for the discrimination of muscle-parasitizing didymozoids. Combining the present data with earlier data for sequencing analysis, muscle-parasitizing didymozoids from seven marine fish species were classified as seven species. We proposed appellations for six distinct muscle-parasitizing didymozoids for future analysis: sweetlips fish type from Diagramma pictum and Plectorhinchus cinctus, red sea bream type from Pagrus major, flying fish type from Cypselurus heterurus, Atlantic mackerel type from Scomber scombrus, chub mackerel type from S. japonicus, and purple rockcod type from Epinephelus cyanopodus.

  7. New insight into hybridization and unidirectional introgression between Ammodytes japonicus and Ammodytes heian (Trachiniformes, Ammodytidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Koo Kim

    Full Text Available Based on northern (NOL and southern (SOL mitochondrial lineages, recently, it proposed the new species Ammodytes heian and revived the species name Ammodytes japonicus to describe sand lances from the northwestern Pacific Ocean. This study used molecular methods to investigate genetic relationships between the two sand lance species in Korea and Japan. In total, 154 specimens were collected from four locations in Korea (Baengnyeongdo in the Yellow Sea, Tongyeong in the Korean Strait, and Jumunjin and Gijang in the East Sea, and 50 specimens were collected from a single location in Japan (Wakkanai in the Okhotsk Sea. Mitochondrial DNA analysis demonstrated that the individuals from Baengnyeongdo and Tongyeong all belonged to the SOL, whereas those from Gijang, Jumunjin, and Wakkanai included individuals from both the NOL and SOL (over 75% NOL. Population structure analyses were performed on the same individuals using seven microsatellite DNA markers. The population structure analysis based on 201 specimens identified two clusters (named as northern group and southern group, with the admixture proportion (q of < 0.1 for the northern group in the Backyeongdo and Tongyeong sand lances and < 0.1 for the southern group in the Wakkanai sand lances. The high heterogeneity indicated that the former was probably A. japonicus and the latter probably A. heian. However, the admixture proportion in the Jumunjin and Gijang sand lances was 0.71-0.75 for the southern group, indicating that hybridization and unidirectional introgression from SOL to NOL occurs in southwestern margin of the East Sea. Our findings illustrate the speciation process based on different patterns of gene flow between Korean and Japanese sand lance, which is strongly influenced by both the paleo-climatic change and the contemporary local oceanic current pattern.

  8. Two putative-aquaporin genes are differentially expressed during arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis in Lotus japonicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovannetti Marco

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Arbuscular mycorrhizas (AM are widespread symbioses that provide great advantages to the plant, improving its nutritional status and allowing the fungus to complete its life cycle. Nevertheless, molecular mechanisms that lead to the development of AM symbiosis are not yet fully deciphered. Here, we have focused on two putative aquaporin genes, LjNIP1 and LjXIP1, which resulted to be upregulated in a transcriptomic analysis performed on mycorrhizal roots of Lotus japonicus. Results A phylogenetic analysis has shown that the two putative aquaporins belong to different functional families: NIPs and XIPs. Transcriptomic experiments have shown the independence of their expression from their nutritional status but also a close correlation with mycorrhizal and rhizobial interaction. Further transcript quantification has revealed a good correlation between the expression of one of them, LjNIP1, and LjPT4, the phosphate transporter which is considered a marker gene for mycorrhizal functionality. By using laser microdissection, we have demonstrated that one of the two genes, LjNIP1, is expressed exclusively in arbuscule-containing cells. LjNIP1, in agreement with its putative role as an aquaporin, is capable of transferring water when expressed in yeast protoplasts. Confocal analysis have demonstrated that eGFP-LjNIP1, under its endogenous promoter, accumulates in the inner membrane system of arbusculated cells. Conclusions Overall, the results have shown different functionality and expression specificity of two mycorrhiza-inducible aquaporins in L. japonicus. One of them, LjNIP1 can be considered a novel molecular marker of mycorrhizal status at different developmental stages of the arbuscule. At the same time, LjXIP1 results to be the first XIP family aquaporin to be transcriptionally regulated during symbiosis.

  9. Effects of endogenous cysteine proteinases on structures of collagen fibres from dermis of sea cucumber (Stichopus japonicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu-Xin; Zhou, Da-Yong; Ma, Dong-Dong; Liu, Zi-Qiang; Liu, Yan-Fei; Song, Liang; Dong, Xiu-Ping; Li, Dong-Mei; Zhu, Bei-Wei; Konno, Kunihiko; Shahidi, Fereidoon

    2017-10-01

    Autolysis of sea cucumber, caused by endogenous enzymes, leads to postharvest quality deterioration of sea cucumber. However, the effects of endogenous proteinases on structures of collagen fibres, the major biologically relevant substrates in the body wall of sea cucumber, are less clear. Collagen fibres were prepared from the dermis of sea cucumber (Stichopus japonicus), and the structural consequences of degradation of the collagen fibres caused by endogenous cysteine proteinases (ECP) from Stichopus japonicus were examined. Scanning electron microscopic images showed that ECP caused partial disaggregation of collagen fibres into collagen fibrils by disrupting interfibrillar proteoglycan bridges. Differential scanning calorimetry and Fourier transform infrared analysis revealed increased structural disorder of fibrillar collagen caused by ECP. SDS-PAGE and chemical analysis indicated that ECP can liberate glycosaminoglycan, hydroxyproline and collagen fragments from collagen fibres. Thus ECP can cause disintegration of collagen fibres by degrading interfibrillar proteoglycan bridges. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Structural and biochemical changes in dermis of sea cucumber (Stichopus japonicus) during autolysis in response to cutting the body wall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu-Xin; Zhou, Da-Yong; Liu, Zi-Qiang; Lu, Ting; Song, Liang; Li, Dong-Mei; Dong, Xiu-Ping; Qi, Hang; Zhu, Bei-Wei; Shahidi, Fereidoon

    2018-02-01

    The autolysis of sea cucumber body wall is caused by endogenous proteolysis of its structural elements. However, changes in collagen fibrils, collagen fibres and microfibrils, the major structural elements in sea cucumber body wall during autolysis are less clear. Autolysis of sea cucumber (S. japonicus) was induced by cutting the body wall, and the structural and biochemical changes in its dermis were investigated using electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, infrared spectroscopy, electrophoresis, and chemical analysis. During autolysis, both collagen fibres and microfibrils gradually degraded. In contrast, damage to microfibrils was more pronounced. Upon massive autolysis, collagen fibres disaggregated into collagen fibril bundles and individual fibrils due to the fracture of interfibrillar bridges. Meanwhile, excessive unfolding of collagen fibrils occurred. However, there was only slight damage to collagen monomers. Therefore, structural damage in collagen fibres, collagen fibrils and microfibrils rather than monomeric collagen accounts for autolysis of S. japonicus dermis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Anti-fatigue activity of sea cucumber peptides prepared from Stichopus japonicus in an endurance swimming rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Jing; Shen, Caihong; Huang, Yayan; Zhang, Xueqin; Xiao, Meitian

    2017-10-01

    Sea cucumber (Stichopus japonicus) is a well-known nutritious and luxurious seafood in Asia which has attracted increasing attention because of its nutrition and bioactivities in recent years. In this study, the anti-fatigue activity of sea cucumber peptides (SCP) prepared from S. japonicus was evaluated in a load-induced endurance swimming model. The SCP prepared in this study was mainly made up of low-molecular-weight peptides (fatigue was significantly improved by SCP treatment. Meanwhile, the remarkable alterations of energy metabolic markers, antioxidant enzymes, antioxidant capacity and oxidative stress biomarkers were normalized. Moreover, administration of SCP could modulate alterations of inflammatory cytokines and downregulate the overexpression of TRL4 and NF-κB. SCP has anti-fatigue activity and it exerted its anti-fatigue effect probably through normalizing energy metabolism as well as alleviating oxidative damage and inflammatory responses. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Identification and Functional Characterisation of Nod Factor Receptor (NFR) Paralogs in Lotus japonicus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Gitte; Radutoiu, Elena Simona; Stougaard, Jens

    an important missing link in plant-bacterial communication. This picture changed with the cloning of LysM-domain containing receptor-like kinases (LysM-RLKs) in different legume species. In Lotus japonicus, two LysM-RLKs, Nod Factor Receptor 1 (NFR1) and Nod Factor Receptor 5 (NFR5), are believed to bind Nod...... using the sequences of NFR1 and NFR5. Microsattelite markers were developed from each TAC clone containing the LysM-RLK, permitting us to locate the genes on a genetic map of Lotus japonicus. In order to get more insight into the function of these genes an inverse genetic approach using RNAi has been...

  13. TRAVEL AND HOME LEAVE

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2002-01-01

    Administrative procedures for : Travel to the home station and home leave (hl) Additional travel to the home station (at) Travel to the home station and home leave for family reasons (hlf) As part of the process of simplifying administrative procedures, HR and AS Divisions have devised a new, virtually automatic procedure for payment of travel expenses to the home station. The changes are aimed at rationalising administrative procedures and not at reducing benefits. The conditions of eligibility are unchanged. The new procedure, which will be operational with effect from 1st June 2002, will greatly simplify the administrative processing of claims for travel expenses and the recording of home leaves. Currently, requests for payment are introduced manually into the Advances and Claims system (AVCL) by divisional secretariats. All travel to the home station starting prior to 1st June 2002 will be processed according to the existing system whereas that starting on 1st June and after will be processed accordi...

  14. Maximizing benefits from resource development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skjelbred, B.

    2002-01-01

    The main objectives of Norwegian petroleum policy are to maximize the value creation for the country, develop a national oil and gas industry, and to be at the environmental forefront of long term resource management and coexistence with other industries. The paper presents a graph depicting production and net export of crude oil for countries around the world for 2002. Norway produced 3.41 mill b/d and exported 3.22 mill b/d. Norwegian petroleum policy measures include effective regulation and government ownership, research and technology development, and internationalisation. Research and development has been in five priority areas, including enhanced recovery, environmental protection, deep water recovery, small fields, and the gas value chain. The benefits of internationalisation includes capitalizing on Norwegian competency, exploiting emerging markets and the assurance of long-term value creation and employment. 5 figs

  15. Maximizing synchronizability of duplex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xiang; Emenheiser, Jeffrey; Wu, Xiaoqun; Lu, Jun-an; D'Souza, Raissa M.

    2018-01-01

    We study the synchronizability of duplex networks formed by two randomly generated network layers with different patterns of interlayer node connections. According to the master stability function, we use the smallest nonzero eigenvalue and the eigenratio between the largest and the second smallest eigenvalues of supra-Laplacian matrices to characterize synchronizability on various duplexes. We find that the interlayer linking weight and linking fraction have a profound impact on synchronizability of duplex networks. The increasingly large inter-layer coupling weight is found to cause either decreasing or constant synchronizability for different classes of network dynamics. In addition, negative node degree correlation across interlayer links outperforms positive degree correlation when most interlayer links are present. The reverse is true when a few interlayer links are present. The numerical results and understanding based on these representative duplex networks are illustrative and instructive for building insights into maximizing synchronizability of more realistic multiplex networks.

  16. Seasonal Changes in Food Uptake by the Sea Cucumber Apostichopus japonicus in a Farm Pond: Evidence from C and N Stable Isotopes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Zhenlong; GAO Qinfeng; DONG Shuanglin; Paul K.S. Shin; WANG Fang

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the seasonal changes in carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) stable isotope values of several typical food sources of Apostichopus japonicus in a farm pond,including particulate organic matter (POM),macroalgae,benthic microalgae and animals such as nematode and copepod.The stable isotope technique was used to quantify relative contributions of various sources to the food uptake by A.japonicus.The results showed that significant changes occurred in the C and N stable isotope values of sea cucumber food sources due to the seasonality of micro-or macroalgae prosperity and the fluctuation of environmental conditions.The sea cucumber A.japonicus exhibited corresponding alterations in feeding strategy in response to the changes in food conditions.Calculation with a stable isotope mixing model showed that macroalgae was the principal food source for A.japonicus throughout the 1-yr investigation,with the relative contribution averaging 28.1%-63.2%.The relative contributions of other food sources such as copepod and nematode,POM,benthic microalgae to the total food uptake by sea cucumber averaged 22.6%-39.1%,6.3%-22.2%,2.8%-6.5%,and 2.8%-4.2%,respectively.Together these results indicated that the seasonal changes in food sources led to the obvious temporal differences in the relative contribution of various food sources utilized by A.japonicus.Such findings provide the basic scientific information for improving the aquaculture techniques of A.japonicus,particularly for optimizing the food environment of A.japonicus culture in farm ponds.

  17. Comparison of intestinal microbiota and activities of digestive and immune-related enzymes of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus in two habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qi; Zhang, Xiumei; Chen, Muyan; Li, Wentao; Zhang, Peidong

    2017-09-01

    Sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus stock enhancement by releasing hatchery-produced seeds is a management tool used to recover its population under natural environmental conditions. To assess the suitability of releasing sites, we examined the microbiota of the gut contents of A. japonicus from two populations (one in sandy-muddy seagrass beds and one in rocky intertidal reefs) and the microbiota in their surrounding sediments. The activities of digestive and immune-related enzymes in the A. japonicus were also examined. The results indicated that higher bacterial richness and Shannon diversity index were observed in all the seagrass-bed samples. There were significant differences in intestinal and sediment microorganisms between the two habitats, with a 2.87 times higher abundance of Firmicutes in the seagrass bed sediments than that in the reefs. Meanwhile, Bacteroidetes and Actinobacteria were significantly higher abundant in the gut content of A. japonicus from seagrass bed than those from the reefs. In addition, the seagrass-bed samples exhibited a relatively higher abundance of potential probiotics. Principal coordinates analysis and heatmap showed the bacterial communities were classified into two groups corresponding to the two habitat types. Moreover, compared to A. japonicus obtained from rocky intertidal habitat, those obtained from the seagrass bed showed higher lysozyme, superoxide dismutase and protease activities. Our results suggest that bacterial communities present in seagrass beds might enhance the digestive function and immunity of A. japonicus. Therefore, compared with the rocky intertidal reef, seagrass bed seems to be more beneficial for the survival of A. japonicus.

  18. Dianthosaponins A-F, triterpene saponins, flavonoid glycoside, aromatic amide glucoside and γ-pyrone glucoside from Dianthus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Takahiro; Sugimoto, Sachiko; Matsunami, Katsuyoshi; Otsuka, Hideaki

    2011-01-01

    From aerial parts of Dianthus japonicus, six new and seven known oleanane-type triterpene saponins were isolated. The structures of the new saponins, named dianthosaponins A-F, were elucidated by means of high resolution mass spectrometry, and extensive inspection of one- and two-dimensional NMR spectroscopic data. A new C-glycosyl flavone, a glycosidic derivative of anthranilic acid amide and a maltol glucoside were also isolated.

  19. Ecotoxicity of triphenyltin on the marine copepod Tigriopus japonicus at various biological organisations: from molecular to population-level effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Andy Xianliang; Han, Jeonghoon; Lee, Jae-Seong; Leung, Kenneth M Y

    2014-09-01

    Triphenyltin compounds (TPTs), as effective biocides for different industrial and agricultural purposes, have been detected in coastal marine environments worldwide, in particular in Asian countries. However, little is known about their toxicity to marine organisms. This study comprehensively investigated the molecular, individual and population responses of the marine copepod, Tigriopus japonicus upon waterborne exposure to TPT chloride (TPTCl). Our results indicated that TPTCl was highly toxic to adult T. japonicus, with a 96-h LC50 concentration at 6.3 μg/L. As shown in a chronic full life-cycle test, T. japonicus exposed to 1.0 μg/L TPTCl exhibited a delay in development and a significant reduction of population growth, in terms of the intrinsic rate of increase (r m ). Based on the negative relationship between the r m and exposure concentration, a critical effect concentration was estimated at 1.6 μg/L TPTCl; at or above which population extinction could occur. At 0.1 μg/L TPTCl or above, the sex ratio of the second generation of the copepod was significantly altered and changed to a male-biased population. At molecular level, the inhibition of the transcriptional expression of glutathione S-transferase related genes might lead to dysfunction of detoxification, and the inhibition of retinoid X receptor mRNA expression implied an interruption of the growth and moulting process in T. japonicus. As the only gene that observed up-regulated in this study, the expression of heat shock protein 70 (hsp70) increased in a concentration-dependent manner, indicating its function in protecting the copepod from TPT-mediated oxidative stress. The study advances our understanding on the ecotoxicity of TPT, and provides some initial data on its toxic mechanisms in small crustaceans like copepods.

  20. VIOLATION OF CONVERSATION MAXIM ON TV ADVERTISEMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desak Putu Eka Pratiwi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Maxim is a principle that must be obeyed by all participants textually and interpersonally in order to have a smooth communication process. Conversation maxim is divided into four namely maxim of quality, maxim of quantity, maxim of relevance, and maxim of manner of speaking. Violation of the maxim may occur in a conversation in which the information the speaker has is not delivered well to his speaking partner. Violation of the maxim in a conversation will result in an awkward impression. The example of violation is the given information that is redundant, untrue, irrelevant, or convoluted. Advertisers often deliberately violate the maxim to create unique and controversial advertisements. This study aims to examine the violation of maxims in conversations of TV ads. The source of data in this research is food advertisements aired on TV media. Documentation and observation methods are applied to obtain qualitative data. The theory used in this study is a maxim theory proposed by Grice (1975. The results of the data analysis are presented with informal method. The results of this study show an interesting fact that the violation of maxim in a conversation found in the advertisement exactly makes the advertisements very attractive and have a high value.

  1. Dietary Cerebroside from Sea Cucumber (Stichopus japonicus): Absorption and Effects on Skin Barrier and Cecal Short-Chain Fatty Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Jingjing; Ishida, Marina; Aida, Kazuhiko; Tsuduki, Tsuyoshi; Zhang, Jin; Manabe, Yuki; Hirata, Takashi; Sugawara, Tatsuya

    2016-09-21

    Sphingolipids from marine sources have attracted more attention recently because of their distinctive structures and expected functions. In this study, the content and components of cerebroside from sea cucumber Stichopus japonicus were analyzed. The absorption of cerebroside from S. japonicus was investigated with an in vivo lipid absorption assay. The result revealed that S. japonicus is a rich source of cerebroside that contained considerable amounts of odd carbon chain sphingoid bases. The cumulative recoveries of d17:1- and d19:2-containing cerebrosides were 0.31 ± 0.16 and 0.32 ± 0.10%, respectively, for 24 h after administration. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first work that shows sphingolipids from a marine source could be absorbed in vivo and incorporated into ceramides. In addition, dietary supplementation with sea cucumber cerebroside to hairless mouse improved the skin barrier function and increased short-chain fatty acids in cecal contents, which have shown beneficial effects on the host.

  2. Expression responses of five cold tolerant related genes to two temperature dropping treatments in sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chengze; Chang, Yaqing; Pang, Zhenguo; Ding, Jun; Ji, Nanjing

    2015-03-01

    Environmental conditions, including ambient temperature, play important roles in survival, growth development, and reproduction of the Japanese sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus. Low temperatures result in slowed growth and skin ulceration disease. In a previous study, we investigated the effect of low temperature on gene expression profiles in A. japonicus by suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH). Genes encoding Ferritin, Lysozyme, Hsp70, gp96, and AjToll were selected from a subtracted cDNA library of A. japonicus under acute cold stress. The transcriptional expression profiles of these genes were investigated in different tissues (coelomocyte, respiratory tree, intestine, longitudinal muscle) after exposure to acute and mild temperature dropping treatments. The results show that (1) the five cold-tolerance-related genes were found in all four tissues and the highest mRNA levels were observed in coelomocyte and respiratory tree; (2) under the temperature dropping treatments, three types of transcriptional regulation patterns were observed: primary suppression followed by up-regulation at -2°C, suppressed expression throughout the two treatments, and more rarely an initial stimulation followed by suppression; and (3) gene expression suppression was more severe under acute temperature dropping than under mild temperature dropping treatment. The five cold-tolerance-related genes that were distributed mainly in coelomocyte and respiratory tissues were generally down-regulated by low temperature stress but an inverse up-regulation event was found at the extreme temperature (-2°C).

  3. Expression Analysis of Immune Related Genes Identified from the Coelomocytes of Sea Cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus in Response to LPS Challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Dong

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus occupies a basal position during the evolution of deuterostomes and is also an important aquaculture species. In order to identify more immune effectors, transcriptome sequencing of A. japonicus coelomocytes in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS challenge was performed using the Illumina HiSeq™ 2000 platform. One hundred and seven differentially expressed genes were selected and divided into four functional categories including pathogen recognition (25 genes, reorganization of cytoskeleton (27 genes, inflammation (41 genes and apoptosis (14 genes. They were analyzed to elucidate the mechanisms of host-pathogen interactions and downstream signaling transduction. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reactions (qRT-PCRs of 10 representative genes validated the accuracy and reliability of RNA sequencing results with the correlation coefficients from 0.88 to 0.98 and p-value <0.05. Expression analysis of immune-related genes after LPS challenge will be useful in understanding the immune response mechanisms of A. japonicus against pathogen invasion and developing strategies for resistant markers selection.

  4. La Crosse Encephalitis Virus Infection in Field-Collected Aedes albopictus, Aedes japonicus, and Aedes triseriatus in Tennessee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westby, Katie M; Fritzen, Charissa; Paulsen, Dave; Poindexter, Stephanie; Moncayo, Abelardo C

    2015-09-01

    La Crosse virus (LACV) is a mosquito-borne virus and a major cause of pediatric encephalitis in the USA. La Crosse virus emerged in Tennessee and other states in the Appalachian region in 1997. We investigated LACV infection rates and seasonal abundances of the native mosquito vector, Aedes triseriatus, and 2 recently introduced mosquito species, Ae. albopictus and Ae. japonicus, in an emerging disease focus in Tennessee. Mosquitoes were collected using multiple trapping methods specific for Aedes mosquitoes at recent human case sites. Mosquito pools were tested via reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) of the S segment to detect multiple Bunyamwera and California serogroup viruses, including LACV, as well as real-time RT-PCR of the M segment. A total of 54 mosquito pools were positive, including wild-caught adult females and laboratory-reared adults, demonstrating transovarial transmission in all 3 species. Maximum likelihood estimates (per 1,000 mosquitoes) were 2.72 for Ae. triseriatus, 3.01 for Ae. albopictus, and 0.63 for Ae. japonicus. We conclude that Ae. triseriatus and Ae. albopictus are important LACV vectors and that Ae. japonicus also may be involved in virus maintenance and transmission.

  5. Comprehensive functional characterization of the glycoside hydrolase family 3 enzymes from Cellvibrio japonicus reveals unique metabolic roles in biomass saccharification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Cassandra E; Attia, Mohamed A; Rogowski, Artur; Morland, Carl; Brumer, Harry; Gardner, Jeffrey G

    2017-12-01

    Lignocellulose degradation is central to the carbon cycle and renewable biotechnologies. The xyloglucan (XyG), β(1→3)/β(1→4) mixed-linkage glucan (MLG) and β(1→3) glucan components of lignocellulose represent significant carbohydrate energy sources for saprophytic microorganisms. The bacterium Cellvibrio japonicus has a robust capacity for plant polysaccharide degradation, due to a genome encoding a large contingent of Carbohydrate-Active enZymes (CAZymes), many of whose specific functions remain unknown. Using a comprehensive genetic and biochemical approach, we have delineated the physiological roles of the four C. japonicus glycoside hydrolase family 3 (GH3) members on diverse β-glucans. Despite high protein sequence similarity and partially overlapping activity profiles on disaccharides, these β-glucosidases are not functionally equivalent. Bgl3A has a major role in MLG and sophorose utilization, and supports β(1→3) glucan utilization, while Bgl3B underpins cellulose utilization and supports MLG utilization. Bgl3C drives β(1→3) glucan utilization. Finally, Bgl3D is the crucial β-glucosidase for XyG utilization. This study not only sheds the light on the metabolic machinery of C. japonicus, but also expands the repertoire of characterized CAZymes for future deployment in biotechnological applications. In particular, the precise functional analysis provided here serves as a reference for informed bioinformatics on the genomes of other Cellvibrio and related species. © 2017 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. The study on highly expressed proteins as a function of an elevated ultraviolet radiation in the copepod, Tigriopus japonicus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubrzycki, Igor Z.; Lee, Seunghan; Lee, Kanghyun; Wiacek, Magdalena; Lee, Wonchoel

    2012-06-01

    The objective of the study was to analyze constantlyhighly expressed proteins as a function of elevated midultraviolet (UVB, 280-315 nm) radiation in Tigriopus japonicus sensu lato ( T. japonicus s.l). We also analyzed associations between kinetics of radiation avoidance, measured as a covered distance per time unit, and highly expressed proteins. The obtained results indicate an increase in T. japonicus s.l. mobility between the control (no radiation) and mild UV radiation levels (15 kJ·m-2). Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis combined with MALDI-MS-MS resulted in 2D protein map comprising of 686 protein spots, of which 19 were identified as highly expressed proteins across all experimental conditions. Obtained results indicate that calpain, vitellogenin, and collagenase are housekeeping protein that are expressed at a constant level independently of environmental changes and that adoption of a locomotive system for the avoidance of a UV source may be, at least partially, supported by hepatopancreas-driven metabolism.

  7. Comprehensive functional characterization of the Glycoside Hydrolase Family 3 enzymes from Cellvibrio japonicus reveals unique metabolic roles in biomass saccharification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, Cassandra E.; Attia, Mohamed A.; Rogowski, Artur; Morland, Carl; Brumer, Harry; Gardner, Jeffrey G.

    2017-01-01

    Here, lignocellulose degradation is central to the carbon cycle and renewable biotechnologies. The xyloglucan (XyG), β(1!3)/β(1!4) mixed-linkage glucan (MLG), and β(1!3) glucan components of lignocellulose represent significant carbohydrate energy sources for saprophytic microorganisms. The bacterium Cellvibrio japonicus has a robust capacity for plant polysaccharide degradation, due to a genome encoding a large contingent of Carbohydrate-Active Enzymes (CAZymes), many of whose specific functions remain unknown. Using a comprehensive genetic and biochemical approach we have delineated the physiological roles of the four C. japonicus Glycoside Hydrolase Family 3 (GH3) members on diverse β-glucans. Despite high protein sequence similarity and partially overlapping activity profiles on disaccharides, these β-glucosidases are not functionally equivalent. Bgl3A has a major role in MLG and sophorose utilization, and supports β(1!3) glucan utilization, while Bgl3B underpins cellulose utilization and supports MLG utilization. Bgl3C drives β(1!3) glucan utilization. Finally, Bgl3D is the crucial β-glucosidase for XyG utilization. This study not only sheds the light on the metabolic machinery of C. japonicus, but also expands the repertoire of characterized CAZymes for future deployment in biotechnological applications. In particular, the precise functional analysis provided here serves as a reference for informed bioinformatics on the genomes of other Cellvibrio and related species.

  8. Does Leave Work?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heleen van Luijn; Saskia Keuzenkamp

    2004-01-01

    More and more people have to combine work and care responsibilities, and work part-time or use daycare and after-school care facilities to help them do so. The Work and Care Act, which came into force on 1 December 2001, combined all the existing schemes - such as parental and maternity leave -

  9. Maternity Leave in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Joyce Yen; Han, Wen-Jui

    2010-01-01

    Using the first nationally representative birth cohort study in Taiwan, this paper examines the role that maternity leave policy in Taiwan plays in the timing of mothers returning to work after giving birth, as well as the extent to which this timing is linked to the amount of time mothers spend with their children and their use of breast milk…

  10. REMINDER: Saved Leave Scheme (SLS)

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Transfer of leave to saved leave accounts Under the provisions of the voluntary saved leave scheme (SLS), a maximum total of 10 days'* annual and compensatory leave (excluding saved leave accumulated in accordance with the provisions of Administrative Circular No 22B) can be transferred to the saved leave account at the end of the leave year (30 September). We remind you that unused leave of all those taking part in the saved leave scheme at the closure of the leave year accounts is transferred automatically to the saved leave account on that date. Therefore, staff members have no administrative steps to take. In addition, the transfer, which eliminates the risk of omitting to request leave transfers and rules out calculation errors in transfer requests, will be clearly shown in the list of leave transactions that can be consulted in EDH from October 2003 onwards. Furthermore, this automatic leave transfer optimizes staff members' chances of benefiting from a saved leave bonus provided that they ar...

  11. Penaeus japonicus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    tdtzeng

    2011-02-14

    Feb 14, 2011 ... Korea, Japan and northern Australia, and they have moved through ... structure for variety I of kuruma shrimp in the East Asia, two different ..... DNA sequences in stable and exponentially growing populations. Genetics, 129: ...

  12. Ontogeny of antipredator performance in hatchery-reared Japanese anchovy Engraulis japonicus larvae exposed to visual or tactile predators in relation to turbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohata, R; Masuda, R; Yamashita, Y

    2011-12-01

    Laboratory experiments revealed distinct effects of turbidity on the survival of Japanese anchovy Engraulis japonicus larvae when exposed to either visual (jack mackerel Trachurus japonicus) or tactile (moon jellyfish Aurelia aurita) predators. The experiments were conducted in 30 l tanks with three levels of turbidity obtained by dissolving 0, 50 or 300 mg l(-1) of kaolin. Predators were introduced to experimental tanks followed by larvae of E. japonicus ranging from 5 to 25 mm standard lengths (L(s) ). When exposed to T. japonicus, the mean survival rate of larvae was significantly higher in 300 mg l(-1) treatments compared to the other turbidity levels. When exposed to A. aurita, however, there was no difference in the survival rates among different turbidity treatments. The survival rates when exposed to either predator improved with larval growth. The logistic survivorship models for E. japonicus larvae when exposed to A. aurita had an inflection point at c. 12 mm L(s) , suggesting that their size refuge from A. aurita is close to this value. Comparison to a previous study suggests a high vulnerability of shirasu (long and transparent) fish larvae to jellyfish predation under turbidity. This study indicates that anthropogenic increases of turbidity in coastal waters may increase the relative effect of jellyfish predation on fish larvae. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Fish Biology © 2011 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  13. Maximizing ROI (return on information)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, B.

    2000-05-01

    The role and importance of managing information are discussed, underscoring the importance by quoting from the report of the International Data Corporation, according to which Fortune 500 companies lost $ 12 billion in 1999 due to inefficiencies resulting from intellectual re-work, substandard performance , and inability to find knowledge resources. The report predicts that this figure will rise to $ 31.5 billion by 2003. Key impediments to implementing knowledge management systems are identified as : the cost and human resources requirement of deployment; inflexibility of historical systems to adapt to change; and the difficulty of achieving corporate acceptance of inflexible software products that require changes in 'normal' ways of doing business. The author recommends the use of model, document and rule-independent systems with a document centered interface (DCI), employing rapid application development (RAD) and object technologies and visual model development, which eliminate these problems, making it possible for companies to maximize their return on information (ROI), and achieve substantial savings in implementation costs.

  14. Maximizing the optical network capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayvel, Polina; Maher, Robert; Xu, Tianhua; Liga, Gabriele; Shevchenko, Nikita A; Lavery, Domaniç; Alvarado, Alex; Killey, Robert I

    2016-03-06

    Most of the digital data transmitted are carried by optical fibres, forming the great part of the national and international communication infrastructure. The information-carrying capacity of these networks has increased vastly over the past decades through the introduction of wavelength division multiplexing, advanced modulation formats, digital signal processing and improved optical fibre and amplifier technology. These developments sparked the communication revolution and the growth of the Internet, and have created an illusion of infinite capacity being available. But as the volume of data continues to increase, is there a limit to the capacity of an optical fibre communication channel? The optical fibre channel is nonlinear, and the intensity-dependent Kerr nonlinearity limit has been suggested as a fundamental limit to optical fibre capacity. Current research is focused on whether this is the case, and on linear and nonlinear techniques, both optical and electronic, to understand, unlock and maximize the capacity of optical communications in the nonlinear regime. This paper describes some of them and discusses future prospects for success in the quest for capacity. © 2016 The Authors.

  15. Role of crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH) in the environmental stressor-exposed intertidal copepod Tigriopus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bo-Mi; Jeong, Chang-Bum; Han, Jeonghoon; Kim, Il-Chan; Rhee, Jae-Sung; Lee, Jae-Seong

    2013-09-01

    To identify and characterize CHH (TJ-CHH) gene in the copepod Tigriopus japonicus, we analyzed the full-length cDNA sequence, genomic structure, and promoter region. The full-length TJ-CHH cDNA was 716 bp in length, encoding 136 amino acid residues. The deduced amino acid sequences of TJ-CHH showed a high similarity of the CHH mature domain to other crustaceans. Six conserved cysteine residues and five conserved structural motifs in the CHH mature peptide domain were also observed. The genomic structure of the TJ-CHH gene contained three exons and two introns in its open reading frame (ORF), and several transcriptional elements were detected in the promoter region of the TJ-CHH gene. To investigate transcriptional change of TJ-CHH under environmental stress, T. japonicus were exposed to heat treatment, UV-B radiation, heavy metals, and water-accommodated fractions (WAFs) of Iranian crude oil. Upon heat stress, TJ-CHH transcripts were elevated at 30 °C and 35 °C for 96 h in a time-course experiment. UV-B radiation led to a decreased pattern of the TJ-CHH transcript 48 h and more after radiation (12 kJ/m(2)). After exposure of a fixed dose (12 kJ/m(2)) in a time-course experiment, TJ-CHH transcript was down-regulated in time-dependent manner with a lowest value at 12h. However, the TJ-CHH transcript level was increased in response to five heavy metal exposures for 96 h. Also, the level of the TJ-CHH transcript was significantly up-regulated at 20% of WAFs after exposure to WAFs for 48 h and then remarkably reduced in a dose-dependent manner. These findings suggest that the enhanced TJ-CHH transcript level is associated with a cellular stress response of the TJ-CHH gene as shown in decapod crustaceans. This study is also helpful for a better understanding of the detrimental effects of environmental changes on the CHH-triggered copepod metabolism. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Iron-induced nitric oxide leads to an increase in the expression of ferritin during the senescence of Lotus japonicus nodules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chungopast, Sirinapa; Duangkhet, Mallika; Tajima, Shigeyuki; Ma, Jian Feng; Nomura, Mika

    2017-01-01

    Iron is an essential nutrient for legume-rhizobium symbiosis and accumulates abundantly in the nodules. However, the concentration of free iron in the cells is strictly controlled to avoid toxicity. It is known that ferritin accumulates in the cells as an iron storage protein. During nodule senescence, the expression of the ferritin gene, Ljfer1, was induced in Lotus japonicus. We investigated a signal transduction pathway leading to the increase of Ljfer1 in the nodule. The Ljfer1 promoter of L. japonicus contains a conserved Iron-Dependent Regulatory Sequence (IDRS). The expression of Ljfer1 was induced by the application of iron or sodium nitroprusside, which is a nitric oxide (NO) donor. The application of iron to the nodule increased the level of NO. These data strongly suggest that iron-induced NO leads to increased expression of Ljfer1 during the senescence of L. japonicus nodules. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. Does mental exertion alter maximal muscle activation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vianney eRozand

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Mental exertion is known to impair endurance performance, but its effects on neuromuscular function remain unclear. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that mental exertion reduces torque and muscle activation during intermittent maximal voluntary contractions of the knee extensors. Ten subjects performed in a randomized order three separate mental exertion conditions lasting 27 minutes each: i high mental exertion (incongruent Stroop task, ii moderate mental exertion (congruent Stroop task, iii low mental exertion (watching a movie. In each condition, mental exertion was combined with ten intermittent maximal voluntary contractions of the knee extensor muscles (one maximal voluntary contraction every 3 minutes. Neuromuscular function was assessed using electrical nerve stimulation. Maximal voluntary torque, maximal muscle activation and other neuromuscular parameters were similar across mental exertion conditions and did not change over time. These findings suggest that mental exertion does not affect neuromuscular function during intermittent maximal voluntary contractions of the knee extensors.

  18. AUC-Maximizing Ensembles through Metalearning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeDell, Erin; van der Laan, Mark J; Petersen, Maya

    2016-05-01

    Area Under the ROC Curve (AUC) is often used to measure the performance of an estimator in binary classification problems. An AUC-maximizing classifier can have significant advantages in cases where ranking correctness is valued or if the outcome is rare. In a Super Learner ensemble, maximization of the AUC can be achieved by the use of an AUC-maximining metalearning algorithm. We discuss an implementation of an AUC-maximization technique that is formulated as a nonlinear optimization problem. We also evaluate the effectiveness of a large number of different nonlinear optimization algorithms to maximize the cross-validated AUC of the ensemble fit. The results provide evidence that AUC-maximizing metalearners can, and often do, out-perform non-AUC-maximizing metalearning methods, with respect to ensemble AUC. The results also demonstrate that as the level of imbalance in the training data increases, the Super Learner ensemble outperforms the top base algorithm by a larger degree.

  19. Adaptive changes in chlorophyll content and photosynthetic features to low light in Physocarpus amurensis Maxim and Physocarpus opulifolius "Diabolo".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huihui; Zhong, Haixiu; Wang, Jifeng; Sui, Xin; Xu, Nan

    2016-01-01

    The present study aims to investigate the differences in leaf pigment content and the photosynthetic characteristics under natural and low light intensities between the Chinese native Physocarpus amurensis Maxim and the imported Physocarpus opulifolius "Diabolo" from North America. We aim to discuss the responses and the adaptive mechanism of these two cultivars of Physocarpus to a low light environment. The results show that the specific leaf area (SLA) and the chlorophyll content were significantly increased in the leaves of both Physocarpus cultivars in response to a low light intensity, and the SLA and chlorophyll content were higher in the leaves of low light-treated P. opulifolius "Diabolo" compared with the leaves of low light-treated P. amurensis Maxim. Moreover, the content of anthocyanin was markedly reduced in the leaves of P. opulifolius "Diabolo" under low light intensity, which allowed for a greater capacity of photon capture under the low light condition. Under natural light, the photosynthetic carbon assimilation capacity was greater in the leaves of P. amurensis Maxim compared with the leaves of P. opulifolius "Diabolo" that were rich with anthocyanin. However, in response to low light, AQY, P max, LCP and LSP decreased to a lesser extent in the leaves of P. opulifolius "Diabolo" compared with the leaves of P. amurensis Maxim. These results suggest that P. opulifolius "Diabolo" exhibits a greater ability in adaption to low light, and it is probably related to the relatively higher chlorophyll content and the smaller SLA in the leaves of P. opulifolius "Diabolo." In addition, the low light intensity resulted in a reduced photochemical activity of photosystem (PS) II in the leaves of both Physocarpus, as evidenced by increased values of the relative variable fluorescence at point J and point I on the OJIP curve. This result suggests that the electron acceptor in PS II was the major responsive site to the low light stress in the leaves of both

  20. Employer Provisions for Parental Leave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meisenheimer, Joseph R., II

    1989-01-01

    Slightly more than one-third of full-time employees in medium and large firms in private industry were covered by maternity- or paternity-leave policies; days off were usually leave without pay. (Author)

  1. On maximal massive 3D supergravity

    OpenAIRE

    Bergshoeff , Eric A; Hohm , Olaf; Rosseel , Jan; Townsend , Paul K

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT We construct, at the linearized level, the three-dimensional (3D) N = 4 supersymmetric " general massive supergravity " and the maximally supersymmetric N = 8 " new massive supergravity ". We also construct the maximally supersymmetric linearized N = 7 topologically massive supergravity, although we expect N = 6 to be maximal at the non-linear level. (Bergshoeff, Eric A) (Hohm, Olaf) (Rosseel, Jan) P.K.Townsend@da...

  2. Inclusive Fitness Maximization:An Axiomatic Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Okasha, Samir; Weymark, John; Bossert, Walter

    2014-01-01

    Kin selection theorists argue that evolution in social contexts will lead organisms to behave as if maximizing their inclusive, as opposed to personal, fitness. The inclusive fitness concept allows biologists to treat organisms as akin to rational agents seeking to maximize a utility function. Here we develop this idea and place it on a firm footing by employing a standard decision-theoretic methodology. We show how the principle of inclusive fitness maximization and a related principle of qu...

  3. Changes of exoskeleton surface roughness and expression of crucial participation genes for chitin formation and digestion in the mud crab (Macrophthalmus japonicus) following the antifouling biocide irgarol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kiyun; Nikapitiya, Chamilani; Kim, Won-Seok; Kwak, Tae-Soo; Kwak, Ihn-Sil

    2016-10-01

    Irgarol is a common antifoulant present in coastal sediment. The mud crab Macrophthalmus japonicus is one of the most abundant of the macrobenthos in the costal environment, and its exoskeleton has a protective function against various environmental threats. We evaluated the effects of irgarol toxicity on the exoskeleton of M. japonicus, which is the outer layer facing the environment. We analyzed transcriptional expression of exoskeleton, molting, and proteolysis-related genes in the gill and hepatopancreas of these exposed M. japonicus. In addition, changes in survival and exoskeleton surface characteristics were investigated. In the hepatopancreas, mRNA expression of chitinase 1 (Mj-chi1), chitinase 4 (Mj-chi4), and chitinase 5 (Mj-chi5) increased in M. japonicus exposed to all concentrations of irgarol. Mj-chi1 and Mj-chi4 expressions from 1 to 10μgL(-1) were dose- and time-dependent. Ecdysteroid receptor (Mj-EcR), trypsin (Mj-Tryp), and serine proteinase (Mj-SP) in the hepatopancreas were upregulated in response to different exposure levels of irgarol at day 1, 4, or 7. In contrast, gill Mj-chi5, Mj-Tryp, and Mj-SP exhibited late upregulated responses to 10μgL(-1) irgarol compared to the control at day 7. Mj-chi1 showed early upregulation upon exposure to 10μgL(-1) irgarol and Mj-chi4 showed no changes in transcription in the gill. Gill Mj-EcR presented generally downregulated expression patterns. In addition, decreased survival and change of exoskeleton surface roughness were observed in M. japonicus exposed to the three concentrations of irgarol. These results suggest that exposure to irgarol induces changes in the exoskeleton, molting, and proteolysis metabolism of M. japonicus. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The application of compound-specific isotope analysis of fatty acids for traceability of sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus) in the coastal areas of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu; Zhang, Xufeng; Li, Ying; Wang, Haixia

    2017-11-01

    Geographical origin traceability is an important issue for controlling the quality of seafood and safeguarding the interest of consumers. In the present study, a new method of compound-specific isotope analysis (CSIA) of fatty acids was established to evaluate its applicability in establishing the origin traceability of Apostichopus japonicus in the coastal areas of China. Moreover, principal component analysis (PCA) and discriminant analysis (DA) were applied to distinguish between the origins of A. japonicus. The results show that the stable carbon isotope compositions of fatty acids of A. japonicus significantly differ in terms of both season and origin. They also indicate that the stable carbon isotope composition of fatty acids could effectively discriminate between the origins of A. japonicus, except for between Changhai Island and Zhangzi Island in the spring of 2016 because of geographical proximity or the similarity of food sources. The fatty acids that have the highest contribution to identifying the geographical origins of A. japonicus are C22:6n-3, C16:1n-7, C20:5n-3, C18:0 and C23:1n-9, when considering the fatty acid contents, the stable carbon isotope composition of fatty acids and the results of the PCA and DA. We conclude that CSIA of fatty acids, combined with multivariate statistical analysis such as PCA and DA, may be an effective tool for establishing the traceability of A. japonicus in the coastal areas of China. The relevant conclusions of the present study provide a new method for determining the traceability of seafood or other food products. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Activity versus outcome maximization in time management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malkoc, Selin A; Tonietto, Gabriela N

    2018-04-30

    Feeling time-pressed has become ubiquitous. Time management strategies have emerged to help individuals fit in more of their desired and necessary activities. We provide a review of these strategies. In doing so, we distinguish between two, often competing, motives people have in managing their time: activity maximization and outcome maximization. The emerging literature points to an important dilemma: a given strategy that maximizes the number of activities might be detrimental to outcome maximization. We discuss such factors that might hinder performance in work tasks and enjoyment in leisure tasks. Finally, we provide theoretically grounded recommendations that can help balance these two important goals in time management. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. On the maximal superalgebras of supersymmetric backgrounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Figueroa-O'Farrill, Jose; Hackett-Jones, Emily; Moutsopoulos, George; Simon, Joan

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we give a precise definition of the notion of a maximal superalgebra of certain types of supersymmetric supergravity backgrounds, including the Freund-Rubin backgrounds, and propose a geometric construction extending the well-known construction of its Killing superalgebra. We determine the structure of maximal Lie superalgebras and show that there is a finite number of isomorphism classes, all related via contractions from an orthosymplectic Lie superalgebra. We use the structure theory to show that maximally supersymmetric waves do not possess such a maximal superalgebra, but that the maximally supersymmetric Freund-Rubin backgrounds do. We perform the explicit geometric construction of the maximal superalgebra of AdS 4 X S 7 and find that it is isomorphic to osp(1|32). We propose an algebraic construction of the maximal superalgebra of any background asymptotic to AdS 4 X S 7 and we test this proposal by computing the maximal superalgebra of the M2-brane in its two maximally supersymmetric limits, finding agreement.

