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Sample records for japanese orthopaedic association

  1. The 2016 American Orthopaedic Association-Japanese Orthopaedic Association Traveling Fellowship.

    Nandi, Sumon; Cho, Samuel K; Freedman, Brett A; Firoozabadi, Reza

    2017-06-07

    The American Orthopaedic Association-Japanese Orthopaedic Association (AOA-JOA) Traveling Fellowship, which began in 1992 as a collaborative effort between the 2 orthopaedic communities, is aimed at fostering leadership among early-career surgeons through clinical, academic, and cultural exchange. Over 3 weeks, we experienced an extraordinary journey that led us across nearly 800 miles of the picturesque Japanese countryside, with stops at 6 distinguished academic centers. The opportunity to become personally acquainted with orthopaedic leaders in Japan, learn from their experiences, and immerse ourselves in the ancient and storied culture of a beautiful country was one that we will not soon forget. Along the way, we accumulated a wealth of information while enjoying the legendary hospitality of the Japanese people. There is a ubiquitous challenge in delivering cost-effective, accessible health care while maintaining a commitment to education and research. The U.S. orthopaedic community may take solace in the fact that our Japanese colleagues stand with us as partners in this pursuit, and our relationship with them continues to grow stronger through endeavors such as the AOA-JOA Traveling Fellowship. We look forward to honoring our Japanese colleagues in 2017 when we host them in the United States.

  2. Verification of the sensitivity of functional scores for treatment results - Substantial clinical benefit thresholds for the Japanese Orthopaedic Association Back Pain Evaluation Questionnaire (JOABPEQ).

    Kasai, Yuichi; Fukui, Mitsuru; Takahashi, Kazuhisa; Ohtori, Seiji; Takeuchi, Daisaku; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Kanamori, Masahiko; Hosono, Noboru; Kanchiku, Tsukasa; Wada, Eiji; Sekiguchi, Miho; Konno, Shinichi; Kawakami, Mamoru

    2017-07-01

    Validity and reliability of the Japanese Orthopaedic Association Back Pain Evaluation Questionnaire (JOABPEQ) had already been verified as the patients' self-rating assessment of low back pain and lumbar spinal disease and, the present study demonstrated the responsiveness of this measure. 192 subjects who were determined by medical instructors of the Japanese Society for Spine Surgery and Related Research were analyzed. They had completed a series of treatment and both surveys before and after the treatment. Authors investigated rates of concordance between assessment by physicians and subjective assessment by patients. The mean, standard deviation, minimum, 25th percentile, median, 75th percentile and maximum values for pre-treatment, post-treatment, and acquired points were calculated, and then, we also investigated the trend between subjective assessment by patients and mean acquired points for each JOABPEQ domain and substantial clinical benefit thresholds for the JOABPEQ. Symptom changes as assessed by physicians did not coincide with those by patients, and acquired points in each JOABPEQ domain were significantly increased with improved self-rating by patients. In addition, patients who rated symptom changes as "slightly improved" showed a mean acquired points of ≥20, and those reporting "improved" showed a 25th percentile points of the acquired points of ≥20 approximately. A significant correlation was noted between the self-rating of patients and acquired points JOABPEQ, suggesting that ≥20 acquired points can be interpreted as substantial clinical benefit thresholds for the JOABPEQ. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Evaluation of low back pain using the Japanese Orthopaedic Association Back Pain Evaluation Questionnaire for lumbar spinal disease in a multicenter study. Differences in scores based on age, sex, and type of disease

    Ohtori, Seiji; Ito, Toshinori; Yamashita, Masaomi

    2010-01-01

    The Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) has investigated the JOA Back Pain Evaluation Questionnaire (JOABPEQ) to evaluate several aspects of low back pain in patients. The score includes five categories (25 items) selected from the Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire and Short Form 36, and a visual analogue scale. Japanese physicians have recently used these scores to evaluate back pain; however, the efficacy has not been fully explored in large-scale studies. In the current study, we used the JOABPEQ to evaluate lumbar spinal disease in 555 patients (with lumbar disc herniation, lumbar spinal stenosis, and lumbar disc degeneration/spondylosis) in multiple spine centers and compared the results based on age, sex, and type of disease. A total of 555 patients who had low back or leg pain were selected in 22 hospitals in Chiba Prefecture. Spine surgeons diagnosed their disease type based on symptoms, physical examination, radiography images, and magnetic resonance imaging. In all, 486 patients were diagnosed with spinal stenosis (239 patients), disc degeneration/spondylosis (143 patients), or disc herniation (104 patients). The other 69 patients were diagnosed with spondylolysis (16 patients) or other diseases (53 patients). The pain score in all patients was evaluated using the JOABPEQ (from 0 to 100, with 0 indicating the worst pain). The age of the patients was 56.1±13.3 years (mean±standard deviation (SD)); the age of patients in the disc herniation and disc degeneration/spondylosis group was significantly lower than that in the spinal stenosis group. The average JOABPEQ scores in all patients were, for low back pain, 47.1; lumbar function, 53.6; walking ability, 54.8; social life function, 48.7; and mental health, 48.3. The low back pain score in men was significantly worse than that in women. In contrast, the mental health score in women was significantly higher than that in men. The low back pain score in patients 65 years old were significantly lower

  4. Improving operation notes to meet British Orthopaedic Association guidelines.

    Morgan, David; Fisher, Noel; Ahmad, Aman; Alam, Fazle

    2009-04-01

    Operation notes are an important part of medical records for clinical, academic and medicolegal reasons. This study audited the quality of operative note keeping for total knee replacements against the standards set by the British Orthopaedic Association (BOA). A prospective review of all patients undergoing total knee replacement at a district general hospital over 8 months. Data recorded were compared with those required by the BOA good-practice guidelines. Change in practice was implemented and the audit cycle completed. Data were statistically analysed. A total of 129 operation notes were reviewed. There was a significant improvement in the mean number of data points recorded from 9.6 to 13.1. The least well recorded data were diagnosis, description of findings, alignment and postoperative flexion range. All had a significant improvement except description of findings. The operating surgeon writing the note improved from 56% to 67%. Detailed postoperative instructions also improved in quality. Surgeon education and the use of a checklist produce better quality total knee replacement operation notes in line with BOA guidelines. Further improvements may be made by making the data points part of the operation note itself.

  5. The Malaysian Orthopaedic Association humanitarian mission to Indonesia and Sri Lanka.

    Sharaf, I; Saw, A; Hyzan, Y; Sivananthan, K S

    2005-07-01

    The tsunami which occurred off the west coast of North Sumatra on December 26, 2004 devastated the coastal areas of North Sumatra, South-West Thailand, South-East India and Sri Lanka killing more than a quarter of a million people. The destruction was enormous with many coastal villages destroyed. The other countries affected were Malaysia, Myanmar, Maldives, Bangladesh, Somalia, Kenya, Tanzania and the Seychelles. In January 2005, volunteers went in weekly rotation to Banda Aceh in collaboration with Global Peace Mission. These were Dr Hyzan Yusof, Dr Suryasmi Duski, Dr Sharaf Ibrahim, Dr Saw Aik, Dr Kamariah Nor and Dr Nor Azlin. In Banda Aceh, the surgical procedures that we could do were limited to external fixation of open fractures and debriding infected wounds at the Indonesian Red Crescent field hospital. In February, a team comprising Dato Dr K S Sivananthan, Dr T Kumar and Dr S Vasan spent a week in Sri Lanka. In Sri Lanka, Dato Sivananthan and his team were able to perform elective orthopaedic operations in Dr Poonambalam Memorial Hospital. We appealed for national and international aid and received support from local hospitals and the orthopaedic industry. International aid bound for Banda Aceh arrived in Kuala Lumpur from the Philippine Orthopaedic Association, the Chiba Children's Hospital in Japan and the Chinese Orthopaedic Association. The COA donated 1.5 tons of orthopaedic equipments. A special handing over ceremony from the COA to the Indonesian Orthopaedic Association was held in Putrajaya in March. Malaysia Airlines flew in the donated equipment to Kuala Lumpur while the onward flight to Aceh was provided by the Royal Malaysian Air Force. In April, Dr Saw Aik and Dr Yong Su Mei joined the Tsu-Chi International Medical Association for volunteer services on Batam Island, Indonesia. The MOA acknowledges the many individuals and organizations, both governmental and non-governmental, for their contributions in the humanitarian efforts.

  6. East African Orthopaedic Journal: Submissions

    Author Guidelines. The East African Orthopaedic Journal is published biannually by the Kenya Orthopaedics Association. Its primary objective is to give researchers in orthopaedics and ... Format should be as follows; Details of authors as for original articles, summary of not more than 200 words, introduction, case report,

  7. The Effect of an Orthopaedic Surgical Procedure in the National Basketball Association.

    Minhas, Shobhit V; Kester, Benjamin S; Larkin, Kevin E; Hsu, Wellington K

    2016-04-01

    Professional basketball players have a high incidence of injuries requiring surgical intervention. However, no studies in the current literature have compared postoperative performance outcomes among common injuries to determine high- and low-risk procedures to these athletes' careers. To compare return-to-play (RTP) rates and performance-based outcomes after different orthopaedic procedures in National Basketball Association (NBA) players and to determine which surgeries are associated with the worst postoperative change in performance. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Athletes in the NBA undergoing anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction, Achilles tendon repair, lumbar discectomy, microfracture, meniscus surgery, hand/wrist or foot fracture fixation, and shoulder stabilization were identified through team injury reports and archives on public record. The RTP rate, games played per season, and player efficiency rating (PER) were determined before and after surgery. Statistical analysis was used to compare the change between pre- and postsurgical performance among the different injuries. A total of 348 players were included. The RTP rates were highest in patients with hand/wrist fractures (98.1%; mean age, 27.0 years) and lowest for those with Achilles tears (70.8%; mean age, 28.4 years) (P = .005). Age ≥30 years (odds ratio [OR], 3.85; 95% CI, 1.24-11.91) and body mass index ≥27 kg/m(2) (OR, 3.46; 95% CI, 1.05-11.40) were predictors of not returning to play. Players undergoing Achilles tendon repair and arthroscopic knee surgery had a significantly greater decline in postoperative performance outcomes at the 1- and 3-year time points and had shorter career lengths compared with the other procedures. NBA players undergoing Achilles tendon rupture repair or arthroscopic knee surgery had significantly worse performance postoperatively compared with other orthopaedic procedures. © 2016 The Author(s).

  8. An interobserver reliability comparison between the Orthopaedic Trauma Association's open fracture classification and the Gustilo and Anderson classification.

    Ghoshal, A; Enninghorst, N; Sisak, K; Balogh, Z J

    2018-02-01

    To evaluate interobserver reliability of the Orthopaedic Trauma Association's open fracture classification system (OTA-OFC). Patients of any age with a first presentation of an open long bone fracture were included. Standard radiographs, wound photographs, and a short clinical description were given to eight orthopaedic surgeons, who independently evaluated the injury using both the Gustilo and Anderson (GA) and OTA-OFC classifications. The responses were compared for variability using Cohen's kappa. The overall interobserver agreement was ĸ = 0.44 for the GA classification and ĸ = 0.49 for OTA-OFC, which reflects moderate agreement (0.41 to 0.60) for both classifications. The agreement in the five categories of OTA-OFC was: for skin, ĸ = 0.55 (moderate); for muscle, ĸ = 0.44 (moderate); for arterial injury, ĸ = 0.74 (substantial); for contamination, ĸ = 0.35 (fair); and for bone loss, ĸ = 0.41 (moderate). Although the OTA-OFC, with similar interobserver agreement to GA, offers a more detailed description of open fractures, further development may be needed to make it a reliable and robust tool. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2018;100-B:242-6. ©2018 The British Editorial Society of Bone & Joint Surgery.

  9. Database of synesthetic color associations for Japanese kanji.

    Hamada, Daisuke; Yamamoto, Hiroki; Saiki, Jun

    2017-02-01

    Synesthesia is a neurological phenomenon in which certain types of stimuli elicit involuntary perceptions in an unrelated pathway. A common type of synesthesia is grapheme-color synesthesia, in which the visual perception of letters and numbers stimulates the perception of a specific color. Previous studies have often collected relatively small numbers of grapheme-color associations per synesthete, but the accumulation of a large quantity of data has greater promise for uncovering the mechanisms underlying synesthetic association. In this study, we therefore collected large samples of data from a total of eight synesthetes. All told, we obtained over 1000 synesthetic colors associated with Japanese kanji characters from each of two synesthetes, over 100 synesthetic colors form each of three synesthetes, and about 80 synesthetic colors associated with Japanese hiragana, Latin letters, and Arabic numerals from each of three synesthetes. We then compiled the data into a database, called the KANJI-Synesthetic Colors Database (K-SCD), which has a total of 5122 colors for 483, 46, and 46 Japanese kanji, hiragana, and katakana characters, respectively, as well as for 26 Latin letters and ten Arabic numerals. In addition to introducing the K-SCD, this article demonstrates the database's merits by using two examples, in which two new rules for synesthetic association, "shape similarity" and "synesthetic color clustering," were found. The K-SCD is publicly accessible ( www.cv.jinkan.kyoto-u.ac.jp/site/uploads/K-SCD.xlsm ) and will be a valuable resource for those who wish to conduct statistical analyses using a rich dataset in order to uncover the rules governing synesthetic association and to understand its mechanisms.

  10. Floor Effect of PROMIS Depression CAT Associated With Hasty Completion in Orthopaedic Surgery Patients.

    Guattery, Jason M; Dardas, Agnes Z; Kelly, Michael; Chamberlain, Aaron; McAndrew, Christopher; Calfee, Ryan P

    2018-04-01

    The Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) was developed to provide valid, reliable, and standardized measures to gather patient-reported outcomes for many health domains, including depression, independent of patient condition. Most studies confirming the performance of these measures were conducted with a consented, volunteer study population for testing. Using a study population that has undergone the process of informed consent may be differentiated from the validation group because they are educated specifically as to the purpose of the questions and they will not have answers recorded in their permanent health record. (1) When given as part of routine practice to an orthopaedic population, do PROMIS Physical Function and Depression item banks produce score distributions different than those produced by the populations used to calibrate and validate the item banks? (2) Does the presence of a nonnormal distribution in the PROMIS Depression scores in a clinical population reflect a deliberately hasty answering of questions by patients? (3) Are patients who are reporting minimal depressive symptoms by scoring the minimum score on the PROMIS Depression Computer Adaptive Testing (CAT) distinct from other patients according to demographic data or their scores on other PROMIS assessments? Univariate descriptive statistics and graphic histograms were used to describe the frequency distribution of scores for the Physical Function and Depression item banks for all orthopaedic patients 18 years or older who had an outpatient visit between June 2015 and December 2016. The study population was then broken into two groups based on whether they indicated a lack of depressive symptoms and scored the minimum score (34.2) on the Depression CAT assessment (Floor Group) or not (Standard Group). The distribution of Physical Function CAT scores was compared between the two groups. Finally, a time-per-question value was calculated for both the Physical

  11. Genome-wide association study of schizophrenia in Japanese population.

    Kazuo Yamada

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia is a devastating neuropsychiatric disorder with genetically complex traits. Genetic variants should explain a considerable portion of the risk for schizophrenia, and genome-wide association study (GWAS is a potentially powerful tool for identifying the risk variants that underlie the disease. Here, we report the results of a three-stage analysis of three independent cohorts consisting of a total of 2,535 samples from Japanese and Chinese populations for searching schizophrenia susceptibility genes using a GWAS approach. Firstly, we examined 115,770 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in 120 patient-parents trio samples from Japanese schizophrenia pedigrees. In stage II, we evaluated 1,632 SNPs (1,159 SNPs of p<0.01 and 473 SNPs of p<0.05 that located in previously reported linkage regions. The second sample consisted of 1,012 case-control samples of Japanese origin. The most significant p value was obtained for the SNP in the ELAVL2 [(embryonic lethal, abnormal vision, Drosophila-like 2] gene located on 9p21.3 (p = 0.00087. In stage III, we scrutinized the ELAVL2 gene by genotyping gene-centric tagSNPs in the third sample set of 293 family samples (1,163 individuals of Chinese descent and the SNP in the gene showed a nominal association with schizophrenia in Chinese population (p = 0.026. The current data in Asian population would be helpful for deciphering ethnic diversity of schizophrenia etiology.

  12. Feasibility of establishing an Australian ACL registry: a pilot study by the Australian Orthopaedic Association National Joint Replacement Registry (AOANJRR).

    Lekkas, Christina; Clarnette, Richard; Graves, Stephen E; Rainbird, Sophia; Parker, David; Lorimer, Michelle; Paterson, Roger; Roe, Justin; Morris, Hayden; Feller, Julian A; Annear, Peter; Forster, Ben; Hayes, David

    2017-05-01

    Rupture of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is a common and debilitating injury that impacts significantly on knee function and risks the development of degenerative arthritis. The outcome of ACL surgery is not monitored in Australia. The optimal treatment is unknown. Consequently, the identification of best practice in treating ACL is crucial to the development of improved outcomes. The Australian Knee Society (AKS) asked the Australian Orthopaedic Association (AOA) to consider establishing a national ACL registry. As a first step, a pilot study was undertaken by the Australian Orthopaedic Association National Joint Replacement Registry (AOANJRR) to test the hypothesis that collecting the required information in the Australian setting was possible. Surgeons completed an operative form which provided comprehensive information on the surgery undertaken. Patients provided pre- and post-operative questionnaires including the Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) and the Marx Activity Scale (MA Scale). The number of ACL procedures undertaken at each hospital during the recruitment period was compared against State Government Health Department separation data. A total of 802 patients were recruited from October 2011 to January 2013. The overall capture rate for surgeon-derived data was 99%, and the capture rate for the pre-operative patient questionnaire was 97.9%. At 6 months, patient-reported outcomes were obtained from 55% of patients, and 58.5% of patients at 12 months. When checked against State Government Health Department separation data, 31.3% of procedures undertaken at each study hospital were captured in the study. It is possible to collect surgeon-derived and pre-operative patient-reported data, following ACL reconstruction in Australia. The need to gain patient consent was a limiting factor to participation. When patients did consent to participate in the study, we were able to capture nearly 100% of surgical procedures. Patient consent

  13. Surgical site infection among patients undergone orthopaedic ...

    Surgical site infection among patients undergone orthopaedic surgery at Muhimbili Orthopaedic Institute, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. ... of surgical site infection at Muhimbili Orthopedic Institute was high. This was associated with more than 2 hours length of surgery, lack of prophylaxis use, and pre-operative hospital stay.

  14. Napping and associated factors: a Japanese nationwide general population survey.

    Furihata, Ryuji; Kaneita, Yoshitaka; Jike, Maki; Ohida, Takashi; Uchiyama, Makoto

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate napping habits and their associated factors in the Japanese adult general population. The cross-sectional survey was conducted in November 2007 for subjects selected randomly from among 300 districts throughout Japan. Data from 7664 people (3527 men and 4137 women), aged 20-99 years, were analyzed. Participants completed a self-administered questionnaire on frequency and duration of napping. The percentage of responders for high-frequency napping, four or more days per week, was 21.2% among men and 17.1% among women. The percentage of responders for long-duration napping, 2 h or more per one nap, was 2.9% among men and 2.6% among women. Multivariate logistic regression analyses revealed that men, older age, smoking, insomnia symptoms, long sleep duration, excessive daytime sleepiness, and having sufficient rest obtained by sleep were positively associated with high-frequency napping, whereas alcohol drinking showed a negative association. Older age was negatively associated with long-duration napping whereas living in a large community, smoking, long sleep duration, excessive daytime sleepiness, and psychological stress showed a positive association. These findings provide important data for future studies aimed at improvement of sleep habits. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. The Core Competencies for General Orthopaedic Surgeons.

    Kellam, James F; Archibald, Douglas; Barber, James W; Christian, Eugene P; D'Ascoli, Richard J; Haynes, Richard J; Hecht, Suzanne S; Hurwitz, Shepard R; Kellam, James F; McLaren, Alexander C; Peabody, Terrance D; Southworth, Stephen R; Strauss, Robert W; Wadey, Veronica M R

    2017-01-18

    With the changing delivery of orthopaedic surgical care, there is a need to define the knowledge and competencies that are expected of an orthopaedist providing general and/or acute orthopaedic care. This article provides a proposal for the knowledge and competencies needed for an orthopaedist to practice general and/or acute care orthopaedic surgery. Using the modified Delphi method, the General Orthopaedic Competency Task Force consisting of stakeholders associated with general orthopaedic practice has proposed the core knowledge and competencies that should be maintained by orthopaedists who practice emergency and general orthopaedic surgery. For relevancy to clinical practice, 2 basic sets of competencies were established. The assessment competencies pertain to the general knowledge needed to evaluate, investigate, and determine an overall management plan. The management competencies are generally procedural in nature and are divided into 2 groups. For the Management 1 group, the orthopaedist should be competent to provide definitive care including assessment, investigation, initial or emergency care, operative or nonoperative care, and follow-up. For the Management 2 group, the orthopaedist should be competent to assess, investigate, and commence timely non-emergency or emergency care and then either transfer the patient to the appropriate subspecialist's care or provide definitive care based on the urgency of care, exceptional practice circumstance, or individual's higher training. This may include some higher-level procedures usually performed by a subspecialist, but are consistent with one's practice based on experience, practice environment, and/or specialty interest. These competencies are the first step in defining the practice of general orthopaedic surgery including acute orthopaedic care. Further validation and discussion among educators, general orthopaedic surgeons, and subspecialists will ensure that these are relevant to clinical practice. These

  16. The detection of patients with 'fragility fractures' in fracture clinic - an audit of practice with reference to recent British Orthopaedic Association guidelines.

    Gidwani, S; Davidson, N; Trigkilidas, D; Blick, C; Harborne, R; Maurice, H D

    2007-03-01

    The British Orthopaedic Association published guidelines on the care of fragility fracture patients in 2003. A section of these guidelines relates to the secondary prevention of osteoporotic fractures. The objective of this audit was to compare practice in our fracture clinic to these guidelines, and take steps to improve our practice if required. We retrospectively audited the treatment of all 462 new patients seen in January and February 2004. Using case note analysis, 38 patients who had sustained probable fragility fractures were selected. Six months' post-injury, a telephone questionnaire was administered to confirm the nature of the injury and to find out whether the patient had been assessed, investigated or treated for osteoporosis. A second similar audit was conducted a year later after steps had been taken to improve awareness amongst the orthopaedic staff and prompt referral. During the first audit period, only 5 of 38 patients who should have been assessed and investigated for osteoporosis were either referred or offered referral. This improved to 23 out of 43 patients during the second audit period. Improvements in referral and assessment rates of patients at risk of further fragility fractures can be achieved relatively easily by taking steps to increase awareness amongst orthopaedic surgeons, although additional strategies and perhaps the use of automated referral systems may be required to achieve referral rates nearer 100%.

  17. Current status and progress of digital orthopaedics in China

    Guo-Xian Pei

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Based on the development of digital medicine and digital anatomy, the concept of “digital orthopaedics” was raised by Pei Guo-Xian in China in 2006. The most striking feature of digital orthopaedics is the combination of basic and clinical orthopaedic knowledge with digital technology. In this review, we summarised the development of digital orthopaedics in China in recent years with respect to: the foundation of the Chinese Association of Digital Orthopedics, virtual human project (VHP, three-dimensional (3D reconstruction, finite element simulation, navigation in orthopaedic operations, and robot-assisted orthopaedic operations. In addition, we briefly reviewed digital orthopaedics in world leading institutes. We also looked into the future of digital orthopaedics in China and proposed the major challenges in digital technology and application in orthopaedics.

  18. Obesity Is Associated With More Complications and Longer Hospital Stays After Orthopaedic Trauma.

    Childs, Benjamin R; Nahm, Nickolas J; Dolenc, Andrea J; Vallier, Heather A

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize relationships between obesity and initial hospital stay, including complications, in patients with multiple system trauma and surgically treated fractures. Prospective, observational. Level 1 trauma center. Three hundred seventy-six patients with an Injury Severity Score greater than 16 and mechanically unstable high-energy fractures of the femur, pelvic ring, acetabulum, or spine requiring stabilization. Data for obese (body mass index ≥ 30) versus nonobese patients included presence of pneumonia, deep vein thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, infection, organ failure, and mortality. Days in ICU and hospital, days on ventilator, transfusions, and surgical details were documented. Complications occurred more often in obese patients (38.0% vs. 28.4%, P = 0.03), with more acute renal failure (5.70% vs. 1.38%, P = 0.02) and infection (11.4% vs. 5.50%, P = 0.04). Days in ICU and mechanical ventilation times were longer for obese patients (7.06 vs. 5.25 days, P = 0.05 and 4.92 vs. 2.90 days, P = 0.007, respectively). Mean total hospital stay was also longer for obese patients (12.3 vs. 9.79 days, P = 0.009). No significant differences in rates of mortality, multiple organ failure, or pulmonary complications were noted. Medically stable obese patients were almost twice as likely to experience delayed fracture fixation due to preference of the surgeon and were more likely to experience delay overall (26.0% vs. 16.1%; P = 0.02). Mean time from injury to fixation was 34.9 hours in obese patients versus 23.7 hours in nonobese patients (P = 0.03). Obesity was noted among 42% of our trauma patients. In obese patients, complications occurred more often and hospital and ICU stays were significantly longer. These increases are likely to be associated with greater hospital costs. Surgeon decision to delay procedures in medically stable obese patients may have contributed to these findings; definitive fixation was more likely to be

  19. Factors Associated with the Empowerment of Japanese Families Raising a Child with Developmental Disorders

    Wakimizu, Rie; Fujioka, Hiroshi; Yoneyama, Akira; Iejima, Atsushi; Miyamoto, Shinya

    2011-01-01

    We identified factors associated with the empowerment of Japanese families using the Family Empowerment Scale (FES) to contribute to the improvement of empowerment in Japanese families raising a child with developmental disorders (DDs). The study was conducted in 350 caregivers who raised children aged 4-18 years with DDs in urban and suburban…

  20. Generalized Vitiligo Associated Autoimmune Diseases in Japanese Patients Their Families

    Tomohiko Narita

    2011-01-01

    Conclusions: Among Japanese vitiligo patients, there is a subgroup with strong evidence of genetically determined susceptibility to not only vitiligo, but also to autoimmune thyroid disease and other autoimmune disorders.

  1. Immigrant associations and ethnic identity among Japanese immigrants and their descendants in Argentina

    Silvina Gómez

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Japanese migration to Argentina started in the early Twentieth Century, with the arrival of Japanese men from other Latin American countries and did not stop until the 60’s even though as time passed the composition of the immigrant group changed and so did their objectives. Japanese immigrants soon created voluntary associations where they gathered, a trend that still survives to these days. The different kind of associations they created, their aims and later development as well as their relationship to the Japanese government, are broached in this paper. It focuses on the changes Japanese associations have suffered along the process, a as support devices for young men that arrived as dekaseguis in early times, and whose stay was extended indefinitely, b during the Second World War crisis c with the arrival of Japanese newcomers during the postwar period, d attending to the cases of Japanese migrants arriving from the Dominican Republic, Paraguay and Bolivia; and, finally, dealing with the dilemma aroused by the decision to settle definitively versus the desire to preserve Japanese traditions and identity

  2. SOUTH AFRICAN ORTHOPAEDIC ASSOCIATION

    Fa/eke's Paediatric Unit . The patient was a ... sure whether the tibia had been fractured. There was ... fixation test, agglutination tests and marrow investigations were negative. ... admitted for an epulis of the upper jaw and bronchiectasis. In.

  3. The consistency between scientific papers presented at the Orthopaedic Trauma Association and their subsequent full-text publication.

    Preston, Charles F; Bhandari, Mohit; Fulkerson, Eric; Ginat, Danial; Egol, Kenneth A; Koval, Kenneth J

    2006-02-01

    To determine the consistency of conclusions/statements made in podium presentations at the annual meeting of the Orthopaedic Trauma Association (OTA) with those in subsequent full-text publications. Also, to evaluate the nature and consistency of study design, methods, sample sizes, results and assign a corresponding level of evidence. Abstracts of the scientific programs of the OTA from 1994 to 1997 (N = 254) were queried by using the PubMed database to identify those studies resulting in a peer-reviewed, full-text publication. Of the 169 articles retrieved, 137 studies were the basis of our study after the exclusion criteria were applied: non-English language, basic science studies, anatomic dissection studies, and articles published in non-peer-reviewed journals. Information was abstracted onto a data form: first from the abstract published in the final meeting program, and then from the published journal article. Information was recorded regarding study issues, including the study design, primary objective, sample size, and statistical methods. We provided descriptive statistics about the frequency of consistent results between abstracts and full-text publications. The results were recorded as percentages and a 95% confidence interval was applied to each value. Study results were recorded for the abstract and full-text publication comparing results and the overall conclusion. A level of scientific-based evidence was assigned to each full-text publication. The final conclusion of the study remained the same 93.4% of the time. The method of study was an observational case series 52% of the time and a statement regarding the rate of patient follow-up was reported 42% of the time. Of the studies published, 18.2% consisted of a sample size smaller than the previously presented abstract. When the published papers had their level of evidence graded, 11% were level I, 16% level II, 17% level III, and 56% level IV. Authors conclusions were consistent with those in full

  4. Interleukin 1 beta promoter polymorphism is associated with keratoconus in a Japanese population

    Mikami, Takenori; Meguro, Akira; Teshigawara, Takeshi; Takeuchi, Masaki; Uemoto, Riyo; Kawagoe, Tatsukata; Nomura, Eiichi; Asukata, Yuri; Ishioka, Misaki; Iwasaki, Miki; Fukagawa, Kazumi; Konomi, Kenji; Shimazaki, Jun; Nishida, Teruo; Mizuki, Nobuhisa

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Polymorphisms in the interleukin 1 alpha (IL1A) and IL1B gene regions were previously associated with keratoconus in a Korean population. In the present study, we investigated whether the IL1A and IL1B polymorphisms are associated with keratoconus in a Japanese population. Methods A total of 169 Japanese patients with keratoconus and 390 Japanese healthy controls were recruited. We genotyped one IL1A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP; rs2071376) and two IL1B SNPs (rs1143627 and rs16...

  5. Phylogeography of Japanese encephalitis virus: genotype is associated with climate.

    Amy J Schuh

    Full Text Available The circulation of vector-borne zoonotic viruses is largely determined by the overlap in the geographical distributions of virus-competent vectors and reservoir hosts. What is less clear are the factors influencing the distribution of virus-specific lineages. Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV is the most important etiologic agent of epidemic encephalitis worldwide, and is primarily maintained between vertebrate reservoir hosts (avian and swine and culicine mosquitoes. There are five genotypes of JEV: GI-V. In recent years, GI has displaced GIII as the dominant JEV genotype and GV has re-emerged after almost 60 years of undetected virus circulation. JEV is found throughout most of Asia, extending from maritime Siberia in the north to Australia in the south, and as far as Pakistan to the west and Saipan to the east. Transmission of JEV in temperate zones is epidemic with the majority of cases occurring in summer months, while transmission in tropical zones is endemic and occurs year-round at lower rates. To test the hypothesis that viruses circulating in these two geographical zones are genetically distinct, we applied Bayesian phylogeographic, categorical data analysis and phylogeny-trait association test techniques to the largest JEV dataset compiled to date, representing the envelope (E gene of 487 isolates collected from 12 countries over 75 years. We demonstrated that GIII and the recently emerged GI-b are temperate genotypes likely maintained year-round in northern latitudes, while GI-a and GII are tropical genotypes likely maintained primarily through mosquito-avian and mosquito-swine transmission cycles. This study represents a new paradigm directly linking viral molecular evolution and climate.

  6. Progress in the Full-Text Publication Rate of Orthopaedic and Sport Physical Therapy Abstracts Presented at the American Physical Therapy Association's Combined Sections Meeting.

    Warden, Stuart J; Fletcher, Jacquelyn M; Barker, Rick G; Guildenbecher, Elizabeth A; Gorkis, Colleen E; Thompson, William R

    2017-10-07

    Study Design Descriptive study. Background Professional meetings, such as the American Physical Therapy Association's (APTA's) Combined Sections Meeting (CSM), provide forums for sharing information. However, it was reported that only one-quarter of orthopaedic and sports physical therapy abstracts presented at the CSM between 2000 and 2004 went on to full-text publication. This low conversion rate raises a number of concerns regarding the full dissemination of work within the profession. Objectives The purpose of this study was to determine the full-text publication rate of work presented in abstract form at subsequent CSMs and investigate factors influencing the rate. Methods A systematic search was undertaken to locate full-text publications of orthopaedic and sports physical therapy abstracts presented at CSMs between 2005 and 2011. Eligible publications were published within 5 years following abstract presentation. The influences of year of abstract presentation, APTA section, presentation type, institution of origin, study design, and study significance were assessed. Results Over one-third (38.6%) of presented abstracts progressed to full-text publication. Odds of full-text publication increased if the abstract was presented as a platform presentation, originated from a doctorate-granting institution, reported findings of an experimental study, or reported a statistically significant finding. Conclusion The full-text publication rate for orthopaedic and sports physical therapy abstracts presented at recent CSMs has increased by over 50% compared to that reported for the preceding period. The rate is now in the range of that reported in comparable clinical disciplines, demonstrating important progress in the full dissemination of work within the profession. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther, Epub 7 Oct 2017. doi:10.2519/jospt.2018.7581.

  7. EXPERIMENTAL AND CLINICAL STUDY OF PHENOTYPIC FEATURES OF S. EPIDERMIDIS STRAINS AND THEIR ROLE IN THE EMERGENCE AND DEVELOPMENT OF IMPLANT-ASSOCIATED INFECTION AFTER ORTHOPAEDIC SURGERY

    S. A. Bozhkova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available S. epidermidis is one of the most common cause of implant-associated infections. Infections due to S. epidermidis rarely develops into life-threatening, however, its prevalence and the difficulties in treating constitute a serious financial burden to the health care system. This study is based on the investigation of phenotypic features (ability to biofilm formation and resistance to antibiotics of S. epidermidis strains isolated from patients with deep surgical site infection after implantation of orthopaedic devices, and on the investigation of the dynamics of clinical and morphological changes during the development of implant-associated infection due to S. epidermidis based on in vivo experimental models. Multidrug-resistance was found in 23% MSSE isolates and 97,3% - MRSE. Vancomycin, linezolid and fosfomycin were the most active in relation to these pathogens. About 40% of the tested isolates were strong biofilm-producing strains. 43,2% of MRSE strains and only 21,4% of MSSE isolates demonstrated strong biofilm production. The proposed experimental model shows that intra-operative infection of implant by multidrug-resistant clinical MRSE strain led to the development of osteomyelitis in rats for 4 weeks after surgery, in spite of the revision operation and installation of antimicrobial cement spacer in the area of bone defect. Thus, S. epidermidis is a clinically significant aetiological factor with high risk of development of infections after major orthopaedic surgery.

  8. Cross-sectional analysis of association between socioeconomic status and utilization of primary total hip joint replacements 2006–7: Australian Orthopaedic Association National Joint Replacement Registry

    Brennan Sharon L

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The utilization of total hip replacement (THR surgery is rapidly increasing, however few data examine whether these procedures are associated with socioeconomic status (SES within Australia. This study examined primary THR across SES for both genders for the Barwon Statistical Division (BSD of Victoria, Australia. Methods Using the Australian Orthopaedic Association National Joint Replacement Registry data for 2006–7, primary THR with a diagnosis of osteoarthritis (OA among residents of the BSD was ascertained. The Index of Relative Socioeconomic Disadvantage was used to measure SES; determined by matching residential addresses with Australian Bureau of Statistics census data. The data were categorised into quintiles; quintile 1 indicating the most disadvantaged. Age- and sex-specific rates of primary THR per 1,000 person years were reported for 10-year age bands using the total population at risk. Results Females accounted for 46.9% of the 642 primary THR performed during 2006–7. THR utilization per 1,000 person years was 1.9 for males and 1.5 for females. The highest utilization of primary THR was observed in those aged 70–79 years (males 6.1, and females 5.4 per 1,000 person years. Overall, the U-shaped pattern of THR across SES gave the appearance of bimodality for both males and females, whereby rates were greater for both the most disadvantaged and least disadvantaged groups. Conclusions Further work on a larger scale is required to determine whether relationships between SES and THR utilization for the diagnosis of OA is attributable to lifestyle factors related to SES, or alternatively reflects geographic and health system biases. Identifying contributing factors associated with SES may enhance resource planning and enable more effective and focussed preventive strategies for hip OA.

  9. Cross-sectional analysis of association between socioeconomic status and utilization of primary total hip joint replacements 2006-7: Australian Orthopaedic Association National Joint Replacement Registry.

    Brennan, Sharon L; Stanford, Tyman; Wluka, Anita E; Henry, Margaret J; Page, Richard S; Graves, Stephen E; Kotowicz, Mark A; Nicholson, Geoffrey C; Pasco, Julie A

    2012-04-30

    The utilization of total hip replacement (THR) surgery is rapidly increasing, however few data examine whether these procedures are associated with socioeconomic status (SES) within Australia. This study examined primary THR across SES for both genders for the Barwon Statistical Division (BSD) of Victoria, Australia. Using the Australian Orthopaedic Association National Joint Replacement Registry data for 2006-7, primary THR with a diagnosis of osteoarthritis (OA) among residents of the BSD was ascertained. The Index of Relative Socioeconomic Disadvantage was used to measure SES; determined by matching residential addresses with Australian Bureau of Statistics census data. The data were categorised into quintiles; quintile 1 indicating the most disadvantaged. Age- and sex-specific rates of primary THR per 1,000 person years were reported for 10-year age bands using the total population at risk. Females accounted for 46.9% of the 642 primary THR performed during 2006-7. THR utilization per 1,000 person years was 1.9 for males and 1.5 for females. The highest utilization of primary THR was observed in those aged 70-79 years (males 6.1, and females 5.4 per 1,000 person years). Overall, the U-shaped pattern of THR across SES gave the appearance of bimodality for both males and females, whereby rates were greater for both the most disadvantaged and least disadvantaged groups. Further work on a larger scale is required to determine whether relationships between SES and THR utilization for the diagnosis of OA is attributable to lifestyle factors related to SES, or alternatively reflects geographic and health system biases. Identifying contributing factors associated with SES may enhance resource planning and enable more effective and focussed preventive strategies for hip OA.

  10. Orthopaedic training in Kenya

    Background: Orthopaedic training in Kenya, like in other East, central and .... quite a number of good facilities that would train an ... provide a forum for exchange of ideas and training. (2,3) ... administrators purely interested in service provision,.

  11. The association between semantic dementia and surface dyslexia in Japanese.

    Fushimi, Takao; Komori, Kenjiro; Ikeda, Manabu; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A; Patterson, Karalyn

    2009-03-01

    One theory about reading suggests that producing the correct pronunciations of written words, particularly less familiar words with an atypical spelling-sound relationship, relies in part on knowledge of the word's meaning. This hypothesis has been supported by reports of surface dyslexia in large case-series studies of English-speaking/reading patients with semantic dementia (SD), but would have increased credibility if it applied to other languages and writing systems as well. The hypothesis predicts that, of the two systems used to write Japanese, SD patients should be unimpaired at oral reading of kana because of its invariant relationship between orthography and phonology. By contrast, oral reading of kanji should be impaired in a graded fashion depending on the consistency characteristics of the kanji target words, with worst performance on words whose component characters take 'minority' (atypical) pronunciations, especially if the words are of lower frequency. Errors in kanji reading should primarily reflect assignment of more typical readings to the component characters in these atypical words. In the largest-ever-reported case series of Japanese patients with semantic dementia, we tested and confirmed this hypothesis.

  12. The (CTGn polymorphism in the NOTCH4 gene is not associated with schizophrenia in Japanese individuals

    Okubo Takehito

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The human NOTCH4 gene is a candidate gene for schizophrenia due to its chromosomal location and neurobiological roles. In a British linkage study, NOTCH4 gene polymorphisms were highly associated with schizophrenia. In a Japanese case-control association study, however, these polymorphisms did not show significant associations with schizophrenia. We conducted a case-control study with Japanese subjects to explore an association between the triplet repeat polymorphism in the NOTCH4 gene and schizophrenia, including subtypes of schizophrenia, longitudinal disease course characteristics, and a positive family history for psychoses. Methods We examined the (CTGn repeat polymorphism in the NOTCH4 gene among 100 healthy Japanese individuals and 102 patients with schizophrenia (22 paranoid, 38 disorganized, 29 residual, 64 episodic, 31 continuous, 42 with prominent negative symptoms, and 46 with positive family histories using a polymerase chain reaction-based, single-strand conformational polymorphism analysis. Results Five different alleles consisting of 6, 9, 10, 11, and 13 repeats of CTG (Leu in patients with schizophrenia, and 4 alleles consisting of 6, 9, 10, and 11 repeats in controls were found. No significant differences in genotype or allele frequencies of repeat numbers were found between controls and patients. In addition, there were no associations between the polymorphism and schizophrenia subtypes, longitudinal disease course characteristics, or positive family history of the patients. Conclusions Our data suggest a lack of association between the NOTCH4 gene triplet repeat polymorphism and schizophrenia in Japanese individuals.

  13. American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons

    ... Research Research Tools Research Roadmap Facts and Figures Unified Orthopaedic Research Agenda Sex and Gender in Research ... Career Center Clinician Scholar Career Development Clinician-Patient Communication Leadership Fellows Program Medical Student Resources Postgraduate Orthopaedic ...

  14. Orthopaedic Footwear Design

    1992-01-01

    Although the need for orthopaedic shoes is increasing, the number of skilled shoemakers has declined. This has led to the development of a CAD/CAM system to design and fabricate, orthopaedic footwear. The NASA-developed RIM database management system is the central repository for CUSTOMLAST's information storage. Several other modules also comprise the system. The project was initiated by Langley Research Center and Research Triangle Institute in cooperation with the Veterans Administration and the National Institute for Disability and Rehabilitation Research. Later development was done by North Carolina State University and the University of Missouri-Columbia. The software is licensed by both universities.

  15. Health benefits associated with exercise habituation in older Japanese men.

    Tanaka, Kiyoji; Sakai, Tomoaki; Nakamura, Yoichi; Umeda, Noriko; Lee, Dong-Jun; Nakata, Yoshio; Hayashi, Yoichi; Akutsu, Tomomi; Okura, Tomohiro; Yamabuki, Keisuke

    2004-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of exercise habituation (3-32 years, mean 13.2 years) on physical vitality among five different groups. One hundred and two independent, community-dwelling elderly Japanese men, aged 64.6 +/- 6.6 years, were recruited as subjects. The vital age test battery consisted of various coronary heart disease risk factors and physical fitness elements. The results of analysis of variance revealed that vital age as an index of physical vitality was youngest in joggers (47.9 yr, N=18), intermediate in trekkers (55.8 yr, N=20) and walkers (59.1 yr, N=18), and oldest (69.6 yr, N=20) in patients with ischemic heart disease (IHD). The difference between chronological age and vital age was approximately 15 years (pexercising IHD patients. These results indicate that exercise habituation significantly affects the overall health status of most individuals, irrespective of mode of exercise. Among the three modes of exercise, jogging may be most beneficial. Furthermore, regularly exercising coronary patients may have physical vitality similar to that of sedentary men.

  16. Helicobacter pylori dupA gene is not associated with clinical outcomes in the Japanese population.

    Nguyen, L T; Uchida, T; Tsukamoto, Y; Kuroda, A; Okimoto, T; Kodama, M; Murakami, K; Fujioka, T; Moriyama, M

    2010-08-01

    The dupA gene of Helicobacter pylori was suggested to be a risk factor for duodenal ulcer but protective against gastric cancer. The present study aimed to re-examine the role of dupA in H. pylori-infected Japanese patients. We found that dupA status was not associated with any gastroduodenal disease, histological score of chronic gastritis or with the extent of interleukin-8 production from gastric cell lines. These results indicate that dupA is unlikely to be a virulence factor of H. pylori in the Japanese population.

  17. Association of TNFAIP3 Polymorphism with Susceptibility to Systemic Lupus Erythematosus in a Japanese Population

    Aya Kawasaki

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent genome-wide association studies demonstrated association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in the TNFAIP3 region at 6q23 with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE in European-American populations. In this study, we investigated whether SNPs in the TNFAIP3 region are associated with SLE also in a Japanese population. A case-control association study was performed on the SNPs rs13192841, rs2230926, and rs6922466 in 318 Japanese SLE patients and 444 healthy controls. Association of rs2230926 G allele with SLE was replicated in Japanese (allelic association P=.033, odds ratio [OR] 1.47, recessive model P=.023, OR 8.52. The association was preferentially observed in the SLE patients with nephritis. When the TNFAIP3 mRNA levels of the HapMap samples were examined using GENEVAR database, the presence of TNFAIP3 rs2230926 G allele was associated with lower mRNA expression of TNFAIP3 (P=.013. These results indicated that TNFAIP3 is a susceptibility gene to SLE both in the Caucasian and Asian populations.

  18. Association of unipedal standing time and bone mineral density in community-dwelling Japanese women.

    Sakai, A; Toba, N; Takeda, M; Suzuki, M; Abe, Y; Aoyagi, K; Nakamura, T

    2009-05-01

    Bone mineral density (BMD) and physical performance of the lower extremities decrease with age. In community-dwelling Japanese women, unipedal standing time, timed up and go test, and age are associated with BMD while in women aged 70 years and over, unipedal standing time is associated with BMD. The aim of this study was to clarify whether unipedal standing time is significantly associated with BMD in community-dwelling women. The subjects were 90 community-dwelling Japanese women aged 54.7 years. BMD of the second metacarpal bone was measured by computed X-ray densitometry. We measured unipedal standing time as well as timed up and go test to assess physical performance of the lower extremities. Unipedal standing time decreased with increased age. Timed up and go test significantly correlated with age. Low BMD was significantly associated with old age, short unipedal standing time, and long timed up and go test. Stepwise regression analysis revealed that age, unipedal standing time, and timed up and go test were significant factors associated with BMD. In 21 participants aged 70 years and over, body weight and unipedal standing time, but not age, were significantly associated with BMD. BMD and physical performance of the lower extremities decrease with older age. Unipedal standing time, timed up and go test, and age are associated with BMD in community-dwelling Japanese women. In women aged 70 years and over, unipedal standing time is significantly associated with BMD.

  19. [Orthopaedics' megalomania - myth or mobbing?

    Gundtoft, Per Hviid; Brand, Eske; Klit, Jakob; Weisskirchner, Kristoffer Barfod

    2016-12-12

    It is a general impression in the world of medicine that orthopaedic surgeons differ from doctors of other specialities in terms of intellect and self-confidence. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the self-confidence of orthopaedics. We asked doctors from 30 different specialities to fill out a questionnaire. In addition to this, the participating orthopaedics were asked to rate their self-perceived surgical skills. In all, 120 orthopaedics and 416 non-orthopaedic doctors completed the questionnaire. There was no difference in GSE scores between orthopaedics and other doctors (p = 0.58). 98% of young orthopaedics estimated that their surgical talent was average or above average when compared with their colleagues on the same level of education. 72% believed that they were "equally talented", "more talented", or "far more talented" than their colleagues on a higher level of education. 76% believed that when assisting a senior surgeon the patients would "sometimes" (60%), "often" (14%) or "always" (2%) be better off if they were the ones performing the operation. More orthopaedics than non-orthopaedics believed that their speciality was regarded as one of the least important specialities in the world of medicine (p = 0.001). Orthopaedic surgeons in general are not more self-confident than other doctors or the average population, but young orthopaedic surgeons have a very high level of confidence in their own operation skills. none. none.

  20. Biases and regularities of grapheme-colour associations in Japanese nonsynaesthetic population.

    Nagai, Jun-ichi; Yokosawa, Kazuhiko; Asano, Michiko

    2016-01-01

    Associations between graphemes and colours in a nonsynaesthetic Japanese population were investigated. Participants chose the most suitable colour from 11 basic colour terms for each of 40 graphemes from the four categories of graphemes used in the Japanese language (kana characters, English alphabet letters, and Arabic and kanji numerals). This test was repeated after a three-week interval. In their responses, which were not as temporally consistent as those of grapheme-colour synaesthetes, participants showed biases and regularities that were comparable to those of synaesthetes reported in past studies. Although it has been believed that only synaesthetes, and not nonsynaesthetes, tended to associate graphemes with colours based on grapheme frequency, Berlin and Kay's colour typology, and colour word frequency, participants in this study tended in part to associate graphemes with colours based on the above factors. Moreover, participants that were nonsynaesthetes tended to associate different graphemes that shared sounds and/or meanings (e.g., Arabic and kanji numerals representing the same number) with the same colours, which was analogous to the findings in Japanese synaesthetes. These results support the view that grapheme-colour synaesthesia might have its origins in cross-modal association processes that are shared with the general population.

  1. Associations of urinary cadmium with circulating sex hormone levels in pre- and postmenopausal Japanese women

    Nagata, Chisato; Konishi, Kie; Goto, Yuko; Tamura, Takashi; Wada, Keiko; Hayashi, Makoto; Takeda, Noriyuki; Yasuda, Keigo

    2016-01-01

    Background: Exposure to cadmium has been suspected as a risk factor for breast cancer. The present study examined the associations between urinary cadmium levels and circulating sex hormone levels that are linked to breast cancer risk in healthy women. Methods: The study subjects were 396 premenopausal Japanese women who had regular menstrual cycles less than 40 days long and 207 postmenopausal Japanese women. Urinary cadmium was measured using spot urine samples. Plasma estradiol, testosterone, and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate were measured. Additionally, the follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, and sex hormone-binding globulin were measured for premenopausal women. Results: In premenopausal women, the urinary cadmium level either expressed in μg per liter or per g of urine creatinine was significantly inversely associated with total and free testosterone levels after controlling for age, body mass index, smoking status, alcohol intake, and the phase of the menstrual cycle. Total and free testosterone levels were 14.6% and 15.0% lower, respectively, in women in the highest quartile of urinary cadmium per g creatinine in those in the lowest quartile. In postmenopausal women, the urinary cadmium in μg per liter as well as per g creatinine was significantly inversely associated with the estradiol level after controlling for covariates. The estradiol level was 25.8% lower in women in the highest tertile of urinary cadmium per g creatinine than in those in the lowest tertile. Conclusions: The data suggest inverse associations between urinary cadmium and the plasma estradiol or testosterone level in Japanese women. - Highlights: • Exposure to cadmium has been suspected as a risk factor for breast cancer. • Urinary cadmium and plasma sex-hormone levels were measured in Japanese women. • Urinary cadmium was inversely associated with testosterone in premenopausal women. • Urinary cadmium was inversely associated with estradiol in postmenopausal

  2. Associations of urinary cadmium with circulating sex hormone levels in pre- and postmenopausal Japanese women

    Nagata, Chisato, E-mail: chisato@gifu-u.ac.jp [Department of Epidemiology & Preventive Medicine, Gifu University Graduate School of Medicine, Gifu (Japan); Konishi, Kie; Goto, Yuko; Tamura, Takashi; Wada, Keiko [Department of Epidemiology & Preventive Medicine, Gifu University Graduate School of Medicine, Gifu (Japan); Hayashi, Makoto [Department of Internal Medicine, Matsunami General Hospital, Gifu (Japan); Takeda, Noriyuki [Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Murakami Memorial Hospital, Asahi University, Gifu (Japan); Yasuda, Keigo [Department of Internal Medicine, Matsunami General Hospital, Gifu (Japan)

    2016-10-15

    Background: Exposure to cadmium has been suspected as a risk factor for breast cancer. The present study examined the associations between urinary cadmium levels and circulating sex hormone levels that are linked to breast cancer risk in healthy women. Methods: The study subjects were 396 premenopausal Japanese women who had regular menstrual cycles less than 40 days long and 207 postmenopausal Japanese women. Urinary cadmium was measured using spot urine samples. Plasma estradiol, testosterone, and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate were measured. Additionally, the follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, and sex hormone-binding globulin were measured for premenopausal women. Results: In premenopausal women, the urinary cadmium level either expressed in μg per liter or per g of urine creatinine was significantly inversely associated with total and free testosterone levels after controlling for age, body mass index, smoking status, alcohol intake, and the phase of the menstrual cycle. Total and free testosterone levels were 14.6% and 15.0% lower, respectively, in women in the highest quartile of urinary cadmium per g creatinine in those in the lowest quartile. In postmenopausal women, the urinary cadmium in μg per liter as well as per g creatinine was significantly inversely associated with the estradiol level after controlling for covariates. The estradiol level was 25.8% lower in women in the highest tertile of urinary cadmium per g creatinine than in those in the lowest tertile. Conclusions: The data suggest inverse associations between urinary cadmium and the plasma estradiol or testosterone level in Japanese women. - Highlights: • Exposure to cadmium has been suspected as a risk factor for breast cancer. • Urinary cadmium and plasma sex-hormone levels were measured in Japanese women. • Urinary cadmium was inversely associated with testosterone in premenopausal women. • Urinary cadmium was inversely associated with estradiol in postmenopausal

  3. HLA class II association with Type I allergy to house dust mite and Japanese cedar pollen in Japanese subjects

    Yasuaki Sadanaga

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the incidence of the association of HLA class II phenotype and specific IgE responsiveness against house dust mite (HDM and/or Japanese cedar pollen (Jc in 176 patients with allergic rhinitis, with or without bronchial asthma, and 107 nonallergic subjects. Specific IgE antibody titration against the purified allergens Der f1 and Der f2 from HDM, and against Cry J1 and Cry J2 from Jc, was performed by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA and radioimmunoassay (RIA in sera from all subjects. HLA class II oligotyping was performed by the polymerase chain reaction sequence specific oligonucleotide (PCR-SSO method on the DRB1*, DQA1*, DQB1* and DPB1* alleles using peripheral blood cells. The high IgE responders ≥ class 4 to the purified allergens were identified by using the IgE antibody reference concentration obtained by ELISA, RIA and routine IgE CAP RAST. Compared to the controls, the patients with both rhinitis and asthma showed significantly higher frequencies of DRB1* 0901, DQB1* 0303, and DPB1* 0401 alleles. High IgE responsiveness to HDM was associated with DRB1* 1101, 0901, DQB1* 0303, and DPB1*0401 alleles. The patients with anti-Der f1 IgE antibody concentration exceeding 72.2 ng/mL showed significantly elevated frequencies for DQB1*0401 and DPB1*0401 alleles, and those with anti Der f2 IgE antibody concentration exceeding 46.2 ng/mL showed significantly elevated frequencies for DPB1*0401 and 0901 alleles. High IgE responsiveness to Jc with Cry j1 and Cryj2was associated with the DRB1* 1201 alleles.

  4. Biomaterials in orthopaedics

    Navarro, M; Michiardi, A; Castaño, O; Planell, J.A

    2008-01-01

    At present, strong requirements in orthopaedics are still to be met, both in bone and joint substitution and in the repair and regeneration of bone defects. In this framework, tremendous advances in the biomaterials field have been made in the last 50 years where materials intended for biomedical purposes have evolved through three different generations, namely first generation (bioinert materials), second generation (bioactive and biodegradable materials) and third generation (materials designed to stimulate specific responses at the molecular level). In this review, the evolution of different metals, ceramics and polymers most commonly used in orthopaedic applications is discussed, as well as the different approaches used to fulfil the challenges faced by this medical field. PMID:18667387

  5. Smartphones in orthopaedics.

    Al-Hadithy, Nawfal; Gikas, Panagiotis D; Al-Nammari, Shafic Said

    2012-08-01

    With the introduction of the European Working Time Directive, surgical trainees are facing limited training opportunities and doctors are required to maximise their training opportunities. Smartphone sales have been rapidly increasing over the last five years and can be used as a training tool for the orthopaedic trainee and surgeon. Common uses include applications (AO, eLogbook and PubMed), Ebooks, online Logbooks, Guidelines and surgical techniques. In addition, smartphones can be used to immediately complete work-based assessments, in the absence of computers, hopefully increasing completion rates and reliability. Some journals now provide podcasts and video tutorials which may be accessed on smartphones, which is useful for higher examinations. Smartphones can also be used in the clinical setting to take photographs of wounds. Smartphones are enjoying increased uptake and application in the workplace and we review their use for orthopaedic surgeons and trainees to allow them to make the most out of their training opportunities.

  6. Do Orthopaedic Surgeons Acknowledge Uncertainty?

    Teunis, Teun; Janssen, Stein; Guitton, Thierry G; Ring, David; Parisien, Robert

    2016-06-01

    Much of the decision-making in orthopaedics rests on uncertain evidence. Uncertainty is therefore part of our normal daily practice, and yet physician uncertainty regarding treatment could diminish patients' health. It is not known if physician uncertainty is a function of the evidence alone or if other factors are involved. With added experience, uncertainty could be expected to diminish, but perhaps more influential are things like physician confidence, belief in the veracity of what is published, and even one's religious beliefs. In addition, it is plausible that the kind of practice a physician works in can affect the experience of uncertainty. Practicing physicians may not be immediately aware of these effects on how uncertainty is experienced in their clinical decision-making. We asked: (1) Does uncertainty and overconfidence bias decrease with years of practice? (2) What sociodemographic factors are independently associated with less recognition of uncertainty, in particular belief in God or other deity or deities, and how is atheism associated with recognition of uncertainty? (3) Do confidence bias (confidence that one's skill is greater than it actually is), degree of trust in the orthopaedic evidence, and degree of statistical sophistication correlate independently with recognition of uncertainty? We created a survey to establish an overall recognition of uncertainty score (four questions), trust in the orthopaedic evidence base (four questions), confidence bias (three questions), and statistical understanding (six questions). Seven hundred six members of the Science of Variation Group, a collaboration that aims to study variation in the definition and treatment of human illness, were approached to complete our survey. This group represents mainly orthopaedic surgeons specializing in trauma or hand and wrist surgery, practicing in Europe and North America, of whom the majority is involved in teaching. Approximately half of the group has more than 10 years

  7. Smartphones in orthopaedics

    Al-Hadithy, Nawfal; Gikas, Panagiotis D; Al-Nammari, Shafic Said

    2012-01-01

    With the introduction of the European Working Time Directive, surgical trainees are facing limited training opportunities and doctors are required to maximise their training opportunities. Smartphone sales have been rapidly increasing over the last five years and can be used as a training tool for the orthopaedic trainee and surgeon. Common uses include applications (AO, eLogbook and PubMed), Ebooks, online Logbooks, Guidelines and surgical techniques. In addition, smartphones can be used to ...

  8. Nationwide surveillance of bacterial respiratory pathogens conducted by the surveillance committee of Japanese Society of Chemotherapy, the Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases, and the Japanese Society for Clinical Microbiology in 2012: General view of the pathogens' antibacterial susceptibility.

    Yanagihara, Katsunori; Watanabe, Akira; Aoki, Nobuki; Matsumoto, Tetsuya; Yoshida, Masaki; Sato, Junko; Wakamura, Tomotaro; Sunakawa, Keisuke; Kadota, Junichi; Kiyota, Hiroshi; Iwata, Satoshi; Kaku, Mitsuo; Hanaki, Hideaki; Ohsaki, Yoshinobu; Fujiuchi, Satoru; Takahashi, Manabu; Takeuchi, Kenichi; Takeda, Hiroaki; Ikeda, Hideki; Miki, Makoto; Nakanowatari, Susumu; Takahashi, Hiroshi; Utagawa, Mutsuko; Nishiya, Hajime; Kawakami, Sayoko; Morino, Eriko; Takasaki, Jin; Mezaki, Kazuhisa; Chonabayashi, Naohiko; Tanaka, Chie; Sugiura, Hideko; Goto, Hajime; Saraya, Takeshi; Kurai, Daisuke; Katono, Yasuhiro; Inose, Rika; Niki, Yoshihito; Takuma, Takahiro; Kudo, Makoto; Ehara, Shigeru; Sato, Yoshimi; Tsukada, Hiroki; Watabe, Nobuei; Honma, Yasuo; Mikamo, Hiroshige; Yamagishi, Yuka; Nakamura, Atsushi; Ohashi, Minoru; Seki, Masafumi; Hamaguchi, Shigeto; Toyokawa, Masahiro; Fujikawa, Yasunori; Mitsuno, Noriko; Ukimura, Akira; Miyara, Takayuki; Nakamura, Takahito; Mikasa, Keiichi; Kasahara, Kei; Ui, Koji; Fukuda, Saori; Nakamura, Akihiro; Morimura, Mika; Yamashita, Mikio; Takesue, Yoshio; Wada, Yasunao; Sugimoto, Keisuke; Kusano, Nobuchika; Nose, Motoko; Mihara, Eiichirou; Kuwabara, Masao; Doi, Masao; Watanabe, Yaeko; Tokuyasu, Hirokazu; Hino, Satoshi; Negayama, Kiyoshi; Mukae, Hiroshi; Kawanami, Toshinori; Ota, Toshiyuki; Fujita, Masaki; Honda, Junichi; Hiramatsu, Kazufumi; Aoki, Yosuke; Fukuoka, Mami; Magarifuchi, Hiroki; Nagasawa, Zenzo; Kaku, Norihito; Fujita, Jiro; Higa, Futoshi; Tateyama, Masao

    2017-09-01

    The nationwide surveillance on antimicrobial susceptibility of bacterial respiratory pathogens from the patients in Japan was conducted by Japanese Society of Chemotherapy, Japanese association for infectious diseases and Japanese society for Clinical Microbiology in 2012. The isolates were collected from clinical specimens obtained from well-diagnosed adult patients with respiratory tract infections during the period between January and December in 2012 by three societies. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was conducted at the central reference laboratory according to the method recommended by Clinical Laboratory Standard Institutes. Susceptibility testing was evaluated in 1236 strains (232 Staphylococcus aureus, 225 Streptococcus pneumoniae, 16 Streptococcus pyogenes, 231 Haemophilus influenzae, 147 Moraxella catarrhalis, 167 Klebsiella pneumoniae and 218 Pseudomonas aeruginosa). Ratio of methicillin-resistant S. aureus was 51.3%, and those of penicillin-intermediate S. pneumoniae was 0.4%. Among H. influenzae, 5.6% of them were found to be β-lactamase-producing ampicillin-resistant strains, and 37.2% to be β-lactamase-non-producing ampicillin-resistant strains. Extended spectrum β-lactamase-producing K. pneumoniae and multi-drug resistant P. aeruginosa with metallo β-lactamase were 4.2% and 3.2%, respectively. Continuous national surveillance is important to determine the actual situation of the resistance shown by bacterial respiratory pathogens to antimicrobial agents. Copyright © 2017 Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and The Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Bouba/Kiki in Touch: Associations Between Tactile Perceptual Qualities and Japanese Phonemes

    Maki Sakamoto

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have shown cross-modal associations between sounds and vision or gustation by asking participants to match pre-defined sound-symbolic words (SSWs, such as “bouba” or “kiki,” with visual or gustatory materials. Here, we conducted an explorative study on cross-modal associations of tactile sensations using spontaneous production of Japanese SSWs and semantic ratings. The Japanese language was selected, because it has a large number of SSWs that can represent a wide range of tactile perceptual spaces with fine resolution, and it shows strong associations between sound and touch. In the experiment, we used 120 everyday materials to cover basic material categories that could be associated with fundamental dimensions of tactile perception. Upon contact with these materials, participants expressed their tactile sensations by using Japanese SSWs, and at the same time, evaluated the tactile sensations by semantic differential scales using adjective pairs. Thanks to the variety of testing materials, we were able to demonstrate the existence of systematic associations between sounds and tactile fundamental perceptual dimensions in a more detailed and comprehensive way than ever done so before. In particular, we found that for vowels, positive tactile ratings were associated with the back vowel (/u/, while negative ratings were associated with the front vowels (/i/ and /e/. The central vowels (/o/ and /a/ were mainly associated with rough, hard, and dry feelings. Consonants were categorized based on vocal features and articulation. The category of the voiced consonants (e.g., /dz/ and /g/ corresponded to feelings of roughness, while that of voiceless consonants (e.g., /ʦ/, and /s/ corresponded to feelings of smoothness. The categories of the bilabial plosive (/p/ and /b/ and voiced alveolar nasal (/n/ consonants were mainly related to soft, sticky and wet feelings, while that of voiceless alveolar affricate (/ʦ/ and voiceless velar

  10. Associations between rice, noodle, and bread intake and sleep quality in Japanese men and women.

    Yoneyama, Satoko; Sakurai, Masaru; Nakamura, Koshi; Morikawa, Yuko; Miura, Katsuyuki; Nakashima, Motoko; Yoshita, Katsushi; Ishizaki, Masao; Kido, Teruhiko; Naruse, Yuchi; Nogawa, Kazuhiro; Suwazono, Yasushi; Sasaki, Satoshi; Nakagawa, Hideaki

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that a diet with a high-glycemic index is associated with good sleep quality. Therefore, we investigated the association of sleep quality with the intake of 3 common starchy foods with different glycemic indexes-rice, bread, and noodles-as well as the dietary glycemic index in a Japanese population. The participants were 1,848 men and women between 20 and 60 years of age. Rice, bread, and noodle consumption was evaluated using a self-administered diet history questionnaire. Sleep quality was evaluated by using the Japanese version of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and a global score >5.5 was considered to indicate poor sleep. Multivariate-adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) for poor sleep across the quintiles of rice consumption were 1.00 (reference), 0.68 (0.49-0.93), 0.61 (0.43-0.85), 0.59 (0.42-0.85), and 0.54 (0.37-0.81) (p for trend = 0.015); those for the quintiles of noodle consumption were 1.00 (reference), 1.25 (0.90-1.74), 1.05 (0.75-1.47), 1.31 (0.94-1.82), and 1.82 (1.31-2.51) (p for trend = 0.002). Bread intake was not associated with sleep quality. A higher dietary glycemic index was significantly associated with a lower risk of poor sleep (p for trend = 0.020). A high dietary glycemic index and high rice consumption are significantly associated with good sleep in Japanese men and women, whereas bread intake is not associated with sleep quality and noodle consumption is associated with poor sleep. The different associations of these starchy foods with sleep quality might be attributable to the different glycemic index of each food.

  11. Readability of arthroscopy-related patient education materials from the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons and Arthroscopy Association of North America Web sites.

    Yi, Paul H; Ganta, Abhishek; Hussein, Khalil I; Frank, Rachel M; Jawa, Andrew

    2013-06-01

    We sought to assess the readability levels of arthroscopy-related patient education materials available on the Web sites of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons (AAOS) and the Arthroscopy Association of North America (AANA). We identified all articles related to arthroscopy available in 2012 from the online patient education libraries of AAOS and AANA. After performing follow-up editing, we assessed each article with the Flesch-Kincaid (FK) readability test. Mean readability levels of the articles from the AAOS Web site and the AANA Web site were compared. We also determined the number of articles with readability levels at or below the eighth-grade level (the average reading ability of the US adult population) and sixth-grade level (the widely recommended level for patient education materials). Intraobserver reliability and interobserver reliability of FK grade assessment were evaluated. A total of 62 articles were reviewed (43 from AAOS and 19 from AANA). The mean overall FK grade level was 10.2 (range, 5.2 to 12). The AAOS articles had a mean FK grade level of 9.6 (range, 5.2 to 12), whereas the AANA articles had a mean FK grade level of 11.4 (range, 8.7 to 12); the difference was significant (P Online patient education materials related to arthroscopy from AAOS and AANA may be written at a level too difficult for a large portion of the patient population to comprehend. Copyright © 2013 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Distribution of autistic traits and their association with sociodemographic characteristics in Japanese workers.

    Suzuki, Tomoko; Miyaki, Koichi; Eguchi, Hisashi; Tsutsumi, Akizumi

    2017-09-01

    This study aimed to confirm whether autistic traits are normally distributed across a population and to describe their association with the sociodemographic characteristics of Japanese workers. The participants were 2075 workers aged 23-65 years from various parts of Japan. Autistic traits were measured using an abridged Japanese version of the Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ-Short). The AQ-Short comprises five subcomponents assessing a fascination for numbers and patterns (numbers/patterns), difficulties with imagination, a preference for routine, difficulties with social skills, and difficulties with switching attention. The five subcomponents of the autistic phenotype as well as the overall autistic phenotype itself were continuously distributed across the sample population of Japanese workers. Men had significantly higher AQ-Short scores than women. AQ-Short scores were not associated with age. Except for the numbers/patterns scores, workers of a lower socioeconomic status had significantly higher AQ-Short scores than their respective counterparts. For the numbers/patterns trait, workers of a higher socioeconomic status scored higher. Workers with low general physical activity had or tended to have higher scores for total and all subcomponent traits, except for the numbers/patterns trait. Generally, the autistic phenotype was more prevalent in workers of a low socioeconomic status, while a particular trait was prevalent among workers of a high socioeconomic status.

  13. Interleukin 1 beta promoter polymorphism is associated with keratoconus in a Japanese population.

    Mikami, Takenori; Meguro, Akira; Teshigawara, Takeshi; Takeuchi, Masaki; Uemoto, Riyo; Kawagoe, Tatsukata; Nomura, Eiichi; Asukata, Yuri; Ishioka, Misaki; Iwasaki, Miki; Fukagawa, Kazumi; Konomi, Kenji; Shimazaki, Jun; Nishida, Teruo; Mizuki, Nobuhisa

    2013-01-01

    Polymorphisms in the interleukin 1 alpha (IL1A) and IL1B gene regions were previously associated with keratoconus in a Korean population. In the present study, we investigated whether the IL1A and IL1B polymorphisms are associated with keratoconus in a Japanese population. A total of 169 Japanese patients with keratoconus and 390 Japanese healthy controls were recruited. We genotyped one IL1A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP; rs2071376) and two IL1B SNPs (rs1143627 and rs16944) to compare the frequencies of alleles, genotypes, and haplotypes between cases and controls. Statistically significant association was observed for rs1143627 (-31 T>C) in the IL1B promoter region; the T allele of rs1143627 was associated with an increased risk of keratoconus (p=0.014, corrected p value [pc]=0.043, odds ratio=1.38). The C allele of rs16944 (-511 C>T) in the IL1B promoter region had a 1.33-fold increased risk of keratoconus, although this increase did not reach statistical significance (p=0.033, pc=0.098). The TT genotype of rs1143627 was weakly associated with an increased risk of keratoconus (p=0.033, pc=0.099, odds ratio=1.52). However, no significant differences were found in the allele and genotype frequencies between the cases and controls for rs2071376 in IL1A. Regarding haplotypic diversity, the haplotype created by the T allele of rs1143627 and C allele of rs16944 was associated with a 1.72-fold increased risk of keratoconus (p=4.0×10(-5), pc=1.6×10(-4)). Our results replicate associations reported recently in a Korean population. Thus, IL1B may play an important role in the development of keratoconus through genetic polymorphisms.