  7. Task-oriented maximally entangled states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agrawal, Pankaj; Pradhan, B

    2010-01-01

    We introduce the notion of a task-oriented maximally entangled state (TMES). This notion depends on the task for which a quantum state is used as the resource. TMESs are the states that can be used to carry out the task maximally. This concept may be more useful than that of a general maximally entangled state in the case of a multipartite system. We illustrate this idea by giving an operational definition of maximally entangled states on the basis of communication tasks of teleportation and superdense coding. We also give examples and a procedure to obtain such TMESs for n-qubit systems.

  8. REMINDER Saved Leave Scheme (SLS) : Transfer of leave to saved leave accounts

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Division

    2002-01-01

    Under the provisions of the voluntary saved leave scheme (SLS), a maximum total of 10 days'*) annual and compensatory leave (excluding saved leave accumulated in accordance with the provisions of Administrative Circular No. 22B) can be transferred to the saved leave account at the end of the leave year (30 September). We remind you that, since last year, unused leave of all those taking part in the saved leave scheme at the closure of the leave-year accounts is transferred automatically to the saved leave account on that date. Therefore, staff members have no administrative steps to take. In addition, the transfer, which eliminates the risk of omitting to request leave transfers and rules out calculation errors in transfer requests, will be clearly shown in the list of leave transactions that can be consulted in EDH from October 2002 onwards. Furthermore, this automatic leave transfer optimizes staff members' chances of benefiting from a saved leave bonus provided that they are still participants in the schem...

  9. Saved Leave Scheme (SLS) : Simplified procedure for the transfer of leave to saved leave accounts

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Division

    2001-01-01

    As part of the process of streamlining procedures, the HR and AS Divisions have jointly developed a system whereby annual and compensatory leave will henceforth be automatically transferred1) to saved leave accounts. Under the provisions of the voluntary saved leave scheme (SLS), a maximum total of 10 days'2) annual and compensatory leave (excluding saved leave accumulated in accordance with the provisions of Administrative Circular No. 22 B) can be transferred to the saved leave account at the end of the leave year (30 September). Previously, every person taking part in the scheme has been individually issued with a form for the purposes of requesting the transfer of leave to the leave account and the transfer has then had to be done manually by HR Division. To streamline the procedure, unused leave of all those taking part in the saved leave scheme at the closure of of the leave-year accounts will henceforth be transferred automatically to the saved leave account on that date. This simplification is in the ...

  10. Mutagenic effects of carbon ion beam irradiations on dry Lotus japonicus seeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Shanwei [Biophysics Group, Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 509 Nanchang Road, Lanzhou 730000 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Zhou, Libin, E-mail: libinzhou@impcas.ac.cn [Biophysics Group, Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 509 Nanchang Road, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Li, Wenjian; Du, Yan [Biophysics Group, Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 509 Nanchang Road, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Yu, Lixia; Feng, Hui; Mu, Jinhu [Biophysics Group, Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 509 Nanchang Road, Lanzhou 730000 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Chen, Yuze [College of Life Science and Technology, Gansu Agricultural University, No. 1 Yingmen Village, Anning District, Lanzhou, Gansu Province 730070 (China)

    2016-09-15

    Carbon ion beam irradiation is a powerful method for creating mutants and has been used in crop breeding more and more. To investigate the effects of carbon ion beams on Lotus japonicus, dry seeds were irradiated by 80 MeV/u carbon ion beam at dosages of 0, 100, 200, 300, 400, 500 and 600 Gy. The germination rate, survival rate and root length of M{sub 1} populations were explored and the dose of 400 Gy was selected as the median lethal dose (LD{sub 50}) for a large-scale mutant screening. Among 2472 M{sub 2} plants, 127 morphological mutants including leaf, stem, flower and fruit phenotypic variation were found, and the mutation frequency was approximately 5.14%. Inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR) assays were utilized to investigate the DNA polymorphism between seven mutants and eight plants without phenotypic variation from M{sub 2} populations. No remarkable differences were detected between these two groups, and the total polymorphic rate was 0.567%.

  11. Sensitive Wavelengths Selection in Identification of Ophiopogon japonicus Based on Near-Infrared Hyperspectral Imaging Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengyan Xia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Hyperspectral imaging (HSI technology has increasingly been applied as an analytical tool in fields of agricultural, food, and Traditional Chinese Medicine over the past few years. The HSI spectrum of a sample is typically achieved by a spectroradiometer at hundreds of wavelengths. In recent years, considerable effort has been made towards identifying wavelengths (variables that contribute useful information. Wavelengths selection is a critical step in data analysis for Raman, NIRS, or HSI spectroscopy. In this study, the performances of 10 different wavelength selection methods for the discrimination of Ophiopogon japonicus of different origin were compared. The wavelength selection algorithms tested include successive projections algorithm (SPA, loading weights (LW, regression coefficients (RC, uninformative variable elimination (UVE, UVE-SPA, competitive adaptive reweighted sampling (CARS, interval partial least squares regression (iPLS, backward iPLS (BiPLS, forward iPLS (FiPLS, and genetic algorithms (GA-PLS. One linear technique (partial least squares-discriminant analysis was established for the evaluation of identification. And a nonlinear calibration model, support vector machine (SVM, was also provided for comparison. The results indicate that wavelengths selection methods are tools to identify more concise and effective spectral data and play important roles in the multivariate analysis, which can be used for subsequent modeling analysis.

  12. Individual variation in growth in sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenck) housed individually

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Miao; Dong, Shuanglin; Gao, Qinfeng; Wang, Fang; Tian, Xiangli

    2010-09-01

    The exceptionally large individual growth variation has been previously recognized in several sea cucumber cohorts. However, there is a lack of information regarding the mechanism of such individual differences. In this study, the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka) was reared individually in order to eliminate possible effects of social interaction, stocking density, etc. The results showed that there were substantial differences in growth among the sea cucumber individuals during the 100-day experiment. The special growth rate of the sea cucumber individuals differed by up to three folds (from 0.40% to 1.01%), and the coefficient of variation in body weight increased from 12.04% to 40.51%. The final wet body weight, food intake and food conversion efficiency for each sea cucumber were generally positively correlated with their initial wet body weight ( Psea cucumber individuals, largely accounting for the individual growth variation of the cohort sea cucumber. These results will provide some basic data for promoting selective breeding and farming of the sea cucumber.

  13. Transcriptome analysis of the sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus) with variation in individual growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Lei; He, Chongbo; Bao, Xiangbo; Tian, Meilin; Ma, Zhen

    2017-01-01

    The sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus) is an economically important aquaculture species in China. However, the serious individual growth variation often caused financial losses to farmers and the genetic mechanisms are poorly understood. In the present study, the extensively analysis at the transcriptome level for individual growth variation in sea cucumber was carried out. A total of 118946 unigenes were assembled from 255861 transcripts, with N50 of 1700. Of all unigenes, about 23% were identified with at least one significant match to known databases. In all four pair of comparison, 1840 genes were found to be expressed differently. Global hypometabolism was found to be occurred in the slow growing population, based on which the hypothesis was raised that growth retardation in individual growth variation of sea cucumber is one type of dormancy which is used to be against to adverse circumstances. Besides, the pathways such as ECM-receptor interaction and focal adhesion were enriched in the maintenance of cell and tissue structure and communication. Further, 76645 SSRs, 765242 SNPs and 146886 ins-dels were detected in the current study providing an extensive set of data for future studies of genetic mapping and selective breeding. In summary, these results will provides deep insight into the molecular basis of individual growth variation in marine invertebrates, and be valuable for understanding the physiological differences of growth process.

  14. Fucosylated chondroitin sulfate is covalently associated with collagen fibrils in sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus body wall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Chang, Yaoguang; Wu, Fanxiu; Xu, Xiaoqi; Xue, Changhu

    2018-04-15

    Fucosylated chondroitin sulfate (fCS) is the major carbohydrate constituent of sea cucumber. However, the distribution of fCS in the sea cucumber body wall has not been fully described. We addressed this in the present study employing Apostichopus japonicus as the material, a sea cucumber species with significant commercial importance. It was found that fCS was covalently attached to collagen fibrils via O-glycosidic linkages. Transmission electron microscopy analysis revealed that fCS precipitate was present in gap regions of collagen fibrils as roughly globular or ellipsoidal dots. The fCS dots arranged circumferentially around the fibrils with an axial repeat period that matched the periodicity of the fibrils. Physicochemical analysis indicated that the presence of fCS significantly increased the negative charge of the fibrils. These findings provide novel insight into fCS distribution in the sea cucumber body wall and its supramolecular organization with other macromolecules. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of different microbes on fermenting feed for sea cucumber ( Apostichopus japonicus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yan; Wang, Yingeng; Mai, Kangsen; Zhang, Zheng; Liao, Meijie; Rong, Xiaojun

    2015-10-01

    The effects of different microbes on fermenting feed for sea cucumber ( Apostichopus japonicus) were compared to select the optimal fermentation strain in this study. Saccharomgces cerevisae, Candida utilis, Bacillus subtilis and Geotrichum candidum were independently added into the experimental compound feed, while only saline was mixed with the control feed. The fermentation treatments were inoculated with 10% seed solution under the condition of 25°C and 70% water content, which lasted for 5 days to elucidate the optimal microbe strain for fermenting effect. Physicochemical indexes and sensorial characteristics were measured per day during the fermentation. The indexes included dry matter recovery (DMR), crude protein (CP), the percentage of amino acid nitrogen to total nitrogen (AA-N/tN), the percentage of ammonia nitrogen to total nitrogen (NH3-N/tN), and the ratio of fermentation strains and vibrios to the total microbes, color, smell and viscosity. The results showed that DMR, CP and AA-N/tN of the S. cerevisae group reached the highest level on day 3, but the ratio of fermentation strain was second to C. utilis group. In addition, its NH3-N/tN and the ratio of vibrios were maintained at low levels, and the sensory evaluation score including smell, color and viscosity was the highest in S. cerevisae group on day 3. Therefore, S. cerevisae could be the optimal strain for the feed fermentation for sea cucumber. This research developed a new production method of fermentation feed for sea cucumber.

  16. Transcriptome analysis of tube foot and large scale marker discovery in sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaoxu; Wang, Hongdi; Cui, Jun; Qiu, Xuemei; Chang, Yaqing; Wang, Xiuli

    2016-12-01

    Tube foot as one of the ambulacral appendages types in Aspidochirote holothurioids, is known for their functions in locomotion, feeding, chemoreception, light sensitivity and respiration. In this study, we explored the characteristic of transcriptome in the tube foot of sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus). Our results showed that among 390 unigenes which specifically expressed in the tube foot, 190 of them were annotated. Based on the assembly transcriptome, we found 219,860 SNPs from 34,749 unigenes, 97,683, 53,624, 27,767 and 40,786 were located in CDSs, 5'-UTRs, 3'-UTRs and non-CDS separately. Furthermore, 12,114 SSRs were detected from 7394 unigenes. Target genes of four specifically expressed miRNAs (miR-29a, miR-29b, miR-278-3p and miR-2005) in tube foot were also predicted based on the transcriptome, which contain immune-related factors (MBL, VLRA, AjC3, MyD88, CFB), skin pigmentation (MITF), candidate regeneration factor (TRP) and holothurians autolysis-related factor (CL). These results develop a relatively large number of molecular markers and transcriptome resources, and will provide a foundation for further analyses on the function and molecular mechanisms underlying A. japonicas tube foot. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Production, optimisation and characterisation of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitory peptides from sea cucumber (Stichopus japonicus) gonad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Chan; Sun, Le-Chang; Yan, Long-Jie; Lin, Yi-Chen; Liu, Guang-Ming; Cao, Min-Jie

    2018-01-24

    In this study, production of bioactive peptides with angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity from sea cucumber (Stichopus japonicus) gonad using commercial protamex was optimised by response surface methodology (RSM). As a result, the optimal condition to achieve the highest ACE inhibitory activity in sea cucumber gonad hydrolysate (SCGH) was hydrolysis for 1.95 h and E/S of 0.75%. For further characterisation, three individual peptides (EIYR, LF and NAPHMR) were purified and identified. The peptide NAPHMR showed the highest ACE inhibitory activity with IC 50 of 260.22 ± 3.71 μM. NAPHMR was stable against simulated gastrointestinal digestion and revealed no significant cytotoxicity toward Caco-2 cells. Molecular docking study suggested that Arg, His and Asn residues in NAPHMR interact with the S2 pocket or Zn 2+ binding motifs of ACE via hydrogen or π-bonds, potentially contributing to ACE inhibitory effect. Sea cucumber gonad is thus a potential resource to produce ACE inhibitory peptides for preparation of functional foods.

  18. Structure and rheological characteristics of fucoidan from sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Long; Xue, Changhu; Chang, Yaoguang; Hu, Yanfang; Xu, Xiaoqi; Ge, Lei; Liu, Guanchen

    2015-08-01

    Sea cucumber is a traditional health food consumed in East Asia. In this study, fucoidan from sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Aj-FUC) was isolated, and its structure and rheological characteristics were elucidated for the first time. Aj-FUC was a branched polysaccharide mainly composed of a novel repeating unit [α-L-Fucp2(OSO3(-))-1 → 3,(α-L-Fucp-1 → 4-α-L-Fucp-1 →)4-α-L-Fucp2(OSO3(-))-1 → 3-α-L-Fucp2(OSO3(-))], clarified by using a combination of infrared spectroscopy, methylation analysis, enzymatic degradation and nuclear magnetic resonance. In steady shear measurement, Aj-FUC manifested a non-Newtonian shear-thinning behaviour at low shear rate (1-100 S(-1)) while exhibiting a non-Newtonian shear-thickening behaviour at high shear rate (100-1000 S(-1)); salts had limited impact on its flow curve. Comparative study on viscosity and rheological behaviour of Aj-FUC and a linear fucoidan extracted from sea cucumber Acaudina molpadioides suggested that the presence of branch structure might significantly influence the rheological characteristics of fucoidan. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Molecular cloning and functional characterization of cathepsin D from sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Cuiping; Cha, Yue; Wu, Fan; Xu, Xianbing; Qin, Lei; Du, Ming

    2017-11-01

    Cathepsin D (CTSD, EC 3.4.23.5) belongs to aspartic protease family, which is located in lysosomes and is distributed in diverse tissues and cells. CTSD has a wide variety of physiological functions, owing to its proteolytic activity in degradating proteins and peptides. In the current study, the full length cDNA of sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus) cathepsin D (AjCTSD) was firstly cloned, then the association between AjCTSD and sea cucumber autolysis was investigated. The full length cDNA of AjCTSD was 2896 bp, with an open reading frame (ORF) for 391 amino acids. AjCTSD was widely expressed in body wall, muscle and intestine; the expression level was the highest in intestine, followed by muscle and body wall. Compared to fresh tissues, AjCTSD expression levels were significantly increased in all examined autolytic tissues. The purified recombinant AjCTSD promoted the degradation of sea cucumber muscle. In conclusion, AjCTSD contributed to sea cucumber muscle autolysis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of environment factors on initiation of sperm motility in sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Li; Shao, Mingyu; Bao, Zhenmin; Hu, Jingjie; Zhang, Zhifeng

    2011-06-01

    Sperm of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka) were quiescent in electrolyte NaCl solution and artificial seawater (ASW) and nonelectrolyte glucose and mannitol solutions when the osmolality was less than 200 mOsm kg-1. The sperm started to be motile as a result of increased osmolality, indicating an osmolality-dependent initiation of sperm motility in sea cucumber. After a brief incubation in hypotonic NaCl and glucose solutions with osmolalities of 200 and 400 mOsm kg-1, sperm lost partial motile ability. Sperm became immobilized when pH was 6.0 in NaCl, glucose and mannitol solutions, suggesting that an H+ release is involved in sperm activation. The decreased pH had no effect on the percentage of motile sperm in ASW, whereas it delayed the time period to reach the maximum motility (motilitymax). Extracellular Ca2+ in electrolyte solutions was not essential for motility stimulation but shortened the time of reaching motilitymax. When Ca2+ was mixed in nonelectrolyte solutions the sperm motility was completely suppressed. The K+ channel blocker, quinine, suppressed the sperm motility in electrolyte solution, showing a possible involvement of K+ transport in the process. High K+ concentration did not affect the sperm motility in NaCl solution, but decreased it in ASW and almost entirely suppressed it in nonelectrolyte solutions. The different effects of pH and K+ in ASW and NaCl solution indicate that external ions may also regulate sperm motility.

  1. Transcriptome analysis of the sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus with variation in individual growth.

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    Lei Gao

    Full Text Available The sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus is an economically important aquaculture species in China. However, the serious individual growth variation often caused financial losses to farmers and the genetic mechanisms are poorly understood. In the present study, the extensively analysis at the transcriptome level for individual growth variation in sea cucumber was carried out. A total of 118946 unigenes were assembled from 255861 transcripts, with N50 of 1700. Of all unigenes, about 23% were identified with at least one significant match to known databases. In all four pair of comparison, 1840 genes were found to be expressed differently. Global hypometabolism was found to be occurred in the slow growing population, based on which the hypothesis was raised that growth retardation in individual growth variation of sea cucumber is one type of dormancy which is used to be against to adverse circumstances. Besides, the pathways such as ECM-receptor interaction and focal adhesion were enriched in the maintenance of cell and tissue structure and communication. Further, 76645 SSRs, 765242 SNPs and 146886 ins-dels were detected in the current study providing an extensive set of data for future studies of genetic mapping and selective breeding. In summary, these results will provides deep insight into the molecular basis of individual growth variation in marine invertebrates, and be valuable for understanding the physiological differences of growth process.

  2. Parental Effect of Long Acclimatization on Thermal Tolerance of Juvenile Sea Cucumber Apostichopus japonicus.

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    Qing-Lin Wang

    Full Text Available To evaluate the thermal resistance of marine invertebrates to elevated temperatures under scenarios of future climate change, it is crucial to understand parental effect of long acclimatization on thermal tolerance of offspring. To test whether there is parental effect of long acclimatization, adult sea cucumbers (Apostichopus japonicus from the same broodstock were transplanted southward and acclimatized at high temperature in field mesocosms. Four groups of juvenile sea cucumbers whose parents experienced different durations of high temperature acclimatization were established. Upper thermal limits, oxygen consumption and levels of heat shock protein mRNA of juveniles was determined to compare thermal tolerance of individuals from different groups. Juvenile sea cucumbers whose parents experienced high temperature could acquire high thermal resistance. With the increase of parental exposure duration to high temperature, offspring became less sensitive to high temperature, as indicated by higher upper thermal limits (LT50, less seasonal variations of oxygen consumption, and stable oxygen consumption rates between chronic and acute thermal stress. The relatively high levels of constitutive expression of heat-shock proteins should contribute to the high thermal tolerance. Together, these results indicated that the existence of a parental effect of long acclimatization would increase thermal tolerance of juveniles and change the thermal sensitivity of sea cucumber to future climate change.

  3. Variations in early life history traits of Japanese anchovy Engraulis japonicus in the Yangtze River Estuary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chunlong; Xian, Weiwei; Liu, Shude; Chen, Yifeng

    2018-01-01

    Resources of Japanese anchovy ( Engraulis japonicus Temminck & Schlegel, 1846) are undergoing dramatic recessions in China as the consequence of intensifying anthropogenic activities. Elucidating the influences of local-scale environmental factors on early life history traits is of great importance to design strategies conserving and restoring the declining anchovy resources. In this research, we studied hatching date and early growth of anchovy in the Yangtze River Estuary (YRE) using information obtained from otolith microstructure. Onset of hatching season and growth rates of anchovy was compared to populations in Japan and Taiwan. In YRE, the hatching date of anchovy ranged from February 26th to April 6th and mean growth rate ranged from 0.27 to 0.77 mm/d. Anchovies hatching later had higher growth rates than individuals hatching earlier before the 25th day. Among populations, hatching onsets of anchovy from the higher latitude were later than populations in the lower latitude, and growth rates of anchovy in YRE were much lower than populations in Japan and Taiwan. Variations in hatching onsets and early growth patterns of anchovy thus provide important knowledge on understanding the adaptation of anchovy in YRE and designing management strategies on conserving China's anchovy resources.

  4. Lipolytic Potential of Aspergillus japonicus LAB01: Production, Partial Purification, and Characterisation of an Extracellular Lipase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Lívia Tereza Andrade; Oliveira, Jamil S.; dos Santos, Vera L.; Regis, Wiliam C. B.; Santoro, Marcelo M.; Resende, Rodrigo R.

    2014-01-01

    Lipolytic potential of Aspergillus japonicus LAB01 was investigated by describing the catalytic properties and stability of a secreted extracellular lipase. Enzyme production was considered high under room temperature after 4 days using sunflower oil and a combination of casein with sodium nitrate. Lipase was partially purified by 3.9-fold, resulting in a 44.2% yield using ammonium sulphate precipitation (60%) quantified with Superose 12 HR gel filtration chromatography. The activity of the enzyme was maximised at pH 8.5, and the enzyme demonstrated stability under alkaline conditions. The optimum temperature was found to be 45°C, and the enzyme was stable for up to 100 minutes, with more than 80% of initial activity remaining after incubation at this temperature. Partially purified enzyme showed reasonable stability with triton X-100 and was activated in the presence of organic solvents (toluene, hexane, and methanol). Among the tested ions, only Cu2+, Ni2+, and Al3+ showed inhibitory effects. Substrate specificity of the lipase was higher for C14 among various p-nitrophenyl esters assayed. The KM and V max values of the purified enzyme for p-nitrophenyl palmitate were 0.13 mM and 12.58 umol/(L·min), respectively. These features render a novel biocatalyst for industrial applications. PMID:25530954

  5. The first detection of Babesia species DNA from Japanese black bears (Ursus thibetanus japonicus) in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikawa, Kazuhito; Aoki, Mikiko; Ichikawa, Madoka; Itagaki, Tadashi

    2011-06-01

    In this study, we tried to detect protozoan blood parasites from the liver or blood of 156 Japanese black bears (Ursus thibetanus japonicus) in Iwate Prefecture of Japan by polymerase chain reaction. Two amplicons (approximately 540 bp and 480 bp) were detected by amplification for V4 hyper-variable regions of the 18S rRNA gene. Approximately 540-bp products were obtained in 119 samples (76.3%) and were considered to be DNA of Hepatozoon ursi. Approximately 480-bp products were obtained in 22 samples (14.1%) and were considered to be DNA of Babesia species. The nucleotide sequences (1635 bp) of the 18S rRNA gene of Babesia sp. were very similar (99.3%) to those (AY190123, AY190124) of Babesia sp. detected previously from Ixodes ovatus. Phylogenetic analysis showed that Babesia sp. detected in this study closely related to Babesia sp. derived from raccoons in Japan and the U.S.A. This is the first report of Babesia species detected from Japanese black bears. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Evaluation of stored body fat in nuisance-killed Japanese black bears (Ursus thibetanus japonicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanaka, Atsushi; Asano, Makoto; Suzuki, Masatsugu; Mizoguchi, Toshio; Oi, Toru; Shimozuru, Michito; Tsubota, Toshio

    2011-02-01

    We evaluated the stored body fat of Japanese black bears (Ursus thibetanus japonicus) killed as nuisances in Gifu and Fukushima prefectures, Japan, during 2005-2007. We employed femur marrow fat (FMF), modified kidney fat index (mKFI), and abdominal subcutaneous fat (ASF) as indices for quantitative evaluation. We examined the basic characteristics of these indices, such as seasonality, age and sex dependency, and the quantitative relationship among them. mKFI and ASF increased towards the beginning of the denning period (December), while FMF was relatively stable throughout the sampling period (July-December). In cubs, all indices showed significantly lower values than in the older age classes. There seemed to be a catabolizing order between FMF and mKFI, but not between mKFI and ASF. We also evaluated the yearly change in the indices, and discussed its relevance to the incidence of bear intrusion into human residential areas. Bears nuisance-killed in summer (July-September) 2006 had a significantly larger amount of stored body fat than those killed in summer 2007, although the number of nuisance kills was larger in 2006 than in 2007. This suggests that poor nutritional condition is not a direct cause of bear intrusion.

  7. Development of observational learning during school formation in jack mackerel Trachurus japonicus juveniles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Kohji; Masuda, Reiji; Yamashita, Yoh

    2014-03-01

    We assessed whether the development of observational learning in jack mackerel Trachurus japonicus juveniles corresponds with that of their schooling behaviour. Schooling behaviour was quantitatively analyzed by nearest neighbour distance and separation angle in two size classes of fish, 20-mm and 40-mm in body length. Observer and non-observer fish with matching sizes were conditioned to pellets by temporarily stopping aeration. Observer fish were provided with five observation trials of other individuals feeding near an air stone when aeration was stopped. After the observation trial, fish were conditioned to pellets with the stop of aeration, and then the learning process was evaluated by the increase in the association with the feeding area when aeration was stopped. In 20-mm fish, which were at an immature stage of schooling behaviour, there was no difference in the learning process between observer and non-observer fish. In contrast, 40-mm fish were confirmed to have a well-developed schooling behaviour, and the observer learnt the feeding area more efficiently than the non-observer. This study provides evidence that observational learning develops along with the development of the social interaction. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Globally invasive, withdrawing at home: Aedes albopictus and Aedes japonicus facing the rise of Aedes flavopictus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaves, Luis Fernando

    2016-11-01

    It has been suggested that climate change may have facilitated the global expansion of invasive disease vectors, since several species have expanded their range as temperatures have warmed. Here, we present results from observations on two major global invasive mosquito vectors (Diptera: Culicidae), Aedes albopictus (Skuse) and Aedes japonicus (Theobald), across the altitudinal range of Mt. Konpira, Nagasaki, Japan, a location within their native range, where Aedes flavopictus Yamada, formerly a rare species, has now become dominant. Spatial abundance patterns of the three species suggest that temperature is an important factor influencing their adult distribution across the altitudinal range of Mt. Konpira. Temporal abundance patterns, by contrast, were associated with rainfall and showed signals of density-dependent regulation in the three species. The spatial and temporal analysis of abundance patterns showed that Ae. flavopictus and Ae. albopictus were negatively associated, even when accounting for differential impacts of weather and other environmental factors in their co-occurrence patterns. Our results highlight a contingency in the expansion of invasive vectors, the potential emergence of changes in their interactions with species in their native communities, and raise the question of whether these changes might be useful to predict the emergence of future invasive vectors.

  9. Whole-Body Microbiota of Sea Cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus) from South Korea for Improved Seafood Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae-Yoon; Lee, Jin-Jae; Kim, Bong-Soo; Choi, Sang Ho

    2017-10-28

    Sea cucumber ( Apostichopus japonicus ) is a popular seafood source in Asia, including South Korea, and its consumption has recently increased with recognition of its medicinal properties. However, because raw sea cucumber contains various microbes, its ingestion can cause foodborne illness. Therefore, analysis of the microbiota in the whole body of sea cucumber can extend our understanding of foodborne illness caused by microorganisms and help to better manage products. We collected 40 sea cucumbers from four different sites in August and November, which are known as the maximum production areas in Korea. The microbiota was analyzed by an Illumina MiSeq system, and bacterial amounts were quantified by real-time PCR. The diversity and bacterial amounts in sea cucumber were higher in August than in November. Alpha-, Beta-, and Gammaproteobacteria were common dominant classes in all samples. However, the microbiota composition differed according to sampling time and site. Staphylococcus warneri and Propionibacterium acnes were commonly detected potential pathogens in August and November samples, respectively. The effect of experimental Vibrio parahaemolyticus infection on the indigenous microbiota of sea cucumber was analyzed at different temperatures, revealing clear alterations of Psychrobacter and Moraxella ; thus, these shifts can be used as indicators for monitoring infection of sea cucumber. Although further studies are needed to clarify and understand the virulence and mechanisms of the identified pathogens of sea cucumber, our study provides a valuable reference for determining the potential of foodborne illness caused by sea cucumber ingestion and to develop monitoring strategies of products using microbiota information.

  10. Shoaling behaviour of Lates japonicus revealed through a digital camera logger

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    Sara Gonzalvo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Protecting endangered species is one of the main targets of conservation biology, but the study of these species is often a sensitive issue. The need to risk, and often take, the life of some specimens during the experiments is not easily justified. Technological advances provide scientists with tools that can reduce damage to studied species, while increasing the quality of the data obtained. Here, we analyse the social behaviour of an endangered Japanese fish, Akame (Lates japonicus, using an attached underwater camera. Social behaviour, especially concerning aggregations, is a key factor in conservation plans and fisheries management to avoid by-catch and to establish coherent protected areas. In this experiment, a fish-borne underwater still-camera logger was attached to a captured Akame, recording the individual in its natural environment in July, 2009. The images obtained from the camera revealed several groups of large adults moving together, showing for the first time in this species an aggregative behaviour. This discovery opens the door for initiation of protective measures to preserve these groups, which in turn, can help to ensure continuity of this fish in the Shimanto River by protecting the specific areas where these shoals gather.

  11. The hydraulic mechanism in the hind wing veins of Cybister japonicus Sharp (order: Coleoptera

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    Jiyu Sun

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The diving beetles (Dytiscidae, Coleoptera are families of water beetles. When they see light, they fly to the light source directly from the water. Their hind wings are thin and fragile under the protection of their elytra (forewings. When the beetle is at rest the hind wings are folded over the abdomen of the beetle and when in flight they unfold to provide the necessary aerodynamic forces. In this paper, the unfolding process of the hind wing of Cybister japonicus Sharp (order: Coleoptera was investigated. The motion characteristics of the blood in the veins of the structure system show that the veins have microfluidic control over the hydraulic mechanism of the unfolding process. A model is established, and the hind wing extending process is simulated. The blood flow and pressure changes are discussed. The driving mechanism for hydraulic control of the folding and unfolding actions of beetle hind wings is put forward. This can assist the design of new deployable micro air vehicles and bioinspired deployable systems.

  12. New insight into hybridization and unidirectional introgression between Ammodytes japonicus and Ammodytes heian (Trachiniformes, Ammodytidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin-Koo; Bae, Seung Eun; Lee, Soo Jeong; Yoon, Moon Geun

    2017-01-01

    Based on northern (NOL) and southern (SOL) mitochondrial lineages, recently, it proposed the new species Ammodytes heian and revived the species name Ammodytes japonicus to describe sand lances from the northwestern Pacific Ocean. This study used molecular methods to investigate genetic relationships between the two sand lance species in Korea and Japan. In total, 154 specimens were collected from four locations in Korea (Baengnyeongdo in the Yellow Sea, Tongyeong in the Korean Strait, and Jumunjin and Gijang in the East Sea), and 50 specimens were collected from a single location in Japan (Wakkanai in the Okhotsk Sea). Mitochondrial DNA analysis demonstrated that the individuals from Baengnyeongdo and Tongyeong all belonged to the SOL, whereas those from Gijang, Jumunjin, and Wakkanai included individuals from both the NOL and SOL (over 75% NOL). Population structure analyses were performed on the same individuals using seven microsatellite DNA markers. The population structure analysis based on 201 specimens identified two clusters (named as northern group and southern group), with the admixture proportion (q) of heian. However, the admixture proportion in the Jumunjin and Gijang sand lances was 0.71-0.75 for the southern group, indicating that hybridization and unidirectional introgression from SOL to NOL occurs in southwestern margin of the East Sea. Our findings illustrate the speciation process based on different patterns of gene flow between Korean and Japanese sand lance, which is strongly influenced by both the paleo-climatic change and the contemporary local oceanic current pattern.

  13. Ultrastructure and morphology of antennal sensilla of the adult diving beetle Cybister japonicus Sharp.

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    Li-Mei Song

    Full Text Available The morphology and distribution of the antennal sensilla of adult diving beetle Cybister japonicus Sharp (Dytiscidae, Coleoptera, have been examined. Five types of sensilla on the antennae were identified by scanning electron microscope (SEM and transmission electron microscope (TEM. Sensilla placodea and elongated s. placodea are the most abundant types of sensilla, distributing only on the flagellum. Both these types of sensilla carry multiple pore systems with a typical function as chemoreceptors. Three types of s. coeloconica (Type I-III were also identified, with the characterization of the pit-in-pit style, and carrying pegs externally different from each other. Our data indicated that both type I and type II of s. coleconica contain two bipolar neurons, while the type III of s. coleconica contains three dendrites in the peg. Two sensory dendrites in the former two sensilla are tightly embedded inside the dendrite sheath, with no space left for sensilla lymph. There are no specific morphological differences in the antennal sensilla observed between males and females, except that the males have longer antennae and more sensilla than the females.

  14. Alcohol Brine Freezing of Japanese Horse Mackerel (Trachurus japonicus) for Raw Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Toshimichi; Yuki, Atsuhiko; Sakurai, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Koichiro; Itoh, Nobuo; Inui, Etsuro; Seike, Kazunori; Mizukami, Yoichi; Fukuda, Yutaka; Harada, Kazuki

    In order to test the possible application of alcohol brine freezing to Japanese horse mackerel (Trachurus japonicus) for raw consumption, the quality and taste of fish frozen by direct immersion in 60% ethanol brine at -20, -25 and -30°C was compared with those by air freezing and fresh fish without freezing. Cracks were not found during the freezing. Smell of ethanol did not remain. K value, an indicator of freshness, of fish frozen in alcohol brine was less than 8.3%, which was at the same level as those by air freezing and fresh fish. Oxidation of lipid was at the same level as air freezing does, and lower than that of fresh fish. The pH of fish frozen in alcohol brine at -25 and -30°C was 6.5 and 6.6, respectively, which were higher than that by air freezing and that of fresh fish. Fish frozen in alcohol brine was better than that by air and at the same level as fresh fish in total evaluation of sensory tests. These results show that the alcohol brine freezing is superior to air freezing, and fish frozen in alcohol brine can be a material for raw consumption. The methods of thawing in tap water, cold water, refrigerator, and at room temperature were compared. Thawing in tap water is considered to be convenient due to the short thaw time and the quality of thawed fish that was best among the methods.

  15. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate protects Kuruma shrimp Marsupeneaus japonicus from white spot syndrome virus and Vibrio alginolyticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhi; Sun, Baozhen; Zhu, Fei

    2018-07-01

    Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) is the most abundant catechin in green tea and exhibits potential antibacterial and anticancer activities. In this study, EGCG was used in pathogen-challenge experiments in shrimp to discover its effect on the innate immune system of an invertebrate. Kuruma shrimp Marsupeneaus japonicus was used as an experimental model and challenged with white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) and the Gram-negative bacterium Vibrio alginolyticus. Pathogen-challenge experiments showed that EGCG pretreatment significantly delayed and reduced mortality upon WSSV and V. alginolyticus infection, with VP-28 copies of WSSV also reduced. Quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction revealed the positive influence of EGCG on several innate immune-related genes, including IMD, proPO, QM, myosin, Rho, Rab7, p53, TNF-alpha, MAPK, and NOS, and we observed positive influences on three immune parameters, including total hemocyte count and phenoloxidase and superoxide dismutase activities, by EGCG treatment. Additionally, results showed that EGCG treatment significantly reduced apoptosis upon V. alginolyticus challenge. These results indicated the positive role of EGCG in the shrimp innate immune system as an enhancer of immune parameters and an inhibitor of apoptosis, thereby delaying and reducing mortality upon pathogen challenge. Our findings provide insight into potential therapeutic or preventive functions associated with EGCG to enhance shrimp immunity and protect shrimp from pathogen infection. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Early Lotus japonicus root transcriptomic responses to symbiotic and pathogenic fungal exudates

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    Marco eGiovannetti

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to evaluate Lotus japonicus transcriptomic responses to arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM germinated spore exudates (GSE, responsible for activating nuclear Ca2+ spiking in plant root epidermis. A microarray experiment was performed comparing gene expression in Lotus rootlets treated with GSE or water after 24 h and 48 h. The transcriptional pattern of selected genes that resulted to be regulated in the array was further evaluated upon different treatments and timings. In particular, Lotus rootlets were treated with: GSE from the pathogenic fungus Colletotrichum trifolii; short chitin oligomers (acknowledged AM fungal signals and long chitin oligomers (as activators of pathogenic responses. This experimental set up has revealed that AM GSE generates a strong transcriptomic response in Lotus roots with an extensive defense-related response after 24 hours and a subsequent downregulation after 48 hours. A similar subset of defense-related genes resulted to be upregulated also upon treatment with C. trifolii GSE, although with an opposite trend. Surprisingly, long chitin oligomers activated both defense-like and symbiosis-related genes. Among the genes regulated in the microarray, promoter-GUS assay showed that LjMATE1 activates in epidermal cells and root hairs.

  17. Structural characterization of fucosylated chondroitin sulfates from sea cucumbers Apostichopus japonicus and Actinopyga mauritiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ustyuzhanina, Nadezhda E; Bilan, Maria I; Dmitrenok, Andrey S; Tsvetkova, Eugenia A; Shashkov, Alexander S; Stonik, Valentin A; Nifantiev, Nikolay E; Usov, Anatolii I

    2016-11-20

    Two samples of fucosylated chondroitin sulfate (FCS), AJ and AM, were isolated from holothurian species Apostichopus japonicus and Actinopyga mauritiana, respectively. Purification of FCS was performed by ion exchange chromatography followed by gel filtration. Structure of the biopolymers was elucidated using chemical and NMR spectroscopic methods. Both polysaccharides were shown to contain a typical chondroitin core built up of repeating disaccharide units →3)-β-d-GalNAc-(1→4)-β-d-GlcA-(1→ and decorated by sulfate groups and α-l-Fuc branches. Two polysaccharides were different in pattern of sulfation of GalNAc and fucosyl branches connected to O-3 of GlcA. The ratio of GalNAc4S6S:GalNAc4S for AJ was about 2:1, whereas for AM this value was approximately 1:1. AJ contained Fucp2S4S and Fucp3S4S residues linked to O-3 of GlcA in a ratio of 3:1, while for AM this ratio was 1:4. Small portions of Fucp4S units attached to O-3 of GlcA were also found in both polysaccharides. Moreover, in a structure of AM the presence of Fucp3S residues linked to O-6 of GalNAc were determined using the data of NMR spectra. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. A Dicarboxylate Transporter, LjALMT4, Mainly Expressed in Nodules of Lotus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takanashi, Kojiro; Sasaki, Takayuki; Kan, Tomohiro; Saida, Yuka; Sugiyama, Akifumi; Yamamoto, Yoko; Yazaki, Kazufumi

    2016-07-01

    Legume plants can establish symbiosis with soil bacteria called rhizobia to obtain nitrogen as a nutrient directly from atmospheric N2 via symbiotic nitrogen fixation. Legumes and rhizobia form nodules, symbiotic organs in which fixed-nitrogen and photosynthetic products are exchanged between rhizobia and plant cells. The photosynthetic products supplied to rhizobia are thought to be dicarboxylates but little is known about the movement of dicarboxylates in the nodules. In terms of dicarboxylate transporters, an aluminum-activated malate transporter (ALMT) family is a strong candidate responsible for the membrane transport of carboxylates in nodules. Among the seven ALMT genes in the Lotus japonicus genome, only one, LjALMT4, shows a high expression in the nodules. LjALMT4 showed transport activity in a Xenopus oocyte system, with LjALMT4 mediating the efflux of dicarboxylates including malate, succinate, and fumarate, but not tricarboxylates such as citrate. LjALMT4 also mediated the influx of several inorganic anions. Organ-specific gene expression analysis showed LjALMT4 mRNA mainly in the parenchyma cells of nodule vascular bundles. These results suggest that LjALMT4 may not be involved in the direct supply of dicarboxylates to rhizobia in infected cells but is responsible for supplying malate as well as several anions necessary for symbiotic nitrogen fixation, via nodule vasculatures.

  19. TRBP and eIF6 homologue in Marsupenaeus japonicus play crucial roles in antiviral response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuai Wang

    Full Text Available Plants and invertebrates can suppress viral infection through RNA silencing, mediated by RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC. Trans-activation response RNA-binding protein (TRBP, consisting of three double-stranded RNA-binding domains, is a component of the RISC. In our previous paper, a TRBP homologue in Fenneropenaeus chinensis (Fc-TRBP was reported to directly bind to eukaryotic initiation factor 6 (Fc-eIF6. In this study, we further characterized the function of TRBP and the involvement of TRBP and eIF6 in antiviral RNA interference (RNAi pathway of shrimp. The double-stranded RNA binding domains (dsRBDs B and C of the TRBP from Marsupenaeus japonicus (Mj-TRBP were found to mediate the interaction of TRBP and eIF6. Gel-shift assays revealed that the N-terminal of Mj-TRBP dsRBD strongly binds to double-stranded RNA (dsRNA and that the homodimer of the TRBP mediated by the C-terminal dsRBD increases the affinity to dsRNA. RNAi against either Mj-TRBP or Mj-eIF6 impairs the dsRNA-induced sequence-specific RNAi pathway and facilitates the proliferation of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV. These results further proved the important roles of TRBP and eIF6 in the antiviral response of shrimp.

  20. Proteomic analysis reveals the important roles of alpha-5-collagen and ATP5β during skin ulceration syndrome progression of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zelong; Jiang, Jingwei; Pan, Yongjia; Sun, Hongjuan; Guan, Xiaoyan; Gao, Shan; Chen, Zhong; Dong, Ying; Zhou, Zunchun

    2018-03-20

    Apostichopus japonicus is one of the most important aquaculture species in China. Skin ulceration syndrome (SUS) of sea cucumber is a common and serious disease affected the development of A. japonicus culture industry. To better understand the response mechanisms of A. japonicus during SUS progression, the protein variations in the body wall of A. japonicus at different stages of SUS were investigated by a comparative proteomic approach based on isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification. A total of 1449 proteins were identified from the samples at different SUS stages. Among these proteins, 145 proteins were differentially expressed in the SUS-related samples compared to those of healthy A. japonicus. These differentially expressed proteins involved a wide range of functions. Among these differentially expressed proteins, only two proteins, alpha-5-collagen and an unknown function protein, were differentially expressed during the whole progression of SUS compared with healthy A. japonicus. In addition, ATP synthase subunit beta (ATP5β) interacted with a variety of proteins with different functions during the SUS progression. These results implied that alpha-5-collagen and ATP5β could play important roles during the SUS progression of A. japonicus. Our study provided a new sight to understand the molecular responses of sea cucumber during the SUS progression and accumulated data for the prevention of SUS in sea cucumber aquaculture. The current study aimed to reveal how the body wall of Apostichopus japonicus response to skin ulceration syndrome (SUS). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first proteomic study analyzing the differences in protein profile of sea cucumber during the whole SUS progression. By analyzing the expression differences of the proteome via isobaric labeling-based quantitative proteomic, we identified some proteins which may play important roles during the SUS progression. According to the enrichment analyses of these

  1. Parental leave and child health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhm, C J

    2000-11-01

    This study investigates whether rights to parental leave improve pediatric health. Aggregate data are used for 16 European countries over the 1969 through 1994 period. More generous paid leave is found to reduce deaths of infants and young children. The magnitudes of the estimated effects are substantial, especially where a causal effect of leave is most plausible. In particular, there is a much stronger negative relationship between leave durations and post-neonatal or child fatalities than for perinatal mortality, neonatal deaths, or low birth weight. The evidence further suggests that parental leave may be a cost-effective method of bettering child health.

  2. Maximally Entangled Multipartite States: A Brief Survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enríquez, M; Wintrowicz, I; Życzkowski, K

    2016-01-01

    The problem of identifying maximally entangled quantum states of a composite quantum systems is analyzed. We review some states of multipartite systems distinguished with respect to certain measures of quantum entanglement. Numerical results obtained for 4-qubit pure states illustrate the fact that the notion of maximally entangled state depends on the measure used. (paper)

  3. Utility maximization and mode of payment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, R.H.; Ridder, G.; Heijmans, R.D.H.; Pollock, D.S.G.; Satorra, A.

    2000-01-01

    The implications of stochastic utility maximization in a model of choice of payment are examined. Three types of compatibility with utility maximization are distinguished: global compatibility, local compatibility on an interval, and local compatibility on a finite set of points. Keywords:

  4. Corporate Social Responsibility and Profit Maximizing Behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Becchetti, Leonardo; Giallonardo, Luisa; Tessitore, Maria Elisabetta

    2005-01-01

    We examine the behavior of a profit maximizing monopolist in a horizontal differentiation model in which consumers differ in their degree of social responsibility (SR) and consumers SR is dynamically influenced by habit persistence. The model outlines parametric conditions under which (consumer driven) corporate social responsibility is an optimal choice compatible with profit maximizing behavior.