  14. Novel genetic markers associate with atrial fibrillation risk in Europeans and Japanese.

    Lubitz, Steven A; Lunetta, Kathryn L; Lin, Honghuang; Arking, Dan E; Trompet, Stella; Li, Guo; Krijthe, Bouwe P; Chasman, Daniel I; Barnard, John; Kleber, Marcus E; Dörr, Marcus; Ozaki, Kouichi; Smith, Albert V; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Walter, Stefan; Agarwal, Sunil K; Bis, Joshua C; Brody, Jennifer A; Chen, Lin Y; Everett, Brendan M; Ford, Ian; Franco, Oscar H; Harris, Tamara B; Hofman, Albert; Kääb, Stefan; Mahida, Saagar; Kathiresan, Sekar; Kubo, Michiaki; Launer, Lenore J; MacFarlane, Peter W; Magnani, Jared W; McKnight, Barbara; McManus, David D; Peters, Annette; Psaty, Bruce M; Rose, Lynda M; Rotter, Jerome I; Silbernagel, Guenther; Smith, Jonathan D; Sotoodehnia, Nona; Stott, David J; Taylor, Kent D; Tomaschitz, Andreas; Tsunoda, Tatsuhiko; Uitterlinden, Andre G; Van Wagoner, David R; Völker, Uwe; Völzke, Henry; Murabito, Joanne M; Sinner, Moritz F; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Felix, Stephan B; März, Winfried; Chung, Mina; Albert, Christine M; Stricker, Bruno H; Tanaka, Toshihiro; Heckbert, Susan R; Jukema, J Wouter; Alonso, Alvaro; Benjamin, Emelia J; Ellinor, Patrick T

    2014-04-01

    This study sought to identify nonredundant atrial fibrillation (AF) genetic susceptibility signals and examine their cumulative relations with AF risk. AF-associated loci span broad genomic regions that may contain multiple susceptibility signals. Whether multiple signals exist at AF loci has not been systematically explored. We performed association testing conditioned on the most significant, independently associated genetic markers at 9 established AF loci using 2 complementary techniques in 64,683 individuals of European ancestry (3,869 incident and 3,302 prevalent AF cases). Genetic risk scores were created and tested for association with AF in Europeans and an independent sample of 11,309 individuals of Japanese ancestry (7,916 prevalent AF cases). We observed at least 4 distinct AF susceptibility signals on chromosome 4q25 upstream of PITX2, but not at the remaining 8 AF loci. A multilocus score comprised 12 genetic markers demonstrated an estimated 5-fold gradient in AF risk. We observed a similar spectrum of risk associated with these markers in Japanese. Regions containing AF signals on chromosome 4q25 displayed a greater degree of evolutionary conservation than the remainder of the locus, suggesting that they may tag regulatory elements. The chromosome 4q25 AF locus is architecturally complex and harbors at least 4 AF susceptibility signals in individuals of European ancestry. Similar polygenic AF susceptibility exists between Europeans and Japanese. Future work is necessary to identify causal variants, determine mechanisms by which associated loci predispose to AF, and explore whether AF susceptibility signals classify individuals at risk for AF and related morbidity. Copyright © 2014 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. [Orthopaedic day surgery in Emilia-Romagna].

    Rolli, M; Rodler, M; Petropulacos, K; Baldi, R

    2001-09-01

    It is well known that the organizational model of day surgery, concerning surgical problems defined by the literature as minor, has the aim of optimising the use of hospital resources and facilitating patients and their families, from a psychological and social point of view, by reducing hospitalisation time and the associated complications, and ensuring the same efficacy and more appropriateness of treatment. This study is firstly aimed at analysing the impact that the healthcare policy of the Emilia Romagna Region has had on the development of day surgery practice. Secondly, it compares the patients treated in orthopaedic day surgery in the hospitals of Bologna, Modena, Ferrara, Parma, Reggio Emilia, Maggiore hospital of Bologna and Rizzoli Orthopaedic Institute of Bologna (II.OO.R). In the period 1997-2000 there was a marked increase in the number of operations carried out in day surgery in all of the above-mentioned hospitals. Also in the unispecialistic orthopaedic hospital there was a surprising increase in the percentage of operations carried out in day surgery with respect to the total number of operations performed. The aim of the Rizzoli Orthopaedic Institute and the Emilia Romagna Region is to further implement this form of healthcare, contextually potentiating the appropriateness of hospital admission and avoiding, when not necessary, other forms of healthcare.

  16. Polymorphysims of Gene in the Exons Were Associated with the Reproductive Endocrine of Japanese Flounder (

    R. Q. Ma

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The cytochrome P450c17-I (CYP17-I is one of the enzymes critical to gonadal development and the synthesis of androgens. Two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs were detected within the coding region of the CYP17-I gene in a population of 75 male Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus. They were SNP1 (c.C445T located in exon2 and SNP2 (c.T980C (p.Phe307Leu located in exon5. Four physiological indices, which were serum testosterone (T, serum 17β-estradiol (E2, Hepatosomatic index (HSI, and Gonadosomatic index (GSI, were studied to examine the effect of the two SNPs on the reproductive endocrines of Japanese flounder. Multiple comparisons revealed that CT genotype of SNP1 had a much lower T level than CC genotype (p<0.05 and the GSI of individuals with CC genotype of SNP2 was higher than those with TT genotype (p<0.05. Four diplotypes were constructed based on the two SNPs and the diplotype D3 had a significantly lower T level and GSI. In conclusion, the two SNPs were significantly associated with reproductive traits of Japanese flounder.

  17. Association of ghrelin receptor gene polymorphism with bulimia nervosa in a Japanese population.

    Miyasaka, K; Hosoya, H; Sekime, A; Ohta, M; Amono, H; Matsushita, S; Suzuki, K; Higuchi, S; Funakoshi, A

    2006-09-01

    Eating disorders (EDs) have a highly heterogeneous etiology and multiple genetic factors might contribute to their pathogenesis. Ghrelin, a novel growth hormone-releasing peptide, enhances appetite and increases food intake, and human ghrelin plasma levels are inversely correlated with body mass index. In the present study, we examined the 171T/C polymorphism of the ghrelin receptor (growth hormone secretagogue receptor, GHSR) gene in patients diagnosed with EDs, because the subjects having ghrelin gene polymorphism (Leu72Met) was not detected in a Japanese population, previously. In addition, beta3 adrenergic receptor gene polymorphism (Try64Arg) and cholecystokinin (CCK)-A receptor (R) gene polymorphism (-81A/G, -128G/T), which are both associated with obesity, were investigated. The subjects consisted of 228 Japanese patients with EDs [96 anorexia nervosa (AN), 116 bulimia nervosa (BN) and 16 not otherwise specified (NOS)]. The age- and gender-matched control group consisted of 284 unrelated Japanese subjects. The frequency of the CC type of the GHSR gene was significantly higher in BN subjects than in control subjects (chi(2) = 4.47, p = 0.035, odds ratio = 2.05, Bonferroni correction: p = 0.070), while the frequency in AN subjects was not different from that in controls. The distribution of neither beta3 adrenergic receptor gene nor CCK-AR polymorphism differed between EDs and control subjects. Therefore, the CC type of GHSR gene polymorphism (171T/C) is a risk factor for BN, but not for AN.

  18. Independent and Combined Associations of Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior with Depressive Symptoms Among Japanese Adults.

    Liao, Yung; Shibata, Ai; Ishii, Kaori; Oka, Koichiro

    2016-08-01

    Associations between levels of sedentary behavior and depressive symptoms independently and in combination with different levels of physical activity remain unclear. This study aimed to examine independent and combined associations of physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior (SB) with depressive symptoms among Japanese adults. An Internet-based survey collected data on depression levels (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale), self-reported time spent in PA and SB (Japanese short version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire), and sociodemographic variables from 2,914 adults in 2009. Binary logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine the odds ratios (ORs) for being depressed (depression scores ≥16) according to independent PA levels (none, insufficient, sufficient), SB levels (low, moderate, high), and nine combinations of PA and SB categories. After adjusting for potential confounders, sufficient PA level was found to be related to lower risk of depressive symptoms independently (OR = 0.61), whereas no significant associations were observed between SB levels and depression. In the combined associations, adults in the sufficient PA/high SB (OR = 0.44), sufficient PA/moderate SB (OR = 0.56), and sufficient PA/low SB (OR = 0.57) categories were significantly less likely to have depressive symptoms in comparison with the no PA/high SB category. Meeting physical activity recommendations is associated with a lower risk of depressive symptoms, regardless of time spent in total sedentary behavior. These results suggest that promoting physical activity may be an effective strategy against depressive symptoms among Japanese adults.

  19. PCR IN TRAUMATOLOGY AND ORTHOPAEDICS: METHOD DESCRIPTION AND APPLICABILITY

    E. M. Polyakova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Review brief presents description of polymerase chain reaction method (PCR and its most common variants. Three PCR-based lines of research, carried out in the traumatology and orthopaedics, include identifying a causative agents of the implant-associated infection after orthopaedic surgery; detection of antibiotic resistance genes and biofilm forming genes. It was shown that PCR can be used as additional method for detection of genetic disorders, significant for traumatology and orthopaedics, and for investigation of cartilage and bone regeneration.

  20. Hyperuricemia and associated factors: a cross-sectional study of Japanese-Brazilians

    Juliana Poletto

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This cross-sectional study aimed to estimate the prevalence of hyperuricemia and associated risk factors among Japanese-Brazilians. We obtained data on demographic, health history, food intake, and laboratory variables. Chi-square and prevalence ratios were used as measures of association. 35.3% of the subjects presented hyperuricemia, which was more frequent in smokers, males, age > 55 years, with co-morbidities, individuals on uric acid-increasing medication, serum creatinine > 1.4mg/dL, high alcohol consumption, and low consumption of milk and dairy products. In the multivariate analysis, the associations remained significant with gender, overweight, central obesity, hypertriglyceridemia, and use of specific drugs. Among males, low intake of saturated fat was associated with hyperuricemia. Individuals with hypertension showed a negative association with dairy product consumption. The high hyperuricemia prevalence suggests that changes in nutritional profile and control of associated co-morbidities could help minimize occurrence of this condition.

  1. Eosinophilic pustular folliculitis associated with hematological disorders: A report of two cases and review of Japanese literature.

    Takamura, Saori; Teraki, Yuichi

    2016-04-01

    Eosinophilic pustular folliculitis (EPF) occurs in patients with hematological disorders. However, clinical information about hematological disorder-associated EPF is scarce. We report two cases of EPF associated with mantle cell lymphoma and reviewed the available published work on Japanese cases. We identified a total of 23 Japanese cases, including the two cases reported here, who had hematological disorder-associated EPF. Fourteen cases were associated with treatment for hematological malignancies (transplantation-related EPF) and nine cases were associated with hematological malignancies themselves (hematological malignancy-related EPF). Although the skin eruption was clinically indistinguishable between the two subtypes, transplantation-related EPF occurred on the face and trunk of young and middle-aged men and women, whereas hematological malignancy-related EPF occurred mostly on the face of older men. Peripheral blood eosinophilia was more frequently observed in transplantation-related EPF. These observations suggest variations among patients with EPF associated with hematological disorders. © 2015 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  2. Sense of coherence is associated with reduced psychological responses to job stressors among Japanese factory workers

    Urakawa Kayoko

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Job stress is associated with adverse health effects. The present study was conducted to examine the association between sense of coherence (SOC, as advocated by Antonovsky, and psychological responses to job stressors among Japanese workers. Methods A self-administered questionnaire containing a Japanese version of the 13-item SOC scale, the Brief Job Stress Questionnaire, and a self-rated health item were distributed to 1968 workers in X Prefecture. Anonymous responses were recovered by postal mail. Results Complete responses were received from 299 workers (response rate 15.2%, 191 males and 108 females who consented to participate in the study. Participants were 186 office clerks, 38 sales representatives, 22 technical engineers, 16 service trade workers, eight information processing workers, eight technical experts, and 21 other workers of various types. SOC scores were associated with age, self-rated health, job title, and marriage status. According to regression analyses stratified by gender, SOC was inversely associated with tension, fatigue, anxiety, depression and subjective symptoms in males, and tension, depression and subjective symptoms in females. SOC was positively associated with vigor in both males and females. Conclusions Having a strong SOC may reduce worker’s negative job stress responses and increase their vigor. Longitudinal studies are required to confirm this finding.

  3. Association of STAT4 polymorphisms with susceptibility to type-1 autoimmune hepatitis in the Japanese population.

    Migita, Kiyoshi; Nakamura, Minoru; Abiru, Seigo; Jiuchi, Yuka; Nagaoka, Shinya; Komori, Atsumasa; Hashimoto, Satoru; Bekki, Shigemune; Yamasaki, Kazumi; Komatsu, Tatsuji; Shimada, Masaaki; Kouno, Hiroshi; Hijioka, Taizo; Kohjima, Motoyuki; Nakamuta, Makoto; Kato, Michio; Yoshizawa, Kaname; Ohta, Hajime; Nakamura, Yoko; Takezaki, Eiichi; Nishimura, Hideo; Sato, Takeaki; Ario, Keisuke; Hirashima, Noboru; Oohara, Yukio; Naganuma, Atsushi; Muro, Toyokichi; Sakai, Hironori; Mita, Eiji; Sugi, Kazuhiro; Yamashita, Haruhiro; Makita, Fujio; Yatsuhashi, Hiroshi; Ishibashi, Hiromi; Yasunami, Michio

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies demonstrated an association of STAT4 polymorphisms with autoimmune diseases including systemic lupus erythematosus and rheumatoid arthritis, indicating multiple autoimmune diseases share common susceptibility genes. We therefore investigated the influence of STAT4 polymorphisms on the susceptibility and phenotype of type-1 autoimmune hepatitis in a Japanese National Hospital Organization (NHO) AIH multicenter cohort study. Genomic DNA from 460 individuals of Japanese origin including 230 patients with type-1 autoimmune hepatitis and 230 healthy controls was analyzed for two single nucleotide polymorphisms in the STAT4 gene (rs7574865, rs7582694). The STAT4 rs7574865T allele conferred risk for type-1 autoimmune hepatitis (OR = 1.61, 95% CI = 1.23-2.11; P = 0.001), and patients without accompanying autoimmune diseases exhibited an association with the rs7574865T allele (OR = 1.50, 95%CI = 1.13-1.99; P = 0.005). Detailed genotype-phenotype analysis of type-1 autoimmune hepatitis patients with (n = 44) or without liver cirrhosis (n = 186) demonstrated that rs7574865 was not associated with the development of liver cirrhosis and phenotype (biochemical data and the presence of auto-antibodies). This is the first study to show a positive association between a STAT4 polymorphism and type-1 autoimmune hepatitis, suggesting that autoimmune hepatitis shares a gene commonly associated with risk for other autoimmune diseases.

  4. Study of Risk Factors Associated with Peripheral Arteriopathy in Japanese-Brazilians from Bauru (SP)

    Garofolo, Luciana, E-mail: lgarofolo@ig.com.br [Universidade Federal de São Paulo (Unifesp), São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Ferreira, Sandra Roberta G. [Faculdade de Saúde Pública - Universidade de São Paulo (USP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Miranda, Fausto Junior [Departamento de Cirurgia - Universidade Federal de São Paulo (Unifesp), São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2014-02-15

    Cardiovascular diseases are the major cause of morbidity and mortality in developed and emerging countries. Their main etiology, atherosclerosis, is a disseminated disease that affects the coronary, cerebral and peripheral territories. The peripheral arterial disease (PAD), as well as its consequences, indicates the involvement of the coronary territory. Therefore, its better understanding enables proper treatment, delaying local and long-term complications, reducing the cost to the health system. This study estimates the percentage of PAD in Japanese-Brazilians from Bauru (SP), recognized by the high prevalence of metabolic disorders such as hypertension (43%), diabetes mellitus (33%) and hypercholesterolemia (60%), and examines the association with risk biomarkers. This cross-sectional population study evaluated 1,330 Japanese-Brazilians of both genders aged ≥ 30 who underwent a complete physical examination, anthropometric measurements, laboratory tests and ankle-brachial index (ABI). Participants with ABI ≤ 0.90 were diagnosed as having PAD. After applying the exclusion criteria, 1,038 individuals were part of the analysis. We used Poisson regression to analyze associations with PAD. The mean age was 56.8 years and the percentage of PAD was 21.1%, equal among the genders. PAD was associated with smoking (PR 2.16 [1.33 to 3.48]) and hypertension (PR 1.56 [1.12-2.22]). The percentage of PAD in Japanese-Brazilians was similar to other populations of adverse cardiometabolic profile (US PARTNERS and POPADAD). The independent association of PAD with smoking and hypertension, but not with other classical risk factors, may depend on the very high frequencies of metabolic disorders in this population.

  5. Study of Risk Factors Associated with Peripheral Arteriopathy in Japanese-Brazilians from Bauru (SP)

    Garofolo, Luciana; Ferreira, Sandra Roberta G.; Miranda, Fausto Junior

    2014-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are the major cause of morbidity and mortality in developed and emerging countries. Their main etiology, atherosclerosis, is a disseminated disease that affects the coronary, cerebral and peripheral territories. The peripheral arterial disease (PAD), as well as its consequences, indicates the involvement of the coronary territory. Therefore, its better understanding enables proper treatment, delaying local and long-term complications, reducing the cost to the health system. This study estimates the percentage of PAD in Japanese-Brazilians from Bauru (SP), recognized by the high prevalence of metabolic disorders such as hypertension (43%), diabetes mellitus (33%) and hypercholesterolemia (60%), and examines the association with risk biomarkers. This cross-sectional population study evaluated 1,330 Japanese-Brazilians of both genders aged ≥ 30 who underwent a complete physical examination, anthropometric measurements, laboratory tests and ankle-brachial index (ABI). Participants with ABI ≤ 0.90 were diagnosed as having PAD. After applying the exclusion criteria, 1,038 individuals were part of the analysis. We used Poisson regression to analyze associations with PAD. The mean age was 56.8 years and the percentage of PAD was 21.1%, equal among the genders. PAD was associated with smoking (PR 2.16 [1.33 to 3.48]) and hypertension (PR 1.56 [1.12-2.22]). The percentage of PAD in Japanese-Brazilians was similar to other populations of adverse cardiometabolic profile (US PARTNERS and POPADAD). The independent association of PAD with smoking and hypertension, but not with other classical risk factors, may depend on the very high frequencies of metabolic disorders in this population

  6. Time-dependent differences in management and microbiology of orthopaedic internal fixation-associated infections: an observational prospective study with 229 patients.

    Kuehl, R; Tschudin-Sutter, S; Morgenstern, M; Dangel, M; Egli, A; Nowakowski, A; Suhm, N; Theilacker, C; Widmer, A F

    2018-04-10

    Little information has been published on orthopaedic internal fixation-associated infections. We aimed to analyse time-dependent microbiology, treatment, and outcome. Over a 10-year period, all consecutive patients with internal fixation-associated infections at the University Hospital of Basel, were prospectively followed and clinical, microbiological and outcome data were acquired. Infections were classified as early (0-2 weeks after implantation), delayed (3-10 weeks), and late (>10 weeks). Two hundred and twenty-nine patients were included, with a median follow-up of 773 days (IQR 334-1400). Staphylococcus aureus was the most prevalent pathogen (in 96/229 patients, 41.9%). Enterobacteriaceae were frequent in early infections (13/49, 26.5%), whereas coagulase-negative staphylococci (36/92, 39.1%), anaerobes (15/92, 16.3%) and streptococci (10/92, 10.9%) increased in late revisions. Failure was observed in 27/229 (11.7%). Implants were retained in 42/49 (85.7%) in early, in 51/88 (57.9%) in delayed, and in 9/92 (9.8%) in late revisions (p < 0.01). Early revisions failed in 6/49 (12.2%), delayed in 9/88 (10.2%), and late in 11/92 (13.0%) (p 0.81). Debridement and retention failed in 6/42 (14.3%) for early, in 6/51 (11.8%) for delayed, and in 3/9 (33.3%) for late revisions (p 0.21). Biofilm-active antibiotic therapy tailored to resistance correlated with improved outcome for late revisions failure (6/72, 7.7% versus 6/12, 50.0%; p < 0.01) but not for early revisions failure (5/38, 13.2% versus 1/11, 9.1%; p 1.0). Treatment of internal fixation-associated infections showed a high success rate of 87-90% over all time periods. Implant retention was highly successful in early and delayed infections but only limited in late infections. Copyright © 2018 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Prevalence of lumbar spondylosis and its association with low back pain among community-dwelling Japanese women

    Tsujimoto, Ritsu; Abe, Yasuyo; Arima, Kazuhiko; Nishimura, Takayuki; Tomita, Masato; Yonekura, Akihiko; Miyamoto, Takashi; Matsubayashi, Shohei; Tanaka, Natsumi; Aoyagi, Kiyoshi; Osaki, Makoto

    2016-01-01

    Background: Lumbar spondylosis is more prevalent among the middle-aged and elderly, but few population-based studies have been conducted, especially in Japan. The purpose of this study was to explore the prevalence of lumbar spondylosis and its associations with low back pain among community-dwelling Japanese women. Methods: Lateral radiographs of the lumbar spine were obtained from 490 Japanese women ≥ 40 years old, and scored for lumbar spondylosis using the Kellgren-Lawrence (KL) grade at ...

  8. Coffee consumption but not green tea consumption is associated with adiponectin levels in Japanese males.

    Imatoh, T; Tanihara, S; Miyazaki, M; Momose, Y; Uryu, Y; Une, H

    2011-06-01

    Coffee is among the most widely consumed beverages in the world. Numerous epidemiological studies have reported a significant inverse association between coffee consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus, but the underlying mechanisms are still not fully understood. Therefore, we conducted an epidemiological study to clarify the relationship between coffee consumption and adiponectin levels in Japanese males. We also evaluated whether green tea consumption affected adiponectin levels. We carried out a cross-sectional study. The subjects were 665 male employees in Japan. Coffee consumption was assessed, using a self-administered questionnaire, as the number of times per week and cups per day respondents drank, and subjects were grouped into four levels (non, 1-5 times/week, 1-2 cups/day and ≥3 cups/day). The means of adiponectin levels were positively associated with coffee consumption. A dose-response relationship was found between coffee consumption and circulating adiponectin levels. The relationship remained significant after adjustment for potential confounding factors (P for trend coffee consumption is associated with higher adiponectin levels in Japanese males but also found a dose-dependent association between coffee consumption and adiponectin levels. Therefore, our study suggested that coffee components might play an important role in the elevation of adiponectin level.

  9. Association of serum carotenoids and tocopherols with atopic diseases in Japanese children and adolescents.

    Okuda, Masayuki; Bando, Noriko; Terao, Junji; Sasaki, Satoshi; Sugiyama, Shinichi; Kunitsugu, Ichiro; Hobara, Tatsuya

    2010-06-01

    The present study assessed whether serum carotenoids and tocopherols are associated with atopic diseases (eczema and asthma) in 10- and 13-yr-olds in a Japanese community. Of 2796 students attending schools in Shunan, Japan, in 2006, 396 students were randomly selected for this study using nested case-control design. Atopic diseases and dietary food intake were assessed using self-administered questionnaires, and serum antioxidants were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography. We found no associations between serum carotenoids and atopic diseases. However, odds ratios (OR)s for the third and fourth quartiles of serum alpha-tocopherol with atopic eczema were 0.33 (95% confidence interval: 0.15-0.73) and 0.36 (0.14-0.89), respectively, and the trend was negatively significant (P(trend) = 0.048). We did not find a significant association for asthma. In conclusion, serum alpha-tocopherol was negatively associated with the prevalence of eczema. Serum carotenoids did not show definitive protective effects in Japanese youth.

  10. Azathioprine Intolerance in Japanese Patients with Antineutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibody-associated Vasculitis

    Morishita, Michiko; Watanabe, Haruki; Yan, Minglu; Zeggar, Sonia; Hiramatsu, Sumie; Ohashi, Keiji; Miyawaki, Yoshia; Katsuyama, Eri; Katsuyama, Takayuki; Takano Narazaki, Mariko; Toyota Tatebe, Noriko; Sunahori Watanabe, Katsue; Kawabata, Tomoko; Sada, Ken-Ei; Wada, Jun

    2017-01-01

    Objective To assess the safety of azathioprine (AZA) in Japanese patients with antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis (AAV). Methods We retrospectively enrolled 67 consecutive AAV patients who had initiated AZA treatment from January 2006 to August 2014 at Okayama University Hospital. We evaluated the development of severe adverse events (AEs), AZA discontinuation due to total AEs (severe AEs included) within 1 year, and AZA-associated risk factors. Results The patients' median age was 70 years old. Forty-nine women and 18 men participated at the initiation of the study. Fifty-eight (87%) patients experienced AEs, and 36 experienced severe AEs (21 hepatic and 11 cytopenic severe AEs). Thirty-one (46%) patients discontinued treatment because of AEs. Abnormal hepatic laboratory test results at the treatment initiation were more frequent in patients with hepatic severe AEs and were associated with treatment discontinuation. The leukocyte and neutrophil counts at the treatment initiation were lower in the patients who discontinued treatment because of cytopenic AEs than in those who continued treatment. Only two patients experienced flare-ups during treatment. Conclusion The AE-associated AZA discontinuation rate in Japanese AAV patients was relatively high. AZA use warrants caution in patients with abnormal hepatic laboratory test results or low leukocyte or neutrophil counts. PMID:28674351

  11. Comparison between a multicentre, collaborative, closed-loop audit assessing management of supracondylar fractures and the British Orthopaedic Association Standard for Trauma 11 (BOAST 11) guidelines.

    Goodall, R; Claireaux, H; Hill, J; Wilson, E; Monsell, F; Boast Collaborative; Tarassoli, P

    2018-03-01

    Aims Supracondylar fractures are the most frequently occurring paediatric fractures about the elbow and may be associated with a neurovascular injury. The British Orthopaedic Association Standards for Trauma 11 (BOAST 11) guidelines describe best practice for supracondylar fracture management. This study aimed to assess whether emergency departments in the United Kingdom adhere to BOAST 11 standard 1: a documented assessment, performed on presentation, must include the status of the radial pulse, digital capillary refill time, and the individual function of the radial, median (including the anterior interosseous), and ulnar nerves. Materials and Methods Stage 1: We conducted a multicentre, retrospective audit of adherence to BOAST 11 standard 1. Data were collected from eight hospitals in the United Kingdom. A total of 433 children with Gartland type 2 or 3 supracondylar fractures were eligible for inclusion. A centrally created data collection sheet was used to guide objective analysis of whether BOAST 11 standard 1 was adhered to. Stage 2: We created a quality improvement proforma for use in emergency departments. This was piloted in one of the hospitals used in the primary audit and was re-audited using equivalent methodology. In all, 102 patients presenting between January 2016 and July 2017 were eligible for inclusion in the re-audit. Results Stage 1: Of 433 patient notes audited, adherence to BOAST 11 standard 1 was between 201 (46%) and 232 (54%) for the motor and sensory function of the individual nerves specified, 318 (73%) for radial pulse, and 247 (57%) for digital capillary refill time. Stage 2: Of 102 patient notes audited, adherence to BOAST 11 standard 1 improved to between 72 (71%) and 80 (78%) for motor and sensory function of the nerves, to 84 (82%) for radial pulse, and to 82 (80%) for digital capillary refill time. Of the 102 case notes reviewed in stage 2, only 44 (43%) used the quality improvement proforma; when the proforma was used

  12. Association between statin use and physical function among community-dwelling older Japanese adults.

    Kawai, Hisashi; Ihara, Kazushige; Kera, Takeshi; Hirano, Hirohiko; Fujiwara, Yoshinori; Tanaka, Masashi; Kojima, Motonaga; Obuchi, Shuichi

    2018-04-01

    Statin-associated muscle symptoms (SAMS) are the muscle-related side-effects of statins, but the association between statin use and physical function among community-dwelling older adults is unclear. The objective of the present study was to examine the association between statin use and physical function among community-dwelling older Japanese adults by considering the risk factors of statin-associated muscle symptoms. The participants were 1022 community-dwelling older adults aged 65-88 years, who participated in comprehensive health checkups from 2013 to 2015. Statin use in the participants (381 men and 559 women) was verified by using data from their medicine notebooks. The differences between statin use (users and non-users) and physical functions (grip strength, knee extension torque, normal and maximum gait speed, Timed Up & Go test, one-legged stance, quadriceps muscle thickness and echo intensity) were analyzed using the t-test. Multiple regression analyses were also carried out to examine the association between statin use and physical function. A total of 93 men (24.4%) and 154 women (27.5%) were statin users. Grip strength, normal gait speed and one-legged stance declined significantly in statin users compared with the non-users. In multiple regression analysis while controlling for the risk factors of statin-associated muscle symptoms, including age, sex, body mass index and number of medicines, no independent association, between statin use and the reduction of physical functions, was observed. Statin use was not associated with the decline of physical function in community-dwelling older Japanese adults. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2018; 18: 623-630. © 2017 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  13. Metabolic syndrome is directly associated with gamma glutamyl transpeptidase elevation in Japanese women

    Hiroshi Sakugawa; Fukunori Kin jo; Atsushi Saito; Tomofumi Nakayoshi; Kasen Kobashigawa; Hiroki Nakasone; Yuko Kawakami; Tsuyoshi Yamashiro; Tatsuji Maeshiro; Ko Tomimori; Satoru Miyagi

    2004-01-01

    AIM: This study aimed to determine whether metabolic syndrome is directly or indirectly, through fatty liver, associated with elevated gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) levels in Japanese women.METHODS: From 4 366 women who received their annual health check-up, 4 211 women were selected for analysis.All 4 211 women were negative for both hepatitis B surface antigen and antibody to hepatitis C virus. Clinical and biochemical variables were examined by using univariate and multivariate analysis.RESULTS: A raised GGT level (>68 IU/L) was seen in 258 (6.1%) of the 4 211 women. In univariate analysis, all variables examined (age, body mass index, blood pressure,hemoglobin concentration, fasting blood glucose,glycosylated hemoglobin A1c, cholesterol, triglyceride, and uric acid) were associated with the elevated GGT level,whereas in multivariate analysis, four variables (age ≥ 50 yr,hemoglobin ≥14 g/dL, triglyceride ≥ 150 mg/dL, and presence of diabetes) were significantly and independently associated with raised GGT level. Clinical variables predicting the presence of ultrasonographic evidence of fatty liver were also examined by multivariate analysis; four variables were associated with the presence of fatty liver: BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2,hemoglobin ≥ 14 g/dL, triglyceride≥150 mg/dL, and uric acid≥ 7 mg/dL. There was no significant association between the raised GGT level and the presence of fatty liver.Hypertriglyceridemia was significantly and independently associated with both the raised GGT level and the presence of fatty liver.CONCLUSION: Metabolic syndrome seemed to be directly,not indirectly through fatty liver, associated with the raised GGT level in Japanese women.

  14. Association of maternal age with child health: A Japanese longitudinal study.

    Tsuguhiko Kato

    Full Text Available Average maternal age at birth has been rising steadily in Western and some Asian countries. Older maternal age has been associated with adverse pregnancy and birth outcomes; however, studies on the relationship between maternal age and young children's health remain scarce. Therefore, we sought to investigate the association of maternal age with child health outcomes in the Japanese population. We analyzed data from two birth cohorts of the nationwide Japanese Longitudinal Survey of Babies in 21st Century (n2001 = 47,715 and n2010 = 38,554. We estimated risks of unintentional injuries and hospital admissions at 18 and 66 months according to maternal age, controlling for the following potential confounders: parental education; maternal parity, smoking status, and employment status; household income; paternal age, and sex of the child. We also included the following as potential mediators: preterm births and birthweight. We observed a decreasing trend in the risks of children's unintentional injuries and hospital admissions at 18 months according to maternal age in both cohorts. In the 2001 cohort, compared to mothers 40.0 years, respectively, controlling for confounders. Our findings were in line with previous findings from population-based studies conducted in the United Kingdom and Canada suggesting that older maternal age may be beneficial for early child health.

  15. Preliminary genome-wide association study of bipolar disorder in the Japanese population.

    Hattori, Eiji; Toyota, Tomoko; Ishitsuka, Yuichi; Iwayama, Yoshimi; Yamada, Kazuo; Ujike, Hiroshi; Morita, Yukitaka; Kodama, Masafumi; Nakata, Kenji; Minabe, Yoshio; Nakamura, Kazuhiko; Iwata, Yasuhide; Takei, Nori; Mori, Norio; Naitoh, Hiroshi; Yamanouchi, Yoshio; Iwata, Nakao; Ozaki, Norio; Kato, Tadafumi; Nishikawa, Toru; Kashiwa, Atsushi; Suzuki, Mika; Shioe, Kunihiko; Shinohara, Manabu; Hirano, Masami; Nanko, Shinichiro; Akahane, Akihisa; Ueno, Mikako; Kaneko, Naoshi; Watanabe, Yuichiro; Someya, Toshiyuki; Hashimoto, Kenji; Iyo, Masaomi; Itokawa, Masanari; Arai, Makoto; Nankai, Masahiro; Inada, Toshiya; Yoshida, Sumiko; Kunugi, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Michiko; Iijima, Yoshimi; Okazaki, Yuji; Higuchi, Teruhiko; Yoshikawa, Takeo

    2009-12-05

    Recent progress in genotyping technology and the development of public databases has enabled large-scale genome-wide association tests with diseases. We performed a two-stage genome-wide association study (GWAS) of bipolar disorder (BD) in Japanese cohorts. First we used Affymetrix 100K GeneChip arrays in the analysis of 107 cases with bipolar I disorder and 107 controls, and selected markers that were nominally significant (P < 0.01) in at least one of the three models (1,577 markers in total). In the follow-up stage, we analyzed these markers using an Illumina platform (1,526 markers; 51 markers were not designable for the platform) and an independent sample set, which consisted of 395 cases (bipolar I + II) and 409 controls. We also assessed the population stratification of current samples using principal components analysis. After the two-stage analysis, 89 markers remained nominally significant (allelic P < 0.05) with the same allele being consistently over-represented in both the first and the follow-up stages. However, none of these were significant after correction for multiple-testing by false discovery rates. Sample stratification was virtually negligible. Collectively, this is the first GWAS of BD in the Japanese population. But given the small sample size and the limited genomic coverage, these results should be taken as preliminary. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. Inverse association between yoghurt intake and upper aerodigestive tract cancer risk in a Japanese population.

    Kawakita, Daisuke; Sato, Fumihito; Hosono, Satoyo; Ito, Hidemi; Oze, Isao; Watanabe, Miki; Hanai, Nobuhiro; Hatooka, Shunzo; Hasegawa, Yasuhisa; Shinoda, Masayuki; Tajima, Kazuo; Murakami, Shingo; Tanaka, Hideo; Matsuo, Keitaro

    2012-09-01

    Although the combination of tobacco smoking and alcohol drinking account for approximately 80% of upper aerodigestive tract (UADT) cancer risk, the role of dietary factors, including dairy products, in the risk of these cancers remains controversial. We aimed to evaluate the association between dairy product intake and UADT cancer risk in a Japanese population. We conducted a case-control study in 959 patients with UADT cancer and 2877 sex- and age-matched noncancer control subjects who visited the Aichi Cancer Center in Nagoya, Japan. Data on lifestyle factors, including diet, were obtained by self-administered questionnaire. Associations were assessed by multivariate logistic regression models that considered potential confounders. We found a significant inverse association between yoghurt intake and UADT cancer risk with multivariate-adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for <1 time/week, ≥ 1 time/week and <1 time/day, and ≥ 1 time/day consumption of yoghurt of 0.70 (95% confidence interval: 0.54-0.91), 0.67 (0.54-0.84), and 0.73 (0.55-0.95) relative to nonconsumers (P trend=0.005). When stratified by primary tumor site, this association was significant among patients with hypopharyngeal, laryngeal, and esophageal cancer. However, we saw no significant association between milk or butter intake and UADT cancer risk. In this study, we found that a high intake of yoghurt may lower the risk of developing UADT cancer in a Japanese population. Further investigation of this association is warranted.

  17. Factors associated with deep tissue injury in male wheelchair basketball players of a Japanese national team

    Hirotaka Mutsuzaki

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Maintenance of the sporting activity of elite athletes in adapted sports can be difficult if a secondary disorder, such as a pressure ulcer, occurs. Pressure ulcers result from deep tissue injuries by external pressure. The purpose of this study was to use ultrasonography to investigate deep tissue injuries in male wheelchair basketball players of a Japanese national team, and to determine factors associated with the injuries (e.g., body mass index, class of wheelchair basketball, underlying disease, length of athletic career, and whether use of wheelchair is primarily for playing basketball. Twenty male Japanese wheelchair basketball players on the national team for the 2012 London Paralympic Games (12 representative players and eight candidate representative players participated in this study. The sacral region and bilateral ischial regions in each athlete were examined by ultrasonography to detect low-echoic lesions indicative of deep tissue injuries. Nine (45% players had low-echoic lesions, which were detected in 10 of 60 areas. Eight lesions were detected in the sacral region and two lesions were detected in the ischial region. More players with spinal cord injury had low-echoic lesions [9 (69.2% of 13 players], compared to players with skeletal system disease [0 (0% of 7 players, p = 0.002]. Players who used a wheelchair in daily life were more likely to have low-echoic lesions [8 (66.74% of 12 players], compared to players who primarily used a wheelchair for playing basketball [1 (12.5% of 8 players, p = 0.010]. Deep tissue injuries were detected in 45% of male Japanese wheelchair basketball players on the national team. Players with spinal cord injury and players who used a wheelchair in daily life were more likely to have deep tissue injuries, particularly in the sacral region. The lesions were small, but a periodic medical check should be performed to maintain athletes' sporting life.

  18. Origins of eponymous orthopaedic equipment.

    Meals, Clifton; Wang, Jeffrey

    2010-06-01

    Orthopaedists make great use of eponymous equipment, however the origins of these tools are unknown to many users. This history enriches, enlightens, and enhances surgical education, and may inspire modern innovation. We explored the origins of common and eponymous orthopaedic equipment. We selected pieces of equipment named for their inventors and in the broadest use by modern orthopaedists. We do not describe specialized orthopaedic implants and instruments owing to the overwhelming number of these devices. The history of this equipment reflects the coevolution of orthopaedics and battlefield medicine. Additionally, these stories evidence the primacy of elegant design and suggest that innovation is often a process of revision and refinement rather than sudden inspiration. Their history exposes surgical innovators as brilliant, lucky, hardworking, and sometimes odd. These stories amuse, enlighten, and may inspire modern orthopaedists to develop creative solutions of their own. The rich history of the field's eponymous instruments informs an ongoing tradition of innovation in orthopaedics.

  19. Association between shift work and the risk of death from biliary tract cancer in Japanese men.

    Lin, Yingsong; Nishiyama, Takeshi; Kurosawa, Michiko; Tamakoshi, Akiko; Kubo, Tatsuhiko; Fujino, Yoshihisa; Kikuchi, Shogo

    2015-10-21

    There is increasing evidence suggesting that shift work involving night work may increase cancer risk. We examined the association between working rotating shifts and the risk of death from biliary tract cancer among Japanese men who participated in the Japan Collaborative Cohort Study. Of the 46,395 men recruited, 22,224 men aged 40-65 at baseline (1988-1990) who reported working full-time or were self-employed were included in the present analysis. The study subjects were followed through December 31, 2009. Information regarding occupation and lifestyle factors was collected using a self-administered questionnaire. Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate the hazard ratio (HR) and 95 % confidence interval (CI) for the risk of death from biliary tract cancer in relation to shift work. During a mean 17-year follow-up, we observed 94 biliary tract cancer deaths, including 23 deaths from gallbladder cancer and 71 deaths from extrahepatic bile duct cancer. Overall, shift work was associated with a statistically non-significant increase in the risk of biliary tract cancer, with an HR of 1.50 (95 % CI: 0.81-2.77), among rotating shift workers. When the analysis was limited to extrahepatic bile duct cancer, a significant association appeared, with a multivariable-adjusted HR of 1.93 (95 % CI: 1.00-3.72) for rotating shift workers. Our data indicate that shift work may be associated with increased risk of death from extrahepatic bile duct cancer in this cohort of Japanese men. The association with gallbladder cancer remains unclear because of the small number of deaths.

  20. The Association between Sarcopenic Obesity and Depressive Symptoms in Older Japanese Adults.

    Shinya Ishii

    Full Text Available The effects of sarcopenic obesity, the co-existence of sarcopenia and obesity, on mood disorders have not been studies extensively. Our objective was to examine the association of depressive symptoms with sarcopenia and obesity status in older Japanese adults. We analyzed data from 1731 functionally-independent, community-dwelling Japanese adults aged 65 years or older (875 men, 856 women randomly selected from the resident register of Kashiwa city, Chiba, Japan in 2012. Sarcopenia was defined based on appendicular skeletal muscle mass, grip strength and usual gait speed. Obesity was defined as the highest sex-specific quintile of the percentage body fat. Depressive symptoms were defined as a Geriatric Depression Scale 15-item score ≥ 6. Multiple logistic regression was employed to examine the association of depressive symptoms with four groups defined by the presence/absence of sarcopenia and obesity. The prevalence of depressive symptoms was 10.1% and the proportions of sarcopenia/obesity, sarcopenia/non-obesity, non-sarcopenia/obesity, non-sarcopenia/non-obesity were 3.7%, 13.6%, 16.9% and 65.8%, respectively. After adjustment for potential confounders, sarcopenia/obesity was positively associated with depressive symptoms compared with non-sarcopenia/non-obesity, whereas either sarcopenia or obesity alone was not associated with depressive symptoms. The association was particularly pronounced in those aged 65 to 74 years in age-stratified analysis. We conclude that our findings suggest a synergistic impact exerted by sarcopenic obesity on the risk of depressive symptoms, particularly in those aged 65 to 74 years.

  1. Association of STAT4 polymorphisms with susceptibility to type-1 autoimmune hepatitis in the Japanese population.

    Kiyoshi Migita

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND/AIMS: Recent studies demonstrated an association of STAT4 polymorphisms with autoimmune diseases including systemic lupus erythematosus and rheumatoid arthritis, indicating multiple autoimmune diseases share common susceptibility genes. We therefore investigated the influence of STAT4 polymorphisms on the susceptibility and phenotype of type-1 autoimmune hepatitis in a Japanese National Hospital Organization (NHO AIH multicenter cohort study. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Genomic DNA from 460 individuals of Japanese origin including 230 patients with type-1 autoimmune hepatitis and 230 healthy controls was analyzed for two single nucleotide polymorphisms in the STAT4 gene (rs7574865, rs7582694. The STAT4 rs7574865T allele conferred risk for type-1 autoimmune hepatitis (OR = 1.61, 95% CI = 1.23-2.11; P = 0.001, and patients without accompanying autoimmune diseases exhibited an association with the rs7574865T allele (OR = 1.50, 95%CI = 1.13-1.99; P = 0.005. Detailed genotype-phenotype analysis of type-1 autoimmune hepatitis patients with (n = 44 or without liver cirrhosis (n = 186 demonstrated that rs7574865 was not associated with the development of liver cirrhosis and phenotype (biochemical data and the presence of auto-antibodies. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This is the first study to show a positive association between a STAT4 polymorphism and type-1 autoimmune hepatitis, suggesting that autoimmune hepatitis shares a gene commonly associated with risk for other autoimmune diseases.

  2. An information revolution in orthopaedics.

    Goldberg, A J; MacGregor, A; Spencer, S A

    2012-04-01

    With the established success of the National Joint Registry and the emergence of a range of new national initiatives for the capture of electronic data in the National Health Service, orthopaedic surgery in the United Kingdom has found itself thrust to the forefront of an information revolution. In this review we consider the benefits and threats that this revolution poses, and how orthopaedic surgeons should marshal their resources to ensure that this is a force for good.

  3. [Association between GSK3β polymorphisms and the smoking habits in young Japanese].

    Nagahori, Kenta; Iwahashi, Kazuhiko; Narita, Shin; Numajiri, Maki; Yoshihara, Eiji; Nishizawa, Daisuke; Ikeda, Kazutaka; Ishigooka, Jun

    2015-06-01

    Schizophrenia and bipolar disorder show high comorbidity with smoking dependence. Several previous studies reported that glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β), which is widely expressed in the brain including the dopamine projection areas such as the amygdala, nucleus accumbens and hippocampus, may play a role in neuropsychiatric disorders and dopamine- and serotonin-mediated behavior. In this study, we have analyzed the association of three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within GSK3β gene (rs3755557, rs334558, rs6438552) with the smoking habits and age at smoking initiation in a sample of 384 young adult Japanese, which included 172 smokers and 212 non-smokers. As a result, rs334558 was significantly associated with smoking habits in genotype frequency and allelic frequency (P smoking habits.

  4. Cough associated with gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD): Japanese experience.

    Niimi, Akio

    2017-12-01

    Differences in the aetiology as well as patient background of chronic cough have been recognised among US, UK, and Japan. One of the marked differences has been the prevalence of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD), which has been one of the top three causes in Western countries. It was indeed uncommon or rare in Japan, but, with the increasing prevalence of GOR itself, chronic cough associated with GORD seems to have become more common. In this article, cough associated with GORD will be reviewed based on literature and our Japanese experience. Further, potentially broader relevance of GORD in chronic cough will also be mentioned, highlighting the potential importance of dysmotiliy/non-acid reflux. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Serum vaspin levels are associated with physical activity or physical fitness in Japanese: a pilot study.

    Miyatake, Nobuyuki; Wada, Jun; Nakatsuka, Atsuko; Sakano, Noriko; Teshigawara, Sanae; Miyachi, Motohiko; Tabata, Izumi; Numata, Takeyuki

    2014-05-01

    To investigate the link between serum vaspin levels and physical activity and/or physical fitness in Japanese. A total of 156 subjects (81 men and 75 women) was enrolled in this cross-sectional study. Serum vaspin levels, physical activity by uniaxial accelerometers, peak oxygen uptake, and metabolic risk parameters were evaluated. We also assessed anthropometric and body composition parameters. Serum vaspin levels were over the level of 10 ng/mL in 15 subjects (9.6 %: Vaspin High group). In Vaspin Low group (men and 67 women), serum vaspin levels were 0.12 ± 0.18 ng/mL in men and 0.39 ± 0.70 ng/mL in women. Peak oxygen uptake was significantly and positively correlated with serum vaspin levels even after adjusting for age, physical activity evaluated by Σ[metabolic equivalents × h per week (METs[Symbol: see text]h/w)], BMI, and other confounding factors in men. In turn, physical activity was significantly and positively correlated with serum vaspin levels even after adjusting for confounding factors in women. Serum vaspin levels were closely associated with physical fitness in men and physical activity in women independent of body composition in this Japanese cohort.

  6. Statistical associations between radiation exposure and the clinical examination data of Japanese radiology technicians

    Kondo, Hisayoshi; Okumura, Yutaka; Aoyama, Takashi; Sugahara, Tsutomu; Hashimoto, Tetsuaki; Yamamoto, Yoichi.

    1995-01-01

    The associations between occupational irradiation, cigarette smoking, alcohol drinking and clinical examination data were investigated in Japanese male radiology technicians. The number of investigated examination items was 35, including 29 biochemical serum test, four hematological tests and systolic and diastolic blood pressure. The associations with each factor were evaluated using the multiple linear regression model. As single factors, radiation associated with urea nitrogen, alkaline phosphatase, monoamine oxidase and leukocyte count (four items), smoking associated with albumin-globulin index, zinc sulfate turbidity test, urea nitrogen, creatinine, neutral fat, amylase, serum iron, leukocyte count, hemoglobin and hematocrit (10 items), and drinking associated with creatinine, uric acid, glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase, leucine aminopeptidase, alkaline phosphatase and erythrocyte count (six items). As synergistic factors, the combination of radiation and smoking associated with nine items, radiation and drinking 10 items, smoking and drinking four items, and radiation, smoking and drinking two items. These results suggested that the number of items which radiation associated as single-factor were less than that of smoking and of drinking, however suggested that associations between radiation and examination data was synergistic when combined with smoking or drinking. (author)

  7. Statistical associations between radiation exposure and the clinical examination data of Japanese radiology technicians

    Kondo, Hisayoshi; Okumura, Yutaka [Nagasaki Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine; Aoyama, Takashi; Sugahara, Tsutomu; Hashimoto, Tetsuaki; Yamamoto, Yoichi

    1995-06-01

    The associations between occupational irradiation, cigarette smoking, alcohol drinking and clinical examination data were investigated in Japanese male radiology technicians. The number of investigated examination items was 35, including 29 biochemical serum test, four hematological tests and systolic and diastolic blood pressure. The associations with each factor were evaluated using the multiple linear regression model. As single factors, radiation associated with urea nitrogen, alkaline phosphatase, monoamine oxidase and leukocyte count (four items), smoking associated with albumin-globulin index, zinc sulfate turbidity test, urea nitrogen, creatinine, neutral fat, amylase, serum iron, leukocyte count, hemoglobin and hematocrit (10 items), and drinking associated with creatinine, uric acid, glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase, leucine aminopeptidase, alkaline phosphatase and erythrocyte count (six items). As synergistic factors, the combination of radiation and smoking associated with nine items, radiation and drinking 10 items, smoking and drinking four items, and radiation, smoking and drinking two items. These results suggested that the number of items which radiation associated as single-factor were less than that of smoking and of drinking, however suggested that associations between radiation and examination data was synergistic when combined with smoking or drinking. (author).

  8. Associations among gastroesophageal reflux disease, psychological stress, and sleep disturbances in Japanese adults.

    Okuyama, Masatsugu; Takaishi, Osamu; Nakahara, Kenichi; Iwakura, Narika; Hasegawa, Tomoki; Oyama, Maizumi; Inoue, Ayumi; Ishizu, Hirotaka; Satoh, Hiroshi; Fujiwara, Yasuhiro

    2017-01-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and psychological stress are associated with sleep disturbances. The aim of the present study was to examine the prevalence of sleep disturbances, anxiety, and depression by GERD subtypes and to identify factors associated with sleep disturbances in general population. A total of 2002 Japanese subjects, who underwent annual health checkups, were enrolled and asked to fill out a questionnaire, including the frequency scale for the symptoms of GERD (FSSG), Athens Insomnia Scale (AIS), Rome III questionnaire, and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). GERD was divided into asymptomatic erosive reflux disease (a-ERD), symptomatic ERD (s-ERD), and non-erosive reflux disease (NERD), according to the presence or absence of esophageal mucosal injury on endoscopy, and the FSSG scores. Sleep disturbances were diagnosed in subjects with AIS score ≥6. Prevalence of sleep disturbances was significantly higher in GERD subjects than in controls (35.9 and 14.7%, respectively), especially, in the NERD group (45.1%). Sleep duration was significantly shorter in the s-ERD group compared with other groups. Subjects in the NERD and s-ERD groups showed higher HADS scores, resulting in higher incidences of anxiety and depression than those in the control and a-ERD groups. Reflux symptoms, anxiety, depression, and coexisting functional dyspepsia, but not the presence of esophageal mucosal injury, were associated with an increased odds ratio for sleep disturbances. There were significant positive associations among reflux symptoms, psychological stress, and sleep disturbance in Japanese adults. Further studies investigating the efficacy of therapy are needed.

  9. Possible association between interleukin-1β gene and schizophrenia in a Japanese population.

    Sasayama, Daimei; Hori, Hiroaki; Teraishi, Toshiya; Hattori, Kotaro; Ota, Miho; Iijima, Yoshimi; Tatsumi, Masahiko; Higuchi, Teruhiko; Amano, Naoji; Kunugi, Hiroshi

    2011-08-16

    Several lines of evidence have implicated the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1beta (IL-1β) in the etiology of schizophrenia. Although a number of genetic association studies have been reported, very few have systematically examined gene-wide tagging polymorphisms. A total of 533 patients with schizophrenia (302 males: mean age ± standard deviation 43.4 ± 13.0 years; 233 females; mean age 44.8 ± 15.3 years) and 1136 healthy controls (388 males: mean age 44.6 ± 17.3 years; 748 females; 46.3 ± 15.6 years) were recruited for this study. All subjects were biologically unrelated Japanese individuals. Five tagging polymorphisms of IL-1β gene (rs2853550, rs1143634, rs1143633, rs1143630, rs16944) were examined for association with schizophrenia. Significant difference in allele distribution was found between patients with schizophrenia and controls for rs1143633 (P = 0.0089). When the analysis was performed separately in each gender, significant difference between patients and controls in allele distribution of rs1143633 was observed in females (P = 0.0073). A trend towards association was also found between rs16944 and female patients with schizophrenia (P = 0.032). The present study shows the first evidence that the IL-1β gene polymorphism rs1143633 is associated with schizophrenia susceptibility in a Japanese population. The results suggest the possibility that the influence of IL-1β gene variations on susceptibility to schizophrenia may be greater in females than in males. Findings of the present study provide further support for the role of IL-1β in the etiology of schizophrenia.

  10. Possible association between Interleukin-1beta gene and schizophrenia in a Japanese population

    Sasayama Daimei

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several lines of evidence have implicated the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1beta (IL-1β in the etiology of schizophrenia. Although a number of genetic association studies have been reported, very few have systematically examined gene-wide tagging polymorphisms. Methods A total of 533 patients with schizophrenia (302 males: mean age ± standard deviation 43.4 ± 13.0 years; 233 females; mean age 44.8 ± 15.3 years and 1136 healthy controls (388 males: mean age 44.6 ± 17.3 years; 748 females; 46.3 ± 15.6 years were recruited for this study. All subjects were biologically unrelated Japanese individuals. Five tagging polymorphisms of IL-1β gene (rs2853550, rs1143634, rs1143633, rs1143630, rs16944 were examined for association with schizophrenia. Results Significant difference in allele distribution was found between patients with schizophrenia and controls for rs1143633 (P = 0.0089. When the analysis was performed separately in each gender, significant difference between patients and controls in allele distribution of rs1143633 was observed in females (P = 0.0073. A trend towards association was also found between rs16944 and female patients with schizophrenia (P = 0.032. Conclusions The present study shows the first evidence that the IL-1β gene polymorphism rs1143633 is associated with schizophrenia susceptibility in a Japanese population. The results suggest the possibility that the influence of IL-1β gene variations on susceptibility to schizophrenia may be greater in females than in males. Findings of the present study provide further support for the role of IL-1β in the etiology of schizophrenia.

  11. Possible association between Interleukin-1beta gene and schizophrenia in a Japanese population

    2011-01-01

    Background Several lines of evidence have implicated the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1beta (IL-1β) in the etiology of schizophrenia. Although a number of genetic association studies have been reported, very few have systematically examined gene-wide tagging polymorphisms. Methods A total of 533 patients with schizophrenia (302 males: mean age ± standard deviation 43.4 ± 13.0 years; 233 females; mean age 44.8 ± 15.3 years) and 1136 healthy controls (388 males: mean age 44.6 ± 17.3 years; 748 females; 46.3 ± 15.6 years) were recruited for this study. All subjects were biologically unrelated Japanese individuals. Five tagging polymorphisms of IL-1β gene (rs2853550, rs1143634, rs1143633, rs1143630, rs16944) were examined for association with schizophrenia. Results Significant difference in allele distribution was found between patients with schizophrenia and controls for rs1143633 (P = 0.0089). When the analysis was performed separately in each gender, significant difference between patients and controls in allele distribution of rs1143633 was observed in females (P = 0.0073). A trend towards association was also found between rs16944 and female patients with schizophrenia (P = 0.032). Conclusions The present study shows the first evidence that the IL-1β gene polymorphism rs1143633 is associated with schizophrenia susceptibility in a Japanese population. The results suggest the possibility that the influence of IL-1β gene variations on susceptibility to schizophrenia may be greater in females than in males. Findings of the present study provide further support for the role of IL-1β in the etiology of schizophrenia. PMID:21843369

  12. Association of HK2 and NCK2 with normal tension glaucoma in the Japanese population.

    Dong Shi

    Full Text Available Although family studies and genome-wide association studies have shown that genetic factors play a role in glaucoma, it has been difficult to identify the specific genetic variants involved. We tested 669 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs from the region of chromosome 2 that includes the GLC1B glaucoma locus for association with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG and normal tension glaucoma (NTG in the Japanese population. We performed a two-stage case-control study. The first cohort consisted of 123 POAG cases, 121 NTG cases and 120 controls: the second cohort consisted of 187 POAG cases, 286 NTG cases, and 271 controls. Out of six SNPs showing significant association with POAG in the first round screening, seven SNPs were tested in the second round. Rs678350 in the HK2 gene coding sequence showed significant allelic (p=0.0027 in Stage Two, 2.7XE-4 in meta-analysis association with POAG, and significant allelic (p=4.7XE-4 in Stage Two, 1.0XE-5 in meta-analysis association with NTG. Although alleles in the TMEM182 gene did not show significant association with glaucoma in the second round, subjects with the A/A allele in TMEM182 rs869833 showed worse visual field mean deviation (p=0.01. Even though rs2033008 in the NCK2 gene coding sequence did not show significant association in the first round, it had previously shown association with NTG so it was tested for association with NTG in round 2 (p=0.0053 in Stage Two. Immunohistochemistry showed that both HK2 and NCK2 are expressed in the retinal ganglion cell layer. Once multi-testing was taken into account, only HK2 showed significant association with POAG and NTG in Stage Two. Our data also support previous reports of NCK2 association with NTG, and raise questions about what role TMEM182 might play in phenotypic variability. Our data suggest that HK2 may play an important role in NTG in the Japanese population.

  13. Association between Pulse Wave Velocity and Coronary Artery Calcification in Japanese men.

    Torii, Sayuki; Arima, Hisatomi; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Fujiyoshi, Akira; Kadota, Aya; Takashima, Naoyuki; Kadowaki, Sayaka; Hisamatsu, Takashi; Saito, Yoshino; Miyagawa, Naoko; Zaid, Maryam; Murakami, Yoshitaka; Abbott, Robert D; Horie, Minoru; Miura, Katsuyuki; Ueshima, Hirotsugu

    2015-01-01

    Pulse wave velocity (PWV) is a simple and valid clinical method for assessing arterial stiffness. Coronary artery calcification (CAC) is an intermediate stage in the process leading to overt cardiovascular disease (CVD) and an established determinant of coronary artery disease. This study aimed to examine the association between PWV and CAC in a population-based sample of Japanese men. This is a cross-sectional study of 986 randomly selected men aged 40-79 years from Shiga, Japan. CVD-free participants were examined from 2006 to 2008. Brachial-ankle PWV (baPWV) was measured using an automatic waveform analyzer. CAC was assessed using computed tomography. Agatston scores ≥ 10 were defined as the presence of CAC. Prevalence of CAC progressively increased with rising levels of baPWV: 20.6%, 41.7%, 56.3%, and 66.7% across baPWV quartiles < 1378, 1378-1563, 1564-1849, and > 1849 cm/s (P < 0.001 for trend). Associations remained significant after adjusting for age and other factors, including body mass index, systolic blood pressure, pulse rate, total and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, hemoglobin A1c, drinking, smoking and exercise status, and the use of medication to treat hypertension, dyslipidemia and diabetes (P=0.042 for trend). The optimal cutoff level of baPWV to detect CAC was 1612 cm/s using receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. Arterial stiffness as defined by an elevated baPWV is associated with an increased prevalence of CAC in a general population-based setting among Japanese men.

  14. Association of cardiorespiratory fitness and overweight with risk of type 2 diabetes in Japanese men.

    Keisuke Kuwahara

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Existing evidence is limited on what extent fitness can counterbalance type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM risk associated with obesity. We investigated the joint association of weight status and estimated VO2max, a marker of fitness, with the risk of developing T2DM among Japanese men using haemoglobin A1c and fasting glucose criterion. METHODS: The present study included 3,523 male employees aged 18-61 years without diabetes who provided health check-up and fitness data in Japan in 2003-2005. We calculated hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals for incident diabetes using the Cox regression model. RESULTS: During a mean follow-up of 6.0 years, 199 men developed diabetes. Multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (95% confidence interval of diabetes were 1.00 (reference, 1.44 (1.01-2.07, and 1.48 (1.03-2.13 for the highest through the lowest tertile of fitness (P for trend  = 0.04. Additional adjustment for body mass index largely attenuated the association of fitness with diabetes. Joint analysis showed that adjusted hazard ratios of diabetes were 1.00, 1.32, 2.94, and 1.83 in normal weight high-fit men, normal weight low-fit men, overweight high-fit men, and overweight low-fit men, respectively. CONCLUSION: The results suggest that weight control is more important than fitness in prevention of type 2 diabetes in Japanese men.

  15. Usefulness of a simple self-administered joint condition assessment sheet to predict the need for orthopaedic intervention in the management of haemophilic arthropathy.

    Masaoka, T; Amano, K; Takedani, H; Suzuki, T; Otaki, M; Seita, I; Tateiwa, T; Shishido, T; Yamamoto, K; Fukutake, K

    2017-03-01

    Detecting signs of joint deterioration is important for early effective orthopaedic intervention in managing haemophilic arthropathy. We developed a simple, patient self-administered sheet to evaluate the joint condition, and assessed the predictive ability of this assessment sheet for the need for an orthopaedic intervention. This was a single-centre, cross-sectional study. The association between the score of each of the four items of the assessment sheet (bleeding, swelling, pain and physical impairment) and the results of radiological findings and physical examinations based on Haemophilia Joint Health Score 2.1 was assessed. An optimal scoring system was explored by the area under the curve (AUC). The cut-off value for the need for surgery or physiotherapy was determined using the receiver operating characteristic curve procedure. Forty-two patients were included. The 'physical impairment' item showed the highest correlation coefficient with the results of radiographic and physical examinations (range: 0.57-0.76). The AUC of finally adjusted scoring indicates good ability to discriminate between patients with and without a need for orthopaedic intervention. The positive predictive value was the highest at a cut-off value of 4 points for knees (63.0%) and ankles (70.0%), at 5 points for elbows (66.7%) and the highest predictive accuracy at the cut-off value of 4 points for all the joints. The linear trend of the need for an orthopaedic intervention was observed with an increasing score. The joint condition assessment sheet can help clinicians assess the need for orthopaedic intervention for haemophilic arthropathy in Japanese patients with haemophilia. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. (Mis)perceptions about intimate partner violence in women presenting for orthopaedic care: a survey of Canadian orthopaedic surgeons.

    Bhandari, Mohit; Sprague, Sheila; Tornetta, Paul; D'Aurora, Valerie; Schemitsch, Emil; Shearer, Heather; Brink, Ole; Mathews, David; Dosanjh, Sonia

    2008-07-01

    Domestic violence is the most common cause of nonfatal injury to women in North America. In a review of 144 such injuries, the second most common manifestation of intimate partner violence was musculoskeletal injuries (28%). The American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons is explicit that orthopaedic surgeons should play a role in the screening and appropriate identification of victims. We aimed to identify the perceptions, attitudes, and knowledge of Canadian orthopaedic surgeons with regard to intimate partner violence. We surveyed members of the Canadian Orthopaedic Association to identify attitudes toward intimate partner violence. With use of a systematic random sample, 362 surgeons were mailed questionnaires. The questionnaire consisted of three sections: (1) the general attitude of the orthopaedic surgeon toward intimate partner violence, (2) the attitude of the orthopaedic surgeon toward victims and batterers, and (3) the clinical relevance of intimate partner violence in orthopaedic surgery. Up to three follow-up mailings were performed to enhance response rates. A total of 186 orthopaedic surgeons responded (a response rate of 51%), and 167 (91%) of them were men. Most orthopaedic surgeons (95%) estimated that <10% of their patients were victims of intimate partner violence, and most respondents (80%) believed that it was exceedingly rare (a prevalence of <1%). The concept of mandatory screening for intimate partner violence was met with uncertainty by 116 surgeons (64%). Misconceptions were perpetuated by surgeons who believed that inquiring about intimate partner violence was an invasion of the victim's privacy, that investigating intimate partner violence was not part of their duty, that victims choose to be a victim, and that victims play a proactive role in causing their abuse. By the completion of the survey, the majority of surgeons (91%) believed that knowledge about intimate partner violence was relevant to their surgical practice. Discomfort with

  17. Comprehensive association analysis of 27 genes from the GABAergic system in Japanese individuals affected with schizophrenia.

    Balan, Shabeesh; Yamada, Kazuo; Iwayama, Yoshimi; Hashimoto, Takanori; Toyota, Tomoko; Shimamoto, Chie; Maekawa, Motoko; Takagai, Shu; Wakuda, Tomoyasu; Kameno, Yosuke; Kurita, Daisuke; Yamada, Kohei; Kikuchi, Mitsuru; Hashimoto, Tasuku; Kanahara, Nobuhisa; Yoshikawa, Takeo

    2017-07-01

    Involvement of the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-ergic system in schizophrenia pathogenesis through disrupted neurodevelopment has been highlighted in numerous studies. However, the function of common genetic variants of this system in determining schizophrenia risk is unknown. We therefore tested the association of 375 tagged SNPs in genes derived from the GABAergic system, such as GABA A receptor subunit genes, and GABA related genes (glutamate decarboxylase genes, GABAergic-marker gene, genes involved in GABA receptor trafficking and scaffolding) in Japanese schizophrenia case-control samples (n=2926; 1415 cases and 1511 controls). We observed nominal association of SNPs in nine GABA A receptor subunit genes and the GPHN gene with schizophrenia, although none survived correction for study-wide multiple testing. Two SNPs located in the GABRA1 gene, rs4263535 (P allele =0.002; uncorrected) and rs1157122 (P allele =0.006; uncorrected) showed top hits, followed by rs723432 (P allele =0.007; uncorrected) in the GPHN gene. All three were significantly associated with schizophrenia and survived gene-wide multiple testing. Haplotypes containing associated variants in GABRA1 but not GPHN were significantly associated with schizophrenia. To conclude, we provided substantiating genetic evidence for the involvement of the GABAergic system in schizophrenia susceptibility. These results warrant further investigations to replicate the association of GABRA1 and GPHN with schizophrenia and to discern the precise mechanisms of disease pathophysiology. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Orthopaedic complications of osteogenesis imperfecta

    Azrak, S.; Ksyar, R.; Ben Rais, N.

    2009-01-01

    Osteogenesis imperfecta is a genetic disease characterized by bone frailty. It is generally caused by an abnormal production of collagen, which is the main fibrous protein of the bone. Collagen is also present in the skin, tendons, the sclera of the eye and dentin. The most frequent manifestation of osteogenesis imperfecta is the occurrence of multiple fractures without major trauma. Severity and timing of the attack varies widely: some patients sustain a significant number of fractures during early childhood which may have a serious impact on growth, while others will have some fractures separated by a few years. In all cases, the bone strength improves in adulthood. The bone fractures cause pain and bone deformities sometimes result in a smaller size. Scoliosis is frequent and associated with painful vertebral collapses. We present a case of osteogenesis imperfecta in a 40-year-old adult and we describe the various orthopaedic complications of the disease, stressing the role of bone scintigraphy in the diagnosis and monitoring of these complications. (authors)

  19. Joint associations of physical activity and screen time with overweight among japanese adults

    Liao Yung

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although both insufficient physical activity (PA and high screen time (ST are independent risk factors for obesity, how the combination of sufficient/insufficient PA and high/low ST could increase obesity risk among the adult population of Japan is not known. This study examined joint associations of PA and ST with overweight among Japanese adults. Methods An Internet-based survey collected data on height, weight, self-reported time spent in PA and ST, and sociodemographic variables from 2832 adults. Respondents were categorized into sufficient PA/low ST, sufficient PA/high ST, insufficient PA/low ST, or insufficient PA/high ST categories as per public PA guidelines and the median of ST. Logistic regression analysis examined the odds ratios (OR of being overweight (body mass index, ≥ 25 kg/m2 according to the categories of PA and ST. Results In comparison with the sufficient PA/low ST category, participants in the insufficient PA/high ST category were significantly more likely overweight (OR, 1.48; 95% confidence interval [95%CI, 1.14, 1.93 after adjusting for sociodemographic variables. A significantly higher OR for overweight (including obesity among insufficient PA/high ST category was also observed in men, but no significant association was found in women. Conclusions Both insufficient PA and prolonged ST contribute to overweight and obesity among Japanese adults. Public health initiatives addressing obesity in Japan need to consider both promoting PA and reducing ST, especially in men.

  20. Associations between social networks and life satisfaction among older Japanese: Does birth cohort make a difference?

    Kobayashi, Erika; Liang, Jersey; Sugawara, Ikuko; Fukaya, Taro; Shinkai, Shoji; Akiyama, Hiroko

    2015-12-01

    Japanese older people experienced drastic changes in family structure and values after World War II at different life stages by birth cohorts. We examined how linkages between different types of social ties and life satisfaction (LS) vary across cohorts, in conjunction with age and survey year differences. Data from face-to-face interviews conducted in 1987, 1999, and 2012 with a nationally representative sample of older Japanese (N = 4,917) were analyzed. The participants were members of 4 birth cohorts (C1: 1901-1912, C2: 1913-1924, C3: 1925-1936, C4: 1937-1949), categorized into 6 groups based on cohort and age at time of measurement (young-old [YO]: 63-74; old-old [OO]: 75-86): C1OO, C2YO, C2OO, C3YO, C3OO, and C4YO. Effects of social networks on LS among the 6 groups were compared simultaneously and separately by gender using the Amos software. There were significant cohort variations in the linkages between family network and LS. The positive association between being married and LS was stronger for later cohorts (C3, C4) among men, whereas that of co-residence with a child and LS was stronger for the earlier cohorts (C1, C2) among women. Moreover, the positive association between meeting with nonfamily members and LS increased from 1987 to 2012 among women, indicating a period effect over a cohort effect. The effects of being married and participation in community groups on LS also changed with age. Our results suggest that linkages between social relations and LS should be interpreted within the context of individual and social changes over time. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Association of interleukin 1 receptor-like 1 gene polymorphisms with eosinophilic phenotype in Japanese adults with asthma.

    Inoue, Hideki; Ito, Isao; Niimi, Akio; Matsumoto, Hisako; Oguma, Tsuyoshi; Tajiri, Tomoko; Iwata, Toshiyuki; Nagasaki, Tadao; Kanemitsu, Yoshihiro; Morishima, Toshitaka; Hirota, Tomomitsu; Tamari, Mayumi; Wenzel, Sally E; Mishima, Michiaki

    2017-11-01

    IL1RL1 (ST2) is involved in Th2 inflammation including eosinophil activation. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the IL1RL1 gene are associated with asthma development and increased peripheral blood eosinophil counts. However, the association between IL1RL1 SNPs and eosinophilic phenotype among adults with asthma remains unexplored. In a primary cohort of 110 adult Japanese patients with stable asthma, we examined the associations between IL1RL1 SNPs and clinical measurements including forced expiratory volume (FEV 1 ), airway reversibility of FEV 1 , exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO), serum soluble-ST2 (sST2) levels, peripheral blood eosinophil differentials and serum total IgE level. The findings in the primary cohort were confirmed in a validation cohort of 126 adult Japanese patients with stable asthma. Patients with minor alleles in 3 SNPs (rs17026974, rs1420101, and rs1921622) had high FeNO, blood eosinophil differentials, and reversibility of FEV 1 , but low levels of serum sST2 and FEV 1 . Minor alleles of rs1041973 were associated with low serum sST2 levels alone. In the validation cohort, minor alleles of rs1420101 were associated with high FeNO and blood eosinophil differentials, whereas minor alleles of rs17026974 and rs1921622 were associated with high blood eosinophil differentials and FeNO, respectively. Multivariate analyses revealed that the minor allele of rs1420101 additively contributed to the FeNO, blood eosinophil differentials, and reversibility of FEV 1 . The minor alleles of IL1RL1 SNPs were associated with high FeNO and peripheral blood eosinophilia among adult Japanese patients with stable asthma. IL1RL1 SNPs may characterize the eosinophilic phenotype with greater eosinophilic inflammation in the Japanese asthma cohort. Copyright © 2017 The Japanese Respiratory Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Genome-wide association studies in the Japanese population identify seven novel loci for type 2 diabetes

    Imamura, Minako; Takahashi, Atsushi; Yamauchi, Toshimasa

    2016-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified more than 80 susceptibility loci for type 2 diabetes (T2D), but most of its heritability still remains to be elucidated. In this study, we conducted a meta-analysis of GWAS for T2D in the Japanese population. Combined data from discovery and ...

  3. Japanese apricot improves symptoms of gastrointestinal dysmotility associated with gastroesophageal reflux disease.

    Maekita, Takao; Kato, Jun; Enomoto, Shotaro; Yoshida, Takeichi; Utsunomiya, Hirotoshi; Hayashi, Hideyuki; Hanamitsu, Toshiko; Inoue, Izumi; Maeda, Yoshimasa; Moribata, Kosaku; Muraki, Yosuke; Shingaki, Naoki; Deguchi, Hisanobu; Ueda, Kazuki; Iguchi, Mikitaka; Tamai, Hideyuki; Ichinose, Masao

    2015-07-14

    To investigate the effects of Japanese apricot (JA) consumption on gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)-related symptoms. Participants included individuals living in Minabe-cho, a well-known JA-growing region, who received specific medical check-ups by the local community health service in 2010. GERD-related symptoms were examined in 1303 Japanese individuals using a validated questionnaire, the Frequency Scale for Symptoms of GERD (FSSG), which consists of 7 questions associated with acid reflux symptoms and 5 questions asking about gastrointestinal dysmotility symptoms. Each question was answered using a 4-point scale, with higher scores indicating more severe GERD-related symptoms. Subjects were divided into two groups according to their intake of dried and pickled JA: daily intake (≥ 1 JA daily) (392 subjects) and none or occasional intake (reflux score did not differ between subjects with and without daily intake of JA (1.08 ± 1.90 vs 1.24 ± 2.11, P = 0.177). Subanalysis indicated that improvement in dysmotility by JA intake was specifically observed in non-elderly (1.24 ± 1.68 vs 1.62 ± 2.22, P = 0.005) and H. pylori-negative subjects (0.99 ± 1.58 vs 1.57 ± 2.06, P < 0.001). GERD patients (total FSSG score ≥ 8) were less frequently observed among subjects with daily intake of JA as compared to those without daily intake of JA (6.1% vs 9.7%, P = 0.040). Daily JA intake may improve digestive dysmotility symptoms, resulting in relief of GERD symptoms. The effect is more obvious in non-elderly and H. pylori-negative subjects.

  4. Sleep duration is significantly associated with carotid artery atherosclerosis incidence in a Japanese population.

    Abe, Tsueko; Aoki, Toshinari; Yata, Syogo; Okada, Masahiko

    2011-08-01

    Previous studies have indicated that sleep duration is associated with total mortality in a U-shaped fashion. The purpose of the current study was to examine the relationship between self-reported sleep duration and carotid artery atherosclerosis in a Japanese population. In 2009-2010, a total of 2498 participants (1195 men, 1303 women; age range, 23-92 years) were recruited from members of a Japanese community receiving annual health check-up at a local health center who agreed to participate in the study. Exclusion criteria were as follows: age <40 or ≥85 years; and more than one missing value from either laboratory data or questionnaire responses. A total of 2214 participants were entered into the study. Carotid artery arteriosclerosis was evaluated ultrasonographically and quantified as intima-medial thickness (IMT). The presence of carotid artery atherosclerosis was defined as IMT≥1.2 mm. Sleep durations were compared with IMT measurements after controlling for confounding factors such as age, sex, lipid profile, fasting plasma glucose, hemoglobin A1c, blood pressure, alcohol intake, and smoking habit. Sleep duration ≥7 h correlated significantly with the incidence of IMT≥1.2 m when compared with a sleep duration of 6 h (multivariate-adjusted odds ratio, 1.263; 95% confidence interval, 1.031-1.546, P=0.024). Shorter sleep duration ≤5 h did not correlate significantly with the risk compared with a sleep duration of 6 h. Long sleep duration (≥7 h) correlated significantly with the incidence of carotid artery atherosclerosis compared with a sleep duration of 6 h, but shorter sleep duration did not. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Factors associated with recognition of the signs of dating violence by Japanese junior high school students.

    Nagamatsu, Miyuki; Hamada, Yukiko; Hara, Kenichi

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated factors associated with the ability of Japanese junior high school students to recognize the signs of dating violence. During a period of 20 months (from June 2011 to January 2013), a survey was distributed to 3340 students aged 13-15 years in the second and third grades at 18 junior high schools in a Japanese prefecture. The survey examined gender, recognition of the signs of dating violence, knowledge of dating violence, self-esteem, attitudes toward sexual activity, attitudes toward an equal dating relationship, and relationships with school teachers. Multiple linear regression analyses were performed to identify predictors of the ability of boys and girls respondents to recognize the signs of physical and psychological dating violence. Binary multiple logistic regression analysis was also performed to identify predictors of the ability of boys and girls respondents to recognize the sign of sexual dating violence. The Ethics Committee of Saga University Medical School approved the study protocol. A total of 3050 (91.3%) students participated in this study (1547 boys and 1503 girls). Gender differences were noted with regard to the scores for some of the variables measured. The results indicated that boys who had more knowledge of dating violence, who focused on an equal dating relationship, and had a positive relationship with their teachers showed a greater ability to recognize the signs of dating violence. In addition, boys with a conservative attitude toward sexual activity showed a greater ability to recognize the signs of physical and sexual violence. Furthermore, girls with more knowledge of dating violence had a conservative attitude toward sexual activity, and girls who focused on an equal dating relationship showed greater ability to recognize the signs of dating violence. These findings suggest that education programs to prevent dating violence should promote understanding about dating violence with consideration of gender

  6. Computational radiology for orthopaedic interventions

    Li, Shuo

    2016-01-01

    This book provides a cohesive overview of the current technological advances in computational radiology, and their applications in orthopaedic interventions. Contributed by the leading researchers in the field, this volume covers not only basic computational radiology techniques such as statistical shape modeling, CT/MRI segmentation, augmented reality and micro-CT image processing, but also the applications of these techniques to various orthopaedic interventional tasks. Details about following important state-of-the-art development are featured: 3D preoperative planning and patient-specific instrumentation for surgical treatment of long-bone deformities, computer assisted diagnosis and planning of periacetabular osteotomy and femoroacetabular impingement, 2D-3D reconstruction-based planning of total hip arthroplasty, image fusion for  computer-assisted bone tumor surgery, intra-operative three-dimensional imaging in fracture treatment, augmented reality based orthopaedic interventions and education, medica...

  7. Racial and ethnic diversity in orthopaedic surgery residency programs.

    Okike, Kanu; Utuk, Mekeme E; White, Augustus A

    2011-09-21

    Although the U.S. population is increasingly diverse, the field of orthopaedic surgery has historically been less diverse. The purpose of this study was to quantify the representation of racial and ethnic minorities among orthopaedic surgery residents compared with those in other fields of medicine and to determine how these levels of diversity have changed over time. We determined the representation of minorities among residents in orthopaedic surgery and in other fields by analyzing the Graduate Medical Education reports published annually by the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA), which provided data for African-Americans from 1968 to 2008, Hispanics from 1990 to 2008, Asians from 1995 to 2008, and American Indians/Alaskan Natives and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders from 2001 to 2008. During the 1990s and 2000s, representation among orthopaedic residents increased rapidly for Asians (+4.53% per decade, p < 0.0001) and gradually for Hispanics (+1.37% per decade, p < 0.0001) and African-Americans (+0.68% per decade, p = 0.0003). Total minority representation in orthopaedics averaged 20.2% during the most recent years studied (2001 to 2008), including 11.7% for Asians, 4.0% for African-Americans, 3.8% for Hispanics, 0.4% for American Indians/Alaskan Natives, and 0.3% for Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders. However, orthopaedic surgery was significantly less diverse than all of the other residencies examined during this time period (p < 0.001). This was due primarily to the lower representation of Hispanics and Asians in orthopaedic surgery than in any of the other fields of medicine. Minority representation in orthopaedic residency programs has increased over time for Asians, Hispanics, and African-Americans. In spite of these gains, orthopaedic surgery has remained the least diverse of the specialty training programs considered in this study. While further efforts are needed to determine the factors underlying this lack of representation, we

  8. April 2006. 32 Major Orthopaedic Procedures

    user

    2006-04-01

    Apr 1, 2006 ... Major Orthopaedic Procedures: 17 Year Trends. Biruk Lambisso Wamisho1 ... financial and logistic constraints with poor compliance of ... Modern orthopaedic surgery is very expensive. A highly ..... Case management. Tribury.

  9. Replication of prostate cancer risk loci in a Japanese case-control association study.

    Yamada, Hiroki; Penney, Kathryn L; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Katoh, Takahiko; Yamano, Yuko; Yamakado, Minoru; Kimura, Takahiro; Kuruma, Hidetoshi; Kamata, Yuko; Egawa, Shin; Freedman, Matthew L

    2009-10-07

    Two prostate cancer genome-wide scans in populations of European ancestry identified several genetic variants that are strongly associated with prostate cancer risk. The effect of these risk variants and their cumulative effect in other populations are unknown. We evaluated the association of 23 risk single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with prostate cancer risk and clinical covariates (Gleason score, tumor aggressiveness, and age at diagnosis) in men of Japanese ancestry (311 case subjects and 1035 control subjects) using unconditional logistic regression. We also used logistic regression to test the association between increasing numbers of independently associated risk alleles and the risk of prostate cancer, prostate cancer aggressiveness, and age at diagnosis. All statistical tests were two-sided. Seven of the 23 SNPs (five independent loci) were associated with prostate cancer risk (P values ranged from .0084 to 2.3 x 10(-8) and effect sizes [estimated as odds ratios, ORs] ranged from 1.35 to 1.82). None of the seven SNPs was associated with Gleason score or aggressive disease. rs6983561 and rs4430796 were associated with age at diagnosis (Ps = .0188 and .0339, respectively). Men with six or more risk alleles (27% of case patients and 11% of control subjects) had a higher risk of prostate cancer than men with two or fewer risk alleles (7% of case patients and 20% of control subjects) (OR = 6.22, P = 1.5 x 10(-12)). These results highlight the critical importance of considering ancestry in understanding how risk alleles influence disease and suggest that risk estimates and variants differ across populations. It is important to perform studies in multiple ancestral populations so that the composite genetic architecture of prostate cancer can be rigorously addressed.

  10. Developmental orthopaedic diseases in foals

    Şİrİn, Özlem; Alkan, Zeki

    2010-01-01

    Developmental Orthopaedic Diseases (DOD) is seen frequently in horses which completed their maturity. Osteochondrosis, physitis, angular limb deformities, flexural deformities, juvenil arthritis, cervical vertebral anomalies, cuboidal bone abnormalities are problems investigated under Developmental Orthopaedic Diseases title. This diseases can develop single or some together in fast growing, heavy animals (especially Arabian and English Thoroughbreds). Multifactorial causes of this diseases etiopathogenesis can be listed as genetic predisposition, trauma, nutrition, vitamins/minerals and endocrine disorders. But the exact causes of these diseases are not known. In this review detailed information are given about the diseases mentioned above

  11. Salivary cortisol levels are associated with outcomes of weight reduction therapy in obese Japanese patients.

    Himeno, Akihiro; Satoh-Asahara, Noriko; Usui, Takeshi; Wada, Hiromichi; Tochiya, Mayu; Kono, Shigeo; Yamada-Goto, Nobuko; Katsuura, Goro; Hasegawa, Koji; Nakao, Kazuwa; Shimatsu, Akira

    2012-02-01

    Dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis can increase the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, the detailed relationships of HPA axis activity with weight reduction and CVD risk factors in obese patients have not been examined. This study was designed to elucidate the associations of salivary cortisol levels with weight reduction and CVD risk factors in obese patients. As a marker of HPA axis activity, we measured the morning salivary cortisol levels of 83 obese Japanese outpatients. We also examined metabolic parameters, inflammatory markers, and indicators of arterial stiffness, that is, the pulse wave velocity and cardio-ankle vascular index. All 83 obese patients underwent 3-month weight reduction therapy with lifestyle modification. At the baseline, multivariate regression analysis revealed that only logarithmic transformation of C-reactive protein (β = 0.258, P cortisol levels. However, other metabolic parameters were not significantly associated with the salivary cortisol levels. In addition, lower salivary cortisol levels and higher body weight at the baseline were the only independent determinants of successful weight loss through the weight reduction therapy (P cortisol levels are significantly associated with the levels of an inflammatory marker, arterial stiffness, and successful weight reduction in obese patients. Therefore, salivary cortisol could be a useful marker for assessing and managing body weight and CVD risk factors in obese patients. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Prevalence of fear of falling and associated factors among Japanese community-dwelling older adults.

    Tomita, Yoshihito; Arima, Kazuhiko; Tsujimoto, Ritsu; Kawashiri, Shin-Ya; Nishimura, Takayuki; Mizukami, Satoshi; Okabe, Takuhiro; Tanaka, Natsumi; Honda, Yuzo; Izutsu, Kazumi; Yamamoto, Naoko; Ohmachi, Izumi; Kanagae, Mitsuo; Abe, Yasuyo; Aoyagi, Kiyoshi

    2018-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of fear of falling and associated factors among Japanese community-dwelling older adults.Cross-sectional study between 2011 and 2013.Community in which residents voluntarily attended a health examination.We recruited 844 older adults (male, n = 350; female, n = 494) aged 60 to 92 years from among those who presented at the health examination.We assessed fear of falling, falls in the previous year, pain, comorbidity, and cataracts. Five times chair stand time was applied as an indicator of physical performance.The prevalence of fear of falling was 26.9% and 43.3% among the men and women, respectively. Men and women who feared falling were older (P fear of falling.The prevalence of fear of falling was similar to previous reports. Advanced age, falls in previous year, and pain were associated with fear of falling in men. A longer 5 times chair stand time was also associated with fear of falling among older adult women. Maintenance of physical function and pain management might be important for older adults with fear of falling.

  13. Cognitive function in Japanese women with posttraumatic stress disorder: Association with exercise habits.

    Narita-Ohtaki, Ryoko; Hori, Hiroaki; Itoh, Mariko; Lin, Mingming; Niwa, Madoka; Ino, Keiko; Imai, Risa; Ogawa, Sei; Sekiguchi, Atsushi; Matsui, Mie; Kunugi, Hiroshi; Kamo, Toshiko; Kim, Yoshiharu

    2018-08-15

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been associated with cognitive impairments, yet little is documented on the cognitive function of PTSD patients in Asian countries. It is shown that regular exercise can reduce PTSD symptoms, while no study has investigated the association between exercise and cognition in PTSD patients. This study aimed to examine cognitive functions of Japanese women with PTSD, and to explore the association between regular exercise and cognitive functions. Forty-two women with DSM-IV PTSD and 66 demographically matched healthy control women participated in this study. Most of the patients developed PTSD after experiencing interpersonal violence. Cognitive functions were assessed by the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS). Regular exercise habit was assessed by a self-reported questionnaire. Compared to controls, PTSD patients performed significantly more poorly in all cognitive domains examined, including immediate memory, visuospatial construction, language, attention, delayed memory, as well as the total score of RBANS (all p cognitive functions, including notable impairments in verbal memory. Such memory deficits might be improved by regular exercise, although further studies are needed to investigate the causal relationship between exercise and cognition in PTSD. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Orthopaedic training in Kenya | Mulimba | East African Orthopaedic ...

    Objective: To do a survey of the current orthopaedic specialists in Kenya's training since their first medical degrees. Determine the duration, facilities and methods of training. Methods: A number of doctors trained under different arrangements were identified, interviewed and where curriculum was available this was read.

  15. Association of gene polymorphism of the fat mass and obesity associated gene with metabolic syndrome: a retrospective cohort study in Japanese workers.

    Kawajiri, Tomoka; Osaki, Yoneatsu; Kishimoto, Takuji

    2012-06-01

    To investigate whether gene polymorphism of the fat mass and obesity associated gene (FTO) is associated with metabolic syndrome (MS), we used two MS criteria, the National Cholesterol Education Program-Adult Treatment panel III (NCEP-ATPIII) definition in 2003 and the Japanese definition in 2005. Subjects were respectively 859 and 865 Japanese workers at a company in Shimane Prefecture, Japan. They were non-MS individuals in 1998 and had regular health checkups between 1998 and 2006. The Cox proportional hazard regression was used to predict MS. Three SNPs in the FTO, rs9939609, rs1121980 and rs1558902, were genotyped by the TaqMan PCR assay and a retrospective study was performed. The three SNPs in the FTO were significantly associated with body mass index, and rs1121980 and rs1558902 were associated with fasting plasma glucose. MS defined by the NCEP-ATPIII definition was significantly associated with additive and dominant models of rs9939609 and rs1121980, and the dominant model of rs1558902, even after adjusting for confounding factors such as age, sex and lifestyle. MS defined by the Japanese definition was significantly associated with the additive model of rs1121980 and additive and dominant models of rs1558902 in multivariate analysis. These results suggested that FTO gene polymorphisms, rs9939609, rs1121980 and rs1558902, were associated with an increased risk of MS among Japanese workers.

  16. Patient compliance and effect of orthopaedic shoes

    Philipsen, A B; Ellitsgaard, N; Krogsgaard, M R

    1999-01-01

    Orthopaedic shoes are individually handmade after a prescription from an orthopaedic surgeon, hence relatively expensive. Bad compliance is mentioned in the literature but not investigated. In order to evaluate patient compliance and the effect of orthopaedic shoes, 85 patients who were prescribed...

  17. Association of menstrual phase with smoking behavior, mood and menstrual phase-associated symptoms among young Japanese women smokers.

    Sakai, Hiroko; Ohashi, Kazutomo

    2013-03-02

    Previous studies of the relationship between the menstrual phases and smoking behavior have been problematic, so the association of menstrual phases with smoking behavior and correlations among smoking, psychological and physical conditions in each phase of the menstrual cycle are unclear. To accurately examine the association between menstrual phases and the amount of smoking (number of cigarettes smoked and breath CO concentration), craving of smoking on visual analogue scale (VAS), depression in the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D) Scale, and menstrual phase-associated symptoms in the Menstrual Distress Questionnaire (MDQ), we improved various methodological issues, specifically, 1) Ovulation was confirmed by measuring the basal body temperature and identifying a urinary luteinizing hormone (LH) surge in two cycles; 2) The menstrual, follicular, and luteal phases were clearly defined for subjects with different menstrual cycles; 3) The breath CO concentration was measured every day. A notice was posted on public bulletin boards to recruit research subjects and twenty-nine young Japanese women smokers aged 19 to 25 years old were analyzed. The number of cigarettes smoked was greater and the CO concentration was higher in the luteal phase than in the follicular phase. The levels of craving for smoking (VAS), depressiveness (CES-D), and menstrual phase-associated symptoms (MDQ) in the menstrual and luteal phases were higher than those in the follicular phase. The mean score for CES-D was 16 points (the cut-off value in screening for depression) or higher in the menstrual (16.9 ± 8.2) and luteal phases (17.2 ± 8.4).The number of cigarettes smoked and CO concentration were significantly correlated with the levels of craving for smoking, depressiveness, and menstrual phase-associated symptoms in all phases except for MDQ scores in follicular phase. The amount of smoking in the luteal phase was most strongly correlated with these symptoms

  18. Associations between socioeconomic status and primary total knee joint replacements performed for osteoarthritis across Australia 2003-10: data from the Australian Orthopaedic Association National Joint Replacement Registry.

    Brennan, Sharon L; Lane, Stephen E; Lorimer, Michelle; Buchbinder, Rachelle; Wluka, Anita E; Page, Richard S; Osborne, Richard H; Pasco, Julie A; Sanders, Kerrie M; Cashman, Kara; Ebeling, Peter R; Graves, Stephen E

    2014-10-28

    Relatively little is known about the social distribution of total knee joint replacement (TKR) uptake in Australia. We examine associations between socioeconomic status (SES) and TKR performed for diagnosed osteoarthritis 2003-10 for all Australian males and females aged ≥ 30 yr. Data of primary TKR (n=213,018, 57.4% female) were ascertained from a comprehensive national joint replacement registry. Residential addresses were matched to Australian Census data to identify area-level social disadvantage, and categorised into deciles. Estimated TKR rates were calculated. Poisson regression was used to model the relative risk (RR) of age-adjusted TKR per 1,000py, stratified by sex and SES. A negative relationship was observed between TKR rates and SES deciles. Females had a greater rate of TKR than males. Surgery utilisation was greatest for all adults aged 70-79 yr. In that age group differences in estimated TKR per 1,000py between deciles were greater for 2010 than 2003 (females: 2010 RR 4.32 and 2003 RR 3.67; males: 2010 RR 2.04 and 2003 RR 1.78). Identifying factors associated with TKR utilisation and SES may enhance resource planning and promote surgery utilisation for end-stage osteoarthritis.

  19. Association Between Cortisol to DHEA-s Ratio and Sickness Absence in Japanese Male Workers.

    Hirokawa, Kumi; Fujii, Yasuhito; Taniguchi, Toshiyo; Takaki, Jiro; Tsutsumi, Akizumi

    2017-11-21

    This study aimed to investigate the association between serum levels of cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-s) and sickness absence over 2 years in Japanese male workers. A baseline survey including questions about health behavior, along with blood sampling for cortisol and DHEA-s, was conducted in 2009. In total, 429 men (mean ± SD age, 52.9 ± 8.6 years) from whom blood samples were collected at baseline were followed until December 31, 2011. The hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for sickness absence were calculated using a Cox proportional hazard model, adjusted for potential confounders. Among 35 workers who took sickness absences, 31 had physical illness. A high cortisol to DHEA-s ratio increased the risk of sickness absence (crude HR = 2.68, 95% CI 1.12-6.41; adjusted HR = 3.33, 95% CI 1.35-8.20). The cortisol to DHEA-s ratio was linearly associated with an increased risk of sickness absence (p for trend sickness absences. This trend did not change when limited to absences resulting from physical illness. Hormonal conditions related to the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenocortical axis and adrenal function should be considered when predicting sickness absence. The cortisol to DHEA-s ratio may be more informative than single effects of cortisol and DHEA-s levels.

  20. Association between falls and depressive symptoms or visual impairment among Japanese young-old adults.

    Kojima, Reiji; Ukawa, Shigekazu; Ando, Masahiko; Kawamura, Takashi; Wakai, Kenji; Tsushita, Kazuyo; Tamakoshi, Akiko

    2016-03-01

    To investigate the association between falls and self-reported depressive symptoms or visual impairment among young-old adults. A total of 1904 participants (986 men and 918 women) aged 64 years from the New Integrated Suburban Seniority Investigation Project from 1996 to 2005, an age-specific cohort study in Nisshin, Japan, took part in the present study. Depressive symptoms were evaluated using the Geriatric Depression Scale. Visual impairment was assessed using a self-administered questionnaire. The outcome variable was self-reported injurious falls at the age of 70 years. Multivariate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of depressive symptoms and visual impairment for the incidence of falls were calculated using logistic regression models and adjusted for possible confounding factors. Overall, 77 (7.8%) men and 126 (13.7%) women reported falls within the past 1 year at age 70 years. Among women, depressive symptoms and visual impairment were significantly associated with falls after adjusting for potential confounders (OR 1.70, 95% CI 1.09-2.62; OR 2.34, 95% CI 1.45-3.71, respectively), but not among men. Women with both conditions had a significantly increased risk of falls after adjusting for potential confounders (OR 3.50, 95% CI 1.65-7.13) compared with those with neither condition; the association was not significant among men. Depressive symptoms and visual impairment at age 64 years were significantly associated with an increased risk of falls at age 70 years in Japanese women but not in men. The combination of the two symptoms had an even greater association with fall risk. © 2015 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  1. Hand dominance in orthopaedic surgeons.

    Lui, Darren F

    2012-08-01

    Handedness is perhaps the most studied human asymmetry. Laterality is the preference shown for one side and it has been studied in many aspects of medicine. Studies have shown that some orthopaedic procedures had poorer outcomes and identified laterality as a contributing factor. We developed a questionnaire to assess laterality in orthopaedic surgery and compared this to an established scoring system. Sixty-two orthopaedic surgeons surveyed with the validated Waterloo Handedness Questionnaire (WHQ) were compared with the self developed Orthopaedic Handedness Questionnaire (OHQ). Fifty-eight were found to be right hand dominant (RHD) and 4 left hand dominant (LHD). In RHD surgeons, the average WHQ score was 44.9% and OHQ 15%. For LHD surgeons the WHQ score was 30.2% and OHQ 9.4%. This represents a significant amount of time using the non dominant hand but does not necessarily determine satisfactory or successful dexterity transferable to the operating room. Training may be required for the non dominant side.

  2. 42 Editorial ADVOCACY IN ORTHOPAEDICS

    2017-09-11

    Sep 11, 2017 ... East African Orthopaedic Journal. Advocacy may be ... taxation of medical equipment and implants in Kenya. In 2013 a change ... Asia countries especially India were doing the opposite. They reduced ... Most developing countries have been dealing with communicable ... The role of advocacy is huge here.

  3. Do Orthopaedic Surgeons Acknowledge Uncertainty?

    Teunis, Teun; Janssen, Stein; Guitton, Thierry G.; Ring, David; Parisien, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Much of the decision-making in orthopaedics rests on uncertain evidence. Uncertainty is therefore part of our normal daily practice, and yet physician uncertainty regarding treatment could diminish patients' health. It is not known if physician uncertainty is a function of the evidence alone or if

  4. Association of household income and education with eating behaviors in Japanese adults: a cross-sectional study.

    Nakamura, Saki; Inayama, Takayo; Hata, Kikuko; Matsushita, Munehiro; Takahashi, Masaki; Harada, Kazuhiro; Arao, Takashi

    2016-01-22

    Socioeconomic inequalities as social determinants of health are important issues in public health and health promotion. However, the association between socioeconomic status and eating behaviors has been investigated poorly in Japanese adults. To fill this gap, the present study examines the association of eating behaviors with household income and education. The sample comprised 3,137 Japanese adults (1,580 men and 1,557 women) aged 30 to 59 years who responded to an Internet-based cross-sectional survey in 2014. Data on the following eating behaviors were collected via self-report: "taking care of one's diet for health," "eating vegetables," "frequency of eating breakfast," "frequency of family breakfasts," "frequency of family dinners," "using the information on nutrition labels," and "conversations with family or friends during meals." Self-reported data on socioeconomic status (household income and education) and demographic variables (gender, age, district of residence, marital status, residence status, and employment status) were also collected. The associations between eating behaviors and household income or education were tested using binomial logistic regression analysis with eating behaviors as dependent variables and household income and education as independent variables. A trend P -value was calculated for three categories of household income (less than 3,000,000 JPY, 3,000,000-7,000,000 JPY, and over 7,000,000 JPY) and education (junior high/high school, 2-year college, and 4-year college/graduate school). Higher household income and education were significantly associated with higher rates of eating vegetables, using the information on nutrition labels, and conversation with family or friends during meals in Japanese men and women. Higher household incomes were significantly associated with lower rates of frequency of family breakfasts in Japanese men and lower rates of frequency of family dinners in Japanese men and women. Higher socioeconomic

  5. Exploring the daily activities associated with delayed bedtime of Japanese university students.

    Asaoka, Shoichi; Komada, Yoko; Fukuda, Kazuhiko; Sugiura, Tatsuki; Inoue, Yuichi; Yamazaki, Katuo

    2010-07-01

    University students show delayed sleep-wake patterns, i.e., later bed- and rise-times, and this pattern is known to be associated with various malfunctions. There may be a variety of daily activities associated with their delayed sleep patterns, such as watching TV. However, it is unclear to what extent each activity possesses an impact on their sleep patterns. The purpose of this study was to determine the daily activities associated with delayed bedtime in Japanese university students who live with or without their families. Three hundred and thirty-one participants were required to record the timing and duration of their sleep and daily activities, and the data from the 275 students (160 men and 115 women; 19.01 +/- 1.66 years) who completely filled forms were used for analysis. The results of multiple regression analyses suggested that interpersonal communication late at night is one of the major factors leading to the delayed bedtime of students living away from home. Among those living with their families, indoor activities such as watching TV and using the Internet were related to their delayed bedtimes. Attending classes and having a morning meal were related to the earlier bedtimes of the students living away from home, but there were no activities associated with those of the students living with their families. These results suggest that ensuring attendance at morning classes and having appropriate mealtimes, as well as restricting the use of visual media and socializing activities at night, are necessary for preventing late bedtimes in university students.

  6. Associations of physical activity and diet with the onset of menopause in Japanese women.

    Nagata, Chisato; Wada, Keiko; Nakamura, Kozue; Tamai, Yuya; Tsuji, Michiko; Shimizu, Hiroyuki

    2012-01-01

    Prospective studies on physical activity and diet and the onset of natural menopause are scarce. The aim of this study was to examine the association of physical activity and dietary factors potentially related to endogenous estrogen levels such as fats, dietary fiber, soy isoflavones, and alcohol with the onset of menopause in a cohort of premenopausal women. Study participants were 3,115 premenopausal Japanese women aged 35 to 56 years derived from the participants in the Takayama Study. Physical activity was assessed by a validated questionnaire at baseline, and the metabolic equivalent score was calculated. The dietary intakes were estimated by a validated food frequency questionnaire at baseline and adjusted for total energy. Menopause status was defined as the absence of menstruation for 12 months or more. The Cox proportional hazard model was used to estimate the hazard ratio of the occurrence of menopause after controlling for age, parity, body mass index, smoking status, years of education, and lifelong irregular menstrual cycle. During the 10-year follow-up, 1,790 women experienced natural menopause. A high physical activity level and a high intake of polyunsaturated fat were moderately but significantly associated with the earlier onset of menopause; the hazard ratios for the highest versus lowest quartile were 1.17 (95% CI, 1.02-1.34) for physical activity and 1.15 (95% CI, 1.01-1.31) for polyunsaturated fat intake. Total fat, other types of fat, dietary fiber, soy isoflavones, and alcohol were not associated with the onset of menopause. These data suggest that high levels of physical activity and polyunsaturated fat intake are associated with earlier onset of menopause.

  7. Communication skills training in orthopaedics.

    Lundine, Kristopher; Buckley, Richard; Hutchison, Carol; Lockyer, Jocelyn

    2008-06-01

    Communication skills play a key role in many aspects of both medical education and clinical patient care. The objectives of this study were to identify the key components of communication skills from the perspectives of both orthopaedic residents and their program directors and to understand how these skills are currently taught. This study utilized a mixed methods design. Quantitative data were collected with use of a thirty-item questionnaire distributed to all Canadian orthopaedic residents. Qualitative data were collected through focus groups with orthopaedic residents and semistructured interviews with orthopaedic program directors. One hundred and nineteen (37%) of 325 questionnaires were completed, twelve residents participated in two focus groups, and nine of sixteen program directors from across the country were interviewed. Both program directors and residents identified communication skills as being the accurate and appropriate use of language (i.e., content skills), not how the communication was presented (i.e., process skills). Perceived barriers to effective communication included time constraints and the need to adapt to the many personalities and types of people encountered daily in the hospital. Residents rarely have explicit training in communication skills. They rely on communication training implicitly taught through observation of their preceptors and clinical experience interacting with patients, peers, and other health-care professionals. Orthopaedic residents and program directors focus on content and flexibility within communication skills as well as on the importance of being concise. They value the development of communication skills in the clinical environment through experiential learning and role modeling. Education should focus on developing residents' process skills in communication. Care should be taken to avoid large-group didactic teaching sessions, which are perceived as ineffective.

  8. Association of Lifestyle with Physical and Mental Health in Japanese Radiological Technologists

    Tahara, Hiroyuki; Kondo, Hisayoshi; Ueya, Etsuo

    2003-01-01

    To elucidate the effects of low-dose radiation exposure and lifestyle on physical health and mental health, we evaluated the relationship of age, cumulative radiation dose, and lifestyle (cigarette smoking, alcohol drinking and physical exercise) to physical and mental health in Japanese radiological technologists. The study subjects were 932 Japanese radiological technologists who participated in a health study from 1981 to 1985. A self-administered questionnaire was mailed to each subject t...

  9. Inverse association between soya food consumption and insulin resistance in Japanese adults.

    Nakamoto, Mariko; Uemura, Hirokazu; Sakai, Tohru; Katsuura-Kamano, Sakurako; Yamaguchi, Miwa; Hiyoshi, Mineyoshi; Arisawa, Kokichi

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the association between soya food consumption and insulin resistance using baseline data of the Japan Multi-Institutional Collaborative Cohort (J-MICC) Study in Tokushima, Japan. This cross-sectional study included 1274 subjects, aged 34-70 years at baseline, living in Tokushima Prefecture between 2008 and 2013. Fasting blood samples were collected and information on lifestyle characteristics including soya food intake and medical history were obtained using a structured self-administered questionnaire. The homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was measured and those with HOMA-IR ≥ 2.5 were defined as having insulin resistance. Multiple logistic regression models were used to analyse the association between soya product intake and the prevalence of insulin resistance. Rural communities located in Tokushima Prefecture, Japan, between 2008 and 2013. A total of 1148 adults (565 men and 583 women), aged 34-70 years. The frequency of intake of miso soup, total non-fried soya products and total soya products showed significant inverse dose-response relationships with insulin resistance, after adjustments for potential confounders. When soya product intake was calculated as soya protein and isoflavone, the odds ratios of insulin resistance decreased significantly as the estimated intake of soya protein increased. Furthermore, significant inverse dose-response relationships were observed for total non-fried soya products and total soya products, after adjustment for total vegetable or total fibre consumption. The present results indicate that the intake of soya products and non-fried soya products is associated with reduced insulin resistance in the Japanese population.

  10. Association of visceral fat area with abdominal skeletal muscle distribution in overweight Japanese adults.

    Tanaka, Noriko I; Murakami, Haruka; Ohmori, Yumi; Aiba, Naomi; Morita, Akemi; Watanabe, Shaw; Miyachi, Motohiko

    2016-07-20

    Quantitative evaluation of visceral fat mass and skeletal muscle mass is important for health promotion. Recently, some studies suggested the existence of adipocyte-myocyte negative crosstalk. If so, abdominal skeletal muscles may easily and negatively affected not only by the age but also the visceral fat because age-related reduction in abdominal region is greater compared with limbs. We cross-sectionally examined the existence of quantitative associations between visceral fat area and abdominal skeletal muscle distribution in overweight people. A total of 230 Japanese males and females who aged 40-64 years and whose body mass index (BMI) was 28.0-44.8kg/m 2 participated in this study. The cross-sectional area (CSA) of the visceral fat, subcutaneous fat, and abdominal skeletal muscles, namely, the rectus abdominis, abdominal oblique, erector spinae, and iliopsoas muscles were measured by the computed tomography images. Stepwise regression analyses revealed the existence of sex difference in the relation between visceral fat CSA and other morphological variables. In males, BMI was a positive, and the iliopsoas muscle group CSA was a negative contributor of the visceral fat CSA. In females, both age and BMI were selected as positive contributors. These data suggested that the visceral fat CSA may negatively associated with iliopsoas muscle group CSA in males. In females, the visceral fat CSA was not significantly related to the distribution of the abdominal skeletal muscle groups. Copyright © 2016 Asia Oceania Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Analysis of factors associated with hiccups based on the Japanese Adverse Drug Event Report database.

    Hosoya, Ryuichiro; Uesawa, Yoshihiro; Ishii-Nozawa, Reiko; Kagaya, Hajime

    2017-01-01

    Hiccups are occasionally experienced by most individuals. Although hiccups are not life-threatening, they may lead to a decline in quality of life. Previous studies showed that hiccups may occur as an adverse effect of certain medicines during chemotherapy. Furthermore, a male dominance in hiccups has been reported. However, due to the limited number of studies conducted on this phenomenon, debate still surrounds the few factors influencing hiccups. The present study aimed to investigate the influence of medicines and patient characteristics on hiccups using a large-sized adverse drug event report database and, specifically, the Japanese Adverse Drug Event Report (JADER) database. Cases of adverse effects associated with medications were extracted from JADER, and Fisher's exact test was performed to assess the presence or absence of hiccups for each medication. In a multivariate analysis, we conducted a multiple logistic regression analysis using medication and patient characteristic variables exhibiting significance. We also examined the role of dexamethasone in inducing hiccups during chemotherapy. Medicines associated with hiccups included dexamethasone, levofolinate, fluorouracil, oxaliplatin, carboplatin, and irinotecan. Patient characteristics associated with hiccups included a male gender and greater height. The combination of anti-cancer agent and dexamethasone use was noted in more than 95% of patients in the dexamethasone-use group. Hiccups also occurred in patients in the anti-cancer agent-use group who did not use dexamethasone. Most of the medications that induce hiccups are used in chemotherapy. The results of the present study suggest that it is possible to predict a high risk of hiccups using patient characteristics. We confirmed that dexamethasone was the drug that has the strongest influence on the induction of hiccups. However, the influence of anti-cancer agents on the induction of hiccups cannot be denied. We consider the results of the present

  12. Fifth joint meeting of the American Urological Association and the Japanese Urological Association International Affiliate Society Meeting at the 105th Annual Meeting of the American Urological Association.

    Myers, Robert P; Seki, Narihito; Gotoh, Momokazu; Chai, Toby C; Kaplan, Steven A; Inoue, Keiji; Trachtenberg, John; Kikuchi, Eiji; Nishiyama, Hiroyuki; Chang, Sam S; Lee, Cheryl; Muto, Satoru; Ito, Kazuto; Andriole, Gerald L; Eto, Masatoshi; Sumitomo, Makoto; Kamba, Tomomi; Wood, Chrsitopher G; Margulis, Vitaly; Naito, Seiji; Egawa, Shin

    2010-08-01

    We are heartily grateful for the warm support of all of the people concerned, including the moderators and panelists of both societies for giving us the opportunity to hold the 5(th) American Urological Association/Japanese Urological Association (AUA/JUA) International Affiliate Society Meeting, held once again at the 105th Annual Meeting of the American Urological Association (29 May-3 June 2010, San Francisco, California, USA). The year of 2010 is a memorable one, being the start of reciprocal collaborations between the AUA and the JUA. The JUA, in collaboration with the AUA, is promoting an academic exchange program whereby outstanding and promising Japanese and American junior faculty members will be given the opportunity to work in the USA and Japan for 1 month. The program not only allows the sharing of knowledge and experience, but also is designed to foster a closer alliance between the AUA and JUA, and assists in identifying future leaders within both organizations. The AUA and JUA will have an exhibit booth at each other's annual meeting, promoting our new joint activities. Both the JUA and AUA will organize educational courses in Hawaii in 2011. With all of these activities, the JUA hopes it will provide greater opportunities for young Japanese urologists to participate in educational projects in the USA. We would like to thank Professor Anton J. Bueschen, President of AUA, Professor Robert C Flanigan, Secretary General of AUA and the staff of the AUA and JUA for supporting our program. At the same time, we need the support of all the members and their valuable suggestions. We look forward to further participation of AUA members to this meeting. Seiji Naito md, President of JUA Shin Egawa md, Chairman of the International Committee of JUA.

  13. Genome-wide association studies in the Japanese population identify seven novel loci for type 2 diabetes

    Imamura, Minako; Takahashi, Atsushi; Yamauchi, Toshimasa

    2016-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified more than 80 susceptibility loci for type 2 diabetes (T2D), but most of its heritability still remains to be elucidated. In this study, we conducted a meta-analysis of GWAS for T2D in the Japanese population. Combined data from discovery...... and subsequent validation analyses (23,399 T2D cases and 31,722 controls) identify 7 new loci with genome-wide significance (P2, rs7107784 near MIR4686 and rs67839313 near INAFM2....... Of these, the association of 4 loci with T2D is replicated in multi-ethnic populations other than Japanese (up to 65,936 T2Ds and 158,030 controls, P

  14. Clinical features of anaerobic orthopaedic infections.

    Lebowitz, Dan; Kressmann, Benjamin; Gjoni, Shpresa; Zenelaj, Besa; Grosgurin, Olivier; Marti, Christophe; Zingg, Matthieu; Uçkay, Ilker

    2017-02-01

    Some patient populations and types of orthopaedic surgery could be at particular risk for anaerobic infections. In this retrospective cohort study of operated adult patients with infections from 2004 to 2014, we assessed obligate anaerobes and considered first clinical infection episodes. Anaerobes, isolated from intra-operative samples, were identified in 2.4% of 2740 surgical procedures, of which half (33/65; 51%) were anaerobic monomicrobial infections. Propionibacterium acnes, a penicillin and vancomycin susceptible pathogen, was the predominantly isolated anaerobe. By multivariate analysis, the presence of fracture fixation plates was the variable most strongly associated with anaerobic infection (odds ratio: 2.1, 95% CI: 1.3-3.5). Anaerobes were also associated with spondylodesis and polymicrobial infections. In contrast, it revealed less likely in native bone or prosthetic joint infections and was not related to prior antibiotic use. In conclusion, obligate anaerobes in our case series of orthopaedic infections were rare, and mostly encountered in infections related to trauma with open-fracture fixation devices rather than clean surgical site infection. Anaerobes were often co-pathogens, and cultures most frequently recovered P. acnes. These observations thus do not support changes in current practices such as broader anaerobe coverage for perioperative prophylaxis.

  15. Planning for life after orthopaedics.

    Barr, Joseph S; McCaslin, Michael J; Hinds, Cynthia K

    2014-01-01

    The word retirement is going out of fashion. Many orthopaedic surgeons want to work in some capacity when they stop performing surgery. Making a smooth transition from a busy orthopaedic practice to alternative work demands advanced planning. The surgeon must consider personal issues that involve how to use human capital (his or her accumulated knowledge and experience). New ventures, hobbies, travel, and spending time with family and friends are some possibilities. Plans for slowing down or leaving the practice should be discussed and agreed on well ahead of time. Agreements for buyouts may be difficult to work out and will require creative thinking. The solo practitioner can close the practice or hire a successor. Financial planning is perhaps the most important consideration and should be started by approximately age 40. It is recommended that the surgeon develop a portfolio of secure investments and annuities to provide adequate income for as long as is needed and then to turn the residual income to one's family, favorite charities, or other desired cause. A team of competent advisors is needed to help develop and achieve one's goals, create financial security, and provide the discipline to carry out the needed planning for life after orthopaedics.

  16. Association between serum organochlorines and global methylation level of leukocyte DNA among Japanese women: a cross-sectional study

    Itoh, Hiroaki [Department of Epidemiology and Environmental Health, Juntendo University Faculty of Medicine, 2-1-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113–8421 Japan (Japan); Iwasaki, Motoki, E-mail: moiwasak@ncc.go.jp [Epidemiology Division, Research Center for Cancer Prevention and Screening, National Cancer Center, 5-1-1 Tsukiji, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 104–0045 Japan (Japan); Kasuga, Yoshio [Department of Surgery, Nagano Matsushiro General Hospital, 183 Matsushiro, Matsushiro-cho, Nagano City, Nagano Prefecture 381–1231 Japan (Japan); Yokoyama, Shiro; Onuma, Hiroshi [Department of Breast and Thyroid Surgery, Nagano Red Cross Hospital, 5-22-1 Wakasato, Nagano City, Nagano Prefecture 380–8582 Japan (Japan); Nishimura, Hideki [Department of Respiratory Surgery and Breast Surgery, Nagano Municipal Hospital, 1333–1 Tomitake, Nagano City, Nagano Prefecture 381–8551 Japan (Japan); Kusama, Ritsu [Department of Surgery, Hokushin General Hospital, 1-5-63 Nishi, Nakano City, Nagano Prefecture 383–8505 Japan (Japan); Yoshida, Teruhiko [Division of Genetics, National Cancer Center Research Institute, 5-1-1 Tsukiji, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 104–0045 Japan (Japan); Yokoyama, Kazuhito [Department of Epidemiology and Environmental Health, Juntendo University Faculty of Medicine, 2-1-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113–8421 Japan (Japan); Tsugane, Shoichiro [Dierctor Research Center for Cancer Prevention and Screening, National Cancer Center, 5-1-1 Tsukiji, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 104–0045 Japan (Japan)

    2014-08-15

    While the global methylation level of leukocyte DNA may be a suitable biomarker for cancer risk, the level may be influenced by multiple factors, both environmental and host-related, one of which is exposure to environmental pollutants. To date, three epidemiologic studies have examined associations between serum organochlorine levels and global DNA methylation level, but their findings are not fully consistent, and the associations thus require confirmation in other well-characterized populations. We tested the association between organochlorine exposure and the global DNA methylation level of leukocytes in Japanese women. We conducted a cross-sectional study using the control group of a breast cancer case–control study in Japan. Subjects were 403 Japanese women who provided blood samples. Serum polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and nine pesticide-related organochlorines were measured by gas chromatography isotope-dilution high-resolution mass spectrometry. Further, global methylation level of peripheral leukocyte DNA among 399 women was measured by luminometric methylation assay. Linear trends in the association between methylation and quartile levels of organochlorines were evaluated by regression coefficients in a multivariable linear regression model. We found significant inverse associations between the global methylation level in leukocyte DNA and many of the organochlorine levels measured. Global methylation level was significantly decreased by 0.33–0.83% per quartile category for serum o,p′-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (o,p′-DDT), p,p′-DDT, p,p′-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene, trans-nonachlor, oxychlordane, hexachlorobenzene, β-hexachlorocyclohexane, PCB17, PCB52/69, PCB74, PCB114, and PCB183. Serum organochlorine levels were inversely associated with the global methylation level of leukocyte DNA in a relatively large sample of Japanese women. - Highlights: • Many serum organochlorine pesticides were inversely associated with the global

  17. Association of breast feeding with early childhood dental caries: Japanese population-based study

    Yorifuji, Takashi; Yamakawa, Michiyo; Inoue, Sachiko; Saito, Keiko; Doi, Hiroyuki; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2015-01-01

    Objectives We investigated the association between breastfeeding duration during the first half year of life and the risk of early childhood caries from the age of 30 to 66 months in Japan. Design Observational study of a longitudinal survey. Setting A secondary data analysis of the Japanese Longitudinal Survey of Babies in the 21st Century. Participants 43 383 infants at the age of 6 months. Outcome measures Early childhood caries—defined as a child's visit to a dentist for treatment of dental caries during the past 12 months—was ascertained from the caregiver from the age of 30 months in the survey. We estimated the risk of dental caries each year according to duration of breast feeding using logistic regression analyses. We controlled for a set of biological factors (birth weight, sex, parity and maternal age at delivery) and socioeconomic factors (maternal educational attainment and smoking status, marital status at delivery, family income and region of birth and residence). Results We found that infants who had been breast fed for at least 6 or 7 months, both exclusively and partially, were at elevated risk of dental caries at the age of 30 months compared with those who had been exclusively formula fed. Adjusted ORs were 1.78 (95% CI, (1.45 to 2.17)) for the exclusively breastfed group and 1.39 (1.14 to 1.70) for the partially breastfed group. However, the associations became attenuated through the follow-up period and were no longer statistically significant beyond the age of 42 months for the partially breastfed group and beyond the age of 54 months for the exclusively breastfed group. Conclusions We found an association between breast feeding for at least 6 or 7 months and elevated risk of dental caries at age 30 months. However, the association became attenuated as children grew older. PMID:25795694

  18. Prevalence of fear of falling and associated factors among Japanese community-dwelling older adults

    Tomita, Yoshihito; Arima, Kazuhiko; Tsujimoto, Ritsu; Kawashiri, Shin-ya; Nishimura, Takayuki; Mizukami, Satoshi; Okabe, Takuhiro; Tanaka, Natsumi; Honda, Yuzo; Izutsu, Kazumi; Yamamoto, Naoko; Ohmachi, Izumi; Kanagae, Mitsuo; Abe, Yasuyo; Aoyagi, Kiyoshi

    2018-01-01

    Abstract To determine the prevalence of fear of falling and associated factors among Japanese community-dwelling older adults. Cross-sectional study between 2011 and 2013. Community in which residents voluntarily attended a health examination. We recruited 844 older adults (male, n = 350; female, n = 494) aged 60 to 92 years from among those who presented at the health examination. We assessed fear of falling, falls in the previous year, pain, comorbidity, and cataracts. Five times chair stand time was applied as an indicator of physical performance. The prevalence of fear of falling was 26.9% and 43.3% among the men and women, respectively. Men and women who feared falling were older (P < .01), had longer 5 times chair stand time (P < .01), and more falls in the previous year (P < .05), pain (P < .01), and comorbidity (P < .05). Multivariate logistic regression analysis identified advanced age (odds ratios [OR], 1.57; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.03–2.39), falls in the previous year (OR, 2.44; 95%CI, 1.29–4.64), and pain (OR, 1.82; 95%CI, 1.03–3.22) in men, and advanced age (OR, 1.59; 95%CI, 1.13–2.24), longer 5 times chair stand times (OR, 1.28; 95%CI, 1.04–1.59), falls in the previous year (OR, 2.59; 95%CI, 1.54–4.34), and pain (OR, 1.65; 95%CI, 1.06–2.55) in women as being independently associated with fear of falling. The prevalence of fear of falling was similar to previous reports. Advanced age, falls in previous year, and pain were associated with fear of falling in men. A longer 5 times chair stand time was also associated with fear of falling among older adult women. Maintenance of physical function and pain management might be important for older adults with fear of falling. PMID:29369207

  19. Associations between the intake of miso soup and Japanese pickles and the estimated 24-hour urinary sodium excretion: a population-based cross-sectional study.

    Wakasugi, Minako; James Kazama, Junichiro; Narita, Ichiei

    2015-01-01

    In Japan, reducing the consumption of miso soup and Japanese pickles, both traditional Japanese dishes, is recommended in order to decrease dietary salt intake. With the Westernization of dietary habits, however, these dishes are now consumed less frequently, and thus a reduction in their effect on sodium intake is suspected. This study examined cross-sectional associations between the frequency of intake of miso soup and Japanese pickles and the estimated 24-hour urine sodium excretion using data obtained from health examination surveys conducted in 2013 in Sado City, Japan. The level of daily salt intake was estimated based on spot urine sodium and creatinine measurements. The frequency of intake of miso soup and Japanese pickles was determined using a self-reported questionnaire. Multiple linear regression models were used to assess associations. Among a total of 8,821 participants (3,956 men; age range, 19-97 years), the mean daily salt intake was 9.4 g/day. The frequency of intake of miso soup and Japanese pickles increased with age and was associated with the level of daily salt intake (p for trend soup (psoup and Japanese pickles may be an effective approach for decreasing the level of dietary salt intake in the general Japanese population, although not in octogenarians or nonagenarians.

  20. Social Media in Pediatric Orthopaedics.

    Lander, Sarah T; Sanders, James O; Cook, Peter C; O'Malley, Natasha T

    Internet searches and social media utilization in health care has exploded over the past 5 years, and patients utilize it to gain information on their health conditions and physicians. Social media has the potential to serve as a means for education, communication, and marketing in all health care specialties. Physicians are sometimes reluctant to engage because of concerns of privacy, litigation, and lack of experience with this modality. Many surgical subspecialties have capitalized on social media but no study to date has examined the specific footprint of pediatric orthopaedic surgeons in this realm. We aim to quantify the utilization of individual social media platforms by pediatric orthopaedic surgeons, and identify any differences between private and hospital-based physicians, but also regional differences. Using the Pediatric Orthopaedic Society of North America Member Directory, each active member's social media presence was reviewed through an Internet search. Members were stratified on the basis of practice model and geographic location. Individual Internet searches, social media sites, and number of publications were reviewed for social media presence. Of 987 Pediatric Orthopaedic Society of North America members, 95% had a professional webpage, 14.8% a professional Facebook page, 2.2% a professional Twitter page, 36.8% a LinkedIn profile, 25.8% a ResearchGate profile, 33% at least 1 YouTube. Hospital-based physicians had a lower mean level of utilization of social media compared with their private practice peers, and a higher incidence of Pubmed publications. Private practice physicians had double the social media utilization. Regional differences reveal that practicing Pediatric Orthopaedists in the Northeast had increased utilization of ResearchGate and LinkedIn and the West had the lowest mean social media utilization levels. The rapid expansion of social media usage by patients and their family members is an undeniable force affecting the health

  1. Factors associated with the choice of general medicine as a career among Japanese medical students

    Kawamoto, Ryuichi; Ninomiya, Daisuke; Kasai, Yoshihisa; Kusunoki, Tomo; Ohtsuka, Nobuyuki; Kumagi, Teru; Abe, Masanori

    2016-01-01

    Background In Japan, there is a shortage of young physicians in various specialties; the present situation of general medicine or family medicine (GM/FM) in particular is risky. The factors influencing the career choice of Japanese medical students are poorly understood. This study aims to identify factors related to choosing GM/FM as a career. Methods The study was designed as a cross-sectional survey. Students at one medical school in Japan filled out a questionnaire. Students were asked to state their intended medical specialty, and they rated the importance of specific individual and occupational aspects using a 4-point likert scale. Factor analysis was performed on the variables. Reliability of the factor scores was estimated using Cronbach‘s alpha coefficients; biserial correlations between the factors and career choices were calculated. Furthermore, multiple linear regression analysis was performed using career choice (GM/FM vs. others) as the criterion variable and the factors plus demographic characteristics as confounding variables. Results Factor analysis produced six factors that explained future career plans. Medical students in this study had a positive and realistic idea about GM/FM, but only 18.8% of them chose GM/FM first as a career. The significant variables associated with choosing GM/FM first as a career were: ‘Admission from hometown’ (β=0.189, P=0.001), ‘Student preparing for the entrance exam’ (β=0.172; P=0.001), ‘Intent for rural practice’ (β=0.123, P=0.016), and ‘Work–life balance’ (β=0.126, P=0.013). While significant variables that were negatively associated with choosing GM/FM were ‘Presence of medical relatives’ (β=−0.107, P=0.037) and ‘Scientific orientation’ (β=−0.125, P=0.013). Conclusions Strategies have been suggested, such as recruiting medical students with significant variables that were associated with choosing GM/FM first as a career. By engaging students early in their choice of career

  2. Factors associated with the choice of general medicine as a career among Japanese medical students.

    Kawamoto, Ryuichi; Ninomiya, Daisuke; Kasai, Yoshihisa; Kusunoki, Tomo; Ohtsuka, Nobuyuki; Kumagi, Teru; Abe, Masanori

    2016-01-01

    In Japan, there is a shortage of young physicians in various specialties; the present situation of general medicine or family medicine (GM/FM) in particular is risky. The factors influencing the career choice of Japanese medical students are poorly understood. This study aims to identify factors related to choosing GM/FM as a career. The study was designed as a cross-sectional survey. Students at one medical school in Japan filled out a questionnaire. Students were asked to state their intended medical specialty, and they rated the importance of specific individual and occupational aspects using a 4-point likert scale. Factor analysis was performed on the variables. Reliability of the factor scores was estimated using Cronbach's alpha coefficients; biserial correlations between the factors and career choices were calculated. Furthermore, multiple linear regression analysis was performed using career choice (GM/FM vs. others) as the criterion variable and the factors plus demographic characteristics as confounding variables. Factor analysis produced six factors that explained future career plans. Medical students in this study had a positive and realistic idea about GM/FM, but only 18.8% of them chose GM/FM first as a career. The significant variables associated with choosing GM/FM first as a career were: 'Admission from hometown' (β=0.189, P=0.001), 'Student preparing for the entrance exam' (β=0.172; P=0.001), 'Intent for rural practice' (β=0.123, P=0.016), and 'Work-life balance' (β=0.126, P=0.013). While significant variables that were negatively associated with choosing GM/FM were 'Presence of medical relatives' (β=-0.107, P=0.037) and 'Scientific orientation' (β=-0.125, P=0.013). Strategies have been suggested, such as recruiting medical students with significant variables that were associated with choosing GM/FM first as a career. By engaging students early in their choice of career, we may be able to increase enthusiasm for this specialty.

  3. Factors associated with the choice of general medicine as a career among Japanese medical students

    Ryuichi Kawamoto

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: In Japan, there is a shortage of young physicians in various specialties; the present situation of general medicine or family medicine (GM/FM in particular is risky. The factors influencing the career choice of Japanese medical students are poorly understood. This study aims to identify factors related to choosing GM/FM as a career. Methods: The study was designed as a cross-sectional survey. Students at one medical school in Japan filled out a questionnaire. Students were asked to state their intended medical specialty, and they rated the importance of specific individual and occupational aspects using a 4-point likert scale. Factor analysis was performed on the variables. Reliability of the factor scores was estimated using Cronbach‘s alpha coefficients; biserial correlations between the factors and career choices were calculated. Furthermore, multiple linear regression analysis was performed using career choice (GM/FM vs. others as the criterion variable and the factors plus demographic characteristics as confounding variables. Results: Factor analysis produced six factors that explained future career plans. Medical students in this study had a positive and realistic idea about GM/FM, but only 18.8% of them chose GM/FM first as a career. The significant variables associated with choosing GM/FM first as a career were: ‘Admission from hometown’ (β=0.189, P=0.001, ‘Student preparing for the entrance exam’ (β=0.172; P=0.001, ‘Intent for rural practice’ (β=0.123, P=0.016, and ‘Work–life balance’ (β=0.126, P=0.013. While significant variables that were negatively associated with choosing GM/FM were ‘Presence of medical relatives’ (β=−0.107, P=0.037 and ‘Scientific orientation’ (β=−0.125, P=0.013. Conclusions: Strategies have been suggested, such as recruiting medical students with significant variables that were associated with choosing GM/FM first as a career. By engaging students early in their

  4. Factors associated with foreign language anxiety : A study of Chinese university learners of Japanese and English

    Jin, Yinxing; de Bot, Kees; Keijzer, Merel

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports a study that investigates and compares the effects of foreign language proficiency, social status of a learner’s family, self-esteem, and competitiveness on FL anxiety. Chinese university students (N = 146), who were learning Japanese and English, participated in this study.

  5. Resources for your career in orthopaedic traumatology: what can the OTA do for you?

    Mehta, Samir; Smith, Jeffrey M

    2012-09-01

    For those choosing a career in orthopaedic traumatology, several resources have been established by the Orthopaedic Trauma Association to facilitate progression from the years in training to the early years in practice. Young practitioners have access to educational programming, such as preparation for Part II of the Board Examination, web-based resources, such as on-line job postings, advocacy in health policy for the issues that will affect their ability to practice, and public relations efforts to increase their presence in the community. Ultimately, the resources set aside for the young practitioner by the Orthopaedic Trauma Association are intended to facilitate a sense of excellence, service, and community.

  6. Association of Job Demands with Work Engagement of Japanese Employees: Comparison of Challenges with Hindrances (J-HOPE)

    Inoue, Akiomi; Kawakami, Norito; Tsutsumi, Akizumi; Shimazu, Akihito; Miyaki, Koichi; Takahashi, Masaya; Kurioka, Sumiko; Eguchi, Hisashi; Tsuchiya, Masao; Enta, Kazuhiko; Kosugi, Yuki; Sakata, Tomoko; Totsuzaki, Takafumi

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Recent epidemiological research in Europe has reported that two groups of job demands, i.e., challenges and hindrances, are differently associated with work engagement. The purpose of the present study was to replicate the cross-sectional association of workload and time pressure (as a challenge) and role ambiguity (as a hindrance) with work engagement among Japanese employees. Methods Between October 2010 and December 2011, a total of 9,134 employees (7,101 men and 1,673 women) fr...

  7. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the SEPTIN12 gene may be associated with azoospermia by meiotic arrest in Japanese men.

    Miyamoto, Toshinobu; Tsujimura, Akira; Miyagawa, Yasushi; Koh, Eitetsu; Namiki, Mikio; Horikawa, Michiharu; Saijo, Yasuaki; Sengoku, Kazuo

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the association between SEPTIN12 gene variants and the risk of azoospermia caused by meiotic arrest. Mutational analysis of the SEPTIN12 gene was performed using DNA from 30 Japanese patients with azoospermia by meiotic arrest and 140 fertile male controls. The frequencies of the c.204G>C (Gln38His) allele and the CC genotype were significantly higher in patients than in fertile controls (p C (Gln38His) variant in the SEPTIN12 gene was associated with increased susceptibility to azoospermia caused by meiotic arrest.

  8. Relative risks of radiation-associated cancer: comparison of second cancer in therapeutically irradiated populations with the Japanese atomic bomb survivors

    Little, M.P.; Muirhead, C.R.; Haylock, R.G.E.; Thomas, J.M.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper the radiation-associated relative risks of second primary cancer incidence in groups treated for first primary cancer by radiotherapy are compared with radiation-associated relative risk estimates in the Japanese atomic bomb survivor cancer incidence data. For four cancer sites, namely lung cancer, bone cancer, ovarian cancer and leukaemia, the relative risks in the comparable (age at exposure, time since exposure, sex matched) subsets of the Japanese data are significantly greater than those in the majority of second cancer studies. Even when the differences between the relative risks in the Japanese atomic bomb survivors and the medical series do not approach conventional levels of statistical significance, relative risks tend to be higher in the Japanese data than in the second cancer studies. At least for leukaemia, the discrepancy between the Japanese and second cancer risks can be largely explained by cell- sterilisation effects. There are few indications of modification of radiation-associated second cancer relative risk among those treated with adjuvant chemotherapy, nor are there strong indications of modification of radiation- associated relative risk by heritable genetic factors. If anything, there is evidence that second cancer relative excess risks are lower among those patients with cancer-prone disorders than among non-susceptible patients. However, the higher underlying cancer risk in some of these medically exposed populations should also be considered, in particular for those with cancer-prone conditions, so that the absolute excess risk is sometimes higher than in the Japanese data. (orig.)

  9. No association between catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) genotype and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in Japanese children.

    Yatsuga, Chiho; Toyohisa, Daiki; Fujisawa, Takashi X; Nishitani, Shota; Shinohara, Kazuyuki; Matsuura, Naomi; Ikeda, Shinobu; Muramatsu, Masaaki; Hamada, Akinobu; Tomoda, Akemi

    2014-08-01

    This study ascertained the association between attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in Japanese children and a polymorphism of catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT), a dopamine-control gene. The secondary aim of the study was the evaluation of a putative association between methylphenidate (MPH) effect/adverse effects and the COMT genotype. To ascertain the distribution of the Val158Met variant of COMT, 50 children meeting ADHD inclusion criteria were compared with 32 healthy children. Clinical improvement and the occurrence of adverse effects were measured before and 3 months after MPH administration in children with ADHD, and analyzed for genotype association. Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Third Edition (WISC-III), age, MPH dose were included as co-variables. The occurrence of the COMT Val/Val genotype was significantly higher in children with ADHD (χ(2)(1)=7.13, pADHD rating scale scores, after correcting for the interaction between disorder and COMT genotype. Furthermore, no significant difference in MPH effect/adverse effects was observed in association with the COMT genotype in the ADHD group. These results showed a lack of association between the COMT Val/Val genotype and ADHD in Japan. Copyright © 2013 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Visceral adiposity, not abdominal subcutaneous fat area, is associated with high blood pressure in Japanese men. The Ohtori study

    Koh, Hideo; Hayashi, Tomoshige; Kogawa Sato, Kyoko

    2011-01-01

    Visceral adiposity is considered to have a key role in cardiometabolic diseases. The purpose of this study is to investigate cross-sectionally the association between intra-abdominal fat area (IAFA) measured by computed tomography (CT) and high blood pressure independent of abdominal subcutaneous fat area (ASFA) and insulin resistance. Study participants included 624 Japanese men not taking oral hypoglycemic medications or insulin. Abdominal, thoracic and thigh fat areas were measured by CT. Total fat area (TFA) was calculated as the sum of abdominal, thoracic and thigh fat area. Total subcutaneous fat area (TSFA) was defined as TFA minus IAFA. Hypertension and high normal blood pressure were defined using the 1999 criteria of the World Health Organization. Multiple-adjusted odds ratios of hypertension for tertiles of IAFA were 2.64 (95% confidence interval, 1.35-5.16) for tertile 2, and 5.08 (2.48-10.39) for tertile 3, compared with tertile 1 after adjusting for age, fasting immunoreactive insulin, diabetes status, ASFA, alcohol consumption, regular physical exercise and smoking habit. IAFA remained significantly associated with hypertension even after adjustment for ASFA, TSFA, TFA, body mass index or waist circumference, and no other measure of regional or total adiposity was associated with the odds of hypertension in models, which included IAFA. Similar results were obtained for the association between IAFA and the prevalence of high normal blood pressure or hypertension. In conclusion, greater visceral adiposity was associated with a higher odds of high blood pressure in Japanese men. (author)

  11. HOMA-IR Values are Associated With Glycemic Control in Japanese Subjects Without Diabetes or Obesity: The KOBE Study.

    Hirata, Takumi; Higashiyama, Aya; Kubota, Yoshimi; Nishimura, Kunihiro; Sugiyama, Daisuke; Kadota, Aya; Nishida, Yoko; Imano, Hironori; Nishikawa, Tomofumi; Miyamatsu, Naomi; Miyamoto, Yoshihiro; Okamura, Tomonori

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have reported that insulin resistance was a major risk factor for the onset of type 2 diabetes mellitus in individuals without diabetes or obesity. We aimed to clarify the association between insulin resistance and glycemic control in Japanese subjects without diabetes or obesity. We conducted a community-based cross-sectional study including 1083 healthy subjects (323 men and 760 women) in an urban area. We performed multivariate regression analyses to estimate the association between the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) values and markers of glycemic control, including glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c), 1,5-anhydroglucitol (1,5-AG), and fasting plasma glucose (FPG) levels, after adjustment for potential confounders. Compared with the lowest tertile of HOMA-IR values, the highest tertile was significantly associated with HbA1c and FPG levels after adjustment for potential confounders, both in men (HbA1c: β = 1.83, P = 0.001; FPG: β = 0.49, P HOMA-IR values was inversely associated with 1,5-AG levels compared with the lowest tertile (β = -18.42, P = 0.009) only in men. HOMA-IR values were associated with markers of glycemic control in Japanese subjects without diabetes or obesity. Insulin resistance may influence glycemic control even in a lean, non-diabetic Asian population.