  5. CNS activity of leaves extract of Calotropis gigantea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh Dattatraya Ghule

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study central nervous system activity of ethanolic extract of leaves of Calotropis gigantea (C. gigantea (Asclepiadaceae, such as anticonvulsant, sedative and muscle relaxation activity. Methods: The ethanolic extract of C. gigantea administered orally in experimental animals at different doses 100, 200 and 500 mg/kg body weight. The anticonvulsant properties were studied on maximal electroshock test and strychnine-induced convulsions model. Sedative property studied using actophotometer and skeletal muscle relaxant property studied using rota rod. Results: This extract protected rats against maximal electroshock induced seizures, but had no or a moderate effect only against strychnine-induced seizures. Locomotor activity in mice found to be decreased and motor coordination was also decreased. The acute toxicity study revealed safely of the extract up to a dose of 2 000 mg/kg. Conclusions: With these effects, the leaves of C. gigantea possess anticonvulsant sedative and muscle relaxant effect that might explain its use as a traditional medicine.

  6. The prevalence of sick leave

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Backhausen, Mette; Damm, Peter; Bendix, Jane

    2018-01-01

    of long-term sick leave. Method Data from 508 employed pregnant women seeking antenatal care was collected by questionnaires from August 2015 to March 2016. The questionnaires, which were filled in at 20 and 32 weeks of gestation, provided information on maternal characteristics, the number of days spent...... on sick leave and the associated reasons. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression analysis were applied. Results The prevalence of sick leave was 56% of employed pregnant women in the first 32 weeks of gestation and more than one in four reported long-term sick leave (>20 days, continuous...... was a negative predictor. Conclusions The prevalence of sick leave was 56% in the first 32 weeks of gestation and more than one in four women reported long-term sick leave. The majority of reasons for sick leave were pregnancy-related and low back pain was the most frequently given reason....

  7. The Cloning and Characterization of the Enolase2 Gene of Gekko japonicus and Its Polyclonal Antibody Preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei Liu

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The enolase2 gene is usually expressed in mature neurons and also named neuron specific enolase (NSE. In the present study, we first obtained the NSE gene cDNA sequence by using the RACE method based on the expressed sequence tag (EST fragment from the cDNA library of Gekko japonicus and identified one transcript of about 2.2 kb in central nervous system of Gekko japonicus by Northern blotting. The open reading frame of NSE is 1305 bp, which encodes a 435 amino-acid protein. We further investigated the multi-tissue expression pattern of NSE by RT-PCR and found that the expression of NSE mRNA was very high in brain, spinal cord and low in heart, while it was not detectable in other tissues. The real-time quantitative PCR was used to investigate the time-dependent change in the expression of the NSE mRNA level after gecko spinal cord transection and found it significantly increased at one day, reaching its highest level three days post-injury and then decreasing at the seventh day of the experiment. The recombinant plasmid of pET-32a-NSE was constructed and induced to express His fused NSE protein. The purified NSE protein was used to immunize rabbits to generate polyclonal antisera. The titer of the antiserum was more than 1:65536 determined by ELISA. Western blotting showed that the prepared antibody could specifically recognize the recombinant and endogenous NSE protein. The result of immunohistochemistry revealed that positive signals were present in neurons of the brain and the spinal cord. This study provided the tools of cDNA and polyclonal antibody for studying NSE function in Gekko japonicus.

  8. Effect of acute salinity stress on ion homeostasis, Na+/K+-ATPase and histological structure in sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Chenfan; Tian, Yi; Shang, Yanpeng; Wang, Liqiang; Jiang, Yanan; Chang, Yaqing

    2016-01-01

    Sea cucumbers ( Apostichopus japonicus ) are an imperiled fauna exposed to a variety of environmental condition such as salinity and studies are urgently needed to assess their effects to guide aquaculture efforts. The effects of acute salinity stress on coelomic fluid osmotic pressure, ion concentrations, the activity of Na + /K + -ATPase in respiratory trees and the histological variations were measured to evaluate the salinity tolerance of sea cucumbers. Significant correlations in osmotic pressure were observed between coelomic fluid and ambient environmental salinity. In coelomic fluid, Na + concentration was observed fluctuated during salinity 18 psu and the inflection point presented at the 6 h. The Na + /K + -ATPase activity in respiratory trees indicated the "U-shaped" fluctuant change and the change trend was opposite with the Na + concentration. The ions (K + , Cl - ) concentration decreased and showed the same tendency at salinity 40 psu with salinity 18 psu. The total coelomocytes counts and phagocytosis of coelomic fluid Na + /K + -ATPase activity indicated fluctuating changes under different salinity stress. Histological variation revealed a negative relation between decreasing salt concentration and tissue integrity. Tissue damages were significantly observed in intestines, muscles and tube feet under low salinity environment (18, 23 and 27 psu). The connective tissue in intestines of A. japonicus exposed to 18 and 23 psu damaged and partly separated from the mucosal epithelium. The significant variations occurred in tube feet, which presented the swelling in connective tissue and a fracture in longitudinal muscles under low salinity (18 psu). The morphological change of tube feet showed the shrinkage of connective tissue under high salinity (40 psu). The amount of infusoria in the respiratory trees decreased or even disappeared in salinity treatment groups (18 and 23 psu). The results inferred that osmoconformity and ionoregulation were

  9. Bioenergetic trade-offs in the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Echinodermata: Holothuroidea) in response to CO2-driven ocean acidification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Xiutang; Shao, Senlin; Yang, Xiaolong; Yang, Dazuo; Xu, Qinzeng; Zong, Humin; Liu, Shilin

    2016-05-01

    Ocean acidification (OA) caused by excessive CO2 is a potential ecological threat to marine organisms. The impacts of OA on echinoderms are well-documented, but there has been a strong bias towards sea urchins, and limited information is available on sea cucumbers. This work examined the effect of medium-term (60 days) exposure to three pH levels (pH 8.06, 7.72, and 7.41, covering present and future pH variability) on the bioenergetic responses of the sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus, an ecologically and economically important holothurian in Asian coasts. Results showed that the measured specific growth rate linearly decreased with decreased pH, leading to a 0.42 %·day(-1) decrease at pH 7.41 compared with that at pH 8.06. The impacts of pH on physiological energetics were variable: measured energy consumption and defecation rates linearly decreased with decreased pH, whereas maintenance energy in calculated respiration and excretion were not significantly affected. No shift in energy allocation pattern was observed in A. japonicus upon exposure to pH 7.72 compared with pH 8.06. However, a significant shift in energy budget occurred upon exposure to pH 7.41, leading to decreased energy intake and increased percentage of energy that was lost in feces, thereby resulting in a significantly lowered allocation into somatic growth. These findings indicate that adult A. japonicus is resilient to the OA scenario at the end of the twenty-first century, but further acidification may negatively influence the grazing capability and growth, thereby influencing its ecological functioning as an "ecosystem engineer" and potentially harming its culture output.

  10. UV-B radiation-induced oxidative stress and p38 signaling pathway involvement in the benthic copepod Tigriopus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bo-Mi; Rhee, Jae-Sung; Lee, Kyun-Woo; Kim, Min-Jung; Shin, Kyung-Hoon; Lee, Su-Jae; Lee, Young-Mi; Lee, Jae-Seong

    2015-01-01

    Ultraviolet B (UV-B) radiation presents an environmental hazard to aquatic organisms. To understand the molecular responses of the intertidal copepod Tigriopus japonicus to UV-B radiation, we measured the acute toxicity response to 96 h of UV-B radiation, and we also assessed the intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, glutathione (GSH) content, and antioxidant enzyme (GST, GR, GPx, and SOD) activities after 24 h of exposure to UV-B with LD50 and half LD50 values. Also, expression patterns of p53 and hsp gene families with phosphorylation of p38 MAPK were investigated in UV-B-exposed copepods. We found that the ROS level, GSH content, and antioxidant enzyme activity levels were increased with the transcriptional upregulation of antioxidant-related genes, indicating that UV-B induces oxidative stress by generating ROS and stimulating antioxidant enzymatic activity as a defense mechanism. Additionally, we found that p53 expression was significantly increased after UV-B irradiation due to increases in the phosphorylation of the stress-responsive p38 MAPK, indicating that UV-B may be responsible for inducing DNA damage in T. japonicus. Of the hsp family genes, transcriptional levels of hsp20, hsp20.7, hsp70, and hsp90 were elevated in response to a low dose of UV-B radiation (9 kJ m(-2)), suggesting that these hsp genes may be involved in cellular protection against UV-B radiation. In this paper, we performed a pathway-oriented mechanistic analysis in response to UV-B radiation, and this analysis provides a better understanding of the effects of UV-B in the intertidal benthic copepod T. japonicus. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Inclusive fitness maximization: An axiomatic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okasha, Samir; Weymark, John A; Bossert, Walter

    2014-06-07

    Kin selection theorists argue that evolution in social contexts will lead organisms to behave as if maximizing their inclusive, as opposed to personal, fitness. The inclusive fitness concept allows biologists to treat organisms as akin to rational agents seeking to maximize a utility function. Here we develop this idea and place it on a firm footing by employing a standard decision-theoretic methodology. We show how the principle of inclusive fitness maximization and a related principle of quasi-inclusive fitness maximization can be derived from axioms on an individual׳s 'as if preferences' (binary choices) for the case in which phenotypic effects are additive. Our results help integrate evolutionary theory and rational choice theory, help draw out the behavioural implications of inclusive fitness maximization, and point to a possible way in which evolution could lead organisms to implement it. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Maximal Entanglement in High Energy Physics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alba Cervera-Lierta, José I. Latorre, Juan Rojo, Luca Rottoli

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available We analyze how maximal entanglement is generated at the fundamental level in QED by studying correlations between helicity states in tree-level scattering processes at high energy. We demonstrate that two mechanisms for the generation of maximal entanglement are at work: i $s$-channel processes where the virtual photon carries equal overlaps of the helicities of the final state particles, and ii the indistinguishable superposition between $t$- and $u$-channels. We then study whether requiring maximal entanglement constrains the coupling structure of QED and the weak interactions. In the case of photon-electron interactions unconstrained by gauge symmetry, we show how this requirement allows reproducing QED. For $Z$-mediated weak scattering, the maximal entanglement principle leads to non-trivial predictions for the value of the weak mixing angle $\\theta_W$. Our results are a first step towards understanding the connections between maximal entanglement and the fundamental symmetries of high-energy physics.

  13. Paid Family Leave, Fathers' Leave-Taking, and Leave-Sharing in Dual-Earner Households

    OpenAIRE

    Bartel, Ann P.; Rossin-Slater, Maya; Ruhm, Christopher J.; Stearns, Jenna; Waldfogel, Jane

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides quasi-experimental evidence on the impact of paid leave legislation on fathers' leave-taking, as well as on the division of leave between mothers and fathers in dual-earner households. Using difference-in-difference and difference-in-difference-in-difference designs, we study California's Paid Family Leave (CA-PFL) program, which is the first source of government-provided paid parental leave available to fathers in the United States. Our results show that fathers in Califo...

  14. Paid Family Leave, Fathers' Leave-Taking, and Leave-Sharing in Dual-Earner Households.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartel, Anne P; Rossin-Slater, Maya; Ruhm, Christopher J; Stearns, Jenna; Waldfogel, Jane

    Using difference-in-difference and difference-in-difference-in-difference designs, we study California's Paid Family Leave (CA-PFL) program, the first source of government-provided paid parental leave available to fathers in the Unites States. Relative to the pre-treatment mean, fathers of infants in California are 46 percent more likely to be on leave when CA-PFL is available. In households where both parents work, we find suggestive evidence that CA-PFL increases both father-only leave-taking (i.e., father on leave while mother is at work) and joint leave-taking (i.e., both parents on leave at the same time). Effects are larger for fathers of first-born children than for fathers of later-born children.

  15. Comparative transcriptome analysis of papilla and skin in the sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaoxu; Cui, Jun; Liu, Shikai; Kong, Derong; Sun, He; Gu, Chenlei; Wang, Hongdi; Qiu, Xuemei; Chang, Yaqing; Liu, Zhanjiang; Wang, Xiuli

    2016-01-01

    Papilla and skin are two important organs of the sea cucumber. Both tissues have ectodermic origin, but they are morphologically and functionally very different. In the present study, we performed comparative transcriptome analysis of the papilla and skin from the sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus) in order to identify and characterize gene expression profiles by using RNA-Seq technology. We generated 30.6 and 36.4 million clean reads from the papilla and skin and de novo assembled in 156,501 transcripts. The Gene Ontology (GO) analysis indicated that cell part, metabolic process and catalytic activity were the most abundant GO category in cell component, biological process and molecular funcation, respectively. Comparative transcriptome analysis between the papilla and skin allowed the identification of 1,059 differentially expressed genes, of which 739 genes were expressed at higher levels in papilla, while 320 were expressed at higher levels in skin. In addition, 236 differentially expressed unigenes were not annotated with any database, 160 of which were apparently expressed at higher levels in papilla, 76 were expressed at higher levels in skin. We identified a total of 288 papilla-specific genes, 171 skin-specific genes and 600 co-expressed genes. Also, 40 genes in papilla-specific were not annotated with any database, 2 in skin-specific. Development-related genes were also enriched, such as fibroblast growth factor, transforming growth factor-β, collagen-α2 and Integrin-α2, which may be related to the formation of the papilla and skin in sea cucumber. Further pathway analysis identified ten KEGG pathways that were differently enriched between the papilla and skin. The findings on expression profiles between two key organs of the sea cucumber should be valuable to reveal molecular mechanisms involved in the development of organs that are related but with morphological differences in the sea cucumber.

  16. Development of fatty acid biomarkers for the identification of wild and aquacultured sea cucumber ( Apostichopus japonicus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zadorozhnyj, P. A.; Pivnenko, T. N.; Kovalev, N. N.

    2016-02-01

    In this study, the fatty acids (FAs) of the organs and tissues of sea cucumber ( Apostichopus japonicus) were profiled in order to compare the FA composition of sea cucumber collected from natural habitat (wild) and cages (cultured). The differences in FA contents in dermomuscular tube, peripharyngeal annulus, gonad and intestine (with or without content) between the wild and the cultured were determined. The main fatty acids in all organs and tissues were 20:5n-3, 16:1n-7, 20:4n-6, 22:6n-3, 18:0, and 18:1n-7. The basically different FAs of body wall and digestive tube were 16:1n-7, 18:1n-9 and 20:1n-11. The ratio of saturated to mono- and polyunsaturated FAs in digestive tube was independent on inside content while there was a redistribution of the total amount of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids. The comparison of FA composition of the wild and the cultured sea cucumber showed that 20:5n-3, 16:1n-7 and 18:1n-7 predominated the wild while 20:4n-6 predominated the cultured. The content of branched-chain fatty acids in the wild was 3%-4% and about 9% in the cultured. The possible FAs for identifying the wild and the cultured sea cucumbers were selected. It was suggested that the indexes such as the ratio of either (n-3:n-6) to (n-7:n-6) or (n-3) + (n-7) to (n-6) may serve as the biomarkers distinguishing the wild and the cultured sea cucumber.

  17. Comparative transcriptome analysis of papilla and skin in the sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoxu Zhou

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Papilla and skin are two important organs of the sea cucumber. Both tissues have ectodermic origin, but they are morphologically and functionally very different. In the present study, we performed comparative transcriptome analysis of the papilla and skin from the sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus in order to identify and characterize gene expression profiles by using RNA-Seq technology. We generated 30.6 and 36.4 million clean reads from the papilla and skin and de novo assembled in 156,501 transcripts. The Gene Ontology (GO analysis indicated that cell part, metabolic process and catalytic activity were the most abundant GO category in cell component, biological process and molecular funcation, respectively. Comparative transcriptome analysis between the papilla and skin allowed the identification of 1,059 differentially expressed genes, of which 739 genes were expressed at higher levels in papilla, while 320 were expressed at higher levels in skin. In addition, 236 differentially expressed unigenes were not annotated with any database, 160 of which were apparently expressed at higher levels in papilla, 76 were expressed at higher levels in skin. We identified a total of 288 papilla-specific genes, 171 skin-specific genes and 600 co-expressed genes. Also, 40 genes in papilla-specific were not annotated with any database, 2 in skin-specific. Development-related genes were also enriched, such as fibroblast growth factor, transforming growth factor-β, collagen-α2 and Integrin-α2, which may be related to the formation of the papilla and skin in sea cucumber. Further pathway analysis identified ten KEGG pathways that were differently enriched between the papilla and skin. The findings on expression profiles between two key organs of the sea cucumber should be valuable to reveal molecular mechanisms involved in the development of organs that are related but with morphological differences in the sea cucumber.

  18. Identification and expression analysis of a novel stylicin antimicrobial peptide from Kuruma shrimp (Marsupenaeus japonicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hong-tao; Wang, Jun; Mao, Yong; Liu, Min; Niu, Su-fang; Qiao, Ying; Su, Yong-quan; Wang, Chun-zhong; Zheng, Zhi-peng

    2015-12-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are important components of the innate immune system and function as the first line of defense against invading pathogens. In current study we identified, cloned and characterized a novel stylicin AMP from Kuruma shrimp Marsupenaeus japonicus (Mj-sty). The full-length cDNA of Mj-sty was 428 bp with an open reading frame of 315 bp that encoded 104 amino acids. The theoretical molecular mass of mature Mj-sty was 8.693 kDa with an isoelectric point (pI) of 4.79. A proline-rich N-terminal region and a C-terminal region contained 13 cysteine residues were identified. Genomic sequence analysis with respect to its cDNA showed that Mj-sty was organized into two exons interrupted by one intron. Tissue-specific expression revealed that Mj-sty was mainly transcribed in gills and hemocytes. Expression of Mj-sty in early developmental stages demonstrated that Mj-sty mRNA were present from fertilized eggs to post-larvae of 17 days (PL17), and the expression levels showed a significant variation in different developmental stages. After challenge of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV), the time-dependent expression pattern of Mj-sty in both gills and hepatopancrease showed down-regulation at the early hours of infection, subsequently up-regulation and down-regulation, and then up-regulation at the end hours to almost the half of the controls. The results indicate that Mj-sty is potentially involved in the ontogenesis and immune responses against WSSV. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Streptomyces formicae sp. nov., a novel actinomycete isolated from the head of Camponotus japonicus Mayr.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Lu; Liu, Chongxi; Guo, Lifeng; Piao, Chenyu; Li, Zhilei; Li, Jiansong; Jia, Feiyu; Wang, Xiangjing; Xiang, Wensheng

    2016-02-01

    During a screening for novel and biotechnologically useful actinobacteria in insects, a novel actinomycete with antifungal activity, designated strain 1H-GS9(T), was isolated from the head of a Camponotus japonicus Mayr ant, which were collected from Northeast Agricultural University (Harbin, Heilongjiang, China). Strain 1H-GS9(T) was characterised using a polyphasic approach. The organism was found to have morphological and chemotaxonomic characteristics typical of members of the genus Streptomyces. 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity studies showed that strain 1H-GS9(T) belongs to the genus Streptomyces with high sequence similarities to Streptomyces scopuliridis DSM 41917(T) (98.8 %) and Streptomyces mauvecolor JCM 5002(T) (98.6 %). However, phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence indicated that it forms a monophyletic clade with Streptomyces kurssanovii JCM 4388(T) (98.6 %), Streptomyces xantholiticus JCM 4282(T) (98.6 %) and Streptomyces peucetius JCM 9920(T) (98.5 %). Thus, a combination of DNA-DNA hybridization experiments and phenotypic tests were carried out between strain 1H-GS9(T) and the above-mentioned five strains, which further clarified their relatedness and demonstrated that strain 1H-GS9(T) could be distinguished from these strains. Therefore, the strain is concluded to represent a novel species of the genus Streptomyces, for which the name Streptomyces formicae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is 1H-GS9(T) (=CGMCC 4.7277(T) = DSM 100524(T)).

  20. Streptomyces camponoticapitis sp. nov., an actinomycete isolated from the head of an ant (Camponotus japonicus Mayr).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yao; Ye, Lan; Wang, Xiangjing; Zhao, Junwei; Ma, Zhaoxu; Yan, Kai; Xiang, Wensheng; Liu, Chongxi

    2016-10-01

    A novel single-spore-producing actinomycete, designated strain 2H-TWYE14T, was isolated from the head of an ant (Camponotus japonicus Mayr) and characterized using a polyphasic approach. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that strain 2H-TWYE14T belongs to the genus Streptomyces, with highest sequence similarity to Streptomyces niveus NRRL 2466T (98.84 %). Analysis based on the gyrB gene also indicated that strain 2H-TWYE14T should be assigned to the genus Streptomyces. The chemotaxonomic properties of strain 2H-TWYE14T were consistent with those of members of the genus Streptomyces. The cell wall contained ll-diaminopimelic acid. The predominant menaquinones were MK-9(H6), MK-9(H8) and MK-9(H4). The phospholipid profile consisted of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylinositol mannoside. The major fatty acids were iso-C16 : 0 and iso-C15 : 0. DNA-DNA hybridization experiments and phenotypic tests were carried out between strain 2H-TWYE14T and its phylogenetically closely related strain S. niveus JCM 4251T, which further clarified their relatedness and demonstrated that 2H-TWYE14T could be distinguished from S. niveus. Therefore, it is concluded that strain 2H-TWYE14T can be classified as representing a novel species of the genus Streptomyces, for which the name Streptomyces camponoticapitis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is 2H-TWYE14T (=DSM 100523T=CGMCC 4.7275T).

  1. In vitro antibacterial analysis of phenoloxidase reaction products from the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jingwei; Zhou, Zunchun; Dong, Ying; Cong, Cong; Guan, Xiaoyan; Wang, Bai; Chen, Zhong; Jiang, Bei; Yang, Aifu; Gao, Shan; Sun, Hongjuan

    2014-08-01

    Three phenoloxidases (POs) of Apostichopus japonicus, AjPOs (AjPO1, AjPO2 and AjPO3), were partially purified from the coelomocytes with an electrophoretic method, and then employed for the in vitro antibacterial analysis. Using L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA) as a substrate, AjPO1 and AjPO2-derived compounds inhibited the growth of Vibrio splendidus and Staphylococcus aureus, while AjPO3-derived compounds only inhibited the growth of V. splendidus. When dopamine was used as a substrate, AjPO1 and AjPO3-derived compounds inhibited the growth of V. splendidus and Vibrio harveyi, while AjPO2-derived compounds only inhibited the growth of V. splendidus. Moreover, AjPO1-derived compounds showed stronger inhibition in V. harveyi than AjPO3-derived compounds did. However, all of the three AjPO reaction products showed no inhibitions on the growth of Pseudoalteromonas nigrifaciens, Shewanella baltica, Micrococcus lysodeikticus, Streptococcus dysgalactiae and Nocardiopsis sp. with L-DOPA or dopamine as a substrate. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) observation of V. harveyi treated by AjPOs and dopamine showed that AjPO1-derived compounds resulted in massive bacteriolysis, AjPO2-derived compounds caused no obvious alteration on bacterial morphology, and AjPO3-derived compounds increased the ratio of spheroidal bacteria. All these results suggested that AjPO reaction products derived by L-DOPA and dopamine had different but limited antibacterial spectrum, and the different antibacterial effects observed among three AjPOs resulted from the different reaction products generated by AjPOs with the same substrate. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. CERBERUS and NSP1 of Lotus japonicus are common symbiosis genes that modulate arbuscular mycorrhiza development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Naoya; Tsuzuki, Syusaku; Suzaki, Takuya; Parniske, Martin; Kawaguchi, Masayoshi

    2013-10-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis (AMS) and root nodule symbiosis (RNS) are mutualistic plant-microbe interactions that confer nutritional benefits to both partners. Leguminous plants possess a common genetic system for intracellular symbiosis with AM fungi and with rhizobia. Here we show that CERBERUS and NSP1, which respectively encode an E3 ubiquitin ligase and a GRAS transcriptional regulator and which have previously only been implicated in RNS, are involved in AM fungal infection in Lotus japonicus. Hyphal elongation along the longitudinal axis of the root was reduced in the cerberus mutant, giving rise to a lower colonization level. Knockout of NSP1 decreased the frequency of plants colonized by AM fungi or rhizobia. CERBERUS and NSP1 showed different patterns of expression in response to infection with symbiotic microbes. A low constitutive level of CERBERUS expression was observed in the root and an increased level of NSP1 expression was detected in arbuscule-containing cells. Induction of AM marker gene was triggered in both cerberus and nsp1 mutants by infection with symbiotic microbes; however, the mutants showed a weaker induction of marker gene expression than the wild type, mirroring their lower level of colonization. The common symbiosis genes are believed to act in an early signaling pathway for recognition of symbionts and for triggering early symbiotic responses. Our quantitative analysis of symbiotic phenotypes revealed developmental defects of the novel common symbiosis mutants in both symbioses, which demonstrates that common symbiosis mechanisms also contribute to a range of functions at later or different stages of symbiont infection.

  3. Distribution, Innervation, and Cellular Organization of Taste Buds in the Sea Catfish, Plotosus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Tatsufumi; Matsuyama, Naoki; Kirino, Masato; Kasai, Masanori; Kiyohara, Sadao; Ikenaga, Takanori

    2017-01-01

    The gustatory system of the sea catfish Plotosus japonicus, like that of other catfishes, is highly developed. To clarify the details of the morphology of the peripheral gustatory system of Plotosus, we used whole-mount immunohistochemistry to investigate the distribution and innervation of the taste buds within multiple organs including the barbels, oropharyngeal cavity, fins (pectoral, dorsal, and caudal), and trunk. Labeled taste buds could be observed in all the organs examined. The density of the taste buds was higher along the leading edges of the barbels and fins; this likely increases the chance of detecting food. In all the fins, the taste buds were distributed in linear arrays parallel to the fin rays. Labeling of nerve fibers by anti-acetylated tubulin antibody showed that the taste buds within each sensory field are innervated in different ways. In the barbels, large nerve bundles run along the length of the organ, with fascicles branching off to innervate polygonally organized groups of taste buds. In the fins, nerve bundles run along the axis of fin rays to innervate taste buds lying in a line. In each case, small fascicles of fibers branch from large bundles and terminate within the basal portions of the taste buds. Serotonin immunohistochemistry demonstrated that most of the taste buds in all the organs examined contained disk-shaped serotonin-immunopositive cells in their basal region. This indicates a similar organization of the taste buds, in terms of the existence of serotonin-immunopositive basal cells, across the different sensory fields in this species. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Improving the quality of Laminaria japonica-based diet for Apostichopus japonicus through degradation of its algin content with Bacillus amyloliquefaciens WB1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xitao; Wang, Lili; Che, Jian; Li, Zhen; Zhang, Jiancheng; Li, Xiaoyu; Hu, Weiqing; Xu, Yongping

    2015-07-01

    Laminaria japonica feedstuff is used as a substitute for Sargassum thunbergii in the small-scale culturing of Apostichopus japonicus (sea cucumber) because of its abundant sources and low price in China. However, the difficulty associated with the degradation of algin by A. japonicus and, hence, its utilization have limited the practical value of L. japonica feedstuff in sea cucumber farming. In this study, A. japonicus individuals were fed with L. japonica feedstuff pretreated, via fermentation with the algin-degrading bacterial strain, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens WB1, and their growth performance, nonspecific immune responses, and resistance against Vibrio infection were then determined over a 60-day period. Growth performance of these individuals was similar to those fed with a commercial feedstuff made from S. thunbergii (mean weight gain of 5.79 versus 5.69 g on day 60), but was significantly (P content had been degraded by B. amyloliquefaciens WB1 could improve the growth performance of A. japonicus as well its resistance to bacterial infection. It could therefore act as an alternative to S. thunbergii and is economical at the same time.

  5. CLE peptide-encoding gene families in Medicago truncatula and Lotus japonicus, compared with those of soybean, common bean and Arabidopsis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hastwell, April H; de Bang, Thomas Christian; Gresshoff, Peter M

    2017-01-01

    these complete CLE peptide-encoding gene families with those of fellow legumes, Glycine max and Phaseolus vulgaris, in addition to the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. This approach provided insight into the evolution of CLE peptide families and enabled us to establish putative M. truncatula and L. japonicus...

  6. Developmental retardation, reduced fecundity, and modulated expression of the defensome in the intertidal copepod Tigriopus japonicus exposed to BDE-47 and PFOS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jeonghoon; Won, Eun-Ji; Lee, Min-Chul; Seo, Jung Soo; Lee, Su-Jae; Lee, Jae-Seong

    2015-08-01

    2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) are widely dispersed persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the marine ecosystem. However, their toxic effects on marine organisms are still poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the effects of BDE-47 and PFOS on development and reproduction at the organismal level and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and gene expression patterns of the defensome at the cellular level in the intertidal copepod Tigriopus japonicus. In copepods exposed to BDE-47 and PFOS, we observed developmental retardation and reduced fecundity, suggesting repercussions on in vivo endpoints through alterations to the normal molting and reproduction system of T. japonicus. BDE-47 and PFOS increased levels of ROS in T. japonicus in a concentration-dependent manner, indicating that POPs can induce oxidative stress through the generation of ROS. Additionally, transcript profiles of genes related to detoxification (e.g., CYPs), antioxidant functions (e.g., GST- sigma, catalase, MnSOD), apoptosis (e.g., p53, Rb), and cellular proliferation (e.g., PCNA) were modulated over 72h in response to BDE-47 (120μg/L) and PFOS (1000μg/L). These findings indicate that BDE-47 and PFOS can induce oxidative stress-mediated DNA damage repair systems with transcriptional regulation of detoxification, antioxidant, and apoptosis-related genes, resulting in developmental retardation and reduced fecundity in the copepod T. japonicus. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. [Precautionary maternity leave in Tirol].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludescher, K; Baumgartner, E; Roner, A; Brezinka, C

    1998-01-01

    Under Austrian law, precautionary maternity leave is a decree issued by the district public health physician. It forbids a pregnant woman to work and mandates immediate maternity leave. Regular maternity leave for all women employed in all jobs begins at 32 weeks of gestation. Women who work in workplaces deemed dangerous and women with a history of obstetric problems such as premature or growth-retarded babies from previous pregnancies are regularly 'sent' into precautionary maternity leave. The public health physicians of Tirol's nine administrative districts were interviewed and supplied data on precautionary maternity leave from their districts. In 100 women who attended the clinic for pregnancies at risk of the Obstetrics/Gynecology Department of Innsbruck University Hospital and who had already obtained precautionary maternity leave, the medical/administrative procedure was studied in each case and correlated with pregnancy outcome. The town district of Innsbruck and the district that comprises the suburbs of the provincial capital had the highest rates of precautionary maternity leave. The town district of Innsbruck had a rate of 24.3% of all pregnant women (employed and not employed) in precautionary maternity leave in 1997, whereas the whole province of Tirol had 13.4%. More than 80% of decrees for precautionary maternity leave are issued by district public health physicians on the basis of written recommendations from gynecologists. One third of women who are sent into precautionary maternity leave are issued the decree prior to 12 weeks of gestation - mostly cases of multiple pregnancies and women with previous miscarriages. The present system of precautionary maternity leave appears to work in the sense that most working pregnant women with risk factors are correctly identified - with most errors on the side of caution. As the system also helps employers - the employee's pay is paid from the federal family support fund and state insurance once she is in

  8. Identification and characterization of 43 microsatellite markers derived from expressed sequence tags of the sea cucumber ( Apostichopus japonicus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Qun; Li, Qi; Yu, Hong; Kong, Lingfeng

    2011-06-01

    The sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus is a commercially and ecologically important species in China. A total of 3056 potential unigenes were generated after assembling 7597 A. japonicus expressed sequence tags (ESTs) downloaded from Gen-Bank. Two hundred and fifty microsatellite-containing ESTs (8.18%) and 299 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) were detected. The average density of SSRs was 1 per 7.403 kb of EST after redundancy elimination. Di-nucleotide repeat motifs appeared to be the most abundant type with a percentage of 69.90%. Of the 126 primer pairs designed, 90 amplified the expected products and 43 showed polymorphism in 30 individuals tested. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 2 to 26 with an average of 7.0 alleles, and the observed and expected heterozygosities varied from 0.067 to 1.000 and from 0.066 to 0.959, respectively. These new EST-derived microsatellite markers would provide sufficient polymorphism for population genetic studies and genome mapping of this sea cucumber species.

  9. Selection of reference genes for qRT-PCR analysis of gene expression in sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus during aestivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ye; Chen, Muyan; Wang, Tianming; Sun, Lina; Xu, Dongxue; Yang, Hongsheng

    2014-11-01

    Quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) is a technique that is widely used for gene expression analysis, and its accuracy depends on the expression stability of the internal reference genes used as normalization factors. However, many applications of qRT-PCR used housekeeping genes as internal controls without validation. In this study, the expression stability of eight candidate reference genes in three tissues (intestine, respiratory tree, and muscle) of the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus was assessed during normal growth and aestivation using the geNorm, NormFinder, delta CT, and RefFinder algorithms. The results indicate that the reference genes exhibited significantly different expression patterns among the three tissues during aestivation. In general, the β-tubulin (TUBB) gene was relatively stable in the intestine and respiratory tree tissues. The optimal reference gene combination for intestine was 40S ribosomal protein S18 (RPS18), TUBB, and NADH dehydrogenase (NADH); for respiratory tree, it was β-actin (ACTB), TUBB, and succinate dehydrogenase cytochrome B small subunit (SDHC); and for muscle it was α-tubulin (TUBA) and NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] 1 α subcomplex subunit 13 (NDUFA13). These combinations of internal control genes should be considered for use in further studies of gene expression in A. japonicus during aestivation.

  10. Characterization and identification of enzyme-producing microflora isolated from the gut of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fenghui; Gao, Fei; Tan, Jie; Fan, Chaojing; Sun, Huiling; Yan, Jingping; Chen, Siqing; Wang, Xiaojun

    2016-01-01

    Gut microorganisms play an important role in the digestion of their host animals. The purpose of this research was to isolate and assess the enzyme-producing microbes from the Apostichopus japonicus gut. Thirty-nine strains that can produce at least one of the three digestive enzymes (protease, amylase, and cellulase) were qualitatively screened based on their extracellular enzyme-producing abilities. The enzyme-producing strains clustered into eight groups at the genetic similarity level of 100% by analyzing the restriction patterns of 16S rDNA amplified with Mbo I. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that 37 strains belonged to the genus Bacillus and two were members of the genus Virgibacillus. Enzyme-producing capability results indicate that the main enzyme-producing microflora in the A. japonicus gut was Bacillus, which can produce protease, amylase, and cellulase. Virgibacillus, however, can only produce protease. The high enzyme-producing capability of the isolates suggests that the gut microbiota play an important role in the sea cucumber digestive process.

  11. Characteristics of the Lotus japonicus gene repertoire deduced from large-scale expressed sequence tag (EST) analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asamizu, Erika; Nakamura, Yasukazu; Sato, Shusei; Tabata, Satoshi

    2004-02-01

    To perform a comprehensive analysis of genes expressed in a model legume, Lotus japonicus, a total of 74472 3'-end expressed sequence tags (EST) were generated from cDNA libraries produced from six different organs. Clustering of sequences was performed with an identity criterion of 95% for 50 bases, and a total of 20457 non-redundant sequences, 8503 contigs and 11954 singletons were generated. EST sequence coverage was analyzed by using the annotated L. japonicus genomic sequence and 1093 of the 1889 predicted protein-encoding genes (57.9%) were hit by the EST sequence(s). Gene content was compared to several plant species. Among the 8503 contigs, 471 were identified as sequences conserved only in leguminous species and these included several disease resistance-related genes. This suggested that in legumes, these genes may have evolved specifically to resist pathogen attack. The rate of gene sequence divergence was assessed by comparing similarity level and functional category based on the Gene Ontology (GO) annotation of Arabidopsis genes. This revealed that genes encoding ribosomal proteins, as well as those related to translation, photosynthesis, and cellular structure were more abundantly represented in the highly conserved class, and that genes encoding transcription factors and receptor protein kinases were abundantly represented in the less conserved class. To make the sequence information and the cDNA clones available to the research community, a Web database with useful services was created at http://www.kazusa.or.jp/en/plant/lotus/EST/.

  12. Bipartite Bell Inequality and Maximal Violation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Ming; Fei Shaoming; Li-Jost Xian-Qing

    2011-01-01

    We present new bell inequalities for arbitrary dimensional bipartite quantum systems. The maximal violation of the inequalities is computed. The Bell inequality is capable of detecting quantum entanglement of both pure and mixed quantum states more effectively. (general)

  13. HEALTH INSURANCE: CONTRIBUTIONS AND REIMBURSEMENT MAXIMAL

    CERN Document Server

    HR Division

    2000-01-01

    Affected by both the salary adjustment index on 1.1.2000 and the evolution of the staff members and fellows population, the average reference salary, which is used as an index for fixed contributions and reimbursement maximal, has changed significantly. An adjustment of the amounts of the reimbursement maximal and the fixed contributions is therefore necessary, as from 1 January 2000.Reimbursement maximalThe revised reimbursement maximal will appear on the leaflet summarising the benefits for the year 2000, which will soon be available from the divisional secretariats and from the AUSTRIA office at CERN.Fixed contributionsThe fixed contributions, applicable to some categories of voluntarily insured persons, are set as follows (amounts in CHF for monthly contributions):voluntarily insured member of the personnel, with complete coverage:815,- (was 803,- in 1999)voluntarily insured member of the personnel, with reduced coverage:407,- (was 402,- in 1999)voluntarily insured no longer dependent child:326,- (was 321...

  14. Maximal Inequalities for Dependent Random Variables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann-Jorgensen, Jorgen

    2016-01-01

    Maximal inequalities play a crucial role in many probabilistic limit theorem; for instance, the law of large numbers, the law of the iterated logarithm, the martingale limit theorem and the central limit theorem. Let X-1, X-2,... be random variables with partial sums S-k = X-1 + ... + X-k. Then a......Maximal inequalities play a crucial role in many probabilistic limit theorem; for instance, the law of large numbers, the law of the iterated logarithm, the martingale limit theorem and the central limit theorem. Let X-1, X-2,... be random variables with partial sums S-k = X-1 + ... + X......-k. Then a maximal inequality gives conditions ensuring that the maximal partial sum M-n = max(1) (...

  15. Maximizing Function through Intelligent Robot Actuator Control

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Maximizing Function through Intelligent Robot Actuator Control Successful missions to Mars and beyond will only be possible with the support of high-performance...

  16. An ethical justification of profit maximization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Carsten Allan

    2010-01-01

    In much of the literature on business ethics and corporate social responsibility, it is more or less taken for granted that attempts to maximize profits are inherently unethical. The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether an ethical argument can be given in support of profit maximizing...... behaviour. It is argued that some form of consequential ethics must be applied, and that both profit seeking and profit maximization can be defended from a rule-consequential point of view. It is noted, however, that the result does not apply unconditionally, but requires that certain form of profit (and...... utility) maximizing actions are ruled out, e.g., by behavioural norms or formal institutions....

  17. A definition of maximal CP-violation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roos, M.

    1985-01-01

    The unitary matrix of quark flavour mixing is parametrized in a general way, permitting a mathematically natural definition of maximal CP violation. Present data turn out to violate this definition by 2-3 standard deviations. (orig.)

  18. A cosmological problem for maximally symmetric supergravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    German, G.; Ross, G.G.

    1986-01-01

    Under very general considerations it is shown that inflationary models of the universe based on maximally symmetric supergravity with flat potentials are unable to resolve the cosmological energy density (Polonyi) problem. (orig.)

  19. Insulin resistance and maximal oxygen uptake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seibaek, Marie; Vestergaard, Henrik; Burchardt, Hans

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes, coronary atherosclerosis, and physical fitness all correlate with insulin resistance, but the relative importance of each component is unknown. HYPOTHESIS: This study was undertaken to determine the relationship between insulin resistance, maximal oxygen uptake......, and the presence of either diabetes or ischemic heart disease. METHODS: The study population comprised 33 patients with and without diabetes and ischemic heart disease. Insulin resistance was measured by a hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp; maximal oxygen uptake was measured during a bicycle exercise test. RESULTS......: There was a strong correlation between maximal oxygen uptake and insulin-stimulated glucose uptake (r = 0.7, p = 0.001), and maximal oxygen uptake was the only factor of importance for determining insulin sensitivity in a model, which also included the presence of diabetes and ischemic heart disease. CONCLUSION...

  20. Maximal supergravities and the E10 model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleinschmidt, Axel; Nicolai, Hermann

    2006-01-01

    The maximal rank hyperbolic Kac-Moody algebra e 10 has been conjectured to play a prominent role in the unification of duality symmetries in string and M theory. We review some recent developments supporting this conjecture

  1. Parental Leave Policies and Parents' Employment and Leave-Taking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Wen-Jui; Ruhm, Christopher; Waldfogel, Jane

    2009-01-01

    We describe trends in maternal employment and leave-taking after birth of a newborn and analyze the extent to which these behaviors are influenced by parental leave policies. Data are from the June Current Population Survey (CPS) Fertility Supplements, merged with other months of the CPS, and cover the period 1987 to 1994. This time span is one…

  2. Gaussian maximally multipartite-entangled states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facchi, Paolo; Florio, Giuseppe; Lupo, Cosmo; Mancini, Stefano; Pascazio, Saverio

    2009-12-01

    We study maximally multipartite-entangled states in the context of Gaussian continuous variable quantum systems. By considering multimode Gaussian states with constrained energy, we show that perfect maximally multipartite-entangled states, which exhibit the maximum amount of bipartite entanglement for all bipartitions, only exist for systems containing n=2 or 3 modes. We further numerically investigate the structure of these states and their frustration for n≤7 .

  3. Gaussian maximally multipartite-entangled states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Facchi, Paolo; Florio, Giuseppe; Pascazio, Saverio; Lupo, Cosmo; Mancini, Stefano

    2009-01-01

    We study maximally multipartite-entangled states in the context of Gaussian continuous variable quantum systems. By considering multimode Gaussian states with constrained energy, we show that perfect maximally multipartite-entangled states, which exhibit the maximum amount of bipartite entanglement for all bipartitions, only exist for systems containing n=2 or 3 modes. We further numerically investigate the structure of these states and their frustration for n≤7.

  4. Neutrino mass textures with maximal CP violation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aizawa, Ichiro; Kitabayashi, Teruyuki; Yasue, Masaki

    2005-01-01

    We show three types of neutrino mass textures, which give maximal CP violation as well as maximal atmospheric neutrino mixing. These textures are described by six real mass parameters: one specified by two complex flavor neutrino masses and two constrained ones and the others specified by three complex flavor neutrino masses. In each texture, we calculate mixing angles and masses, which are consistent with observed data, as well as Majorana CP phases

  5. Why firms should not always maximize profits

    OpenAIRE

    Kolstad, Ivar

    2006-01-01

    Though corporate social responsibility (CSR) is on the agenda of most major corporations, corporate executives still largely support the view that corporations should maximize the returns to their owners. There are two lines of defence for this position. One is the Friedmanian view that maximizing owner returns is the corporate social responsibility of corporations. The other is a position voiced by many executives, that CSR and profits go together. This paper argues that the first position i...

  6. Maximally Informative Observables and Categorical Perception

    OpenAIRE

    Tsiang, Elaine

    2012-01-01

    We formulate the problem of perception in the framework of information theory, and prove that categorical perception is equivalent to the existence of an observable that has the maximum possible information on the target of perception. We call such an observable maximally informative. Regardless whether categorical perception is real, maximally informative observables can form the basis of a theory of perception. We conclude with the implications of such a theory for the problem of speech per...

  7. Effects of trimethoprim on life history parameters, oxidative stress, and the expression of cytochrome P450 genes in the copepod Tigriopus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jeonghoon; Lee, Min-Chul; Kim, Duck-Hyun; Lee, Young Hwan; Park, Jun Chul; Lee, Jae-Seong

    2016-09-01

    Trimethoprim (TMP) is an antibiotic that has been detected in various environments including marine habitats; however, the toxic effects of TMP are poorly understood in non-target marine organisms. In this study, the effects of TMP on mortality, development, reproduction, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, and transcription levels of antioxidant and xenobiotic detoxification-related enzyme genes were investigated in the copepod Tigriopus japonicus. The TMP half lethal dose at 48 h (LC50-48 h) in nauplius and TMP LC50-96 h in adult T. japonicus copepods was determined as 156 mg/L and 200 mg/L, respectively. In TMP-exposed T. japonicus, delayed developmental time and impaired reproduction were observed as harmful effects on the life history parameters. Increased ROS levels were also shown in response to TMP exposure at the highest concentration (100 mg/L TMP) and the expression of antioxidant- (e.g. GST-kappa, GST-sigma) and xenobiotic detoxification (e.g. CYPs)-related genes were upregulated in a time and/or dose-dependent manner in response to TMP. Particularly, significant upregulation of three CYP genes (Tj-CYP3024A2, Tj-CYP3024A3 and Tj-CYP3027C2) were examined, suggesting that these CYP genes are likely playing an important role in the TMP detoxification metabolism in T. japonicus. In summary, we found that TMP induced oxidative stress via the transcriptional regulation of antioxidant- and xenobiotic detoxification-related genes, leading to changes in life history parameters such as developmental delay and reproduction impairment. Three Tj-CYP genes (Tj-CYP3024A2, Tj-CYP3024A3 and Tj-CYP3027C2) could be useful as potential T. japonicus biomarkers in response to antibiotics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. REMINDER Saved Leave Scheme (SLS) : Simplified procedure for the transfer of leave to saved leave accounts

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Division

    2001-01-01

    As part of the process of streamlining procedures, the HR and AS Divisions have jointly developed a system whereby annual and compensatory leave will henceforth be automatically transferred1) to saved leave accounts. Under the provisions of the voluntary saved leave scheme (SLS), a maximum total of 10 days'2)Previously, every person taking part in the scheme has been individually issued with a form for the purposes of requesting the transfer of leave to the leave account and the transfer has then had to be done manually by HR Division. To streamline the procedure, unused leave of all those taking part in the saved leave scheme at the closure of the leave-year accounts will henceforth be transferred automatically to the saved leave account on that date. This simplification is in the interest of all parties concerned. This automatic transfer procedure has a number of advantages for participants in the SLS scheme. First, staff members will no longer have to take any administrative steps. Secondly, the new proced...