  12. Association between body composition and body mass index in young Japanese women.

    Yamagishi, Hiroyuki; Kitano, Takao; Kuchiki, Tsutomu; Okazaki, Hideki; Shibata, Shigeo

    2002-06-01

    The National Nutrition Survey of Japan indicated a trend toward a decreasing body mass index (BMI; kg/m2) among young Japanese women. Current studies suggest that not-high BMI often does not correlate with not-high body fat percentage. Recently, the classification of BMI in adult Asians was proposed by the International Obesity Task Force. The addition of an "at risk of overweight" category, BMI as 23.0-24.9, was intended to prevent chronic diseases. We investigated the association between body fat percentage (BF%) and BMI to evaluate the screening performance of BMI focused on individual preventive medicine. The subjects consisted of 605 female college students. The subjects' ages (y), heights (cm), body weights (kg), BMIs, and BF percents with underwater weighing expressed as the means +/- SD were 19.6 +/- 0.5, 158.7 +/- 5.6, 53.8 +/- 7.2, 21.3 +/- 2.4, and 24.9 +/- 4.9, respectively. We defined high BF% as +/- 85th percentile of BF% (29.8%). High-BF% individuals are often not classified into BMI > or = 23.0 because their BMI readings are very broad (18.4-31.7). In comparison to the screening performances (specificity and sensitivity), BMI > or = 23.0 (85.3% and 52.1%, respectively), rather than BMI > or = 25.0 (96.7% and 29.8%, respectively), is recommended for the mass evaluation of fatness. For this reason, the BMI "at risk of overweight" category is characterized as the threshold of increasing the appearance ratio of high-BF% individuals. In conclusion, the BMI > or = 25.0 kg/m2 category is determined as high BF%, regardless of body composition measurement for mass evaluation as a result of quite high specificity. Even so, body composition measurement is necessitated by the individual evaluation of fatness focused on preventive medicine because BMI performed a poor representation of body composition, especially BMI < 25.0 kg/m2 individuals.

  13. Development, implementation and evaluation of a patient handoff tool to improve safety in orthopaedic surgery.

    Gagnier, Joel J; Derosier, Joseph M; Maratt, Joseph D; Hake, Mark E; Bagian, James P

    2016-06-01

    To develop, implement and test the effect of a handoff tool for orthopaedic trauma residents that reduces adverse events associated with the omission of critical information and the transfer of erroneous information. Components of this project included a literature review, resident surveys and observations, checklist development and refinement, implementation and evaluation of impact on adverse events through a chart review of a prospective cohort compared with a historical control group. Large teaching hospital. Findings of a literature review were presented to orthopaedic residents, epidemiologists, orthopaedic surgeons and patient safety experts in face-to-face meetings, during which we developed and refined the contents of a resident handoff tool. The tool was tested in an orthopaedic trauma service and its impact on adverse events was evaluated through a chart review. The handoff tool was developed and refined during the face-to-face meetings and a pilot implementation. Adverse event data were collected on 127 patients (n = 67 baseline period; n = 60 test period). A handoff tool for use by orthopaedic residents. Adverse events in patients handed off by orthopaedic trauma residents. After controlling for age, gender and comorbidities, testing resulted in fewer events per person (25-27% reduction; P < 0.10). Preliminary evidence suggests that our resident handoff tool may contribute to a decrease in adverse events in orthopaedic patients. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press in association with the International Society for Quality in Health Care; all rights reserved.

  14. Aarhus Regenerative Orthopaedics Symposium (AROS)

    Foldager, Casper B.; Bendtsen, Michael; Berg, Lise C.

    2016-01-01

    to musculoskeletal pain and disability. The Aarhus Regenerative Orthopaedics Symposium (AROS) 2015 was motivated by the need to address regenerative challenges in an ageing population by engaging clinicians, basic scientists, and engineers. In this position paper, we review our contemporary understanding of societal......, patient-related, and basic science-related challenges in order to provide a reasoned roadmap for the future to deal with this compelling and urgent healthcare problem. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Taylor & Francis on behalf of the Nordic Orthopedic Federation....

  15. Management of Patients with Orthopaedic Implants Undergoing Dental Procedures.

    Quinn, Robert H; Murray, Jayson N; Pezold, Ryan; Sevarino, Kaitlyn S

    2017-07-01

    The American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons, in collaboration with the American Dental Association, has developed Appropriate Use Criteria (AUC) for the Management of Patients with Orthopaedic Implants Undergoing Dental Procedures. Evidence-based information, in conjunction with the clinical expertise of physicians, was used to develop the criteria to improve patient care and obtain best outcomes while considering the subtleties and distinctions necessary in making clinical decisions. The Management of Patients with Orthopaedic Implants Undergoing Dental Procedures AUC clinical patient scenarios were derived from indications of patients with orthopaedic implants presenting for dental procedures, as well as from current evidence-based clinical practice guidelines and supporting literature to identify the appropriateness of the use of prophylactic antibiotics. The 64 patient scenarios and 1 treatment were developed by the writing panel, a group of clinicians who are specialists in this AUC topic. Next, a separate, multidisciplinary, voting panel (made up of specialists and nonspecialists) rated the appropriateness of treatment of each patient scenario using a 9-point scale to designate a treatment as Appropriate (median rating, 7 to 9), May Be Appropriate (median rating, 4 to 6), or Rarely Appropriate (median rating, 1 to 3).

  16. International Combined Orthopaedic Research Societies: A model for international collaboration to promote orthopaedic and musculoskeletal research

    Theodore Miclau

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In October 2013, the International Combined Orthopaedic Research Societies (ICORS; http://i-cors.org was founded with inaugural member organisations from the previous Combined Orthopaedic Research Society, which had sponsored combined meetings for more than 2 decades. The ICORS is dedicated to the stimulation of orthopaedic and musculoskeletal research in fields such as biomedical engineering, biology, chemistry, and veterinary and human clinical research. The ICORS seeks to facilitate communication with member organisations to enhance international research collaborations and to promote the development of new international orthopaedic and musculoskeletal research organisations. Through new categories of membership, the ICORS represents the broadest coalition of orthopaedic research organisations globally.

  17. Seasonal Patterns of Japanese Encephalitis and Associated Meteorological Factors in Taiwan.

    Lin, Che-Liang; Chang, Hsiao-Ling; Lin, Chuan-Yao; Chen, Kow-Tong

    2017-10-29

    The persistent transmission of Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) in Taiwan necessitates exploring the risk factors of occurrence of Japanese encephalitis (JE). The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between meteorological factors and the incidence of JE in Taiwan. We collected data for cases of JE reported to the Taiwan Centers for Disease Control (Taiwan CDC) from 2000 to 2014. Meteorological data were obtained from the Taiwan Central Weather Bureau. The relationships between weather variability and the incidence of JE in Taiwan were determined via Poisson regression analysis and a case-crossover methodology. During the 15-year study period, a total of 379 cases of JE were reported. The incidence of JE showed significant seasonality, with the majority of cases occurring in summertime (for oscillation, p Taiwan. Therefore, these factors could be regarded as warning signals indicating the need to implement preventive measures.

  18. Socioeconomic status is significantly associated with dietary salt intakes and blood pressure in Japanese workers (J-HOPE Study).

    Miyaki, Koichi; Song, Yixuan; Taneichi, Setsuko; Tsutsumi, Akizumi; Hashimoto, Hideki; Kawakami, Norito; Takahashi, Masaya; Shimazu, Akihito; Inoue, Akiomi; Kurioka, Sumiko; Shimbo, Takuro

    2013-03-11

    The association of socioeconomic status (SES) with nutrients intakes attracts public attention worldwide. In the current study, we examined the associations of SES with dietary salt intake and health outcomes in general Japanese workers (2,266) who participated in this Japanese occupational cohort. SES was assessed by a self-administered questionnaire. Dietary intakes were assessed with a validated, brief, self-administered diet history questionnaire (BDHQ). Multiple linear regression and stratified analysis were used to evaluate the associations of salt intake with the confounding factors. Education levels and household incomes were significantly associated with salt intake, as well as blood pressures (P < 0.05). After adjusting for age, sex and total energy intake, both years of education and household income significantly affect the salt intake (for education, β = -0.031, P = 0.040; for household income, β = -0.046, P = 0.003). SES factors also affect the risk of hypertension, those subjects with higher levels of education or income had lower risk to become hypertensive (ORs for education was 0.904, P < 0.001; ORs for income was 0.956, P = 0.032). Our results show that SES is an independent determinant of salt intake and blood pressure, in order to lower the risk of hypertension, the efforts to narrow the social status gaps should be considered by the health policy-makers.

  19. [Association of processed meat intake and obesity in a population-based study of Japanese-Brazilians].

    Cristofoletti, Maria F; Gimeno, Suely G A; Ferreira, Sandra R G; Cardoso, Marly A

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between the consumption of processed meat with overall, abdominal, and overall with abdominal obesity in a Japanese-Brazilian population, which is known to be at cardiometabolic risk. A total of 329 men and 443 women aged ≥ 30 years were evaluated in a cross-sectional population-based survey. Diagnosis of overall obesity and abdominal obesity were based on the World Health Organization (WHO) criteria for Asians. Food intake was assessed by a validated food frequency questionaire. In men, processed meat intake was positively associated with overall with abdominal obesity (OR 2.97; 95%CI 1.13-7.78) after adjustment. In women, only the red meat group was associated with overall with abdominal obesity after adjustment (OR 0.47, 95%CI 0.23-0.96). Our results showed that high intakes of processed meats were associated with overall with abdominal obesity in male Japanese-Brazilians, but not in females.

  20. Dietary patterns associated with fall-related fracture in elderly Japanese: a population based prospective study.

    Monma, Yasutake; Niu, Kaijun; Iwasaki, Koh; Tomita, Naoki; Nakaya, Naoki; Hozawa, Atsushi; Kuriyama, Shinichi; Takayama, Shin; Seki, Takashi; Takeda, Takashi; Yaegashi, Nobuo; Ebihara, Satoru; Arai, Hiroyuki; Nagatomi, Ryoichi; Tsuji, Ichiro

    2010-06-01

    Diet is considered an important factor for bone health, but is composed of a wide variety of foods containing complex combinations of nutrients. Therefore we investigated the relationship between dietary patterns and fall-related fractures in the elderly. We designed a population-based prospective survey of 1178 elderly people in Japan in 2002. Dietary intake was assessed with a 75-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ), from which dietary patterns were created by factor analysis from 27 food groups. The frequency of fall-related fracture was investigated based on insurance claim records from 2002 until 2006. The relationship between the incidence of fall-related fracture and modifiable factors, including dietary patterns, were examined. The Cox proportional hazards regression model was used to examine the relationships between dietary patterns and incidence of fall-related fracture with adjustment for age, gender, Body Mass Index (BMI) and energy intake. Among 877 participants who agreed to a 4 year follow-up, 28 suffered from a fall-related fracture. Three dietary patterns were identified: mainly vegetable, mainly meat and mainly traditional Japanese. The moderately confirmed (see statistical methods) groups with a Meat pattern showed a reduced risk of fall-related fracture (Hazard ratio = 0.36, 95% CI = 0.13 - 0.94) after adjustment for age, gender, BMI and energy intake. The Vegetable pattern showed a significant risk increase (Hazard ratio = 2.67, 95% CI = 1.03 - 6.90) after adjustment for age, gender and BMI. The Traditional Japanese pattern had no relationship to the risk of fall-related fracture. The results of this study have the potential to reduce fall-related fracture risk in elderly Japanese. The results should be interpreted in light of the overall low meat intake of the Japanese population.

  1. Dietary patterns associated with fall-related fracture in elderly Japanese: a population based prospective study

    Yaegashi Nobuo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diet is considered an important factor for bone health, but is composed of a wide variety of foods containing complex combinations of nutrients. Therefore we investigated the relationship between dietary patterns and fall-related fractures in the elderly. Methods We designed a population-based prospective survey of 1178 elderly people in Japan in 2002. Dietary intake was assessed with a 75-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ, from which dietary patterns were created by factor analysis from 27 food groups. The frequency of fall-related fracture was investigated based on insurance claim records from 2002 until 2006. The relationship between the incidence of fall-related fracture and modifiable factors, including dietary patterns, were examined. The Cox proportional hazards regression model was used to examine the relationships between dietary patterns and incidence of fall-related fracture with adjustment for age, gender, Body Mass Index (BMI and energy intake. Results Among 877 participants who agreed to a 4 year follow-up, 28 suffered from a fall-related fracture. Three dietary patterns were identified: mainly vegetable, mainly meat and mainly traditional Japanese. The moderately confirmed (see statistical methods groups with a Meat pattern showed a reduced risk of fall-related fracture (Hazard ratio = 0.36, 95% CI = 0.13 - 0.94 after adjustment for age, gender, BMI and energy intake. The Vegetable pattern showed a significant risk increase (Hazard ratio = 2.67, 95% CI = 1.03 - 6.90 after adjustment for age, gender and BMI. The Traditional Japanese pattern had no relationship to the risk of fall-related fracture. Conclusions The results of this study have the potential to reduce fall-related fracture risk in elderly Japanese. The results should be interpreted in light of the overall low meat intake of the Japanese population.

  2. Thromboembolism prophylaxis practices in orthopaedic arthroplasty patients.

    Cawley, D

    2010-10-01

    Thromboembolic events are a post-operative complication of arthroplasty surgery for up to 3 months. The incidence however, is not fully known. Some form of prophylaxis should be provided to all arthroplasty patients. Clinicians are wary of side effects, compliance profile and the associated cost. The objective of this study is to investigate practice patterns and their relevance to 3 risk groups. Ninety questionnaires were sent to orthopaedic surgeons with 3 hypothetical clinical scenarios and 10 prophylaxis regimes for thromboembolism across different risk groups. The response rate was 81\\/90 (90%). The most popular options in all 3 cases were early mobilisation, thrombo-embolism deterrant (TED) stockings and low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) (51\\/81, 62% of all cases). An inconsistent relationship exists between preferred practice and relevant guidelines. Preferred practice does not correlate with each level of risk.

  3. [Endoprosthesis Infections - Guidelines for Antibiotic Therapy Common Guidelines of the Czech Society for Orthopaedics and Traumatology and the Society for Infectious Diseases of the Czech Medical Association of J. E. Purkyně].

    Musil, D; Balejová, M; Horníková, M; Chrdle, A; Mallátová, N; Nyč, O; Chmelík, V; Gallo, J; Jahoda, D; Stehlík, J

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE OF THE STUDY This study aims to articulate regional guidelines for curative and suppressive antibiotic therapy of total joint replacement infections. MATERIAL AND METHODS When developing the standard, used as source materials were the published foreign guidelines for antibiotic therapy of prosthetic joint infections, the analysis of resistance of bacterial strains conducted in the Hospital in České Budějovice, a.s. and the assessment of strain resistance for the Czech Republic published by the European Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance Network (EARS-Net). Considered was also the availability of individual antibiotics in the Czech Republic and restricted prescription according to the Summary of Product Characteristics as specified in the State Institute for Drug Control marketing authorisation. The expert group composed of orthopaedists, microbiologists and infectious disease specialists elaborated the basic antibiotic guideline for choosing an appropriate antibiotic/antifungal drug based on the usual susceptibility, its dose and dosage interval for initial and continuation therapy. The comments of individual specialists were gradually incorporated therein and in case of doubts majority rule was applied. The drafted document was sent for peer reviews to clinical orthopaedic, infectious disease and microbiological centres, whose comments were also incorporated and the finalised document was submitted for evaluation to specialised medical societies. RESULTS The outcome is the submitted guideline for antibiotic curative and suppressive therapy suitable for managing the prosthetic joint infections, which was approved by the committee of the Czech Society for Orthopaedics and Traumatology andthe Society for Infectious Diseases of the Czech Medical Association of J. E. Purkyně. DISCUSION Curative therapy of total joint replacement infections consists primarily in surgical treatment and has to be accompanied by adequate antibiotic therapy administered

  4. 1 venous thromboembolism in orthopaedics references

    2008-05-23

    2004; 126: 338-400S. 3. American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons. American Academy of orthopaedic Surgeons clinical guidelines on prevention of symptomatic pulmonary embolism in patients undergoing total hip or knee arthroplasty.www.aaos.org/Research/ guidelines/PE_guideline. Pdf (accessed May 23, 2008). 4.

  5. Mentorship in orthopaedic and trauma residency training ...

    Background: Mentorship is important in residency training as it is necessary for personal and professional development of the resident trainees. Objectives: This study documents mentorship in orthopaedic residency training programme in Nigeria by assessing the awareness of orthopaedic residents on the role of a mentor, ...

  6. Orthopaedic research and education foundation and industry.

    Wurth, Gene R; Sherr, Judy H; Coffman, Thomas M

    2003-07-01

    Members of orthopaedic industry commit a significant amount of funds each year to support research and education programs that are directly related to their product(s). In addition, industry supports organizations such as the Orthopaedic Research and Education Foundation. The relationship between the Orthopaedic Research and Education Foundation and industry began in the early 1980s. The support to the Orthopaedic Research and Education Foundation from industry primarily has come in the form of unrestricted grants. These grants best can be looked at as an investment rather than a contribution. This form of giving, once called corporate philanthropy is more accurately referred to as strategic philanthropy. Members of industry make these investments to enhance their reputations, build brand awareness, market their products and services, improve employee morale, increase customer loyalty, and establish strategic alliances. The specialty of orthopaedics is among the leaders in medicine in the amount of funding raised within the specialty for research and education programs. This is because of the amount of support from members of industry and the surgeons. During the past 15 years, 40% of the annual support to the Orthopaedic Research and Education Foundation has come from industry and the balance has come from surgeons and members of lay public. Future industry support of the Orthopaedic Research and Education Foundation and other organizations within the specialty of orthopaedics will be dependent on the continued demonstration of tangible returns in areas described.

  7. Nigerian Journal of Orthopaedics and Trauma

    The Nigerian Journal of Orthopaedics and Trauma publishes original papers, review articles and case reports on pathology, anaesthesia, orthopaedics and trauma. Vol 12, No 1 (2013). DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Subscription or Fee Access. Table of Contents. Articles. Management of ...

  8. Associations between Japanese schoolchildren's involvement in at-home meal preparation, their food intakes, and cooking skills

    Nozue, Miho; Ishida, Hiromi; Hazano, Sayaka; Nakanishi, Akemi; Yamamoto, Taeko; Abe, Aya; Nishi, Nobuo; Yokoyama, Tetsuji; Murayama, Nobuko

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES This study aimed to examine the association of Japanese schoolchildren's involvement in at-home meal preparation with food intake and cooking skill. SUBJECTS/METHODS We included 1,207 fifth-grade children aged 10-11 years and one parent of each child. A cross-sectional survey was used to collect data on involvement in at-home meal preparation. Correspondence analysis was used to classify involvement in at-home meal preparation into three groups: food-related activities (...

  9. Radiologic examination of orthopaedics. Methods and techniques

    Hafner, E.; Meuli, H.C.

    1976-01-01

    This volume describes in detail radiological examinations of the skeleton modern procedures in orthopaedic surgery. Special emphasis is given to functional examination techniques based upon the authors' extensive work on standardized radiological examinations best suited to the needs of orthopaedic surgeons. These techniques were developed at the Radiodiagnostic Department of the Central Radiological Clinic, Bern University, in cooperation with the University Clinic of Orthopaedics and Surgery of the Locomotor System. Exposure techniques are explained concisely, yet with extraordinary precision and attention to detail. They have proved highly successful in teaching programs for X-ray technicians and as standard examination techniques for many hospitals, X-ray departments, orthopaedic units, and private clinics. Recommended for orthopaedic surgeons, radiologists, general surgeons, and X-ray technicians, this definitive treatise, with its superb X-ray reproductions and complementary line drawings, explains how to achieve improved diagnoses and standardized control with the least possible radiation exposure to the patient

  10. Genetic relatedness between Japanese and European isolates of Clostridium difficile originating from piglets and their risk associated with human health

    Masaru eUsui

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Clostridium difficile colonization in pig intestine has been a public health concern. We analyzed C. difficile prevalence among piglets in Japan to clarify their origin and extent of the associated risk by using molecular and microbiological methods for both swine and human clinical isolates and foreign isolates. C. difficile was isolated from 120 neonatal piglet faecal samples. Toxin gene profile, antimicrobial susceptibilities, PCR ribotype, and multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA type of swine isolates were determined and compared with those of human clinical and foreign isolates. One-hundred C. difficile strains were isolated from 69 (57.5% samples, and 61 isolates (61% were toxin gene-positive. Some isolates were resistant to antimicrobials, contributing to antibiotic-associated diarrhoea by C. difficile. These results suggest that C. difficile, prevalent among Japanese pigs, is a potential risk for antibiotic-associated diarrhoea. Furthermore, PCR ribotype 078 (12 isolates, which has been linked to multiple outbreaks worldwide, was the third-most frequently isolated of the 14 PCR ribotypes identified. Moreover, MLVA revealed that all 12 PCR ribotype 078 isolates were genetically related to European PCR ribotype 078 strains found in both humans and pigs. To date, in Japan, many breeding pigs have been imported from European countries. The genetic relatedness of C. difficile isolates of Japanese swine origin to those of European origin suggests that they were introduced into Japan via imported pigs.

  11. Allelic frequencies and association with carcass traits of six genes in local subpopulations of Japanese Black cattle.

    Nishimaki, Takahiro; Ibi, Takayuki; Siqintuya; Kobayashi, Naohiko; Matsuhashi, Tamako; Akiyama, Takayuki; Yoshida, Emi; Imai, Kazumi; Matsui, Mayu; Uemura, Keiichi; Eto, Hisayoshi; Watanabe, Naoto; Fujita, Tatsuo; Saito, Yosuke; Komatsu, Tomohiko; Hoshiba, Hiroshi; Mannen, Hideyuki; Sasazaki, Shinji; Kunieda, Tetsuo

    2016-04-01

    Marker-assisted selection (MAS) is expected to accelerate the genetic improvement of Japanese Black cattle. However, verification of the effects of the genes for MAS in different subpopulations is required prior to the application of MAS. In this study, we investigated the allelic frequencies and genotypic effects for carcass traits of six genes, which can be used in MAS, in eight local subpopulations. These genes are SCD, FASN and SREBP1, which are associated with the fatty acid composition of meat, and NCAPG, MC1R and F11, which are associated with carcass weight, coat color and blood coagulation abnormality, respectively. The frequencies of desirable alleles of SCD and FASN were relatively high and that of NCAPG was relatively low, and NCAPG was significantly associated with several carcass traits, including carcass weight. The proportions of genotypic variance explained by NCAPG to phenotypic variance were 4.83 for carcass weight. We thus confirmed that NCAPG is a useful marker for selection of carcass traits in these subpopulations. In addition, we found that the desirable alleles of six genes showed no negative effects on carcass traits. Therefore, selection using these genes to improve target traits should not have negative impacts on carcass traits. © 2015 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  12. Work–family conflict and self-rated health among Japanese workers: How household income modifies associations

    Kobayashi, Tomoko; Honjo, Kaori; Eshak, Ehab Salah; Iso, Hiroyasu; Sawada, Norie; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2017-01-01

    To examine associations between work–family conflict and self-rated health among Japanese workers and to determine whether the associations differed by household income. Data was derived from the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study for the Next Generation in Saku area in 2011–2012 (7,663 men and 7,070 women). Multivariate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for poor self-rated health by work–family conflict consisting of two dimensions (work-to-family and family-to-work conflicts) were calculated by gender and household income. Multivariate ORs of high work-to-family and family-to-work conflicts for poor self-rated health were 2.46 (95% CI; 2.04–2.97) for men and 3.54 (95% CI; 2.92–4.30) for women, with reference to the low work-to-family and family-to-work conflicts (p-value for gender interaction = 0.02). Subgroup analysis indicated that health effects of work–family conflict were likely to be more evident in the low income group only among women. Work–family conflict was associated with poor self-rated health among middle-aged Japanese men and women; its health impact was relatively stronger among women, and particularly economically disadvantaged women. PMID:28207757

  13. Work-family conflict and self-rated health among Japanese workers: How household income modifies associations.

    Kobayashi, Tomoko; Honjo, Kaori; Eshak, Ehab Salah; Iso, Hiroyasu; Sawada, Norie; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2017-01-01

    To examine associations between work-family conflict and self-rated health among Japanese workers and to determine whether the associations differed by household income. Data was derived from the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study for the Next Generation in Saku area in 2011-2012 (7,663 men and 7,070 women). Multivariate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for poor self-rated health by work-family conflict consisting of two dimensions (work-to-family and family-to-work conflicts) were calculated by gender and household income. Multivariate ORs of high work-to-family and family-to-work conflicts for poor self-rated health were 2.46 (95% CI; 2.04-2.97) for men and 3.54 (95% CI; 2.92-4.30) for women, with reference to the low work-to-family and family-to-work conflicts (p-value for gender interaction = 0.02). Subgroup analysis indicated that health effects of work-family conflict were likely to be more evident in the low income group only among women. Work-family conflict was associated with poor self-rated health among middle-aged Japanese men and women; its health impact was relatively stronger among women, and particularly economically disadvantaged women.

  14. Polycystic ovary syndrome: association of a C/T single nucleotide polymorphism at tyrosine kinase domain of insulin receptor gene with pathogenesis among lean Japanese women.

    Kashima, Katsunori; Yahata, Tetsuro; Fujita, Kazuyuki; Tanaka, Kenichi

    2013-01-01

    To assess whether the insulin receptor (INSR) gene contributes to genetic susceptibility to polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) in a Japanese population. We ex-amined the frequency of the His 1058 C/T single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) found in exon 17 of the INSR gene in 61 Japanese PCOS patients and 99 Japanese healthy controls. In addition, we analyzed the association between the genotype of this SNP and the clinical phenotypes. The frequency of the C/C genotype was not significantly different between all PCOS patients (47.5%) and controls (35.4%). However, among the lean cases (body mass index PCOS patients (65.0%) as compared with controls (36.6%). We concluded that the His 1058 C/T polymorphism at the tyrosine kinase domain of the INSR gene had a relationship to the pathogenesis of lean PCOS patients in a Japanese population.

  15. Comparison of postmenopausal endogenous sex hormones among Japanese, Japanese Brazilians, and non-Japanese Brazilians

    Maciel Maria

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Differences in sex hormone levels among populations might contribute to the variation in breast cancer incidence across countries. Previous studies have shown higher breast cancer incidence and mortality among Japanese Brazilians than among Japanese. To clarify the difference in hormone levels among populations, we compared postmenopausal endogenous sex hormone levels among Japanese living in Japan, Japanese Brazilians living in the state of São Paulo, and non-Japanese Brazilians living in the state of São Paulo. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted using a control group of case-control studies in Nagano, Japan, and São Paulo, Brazil. Participants were postmenopausal women older than 55 years of age who provided blood samples. We measured estradiol, estrone, androstenedione, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS, testosterone and free testosterone by radioimmunoassay; bioavailable estradiol by the ammonium sulfate precipitation method; and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG by immunoradiometric assay. A total of 363 women were included for the present analyses, comprising 185 Japanese, 44 Japanese Brazilians and 134 non-Japanese Brazilians. Results Japanese Brazilians had significantly higher levels of estradiol, bioavailable estradiol, estrone, testosterone and free testosterone levels, and lower SHBG levels, than Japanese. Japanese Brazilians also had significantly higher levels of bioavailable estradiol, estrone and DHEAS and lower levels of SHBG and androstenedione than non-Japanese Brazilians. Levels of estradiol, testosterone and free testosterone, however, did not differ between Japanese Brazilians and non-Japanese Brazilians. These differences were observed even after adjustment for known breast cancer risk factors. We also found an increase in estrogen and androgen levels with increasing body mass index, but no association for most of the other known risk factors. Conclusions We found higher levels of

  16. Association of habitual dietary intake with morningness-eveningness and rotating shift work in Japanese female nurses.

    Yoshizaki, Takahiro; Komatsu, Taiki; Tada, Yuki; Hida, Azumi; Kawano, Yukari; Togo, Fumiharu

    2018-03-01

    Rotating shift workers are associated with imbalanced dietary intakes. Rotating shift workers and dietary intakes in adults who do not engage in night work have also been shown to be associated with chronotype. However, no studies have examined associations between morningness-eveningness (i.e., the degree to which people prefer to be active in the morning or the evening), rotating shift work and dietary intakes. Therefore, our first purpose was to elucidate the association between morningness-eveningness and habitual food group intakes in rotating shift workers. The second purpose was to elucidate the association of morningness-eveningness and rotating shift work with food group intakes, considering habitual sleep durations. Japanese nurses (1095 day workers and 1464 rotating shift workers) were studied using a self-administered questionnaire. The questionnaire covered habitual dietary intakes, morningness-eveningness and demographic characteristics of the participants. A Japanese version of the Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire (MEQ) was used to measure self-rated morningness-eveningness. Dietary intakes over the previous 1 month were evaluated using a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Intakes of pulses, green/yellow vegetables, white vegetables, fruits, algae, eggs, confectioneries/savory snacks and sugar-sweetened beverages were significantly (p food groups, intakes of green/yellow vegetables, white vegetables, fruits and algae were significantly (p food groups were also significantly (p food groups, while rotating shift work was associated only with confectioneries/savory snacks. These results suggest that morningness-eveningness is associated with unbalanced dietary intakes in rotating shift workers as well as day workers, which may partially explain associations between rotating shift work and unfavorable dietary intakes. These findings have important implications for the development of novel strategies for preventing poor health caused

  17. Understanding how orthopaedic surgery practices generate value for healthcare systems.

    Olson, Steven A; Mather, Richard C

    2013-06-01

    Orthopaedic surgery practices can provide substantial value to healthcare systems. Increasingly, healthcare administrators are speaking of the need for alignment between physicians and healthcare systems. However, physicians often do not understand what healthcare administrators value and therefore have difficulty articulating the value they create in discussions with their hospital or healthcare organization. Many health systems and hospitals use service lines as an organizational structure to track the relevant data and manage the resources associated with a particular type of care, such as musculoskeletal care. Understanding service lines and their management can be useful for orthopaedic surgeons interested in interacting with their hospital systems. We provide an overview of two basic types of value orthopaedic surgeons create for healthcare systems: financial or volume-driven benefits and nonfinancial quality or value-driven patient care benefits. We performed a search of PubMed from 1965 to 2012 using the term "service line." Of the 351 citations identified, 18 citations specifically involved the use of service lines to improve patient care in both nursing and medical journals. A service line is a structure used in healthcare organizations to enable management of a subset of activities or resources in a focused area of patient care delivery. There is not a consistent definition of what resources are managed within a service line from hospital to hospital. Physicians can positively impact patient care through engaging in service line management. There is increasing pressure for healthcare systems and hospitals to partner with orthopaedic surgeons. The peer-reviewed literature demonstrates there are limited resources for physicians to understand the value they create when attempting to negotiate with their hospital or healthcare organization. To effectively negotiate for resources to provide the best care for patients, orthopaedic surgeons need to claim and

  18. Orthopaedic podiatry triage: process outcomes of a skill mix initiative.

    Homeming, Lyndon J; Kuipers, Pim; Nihal, Aneel

    2012-11-01

    The Orthopaedic Podiatry Triage Clinic (OPodTC) is a 'skill mix' model of care developed in Queensland Health to address the problem of lengthy waiting times for orthopaedic surgery on foot and ankle pathologies. It is based on the recognition that many orthopaedic surgery referrals can be identified early and treated conservatively with podiatry, averting the need for more costly and invasive surgical interventions. The model is collaborative and relies on screening and triage by the podiatrist, rather than delegation by the orthopaedic surgeon. Screening and triage through OPodTC was trialled at three Queensland Health hospital facilities during 2009 and 2010 to improve service timeliness. Patients identified by the OPodTC podiatrist as suitable for conservative management were provided with non-surgical podiatry interventions and discharged if appropriate. Those identified as still requiring surgical intervention after the benefit of interim conservative treatment provided by the podiatrist (or who chose to remain on the list) were returned to their previous place on the orthopaedic waiting list. This paper presents a summary and description of waiting list changes in association with this trial. The OPodTC intervention resulted in a reduction in the non-urgent category of the waiting list across the three hospitals of between 23.3% and 49.7%. Indications from wait-list service data demonstrated increased timeliness and improved patient flow, which are core goals of these skill mix initiatives. This study highlights the potential of screening and triage functions in the skill mix debate. In this example, conservative treatment options were considered first, suitable patients did not have to wait long periods to receive timely and appropriate interventions, and those for whom surgery was indicated, were provided with a more targeted service.

  19. Does sleep deprivation impair orthopaedic surgeons' cognitive and psychomotor performance?

    O'Brien, Michael J; O'Toole, Robert V; Newell, Mary Zadnik; Lydecker, Alison D; Nascone, Jason; Sciadini, Marcus; Pollak, Andrew; Turen, Clifford; Eglseder, W Andrew

    2012-11-07

    Sleep deprivation may slow reaction time, cloud judgment, and impair the ability to think. Our purpose was to study the cognitive and psychomotor performances of orthopaedic trauma surgeons on the basis of the amount of sleep that they obtained. We prospectively studied the performances of thirty-two orthopaedic trauma surgeons (residents, fellows, and attending surgeons) over two four-week periods at an urban academic trauma center. Testing sessions used handheld computers to administer validated cognitive and psychomotor function tests. We conducted a multivariate analysis to examine the independent association between test performance and multiple covariates, including the amount of sleep the night before testing. Our analysis demonstrated that orthopaedic surgeons who had slept four hours or less the night before the test had 1.43 times the odds (95% confidence interval, 1.04 to 1.95; p = 0.03) of committing at least one error on an individual test compared with orthopaedic surgeons who had slept more than four hours the previous night. The Running Memory test, which assesses sustained attention, concentration, and working memory, was most sensitive to deterioration in performance in participants who had had four hours of sleep or less; when controlling for other covariates, the test demonstrated a 72% increase in the odds of making at least one error (odds ratio, 1.72 [95% confidence interval, 1.02 to 2.90]; p = 0.04). No significant decrease in performance with sleep deprivation was shown with the other three tests. Orthopaedic trauma surgeons showed deterioration in performance on a validated cognitive task when they had slept four hours or less the previous night. It is unknown how performance on this test relates to surgical performance.

  20. HLA-DQB1*03 confers susceptibility to chronic hepatitis C in Japanese: a genome-wide association study.

    Daiki Miki

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C virus (HCV establishes a chronic infection in 70-80% of infected individuals. Many researchers have examined the effect of human leukocyte antigen (HLA on viral persistence because of its critical role in the immune response against exposure to HCV, but almost all studies have proven to be inconclusive. To identify genetic risk factors for chronic HCV infection, we analyzed 458,207 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in 481 chronic HCV patients and 2,963 controls in a Japanese cohort. Next, we performed a replication study with an independent panel of 4,358 cases and 1,114 controls. We further confirmed the association in 1,379 cases and 25,817 controls. In the GWAS phase, we found 17 SNPs that showed suggestive association (P < 1 × 10⁻⁵. After the first replication study, we found one intronic SNP in the HLA-DQ locus associated with chronic HCV infection, and when we combined the two studies, the association reached the level of genome-wide significance. In the second replication study, we again confirmed the association (P(combined = 3.59 × 10⁻¹⁶, odds ratio [OR] = 0.79. Subsequent analysis revealed another SNP, rs1130380, with a stronger association (OR=0.72. This nucleotide substitution causes an amino acid substitution (R55P in the HLA-DQB1 protein specific to the DQB1*03 allele, which is common worldwide. In addition, we confirmed an association with the previously reported IFNL3-IFNL4 locus and propose that the effect of DQB1*03 on HCV persistence might be affected by the IFNL4 polymorphism. Our findings suggest that a common amino acid substitution in HLA-DQB1 affects susceptibility to chronic infection with HCV in the Japanese population and may not be independent of the IFNL4 genotype.

  1. Association between frequency of fried food consumption and resilience to depression in Japanese company workers: a cross-sectional study.

    Yoshikawa, Eisho; Nishi, Daisuke; Matsuoka, Yutaka J

    2016-09-15

    Long-chain n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC n-3/n-6 PUFA) play important roles in emotional regulation. We previously reported an association between fish consumption, which is major source of LC n-3 PUFA, and resilience to depression, where resilience is the ability to cope with stress in the face of adversity. Although the traditional Japanese dietary pattern of high fish consumption is associated with low depressive symptoms, the current Japanese diet pattern has become westernized. Westernized diets contain excessive amounts of LC n-6 PUFA due to high intake of vegetable oils commonly used in fried food and are associated with risk of depression. The aim of this study was to examine the association between frequency of fried food consumption and resilience to depression. Participants were 715 Japanese company workers. The Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) was used to measure depressive symptoms, and the 14-item Resilience Scale (RS-14) was used to measure resilience. Frequency of fish and fried food consumption was assessed using a self-report questionnaire based on the Food Frequency Questionnaire. Regression analyses using Preacher and Hayes' bootstrap script were used to adjust for demographic factors, frequency of physical exercise, and fish consumption. Significant associations were identified between frequency of fried food consumption and total CES-D score (path c, B = 0.72; P frequency of fried food consumption and total RS-14 score (path a, B = -1.73, P food consumption and total CES-D score was not significant when we controlled for RS-14 score. Bootstrapping results showed that there was a significant positive indirect association between frequency of fried food and CESD score through RS-14 (95 % bias-corrected and accelerated confidence interval = 0.34 to 0.92). Frequency of fried food consumption was associated with lower resilience to depression. Further nutritional interventional studies to

  2. Socioeconomic status is significantly associated with the dietary intakes of folate and depression scales in Japanese workers (J-HOPE Study).

    Miyaki, Koichi; Song, Yixuan; Taneichi, Setsuko; Tsutsumi, Akizumi; Hashimoto, Hideki; Kawakami, Norito; Takahashi, Masaya; Shimazu, Akihito; Inoue, Akiomi; Kurioka, Sumiko; Shimbo, Takuro

    2013-02-18

    The association of socioeconomic status (SES) with nutrient intake attracts public attention worldwide. In the current study, we examined the associations of SES with dietary intake of folate and health outcomes in general Japanese workers. This Japanese occupational cohort consisted off 2266 workers. SES was assessed by a self-administered questionnaire. Intakes of all nutrients were assessed with a validated, brief and self-administered diet history questionnaire (BDHQ). The degree of depressive symptoms was measured by the validated Japanese version of the K6 scale. Multiple linear regression and stratified analysis were used to evaluate the associations of intake with the confounding factors. Path analysis was conducted to describe the impacts of intake on health outcomes. Education levels and household incomes were significantly associated with intake of folate and depression scales (p workers, and the effort to increase the folate intake may alleviate the harms of social disparities on mental health.

  3. Frequency of soup intake and amount of dietary fiber intake are inversely associated with plasma leptin concentrations in Japanese adults.

    Kuroda, Motonaka; Ohta, Masanori; Okufuji, Tatsuya; Takigami, Chieko; Eguchi, Masafumi; Hayabuchi, Hitomi; Ikeda, Masaharu

    2010-06-01

    Previous studies have shown that the intake of soup negatively correlates with the body mass index (BMI), suggesting that soup intake reduces the risk of obesity. In this study, to clarify the association of the intake of soup and various nutrients with plasma leptin concentration, a cross-sectional study on 504 Japanese adults aged 20-76 years (103 men and 401 women) was performed. The intake of soup and various nutrients was investigated by food frequency questionnaires. Plasma leptin concentration was measured in fasting blood by radioimmunoassay. The correlation was analyzed by multiple regression analysis. The average frequency of soup intake was 7.6 times/week. The average plasma leptin concentration was 7.76 ng/ml. After adjusting the confounding factors, the frequency of soup intake has a significant inverse association with plasma leptin concentration. Among the macronutrients, only dietary fiber intake negatively correlated with plasma leptin concentration after the adjustment for potential confounding factors. These results suggest that the intakes of soup and dietary fiber were negatively correlated with plasma leptin concentration in Japanese adults. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Association between Knowledge about Comprehensive Food Education and Increase in Dental Caries in Japanese University Students: A Prospective Cohort Study

    Muneyoshi Kunitomo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In Japan, comprehensive food education (shokuiku programs are carried out with the aim of improving dietary practices and thereby reducing the incidence of lifestyle-related diseases, including dental caries. The purpose of this prospective cohort study was to investigate the association between knowledge about shokuiku and the increase in dental caries among Japanese university students who had attended a shokuiku program while in junior/senior high school. A total of 562 students volunteered to undergo oral examinations over a three-year follow-up period, during which the number of cases of dental caries were recorded. Additional information was collected using a questionnaire survey regarding knowledge about shokuiku, dietary habits, and oral health behaviors. In logistic regression analysis, males who lacked knowledge about shokuiku had significantly higher odds for dental caries than those who did not (odds ratio (OR, 2.00; 95% confidence interval (CI, 1.12–3.58; p = 0.019. On the other hand, among females, those who frequently consumed sugar-sweetened soft drinks had significantly higher odds for dental caries than those who did not (OR, 1.89; 95% CI, 1.05–3.42; p = 0.035. These results suggest that having no knowledge about shokuiku is associated with a risk of increase in dental caries in Japanese male university students.

  5. Tannerella forsythia and the HLA-DQB1 allele are associated with susceptibility to periodontal disease in Japanese adolescents.

    Shimomura-Kuroki, Junko; Yamashita, Kie; Shimooka, Shohachi

    2009-01-01

    Periodontal disease is a multiple factor disease caused by genetic factors, environmental factors, and periodontal bacteria (periodontal pathogens). The present study aimed to elucidate the risk factors for periodontal disease in Japanese adolescents. Subjects (11-16 years old) were classified into three groups: localized aggressive periodontitis (LAP), periodontal attachment loss (PAL), and periodontally healthy (PH) groups. Genomic DNA isolated from the buccal mucosa was used for single-nucleotide polymorphism analyses of the candidate genes (interleukin-1alpha-889; interleukin-1alpha +4845; interleukin-1beta +3954; an immunoglobulin G Fc gamma receptor, FcgammaRIIa-R/H131; and a human leukocyte antigen class II allele, HLA-DQB1) of aggressive periodontitis. Subgingival plaque samples obtained from the same subjects were used for 16S rRNAbased polymerase chain reaction analysis of five important periodontal pathogens (Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia, Treponema denticola, and Tannerella forsythia). Tannerella forsythia was detected in the deepest periodontal pockets in all subjects in the LAP and PAL groups. The prevalence of an atypical BamHI restriction site in HLA-DQB1 of the LAP group was significantly higher than that in the PH and PAL groups. Furthermore, all subjects who had the atypical BamHI restriction site in HLA-DQB1 had T. forsythia infection. These results suggested that T. forsythia is associated with periodontal disease in Japanese adolescents and also suggested that HLA-DQB1 is related to LAP and is associated with T. forsythia infection.

  6. Modifiable Factors Associated with Cognitive Impairment in 1,143 Japanese Outpatients: The Project in Sado for Total Health (PROST

    Kaori Kitamura

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Evidence on modifiable factors associated with cognitive impairment in Japanese patients is scarce. This study aimed to determine modifiable factors for cognitive impairment in a Japanese hospital-based population. Methods: Subjects of this cross-sectional study were 1,143 patients of Sado General Hospital (Niigata, Japan registered in the Project in Sado for Total Health (PROST between June 2008 and September 2014. We assessed disease history, body mass index (BMI, leisure time physical activity, walking time, smoking and drinking habits, and consumption of vegetables, fruits, and green tea as predictors, with cognitive impairment defined by the Mini-Mental State Examination (score Results: The mean subject age was 68.9 years, and the prevalence of cognitive impairment was 21.5%. Multivariate analysis revealed that age (p Conclusions: Modifiable factors, such as low BMI, low fruit consumption, and low green tea consumption, are associated with cognitive impairment. Longitudinal studies will be needed to confirm these findings.

  7. Where Are the Women in Orthopaedic Surgery?

    Rohde, Rachel S; Wolf, Jennifer Moriatis; Adams, Julie E

    2016-09-01

    Although women account for approximately half of the medical students in the United States, they represent only 13% of orthopaedic surgery residents and 4% of members of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons (AAOS). Furthermore, a smaller relative percentage of women pursue careers in orthopaedic surgery than in any other subspecialty. Formal investigations regarding the gender discrepancy in choice of orthopaedic surgery are lacking. (1) What reasons do women orthopaedic surgeons cite for why they chose this specialty? (2) What perceptions do women orthopaedic surgeons think might deter other women from pursuing this field? (3) What role does early exposure to orthopaedics and mentorship play in this choice? (4) What professional and personal choices do women in orthopaedics make, and how might this inform students who are choosing a career path? A 21-question survey was emailed to all active, candidate, and resident members of the Ruth Jackson Orthopaedic Society (RJOS, n = 556). RJOS is the oldest surgical women's organization incorporated in the United States. An independent orthopaedic specialty society, RJOS supports leadership training, mentorship, grant opportunities, and advocacy for its members and promotes sex-related musculoskeletal research. Although not all women in orthopaedic practice or training belong to RJOS, it is estimated that 42% of women AAOS fellows are RJOS members. Questions were formulated to determine demographics, practice patterns, and lifestyle choices of women who chose orthopaedic surgery as a specialty. Specifically, we evaluated the respondents' decisions about their careers and their opinions of why more women do not choose this field. For the purpose of this analysis, the influences and dissuaders were divided into three major categories: personal attributes, experience/exposure, and work/life considerations. The most common reasons cited for having chosen orthopaedic surgery were enjoyment of manual tasks (165 of 232

  8. Japanese language and Japanese science

    Tanikawa, Kiyotaka

    2003-08-01

    Japanese mathematical scientists including astronomers, physicists, and mathematicians obtain ideas in Japanese, discuss their problems in Japanese, and arrive at conclusions in Japanese, and yet they write their results in foreign languages such as English. This uncomfortable situation has continued for nearly one hundred years and has had serious effects on Japanese science. In this short report, the author discusses and analyses these effects. In order to put Japanese science on a sound basis, the author proposes to increase the number of articles, reviews and textbooks in Japanese, first by translation and second by the voluntary efforts of scientists themselves. As centers devoted to this activity, the author proposes to construct "Airborne Libraries" which are maintained and accumulate in an electronic form the scientific documents written in Japanese.

  9. Prevalence of lumbar spondylosis and its association with low back pain among community-dwelling Japanese women.

    Tsujimoto, Ritsu; Abe, Yasuyo; Arima, Kazuhiko; Nishimura, Takayuki; Tomita, Masato; Yonekura, Akihiko; Miyamoto, Takashi; Matsubayashi, Shohei; Tanaka, Natsumi; Aoyagi, Kiyoshi; Osaki, Makoto

    2016-12-01

    Lumbar spondylosis is more prevalent among the middle-aged and elderly, but few population-based studies have been conducted, especially in Japan. The purpose of this study was to explore the prevalence of lumbar spondylosis and its associations with low back pain among community-dwelling Japanese women. Lateral radiographs of the lumbar spine were obtained from 490 Japanese women ≥ 40 years old, and scored for lumbar spondylosis using the Kellgren-Lawrence (KL) grade at lumbar intervertebral level from L1/2 to L5/S1. Height and weight were measured, and body mass index (BMI) was calculated. Low back pain in subjects was assessed using a self-administered questionnaire. Stiffness index (bone mass) was measured at the calcaneal bone using quantitative ultrasound. Prevalence of radiographic lumbar spondylosis for KL ≥ 2, KL ≥ 3 and low back pain were 76.7%, 38.8% and 20.0%, respectively. Age was positively associated with radiographic lumbar spondylosis (KL = 2, KL ≥ 3) and low back pain. Greater BMI was associated with lumbar spondylosis with KL = 2, but not with KL ≥ 3. Stiffness index was associated with neither radiographic lumbar spondylosis nor low back pain. Multiple logistic regression analysis identified radiographic lumbar spondylosis (KL ≥ 3) at L3/4, L4/5 and L5/S1 was associated with low back pain, independent of age, BMI and stiffness index. Severe lumbar spondylosis at the middle or lower level may contribute to low back pain.

  10. Association between depressive symptoms and morningness-eveningness, sleep duration and rotating shift work in Japanese nurses.

    Togo, Fumiharu; Yoshizaki, Takahiro; Komatsu, Taiki

    2017-01-01

    Higher depressive symptoms have been reported in rotating shift workers compared with day workers. Depressive symptoms in adults who do not engage in night work have also been shown to be associated with chronotype and sleep duration. This study examines associations between depressive symptoms, morningness-eveningness (i.e. the degree to which people prefer to be active in the morning or the evening), sleep duration and rotating shift work. Japanese nurses (1252 day workers and 1780 rotating shift workers, aged 20-59) were studied using a self-administered questionnaire. The questionnaire covered depressive symptoms, morningness-eveningness, sleep habits and demographic characteristics of the participants. The Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) was used to determine the levels of depressive symptoms. A Japanese version of the Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire (MEQ) was used to measure morningness-eveningness. The CES-D score of shift workers was significantly (p shift workers than in day workers. Sleep duration on the day shift was significantly (p shift workers than in day workers. Simple linear regression revealed that the MEQ score, sleep duration on the day shift and current work shift (i.e. rotating shift work) were significantly (p shift work was not. These associations between the MEQ score, the sleep duration and the CES-D score were also confirmed in both day workers and shift workers when the groups were analyzed separately. These results suggest that greater eveningness and shorter sleep duration on the day shift were independently associated with higher levels of depressive symptoms, which may explain associations between rotating shift workers and depressive symptoms. These findings have important implications for the development of novel strategies for preventing poor mental health in day workers and rotating shift workers.

  11. Yellow Tongue Coating is Associated With Diabetes Mellitus Among Japanese Non-smoking Men and Women: The Toon Health Study.

    Tomooka, Kiyohide; Saito, Isao; Furukawa, Shinya; Maruyama, Koutatsu; Eguchi, Eri; Iso, Hiroyasu; Tanigawa, Takeshi

    2017-12-28

    Yellow tongue coating is one of the clinical signs for diabetes mellitus according to traditional East Asian medicine. Few reports have been available on the association between yellow tongue coating and the prevalence of type 2 diabetes in the general population. We examined that association among population samples of non-smoking men and women. The study subjects were Japanese non-smoking men (n = 315) and women (n = 654) aged 30-79 years who resided in Toon city and participated in the Toon Health Study from July 2011 through November 2014. Tongue coating was assessed by a nationally licensed acupuncturist and classified into three categories of white (normal), light yellow, and yellow. We performed an oral glucose tolerance test to confirm the presence of diabetes mellitus and prediabetes. The associations between yellow tongue coating and the prevalence of diabetes mellitus and prediabetes were examined using multivariable logistic regression analyses, adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, drinking status, and physical activity. The multivariable odds ratios of diabetes mellitus were 1.39 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.72-2.67) for light yellow tongue coating and 2.23 (95% CI, 1.16-4.30) for yellow tongue coating compared with white tongue coating. The respective multivariable odds ratios of prediabetes were 1.13 (95% CI, 0.80-1.61) and 1.43 (95% CI, 0.96-2.12). Yellow tongue coating was associated with higher prevalence of diabetes mellitus and tended to be associated with that of prediabetes among Japanese non-smoking men and women.

  12. The Infection Rate of Metal-on-Metal Total Hip Replacement Is Higher When Compared to Other Bearing Surfaces as Documented by the Australian Orthopaedic Association National Joint Replacement Registry.

    Huang, Phil; Lyons, Matt; O'Sullivan, Michael

    2018-02-01

    Despite the well-documented decline in the use of metal-on-metal (MoM) implants over the last decade, there are still controversies regarding whether all MoM implants are created equally. Complications such as elevated serum metal ion levels, aseptic lymphocyte-dominated vasculitis-associated lesion (ALVAL) and pseudotumours have all been well documented, but recent studies suggest increased risk of infection with MoM bearing surfaces. Most of these studies however have small patient numbers. The purpose of this study was to examine the cumulative incidence of revision for infection of MoM bearing surfaces in primary hip arthroplasty at a national and single-surgeon level. Data was collected from the Australian Orthopaedic Association National Joint Replacement Registry, which contains over 98% of all arthroplasties performed in Australia since 2001. The cumulative incidence of revision for infection was extracted at a national level and single-surgeon level. Two hundred seventy-six thousand eight hundred seventy-eight subjects were documented in the Australian registry. The 10-year cumulative percent revision for infection of MoM bearing surfaces in primary total hip replacement (THR) was 2.5% at a national level, compared to 0.8% for other bearing surfaces. The senior author contributed 1755 subjects with 7-year follow-up and a cumulative percent revision for infection of MoM bearing surfaces in primary THR of 36.9%, compared to 2.0% for other bearing surfaces. The cumulative percent of revision of MoM bearing surfaces is higher compared to other bearing surfaces; this is especially pronounced in cumulative percent of revision for infection. There was a higher cumulative percent of revision for infection in MoM bearings surfaces (in particular, large-head MoM) compared to other bearing surfaces at both the national and individual-surgeon level.

  13. Adverse Effects of Smoking on Outcomes of Orthopaedic Surgery

    Sheung-tung Ho

    2017-01-01

    Smoking has many adverse effects on the musculoskeletal system, particularly on the outcomes after orthopaedic surgery. Smoking is associated with surgical site infection and postoperative wound complications after spine surgery, total joint arthroplasty, and fracture fixation; nonunion after spinal fusion, ankle fusion, osteotomy, and internal fixation and bone grafting for scaphoid nonunion; worse outcomes after lumbar disc prolapse, spinal stenosis, and cervical myelopathy surgery; peripro...

  14. Rapid Prototyping in Orthopaedic Surgery: A User's Guide

    Frame, Mark; Huntley, James S.

    2012-01-01

    Rapid prototyping (RP) is applicable to orthopaedic problems involving three dimensions, particularly fractures, deformities, and reconstruction. In the past, RP has been hampered by cost and difficulties accessing the appropriate expertise. Here we outline the history of rapid prototyping and furthermore a process using open-source software to produce a high fidelity physical model from CT data. This greatly mitigates the expense associated with the technique, allowing surgeons to produce pr...

  15. No evidence of association between structural polymorphism at the dopamine D3 receptor locus and alcoholism in the Japanese

    Higuchi, Susumu; Muramatsu, Taro; Matsushita, Sachio [National Institute on Alcoholism, Kanagawa (Japan); Murayama, Masanobu [Akagi Kougen Hospital, Gunma (Japan)

    1996-07-26

    Dopaminergic systems mediate reward mechanisms and are involved in reinforcing self-administration of dependence-forming substances, including alcohol. Studies have reported that polymorphisms of the dopamine D2 receptor, whose structure and function are similar to those of the dopamine D3 receptor, increase the susceptibility to alcoholism. The observations led to the examination of the possible association between a structural polymorphism of the D3 receptor gene and alcoholism. Genotyping results, employing a PCR-RFLP method, showed no difference in allele and genotype frequencies of the D3 BalI polymorphism (Ser{sup 9}/Gly{sup 9}) between Japanese alcoholics and controls. Moreover, these frequencies were not altered in alcoholics with inactive aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 (ALDH2), a well-defined negative risk factor for alcoholism. These results strongly suggest that the dopamine D3 receptor is not associated with alcoholism. 19 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  16. Does Residency Selection Criteria Predict Performance in Orthopaedic Surgery Residency?

    Raman, Tina; Alrabaa, Rami George; Sood, Amit; Maloof, Paul; Benevenia, Joseph; Berberian, Wayne

    2016-04-01

    More than 1000 candidates applied for orthopaedic residency positions in 2014, and the competition is intense; approximately one-third of the candidates failed to secure a position in the match. However, the criteria used in the selection process often are subjective and studies have differed in terms of which criteria predict either objective measures or subjective ratings of resident performance by faculty. Do preresidency selection factors serve as predictors of success in residency? Specifically, we asked which preresidency selection factors are associated or correlated with (1) objective measures of resident knowledge and performance; and (2) subjective ratings by faculty. Charts of 60 orthopaedic residents from our institution were reviewed. Preresidency selection criteria examined included United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) Step 1 and Step 2 scores, Medical College Admission Test (MCAT) scores, number of clinical clerkship honors, number of letters of recommendation, number of away rotations, Alpha Omega Alpha (AOA) honor medical society membership, fourth-year subinternship at our institution, and number of publications. Resident performance was assessed using objective measures including American Board of Orthopaedic Surgery (ABOS) Part I scores and Orthopaedics In-Training Exam (OITE) scores and subjective ratings by faculty including global evaluation scores and faculty rankings of residents. We tested associations between preresidency criteria and the subsequent objective and subjective metrics using linear correlation analysis and Mann-Whitney tests when appropriate. Objective measures of resident performance namely, ABOS Part I scores, had a moderate linear correlation with the USMLE Step 2 scores (r = 0.55, p communication skills" subsection of the global evaluations. We found that USMLE Step 2, number of honors in medical school clerkships, and AOA membership demonstrated the strongest correlations with resident performance. Our

  17. Higher vitamin D intake during pregnancy is associated with reduced risk of dental caries in young Japanese children.

    Tanaka, Keiko; Hitsumoto, Shinichi; Miyake, Yoshihiro; Okubo, Hitomi; Sasaki, Satoshi; Miyatake, Nobuyuki; Arakawa, Masashi

    2015-08-01

    The intrauterine environment, including maternal nutrition status, may affect the development, formation, and mineralization of children's teeth. We assessed the relationship between self-reported maternal dietary vitamin D intake during pregnancy and the risk of dental caries among young Japanese children. This study is based on a prospective analysis of 1210 Japanese mother-child pairs. Information on maternal intake during pregnancy was collected using a validated diet history questionnaire. Data on oral examination at 36-46 months of age were obtained from the mothers, who transcribed the information from their maternal and child health handbooks to our self-administered questionnaire. Children were classified as having dental caries if one or more primary teeth had decayed or had been filled. Compared with the lowest quartile of maternal vitamin D intake during pregnancy, adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) for quartiles 2, 3, and 4 were 1.06 (0.72-1.56), 0.53 (0.34-0.81), and 0.67 (0.44-1.02), respectively (P for trend = .01). When maternal vitamin D intake was treated as a continuous variable, the adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval) was 0.94 (0.89-0.995). Higher maternal vitamin D intake during pregnancy may be associated with a lower risk of dental caries in children. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Association of Job Demands with Work Engagement of Japanese Employees: Comparison of Challenges with Hindrances (J-HOPE)

    Inoue, Akiomi; Kawakami, Norito; Tsutsumi, Akizumi; Shimazu, Akihito; Miyaki, Koichi; Takahashi, Masaya; Kurioka, Sumiko; Eguchi, Hisashi; Tsuchiya, Masao; Enta, Kazuhiko; Kosugi, Yuki; Sakata, Tomoko; Totsuzaki, Takafumi

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Recent epidemiological research in Europe has reported that two groups of job demands, i.e., challenges and hindrances, are differently associated with work engagement. The purpose of the present study was to replicate the cross-sectional association of workload and time pressure (as a challenge) and role ambiguity (as a hindrance) with work engagement among Japanese employees. Methods Between October 2010 and December 2011, a total of 9,134 employees (7,101 men and 1,673 women) from 12 companies in Japan were surveyed using a self-administered questionnaire comprising the Job Content Questionnaire, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Generic Job Stress Questionnaire, short 10-item version of the Effort-Reward Imbalance Questionnaire, short nine-item version of the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale, and demographic characteristics. Multilevel regression analyses with a random intercept model were conducted. Results After adjusting for demographic characteristics, workload and time pressure showed a positive association with work engagement with a small effect size (standardized coefficient [β] = 0.102, Cohen’s d [d] = 0.240) while role ambiguity showed a negative association with a large effect size (β = −0.429, d = 1.011). After additionally adjusting for job resources (i.e., decision latitude, supervisor support, co-worker support, and extrinsic reward), the effect size of workload and time pressure was not attenuated (β = 0.093, d = 0.234) while that of role ambiguity was attenuated but still medium (β = −0.242, d = 0.609). Conclusions Among Japanese employees, challenges such as having higher levels of workload and time pressure may enhance work engagement but hindrances, such as role ambiguity, may reduce it. PMID:24614682

  19. Association of smoking behavior and socio-demographic factors, work, lifestyle and mental health of Japanese civil servants.

    Hu, Lizhen; Sekine, Michikazu; Gaina, Alexandru; Nasermoaddeli, Ali; Kagamimori, Sadanobu

    2007-11-01

    Few studies have examined the individual and social impact of smoking behavior in the Japanese population. The purpose of this study was to clarify the association between smoking behavior and socio-demographic factors, lifestyle, mental health and work characteristics of Japanese civil servants. A self-administered questionnaire survey of 1,439 employees (821 men and 618 women) aged 20-64 yr was conducted in a local government department in 2001. The questionnaire included items on socio-demographic factors, education level, grade of employment, lifestyle, affect balance scale, and work characteristics. Smoking status was divided into current smoker, ex-smoker and never smoked. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate the relationship between smoking and the other items. Men presented a higher smoking prevalence rate than women (53.1% vs. 4.9%). In men, a strong relationship between current smoker and advanced age (40 yr or older), low education level, less physical activity, irregular breakfast and negative affect balance was found. Among men with a low education, the prevalence of smoking cessation was significantly lower in comparison to men with a high education. In women, being young (20-29 yr), unmarried (single or other), having a hobby, and irregular breakfast were associated with smoking behavior. Furthermore, smoking cessation was significantly associated with having a hobby and negative affect balance. The above results suggest that socio-demographic, lifestyle and mental health characteristics are independently associated with current smoking. These factors should be considered in smoking cessation policies as program components.

  20. Association of microsatellite polymorphisms of the GPDS1 locus with normal tension glaucoma in the Japanese population

    Kayo Nakamura

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Kayo Nakamura1*, Masao Ota2*, Akira Meguro1, et al1Department of Ophthalmology, Yokohama City University School of Medicine, Yokohama, Kanagawa, Japan; 2Departmentof Legal Medicine, Shinshu University School of Medicine, Matsumoto, Nagano, JapanBackground: To investigate whether the GPDS1 locus, a potential causative locus of pigment-dispersion syndrome, is associated with normal-tension glaucoma (NTG in Japanese patients. Materials and methods: We used polymerase chain reaction amplification with sequencespecific primers to analyze 20 polymorphic microsatellite markers in and around the GPDS1 locus with an automated DNA analyzer and automated fragment detection by fluorescent-based technology. The DNA samples used for these analyses were obtained from ethnicity- and gendermatched patients, including 141 Japanese patients with NTG and 101 healthy controls. Patients exhibiting a comparatively early onset were selected as this suggests that genetic factors may show stronger involvement.Results: One allele of D7S2462 exhibited a frequency that was significantly decreased in NTG cases compared to controls (P = 0.0013, Pc = 0.019, OR = 0.48, 95% CI = 0.30–0.75. Alleles at another six microsatellite loci were positively or negatively associated with NTG, but these associations did not retain statistical significance after Bonferroni correction (P < 0.05, Pc > 0.05.Conclusion: Our study showed a significant association between the GPDS1 locus and NTG, suggesting that there may be some genetic risk factor(s in the development of NTG.Keywords: microsatellite, normal tension glaucoma, glaucoma-related pigment dispersion syndrome, GPDS1, DPP6

  1. Association of job demands with work engagement of Japanese employees: comparison of challenges with hindrances (J-HOPE.

    Akiomi Inoue

    Full Text Available Recent epidemiological research in Europe has reported that two groups of job demands, i.e., challenges and hindrances, are differently associated with work engagement. The purpose of the present study was to replicate the cross-sectional association of workload and time pressure (as a challenge and role ambiguity (as a hindrance with work engagement among Japanese employees.Between October 2010 and December 2011, a total of 9,134 employees (7,101 men and 1,673 women from 12 companies in Japan were surveyed using a self-administered questionnaire comprising the Job Content Questionnaire, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Generic Job Stress Questionnaire, short 10-item version of the Effort-Reward Imbalance Questionnaire, short nine-item version of the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale, and demographic characteristics. Multilevel regression analyses with a random intercept model were conducted.After adjusting for demographic characteristics, workload and time pressure showed a positive association with work engagement with a small effect size (standardized coefficient [β] = 0.102, Cohen's d [d] = 0.240 while role ambiguity showed a negative association with a large effect size (β = -0.429, d = 1.011. After additionally adjusting for job resources (i.e., decision latitude, supervisor support, co-worker support, and extrinsic reward, the effect size of workload and time pressure was not attenuated (β = 0.093, d = 0.234 while that of role ambiguity was attenuated but still medium (β = -0.242, d = 0.609.Among Japanese employees, challenges such as having higher levels of workload and time pressure may enhance work engagement but hindrances, such as role ambiguity, may reduce it.

  2. Association of job demands with work engagement of Japanese employees: comparison of challenges with hindrances (J-HOPE).

    Inoue, Akiomi; Kawakami, Norito; Tsutsumi, Akizumi; Shimazu, Akihito; Miyaki, Koichi; Takahashi, Masaya; Kurioka, Sumiko; Eguchi, Hisashi; Tsuchiya, Masao; Enta, Kazuhiko; Kosugi, Yuki; Sakata, Tomoko; Totsuzaki, Takafumi

    2014-01-01

    Recent epidemiological research in Europe has reported that two groups of job demands, i.e., challenges and hindrances, are differently associated with work engagement. The purpose of the present study was to replicate the cross-sectional association of workload and time pressure (as a challenge) and role ambiguity (as a hindrance) with work engagement among Japanese employees. Between October 2010 and December 2011, a total of 9,134 employees (7,101 men and 1,673 women) from 12 companies in Japan were surveyed using a self-administered questionnaire comprising the Job Content Questionnaire, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Generic Job Stress Questionnaire, short 10-item version of the Effort-Reward Imbalance Questionnaire, short nine-item version of the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale, and demographic characteristics. Multilevel regression analyses with a random intercept model were conducted. After adjusting for demographic characteristics, workload and time pressure showed a positive association with work engagement with a small effect size (standardized coefficient [β] = 0.102, Cohen's d [d] = 0.240) while role ambiguity showed a negative association with a large effect size (β = -0.429, d = 1.011). After additionally adjusting for job resources (i.e., decision latitude, supervisor support, co-worker support, and extrinsic reward), the effect size of workload and time pressure was not attenuated (β = 0.093, d = 0.234) while that of role ambiguity was attenuated but still medium (β = -0.242, d = 0.609). Among Japanese employees, challenges such as having higher levels of workload and time pressure may enhance work engagement but hindrances, such as role ambiguity, may reduce it.

  3. High serum carotenoids associated with lower risk for the metabolic syndrome and its components among Japanese subjects: Mikkabi cohort study.

    Sugiura, Minoru; Nakamura, Mieko; Ogawa, Kazunori; Ikoma, Yoshinori; Yano, Masamichi

    2015-11-28

    Recent epidemiological studies show the association of carotenoids with the metabolic syndrome (MetS), but thorough longitudinal cohort studies regarding this association have not been well conducted. The objective of this study was to investigate longitudinally whether serum carotenoids are associated with the risk of developing the MetS and its components in Japanese subjects. We conducted a follow-up study on 1073 men and women aged 30-79 years at the baseline from the Mikkabi prospective cohort study. Those who participated in the baseline and completed follow-up surveys were examined longitudinally. Over the 10-year period, 910 subjects (295 men and 615 women) took part in the follow-up survey at least once. Over a mean follow-up period of 7·8 (sd 2·9) years, thirty-six men and thirty-one women developed new MetS. After adjustments for confounders, the hazard ratio (HR) for the MetS in the highest tertile of serum β-carotene against the lowest tertile was 0·47 (95 % CI 0·23, 0·95). On the other hand, significantly lower risks for dyslipidaemia were observed in the highest tertiles of serum α- and β-carotene and β-cryptoxanthin (HR 0·66; 95 % CI 0·46, 0·96; HR, 0·54; 95 % CI 0·37, 0·79; and HR 0·66; 95 % CI 0·44, 0·99, respectively). Other significant associations between the risks for obesity, high blood pressure and hyperglycaemia with serum carotenoids were not observed. Our results further support the hypothesis that eating a diet rich in carotenoids might help prevent the development of the MetS and its complications in Japanese subjects.

  4. History of orthopaedics in China: a brief review.

    Li, Jia; Zhang, Yingze

    2018-03-01

    Chinese orthopaedic surgeons have made a substantial contribution to the development of orthopaedics worldwide, and traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) in orthopaedics has a very long history in China. We make a brief review of the development of orthopaedics in China, intending to pave the way for further understanding of Chinese orthopaedics for scholars all over the world. The description of fractures firstly appeared in 3600 years ago in China, and the theories, experience, and treatment strategies of TCM still play important roles in clinical diagnosis and treatment of orthopaedic disorders in our country. Western orthopaedics was first introduced into China in the early twentieth century. After decades of development, Chinese scholars have made some gratifying achievements in orthopaedics. Orthopaedics is constantly evolving, and we need to strengthen the ability of independent innovation to achieve orthopaedic surgeons' Chinese dream, and better serve our patients.

  5. Association of Filial Responsibility, Ethnicity, and Acculturation Among Japanese American Family Caregivers of Older Adults.

    Miyawaki, Christina E

    2017-03-01

    Challenges of filial caregiving practices by 1st-generation immigrants due to differences in caregiving values between their home and host countries are well documented. This study explored the filial responsibility of later generation Japanese American caregivers of older adults. Acculturation and filial responsibility were measured using the Suinn-Lew Asian Self Identity Acculturation scale and Filial Values Index, respectively. A qualitative interview guide was developed using Gordon's assimilation theory, and 21 caregivers ( M age = 68 years, 86% female, seven in each generation) were interviewed. Despite the 3rd-generation caregivers' high acculturation level, their filial responsibility scores remained high. Qualitative interviews also revealed later generation caregivers' strong filial responsibility and continued caregiving involvement. Unexpectedly, caregivers' own future expectancy of care included placement in mainstream residential facilities rather than ethnic-specific settings. Findings point to the need to develop caregiver services that consider later generation caregivers' culture and level of assimilation.