  9. Shareholder, stakeholder-owner or broad stakeholder maximization

    OpenAIRE

    Mygind, Niels

    2004-01-01

    With reference to the discussion about shareholder versus stakeholder maximization it is argued that the normal type of maximization is in fact stakeholder-owner maxi-mization. This means maximization of the sum of the value of the shares and stake-holder benefits belonging to the dominating stakeholder-owner. Maximization of shareholder value is a special case of owner-maximization, and only under quite re-strictive assumptions shareholder maximization is larger or equal to stakeholder-owner...

  10. Negotiating leave in the workplace

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloksgaard, Lotte

    In Denmark leave entitlement is not only regulated by law but is also part of the various collective agreements established in the respective occupational sectors and at the local workplace level. Consequently, Danish fathers have very different leave entitlements, depending on the sector, branch...

  11. Negotiating leave in the workplace

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloksgaard, Lotte

    2014-01-01

    In Denmark leave entitlement is not only regulated by law but is also part of the various collective agreements established in the respective occupational sectors and at the local workplace level. Consequently, Danish fathers have very different leave entitlements, depending on the sector, branch...

  12. 5 CFR 630.1204 - Intermittent leave or reduced leave schedule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... insurance, health benefits, retirement coverage, and leave accrual). (e) The agency shall determine the... REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Family and Medical Leave § 630.1204 Intermittent leave or reduced leave schedule... reduced leave schedule unless the employee and the agency agree to do so. (b) Leave under § 630.1203(a) (3...

  13. Vacua of maximal gauged D=3 supergravities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischbacher, T; Nicolai, H; Samtleben, H

    2002-01-01

    We analyse the scalar potentials of maximal gauged three-dimensional supergravities which reveal a surprisingly rich structure. In contrast to maximal supergravities in dimensions D≥4, all these theories possess a maximally supersymmetric (N=16) ground state with negative cosmological constant Λ 2 gauged theory, whose maximally supersymmetric groundstate has Λ = 0. We compute the mass spectra of bosonic and fermionic fluctuations around these vacua and identify the unitary irreducible representations of the relevant background (super)isometry groups to which they belong. In addition, we find several stationary points which are not maximally supersymmetric, and determine their complete mass spectra as well. In particular, we show that there are analogues of all stationary points found in higher dimensions, among them are de Sitter (dS) vacua in the theories with noncompact gauge groups SO(5, 3) 2 and SO(4, 4) 2 , as well as anti-de Sitter (AdS) vacua in the compact gauged theory preserving 1/4 and 1/8 of the supersymmetries. All the dS vacua have tachyonic instabilities, whereas there do exist nonsupersymmetric AdS vacua which are stable, again in contrast to the D≥4 theories

  14. Changes in Postfermentation Quality during the Distribution Process of Anchovy ( Engraulis japonicus) Fish Sauce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joung, Byung Chun; Min, Jin Gi

    2018-06-01

    In the present study, we evaluated the changes in quality that can occur during the distribution of nonheated anchovy ( Engraulis japonicus) fish sauce after packaging. The pH values of all samples ranged from 5.5 to 5.8, and there were no significant differences ( P > 0.05) in pH among the samples during storage regardless of storage temperature or salt concentration. The initial total volatile base nitrogen concentration in all samples after bottling was 115 to 121 mg/100 mL, but this concentration increased gradually with storage time. After 1 year of storage, total volatile base nitrogen concentration had increased to approximately 170% of the initial concentration (166 to 194 mg/100 mL). Amino nitrogen increased slightly during storage but was significantly lower than the increase in amino nitrogen during general anchovy fish sauce fermentation with anchovy flesh. Most of the free amino acids increased slightly during the storage period regardless of storage temperature or salt concentration, but tyrosine and histidine increased and then decreased during the storage period. The histamine concentration of the anchovy fish sauce at a salt concentration of 20% was 43.3 mg/100 mL initially, but after 1 year the histamine concentration was 89.7 mg/100 mL in samples stored at 10°C, 102.6 mg/100 mL in samples stored at 25°C, and 116.8 mg/100 mL in samples stored at 35°C . Changes in putrescine and cadaverine concentrations were similar to those in histamine; concentrations increased about twofold from the initial concentrations after 1 year of storage. However, the rate of increase in putrescine from 4 months after storage was very high, and cadaverine slightly decreased by 12 months of storage. High scores for umami and aroma sensory characteristics were given to samples stored at 10°C, but samples stored 35°C were given high scores for rancid. Despite the overall low scores for aroma and umami for samples stored at 35°C, the quality of the anchovy fish sauce

  15. Genetic identification of anisakid nematodes isolated from largehead hairtail (Trichiurus japonicus in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong-Ho Kim

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The nematode species belonging to genus Anisakis occur at their third larval stage in numerous marine teleost fish species worldwide and known to cause accidental human infection through the ingestion of raw or undercooked fish or squids. They may also draw the attention of consumers because of the visual impact of both alive and dead worms. Therefore, the information on their geographical distribution and clear species identification is important for epidemiological survey and further prevention of human infection. Results For identification of anisakid nematodes species isolated from largehead hairtail (Trichiurus japonicus, polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP analysis of internal transcribed spacers of ribosomal DNA were conducted. Mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 2 gene was also sequenced, and phylogenetic analysis was conducted. From the largehead hairtail (n = 9, 1259 nematodes were isolated in total. Most of the nematodes were found encapsulated throughout the viscera (56.2 %, 708/1259 or moving freely in the body cavity (41.5 %, 523/1259, and only 0.3 % (4/1259 was found in the muscles. By PCR-RFLP, three different nematode species were identified. Anisakis pegreffii was the most dominantly found (98.7 %, 1243/1259 from the largehead hairtail, occupying 98.7 % (699/708 of the nematodes in the mesenteries and 98.1 % (513/523 in the body cavity. Hybrid genotype (Anisakis simplex × A. pegreffii occupied 0.5 %, and Hysterothylacium sp. occupied 0.2 % of the nematodes isolated in this study. Conclusions The largehead hairtail may not significantly contribute accidental human infection of anisakid nematode third stage larvae because most of the nematodes were found from the viscera or body cavity, which are not consumed raw. But, a high prevalence of anisakid nematode larvae in the largehead hairtail is still in concern because they may raise food safety

  16. MHC class II DQB diversity in the Japanese black bear, Ursus thibetanus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasukochi, Yoshiki; Kurosaki, Toshifumi; Yoneda, Masaaki; Koike, Hiroko; Satta, Yoko

    2012-11-29

    The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes are one of the most important genetic systems in the vertebrate immune response. The diversity of MHC genes may directly influence the survival of individuals against infectious disease. However, there has been no investigation of MHC diversity in the Asiatic black bear (Ursus thibetanus). Here, we analyzed 270-bp nucleotide sequences of the entire exon 2 region of the MHC DQB gene by using 188 samples from the Japanese black bear (Ursus thibetanus japonicus) from 12 local populations. Among 185 of 188 samples, we identified 44 MHC variants that encoded 31 different amino acid sequences (allotypes) and one putative pseudogene. The phylogenetic analysis suggests that MHC variants detected from the Japanese black bear are derived from the DQB locus. One of the 31 DQB allotypes, Urth-DQB*01, was found to be common to all local populations. Moreover, this allotype was shared between the black bear on the Asian continent and the Japanese black bear, suggesting that Urth-DQB*01 might have been maintained in the ancestral black bear population for at least 300,000 years. Our findings, from calculating the ratio of non-synonymous to synonymous substitutions, indicate that balancing selection has maintained genetic variation of peptide-binding residues at the DQB locus of the Japanese black bear. From examination of genotype frequencies among local populations, we observed a considerably lower level of observed heterozygosity than expected. The low level of observed heterozygosity suggests that genetic drift reduced DQB diversity in the Japanese black bear due to a bottleneck event at the population or species level. The decline of DQB diversity might have been accelerated by the loss of rare variants that have been maintained by negative frequency-dependent selection. Nevertheless, DQB diversity of the black bear appears to be relatively high compared with some other endangered mammalian species. This result suggests that

  17. MHC class II DQB diversity in the Japanese black bear, Ursus thibetanus japonicus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes are one of the most important genetic systems in the vertebrate immune response. The diversity of MHC genes may directly influence the survival of individuals against infectious disease. However, there has been no investigation of MHC diversity in the Asiatic black bear (Ursus thibetanus). Here, we analyzed 270-bp nucleotide sequences of the entire exon 2 region of the MHC DQB gene by using 188 samples from the Japanese black bear (Ursus thibetanus japonicus) from 12 local populations. Results Among 185 of 188 samples, we identified 44 MHC variants that encoded 31 different amino acid sequences (allotypes) and one putative pseudogene. The phylogenetic analysis suggests that MHC variants detected from the Japanese black bear are derived from the DQB locus. One of the 31 DQB allotypes, Urth-DQB*01, was found to be common to all local populations. Moreover, this allotype was shared between the black bear on the Asian continent and the Japanese black bear, suggesting that Urth-DQB*01 might have been maintained in the ancestral black bear population for at least 300,000 years. Our findings, from calculating the ratio of non-synonymous to synonymous substitutions, indicate that balancing selection has maintained genetic variation of peptide-binding residues at the DQB locus of the Japanese black bear. From examination of genotype frequencies among local populations, we observed a considerably lower level of observed heterozygosity than expected. Conclusions The low level of observed heterozygosity suggests that genetic drift reduced DQB diversity in the Japanese black bear due to a bottleneck event at the population or species level. The decline of DQB diversity might have been accelerated by the loss of rare variants that have been maintained by negative frequency-dependent selection. Nevertheless, DQB diversity of the black bear appears to be relatively high compared with some other endangered mammalian

  18. MHC class II DQB diversity in the Japanese black bear, Ursus thibetanus japonicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasukochi Yoshiki

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The major histocompatibility complex (MHC genes are one of the most important genetic systems in the vertebrate immune response. The diversity of MHC genes may directly influence the survival of individuals against infectious disease. However, there has been no investigation of MHC diversity in the Asiatic black bear (Ursus thibetanus. Here, we analyzed 270-bp nucleotide sequences of the entire exon 2 region of the MHC DQB gene by using 188 samples from the Japanese black bear (Ursus thibetanus japonicus from 12 local populations. Results Among 185 of 188 samples, we identified 44 MHC variants that encoded 31 different amino acid sequences (allotypes and one putative pseudogene. The phylogenetic analysis suggests that MHC variants detected from the Japanese black bear are derived from the DQB locus. One of the 31 DQB allotypes, Urth-DQB*01, was found to be common to all local populations. Moreover, this allotype was shared between the black bear on the Asian continent and the Japanese black bear, suggesting that Urth-DQB*01 might have been maintained in the ancestral black bear population for at least 300,000 years. Our findings, from calculating the ratio of non-synonymous to synonymous substitutions, indicate that balancing selection has maintained genetic variation of peptide-binding residues at the DQB locus of the Japanese black bear. From examination of genotype frequencies among local populations, we observed a considerably lower level of observed heterozygosity than expected. Conclusions The low level of observed heterozygosity suggests that genetic drift reduced DQB diversity in the Japanese black bear due to a bottleneck event at the population or species level. The decline of DQB diversity might have been accelerated by the loss of rare variants that have been maintained by negative frequency-dependent selection. Nevertheless, DQB diversity of the black bear appears to be relatively high compared with some other

  19. An information maximization model of eye movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renninger, Laura Walker; Coughlan, James; Verghese, Preeti; Malik, Jitendra

    2005-01-01

    We propose a sequential information maximization model as a general strategy for programming eye movements. The model reconstructs high-resolution visual information from a sequence of fixations, taking into account the fall-off in resolution from the fovea to the periphery. From this framework we get a simple rule for predicting fixation sequences: after each fixation, fixate next at the location that minimizes uncertainty (maximizes information) about the stimulus. By comparing our model performance to human eye movement data and to predictions from a saliency and random model, we demonstrate that our model is best at predicting fixation locations. Modeling additional biological constraints will improve the prediction of fixation sequences. Our results suggest that information maximization is a useful principle for programming eye movements.

  20. Utility Maximization in Nonconvex Wireless Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Brehmer, Johannes

    2012-01-01

    This monograph formulates a framework for modeling and solving utility maximization problems in nonconvex wireless systems. First, a model for utility optimization in wireless systems is defined. The model is general enough to encompass a wide array of system configurations and performance objectives. Based on the general model, a set of methods for solving utility maximization problems is developed. The development is based on a careful examination of the properties that are required for the application of each method. The focus is on problems whose initial formulation does not allow for a solution by standard convex methods. Solution approaches that take into account the nonconvexities inherent to wireless systems are discussed in detail. The monograph concludes with two case studies that demonstrate the application of the proposed framework to utility maximization in multi-antenna broadcast channels.

  1. Succession and seasonal variation in epilithic biofilms on artificial reefs in culture waters of the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Liming; Du, Rongbin; Zhang, Xiaoling; Dong, Shuanglin; Sun, Shichun

    2017-01-01

    Periphytic biofilms in aquaculture waters are thought to improve water quality, provide an additional food source, and improve the survival and growth of some reared animals. In the Asia- Pacific region, particularly in China, artificial reefs are commonly used in the commercial farming of sea cucumbers. However, few studies have examined the epilithic biofilms on the artificial reefs. To gain a better understanding of the succession of epilithic biofilms and their ecological processes in sea cucumber culture waters, two experiments were conducted in culture waters of the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus in Rongcheng, China, using artificial test panels. On the test panels of succession experiment, more than 67 species were identified in the biofilms. On the test panels of seasonal variation experiment, more than 46 species were recorded in the biofilms. In both experiments, communities of epilithic biofilms were dominated by diatoms, green algae and the annelid Spirorbis sp. In the initial colonization, the dominant diatoms were Cocconeis sp., Amphora spp. and Nitzschia closterium in June, which were succeeded by species of Navicula, Cocconeis and Nitzschia (July to September), and then by Licmophora abbreviata, Nitzschia closterium and Synedra spp. in the following months. A diatom bloom in the autumn and filamentous green algae burst in the summer were also observed. Ecological indices well annotated the succession and seasonal changes in epilithic communities. Multidimensional scaling (MDS) analysis found significant differences in diatom community composition among months and seasons. Fast growth of biofilms was observed in the summer and autumn, whereas the biomass of summer biofilms was largely made up of filamentous green algae. Present results show that the components of epilithic biofilms are mostly optimal foods of A. japonicus, suggesting that biofilms on artificial reefs may contribute important nutritional sources for sea cucumbers during their

  2. Maximizing band gaps in plate structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halkjær, Søren; Sigmund, Ole; Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard

    2006-01-01

    periodic plate using Bloch theory, which conveniently reduces the maximization problem to that of a single base cell. Secondly, we construct a finite periodic plate using a number of the optimized base cells in a postprocessed version. The dynamic properties of the finite plate are investigated......Band gaps, i.e., frequency ranges in which waves cannot propagate, can be found in elastic structures for which there is a certain periodic modulation of the material properties or structure. In this paper, we maximize the band gap size for bending waves in a Mindlin plate. We analyze an infinite...... theoretically and experimentally and the issue of finite size effects is addressed....

  3. Singularity Structure of Maximally Supersymmetric Scattering Amplitudes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arkani-Hamed, Nima; Bourjaily, Jacob L.; Cachazo, Freddy

    2014-01-01

    We present evidence that loop amplitudes in maximally supersymmetric (N=4) Yang-Mills theory (SYM) beyond the planar limit share some of the remarkable structures of the planar theory. In particular, we show that through two loops, the four-particle amplitude in full N=4 SYM has only logarithmic ...... singularities and is free of any poles at infinity—properties closely related to uniform transcendentality and the UV finiteness of the theory. We also briefly comment on implications for maximal (N=8) supergravity theory (SUGRA)....

  4. Learning curves for mutual information maximization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urbanczik, R.

    2003-01-01

    An unsupervised learning procedure based on maximizing the mutual information between the outputs of two networks receiving different but statistically dependent inputs is analyzed [S. Becker and G. Hinton, Nature (London) 355, 161 (1992)]. For a generic data model, I show that in the large sample limit the structure in the data is recognized by mutual information maximization. For a more restricted model, where the networks are similar to perceptrons, I calculate the learning curves for zero-temperature Gibbs learning. These show that convergence can be rather slow, and a way of regularizing the procedure is considered

  5. Finding Maximal Pairs with Bounded Gap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Lyngsø, Rune B.; Pedersen, Christian N. S.

    1999-01-01

    . In this paper we present methods for finding all maximal pairs under various constraints on the gap. In a string of length n we can find all maximal pairs with gap in an upper and lower bounded interval in time O(n log n+z) where z is the number of reported pairs. If the upper bound is removed the time reduces...... to O(n+z). Since a tandem repeat is a pair where the gap is zero, our methods can be seen as a generalization of finding tandem repeats. The running time of our methods equals the running time of well known methods for finding tandem repeats....

  6. New statement of leave format

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    Following the communication of the Standing Concertation Committee published in Weekly Bulletin No. 18-19 of 27 April 2009, the current statement of leave on monthly pay slips has been replaced with the EDH Leave Transactions report that displays the up-to-date situation of individual leave balances at all times. The report is available on EDH. Additionally, the layout of the pay slip has been modernised. The new version of the pay slip will be send out from September 2009 onwards. Finance and Purchasing Department, Personnel Accounting Human Resources Department, Organisation and Procedures General Infrastructure Services Department, Administrative Information Services

  7. Leaves of Absence. School Law Summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Education Association, Washington, DC. Research Div.

    This report contains State-by-State statutory summaries on three types of leaves of absence relating to teachers -- sick leave, maternity leave, and sabbatical leave. Only State laws that have specific reference to one of these three types of leaves of absence are included. Not included are those statutes granting boards of education the general…

  8. Chitinase from phaseolus vulgaris leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boller, T.; Gehri, A.; Mauch, F.; Vogeli, V.

    1988-01-01

    This paper examines the effect of ethylene on chitinase activity in bean leaves. The authors have purified the enzyme in the course of their work. The purification method is detailed and the colorimetric and radiochemical assays are compared

  9. Occurrence of a new microsporidium in the skeletal muscle of the flying fish Cypselurus pinnatibarbatus japonicus (Exocoetidae) from Yakushima, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Hiroshi; Lee, Sun-Joung; Bell, Andrew S

    2002-01-01

    A new microsporidium was observed in the flying fish Cypselurus pinnatibarbatus japonicus (Franz) (Exocoetidae) from Yakushima, Japan. Visual examination revealed the microsporidium to form white elongate nodules in the host's trunk muscle. Monomorphic spores were ovoid to pyriform in shape, with average dimensions of 4.1 x 2.2 microm and possessing a polar tube describing 13-15 coils. Histological observations showed that each parasite focus of infection was encapsulated by a host-produced fibrous membrane. The presence of sporophorous vesicles was not clearly determined. Ribosomal DNA sequence analyses showed the microsporidium to be discrete from other known fish muscle-infecting species and to be most closely related to a clade comprising the Pleistophoridae and Glugea spp. The parasite is provisionally placed as Microsporidium cypselurus sp. n.

  10. Molecular responses of Lotus japonicus to parasitism by the compatible species Orobanche aegyptiaca and the incompatible species Striga hermonthica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiraoka, Yukihiro; Ueda, Hiroaki; Sugimoto, Yukihiro

    2009-01-01

    Lotus japonicus genes responsive to parasitism by the compatible species Orobanche aegyptiaca and the incompatible species Striga hermonthica were isolated by using the suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) strategy. O. aegyptiaca and S. hermonthica parasitism specifically induced the expression of genes involved in jasmonic acid (JA) biosynthesis and phytoalexin biosynthesis, respectively. Nodulation-related genes were almost exclusively found among the Orobanche-induced genes. Temporal gene expression analyses revealed that 19 out of the 48 Orobanche-induced genes and 5 out of the 48 Striga-induced genes were up-regulated at 1 dai. Four genes, including putative trypsin protease inhibitor genes, exhibited systemic up-regulation in the host plant parasitized by O. aegyptiaca. On the other hand, S. hermonthica attachment did not induce systemic gene expression.

  11. Rapid analysis of the main components of the total glycosides of Ranunculus japonicus by UPLC/Q-TOF-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rui, Wen; Chen, Hongyuan; Tan, Yuzhi; Zhong, Yanmei; Feng, Yifan

    2010-05-01

    A rapid method for the analysis of the main components of the total glycosides of Ranunculus japonicus (TGOR) was developed using ultra-performance liquid chromatography with quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC/Q-TOF-MS). The separation analysis was performed on a Waters Acquity UPLC system and the accurate mass of molecules and their fragment ions were determined by Q-TOF MS. Twenty compounds, including lactone glycosides, flavonoid glycosides and flavonoid aglycones, were identified and tentatively deduced on the basis of their elemental compositions, MS/MS data and relevant literature. The results demonstrated that lactone glycosides and flavonoids were the main constituents of TGOR. Furthermore, an effective and rapid pattern was established allowing for the comprehensive and systematic characterization of the complex samples.

  12. Identification of symbiotically defective mutants of Lotus japonicus affected in infection thread growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lombardo, Fabien; Heckmann, Anne Birgitte Lau; Miwa, Hiroki

    2006-01-01

    During the symbiotic interaction between legumes and rhizobia, the host cell plasma membrane and associated plant cell wall invaginate to form a tunnel-like infection thread, a structure in which bacteria divide to reach the plant root cortex. We isolated four Lotus japonicus mutants that make...... infection pockets in root hairs but form very few infection threads after inoculation with Mesorhizobium loti. The few infection threads that did initiate in the mutants usually did not progress further than the root hair cell. These infection-thread deficient (itd) mutants were unaffected for early...... symbiotic responses such as calcium spiking, root hair deformation, and curling, as well as for the induction of cortical cell division and the arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis. Complementation tests and genetic mapping indicate that itd2 is allelic to Ljsym7, whereas the itd1, itd3, and itd4 mutations...

  13. Weighted gene co-expression network analysis reveals potential genes involved in early metamorphosis process in sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongxin; Kikuchi, Mani; Li, Xueyan; Gao, Qionghua; Xiong, Zijun; Ren, Yandong; Zhao, Ruoping; Mao, Bingyu; Kondo, Mariko; Irie, Naoki; Wang, Wen

    2018-01-01

    Sea cucumbers, one main class of Echinoderms, have a very fast and drastic metamorphosis process during their development. However, the molecular basis under this process remains largely unknown. Here we systematically examined the gene expression profiles of Japanese common sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus) for the first time by RNA sequencing across 16 developmental time points from fertilized egg to juvenile stage. Based on the weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA), we identified 21 modules. Among them, MEdarkmagenta was highly expressed and correlated with the early metamorphosis process from late auricularia to doliolaria larva. Furthermore, gene enrichment and differentially expressed gene analysis identified several genes in the module that may play key roles in the metamorphosis process. Our results not only provide a molecular basis for experimentally studying the development and morphological complexity of sea cucumber, but also lay a foundation for improving its emergence rate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Maximizing the Range of a Projectile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Ronald A.

    1992-01-01

    Discusses solutions to the problem of maximizing the range of a projectile. Presents three references that solve the problem with and without the use of calculus. Offers a fourth solution suitable for introductory physics courses that relies more on trigonometry and the geometry of the problem. (MDH)

  15. Robust Utility Maximization Under Convex Portfolio Constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matoussi, Anis; Mezghani, Hanen; Mnif, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    We study a robust maximization problem from terminal wealth and consumption under a convex constraints on the portfolio. We state the existence and the uniqueness of the consumption–investment strategy by studying the associated quadratic backward stochastic differential equation. We characterize the optimal control by using the duality method and deriving a dynamic maximum principle

  16. Ehrenfest's Lottery--Time and Entropy Maximization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashbaugh, Henry S.

    2010-01-01

    Successful teaching of the Second Law of Thermodynamics suffers from limited simple examples linking equilibrium to entropy maximization. I describe a thought experiment connecting entropy to a lottery that mixes marbles amongst a collection of urns. This mixing obeys diffusion-like dynamics. Equilibrium is achieved when the marble distribution is…

  17. Reserve design to maximize species persistence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert G. Haight; Laurel E. Travis

    2008-01-01

    We develop a reserve design strategy to maximize the probability of species persistence predicted by a stochastic, individual-based, metapopulation model. Because the population model does not fit exact optimization procedures, our strategy involves deriving promising solutions from theory, obtaining promising solutions from a simulation optimization heuristic, and...

  18. Maximal indecomposable past sets and event horizons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krolak, A.

    1984-01-01

    The existence of maximal indecomposable past sets MIPs is demonstrated using the Kuratowski-Zorn lemma. A criterion for the existence of an absolute event horizon in space-time is given in terms of MIPs and a relation to black hole event horizon is shown. (author)

  19. Maximization of eigenvalues using topology optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Niels Leergaard

    2000-01-01

    to localized modes in low density areas. The topology optimization problem is formulated using the SIMP method. Special attention is paid to a numerical method for removing localized eigenmodes in low density areas. The method is applied to numerical examples of maximizing the first eigenfrequency, One example...

  20. Maximizing Resource Utilization in Video Streaming Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsmirat, Mohammad Abdullah

    2013-01-01

    Video streaming has recently grown dramatically in popularity over the Internet, Cable TV, and wire-less networks. Because of the resource demanding nature of video streaming applications, maximizing resource utilization in any video streaming system is a key factor to increase the scalability and decrease the cost of the system. Resources to…

  1. A THEORY OF MAXIMIZING SENSORY INFORMATION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hateren, J.H. van

    1992-01-01

    A theory is developed on the assumption that early sensory processing aims at maximizing the information rate in the channels connecting the sensory system to more central parts of the brain, where it is assumed that these channels are noisy and have a limited dynamic range. Given a stimulus power

  2. Maximizing scientific knowledge from randomized clinical trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustafsson, Finn; Atar, Dan; Pitt, Bertram

    2010-01-01

    Trialists have an ethical and financial responsibility to plan and conduct clinical trials in a manner that will maximize the scientific knowledge gained from the trial. However, the amount of scientific information generated by randomized clinical trials in cardiovascular medicine is highly vari...

  3. A Model of College Tuition Maximization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosshardt, Donald I.; Lichtenstein, Larry; Zaporowski, Mark P.

    2009-01-01

    This paper develops a series of models for optimal tuition pricing for private colleges and universities. The university is assumed to be a profit maximizing, price discriminating monopolist. The enrollment decision of student's is stochastic in nature. The university offers an effective tuition rate, comprised of stipulated tuition less financial…

  4. Logit Analysis for Profit Maximizing Loan Classification

    OpenAIRE

    Watt, David L.; Mortensen, Timothy L.; Leistritz, F. Larry

    1988-01-01

    Lending criteria and loan classification methods are developed. Rating system breaking points are analyzed to present a method to maximize loan revenues. Financial characteristics of farmers are used as determinants of delinquency in a multivariate logistic model. Results indicate that debt-to-asset and operating ration are most indicative of default.

  5. The Problems of Parental Leave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Sean

    2017-10-01

    The United States is the only major industrialized country in the world to not require paid parental leave. Numerous studies have shown that allowing parents time with a newborn makes the child and the parents healthier, both physically and mentally. Many physicians, especially those who work in practices with five or fewer doctors, worry about how to pay for parental leave for themselves and their staff.

  6. Developing maximal neuromuscular power: Part 1--biological basis of maximal power production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cormie, Prue; McGuigan, Michael R; Newton, Robert U

    2011-01-01

    This series of reviews focuses on the most important neuromuscular function in many sport performances, the ability to generate maximal muscular power. Part 1 focuses on the factors that affect maximal power production, while part 2, which will follow in a forthcoming edition of Sports Medicine, explores the practical application of these findings by reviewing the scientific literature relevant to the development of training programmes that most effectively enhance maximal power production. The ability of the neuromuscular system to generate maximal power is affected by a range of interrelated factors. Maximal muscular power is defined and limited by the force-velocity relationship and affected by the length-tension relationship. The ability to generate maximal power is influenced by the type of muscle action involved and, in particular, the time available to develop force, storage and utilization of elastic energy, interactions of contractile and elastic elements, potentiation of contractile and elastic filaments as well as stretch reflexes. Furthermore, maximal power production is influenced by morphological factors including fibre type contribution to whole muscle area, muscle architectural features and tendon properties as well as neural factors including motor unit recruitment, firing frequency, synchronization and inter-muscular coordination. In addition, acute changes in the muscle environment (i.e. alterations resulting from fatigue, changes in hormone milieu and muscle temperature) impact the ability to generate maximal power. Resistance training has been shown to impact each of these neuromuscular factors in quite specific ways. Therefore, an understanding of the biological basis of maximal power production is essential for developing training programmes that effectively enhance maximal power production in the human.

  7. Characterization and phylogenetic analysis of lectin gene cDNA isolated from sea cucumber ( Apostichopus japonicus) body wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Zhuang; Li, Hui; Liu, Yang; Zhou, Wei; Sun, Jing; Wang, Xiuli

    2017-12-01

    As a `living fossil' of species origin and `rich treasure' of food and nutrition development, sea cucumber has received a lot of attentions from researchers. The cDNA library construction and EST sequencing of blood had been conducted previously in our lab. The bioinformatic analysis provided a gene fragment which is highly homologous with the genes of lectin family, named AjL ( Apostichopus japonicus lectin). To characterize and determine the phylogeny of AjL genes in early evolution, we isolated a full-length cDNA of lectin gene from the body wall of A. japonicus. The open reading frame of this gene contained 489 bp and encoded a 163 amino acids secretory protein being homologous to lectins of mammals and aquatic organisms. The deduced protein included a lectin-like domain. SDS-PAGE analysis showed that AjL migrated as a specific band (about 36.09 kDa under reducing), and agglutinated against rabbit red blood cells. AjL was similar to chain A of CEL-IV in space structure. We predicted that AjL may play the same role of CEL-IV. Our results suggested that more than one lectin gene functioned in sea cucumber and most of other species, which was fused by uncertain sequences during the evolution and encoded different proteins with diverse functions. Our findings provided the insights into the function and characteristics of lectin genes invertebrates. The results will also be helpful for the identification and structural, functional, and evolutionary analyses of lectin genes.

  8. Understanding Violations of Gricean Maxims in Preschoolers and Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mako eOkanda

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study used a revised Conversational Violations Test to examine Gricean maxim violations in 4- to 6-year-old Japanese children and adults. Participants’ understanding of the following maxims was assessed: be informative (first maxim of quantity, avoid redundancy (second maxim of quantity, be truthful (maxim of quality, be relevant (maxim of relation, avoid ambiguity (second maxim of manner, and be polite (maxim of politeness. Sensitivity to violations of Gricean maxims increased with age: 4-year-olds’ understanding of maxims was near chance, 5-year-olds understood some maxims (first maxim of quantity and maxims of quality, relation, and manner, and 6-year-olds and adults understood all maxims. Preschoolers acquired the maxim of relation first and had the greatest difficulty understanding the second maxim of quantity. Children and adults differed in their comprehension of the maxim of politeness. The development of the pragmatic understanding of Gricean maxims and implications for the construction of developmental tasks from early childhood to adulthood are discussed.

  9. [Disability leave and sick leave in Spain. 2016 legislative update].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicente-Herrero, María Teófila; Terradillos-García, María Jesús; Capdevila-García, Luisa M; Ramírez-Íñiguez de la Torre, María Victoria; Aguilar-Jiménez, Encarna; Aguado-Benedí, María José; López-González, Angel Arturo; Torres-Alberich, José Ignacio

    2018-01-01

    In Spanish, the concepts of discapacidad (disability leave) and incapacidad (sick leave) jointly refer to the impairment of a person due to injuries, diseases or deficiencies that limit their activity in a social, personal or occupational field. However, this common link does not imply that both concepts are the same. Statistical data from INE (Instituto Nacional de Estadística: Statistic National Institute) show that Spain had in 2015 3.85 million persons with a disability (59.8% were women). Statistical data from 2015 from INSS (Instituto Nacional de Seguridad Social: Social Security National Institute) show high levels in the number of processes and in workers affected by temporary sick leave, with social costs to the social security system. Both concepts have been updated: about disability leave, Law 39/2006 adjusted terminology by avoiding the use of concepts with discriminating or pejorative connotation. Regarding sick leave, the Ley General de Seguridad Social (General Social Security Law)has been amended and came into effect in January, 2016. It is necessary to know and distinguish these aspects for a better administrative management, and a more oriented information to the affected patient.

  10. Effects of triclosan (TCS) on fecundity, the antioxidant system, and oxidative stress-mediated gene expression in the copepod Tigriopus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jun Chul; Han, Jeonghoon; Lee, Min-Chul; Seo, Jung Soo; Lee, Jae-Seong

    2017-08-01

    Triclosan (TCS) is an antimicrobial agent that has been widely dispersed and detected in the marine environment. However, the effects of TCS in marine invertebrates are poorly understood. In this study, the effects of TCS on life cycle history (e.g. mortality and fecundity) along with cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, GSH content, antioxidant enzymatic activities, and mRNA expression levels of oxidative stress-mediated genes were measured in the copepod Tigriopus japonicus. The no observed effect concentration (NOEC) and median lethal concentration (LC50) of TCS in the adult stage were determined to be 300μg/L and 437.476μg/L, respectively, while in the nauplius stages the corresponding values were 20μg/L, and 51.76μg/L, respectively. Fecundity was significantly reduced (Pcopepod T. japonicus. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Dianthosaponins G-I, triterpene saponins, an anthranilic acid amide glucoside and a flavonoid glycoside from the aerial parts of Dianthus japonicus and their cytotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanehira, Yuka; Kawakami, Susumu; Sugimoto, Sachiko; Matsunami, Katsuyoshi; Otsuka, Hideaki

    2016-10-01

    Extensive isolation work on the 1-BuOH-soluble fraction of a MeOH extract of the aerial parts of Dianthus japonicus afforded three further triterpene glycosyl estsers, termed dianthosaponins G-I, an anthranilic acid amide glucoside and a C-glycosyl flavonoid along with one known triterpene saponin. Their structures were elucidated from spectroscopic evidence. The cytotoxicity of the isolated compounds toward A549 cells was evaluated.

  12. The protein precursors of peptides that affect the mechanics of connective tissue and/or muscle in the echinoderm Apostichopus japonicus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurice R Elphick

    Full Text Available Peptides that cause muscle relaxation or contraction or that modulate electrically-induced muscle contraction have been discovered in the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Phylum Echinodermata; Class Holothuroidea. By analysing transcriptome sequence data, here the protein precursors of six of these myoactive peptides (the SALMFamides Sticho-MFamide-1 and -2, NGIWYamide, stichopin, GN-19 and GLRFA have been identified, providing novel insights on neuropeptide and endocrine-type signalling systems in echinoderms. The A. japonicus SALMFamide precursor comprises eight putative neuropeptides including both L-type and F-type SALMFamides, which contrasts with previous findings from the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus where L-type and F-type SALMFamides are encoded by different genes. The NGIWYamide precursor contains five copies of NGIWYamide but, unlike other NG peptide-type neuropeptide precursors in deuterostomian invertebrates, the NGIWYamide precursor does not have a C-terminal neurophysin domain, indicating loss of this character in holothurians. NGIWYamide was originally discovered as a muscle contractant, but it also causes stiffening of mutable connective tissue in the body wall of A. japonicus, whilst holokinins (PLGYMFR and derivative peptides cause softening of the body wall. However, the mechanisms by which these peptides affect the stiffness of body wall connective tissue are unknown. Interestingly, analysis of the A. japonicus transcriptome reveals that the only protein containing the holokinin sequence PLGYMFR is an alpha-5 type collagen. This suggests that proteolysis of collagen may generate peptides (holokinins that affect body wall stiffness in sea cucumbers, providing a novel perspective on mechanisms of mutable connective tissue in echinoderms.

  13. Crude oil exposure results in oxidative stress-mediated dysfunctional development and reproduction in the copepod Tigriopus japonicus and modulates expression of cytochrome P450 (CYP) genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jeonghoon; Won, Eun-Ji; Hwang, Dae-Sik; Shin, Kyung-Hoon; Lee, Yong Sung; Leung, Kenneth Mei-Yee; Lee, Su-Jae; Lee, Jae-Seong

    2014-07-01

    In this study, we investigated the effects of the water-accommodated fraction (WAF) of crude oil on the development and reproduction of the intertidal copepod Tigriopus japonicus through life-cycle experiments. Furthermore, we investigated the mechanisms underlying the toxic effects of WAF on this benthic organism by studying expression patterns of cytochrome P450 (CYP) genes. Development of T. japonicus was delayed and molting was interrupted in response to WAF exposure. Hatching rate was also significantly reduced in response to WAF exposure. Activities of antioxidant enzymes such as glutathione S-transferase (GST), glutathione reductase (GR), and catalase (CAT) were increased by WAF exposure in a concentration-dependent manner. These results indicated that WAF exposure resulted in oxidative stress, which in turn was associated with dysfunctional development and reproduction. To evaluate the involvement of cytochrome P450 (CYP) genes, we cloned the entire repertoire of CYP genes in T. japonicus (n=52) and found that the CYP genes belonged to five different clans (i.e., Clans 2, 3, 4, mitochondrial, and 20). We then examined expression patterns of these 52 CYP genes in response to WAF exposure. Three TJ-CYP genes (CYP3024A2, CYP3024A3, and CYP3027C2) belonging to CYP clan 3 were significantly induced by WAF exposure in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. We identified aryl hydrocarbon responsive elements (AhRE), xenobiotic responsive elements (XREs), and metal response elements (MRE) in the promoter regions of these three CYP genes, suggesting that these genes are involved in detoxification of toxicants. Overall, our results indicate that WAF can trigger oxidative stress and thus induce dysfunctional development and reproduction in the copepod T. japonicus. Furthermore, we identified three TJ-CYP genes that represent potential biomarkers of oil pollution. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. WAFs lead molting retardation of naupliar stages with down-regulated expression profiles of chitin metabolic pathway and related genes in the copepod Tigriopus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Dae-Sik; Lee, Min-Chul; Kyung, Do-Hyun; Kim, Hui-Su; Han, Jeonghoon; Kim, Il-Chan; Puthumana, Jayesh; Lee, Jae-Seong

    2017-03-01

    Oil pollution is considered being disastrous to marine organisms and ecosystems. As molting is critical in the developmental process of arthropods in general and copepods, in particular, the impact will be adverse if the target of spilled oil is on molting. Thus, we investigated the harmful effects of water accommodated fractions (WAFs) of crude oil with an emphasis on inhibition of chitin metabolic pathways related genes and developmental retardation in the copepod Tigriopus japonicus. Also, we analysed the ontology and domain of chitin metabolic pathway genes and mRNA expression patterns of developmental stage-specific genes. Further, the developmental retardation followed by transcriptional modulations in nuclear receptor genes (NR) and chitin metabolic pathway-related genes were observed in the WAFs-exposed T. japonicus. As a result, the developmental time was found significantly (P<0.05) delayed in response to 40% WAFs in comparison with that of control. Moreover, the NR gene, HR3 and chitinases (CHT9 and CHT10) were up-regulated in N4-5 stages, while chitin synthase genes (CHS-1, CHS-2-1, and CHS-2-2) down-regulated in response to WAFs. In brief, a high concentration of WAFs repressed nuclear receptor genes but elicited activation of some of the transcription factors at low concentration of WAFs, resulting in suppression of chitin synthesis. Thus, we suggest that WAF can lead molting retardation of naupliar stages in T. japonicus through down-regulations of chitin metabolism. These findings will provide a better understanding of the mode of action of chitin biosynthesis associated with molting mechanism in WAF-exposed T. japonicus. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Developmental retardation, reduced fecundity, and modulated expression of the defensome in the intertidal copepod Tigriopus japonicus exposed to BDE-47 and PFOS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Jeonghoon; Won, Eun-Ji; Lee, Min-Chul; Seo, Jung Soo; Lee, Su-Jae; Lee, Jae-Seong

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The repercussions of BDE-47 and PFOS were occurred on development and fecundity. • BDE-47 and PFOS can induce oxidative stress through the generation of ROS. • The expression of defensome was changed in response to BDE-47 and PFOS. • ROS-induced DNA damage in BDE-47 and PFOS exposure lead to apoptosis and DNA repair. - Abstract: 2,2′,4,4′-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) are widely dispersed persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the marine ecosystem. However, their toxic effects on marine organisms are still poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the effects of BDE-47 and PFOS on development and reproduction at the organismal level and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and gene expression patterns of the defensome at the cellular level in the intertidal copepod Tigriopus japonicus. In copepods exposed to BDE-47 and PFOS, we observed developmental retardation and reduced fecundity, suggesting repercussions on in vivo endpoints through alterations to the normal molting and reproduction system of T. japonicus. BDE-47 and PFOS increased levels of ROS in T. japonicus in a concentration-dependent manner, indicating that POPs can induce oxidative stress through the generation of ROS. Additionally, transcript profiles of genes related to detoxification (e.g., CYPs), antioxidant functions (e.g., GST- sigma, catalase, MnSOD), apoptosis (e.g., p53, Rb), and cellular proliferation (e.g., PCNA) were modulated over 72 h in response to BDE-47 (120 μg/L) and PFOS (1000 μg/L). These findings indicate that BDE-47 and PFOS can induce oxidative stress-mediated DNA damage repair systems with transcriptional regulation of detoxification, antioxidant, and apoptosis-related genes, resulting in developmental retardation and reduced fecundity in the copepod T. japonicus

  16. Estimating the success rate of ovulation and early litter loss rate in the Japanese black bear (Ursus thibetanus japonicus) by examining the ovaries and uteri

    OpenAIRE

    Yamanaka, Atsushi; Yamauchi, Kiyoshi; Tsujimoto, Tsunenori; Mizoguchi, Toshio; Oi, Toru; Sawada, Seigo; Shimozuru, Michito; Tsubota, Toshio

    2011-01-01

    In order to develop a method for estimating the success/failure rates of reproductive processes, especially those of ovulation and neonate nurturing, in the Japanese black bear (Ursus thibetanus japonicus), we examined offspring status, corpora lutea (CLs), placental scars (PSs) and corpora albicantia (CAs) in 159 females (0-23 years old) killed as nuisances on Honshu Island of Japan during 2001-2009. PSs were found to remain in the uterus at least until November of the year of...

  17. Developmental retardation, reduced fecundity, and modulated expression of the defensome in the intertidal copepod Tigriopus japonicus exposed to BDE-47 and PFOS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Jeonghoon; Won, Eun-Ji; Lee, Min-Chul [Department of Biological Science, College of Science, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Jung Soo [Pathology Team, National Fisheries Research & Development Institute, Busan 619-902 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Su-Jae [Department of Life Science, College of Natural Sciences, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jae-Seong, E-mail: jslee2@skku.edu [Department of Biological Science, College of Science, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • The repercussions of BDE-47 and PFOS were occurred on development and fecundity. • BDE-47 and PFOS can induce oxidative stress through the generation of ROS. • The expression of defensome was changed in response to BDE-47 and PFOS. • ROS-induced DNA damage in BDE-47 and PFOS exposure lead to apoptosis and DNA repair. - Abstract: 2,2′,4,4′-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) are widely dispersed persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the marine ecosystem. However, their toxic effects on marine organisms are still poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the effects of BDE-47 and PFOS on development and reproduction at the organismal level and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and gene expression patterns of the defensome at the cellular level in the intertidal copepod Tigriopus japonicus. In copepods exposed to BDE-47 and PFOS, we observed developmental retardation and reduced fecundity, suggesting repercussions on in vivo endpoints through alterations to the normal molting and reproduction system of T. japonicus. BDE-47 and PFOS increased levels of ROS in T. japonicus in a concentration-dependent manner, indicating that POPs can induce oxidative stress through the generation of ROS. Additionally, transcript profiles of genes related to detoxification (e.g., CYPs), antioxidant functions (e.g., GST- sigma, catalase, MnSOD), apoptosis (e.g., p53, Rb), and cellular proliferation (e.g., PCNA) were modulated over 72 h in response to BDE-47 (120 μg/L) and PFOS (1000 μg/L). These findings indicate that BDE-47 and PFOS can induce oxidative stress-mediated DNA damage repair systems with transcriptional regulation of detoxification, antioxidant, and apoptosis-related genes, resulting in developmental retardation and reduced fecundity in the copepod T. japonicus.

  18. Refined reservoir description to maximize oil recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flewitt, W.E.

    1975-01-01

    To assure maximized oil recovery from older pools, reservoir description has been advanced by fully integrating original open-hole logs and the recently introduced interpretive techniques made available through cased-hole wireline saturation logs. A refined reservoir description utilizing normalized original wireline porosity logs has been completed in the Judy Creek Beaverhill Lake ''A'' Pool, a reefal carbonate pool with current potential productivity of 100,000 BOPD and 188 active wells. Continuous porosity was documented within a reef rim and cap while discontinuous porous lenses characterized an interior lagoon. With the use of pulsed neutron logs and production data a separate water front and pressure response was recognized within discrete environmental units. The refined reservoir description aided in reservoir simulation model studies and quantifying pool performance. A pattern water flood has now replaced the original peripheral bottom water drive to maximize oil recovery

  19. Maximal frustration as an immunological principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Abreu, F Vistulo; Mostardinha, P

    2009-03-06

    A fundamental problem in immunology is that of understanding how the immune system selects promptly which cells to kill without harming the body. This problem poses an apparent paradox. Strong reactivity against pathogens seems incompatible with perfect tolerance towards self. We propose a different view on cellular reactivity to overcome this paradox: effector functions should be seen as the outcome of cellular decisions which can be in conflict with other cells' decisions. We argue that if cellular systems are frustrated, then extensive cross-reactivity among the elements in the system can decrease the reactivity of the system as a whole and induce perfect tolerance. Using numerical and mathematical analyses, we discuss two simple models that perform optimal pathogenic detection with no autoimmunity if cells are maximally frustrated. This study strongly suggests that a principle of maximal frustration could be used to build artificial immune systems. It would be interesting to test this principle in the real adaptive immune system.

  20. DNA methylation levels analysis in four tissues of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus based on fluorescence-labeled methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism (F-MSAP) during aestivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ye; Chen, Muyan; Storey, Kenneth B; Sun, Lina; Yang, Hongsheng

    2015-03-01

    DNA methylation plays an important role in regulating transcriptional change in response to environmental stimuli. In the present study, DNA methylation levels of tissues of the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus were analyzed by the fluorescence-labeled methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism (F-MSAP) technique over three stages of the aestivation cycle. Overall, a total of 26,963 fragments were amplified including 9112 methylated fragments among four sea cucumber tissues using 18 pairs of selective primers. Results indicated an average DNA methylation level of 33.79% for A. japonicus. The incidence of DNA methylation was different across tissue types in the non-aestivation stage: intestine (30.16%), respiratory tree (27.61%), muscle (27.94%) and body wall (56.25%). Our results show that hypermethylation accompanied deep-aestivation in A. japonicus, which suggests that DNA methylation may have an important role in regulating global transcriptional suppression during aestivation. Further analysis indicated that the main DNA modification sites were focused on intestine and respiratory tree tissues and that full-methylation but not hemi-methylation levels exhibited significant increases in the deep-aestivation stage. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Bacterial community composition in the gut content and ambient sediment of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus revealed by 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Gao

    Full Text Available The composition of the bacterial communities in the contents of the foregut and hindgut of the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus and in the ambient surface sediment was surveyed by 16S rRNA gene 454-pyrosequencing. A total of 188,623 optimized reads and 15,527 operational taxonomic units (OTUs were obtained from the ten gut contents samples and four surface sediment samples. The sequences in the sediments, foregut contents, and hindgut contents were assigned to 38.0±4.7, 31.2±6.2 and 27.8±6.5 phyla, respectively. The bacterial richness and Shannon diversity index were both higher in the ambient sediments than in the gut contents. Proteobacteria was the predominant phylum in both the gut contents and sediment samples. The predominant classes in the foregut, hindgut, and ambient sediment were Holophagae and Gammaproteobacteria, Deltaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria, and Gammaproteobacteria and Deltaproteobacteria, respectively. The potential probiotics, including sequences related to Bacillus, lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus, Lactococcus, and Streptococcus and Pseudomonas were detected in the gut of A. japonicus. Principle component analysis and heatmap figure showed that the foregut, hindgut, and ambient sediment respectively harbored different characteristic bacterial communities. Selective feeding of A. japonicus may be the primary source of the different bacterial communities between the foregut contents and ambient sediments.

  2. ROS production in homogenate from the body wall of sea cucumber Stichopus japonicus under UVA irradiation: ESR spin-trapping study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Hang; Dong, Xiu-fang; Zhao, Ya-ping; Li, Nan; Fu, Hui; Feng, Ding-ding; Liu, Li; Yu, Chen-xu

    2016-02-01

    Sea cucumber Stichopus japonicus (S. japonicus) shows a strong ability of autolysis, which leads to severe deterioration in sea cucumber quality during processing and storage. In this study, to further characterize the mechanism of sea cucumber autolysis, hydroxyl radical production induced by ultraviolet A (UVA) irradiation was investigated. Homogenate from the body wall of S. japonicas was prepared and subjected to UVA irradiation at room temperature. Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) spectra of the treated samples were subsequently recorded. The results showed that hydroxyl radicals (OH) became more abundant while the time of UVA treatment and the homogenate concentration were increased. Addition of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, EDTA, desferal, NaN3 and D2O to the homogenate samples led to different degrees of inhibition on OH production. Metal cations and pH also showed different effects on OH production. These results indicated that OH was produced in the homogenate with a possible pathway as follows: O2(-) → H2O2 → OH, suggesting that OH might be a critical factor in UVA-induced S. japonicus autolysis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Development of 101 Gene-based Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Markers in Sea Cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Lu

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs are currently the marker of choice in a variety of genetic studies. Using the high resolution melting (HRM genotyping approach, 101 gene-based SNP markers were developed for Apostichopus japonicus, a sea cucumber species with economic significance for the aquaculture industry in East Asian countries. HRM analysis revealed that all the loci showed polymorphisms when evaluated using 40 A. japonicus individuals collected from a natural population. The minor allele frequency ranged from 0.035 to 0.489. The observed and expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.050 to 0.833 and 0.073 to 0.907, respectively. Thirteen loci were found to depart significantly from Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium (HWE after Bonferroni corrections. Significant linkage disequilibrium (LD was detected in one pair of markers. These SNP markers are expected to be useful for future quantitative trait loci (QTL analysis, and to facilitate marker-assisted selection (MAS in A. japonicus.

  4. Regulation of nuclear envelope dynamics via APC/C is necessary for the progression of semi-open mitosis in Schizosaccharomyces japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Keita; Shiwa, Yuh; Takada, Hiraku; Yoshikawa, Hirofumi; Niki, Hironori

    2013-09-01

    Three types of mitosis, which are open, closed or semi-open mitosis, function in eukaryotic cells, respectively. The open mitosis involves breakage of the nuclear envelope before nuclear division, whereas the closed mitosis proceeds with an intact nuclear envelope. To understand the mechanism and significance of three types of mitotic division in eukaryotes, we investigated the process of semi-open mitosis, in which the nuclear envelope is only partially broken, in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces japonicus. In anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) mutants of Sz. japonicus, the nuclear envelope remained relatively intact during anaphase, resulting in impaired semi-open mitosis. As a suppressor of apc2 mutant, a mutation of Oar2, which was a 3-oxoacyl-[acyl carrier protein] reductase, was obtained. The level of the Oar2, which had two destruction-box motifs recognized by APC/C, was increased in APC/C mutants. Furthermore, the defective semi-open mitosis observed in an apc2 mutant was restored by mutated oar2+. Based on these findings, we propose that APC/C regulates the dynamics of the nuclear envelope through degradation of Oar2 dependent on APC/C during the metaphase-to-anaphase transition of semi-open mitosis in Sz. japonicus. © 2013 The Authors Genes to Cells © 2013 by the Molecular Biology Society of Japan and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  5. Genome-wide identification of 52 cytochrome P450 (CYP) genes in the copepod Tigriopus japonicus and their B[α]P-induced expression patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jeonghoon; Kim, Duck-Hyun; Kim, Hui-Su; Nelson, David R; Lee, Jae-Seong

    2017-09-01

    Cytochrome P450s (CYPs) are enzymes with a heme-binding domain that are found in all living organisms. CYP enzymes have important roles associated with detoxification of xenobiotics and endogenous compounds (e.g. steroids, fatty acids, and hormones). Although CYP enzymes have been reported in several invertebrates, including insects, little is known about copepod CYPs. Here, we identified the entire repertoire of CYP genes (n=52) from whole genome and transcriptome sequences of the benthic copepod Tigriopus japonicus, including a tandem duplication (CYP3026A3, CYP3026A4, CYP3026A5), and examined patterns of gene expression over various developmental stages and in response to benzo[α]pyrene (B[α]P) exposure. Through phylogenetic analysis, the 52 T. japonicus CYP genes were assigned to five distinct clans: CYP2 (22 genes), CYP3 (19 genes), CYP4 (two genes), CYP20 (one gene), and mitochondrial (eight genes). Developmental stage and gender-specific expression patterns of the 52 T. japonicus CYPs were analyzed. CYP3022A1 was constitutively expressed during all developmental stages. CYP genes in clans 2 and 3 were induced in response to B[α]P, suggesting that these differentially modulated CYP transcripts are likely involved in defense against exposure to B[α]P and other pollutants. This study enhances our understanding of the repertoire of CYP genes in copepods and of their potential role in development and detoxification in copepods. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Why People Leave Their Jobs?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis R. Domínguez A.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to show the results of the review of literature of relevant studies of the causal elements of intention to leave in the last five years (2009-2013. The method used to evaluate the literature was based on the seven steps for research synthesis: problem formulation, literature search, obtaining information from studies, quality assessment studies, analysis and integration of results, interpretation of evidence and presentation of results. 48 studies from 15 different countries with a sample of 35804 employees of different companies were evaluated. The findings suggest the existence of 89 different variables influencing the intention to leave of employees in an organization. The results of this study will allow researchers to better understand the variables that can be studied to verify the impact of variables such as causal elements, but also see those that have a mediating effect between them for predicting intention to leave as an element of employee turnover. This study makes three important contributions to literature of turnover. First, in this study all the parameters associated with the intention to leave were checked. Second, this study categorizes and displays in proportion relevant interests to the scientific community whom studying employee turnover across the intention to leave. And thirdly provides clues organizations to improve some of its structural and contextual features to control turnover.

  7. Derivative pricing based on local utility maximization

    OpenAIRE

    Jan Kallsen

    2002-01-01

    This paper discusses a new approach to contingent claim valuation in general incomplete market models. We determine the neutral derivative price which occurs if investors maximize their local utility and if derivative demand and supply are balanced. We also introduce the sensitivity process of a contingent claim. This process quantifies the reliability of the neutral derivative price and it can be used to construct price bounds. Moreover, it allows to calibrate market models in order to be co...

  8. Control of Shareholders’ Wealth Maximization in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    A. O. Oladipupo; C. O. Okafor

    2014-01-01

    This research focuses on who controls shareholder’s wealth maximization and how does this affect firm’s performance in publicly quoted non-financial companies in Nigeria. The shareholder fund was the dependent while explanatory variables were firm size (proxied by log of turnover), retained earning (representing management control) and dividend payment (representing measure of shareholders control). The data used for this study were obtained from the Nigerian Stock Exchange [NSE] fact book an...

  9. Definable maximal discrete sets in forcing extensions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Törnquist, Asger Dag; Schrittesser, David

    2018-01-01

    Let  be a Σ11 binary relation, and recall that a set A is -discrete if no two elements of A are related by . We show that in the Sacks and Miller forcing extensions of L there is a Δ12 maximal -discrete set. We use this to answer in the negative the main question posed in [5] by showing...

  10. Dynamic Convex Duality in Constrained Utility Maximization

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Yusong; Zheng, Harry

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we study a constrained utility maximization problem following the convex duality approach. After formulating the primal and dual problems, we construct the necessary and sufficient conditions for both the primal and dual problems in terms of FBSDEs plus additional conditions. Such formulation then allows us to explicitly characterize the primal optimal control as a function of the adjoint process coming from the dual FBSDEs in a dynamic fashion and vice versa. Moreover, we also...

  11. Single maximal versus combination punch kinematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piorkowski, Barry A; Lees, Adrian; Barton, Gabor J

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the influence of punch type (Jab, Cross, Lead Hook and Reverse Hook) and punch modality (Single maximal, 'In-synch' and 'Out of synch' combination) on punch speed and delivery time. Ten competition-standard volunteers performed punches with markers placed on their anatomical landmarks for 3D motion capture with an eight-camera optoelectronic system. Speed and duration between key moments were computed. There were significant differences in contact speed between punch types (F(2,18,84.87) = 105.76, p = 0.001) with Lead and Reverse Hooks developing greater speed than Jab and Cross. There were significant differences in contact speed between punch modalities (F(2,64,102.87) = 23.52, p = 0.001) with the Single maximal (M+/- SD: 9.26 +/- 2.09 m/s) higher than 'Out of synch' (7.49 +/- 2.32 m/s), 'In-synch' left (8.01 +/- 2.35 m/s) or right lead (7.97 +/- 2.53 m/s). Delivery times were significantly lower for Jab and Cross than Hook. Times were significantly lower 'In-synch' than a Single maximal or 'Out of synch' combination mode. It is concluded that a defender may have more evasion-time than previously reported. This research could be of use to performers and coaches when considering training preparations.

  12. Formation Control for the MAXIM Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luquette, Richard J.; Leitner, Jesse; Gendreau, Keith; Sanner, Robert M.

    2004-01-01

    Over the next twenty years, a wave of change is occurring in the space-based scientific remote sensing community. While the fundamental limits in the spatial and angular resolution achievable in spacecraft have been reached, based on today s technology, an expansive new technology base has appeared over the past decade in the area of Distributed Space Systems (DSS). A key subset of the DSS technology area is that which covers precision formation flying of space vehicles. Through precision formation flying, the baselines, previously defined by the largest monolithic structure which could fit in the largest launch vehicle fairing, are now virtually unlimited. Several missions including the Micro-Arcsecond X-ray Imaging Mission (MAXIM), and the Stellar Imager will drive the formation flying challenges to achieve unprecedented baselines for high resolution, extended-scene, interferometry in the ultraviolet and X-ray regimes. This paper focuses on establishing the feasibility for the formation control of the MAXIM mission. MAXIM formation flying requirements are on the order of microns, while Stellar Imager mission requirements are on the order of nanometers. This paper specifically addresses: (1) high-level science requirements for these missions and how they evolve into engineering requirements; and (2) the development of linearized equations of relative motion for a formation operating in an n-body gravitational field. Linearized equations of motion provide the ground work for linear formation control designs.

  13. Gradient Dynamics and Entropy Production Maximization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janečka, Adam; Pavelka, Michal

    2018-01-01

    We compare two methods for modeling dissipative processes, namely gradient dynamics and entropy production maximization. Both methods require similar physical inputs-how energy (or entropy) is stored and how it is dissipated. Gradient dynamics describes irreversible evolution by means of dissipation potential and entropy, it automatically satisfies Onsager reciprocal relations as well as their nonlinear generalization (Maxwell-Onsager relations), and it has statistical interpretation. Entropy production maximization is based on knowledge of free energy (or another thermodynamic potential) and entropy production. It also leads to the linear Onsager reciprocal relations and it has proven successful in thermodynamics of complex materials. Both methods are thermodynamically sound as they ensure approach to equilibrium, and we compare them and discuss their advantages and shortcomings. In particular, conditions under which the two approaches coincide and are capable of providing the same constitutive relations are identified. Besides, a commonly used but not often mentioned step in the entropy production maximization is pinpointed and the condition of incompressibility is incorporated into gradient dynamics.

  14. Parental leave: the impact of recent legislation on parents' leave taking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Wen-Jui; Waldfogel, Jane

    2003-02-01

    We use data from the Survey of Income and Program Participation to examine the impact of leave entitlements on unpaid leave usage by men and women after the birth of a child from 1991 to 1999. The results indicate that legislation providing the right to unpaid leave has not affected men's leave usage. The results for women are mixed: in some specifications, leave entitlements are associated with increased leave taking or longer leaves, but the results depend on how we define leave coverage. Our results point to the limited impact of unpaid leave policies and the potential importance of paid-leave policies.

  15. Cardiorespiratory Coordination in Repeated Maximal Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergi Garcia-Retortillo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Increases in cardiorespiratory coordination (CRC after training with no differences in performance and physiological variables have recently been reported using a principal component analysis approach. However, no research has yet evaluated the short-term effects of exercise on CRC. The aim of this study was to delineate the behavior of CRC under different physiological initial conditions produced by repeated maximal exercises. Fifteen participants performed 2 consecutive graded and maximal cycling tests. Test 1 was performed without any previous exercise, and Test 2 6 min after Test 1. Both tests started at 0 W and the workload was increased by 25 W/min in males and 20 W/min in females, until they were not able to maintain the prescribed cycling frequency of 70 rpm for more than 5 consecutive seconds. A principal component (PC analysis of selected cardiovascular and cardiorespiratory variables (expired fraction of O2, expired fraction of CO2, ventilation, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and heart rate was performed to evaluate the CRC defined by the number of PCs in both tests. In order to quantify the degree of coordination, the information entropy was calculated and the eigenvalues of the first PC (PC1 were compared between tests. Although no significant differences were found between the tests with respect to the performed maximal workload (Wmax, maximal oxygen consumption (VO2 max, or ventilatory threshold (VT, an increase in the number of PCs and/or a decrease of eigenvalues of PC1 (t = 2.95; p = 0.01; d = 1.08 was found in Test 2 compared to Test 1. Moreover, entropy was significantly higher (Z = 2.33; p = 0.02; d = 1.43 in the last test. In conclusion, despite the fact that no significant differences were observed in the conventionally explored maximal performance and physiological variables (Wmax, VO2 max, and VT between tests, a reduction of CRC was observed in Test 2. These results emphasize the interest of CRC

  16. An Evaluation of Paid Leave

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albæk, Karsten

    This paper analyzes a labor market program which enables workers to leave employment temporarily with a compensation financed by the taxpayers. The main aim of the program was to increase the chances of the unemployed finding a job. However, the empirical analysis reveals a clear negative...... relationship between the unemployment rate and transition rates from employment into the paid leave scheme. Program participation is low, precisely in those labor market states, where the scheme has a potential to perform as a remedy by increasing the transition rate from unemployment to employment. Several...

  17. Ultraviolet B radiation induces impaired lifecycle traits and modulates expression of cytochrome P450 (CYP) genes in the copepod Tigriopus japonicus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puthumana, Jayesh; Lee, Min-Chul; Park, Jun Chul; Kim, Hui-Su; Hwang, Dae-Sik; Han, Jeonghoon, E-mail: jeonghoon@skku.edu; Lee, Jae-Seong, E-mail: jslee2@skku.edu

    2017-03-15

    Highlights: • Impaired effects of UV-B on the copepod Tigriopus japonicus were examined. • Modulation of entire CYP genes were analyzed in response to UV-B. • CYP inhibitor (PBO) confirmed the role of CYP in UV-B induced mortality. • Low-dose UV-B found induce developmental delays, and higher doses cause reproductive impairments. • Study predicted the mechanistic effects of UV-B in copepods through the AhR-mediated up-regulation of CYP genes. - Abstract: To evaluate the effects of ultraviolet B (UV-B) radiation at the developmental, reproductive, and molecular levels in aquatic invertebrates, we measured UV-B-induced acute toxicity, impairments in developmental and reproductive traits, and UV-B interaction with the entire family of cytochrome P450 (CYP) genes in the intertidal benthic copepod Tigriopus japonicus. We found a significant, dose-dependent reduction (P < 0.05) in the survival of T. japonicus that began as a developmental delay and decreased fecundity. The 48 h LD10 and LD50 were 1.35 and 1.84 kJ/m{sup 2}, and the CYP inhibitor (PBO) elevated mortality, confirming the involvement of CYP genes in UV-B induced toxicity. Low-dose UV-B (1.5 kJ/m{sup 2}) induced developmental delays, and higher doses (6–18 kJ/m{sup 2}) caused reproductive impairments in ovigerous females. The significant up-regulation of CYP genes belonging to clans 2/3/MT/4/20 in T. japonicus exposed to UV-B (12 kJ/m{sup 2}) confirmed molecular interaction between UV-B and CYP genes. Moreover, orphan CYPs, such as CYP20A1, provide good insight on the deorphanization of invertebrate CYPs. Overall, these results demonstrate the involvement of UV-B radiation in the expression of all the CYP genes in T. japonicus and their susceptibility to UV-B radiation. This will provide a better understanding of the mechanistic effects of UV-B in copepods through the predicted AhR-mediated up-regulation of CYP genes.

  18. Ultraviolet B radiation induces impaired lifecycle traits and modulates expression of cytochrome P450 (CYP) genes in the copepod Tigriopus japonicus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puthumana, Jayesh; Lee, Min-Chul; Park, Jun Chul; Kim, Hui-Su; Hwang, Dae-Sik; Han, Jeonghoon; Lee, Jae-Seong

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Impaired effects of UV-B on the copepod Tigriopus japonicus were examined. • Modulation of entire CYP genes were analyzed in response to UV-B. • CYP inhibitor (PBO) confirmed the role of CYP in UV-B induced mortality. • Low-dose UV-B found induce developmental delays, and higher doses cause reproductive impairments. • Study predicted the mechanistic effects of UV-B in copepods through the AhR-mediated up-regulation of CYP genes. - Abstract: To evaluate the effects of ultraviolet B (UV-B) radiation at the developmental, reproductive, and molecular levels in aquatic invertebrates, we measured UV-B-induced acute toxicity, impairments in developmental and reproductive traits, and UV-B interaction with the entire family of cytochrome P450 (CYP) genes in the intertidal benthic copepod Tigriopus japonicus. We found a significant, dose-dependent reduction (P < 0.05) in the survival of T. japonicus that began as a developmental delay and decreased fecundity. The 48 h LD10 and LD50 were 1.35 and 1.84 kJ/m"2, and the CYP inhibitor (PBO) elevated mortality, confirming the involvement of CYP genes in UV-B induced toxicity. Low-dose UV-B (1.5 kJ/m"2) induced developmental delays, and higher doses (6–18 kJ/m"2) caused reproductive impairments in ovigerous females. The significant up-regulation of CYP genes belonging to clans 2/3/MT/4/20 in T. japonicus exposed to UV-B (12 kJ/m"2) confirmed molecular interaction between UV-B and CYP genes. Moreover, orphan CYPs, such as CYP20A1, provide good insight on the deorphanization of invertebrate CYPs. Overall, these results demonstrate the involvement of UV-B radiation in the expression of all the CYP genes in T. japonicus and their susceptibility to UV-B radiation. This will provide a better understanding of the mechanistic effects of UV-B in copepods through the predicted AhR-mediated up-regulation of CYP genes.

  19. Watch out for the leaves!

    CERN Multimedia

    HSE Unit

    2013-01-01

    Now that autumn is here, dead leaves falling from the trees form a colourful carpet that is pleasing to the eye. However, the reality is less pleasant for pedestrians, since these leaves increase the risk of slipping and falling, especially when the ground is wet.   These conditions are also hazardous for two- and four-wheeled vehicles, whose grip on the ground can be severely reduced, thereby increasing the risk of them skidding out of control. Cyclists are among the most vulnerable road users when faced with these hazards. It is therefore essential to be alert to the dangers, which can be lessened by taking a few simple precautions such as moderating your speed and wearing suitable shoes. We also invite you to notify the Service Desk if you notice a road or pavement where there is a high concentration of dead leaves. The CERN Roads and Drainage Service will then ensure that the leaves are cleared in order to reduce the risk of accidents in the area.

  20. Nutrient resorption from seagrass leaves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stapel, J.; Hemminga, M.A.

    1997-01-01

    The resorption of nutrients (C, N and P) from senescent leaves of six seagrass species from nine different locations in tropical (Indonesia and Kenya), Mediterranean (Spain) and temperate (The Netherlands) regions has been investigated. Resorption was quantitatively assessed by calculating the

  1. Postactivation potentiation biases maximal isometric strength assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Leonardo Coelho Rabello; Oliveira, Felipe Bruno Dias; Oliveira, Thiago Pires; Assumpção, Claudio de Oliveira; Greco, Camila Coelho; Cardozo, Adalgiso Croscato; Denadai, Benedito Sérgio

    2014-01-01

    Postactivation potentiation (PAP) is known to enhance force production. Maximal isometric strength assessment protocols usually consist of two or more maximal voluntary isometric contractions (MVCs). The objective of this study was to determine if PAP would influence isometric strength assessment. Healthy male volunteers (n = 23) performed two five-second MVCs separated by a 180-seconds interval. Changes in isometric peak torque (IPT), time to achieve it (tPTI), contractile impulse (CI), root mean square of the electromyographic signal during PTI (RMS), and rate of torque development (RTD), in different intervals, were measured. Significant increases in IPT (240.6 ± 55.7 N·m versus 248.9 ± 55.1 N·m), RTD (746 ± 152 N·m·s(-1) versus 727 ± 158 N·m·s(-1)), and RMS (59.1 ± 12.2% RMSMAX  versus 54.8 ± 9.4% RMSMAX) were found on the second MVC. tPTI decreased significantly on the second MVC (2373 ± 1200 ms versus 2784 ± 1226 ms). We conclude that a first MVC leads to PAP that elicits significant enhancements in strength-related variables of a second MVC performed 180 seconds later. If disconsidered, this phenomenon might bias maximal isometric strength assessment, overestimating some of these variables.

  2. Gain maximization in a probabilistic entanglement protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Lorenzo, Antonio; Esteves de Queiroz, Johnny Hebert

    Entanglement is a resource. We can therefore define gain as a monotonic function of entanglement G (E) . If a pair with entanglement E is produced with probability P, the net gain is N = PG (E) - (1 - P) C , where C is the cost of a failed attempt. We study a protocol where a pair of quantum systems is produced in a maximally entangled state ρm with probability Pm, while it is produced in a partially entangled state ρp with the complementary probability 1 -Pm . We mix a fraction w of the partially entangled pairs with the maximally entangled ones, i.e. we take the state to be ρ = (ρm + wUlocρpUloc+) / (1 + w) , where Uloc is an appropriate unitary local operation designed to maximize the entanglement of ρ. This procedure on one hand reduces the entanglement E, and hence the gain, but on the other hand it increases the probability of success to P =Pm + w (1 -Pm) , therefore the net gain N may increase. There may be hence, a priori, an optimal value for w, the fraction of failed attempts that we mix in. We show that, in the hypothesis of a linear gain G (E) = E , even assuming a vanishing cost C -> 0 , the net gain N is increasing with w, therefore the best strategy is to always mix the partially entangled states. Work supported by CNPq, Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico, proc. 311288/2014-6, and by FAPEMIG, Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa de Minas Gerais, proc. IC-FAPEMIG2016-0269 and PPM-00607-16.

  3. Maximizing percentage depletion in solid minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tripp, J.; Grove, H.D.; McGrath, M.

    1982-01-01

    This article develops a strategy for maximizing percentage depletion deductions when extracting uranium or other solid minerals. The goal is to avoid losing percentage depletion deductions by staying below the 50% limitation on taxable income from the property. The article is divided into two major sections. The first section is comprised of depletion calculations that illustrate the problem and corresponding solutions. The last section deals with the feasibility of applying the strategy and complying with the Internal Revenue Code and appropriate regulations. Three separate strategies or appropriate situations are developed and illustrated. 13 references, 3 figures, 7 tables

  4. What currency do bumble bees maximize?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas L Charlton

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available In modelling bumble bee foraging, net rate of energetic intake has been suggested as the appropriate currency. The foraging behaviour of honey bees is better predicted by using efficiency, the ratio of energetic gain to expenditure, as the currency. We re-analyse several studies of bumble bee foraging and show that efficiency is as good a currency as net rate in terms of predicting behaviour. We suggest that future studies of the foraging of bumble bees should be designed to distinguish between net rate and efficiency maximizing behaviour in an attempt to discover which is the more appropriate currency.

  5. New Maximal Two-distance Sets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lisonek, Petr

    1996-01-01

    A two-distance set in E^d is a point set X inthe d-dimensional Euclidean spacesuch that the distances between distinct points in Xassume only two different non-zero values. Based on results from classical distance geometry, we developan algorithm to classify, for a given dimension, all maximal...... (largest possible)two-distance sets in E^d.Using this algorithm we have completed the full classificationfor all dimensions less than or equal to 7, andwe have found one set in E^8 whosemaximality follows from Blokhuis' upper bound on sizes of s-distance sets.While in the dimensions less than or equal to 6...

  6. Maximizing policy learning in international committees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nedergaard, Peter

    2007-01-01

    , this article demonstrates that valuable lessons can be learned about policy learning, in practice and theoretically, by analysing the cooperation in the OMC committees. Using the Advocacy Coalition Framework as the starting point of analysis, 15 hypotheses on policy learning are tested. Among other things......, it is concluded that in order to maximize policy learning in international committees, empirical data should be made available to committees and provided by sources close to the participants (i.e. the Commission). In addition, the work in the committees should be made prestigious in order to attract well...

  7. Pouliot type duality via a-maximization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawano, Teruhiko; Ookouchi, Yutaka; Tachikawa, Yuji; Yagi, Futoshi

    2006-01-01

    We study four-dimensional N=1Spin(10) gauge theory with a single spinor and N Q vectors at the superconformal fixed point via the electric-magnetic duality and a-maximization. When gauge invariant chiral primary operators hit the unitarity bounds, we find that the theory with no superpotential is identical to the one with some superpotential at the infrared fixed point. The auxiliary field method in the electric theory offers a satisfying description of the infrared fixed point, which is consistent with the better picture in the magnetic theory. In particular, it gives a clear description of the emergence of new massless degrees of freedom in the electric theory

  8. Developing maximal neuromuscular power: part 2 - training considerations for improving maximal power production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cormie, Prue; McGuigan, Michael R; Newton, Robert U

    2011-02-01

    This series of reviews focuses on the most important neuromuscular function in many sport performances: the ability to generate maximal muscular power. Part 1, published in an earlier issue of Sports Medicine, focused on the factors that affect maximal power production while part 2 explores the practical application of these findings by reviewing the scientific literature relevant to the development of training programmes that most effectively enhance maximal power production. The ability to generate maximal power during complex motor skills is of paramount importance to successful athletic performance across many sports. A crucial issue faced by scientists and coaches is the development of effective and efficient training programmes that improve maximal power production in dynamic, multi-joint movements. Such training is referred to as 'power training' for the purposes of this review. Although further research is required in order to gain a deeper understanding of the optimal training techniques for maximizing power in complex, sports-specific movements and the precise mechanisms underlying adaptation, several key conclusions can be drawn from this review. First, a fundamental relationship exists between strength and power, which dictates that an individual cannot possess a high level of power without first being relatively strong. Thus, enhancing and maintaining maximal strength is essential when considering the long-term development of power. Second, consideration of movement pattern, load and velocity specificity is essential when designing power training programmes. Ballistic, plyometric and weightlifting exercises can be used effectively as primary exercises within a power training programme that enhances maximal power. The loads applied to these exercises will depend on the specific requirements of each particular sport and the type of movement being trained. The use of ballistic exercises with loads ranging from 0% to 50% of one-repetition maximum (1RM) and

  9. 29 CFR 825.202 - Intermittent leave or reduced leave schedule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... leave schedule is a leave schedule that reduces an employee's usual number of working hours per workweek, or hours per workday. A reduced leave schedule is a change in the employee's schedule for a period of... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Intermittent leave or reduced leave schedule. 825.202...

  10. Impact of water temperature on the growth and fatty acid profiles of juvenile sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Haibo; Zhang, Cheng; Gao, Qinfeng; Dong, Shuanglin; Ye, Zhi; Tian, Xiangli

    2016-08-01

    The present study determined the changes in the fatty acid (FA) profiles of juvenile sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus in response to the varied water temperature. Sea cucumbers with similar size (4.02±0.11g) were cultured for 8 weeks at 14°C, 18°C, 22°C and 26°C, respectively. At the end of the experiment, the specific growth rate (SGR) and the profiles of FAs in neutral lipids and phospholipids of the juvenile sea cucumbers cultured at different temperatures were determined. The SGRs of the sea cucumbers cultured at 26°C significantly decreased 46.3% compared to thos cultured at 18°C. Regression analysis showed that the SGR-temperature (T) relationship can be expressed as SGR=-0.0073T(2)+0.255T -1.0231 (R(2)=0.9936) and the highest SGR was predicted at 17.5°C. For the neutral lipids, the sum of saturated FAs (SFAs), monounsaturated FAs (MUFAs) or polyunsaturated FAs (PUFAs) of the sea cucumbers that were cultured at the water temperature from 18°C-26°C did not change significantly, indicating the insensitivity of FA profiles for the neutral lipids of sea cucumbers in response to increasing water temperature. For phospholipids, the sum of PUFAs in the sea cucumbers dramatically decreased with the gradually increased water temperature. The sum of SFAs and MUFAs of sea cucumbers, however, increased with the gradually elevated water temperature. In particular, the contents of highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFAs), including eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), in the phospholipids of the sea cucumbers decreased 37.2% and 26.1%, respectively, when the water temperature increased from 14°C to 26°C. In summary, the sea cucumbers A. japonicus can regulate the FA compositions, especially the contents of EPA and DHA, in the phospholipids so as to adapt to varied water temperature. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Regulation of dietary glutamine on the growth, intestinal function, immunity and antioxidant capacity of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Haibo; Gao, Qinfeng; Dong, Shuanglin; Lan, Ying; Ye, Zhi; Wen, Bin

    2016-03-01

    The present study examined the effects of dietary glutamine (Gln) on the growth, intestinal function, immunity and antioxidant capacity of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka). The specific growth rate, intestinal morphology, activity of digestive enzymes, activity and gene expression of lysozyme and antioxidative enzymes of the sea cucumbers were determined after feeding 5 experimental diets with additions of increasing levels of Gln (at 0%, 0.4%, 0.8%,1.2% and 1.6%, respectively) for 60 days. We discovered that the specific growth rate of the sea cucumbers in 0.4%, 0.8% and 1.2% groups increased 35.3%, 27.3% and 24.1%, respectively, compared to the control (0%) group with significant differences. Dietary Gln can improve the intestinal function of the sea cucumbers by increasing the activities of trypsin and lipase in the intestine and the villus height and villus density of the intestine, eventhough significant differences were not observed in some groups. 0.4%-0.8% of dietary Gln can significantly increase the activity of lysozyme (LSZ) in the coelomic fluid of the sea cucumbers. Significant improvements were observed on the SOD activity in coelomic fluid of the sea cucumbers fed diets supplemented with 0.4%-1.6% of Gln compared to the control group. Similarly, the CAT activity in coelomic fluid of the sea cucumbers significantly increased in 0.8%, 1.2% and 1.6% groups compared to the control and 0.4% groups. Change pattern of the activity of CAT was consistent with the change pattern of the expression of CAT gene, indicating the dietary Gln can up-regulate the expression of CAT gene and consequently promote the secretion of CAT. However, the down-regulation of the expression of SOD gene by dietary Gln were observed in almost all of the treatment groups, which is in contrast with the change pattern of the activity of SOD, indicating the negative feedback regulation of the secretion of SOD on the expression of SOD gene. In summary, the suitable

  12. Maximal independent set graph partitions for representations of body-centered cubic lattices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erleben, Kenny

    2009-01-01

    corresponding to the leaves of a quad-tree thus has a smaller memory foot-print. The adjacency information in the graph relieves one from going up and down the quad-tree when searching for neighbors. This results in constant time complexities for refinement and coarsening operations.......A maximal independent set graph data structure for a body-centered cubic lattice is presented. Refinement and coarsening operations are defined in terms of set-operations resulting in robust and easy implementation compared to a quad-tree-based implementation. The graph only stores information...

  13. Maximization techniques for oilfield development profits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lerche, I.

    1999-01-01

    In 1981 Nind provided a quantitative procedure for estimating the optimum number of development wells to emplace on an oilfield to maximize profit. Nind's treatment assumed that there was a steady selling price, that all wells were placed in production simultaneously, and that each well's production profile was identical and a simple exponential decline with time. This paper lifts these restrictions to allow for price fluctuations, variable with time emplacement of wells, and production rates that are more in line with actual production records than is a simple exponential decline curve. As a consequence, it is possible to design production rate strategies, correlated with price fluctuations, so as to maximize the present-day worth of a field. For price fluctuations that occur on a time-scale rapid compared to inflation rates it is appropriate to have production rates correlate directly with such price fluctuations. The same strategy does not apply for price fluctuations occurring on a time-scale long compared to inflation rates where, for small amplitudes in the price fluctuations, it is best to sell as much product as early as possible to overcome inflation factors, while for large amplitude fluctuations the best strategy is to sell product as early as possible but to do so mainly on price upswings. Examples are provided to show how these generalizations of Nind's (1981) formula change the complexion of oilfield development optimization. (author)

  14. Shareholder, stakeholder-owner or broad stakeholder maximization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mygind, Niels

    2004-01-01

    With reference to the discussion about shareholder versus stakeholder maximization it is argued that the normal type of maximization is in fact stakeholder-owner maxi-mization. This means maximization of the sum of the value of the shares and stake-holder benefits belonging to the dominating...... including the shareholders of a company. Although it may be the ultimate goal for Corporate Social Responsibility to achieve this kind of maximization, broad stakeholder maximization is quite difficult to give a precise definition. There is no one-dimensional measure to add different stakeholder benefits...... not traded on the mar-ket, and therefore there is no possibility for practical application. Broad stakeholder maximization instead in practical applications becomes satisfying certain stakeholder demands, so that the practical application will be stakeholder-owner maximization un-der constraints defined...

  15. Effects of ergothioneine from mushrooms (Flammulina velutipes) on melanosis and lipid oxidation of kuruma shrimp (Marsupenaeus japonicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Encarnacion, Angel B; Fagutao, Fernand; Hirono, Ikuo; Ushio, Hideki; Ohshima, Toshiaki

    2010-02-24

    The antimelanosic and antioxidative properties of a hot water extract prepared from the fruiting body of the edible mushroom (Flammulina velutipes) were evaluated by dietary supplementation in Kuruma shrimp (Marsupenaeus japonicus) for possible aquaculture application. The extract contained ergothioneine (ERT) at a level of 2.05 mg/mL. A commercial standard of l-ergothioneine (l-ERT) and the mushroom extract showed inhibitory activity against mushroom polyphenoloxidase (PPO). Feeding of the extract had no adverse effects on the immune systems of the shrimp under the present experimental conditions. Supplementation of the extract in the diet significantly suppressed PPO activities in the hemolymphs of the shrimp. Expression of the prophenoloxidase (proPO) gene decreased in the hemocyte of the Kuruma shrimp fed with the mushroom extract. Consequently, development of melanosis was significantly suppressed in the supplement fed shrimp during ice storage. Lipid oxidation was also effectively controlled in the supplement fed group throughout the storage period. In vitro experiments showed that l-ERT effectively inhibited the activation of proPO in the hemocyte lysate supernatant (HLS). The transcript of the proPO gene in the hemocyte showed lower expression in the l-ERT-treated HLS. It was concluded that dietary supplementation of the mushroom extract in shrimp could be a promising approach to control post mortem development of melanosis and lipid oxidation in shrimp muscles.

  16. Effect of culture methods on individual variation in the growth of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus within a cohort and family

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Tianlong; Zhang, Libin; Zhang, Tao; Bai, Yucen; Yang, Hongsheng

    2014-07-01

    There is substantial individual variation in the growth rates of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus individuals. This necessitates additional work to grade the seed stock and lengthens the production period. We evaluated the influence of three culture methods (free-mixed, isolated-mixed, isolated-alone) on individual variation in growth and assessed the relationship between feeding, energy conversion efficiency, and individual growth variation in individually cultured sea cucumbers. Of the different culture methods, animals grew best when reared in the isolated-mixed treatment (i.e., size classes were held separately), though there was no difference in individual variation in growth between rearing treatment groups. The individual variation in growth was primarily attributed to genetic factors. The difference in food conversion efficiency caused by genetic differences among individuals was thought to be the origin of the variance. The level of individual growth variation may be altered by interactions among individuals and environmental heterogeneity. Our results suggest that, in addition to traditional seed grading, design of a new kind of substrate that changes the spatial distribution of sea cucumbers would effectively enhance growth and reduce individual variation in growth of sea cucumbers in culture.

  17. Non-destructive geographical traceability of sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus) using near infrared spectroscopy combined with chemometric methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiuhan; Cai, Rui; Wang, Shisheng; Tang, Bo; Li, Yueqing; Zhao, Weijie

    2018-01-01

    Sea cucumber is the major tonic seafood worldwide, and geographical origin traceability is an important part of its quality and safety control. In this work, a non-destructive method for origin traceability of sea cucumber ( Apostichopus japonicus ) from northern China Sea and East China Sea using near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and multivariate analysis methods was proposed. Total fat contents of 189 fresh sea cucumber samples were determined and partial least-squares (PLS) regression was used to establish the quantitative NIRS model. The ordered predictor selection algorithm was performed to select feasible wavelength regions for the construction of PLS and identification models. The identification model was developed by principal component analysis combined with Mahalanobis distance and scaling to the first range algorithms. In the test set of the optimum PLS models, the root mean square error of prediction was 0.45, and correlation coefficient was 0.90. The correct classification rates of 100% were obtained in both identification calibration model and test model. The overall results indicated that NIRS method combined with chemometric analysis was a suitable tool for origin traceability and identification of fresh sea cucumber samples from nine origins in China.

  18. Effects of Pseudoalteromonas sp. BC228 on digestive enzyme activity and immune response of juvenile sea cucumber ( Apostichopus japonicus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yuexin; Sun, Feixue; Zhang, Congyao; Bao, Pengyun; Cao, Shuqing; Zhang, Meiyan

    2014-12-01

    A marine bacterium, Pseudoalteromonas sp. BC228 was supplemented to feed in a feeding experiment aiming to determine its ability of enhancing the digestive enzyme activity and immune response of juvenile Apostichopus japonicus. Sea cucumber individuals were fed with the diets containing 0 (control), 105, 107 and 109 CFU g-1 diet of BC228 for 45 days. Results showed that intestinal trypsin and lipase activities were significantly enhanced by 107 and 109 CFU g-1 diet of BC228 in comparison with control ( P sea cucumber fed the diet supplemented with 107 CFU g-1 diet of BC228 was significantly higher than that of those fed control diet ( P sea cucumber, respectively, in comparison with other diets ( P Sea cucumbers, 10 each diet, were challenged with Vibrio splendidus NB13 after 45 days of feeding. It was found that the cumulative incidence and mortality of sea cucumber fed with BC228 containing diets were lower than those of animals fed control diet. Our findings evidenced that BC228 supplemented in diets improved the digestive enzyme activity of juvenile sea cucumber, stimulated its immune response and enhanced its resistance to the infection of V. splendidus.

  19. Nitrogen and phosphorus budget of a polyculture system of sea cucumber ( Apostichopus japonicus), jellyfish ( Rhopilema esculenta) and shrimp ( Fenneropenaeus chinensis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Junwei; Dong, Shuanglin; Gao, Qinfeng; Zhu, Changbo

    2014-06-01

    The nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) budget and the ecological efficiency of a polyculture system of sea cucumber ( Apostichopus japonicus), jellyfish ( Rhopilema esculenta) and shrimp ( Fenneropenaeus chinensis) were studied in a cofferdam, 120.2 ha in size. The nutrients were supplied by spring tide inflow. In total, 139600 kg N yr-1 and 9730 kg P yr-1 input to the system; while 118900 kg N yr-1 and 2840 kg P yr-1 outflowed from the system concurrently, thus the outflow was 85.7% (N) and 29.2% (P) of inflow. The production of N and P was 889.5 kg yr-1 and 49.28 kg yr-1 (sea cucumber) and 204 kg yr-1 and 18.03 kg yr-1 (jellyfish and shrimp), respectively. The utilization rate of N and P by polycultured animals was 7.8‰ and 6.9‰, respectively, 21.9% and 38% higher than that of monocultured sea cucumber. Our results indicated that the polyculture system was an efficient culture system of animals and a remediation system of coastal environment as well; it scavenged 14.3% and 70.8% of N and P, respectively. Such an ecological efficiency may be improved further by increasing either the stocking density or the size of sea cucumber or both.