  6. Determination of indices of the corpus callosum associated with normal aging in Japanese individuals

    Takeda, S.; Hirashima, Y.; Ikeda, H.; Yamamoto, H.; Endo, S. [Department of Neurosurgery, Toyama Medical and Pharmaceutical University, Sugitani 2630, Toyama-shi, 930-0194, Toyama (Japan); Sugino, M. [Department of Neurosurgery, Sugino Hospital, Sengoku-cho 6-3-3, 930-0066, Toyama (Japan)

    2003-08-01

    Indices of the corpus callosum with normal aging and their sex differences were elucidated using quantitative MRI. We studied 94 Japanese men (mean{+-}SD 57.3{+-}20.8 years, range 6-90 years) and 111 Japanese women (mean{+-}SD 61.2{+-}17.6 years, range 9-86 years) who had no intracranial lesions on MRI and no history of neurological illness. The widths of the rostrum, body and splenium, the anterior to posterior length, and the maximum height in the midsagittal image were selected for measurement. The Evans index, which is the relative ratio of lateral ventricle expansion, and the maximum width of the third ventricle in the axial image were also estimated for comparison. The widths of rostrum, body and splenium of the corpus callosum became thinner with age. Conversely, the anterior to posterior length and the maximum height of the corpus callosum increased with age. The ratio of the width of the body to the length of the corpus callosum and the ratio of the width of the body to the height of the corpus callosum are best correlated with age. No sex differences in regional size of corpus callosum, including these two ratios, were observed in any raw measures, although ventricular indices were larger in men than women. Evaluation of the ratio of the width of the body to its length and the ratio of the width of the body to its height may enable accurate estimation of normal or pathological changes of the corpus callosum. Aging and pathological atrophy of corpus callosum can be evaluated without any adjustment for gender. (orig.)

  7. Determination of indices of the corpus callosum associated with normal aging in Japanese individuals

    Takeda, S.; Hirashima, Y.; Ikeda, H.; Yamamoto, H.; Endo, S.; Sugino, M.

    2003-01-01

    Indices of the corpus callosum with normal aging and their sex differences were elucidated using quantitative MRI. We studied 94 Japanese men (mean±SD 57.3±20.8 years, range 6-90 years) and 111 Japanese women (mean±SD 61.2±17.6 years, range 9-86 years) who had no intracranial lesions on MRI and no history of neurological illness. The widths of the rostrum, body and splenium, the anterior to posterior length, and the maximum height in the midsagittal image were selected for measurement. The Evans index, which is the relative ratio of lateral ventricle expansion, and the maximum width of the third ventricle in the axial image were also estimated for comparison. The widths of rostrum, body and splenium of the corpus callosum became thinner with age. Conversely, the anterior to posterior length and the maximum height of the corpus callosum increased with age. The ratio of the width of the body to the length of the corpus callosum and the ratio of the width of the body to the height of the corpus callosum are best correlated with age. No sex differences in regional size of corpus callosum, including these two ratios, were observed in any raw measures, although ventricular indices were larger in men than women. Evaluation of the ratio of the width of the body to its length and the ratio of the width of the body to its height may enable accurate estimation of normal or pathological changes of the corpus callosum. Aging and pathological atrophy of corpus callosum can be evaluated without any adjustment for gender. (orig.)

  8. Association and interaction between dietary pattern and VEGF receptor-2 (VEGFR2) gene polymorphisms on blood lipids in Chinese Malaysian and Japanese adults.

    Yap, Roseline Wai Kuan; Shidoji, Yoshihiro; Hon, Wei Min; Masaki, Motofumi

    2012-01-01

    Dietary pattern and genetic predisposition of each population have different impacts on lifestyle-related chronic diseases. This study was conducted to evaluate the association and interaction between dietary patterns and VEGFR2 or KDR gene polymorphisms on physical and biochemical risk factors of cardiovascular disease in two Asian populations (179 Chinese Malaysian and 136 Japanese adults). Dietary patterns were constructed from food frequency questionnaire using factor analysis. Genotyping of rs1870377 and rs2071559 was performed by real-time PCR using TaqMan probes. Physical measurements: body mass index, systolic and diastolic blood pressures and biochemical parameters: glycated hemoglobin A1c and blood lipids (total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and total cholesterol/HDL-C ratio) were measured. Two dietary patterns were extracted for: Japanese ('Japanese diet' and 'Western diet') and Chinese Malaysians ('Balanced diet'; and 'Meat, rice and noodles diet'). In Japanese, 'Western Diet' and rs2071559 were associated with LDL-C and HDL-C, respectively. In Chinese Malaysians, 'Meat, rice and noodles diet' was asso-ciated with triglycerides, HDL-C and total cholesterol/HDL ratio while rs1870377 and rs2071559 were associated with total cholesterol and/or LDL-C. The interaction between 'Western Diet' and rs2071559 in Japanese and 'Meat, rice and noodles diet' and rs1870377 in Malaysians had significant effects on blood lipids after adjusting for confounders. The association and interaction of dietary patterns and VEGFR2 gene polymorphisms on blood lipids differ between Chinese Malaysian and Japanese subjects by either decreasing or increasing the risk of cardiovascular disease.

  9. Association of parental workaholism and body mass index of offspring: A prospective study among Japanese dual workers

    Takeo eFujiwara

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to investigate the association between parental workaholism and child body mass index (BMI among Japanese dual-income families. In 2011, 379 dual-income families from urban Tokyo with children aged 0–5 years were recruited for a baseline survey, and 160 (42.2% were followed up in 2012. Demographics, workaholism, work demands, work control, time spent with children, and parental and child weights and heights were assessed using a questionnaire. Structural equation modeling was performed to determine the association between maternal and paternal workaholism in 2011 and child BMI in 2012, considering the mediating effects of time spent with children. Paternal workaholism showed a direct significant positive association with child BMI after 1 year (standardized coefficient: 0.19; p < 0.001, while maternal workaholism was not associated with child BMI. Both maternal and paternal time spent with children did not mediate the association. Paternal work demands showed a strong positive association with workaholism, but paternal work control did not. Paternal, but not maternal, workaholism was associated with an increase in child BMI over 1 year. Interventions that target workaholism by reducing paternal work demands might be effective in preventing overweight in offspring.

  10. Prevalence and factors of burnout among Australian orthopaedic trainees: a cross-sectional study.

    Arora, Manit; Diwan, Ashish D; Harris, Ian A

    2014-12-01

    To assess the prevalence and factors of burnout among Australian orthopaedic trainees. 236 orthopaedic registrars of the Australian Orthopaedic Association were invited to participate in a 32-item survey by email. The questionnaire assessed potential factors associated with burnout, satisfaction with the choice of orthopaedics as a career and work-life balance, and subjective overall health, as well as 3 subscales of the Maslach Burnout Inventory - Human Services Survey for assessing burnout: emotional exhaustion, depersonalisation, and personal accomplishment. Participants with high levels of either emotional exhaustion or depersonalisation were defined as having burnout. Those with and without burnout were compared. 51 (22%) of the 236 trainees completed the questionnaire. Of whom, 88% were satisfied with their choice of orthopaedics as a career, whereas 27% were satisfied with their work-life balance. 27 (53%) respondents were considered burned out. Compared with those who did not burn out, those who burned out were less satisfied with their careers (p=0.004) and work-life balance (p=0.021). 53% of Australian orthopaedic trainees were burned out. Burnout trainees were more likely to be dissatisfied with their career choice and worklife balance. Active interventions to combat burnout and improve work-life balance are needed.

  11. American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine

    ... Upcoming Meetings Online Education Archived Meetings Faculty Resources Sports Medicine Fellowships Traveling Fellowship Submit an Abstract Submit ... Support AOSSM Research Publications Toggle American Journal of Sports Medicine Sports Health: A Multidisciplinary Approach Orthopaedic Journal ...

  12. Cross-Sectional Study of Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome in Japanese Public Transportation Drivers: Its Prevalence and Association With Pathological Objective Daytime Sleepiness.

    Sasai-Sakuma, Taeko; Kikuchi, Katsunori; Inoue, Yuichi

    2016-05-01

    This study investigates obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) prevalence among Japanese occupational drivers and factors associated with a pathological level of objective daytime sleepiness. Portable monitoring device (PMD) screening was applied to 2389 Japanese male public transportation traffic drivers. Nocturnal polysomnography (n-PSG) and multiple sleep latency tests (MSLT) were administered to subjects with apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) at least 15 on PMD. In all, 235 subjects were diagnosed as having OSAS (9.8%). AHI on n-PSG at least 40 and Epworth Sleepiness Scale score at least 11 were extracted as factors associated with mean sleep latency on MSLT less than 5 minutes. Prevalence of OSAS in male Japanese public transportation traffic drivers was 9.8% or greater. Individuals aware of excessive daytime sleepiness and with severe OSAS were inferred as exhibiting a pathological level of objective daytime sleepiness.

  13. Bone graft materials in fixation of orthopaedic implants in sheep

    Babiker, Hassan

    2013-01-01

    Bone graft is widely used within orthopaedic surgery especially in revision joint arthroplasty and spine fusion. The early implant fixation in the revision situation of loose joint prostheses is important for the long-term survival. Bone autograft has been considered as gold standard in many...... orthopaedic procedures, whereas allograft is the gold standard by replacement of extensive bone loss. However, the use of autograft is associated with donor site morbidity, especially chronic pain. In addition, the limited supply is a significant clinical challenge. Limitations in the use of allograft include...... the risk of bacterial contamination and disease transmission as well as non-union and poor bone quality. Other bone graft and substitutes have been considered as alternative in order to improve implant fixation. Hydroxyapatite and collagen type I composite (HA/Collagen) have the potential in mimicking...

  14. A cross-sectional study of sarcopenia in Japanese men and women: reference values and association with cardiovascular risk factors.

    Sanada, K; Miyachi, M; Tanimoto, M; Yamamoto, K; Murakami, H; Okumura, S; Gando, Y; Suzuki, K; Tabata, I; Higuchi, M

    2010-09-01

    In this study of Japanese men and women, we determine reference values for sarcopenia and test the hypothesis that sarcopenia is associated with risk factors for cardiovascular disease, independent of waist circumference. A total of 1,488 Japanese men and women aged 18-85 years participated in this study. Appendicular muscle mass (AMM) was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Reference values for classes 1 and 2 sarcopenia (skeletal muscle index: AMM/height2, kg m-2) in each sex were defined as values one and two standard deviations below the sex-specific means of reference values obtained in this study from young adults aged 18-40 years. The reference values for class 1 and class 2 sarcopenia were 7.77 and 6.87 kg m-2 in men and 6.12 and 5.46 kg m-2 in women. In subjects both with class 1 and class 2 sarcopenia, body mass index and % body fat were significantly lower than in normal subjects. Despite whole-blood glycohaemoglobin A1c in men with class 1 sarcopenia was significantly higher than in normal subjects, and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity in women both with class 1 and class 2 sarcopenia were significantly higher than in normal subjects, using one-way ANCOVA with adjustment for the covariate of waist circumference. Although sarcopenia is associated with thin body mass, it is associated with more glycation of serum proteins in men and with greater arterial stiffness in women, independent of waist circumference.

  15. The financial impact of orthopaedic fellowship training.

    Gaskill, Trevor; Cook, Chad; Nunley, James; Mather, R Chad

    2009-07-01

    Previous reports have compared the expected financial return of a medical education with those expected in other professions. However, we know of no published report estimating the financial return of orthopaedic training. The purpose of this study was to estimate the financial incentives that may influence the decision to invest an additional year of training in each of the major orthopaedic fellowships. With survey data from the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons and using standard financial techniques, we calculated the estimated return on investment of an additional year of orthopaedic training over a working lifetime. The net present value, internal rate of return, and the break-even point were estimated. Eight fellowships were examined and compared with general orthopaedic practice. Investment in an orthopaedic fellowship yields variable returns. Adult spine, shoulder and elbow, sports medicine, hand, and adult arthroplasty may yield positive returns. Trauma yields a neutral return, while pediatrics and foot and ankle have negative net present values. On the basis of mean reported incomes, the break-even point was two years for spine, seven years for hand, eight years for shoulder and elbow, twelve years for adult arthroplasty, thirteen years for sports medicine, and twenty-seven years for trauma. Fellowship-trained pediatric and foot and ankle surgeons did not break even following the initial investment. When working hours were controlled for, the returns for adult arthroplasty and trauma became negative. The financial return of an orthopaedic fellowship varies on the basis of the specialty chosen. While reasons to pursue fellowship training vary widely, and many are not financial, there are positive and negative financial incentives. Therefore, the decision to pursue fellowship training is best if it is not made on the basis of financial incentives. This information may assist policy makers in analyzing medical education economics to ensure the

  16. Physiotherapy following elective orthopaedic procedures.

    De Kleijn, P; Blamey, G; Zourikian, N; Dalzell, R; Lobet, S

    2006-07-01

    As haemophilic arthropathy and chronic synovitis are still the most important clinical features in people with haemophilia, different kinds of invasive and orthopaedic procedures have become more common during the last decades. The availability of clotting factor has made arthroplasty of one, or even multiple joints possible. This article highlights the role of physiotherapy before and after such procedures. Synovectomies are sometimes advocated in people with haemophilia to stop repetitive cycles of intra-articular bleeds and/or chronic synovitis. The synovectomy itself, however, does not solve the muscle atrophy, loss of range of motion (ROM), instability and poor propriocepsis, often developed during many years. The key is in taking advantage of the subsequent, relatively safe, bleed-free period to address these important issues. Although the preoperative ROM is the most important variable influencing the postoperative ROM after total knee arthroplasty, there are a few key points that should be considered to improve the outcome. Early mobilization, either manual or by means of a continuous passive mobilization machine, can be an optimal solution during the very first postoperative days. Muscle isometric contractions and light open kinetic chain exercises should also be started in order to restore the quadriceps control. Partial weight bearing can be started shortly after, because of quadriceps inhibition and to avoid excessive swelling. The use of continuous clotting factor replacement permits earlier and intensive rehabilitation during the postoperative period. During the rehabilitation of shoulder arthroplasty restoring the function of the rotator cuff is of utmost importance. Often the rotator cuff muscles are inhibited in the presence of pain and loss of ROM. Physiotherapy also assists in improving pain and maintaining ROM and strength. Functional weight-bearing tasks, such as using the upper limbs to sit and stand, are often discouraged during the first 6

  17. Association between long work hours and depressive state: a pilot study of propensity score matched Japanese white-collar workers.

    Uchida, Mitsuo; Morita, Hiroshi

    2018-06-01

    Although long work hours have been associated with various physical health problems, studies of their association with mental health have yielded inconsistent results, due to differences in study settings, study outcome and/or unmeasured background factors. In this study, we used a propensity score method to evaluate the association between work hours and depressive state. A total of 467 Japanese white-collar workers were surveyed and divided into long and regular work hour groups according to overtime work records. Propensity score matching was performed based on 32 individual background and workplace factors, yielding 74 pairs of propensity-matched subjects. CES-D score, an indicator of depressive state, did not differ significantly among the two groups (p=0.203). However, work motivation, work control, social support and emotional stability correlated with CES-D score. These findings suggest that work control and social support factors are more associated with depressive state than control of work hours. These results also suggest that it is possible to use propensity score matching to evaluate the association between work hours and mental health in occupational study settings. Further studies, in larger populations, are required to determine the association between work hours and mental health parameters.

  18. Surgical simulation in orthopaedic skills training.

    Atesok, Kivanc; Mabrey, Jay D; Jazrawi, Laith M; Egol, Kenneth A

    2012-07-01

    Mastering rapidly evolving orthopaedic surgical techniques requires a lengthy period of training. Current work-hour restrictions and cost pressures force trainees to face the challenge of acquiring more complex surgical skills in a shorter amount of time. As a result, alternative methods to improve the surgical skills of orthopaedic trainees outside the operating room have been developed. These methods include hands-on training in a laboratory setting using synthetic bones or cadaver models as well as software tools and computerized simulators that enable trainees to plan and simulate orthopaedic operations in a three-dimensional virtual environment. Laboratory-based training offers potential benefits in the development of basic surgical skills, such as using surgical tools and implants appropriately, achieving competency in procedures that have a steep learning curve, and assessing already acquired skills while minimizing concerns for patient safety, operating room time, and financial constraints. Current evidence supporting the educational advantages of surgical simulation in orthopaedic skills training is limited. Despite this, positive effects on the overall education of orthopaedic residents, and on maintaining the proficiency of practicing orthopaedic surgeons, are anticipated.

  19. Achievement of Target Blood Pressure Levels among Japanese Workers with Hypertension and Healthy Lifestyle Characteristics Associated with Therapeutic Failure.

    Nagako Kudo

    Full Text Available Few studies have examined Japanese with regard to the achievement rates for target blood pressure levels, or the relationship between these rates and healthy lifestyle characteristics in patients with hypertension as defined by the newly established hypertension management guidelines (JSH2014. The aim of this study was to elucidate achievement rates and examine healthy lifestyle characteristics associated with achievement status among Japanese.This cross-sectional study, conducted in January-December 2012, examined blood pressure control and healthy lifestyle characteristics in 8,001 Japanese workers with hypertension (mean age, 57.0 years; 78.8% were men who participated in a workplace health checkup. Data were collected from workplace medical checkup records and participants' self-administered questionnaires. We divided into 5 groups [G1; young, middle-aged, and early-phase elderly patients (65-74 years old without diabetes mellitus or chronic kidney disease (CKD (<140/90 mmHg, G2; late-phase elderly patients (≥75 years old without diabetes mellitus or CKD (<150/90 mmHg, G3; diabetic patients (<130/80 mmHg, G4; patients with CKD (<130/80 mmHg, and G5; patients with cerebrovascular and/or coronary artery diseases (<140/90 mmHg] according to JSH2014. And then, achievement rates were calculated in each group. Multivariate analysis identified healthy lifestyle characteristics associated with "therapeutic failure" of target blood pressure.Target blood pressures were achieved by 60.2% of young, middle-aged, and early-phase elderly patients (G1, 71.4% of late-phase elderly patients (G2, 30.5% of diabetic patients (G3, 33.4% of those with chronic kidney disease (G4, and 66.0% of those with cerebrovascular and/or coronary artery diseases (G5. A body mass index of 18.5-24.9 and non-daily alcohol consumption were protective factors, and adequate sleep was found to contribute to therapeutic success.We found low achievement rates for treatment goals

  20. [The images of Japanese onomatopoeia: a comparison of ratings using the Implicit Association Test (IAT) and the semantic differential method].

    Sato, Hirotsune; Yoshida, Fujio

    2009-06-01

    Images of "seion" (unvoiced sound), "dakuon" (voiced sound), and "handakuon" (semi-voiced sound) in Japanese onomatopoeia were investigated by using two methods: the Implicit Association Test (IAT) and the semantic differential (SD). Undergraduate students (n=25) completed the six kinds of IATs and SD questionnaires related to the images. The results indicated that "dakuon" was evaluated as being more dynamic and heavier, and "seion" and "handakuon" were evaluated as being more static and lighter by both the IAT and SD methods. However, "seion" was evaluated as being more static and lighter than "handakuon" by the IAT, whereas "handakuon" was evaluated as being more static and lighter than "seion" by the SD method. The differences in evaluation by the two methods are discussed.

  1. Socioeconomic Status Is Significantly Associated with the Dietary Intakes of Folate and Depression Scales in Japanese Workers (J-HOPE Study

    Takuro Shimbo

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The association of socioeconomic status (SES with nutrient intake attracts public attention worldwide. In the current study, we examined the associations of SES with dietary intake of folate and health outcomes in general Japanese workers. This Japanese occupational cohort consisted off 2266 workers. SES was assessed by a self-administered questionnaire. Intakes of all nutrients were assessed with a validated, brief and self-administered diet history questionnaire (BDHQ. The degree of depressive symptoms was measured by the validated Japanese version of the K6 scale. Multiple linear regression and stratified analysis were used to evaluate the associations of intake with the confounding factors. Path analysis was conducted to describe the impacts of intake on health outcomes. Education levels and household incomes were significantly associated with intake of folate and depression scales (p < 0.05. After adjusting for age, sex and total energy intake, years of education significantly affect the folate intake (β = 0.117, p < 0.001. The structural equation model (SEM shows that the indirect effect of folate intake is statistically significant and strong (p < 0.05, 56% of direct effect in the pathway of education level to depression scale. Our study shows both education and income are significantly associated with depression scales in Japanese workers, and the effort to increase the folate intake may alleviate the harms of social disparities on mental health.

  2. Diagnosis and prevalence of protein-energy wasting and its association with mortality in Japanese haemodialysis patients.

    Kanazawa, Yoshie; Nakao, Toshiyuki; Murai, Seizo; Okada, Tomonari; Matsumoto, Hiroshi

    2017-07-01

    The International Society of Renal Nutrition and Metabolism (ISRNM) has proposed the diagnostic criteria for protein-energy wasting (PEW). We studied Japanese haemodialysis (HD) patients to verify the diagnostic method, especially with respect to the body mass index (BMI) criterion, as well as the prevalence of PEW and its association with mortality. Japanese patients receiving maintenance HD at three outpatient clinics in Tokyo (n = 210) were enrolled, and prospectively followed-up for 3 years. PEW was diagnosed at baseline, according to the four categories (serum chemistry, body mass, muscle mass and dietary intake) recommended by the ISRNM. For the category of body mass, we select a body mass index (BMI) and set up three thresholds, energy wasting, when the threshold of a BMI among the diagnostic criteria was defined as <18.5 kg/m 2 , was recognized as an independent risk factor for mortality. However, PEW was not recognized as a risk factor when the BMI diagnostic criterion was set at <20.0 or <23.0 kg/m 2 . Overall, 14.8% of the patients had PEW. The survival rate of PEW patients was significantly lower than that of non-PEW patients (log rank, P < 0.001). The diagnosis algorithm of PEW proposed by an expert panel of the ISRNM strongly associates with mortality. However, given differences in body size in Japan, we suggest to revise the BMI criterion from <23.0 kg/m 2 to <18.5 kg/m 2 . © 2016 Asian Pacific Society of Nephrology.

  3. Audit of Orthopaedic Surgical Documentation

    Fionn Coughlan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The Royal College of Surgeons in England published guidelines in 2008 outlining the information that should be documented at each surgery. St. James’s Hospital uses a standard operation sheet for all surgical procedures and these were examined to assess documentation standards. Objectives. To retrospectively audit the hand written orthopaedic operative notes according to established guidelines. Methods. A total of 63 operation notes over seven months were audited in terms of date and time of surgery, surgeon, procedure, elective or emergency indication, operative diagnosis, incision details, signature, closure details, tourniquet time, postop instructions, complications, prosthesis, and serial numbers. Results. A consultant performed 71.4% of procedures; however, 85.7% of the operative notes were written by the registrar. The date and time of surgery, name of surgeon, procedure name, and signature were documented in all cases. The operative diagnosis and postoperative instructions were frequently not documented in the designated location. Incision details were included in 81.7% and prosthesis details in only 30% while the tourniquet time was not documented in any. Conclusion. Completion and documentation of operative procedures were excellent in some areas; improvement is needed in documenting tourniquet time, prosthesis and incision details, and the location of operative diagnosis and postoperative instructions.

  4. Association of body flexibility and carotid atherosclerosis in Japanese middle-aged men: a cross-sectional study

    Imoto, Takayuki; Kida, Akira; Yokochi, Takashi; Iwase, Mitsunori; Kozawa, Kenji

    2018-01-01

    Objective This study examined the associations of body flexibility with carotid arterial remodelling, including intima–media thickness (IMT) and plaque formation in middle-aged men. Methods The subjects of this cross-sectional study included 1354 Japanese men aged 35–59 years without histories of stroke or cardiac diseases. The arm extensibility test, which can estimate flexibility of the upper extremity (composed of shoulder external rotation and forearm supination), and the sit-and-reach test were performed. Common carotid IMT and plaque formation (≥1.1 mm) were estimated by ultrasound. Results The proportion of subjects who fully completed the arm extensibility test was 55.0%, and who had plaques in the common carotid artery was 37.8%. IMT was associated with poor arm extensibility (β=–0.073, 95% CI –0.02224 to –0.00041, P=0.004), while plaque formation was associated with poor sit-and-reach (OR 0.98579, 95% CI 0.97257 to 0.99919, P=0.038) after adjustment by all covariates. Conclusions This study demonstrated that poor upper extremity and trunk flexibility were associated with characteristics of early onset of atherosclerosis. Furthermore, these associations were independent of covariates such as age, blood pressure, blood lipids glucose levels and abdominal fat accumulation, handgrip strength and lifestyle, including sleeping, drinking, exercise and smoking habits. Poor flexibility may reflect subclinical atherosclerosis in middle-aged men. PMID:29306892

  5. Association between Parental Workaholism and Body Mass Index of Offspring: A Prospective Study among Japanese Dual Workers.

    Fujiwara, Takeo; Shimazu, Akihito; Tokita, Masahito; Shimada, Kyoko; Takahashi, Masaya; Watai, Izumi; Iwata, Noboru; Kawakami, Norito

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the association between parental workaholism and child body mass index (BMI) among Japanese dual-income families. In 2011, 379 dual-income families from urban Tokyo with children aged 0-5 years were recruited for a baseline survey, and 160 (42.2%) were followed up in 2012. Demographics, workaholism, work demands, work control, time spent with children, and parental and child weights and heights were assessed using a questionnaire. Structural equation modeling was performed to determine the association between maternal and paternal workaholism in 2011 and child BMI in 2012, considering the mediating effects of time spent with children. Paternal workaholism showed a direct significant positive association with child BMI after 1 year (standardized coefficient: 0.19; p work demands showed a strong positive association with workaholism but paternal work control did not. Paternal, but not maternal, workaholism was associated with an increase in child BMI over 1 year. Interventions that target workaholism by reducing paternal work demands might be effective in preventing overweight in offspring.

  6. Microbial nitrification in throughfall of a Japanese cedar associated with archaea from the tree canopy.

    Watanabe, Keiji; Kohzu, Ayato; Suda, Wataru; Yamamura, Shigeki; Takamatsu, Takejiro; Takenaka, Akio; Koshikawa, Masami Kanao; Hayashi, Seiji; Watanabe, Mirai

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the nitrification potential of phyllospheric microbes, we incubated throughfall samples collected under the canopies of Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) and analyzed the transformation of inorganic nitrogen in the samples. Nitrate concentration increased in the unfiltered throughfall after 4 weeks of incubation, but remained nearly constant in the filtered samples (pore size: 0.2 and 0.4 µm). In the unfiltered samples, δ(18)O and δ(15)N values of nitrate decreased during incubation. In addition, archaeal ammonia monooxygenase subunit A (amoA) genes, which participate in the oxidation of ammonia, were found in the throughfall samples, although betaproteobacterial amoA genes were not detected. The amoA genes recovered from the leaf surface of C. japonica were also from archaea. Conversely, nitrate production, decreased isotope ratios of nitrate, and the presence of amoA genes was not observed in rainfall samples collected from an open area. Thus, the microbial nitrification that occurred in the incubated throughfall is likely due to ammonia-oxidizing archaea that were washed off the tree canopy by precipitation.

  7. Reliability of the SF-36 in Japanese patients with systemic lupus erythematosus and its associations with disease activity and damage: a two-consecutive year prospective study.

    Baba, S; Katsumata, Y; Okamoto, Y; Kawaguchi, Y; Hanaoka, M; Kawasumi, H; Yamanaka, H

    2018-03-01

    We aimed to validate the reliability of the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-36 (SF-36) among Japanese patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Japanese patients with SLE ( n = 233) completed the SF-36 and other related demographic questionnaires, and physicians simultaneously completed the SLE Disease Activity Index 2000 (SLEDAI-2K) and the Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics Damage Index (SDI). Patients were prospectively followed for a repeat assessment the following year. The SF-36 subscales demonstrated acceptable internal consistency (Cronbach's α of 0.85-0.89), and an overall good test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient >0.70). The average baseline SF-36 subscale/summary scores except for "bodily pain" were significantly lower than those of the Japanese general population ( p 36 subscale/summary scores except for "vitality" and "mental component summary" at baseline, whereas the SLEDAI-2K did not. In the second year, "social functioning" and "mental component summary" of the SF-36 deteriorated among patients whose SDI or SLEDAI-2K score increased (effect sizes 36 demonstrated acceptable reliability among Japanese patients with SLE. Health-related quality of life measured by the SF-36 was reduced in Japanese patients with SLE and associated with disease damage, rather than disease activity.

  8. Association of genetic variants of the incretin-related genes with quantitative traits and occurrence of type 2 diabetes in Japanese

    Mayumi Enya

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: Rare variants of GIPR may contribute to the development of type 2 diabetes, possibly through insulin secretory defects. Furthermore, the genetic variant of PCSK1 might influence glucose homeostasis by altered insulin resistance independently of BMI, incretin level or proinsulin conversion, and may be associated with the occurrence of type 2 diabetes in Japanese.

  9. The Extent to Which TOEFL iBT Speaking Scores Are Associated with Performance on Oral Language Tasks and Oral Ability Components for Japanese University Students

    Ockey, Gary J.; Koyama, Dennis; Setoguchi, Eric; Sun, Angela

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which performance on the TOEFL iBT speaking section is associated with other indicators of Japanese university students' abilities to communicate orally in an academic English environment and to determine which components of oral ability for these tasks are best assessed by TOEFL iBT. To…

  10. Current cat ownership may be associated with the lower prevalence of atopic dermatitis, allergic rhinitis, and Japanese cedar pollinosis in schoolchildren in Himeji, Japan.

    Kurosaka, Fumitake; Nakatani, Yuji; Terada, Tadayuki; Tanaka, Akira; Ikeuchi, Haruki; Hayakawa, Akira; Konohana, Atsuo; Oota, Kenji; Nishio, Hisahide

    2006-02-01

    The aim of the study was to clarify the relationship between current pet ownership, passive smoking, and allergic diseases among the Japanese children. From 1995 to 2001, we distributed the Japanese edition of the questionnaire of the American Thoracic Society and the Division of Lung Diseases (ATS-DLD) to survey allergic diseases among 35,552 6-yr-old children at primary school in the city of Himeji, Japan. We analyzed the data by multiple logistic regression and calculated adjusted odds ratios for environmental factors, including passive smoking and pet (dog and/or cat) ownership. There were no significant relationships between the prevalence of asthma and current pet ownership and passive smoking. However, current cat ownership was related to a significantly lower prevalence of atopic dermatitis [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 0.79, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.67-0.93], allergic rhinitis (aOR: 0.71, 95% CI 0.57-0.89) and Japanese cedar pollinosis (aOR 0.57, 95% CI 0.44-0.75). Strikingly, passive smoking was also related to a significantly lower prevalence of allergic rhinitis (aOR 0.83, 95% CI 0.77-0.89) and Japanese cedar pollinosis (aOR 0.81, 95% CI 0.74-0.88). Current cat ownership was associated with a lower prevalence of atopic dermatitis, allergic rhinitis, and Japanese cedar pollinosis. In addition, passive smoking was also associated with a lower prevalence of allergic rhinitis and Japanese cedar pollinosis.

  11. CEP250 mutations associated with mild cone-rod dystrophy and sensorineural hearing loss in a Japanese family.

    Kubota, Daiki; Gocho, Kiyoko; Kikuchi, Sachiko; Akeo, Keiichiro; Miura, Masahiro; Yamaki, Kunihiko; Takahashi, Hiroshi; Kameya, Shuhei

    2018-05-02

    CEP250 encodes the C-Nap1 protein which belongs to the CEP family of proteins. C-Nap1 has been reported to be expressed in the photoreceptor cilia and is known to interact with other ciliary proteins. Mutations of CEP250 cause atypical Usher syndrome which is characterized by early-onset sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) and a relatively mild retinitis pigmentosa. This study tested the hypothesis that the mild cone-rod dystrophy (CRD) and SNHL in a non-consanguineous Japanese family was caused by CEP250 mutations. Detailed ophthalmic and auditory examinations were performed on the proband and her family members. Whole exome sequencing (WES) was used on the DNA obtained from the proband. Electrophysiological analysis revealed a mild CRD in two family members. Adaptive optics (AO) imaging showed reduced cone density around the fovea. Auditory examinations showed a slight SNHL in both patients. WES of the proband identified compound heterozygous variants c.361C>T, p.R121*, and c.562C>T, p.R188* in CEP250. The variants were found to co-segregate with the disease in five members of the family. The variants of CEP250 are both null variants and according to American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics (ACMG) standards and guideline, these variants are classified into the very strong category (PVS1). The criteria for both alleles will be pathogenic. Our data indicate that mutations of CEP250 can cause mild CRD and SNHL in Japanese patients. Because the ophthalmological phenotypes were very mild, high-resolution retinal imaging analysis, such as AO, will be helpful in diagnosing CEP250-associated disease.

  12. Geographic region, socioeconomic position and the utilisation of primary total joint replacement for hip or knee osteoarthritis across western Victoria: a cross-sectional multilevel study of the Australian Orthopaedic Association National Joint Replacement Registry.

    Brennan-Olsen, Sharon; Vogrin, Sara; Holloway, Kara L; Page, Richard S; Sajjad, Muhammad A; Kotowicz, Mark A; Livingston, Patricia M; Khasraw, Mustafa; Hakkennes, Sharon; Dunning, Trish L; Brumby, Susan; Pedler, Daryl; Sutherland, Alasdair; Venkatesh, Svetha; Williams, Lana J; Duque, Gustavo; Pasco, Julie A

    2017-11-06

    Compared to urban residents, those in rural/regional areas often experience inequitable healthcare from specialist service providers. Independent of small between-area differences in utilisation, socially advantaged groups had the greatest uptake of joint replacement. These data suggest low correlation between 'need' vs. 'uptake' of surgery in rural/regional areas. Compared to urban residents, those in rural and regional areas often experience inequitable healthcare from specialist service providers, often due to geographical issues. We investigated associations between socioeconomic position (SEP), region of residence and utilisation of primary total knee replacement (TKR) and/or total hip replacement (THR) for osteoarthritis. As part of the Ageing, Chronic Disease and Injury study, we extracted data from the Australian Orthopaedic Association National Joint Replacement Registry (2011-2013) for adults that utilised primary TKR (n = 4179; 56% female) and/or THR (n = 3120; 54% female). Residential addresses were matched with the Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) 2011 census data: region of residence was defined according to local government areas (LGAs), and area-level SEP (quintiles) defined using an ABS-derived composite index. The ABS-determined control population (n = 591,265; 51% female) excluded individuals identified as cases. We performed multilevel logistic regression modelling using a stratified two-stage cluster design. TKR was higher for those aged 70-79 years (AOR 1.4 95%CI 1.3-1.5; referent = 60-69 years) and in the most advantaged SEP quintile (AOR 2.1, 95%CI 1.8-2.3; referent = SEP quintile 3); results were similar for THR (70-79 years = AOR 1.7, 95%CI 1.5-1.8; SEP quintile 5 = AOR 2.5, 95%CI 2.2-2.8). Total variances contributed by the variance in LGAs were 2% (SD random effects ± 0.28) and 3% (SD ± 0.32), respectively. Independent of small between-LGA differences in utilisation, and in contrast to the expected greater

  13. A strong association between lipid accumulation product and diabetes mellitus in japanese women and men.

    Wakabayashi, Ichiro; Daimon, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    Lipid accumulation product (LAP) is a new continuous marker of lipid overaccumulation that predicts cardiovascular risk. The aim of this study was to determine the cutoff value for LAP and evaluate its usefulness. Using a database of results of health checkup examinations for 10,170 Japanese workers (35-40 years of age) conducted at their workplaces, the cutoff value for a high LAP was calculated by analyzing receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves for the relationships of LAP with hyperglycemia and diabetes. The cutoff value for LAP was 21.1 for women and 37.2 for men. The values were similar when calculated by analyzing the ROC curves for the relationships with hyperglycemia and diabetes. Using these cutoff values, the prevalence of a high LAP was calculated to be 23.7% in women and 28.8% in men. The odds ratio for diabetes in the subjects with vs. those without a high LAP, calculated after adjusting for age, smoking, alcohol consumption and regular exercise, was 19.09 (95% CI: 6.57-55.50) in women and 7.40 (95% CI: 5.10-10.75) in men. High odds ratios for hypertension (10.66 [95% CI: 7.77-14.63] in women and 7.31 [95% CI: 6.20-8.62] in men) were also obtained in the subjects with vs. those without a high LAP. Cutoff values for a high LAP in women and men were determined, and high odds ratios for diabetes and hypertension were obtained using the cutoff values for LAP. Further studies are needed to elucidate whether the proposed cutoff values are applicable to people of other ages, races and ethnicities.

  14. Modeling the factors associating with health-related habits among Japanese students.

    Mato, Mie; Tsukasaki, Keiko

    2017-11-23

    The aim of the present study was to clarify the structural relationship between health-related habits and psychosocial factors during adolescence/early adulthood. An anonymous, self-administered questionnaire was provided to 1141 third- and fourth-year students at eight academic departments from six universities in regional Japanese cities. Surveys included items addressing participants' demographic characteristics, psychosocial factors (individual-level social capital, self-efficacy, mental health (from health-related quality of life SF-36v2), and sense of coherence (SOC)), and health-related habits. A multiple indicator analysis based on structural equation modeling was conducted to examine the structural relationship between health-related habits and these factors. Valid responses were obtained from 952 participants. The final model demonstrated a high level of goodness of fit. While the path from SOC to health-related habits was significant, those from self-efficacy to health-related habits and from mental health to health-related habits were not significant. The path coefficient from SOC to health-related habits was greater than the path coefficient from background characteristics. In the multiple population comparison that considered gender, a nearly identical model was supported for men and women. Psychosocial factors related to health-related habits were social capital, self-efficacy, mental health, and SOC. Furthermore, it was suggested that SOC functions as an intervening factor for maintaining a healthy lifestyle. It was observed that individual psychosocial factors influence health-related habits more than their background characteristics. Findings highlight that supporting the building of social relationships and social environments is essential to promote a healthy lifestyle among university students. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Objective assessment of facial skin aging and the associated environmental factors in Japanese monozygotic twins.

    Ichibori, Ryoko; Fujiwara, Takashi; Tanigawa, Tomoko; Kanazawa, Shigeyuki; Shingaki, Kenta; Torii, Kosuke; Tomita, Koichi; Yano, Kenji; Sakai, Yasuo; Hosokawa, Ko

    2014-06-01

    Twin studies, especially those involving monozygotic (MZ) twins, facilitate the analysis of factors affecting skin aging while controlling for age, gender, and genetic susceptibility. The purpose of this study was to objectively assess various features of facial skin and analyze the effects of environmental factors on these features in MZ twins. At the Osaka Twin Research Center, 67 pairs of MZ twins underwent medical interviews and photographic assessments, using the VISIA(®) Complexion Analysis System. First, the average scores of the right and left cheek skin spots, wrinkles, pores, texture, and erythema were calculated; the differences between the scores were then compared in each pair of twins. Next, using the results of medical interviews and VISIA data, we investigated the effects of environmental factors on skin aging. The data were analyzed using Pearson's correlation coefficient test and the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. The intrapair differences in facial texture scores significantly increased as the age of the twins increased (P = 0.03). Among the twin pairs who provided answers to the questions regarding history differences in medical interviews, the twins who smoked or did not use skin protection showed significantly higher facial texture or wrinkle scores compared with the twins not exposed to cigarettes or protectants (P = 0.04 and 0.03, respectively). The study demonstrated that skin aging among Japanese MZ twins, especially in terms of facial texture, was significantly influenced by environmental factors. In addition, smoking and skin protectant use were important environmental factors influencing skin aging. © 2014 The Authors Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Association between a C8orf13-BLK polymorphism and polymyositis/dermatomyositis in the Japanese population: an additive effect with STAT4 on disease susceptibility.

    Sugiura, Tomoko; Kawaguchi, Yasushi; Goto, Kanako; Hayashi, Yukiko; Gono, Takahisa; Furuya, Takefumi; Nishino, Ichizo; Yamanaka, Hisashi

    2014-01-01

    Accumulating evidence has shown that several non-HLA genes are involved in the susceptibility to polymyositis/dermatomyositis. This study aimed to investigate the involvement of C8orf13-BLK, one of the strongest candidate genes for autoimmune diseases, in susceptibility to polymyositis/dermatomyositis in the Japanese population. A possible gene-gene interaction between C8orf13-BLK and STAT4, which we recently showed to be associated with Japanese polymyositis/dermatomyositis, was also analyzed. A single-nucleotide polymorphism in C8orf13-BLK (dbSNP ID: rs13277113) was investigated in the Japanese population using a TaqMan assay in 283 polymyositis patients, 194 dermatomyositis patients, and 656 control subjects. The C8orf13-BLK rs13277113A allele was associated with overall polymyositis/dermatomyositis (Prs7574865 T alleles had an additive effect on polymyositis/dermatomyositis susceptibility. The strongest association was observed in dermatomyositis, with an OR of 3.07 (95% CI; 1.57-6.02) for the carriers of four risk alleles at the two SNP sites, namely, rs1327713 and rs7574865. This study established C8orf13-BLK as a new genetic susceptibility factor for polymyositis/dermatomyositis. Both C8orf13-BLK and STAT4 exert additive effects on disease susceptibility. These observations suggested that C8orf13-BLK, in combination with STAT4, plays a pivotal role in creating genetic susceptibility to polymyositis/dermatomyositis in Japanese individuals.

  17. Postnatal treatment factors affecting craniofacial morphology of unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP) patients in a Japanese population.

    Alam, M K; Iida, J; Sato, Y; Kajii, Takashi S

    2013-12-01

    We have evaluated the craniofacial morphology of Japanese patients with unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP) and assessed the various postnatal factors that affect it. Lateral cephalograms of 140 subjects (mean (SD) aged 7 (2) years) with UCLP were taken before orthodontic treatment. Surgeons from Hokkaido University Hospital had done the primary operations. The craniofacial morphology was assessed by angular and linear cephalometric measurements. Cheiloplasty, palatoplasty, and preoperative orthopaedic treatment were chosen as postnatal factors. To compare the assessments of the postnatal factors, we made angular and linear cephalometric measurements for each subject and converted them into Z scores in relation to the mean (SD) of the two variables. Subjects treated by the modified Millard cheiloplasty had larger sella-nasion-point A (SNA) and nasion-point A-pogonion (NA-POG) measurements than subjects treated by the modified Millard with a vomer flap cheiloplasty. Two-stage palatoplasty showed consistently better craniofacial morphology than the other palatoplasty. Subjects who had preoperative orthopaedic treatment with a Hotz plate had significantly larger upper incisor/sella-nasion (U1-SN) measurements than who had no preoperative orthopaedic treatment or an active plate. We conclude that in subjects treated by a modified Millard type of cheiloplasty, a two-stage palatoplasty, and a Hotz plate there were fewer adverse effects on craniofacial morphology. Copyright © 2012 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Investigation of the association between the GLC3A locus and normal tension glaucoma in Japanese patients by microsatellite analysis

    M Kamio

    2009-01-01

    (NTG in Japanese patients.Materials and Methods: One hundred forty-two Japanese patients with NTG and 101 Japanese healthy controls were recruited. Patients exhibiting a comparatively early onset were selected as this suggests that genetic factors may show stronger involvement. Genotyping and assessment of allelic diversity was performed on 13 highly polymorphic microsatellite markers in and around the GLC3A locus.Results: There were decreased frequencies of the 444 allele of D2S0416i and the 258 allele of D2S0425i in cases compared to controls (P = 0.022 and P = 0.034, respectively. However, this statistical significance disappeared when corrected (Pc > 0.05. We did not find any significant association between the remaining 11 microsatellite markers, including D2S177, which may be associated with CYP1B1, and NTG (P > 0.05.Conclusions: Our study showed no association between the GLCA3 locus and NTG, suggesting that the CYP1B1 gene, which is reportedly involved in a range of glaucoma phenotypes, may not be an associated factor in the pathogenesis of NTG.Keywords: GLCA3, microsatellite, normal tension glaucoma, polymorphism

  19. Associations between sleep disturbance and mental health status: a longitudinal study of Japanese junior high school students.

    Kaneita, Yoshitaka; Yokoyama, Eise; Harano, Satoru; Tamaki, Tetsuo; Suzuki, Hiroyuki; Munezawa, Takeshi; Nakajima, Hiromi; Asai, Takami; Ohida, Takashi

    2009-08-01

    A limited number of longitudinal studies have addressed the association between sleep disturbance and mental health status among adolescents. To examine whether each of these is a risk factor for the onset of the other, we conducted a prospective longitudinal study of Japanese adolescents. In 2004, we performed a baseline study of students attending three private junior high schools in Tokyo, and in 2006, a follow-up study was performed on the same population. The mean age of the subjects was 13 years. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index was used to evaluate sleep disturbance, and the 12-item General Health Questionnaire was used to evaluate mental health status. The subjects were 698 students, of whom 516 were suitable for analysis. The incidence of newly developed poor mental health status during the 2 years leading to the follow-up study was 35.1%. New onset of poor mental health status was significantly associated with new onset of sleep disturbance and lasting sleep disturbance. The incidence of sleep disturbance during the 2 years leading to the follow-up study was 33.3%. New onset of sleep disturbance was significantly associated with new onset of poor mental health status and lasting poor mental health status. Sleep disturbance and poor mental health status increase each other's onset risk.

  20. The Effect on Long-Term Survivorship of Surgeon Preference for Posterior-Stabilized or Minimally Stabilized Total Knee Replacement: An Analysis of 63,416 Prostheses from the Australian Orthopaedic Association National Joint Replacement Registry.

    Vertullo, Christopher J; Lewis, Peter L; Lorimer, Michelle; Graves, Stephen E

    2017-07-05

    Controversy still exists as to the optimum management of the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) in total knee arthroplasty. Surgeons can choose to kinematically substitute the PCL with a posterior-stabilized total knee replacement or alternatively to utilize a cruciate-retaining, also known as minimally stabilized, total knee replacement. Proponents of posterior-stabilized total knee replacement propose that the reported lower survivorship in registries when directly compared with minimally stabilized total knee replacement is due to confounders such as selection bias because of the preferential usage of posterior-stabilized total knee replacement in more complex or severe cases. In this study, we aimed to eliminate these possible confounders by performing an instrumental variable analysis based on surgeon preference to choose either posterior-stabilized or minimally stabilized total knee replacement, rather than the actual prosthesis received. Cumulative percent revision, hazard ratio (HR), and revision diagnosis data were obtained from the Australian Orthopaedic Association National Joint Replacement Registry from September 1, 1999, to December 31, 2014, for 2 cohorts of patients, those treated by high-volume surgeons who preferred minimally stabilized replacements and those treated by high-volume surgeons who preferred posterior-stabilized replacements. All patients had a diagnosis of osteoarthritis and underwent fixed-bearing total knee replacement with patellar resurfacing. At 13 years, the cumulative percent revision was 5.0% (95% confidence interval [CI], 4.0% to 6.2%) for the surgeons who preferred the minimally stabilized replacements compared with 6.0% (95% CI, 4.2% to 8.5%) for the surgeons who preferred the posterior-stabilized replacements. The revision risk for the surgeons who preferred posterior-stabilized replacements was significantly higher for all causes (HR = 1.45 [95% CI, 1.30 to 1.63]; p total knee replacement compared with the patients of

  1. Role of STAT4 polymorphisms in systemic lupus erythematosus in a Japanese population: a case-control association study of the STAT1-STAT4 region

    Kawasaki, Aya; Ito, Ikue; Hikami, Koki; Ohashi, Jun; Hayashi, Taichi; Goto, Daisuke; Matsumoto, Isao; Ito, Satoshi; Tsutsumi, Akito; Koga, Minori; Arinami, Tadao; Graham, Robert R; Hom, Geoffrey; Takasaki, Yoshinari; Hashimoto, Hiroshi; Behrens, Timothy W; Sumida, Takayuki; Tsuchiya, Naoyuki

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Recent studies identified STAT4 (signal transducers and activators of transcription-4) as a susceptibility gene for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). STAT1 is encoded adjacently to STAT4 on 2q32.2-q32.3, upregulated in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from SLE patients, and functionally relevant to SLE. This study was conducted to test whether STAT4 is associated with SLE in a Japanese population also, to identify the risk haplotype, and to examine the potential genetic contribution of STAT1. To accomplish these aims, we carried out a comprehensive association analysis of 52 tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) encompassing the STAT1-STAT4 region. Methods In the first screening, 52 tag SNPs were selected based on HapMap Phase II JPT (Japanese in Tokyo, Japan) data, and case-control association analysis was carried out on 105 Japanese female patients with SLE and 102 female controls. For associated SNPs, additional cases and controls were genotyped and association was analyzed using 308 SLE patients and 306 controls. Estimation of haplotype frequencies and an association study using the permutation test were performed with Haploview version 4.0 software. Population attributable risk percentage was estimated to compare the epidemiological significance of the risk genotype among populations. Results In the first screening, rs7574865, rs11889341, and rs10168266 in STAT4 were most significantly associated (P rs7574865) (P = 1.5 × 10-6). The association was stronger in subgroups of SLE with nephritis and anti-double-stranded DNA antibodies. Population attributable risk percentage was estimated to be higher in the Japanese population (40.2%) than in Americans of European descent (19.5%). Conclusions The same STAT4 risk allele is associated with SLE in Caucasian and Japanese populations. Evidence for a role of STAT1 in genetic susceptibility to SLE was not detected. The contribution of STAT4 for the genetic background of SLE may be greater in the

  2. Alcohol consumption is associated with an increased risk of erosive esophagitis and Barrett's epithelium in Japanese men

    Goto Ayumu

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence regarding the association between alcohol consumption and the gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD spectrum has been conflicting. We examined the association between alcohol consumption and erosive esophagitis and Barrett's epithelium in Japanese men. Methods The study population comprised 463 men subjects who had undergone an upper endoscopy at the Gastroenterology Division of Yokohama City University Hospital between August 2005 and July 2006. The presence of erosive esophagitis and Barrett's epithelium was diagnosed based on the Los Angeles Classification and the Prague C and M Criteria, respectively. We divided the study population into four groups: never drinkers, light drinkers (less than 25.0 g of ethanol per day, moderate drinkers (25.0 to 50.0 g of ethanol per day, and heavy drinkers (more than 50.0 g of ethanol per day. A linear regression of the logistic regression analysis was used to analyze the dose-response trends. Results Compared with never drinkers, light drinkers (less than 25.0 g ethanol per day, moderate drinkers (25.0 to 50.0 g per day, and heavy drinkers (more than 50.0 g per day had ORs for erosive esophagitis of 1.110 (95% CI: 0.553 – 2.228, p = 0.7688, 1.880 (95% CI: 1.015 – 3.484, p = 0.0445 and 1.988 (95% CI: 1.120 – 3.534, p = 0.0190, respectively. These groups had ORs for Barrett's epithelium of 1.278 (95% CI: 0.752 – 2.170, p = 0.3643, 1.458 (95% CI: 0.873 – 2.433, p = 0.1500, and 1.912 (95% CI: 1.185 – 3.086, p = 0.0079, respectively. The odds ratios/grams (alcohol/day of dose response trends for erosive esophagitis and Barrett's epithelium were 1.015 (95% CI: 1.004–1.026, p = 0.0066 and 1.012 (95% CI: 1.003–1.021, p = 0.0079, respectively. Conclusion These findings suggest that alcohol consumption in Japanese men tends to be associated with an increased risk of erosive esophagitis and Barrett's epithelium.

  3. Genome-wide association study for levels of total serum IgE identifies HLA-C in a Japanese population.

    Yohei Yatagai

    Full Text Available Most of the previously reported loci for total immunoglobulin E (IgE levels are related to Th2 cell-dependent pathways. We undertook a genome-wide association study (GWAS to identify genetic loci responsible for IgE regulation. A total of 479,940 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs were tested for association with total serum IgE levels in 1180 Japanese adults. Fine-mapping with SNP imputation demonstrated 6 candidate regions: the PYHIN1/IFI16, MHC classes I and II, LEMD2, GRAMD1B, and chr13∶60576338 regions. Replication of these candidate loci in each region was assessed in 2 independent Japanese cohorts (n = 1110 and 1364, respectively. SNP rs3130941 in the HLA-C region was consistently associated with total IgE levels in 3 independent populations, and the meta-analysis yielded genome-wide significance (P = 1.07×10(-10. Using our GWAS results, we also assessed the reproducibility of previously reported gene associations with total IgE levels. Nine of 32 candidate genes identified by a literature search were associated with total IgE levels after correction for multiple testing. Our findings demonstrate that SNPs in the HLA-C region are strongly associated with total serum IgE levels in the Japanese population and that some of the previously reported genetic associations are replicated across ethnic groups.

  4. Changes in body weight are significantly associated with changes in fasting plasma glucose and HDL cholesterol in Japanese men without abdominal obesity (waist circumference < 85 cm).

    Oda, Eiji; Kawai, Ryu

    2011-06-01

    The aims are to examine whether changes in body weight (dBW) are associated with changes in cardiovascular risk factors in Japanese men without abdominal obesity (waist circumference (WC) obesity. It is a retrospective study in 692 Japanese men without abdominal obesity who took annual health screening tests consecutively over one year. Standardized linear regression coefficients (SRCs) of dBW and dWC were calculated for changes in systolic blood pressure (dSBP), diastolic blood pressure (dDBP), fasting plasma glucose (dFPG), triglycerides (dTG), HDL cholesterol (dHDL), and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (dCRP). The SRCs of dBW for dFPG and dHDL were significant in all men and in men with each risk factor corresponding to the component of metabolic syndrome (MetS). The SRCs of dWC for dTG and dCRP were significant in all men but not in men with each risk factor corresponding to the MetS component. In conclusions, dBW were significantly associated with dFPG and dHDL in Japanese men without abdominal obesity. Therefore, abdominal obesity should not be considered as a necessary component of MetS in Japanese men. dBW may be more useful than dWC as a marker of changes in cardiovascular risk factors in lifestyle intervention programs.

  5. Antibiotic-impregnated calcium phosphate cement as part of a comprehensive treatment for patients with established orthopaedic infection.

    Niikura, Takahiro; Lee, Sang Yang; Iwakura, Takashi; Sakai, Yoshitada; Kuroda, Ryosuke; Kurosaka, Masahiro

    2016-07-01

    The treatment of established orthopaedic infection is challenging. While the main focus of treatment is wide surgical debridement, systemic and local antibiotic administration are important adjuvant therapies. Several reports have described the clinical use of antibiotic-impregnated calcium phosphate cement (CPC) to provide local antibiotic therapy for bone infections. However, these were all individual case reports, and no case series have been reported. We report a case series treated by a single surgeon using antibiotic-impregnated CPC as part of a comprehensive treatment plan in patients with established orthopaedic infection. We enrolled 13 consecutive patients with osteomyelitis (n = 6) or infected non-union (n = 7). Implantation of antibiotic-impregnated CPC was performed to provide local antibiotic therapy as part of a comprehensive treatment plan that also included wide surgical debridement, systemic antibiotic therapy, and subsequent second-stage reconstruction surgery. We investigated the rate of successful infection eradication and systemic/local complications. The concentration of antibiotics in the surgical drainage fluids, blood, and recovered CPC (via elution into a phosphate-buffered saline bath) were measured. The mean follow-up period after surgery was 50.4 (range, 27-73) months. There were no cases of infection recurrence during follow-up. No systemic toxicity or local complications from the implantation of antibiotic-impregnated CPC were observed. The vancomycin concentration in the fluid from surgical drainage (n = 6) was 527.1 ± 363.9 μg/mL on postoperative day 1 and 224.5 ± 198.4 μg/mL on postoperative day 2. In patients who did not receive systemic vancomycin therapy (n = 3), the maximum serum vancomycin level was antibiotic-impregnated CPC is an option to provide local antibiotic therapy as part of a comprehensive treatment plan. Copyright © 2016 The Japanese Orthopaedic Association. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights

  6. Lack of association of genetic variation in chromosome region 15q14-22.1 with type 2 diabetes in a Japanese population

    Ichiishi Eiichiro

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chromosome 15q14-22.1 has been linked to type 2 diabetes (T2D and its related traits in Japanese and other populations. The presence of T2D disease susceptibility variant(s was assessed in the 21.8 Mb region between D15S118 and D15S117 in a Japanese population using a region-wide case-control association test. Methods A two-stage association test was performed using Japanese subjects: The discovery panel (Stage 1 used 372 cases and 360 controls, while an independent replication panel (Stage 2 used 532 cases and 530 controls. A total of 1,317 evenly-spaced, common SNP markers with minor allele frequencies > 0.10 were typed for each stage. Captured genetic variation was examined in HapMap JPT SNPs, and a haplotype-based association test was performed. Results SNP2140 (rs2412747 (C/T in intron 33 of the ubiquitin protein ligase E3 component n-recognin 1 (UBR1 gene was selected as a landmark SNP based on repeated significant associations in Stage 1 and Stage 2. However, the marginal p value (p = 0.0043 in the allelic test, OR = 1.26, 95% CI = 1.07–1.48 for combined samples was weak in a single locus or haplotype-based association test. We failed to find any significant SNPs after correcting for multiple testing. Conclusion The two-stage association test did not reveal a strong association between T2D and any common variants on chromosome 15q14-22.1 in 1,794 Japanese subjects. A further association test with a larger sample size and denser SNP markers is required to confirm these observations.

  7. Neuropsychological Impairment and Its Association with Violence Risk in Japanese Forensic Psychiatric Patients: A Case-Control Study.

    Nishinaka, Hirofumi; Nakane, Jun; Nagata, Takako; Imai, Atsushi; Kuroki, Noriomi; Sakikawa, Noriko; Omori, Mayu; Kuroda, Osamu; Hirabayashi, Naotsugu; Igarashi, Yoshito; Hashimoto, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    In Japan, the legislation directing treatment of offenders with psychiatric disorders was enacted in 2005. Neuropsychological impairment is highly related to functional outcomes in patients with psychiatric disorders, and several studies have suggested an association between neuropsychological impairment and violent behaviors. However, there have been no studies of neuropsychological impairment in forensic patients covered by the Japanese legislation. This study is designed to examine the neuropsychological characteristics of forensic patients in comparison to healthy controls and to assess the relationship between neuropsychological impairment and violence risk. Seventy-one forensic patients with psychiatric disorders and 54 healthy controls (matched by age, gender, and education) were enrolled. The CogState Battery (CSB) consisting of eight cognitive domains, the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) to test emotion-based decision making, and psychological measures of violence risk including psychopathy were used. Forensic patients exhibited poorer performances on all CSB subtests and the IGT than controls. For each group, partial correlational analyses indicated that poor IGT performance was related to psychopathy, especially antisocial behavior. In forensic patients, the CSB composite score was associated with risk factors for future violent behavior, including stress and noncompliance with remediation attempts. Forensic patients with psychiatric disorders exhibit a wide range of neuropsychological impairments, and these findings suggest that neuropsychological impairment may increase the risk of violent behavior. Therefore, the treatment of neuropsychological impairment in forensic patients with psychiatric disorders is necessary to improve functional outcomes as well as to prevent violence.

  8. A cross-sectional study of the association between working hours and sleep duration among the Japanese working population.

    Ohtsu, Tadahiro; Kaneita, Yoshitaka; Aritake, Sayaka; Mishima, Kazuo; Uchiyama, Makoto; Akashiba, Tsuneto; Uchimura, Naohisa; Nakaji, Shigeyuki; Munezawa, Takeshi; Kokaze, Akatsuki; Ohida, Takashi

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to clarify the association between long working hours and short sleep duration among Japanese workers. We selected 4,000 households from across Japan by stratified random sampling and conducted an interview survey of a total of 662 participants (372 men; 290 women) in November 2009. Logistic regression analyses were performed using "sleep duration hours per day" as a dependent variable to examine the association between working hours/overtime hours and short sleep duration. When male participants who worked for ≥7 but hours per day were used as a reference, the odds ratio (OR) for short sleep duration in those who worked for ≥ 11 hours was 8.62 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.94-18.86). With regard to overtime hours among men, when participants without overtime were used as a reference, the OR for those whose period of overtime was ≥ 3 hours but hours was 3.59 (95% CI: 1.42-9.08). For both men and women, those with long weekday working hours tended to have a short sleep duration during weekdays and holidays. It is essential to avoid working long hours in order to prevent short sleep duration.

  9. Neuropsychological Impairment and Its Association with Violence Risk in Japanese Forensic Psychiatric Patients: A Case-Control Study.

    Hirofumi Nishinaka

    Full Text Available In Japan, the legislation directing treatment of offenders with psychiatric disorders was enacted in 2005. Neuropsychological impairment is highly related to functional outcomes in patients with psychiatric disorders, and several studies have suggested an association between neuropsychological impairment and violent behaviors. However, there have been no studies of neuropsychological impairment in forensic patients covered by the Japanese legislation. This study is designed to examine the neuropsychological characteristics of forensic patients in comparison to healthy controls and to assess the relationship between neuropsychological impairment and violence risk.Seventy-one forensic patients with psychiatric disorders and 54 healthy controls (matched by age, gender, and education were enrolled. The CogState Battery (CSB consisting of eight cognitive domains, the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT to test emotion-based decision making, and psychological measures of violence risk including psychopathy were used.Forensic patients exhibited poorer performances on all CSB subtests and the IGT than controls. For each group, partial correlational analyses indicated that poor IGT performance was related to psychopathy, especially antisocial behavior. In forensic patients, the CSB composite score was associated with risk factors for future violent behavior, including stress and noncompliance with remediation attempts.Forensic patients with psychiatric disorders exhibit a wide range of neuropsychological impairments, and these findings suggest that neuropsychological impairment may increase the risk of violent behavior. Therefore, the treatment of neuropsychological impairment in forensic patients with psychiatric disorders is necessary to improve functional outcomes as well as to prevent violence.

  10. Association between Smoking Status and Food and Nutrient Consumption in Japanese: a Large-Scale Cross-Sectional Study.

    Endoh, Kaori; Kuriki, Kiyonori; Kasezawa, Nobuhiko; Tohyama, Kazushige; Goda, Toshinao

    2015-01-01

    In Japan, in comparison with the rest of the world the death rate of lung cancer is low although the smoking rate is relatively high. This is the so-called "Japanese smoking paradox". A healthy diet is proposed to attenuate the risk without quitting smoking. We here examined the relationships between smoking status (SS) and the consumption of food and nutrient in Japan. Totals of 5,587 men and 2,718 women were divided into three (non-smokers, smokers and heavy smokers) and two (non-smokers and smokers) groups, respectively, according to pack-year, which represents the amount of smoking over a long period. Food and nutrient consumption was estimated with a validated food frequency questionnaire. Using general linear models, food and nutrient consumption was estimated for each group in men and women, separately. In men, SS was positively related to consumption of rice, 3 alcoholic beverages, carbohydrate, alcohol and other 8 foods/nutrients (p<0.05 for all) and negatively to those of protein animal, fat, fatty acids, dietary fiber, isoflavones and 36 other foods/nutrients (p<0.05 for all). In women, SS was positively associated with intake of 13 foods/nutrients, while being negatively associated with those of rice, energy, dietary fiber, and 14 other foods/nutrients (p<0.05 for all). Our results support lower intake of vegetables and fruits rich in antioxidants, which are thought as preventive factors for many diseases, in smokers.

  11. A genome-wide association study identified AFF1 as a susceptibility locus for systemic lupus eyrthematosus in Japanese.

    Yukinori Okada

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE is an autoimmune disease that causes multiple organ damage. Although recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS have contributed to discovery of SLE susceptibility genes, few studies has been performed in Asian populations. Here, we report a GWAS for SLE examining 891 SLE cases and 3,384 controls and multi-stage replication studies examining 1,387 SLE cases and 28,564 controls in Japanese subjects. Considering that expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs have been implicated in genetic risks for autoimmune diseases, we integrated an eQTL study into the results of the GWAS. We observed enrichments of cis-eQTL positive loci among the known SLE susceptibility loci (30.8% compared to the genome-wide SNPs (6.9%. In addition, we identified a novel association of a variant in the AF4/FMR2 family, member 1 (AFF1 gene at 4q21 with SLE susceptibility (rs340630; P = 8.3×10(-9, odds ratio = 1.21. The risk A allele of rs340630 demonstrated a cis-eQTL effect on the AFF1 transcript with enhanced expression levels (P<0.05. As AFF1 transcripts were prominently expressed in CD4(+ and CD19(+ peripheral blood lymphocytes, up-regulation of AFF1 may cause the abnormality in these lymphocytes, leading to disease onset.

  12. Association Study between the CD157/BST1 Gene and Autism Spectrum Disorders in a Japanese Population

    Shigeru Yokoyama

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available CD157, also referred to as bone marrow stromal cell antigen-1 (BST-1, is a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored molecule that promotes pre-B-cell growth. Previous studies have reported associations between single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs of the CD157/BST1 gene with Parkinson’s disease. In an attempt to determine whether SNPs or haplotypes in the CD157/BST1 are associated with other brain disorders, we performed a case-control study including 147 autism spectrum disorder (ASD patients at Kanazawa University Hospital in Japan and 150 unselected Japanese volunteers by the sequence-specific primer-polymerase chain reaction method combined with fluorescence correlation spectroscopy. Of 93 SNPs examined, two SNPs showed significantly higher allele frequencies in cases with ASDs than in unaffected controls (rs4301112, OR = 6.4, 95% CI = 1.9 to 22, p = 0.0007; and rs28532698, OR = 6.2, 95% CI = 1.8 to 21, p = 0.0012; Fisher’s exact test; p < 0.002 was considered significant after multiple testing correction. In addition, CT genotype in rs10001565 was more frequently observed in the ASD group than in the control group (OR = 15, 95% CI = 2.0 to 117, p = 0.0007; Fisher’s exact test. The present data indicate that genetic variation of the CD157/BST1 gene might confer susceptibility to ASDs.

  13. Factors associated with an inadequate hypoglycemia in the insulin tolerance test in Japanese patients with suspected or proven hypopituitarism.

    Takahashi, Kiyohiko; Nakamura, Akinobu; Miyoshi, Hideaki; Nomoto, Hiroshi; Kameda, Hiraku; Cho, Kyu Yong; Nagai, So; Shimizu, Chikara; Taguri, Masataka; Terauchi, Yasuo; Atsumi, Tatsuya

    2017-04-29

    We attempted to identify the predictors of an inadequate hypoglycemia in insulin tolerance test (ITT), defined as a blood glucose level higher than 2.8 mmol/L after insulin injection, in Japanese patients with suspected or proven hypopituitarism. A total of 78 patients who had undergone ITT were divided into adequate and inadequate hypoglycemia groups. The relationships between the subjects' clinical parameters and inadequate hypoglycemia in ITT were analyzed. Stepwise logistic regression analysis identified high systolic blood pressure (SBP) and high homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) as being independent factors associated with inadequate hypoglycemia in ITT. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis revealed the cutoff value for inadequate hypoglycemia was 109 mmHg for SBP and 1.4 for HOMA-IR. The areas under ROC curve for SBP and HOMA-IR were 0.72 and 0.86, respectively. We confirmed that high values of SBP and HOMA-IR were associated with inadequate hypoglycemia in ITT, regardless of the degree of reduction of pituitary hormone levels. Furthermore, the strongest predictor of inadequate hypoglycemia was obtained by using the cutoff value of HOMA-IR. Our results suggest that HOMA-IR is a useful pre-screening tool for ITT in these populations.

  14. Genetic variation in the raptor gene is associated with overweight but not hypertension in American men of Japanese ancestry.

    Morris, Brian J; Carnes, Bruce A; Chen, Randi; Donlon, Timothy A; He, Qimei; Grove, John S; Masaki, Kamal H; Elliott, Ayako; Willcox, Donald C; Allsopp, Richard; Willcox, Bradley J

    2015-04-01

    The mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway is pivotal for cell growth. Regulatory associated protein of mTOR complex I (Raptor) is a unique component of this pro-growth complex. The present study tested whether variation across the raptor gene (RPTOR) is associated with overweight and hypertension. We tested 61 common (allele frequency ≥ 0.1) tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that captured most of the genetic variation across RPTOR in 374 subjects of normal lifespan and 439 subjects with a lifespan exceeding 95 years for association with overweight/obesity, essential hypertension, and isolated systolic hypertension. Subjects were drawn from the Honolulu Heart Program, a homogeneous population of American men of Japanese ancestry, well characterized for phenotypes relevant to conditions of aging. Hypertension status was ascertained when subjects were 45-68 years old. Statistical evaluation involved contingency table analysis, logistic regression, and the powerful method of recursive partitioning. After analysis of RPTOR genotypes by each statistical approach, we found no significant association between genetic variation in RPTOR and either essential hypertension or isolated systolic hypertension. Models generated by recursive partitioning analysis showed that RPTOR SNPs significantly enhanced the ability of the model to accurately assign individuals to either the overweight/obese or the non-overweight/obese groups (P = 0.008 by 1-tailed Z test). Common genetic variation in RPTOR is associated with overweight/obesity but does not discernibly contribute to either essential hypertension or isolated systolic hypertension in the population studied. © American Journal of Hypertension, Ltd 2014. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. The Associations among Psychological Distress, Coping Style, and Health Habits in Japanese Nursing Students: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Akio Tada

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nursing students in many countries have been reported to experience high levels of stress and psychological distress. Health habits could potentially mediate the association between coping styles and psychological status. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the mediation effect of health habits in the relationship between stress coping styles and psychological distress in Japanese nursing students. Methods: A total of 181 nursing students completed anonymous self-reported questionnaires comprised of the General Health Questionnaire-12 (GHQ-12, the Brief Coping Orientation questionnaire, and an additional questionnaire on health behavior. A mediation analysis using path analysis with bootstrapping was used for data analysis. Results: Multivariate linear regression analysis showed that psychological distress was significantly and positively associated with “Avoidance coping” (β = 0.39, p < 0.001, and was negatively associated with “Active coping” (β = −0.30, p < 0.001, “exercise habit” (β = −0.25, p = 0.001, and “sleeping” (β = −0.24, p = 0.002. In the path model, “Active coping” and “Avoidance coping” had significant or marginally significant associations with “exercise habits” (active: β = 0.19, p = 0.008, avoidance: β = −0.12, p = 0.088, and psychological distress (active: β = −0.25, p < 0.001, avoidance: β = 0.363, p < 0.001. However, these coping style variables did not have a significant association with “sleep”. In general, the size of the correlations was below 0.4. Conclusions: Exercise habits mediated the relationship between coping styles and psychological distress to a greater extent than sleep. The present study suggests the possibility that complex interactions between health habits and coping styles may influence the psychological status of nursing students.