  20. Impact of hypoxia stress on the physiological responses of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus: respiration, digestion, immunity and oxidative damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Da Huo

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Hypoxia is one of the most frequently occurring stressors confronted by industrial cultures of sea cucumber and can cause large economic losses and resource degradation. However, its responsive mechanisms are still lacking. In this paper, the physiological responses of Apostichopus japonicus to oxygen deficiency was illustrated, including induced oxidative response and immune defense and changed digestive enzymes activities. Significantly increased activities of alpha-amylase (AMS, acid phosphatase (ACP, lactate dehydrogenase, catalase, peroxidase, succinate dehydrogenase and higher content of malondialdehyde, and decreased activities of lipase and trypsin (TRY were observed after hypoxia exposure (dissolved oxygen [DO] 2 mg/L. Expressions of key genes showed that AMS, peptidase, ACP, alkaline phosphatase, lysozyme, heat shock protein 70 and glutathione peroxidase were increased and TRY was decreased under hypoxia. With the decline of the DO level, the decreased tendency of oxygen consumption rates was different in varied weight groups. Moreover, respiratory trees were observed degraded under long-term hypoxia stress, thus leading a negative effect of respiration. These results could help to develop a better understanding of the responsive mechanism of sea cucumber under hypoxia stress and provide a theoretical basis for the prevention of hypoxia risk.

  1. Relationship between uterine morphology and peripheral concentrations of sex steroid hormone in wild Japanese black bears (Ursus thibetanus japonicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamane, Masako; Yamamoto, Yoshio; Tsujimoto, Tsunenori; Osawa, Takeshi

    2009-07-01

    Developing a better understanding of the reproductive physiology and breeding condition peculiar to wild Japanese black bears (Ursus thibetanus japonicus) is crucial for estimation of their habitat distribution. The aim of this study was to clarify the changes in morphology of the genital organs, cellular proliferation in the endometrium and sex steroid hormone concentrations along with the reproductive cycle in Japanese black bears. Samples were collected from a total of 24 female Japanese black bears (1-15 presumptive years old) that were caught in the wild in Iwate prefecture during the period between August 1999 and September 2005. Twenty-two out of the 24 animals were hunted from May to October. The ovaries from the 24 animals and the uteri from 23 animals were observed macroscopically and histologically to examine the relationship between morphology of the genital organs and the month of the year the animal was caught. The staining pattern of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) in the endometrium was characterised. Peripheral concentrations of oestradiol-17beta and progesterone were determined by radioimmunoassay. All the animals that had a corpus luteum (n=12) were captured from August to October. The thickness of the endometrium in the animals captured from August to October (n=16) was significantly greater than those in animals captured from May to July (n=5) (Pblack bears.

  2. Baculoviral mid-gut gland necrosis (BMN) of kuruma shrimp (Penaeus japonicus) larvae in Japanese intensive culture systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sano, T.; Nishimura, T.; Fukuda, H.; Hayashida, T.; Momoyama, K.

    1984-03-01

    In many shrimp farms in the Kyushu and Chugoku areas of Japan, the so-called mid-gut gland cloudy disease of kuruma shrimp larvae (Penaeus japonicus) has occurred since 1971. The pathological changes associated with this baculoviral mid-gut gland necrosis (BMN) are extensive cellular necrosis, collapse of mid-gut gland cells, nuclear hypertrophy and finally karyorrhexis. Electron microscopic examination revealed the presence of virions and virogenic stages in the affected nuclei. Average length and diameter of the virions detected was 310 and 72 nm, respectively; nucleocapsids were 250 nm in size. Virions enclosing 2 nucleocapsids within a single envelope were rarely found. The spirally arranged capsomeres were at an angle of 37 to 38° to a horizontal line meeting at right angles with the long axis of the virion. Infectivity trials resulted in high mortality of healthy mysis and juveniles (2nd post-larval stage). Juveniles at the 9th post-larval stage showed no mortality, although they could be infected easily by the agent. Hypertrophied nuclei in squashed and stained preparations of the affected gland cells can be considered to be of reliable presumptive diagnostic character, and fluorescent antibody staining can be employed to confirm the diagnosis of BMN.

  3. [Studies on preparative technology and quantitative determination for extracts of total saponin in roof of Panax japonicus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yu-min; Lu, Ke-ming; Yuan, Ding; Zhang, Chang-cheng

    2008-11-01

    To explore the optimum extraction and purification condition of the total saponins in the root of Panax japonicus (RPJ), and establish its quality control methods. Designed L16 (4(5)) orthogonal test with the extraction rate of total saponins as index, to determine the rational extraction process, and the techniques of water-saturated n-butanol extraction and acetone precipitation were applied to purify the alcohol extract of RPJ. Total saponins were detected by spectrophotometry and its triterpenoidal sapogenin oleanolic acid detected by HPLC. The optimum conditions of total saponins from RPJ was as follows: the material was pulverized, dipped in 60% ethanol aqueous solution as extract solvent at 10 times of volume, and refluxed 3 times for 3 h each time. Extractant of water-saturated n-butanol with extraction times of 3 and precipitant of acetone with precipitation amount of 4-5 times were included in the purification process, which would obtain the quality products. The content of total saponins could reach to 83.48%, and oleanolic acid to 38.30%. The optimized preparative technology is stable, convenient and practical. The extract rate of RPJ was high and steady with this technology, which provided new evidence for industrializing production of the plant and developing new drug.

  4. Streptomyces capitiformicae sp. nov., a novel actinomycete producing angucyclinone antibiotics isolated from the head of Camponotus japonicus Mayr.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Shanwen; Piao, Chenyu; Yu, Yang; Cao, Peng; Li, Chenxu; Yang, Fan; Li, Mutong; Xiang, Wensheng; Liu, Chongxi

    2018-01-01

    A novel actinomycete, designated strain 1H-SSA4 T , was isolated from the head of an ant (Camponotus japonicus Mayr) and was found to produce angucyclinone antibiotics. A polyphasic approach was used to determine the taxonomic status of strain 1H-SSA4 T . The DNA G+C content of the draft genome sequence, consisting of 11.4 Mbp, was 70.0 mol%. 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity studies showed that strain 1H-SSA4 T belongs to the genus Streptomyces with the highest sequence similarity to Streptomyces hygroscopicus subsp. ossamyceticus NBRC 13983 T (98.9 %), and phylogenetically clustered with this species, Streptomyces torulosus LMG 20305 T (98.8 %), Streptomyces ipomoeae NBRC 13050 T (98.5 %) and Streptomyces decoyicus NRRL 2666 T (98.4 %). The morphological and chemotaxonomic properties of the strain were also consistent with those members of the genus Streptomyces. A combination of DNA-DNA hybridization experiments and phenotypic tests were carried out between strain 1H-SSA4 T and the above-mentioned strains, which further clarified their relatedness and demonstrated that strain 1H-SSA4 T could be distinguished from these strains. Therefore, the strain is concluded to represent a novel species of the genus Streptomyces, for which the name Streptomyces capitiformicae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is 1H-SSA4 T (=CGMCC 4.7403 T =DSM 104537 T ).

  5. Long-term transportation, by road and air, of chub mackerel (Scomber japonicus) and atlantic bonito (Sarda sarda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, João P S; Graça, José T C; Hirofumi, Morikawa; Kube, Nicole

    2011-01-01

    During the second semester of 2009, three trips were made from Olhão (Southern Portugal) to Stralsund (Northern Germany) carrying 2.122 animals, which included multiple teleosts, elasmobranchs and invertebrates. This group included scombrids, such as 1.869 Scomber japonicus and 9 Sarda sarda, which are notoriously difficult to transport. However, multiple adaptations to transport regimes adopted regularly have allowed the authors to successfully move these animals by road and air over a total of up to 25 hr. Such adaptations included maintaining oxygen saturation rates at approximately 200%, and also the constant addition of AmQuel(®) , sodium bicarbonate, and sodium carbonate. Different formulations were used during the three trips, with the best results corresponding to 20/30/30 ppm of the three aforementioned chemicals, respectively. The authors suggest, however, that a modified formula of 20/40/40 ppm will allow for an even more stable pH on future trips. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. Evaluation of the effectiveness of different herbicides against a new weed Japanese brome (Bromus japonicus Houtt. in wheat crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Asghar

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of different post emergence herbicides for the control of monocot weed the Japanese broom (Bromus japonicus in wheat crop. Five herbicides viz., metribuzin, isoproturon, metribuzin plus isoproturon, Atlantis and sulfosulfuron were used at their recommended doses in RCBD with three replications. The weedy check was kept as control where no herbicide was sprayed. All the herbicides were applied as post-emergence after second irrigation at 60 days after sowing the crop. The lowest weed counts per m2 (0.583 and highest percent of weed mortality (99.07% were observed where metribuzin plus isoproturon was used. This was followed by Atlantis with 3.26 weeds per m2 with 95.14% mortality of weeds. However, significantly higher 1000 grain weight was noted with Atlantis (29.50 g and metribuzin plus isoproturon (28.58 g. The treatments did not differ significantly with respect to 1000 grain weight. All the herbicide helped to increase the yield from 16 to 22%, but did not differ significantly with respect to yield gain. The highest yield (3759.40 kg ha-1 was produced by Atlantis followed by sulfosulfuron (3757.20 kg ha-1 . On the basis of cost benefit ratio sulfosulfuron (34.95 proved to be the best followed by metribuzin (16.78. Therefore, sulfosulfuron and metribuzin are recommended for the control of Bromus weed in wheat crop.

  7. Effects of Acute and Chronic Heavy Metal (Cu, Cd, and Zn Exposure on Sea Cucumbers (Apostichopus japonicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute and chronic toxicity tests were conducted with sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus exposed to heavy metals. Acute toxicity values (96 h LC50 were 2.697, 0.133, and 1.574 mg L−1 for Zn, Cu, and Cd, respectively, and were ranked in order of toxicity: Cu > Cd > Zn. Under chronic metal exposure the specific growth rates of sea cucumbers decreased with the increase of metal concentration for all the three metals. After acute metal exposure, the oxygen consumption rate (OCR decreased. The OCRs in all groups were significantly different than control (P muscle > intestine in natural sea water. After chronic Zn, Cu, and Cd exposure, the change pattern of HK and PK in respiratory tree, muscle, and intestine varied slightly. However, the activity of the enzyme showed a general trend of increase and then decrease and the higher the exposure concentration was, the earlier the highest point of enzyme activity was obtained.

  8. A NIN-LIKE PROTEIN mediates nitrate-induced control of root nodule symbiosis in Lotus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishida, Hanna; Tanaka, Sachiko; Handa, Yoshihiro; Ito, Momoyo; Sakamoto, Yuki; Matsunaga, Sachihiro; Betsuyaku, Shigeyuki; Miura, Kenji; Soyano, Takashi; Kawaguchi, Masayoshi; Suzaki, Takuya

    2018-02-05

    Legumes and rhizobia establish symbiosis in root nodules. To balance the gains and costs associated with the symbiosis, plants have developed two strategies for adapting to nitrogen availability in the soil: plants can regulate nodule number and/or stop the development or function of nodules. Although the former is accounted for by autoregulation of nodulation, a form of systemic long-range signaling, the latter strategy remains largely enigmatic. Here, we show that the Lotus japonicus NITRATE UNRESPONSIVE SYMBIOSIS 1 (NRSYM1) gene encoding a NIN-LIKE PROTEIN transcription factor acts as a key regulator in the nitrate-induced pleiotropic control of root nodule symbiosis. NRSYM1 accumulates in the nucleus in response to nitrate and directly regulates the production of CLE-RS2, a root-derived mobile peptide that acts as a negative regulator of nodule number. Our data provide the genetic basis for how plants respond to the nitrogen environment and control symbiosis to achieve proper plant growth.

  9. Maximizing Lumen Gain With Directional Atherectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Gregory A; Winscott, John G

    2016-08-01

    To describe the use of a low-pressure balloon inflation (LPBI) technique to delineate intraluminal plaque and guide directional atherectomy in order to maximize lumen gain and achieve procedure success. The technique is illustrated in a 77-year-old man with claudication who underwent superficial femoral artery revascularization using a HawkOne directional atherectomy catheter. A standard angioplasty balloon was inflated to 1 to 2 atm during live fluoroscopy to create a 3-dimensional "lumenogram" of the target lesion. Directional atherectomy was performed only where plaque impinged on the balloon at a specific fluoroscopic orientation. The results of the LPBI technique were corroborated with multimodality diagnostic imaging, including digital subtraction angiography, intravascular ultrasound, and intra-arterial pressure measurements. With the LPBI technique, directional atherectomy can routinely achieve <10% residual stenosis, as illustrated in this case, thereby broadly supporting a no-stent approach to lower extremity endovascular revascularization. © The Author(s) 2016.

  10. Primordial two-component maximally symmetric inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enqvist, K.; Nanopoulos, D. V.; Quirós, M.; Kounnas, C.

    1985-12-01

    We propose a two-component inflation model, based on maximally symmetric supergravity, where the scales of reheating and the inflation potential at the origin are decoupled. This is possible because of the second-order phase transition from SU(5) to SU(3)×SU(2)×U(1) that takes place when φ≅φcinflation at the global minimum, and leads to a reheating temperature TR≅(1015-1016) GeV. This makes it possible to generate baryon asymmetry in the conventional way without any conflict with experimental data on proton lifetime. The mass of the gravitinos is m3/2≅1012 GeV, thus avoiding the gravitino problem. Monopoles are diluted by residual inflation in the broken phase below the cosmological bounds if φcUSA.

  11. Distributed-Memory Fast Maximal Independent Set

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanewala Appuhamilage, Thejaka Amila J.; Zalewski, Marcin J.; Lumsdaine, Andrew

    2017-09-13

    The Maximal Independent Set (MIS) graph problem arises in many applications such as computer vision, information theory, molecular biology, and process scheduling. The growing scale of MIS problems suggests the use of distributed-memory hardware as a cost-effective approach to providing necessary compute and memory resources. Luby proposed four randomized algorithms to solve the MIS problem. All those algorithms are designed focusing on shared-memory machines and are analyzed using the PRAM model. These algorithms do not have direct efficient distributed-memory implementations. In this paper, we extend two of Luby’s seminal MIS algorithms, “Luby(A)” and “Luby(B),” to distributed-memory execution, and we evaluate their performance. We compare our results with the “Filtered MIS” implementation in the Combinatorial BLAS library for two types of synthetic graph inputs.

  12. Quench dynamics of topological maximally entangled states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Ming-Chiang; Jhu, Yi-Hao; Chen, Pochung; Mou, Chung-Yu

    2013-07-17

    We investigate the quench dynamics of the one-particle entanglement spectra (OPES) for systems with topologically nontrivial phases. By using dimerized chains as an example, it is demonstrated that the evolution of OPES for the quenched bipartite systems is governed by an effective Hamiltonian which is characterized by a pseudospin in a time-dependent pseudomagnetic field S(k,t). The existence and evolution of the topological maximally entangled states (tMESs) are determined by the winding number of S(k,t) in the k-space. In particular, the tMESs survive only if nontrivial Berry phases are induced by the winding of S(k,t). In the infinite-time limit the equilibrium OPES can be determined by an effective time-independent pseudomagnetic field Seff(k). Furthermore, when tMESs are unstable, they are destroyed by quasiparticles within a characteristic timescale in proportion to the system size.

  13. Maximizing policy learning in international committees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nedergaard, Peter

    2007-01-01

    , this article demonstrates that valuable lessons can be learned about policy learning, in practice and theoretically, by analysing the cooperation in the OMC committees. Using the Advocacy Coalition Framework as the starting point of analysis, 15 hypotheses on policy learning are tested. Among other things......In the voluminous literature on the European Union's open method of coordination (OMC), no one has hitherto analysed on the basis of scholarly examination the question of what contributes to the learning processes in the OMC committees. On the basis of a questionnaire sent to all participants......, it is concluded that in order to maximize policy learning in international committees, empirical data should be made available to committees and provided by sources close to the participants (i.e. the Commission). In addition, the work in the committees should be made prestigious in order to attract well...

  14. Lovelock black holes with maximally symmetric horizons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maeda, Hideki; Willison, Steven; Ray, Sourya, E-mail: hideki@cecs.cl, E-mail: willison@cecs.cl, E-mail: ray@cecs.cl [Centro de Estudios CientIficos (CECs), Casilla 1469, Valdivia (Chile)

    2011-08-21

    We investigate some properties of n( {>=} 4)-dimensional spacetimes having symmetries corresponding to the isometries of an (n - 2)-dimensional maximally symmetric space in Lovelock gravity under the null or dominant energy condition. The well-posedness of the generalized Misner-Sharp quasi-local mass proposed in the past study is shown. Using this quasi-local mass, we clarify the basic properties of the dynamical black holes defined by a future outer trapping horizon under certain assumptions on the Lovelock coupling constants. The C{sup 2} vacuum solutions are classified into four types: (i) Schwarzschild-Tangherlini-type solution; (ii) Nariai-type solution; (iii) special degenerate vacuum solution; and (iv) exceptional vacuum solution. The conditions for the realization of the last two solutions are clarified. The Schwarzschild-Tangherlini-type solution is studied in detail. We prove the first law of black-hole thermodynamics and present the expressions for the heat capacity and the free energy.

  15. MAXIMIZING THE BENEFITS OF ERP SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo André da Conceição Menezes

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning systems have been consolidated in companies with different sizes and sectors, allowing their real benefits to be definitively evaluated. In this study, several interactions have been studied in different phases, such as the strategic priorities and strategic planning defined as ERP Strategy; business processes review and the ERP selection in the pre-implementation phase, the project management and ERP adaptation in the implementation phase, as well as the ERP revision and integration efforts in the post-implementation phase. Through rigorous use of case study methodology, this research led to developing and to testing a framework for maximizing the benefits of the ERP systems, and seeks to contribute for the generation of ERP initiatives to optimize their performance.

  16. Maximal energy extraction under discrete diffusive exchange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hay, M. J., E-mail: hay@princeton.edu [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States); Schiff, J. [Department of Mathematics, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat Gan 52900 (Israel); Fisch, N. J. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States); Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States)

    2015-10-15

    Waves propagating through a bounded plasma can rearrange the densities of states in the six-dimensional velocity-configuration phase space. Depending on the rearrangement, the wave energy can either increase or decrease, with the difference taken up by the total plasma energy. In the case where the rearrangement is diffusive, only certain plasma states can be reached. It turns out that the set of reachable states through such diffusive rearrangements has been described in very different contexts. Building upon those descriptions, and making use of the fact that the plasma energy is a linear functional of the state densities, the maximal extractable energy under diffusive rearrangement can then be addressed through linear programming.

  17. Maximizing profitability in a hospital outpatient pharmacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgenson, J A; Kilarski, J W; Malatestinic, W N; Rudy, T A

    1989-07-01

    This paper describes the strategies employed to increase the profitability of an existing ambulatory pharmacy operated by the hospital. Methods to generate new revenue including implementation of a home parenteral therapy program, a home enteral therapy program, a durable medical equipment service, and home care disposable sales are described. Programs to maximize existing revenue sources such as increasing the capture rate on discharge prescriptions, increasing "walk-in" prescription traffic and increasing HMO prescription volumes are discussed. A method utilized to reduce drug expenditures is also presented. By minimizing expenses and increasing the revenues for the ambulatory pharmacy operation, net profit increased from +26,000 to over +140,000 in one year.

  18. Maximizing the benefits of a dewatering system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthews, P.; Iverson, T.S.

    1999-01-01

    The use of dewatering systems in the mining, industrial sludge and sewage waste treatment industries is discussed, also describing some of the problems that have been encountered while using drilling fluid dewatering technology. The technology is an acceptable drilling waste handling alternative but it has had problems associated with recycled fluid incompatibility, high chemical costs and system inefficiencies. This paper discussed the following five action areas that can maximize the benefits and help reduce costs of a dewatering project: (1) co-ordinate all services, (2) choose equipment that fits the drilling program, (3) match the chemical treatment with the drilling fluid types, (4) determine recycled fluid compatibility requirements, and (5) determine the disposal requirements before project start-up. 2 refs., 5 figs

  19. Mixtures of maximally entangled pure states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores, M.M., E-mail: mflores@nip.up.edu.ph; Galapon, E.A., E-mail: eric.galapon@gmail.com

    2016-09-15

    We study the conditions when mixtures of maximally entangled pure states remain entangled. We found that the resulting mixed state remains entangled when the number of entangled pure states to be mixed is less than or equal to the dimension of the pure states. For the latter case of mixing a number of pure states equal to their dimension, we found that the mixed state is entangled provided that the entangled pure states to be mixed are not equally weighted. We also found that one can restrict the set of pure states that one can mix from in order to ensure that the resulting mixed state is genuinely entangled. Also, we demonstrate how these results could be applied as a way to detect entanglement in mixtures of the entangled pure states with noise.

  20. Maximally reliable Markov chains under energy constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escola, Sean; Eisele, Michael; Miller, Kenneth; Paninski, Liam

    2009-07-01

    Signal-to-noise ratios in physical systems can be significantly degraded if the outputs of the systems are highly variable. Biological processes for which highly stereotyped signal generations are necessary features appear to have reduced their signal variabilities by employing multiple processing steps. To better understand why this multistep cascade structure might be desirable, we prove that the reliability of a signal generated by a multistate system with no memory (i.e., a Markov chain) is maximal if and only if the system topology is such that the process steps irreversibly through each state, with transition rates chosen such that an equal fraction of the total signal is generated in each state. Furthermore, our result indicates that by increasing the number of states, it is possible to arbitrarily increase the reliability of the system. In a physical system, however, an energy cost is associated with maintaining irreversible transitions, and this cost increases with the number of such transitions (i.e., the number of states). Thus, an infinite-length chain, which would be perfectly reliable, is infeasible. To model the effects of energy demands on the maximally reliable solution, we numerically optimize the topology under two distinct energy functions that penalize either irreversible transitions or incommunicability between states, respectively. In both cases, the solutions are essentially irreversible linear chains, but with upper bounds on the number of states set by the amount of available energy. We therefore conclude that a physical system for which signal reliability is important should employ a linear architecture, with the number of states (and thus the reliability) determined by the intrinsic energy constraints of the system.

  1. A Criterion to Identify Maximally Entangled Four-Qubit State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zha Xinwei; Song Haiyang; Feng Feng

    2011-01-01

    Paolo Facchi, et al. [Phys. Rev. A 77 (2008) 060304(R)] presented a maximally multipartite entangled state (MMES). Here, we give a criterion for the identification of maximally entangled four-qubit states. Using this criterion, we not only identify some existing maximally entangled four-qubit states in the literature, but also find several new maximally entangled four-qubit states as well. (general)

  2. Maximal lattice free bodies, test sets and the Frobenius problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anders Nedergaard; Lauritzen, Niels; Roune, Bjarke Hammersholt

    Maximal lattice free bodies are maximal polytopes without interior integral points. Scarf initiated the study of maximal lattice free bodies relative to the facet normals in a fixed matrix. In this paper we give an efficient algorithm for computing the maximal lattice free bodies of an integral m...... method is inspired by the novel algorithm by Einstein, Lichtblau, Strzebonski and Wagon and the Groebner basis approach by Roune....

  3. Leaving the hospital - your discharge plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... patientinstructions/000867.htm Leaving the hospital - your discharge plan To use the sharing features on this page, ... once you leave. This is called a discharge plan. Your health care providers at the hospital will ...

  4. Childcare and the division of parental leave

    OpenAIRE

    Norén, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Despite several policies aimed at increasing fathers' participation in the caring of children, Swedish mothers still use the bulk of the paid parental leave which may have several negative consequences for the family e.g. in terms of weaker labor market attachment for the mother. Division of parental leave is likely affected by how parents value the costs associated with parental leave. I investigate whether a reduction in the care burden, or a decreased non-monetary cost, of parental leave t...

  5. RNA-Seq reveals dynamic changes of gene expression in key stages of intestine regeneration in the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus. [corrected].

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Sun

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sea cucumbers (Holothuroidea; Echinodermata have the capacity to regenerate lost tissues and organs. Although the histological and cytological aspects of intestine regeneration have been extensively studied, little is known of the genetic mechanisms involved. There has, however, been a renewed effort to develop a database of Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs in Apostichopus japonicus, an economically-important species that occurs in China. This is important for studies on genetic breeding, molecular markers and special physiological phenomena. We have also constructed a library of ESTs obtained from the regenerative body wall and intestine of A. japonicus. The database has increased to ~30000 ESTs. RESULTS: We used RNA-Seq to determine gene expression profiles associated with intestinal regeneration in A. japonicus at 3, 7, 14 and 21 days post evisceration (dpe. This was compared to profiles obtained from a normally-functioning intestine. Approximately 5 million (M reads were sequenced in every library. Over 2400 up-regulated genes (>10% and over 1000 down-regulated genes (~5% were observed at 3 and 7dpe (log2Ratio ≥ 1, FDR ≤ 0.001. Specific "Go terms" revealed that the DEGs (Differentially Expressed Genes performed an important function at every regeneration stage. Besides some expected pathways (for example, Ribosome and Spliceosome pathway term, the "Notch signaling pathway," the "ECM-receptor interaction" and the "Cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction" were significantly enriched. We also investigated the expression profiles of developmental genes, ECM-associated genes and Cytoskeletal genes. Twenty of the most important differentially expressed genes (DEGs were verified by Real-time PCR, which resulted in a trend concordance of almost 100% between the two techniques. CONCLUSION: Our studies demonstrated dynamic changes in global gene expression during intestine regeneration and presented a series of candidate genes and enriched

  6. Molecular cloning of Kuruma shrimp Marsupenaeus japonicus endonuclease-reverse transcriptase and its positive role in white spot syndrome virus and Vibrio alginolyticus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiongchao; Sun, Baozhen; Zhu, Fei

    2018-02-01

    This study investigated the function of endonuclease-reverse transcriptase (mjERT) in Marsupenaeus japonicus. The 1129 bp cDNA sequence of mjERT was cloned from M. japonicus using rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) PCR, and RT-qPCR analysis indicated that mjERT was highly expressed in the gills and hepatopancreas of M. japonicus. We also found that white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) or Vibrio alginolyticus challenge could enhance the expression of mjERT. When mjERT was inhibited, immune genes such as toll, p53, hemocyanin and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) were significantly down-regulated (P shrimp, while myosin was significantly up-regulated (P shrimps was significantly increased following mjERT RNA interfere (RNAi). Apoptosis data provided information to suggest that mjERT-dsRNA challenge caused less apoptosis in hemocytes in both the disease-free and viral group. We also revealed that mjERT-dsRNA treatment resulted in a lower phagocytosis rate in the hemocytes of V. alginolyticus-challenged shrimp. Finally, we found that the absence of mjERT had an significantly negative impact upon shrimp phenoloxidase (PO) activity, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and total hemocyte count (THC) following WSSV or V. alginolyticus infection, indicating a regulative role for mjERT in the innate immunity of shrimp in response to pathogenic infection. In summary, we concluded that mjERT might promote the anti-WSSV immune response of shrimp by regulating apoptosis, PO activity, THC and SOD activity, and also exert a positive role in the immune response against V. alginolyticus by regulating phagocytosis, SOD activity, PO activity and THC. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The CCCTB Rules on Leaving a Group

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Streek, J.

    2012-01-01

    The consolidation system proposed in the draft of the CCCTB Directive puts relationships between Member States on edge. This is clearly apparent in the rules that apply when a company leaves a group. In this article the leaving rules are examined. Although the leaving rules are claimed to be

  8. Sugar beet leaves for functional ingredients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tamayo Tenorio, Angelica

    2017-01-01

    Plant leaves are recognised as a potential source for food applications based on their nutritional profile and interesting technological properties of leaf components, and based on the large availability of plant leaves in agricultural waste streams. Besides proteins, leaves have a rich

  9. Compassionate Care Leave & Benefits. CAUT Briefing Note

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canadian Association of University Teachers, 2016

    2016-01-01

    Compassionate care leave and benefits were introduced in 2003/04 to help employees cope with this difficult work-life balance challenge. Employment Standards legislation and the Employment Insurance program (EI) were amended to provide leave without pay, with payment of EI benefits for compassionate care leave. Collective agreements have been…

  10. On the Sharing of Temporary Parental Leave

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amilon, Anna

    2007-01-01

    This paper views temporary parental leave (leave from work to take care of a sick child) as a household public good, produced with time inputs of the parents as the only input. Assuming equal productivities in the production of temporary parental leave and equal utility functions of the spouses...

  11. On maximal surfaces in asymptotically flat space-times

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartnik, R.; Chrusciel, P.T.; O Murchadha, N.

    1990-01-01

    Existence of maximal and 'almost maximal' hypersurfaces in asymptotically flat space-times is established under boundary conditions weaker than those considered previously. We show in particular that every vacuum evolution of asymptotically flat data for Einstein equations can be foliated by slices maximal outside a spatially compact set and that every (strictly) stationary asymptotically flat space-time can be foliated by maximal hypersurfaces. Amongst other uniqueness results, we show that maximal hypersurface can be used to 'partially fix' an asymptotic Poincare group. (orig.)

  12. Ultraviolet B radiation induces impaired lifecycle traits and modulates expression of cytochrome P450 (CYP) genes in the copepod Tigriopus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puthumana, Jayesh; Lee, Min-Chul; Park, Jun Chul; Kim, Hui-Su; Hwang, Dae-Sik; Han, Jeonghoon; Lee, Jae-Seong

    2017-03-01

    To evaluate the effects of ultraviolet B (UV-B) radiation at the developmental, reproductive, and molecular levels in aquatic invertebrates, we measured UV-B-induced acute toxicity, impairments in developmental and reproductive traits, and UV-B interaction with the entire family of cytochrome P450 (CYP) genes in the intertidal benthic copepod Tigriopus japonicus. We found a significant, dose-dependent reduction (Pcopepods through the predicted AhR-mediated up-regulation of CYP genes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Combined N-glycome and N-glycoproteome analysis of the Lotus japonicus seed globulin fraction shows conservation of protein structure and glycosylation in legumes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam, Svend Secher; Thaysen-Andersen, Morten; Stenkjær, Eva

    2013-01-01

    Legume food allergy, such as allergy toward peanuts and soybeans, is a health issue predicted to worsen as dietary advice recommends higher intake of legume-based foods. Lotus japonicus (Lotus) is an established legume plant model system for studies of symbiotic and pathogenic microbial...... interactions and, due to its well characterized genotype/phenotype and easily manipulated genome, may also be suitable for studies of legume food allergy. Here we present a comprehensive study of the Lotus N-glycoproteome. The global and site-specific N-glycan structures of Lotus seed globulins were analyzed...

  14. Lotus japonicus nodulation requires two GRAS-domain regulators, NSP1 and NSP2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heckmann, Anne Birgitte Lau; Lombardo, Fabien; Miwa, Hiroki

    A nodulation-defective mutant of Lotus japonicus does not initiate nodule cortical cell division in response to Mesorhizobium loti, but induces root hair deformation, Nod factor-induced calcium spiking, and mycorrhization. We have shown that this mutant has a premature stop in the NSP1 (Nodulation...... Signalling Pathway 1) gene (Ljnsp1-1) resulting in loss of the C-terminal 23 amino acids (aa) and we recently identified another mutant in NSP1 (Ljnsp1-2) with a truncated protein of 341 aa. Additionally, we have sequenced and isolated a mutant in LjNSP2 (Ljnsp2-3) that has a premature stop codon showing...

  15. Effect of graded levels of dietary seaweed (Ulva sp.) on growth, hematological and serum biochemical parameters in dusky kob, Argyrosomus japonicus, sciaenidae

    OpenAIRE

    Molatelo Junior Madibana; Victor Mlambo; Brett Lewis; Chris Fouché

    2017-01-01

    This study was designed to assess the effect of incorporating graded levels of green macroalgae seaweed (Ulva sp.) into diets of juvenile dusky kob (Argyrosomus japonicus) on growth performance, hematology and serum biochemistry. Five experimental diets were formulated to contain 0 (Ulva0), 50 (Ulva50), 100 (Ulva100), 150 (Ulva150) and 200 (Ulva200) g seaweed meal/kg commercial kob feed on a dry matter basis. Seventy-seven dusky kob fingerlings (mean body mass 9.14â¯Â±â¯0.30â¯g) were distribu...

  16. A Note of Caution on Maximizing Entropy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard E. Neapolitan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The Principle of Maximum Entropy is often used to update probabilities due to evidence instead of performing Bayesian updating using Bayes’ Theorem, and its use often has efficacious results. However, in some circumstances the results seem unacceptable and unintuitive. This paper discusses some of these cases, and discusses how to identify some of the situations in which this principle should not be used. The paper starts by reviewing three approaches to probability, namely the classical approach, the limiting frequency approach, and the Bayesian approach. It then introduces maximum entropy and shows its relationship to the three approaches. Next, through examples, it shows that maximizing entropy sometimes can stand in direct opposition to Bayesian updating based on reasonable prior beliefs. The paper concludes that if we take the Bayesian approach that probability is about reasonable belief based on all available information, then we can resolve the conflict between the maximum entropy approach and the Bayesian approach that is demonstrated in the examples.

  17. Optimal topologies for maximizing network transmission capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhenhao; Wu, Jiajing; Rong, Zhihai; Tse, Chi K.

    2018-04-01

    It has been widely demonstrated that the structure of a network is a major factor that affects its traffic dynamics. In this work, we try to identify the optimal topologies for maximizing the network transmission capacity, as well as to build a clear relationship between structural features of a network and the transmission performance in terms of traffic delivery. We propose an approach for designing optimal network topologies against traffic congestion by link rewiring and apply them on the Barabási-Albert scale-free, static scale-free and Internet Autonomous System-level networks. Furthermore, we analyze the optimized networks using complex network parameters that characterize the structure of networks, and our simulation results suggest that an optimal network for traffic transmission is more likely to have a core-periphery structure. However, assortative mixing and the rich-club phenomenon may have negative impacts on network performance. Based on the observations of the optimized networks, we propose an efficient method to improve the transmission capacity of large-scale networks.

  18. New features of the maximal abelian projection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bornyakov, V.G.; Polikarpov, M.I.; Syritsyn, S.N.; Schierholz, G.; Suzuki, T.

    2005-12-01

    After fixing the Maximal Abelian gauge in SU(2) lattice gauge theory we decompose the nonabelian gauge field into the so called monopole field and the modified nonabelian field with monopoles removed. We then calculate respective static potentials and find that the potential due to the modified nonabelian field is nonconfining while, as is well known, the monopole field potential is linear. Furthermore, we show that the sum of these potentials approximates the nonabelian static potential with 5% or higher precision at all distances considered. We conclude that at large distances the monopole field potential describes the classical energy of the hadronic string while the modified nonabelian field potential describes the string fluctuations. Similar decomposition was observed to work for the adjoint static potential. A check was also made of the center projection in the direct center gauge. Two static potentials, determined by projected Z 2 and by modified nonabelian field without Z 2 component were calculated. It was found that their sum is a substantially worse approximation of the SU(2) static potential than that found in the monopole case. It is further demonstrated that similar decomposition can be made for the flux tube action/energy density. (orig.)

  19. Examining the Evolution of Paid Parental Leave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sladek, Carol

    While the United States continues to be the only developed nation without mandated paid maternity leave, U.S. employers are blazing their own trail for new parents. This article defines parental leave, explains what's driving the increased interest in paid parental leave among employers offering it and discusses how paid parental leave can benefit employers and employees alike. Finally, the author discusses why not all employers are offering these benefits as well as considerations for employers contemplating whether paid parental leave is right for them.

  20. 5 CFR 630.1015 - Movement between voluntary leave bank and leave transfer programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Movement between voluntary leave bank and leave transfer programs. 630.1015 Section 630.1015 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Voluntary Leave Bank Program § 630.1015 Movement...

  1. 5 CFR 630.1104 - Donations from a leave bank to an emergency leave transfer program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Donations from a leave bank to an emergency leave transfer program. 630.1104 Section 630.1104 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Emergency Leave Transfer Program § 630.1104 Donations...

  2. 29 CFR 825.205 - Increments of FMLA leave for intermittent or reduced schedule leave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... intermittent leave or working a reduced leave schedule to commence or end work mid-way through a shift, such as... per week, but works only 20 hours a week under a reduced leave schedule, the employee's ten hours of... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Increments of FMLA leave for intermittent or reduced...

  3. Polynomial algorithms for the Maximal Pairing Problem: efficient phylogenetic targeting on arbitrary trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stadler Peter F

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Maximal Pairing Problem (MPP is the prototype of a class of combinatorial optimization problems that are of considerable interest in bioinformatics: Given an arbitrary phylogenetic tree T and weights ωxy for the paths between any two pairs of leaves (x, y, what is the collection of edge-disjoint paths between pairs of leaves that maximizes the total weight? Special cases of the MPP for binary trees and equal weights have been described previously; algorithms to solve the general MPP are still missing, however. Results We describe a relatively simple dynamic programming algorithm for the special case of binary trees. We then show that the general case of multifurcating trees can be treated by interleaving solutions to certain auxiliary Maximum Weighted Matching problems with an extension of this dynamic programming approach, resulting in an overall polynomial-time solution of complexity (n4 log n w.r.t. the number n of leaves. The source code of a C implementation can be obtained under the GNU Public License from http://www.bioinf.uni-leipzig.de/Software/Targeting. For binary trees, we furthermore discuss several constrained variants of the MPP as well as a partition function approach to the probabilistic version of the MPP. Conclusions The algorithms introduced here make it possible to solve the MPP also for large trees with high-degree vertices. This has practical relevance in the field of comparative phylogenetics and, for example, in the context of phylogenetic targeting, i.e., data collection with resource limitations.

  4. Skuas at penguin carcass: patch use and state-dependent leaving decisions in a top-predator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hahn, S.M.; Peter, H.-U.; Bauer, S.

    2005-01-01

    Foraging decisions depend not only on simple maximization of energy intake but also on parallel fitness-relevant activities that change the forager's ‘state’. We characterized patch use and patch leaving rules of a top-predatory seabird, the Brown Skua (Catharacta antarctica lonnbergi), which during

  5. Expression and Purification of Active Recombinant Cathepsin C (Dipeptidyl Aminopeptidase I of Kuruma Prawn Marsupenaeus japonicus in Insect Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao-Feng Qiu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Cathepsin C (CTSC is a lysosomal cysteine protease belonging to the papain superfamily. Our previous study showed that CTSC precursor (zymogen is localized exclusively in cortical rods (CRs of mature oocyte in the kuruma prawn Marsupenaeus japonicus, suggesting that CTSC might have roles on regulating release and/or formation of a jelly layer. In this study, enzymically active CTSC of the kuruma prawn was prepared by recombinant expression in the High Five insect cell line. The recombinant enzyme with a polyhistidine tag at its C-terminus was considered to be initially secreted into the culture medium as an inactive form of zymogen, because Western blot with anti-CTSC antibody detected a 51 kDa protein corresponding to CTSC precursor. After purification by affinity chromatography on nickel-iminodiacetic acid resin, the enzyme displayed three forms of 51, 31, and 30 kDa polypeptides. All of the forms can be recognized by antiserum raised against C-terminal polyhistidine tag, indicating that the 31 and 30 kDa forms were generated from 51 kDa polypeptide by removal of a portion of the N-terminus of propeptide. Following activation at pH 5.5 and 37∘C for 40 hours under native conditions, the recombinant CTSC (rCTSC exhibited increased activity against the synthetic substrate Gly-Phe-β-naphthylamide and optimal pH at around 5. The purified rCTSC will be useful for further characterization of its exact physiological role on CRs release and/or formation of a jelly layer in kuruma prawn.

  6. A Mycorrhizal-Specific Ammonium Transporter from Lotus japonicus Acquires Nitrogen Released by Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guether, Mike; Neuhäuser, Benjamin; Balestrini, Raffaella; Dynowski, Marek; Ludewig, Uwe; Bonfante, Paola

    2009-01-01

    In mycorrhizal associations, the fungal partner assists its plant host by providing nitrogen (N) in addition to phosphate. Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi have access to inorganic or organic forms of N and translocate them via arginine from the extra- to the intraradical mycelium, where the N is transferred to the plant without any carbon skeleton. However, the molecular form in which N is transferred, as well as the involved mechanisms, is still under debate. NH4+ seems to be the preferential transferred molecule, but no plant ammonium transporter (AMT) has been identified so far. Here, we offer evidence of a plant AMT that is involved in N uptake during mycorrhiza symbiosis. The gene LjAMT2;2, which has been shown to be the highest up-regulated gene in a transcriptomic analysis of Lotus japonicus roots upon colonization with Gigaspora margarita, has been characterized as a high-affinity AMT belonging to the AMT2 subfamily. It is exclusively expressed in the mycorrhizal roots, but not in the nodules, and transcripts have preferentially been located in the arbusculated cells. Yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) mutant complementation has confirmed its functionality and revealed its dependency on acidic pH. The transport experiments using Xenopus laevis oocytes indicated that, unlike other plant AMTs, LjAMT2;2 transports NH3 instead of NH4+. Our results suggest that the transporter binds charged ammonium in the apoplastic interfacial compartment and releases the uncharged NH3 into the plant cytoplasm. The implications of such a finding are discussed in the context of AM functioning and plant phosphorus uptake. PMID:19329566

  7. Effects of heat treatment on the gel properties of the body wall of sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kai; Hou, Hu; Bu, Lin; Li, Bafang; Xue, Changhu; Peng, Zhe; Su, Shiwei

    2017-03-01

    The sensory texture of sea cucumber ( Apostichopus japonicus ) was dramatically affected by heat treatment. In this study, sea cucumbers were heated under different thermal conditions (HSC), and divided into five groups (HSC-80, HSC-90, HSC-100, HSC-110, and HSC-120) according to the heating temperature (from 80 to 120 °C). The changes in texture, moisture, gel structure, and biochemical parameters of the HSC were investigated. With increasing heating time (from 10 to 80 min), the hardness and gel structure changed slightly, and the water activity decreased as the proportion of T 21 increased by 133.33, 55.56, and 59.09% in the HSC-80, HSC-90, and HSC-100 groups, respectively. This indicated that moderate heating conditions (below 100 °C) caused gelation of sea cucumbers in HSC-80, HSC-90, and HSC-100 groups. However, as the water activity increased, the hardness declined rapidly by 2.56 and 2.7% in the HSC-110 and HSC-120 groups, with heating time increased from 10 to 80 min. Meanwhile, free hydroxyproline and ammonia nitrogen contents increased by 81.24 and 63.16% in the HSC-110 group; and by 63.09 and 54.99% in the HSC-120 group, as the gel structure of the sea cucumbers decomposed in these two groups. These results demonstrated that, severe heat treatment (above 100 °C) destroyed the chemical bonds, triggered the disintegration of collagen fibers and the gel structure of sea cucumbers, and transformed the migration and distribution of moisture, finally causing the deterioration of the sensory texture of the sea cucumbers.

  8. Osmotic stress represses strigolactone biosynthesis in Lotus japonicus roots: exploring the interaction between strigolactones and ABA under abiotic stress

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Junwei

    2015-02-26

    Main conclusion: Strigolactone changes and cross talk with ABA unveil a picture of root-specific hormonal dynamics under stress.Abstract: Strigolactones (SLs) are carotenoid-derived hormones influencing diverse aspects of development and communication with (micro)organisms, and proposed as mediators of environmental stimuli in resource allocation processes; to contribute to adaptive adjustments, therefore, their pathway must be responsive to environmental cues. To investigate the relationship between SLs and abiotic stress in Lotus japonicus, we compared wild-type and SL-depleted plants, and studied SL metabolism in roots stressed osmotically and/or phosphate starved. SL-depleted plants showed increased stomatal conductance, both under normal and stress conditions, and impaired resistance to drought associated with slower stomatal closure in response to abscisic acid (ABA). This confirms that SLs contribute to drought resistance in species other than Arabidopsis. However, we also observed that osmotic stress rapidly and strongly decreased SL concentration in tissues and exudates of wild-type Lotus roots, by acting on the transcription of biosynthetic and transporter-encoding genes and independently of phosphate abundance. Pre-treatment with exogenous SLs inhibited the osmotic stress-induced ABA increase in wild-type roots and down-regulated the transcription of the ABA biosynthetic gene LjNCED2. We propose that a transcriptionally regulated, early SL decrease under osmotic stress is needed (but not sufficient) to allow the physiological increase of ABA in roots. This work shows that SL metabolism and effects on ABA are seemingly opposite in roots and shoots under stress.

  9. Toxicity of antifouling biocides to the intertidal harpacticoid copepod Tigriopus japonicus (Crustacea, Copepoda): Effects of temperature and salinity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwok, K.W.H.; Leung, K.M.Y.

    2005-01-01

    Intertidal harpacticoid copepods are commonly used in eco-toxicity tests worldwide. They predominately live in mid-high shore rock pools and often experience a wide range of temperature and salinity fluctuation. Most eco-toxicity tests are conducted at fixed temperature and salinity and thus the influence of these environmental factors on chemical toxicity is largely unknown. This study investigated the combined effect of temperature and salinity on the acute toxicity of the copepod Tigriopus japonicus against two common biocides, copper (Cu) and tributyltin (TBT) using a 2 x 3 x 4 factorial design (i.e. two temperatures: 25 and 35 o C; three salinities: 15.0 per mille , 34.5 per mille and 45.0 per mille ; three levels of the biocide plus a control). Copper sulphate and tributyltin chloride were used as the test chemicals while distilled water and acetone were utilised as solvents for Cu and TBT respectively. 96h-LC50s of Cu and TBT were 1024 and 0.149 μg l -1 respectively (at 25 o C; 34.5 per mille ) and, based on these results, nominal biocide concentrations of LC0 (i.e. control), LC30, LC50 and LC70 were employed. Analysis of Covariance using 'concentration' as the covariate and both 'temperature' and 'salinity' as fixed factors, showed a significant interaction between temperature and salinity effects for Cu, mortality increasing with temperature but decreasing with elevated salinity. A similar result was revealed for TBT. Both temperature and salinity are, therefore, important factors affecting the results of acute eco-toxicity tests using these marine copepods. We recommend that such eco-toxicity tests should be conducted at a range of environmentally realistic temperature/salinity regimes, as this will enhance the sensitivity of the test and improve the safety margin in line with the precautionary principle

  10. Toxicity of antifouling biocides to the intertidal harpacticoid copepod Tigriopus japonicus (Crustacea, Copepoda): Effects of temperature and salinity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwok, K.W.H. [Swire Institute of Marine Science, Department of Ecology and Biodiversity, University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong (China); Leung, K.M.Y. [Swire Institute of Marine Science, Department of Ecology and Biodiversity, University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong (China)]. E-mail: kmyleung@hkucc.hku.hk

    2005-07-01

    Intertidal harpacticoid copepods are commonly used in eco-toxicity tests worldwide. They predominately live in mid-high shore rock pools and often experience a wide range of temperature and salinity fluctuation. Most eco-toxicity tests are conducted at fixed temperature and salinity and thus the influence of these environmental factors on chemical toxicity is largely unknown. This study investigated the combined effect of temperature and salinity on the acute toxicity of the copepod Tigriopus japonicus against two common biocides, copper (Cu) and tributyltin (TBT) using a 2 x 3 x 4 factorial design (i.e. two temperatures: 25 and 35 {sup o}C; three salinities: 15.0 per mille , 34.5 per mille and 45.0 per mille ; three levels of the biocide plus a control). Copper sulphate and tributyltin chloride were used as the test chemicals while distilled water and acetone were utilised as solvents for Cu and TBT respectively. 96h-LC50s of Cu and TBT were 1024 and 0.149 {mu}g l{sup -1} respectively (at 25 {sup o}C; 34.5 per mille ) and, based on these results, nominal biocide concentrations of LC0 (i.e. control), LC30, LC50 and LC70 were employed. Analysis of Covariance using 'concentration' as the covariate and both 'temperature' and 'salinity' as fixed factors, showed a significant interaction between temperature and salinity effects for Cu, mortality increasing with temperature but decreasing with elevated salinity. A similar result was revealed for TBT. Both temperature and salinity are, therefore, important factors affecting the results of acute eco-toxicity tests using these marine copepods. We recommend that such eco-toxicity tests should be conducted at a range of environmentally realistic temperature/salinity regimes, as this will enhance the sensitivity of the test and improve the safety margin in line with the precautionary principle.

  11. Osmotic stress represses strigolactone biosynthesis in Lotus japonicus roots: exploring the interaction between strigolactones and ABA under abiotic stress

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Junwei; He, Hanzi; Vitali, Marco; Visentin, Ivan; Charnikhova, Tatsiana V.; Haider, Imran; Schubert, Andrea; Ruyter-Spira, Carolien P.; Bouwmeester, Harro J J; Lovisolo, Claudio; Cardinale, Francesca

    2015-01-01

    Main conclusion: Strigolactone changes and cross talk with ABA unveil a picture of root-specific hormonal dynamics under stress.Abstract: Strigolactones (SLs) are carotenoid-derived hormones influencing diverse aspects of development and communication with (micro)organisms, and proposed as mediators of environmental stimuli in resource allocation processes; to contribute to adaptive adjustments, therefore, their pathway must be responsive to environmental cues. To investigate the relationship between SLs and abiotic stress in Lotus japonicus, we compared wild-type and SL-depleted plants, and studied SL metabolism in roots stressed osmotically and/or phosphate starved. SL-depleted plants showed increased stomatal conductance, both under normal and stress conditions, and impaired resistance to drought associated with slower stomatal closure in response to abscisic acid (ABA). This confirms that SLs contribute to drought resistance in species other than Arabidopsis. However, we also observed that osmotic stress rapidly and strongly decreased SL concentration in tissues and exudates of wild-type Lotus roots, by acting on the transcription of biosynthetic and transporter-encoding genes and independently of phosphate abundance. Pre-treatment with exogenous SLs inhibited the osmotic stress-induced ABA increase in wild-type roots and down-regulated the transcription of the ABA biosynthetic gene LjNCED2. We propose that a transcriptionally regulated, early SL decrease under osmotic stress is needed (but not sufficient) to allow the physiological increase of ABA in roots. This work shows that SL metabolism and effects on ABA are seemingly opposite in roots and shoots under stress.

  12. Multigenerational effects of 4-methylbenzylidene camphor (4-MBC) on the survival, development and reproduction of the marine copepod Tigriopus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Leyun; Li, Xiaolin; Hong, Haizheng; Shi, Dalin

    2018-01-01

    One of the most widely used organic UV filters, 4-methylbenzylidene camphor (4-MBC), is present at high concentrations in offshore waters. The marine copepod Tigriopus japonicus was exposed to different concentrations of 4-MBC (i.e., 0, 0.5, 1, 5 and 10μgL -1 ) for 4 consecutive generations (F0-F3) to evaluate the impact of 4-MBC on marine ecosystems. The results showed that in the F0 generation, 4-MBC caused significant lethal toxicity in T. japonicas at concentrations of 5 and 10μgL -1 and the nauplii were more sensitive to 4-MBC toxicity than the adults. However in the F1-F3 generations, 4-MBC exposure did not affect the survival rate. The hatching rate and the developmental duration from the nauplii to the copepodite (N-C) and from the nauplii to adult (N-A) decreased significantly in the F1-F2 generations and in the F2-F3 generations, respectively, even at the lowest exposure concentration (0.5μgL -1 ). In the subsequent two generations (i.e., the F4-F5 generations) of recovery exposure in clean seawater, the growth rates of the original 4-MBC exposure groups were still faster than the control in both the N-C and N-A stages, suggesting possible transgenerational genetic and/or epigenetic changes upon chronic 4-MBC exposure. The expression of the ecdysone receptor gene was up-regulated by 4-MBC, which was consistent with the decrease of the N-C/N-A duration. In addition, 4-MBC may induce oxidative stress and trigger apoptosis in T. japonicas, resulting in developmental, reproductive and even lethal toxicity. A preliminary risk assessment suggested that under environmentally realistic concentrations, 4-MBC had significant potential to pose a threat to marine crustaceans and marine ecosystems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Gibberellins Interfere with Symbiosis Signaling and Gene Expression and Alter Colonization by Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi in Lotus japonicus1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Naoya; Handa, Yoshihiro; Tsuzuki, Syusaku; Kojima, Mikiko; Sakakibara, Hitoshi; Kawaguchi, Masayoshi

    2015-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhiza is a mutualistic plant-fungus interaction that confers great advantages for plant growth. Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi enter the host root and form symbiotic structures that facilitate nutrient supplies between the symbionts. The gibberellins (GAs) are phytohormones known to inhibit AM fungal infection. However, our transcriptome analysis and phytohormone quantification revealed GA accumulation in the roots of Lotus japonicus infected with AM fungi, suggesting that de novo GA synthesis plays a role in arbuscular mycorrhiza development. We found pleiotropic effects of GAs on the AM fungal infection. In particular, the morphology of AM fungal colonization was drastically altered by the status of GA signaling in the host root. Exogenous GA treatment inhibited AM hyphal entry into the host root and suppressed the expression of Reduced Arbuscular Mycorrhization1 (RAM1) and RAM2 homologs that function in hyphal entry and arbuscule formation. On the other hand, inhibition of GA biosynthesis or suppression of GA signaling also affected arbuscular mycorrhiza development in the host root. Low-GA conditions suppressed arbuscular mycorrhiza-induced subtilisin-like serine protease1 (SbtM1) expression that is required for AM fungal colonization and reduced hyphal branching in the host root. The reduced hyphal branching and SbtM1 expression caused by the inhibition of GA biosynthesis were recovered by GA treatment, supporting the theory that insufficient GA signaling causes the inhibitory effects on arbuscular mycorrhiza development. Most studies have focused on the negative role of GA signaling, whereas our study demonstrates that GA signaling also positively interacts with symbiotic responses and promotes AM colonization of the host root. PMID:25527715

  14. Gibberellins interfere with symbiosis signaling and gene expression and alter colonization by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in Lotus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Naoya; Handa, Yoshihiro; Tsuzuki, Syusaku; Kojima, Mikiko; Sakakibara, Hitoshi; Kawaguchi, Masayoshi

    2015-02-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhiza is a mutualistic plant-fungus interaction that confers great advantages for plant growth. Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi enter the host root and form symbiotic structures that facilitate nutrient supplies between the symbionts. The gibberellins (GAs) are phytohormones known to inhibit AM fungal infection. However, our transcriptome analysis and phytohormone quantification revealed GA accumulation in the roots of Lotus japonicus infected with AM fungi, suggesting that de novo GA synthesis plays a role in arbuscular mycorrhiza development. We found pleiotropic effects of GAs on the AM fungal infection. In particular, the morphology of AM fungal colonization was drastically altered by the status of GA signaling in the host root. Exogenous GA treatment inhibited AM hyphal entry into the host root and suppressed the expression of Reduced Arbuscular Mycorrhization1 (RAM1) and RAM2 homologs that function in hyphal entry and arbuscule formation. On the other hand, inhibition of GA biosynthesis or suppression of GA signaling also affected arbuscular mycorrhiza development in the host root. Low-GA conditions suppressed arbuscular mycorrhiza-induced subtilisin-like serine protease1 (SbtM1) expression that is required for AM fungal colonization and reduced hyphal branching in the host root. The reduced hyphal branching and SbtM1 expression caused by the inhibition of GA biosynthesis were recovered by GA treatment, supporting the theory that insufficient GA signaling causes the inhibitory effects on arbuscular mycorrhiza development. Most studies have focused on the negative role of GA signaling, whereas our study demonstrates that GA signaling also positively interacts with symbiotic responses and promotes AM colonization of the host root. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  15. Streptomyces amphotericinicus sp. nov., an amphotericin-producing actinomycete isolated from the head of an ant (Camponotus japonicus Mayr).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Tingting; Mu, Shan; Lu, Chang; Zhao, Shanshan; Li, Dongmei; Yan, Kai; Xiang, Wensheng; Liu, Chongxi

    2017-12-01

    A novel actinomycete, designated strain 1H-SSA8 T , was isolated from the head of an ant (Camponotus japonicus Mayr) and was found to produce amphotericin. A polyphasic approach was employed to determine the status of strain 1H-SSA8 T . Morphological and chemotaxonomic characteristics were consistent with those of members of the genus Streptomyces. The menaquinones detected were MK-9(H6), MK-9(H8) and MK-9(H4). The phospholipid profile consisted of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylmethylethanolamine, phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylinositol mannoside. The major fatty acids were identified as iso-C16 : 0, C16 : 0, C15 : 0 and anteiso-C15 : 0. Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence showed that strain 1H-SSA8 T belongs to the genus Streptomyces with high sequence similarity to Streptomyces ramulosus NRRL B-2714 T (99.2 %). Two tree-making algorithms based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the isolate formed a phyletic line with Streptomyces himastatinicus ATCC 53653 T (98.7 %). The MLSA utilizing partial sequences of the housekeeping genes (atpD, gyrB, recA, rpoB and trpB) also supported the position. However, evolutionary distances were higher than the 0.007 MLSA evolutionary distance threshold proposed for species-level relatedness. Moreover, the low level of DNA-DNA relatedness and phenotypic differences allowed the novel isolate to be differentiated from its most closely related strain S. ramulosus NRRL B-2714 T and strain S. himastatinicus ATCC 53653 T . It is concluded that the organism can be classified as representing a novel species of the genus Streptomyces, for which the name Streptomyces amphotericinicus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is 1H-SSA8 T (=CGMCC 4.7350 T =DSM 103128 T ).

  16. Immunolocalization of steroidogenic enzymes in the corpus luteum and placenta of the Japanese black bear, Ursus thibetanus japonicus, during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsubota, T; Taki, S; Nakayama, K; Mason, J I; Kominami, S; Harada, N; Kita, I

    2001-04-01

    The Japanese black bear, Ursus thibetanus japonicus, is a seasonal breeder and shows delayed implantation for several months during pregnancy. The objective of this study was to clarify the steroidogenic capability of the corpus luteum and placenta during pregnancy, including both delayed implantation and fetal development, by immunolocalization of steroidogenic enzymes in these organs of the Japanese black bear. Ovaries and placentae from 15 wild Japanese black bears, which had been killed legally by hunters and were thought to be pregnant, were used in an immunocytochemical study to localize the cholesterol side chain cleavage cytochrome P450 (P450scc), 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3betaHSD), 17alpha-hydroxylase cytochrome P450 (P450c17) and aromatase cytochrome P450 (P450arom) by the avidin-biotin-peroxidase complex method using polyclonal antisera raised in mammals against P450scc, 3betaHSD, P450c17 and P450arom. P450scc and 3betaHSD were localized in all luteal cells throughout pregnancy. P450c17 was present in a few luteal cells, especially in the outer area of the corpus luteum throughout pregnancy, but the number of positively immunostained cells decreased during the post-implantation period. Cells positively immunostained for P450c17 were significantly smaller than negatively immunostained cells (P black bear, corpora lutea are a source of progesterone which may play an important role in the maintenance of delayed implantation and fetal development during pregnancy. Corpora lutea have a minimum capability to synthesize androgen in small luteal cells and oestrogen in normal-sized luteal cells during pregnancy, and placentae have the ability to synthesize oestrogen during late pregnancy.

  17. Transcriptome analysis of Kuruma shrimp (Marsupenaeus japonicus) hepatopancreas in response to white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) under experimental infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Shengping; Mao, Yong; Wang, Jun; Liu, Min; Zhang, Man; Su, Yongquan

    2017-11-01

    Kuruma shrimp (Marsupenaeus japonicus) is one of the most valuable crustacean species in capture fisheries and mariculture in the Indo-West Pacific. White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a highly virulent pathogen which has seriously threatened Kuruma shrimp aquaculture sector. However, little information is available in relation to underlying mechanisms of host-virus interaction in Kuruma shrimp. In this study, we performed a transcriptome analysis from the hepatopancreas of Kuruma shrimp challenged by WSSV, using Illumina-based RNA-Seq. A total of 39,084,942 pair end (PE) reads, including 19,566,190 reads from WSSV-infected group and 19,518,752 reads from non-infected (control) group, were obtained and assembled into 33,215 unigenes with an average length of 503.7 bp and N50 of 601 bp. Approximately 17,000 unigenes were predicted and classified based on homology search, gene ontology, clusters of orthologous groups of proteins, and biological pathway mapping. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs), including 2150 up-regulated and 1931 down-regulated, were found. Among those, 805 DEGs were identified and categorized into 14 groups based on their possible functions. Many genes associated with JAK-STAT signaling pathways, Integrin-mediated signal transduction, Ras signaling pathways, apoptosis and phagocytosis were positively modified after WSSV challenge. The proteolytic cascades including Complement-like activation and Hemolymph coagulations likely participated in antiviral immune response. The transcriptome data from hepatopancreas of Kuruma shrimp under WSSV challenge provided comprehensive information for identifying novel immune related genes in this valuable crustacean species despite the absence of the genome database of crustaceans. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Two White Spot Syndrome Virus MicroRNAs Target the Dorsal Gene To Promote Virus Infection in Marsupenaeus japonicus Shrimp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Qian; Huang, Xin; Cui, Yalei; Sun, Jiejie; Wang, Wen; Zhang, Xiaobo

    2017-04-15

    In eukaryotes, microRNAs (miRNAs) serve as regulators of many biological processes, including virus infection. An miRNA can generally target diverse genes during virus-host interactions. However, the regulation of gene expression by multiple miRNAs has not yet been extensively explored during virus infection. This study found that the Spaztle (Spz)-Toll-Dorsal-antilipopolysaccharide factor (ALF) signaling pathway plays a very important role in antiviral immunity against invasion of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) in shrimp ( Marsupenaeus japonicus ). Dorsal , the central gene in the Toll pathway, was targeted by two viral miRNAs (WSSV-miR-N13 and WSSV-miR-N23) during WSSV infection. The regulation of Dorsal expression by viral miRNAs suppressed the Spz-Toll-Dorsal-ALF signaling pathway in shrimp in vivo , leading to virus infection. Our study contributes novel insights into the viral miRNA-mediated Toll signaling pathway during the virus-host interaction. IMPORTANCE An miRNA can target diverse genes during virus-host interactions. However, the regulation of gene expression by multiple miRNAs during virus infection has not yet been extensively explored. The results of this study indicated that the shrimp Dorsal gene, the central gene in the Toll pathway, was targeted by two viral miRNAs during infection with white spot syndrome virus. Regulation of Dorsal expression by viral miRNAs suppressed the Spz-Toll-Dorsal-ALF signaling pathway in shrimp in vivo , leading to virus infection. Our study provides new insight into the viral miRNA-mediated Toll signaling pathway in virus-host interactions. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  19. Root nodule symbiosis in Lotus japonicus drives the establishment of distinctive rhizosphere, root, and nodule bacterial communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zgadzaj, Rafal; Garrido-Oter, Ruben; Jensen, Dorthe Bodker; Koprivova, Anna; Schulze-Lefert, Paul; Radutoiu, Simona

    2016-12-06

    Lotus japonicus has been used for decades as a model legume to study the establishment of binary symbiotic relationships with nitrogen-fixing rhizobia that trigger root nodule organogenesis for bacterial accommodation. Using community profiling of 16S rRNA gene amplicons, we reveal that in Lotus, distinctive nodule- and root-inhabiting communities are established by parallel, rather than consecutive, selection of bacteria from the rhizosphere and root compartments. Comparative analyses of wild-type (WT) and symbiotic mutants in Nod factor receptor5 (nfr5), Nodule inception (nin) and Lotus histidine kinase1 (lhk1) genes identified a previously unsuspected role of the nodulation pathway in the establishment of different bacterial assemblages in the root and rhizosphere. We found that the loss of nitrogen-fixing symbiosis dramatically alters community structure in the latter two compartments, affecting at least 14 bacterial orders. The differential plant growth phenotypes seen between WT and the symbiotic mutants in nonsupplemented soil were retained under nitrogen-supplemented conditions that blocked the formation of functional nodules in WT, whereas the symbiosis-impaired mutants maintain an altered community structure in the nitrogen-supplemented soil. This finding provides strong evidence that the root-associated community shift in the symbiotic mutants is a direct consequence of the disabled symbiosis pathway rather than an indirect effect resulting from abolished symbiotic nitrogen fixation. Our findings imply a role of the legume host in selecting a broad taxonomic range of root-associated bacteria that, in addition to rhizobia, likely contribute to plant growth and ecological performance.

  20. Value maximizing maintenance policies under general repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marais, Karen B.

    2013-01-01

    One class of maintenance optimization problems considers the notion of general repair maintenance policies where systems are repaired or replaced on failure. In each case the optimality is based on minimizing the total maintenance cost of the system. These cost-centric optimizations ignore the value dimension of maintenance and can lead to maintenance strategies that do not maximize system value. This paper applies these ideas to the general repair optimization problem using a semi-Markov decision process, discounted cash flow techniques, and dynamic programming to identify the value-optimal actions for any given time and system condition. The impact of several parameters on maintenance strategy, such as operating cost and revenue, system failure characteristics, repair and replacement costs, and the planning time horizon, is explored. This approach provides a quantitative basis on which to base maintenance strategy decisions that contribute to system value. These decisions are different from those suggested by traditional cost-based approaches. The results show (1) how the optimal action for a given time and condition changes as replacement and repair costs change, and identifies the point at which these costs become too high for profitable system operation; (2) that for shorter planning horizons it is better to repair, since there is no time to reap the benefits of increased operating profit and reliability; (3) how the value-optimal maintenance policy is affected by the system's failure characteristics, and hence whether it is worthwhile to invest in higher reliability; and (4) the impact of the repair level on the optimal maintenance policy. -- Highlights: •Provides a quantitative basis for maintenance strategy decisions that contribute to system value. •Shows how the optimal action for a given condition changes as replacement and repair costs change. •Shows how the optimal policy is affected by the system's failure characteristics. •Shows when it is

  1. Differences in morphometrics and reproductive physiology between two populations of Trissolcus japonicus, a promising biological control agent candidate for brown marmorated stink bug (Halyomorpha halys Stal) in the US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trissolcus japonicus (Ashmead), a solitary egg parasitoid of Pentatomidae native to Southeast Asia, has been undergoing host-range testing in U.S. quarantine facilities since 2009 as a candidate for the biological control of brown marmorated stink bug (Halyomorpha halys Stål)(BMSB), an invasive agri...

  2. Speciation Analysis of Trace Mercury in Sea Cucumber Species of Apostichopus japonicus Using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography Conjunction With Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hao; Luo, Jiaoyang; Ding, Tong; Gu, Shanyong; Yang, Shihai; Yang, Meihua

    2018-03-25

    In this paper, a simple and cost-effective method using high-performance liquid chromatography in conjunction with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry with a rapid ultrasound-assisted extraction was used for analysis speciation of trace mercury in sea cucumber species of Apostichopus japonicus. The effective separation of inorganic mercury, methylmercury, and ethylmercury was achieved within 10 min using Agilent ZORBAX SB-C 18 analytical and guard columns with an isocratic mobile phase consisting of 8% methanol and 92% H 2 O containing 0.12% L-cysteine (m/v) and 0.01 mol/L ammonium acetate. Mercury species were extracted from A. japonicus samples using a solution containing 2-mercaptoethanol, L-cysteine, and hydrochloric acid and sonicating for 0.5 h. The limits of detection of inorganic mercury, methylmercury, and ethylmercury were 0.12, 0.08, and 0.20 μg/L, and the minimum detectable concentrations (measured at 0.500 g sample volume in 10.00 mL) were 2.4, 1.6, and 4.0 μg/kg, respectively. Analysis of a scallop certified reference material (GBW 10024) revealed accordance between the experimental and certified values. This study provides a reference for the evaluation of mercury speciation in sea cucumber and other seafood.

  3. Effects of l-tryptophan on the growth, intestinal enzyme activities and non-specific immune response of sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus Selenka) exposed to crowding stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Endong; Dong, Shuanglin; Wang, Fang; Tian, Xiangli; Gao, Qinfeng

    2018-04-01

    In order to reveal the effects of l-tryptophan (Trp) on the physiology and immune response of sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus Selenka) exposed to crowding stress, four density groups of sea cucumbers (i.e. 4, 8, 16 and 32 individuals per 40 L water, represented as L, ML, MH and H) were fed with diets containing 0, 1, 3 and 5% l-tryptophan respectively for 75 days. The results showed that the specific growth rates (SGR) of the sea cucumber fed with diet with 3% Trp (L, 2.1; ML, 1.76; MH, 1.2; H, 0.7) were significantly higher than those fed with basal diet without Trp supplementation (P sea cucumber fed diets with Trp (3%) had significantly higher phagocytic activities (0.28 OD540/10 6  cells, H) in coelomic fluid and respiratory burst activities (0.105 OD630/10 6  cells, MH) (P < .05). The results suggested that Trp cannot improve superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity at L, ML and MH densities. The alkaline phosphatase activity (AKP) significantly decreased at H stress density. Under the experimental conditions, the present results confirmed that a diet supplemented with 3% Trp was able to enhance intestinal enzyme activities, non-specific immune response and higher growth performance of A. japonicus. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. cDNA cloning, expression and immune function analysis of a novel Rac1 gene (AjRac1) in the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kaiquan; Liu, Lin; Shang, Shengnan; Wang, Yi; Zhan, Yaoyao; Song, Jian; Zhang, Xiangxiang; Chang, Yaqing

    2017-10-01

    The ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 (Rac1) belongs to Ras homolog (Rho) small GTPases subfamily. As an important molecular switch, Rac1 regulates various processes in the cell, especially in cellular immune response. With attempt to clarify characters and functions of Rac1 in sea cucumbers, full length cDNA of a Rac1 homolog in the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (AjRac1) was cloned by transcriptome database mining and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) techniques. The open reading frame of AjRac1 is 579 bp encoding a protein with a length of 192 aa. Sequence analysis showed that AjRac1 is highly conserved as compared to those from other eukaryotic species. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that amino acid sequence of AjRac1 closely related to those from Strongylocentrotus purpuratus. Results of expression analysis showed that AjRac1 exhibited a relative high expression in blastula stage, adult coelomocytes and respiratory tree in A. japonicus. The transcription of AjRac1 in adult coelomocytes altered significantly at 4 h- and 12 h-after Vibrio splendidus infection, respectively, which indicated that AjRac1 involved in sea cucumber innate immunity. All data presented in this study will deepen our understanding of characterizations and immunological functions of Rac1 in sea cucumbers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Transcriptional changes in epigenetic modifiers associated with gene silencing in the intestine of the sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka), during aestivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tianming; Yang, Hongsheng; Zhao, Huan; Chen, Muyan; Wang, Bing

    2011-11-01

    The sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus, undergoes aestivation to improve survival during periods of high-temperature. During aestivation, the metabolic rate is depressed to reduce the consumption of reserved energy. We evaluated the role of epigenetic modification on global gene silencing during metabolic rate depression in the sea cucumber. We compared the expression of epigenetic modifiers in active and aestivating sea cucumbers. The expression of three genes involved in DNA methylation and chromatin remodeling (DNA (cytosine-5)-methyltransferase 1, Methyl-CpG-binding domain protein 2), and Chromodomain-helicase-DNA-binding protein 5) was significantly higher during aestivation (Days 20 and 40). Similarly, we observed an increase in the expression of genes involved in histone acetylation (Histone deacetylase 3) and Histone-binding protein RBBP4) during the early (Days 5 and 10) and late phases (Days 20 and 40) of aestivation. There was no change in the expression of KAT2B, a histone acetyltransferase. However, the expression of histone methylation associated modifiers (Histone-arginine methyltransferase CARMER and Histone-lysine N-methyltransferase MLL5) was significantly higher after 5 d in the aestivating group. The results suggest that the expression of epigenetic modifiers involved in DNA methylation, chromatin remodeling, histone acetylation, and histone methylation is upregulated during aestivation. We hypothesize that these changes regulate global gene silencing during aestivation in A. japonicus.

  6. Effects of the Dietary Probiotic Clostridium butyricum on Intestine Digestive and Metabolic Capacities, SCFA Content and Body Composition in Marsupenaeus japonicus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Yafei; Dong, Hongbiao; Wang, Yun; Zhang, Yue; Zhang, Jiasong

    2018-06-01

    A 56-day feeding trial was performed to evaluate the effects of dietary probiotic Clostridium butyricum (CB) on intestine digestive and metabolic capacities, intestine short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) content and body composition of kuruma shrimp Marsupenaeus japonicus. Shrimps were randomly allocated into 9 tanks, 30 each, and fed with diets containing different levels of C. butyricum (1 × 109 cfu g-1): 0 mg g-1 feed (Control), 100 mg g-1 feed (CB-100), 200 mg g-1 feed (CB-200), while each level was triplicated. The results indicated that compared with the control group, the intestine pepsin (Pep) activity and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) concentration of two C. butyricum groups were both increased. Amylase (AMY) and lipase (LPS) activities were only induced in CB-200 group. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities of two C. butyricum groups showed no significant change. The α-amylase (AMY) gene expression was induced in CB-200 group, and trypsin gene expression of two C. butyricum treated groups were both induced. Intestine SCFA content and body composition analysis showed that the contents of propionic acid, butyric acid and the crude protein of two C. butyricum groups were all higher than those of control. These results revealed that C. butyricum can modulate intestine digestive and metabolic capacities, improve intestine SCFA content and body crude protein content in M. japonicus.

  7. Acute and chronic toxicity study of the water accommodated fraction (WAF), chemically enhanced WAF (CEWAF) of crude oil and dispersant in the rock pool copepod Tigriopus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyun-Woo; Shim, Won Joon; Yim, Un Hyuk; Kang, Jung-Hoon

    2013-08-01

    We determined the toxicity of the water accommodated hydrocarbon fraction (WAF), two chemically enhanced WAFs (CEWAFs; CEWAF-C, Crude oil+Corexit 9500 and CEWAF-H, Crude oil+Hiclean) of crude oil and two dispersants (Corexit 9500 and Hiclean) to the rock pool copepod Tigriopus japonicus. In the acute toxicity test, Corexit 9500 was the most toxic of all the chemicals studied. The nauplius stage of T. japonicus was more susceptible to the toxic chemicals studied than the adult female. The toxicity data using the nauplius stage was then considered as baseline to determine the spiking concentration of chemicals for chronic toxicity tests on the copepod. As the endpoints in the chronic toxicity test, survival, sex ratio, developmental time and fecundity of the copepod were used. All chemicals used in this study resulted in increased toxicity in the F1 generation. The lowest-observed-adverse-effect (LOAE) concentrations of WAF, CEWAF-H, CEWAF-C, Hiclean and Corexit 9500 were observed to be 50%, 10%, 0.1%, 1% and 1%, respectively. The results in present study imply that copepods in marine may be negatively influenced by spilled oil and dispersant. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of potential probiotic Rhodotorula benthica D30 on the growth performance, digestive enzyme activity and immunity in juvenile sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ji-hui; Zhao, Liu-qun; Liu, Jin-feng; Wang, Han; Xiao, Shan

    2015-04-01

    The effects of dietary addition of yeast Rhodotorula benthica (R. benthica) D30 which isolated from local sea mud at levels of 0 (control), 10(5), 10(6) and 10(7) CFU/g feed on the growth performance, digestive enzyme activity, immunity and disease resistance of juvenile sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus were investigated. It was shown that dietary addition of R. benthica D30 significantly increased the growth rates of sea cucumbers (p  0.05). It was observed that adding R. benthica D30 could significantly decrease the cumulative mortality of sea cucumbers. The present study demonstrated that dietary addition of R. benthica D30 could increase growth performance and some digestive enzyme activities, improve immunity and disease resistance of A. japonicus. And the medium (10(6) CFU) and high (10(7) CFU) additional levels showed better effects. It suggests that yeast R. benthica D30 could be a good probiotic for aquaculture. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. RNA-seq Transcriptional Profiling of an Arbuscular Mycorrhiza Provides Insights into Regulated and Coordinated Gene Expression in Lotus japonicus and Rhizophagus irregularis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handa, Yoshihiro; Nishide, Hiroyo; Takeda, Naoya; Suzuki, Yutaka; Kawaguchi, Masayoshi; Saito, Katsuharu

    2015-08-01

    Gene expression during arbuscular mycorrhizal development is highly orchestrated in both plants and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. To elucidate the gene expression profiles of the symbiotic association, we performed a digital gene expression analysis of Lotus japonicus and Rhizophagus irregularis using a HiSeq 2000 next-generation sequencer with a Cufflinks assembly and de novo transcriptome assembly. There were 3,641 genes differentially expressed during arbuscular mycorrhizal development in L. japonicus, approximately 80% of which were up-regulated. The up-regulated genes included secreted proteins, transporters, proteins involved in lipid and amino acid metabolism, ribosomes and histones. We also detected many genes that were differentially expressed in small-secreted peptides and transcription factors, which may be involved in signal transduction or transcription regulation during symbiosis. Co-regulated genes between arbuscular mycorrhizal and root nodule symbiosis were not particularly abundant, but transcripts encoding for membrane traffic-related proteins, transporters and iron transport-related proteins were found to be highly co-up-regulated. In transcripts of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, expansion of cytochrome P450 was observed, which may contribute to various metabolic pathways required to accommodate roots and soil. The comprehensive gene expression data of both plants and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi provide a powerful platform for investigating the functional and molecular mechanisms underlying arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Effects of high-salinity seawater acclimation on the levels of D-alanine in the muscle and hepatopancreas of kuruma prawn, Marsupenaeus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Naoko; Yokoyama, Masahumi

    2015-12-10

    Changes in D- and L-alanine contents were determined in the muscle and hepatopancreas of kuruma prawn Marsupenaeus japonicus, during acclimation from seawater containing 100% salinity to artificial seawater containing 150% salinity. In the hepatopancreas, contents of both amino acids increased by approximately threefold. The activity of alanine racemase, which catalyzes the interconversion of D- and L-alanine, also increased in the high-salinity seawater. In addition, the expression of the gene encoding alanine racemase increased in the hepatopancreas with an increase in the alanine racemase activity. These data indicate that the biosynthesis of D- and L-alanine is controlled by the gene expression level of alanine racemase, and D-alanine in the hepatopancreas functions as a major osmolyte for isosmotic regulation. In contrast, the content of D-alanine and alanine racemase activity did not change in the muscle during hyper-osmotic acclimation. Therefore, we suggest that D-alanine, which exists in the several tissues of M. japonicus, is considered to be utilized in some different physiological phenomena in different tissues. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Genome-Wide Identification, Evolutionary Analysis and Expression Profiles of LATERAL ORGAN BOUNDARIES DOMAIN Gene Family in Lotus japonicus and Medicago truncatula.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianquan Yang

    Full Text Available The LATERAL ORGAN BOUNDARIES DOMAIN (LBD gene family has been well-studied in Arabidopsis and play crucial roles in the diverse growth and development processes including establishment and maintenance of boundary of developmental lateral organs. In this study we identified and characterized 38 LBD genes in Lotus japonicus (LjLBD and 57 LBD genes in Medicago truncatula (MtLBD, both of which are model legume plants that have some specific development features absent in Arabidopsis. The phylogenetic relationships, their locations in the genome, genes structure and conserved motifs were examined. The results revealed that all LjLBD and MtLBD genes could be distinctly divided into two classes: Class I and II. The evolutionary analysis showed that Type I functional divergence with some significantly site-specific shifts may be the main force for the divergence between Class I and Class II. In addition, the expression patterns of LjLBD genes uncovered the diverse functions in plant development. Interestingly, we found that two LjLBD proteins that were highly expressed during compound leaf and pulvinus development, can interact via yeast two-hybrid assays. Taken together, our findings provide an evolutionary and genetic foundation in further understanding the molecular basis of LBD gene family in general, specifically in L. japonicus and M. truncatula.

  12. Amino acid specificity of fibers of the facial/trigeminal complex innervating the maxillary barbel in the Japanese sea catfish, Plotosus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caprio, John; Shimohara, Mami; Marui, Takayuki; Kohbara, Jun; Harada, Shuitsu; Kiyohara, Sadao

    2015-12-01

    The Japanese sea catfish, Plotosus japonicus, possesses taste and solitary chemoreceptor cells (SCCs) located on the external body surface that detect specific water-soluble substances. Here, we identify two major fiber types of the facial/trigeminal complex that transmit amino acid information to the medulla. Both single and few fiber preparations respond to amino acid stimulation in the 0.1 μM to mM range. One fiber type responds best to glycine and l-alanine (i.e. Gly/Ala fibers) whereas the other fiber type is best stimulated by l-proline and glycine betaine (hereafter referred to only as betaine) (i.e. Pro/Bet fibers). We demonstrate that betaine, which does not alter the pH of the seawater and therefore does not activate the animals' highly sensitive pH sensors (Caprio et al., Science 344:1154-1156, 2014), is sufficient to elicit appetitive food search behavior. We further show that the amino acid specificity of fibers of the facial/trigeminal complex in P. japonicus is different from that in Ariopsis felis (Michel and Caprio, J. Neurophysiol. 66:247-260, 1991; Michel et al., J. Comp. Physiol. A. 172:129-138, 1993), a representative member of the only other family (Ariidae) of extant marine catfishes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. RECRUITMENT FINANCED BY SAVED LEAVE (RSL PROGRAMME)

    CERN Multimedia

    Division du Personnel; Tel. 73903

    1999-01-01

    Transfer to the saved leave account and saved leave bonusStaff members participating in the RSL programme may opt to transfer up to 10 days of unused annual leave or unused compensatory leave into their saved leave account, at the end of the leave year, i.e. 30 September (as set out in the implementation procedure dated 27 August 1997).A leave transfer request form, which you should complete, sign and return, if you wish to use this possibility, has been addressed you. To allow the necessary time for the processing of your request, you should return it without delay.As foreseen in the implementation procedure, an additional day of saved leave will be granted for each full period of 20 days remaining in the saved leave account on 31 December 1999, for any staff member participating in the RSL programme until that date.For part-time staff members participating in the RSL programme, the above-mentioned days of leave (annual, compensatory and saved) are adjusted proportionally to their contractual working week as...

  14. POLITENESS MAXIM OF MAIN CHARACTER IN SECRET FORGIVEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Ayu Isnu Maharani

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Maxim of Politeness is an interesting subject to be discussed, since politeness has been criticized from our childhood. We are obliques to be polite to anyone either in speaking or in acting. Somehow we are manage to show politeness in our spoken expression though our intention might be not so polite. For example we must appriciate others opinion although we feel objection toward the opinion. In this article the analysis of politeness is based on maxim proposes by Leech. He proposed six types of politeness maxim. The discussion shows that the main character (Kristen and Kami use all types of maxim in their conversation. The most commonly used are approbation maxim and agreement maxim

  15. Maximizers versus satisficers: Decision-making styles, competence, and outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew M. Parker; Wändi Bruine de Bruin; Baruch Fischhoff

    2007-01-01

    Our previous research suggests that people reporting a stronger desire to maximize obtain worse life outcomes (Bruine de Bruin et al., 2007). Here, we examine whether this finding may be explained by the decision-making styles of self-reported maximizers. Expanding on Schwartz et al.\\ (2002), we find that self-reported maximizers are more likely to show problematic decision-making styles, as evidenced by self-reports of less behavioral coping, greater dependence on others when making decision...

  16. Natural maximal νμ-ντ mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wetterich, C.

    1999-01-01

    The naturalness of maximal mixing between myon- and tau-neutrinos is investigated. A spontaneously broken nonabelian generation symmetry can explain a small parameter which governs the deviation from maximal mixing. In many cases all three neutrino masses are almost degenerate. Maximal ν μ -ν τ -mixing suggests that the leading contribution to the light neutrino masses arises from the expectation value of a heavy weak triplet rather than from the seesaw mechanism. In this scenario the deviation from maximal mixing is predicted to be less than about 1%. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  17. On the way towards a generalized entropy maximization procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagci, G. Baris; Tirnakli, Ugur

    2009-01-01

    We propose a generalized entropy maximization procedure, which takes into account the generalized averaging procedures and information gain definitions underlying the generalized entropies. This novel generalized procedure is then applied to Renyi and Tsallis entropies. The generalized entropy maximization procedure for Renyi entropies results in the exponential stationary distribution asymptotically for q element of (0,1] in contrast to the stationary distribution of the inverse power law obtained through the ordinary entropy maximization procedure. Another result of the generalized entropy maximization procedure is that one can naturally obtain all the possible stationary distributions associated with the Tsallis entropies by employing either ordinary or q-generalized Fourier transforms in the averaging procedure.

  18. Violating Bell inequalities maximally for two d-dimensional systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Jingling; Wu Chunfeng; Oh, C. H.; Kwek, L. C.; Ge Molin

    2006-01-01

    We show the maximal violation of Bell inequalities for two d-dimensional systems by using the method of the Bell operator. The maximal violation corresponds to the maximal eigenvalue of the Bell operator matrix. The eigenvectors corresponding to these eigenvalues are described by asymmetric entangled states. We estimate the maximum value of the eigenvalue for large dimension. A family of elegant entangled states |Ψ> app that violate Bell inequality more strongly than the maximally entangled state but are somewhat close to these eigenvectors is presented. These approximate states can potentially be useful for quantum cryptography as well as many other important fields of quantum information

  19. Paternity leave experiences of NHS doctors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Hannah; Szram, Joanna

    2013-10-01

    This study assesses NHS doctors' experiences of paternity leave and evaluates whether practices have changed since the introduction of additional paternity leave (APL) in April 2011. An anonymised online survey designed to discover experiences and uptake of APL and ordinary paternity leave (OPL) was distributed to all members of the London Deanery Synapse® network. In total, 364 fathers responded. Their seniority ranged from foundation trainees to consultants. Following the formal introduction of OPL in 2003, the number of fathers taking any paternity leave increased (from 50% to 95.6%). The majority of respondents (76.7%) felt well supported by their employer. Since the introduction of APL, 3% of respondents took additional leave. Reasons for the low uptake of APL included the impracticalities of the law, poor awareness and perceived attitudes and implications for training. Problems with OPL included the inadequate provision of cover and difficulties in timing the leave appropriately.

  20. Efficient network-matrix architecture for general flow transport inspired by natural pinnate leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Liguo; Zhou, Han; Zhu, Hanxing; Fan, Tongxiang; Zhang, Di

    2014-11-14

    Networks embedded in three dimensional matrices are beneficial to deliver physical flows to the matrices. Leaf architectures, pervasive natural network-matrix architectures, endow leaves with high transpiration rates and low water pressure drops, providing inspiration for efficient network-matrix architectures. In this study, the network-matrix model for general flow transport inspired by natural pinnate leaves is investigated analytically. The results indicate that the optimal network structure inspired by natural pinnate leaves can greatly reduce the maximum potential drop and the total potential drop caused by the flow through the network while maximizing the total flow rate through the matrix. These results can be used to design efficient networks in network-matrix architectures for a variety of practical applications, such as tissue engineering, cell culture, photovoltaic devices and heat transfer.

  1. Paid Maternity Leave and Breastfeeding Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirkovic, Kelsey R; Perrine, Cria G; Scanlon, Kelley S

    2016-09-01

    Despite the benefits of breastfeeding, rates in the United States are low. Shorter maternity leave is associated with lower initiation and shorter durations of breastfeeding; however, little is known about how paid maternity leave may influence breastfeeding rates. We used data from the 2006-2010 U.S. National Survey of Family Growth on the most recent birth to employed women who delivered a child within the previous 5 years. Separate multivariable logistic regression models were used to describe the associations between paid leave duration (0, 1-5, 6-11, ≥ 12 weeks, maternity leave not taken) and three outcomes: 1) breastfeeding initiation, 2) 6-month duration, and 3) 6-month duration among initiators. Twenty-eight percent of prenatally employed women received no paid leave. Women who received 12 or more weeks of paid leave were more likely to initiate breastfeeding compared to women with no paid leave (87.3% vs 66.7%, adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 2.83 [95% confidence interval {CI} 1.23-6.48]). Similarly, women with 12 or more weeks of paid leave were more likely to breastfeed at 6 months, compared to women with no paid leave (24.9% vs 50.1%, aOR 2.26 [95% CI 1.20-4.26]). Among women who initiated breastfeeding, having received 12 or more weeks' paid leave increased the odds of breastfeeding for 6 or more months; however, the association was not statistically significant in the adjusted model (aOR 1.81 [95% CI 0.93-3.52]). Employed women who received 12 or more weeks of paid maternity leave were more likely to initiate breastfeeding and be breastfeeding their child at 6 months than those without paid leave. Published 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  2. [New cerebroside from leaves of pineapple].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jin-Ping; Wang, Hong-Ying; Du, Li-Jun; Ding, Yi; Xing, Dong-Ming; Wang, Wei

    2007-03-01

    To study the chemical constituents of the leaves of pineapple. Chromatographic methods were used to isolate compounds from the leaves of pineapple and spectral methods were used to identify the structures of the isolated compounds. Compound 1 was isolated from the leaves of pineapple. It was identified as 1-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(2S, 3R, 4E, 11E)-2-[(2(R)-hydroxydocosanoyl) amido]-4, 11-hexadecanediene-1, 3-diol. Compound 1 was a new compound.

  3. Contributions of leaf photosynthetic capacity, leaf angle and self-shading to the maximization of net photosynthesis in Acer saccharum: a modelling assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posada, Juan M; Sievänen, Risto; Messier, Christian; Perttunen, Jari; Nikinmaa, Eero; Lechowicz, Martin J

    2012-08-01

    Plants are expected to maximize their net photosynthetic gains and efficiently use available resources, but the fundamental principles governing trade-offs in suites of traits related to resource-use optimization remain uncertain. This study investigated whether Acer saccharum (sugar maple) saplings could maximize their net photosynthetic gains through a combination of crown structure and foliar characteristics that let all leaves maximize their photosynthetic light-use efficiency (ε). A functional-structural model, LIGNUM, was used to simulate individuals of different leaf area index (LAI(ind)) together with a genetic algorithm to find distributions of leaf angle (L(A)) and leaf photosynthetic capacity (A(max)) that maximized net carbon gain at the whole-plant level. Saplings grown in either the open or in a forest gap were simulated with A(max) either unconstrained or constrained to an upper value consistent with reported values for A(max) in A. saccharum. It was found that total net photosynthetic gain was highest when whole-plant PPFD absorption and leaf ε were simultaneously maximized. Maximization of ε required simultaneous adjustments in L(A) and A(max) along gradients of PPFD in the plants. When A(max) was constrained to a maximum, plants growing in the open maximized their PPFD absorption but not ε because PPFD incident on leaves was higher than the PPFD at which ε(max) was attainable. Average leaf ε in constrained plants nonetheless improved with increasing LAI(ind) because of an increase in self-shading. It is concluded that there are selective pressures for plants to simultaneously maximize both PPFD absorption at the scale of the whole individual and ε at the scale of leaves, which requires a highly integrated response between L(A), A(max) and LAI(ind). The results also suggest that to maximize ε plants have evolved mechanisms that co-ordinate the L(A) and A(max) of individual leaves with PPFD availability.