  16. Inpatient consultations to an orthopaedic service: the hidden workload.

    O'Malley, N T

    2011-12-01

    While the quality and efficiency of out-patient orthopaedic referrals are well documented in the literature, there is little on the standard and appropriateness of inpatient orthopaedic consultations.

  17. Establishing a children's orthopaedic hospital for Malawi: A review ...

    ordinate the MNCP since 2007. At present the program has a total of 29 clinics, which have treated 5748 patients. Furthermore, BCIH has overseen the full or partial training of 5 orthopaedic surgeons and 82 orthopaedic clinical officers in Malawi.

  18. Radiation safety knowledge and practices among Irish orthopaedic trainees.

    Nugent, M

    2014-04-23

    Fluoroscopy is frequently used in orthopaedic surgery, particularly in a trauma setting. Exposure of patients and staff to ionising radiation has been studied extensively; however, little work has been done to evaluate current knowledge and practices among orthopaedic trainees.

  19. Association of Oral Fat Sensitivity with Body Mass Index, Taste Preference, and Eating Habits in Healthy Japanese Young Adults.

    Asano, Masanobu; Hong, Guang; Matsuyama, Yusuke; Wang, Weiqi; Izumi, Satoshi; Izumi, Masayuki; Toda, Takashi; Kudo, Tada-Aki

    2016-02-01

    Oral fat sensitivity (OFS, the ability to detect fat) may be related to overeating-induced obesity. However, it is largely unknown whether OFS affects taste preference and eating habits. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate (1) the association between body mass index (BMI) and OFS and (2) the relationship of OFS with four types of taste preference (sweet, sour, salty, and bitter) and eating habits using serial concentrations of oleic acid (OA) homogenized in non-fat milk and a self-reported questionnaire. Participants were 25 healthy Japanese individuals (mean age: 27.0 ± 5.6 years), among whom the OA detection threshold was significantly associated with BMI. Participants were divided into two subgroups based on oral sensitivity to 2.8 mM OA: hypersensitive (able to detect 2.8 mM OA, n = 16) and hyposensitive (unable to detect 2.8 mM OA, n = 9). The degree of sweet taste preference of the hypersensitive group was significantly higher than that of the hyposensitive group. Furthermore, there was significantly higher degree of preference for high-fat sweet foods than low-fat sweet foods in the hypersensitive group. There was also a significant inverse correlation between the OA detection threshold and the degree of both spare eating and postprandial satiety. Thus, OFS is associated not only with BMI, but also with the preference for high-fat sweet foods and eating habits. The present study provides novel insights that measuring OFS may be useful for assessing the risk of obesity associated with overeating in countries, including Japan, where BMI is increasing in the population.

  20. Self-efficacy, pros, and cons as variables associated with adjacent stages of change for regular exercise in Japanese college students.

    Horiuchi, Satoshi; Tsuda, Akira; Kobayashi, Hisanori; Fallon, Elizabeth A; Sakano, Yuji

    2017-07-01

    This study examined self-efficacy (confidence to exercise), pros (exercise's advantages), and cons (exercise's disadvantages) as variables associated across the transtheoretical model's six stages of change in 403 Japanese college students. A series of logistic regression analyses were conducted. Results showed that higher pros and lower cons were associated with being in contemplation compared to precontemplation. Lower cons were associated with being in preparation compared to contemplation. Higher self-efficacy was associated with being in action compared to preparation as well as being in maintenance compared to action. Lower cons were associated with being in termination compared to maintenance.

  1. Evaluation of the orthopaedics and traumatology resident education in Turkey: A descriptive study.

    Huri, Gazi; Cabuk, Yusuf Sertan; Gursoy, Safa; Akkaya, Mustafa; Ozkan, Secil; Oztuna, Volkan; Aydingoz, Onder; Senkoylu, Alparslan

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this study is to describe the current situation regarding the training, working conditions, future plans, fields of interest and satisfaction of orthopaedics and traumatology residents in Turkey. A descriptive survey questionnaire consisting of 24 questions was designed to identify the problems and solution suggestions concerning training of orthopaedic residents. All orthopaedics and traumatology residents who took the 2013 Progress Testing for Speciality in Medicine (UEGS) held by Turkish Orthopaedics and Traumatology Education Council (TOTEK) were surveyed in the class at the end thereof as well as the young orthopaedic surgeons who were reached through the email groups of Turkish Society of Orthopaedics and Traumatology - Residents and Young Attendings Council (TOTBID-AGUH). A total of 725 residents and 132 young attendings were surveyed. The most outstanding answers are as follows: 62,7% of the respondents replied to the question "Is there a training program/Is it being applied" as "yes/yes". It was found out that 94,3% of the respondents wanted to be involved in a rotation abroad. The "patient care" was the most common answer, with a ratio of 36,9%, to the question "What's the priority of the department you are studying in?". Regarding work conditions, "many emergency on-calls" was found to be the most important parameter affecting life conditions (p traumatology residents in Turkey face as regards their training, this survey stands as a pioneering study with a high participation rate. Analysis of survey data highlights the importance of several key factors such as the development of training programs and increasing the time spent with academicians as well as spreading and promotion of log book application. Copyright © 2016 Turkish Association of Orthopaedics and Traumatology. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Associations of protein, fat, and carbohydrate intakes with insomnia symptoms among middle-aged Japanese workers.

    Tanaka, Eizaburo; Yatsuya, Hiroshi; Uemura, Mayu; Murata, Chiyoe; Otsuka, Rei; Toyoshima, Hideaki; Tamakoshi, Koji; Sasaki, Satoshi; Kawaguchi, Leo; Aoyama, Atsuko

    2013-01-01

    Diet is a modifiable factor that may affect sleep, but the associations of macronutrient intakes with insomnia are inconsistent. We investigated the associations of protein, fat, and carbohydrate intakes with insomnia symptoms. In this cross-sectional analysis of 4435 non-shift workers, macronutrient intakes were assessed by the brief-type self-administered diet history questionnaire, which requires the recall of usual intakes of 58 foods during the preceding month. Presence of insomnia symptoms, including difficulty initiating sleep (DIS), difficulty maintaining sleep (DMS), and poor quality of sleep (PQS) were self-reported. Logistic regression analysis was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% CIs adjusted for demographic, psychological, and behavioral factors, as well as medical histories. Low protein intake (vs ≥16% of total energy) was associated with DIS (OR 1.24, 95% CI 0.99-1.56) and PQS (OR 1.24, 95% CI 1.04-1.48), while high protein intake (≥19% vs Low carbohydrate intake (vs ≥50% of total energy) was associated with DMS (OR 1.19, 95% CI 0.97-1.45). Protein and carbohydrate intakes in the daily diet were associated with insomnia symptoms. The causality of these associations remains to be explained.

  3. The mediating and moderating effects of workplace social capital on the associations between adverse work characteristics and psychological distress among Japanese workers.

    Oshio, Takashi; Inoue, Akiomi; Tsutsumi, Akizumi

    2014-01-01

    Our current study investigated how workplace social capital (WSC) mediates and moderates the associations between adverse work characteristics and psychological distress among Japanese workers. We collected cross-sectional data (N=9,350) from a baseline survey of an occupational Japanese cohort study. We focused on individual WSC and considered job demands/control, effort/reward, and two types (i.e., procedural and interactional) of organizational justice as work-characteristic variables. We defined psychological distress as a score of ≥5 on the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K6 scale). Multivariate logistic regression analyses predicted a binary variable of psychological distress by individual WSC and adverse work characteristics, adjusting for individual-level covariates. Individual WSC mediated the associations between adverse work characteristics and psychological distress in almost all model specifications. Additionally, individual WSC moderated the associations of psychological distress with high job demands, high effort, and low interactional justice when we used a high WSC cutoff point. In contrast, individual WSC did not moderate such interactions with low job control, reward, or procedural justice. We concluded that individual WSC mediated the associations between adverse work characteristics and psychological distress among Japanese workers while selectively moderating their associations at high levels of WSC.

  4. Japanese dreams

    Sejrup, Jens

    2018-01-01

    This paper traces the history of a Japanese-funded annex to the Van Gogh Museum in Amsterdam over the past twenty-five years. The analysis focuses on three key years in the building’s history: 1991, 1999, and 2015. Critically examining public debate and media coverage of the building in contempor......This paper traces the history of a Japanese-funded annex to the Van Gogh Museum in Amsterdam over the past twenty-five years. The analysis focuses on three key years in the building’s history: 1991, 1999, and 2015. Critically examining public debate and media coverage of the building...... in contemporary Dutch- and Japanese-language sources, I argue that changing claims and public perceptions of Japan reflected the country’s shifting economic fortunes and international position during the period. The sources consistently framed the Japanese-designed building within a language of dreams. However...

  5. Genome-wide association study of pancreatic cancer in Japanese population.

    Siew-Kee Low

    Full Text Available Pancreatic cancer shows very poor prognosis and is the fifth leading cause of cancer death in Japan. Previous studies indicated some genetic factors contributing to the development and progression of pancreatic cancer; however, there are limited reports for common genetic variants to be associated with this disease, especially in the Asian population. We have conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS using 991 invasive pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma cases and 5,209 controls, and identified three loci showing significant association (P-value<5x10(-7 with susceptibility to pancreatic cancer. The SNPs that showed significant association carried estimated odds ratios of 1.29, 1.32, and 3.73 with 95% confidence intervals of 1.17-1.43, 1.19-1.47, and 2.24-6.21; P-value of 3.30x10(-7, 3.30x10(-7, and 4.41x10(-7; located on chromosomes 6p25.3, 12p11.21 and 7q36.2, respectively. These associated SNPs are located within linkage disequilibrium blocks containing genes that have been implicated some roles in the oncogenesis of pancreatic cancer.

  6. New approach to resolve the amount of Quaternary uplift and associated denudation of the mountain ranges in the Japanese Islands

    Shigeru Sueoka

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Low-temperature thermochronology is a widely used tool for revealing denudation histories of mountain ranges. Although this technique has been applied mainly to continental orogens, such as the European Alps, Himalayas, and Andes, recent technological development of low-temperature thermochronology has made it applicable to a wider variety of mountain ranges with various sizes and tectonic histories. The Japanese Islands comprise young and active island arcs, where an early stage of mountain range formation is observed. Numerous attempts have been made to constrain the uplift and denudation histories of the mountains in the Japanese Islands using geologic, geomorphologic, or geodetic methods. However, the number of thermochronometric attempts has been limited primarily due to the small amount of total denudation since the initiation of the uplift. In this review paper, we introduce the tectonic and geomorphic settings of the mountain ranges in the Japanese Islands, and discuss previous attempts to estimate uplift or denudation of the Japanese mountains using methods other than thermochronology. Furthermore, we discuss problems of the thermochronometric applications in revealing denudation histories of the Japanese mountains. Finally, we present a case study of the Kiso Range in central Japan and discuss the current effectiveness and applicability of low-temperature thermochronology to the Japanese mountainous areas.

  7. Association between changes in visual acuity and vision-related quality of life in Japanese patients with low vision.

    Yanagisawa, Mieko; Kato, Satoshi; Kunimatsu, Shiho; Kobayashi, Megumi; Ochiai, Makiko

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the association between vision-related quality of life (VRQOL) and changes in visual acuity (VA). We examined the VA in 100 patients for > 1 year and evaluated the degree of its impact on VRQOL using the National Eye Institute Visual Function (VF) Questionnaire (VFQ-25; Japanese version). Before determining VFQ-25, we monitored the changes in VA in these patients for 1 year and classified them into the following two groups depending on VA changes. Patients exhibiting a decline of > 3 steps in VA, as assessed by the logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution scale, were placed in the 'decline' group (47.0%) and patients exhibiting no change in VA were placed in the 'no change' group (53.0%). We compared the VFQ-25 scores between both groups in all patients with glaucoma (GLA) and macular degeneration (MD). The total score of the decline was 34.9 ± 13.6 and that of the no change group was 44.6 ± 13.9: the difference in the scores between both groups was statistically significant (p = 0.006). Similar results were obtained for patients with GLA and MD (p = 0.007 and 0.003, respectively). VRQOL differed between patients with constant VA and those with reduced VA, even though VA values were equal at a certain time point. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. The invasion risk of species associated with Japanese Tsunami Marine Debris in Pacific North America and Hawaii.

    Therriault, Thomas W; Nelson, Jocelyn C; Carlton, James T; Liggan, Lauran; Otani, Michio; Kawai, Hiroshi; Scriven, Danielle; Ruiz, Gregory M; Clarke Murray, Cathryn

    2018-01-25

    Marine debris from the Great Tsunami of 2011 represents a unique transport vector for Japanese species to reach Pacific North America and Hawaii. Here we characterize the invasion risk of invertebrate species associated with tsunami debris using a screening-level risk assessment tool - the Canadian Marine Invasive Screening Tool (CMIST). Higher-risk invertebrate invaders were identified for each of five different ecoregions. Some of these are well-known global invaders, such as the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis and the ascidian Didemnum vexillum which already have invasion histories in some of the assessed ecoregions, while others like the sea star Asterias amurensis and the shore crab Hemigrapsus sanguineus have yet to invade large portions of the assessed ecoregions but also are recognized global invaders. In general, the probability of invasion was lower for the Gulf of Alaska and Hawaii, in part due to lower climate matches and the availability of other invasion vectors. Crown Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Infantile Pain Episodes Associated with Novel Nav1.9 Mutations in Familial Episodic Pain Syndrome in Japanese Families.

    Okuda, Hiroko; Noguchi, Atsuko; Kobayashi, Hatasu; Kondo, Daiki; Harada, Kouji H; Youssefian, Shohab; Shioi, Hirotomo; Kabata, Risako; Domon, Yuki; Kubota, Kazufumi; Kitano, Yutaka; Takayama, Yasunori; Hitomi, Toshiaki; Ohno, Kousaku; Saito, Yoshiaki; Asano, Takeshi; Tominaga, Makoto; Takahashi, Tsutomu; Koizumi, Akio

    2016-01-01

    Painful peripheral neuropathy has been correlated with various voltage-gated sodium channel mutations in sensory neurons. Recently Nav1.9, a voltage-gated sodium channel subtype, has been established as a genetic influence for certain peripheral pain syndromes. In this study, we performed a genetic study in six unrelated multigenerational Japanese families with episodic pain syndrome. Affected participants (n = 23) were characterized by infantile recurrent pain episodes with spontaneous mitigation around adolescence. This unique phenotype was inherited in an autosomal-dominant mode. Linkage analysis was performed for two families with 12 affected and nine unaffected members, and a single locus was identified on 3p22 (LOD score 4.32). Exome analysis (n = 14) was performed for affected and unaffected members in these two families and an additional family. Two missense variants were identified: R222H and R222S in SCN11A. Next, we generated a knock-in mouse model harboring one of the mutations (R222S). Behavioral tests (Hargreaves test and cold plate test) using R222S and wild-type C57BL/6 (WT) mice, young (8-9 weeks old; n = 10-12 for each group) and mature (36-38 weeks old; n = 5-6 for each group), showed that R222S mice were significantly (p pain. The mouse model developed here will be useful for drug screening for familial episodic pain syndrome associated with SCN11A mutations.

  10. Factors associated with attitudes toward suicide: among Japanese pharmacists participating in the Board Certified Psychiatric Pharmacy Specialist Seminar.

    Kodaka, Manami; Inagaki, Masatoshi; Yamada, Mitsuhiko

    2013-01-01

    Pharmacists could play a significant role in providing care for suicidal individuals. Previous studies reported that gatekeeper attitudes toward suicide could affect caregiving behaviors toward people at risk for suicide. Nevertheless, only few studies have examined the attitudes of pharmacists toward suicide. This study explores the factors associated with the attitudes of pharmacists toward suicide. A self-administered questionnaire and written explanation of the study were mailed to 541 pharmacists who had registered for the Board Certified Psychiatry Pharmacy Specialist Seminar in Tokyo, Japan. A Japanese version of the Attitudes Toward Suicide questionnaire was used to assess participant attitudes toward suicide. Multivariate analysis of covariance was used to assess relationships between participant attitudes toward suicide as well as demographics, occupational, and personal factors. Participants who had previously received suicide-related education were more likely to have positive attitudes toward suicide prevention. Conversely, those with a lifetime history of suicidal thoughts had more permissive attitudes toward one's right to commit suicide. Our findings suggest that pharmacist suicide prevention training programs should aim to alter permissiveness attitudes of trainees toward suicide.

  11. Associations between headache and stress, alcohol drinking, exercise, sleep, and comorbid health conditions in a Japanese population.

    Yokoyama, Masako; Yokoyama, Tetsuji; Funazu, Kazuo; Yamashita, Takeshi; Kondo, Shuji; Hosoai, Hiroshi; Yokoyama, Akira; Nakamura, Haruo

    2009-06-01

    We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 12,988 subjects aged 20-79 years (5,908 men and 7,090 women) receiving health checkups at a Tokyo clinic. They filled out a self-administered structured questionnaire, and 5.4% of the men and 15.4% of the women reported having headaches. Younger subjects were more prone to having headaches. The likelihood of having headaches increased with stress level and decreased ability to relieve stress in both genders. There was an inverse dose-response relationship between having headaches and alcohol consumption, and less walking/exercise and sleep problems increased the likelihood of headaches in both genders. Headache sufferers of both genders were more likely to report multiple additional poor health conditions. A multivariate stepwise logistic analysis showed that age, self-estimated degree of stress, reported number of additional poor health conditions, and less alcohol consumption were independently correlated with having headaches. In conclusion, although women were more susceptible to headache, Japanese men and women in Tokyo shared factors associated with headache, including age, stress, having other poor health conditions, alcohol consumption, sleep, and exercise.

  12. Classification and characteristics of Japanese patients with antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis in a nationwide, prospective, inception cohort study.

    Sada, Ken-ei; Yamamura, Masahiro; Harigai, Masayoshi; Fujii, Takao; Dobashi, Hiroaki; Takasaki, Yoshinari; Ito, Satoshi; Yamada, Hidehiro; Wada, Takashi; Hirahashi, Junichi; Arimura, Yoshihiro; Makino, Hirofumi

    2014-04-23

    We investigated the clinical and serological features of patients with antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis (AAV) in Japan using data from a nationwide, prospective, inception cohort study. In total, 156 Japanese patients with newly diagnosed AAV were classified according to the European Medicines Agency (EMEA) algorithm with exploratory surrogate markers for AAV-related non-granulomatous pulmonary lesions, predefined as alveolar haemorrhage and interstitial lung disease (ILD), and their clinical and serological features were evaluated. Using the EMEA algorithm, we identified 14 patients (9.0%) with eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA), 33 (21.2%) with granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA), 78 (50.0%) with microscopic polyangiitis and renal-limited vasculitis (MPA/RLV), and 31 (19.9%) with unclassifiable vasculitis. The average ages of patients with EGPA (male/female, 5/9), GPA (12/21), and MPA/RLV (35/43) and unclassifiable (9/22) were 58.0, 63.6, 71.1, and 70.6 years, respectively. Myeloperoxidase (MPO)-ANCA and proteinase-3 ANCA positivity was 50.0% and 0% for EGPA, 54.6% and 45.5% for GPA, 97.4% and 2.6% for MPA/RLV, and 93.5% and 3.2% for unclassifiable, respectively. According to the Birmingham Vasculitis Activity Score (BVAS), cutaneous (71.4%) and nervous system (92.9%) manifestations were prominent in EGPA and ear, nose, and throat manifestations (84.9%) and chest manifestations (66.7%) in GPA. Renal manifestations developed frequently in MPA/RLV (91.0%) and GPA (63.6%). The average serum creatinine levels were 0.71 mg/dL for EGPA, 1.51 mg/dL for GPA, 2.46 mg/dL for MPA/RLV, and 0.69 mg/dL for unclassifiable. The percentages of patients with ILD were 14.3% for EGPA, 9.0% for GPA, 47.4% for MPA/RLV, and 61.3% for unclassifiable. Patients with ILD (n = 61) had significantly lower BVAS (P = 0.019) with fewer ear, nose, and throat and cardiovascular manifestations than patients without ILD (n = 95). MPO

  13. Dietary intakes of glutamic acid and glycine are associated with stroke mortality in Japanese adults.

    Nagata, Chisato; Wada, Keiko; Tamura, Takashi; Kawachi, Toshiaki; Konishi, Kie; Tsuji, Michiko; Nakamura, Kozue

    2015-04-01

    Dietary intakes of glutamic acid and glycine have been reported to be associated with blood pressure. However, the link between intakes of these amino acids and stroke has not been studied. We aimed to examine the association between glutamic acid and glycine intakes and the risk of mortality from stroke in a population-based cohort study in Japan. The analyses included 29,079 residents (13,355 men and 15,724 women) of Takayama City, Japan, who were aged 35-101 y and enrolled in 1992. Their body mass index ranged from 9.9 to 57.4 kg/m(2). Their diets were assessed by a validated food frequency questionnaire. Deaths from stroke were ascertained over 16 y. During follow-up, 677 deaths from stroke (328 men and 349 women) were identified. A high intake of glutamic acid in terms of a percentage of total protein was significantly associated with a decreased risk of mortality from total stroke in women after controlling for covariates; the HR (95% CI) for the highest vs. lowest quartile was 0.72 (0.53, 0.98; P-trend: 0.03). Glycine intake was significantly associated with an increased risk of mortality from total and ischemic stroke in men without history of hypertension at baseline; the HRs (95% CIs) for the highest vs. lowest tertile were 1.60 (0.97, 2.51; P-trend: 0.03) and 1.88 (1.01, 3.52; P-trend: 0.02), respectively. There was no association between animal or vegetable protein intake and mortality from total and any subtype of stroke. The data suggest that glutamic acid and glycine intakes may be associated with risk of stroke mortality. Given that this is an initial observation, our results need to be confirmed. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  14. Rapid Prototyping in Orthopaedic Surgery: A User's Guide

    Frame, Mark; Huntley, James S.

    2012-01-01

    Rapid prototyping (RP) is applicable to orthopaedic problems involving three dimensions, particularly fractures, deformities, and reconstruction. In the past, RP has been hampered by cost and difficulties accessing the appropriate expertise. Here we outline the history of rapid prototyping and furthermore a process using open-source software to produce a high fidelity physical model from CT data. This greatly mitigates the expense associated with the technique, allowing surgeons to produce precise models for preoperative planning and procedure rehearsal. We describe the method with an illustrative case. PMID:22666160

  15. A case-control study of the association between urinary cadmium concentration and endometriosis in infertile Japanese women

    Itoh, Hiroaki; Iwasaki, Motoki; Nakajima, Yoshiaki; Endo, Yoko; Hanaoka, Tomoyuki; Sasaki, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Tadao; Yang, Bin; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2008-01-01

    Cadmium may act like an estrogen and be a potential risk factor for estrogen-related diseases such as breast cancer and endometriosis. Here, we tested the hypothesis that higher cadmium exposure is associated with endometriosis among infertile Japanese women in a hospital-based case-control study. We recruited consecutive female patients aged 20-45 years who had complained of infertility and presented to a university hospital in Tokyo. The subjects were interviewed and provided a urine sample prior to a laparoscopic diagnosis of endometriosis between January 2000 and December 2001. The severity of endometriosis was then dichotomized into controls (stage 0 and I) and cases (stage II-IV). We finally measured urinary total cadmium concentration in 54 cases and 74 controls as a biomarker of long-term cumulative exposure. Odds ratios were adjusted for average menstrual cycle length, body-mass index and smoking status using unconditional logistic regression. Results showed no association between endometriosis and urinary cadmium concentration. Medians (interquartile ranges) of urinary cadmium concentration in cases and controls were 0.53 (0.40-0.73) and 0.54 (0.34-0.76) μg/g creatinine, respectively (P for difference = 0.88). Adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval) for the highest versus lowest tertile of urinary creatinine-adjusted cadmium concentration was 0.86 (0.30 to 2.49, P for trend = 0.79). Our results do not support the hypothesis that higher urinary cadmium concentration is associated with the risk of endometriosis

  16. Association between Hardness (Difficulty of Chewing of the Habitual Diet and Premenstrual Symptoms in Young Japanese Women

    Kentaro Murakami

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent evidence suggests that voluntary rhythmic movements such as chewing may increase blood serotonin and subsequently brain serotonin, which in turn acts to alleviate premenstrual symptoms. In this observational cross-sectional study, we tested the hypothesis that hardness (difficulty of chewing of the habitual diet (i.e. dietary hardness is associated with decreased premenstrual symptoms. Subjects were 640 female Japanese dietetic students aged 18–22 years. Dietary hardness was assessed as an estimate of masticatory muscle activity for the habitual diet (i.e. the difficulty of chewing the food. The consumption of a total of 107 foods was estimated by means of a self-administered, comprehensive diet history questionnaire, and masticatory muscle activity during the ingestion of these foods was estimated according to published equations. Menstrual cycle symptoms were assessed using the retrospective version of the Moos Menstrual Distress Questionnaire, from which total score and subscale scores (i.e. pain, concentration, behavioral change, autonomic reactions, water retention, and negative affect in the premenstrual phase were calculated and expressed as percentages relative to those in the intermenstrual phase. Dietary hardness was not associated with total score in the premenstrual phase (P for trend = 0.48. Further, no association was seen for any subscale score in the premenstrual phase (P for trend = 0.18–0.91. In conclusion, this preliminary study failed to substantiate a hypothesized inverse relationship between hardness of the habitual diet and premenstrual symptoms. Considering the plausibility of the putative mechanism, however, further investigation using more relevant measures of chewing and premenstrual symptoms is warranted.

  17. Association between parity and dentition status among Japanese women: Japan public health center-based oral health study.

    Ueno, Masayuki; Ohara, Satoko; Inoue, Manami; Tsugane, Shoichiro; Kawaguchi, Yoko

    2013-10-22

    Several studies have shown that parity is associated with oral health problems such as tooth loss and dental caries. In Japan, however, no studies have examined the association. The purpose of this study was to determine whether parity is related to dentition status, including the number of teeth present, dental caries and filled teeth, and the posterior occlusion, in a Japanese population by comparing women with men. A total of 1,211 subjects, who participated both in the Japan Public Health Center-Based (JPHC) Study Cohort I in 1990 and the dental survey in 2005, were used for the study. Information on parity or number of children was collected from a self-completed questionnaire administered in 1990 for the JPHC Study Cohort I, and health behaviors and clinical dentition status were obtained from the dental survey in 2005. The association between parity or number of children and dentition status was analyzed, by both unadjusted-for and adjusted-for socio-demographic and health behavioral factors, using a generalized linear regression model. Parity is significantly related to the number of teeth present and n-FTUs (Functional Tooth Units of natural teeth), regardless of socio-demographic and health behavioral factors, in female subjects. The values of these variables had a significantly decreasing trend with the rise of parity: numbers of teeth present (p for trend = 0.046) and n-FTUs (p for trend = 0.026). No relationships between the number of children and dentition status were found in male subjects. Higher-parity women are more likely to lose teeth, especially posterior occluding relations. These results suggest that measures to narrow the discrepancy by parity should be taken for promoting women's oral health. Delivery of appropriate information and messages to pregnant women as well as enlightenment of oral health professionals about dental management of pregnant women may be an effective strategy.

  18. Association between Hardness (Difficulty of Chewing of the Habitual Diet and Premenstrual Symptoms in Young Japanese Women

    Kentaro Murakami

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent evidence suggests that voluntary rhythmic movements such as chewing may increase blood serotonin and subsequently brain serotonin, which in turn acts to alleviate premenstrual symptoms. In this observational cross-sectional study, we tested the hypothesis that hardness (difficulty of chewing of the habitual diet (i.e. dietary hardness is associated with decreased premenstrual symptoms. Subjects were 640 female Japanese dietetic students aged 18-22 years. Dietary hardness was assessed as an estimate of masticatory muscle activity for the habitual diet (i.e. the difficulty of chewing the food. The consumption of a total of 107 foods was estimated by means of a self-administered, comprehensive diet history questionnaire, and masticatory muscle activity during the ingestion of these foods was estimated according to published equations. Menstrual cycle symptoms were assessed using the retrospective version of the Moos Menstrual Distress Questionnaire, from which total score and subscale scores (i.e. pain, concentration, behavioral change, autonomic reactions, water retention, and negative affect in the premenstrual phase were calculated and expressed as percentages relative to those in the intermenstrual phase. Dietary hardness was not associated with total score in the premenstrual phase ( P for trend = 0.48. Further, no association was seen for any subscale score in the premenstrual phase ( P for trend = 0.18-0.91. In conclusion, this preliminary study failed to substantiate a hypothesized inverse relationship between hardness of the habitual diet and premenstrual symptoms. Considering the plausibility of the putative mechanism, however, further investigation using more relevant measures of chewing and premenstrual symptoms is warranted.

  19. Association of food access and neighbor relationships with diet and underweight among community-dwelling older Japanese.

    Nakamura, Hideko; Nakamura, Mieko; Okada, Eisaku; Ojima, Toshiyuki; Kondo, Katsunori

    2017-11-01

    Food access is important for maintaining dietary variety, which predicts underweight. The aim of this study was to examine the association of food access and neighbor relationships with eating and underweight. We analyzed cross-sectional data from 102,869 Japanese individuals aged 65 years or older. The perceived availability of food was assessed using the presence or absence of food stores within 1 km of the home. Level of relationships with neighbors was also assessed. The odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for infrequent food intake and underweight were determined using logistic regression analysis. The proportion of men and women having low access to food was 25-30%. Having low food access (OR 1.18; 95% CI, 1.12-1.25 for men and OR 1.26; 95% CI, 1.19-1.33 for women) and a low level of relationship with neighbors (OR 1.38; 95% CI, 1.31-1.45 for men and OR 1.57; 95% CI, 1.48-1.67 for women) was associated with infrequent intake of fruits and vegetables in both sexes. Association between low food access and infrequent intake of fruits and vegetables was higher among men with low levels of neighbor relationship (OR 1.34; 95% CI, 1.23-1.46) than among men with high levels of relationship (OR 1.10; 95% CI, 1.03-1.18). Low perceived availability of food is a risk factor for low dietary variety among older people. Furthermore, high levels of relationship with neighbors may relieve the harmful effect of low food access. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. A Subjective Assessment of the Prevalence and Factors Associated with Poor Sleep Quality Amongst Elite Japanese Athletes.

    Hoshikawa, Masako; Uchida, Sunao; Hirano, Yuichi

    2018-02-26

    The amount, quality, and timing of sleep are considered important for athletes' ability to train, maximize training responses, and recover. However, some research has shown that elite athletes do not obtain sufficient sleep. Based on this background, researchers recently started to assess and manage sleep in elite athletes. The purpose of this study was to clarify the prevalence of poor sleep quality and its associated factors amongst elite Japanese athletes. Eight hundred and ninety-one candidates for the 17th Asian Games Incheon 2014, who were over 20 years old, participated in this study. They completed a questionnaire that included the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Epworth Sleepiness Scale, two-question case-finding instruments, and a checklist for sleep hygiene. Data from 817 of the 891 athletes (91.7%) with no missing values were analyzed. The mean time in bed was 7 h and 29 min. Two hundred and twenty-nine (28.0%) athletes showed a PSQI global score above the clinical criteria. A multiple logistic analysis revealed that sleep quality was significantly associated with five factors: "time in bed," "eating breakfast every morning," "avoiding the use of electronic devices (PC, smartphone, etc.) just before bedtime," "depressive mood", and "not thinking about troubles while in bed." Forty percent of athletes reported they had been informed by someone about "snoring loudly" and/or "leg twitching or jerking during sleep." The results of this study demonstrate that 28% of the athletes showed the PSQI score above the cutoff for poor sleep quality (> 5.5), which suggests that there may be a high prevalence of poor sleep quality in this population of athletes. To improve athletes' sleep, the five factors associated with sleep quality should be emphasized in athletes' sleep education. Furthermore, in medical evaluations of athletes, it may be desirable to include screening for sleep disorders.

  1. A case-control study of the association between urinary cadmium concentration and endometriosis in infertile Japanese women

    Itoh, Hiroaki [Epidemiology and Prevention Division, Research Center for Cancer Prevention and Screening, National Cancer Center, 5-1-1 Tsukiji, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 104-0045 (Japan); Iwasaki, Motoki [Epidemiology and Prevention Division, Research Center for Cancer Prevention and Screening, National Cancer Center, 5-1-1 Tsukiji, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 104-0045 (Japan)], E-mail: moiwasak@gan2.res.ncc.go.jp; Nakajima, Yoshiaki; Endo, Yoko [Research Center for Occupational Poisoning, Tokyo Rosai Hospital, Japan Labour Health and Welfare Organization, 4-13-21 Omoriminami, Ohta-ku, Tokyo 143-0013 (Japan); Hanaoka, Tomoyuki [Epidemiology and Prevention Division, Research Center for Cancer Prevention and Screening, National Cancer Center, 5-1-1 Tsukiji, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 104-0045 (Japan); Sasaki, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Tadao; Yang, Bin [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Jikei University School of Medicine 3-25-8, Nishi-Shimbashi, Minato-ku, Tokyo, 105-8461 (Japan); Tsugane, Shoichiro [Epidemiology and Prevention Division, Research Center for Cancer Prevention and Screening, National Cancer Center, 5-1-1 Tsukiji, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 104-0045 (Japan)

    2008-09-01

    Cadmium may act like an estrogen and be a potential risk factor for estrogen-related diseases such as breast cancer and endometriosis. Here, we tested the hypothesis that higher cadmium exposure is associated with endometriosis among infertile Japanese women in a hospital-based case-control study. We recruited consecutive female patients aged 20-45 years who had complained of infertility and presented to a university hospital in Tokyo. The subjects were interviewed and provided a urine sample prior to a laparoscopic diagnosis of endometriosis between January 2000 and December 2001. The severity of endometriosis was then dichotomized into controls (stage 0 and I) and cases (stage II-IV). We finally measured urinary total cadmium concentration in 54 cases and 74 controls as a biomarker of long-term cumulative exposure. Odds ratios were adjusted for average menstrual cycle length, body-mass index and smoking status using unconditional logistic regression. Results showed no association between endometriosis and urinary cadmium concentration. Medians (interquartile ranges) of urinary cadmium concentration in cases and controls were 0.53 (0.40-0.73) and 0.54 (0.34-0.76) {mu}g/g creatinine, respectively (P for difference = 0.88). Adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval) for the highest versus lowest tertile of urinary creatinine-adjusted cadmium concentration was 0.86 (0.30 to 2.49, P for trend = 0.79). Our results do not support the hypothesis that higher urinary cadmium concentration is associated with the risk of endometriosis.

  2. Association between Social Relationship and Glycemic Control among Older Japanese: JAGES Cross-Sectional Study

    Kawachi, Ichiro; Kondo, Katsunori; Kondo, Naoki; Nagamine, Yuiko; Tani, Yukako; Shirai, Kokoro; Tazuma, Susumu

    2017-01-01

    Aim The present study examined whether social support, informal socializing and social participation are associated with glycemic control in older people. Methods Data for this population-based cross-sectional study was obtained from the Japan Gerontological Evaluation Study (JAGES) 2010 linked to the annual health check-up data in Japan. We analyzed 9,554 individuals aged ≥65 years without the certification of needed long-term care. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to assess the effect of social support, informal socializing and social participations on glycemic control. The outcome measure was HbA1c ≥8.4%. Results 1.3% of the participants had a level of HbA1c over 8.4%. Better glycemic control was significantly associated with meeting with friends one to four times per month (odds ratio [OR] 0.51, 95% confidence interval [CI]0.30–0.89, compared to meeting with friends a few times per year or less) and participation in sports groups (OR 0.50, 95% CI 0.26–0.97) even after adjusting for other variables. Meeting with friends more than twice per week, receiving social support, and being married were not associated with better control of diabetes. Conclusions Meeting with friends occasionally is associated with better glycemic control among older people. PMID:28060887

  3. Association between Social Relationship and Glycemic Control among Older Japanese: JAGES Cross-Sectional Study.

    Yokobayashi, Kenichi; Kawachi, Ichiro; Kondo, Katsunori; Kondo, Naoki; Nagamine, Yuiko; Tani, Yukako; Shirai, Kokoro; Tazuma, Susumu

    2017-01-01

    The present study examined whether social support, informal socializing and social participation are associated with glycemic control in older people. Data for this population-based cross-sectional study was obtained from the Japan Gerontological Evaluation Study (JAGES) 2010 linked to the annual health check-up data in Japan. We analyzed 9,554 individuals aged ≥65 years without the certification of needed long-term care. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to assess the effect of social support, informal socializing and social participations on glycemic control. The outcome measure was HbA1c ≥8.4%. 1.3% of the participants had a level of HbA1c over 8.4%. Better glycemic control was significantly associated with meeting with friends one to four times per month (odds ratio [OR] 0.51, 95% confidence interval [CI]0.30-0.89, compared to meeting with friends a few times per year or less) and participation in sports groups (OR 0.50, 95% CI 0.26-0.97) even after adjusting for other variables. Meeting with friends more than twice per week, receiving social support, and being married were not associated with better control of diabetes. Meeting with friends occasionally is associated with better glycemic control among older people.

  4. Genetic association between ghrelin polymorphisms and Alzheimer's disease in a Japanese population.

    Shibata, Nobuto; Ohnuma, Tohru; Kuerban, Bolati; Komatsu, Miwa; Arai, Heii

    2011-01-01

    Ghrelin has been reported to enter the hippocampus and to bind to the neurons of the hippocampal formation. This peptide also affects neuronal glucose uptake and decreases tau hyperphosphorylation. There is increasing evidence suggesting an association between ghrelin and Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology. The aim of this study was to investigate whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the ghrelin gene are associated with AD. The SNPs were genotyped using TaqMan technology and were analyzed using a case-control study design. Our case-control dataset consisted of 182 AD patients and 143 age-matched controls. Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and linkage disequilibrium analyses suggest that the region in and around the gene is highly polymorphic. One SNP, rs4684677 (Leu90Gln), showed a marginal association with age of AD onset. We did not detect any association between the other SNPs of the ghrelin gene and AD. There have been few genetic studies on the relationship between circulating ghrelin and functional SNPs. Further multifactorial studies are needed to clarify the relationship between ghrelin and AD. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Occupational lifting is associated with hip osteoarthritis: a Japanese case-control study.

    Yoshimura, N; Sasaki, S; Iwasaki, K; Danjoh, S; Kinoshita, H; Yasuda, T; Tamaki, T; Hashimoto, T; Kellingray, S; Croft, P; Coggon, D; Cooper, C

    2000-02-01

    Hip osteoarthritis (OA) is a frequent cause of pain and disability in Western countries, but the disorder is less common in Japan. A case-control study in Britain found obesity, hip injury, and occupational lifting to be associated with hip OA among men and women. However, there are few epidemiological studies concerning factors associated with hip OA in Japan. We performed a comparable case-control study of the disorder in Japan, and contrasted the findings with those from Britain. The study was carried out in 2 health districts in Wakayama Prefecture, Japan. Cases were men and women aged > or = 45 years listed for total hip arthroplasty due to OA over one year, and who did not have an established cause of secondary OA (e.g., rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis). For each case, a control was selected randomly from the general population and was individually matched to the case for age, sex, and district of residence. Cases and controls were interviewed with a structured questionnaire about medical history, physical activity, socioeconomic factors, and occupation. Measurements were made of height and weight. One hundred fourteen cases (103 women, 11 men) were compared with 114 controls. We found no relationship between obesity and hip OA (OR = 1.0, 95% CI 0.5-1.9; highest vs lowest thirds of distribution of body mass index). There was, however, a statistically significant association between occupational lifting and hip OA, such that regular lifting of 25 kg in the individual's first job (OR = 3.6, 95% CI 1.3-9.7) or of 50 kg in their main job (OR = 4.0, 95% CI 1.1-14.2) was associated with increased risk of hip OA. These associations remained after adjustment for potential confounding variables. In contrast, those subjects who spent > 2 h each day sitting during their first job were significantly less likely to have the disorder (crude OR = 0.5, 95% CI 0.3-0.9). This association also remained statistically significant after adjustment for potential risk

  6. Association between pancreatic fat and incidence of metabolic syndrome: a 5-year Japanese cohort study.

    Yamazaki, Hajime; Tauchi, Shinichi; Kimachi, Miho; Dohke, Mitsuru; Hanawa, Nagisa; Kodama, Yoshihisa; Katanuma, Akio; Yamamoto, Yosuke; Fukuma, Shingo; Fukuhara, Shunichi

    2018-04-26

    Previous cross-sectional studies showed that pancreatic fat was associated with metabolic syndrome. However, no longitudinal study has evaluated whether people with high pancreatic fat are likely to develop future metabolic syndrome. This study investigated the association between baseline pancreatic fat and metabolic syndrome incidence. In 2008-2009, 320 participants without metabolic syndrome underwent health checks, which included unenhanced computed tomography, and were followed up annually for 4-5 years. Baseline pancreatic fat amounts were evaluated using a histologically validated method that measured differences between pancreas and spleen attenuations on computed tomography. The participants were divided into low (reference), intermediate, and high pancreatic fat groups based on pancreas and spleen attenuation tertiles. Metabolic syndrome incidence was evaluated annually over a median follow-up period of 4.99 (interquartile range, 4.88-5.05) years, in accordance with the 2009 harmonized criteria. Risk ratios (RRs) for the association between baseline pancreatic fat amounts and metabolic syndrome incidence were estimated using Poisson regression models adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, liver fat, pre-metabolic syndrome, cigarette use, alcohol use, and physical activity. Metabolic syndrome incidence was 30.6% (98/320). Pancreatic fat was associated with an increased incidence of metabolic syndrome, based on a univariate analysis (RRs [95% confidence interval], 3.14 [1.74-5.67] and 3.96 [2.23-7.03] in the intermediate and high pancreatic fat groups, respectively). The association remained statistically significant in the multivariate analysis (RR [95% confidence interval], 2.04 [1.14-3.64] and 2.30 [1.28-4.14] for the same groups, respectively). Pancreatic fat predicts the future risk of metabolic syndrome. © 2018 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  7. A Radiographic Study on the Associations of Age and Prevalence of Vertebral Fractures with Abdominal Aortic Calcification in Japanese Postmenopausal Women and Men

    Jun Iwamoto

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to determine the associations of age and history of non- and low-traumatic fractures with the severity of abdominal aortic calcification in Japanese postmenopausal women and men. Four hundred and one Japanese persons (24 men and 377 postmenopausal women, mean age: 73.8 years for whom thoracic and lumbar spine radiographs had been obtained to evaluate their posture prior to patient participation in a fall-prevention exercise program were enrolled. The associations of sex, age, history of hip fracture, prevalence of vertebral fracture, and spondylosis grade (the Nathan degree with the severity of abdominal aortic calcification (length of calcification, as evaluated according to the number of vertebral bodies were analyzed. Nine subjects (2.2% had a history of hip fracture, and 221 (55.1% had at least one prevalent vertebral fracture. Two hundred and sixty-seven subjects (66.6% had first-degree spondylosis. Age and the number of prevalent vertebral fractures, but not sex, history of hip fracture, or spondylosis grade, were significantly associated with the severity of abdominal aortic calcification. The present study confirmed that age and the number of vertebral fractures were associated with the severity of abdominal aortic calcification in Japanese postmenopausal women and men.

  8. Potential Association between Breakfast Skipping and Concomitant Late-Night-Dinner Eating with Metabolic Syndrome and Proteinuria in the Japanese Population

    Ayano Kutsuma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Skipping breakfast is considered to be an unhealthy eating habit linked to predispositions to obesity and type 2 diabetes. Because eating dinner late at night can elicit subsequent breakfast skipping, we investigated if skipping breakfast concomitant with late-night-dinner eating (LNDE was associated with metabolic syndrome (MetS and proteinuria in the general Japanese population. We examined self-reported habitual breakfast skipping and LNDE, MetS (modified ATP-III criteria, and proteinuria in a cross-sectional study of 60,800 Japanese adults aged 20–75 years. A total of 14,068 subjects (23.1% skipped breakfast, of whom approximately half (52.8% skipped breakfast alone (without LNDE. The percentages of subjects who skipped breakfast showed a J-shaped relationship with body mass index (BMI. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that skipping breakfast concomitant with LNDE (n = 6,645 was significantly associated with MetS and proteinuria, even after adjusting for relevant confounders (odds ratio (95% CI, 1.17 (1.08–1.28, P=0.0003, and 1.37 (1.24–1.52, P<0.0001, resp.. Skipping breakfast alone and LNDE alone were not associated with MetS and proteinuria, respectively. In conclusion, habitual breakfast skipping concomitant with LNDE may represent poorer eating behavior than skipping breakfast alone, associated with MetS, asymptomatic proteinuria, obesity, and low body weight in the general Japanese population.

  9. Potential Association between Breakfast Skipping and Concomitant Late-Night-Dinner Eating with Metabolic Syndrome and Proteinuria in the Japanese Population.

    Kutsuma, Ayano; Nakajima, Kei; Suwa, Kaname

    2014-01-01

    Skipping breakfast is considered to be an unhealthy eating habit linked to predispositions to obesity and type 2 diabetes. Because eating dinner late at night can elicit subsequent breakfast skipping, we investigated if skipping breakfast concomitant with late-night-dinner eating (LNDE) was associated with metabolic syndrome (MetS) and proteinuria in the general Japanese population. We examined self-reported habitual breakfast skipping and LNDE, MetS (modified ATP-III criteria), and proteinuria in a cross-sectional study of 60,800 Japanese adults aged 20-75 years. A total of 14,068 subjects (23.1%) skipped breakfast, of whom approximately half (52.8%) skipped breakfast alone (without LNDE). The percentages of subjects who skipped breakfast showed a J-shaped relationship with body mass index (BMI). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that skipping breakfast concomitant with LNDE (n = 6,645) was significantly associated with MetS and proteinuria, even after adjusting for relevant confounders (odds ratio (95% CI), 1.17 (1.08-1.28), P = 0.0003, and 1.37 (1.24-1.52), P < 0.0001, resp.). Skipping breakfast alone and LNDE alone were not associated with MetS and proteinuria, respectively. In conclusion, habitual breakfast skipping concomitant with LNDE may represent poorer eating behavior than skipping breakfast alone, associated with MetS, asymptomatic proteinuria, obesity, and low body weight in the general Japanese population.

  10. Intimate partner violence in orthopaedic trauma patients

    Sprague, S.A.

    2013-01-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) or domestic violence is a common and serious public health problem around the globe. Victims of IPV frequently present to health care practitioners including orthopaedic surgeons. Substantial research has been conducted on IPV over the past few decades, but very

  11. The orthopaedic management of myelomeningocele | Horn | South ...

    The orthopaedic management of myelomeningocele. A Horn, S Dix-Peek, S Mears, EB Hoffman. Abstract. Despite improvement in antenatal care and screening, myelomeningocele remains the most common congenital birth defect, with a reported incidence of 1 - 2.5/1000 patients in the Western Cape, South Africa.

  12. Nigerian Journal of Orthopaedics and Trauma: Submissions

    The Nigerian Journal of Orthopaedics and Trauma is a peer reviewed journal publishing original research articles on all aspects of trauma, musculoskeletal ... initials and surnames of all authors, their highest academic degrees, affiliations / institutions and the name, address and e-mail address of the corresponding author.

  13. The association between dietary lifestyles and hepatocellular injury in Japanese workers.

    Iwata, Toyoto; Arai, Kaori; Saito, Norimitsu; Murata, Katsuyuki

    2013-12-01

    Elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in serum, relevant to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, has been often reported from Asian countries and the U.S., and it may be associated with lifestyle behavior. To clarify whether specific dietary behavior is associated with hepatocellular injury, we explored liver markers and dietary lifestyles (e.g., breakfast-skipping, eating for lunch, and snacking) in 1,809 male employees, aged 19-59 years, belonging to a health insurance union of automobile dealerships in Japan. ALT, γ-glutamyltransferase, and asparate aminotransferase (AST) were positively correlated with age and body mass index (BMI) (P instant noodle ingestion for lunch to ALT elevation (> 30 IU/L), after adjusting for possible confounders including age, BMI, and drinking, were 1.33 (95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.75) at 1-2 times/week and 1.47 (1.07-2.01) at ≥ 3 times/week, compared to those who seldom ate instant noodles. Likewise, the OR of the ingestion at ≥ 3 times/week to γ-glutamyltransferase elevation (> 50 IU/L) was 1.42 (1.02-1.99), but the OR to elevated AST (> 30 IU/L) was not statistically significant. Habitual ethanol intake was significantly associated with hepatocellular injury, though the threshold of daily ethanol intake differed among liver markers. Despite the low OR, habitual instant noodle ingestion for lunch is associated with ALT elevation. Since the average content of saturated fatty acids in instant noodles is considerably high among cereal foods in Japan, workers with this habit should be advised to avoid having unbalanced diets.

  14. Associations between hours worked, symptoms and health resource utilization among full-time male Japanese workers.

    Sato, Keiko; Yamazaki, Shin; Hayashino, Yasuaki; Takegami, Misa; Tokuda, Yasuharu; Takahashi, Osamu; Shimbo, Takuro; Hinohara, Shigeaki; Fukui, Tsuguya; Fukuhara, Shunichi

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the association between hours worked, symptoms experienced, and health resource utilization. Data were collected from a nationally representative sample of households in Japan. We studied full-time male workers aged 18-65 yr who worked 100 h or more per month. First, we examined the association between hours worked and symptoms experienced. Second, we examined the association between hours worked and the type of health resource utilized, such as physician visits, over-the-counter (OTC) medication use, dietary supplement use, and complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) provider visits. We used a multivariable negative binominal model in each analysis. Of the 762 male workers, 598 reported experiencing symptoms at least once a month. We categorized participants based on the number of hours worked per month (h/mo): 100-200 h/mo, 201-250 h/mo, and over 250 h/mo. Compared with those working 201-250 h/mo, those working 100-200 h/mo had more frequent physician visits (rate ratio:1.67, 95% CI: 1.17 to 2.38) and those working over 250 h/mo had significantly lower rates of CAM provider visits and tended to use dietary supplements for symptoms. Participants who worked 201-250 h/mo used OTC medication most frequently. No significant association was observed between the number of hours worked and number of symptoms experienced. The more hours worked by full-time male workers, the more likely they were to use health resources that had a lower time requirement. Greater attention should be paid to patterns of health resource utilization among workers and their consequent influence on long-term health status.

  15. Association of postmenopausal endogenous sex hormones with global methylation level of leukocyte DNA among Japanese women

    Iwasaki Motoki

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although global hypomethylation of leukocyte DNA has been associated with an increased risk of several sites of cancer, including breast cancer, determinants of global methylation level among healthy individuals remain largely unexplored. Here, we examined whether postmenopausal endogenous sex hormones were associated with the global methylation level of leukocyte DNA. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted using the control group of a breast cancer case–control study in Nagano, Japan. Subjects were postmenopausal women aged 55 years or over who provided blood samples. We measured global methylation level of peripheral blood leukocyte DNA by luminometric methylation assay; estradiol, estrone, androstenedione, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, testosterone and free testosterone by radioimmunoassay; bioavailable estradiol by the ammonium sulfate precipitation method; and sex-hormone binding globulin by immunoradiometric assay. A linear trend of association between methylation and hormone levels was evaluated by regression coefficients in a multivariable liner regression model. A total of 185 women were included in the analyses. Results Mean global methylation level (standard deviation was 70.3% (3.1 and range was from 60.3% to 79.2%. Global methylation level decreased 0.27% per quartile category for estradiol and 0.39% per quartile category for estrone while it increased 0.41% per quartile category for bioavailable estradiol. However, we found no statistically significant association of any sex hormone level measured in the present study with global methylation level of leukocyte DNA. Conclusions Our findings suggest that endogenous sex hormones are not major determinants of the global methylation level of leukocyte DNA.

  16. Associations of Job Stress Indicators with Oxidative Biomarkers in Japanese Men and Women

    Jiro Takaki

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Some researchers have suggested that oxidative damage may be one of the mechanisms linking job stress with coronary heart disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between job stress indicators and oxidative biomarkers. The study included 567 subjects (272 men, 295 women who answered questionnaires related to their work and underwent a medical examination. Job stress evaluated using the demands-control-support model was measured using the Job Content Questionnaire. Effort-reward imbalance was measured using the Effort-Reward Imbalance Questionnaire. Urinary hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG were measured by the modified ferrous ion oxidation xylenol orange version-1 method and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively. In men, the changes in the odds ratios for high urinary H2O2 associated with a 1-standard-deviation (SD increase in worksite social support were 0.69 (95% confidence interval (CI 0.53, 0.91 univariately and 0.68 (95%CI 0.51, 0.90 after adjustment for covariates. The change in the odds ratio for high urinary H2O2 associated with a 1-SD increase in effort-reward ratio was 1.35 (95% CI 1.03, 1.78 after adjustment for covariates. In women, there were no significant associations of the two job stress indicators with urinary H2O2 and 8-OHdG levels after adjustment for covariates (p > 0.05.

  17. Association of work-related factors with psychosocial job stressors and psychosomatic symptoms among Japanese pediatricians.

    Umehara, Katsura; Ohya, Yukihiro; Kawakami, Norito; Tsutsumi, Akizumi; Fujimura, Masanori

    2007-11-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to explore what work-related factors were associated with job stress among pediatricians in Japan, as determined by the demand-control-support model and psychosomatic symptoms. We sent an anonymous questionnaire to a random sample of 3,000 members selected from the nationwide register of the Japan Pediatric Society and received 850 responses (response rate, 28%). Data from the 590 respondents who worked more than 35 h per week as a pediatrician and had no missing responses in the questionnaire were analyzed. We measured workload-related variables (e.g. working hours, work schedule) and recovery-related variables (e.g. workdays with no overtime, days off with no work in the past month) as exposure variables, and psychosocial job stressors (the Brief Job Stress Questionnaire) and psychosomatic symptoms as outcome variables. Longer working hours per week was significantly associated with greater job demand, lower job control and more psychosomatic symptoms (pworking hours, more workdays with no overtime was significantly associated with lower job demand, greater job control and fewer psychosomatic symptoms (plong working hours is a risk factor for job stressors and psychosomatic symptoms, and that workdays with no overtime is a protective factor which may facilitate recovery. Controlling working hours and encouraging non-overtime workdays may be important for reducing job stressors and psychosomatic symptoms among pediatricians in Japan.

  18. The association of alcohol and smoking with CKD in a Japanese nationwide cross-sectional survey.

    Matsumoto, Ayako; Nagasawa, Yasuyuki; Yamamoto, Ryohei; Shinzawa, Maki; Hasuike, Yukiko; Kuragano, Takahiro; Isaka, Yoshitaka; Nakanishi, Takeshi; Iseki, Kunitoshi; Yamagata, Kunihiro; Tsuruya, Kazuhiko; Yoshida, Hideaki; Fujimoto, Shouichi; Asahi, Koichi; Moriyama, Toshiki; Watanabe, Tsuyoshi

    2017-08-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is characterized by a reduced glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and proteinuria. Modifiable lifestyle factors such as smoking and alcohol contribute to CKD. Recent cohort studies have shown that moderate alcohol consumption attenuates the decline of the GFR and smoking has been previously shown to be associated with CKD. However, the association of smoking and alcohol consumption on CKD is not entirely clear. To examine whether there is evidence to assume that smoking is an effective modifier of the association between CKD and alcohol consumption, we conducted a cross-sectional study of a population of people who presented for a health checkup under a program that targets the insured population aged ≧40 years using data from the Specific Health Check and Guidance in Japan between April 2008 and March 2009. Of the 506 807 participants aged ⩾40 years, 292 013 (57.6%) were included in the present analysis. Outcomes were kidney dysfunction, as an eGFR of smoking might have modified the potential benefits of alcohol to prevent CKD.

  19. Association between mobile phone use and depressed mood in Japanese adolescents: a cross-sectional study.

    Ikeda, Kayoko; Nakamura, Kazutoshi

    2014-05-01

    Mobile phones are commonly used by adolescents. The aim of this study was to clarify associations between duration of mobile phone use and psychological mood in high school students. This cross-sectional study included 2,785 high school students in Niigata, Japan. A self-administered questionnaire was used to elicit information on sex, school year, hours of mobile phone use, psychological mood status, and possible confounders. Psychological mood outcomes were evaluated with the Mood Inventory, developed and validated in 1994, which includes five subcomponents with total scores ranging from 8 to 32 (higher score indicates stronger feeling): "Tension and excitement," "Refreshing mood," "Fatigue," "Depressed mood," and "Anxious mood." Analysis of covariance with Bonferroni's multiple comparison was used to compare mean values among quartiles of hours of mobile phone use. Among the respondents, mean mobile phone use per week was 24 (median 18) h. Long-duration mobile phone use was associated with female students, no participation in sports club activities, early mobile phone use, and fewer hours spent sleeping (all P mobile phone use and total scores were significant for "Depressed mood" (P for trend = 0.005), "Tension and excitement" (P for trend mobile phone use were significantly higher than for other quartiles (all P mobile phone use is associated with unfavorable psychological mood, in particular, a depressed mood. Decreasing mobile phone use may help maintain appropriate mental health in very long-duration users.

  20. Is Social Network Diversity Associated with Tooth Loss among Older Japanese Adults?

    Aida, Jun; Kondo, Katsunori; Yamamoto, Tatsuo; Saito, Masashige; Ito, Kanade; Suzuki, Kayo; Osaka, Ken; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2016-01-01

    We sought to examine social network diversity as a potential determinant of oral health, considering size and contact frequency of the social network and oral health behaviors. Our cross-sectional study was based on data from the 2010 Japan Gerontological Evaluation Study. Data from 19,756 community-dwelling individuals aged 65 years or older were analyzed. We inquired about diversity of friendships based on seven types of friends. Ordered logistic regression models were developed to determine the association between the diversity of social networks and number of teeth (categorized as ≥20, 10-19, 1-9, and 0). Of the participants, 54.1% were women (mean age, 73.9 years; standard deviation, 6.2). The proportion of respondents with ≥20 teeth was 34.1%. After adjusting for age, sex, socioeconomic status (income, education, and occupation), marital status, health status (diabetes and mental health), and size and contact frequency of the social network, an increase in the diversity of social networks was significantly associated with having more teeth (odds ratio = 1.08; 95% confidence interval, 1.04-1.11). Even adjusted for oral health behaviors (smoking, curative/preventive dental care access, use of dental floss/fluoride toothpaste), significant association was still observed (odds ratio = 1.05 (95% confidence interval, 1.02-1.08)). Social connectedness among people from diverse backgrounds may increase information channels and promote the diffusion of oral health behaviors and prevent tooth loss.

  1. Is Social Network Diversity Associated with Tooth Loss among Older Japanese Adults?

    Jun Aida

    Full Text Available We sought to examine social network diversity as a potential determinant of oral health, considering size and contact frequency of the social network and oral health behaviors.Our cross-sectional study was based on data from the 2010 Japan Gerontological Evaluation Study. Data from 19,756 community-dwelling individuals aged 65 years or older were analyzed. We inquired about diversity of friendships based on seven types of friends. Ordered logistic regression models were developed to determine the association between the diversity of social networks and number of teeth (categorized as ≥20, 10-19, 1-9, and 0.Of the participants, 54.1% were women (mean age, 73.9 years; standard deviation, 6.2. The proportion of respondents with ≥20 teeth was 34.1%. After adjusting for age, sex, socioeconomic status (income, education, and occupation, marital status, health status (diabetes and mental health, and size and contact frequency of the social network, an increase in the diversity of social networks was significantly associated with having more teeth (odds ratio = 1.08; 95% confidence interval, 1.04-1.11. Even adjusted for oral health behaviors (smoking, curative/preventive dental care access, use of dental floss/fluoride toothpaste, significant association was still observed (odds ratio = 1.05 (95% confidence interval, 1.02-1.08.Social connectedness among people from diverse backgrounds may increase information channels and promote the diffusion of oral health behaviors and prevent tooth loss.

  2. Inverse association between toothbrushing and upper aerodigestive tract cancer risk in a Japanese population.

    Sato, Fumihito; Oze, Isao; Kawakita, Daisuke; Yamamoto, Noriyuki; Ito, Hidemi; Hosono, Satoyo; Suzuki, Takeshi; Kawase, Takakazu; Furue, Hiroki; Watanabe, Miki; Hatooka, Shunzo; Yatabe, Yasushi; Hasegawa, Yasuhisa; Shinoda, Masayuki; Ueda, Minoru; Tajima, Kazuo; Tanaka, Hideo; Matsuo, Keitaro

    2011-11-01

    Oral hygiene is attracting increasing attention as a potential risk factor for cancers. To investigate the association between toothbrushing frequency and upper aerodigestive tract (UADT) cancer, the authors conducted a large-scale case-control study. A total of 856 UADT cancer case participants and 2696 age- and sex-matched control subjects without cancer were included. Edentulous or participants with unknown frequency of toothbrushing or number of remaining teeth were excluded. Associations were assessed by odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals in logistic regression models with adjustment for potential confounders. Compared with toothbrushing once per day, the adjusted odds ratio for brushing twice or more was 0.82 (95% confidence interval: 0.68, 0.99) whereas that for not brushing was 1.79 (0.79, 4.05). This association was observed especially in subjects who had a history of heavy smoking or drinking. The authors suggest that toothbrushing could have a protective effect for UADT cancer. Copyright © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Supply and Demand Analysis of the Orthopaedic Trauma Surgeon Workforce in the United States.

    Sielatycki, John A; Sawyer, Jeffrey R; Mir, Hassan R

    2016-05-01

    To investigate recent trends in the orthopaedic trauma workforce and to assess whether supply of orthopaedic trauma surgeons (OTS) matches the demand for their skills. Supply estimated using Orthopaedic Trauma Association (OTA) membership and American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons census data. The annual number of operative pelvic and acetabular fractures reported by American College of Surgeons verified trauma centers in the National Trauma Data Bank (NTDB) was used as a surrogate of demand. Because surrogates were used, the annual rate of change in OTA membership versus rate of change in operative injuries per NTDB center was compared. From 2002 to 2012, reported operative pelvic and acetabular injuries increased by an average of 21.0% per year. The number of reporting trauma centers increased by 27.2% per year. The number of OTA members increased each year except in 2009, with mean annual increase of 9.8%. The mean number of orthopaedic surgeons per NTDB center increased from 7.98 to 8.58, an average of 1.5% per year. The annual number of operative pelvic and acetabular fractures per NTDB center decreased from 27.1 in 2002 to 19.03 in 2012, down 2.0% per year. In the United States, from 2002 to 2012, the number of OTS trended upward, whereas operative pelvic and acetabular cases per reporting NTDB center declined. These trends suggest a net loss of such cases per OTS over this period.

  4. Potential Association between Breakfast Skipping and Concomitant Late-Night-Dinner Eating with Metabolic Syndrome and Proteinuria in the Japanese Population

    Kutsuma, Ayano; Nakajima, Kei; Suwa, Kaname

    2014-01-01

    Skipping breakfast is considered to be an unhealthy eating habit linked to predispositions to obesity and type 2 diabetes. Because eating dinner late at night can elicit subsequent breakfast skipping, we investigated if skipping breakfast concomitant with late-night-dinner eating (LNDE) was associated with metabolic syndrome (MetS) and proteinuria in the general Japanese population. We examined self-reported habitual breakfast skipping and LNDE, MetS (modified ATP-III criteria), and proteinur...

  5. Poor work environments and nurse inexperience are associated with burnout, job dissatisfaction and quality deficits in Japanese hospitals.

    Kanai-Pak, Masako; Aiken, Linda H; Sloane, Douglas M; Poghosyan, Lusine

    2008-12-01

    To describe nurse burnout, job dissatisfaction and quality of care in Japanese hospitals and to determine how these outcomes are associated with work environment factors. Nurse burnout and job dissatisfaction are associated with poor nurse retention and uneven quality of care in other countries but comprehensive data have been lacking on Japan. Cross-sectional survey of 5956 staff nurses on 302 units in 19 acute hospitals in Japan. Nurses were provided information about years of experience, completed the Maslach Burnout Inventory and reported on resource adequacy and working relations with doctors using the Nursing Work Index-Revised. Fifty-six per cent of nurses scored high on burnout, 60% were dissatisfied with their jobs and 59% ranked quality of care as only fair or poor. About one-third had fewer than four years of experience and more than two-thirds had less than 10. Only one in five nurses reported there were enough registered nurses to provide quality care and more than half reported that teamwork between nurses and physicians was lacking. The odds on high burnout, job dissatisfaction and poor-fair quality of care were twice as high in hospitals with 50% inexperienced nurses than with 20% inexperienced nurses and 40% higher in hospitals where nurses had less satisfactory relations with physicians. Nurses in poorly staffed hospitals were 50% more likely to exhibit burnout, twice as likely to be dissatisfied and 75% more likely to report poor or fair quality care than nurses in better staffed hospitals. Improved nurse staffing and working relationships with physicians may reduce nurse burnout, job dissatisfaction and low nurse-assessed quality of care. Staff nurses should engage supervisors and medical staff in discussions about retaining more experienced nurses at the bedside, implementing strategies to enhance clinical staffing and identifying ways to improve nurse-physician working relations.

  6. Associations between Japanese schoolchildren's involvement in at-home meal preparation, their food intakes, and cooking skills.

    Nozue, Miho; Ishida, Hiromi; Hazano, Sayaka; Nakanishi, Akemi; Yamamoto, Taeko; Abe, Aya; Nishi, Nobuo; Yokoyama, Tetsuji; Murayama, Nobuko

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to examine the association of Japanese schoolchildren's involvement in at-home meal preparation with food intake and cooking skill. We included 1,207 fifth-grade children aged 10-11 years and one parent of each child. A cross-sectional survey was used to collect data on involvement in at-home meal preparation. Correspondence analysis was used to classify involvement in at-home meal preparation into three groups: food-related activities (cooking only or with other activities such as shopping, table-setting, clean up, and dishwashing), non-food-related activities (table-setting and/or clean up), and no (helping) activities. Food intake was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire. Logistic regression models were used to examine involvement in at-home meal preparation associations. The sample consisted of 1,207 fifth-grade children. Vegetable intake was lower in the no (helping) activities group than the food-related activities group (95% CI; boys: 1.2, 5.1, girls: 2.0, 8.9). Fewer children in the non-food-related activities group reported they were able to make a portion of their meals compared with the food-related activities group (95% CI; boys: 1.6, 3.5; girls: 1.5, 3.2). Children in the food-related activities group showed more favorable food intake and cooking skills than children in the no (helping) activities or non-food-related activities group.

  7. Associations between psychotic-like experiences and mental health status and other psychopathologies among Japanese early teens.

    Nishida, Atsushi; Tanii, Hisashi; Nishimura, Yukika; Kajiki, Naomi; Inoue, Ken; Okada, Motohiro; Sasaki, Tsukasa; Okazaki, Yuji

    2008-02-01

    Psychotic-like experiences (PLEs) are considered predictive of mental health problems later in life. However, little has been known about the mental health status and psychopathological distress in adolescents with PLEs in the general population. To investigate the associations between PLEs and mental health status or psychopathologies in a community sample of adolescents in a school-based cross-sectional fashion, PLEs were studied using a self-rating questionnaire in 5073 Japanese junior-high school students aged 12-15 years. Mental health status was evaluated using the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12). Psychopathologies, lifestyle, victimization, and interpersonal and help-seeking attitudes were also studied using a self-rating questionnaire. Fifteen percent of the students reported definitely having experienced at least one PLE. A dose-response relationship between the severity of PLEs and the prevalence of poor mental health status was observed. PLEs were also significantly associated with psychopathologies (strong anxiety in the classroom: OR = 1.4, 95% CI 1.2-1.6; suicidal ideation: OR = 2.1, 95% CI 1.8-2.4; self-harm behaviors: OR = 1.4, 95% CI 1.0-1.9; difficulty falling asleep due to hypersensitivity to environmental noise: OR = 1.7, 95% CI 1.4-2.0; difficulty concentrating due to hypersensitivity to environmental noise: OR = 1.5, 95% CI 1.3-1.8; physically assaulting others: OR = 1.3, 95% CI 1.0-1.5; bullying others, OR = 1.3, 95% CI 1.1-1.5; irritability when exchanging e-mails: OR = 1.3, 95% CI 1.0-1.6). Adolescents with PLEs in the community suffer from a wide range of psychopathological problems during crucial developmental periods [corrected

  8. Serotonin transporter gene polymorphism may be associated with functional dyspepsia in a Japanese population

    Matsumoto Takayuki

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although familial clustering of functional dyspepsia (FD has been reported, the role of genetics in the susceptibility to FD is still not well understood. In the present study, the association between serotonin transporter (SERT gene (SLC6A4 polymorphism and FD was explored. Methods Subjects were divided into either a postprandial distress syndrome (PDS group or an epigastric pain syndrome (EPS group according to the Rome III criteria. The healthy controls were those who had visited a hospital for an annual health check-up. The presence of the SLC6A4 promoter polymorphism, 5-hydroxytryptamin transporter gene linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR, was then evaluated, and logistic regression analysis was used to test all variables. Results The 5-HTTLPR genotype distribution was 448 SS, 174 SL, and 24 LL in controls and 30 SS, 20 SL, and 3 LL in FD subjects. No significant correlation was found between the 5-HTTLPR genotype and FD. When the genotypes and subtypes of FD were exploratory evaluated, the SL genotype was significantly associated with PDS [odds ratio (OR = 2.24, 95% confidence interval (CI; 1.16-4.32, P = 0.034 after Bonferroni correction] compared to the SS genotype adjusted for sex and age. Comparison of the SS genotype with the SL/LL genotype also showed a significant association of genotype with PDS (OR = 2.32, 95% CI; 1.23-4.37, P = 0.009. Conclusion The present results suggest that 5-HTTLPR L allele may influence the susceptibility to PDS.