  4. Evaluation of anti-hyperglycemic effect of Actinidia kolomikta (Maxim. etRur.) Maxim. root extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xuansheng; Cheng, Delin; Wang, Linbo; Li, Shuhong; Wang, Yuepeng; Li, Kejuan; Yang, Yingnan; Zhang, Zhenya

    2015-05-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the anti-hyperglycemic effect of ethanol extract from Actinidia kolomikta (Maxim. etRur.) Maxim. root (AKE).An in vitro evaluation was performed by using rat intestinal α-glucosidase (maltase and sucrase), the key enzymes linked with type 2 diabetes. And an in vivo evaluation was also performed by loading maltose, sucrose, glucose to normal rats. As a result, AKE showed concentration-dependent inhibition effects on rat intestinal maltase and rat intestinal sucrase with IC(50) values of 1.83 and 1.03mg/mL, respectively. In normal rats, after loaded with maltose, sucrose and glucose, administration of AKE significantly reduced postprandial hyperglycemia, which is similar to acarbose used as an anti-diabetic drug. High contents of total phenolics (80.49 ± 0.05mg GAE/g extract) and total flavonoids (430.69 ± 0.91mg RE/g extract) were detected in AKE. In conclusion, AKE possessed anti-hyperglycemic effects and the possible mechanisms were associated with its inhibition on α-glucosidase and the improvement on insulin release and/or insulin sensitivity as well. The anti-hyperglycemic activity possessed by AKE maybe attributable to its high contents of phenolic and flavonoid compounds.

  5. Nurses' leaving intentions: antecedents and mediating factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takase, Miyuki; Yamashita, Noriko; Oba, Keiko

    2008-05-01

    This paper is a report of a study to investigate how nurses' work values, perceptions of environmental characteristics, and organizational commitment are related to their leaving intentions. Nurse leaving is a serious international problem as it contributes to the nursing shortage that threatens the welfare of society. The characteristics of nurses, the work environment and nurses' feelings towards their jobs (or organizations) have an impact on their leaving intentions. A convenience sample of 849 Registered Nurses was recruited from three public hospitals in the central-west region of Japan during 2006 and 319 completed questionnaires were returned (response rate 39%). Data were analysed using regression analysis. Nurses' work values and their perceptions of their workplace environment interacted to influence leaving intentions. When there was a match between the importance nurses placed on being able to challenge current clinical practices and the number of the actual opportunities to do so, leaving intentions were low. When there was a mismatch, intention to quit the job became stronger. In addition, organizational commitment intervened between nurses' perceptions of the match in clinical challenges and leaving intention. Nurses' leaving intentions, deserve extensive exploration of their causes. Such exploration should include attending to both nurses' needs and organizational characteristics, investigating how the match between them could affect nurses' leaving intention, and exploring factors that intervene between nurses' perceptions of the match and leaving intention.

  6. Alternative approaches to maximally supersymmetric field theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broedel, Johannes

    2010-01-01

    The central objective of this work is the exploration and application of alternative possibilities to describe maximally supersymmetric field theories in four dimensions: N=4 super Yang-Mills theory and N=8 supergravity. While twistor string theory has been proven very useful in the context of N=4 SYM, no analogous formulation for N=8 supergravity is available. In addition to the part describing N=4 SYM theory, twistor string theory contains vertex operators corresponding to the states of N=4 conformal supergravity. Those vertex operators have to be altered in order to describe (non-conformal) Einstein supergravity. A modified version of the known open twistor string theory, including a term which breaks the conformal symmetry for the gravitational vertex operators, has been proposed recently. In a first part of the thesis structural aspects and consistency of the modified theory are discussed. Unfortunately, the majority of amplitudes can not be constructed, which can be traced back to the fact that the dimension of the moduli space of algebraic curves in twistor space is reduced in an inconsistent manner. The issue of a possible finiteness of N=8 supergravity is closely related to the question of the existence of valid counterterms in the perturbation expansion of the theory. In particular, the coefficient in front of the so-called R 4 counterterm candidate has been shown to vanish by explicit calculation. This behavior points into the direction of a symmetry not taken into account, for which the hidden on-shell E 7(7) symmetry is the prime candidate. The validity of the so-called double-soft scalar limit relation is a necessary condition for a theory exhibiting E 7(7) symmetry. By calculating the double-soft scalar limit for amplitudes derived from an N=8 supergravity action modified by an additional R 4 counterterm, one can test for possible constraints originating in the E 7(7) symmetry. In a second part of the thesis, the appropriate amplitudes are calculated

  7. Kinetic theory in maximal-acceleration invariant phase space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandt, H.E.

    1989-01-01

    A vanishing directional derivative of a scalar field along particle trajectories in maximal acceleration invariant phase space is identical in form to the ordinary covariant Vlasov equation in curved spacetime in the presence of both gravitational and nongravitational forces. A natural foundation is thereby provided for a covariant kinetic theory of particles in maximal-acceleration invariant phase space. (orig.)

  8. IIB solutions with N>28 Killing spinors are maximally supersymmetric

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gran, U.; Gutowski, J.; Papadopoulos, G.; Roest, D.

    2007-01-01

    We show that all IIB supergravity backgrounds which admit more than 28 Killing spinors are maximally supersymmetric. In particular, we find that for all N>28 backgrounds the supercovariant curvature vanishes, and that the quotients of maximally supersymmetric backgrounds either preserve all 32 or N<29 supersymmetries

  9. Muscle mitochondrial capacity exceeds maximal oxygen delivery in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boushel, Robert Christopher; Gnaiger, Erich; Calbet, Jose A L

    2011-01-01

    Across a wide range of species and body mass a close matching exists between maximal conductive oxygen delivery and mitochondrial respiratory rate. In this study we investigated in humans how closely in-vivo maximal oxygen consumption (VO(2) max) is matched to state 3 muscle mitochondrial respira...

  10. Pace's Maxims for Homegrown Library Projects. Coming Full Circle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pace, Andrew K.

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses six maxims by which to run library automation. The following maxims are discussed: (1) Solve only known problems; (2) Avoid changing data to fix display problems; (3) Aut viam inveniam aut faciam; (4) If you cannot make it yourself, buy something; (5) Kill the alligator closest to the boat; and (6) Just because yours is…

  11. The effect of temperature and body weight on the routine metabolic rate and postprandial metabolic response in mulloway, Argyrosomus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirozzi, Igor; Booth, Mark A

    2009-09-01

    Specific dynamic action (SDA) is the energy expended on the physiological processes associated with meal digestion and is strongly influenced by the characteristics of the meal and the body weight (BW) and temperature of the organism. This study assessed the effects of temperature and body weight on the routine metabolic rate (RMR) and postprandial metabolic response in mulloway, Argyrosomus japonicus. RMR and SDA were established at 3 temperatures (14, 20 and 26 degrees C). 5 size classes of mulloway ranging from 60 g to 1.14 kg were used to establish RMR with 3 of the 5 size classes (60, 120 and 240 g) used to establish SDA. The effect of body size on the mass-specific RMR (mg O(2) kg(-1) h(-1)) varied significantly depending on the temperature; there was a greater relative increase in the mass-specific RMR for smaller mulloway with increasing temperature. No statistical differences were found between the mass exponent (b) values at each temperature when tested against H(0): b=0.8. The gross RMR of mulloway (mg O(2) fish(-1) h(-1)) can be described as function of temperature (T; 14-26 degrees C) as: (0.0195T-0.0454)BW(g)(0.8) and the mass-specific RMR (mg O(2) kg(-1) h(-1)) can be described as: (21.042T-74.867)BW(g)(-0.2). Both SDA duration and time to peak SDA were influenced by temperature and body weight; SDA duration occurred within 41-89 h and peak time occurred within 17-38 h of feeding. The effect of body size on peak metabolic rate varied significantly depending on temperature, generally increasing with temperature and decreasing with increasing body size. Peak gross oxygen consumption (MO(2): mg O(2) fish(-1) h(-1)) scaled allometrically with BW. Temperature, but not body size, significantly affected SDA scope, although the difference was numerically small. There was a trend for MO(2) above RMR over the SDA period to increase with temperature; however, this was not statistically significant. The average proportion of energy expended over the SDA period

  12. Phagocytic activities of hemocytes from the deep-sea symbiotic mussels Bathymodiolus japonicus, B. platifrons, and B. septemdierum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tame, Akihiro; Yoshida, Takao; Ohishi, Kazue; Maruyama, Tadashi

    2015-07-01

    Deep-sea mytilid mussels harbor symbiotic bacteria in their gill epithelial cells that are horizontally or environmentally transmitted to the next generation of hosts. To understand the immune defense system in deep-sea symbiotic mussels, we examined the hemocyte populations of the symbiotic Bathymodiolus mussel species Bathymodiolus japonicus, Bathymodiolus platifrons, and Bathymodiolus septemdierum, and characterized three types of hemocytes: agranulocytes (AGs), basophilic granulocytes (BGs), and eosinophilic granulocytes (EGs). Of these, the EG cells were the largest (diameter, 8.4-10.0 μm) and had eosinophilic cytoplasm with numerous eosinophilic granules (diameter, 0.8-1.2 μm). Meanwhile, the BGs were of medium size (diameter, 6.7-8.0 μm) and contained small basophilic granules (diameter, 0.3-0.4 μm) in basophilic cytoplasm, and the AGs, the smallest of the hemocytes (diameter, 4.8-6.0 μm), had basophilic cytoplasm lacking granules. A lectin binding assay revealed that concanavalin A bound to all three hemocyte types, while wheat germ agglutinin bound exclusively to EGs and BGs. The total hemocyte population densities within the hemolymph of all three Bathymodiolus mussel species were similar (8.4-13.3 × 10(5) cells/mL), and the percentages of circulating AGs, BGs, and EGs in the hemolymph of these organisms were 44.7-48.5%, 14.3-17.6%, and 34.3-41.0%, respectively. To analyze the functional differences between these hemocytes, the phagocytic activity and post-phagocytic phagosome-lysosome fusion events were analyzed in each cell type using a fluorescent Alexa Fluor(®) 488-conjugated Escherichia coli bioparticle and a LysoTracker(®) lysosomal marker, respectively. While the AGs exhibited no phagocytic activity, both types of granulocytes were phagocytic. Of the three hemocyte types, the EGs exhibited the highest level of phagocytic activity as well as rapid phagosome-lysosome fusion, which occurred within 2 h of incubation. Meanwhile, the BGs showed

  13. Dim-light photoreceptor of chub mackerel Scomber japonicus and the photoresponse upon illumination with LEDs of different wavelengths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Jun-Chul; Choi, Mi-Jin; Yang, Yong-Soo; Lee, Hyung-Been; Yu, Young-Moon; Kim, Jong-Myoung

    2016-06-01

    To study the absorption characteristics of rhodopsin, a dim-light photoreceptor, in chub mackerel (Scomber japonicus) and the relationship between light wavelengths on the photoresponse, the rod opsin gene was cloned into an expression vector, pMT4. Recombinant opsin was transiently expressed in COS-1 cells and reconstituted with 11-cis-retinal. Cells containing the regenerated rhodopsin were solubilized and subjected to UV/Vis spectroscopic analysis in the dark and upon illumination. Difference spectra from the lysates indicated an absorption maximum of mackerel rhodopsin around 500 nm. Four types of light-emitting diode (LED) modules with different wavelengths (red, peak 627 nm; cyan, 505 nm; blue, 442 nm; white, 447 + 560 nm) were constructed to examine their effects on the photoresponse in chub mackerel. Behavioral responses of the mackerels, including speed and frequencies acclimated in the dark and upon LED illumination, were analyzed using an underwater acoustic camera. Compared to an average speed of 22.25 ± 1.57 cm/s of mackerel movement in the dark, speed increased to 22.97 ± 0.29, 24.66 ± 1.06, 26.28 ± 2.28, and 25.19 ± 1.91 cm/s upon exposure to red, blue, cyan, and white LEDs, respectively. There were increases of 103.48 ± 1.58, 109.37 ± 5.29, 118.48 ± 10.82, and 109.43 ± 3.92 %, respectively, in the relative speed of the fishes upon illumination with red, blue, cyan, and white LEDs compared with that in the dark (set at 100 %). Similar rate of wavelength-dependent responses was observed in a frequency analysis. These results indicate that an LED emitting a peak wavelength close to an absorption maximum of rhodopsin is more effective at eliciting a response to light.

  14. Etiology and Treatment of Enteritis Disease in Cultured Junviles of Apostichopus japonicus%刺参(Apostichopus japonicus)保苗期“肠炎病”及其治疗方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    逄慧娟; 廖梅杰; 李彬; 荣小军; 王印庚; 张正; 孙金生; 孟繁林

    2017-01-01

    对2014年3月山东省蓬莱某刺参(Apostichopus japonicus)保苗场患“肠炎病”的刺参进行了临床症状和组织病理学观察以及病原菌分离与鉴定,利用氟苯尼考为治疗药品,以脏壁比、增重率和特定生长率为评判指标,探讨了3种不同用药方式(口服、药浴、口服+药浴)对刺参保苗期“肠炎病”的治疗效果.结果显示,刺参“肠炎病”症状表现为体色发黑,附着能力弱,摄食和活动能力差,解剖后可见肠道内食物不连续,肠腔内有大量黄白色粘液或浓状物质,肠道壁变脆、韧性差且易断裂,显微镜下观察到肠道存在大量细菌;组织病理学显示,患病刺参肠道绒毛膜散乱、粘膜层溃散,结缔组织散乱,且与肌肉层分离较明显.自刺参肠道处分离出优势度最高的细菌In-1菌株,人工感染实验证实,该菌为刺参“肠炎病”致病菌,该致病菌主要来源于饲料藻粉.利用细菌形态观察、生理生化和分子生物学方法(16S rDNA和gyrB)鉴定该菌株为哈维氏弧菌(Vibrioharveyi).该菌株对头孢三嗪、阿奇霉素、强力霉素和氟苯尼考等12种药物高度敏感.不同用药方式的治疗效果显示,使用氟苯尼考药浴可获得最佳治疗效果,刺参经药浴治疗后增重率达(24.23±0.41)%,特定生长率达(0.77±0.01)%/d.本研究可为刺参疾病防控和健康养殖提供理论依据和技术参考.%The cultured juvenile sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus) sufferred from "enteritis disease" in a breeding farm in Penglai in March 2014.In this study,the clinical symptoms and histopathology of enteritis disease were investigated.To provide reliable means to control this disease,the pathogen was isolated and identified,and its sensitivity to different antibiotics were tested.The effects of different therapeutic methods (oral,bath,oral with bath) were evaluated using three indices,including the ratio of viscera to body wall (RVBW),weight gain rate (WGR

  15. INTRODUCTION OF A NEW LEAVE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM

    CERN Multimedia

    DIVISION HR

    2000-01-01

    The introduction of new leave rules (arising from the RSL, PRP and other programs) has made the present leave management system rather complicated and difficult to manage. It has therefore been decided to replace it with a more flexible and adaptable system, which will come into force on 1st October 2000. Henceforth, days of leave will be credited monthly instead of annually. Members of the personnel will have round-the-clock direct access to more detailed, confidential information regarding their various kinds of leave. They will also receive a personal monthly statement with their pay slips. The new system does not require any amendment of the regulations, except with respect to the frequency of leave calculations (monthly instead of annual). I. Main characteristics of the new leave system1. The main feature of the new system is the creation of accounts to which leave will be credited or debited as appropriate. Depending on their circumstances, members of the personnel may have up to four individual leave a...

  16. INTRODUCTION OF A NEW LEAVE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM

    CERN Document Server

    HR Division

    2000-01-01

    The introduction of new leave rules (arising from the RSL, PRP and other programmes) has made the present leave management system rather complicated and difficult to manage. It has therefore been decided to replace it with a more flexible and adaptable system, which will come into force on 1st October 2000. Henceforth, days of leave will be credited monthly instead of annually. Members of the personnel will have round-the-clock direct access to more detailed, confidential information regarding their various kinds of leave.They will also receive a personal monthly statement with their pay slips. The new system does not require any amendment of the regulations, except with respect to the frequency of leave calculations (monthly instead of annual). I. Main characteristics of the new leave system 1. The main feature of the new system is the creation of accounts to which leave will be credited or debited as appropriate. Depending on their circumstances, members of the personnel may have up to four individual leave...

  17. Antioxidant activity of Arbutus unedo leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pabuçcuoğlu, A; Kivçak, B; Baş, M; Mert, T

    2003-09-01

    The ethanol and methanol extracts of Arbutus unedo leaves were screened for antioxidant activity. The antioxidant activity was determined by an improved assay based on the decolorization of the radical monocation of [2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)] (ABTS). The ethanol and methanol extract of A. unedo leaves displayed potent antioxidant activity.

  18. Grass leaves as potential hominin dietary resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paine, Oliver C C; Koppa, Abigale; Henry, Amanda G; Leichliter, Jennifer N; Codron, Daryl; Codron, Jacqueline; Lambert, Joanna E; Sponheimer, Matt

    2018-04-01

    Discussions about early hominin diets have generally excluded grass leaves as a staple food resource, despite their ubiquity in most early hominin habitats. In particular, stable carbon isotope studies have shown a prevalent C 4 component in the diets of most taxa, and grass leaves are the single most abundant C 4 resource in African savannas. Grass leaves are typically portrayed as having little nutritional value (e.g., low in protein and high in fiber) for hominins lacking specialized digestive systems. It has also been argued that they present mechanical challenges (i.e., high toughness) for hominins with bunodont dentition. Here, we compare the nutritional and mechanical properties of grass leaves with the plants growing alongside them in African savanna habitats. We also compare grass leaves to the leaves consumed by other hominoids and demonstrate that many, though by no means all, compare favorably with the nutritional and mechanical properties of known primate foods. Our data reveal that grass leaves exhibit tremendous variation and suggest that future reconstructions of hominin dietary ecology take a more nuanced approach when considering grass leaves as a potential hominin dietary resource. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. When and Why Dropouts Leave High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stearns, Elizabeth; Glennie, Elizabeth J.

    2006-01-01

    Teens may leave school because of academic failure, disciplinary problems, or employment opportunities. In this article, the authors test whether the reasons dropouts leave school differ by grade level and age. We compare dropout rates and reasons across grade levels and ages for all high school students, ethnic groups, and gender groups. Across…

  20. Adaptive changes in chlorophyll content and photosynthetic features to low light in Physocarpus amurensis Maxim and Physocarpus opulifolius “Diabolo”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huihui; Zhong, Haixiu; Wang, JIfeng; Sui, Xin

    2016-01-01

    The present study aims to investigate the differences in leaf pigment content and the photosynthetic characteristics under natural and low light intensities between the Chinese native Physocarpus amurensis Maxim and the imported Physocarpus opulifolius “Diabolo” from North America. We aim to discuss the responses and the adaptive mechanism of these two cultivars of Physocarpus to a low light environment. The results show that the specific leaf area (SLA) and the chlorophyll content were significantly increased in the leaves of both Physocarpus cultivars in response to a low light intensity, and the SLA and chlorophyll content were higher in the leaves of low light-treated P. opulifolius “Diabolo” compared with the leaves of low light-treated P. amurensis Maxim. Moreover, the content of anthocyanin was markedly reduced in the leaves of P. opulifolius “Diabolo” under low light intensity, which allowed for a greater capacity of photon capture under the low light condition. Under natural light, the photosynthetic carbon assimilation capacity was greater in the leaves of P. amurensis Maxim compared with the leaves of P. opulifolius “Diabolo” that were rich with anthocyanin. However, in response to low light, AQY, Pmax, LCP and LSP decreased to a lesser extent in the leaves of P. opulifolius “Diabolo” compared with the leaves of P. amurensis Maxim. These results suggest that P. opulifolius “Diabolo” exhibits a greater ability in adaption to low light, and it is probably related to the relatively higher chlorophyll content and the smaller SLA in the leaves of P. opulifolius “Diabolo.” In addition, the low light intensity resulted in a reduced photochemical activity of photosystem (PS) II in the leaves of both Physocarpus, as evidenced by increased values of the relative variable fluorescence at point J and point I on the OJIP curve. This result suggests that the electron acceptor in PS II was the major responsive site to the low light stress in

  1. Adaptive changes in chlorophyll content and photosynthetic features to low light in Physocarpus amurensis Maxim and Physocarpus opulifolius “Diabolo”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huihui Zhang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to investigate the differences in leaf pigment content and the photosynthetic characteristics under natural and low light intensities between the Chinese native Physocarpus amurensis Maxim and the imported Physocarpus opulifolius “Diabolo” from North America. We aim to discuss the responses and the adaptive mechanism of these two cultivars of Physocarpus to a low light environment. The results show that the specific leaf area (SLA and the chlorophyll content were significantly increased in the leaves of both Physocarpus cultivars in response to a low light intensity, and the SLA and chlorophyll content were higher in the leaves of low light-treated P. opulifolius “Diabolo” compared with the leaves of low light-treated P. amurensis Maxim. Moreover, the content of anthocyanin was markedly reduced in the leaves of P. opulifolius “Diabolo” under low light intensity, which allowed for a greater capacity of photon capture under the low light condition. Under natural light, the photosynthetic carbon assimilation capacity was greater in the leaves of P. amurensis Maxim compared with the leaves of P. opulifolius “Diabolo” that were rich with anthocyanin. However, in response to low light, AQY, Pmax, LCP and LSP decreased to a lesser extent in the leaves of P. opulifolius “Diabolo” compared with the leaves of P. amurensis Maxim. These results suggest that P. opulifolius “Diabolo” exhibits a greater ability in adaption to low light, and it is probably related to the relatively higher chlorophyll content and the smaller SLA in the leaves of P. opulifolius “Diabolo.” In addition, the low light intensity resulted in a reduced photochemical activity of photosystem (PS II in the leaves of both Physocarpus, as evidenced by increased values of the relative variable fluorescence at point J and point I on the OJIP curve. This result suggests that the electron acceptor in PS II was the major responsive site to the

  2. [Beneficial effect of maternity leave on delivery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qian; Séguin, Louise; Goulet, Lise

    2002-01-01

    To identify the contribution of the duration of the prenatal maternity leave on term delivery. Characteristics of the prenatal maternity leave and delivery among 363 working women who had delivered a full-term infant at 1 of 4 hospitals in Montreal during 1996 were studied. The presence of an intervention or complication during delivery was observed in 68.9% of the participants. The average duration of the prenatal maternity leave was about 8 weeks (SD = 7). The adjusted risk of a difficult delivery decreased significantly with the duration of the prenatal maternity leave (OR = 0.96; 95% CI: 0.93-0.99). The duration of the maternity leave before delivery is associated with an easier term delivery for working women.

  3. Inquiry in bibliography some of the bustan`s maxim

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    sajjad rahmatian

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Sa`di is on of those poets who`s has placed a special position to preaching and guiding the people and among his works, allocated throughout the text of bustan to advice and maxim on legal and ethical various subjects. Surely, sa`di on the way of to compose this work and expression of its moral point, direct or indirect have been affected by some previous sources and possibly using their content. The main purpose of this article is that the pay review of basis and sources of bustan`s maxims and show that sa`di when expression the maxims of this work has been affected by which of the texts and works. For this purpose is tried to with search and research on the resources that have been allocated more or less to the aphorisms, to discover and extract traces of influence sa`di from their moral and didactic content. From the most important the finding of this study can be mentioned that indirect effect of some pahlavi books of maxim (like maxims of azarbad marespandan and bozorgmehr book of maxim and also noted sa`di directly influenced of moral and ethical works of poets and writers before him, and of this, sa`di`s influence from abo- shakur balkhi maxims, ferdowsi and keikavus is remarkable and noteworthy.

  4. Can monkeys make investments based on maximized pay-off?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Steelandt

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Animals can maximize benefits but it is not known if they adjust their investment according to expected pay-offs. We investigated whether monkeys can use different investment strategies in an exchange task. We tested eight capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella and thirteen macaques (Macaca fascicularis, Macaca tonkeana in an experiment where they could adapt their investment to the food amounts proposed by two different experimenters. One, the doubling partner, returned a reward that was twice the amount given by the subject, whereas the other, the fixed partner, always returned a constant amount regardless of the amount given. To maximize pay-offs, subjects should invest a maximal amount with the first partner and a minimal amount with the second. When tested with the fixed partner only, one third of monkeys learned to remove a maximal amount of food for immediate consumption before investing a minimal one. With both partners, most subjects failed to maximize pay-offs by using different decision rules with each partner' quality. A single Tonkean macaque succeeded in investing a maximal amount to one experimenter and a minimal amount to the other. The fact that only one of over 21 subjects learned to maximize benefits in adapting investment according to experimenters' quality indicates that such a task is difficult for monkeys, albeit not impossible.

  5. The predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis adjusts patch-leaving to own and progeny prey needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanas, V; Enigl, M; Walzer, A; Schausberger, P

    2006-01-01

    Integration of optimal foraging and optimal oviposition theories suggests that predator females should adjust patch leaving to own and progeny prey needs to maximize current and future reproductive success. We tested this hypothesis in the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis and its patchily distributed prey, the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae. In three separate experiments we assessed (1) the minimum number of prey needed to complete juvenile development, (2) the minimum number of prey needed to produce an egg, and (3) the ratio between eggs laid and spider mites left when a gravid P. persimilis female leaves a patch. Experiments (1) and (2) were the pre-requirements to assess the fitness costs associated with staying or leaving a prey patch. Immature P. persimilis needed at least 7 and on average 14+/-3.6 (SD) T. urticae eggs to reach adulthood. Gravid females needed at least 5 and on average 8.5+/-3.1 (SD) T. urticae eggs to produce an egg. Most females left the initial patch before spider mite extinction, leaving prey for progeny to develop to adulthood. Females placed in a low density patch left 5.6+/-6.1 (SD) eggs per egg laid, whereas those placed in a high density patch left 15.8+/-13.7 (SD) eggs per egg laid. The three experiments in concert suggest that gravid P. persimilis females are able to balance the trade off between optimal foraging and optimal oviposition and adjust patch-leaving to own and progeny prey needs.

  6. Gravitational collapse of charged dust shell and maximal slicing condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeda, Keiichi

    1980-01-01

    The maximal slicing condition is a good time coordinate condition qualitatively when pursuing the gravitational collapse by the numerical calculation. The analytic solution of the gravitational collapse under the maximal slicing condition is given in the case of a spherical charged dust shell and the behavior of time slices with this coordinate condition is investigated. It is concluded that under the maximal slicing condition we can pursue the gravitational collapse until the radius of the shell decreases to about 0.7 x (the radius of the event horizon). (author)

  7. Optimal quantum error correcting codes from absolutely maximally entangled states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raissi, Zahra; Gogolin, Christian; Riera, Arnau; Acín, Antonio

    2018-02-01

    Absolutely maximally entangled (AME) states are pure multi-partite generalizations of the bipartite maximally entangled states with the property that all reduced states of at most half the system size are in the maximally mixed state. AME states are of interest for multipartite teleportation and quantum secret sharing and have recently found new applications in the context of high-energy physics in toy models realizing the AdS/CFT-correspondence. We work out in detail the connection between AME states of minimal support and classical maximum distance separable (MDS) error correcting codes and, in particular, provide explicit closed form expressions for AME states of n parties with local dimension \

  8. Breakdown of maximality conjecture in continuous phase transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukamel, D.; Jaric, M.V.

    1983-04-01

    A Landau-Ginzburg-Wilson model associated with a single irreducible representation which exhibits an ordered phase whose symmetry group is not a maximal isotropy subgroup of the symmetry group of the disordered phase is constructed. This example disproves the maximality conjecture suggested in numerous previous studies. Below the (continuous) transition, the order parameter points along a direction which varies with the temperature and with the other parameters which define the model. An extension of the maximality conjecture to reducible representations was postulated in the context of Higgs symmetry breaking mechanism. Our model can also be extended to provide a counter example in these cases. (author)

  9. Development of New Microsatellite DNA Markers from Apostichopus japonicus and Their Cross-Species Application in Parastichopus parvimensis and Pathallus mollis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guiping Chen

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Twenty microsatellite DNA markers were developed for sea cucumber and used to investigate polymorphisms of 60 wild Apostichopus japonicus individuals collected from China. It revealed that all the markers were polymorphic. A total of 164 alleles were detected at 20 loci. The number of alleles per locus varied from 3 to 17 with an average of 8.2, and the expected heterozygosities of each locus ranged from 0.03 to 0.89 with an average of 0.64. Cross-species amplification was also conducted in Parastichopus parvimensis collected from the United States and Pathallus mollis collected from Peru. The result showed that 17 loci amplified Parastichopus parvimensis DNAs while only 4 loci could amplify Pathallus mollis DNAs. All of the polymorphic markers would be useful for future genetic breeding and the assessment of genetic variation within sea cucumbers.

  10. A brominated flame retardant 2,2',4,4' tetrabrominated diphenyl ether (BDE-47) leads to lipogenesis in the copepod Tigriopus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Min-Chul; Han, Jeonghoon; Lee, Seung-Hwi; Kim, Duck-Hyun; Kang, Hye-Min; Won, Eun-Ji; Hwang, Dae-Sik; Park, Jun Chul; Om, Ae-Son; Lee, Jae-Seong

    2016-09-01

    De novo lipogenesis (DNL) is a fatty acid synthesis process that requires several genes, including sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP), ATP-citrate lyase (ACLY), and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC). DNL up-regulation is able to induce fat accumulation through an increase in fatty acids. To investigate the relationship between DNL up-regulation and the accumulation of fatty acids and lipid droplets in response to 2,2',4,4' tetrabrominated diphenyl ether (BDE-47), we examined DNL in the copepod Tigriopus japonicus. Transcription levels of DNL-related genes were increased after exposure to 2.5μg/L BDE-47 for 24h. After exposure to 2.5μg/L BDE-47, palmitic acid was significantly increased (Pcopepod. This study provides a better understanding of the effects of BDE-47 on DNL in copepods. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Expanding the Lotus japonicus reverse genetics toolbox – Development of LORE1 retrotransposon mutagenesis and artificial miRNA-mediated silencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Urbanski, Dorian Fabian

    2011-01-01

    . The protocols developed in the current project are now the cornerstone of a new LORE1 reverse genetics resource characterized by efficient mutant line generation and accurate mutation annotation. In parallel, artificial microRNAs (amiRNAs) were designed based on both Arabidopsis and Lotus backbones......Currently, the most common approach to studying Lotus japonicus (Lotus) genes is forward genetics in which a gene responsible for the studied phenotype is identified through map-based cloning. In reverse genetics, the activity of a gene of interest is modified to discover its mutant phenotype....... Prior to this project, the only reverse genetics resource available in Lotus was the TILLING resource. In an attempt to advance Lotus genetic studies, present study is focused on the development of two additional resources. The first is based on insertional mutagenesis and the second on harnessing post...

  12. [Modeling polarimetric BRDF of leaves surfaces].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Dong-Hui; Wang, Pei-Juan; Zhu, Qi-Jiang; Zhou, Hong-Min

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of the present paper is to model a physical polarimetric bidirectional reflectance distribution function (pBRDF), which can character not only the non-Lambertian but also the polarized features in order that the pBRDF can be applied to analyze the relationship between the degree of polarization and the physiological and biochemical parameters of leaves quantitatively later. Firstly, the bidirectional polarized reflectance distributions from several leaves surfaces were measured by the polarized goniometer developed by Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences. The samples of leaves include two pieces of zea mays L. leaves (young leaf and mature leaf) and a piece of E. palcherrima wild leaf. Non-Lambertian characteristics of directional reflectance from the surfaces of these three leaves are obvious. A Cook-Torrance model was modified by coupling the polarized Fresnel equations to simulate the bidirectional polarized reflectance properties of leaves surfaces. The three parameters in the modified pBRDF model, such as diffuse reflectivity, refractive index and roughness of leaf surface were inversed with genetic algorithm (GA). It was found that the pBRDF model can fit with the measured data well. In addition, these parameters in the model are related with both the physiological and biochemical properties and the polarized characteristics of leaves, therefore it is possible to build the relationships between them later.

  13. Identification and Characterization of MicroRNAs from Longitudinal Muscle and Respiratory Tree in Sea Cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus) Using High-Throughput Sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongdi; Liu, Shikai; Cui, Jun; Li, Chengze; Hu, Yucai; Zhou, Wei; Chang, Yaqing; Qiu, Xuemei; Liu, Zhanjiang; Wang, Xiuli

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs), as a family of non-coding small RNAs, play important roles in the post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression. Sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus) is an important economic species which is widely cultured in East Asia. The longitudinal muscle (LTM) and respiratory tree (RPT) are two important tissues in sea cucumber, playing important roles such as respiration and movement. In this study, we identified and characterized miRNAs in the LTM and RPT of sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus) using Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform. A total of 314 and 221 conserved miRNAs were identified in LTM and RPT, respectively. In addition, 27 and 34 novel miRNAs were identified in the LTM and RPT, respectively. A set of 58 miRNAs were identified to be differentially expressed between LTM and RPT. Among them, 9 miRNAs (miR-31a-3p, miR-738, miR-1692, let-7a, miR-72a, miR-100b-5p, miR-31b-5p, miR-429-3p, and miR-2008) in RPT and 7 miRNAs (miR-127, miR-340, miR-381, miR-3543, miR-434-5p, miR-136-3p, and miR-300-3p) in LTM were differentially expressed with foldchange value being greater than 10. A total of 14,207 and 12,174 target genes of these miRNAs were predicted, respectively. Functional analysis of these target genes of miRNAs were performed by GO analysis and pathway analysis. This result provided in this work will be useful for understanding biological characteristics of the LTM and RPT of sea cucumber and assisting molecular breeding of sea cucumber for aquaculture.

  14. Effects of dietary n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFAs) on growth, fatty acid profiles, antioxidant capacity and immunity of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Haibo; Gao, Qinfeng; Dong, Shuanglin; Zhou, Jishu; Ye, Zhi; Lan, Ying

    2016-07-01

    The present study was conducted to understand the effects of dietary n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFAs) on growth, fatty acid profiles, antioxidant capacity and the immunity of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka). Five experimental diets were prepared, containing graded levels of n-3 HUFAs (0.46%, 0.85%, 1.25%, 1.61% and 1.95%, respectively), and the 0.46% group was used as control group. The specific growth rates, fatty acid profiles, activities and gene expression of antioxidative enzymes and lysozyme of the sea cucumbers that were fed with the 5 experimental diets were determined. The results showed that the specific growth rate of sea cucumbers in all the treatment groups significantly increased compared to the control group (P sea cucumbers. The contents of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3) in the body wall of the sea cucumbers gradually increased with the increasing levels of n-3 HUFAs in the diets. The suitable supplement of n-3 HUFAs in diets improved the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) of sea cucumbers by up-regulating the expression of SOD and CAT mRNA in sea cucumbers. However, excess n-3 HUFAs in diets caused lipid peroxidation, inhibited the expression of lysozyme (LSZ) mRNA and decreased the activities of LSZ in sea cucumbers. In summary, the suitable supplement levels of n-3 HUFAs in diets of sea cucumbers A. japonicus were estimated between 0.85% and 1.25% considering the growth performance, cost and the indicators of antioxidant capacity and immunity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Identification and Characterization of MicroRNAs from Longitudinal Muscle and Respiratory Tree in Sea Cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus Using High-Throughput Sequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongdi Wang

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs, as a family of non-coding small RNAs, play important roles in the post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression. Sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus is an important economic species which is widely cultured in East Asia. The longitudinal muscle (LTM and respiratory tree (RPT are two important tissues in sea cucumber, playing important roles such as respiration and movement. In this study, we identified and characterized miRNAs in the LTM and RPT of sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus using Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform. A total of 314 and 221 conserved miRNAs were identified in LTM and RPT, respectively. In addition, 27 and 34 novel miRNAs were identified in the LTM and RPT, respectively. A set of 58 miRNAs were identified to be differentially expressed between LTM and RPT. Among them, 9 miRNAs (miR-31a-3p, miR-738, miR-1692, let-7a, miR-72a, miR-100b-5p, miR-31b-5p, miR-429-3p, and miR-2008 in RPT and 7 miRNAs (miR-127, miR-340, miR-381, miR-3543, miR-434-5p, miR-136-3p, and miR-300-3p in LTM were differentially expressed with foldchange value being greater than 10. A total of 14,207 and 12,174 target genes of these miRNAs were predicted, respectively. Functional analysis of these target genes of miRNAs were performed by GO analysis and pathway analysis. This result provided in this work will be useful for understanding biological characteristics of the LTM and RPT of sea cucumber and assisting molecular breeding of sea cucumber for aquaculture.

  16. Extracellular matrix remodeling and matrix metalloproteinases (ajMMP-2 like and ajMMP-16 like) characterization during intestine regeneration of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Ting; Wan, Zixuan; Sun, Lina; Li, Xiaoni; Xing, Lili; Bai, Yucen; Wang, Fang; Yang, Hongsheng

    2017-10-01

    Remodeling of extracellular matrix (ECM) regulated by matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) is essential for tissue regeneration. In the present study, we used immunohistochemistry (IHC) techniques against ECM components to reveal changes of ECM during intestine regeneration of Apostichopus japonicus. The expression of collagen I and laminin reduced apparently from the eviscerated intestine, while fibronectin exhibited continuous expression in all regeneration stages observed. Meanwhile, we cloned two MMP genes from A. japonicus by RACE PCR. The full-length cDNA of ajMMP-2 like is 2733bp and contains a predicted open reading frame (ORF) of 1716bp encoding 572 amino acids. The full-length cDNA of ajMMP-16 like is 2705bp and contains an ORF of 1452bp encoding 484 amino acids. The predicted protein sequences of each MMP contain two conserved domains, ZnMc_MMP and HX. Homology and phylogenetic analysis revealed that ajMMP-2 like and ajMMP-16 like share high sequence similarity with MMP-2 and MMP-16 from Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, respectively. Then we investigated spatio-temporal expression of ajMMP-2 like and ajMMP-16 like during different regeneration stages by qRT-PCR and IHC. The expression pattern of them showed a roughly opposite trend from that of ECM components. According to our results, a fibronectin-dominate temporary matrix is created in intestine regeneration, and it might provide structural integrity for matrix and promote cell movement. We also hypothesize that ajMMP-2 like and ajMMP-16 like could accelerate cell migration and regulate interaction between ECM components and growth factors. This work provides new evidence of ECM and MMPs involvement in sea cucumber regeneration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Heavy metals induce oxidative stress and trigger oxidative stress-mediated heat shock protein (hsp) modulation in the intertidal copepod Tigriopus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bo-Mi; Rhee, Jae-Sung; Jeong, Chang-Bum; Seo, Jung Soo; Park, Gyung Soo; Lee, Young-Mi; Lee, Jae-Seong

    2014-11-01

    Heat shock proteins (hsps) are induced by a wide range of environmental stressors including heavy metals in aquatic organisms. However, the effect of heavy metals on zooplankton at the molecular level remains still unclear. In this study, we measured the intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) level and the antioxidant enzyme activities for 96 h after exposure to five heavy metals: arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), silver (Ag), and zinc (Zn) in the intertidal copepod Tigriopus japonicus. Activities of the antioxidant enzymes were highly elevated in metal-exposed copepods, indicating that heavy metals can induce oxidative stress by generating ROS, and stimulate the involvement of antioxidant enzymes as cellular defense mechanisms. Subsequently, transcriptional changes in hsp gene families were further investigated in the metal-exposed groups for 96 h. The ROS level and glutathione (GSH) content were significantly increased in Ag-, As-, and Cu-exposed copepods, while they were only slightly elevated in Cd- and Zn-exposed groups. Based on the numbers of significantly modulated hsp genes and their expression levels for 96 h, we measured the effect of heavy metals to stress genes of T. japonicus in the following order: Cu > Zn > Ag > As > Cd, implying that Cu acts as a stronger oxidative stress inducer than other heavy metals. Of them, the expression of hsp20 and hsp70 genes was substantially modulated by exposure to heavy metals, indicating that these genes would provide a sensitive molecular biomarker for aquatic monitoring of heavy metal pollution. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Deep sequencing-based transcriptome profiling analysis of bacteria-challenged Lateolabrax japonicus reveals insight into the immune-relevant genes in marine fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Li-xin

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Systematic research on fish immunogenetics is indispensable in understanding the origin and evolution of immune systems. This has long been a challenging task because of the limited number of deep sequencing technologies and genome backgrounds of non-model fish available. The newly developed Solexa/Illumina RNA-seq and Digital gene expression (DGE are high-throughput sequencing approaches and are powerful tools for genomic studies at the transcriptome level. This study reports the transcriptome profiling analysis of bacteria-challenged Lateolabrax japonicus using RNA-seq and DGE in an attempt to gain insights into the immunogenetics of marine fish. Results RNA-seq analysis generated 169,950 non-redundant consensus sequences, among which 48,987 functional transcripts with complete or various length encoding regions were identified. More than 52% of these transcripts are possibly involved in approximately 219 known metabolic or signalling pathways, while 2,673 transcripts were associated with immune-relevant genes. In addition, approximately 8% of the transcripts appeared to be fish-specific genes that have never been described before. DGE analysis revealed that the host transcriptome profile of Vibrio harveyi-challenged L. japonicus is considerably altered, as indicated by the significant up- or down-regulation of 1,224 strong infection-responsive transcripts. Results indicated an overall conservation of the components and transcriptome alterations underlying innate and adaptive immunity in fish and other vertebrate models. Analysis suggested the acquisition of numerous fish-specific immune system components during early vertebrate evolution. Conclusion This study provided a global survey of host defence gene activities against bacterial challenge in a non-model marine fish. Results can contribute to the in-depth study of candidate genes in marine fish immunity, and help improve current understanding of host

  19. Hemoglobin LjGlb1-1 is involved in nodulation and regulates the level of nitric oxide in the Lotus japonicus-Mesorhizobium loti symbiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukudome, Mitsutaka; Calvo-Begueria, Laura; Kado, Tomohiro; Osuki, Ken-Ichi; Rubio, Maria Carmen; Murakami, Ei-Ichi; Nagata, Maki; Kucho, Ken-Ichi; Sandal, Niels; Stougaard, Jens; Becana, Manuel; Uchiumi, Toshiki

    2016-09-01

    Leghemoglobins transport and deliver O2 to the symbiosomes inside legume nodules and are essential for nitrogen fixation. However, the roles of other hemoglobins (Hbs) in the rhizobia-legume symbiosis are unclear. Several Lotus japonicus mutants affecting LjGlb1-1, a non-symbiotic class 1 Hb, have been used to study the function of this protein in symbiosis. Two TILLING alleles with single amino acid substitutions (A102V and E127K) and a LORE1 null allele with a retrotransposon insertion in the 5'-untranslated region (96642) were selected for phenotyping nodulation. Plants of all three mutant lines showed a decrease in long infection threads and nodules, and an increase in incipient infection threads. About 4h after inoculation, the roots of mutant plants exhibited a greater transient accumulation of nitric oxide (NO) than did the wild-type roots; nevertheless, in vitro NO dioxygenase activities of the wild-type, A102V, and E127K proteins were similar, suggesting that the mutated proteins are not fully functional in vivo The expression of LjGlb1-1, but not of the other class 1 Hb of L. japonicus (LjGlb1-2), was affected during infection of wild-type roots, further supporting a specific role for LjGlb1-1. In conclusion, the LjGlb1-1 mutants reveal that this protein is required during rhizobial infection and regulates NO levels. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  20. The maximal kinematical invariance group of fluid dynamics and explosion-implosion duality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Raifeartaigh, L.; Sreedhar, V.V.

    2001-01-01

    It has recently been found that supernova explosions can be simulated in the laboratory by implosions induced in a plasma by intense lasers. A theoretical explanation is that the inversion transformation, (Σ:t→-1/t, x→x/t), leaves the Euler equations of fluid dynamics, with standard polytropic exponent, invariant. This implies that the kinematical invariance group of the Euler equations is larger than the Galilei group. In this paper we determine, in a systematic manner, the maximal invariance group G of general fluid dynamics and show that it is a semi-direct product G=SL(2, R) three G, where the SL(2, R) group contains the time-translations, dilations, and the inversion Σ, and G is the static (nine-parameter) Galilei group. A subtle aspect of the inclusion of viscosity fields is discussed and it is shown that the Navier-Stokes assumption of constant viscosity breaks the SL(2, R) group to a two-parameter group of time translations and dilations in a tensorial way. The 12-parameter group G is also known to be the maximal invariance group of the free Schroedinger equation. It originates in the free Hamilton-Jacobi equation which is central to both fluid dynamics and the Schroedinger equation