  9. Association between participation in social activity and physical fitness in community-dwelling older Japanese adults.

    Haeuchi, Yuka; Honda, Takanori; Chen, Tao; Narazaki, Kenji; Chen, Sanmei; Kumagai, Shuzo

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This study aimed to examine the relationship between participation in social activity and both, composite and individual measures of physical fitness in community-dwelling older adults.Methods This study was conducted using baseline data from the Sasaguri Genkimon Study (SGS), a longitudinal cohort study conducted in 2011. Participants were 1,365 community-dwelling men and women aged 65 years or above, who did not require certified nursing care and who resided in Sasaguri, a town located east of the Fukuoka metropolitan area. Participation in social activity was assessed by asking participants whether they engaged in any of eight social activities. Physical fitness tests assessed participants' handgrip strength and knee extension strength as measures of muscle strength, and their one-leg standing time, 5-m maximum gait speed, and 5-repetition sit-to-stand rate as measures of their physical performance. Multiple linear regression and logistic regression analyses were conducted to assess the relationship between participation in social activity and each measure of physical fitness, adjusting for sex; age; body mass index; socioeconomic status; solitary living; exercise, habitual drinking and smoking; accelerometer-measured, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity; cognitive function; instrumental activities of daily living; distress; social network; and comorbidities.Results A total of 83.6% of the participants were engaged in at least one social activity. After adjusting for potential confounders, engagement in social activity was positively associated with a higher composite physical fitness score, faster gait speed and 5-repetition sit-to-stand rate, and longer one-leg standing time (P=0.008, P=0.030, P=0.034, and P=0.009, respectively).Conclusion Participation in social activity was significantly associated with physical fitness, specifically those related to locomotive function. These associations were independent of various confounders including

  10. Association between Excessive Use of Mobile Phone and Insomnia and Depression among Japanese Adolescents.

    Tamura, Haruka; Nishida, Tomoko; Tsuji, Akiyo; Sakakibara, Hisataka

    2017-06-29

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between mobile phone use and insomnia and depression in adolescents. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 295 high school students aged 15-19 in Japan. Insomnia and depression were assessed using Athene Insomnia Scales (AIS) and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), respectively. Mobile phones were owned by 98.6% of students; 58.6% used mobile phones for over 2 h per day and 10.5% used them for over 5 h per day. Overall mobile phone use of over 5 h per day was associated with shorter sleep duration and insomnia (OR: 3.89 [[95% CI: 1.21-12.49]), but not with depression. Mobile phone use of 2 h or more per day for social network services (OR: 3.63 [[1.20-10.98]) and online chats (OR: 3.14 [[1.42-6.95]), respectively, was associated with a higher risk of depression. Mobile phone overuse can be linked to unhealthy sleep habits and insomnia. Moreover, mobile phone overuse for social network services and online chats may contribute more to depression than the use for internet searching, playing games or viewing videos.

  11. Characteristics of Japanese medical students associated with their intention for rural practice.

    Kawamoto, Ryuichi; Uemoto, Asuka; Ninomiya, Daisuke; Hasegawa, Youichi; Ohtsuka, Nobuyuki; Kusunoki, Tomo; Kumagi, Teru; Abe, Masanori

    2015-01-01

    In Japan, the maldistribution of physicians between urban and rural areas is increasing. It is important to know the practice location expectations of future physicians. The study was designed as a cross-sectional survey. In 2009-2013, students at a medical school in Japan completed a questionnaire containing 50 items with four-point Likert scales. The students rated the importance of specified individual and occupational aspects. Furthermore, students were asked to state their intention to practice in a rural area. The study sample consisted of 368 students (88.2% response rate). Significant variables that were associated with a positively motivated intent for rural practice were 'presence of a role model' (odds ratio (OR), 5.42; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.58-18.5), 'admission by school recommendation' (OR, 7.68; 95%CI, 2.14-27.6), 'growing up in a rural area' (OR, 6.16; 95%CI, 1.01-37.6), 'general medicine/family medicine as the first career choice' (OR, 5.88; 95%CI, 2.43-14.2), 'interest in the targeted population' (OR, 16.7; 95%CI, 3.97-69.9), 'memorable experience at a class or clinical rotation' (OR, 3.94; 95%CI, 3.73-416), and 'location of their medical school' (OR, 11.4; 95%CI, 2.79-46.2). The present study suggests that medical schools might recruit students with characteristics associated with intention for rural practice.

  12. Impact of smoking on the age at diagnosis of upper tract urothelial carcinoma: Subanalysis of the Japanese Urological Association multi-institutional national database.

    Miyazaki, Jun; Nishiyama, Hiroyuki; Fujimoto, Hiroyuki; Ohyama, Chikara; Koie, Takuya; Hinotsu, Shiro; Kikuchi, Eiji; Sakura, Mizuaki; Inokuchi, Junichi; Hara, Tomohiko

    2015-11-01

    To examine the influence of smoking history on the diagnosis and other tumor characteristics of upper tract urothelial carcinoma in Japan. A total of 1509 patients with upper tract urothelial carcinoma who were diagnosed in 2005 from 348 Japanese institutions were registered using the multi-institutional national database of the Japanese Urological Association and included in this analysis. Clinical data of the patients were collected in 2011. The associations between the patients' self-reported smoking history and their age at the diagnosis of upper tract urothelial carcinoma, sex, pathological T stage and tumor grade were analyzed. The mean age at the diagnosis of upper tract urothelial carcinoma was approximately 5 years earlier for the 238 current smokers than for the 618 current non-smokers (P smokers, the age at diagnosis for the smoking ≥ 20 cigarettes per day group was 6.5 years lower than that of the perspective of both healthcare and medical economies. © 2015 The Japanese Urological Association.

  13. Association of overtime work and hypertension in a Japanese working population: a cross-sectional study.

    Imai, Teppei; Kuwahara, Keisuke; Nishihara, Akiko; Nakagawa, Tohru; Yamamoto, Shuichiro; Honda, Toru; Miyamoto, Toshiaki; Kochi, Takeshi; Eguchi, Masafumi; Uehara, Akihiko; Kuroda, Reiko; Omoto, Daisuke; Nagata, Tomohisa; Pham, Ngoc Minh; Kurotani, Kayo; Nanri, Akiko; Akter, Shamima; Kabe, Isamu; Mizoue, Tetsuya; Sone, Tomofumi; Dohi, Seitaro

    2014-12-01

    Long working hours have been associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, but its relationship with hypertension remains unclear. The objective of this study is to examine the relationship between overtime and presence of hypertension using data from a large-scale multi-company study in Japan. Participants were 52 365 workers of four companies that provided both health-checkup data and self-reported data on overtime worked. Hypertension was defined as systolic blood pressure ≥140 mmHg, diastolic blood pressure ≥90 mmHg, and/or the use of antihypertensive drug. Logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the odds ratio for hypertension for each category of overtime work (work: 17.5, 12.0, 11.1 and 9.1% for the shortest (work and presence of hypertension.

  14. Barriers and facilitators experienced in collaborative prospective research in orthopaedic oncology

    Rendon, J S; Swinton, M; Bernthal, N

    2017-01-01

    by orthopaedic oncological surgeons involved or interested in prospective multicentre collaboration. METHODS: All surgeons who were involved, or had expressed an interest, in the ongoing Prophylactic Antibiotic Regimens in Tumour Surgery (PARITY) trial were invited to participate in a focus group to discuss......: The 13 surgeons who participated in the discussion represented orthopaedic oncology practices from seven countries (Argentina, Brazil, Italy, Spain, Denmark, United States and Canada). Four categories and associated themes emerged from the discussion: the need for collaboration in the field...... of orthopaedic oncology due to the rarity of the tumours and the need for high level evidence to guide treatment; motivational factors for participating in collaborative research including establishing proof of principle, learning opportunity, answering a relevant research question and being part...

  15. Association between a C8orf13–BLK Polymorphism and Polymyositis/Dermatomyositis in the Japanese Population: An Additive Effect with STAT4 on Disease Susceptibility

    Sugiura, Tomoko; Kawaguchi, Yasushi; Goto, Kanako; Hayashi, Yukiko; Gono, Takahisa; Furuya, Takefumi; Nishino, Ichizo; Yamanaka, Hisashi

    2014-01-01

    Background Accumulating evidence has shown that several non-HLA genes are involved in the susceptibility to polymyositis/dermatomyositis. This study aimed to investigate the involvement of C8orf13–BLK, one of the strongest candidate genes for autoimmune diseases, in susceptibility to polymyositis/dermatomyositis in the Japanese population. A possible gene–gene interaction between C8orf13–BLK and STAT4, which we recently showed to be associated with Japanese polymyositis/dermatomyositis, was also analyzed. Methods A single-nucleotide polymorphism in C8orf13–BLK (dbSNP ID: rs13277113) was investigated in the Japanese population using a TaqMan assay in 283 polymyositis patients, 194 dermatomyositis patients, and 656 control subjects. Results The C8orf13–BLK rs13277113A allele was associated with overall polymyositis/dermatomyositis (Prs7574865 T alleles had an additive effect on polymyositis/dermatomyositis susceptibility. The strongest association was observed in dermatomyositis, with an OR of 3.07 (95% CI; 1.57–6.02) for the carriers of four risk alleles at the two SNP sites, namely, rs1327713 and rs7574865. Conclusions This study established C8orf13–BLK as a new genetic susceptibility factor for polymyositis/dermatomyositis. Both C8orf13–BLK and STAT4 exert additive effects on disease susceptibility. These observations suggested that C8orf13–BLK, in combination with STAT4, plays a pivotal role in creating genetic susceptibility to polymyositis/dermatomyositis in Japanese individuals. PMID:24632671

  16. [The association between the presence of occupational health nurses at Japanese worksites and health promotion activities].

    Kanamori, Satoru; Kai, Yuko; Kawamata, Kayo; Kusumoto, Mari; Takamiya, Tomoko; Ohya, Yumiko; Odagiri, Yuko; Fukushima, Noritoshi; Inoue, Shigeru

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the association between the presence of occupational health nurses and health promotion activities, relative to the number of employees, and the health promotion policies of the companies. We investigated 3,266 companies with at least 50 employees listed on the Tokyo Stock Exchange. Questionnaires were sent by mail, and employees in charge of health management or promotion were asked about health promotion activities at their own worksites. Logistic regression analysis was performed with each type of health promotion activity (nutrition, exercise, sleep, mental health, smoking cessation, alcohol consumption reduction, and oral health) as dependent variables, and the presence of an occupational health nurse as the independent variable. The results were adjusted for the type of industry, total number of company employees, presence of company health promotion policies, and the presence of an occupational health physician. Responses were received from 415 companies (response rate: 12.7%). Occupational health nurses were present at 172 companies (41.4%). Health promotion activities such as (in order of frequency) mental health (295 companies, 71.1%), smoking cessation (133, 32.0%), exercise (99, 23.9%), nutrition (75, 18.1%), oral health (49, 11.8%), sleep (39, 9.4%), and alcohol consumption reduction (26, 6.3%) were being conducted. Setting worksites with no occupational health nurse as a reference, the odds ratios of each health promotion activity of a worksite with one or more occupational health nurses were calculated. The odds ratios of mental health (2.43, 95% confidence interval: 1.32-4.48), smoking cessation (3.70, 2.14-6.38), exercise (4.98, 2.65-9.35), nutrition (8.34, 3.86-18.03), oral health (4.25, 1.87-9.62), and alcohol consumption reduction (8.96, 2.24-35.92) were significant. Stratified analysis using the number of worksite employees, 499 or fewer and 500 or more, also showed significantly higher odds ratios of

  17. Association of genetic variants of the incretin-related genes with quantitative traits and occurrence of type 2 diabetes in Japanese

    Mayumi Enya; Yukio Horikawa; Katsumi Iizuka; Jun Takeda

    2014-01-01

    Background: None of the high frequency variants of the incretin-related genes has been found by genome-wide association study (GWAS) for association with occurrence of type 2 diabetes in Japanese. However, low frequency and rare and/or high frequency variants affecting glucose metabolic traits remain to be investigated. Method: We screened all exons of the incretin-related genes (GCG, GLP1R, DPP4, PCSK1, GIP, and GIPR) in 96 patients with type 2 diabetes and investigated for association of...

  18. High plasma homocyst(e)ine levels in elderly Japanese patients are associated with increased cardiovascular disease risk independently from markers of coagulation activation and endothelial cell damage.

    Kario, K; Duell, P B; Matsuo, T; Sakata, T; Kato, H; Shimada, K; Miyata, T

    2001-08-01

    Elevated plasma homocyst(e)ine is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in many populations, but the relationship between homocyst(e)ine and CVD in Japanese subjects has been unclear. It has been hypothesized that the link between homocyst(e)ine and CVD may be mediated in part by activation of coagulation and endothelial cell injury in the elderly Japanese subjects. To further evaluate this hypothesis, the present cross-sectional study was designed to assess the relationships among plasma homocyst(e)ine concentrations, risk of CVD, and markers of coagulation (fibrinogen, FVII, F1+2, FVIIa and FXIIa) and endothelial cell damage (vWF and thrombomodulin) in 146 elderly Japanese subjects (79 healthy controls and 67 patients with CVD). The geometric mean (range) of plasma homocyst(e)ine concentrations was 10.2 (3.2--33) micromol/l in 79 Japanese healthy elderly subjects. As expected, healthy female and male elderly subjects had homocyst(e)ine levels that were 2.5 and 5.3 micromol/; higher, respectively, compared to healthy young control subjects (n=62). Healthy young and elderly men had homocyst(e)ine levels that were 1.7 and 4.5 micromol/l higher, respectively, compared to values in women. This higher plasma homocyst(e)ine levels in the elderly subjects were negatively correlated with levels of folic acid, albumin and total cholesterol, but were not significantly related to markers of coagulation or endothelial cell-damage. The results of multiple logistic regression analyses suggested that high homocyst(e)ine levels were independently related to CVD risk. In addition, levels of FVIIa, and F1+2 were significantly higher in elderly Japanese patients with CVD compared to elderly subjects without CVD, but were unrelated to plasma homocyst(e)ine concentrations. In summary, elevated plasma concentrations of homocyst(e)ine, FVIIa, and F1+2 were associated with increased risk of CVD in elderly male and female Japanese subjects, but the association between homocyst

  19. Age-Related Association between Apolipoprotein E ε4 and Cognitive Function in Japanese Patients with Alzheimer's Disease

    Tomoyuki Nagata

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Aims: In the present study, we investigated whether apolipoprotein E (APOE polymorphisms influenced the cognitive function of Japanese patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD at certain ages. Methods: Among 200 outpatients with dementia and amnestic mild cognitive impairment, 133 Japanese patients with AD were recruited and divided into two genotypic groups: APOE ε4 carriers and noncarriers. Then, we compared several neuropsychological test scores between the two genotypic groups for two different generations: 70s (70-79 years and 80s (80-89 years. Results: The total Mini-Mental State Examination score (p Conclusion: The present results suggest that APOE may significantly influence comparatively simple memory processing in certain generations of Japanese patients with AD.

  20. Strong influence of dietary intake and physical activity on body fatness in elderly Japanese men: age-associated loss of polygenic resistance against obesity.

    Tanisawa, Kumpei; Ito, Tomoko; Sun, Xiaomin; Ise, Ryuken; Oshima, Satomi; Cao, Zhen-Bo; Sakamoto, Shizuo; Tanaka, Masashi; Higuchi, Mitsuru

    2014-09-01

    Genome-wide association studies identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with body mass index (BMI) in middle-aged populations; however, it is unclear whether these SNPs are associated with body fatness in elderly people. We examined the association between genetic risk score (GRS) from BMI-associated SNPs and body fatness in elderly Japanese men. We also examined the contribution of GRS, dietary macronutrient intake, and physical activity to body fatness by different age groups. GRS was calculated from 10 BMI-associated SNPs in 84 middle-aged (30-64 years) and 97 elderly (65-79 years) Japanese men; subjects were divided into low, middle, and high GRS groups. Dietary macronutrient intake was assessed using a questionnaire, and physical activity was evaluated using both a questionnaire and an accelerometer. The middle-aged individuals with a high GRS had greater BMI; waist circumference; and total abdominal fat, visceral fat, and subcutaneous fat areas than the middle-aged individuals with low GRS, whereas the indicators were not different between the GRS groups in elderly individuals. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that GRS was the strongest predictor of BMI, total abdominal fat, and visceral fat in the middle-aged group, whereas fat, alcohol, and protein intakes or vigorous-intensity physical activity were more strongly associated with these indicators than was GRS in the elderly group. These results suggest that GRS from BMI-associated SNPs is not predictive of body fatness in elderly Japanese men. The stronger contribution of dietary macronutrient intake and physical activity to body fatness may attenuate the genetic predisposition in elderly men.

  1. Association between dipstick proteinuria and hearing impairment in health check-ups among Japanese workers: a cross-sectional study.

    Umesawa, Mitsumasa; Hara, Mikako; Sairenchi, Toshimi; Haruyama, Yasuo; Nagao, Masanori; Matsushita, Munehiro; Kobashi, Gen

    2018-05-14

    Prevention of hearing impairment is important because it is difficult to recover from it. Epidemiological studies have examined the risk factors for hearing impairment; however, the association between dipstick proteinuria and hearing impairment has not been previously examined. This study aimed to clarify the association between dipstick proteinuria and hearing impairment. Cross-sectional study. Office and factory workers from all over Japan. The total number of subjects was 7005. All were employees of the same company. Of these, we recruited 6192 subjects who underwent dipstick urine test and hearing test by audiometry in annual health check-ups (mean age 44.9 years, men 88.3%). Hearing tests were performed at two frequencies (1 kHz, 4 kHz) as prescribed by law in Japan. We defined the inability of subjects to respond to 30 dB at 1 kHz and/or 40 dB at 4 kHz as overall moderate hearing impairment. In addition, we defined moderate hearing impairment at 1 kHz (4 kHz) as an abnormal finding at 1 kHz (4 kHz). We examined the associations between degree of dipstick proteinuria and hearing impairment after adjustment for age, sex, body mass index, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, serum creatinine level and history of noisy work environment. Overall moderate hearing impairment was noted in 324 subjects (5.2%). Of these, 107 subjects (1.7%) had moderate hearing impairment at 1 kHz and 278 subjects (4.5%) at 4 kHz. Dipstick proteinuria was significantly associated with overall moderate hearing impairment, as well as moderate hearing impairment at both 1 kHz and 4 kHz. The prevalence of overall moderate hearing impairment among subjects with proteinuria ≥2+ was 23.5%, while that among subjects without proteinuria was 5.2% (pimpairment in Japanese workers. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  2. Dietary patterns are associated with obesity in Japanese patients with schizophrenia.

    Sugawara, Norio; Yasui-Furukori, Norio; Sato, Yasushi; Saito, Manabu; Furukori, Hanako; Nakagami, Taku; Ishioka, Masamichi; Kaneko, Sunao

    2014-06-20

    Obesity among patients with schizophrenia is a growing concern because being overweight is widely regarded as a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease and premature death. Dietary patterns have been suggested as one modifiable factor that may play a role in development of obesity. The objective of this study was to examine the association between dietary patterns and obesity among patients with schizophrenia in Japan. We recruited patients (n = 338) aged 44.0 ± 13.2 (mean ± SD) years with a DSM-IV diagnosis of schizophrenia who were admitted to four psychiatric hospitals using a cross-sectional design. Diet was assessed with a validated brief-type self-administered diet history questionnaire (BDHQ). Dietary patterns from 52 predefined food groups were extracted by principal component analysis. A total of 61 subjects (18.0%) were classified as obese. Three dietary patterns were identified: the healthy dietary pattern, the processed food dietary pattern, and the alcohol and accompanying dietary patterns. After adjusting for age and gender, patients within the high tertile of each healthy dietary pattern (OR = 0.29, 95% CI = 0.13 to 0.62) and processed food dietary pattern (OR = 0.44, 95% CI = 0.22 to 0.89) had a significantly lower risk for obesity compared with low tertile of dietary pattern. Our findings suggest that dietary patterns, including higher intake of protein, fat, n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids, and vitamins, may be related to a decreased prevalence of obesity within patients with schizophrenia. Future longitudinal research exploring dietary patterns and obesity among patients with schizophrenia is warranted.

  3. The Placenta: Applications in Orthopaedic Sports Medicine.

    McIntyre, James Alexander; Jones, Ian A; Danilkovich, Alla; Vangsness, C Thomas

    2018-01-01

    Placenta has a long history of use for treating burns and wounds. It is a rich source of collagen and other extracellular matrix proteins, tissue reparative growth factors, and stem cells, including mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Recent data show its therapeutic potential for orthopaedic sports medicine indications. To provide orthopaedic surgeons with an anatomic description of the placenta, to characterize its cellular composition, and to review the literature reporting the use of placenta-derived cells and placental tissue allografts for orthopaedic sports medicine indications in animal models and in humans. Systematic review. Using a total of 63 keyword combinations, the PubMed and MEDLINE databases were searched for published articles describing the use of placental cells and/or tissue for orthopaedic sports medicine indications. Information was collected on placental tissue type, indications, animal model, study design, treatment regimen, safety, and efficacy outcomes. Results were categorized by indication and subcategorized by animal model. Outcomes for 29 animal studies and 6 human studies reporting the use of placenta-derived therapeutics were generally positive; however, the placental tissue source, clinical indication, and administration route were highly variable across these studies. Fourteen animal studies described the use of placental tissue for tendon injuries, 13 studies for osteoarthritis or articular cartilage injuries, 3 for ligament injuries, and 1 for synovitis. Both placenta-derived culture-expanded cells (epithelial cells or MSCs) and placental tissue allografts were used in animal studies. In all human studies, commercial placental allografts were used. Five of 6 human studies examined the treatment of foot and ankle pathological conditions, and 1 studied the treatment of knee osteoarthritis. A review of the small number of reported studies revealed a high degree of variability in placental cell types, placental tissue preparation, routes

  4. Critical roles of orthopaedic surgeon leadership in healthcare systems to improve orthopaedic surgical patient safety.

    Kuo, Calvin C; Robb, William J

    2013-06-01

    The prevention of medical and surgical harm remains an important public health problem despite increased awareness and implementation of safety programs. Successful introduction and maintenance of surgical safety programs require both surgeon leadership and collaborative surgeon-hospital alignment. Documentation of success of such surgical safety programs in orthopaedic practice is limited. We describe the scope of orthopaedic surgical patient safety issues, define critical elements of orthopaedic surgical safety, and outline leadership roles for orthopaedic surgeons needed to establish and sustain a culture of safety in contemporary healthcare systems. We identified the most common causes of preventable surgical harm based on adverse and sentinel surgical events reported to The Joint Commission. A comprehensive literature review through a MEDLINE(®) database search (January 1982 through April 2012) to identify pertinent orthopaedic surgical safety articles found 14 articles. Where gaps in orthopaedic literature were identified, the review was supplemented by 22 nonorthopaedic surgical references. Our final review included 36 articles. Six important surgical safety program elements needed to eliminate preventable surgical harm were identified: (1) effective surgical team communication, (2) proper informed consent, (3) implementation and regular use of surgical checklists, (4) proper surgical site/procedure identification, (5) reduction of surgical team distractions, and (6) routine surgical data collection and analysis to improve the safety and quality of surgical patient care. Successful surgical safety programs require a culture of safety supported by all six key surgical safety program elements, active surgeon champions, and collaborative hospital and/or administrative support designed to enhance surgical safety and improve surgical patient outcomes. Further research measuring improvements from such surgical safety systems in orthopaedic care is needed.

  5. Monetary Diet Cost is Associated with not only Favorable but also Unfavorable Aspects of Diet in Pregnant Japanese Women: The Osaka Maternal and Child Health Study

    Kentaro Murakami

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available While several observational studies in European countries have shown that higher monetary diet cost is associated with healthier diets, information on the relationship of cost to diet quality in other countries is sparse, including Japan. This cross-sectional study examined the association between monetary diet cost and dietary intake in a group of pregnant Japanese women. Subjects were 596 pregnant Japanese housewives. Dietary intake was estimated using a validated, self-administered, comprehensive diet history questionnaire. Monetary diet cost was calculated using retail food prices. Values of monetary diet cost and nutrient and food intake were energy-adjusted using the density method. Monetary diet cost was associated positively with the intake of protein, total fat, saturated fatty acids, dietary fiber, cholesterol, sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, iron, vitamins A, D, E, C, and folate, and inversely with that of carbohydrate. For foods, cost was associated positively with the intake of potatoes, pulses and nuts, fish and shellfish, meat, dairy products, vegetables, and fruits, and inversely with that of rice and bread. No association was seen for noodles, confectioneries and sugars, fats and oils, or eggs. Cost was also associated inversely with dietary energy density. In conclusion, monetary diet cost was associated with not only favorable aspects of diet, including a higher intake of dietary fiber, key vitamins and minerals, fruits, and vegetables and lower dietary energy density, but also unfavorable aspects, including a higher intake of fat and sodium and lower intake of carbohydrate and rice, in a group of pregnant Japanese women.

  6. Monetary Diet cost is Associated with not only Favorable but also Unfavorable Aspects of Diet in pregnant Japanese Women: The Osaka Maternal and child Health study

    Yukihiro Ohya

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available While several observational studies in European countries have shown that higher monetary diet cost is associated with healthier diets, information on the relationship of cost to diet quality in other countries is sparse, including Japan. This cross-sectional study examined the association between monetary diet cost and dietary intake in a group of pregnant Japanese women. Subjects were 596 pregnant Japanese housewives. Dietary intake was estimated using a validated, self-administered, comprehensive diet history questionnaire. Monetary diet cost was calculated using retail food prices. Values of monetary diet cost and nutrient and food intake were energy-adjusted using the density method. Monetary diet cost was associated positively with the intake of protein, total fat, saturated fatty acids, dietary fiber, cholesterol, sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, iron, vitamins A, D, E, C, and folate, and inversely with that of carbohydrate. For foods, cost was associated positively with the intake of potatoes, pulses and nuts, fish and shellfish, meat, dairy products, vegetables, and fruits, and inversely with that of rice and bread. No association was seen for noodles, confectioneries and sugars, fats and oils, or eggs. Cost was also associated inversely with dietary energy density. In conclusion, monetary diet cost was associated with not only favorable aspects of diet, including a higher intake of dietary fiber, key vitamins and minerals, fruits, and vegetables and lower dietary energy density, but also unfavorable aspects, including a higher intake of fat and sodium and lower intake of carbohydrate and rice, in a group of pregnant Japanese women.

  7. Assessing the association between all-cause mortality and multiple aspects of individual social capital among the older Japanese

    Kondo Naoki

    2011-06-01

    predictor for all-cause mortality among older Japanese. In contrast, mistrust was associated with lower mortality among women. Studies with social capital indices considering different culture backgrounds are needed.

  8. Replication study for the association of 9 East Asian GWAS-derived loci with susceptibility to type 2 diabetes in a Japanese population.

    Kensuke Sakai

    Full Text Available AIMS: East Asian genome-wide association studies (GWAS for type 2 diabetes identified 8 loci with genome-wide significance, and 2 loci with a borderline association. However, the associations of these loci except MAEA locus with type 2 diabetes have not been evaluated in independent East Asian cohorts. We performed a replication study to investigate the association of these susceptibility loci with type 2 diabetes in an independent Japanese population. METHODS: We genotyped 7,379 Japanese participants (5,315 type 2 diabetes and 2,064 controls for each of the 9 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, rs7041847 in GLIS3, rs6017317 in FITM2-R3HDML-HNF4A, rs6467136 near GCCI-PAX4, rs831571 near PSMD6, rs9470794 in ZFAND3, rs3786897 in PEPD, rs1535500 in KCNK16, rs16955379 in CMIP, and rs17797882 near WWOX. Because the sample size in this study was not sufficient to replicate single SNP associations, we constructed a genetic risk score (GRS by summing a number of risk alleles of the 9 SNPs, and examined the association of the GRS with type 2 diabetes using logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: With the exception of rs1535500 in KCNK16, all SNPs had the same direction of effect (odds ratio [OR]>1.0 as in the original reports. The GRS constructed from the 9 SNPs was significantly associated with type 2 diabetes in the Japanese population (p = 4.0 × 10(-4, OR = 1.05, 95% confidence interval: 1.02-1.09. In quantitative trait analyses, rs16955379 in CMIP was nominally associated with a decreased homeostasis model assessment of β-cell function and with increased fasting plasma glucose, but neither the individual SNPs nor the GRS showed a significant association with the glycemic traits. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that 9 loci that were identified in the East Asian GWAS meta-analysis have a significant effect on the susceptibility to type 2 diabetes in the Japanese population.

  9. Association of genetic variants of the incretin-related genes with quantitative traits and occurrence of type 2 diabetes in Japanese.

    Enya, Mayumi; Horikawa, Yukio; Iizuka, Katsumi; Takeda, Jun

    2014-01-01

    None of the high frequency variants of the incretin-related genes has been found by genome-wide association study (GWAS) for association with occurrence of type 2 diabetes in Japanese. However, low frequency and rare and/or high frequency variants affecting glucose metabolic traits remain to be investigated. We screened all exons of the incretin-related genes ( GCG , GLP1R , DPP4 , PCSK1 , GIP , and GIPR ) in 96 patients with type 2 diabetes and investigated for association of genetic variants of these genes with quantitative metabolic traits upon test meal with 38 young healthy volunteers and with the occurrence of type 2 diabetes in Japanese subjects comprising 1303 patients with type 2 diabetes and 1014 controls. Two mutations of GIPR , p.Thr3Alafsx21 and Arg183Gln, were found only in patients with type 2 diabetes, and both of them were treated with insulin. Of ten tagSNPs, we found that risk allele C of SNP393 (rs6235) of PCSK1 was nominally associated with higher fasting insulin and HOMA-R ( P  = 0.034 and P  = 0.030), but not with proinsulin level, incretin level or BMI. The variant showed significant association with occurrence of type 2 diabetes after adjustment for age, sex, and BMI ( P  = 0.0043). Rare variants of GIPR may contribute to the development of type 2 diabetes, possibly through insulin secretory defects. Furthermore, the genetic variant of PCSK1 might influence glucose homeostasis by altered insulin resistance independently of BMI, incretin level or proinsulin conversion, and may be associated with the occurrence of type 2 diabetes in Japanese.

  10. Leadership and business education in orthopaedic residency training programs.

    Kiesau, Carter D; Heim, Kathryn A; Parekh, Selene G

    2011-01-01

    Leadership and business challenges have become increasingly present in the practice of medicine. Orthopaedic residency programs are at the forefront of educating and preparing orthopaedic surgeons. This study attempts to quantify the number of orthopaedic residency programs in the United States that include leadership or business topics in resident education program and to determine which topics are being taught and rate the importance of various leadership characteristics and business topics. A survey was sent to all orthopaedic department chairpersons and residency program directors in the United States via e-mail. The survey responses were collected using a survey collection website. The respondents rated the importance of leadership training for residents as somewhat important. The quality of character, integrity, and honesty received the highest average rating among 19 different qualities of good leaders in orthopaedics. The inclusion of business training in resident education was also rated as somewhat important. The topic of billing and coding received the highest average rating among 14 different orthopaedically relevant business topics. A variety of topics beyond the scope of clinical practice must be included in orthopaedic residency educational curricula. The decreased participation of newly trained orthopaedic surgeons in leadership positions and national and state orthopaedic organizations is concerning for the future of orthopaedic surgery. Increased inclusion of leadership and business training in resident education is important to better prepare trainees for the future.

  11. Quality of life during orthopaedic training and academic practice. Part 1: orthopaedic surgery residents and faculty.

    Sargent, M Catherine; Sotile, Wayne; Sotile, Mary O; Rubash, Harry; Barrack, Robert L

    2009-10-01

    A pilot study of two academic training programs revealed concerning levels of resident burnout and psychological dysfunction. The purpose of the present study was to determine the quality of life of orthopaedic residents and faculty on a national scale and to identify risk factors for decompensation. Three hundred and eighty-four orthopaedic residents and 264 full-time orthopaedic faculty members completed a voluntary, anonymous survey consisting of three validated instruments (the Maslach Burnout Inventory, the General Health Questionnaire-12, and the Revised Dyadic Adjustment Scale) and question sets assessing demographic information, relationship issues, stress reactions/management, and work/life balance. High levels of burnout were seen in 56% of the residents and 28% of the faculty members. Burnout risk was greatest among second-postgraduate-year residents and residents in training programs with six or more residents per postgraduate year. Sixteen percent of residents and 19% of faculty members reported symptoms of psychological distress. Sleep deprivation was common among the residents and correlated positively with every distress measure. Faculty reported greater levels of stress but greater satisfaction with work and work/life balance. A number of factors, such as making time for hobbies and limiting alcohol use, correlated with decreased dysfunction for both residents and faculty. Despite reporting high levels of job satisfaction, orthopaedic residents and faculty are at risk for burnout and distress. Identification of protective factors and risk factors may provide guidance to improve the quality of life of academic orthopaedic surgeons in training and beyond.

  12. Postinjury anxiety and social support among collegiate athletes: a comparison between orthopaedic injuries and concussions.

    Covassin, Tracey; Crutcher, Bryan; Bleecker, Alisha; Heiden, Erin O; Dailey, Alexander; Yang, Jingzhen

    2014-01-01

    When an athlete is injured, the primary focus of the sports medicine team is to treat the physical effects of the injury. However, many injured athletes experience negative psychological responses, including anxiety, regarding their injury. To compare the anxiety and social support of athletes with concussions and a matched group of athletes with orthopaedic injuries. Cross-sectional study. Athletic training room. A total of 525 injuries among athletes from 2 Big Ten universities were observed. Of these, 63 concussion injuries were matched with 63 orthopaedic injuries for the athlete's sex, sport, and time loss due to injury. Clinical measures included the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (which measures both state and trait anxiety) and the modified 6-item Social Support Questionnaire. The group with concussions relied on their family for social support 89% of the time, followed by friends (78%), teammates (65%), athletic trainers (48%), coaches (47%), and physicians (35%). The group with orthopaedic injuries relied on their family for social support 87% of the time, followed by friends (84%), teammates (65%), athletic trainers (57%), coaches (51%), and physicians (36%). We found no differences for the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (t = -1.38, P = .193) between the concussed and orthopaedic-injury groups. Social Support Questionnaire scores were significant predictors for postinjury state anxiety. Specifically, increased scores were associated with decreased postinjury state anxiety (β = -4.21, P = .0001). Both the concussed athletes and those with orthopaedic injuries experienced similar state and trait anxiety and relied on similar sources of social support postinjury. However, athletes with orthopaedic injuries reported greater satisfaction with support from all sources compared with concussed athletes. In contrast, concussed athletes showed more significant predictor models of social support on state anxiety at return to play.

  13. Orthopaedic Rehabilitation Device Actuated with Pneumatic Muscles

    Ioana Petre

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Year after year recovery clinics worldwide report significant numbers of lower limb bearing joint disabilities. An effective method for the speedy rehabilitation of patients with such afflictions is Continuous Passive Motion (CPM, drawing upon a range of specific equipment. This paper presents an innovative constructive solution for such orthopaedic rehabilitation equipment, designed to ensure a swift reintegration of patients at as low a cost as possible. The absolute novelty consists in the utilization of the linear pneumatic muscle as actuator of the orthopaedic rehabilitation equipment, thus achieving a light and highly compliant construction that satisfies safety requirements related to man-machine interaction. Pneumatic muscles are bio-inspired actuation systems characterized by a passive variable compliant behaviour. This property, deployed in rehabilitation systems, enables the development of human friendly devices, which are comfortable for the patients, and capable of safe interaction. This paper presents the constructive schematic of the orthopaedic rehabilitation equipment, the structure of the actuation and positioning system, and several of its functional characteristics.

  14. Quality of online pediatric orthopaedic education materials.

    Feghhi, Daniel P; Komlos, Daniel; Agarwal, Nitin; Sabharwal, Sanjeev

    2014-12-03

    Increased availability of medical information on the Internet empowers patients to look up answers to questions about their medical conditions. However, the quality of medical information available on the Internet is highly variable. Various tools for the assessment of online medical information have been developed and used to assess the quality and accuracy of medical web sites. In this study we used the LIDA tool (Minervation) to assess the quality of pediatric patient information on the AAOS (American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons) and POSNA (Pediatric Orthopaedic Society of North America) web sites. The accessibility, usability, and reliability of online medical information in the "Children" section of the AAOS web site and on the POSNA web site were assessed with use of the LIDA tool. Flesch-Kincaid (FK) and Flesch Reading Ease (FRE) values were also calculated to assess the readability of the pediatric education material. Patient education materials on each web site scored in the moderate range in assessments of accessibility, usability, and reliability. FK and FRE values indicated that the readability of each web site remained at a somewhat higher (more difficult) level than the recommended benchmark. The quality and readability of online information for children on the AAOS and POSNA web sites are acceptable but can be improved further. The quality of online pediatric orthopaedic patient education materials may affect communication with patients and their caregivers, and further investigation and modification of quality are needed. Copyright © 2014 by The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Incorporated.

  15. GM2 gangliosidosis associated with a HEXA missense mutation in Japanese Chin dogs: a potential model for Tay Sachs disease.

    Sanders, Douglas N; Zeng, Rong; Wenger, David A; Johnson, Gary S; Johnson, Gayle C; Decker, Jared E; Katz, Martin L; Platt, Simon R; O'Brien, Dennis P

    2013-01-01

    GM2 gangliosidosis is a fatal lysosomal storage disease caused by a deficiency of β-hexosaminidase (EC 3.2.1.52). There are two major isoforms of the enzyme: hexosaminidase A composed of an α and a β subunit (encoded by HEXA and HEXB genes, respectively); and, hexosaminidase B composed of two β subunits. Hexosaminidase A requires an activator protein encoded by GM2A to catabolize GM2 ganglioside, but even in the absence of the activator protein, it can hydrolyze the synthetic substrates commonly used to assess enzyme activity. GM2 gangliosidosis has been reported in Japanese Chin dogs, and we identified the disease in two related Japanese Chin dogs based on clinical signs, histopathology and elevated brain GM2 gangliosides. As in previous reports, we found normal or elevated hexosaminidase activity when measured with the synthetic substrates. This suggested that the canine disease is analogous to human AB variant of G(M2) gangliosidosis, which results from mutations in GM2A. However, only common neutral single nucleotide polymorphisms were found upon sequence analysis of the canine ortholog of GM2A from the affected Japanese Chins. When the same DNA samples were used to sequence HEXA, we identified a homozygous HEXA:c967G>A transition which predicts a p.E323K substitution. The glutamyl moiety at 323 is known to make an essential contribution to the active site of hexosaminidase A, and none of the 128 normal Japanese Chins and 92 normal dogs of other breeds that we tested was homozygous for HEXA:c967A. Thus it appears that the HEXA:c967G>A transition is responsible for the GM2 gangliosidosis in Japanese Chins. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Prevalence of antibody to adult T-cell leukemia virus-associated antigens (ATLA) in Japanese monkeys and other non-human primates.

    Hayami, M; Komuro, A; Nozawa, K; Shotake, T; Ishikawa, K; Yamamoto, K; Ishida, T; Honjo, S; Hinuma, Y

    1984-02-15

    The prevalence of adult T-cell-leukemia virus (ATLV) infection was examined in Japanese monkeys living naturally in various parts of Japan and in other species of non-human primates imported into and kept in Japan. Sera of 2,650 Japanese monkeys from 41 troops throughout Japan were tested. High incidences of anti-ATLV-associated antigen (ATLA)-positive monkeys were found in most troops, not only in the endemic area of human ATL(Southwestern Japan), but also in non-endemic areas. The incidence of sero-positive individuals increased gradually with age, reaching a maximum when the animals became adult, indicating age dependency, like that found by epidemiological studies on humans. Anti-ATLA antibodies were also detected in 90 of 815 sera of imported non-human primates of 33 species other than Japanese monkeys. All the anti-ATLA sero-positive monkeys were Catarrhines (Old World monkeys), mainly macaques of Asian origin. Some sero-positive monkeys were also found among animals of African origin, but no antibody was detected in Prosimians and Platyrrhines (New World monkeys). The clear-cut difference between the geographical distribution of sero-positive simians and that of humans indicates the improbability of direct transmission of ATLV from simians to humans.

  17. The Association between Use of Mobile Phones after Lights Out and Sleep Disturbances among Japanese Adolescents: A Nationwide Cross-Sectional Survey

    Munezawa, Takeshi; Kaneita, Yoshitaka; Osaki, Yoneatsu; Kanda, Hideyuki; Minowa, Masumi; Suzuki, Kenji; Higuchi, Susumu; Mori, Junichiro; Yamamoto, Ryuichiro; Ohida, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    Study Objective: The objective of this study was to examine the association between the use of mobile phones after lights out and sleep disturbances among Japanese adolescents. Design and Setting: This study was designed as a cross-sectional survey. The targets were students attending junior and senior high schools throughout Japan. Sample schools were selected by cluster sampling. Self-reported anonymous questionnaires were sent to schools for all students to fill out. Participants: A total of 95,680 adolescents responded. The overall response rate was 62.9%, and 94,777 questionnaires were subjected to analysis. Intervention: N/A Measurements and Results: Daily mobile phone use, even if only for a brief moment every day, was reported by 84.4%. Moreover, as for use of mobile phones after lights out, 8.3% reported using their mobile phone for calling every day and 17.6% reported using it for sending text messages every day. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that mobile phone use for calling and for sending text messages after lights out was associated with sleep disturbances (short sleep duration, subjective poor sleep quality, excessive daytime sleepiness, and insomnia symptoms) independent of covariates and independent of each other. Conclusion: This study showed that the use of mobile phones for calling and for sending text messages after lights out is associated with sleep disturbances among Japanese adolescents. However, there were some limitations, such as small effect sizes, in this study. More studies that examine the details of this association are necessary to establish strategies for sleep hygiene in the future. Citation: Munezawa T; Kaneita Y; Osaki Y; Kanda H; Minowa M; Suzuki K; Higuchi S; Mori J; Yamamoto R; Ohida T. The association between use of mobile phones after lights out and sleep disturbances among Japanese adolescents: a nationwide cross-sectional survey. SLEEP 2011;34(8):1013-1020. PMID:21804663

  18. No meaningful association of neighborhood food store availability with dietary intake, body mass index, or waist circumference in young Japanese women.

    Murakami, Kentaro; Sasaki, Satoshi; Takahashi, Yoshiko; Uenishi, Kazuhiro

    2010-08-01

    The affordability of food is considered as an important factor influencing people's diet and hence health status. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to test the hypothesis that neighborhood food store availability is associated with some aspects of dietary intake and thus possibly with body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference in young Japanese women. Subjects were 989 female Japanese dietetic students 18 to 22 years of age. Neighborhood food store availability was defined as the number of food stores within a 0.5-mile (0.8-km) radius of residence (meat stores, fish stores, fruit and vegetable stores, confectionery stores/bakeries, rice stores, convenience stores, and supermarkets/grocery stores). Dietary intake was estimated using a validated, comprehensive self-administered diet history questionnaire. No association was seen between any measure of neighborhood food store availability and dietary intake, except for a positive association between confectionery and bread availability (based on confectionery stores/bakeries, convenience stores, and supermarkets/grocery stores) and intake of these items (P for trend = .02). Further, no association was seen for BMI or waist circumference, except for an inverse relationship between availability of convenience stores and BMI and a positive relationship between store availability for meat (meat stores and supermarkets/grocery stores) and fish (fish stores and supermarkets/grocery stores) and waist circumference. In conclusion, this study of young Japanese women found no meaningful association between neighborhood food store availability and dietary intake, BMI, or waist circumference, with the exception of a positive relationship between availability and intake for confectionery and bread. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. No association between the protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor-type, Z Polypeptide 1 (PTPRZ1) gene and schizophrenia in the Japanese population.

    Ito, Yoshihito; Yamada, Shinnosuke; Takahashi, Nagahide; Saito, Shinichi; Yoshimi, Akira; Inada, Toshiya; Noda, Yukihiro; Ozaki, Norio

    2008-10-05

    NRG1-ERBB signaling influences the risk for schizophrenia pathology. A recent study has reported that MAGI1, MAGI2, and protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor-type, Z polypeptide 1 (PTPRZ1; located on 7q31.3) gene products regulate the NRG1-ERBB4 signaling pathway, and PTPRZ1 is associated with schizophrenia in a Caucasian population. By applying a gene-based association concept, we analyzed any association between PTPRZ1 tagging SNPs and schizophrenia in the Japanese population (576 schizophrenics and 768 controls). After linkage disequilibrium analysis, 29 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped using a 5'-exonuclease allelic discrimination assay. We found a significant association of one tagging SNP in a genotype-wise analysis (P = 0.007); however, this might be resulted from type I error due to multiple testing (P = 0.17 after SNPSpD correction). No association was observed between schizophrenic patients and controls in either allelic, genotypic, or haplotypic analyses. Our results therefore suggest that PTPRZ1 is unlikely to be related to the development of schizophrenia in the Japanese population.

  20. A genetic association study of the FXYD domain containing ion transport regulator 6 (FXYD6) gene, encoding phosphohippolin, in susceptibility to schizophrenia in a Japanese population.

    Ito, Yoshihito; Nakamura, Yukako; Takahashi, Nagahide; Saito, Shinichi; Aleksic, Branko; Iwata, Nakao; Inada, Toshiya; Ozaki, Norio

    2008-06-13

    The FXYD domain containing ion transport regulator 6 (FXYD6) gene is located within a region of chromosome 11 (11q23.3) that has been shown by a number of genome scans to be one of the most well-established linkages to schizophrenia. FXYD6 encodes the protein phosphohippolin, which is primarily expressed in the brain. Phosphohippolin modulates the kinetic activity of Na,K-ATPase and has long-term physiological importance in maintaining cation homeostasis. A recent study reported that FXYD6 was associated with schizophrenia in the United Kingdom samples. Applying the gene-based association concept, we carried out an association study regarding FXYD6 and schizophrenia in a Japanese population, with a sample consisting of 2026 subjects (906 schizophrenics and 1120 controls). After linkage disequilibrium analysis, 23 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped using 5'-exonuclease allelic discrimination assay. We found a significant association of two SNPs (rs11216573; genotypic P value: 0.022 and rs555577; genotypic P value: 0.026, allelic P value: 0.011, uncorrected). Nominal P values did not survive correction for multiple testing (rs11216573; genotypic P value: 0.47 and rs555577; genotypic P value: 0.55, allelic P value: 0.24, after SNPSpD correction). No association was observed between schizophrenia patients and controls in allelic, genotypic and haplotypic analyses. Our findings suggest that FXYD6 is unlikely to be related to the development of schizophrenia in a Japanese population.

  1. Association between vitamin K intake from fermented soybeans, natto, and bone mineral density in elderly Japanese men: the Fujiwara-kyo Osteoporosis Risk in Men (FORMEN) study.

    Fujita, Y; Iki, M; Tamaki, J; Kouda, K; Yura, A; Kadowaki, E; Sato, Y; Moon, J-S; Tomioka, K; Okamoto, N; Kurumatani, N

    2012-02-01

    A cross-sectional analysis of 1,662 community dwelling elderly Japanese men suggested that habitual natto intake was significantly associated with higher bone mineral density (BMD). When adjustment was made for undercarboxylated osteocalcin levels, this association was insignificant, showing the natto-bone association to be primarily mediated by vitamin K. Low vitamin K intake is associated with an increased risk of hip fracture, but reports have been inconsistent on its effect on BMD. Our first aim was to examine the association between BMD and intake of fermented soybeans, natto, which contain vitamin K1 (20 μg/pack) and K2 (380 μg/pack). Our second aim was to examine the association between undercarboxylated osteocalcin (ucOC), a biomarker of vitamin K intake, and BMD to evaluate the role of vitamin K in this association. Of the Japanese men aged ≥65 years who participated in the baseline survey of the Fujiwara-kyo Osteoporosis Risk in Men study, 1,662 men without diseases or medications known to affect bone metabolism were examined for associations between self-reported natto intake or serum ucOC levels with lumbar spine or hip BMD. The subjects with greater intake of natto showed significantly lower level of serum ucOC. Analysis after adjustment for confounding variables showed an association of greater intake of natto with both significantly higher BMD and lower risk of low BMD (T-score natto was associated with a beneficial effect on bone health in elderly men, and this association is primarily due to vitamin K content of natto, although the lack of information on dietary nutrient intake, including vitamin K1 and K2, prevented us from further examining the association.

  2. Maternal variant in the upstream of FOXP3 gene on the X chromosome is associated with recurrent infertility in Japanese Black cattle.

    Arishima, Taichi; Sasaki, Shinji; Isobe, Tomohiro; Ikebata, Yoshihisa; Shimbara, Shinichi; Ikeda, Shogo; Kawashima, Keisuke; Suzuki, Yutaka; Watanabe, Manabu; Sugano, Sumio; Mizoshita, Kazunori; Sugimoto, Yoshikazu

    2017-12-06

    Repeat breeding, which is defined as cattle failure to conceive after three or more inseminations in the absence of clinical abnormalities, is a substantial problem in cattle breeding. To identify maternal genetic variants of repeat breeding in Japanese Black cattle, we selected 29 repeat-breeding heifers that failed to conceive following embryo transfer (ET) and conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) using the traits. We found that a single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP; g.92,377,635A > G) in the upstream region of the FOXP3 gene on the X chromosome was highly associated with repeat breeding and failure to conceive following ET (P = 1.51 × 10 -14 ). FOXP3 is a master gene for differentiation of regulatory T (T reg ) cells that function in pregnancy maintenance. Reporter assay results revealed that the activity of the FOXP3 promoter was lower in reporter constructs with the risk-allele than in those with the non-risk-allele by approximately 0.68 fold. These findings suggest that the variant in the upstream region of FOXP3 with the risk-allele decreased FOXP3 transcription, which in turn, could reduce the number of maternal T reg cells and lead to infertility. The frequency of the risk-allele in repeat-breeding heifers is more than that in cows, suggesting that the risk-allele could be associated with infertility in repeat-breeding heifers. This GWAS identified a maternal variant in the upstream region of FOXP3 that was associated with infertility in repeat-breeding Japanese Black cattle that failed to conceive using ET. The variant affected the level of FOXP3 mRNA expression. Thus, the results suggest that the risk-allele could serve as a useful marker to reduce and eliminate animals with inferior fertility in Japanese Black cattle.

  3. A word association response approach toward lexical relationships within the mental lexicon of second language learners: pedagogic ideas from testing McCarthy's theories on Japanese students.

    Murphy, Robert S; Post, Michael D

    2009-06-01

    Through use of word association as detailed in McCarthy (1990) this paper will explore pedagogic implications derived from the following three points in relation to the lexical development of Japanese learners of English: 1) the ability of word association tests to examine the mental links between words in learners' developing mental lexicon, 2) the importance of phonological similarities for lower level students and 3) the correlation between the results from a word association test with the characteristic types of word association patterns discussed in McCarthy (1990). It will be argued that while lexical development within the mental lexicon is difficult to delineate due to overlap of organizational categories, the patterns of syntactic, semantic and conceptual relations between learned words is apparent within the retrieval process for word association and that additionally, context may play a vital role in how words are construed along the links within the mental lexicon. Pedagogic ideas and future research ideas are detailed.

  4. Association Between Sarcopenia and Mild Cognitive Impairment Using the Japanese Version of the SARC-F in Elderly Patients With Diabetes.

    Ida, Satoshi; Nakai, Mari; Ito, Sho; Ishihara, Yuki; Imataka, Kanako; Uchida, Akihiro; Monguchi, Kou; Kaneko, Ryutaro; Fujiwara, Ryoko; Takahashi, Hiroka; Murata, Kazuya

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between sarcopenia and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in elderly patients with diabetes using the Japanese version of the simple 5-item questionnaire (SARC-F-J). Cross-sectional study. Community hospital in Japan. Subjects were people with diabetes aged 65 years and older being treated on an outpatient basis at the Ise Red Cross Hospital. We used the Japanese version of the self-administered cognitive test Test Your Memory (TYM-J) to measure MCI and the self-administered questionnaire SARC-F-J, consisting of 5 items, to evaluate sarcopenia. We conducted a multiple logistic regression analysis with MCI as the dependent variable and sarcopenia as the explanatory variable to calculate the odds ratio of sarcopenia in association with MCI. A total of 250 cases (150 men and 100 women) were included in our study. The prevalence of sarcopenia in this sample was 19.5% and that of MCI was 40.3%. The adjusted odds ratio of sarcopenia in association with MCI was 2.96 (95% confidence interval, 1.09-7.70, P = .032). A statistically significant association was found between sarcopenia and MCI in an assessment of elderly patients with diabetes using the SARC-F-J. Copyright © 2017 AMDA – The Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Association of personality traits with oral health-related quality of life independently of objective oral health status: a study of community-dwelling elderly Japanese.

    Takeshita, Hajime; Ikebe, Kazunori; Kagawa, Ryosuke; Okada, Tadashi; Gondo, Yasuyuki; Nakagawa, Takeshi; Ishioka, Yoshiko; Inomata, Chisato; Tada, Sayaka; Matsuda, Ken-ichi; Kurushima, Yuko; Enoki, Kaori; Kamide, Kei; Masui, Yukie; Takahashi, Ryutaro; Arai, Yasumichi; Maeda, Yoshinobu

    2015-03-01

    Oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) is being increasingly used in epidemiologic studies of dentistry. However, patient-reported OHRQoL does not always coincide with clinical measures. Previous studies have shown a relationship between OHRQoL and personality, but did not concomitantly investigate oral function. We aimed to examine the association among personality traits, oral function, and OHRQoL using a large sample of community-dwelling Japanese elderly. The participants (n = 938; age, 69-71 years) were drawn from a complete enumeration of an urban area and a rural area of both the Tokyo metropolitan area and Hyogo Prefecture. The self-perceived impact of OHRQoL was measured using the Geriatric Oral Health Assessment Index (GOHAI). The oral status and socioeconomic characteristics were recorded in each participant, and personality traits (neuroticism, extraversion, openness to experience, agreeableness, and conscientiousness) were assessed with the NEO-five-factor inventory. Multiple linear regression analysis was performed to examine the relationships between OHRQoL and other factors, with p Personality traits are associated with OHRQoL independently of objective measures of oral health status in community-dwelling elderly Japanese. This study showed personality traits are associated with OHRQoL independently of dental status and oral function in old Japanese people. As elderly patients undergo increasingly complex dental treatments, there is a need to evaluate patient personality traits prior to dental treatment and predict patient expectations and responses to planned treatment. This is advantageous in determining the most appropriate therapy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Early Mortality Was Highly and Strongly Associated with Functional Status in Incident Japanese Hemodialysis Patients: A Cohort Study of the Large National Dialysis Registry.

    Masahiko Yazawa

    Full Text Available Although dialysis is typically started in an effort to prolong survival, mortality is reportedly high in the first few months. However, it remains unclear whether this is true in Japanese patients who tend to have a better prognosis than other ethnicities, and if health conditions such as functional status (FS at initiation of dialysis influence prognosis.We investigated the epidemiology of early death and its association with FS using Japanese national registry data in 2007, which included 35,415 patients on incident dialysis and 7,664 with FS data. The main outcome was early death, defined as death within 3 months after initiation of hemodialysis (HD. The main predictor was FS at initiation of HD. Levels of functional disability were categorized as follows: severe (bedridden, moderate (overt difficulties in exerting basic activities of daily living, or mild/none (none or some functional disabilities.Early death remained relatively common, especially among elderly patients (overall: 7.1%; those aged ≥80 years: 15.8%. Severely and even only a moderately impaired FS were significantly associated with early death after starting dialysis (adjusted risk ratios: 3.93 and 2.38, respectively. The incidence of early death in those with impaired FS increased with age (36.5% in those with severely impaired FS and aged ≥80 years.Early death after starting dialysis was relatively common, especially among the elderly, even in Japanese patients. Further, early death was significantly associated with impaired FS at initiation of HD.

  7. Lower urinary tract symptoms and erectile dysfunction associated with depression among Japanese patients with late-onset hypogonadism symptoms.

    Takao, Tetsuya; Tsujimura, Akira; Okuda, Hidenobu; Yamamoto, Keisuke; Fukuhara, Shinichiro; Matsuoka, Yasuhiro; Miyagawa, Yasushi; Nonomura, Norio; Okuyama, Akihiko

    2011-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relation between lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), erectile dysfunction (ED) and depression in Japanese patients with late-onset hypogonadism (LOH) symptoms. The study comprised 87 Japanese patients with LOH symptoms (>27 points on the Aging Males Symptoms Scale). Thirty-four patients were diagnosed as having depression and the remaining 53 patients were diagnosed as not having depression by the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview. We compared the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) 5, International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), IPSS quality-of-life (QOL) index, King's Health Questionnaire (KHQ), endocrinological data, and free uroflow study between depression and non-depression patients and performed multiple logistic regression analysis. IIEF5 scores of depression patients were significantly lower than those of non-depression patients. In KHQ, only the category of general health perceptions was significantly higher in depression patients than non-depression patients. However, IPSS, QOL index, and endocrinological and uroflowmetric data showed no significant difference between the groups. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed moderate and severe ED to be risk factors for depression. However, LUTS are not related to depression. Moderate and severe ED is correlated with depression, whereas LUTS are not related to depression in Japanese LOH patients.

  8. Association between a C8orf13-BLK polymorphism and polymyositis/dermatomyositis in the Japanese population: an additive effect with STAT4 on disease susceptibility.

    Tomoko Sugiura

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Accumulating evidence has shown that several non-HLA genes are involved in the susceptibility to polymyositis/dermatomyositis. This study aimed to investigate the involvement of C8orf13-BLK, one of the strongest candidate genes for autoimmune diseases, in susceptibility to polymyositis/dermatomyositis in the Japanese population. A possible gene-gene interaction between C8orf13-BLK and STAT4, which we recently showed to be associated with Japanese polymyositis/dermatomyositis, was also analyzed. METHODS: A single-nucleotide polymorphism in C8orf13-BLK (dbSNP ID: rs13277113 was investigated in the Japanese population using a TaqMan assay in 283 polymyositis patients, 194 dermatomyositis patients, and 656 control subjects. RESULTS: The C8orf13-BLK rs13277113A allele was associated with overall polymyositis/dermatomyositis (P<0.001, odds ratio [OR] 1.44, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.19-1.73, as well as polymyositis (P = 0.011, OR 1.32, 95% CI 1.06-1.64 and dermatomyositis (P<0.001, OR 1.64, 95% CI 1.26-2.12. No association was observed between the C8orf13-BLK rs13277113A allele and either interstitial lung disease or anti-Jo-1 antibody positivity. The C8orf13-BLK rs13277113 A and STAT4 rs7574865 T alleles had an additive effect on polymyositis/dermatomyositis susceptibility. The strongest association was observed in dermatomyositis, with an OR of 3.07 (95% CI; 1.57-6.02 for the carriers of four risk alleles at the two SNP sites, namely, rs1327713 and rs7574865. CONCLUSIONS: This study established C8orf13-BLK as a new genetic susceptibility factor for polymyositis/dermatomyositis. Both C8orf13-BLK and STAT4 exert additive effects on disease susceptibility. These observations suggested that C8orf13-BLK, in combination with STAT4, plays a pivotal role in creating genetic susceptibility to polymyositis/dermatomyositis in Japanese individuals.

  9. Cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the Japanese version of the Toronto Extremity Salvage Score (TESS) for patients with malignant musculoskeletal tumors in the upper extremities.

    Akiyama, Toru; Uehara, Kosuke; Ogura, Koichi; Shinoda, Yusuke; Iwata, Shintaro; Saita, Kazuo; Tanzawa, Yoshikazu; Nakatani, Fumihiko; Yonemoto, Tsukasa; Kawano, Hirotaka; Davis, Aileen M; Kawai, Akira

    2017-01-01

    The Toronto Extremity Salvage Score (TESS) is a widely used disease-specific patient-completed questionnaire for the assessment of physical function in patients with musculoskeletal tumors; however, there had not been the validated Japanese version of the TESS. The aim of this study was to validate the Japanese version of the TESS in patients with musculoskeletal tumors in the upper extremity. After developing a Japanese version of the TESS, the questionnaire was administered to 53 patients to examine its reliability and validity in comparison with the Musculoskeletal Tumor Society (MSTS) scoring system and Short Form-36 (SF-36). Test-retest reliability with intraclass correlation coefficient (0.93) and internal consistency with Cronbach's alpha (0.90) were excellent. Factor analysis showed that the construct structure consisted of 3-item clusters, and the Akaike Information Criterion network also demonstrated that the items could be divided into 3 domains according to their content. The TESS strongly correlated with the MSTS rating scale (r = 0.750; P TESS had low correlations with the SF-36 mental health and role-emotional subscales and the MSTS scoring system manual dexterity domain. Our study suggests that the TESS is a reliable and valid instrument to measure patient-reported physical functioning in patients with upper extremity sarcoma. Copyright © 2016 The Japanese Orthopaedic Association. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Lifetime cigarette smoking is associated with abdominal obesity in a community-based sample of Japanese men: The Shiga Epidemiological Study of Subclinical Atherosclerosis (SESSA

    Akira Fujiyoshi

    2016-12-01

    We analyzed 513 men (median age, 58.2 years; current smokers, 40.1%. Two-thirds showed body mass index (BMI < 25 kg/m2 (median, 23.5 kg/m2. Overall, greater lifetime smoking group was associated with greater WHR and VSR. On average, one higher smoking group was associated with 0.005 higher WHR (95% CI, 0.001–0.008; P = 0.005 and 0.041 greater VSR (95% CI, 0.009–0.073; P = 0.012 after adjustment for potential confounders, including BMI. In this sample of relatively lean Japanese men, greater lifetime smoking was associated with a metabolically more adverse fat distribution. Although smoking is commonly associated with lower BMI, minimizing the amount of lifetime smoking should be advocated.

  11. Associations between lifestyle and mental health in a group of Japanese overseas workers and their spouses resident in Düsseldorf, Germany.

    Tuekpe, Mallet Korsi-ntumi; Todoriki, Hidemi; Zheng, Kui-Cheng; Kouadio, Kouame; Ariizumi, Makoto

    2006-04-01

    This study investigated associations between lifestyle factors and selected aspects of mental health in a group of Japanese overseas workers and their accompanying spouses who were residing in and around Düsseldorf, Germany, in February 1994. Considering four aspects of mental health (depression, mental instability, nervousness and neurosis) and six lifestyle factors (alcohol consumption, sleeping hours, cigarette smoking, physical exercise, eating breakfast and eating snacks), a cross-sectional study involving 822 volunteers (486 workers and 336 spouses) was performed using the Todai Health Index (THI) for surveying self-perceived health and a lifestyle related self-administered questionnaire. Alcohol consumption had no associations with any of the four aspects of mental health, and only very weak inverse associations were found between the other five lifestyle factors and the four aspects of mental health in the workers group. In the spouses group, physical exercise was the only lifestyle factor significantly associated with mental health.

  12. [Associations among physical condition, life hour, and dietary intake male Japanese shift workers: physical condition and lifestyle survey of male Japanese shift workers].

    Fukumura, Tomoe; Yoshita, Katsushi; Tabata, Masaji

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand the actual state of life hours (working time, sleep time, and time of meal intake) and dietary habits of male shift work employees, and to elucidate the impact of working arrangements and dietary habits on their physical condition and health problems. The subjects were 187 male employees (aged 18-64 years) working for an industrial company in Toyama prefecture. We used a self-administered questionnaire to assess dietary habit, lifestyle habits, and life hours at the time of a periodic health examination in April 2013. The subjects were grouped based on their working condition (i.e., day shift, late shift, and late-night shift) into two groups of day shift (n = 107) and shiftwork (n = 80). The proportion of time spent sleeping and feeding was determined in half hour increments, and the incidences of skipping meals (breakfast, lunch and dinner) and midnight snack intake were calculated for each working condition. We also examined the association between the frequency of eating and physical condition for each working condition. The state of life hours of the shiftwork group during the day was similar to that of the day shift group. However, the workers' state of life hours, incidences of skipping meals, and midnight snack intake varied considerably when working at the other shift times. In the shiftwork group, regardless of the working patterns, the BMI and % body fat of the group that ate more than three times a day were significantly lower than those of the group that ate less than twice a day. The results of the present study suggest that it is difficult to ensure the time and opportunity for meals for shift workers. We consider that it is necessary to prevent them skipping of meals, and to support a proper dietary intake during the night.

  13. Study of chronic pain and its associated risk factors among Japanese industry workers: the Quality of Working Life Influenced by Chronic pain (QWLIC) study.

    Yamada, Keiko; Wakaizumi, Kenta; Fukai, Kyosuke; Iso, Hiroyasu; Sobue, Tomotaka; Shibata, Masahiko; Matsudaira, Ko

    2017-10-05

    This study was performed to identify the prevalence, influence, and risk factors associated with chronic pain among Japanese industry workers. We investigated 2,544 participants working at a manufacturing company A, a manufacturing company B, and 16 branch shops of a retail chain company C. The participants responded to self-administered questionnaires related to pain. Furthermore, data obtained from the lifestyle interview sheet of an annual health screening examination and those obtained from the questionnaires were merged. We analyzed the association between lifestyles, psychosocial factors, and chronic pain. Age- and sex-adjusted odds ratios were calculated with a 95% confidence interval using the logistic regression model. Of 2,544 participants, 1,914 (1,224 men and 690 women) completed the questionnaire, and the response rate was 75.2%. The prevalence of chronic pain over 3 months was 42.7% and that of chronic pain with work disability was 11.3%. A higher proportion of obesity, smoking habit, insomnia, psychological stress, depressive state, workaholic nature, low social support from supervisors and coworkers, high job demand, low job control, and job dissatisfaction was observed in workers with chronic pain than in workers without pain. Several risk factors of chronic pain in Japanese industry workers were found. Obesity, smoking habits, sleep disorders, workplace environment, and mental state should be taken into account as risk factors associated with chronic pain issues and general occupational health.

  14. Reno Orthopaedic Trauma Fellowship business curriculum.

    Althausen, Peter L; Bray, Timothy J; Hill, Austin D

    2014-07-01

    The Reno Orthopaedic Center (ROC) Trauma Fellowship business curriculum is designed to provide the fellow with a graduate level business practicum and research experience. The time commitments in a typical 12-month trauma fellowship are significant, rendering a traditional didactic master's in business administration difficult to complete during this short time. An organized, structured, practical business education can provide the trauma leaders of tomorrow with the knowledge and experience required to effectively navigate the convoluted and constantly changing healthcare system. The underlying principle throughout the curriculum is to provide the fellow with the practical knowledge to participate in cost-efficient improvements in healthcare delivery. Through the ROC Trauma Fellowship business curriculum, the fellow will learn that delivering healthcare in a manner that provides better outcomes for equal or lower costs is not only possible but a professional and ethical responsibility. However, instilling these values without providing actionable knowledge and programs would be insufficient and ineffective. For this reason, the core of the curriculum is based on individual teaching sessions with a wide array of hospital and private practice administrators. In addition, each section is equipped with a suggested reading list to maximize the learning experience. Upon completion of the curriculum, the fellow should be able to: (1) Participate in strategic planning at both the hospital and practice level based on analysis of financial and clinical data, (2) Understand the function of healthcare systems at both a macro and micro level, (3) Possess the knowledge and skills to be strong leaders and effective communicators in the business lexicon of healthcare, (4) Be a partner and innovator in the improvement of the delivery of orthopaedic services, (5) Combine scientific and strategic viewpoints to provide an evidence-based strategy for improving quality of care in a

  15. Hydrogen gas production is associated with reduced interleukin-1β mRNA in peripheral blood after a single dose of acarbose in Japanese type 2 diabetic patients.

    Tamasawa, Atsuko; Mochizuki, Kazuki; Hariya, Natsuyo; Saito, Miyoko; Ishida, Hidenori; Doguchi, Satako; Yanagiya, Syoko; Osonoi, Takeshi

    2015-09-05

    Acarbose, an α-glucosidase inhibitor, leads to the production of hydrogen gas, which reduces oxidative stress. In this study, we examined the effects of a single dose of acarbose immediately before a test meal on postprandial hydrogen gas in breath and peripheral blood interleukin (IL)-1β mRNA expression in Japanese type 2 diabetic patients. Sixteen Japanese patients (14 men, 2 women) participated in this study. The mean±standard deviation age, hemoglobin A1c and body mass index were 52.1±15.4 years, 10.2±2.0%, and 27.7±8.0kg/m(2), respectively. The patients were admitted into our hospital for 2 days and underwent test meals at breakfast without (day 1) or with acarbose (day 2). We performed continuous glucose monitoring and measured hydrogen gas levels in breath, and peripheral blood IL-1β mRNA levels before (0min) and after the test meal (hydrogen gas: 60, 120, 180, and 300min; IL-1β: 180min). The induction of hydrogen gas production and the reduction in peripheral blood IL-1β mRNA after the test meal were not significant between days 1 (without acarbose) and 2 (with acarbose). However, the changes in total hydrogen gas production from day 1 to day 2 were closely and inversely associated with the changes in peripheral blood IL-1β mRNA levels. Our results suggest that an increase in hydrogen gas production is inversely associated with a reduction of the peripheral blood IL-1β mRNA level after a single dose of acarbose in Japanese type 2 diabetic patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Associations of gender role attitudes with fertility intentions: A Japanese population-based study on single men and women of reproductive ages.

    Kato, Tsuguhiko

    2018-06-01

    Japan has been experiencing low fertility for many years. In this study, I investigated the relationship between gender role attitudes and fertility intentions among Japanese single men and women of reproductive ages. Utilizing the Longitudinal Survey of Adults in the 21st Century data, 8944 men and 7924 women aged 20-34 years with single, childless status were analyzed. Gender role attitudes were assessed by participants' preferences for the division of labor between a man and a woman: income earning, housework, and childcare. Those who preferred men to earn income and women to perform housework and childcare were considered to have traditional attitudes, whereas those who preferred women and men to share these responsibilities were considered to have egalitarian attitudes. Outcomes were fertility intentions measured by a desire to have children and ideal number of children. Logistic regression analyses were conducted. Egalitarian attitudes about income earning and housework were associated with low fertility intentions (a lesser desire for children) compared to traditional attitudes: adjusted odds ratios were 1.56 [1.36, 1.80] for men and 1.47 [1.26, 1.72] for women with income earning. Men's preference for sharing childcare responsibility was associated with high fertility intentions. Japanese society has not shifted away from the traditional division of labor despite the increase in female labor force participation. Low fertility intentions among Japanese men and women with egalitarian attitudes suggest that institutional support for balancing work and family may be necessary to improve the low fertility trend. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Nanostructured diamond coatings for orthopaedic applications

    CATLEDGE, S.A.; THOMAS, V.; VOHRA, Y.K.

    2013-01-01

    With increasing numbers of orthopaedic devices being implanted, greater emphasis is being placed on ceramic coating technology to reduce friction and wear in mating total joint replacement components, in order to improve implant function and increase device lifespan. In this chapter, we consider ultra-hard carbon coatings, with emphasis on nanostructured diamond, as alternative bearing surfaces for metallic components. Such coatings have great potential for use in biomedical implants as a result of their extreme hardness, wear resistance, low friction and biocompatibility. These ultra-hard carbon coatings can be deposited by several techniques resulting in a wide variety of structures and properties. PMID:25285213

  18. Orthopaedic Timing in Polytrauma in a Second Level Emergency Hospital. An Overrated Problem?

    V, Dei Giudici; N, Giampaolini; A, Panfighi; M, Marinelli; R, Procaccini; A, Gigante

    2015-01-01

    The main concern for orthopaedic treatment in polytrauma has always been the same for almost forty years, which also regards “where” and “when” to proceed; correct surgical timing and correct interpretation of the DCO concept are still being debated. In the last few years, several attempts have been made to classify patients based on their clinical presentation and by trying to figure out which vital parameters are able to predict the patient’s outcome. This study evaluated all patients who presented with code red at the Emergency Department of our Hospital, a level II trauma center. For every patient, the following characteristics were noted: sex, age, day of hospitalization, orthopaedic trauma, time to surgery, presence of an associated surgical condition in the fields of general surgery, thoracic surgery, neurosurgery and vascular surgery, cardiac frequency, blood pressure, oxygen saturation, Glasgow Coma Scale and laboratory data. All patients included were divided into subgroups based on orthopaedic surgical timing. Two other subgroups were also identified and analyzed in detail: deceased and weekend traumas. A total of 208 patients were included. Our primary goal was to identify a correlation between the mortality and surgical timing of the orthopaedic procedures; our secondary goal was to recognize, if present, a statistically relevant association between historical, clinical and laboratory data, and mortality rate, defining any possible risk factor. A correlation between mortality and orthopaedic surgical timing was not found. Analyzing laboratory data revealed an interesting correlation between mortality and: blood pressure, platelet count, cardiac frequency, hematocrit, hemoglobin and age. PMID:26312113

  19. Churg-Strauss syndrome from an orthopaedic perspective.

    Kung, K L; Yee, P K

    2015-12-01

    Churg-Strauss syndrome, which has been frequently described by physicians in the literature, is a small and medium-sized vessel systemic vasculitis typically associated with asthma, lung infiltrates, and hypereosinophilia. We report a case of Churg-Strauss syndrome with presenting symptoms of bilateral lower limb weakness and numbness only. The patient was admitted to an orthopaedic ward for management and a final diagnosis was reached following sural nerve biopsy. The patient's symptoms responded promptly to steroid treatment and she was able to walk with a stick 3 weeks following admission. This report emphasises the need to be aware of this syndrome when managing patients with neurological deficit in order to achieve prompt diagnosis and treatment.

  20. [Management of war orthopaedic injuries in recent armed conflicts].

    Frank, M; Mathieu, L

    2013-01-01

    The extremities continue to be the most frequent sites of wounding during armed conflicts despite the change of combat tactics, soldier armour and battlefield medical support. Due to the advances in prehospital care and timely transport to the hospital, orthopaedic surgeons deal with severe and challenging injuries of the limbs. In contrast to civilian extremity trauma, the most combat-related injuries are open wounds that often have infection-related complications. Data from two recent large armed conflicts (Iraq, Afghanistan) show that extremity injuries are associated with a high complication rate, morbidity and healthcare utilization. A systematic approach that consists of sequential surgical care and good transport capabilities can reduce the complication rate of these injuries. New medical technologies have been implemented in the treatment strategy during the last decade. This article reviews the published scientific data and current opinions on combat-related extremity injuries. Key words: extremity, combat, trauma, medical support system.

  1. Dietary patterns extracted from the current Japanese diet and their associations with sodium and potassium intakes estimated by repeated 24 h urine collection.

    Fujiwara, Aya; Asakura, Keiko; Uechi, Ken; Masayasu, Shizuko; Sasaki, Satoshi

    2016-10-01

    To identify dietary patterns in the current Japanese diet and evaluate the associations between these patterns and Na and K intakes. Dietary patterns were extracted by factor analysis from the intakes of food groups assessed with a validated self-administrated diet history questionnaire. Na and K intakes and urinary Na:K were assessed by repeated 24 h urine collection. Healthy Japanese adults aged 20-69 years (353 men and 349 women). Twenty study areas in twenty-three prefectures in Japan. Result Four dietary patterns were identified in each sex. After adjustment for several confounding factors, the 'Fish and vegetable' pattern was associated with higher urinary Na excretion, but the association was not significant (P=0·37 in men and P=0·06 in women). This pattern was also associated with higher K excretion in both sexes. The 'Noodle' pattern tended to be associated with higher urinary Na excretion (P=0·17 in men and P=0·04 in women) and higher Na:K (P=0·02 in men). The 'Meat, vegetable and oil' (in men)/'Meat and oil' (in women) and 'Bread and confectioneries' patterns were not associated with urinary Na excretion (in men) or were negatively associated (in women). Contrary to the case in Western countries, the 'Fish and vegetable' and 'Noodle' patterns contributed to higher Na intake in Japan. Target foods for salt reduction should be set based on careful consideration of the relationships between dietary patterns and Na and K intakes in the target population.

  2. Prevalence and pattern of small animal orthopaedic conditions at ...

    Small animal orthopaedic case records of a 20-year period were surveyed to obtain the prevalence and pattern of orthopaedic conditions presented to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital (VTH), University of Ibadan, Nigeria, with the objective of providing data for planning on small animal healthcare facilities, policy ...

  3. Social Competence and Temperament in Children with Chronic Orthopaedic Disability

    Yagmurlu, Bilge; Yavuz, H. Melis

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate social competence in children with orthopaedic disability and its concurrent relations to child's temperament, health condition, and maternal warmth. Participants were 68 Turkish children (mean = 5.94 years) with chronic orthopaedic disability and their mothers coming from disadvantaged backgrounds. Mother…

  4. Buffering effects of job resources on the association of overtime work hours with psychological distress in Japanese white-collar workers.

    Hino, Ayako; Inoue, Akiomi; Kawakami, Norito; Tsuno, Kanami; Tomioka, Kimiko; Nakanishi, Mayuko; Mafune, Kosuke; Hiro, Hisanori

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the buffering effects of job resources, utilizing the job demands-control (or demand-control-support) and effort-reward imbalance models (i.e., job control, workplace social support, and extrinsic reward), on the association of overtime work hours with psychological distress in Japanese employees. A total of 1,198 participants (valid response rate = 93.7 %) from five branches of a manufacturing company in Japan completed a self-administered questionnaire comprising the scales assessing job resources, psychological distress, and demographic characteristics. We obtained the information on working hours in the most recent month from the personnel records of the surveyed company. Multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted. In a series of analyses, interaction term of overtime work hours with each job resource was included in the model. Significant interaction effect of overtime work hours with job control was observed. Among the low job control group, the long overtime (80 h or more) subgroup had a significantly higher prevalence odds ratio of psychological distress compared to the short overtime (44 h or less) subgroup. No significant association of overtime work hours with psychological distress was found among the high job control group. On the other hand, there was no significant interaction effect of overtime work hours with workplace social support or extrinsic reward. The present findings suggest that high job control has an effect on reducing psychological distress in relation to overtime work hours in Japanese employees.

  5. Diabetes and hypertension markedly increased the risk of ischemic stroke associated with high serum resistin concentration in a general Japanese population: the Hisayama Study

    Kawamura Ryoichi

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Resistin, secreted from adipocytes, causes insulin resistance in mice. The relationship between resistin and coronary artery disease is highly controversial, and the information regarding resistin and ischemic stroke is limited. In the present study, the association between serum resistin concentration and cardiovascular disease (CVD was investigated in a general Japanese population. Methods A total of 3,201 community-dwelling individuals aged 40 years or older (1,382 men and 1,819 women were divided into quintiles of serum resistin, and the association between resistin and CVD was examined cross-sectionally. The combined effect of either diabetes or hypertension and high serum resistin was also assessed. Serum resistin was measured using ELISA. Results Compared to those without CVD, age- and sex-adjusted mean serum resistin concentrations were greater in subjects with CVD (p = 0.002 or ischemic stroke (p Conclusion Elevated serum resistin concentration appears to be an independent risk factor for ischemic stroke, especially lacunar and atherothrombotic infarction in the general Japanese population. The combination of high resistin and the presence of either diabetes or hypertension increased the risk of ischemic stroke.

  6. Variability of Arthroscopy Case Volume in Orthopaedic Surgery Residency.

    Gil, Joseph A; Waryasz, Gregory R; Owens, Brett D; Daniels, Alan H

    2016-05-01

    To examine orthopaedic surgery case logs for arthroscopy case volume during residency training and to evaluate trends in case volume and variability over time. Publicly available Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education surgical case logs from 2007 to 2013 for orthopaedic surgery residency were assessed for variability and case volume trends in shoulder, elbow, wrist, hip, knee, and ankle arthroscopy. The national average number of procedures performed in each arthroscopy category reported was directly compared from 2009 to 2013. The 10th and 90th percentile arthroscopy case volume was compared between 2007 and 2013 for shoulder and knee arthroscopy procedures. Subsequently, the difference between the 10th and 90th percentile arthroscopy case volume in each category in 2007 was compared with the difference between the 10th and 90th percentile arthroscopy case volume in each category in 2013. From 2007 to 2013, shoulder arthroscopy procedures performed per resident increased by 43.1% (P = .0001); elbow arthroscopy procedures increased by 28.0% (P = .00612); wrist arthroscopy procedures increased by 8.6% (P = .05); hip arthroscopy procedures, which were first reported in 2012, increased by 588.9%; knee arthroscopy procedures increased by 8.5% (P = .0435); ankle arthroscopy increased by 27.6% (P = .00149). The difference in knee and shoulder arthroscopy volume between residents in the 10th and 90th percentile in 2007 and residents in the 10th and 90th percentile in 2013 was not significant (P > .05). There was a 3.66-fold difference in knee arthroscopy volume between residents in the 10th and 90th percentile in 2007, whereas the difference was 3.36-fold in 2013 (P = .70). There was a 5.86-fold difference in shoulder arthroscopy case volume between residents in the 10th and 90th percentile in 2007, whereas the difference was 4.96-fold in 2013 (P = .29). The volume of arthroscopy cases performed by graduating orthopaedic surgery residents has

  7. The older orthopaedic patient: general considerations.

    Potter, Jane F

    2004-08-01

    People older than 65 years are more likely to need elective and emergent orthopaedic surgery compared with younger persons. They also experience significant benefits. Although age-related changes increase the risk of perioperative complications, understanding those changes allows prevention or at least early recognition and treatment when problems arise. Because of comorbidities, older persons take more medications that need to be managed in the perioperative period. Care could be simplified if patients were to bring their medications to the preoperative evaluation. Central nervous system sensitivity to certain pain medications (meperidine and propoxyphene) means that these drugs are best avoided as good alternatives exist (morphine and oxycodone). Adverse reactions to drugs are an important cause of acute confusion (delirium) that often complicates orthopaedic care. Early mobilization after surgery, avoiding certain drugs, avoiding restraints (including Foley catheters), attending to hydration, promoting normal sleep, compensating for sensory disorders, and stimulating daytime activities can prevent delirium. Patients with dementia are more likely to have delirium develop and, like many older people, will present special challenges in communication and decision making. Including family members in discussions may be helpful in ensuring truly informed consent.

  8. Multilayer scaffolds in orthopaedic tissue engineering.

    Atesok, Kivanc; Doral, M Nedim; Karlsson, Jon; Egol, Kenneth A; Jazrawi, Laith M; Coelho, Paulo G; Martinez, Amaury; Matsumoto, Tomoyuki; Owens, Brett D; Ochi, Mitsuo; Hurwitz, Shepard R; Atala, Anthony; Fu, Freddie H; Lu, Helen H; Rodeo, Scott A

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to summarize the recent developments in the field of tissue engineering as they relate to multilayer scaffold designs in musculoskeletal regeneration. Clinical and basic research studies that highlight the current knowledge and potential future applications of the multilayer scaffolds in orthopaedic tissue engineering were evaluated and the best evidence collected. Studies were divided into three main categories based on tissue types and interfaces for which multilayer scaffolds were used to regenerate: bone, osteochondral junction and tendon-to-bone interfaces. In vitro and in vivo studies indicate that the use of stratified scaffolds composed of multiple layers with distinct compositions for regeneration of distinct tissue types within the same scaffold and anatomic location is feasible. This emerging tissue engineering approach has potential applications in regeneration of bone defects, osteochondral lesions and tendon-to-bone interfaces with successful basic research findings that encourage clinical applications. Present data supporting the advantages of the use of multilayer scaffolds as an emerging strategy in musculoskeletal tissue engineering are promising, however, still limited. Positive impacts of the use of next generation scaffolds in orthopaedic tissue engineering can be expected in terms of decreasing the invasiveness of current grafting techniques used for reconstruction of bone and osteochondral defects, and tendon-to-bone interfaces in near future.

  9. Vitamin D sufficiency is associated with low incidence of limb and vertebral fractures in community-dwelling elderly Japanese women: the Muramatsu Study.

    Nakamura, K; Saito, T; Oyama, M; Oshiki, R; Kobayashi, R; Nishiwaki, T; Nashimoto, M; Tsuchiya, Y

    2011-01-01

    Data on the association between vitamin D status and osteoporotic fracture in Asians are sparse. We conducted a 6-year cohort study of 773 community-dwelling elderly Japanese women and found that serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) ≥ 71 nmol/L was associated with a reduced risk of osteoporotic limb and vertebral fractures. Data on the association between vitamin D status and osteoporotic fracture in Asians are sparse. This study aimed to clarify the association between vitamin D and other markers of nutritional status with the incidence of fracture in elderly Japanese women. We conducted a cohort study with a 6-year follow-up of 773 community-dwelling women aged 69 years and older. The 6-year follow-up ended in 2009. We assessed serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D, undercarboxylated osteocalcin (an index of vitamin K status), and calcium intake. The primary outcome was incident limb and vertebral fractures. Covariates were forearm bone mineral density (BMD), age, body mass index, osteoporosis treatment, and physical activity. The mean serum 25(OH)D concentration was 60.0 nmol/L. Thirty-seven limb fractures and 14 vertebral fractures occurred in 4,392 person-years. Lower forearm BMD was significantly associated with increased incident fracture (P = 0.0242). The adjusted hazard ratios (HR) of fracture for the first quartile (fracture. Sufficient vitamin D status, i.e., serum 25(OH)D ≥ 71 nmol/L, is associated with low limb and vertebral fracture risk in community-dwelling elderly women.

  10. Baseline estradiol concentration in community-dwelling Japanese American men is not associated with intra-abdominal fat accumulation over 10 years.

    Kocarnik, Beverly M; Boyko, Edward J; Matsumoto, Alvin M; Fujimoto, Wilfred Y; Hayashi, Tomoshige; Leonetti, Donna L; Page, Stephanie T

    The role of plasma estradiol in the accumulation of intra-abdominal fat (IAF) in men is uncertain. Cross-sectional studies using imaging of IAF have shown either a positive or no association. In contrast, a randomised controlled trial using an aromatase inhibitor to suppress estradiol production found an association between oestrogen deficiency and short-term IAF accumulation. No longitudinal study has been conducted to examine the relationship between plasma estradiol concentration and the change in IAF area measured using direct imaging. This is a longitudinal observational study in community-dwelling Japanese-American men (n=215, mean age 52 years, BMI 25.4kg/m 2 ). IAF and subcutaneous fat areas were assessed using computerized tomography (CT) at baseline, 5 and 10 years. Baseline plasma estradiol concentrations were measured using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Univariate analysis found no association between baseline estradiol concentration and baseline IAF, or 5- or 10-year changes in IAF area (r=-0.05 for both time points, p=0.45 and p=0.43, respectively). Multivariate linear regression analysis of the change in IAF area by baseline estradiol concentration adjusted for age, baseline IAF area, and weight change found no association with either the 5- or 10-year IAF area change (p=0.52 and p=0.55, respectively). Plasma estradiol concentration was not associated with baseline IAF nor with change in IAF area over 5 or 10 years based on serial CT scans in community-dwelling Japanese-American men. These results do not support a role for oestrogen deficiency in IAF accumulation in men. Copyright © 2015 Asia Oceania Association for the Study of Obesity. All rights reserved.

  11. Association between dietary patterns and cognitive function among 70-year-old Japanese elderly: a cross-sectional analysis of the SONIC study.

    Okubo, Hitomi; Inagaki, Hiroki; Gondo, Yasuyuki; Kamide, Kei; Ikebe, Kazunori; Masui, Yukie; Arai, Yasumichi; Ishizaki, Tatsuro; Sasaki, Satoshi; Nakagawa, Takeshi; Kabayama, Mai; Sugimoto, Ken; Rakugi, Hiromi; Maeda, Yoshinobu

    2017-09-11

    An increasing number of studies in Western countries have shown that healthy dietary patterns may have a protective effect against cognitive decline and dementia. However, information on this relationship among non-Western populations with different cultural settings is extremely limited. We aim to examine the relationship between dietary patterns and cognitive function among older Japanese people. This cross-sectional study included 635 community-dwelling people aged 69-71 years who participated in the prospective cohort study titled Septuagenarians, Octogenarians, Nonagenarians Investigation with Centenarians (SONIC). Diet was assessed over a one-month period with a validated, brief-type, self-administered diet history questionnaire. Dietary patterns from thirty-three predefined food groups [energy-adjusted food (g/d)] were extracted by factor analysis. Cognitive function was assessed using the Japanese version of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA-J). Multivariate regression analysis was performed to examine the relationship between dietary patterns and cognitive function. Three dietary patterns were identified: the 'Plant foods and fish', 'Rice and miso soup', and 'Animal food' patterns. The 'Plant foods and fish' pattern, characterized by high intakes of green and other vegetables, soy products, seaweeds, mushrooms, potatoes, fruit, fish, and green tea, was significantly associated with a higher MoCA-J score [MoCA-J score per one-quartile increase in dietary pattern: β = 0.56 (95% CI: 0.33, 0.79), P for trend cognitive function. To confirm the possibility of reverse causation we also conducted a sensitivity analysis excluding 186 subjects who reported substantial changes in their diet for any reason, but the results did not change materially. This preliminary cross-sectional study suggests that a diet with high intakes of vegetables, soy products, fruit, and fish may have a beneficial effect on cognitive function in older Japanese people. Further

  12. The real world in the clinic before and after the establishment of guidelines for coronary artery spasm: a questionnaire for members of the Japanese Cine-angio Association.

    Sueda, Shozo; Kohno, Hiroaki; Yoshino, Hideaki

    2017-06-01

    We investigated the clinical situations and the present knowledge of Japanese cardiologists about coronary artery spasm before and after the establishment of guidelines for this condition in the real world. A questionnaire was developed regarding the number of cases of coronary angiography, percutaneous coronary intervention, and invasive/non-invasive spasm provocation tests before (2008) and after (2014) the establishment of the Japanese Circulation Society (JCS) guidelines for coronary artery spasm and the status of spasm provocation tests. The questionnaire was sent to members of the Japanese Cine-angio Association in 81 cardiology hospitals in Japan. The completed surveys were returned from 20 hospitals, giving a response rate of 24.7%. Pharmacological spasm provocation tests increased in 2014 and vasospastic angina and variant angina also increased in 2014 compared with 2008, but the increase was not significant. Non-invasive spasm provocation tests such as hyperventilation tests and cold stress tests decreased remarkably in 2014. Spasm provocation tests were initially performed in the left coronary artery was employed in just 30% of the hospitals. The majority of institutions did not perform the spasm provocation testing in patients with unknown causes of heart failure or in survivors of ventricular fibrillation. Although 40% of the hospitals were not satisfied with standard spasm provocation tests, the majority of the hospitals agreed that spasm provocation tests will be necessary in the future. In general, the JCS guidelines contributed to the widespread use of provocative testing for coronary artery spasm in the real world. However, some issues about spasm still remained in the clinic.

  13. A Clinico- Epidemiological Study Of Filarial Related Orthopaedic Manifestations

    Patond K.R

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available An epidemiological study was undertaken to study the incidence and distribution of orthopaedic manifestations of filariasis in an endemic area. A total of 207 cases were clinically examined and investigated. Patients were divided into three groups , viz., Group A: Orthopaedic manifestations with no history of filariasis . Group B: Orthopaedic manifestations with history of filariasis such as microfilaraemia or filarial fevers etc., Group C: Orthopaedic manifestations with chronic manifestations such as elephantiasis, hydrocele etc. To confirm filarial etiology, all the cases were examined for the presence of filarial antibody by indirect ELISA using wuchereda bancrofti microfilarial excretory- secretary antigen (wd Mf ESAg . A total of 61 of 102 patients of Group A, 14 of 21 patients of group B, and 73 of 84 patients of Group C were positive for filarial antibody. This study showed the prevalence of filarial antibody in about 71.4% of various orthopaedic manifestations.

  14. Is There Value in Having Radiology Provide a Second Reading in Pediatric Orthopaedic Clinic?

    Natarajan, Vivek; Bosch, Patrick; Dede, Ozgur; Deeney, Vincent; Mendelson, Stephen; Ward, Timothy; Brooks, Maria; Kenkre, Tanya; Roach, James

    2017-06-01

    The Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations specifically mandates the dual interpretation of musculoskeletal radiographs by a radiologist in addition to the orthopaedist in all hospital-based orthopaedic clinics. Previous studies have questioned the utility of this practice. The purpose of this study was to further investigate the clinical significance of having the radiologist provide a second interpretation in a hospital-based pediatric orthopaedic clinic. A retrospective review was performed of all patients who had plain radiographs obtained in the pediatric orthopaedic clinic at an academic children's hospital over a 4-month period. For each radiographic series, the orthopaedist's note and the radiology interpretation were reviewed and a determination was made of whether the radiology read provided new clinically useful information and/or a new diagnosis, whether it recommended further imaging, or if it missed a diagnosis that was reflected in the orthopaedist's note. The hospital charges associated with the radiology read for each study were also quantified. The charts of 1570 consecutive clinic patients who were seen in the pediatric orthopaedic clinic from January to April, 2012 were reviewed. There were 2509 radiographic studies performed, of which 2264 had both a documented orthopaedist's note and radiologist's read. The radiologist's interpretation added new, clinically important information in 1.0% (23/2264) of these studies. In 1.7% (38/2264) of the studies, it was determined that the radiologist missed the diagnosis or clinically important information that could affect treatment. The total amount of the professional fees charged for the radiologists' interpretations was $87,362. On average, the hospital charges for each occurrence in which the radiologist's read provided an additional diagnosis or clinically important information beyond the orthopaedist's note were $3798. The results of this study suggest that eliminating the

  15. Predicting the post-operative length of stay for the orthopaedic trauma patient.

    Chona, Deepak; Lakomkin, Nikita; Bulka, Catherine; Mousavi, Idine; Kothari, Parth; Dodd, Ashley C; Shen, Michelle S; Obremskey, William T; Sethi, Manish K

    2017-05-01

    Length of stay (LOS) is a major driver of cost and quality of care. A bundled payment system makes it essential for orthopaedic surgeons to understand factors that increase a patient's LOS. Yet, minimal data regarding predictors of LOS currently exist. Using the ACS-NSQIP database, this is the first study to identify risk factors for increased LOS for orthopaedic trauma patients and create a personalized LOS calculator. All orthopaedic trauma surgery between 2006 and 2013 were identified from the ACS-NSQIP database using CPT codes. Patient demographics, pre-operative comorbidities, anatomic location of injury, and post-operative in-hospital complications were collected. To control for individual patient comorbidities, a negative binomial regression model evaluated hospital LOS after surgery. Betas (β), were determined for each pre-operative patient characteristic. We selected significant predictors of LOS (p < 0.05) using backwards stepwise elimination. 49,778 orthopaedic trauma patients were included in the analysis. Deep incisional surgical site infections and superficial surgical site infections were associated with the greatest percent change in predicted LOS (β = 1.2760 and 1.2473, respectively; p < 0.0001 for both). A post-operative LOS risk calculator was developed based on the formula: [Formula: see text]. Utilizing a large prospective cohort of orthopaedic trauma patients, we created the first personalized LOS calculator based on pre-operative comorbidities, post-operative complications and location of surgery. Future work may assess the use of this calculator and attempt to validate its utility as an accurate model. To improve the quality measures of hospitals, orthopaedists must employ such predictive tools to optimize care and better manage resources.

  16. Association between regular physical exercise and depressive symptoms mediated through social support and resilience in Japanese company workers: a cross-sectional study

    Eisho Yoshikawa

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Regular physical exercise has been reported to reduce depressive symptoms. Several lines of evidence suggest that physical exercise may prevent depression by promoting social support or resilience, which is the ability to adapt to challenging life conditions. The aim of this study was to compare depressive symptoms, social support, and resilience between Japanese company workers who engaged in regular physical exercise and workers who did not exercise regularly. We also investigated whether regular physical exercise has an indirect association with depressive symptoms through social support and resilience. Methods Participants were 715 Japanese employees at six worksites. Depressive symptoms were assessed with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D scale, social support with the short version of the Social Support Questionnaire (SSQ, and resilience with the 14-item Resilience Scale (RS-14. A self-report questionnaire, which was extracted from the Japanese version of the Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile, was used to assess whether participants engage in regular physical exercise, defined as more than 20 min, three or more times per week. The group differences in CES-D, SSQ, and RS-14 scores were investigated by using analysis of covariance (ANCOVA. Mediation analysis was conducted by using Preacher and Hayes’ bootstrap script to assess whether regular physical exercise is associated with depressive symptoms indirectly through resilience and social support. Results The SSQ Number score (F = 4.82, p = 0.03, SSQ Satisfaction score (F = 6.68, p = 0.01, and RS-14 score (F = 6.01, p = 0.01 were significantly higher in the group with regular physical exercise (n = 83 than in the group without regular physical exercise (n = 632 after adjusting for age, education, marital status, and job status. The difference in CES-D score was not significant (F = 2.90, p = 0

  17. Association between regular physical exercise and depressive symptoms mediated through social support and resilience in Japanese company workers: a cross-sectional study.

    Yoshikawa, Eisho; Nishi, Daisuke; Matsuoka, Yutaka J

    2016-07-12

    Regular physical exercise has been reported to reduce depressive symptoms. Several lines of evidence suggest that physical exercise may prevent depression by promoting social support or resilience, which is the ability to adapt to challenging life conditions. The aim of this study was to compare depressive symptoms, social support, and resilience between Japanese company workers who engaged in regular physical exercise and workers who did not exercise regularly. We also investigated whether regular physical exercise has an indirect association with depressive symptoms through social support and resilience. Participants were 715 Japanese employees at six worksites. Depressive symptoms were assessed with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D) scale, social support with the short version of the Social Support Questionnaire (SSQ), and resilience with the 14-item Resilience Scale (RS-14). A self-report questionnaire, which was extracted from the Japanese version of the Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile, was used to assess whether participants engage in regular physical exercise, defined as more than 20 min, three or more times per week. The group differences in CES-D, SSQ, and RS-14 scores were investigated by using analysis of covariance (ANCOVA). Mediation analysis was conducted by using Preacher and Hayes' bootstrap script to assess whether regular physical exercise is associated with depressive symptoms indirectly through resilience and social support. The SSQ Number score (F = 4.82, p = 0.03), SSQ Satisfaction score (F = 6.68, p = 0.01), and RS-14 score (F = 6.01, p = 0.01) were significantly higher in the group with regular physical exercise (n = 83) than in the group without regular physical exercise (n = 632) after adjusting for age, education, marital status, and job status. The difference in CES-D score was not significant (F = 2.90, p = 0.09). Bootstrapping revealed significant negative indirect

  18. Handling Japanese without a Japanese Operating System.

    Hatasa, Kazumi; And Others

    1992-01-01

    The Macintosh HyperCard environment has become a popular platform for Japanese language courseware because of its flexibility and ease of programing. This project created Japanese bitmap font files for the JIS Levels 1 and 2, and writing XFCNs for font manipulation, Japanese kana input, and answer correction. (12 references) (Author/LB)

  19. Hand-arm vibration in orthopaedic surgery: a neglected risk.

    Mahmood, F; Ferguson, K B; Clarke, J; Hill, K; Macdonald, E B; Macdonald, D J M

    2017-12-30

    Hand-arm vibration syndrome is an occupational disease caused by exposure to hand-arm transmitted vibration. The Health and Safety Executive has set limits for vibration exposure, including an exposure action value (EAV), where steps should be taken to reduce exposure, and an exposure limit value (ELV), beyond which vibrating equipment must not be used for the rest of the working day. To measure hand-arm transmitted vibration among orthopaedic surgeons, who routinely use hand-operated saws. We undertook a cadaveric study measuring vibration associated with a tibial cut using battery-operated saws. Three surgeons undertook three tibial cuts each on cadaveric tibiae. Measurements were taken using a frequency-weighted root mean square acceleration, with the vibration total value calculated as the root of the sums squared in each of the three axes. A mean (SD) vibration magnitude of 1 (0.2) m/s2 in the X-axis, 10.3 (1.9) m/s2 in the Y-axis and 4.2 (1.3) m/s2 in the Z-axis was observed. The weighted root mean squared magnitude of vibration was 11.3 (1.7) m/s2. These results suggest an EAV of 23 min and ELV of 1 h 33 min using this equipment. Our results demonstrate that use of a battery-operated sagittal saw can transmit levels of hand-arm vibration approaching the EAV or ELV through prolonged use. Further study is necessary to quantify this risk and establish whether surveillance is necessary for orthopaedic surgeons. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  20. Association between Experience of Child Abuse and Severity of Drug Addiction Measured by the Addiction Severity Index among Japanese Drug-Dependent Patients

    Ogai, Yasukazu; Senoo, Eiichi; Gardner, Fumiyuki Chin; Haraguchi, Ayako; Saito, Tamaki; Morita, Nobuaki; Ikeda, Kazutaka

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to clarify the association between child abuse experiences and drug addiction severity among Japanese drug-dependent patients using the Addiction Severity Index-Japanese version (ASI-J). One hundred and eleven inpatients and outpatients with drug dependence participated in the study. Some of the questions on the ASI-J asked about lifetime experiences of abuse. A higher percentage of female participants experienced child abuse compared with male participants. Male participants who experienced child abuse (MEA) had a significantly higher severity of drug use than men who did not experience it (MNEA). Female participants who experienced child abuse (FEA) had significantly more serious problems in family/social relationships than female participants who did not experience it (FNEA). Patients in the MEA group were arrested less frequently for drug charges, experienced more serious problems with their fathers, and experienced more severe anxiety in their lifetime compared with the MNEA group. The FEA group experienced more serious troubles with their sexual partners, close friends, and families and experienced more severe psychiatric problems in their lifetime compared with the FNEA group. These results suggest gender differences in the problems experienced by drug-dependent patients with child abuse experiences, and gender-specific interventions may be more effective in treating their drug dependence. PMID:25741639

  1. PBSCT is associated with poorer survival and increased chronic GvHD than BMT in Japanese paediatric patients with acute leukaemia and an HLA-matched sibling donor.

    Shinzato, Aki; Tabuchi, Ken; Atsuta, Yoshiko; Inoue, Masami; Inagaki, Jiro; Yabe, Hiromasa; Koh, Katsuyoshi; Kato, Koji; Ohta, Hideaki; Kigasawa, Hisato; Kitoh, Toshiyuki; Ogawa, Atsushi; Takahashi, Yoshiyuki; Sasahara, Yoji; Kato, Shun-Ichi; Adachi, Souichi

    2013-09-01

    Peripheral blood stem cells (PBSC) may be used as an alternative to bone marrow (BM) for allogeneic transplantation. Since peripheral blood stem cell bank from unrelated volunteer donor has been started in Japan, use of PBSC allografts may be increased. Therefore we surveyed the outcomes of Japanese leukemia children after PBSC and BM transplantation. This retrospective study compared the outcomes of 661 children (0-18 years) with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) or acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) who received their first allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (PBSCT; n = 90) or bone marrow transplantation (BMT; n = 571) from HLA-matched siblings between January 1996 and December 2007. Neutrophil recovery was faster after PBSCT than after BMT (ALL: P vs. 9.9%, P = 0.0066; AML: 41.6% vs. 11.1%, P vs. 57.1%, P = 0.0257). The 5-year overall survival (OS) was lower after PBSCT than after BMT for ALL (42.4% vs. 63.7%, P = 0.0032) and AML (49.8% vs. 71.8%, P = 0.0163). Multivariate analysis revealed the use of PBSC was a significant risk factor for DFS and OS. PBSCT and BMT did not differ in relapse rate, acute GvHD for ALL and AML, or in DFS for AML. PBSC allografts in Japanese children engraft faster but are associated with poorer survival and increased chronic GvHD. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Association between Experience of Child Abuse and Severity of Drug Addiction Measured by the Addiction Severity Index among Japanese Drug-Dependent Patients

    Yasukazu Ogai

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to clarify the association between child abuse experiences and drug addiction severity among Japanese drug-dependent patients using the Addiction Severity Index-Japanese version (ASI-J. One hundred and eleven inpatients and outpatients with drug dependence participated in the study. Some of the questions on the ASI-J asked about lifetime experiences of abuse. A higher percentage of female participants experienced child abuse compared with male participants. Male participants who experienced child abuse (MEA had a significantly higher severity of drug use than men who did not experience it (MNEA. Female participants who experienced child abuse (FEA had significantly more serious problems in family/social relationships than female participants who did not experience it (FNEA. Patients in the MEA group were arrested less frequently for drug charges, experienced more serious problems with their fathers, and experienced more severe anxiety in their lifetime compared with the MNEA group. The FEA group experienced more serious troubles with their sexual partners, close friends, and families and experienced more severe psychiatric problems in their lifetime compared with the FNEA group. These results suggest gender differences in the problems experienced by drug-dependent patients with child abuse experiences, and gender-specific interventions may be more effective in treating their drug dependence.

  3. Association between experience of child abuse and severity of drug addiction measured by the Addiction Severity Index among Japanese drug-dependent patients.

    Ogai, Yasukazu; Senoo, Eiichi; Gardner, Fumiyuki Chin; Haraguchi, Ayako; Saito, Tamaki; Morita, Nobuaki; Ikeda, Kazutaka

    2015-03-03

    The aim of the present study was to clarify the association between child abuse experiences and drug addiction severity among Japanese drug-dependent patients using the Addiction Severity Index-Japanese version (ASI-J). One hundred and eleven inpatients and outpatients with drug dependence participated in the study. Some of the questions on the ASI-J asked about lifetime experiences of abuse. A higher percentage of female participants experienced child abuse compared with male participants. Male participants who experienced child abuse (MEA) had a significantly higher severity of drug use than men who did not experience it (MNEA). Female participants who experienced child abuse (FEA) had significantly more serious problems in family/social relationships than female participants who did not experience it (FNEA). Patients in the MEA group were arrested less frequently for drug charges, experienced more serious problems with their fathers, and experienced more severe anxiety in their lifetime compared with the MNEA group. The FEA group experienced more serious troubles with their sexual partners, close friends, and families and experienced more severe psychiatric problems in their lifetime compared with the FNEA group. These results suggest gender differences in the problems experienced by drug-dependent patients with child abuse experiences, and gender-specific interventions may be more effective in treating their drug dependence.

  4. Polymorphisms of estrogen metabolism-related genes ESR1 , UGT2B17 , and UGT1A1 are not associated with osteoporosis in artificial menopausal Japanese women

    Megumi Yokota

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (BSO is a risk factor for osteoporosis. Previous studies have reported an association between genetic polymorphisms and the risk of developing osteoporosis. However, the relationship between osteoporosis and genetic polymorphisms in Japanese women treated with BSO is not well understood. To improve the quality of life for post-BSO patients, it is important to determine the genetic factors that influence their risk for osteoporosis. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between gene variations of estrogen metabolism-related genes and osteoporosis in surgically menopausal patients, which may improve the quality of life for surgically menopausal patients. Material and methods : This study included 203 menopausal women treated with BSO because of gynecologic disorders. One hundred and twenty-six women with artificial (surgical menopause, who had undergone BSO in the premenopausal period, were compared with 77 women with natural menopause, who had undergone BSO in the postmenopausal period. The women were tested for bone mineral density to diagnose osteoporosis. Polymorphisms of estrogen receptor 1 ( ESR1 and UDP-glucuronosyl transferase (UGT genes UGT2B17 and UGT1A1 were analyzed, and their association with bone mass and osteoporosis was statistically evaluated. Results : No significant association was found between osteoporosis and polymorphisms in ESR1 , UGT2B17 , or UGT1A1 in both groups, suggesting that BSO might be a more significant physiological factor in influencing bone mass density compared to genetic variations. Conclusions : These results suggest that the ESR1 , UGT2B17 , and UGT1A1 polymorphisms are not genetic factors affecting osteoporosis in postmenopausal Japanese women.

  5. II Italian intersociety consensus statement on antithrombotic prophylaxis in orthopaedics and traumatology: arthroscopy, traumatology, leg immobilization, minor orthopaedic procedures and spine surgery.

    Randelli, F; Romanini, E; Biggi, F; Danelli, G; Della Rocca, G; Laurora, N R; Imberti, D; Palareti, G; Prisco, D

    2013-03-01

    Pharmacological prophylaxis for preventing venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a worldwide established procedure in hip and knee replacement surgery, as well as in the treatment of femoral neck fractures, but few data exist in other fields of orthopaedics and traumatology. Thus, no guidelines or recommendations are available in the literature except for a limited number of weak statements about knee arthroscopy and lower limb fractures. In any case, none of them are a multidisciplinary effort as the one here presented. The Italian Society for Studies on Haemostasis and Thrombosis (SISET), the Italian Society of Orthopaedics and Traumatology (SIOT), the Association of Orthopaedic Traumatology of Italian Hospitals (OTODI), together with the Italian Society of Anesthesia, Analgesia, Resuscitation and Intensive Care (SIAARTI) and the Italian Society of General Medicine (SIMG) have set down easy and quick suggestions for VTE prophylaxis in a number of surgical conditions for which only scarce evidence is available. This inter-society consensus statement aims at simplifying the approach to VTE prophylaxis in the single patient with the goal to improve its clinical application.

  6. Radiation exposure to the eye lens of orthopaedic surgeons during various orthopaedic procedures

    Romanova, K.; Alyakov, M.; Vassileva, J.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the radiation dose to the eye lens of orthopaedic surgeons during various orthopaedic procedures and to make efforts to ensure that radiation protection is optimised. The study was performed for Fractura femoris and Fractura cruris procedures performed in orthopaedic operating theatres, as well as for fractures of wrist, ankle and hand/ shoulder performed in the emergency trauma room. The highest mean value of the eye lens dose of 47.2 μSv and higher mean fluoroscopy time of 3 min, as well as the corresponding highest maximum values of 77.1 μSv and 5.0 min were observed for the Fractura femoris procedure performed with the Biplanar 500e fluoroscopy systems. At a normal workload, the estimated mean annual dose values do not exceed the annual occupational dose limit for the lens of eye, but at a heavy workload in the department, this dose limit could be achieved or exceeded. The use of protective lead glasses is recommended as they could reduce the radiation exposure of the lens of the eye. The phantom measurements demonstrated that the use of half-dose mode could additionally reduce dose to the operator's eye lens. (authors)

  7. A Confirmatory Model for Substance Use Among Japanese American and Part-Japanese American Adolescents

    Williams, John Kino Yamaguchi; Else, 'Iwalani R. N.; Goebert, Deborah A.; Nishimura, Stephanie T.; Hishinuma, Earl S.; Andrade, Naleen N.

    2013-01-01

    Few studies have examined the effect of ethnicity and cultural identity on substance use among Asian and Pacific Islander adolescents. A cross-sequential study conducted in Hawai'i with 144 Japanese American and part-Japanese American adolescents assessed a model integrating Japanese ethnicity, cultural identity, substance use, major life events, and social support. Japanese American adolescents scored higher on the Japanese Culture Scale and on the Peers’ Social Support than the part-Japanese American adolescents. Significant associations for substance use and impairment included culturally intensified events and Japanese cultural identity- behavior subset. Models had good overall fits and suggested that conflict surrounding cultural identity may contribute to substance use. PMID:23480213

  8. Association between smoking habits and the first-time appearance of atrial fibrillation in Japanese patients: Evidence from the Shinken Database.

    Suzuki, Shinya; Otsuka, Takayuki; Sagara, Koichi; Kano, Hiroto; Matsuno, Shunsuke; Takai, Hideaki; Kato, Yuko; Uejima, Tokuhisa; Oikawa, Yuji; Nagashima, Kazuyuki; Kirigaya, Hajime; Kunihara, Takashi; Yajima, Junji; Sawada, Hitoshi; Aizawa, Tadanori; Yamashita, Takeshi

    2015-07-01

    We previously reported a cross-sectional analysis regarding the relationship between smoking and atrial fibrillation (AF) in a single hospital-based cohort with Japanese patients, but the effect of cessation of smoking and/or total tobacco consumption were unclear. We used data from the Shinken Database 2004-2011 (men/women, n=10,714/6803, respectively), which included all new patients attending the Cardiovascular Institute between June 2004 and March 2012. After excluding those previously diagnosed with AF (n=2296), 15,221 patients (men/women, n=9016/6205) were analyzed. During the follow-up period of 2.0±2.1 years (range 0.0-8.1), the incidence rates of new AF in smokers and non-smokers were 9.0 and 5.0 per 1000 patient-years, respectively. In adjusted models with Cox regression analysis, smokers were independently associated with new AF [hazard ratio (HR) 1.47, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.09-2.00]. Also, current smokers (HR 1.81, 95% CI 1.17-2.79) and smokers with Brinkman index ≥800 (HR 1.69, 95% CI 1.05-2.70) were independently associated with new AF. However, in current smokers, the HRs were not different by Brinkman index (Brinkman index Smoking was independently associated with the first-appearance of AF in patients in sinus rhythm, especially when the patients continued their smoking habit. However, in patients who continued smoking, difference by total tobacco consumption was not observed, suggesting the significance of cessation of smoking for preventing AF. Our data are limited because of a single hospital-based nature and a relatively short observation period. Copyright © 2014 Japanese College of Cardiology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Association of serum orosomucoid with 30-min plasma glucose and glucose excursion during oral glucose tolerance tests in non-obese young Japanese women.

    Tsuboi, Ayaka; Minato, Satomi; Yano, Megumu; Takeuchi, Mika; Kitaoka, Kaori; Kurata, Miki; Yoshino, Gen; Wu, Bin; Kazumi, Tsutomu; Fukuo, Keisuke

    2018-01-01

    Inflammatory markers are elevated in insulin resistance (IR) and diabetes. We tested whether serum orosomucoid (ORM) is associated with postload glucose, β-cell dysfunction and IR inferred from plasma insulin kinetics during a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). 75 g OGTTs were performed with multiple postload glucose and insulin measurements over a 30-120 min period in 168 non-obese Japanese women (aged 18-24 years). OGTT responses, serum adiponectin and high-sensitivity C reactive protein (hsCRP) were cross-sectionally analyzed by analysis of variance and then Bonferroni's multiple comparison procedure. Stepwise multivariate linear regression analyses were used to identify most important determinants of ORM. Of 168 women, 161 had normal glucose tolerance. Postload glucose levels and the area under the glucose curve (AUCg) increased in a stepwise fashion from the first through the third ORM tertile. In contrast, there was no or modest, if any, association with fat mass index, trunk/leg fat ratio, adiponectin, hsCRP, postload insulinemia, the Matsuda index and homeostasis model assessment IR. In multivariable models, which incorporated the insulinogenic index, the Matsuda index and HOMA-IR, 30 min glucose (standardized β: 0.517) and AUCg (standardized β: 0.495) explained 92.8% of ORM variations. Elevated circulating orosomucoid was associated with elevated 30 min glucose and glucose excursion in non-obese young Japanese women independently of adiposity, IR, insulin secretion, adiponectin and other investigated markers of inflammation. Although further research is needed, these results may suggest a clue to identify novel pathways that may have utility in monitoring dysglycemia within normal glucose tolerance.

  10. Comprehensive Identification of Sexual Dimorphism-Associated Differentially Expressed Genes in Two-Way Factorial Designed RNA-Seq Data on Japanese Quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica.

    Kelsey Caetano-Anolles

    Full Text Available Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica reach sexual maturity earlier, breed rapidly and successfully, and cost less and require less space than other birds raised commercially. Given the value of this species for food production and experimental use, more studies are necessary to determine chromosomal regions and genes associated with gender and breed-differentiation. This study employed Trinity and edgeR for transcriptome analysis of next-generation RNA-seq data, which included 4 tissues obtained from 3 different breeding lines of Japanese quail (random bred control, heavy weight, low weight. Differentially expressed genes shared between female and male tissue contrast groups were analyzed to identify genes related to sexual dimorphism as well as potential novel candidate genes for molecular sexing. Several of the genes identified in the present study as significant sex-related genes have been previously found in avian gene expression analyses (NIPBL, UBAP2, and other genes found differentially expressed in this study and not previously associated with sex-related differences may be considered potential candidates for molecular sexing (TERA, MYP0, PPR17, CASQ2. Additionally, other genes likely associated with neuronal and brain development (CHKA, NYAP, as well as body development and size differentiation (ANKRD26, GRP87 in quail were identified. Expression of homeobox protein regulating genes (HXC4, ISL1 shared between our two sex-related contrast groups (Female Brain vs. Male Brain and Ovary vs. Testis indicates that these genes may regulate sex-specific anatomical development. Results reveal genetic features of the quail breed and could allow for more effective molecular sexing as well as selective breeding for traits important in commercial production.

  11. Comparison of health literacy in privately insured and public hospital orthopaedic patients.

    Cosic, Filip; Porter, Tabitha; Norsworthy, Cameron; Price, Rohan; Bedi, Harvinder

    2018-05-14

    Objective The aim of the present study was to quantify and compare patient health literacy between privately insured and public orthopaedic patients. Methods As part of the present cross-sectional study, elective postoperative orthopaedic patients across two sites were recruited and asked to complete a questionnaire at the first postoperative out-patient review. Patients were divided into three groups: (1) a public group (Public); (2) a private group (Private-pre); and (3) a private group that completed the questionnaire immediately after the out-patient review (Private-post). The questionnaire consisted of six questions regarding surgical management, expected recovery time and postoperative instructions. Patients were further asked to grade their satisfaction regarding information received throughout their management. Results In all, 150 patients completed the questionnaire, 50 in each of the three groups. Patients in the Public, Private-pre and Private-post groups answered a mean 2.74, 3.24 and 4.70 of 6 questions correctly respectively. The Private-pre group was 1.46-fold more likely to demonstrate correct health literacy than the Public group, whereas the Private-post group was 2.44-fold more likely to demonstrate improved health literacy than the Private-pre group. Patient satisfaction with information received was not associated with health literacy. Conclusion Limited health literacy in orthopaedic patients continues to be an area of concern. Both private and public orthopaedic patients demonstrated poor health literacy, but private patients demonstrated significant improvement after the out-patient review. What is known about the topic? Limited health literacy is a growing public health issue worldwide, with previous literature demonstrating a prevalence of low health literacy of 26% and marginal health literacy of 20% among all patient populations. Of concern, limited health literacy has been shown to result in a range of adverse health outcomes, including

  12. The influence of alcohol and tobacco use in orthopaedic inpatients on complications of surgery.

    Williams, Gerard; Daly, Michelle; Proude, Elizabeth M; Kermode, Steven; Davis, Michelle; Barling, Jan; Haber, Paul S

    2008-01-01

    Tobacco use and heavy alcohol consumption are associated with increased morbidity and mortality. There is limited research on the correlation between tobacco and risky levels of alcohol use and the possible complications associated with a hospital admission. The underestimation of problem drinking, in particular, has obvious repercussions for the management of patients in hospital. If alcohol-related problems go undetected or unrecorded, treatment may be inadequate or inappropriate. The aims of the project were to assess the prevalence of high-risk alcohol and tobacco use in orthopaedic in-patients and to examine any relationship between alcohol and tobacco use and the number and type of complications, management and length of stay. One hundred and fifty-three consecutive orthopaedic admissions to the Orthopaedic Ward at Lismore Base Hospital were screened using the Drinkcheck questionnaire, which is based on the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), but which also screens for tobacco use. Nursing staff on the ward completed a Complications Evaluation Questionnaire (CEQ). The risk status of the subjects was compared to the number and type of complications, to assess any effects of alcohol and tobacco on post-surgical complications. Significant correlations were found between tobacco use, hazardous and harmful alcohol use and numerous medical complications and behavioural problems. Behavioural problems associated with risky alcohol use included verbal abuse, agitation and sleep disturbances, particularly in men; problems associated with tobacco use included agitation and non-compliance. Orthopaedic patients who smoke and/or drink heavily prior to surgery may have more non-medical complications than non-smokers and light or non-drinkers. All surgery patients should thus be screened for alcohol and tobacco use and alcohol withdrawal, which may cause other symptoms such as behavioural problems, non-compliance and verbal abuse post-surgery.

  13. The effectiveness of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus colonisation screening in asymptomatic healthcare workers in an Irish orthopaedic unit.

    Edmundson, S P

    2012-01-31

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections are associated with increased mortality, costs and length of stay compared to non-MRSA infections. This observational 4-year study analyses the impact of screening and treating orthopaedic healthcare workers for MRSA colonisation. A total of 1,011 swabs were taken from 566 healthcare workers. Positive healthcare workers were treated with topical mupirocin to both anterior nares. The prevalence of MRSA colonisation on initial testing was 4.77%. The rate of positive MRSA colonisation of those tested on more than one occasion fell from 5.88% to 2.71% (p = 0.055) on subsequent screening. All healthcare workers receiving treatment were successfully cleared of colonisation; however, some required more than one course of treatment. These results show that there could be a role for screening and treating orthopaedic staff for MRSA colonisation as part of a strategy to reduce the prevalence of MRSA infections in orthopaedic units.

  14. Associations among hair loss, oral sulfur-containing gases, and gastrointestinal and metabolic linked diseases in Japanese elderly men: pilot study

    Hamasaki Tomoko

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Male pattern baldness (MPB, an observable trait, has been reported to be associated with various diseases, such as prostate cancer and cardiovascular disease. Oral sulfur-containing gases have also been suggested to be useful as markers of systemic health condition. However, there are no known reports regarding the associations among MPB, and oral sulfur-containing gases, and systemic health conditions in males. Methods We studied 170 male subjects aged either 60 or 65 years old. The degree of MPB was assessed using the Norwood-Hamilton Baldness scale. Oral sulfur-containing gases were measured using a compact-designed device. All subjects completed physical and laboratory blood examinations, a face-to-face medical questionnaire, and an oral examination. Results There were significant differences between the levels of CH3SCH3 and baldness patterns, independent of age. When we analyzed whether the association was linked to systemic health condition, a strong significant association was observed between the level of CH3SCH3 and severe MPB in subjects with gastrointestinal diseases, hypertension, and hypercholesterolemia. Conclusion These results suggest that MPB is associated with the level of CH3SCH3, a sulfur-containing gas that causes oral malodor, in elderly Japanese males. Further, the association was intensified by the existence of gastrointestinal tract and metabolic disorders.

  15. Association of coffee intake with total and cause-specific mortality in a Japanese population: the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study.

    Saito, Eiko; Inoue, Manami; Sawada, Norie; Shimazu, Taichi; Yamaji, Taiki; Iwasaki, Motoki; Sasazuki, Shizuka; Noda, Mitsuhiko; Iso, Hiroyasu; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2015-05-01

    Despite the rising consumption of coffee worldwide, few prospective cohort studies assessed the association of coffee intake with mortality including total and major causes of death. We aimed to investigate the association between habitual coffee drinking and mortality from all causes, cancer, heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, respiratory disease, injuries, and other causes of death in a large-scale, population-based cohort study in Japan. We studied 90,914 Japanese persons aged between 40 and 69 y without a history of cancer, cerebrovascular disease, or ischemic heart disease at the time of the baseline study. Subjects were followed up for an average of 18.7 y, during which 12,874 total deaths were reported. The association between coffee intake and risk of total and cause-specific mortality was assessed by using a Cox proportional hazards regression model with adjustment for potential confounders. We showed an inverse association between coffee intake and total mortality in both men and women. HRs (95% CIs) for total death in subjects who consumed coffee compared with those who never drank coffee were 0.91 (0.86-0.95) for 5 cups/d (P-trend Coffee was inversely associated with mortality from heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, and respiratory disease. With this prospective study, we suggest that the habitual intake of coffee is associated with lower risk of total mortality and 3 leading causes of death in Japan. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  16. Evaluation of Pediatric Questions on the Orthopaedic In-Training Examination-An Update.

    Murphy, Robert F; Nunez, Leah; Barfield, William R; Mooney, James F

    2017-09-01

    Pediatric orthopaedics is tested frequently on the Orthopaedic In-Training Examination (OITE). The most recent data on the pediatrics section of the OITE were generated from content 10 years old. The purpose of this study is to assess the pediatric orthopaedic questions on the 2011 to 2014 OITE, and to compare question categories and cognitive taxonomy with previous data. Four years (2011 to 2014) of OITE questions, answers, and references were reviewed. The number of pediatric questions per year was recorded, as well as presence of a clinical photo or imaging modality. Each question was categorized and assigned a cognitive taxonomy level. Categories included: knowledge; knowledge-treatment modalities; diagnosis; diagnosis/recognition of associated conditions; diagnosis/further studies; and diagnosis/treatment. Cognitive taxonomy levels included: simple recall, interpretation of data, and advanced problem-solving. The 3 most commonly covered topics were upper extremity trauma (17.4%), scoliosis (10.1%), and developmental dysplasia of the hip (5.7%). Compared with previous data, the percentage of pediatric questions was constant (13% vs. 14%). Categorically, the more recent OITE examinations contained significantly fewer questions testing simple knowledge (19% vs. 39%, P=0.0047), and significantly more questions testing knowledge of treatment modalities (17% vs. 9%, P=0.016) and diagnosis with associated conditions (19% vs. 9%, P=0.0034). Regarding cognitive taxonomy, there was a significant increase in the average number of questions that required advanced problem-solving (57% vs. 46%, P=0.048). Significantly more questions utilized clinical photographs and imaging studies (62% vs. 48%, P=0.012). The most common reference materials provided to support correct responses included Lovell and Winter's Pediatric Orthopaedics (25.7%) and the Journal of Pediatric Orthopaedics (23.4%). Although the percentage of pediatric questions on the OITE has remained essentially

  17. Detection of ionospheric perturbations associated with Japanese earthquakes on the basis of reception of LF transmitter signals on the satellite DEMETER

    F. Muto

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available There have been recently reported a lot of electromagnetic phenomena associated with earthquakes (EQs. Among these, the ground-based reception of subionospheric waves from VLF/LF transmitters, is recognized as a promising tool to investigate the ionospheric perturbations associated with EQs. This paper deals with the corresponding whistler-mode signals in the upper ionosphere from those VLF/LF transmitters, which is the counterpart of subionospheric signals. The whistler-mode VLF/LF transmitter signals are detected on board the French satellite, DEMETER launched on 29 June 2004. We have chosen several large Japanese EQs including the Miyagi-oki EQ (16 August 2005; M=7.2, depth=36 km, and the target transmitter is a Japanese LF transmitter (JJY whose transmitter frequency is 40 kHz. Due to large longitudinal separation of each satellite orbit (2500 km, we have to adopt a statistical analysis over a rather long period (such as 3 weeks or one month to have reliable data set. By analyzing the spatial distribution of JJY signal intensity (in the form of signal to noise ratio SNR during a period of 4 months including the Miyagi-oki EQ, we have found significant changes in the intensity; generally the SNR is significantly depleted before the EQ, which is considered to be a precursory ionospheric signature of the EQ. This abnormal effect is reasonably explained in terms of either (1 enhanced absorption of whistler-mode LF signals in the lower ionosphere due to the lowering of the lower ionosphere, or (2 nonlinear wave-wave scattering. Finally, this analysis suggests an important role of satellite observation in the study of lithosphere-atmosphere-ionosphere coupling.

  18. High serum carotenoids are associated with lower risk for developing elevated serum alanine aminotransferase among Japanese subjects: the Mikkabi cohort study.

    Sugiura, Minoru; Nakamura, Mieko; Ogawa, Kazunori; Ikoma, Yoshinori; Yano, Masamichi

    2016-04-01

    Many recent studies have shown that antioxidant vitamins and/or carotenoids may reduce liver disease, but this association has not been well established with thorough longitudinal cohort studies. The objective of this study was to longitudinally investigate whether serum carotenoids at baseline are associated with the risk of developing elevated serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) among Japanese subjects. We conducted a follow-up study of 1073 males and females aged between 30 and 79 years at baseline from the Mikkabi prospective cohort study. Those who participated in the baseline study and completed follow-up surveys were examined longitudinally. Exclusions included excessive alcohol consumption (≥60 g alcohol/d), hepatitis B and C and having a history of medication use for liver disease. A cohort of 213 males and 574 females free of elevated serum ALT (>30 IU/ml) at baseline was studied. Over a mean follow-up period of 7·4 (sd 3·1) years, thirty-one males and forty-nine females developed new elevated serum ALT. After adjustments for confounders, the hazard ratios for elevated serum ALT in the highest tertiles of basal serum β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin and total provitamin A carotenoids against the lowest tertiles were 0·43 (95 % CI 0·22, 0·81), 0·51 (CI 0·27, 0·94) and 0·52 (CI 0·28, 0·97), respectively. For α-carotene and lycopene, borderline reduced risks were also observed; however, these were not significant. Our results further support the hypothesis that antioxidant carotenoids, especially provitamin A carotenoids, might help prevent earlier pathogenesis of non-alcoholic liver disease in Japanese subjects.

  19. ASSOCIATION OF CARDIORESPIRATORY FITNESS WITH ELEVATED HEPATIC ENZYME AND LIVER FAT IN JAPANESE PATIENTS WITH IMPAIRED GLUCOSE TOLERANCE AND TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS

    Mayumi Nagano

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available No study has so far determined whether a favorable level of cardiorespiratory fitness (CF contributes to a reduced risk of elevated hepatic enzymes and a high degree of liver fat in patients having various metabolic risks. This study investigated the association between the maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max and the prevalence of elevated liver enzymes and high liver fat, while considering such factors as abdominal obesity, hyperinsulinemia and the other metabolic risks. The study enrolled newly diagnosed Japanese patients (n = 84; 52 males and 32 females; aged 25-69 years with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT and type 2 diabetes mellitus (Type2DM who did not receive any intervention or pharmacological therapy. The subjects were divided into 3 groups according to the distribution of the VO2max for each sex. The odds ratios (ORs for the prevalence of elevated aspartate and alanine aminotransferase (AST and ALT and high degree of liver fat adjusted for age, sex, disease type, daily ethanol intake, and current smoking were significantly lower in the moderate- and high CF groups in comparison to the low CF group. In addition, a significant OR for AST was maintained in the moderate and high CF group after adjusting for abdominal obesity and/or hyperinsulinemia. The significant ORs for the prevalence of elevated ALT and a high degree of liver fat were attenuated after adjusting for abdominal obesity and/or hyperinsulinemia. No significant OR for the prevalence of elevated gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT was recognized in all logistic models. These results indicated that CF was negatively and independently associated with the prevalence of elevated AST even in Japanese diabetic patients having various metabolic risks. It was concluded that the AST level might be useful as a simple marker reflecting physical inactivity in such subjects

  20. Database and Registry Research in Orthopaedic Surgery: Part I: Claims-Based Data.

    Pugely, Andrew J; Martin, Christopher T; Harwood, Jared; Ong, Kevin L; Bozic, Kevin J; Callaghan, John J

    2015-08-05

    The use of large-scale national databases for observational research in orthopaedic surgery has grown substantially in the last decade, and the data sets can be grossly categorized as either administrative claims or clinical registries. Administrative claims data comprise the billing records associated with the delivery of health-care services. Orthopaedic researchers have used both government and private claims to describe temporal trends, geographic variation, disparities, complications, outcomes, and resource utilization associated with both musculoskeletal disease and treatment. Medicare claims comprise one of the most robust data sets used to perform orthopaedic research, with >45 million beneficiaries. The U.S. government, through the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services, often uses these data to drive changes in health policy. Private claims data used in orthopaedic research often comprise more heterogeneous patient demographic samples, but allow longitudinal analysis similar to that offered by Medicare claims. Discharge databases, such as the U.S. National Inpatient Sample, provide a wide national sampling of inpatient hospital stays from all payers and allow analysis of associated adverse events and resource utilization. Administrative claims data benefit from the high patient numbers obtained through a majority of hospitals. Using claims, it is possible to follow patients longitudinally throughout encounters irrespective of the location of the institution delivering health care. Some disadvantages include lack of precision of ICD-9 (International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision) coding schemes. Much of these data are expensive to purchase, complicated to organize, and labor-intensive to manipulate--often requiring trained specialists for analysis. Given the changing health-care environment, it is likely that databases will provide valuable information that has the potential to influence clinical practice improvement and health policy for

  1. Bio-psychosocial determinants of time lost from work following non life threatening acute orthopaedic trauma.

    Clay, Fiona J; Newstead, Stuart V; Watson, Wendy L; Ozanne-Smith, Joan; McClure, Roderick J

    2010-01-05

    To determine factors predicting the duration of time away from work following acute orthopaedic non life threatening trauma Prospective cohort study conducted at four hospitals in Victoria, Australia. The cohort comprised 168 patients aged 18-64 years who were working prior to the injury and sustained a range of acute unintentional orthopaedic injuries resulting in hospitalization. Baseline data was obtained by survey and medical record review. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was used to examine the association between potential predictors and the duration of time away from work during the six month study. The study achieved 89% follow-up. Of the 168 participants recruited to the study, 68% returned to work during the six month study. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression analysis identified that blue collar work, negative pain attitudes with respect to work, high initial pain intensity, injury severity, older age, initial need for surgery, the presence of co-morbid health conditions at study entry and an orthopaedic injury to more than one region were associated with extended duration away from work following the injury. Participants in receipt of compensation who reported high social functioning at two weeks were 2.58 times more likely to have returned to work than similar participants reporting low social functioning. When only those who had returned to work were considered, the participant reported reason for return to work " to fill the day" was a significant predictor of earlier RTW [RR 2.41 (95% C.I 1.35-4.30)] whereas "financial security" and "because they felt able to" did not achieve significance. Many injury-related and psycho social factors affect the duration of time away from work following orthopaedic injury. Some of these are potentially modifiable and may be amenable to intervention. Further consideration of the reasons provided by participants for returning to work may provide important opportunities for social

  2. Impact of Small Body Weight on Tenofovir-Associated Renal Dysfunction in HIV-Infected Patients: A Retrospective Cohort Study of Japanese Patients

    Nishijima, Takeshi; Komatsu, Hirokazu; Gatanaga, Hiroyuki; Aoki, Takahiro; Watanabe, Koji; Kinai, Ei; Honda, Haruhito; Tanuma, Junko; Yazaki, Hirohisa; Tsukada, Kunihisa; Honda, Miwako; Teruya, Katsuji; Kikuchi, Yoshimi; Oka, Shinichi

    2011-01-01

    Background Treatment with tenofovir is sometimes associated with renal dysfunction. Limited information is available on this side effect in patients with small body weight, although the use of tenofovir will spread rapidly in Asia and Africa, where patients are likely to be of smaller body weight. Methods In a single-center cohort, Japanese patients with HIV infection who started tenofovir-containing antiretroviral therapy were retrospectively analyzed. The incidence of tenofovir-associated renal dysfunction, defined as more than 25% decrement of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) from the baseline, was determined. The effects of small body weight and body mass index (BMI) on tenofovir-associated renal dysfunction, respectively, were estimated in univariate and multivariate Cox hazards models as the primary exposure. Other possible risk factors were evaluated by univariate analysis and those found significant were entered into the multivariate analysis. Results The median weight of 495 patients was 63 kg. Tenofovir-related renal dysfunction occurred in 97 (19.6%) patients (incidence: 10.5 per 100 person-years). Univariate analysis showed that the incidence of tenofovir-related renal dysfunction was significantly associated with smaller body weight and BMI, respectively (per 5 kg decrement, HR = 1.23; 95% CI, 1.10–1.37; pdecrement, HR = 1.14; 95% CI, 1.05–1.23; p = 0.001). Old age, high baseline eGFR, low serum creatinine, low CD4 count, high HIV viral load, concurrent nephrotoxic drugs, hepatitis C infection, and current smoking were also associated with tenofovir-related renal dysfunction. Multivariate analysis identified small body weight as a significant risk (adjusted HR = 1.13; 95% CI, 1.01–1.27; p = 0.039), while small BMI had marginal significance (adjusted HR = 1.07; 95% CI 1.00–1.16; p = 0.058). Conclusion The incidence of tenofovir-associated renal dysfunction in Japanese patients was high. Small body weight

  3. Low-frequency coding variants in CETP and CFB are associated with susceptibility of exudative age-related macular degeneration in the Japanese population.

    Momozawa, Yukihide; Akiyama, Masato; Kamatani, Yoichiro; Arakawa, Satoshi; Yasuda, Miho; Yoshida, Shigeo; Oshima, Yuji; Mori, Ryusaburo; Tanaka, Koji; Mori, Keisuke; Inoue, Satoshi; Terasaki, Hiroko; Yasuma, Tetsuhiro; Honda, Shigeru; Miki, Akiko; Inoue, Maiko; Fujisawa, Kimihiko; Takahashi, Kanji; Yasukawa, Tsutomu; Yanagi, Yasuo; Kadonosono, Kazuaki; Sonoda, Koh-Hei; Ishibashi, Tatsuro; Takahashi, Atsushi; Kubo, Michiaki

    2016-11-15

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a major cause of blindness in the elderly. Previous sequencing studies of AMD susceptibility genes have revealed the association of rare coding variants in CFH, CFI, C3 and C9 in European population; however, the impact of rare or low-frequency coding variants on AMD susceptibility in other populations is largely unknown. To identify the role of low-frequency coding variants on exudative AMD susceptibility in a Japanese population, we analysed the association of coding variants of 34 AMD candidate genes in the two-stage design by a multiplex PCR-based target sequencing method. We used a total of 2,886 (1st: 827, 2nd: 2,059) exudative AMD cases including typical AMD, polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy, and retinal angiomatous proliferation and 9,337 (1st: 3,247 2nd: 6,090) controls. Gene-based analysis found a significant association of low-frequency variants (minor allele frequency (MAF) low-frequency variant (R74H) in CFB would be individually associated with AMD susceptibility independent of the GWAS associated SNP. These findings highlight the importance of target sequencing to reveal the impact of rare or low-frequency coding variants on disease susceptibility in different ethnic populations.

  4. Association of prenatal exposure to maternal smoking and postnatal exposure to household smoking with dental caries in 3-year-old Japanese children.

    Tanaka, Keiko; Miyake, Yoshihiro; Nagata, Chisato; Furukawa, Shinya; Arakawa, Masashi

    2015-11-01

    Epidemiological studies of the association between smoking exposure and dental caries are limited. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to examine the association between prenatal and postnatal secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure and the prevalence of dental caries in primary dentition in young Japanese children. Study subjects were 6412 children aged 3 years. Information on exposure to maternal smoking during pregnancy and postnatal SHS exposure at home was collected via parent questionnaire. Children were classified as having dental caries if one or more primary teeth had decayed or had been filled. Compared with never smoking during pregnancy, maternal smoking in the first trimester of pregnancy was significantly associated with an increased prevalence of dental caries in children (adjusted odds ratio=1.37, 95% confidence interval: 1.03-1.80). Postnatal SHS exposure was also positively associated with dental caries, with a significant positive exposure-response relationship. Compared with children not exposed to prenatal maternal smoking or postnatal SHS at home, those exposed to both prenatal and postnatal smoking had higher odds of dental caries (adjusted odds ratio=1.62, 95% confidence interval: 1.23-2.11). Our findings suggest that maternal smoking during pregnancy and postnatal SHS exposure may be associated with an increased prevalence of dental caries in primary dentition. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Intra-articular platelet-rich plasma (PRP) injections for treating knee pain associated with osteoarthritis of the knee in the Japanese population: a phase I and IIa clinical trial.

    Taniguchi, Yu; Yoshioka, Tomokazu; Kanamori, Akihiro; Aoto, Katsuya; Sugaya, Hisashi; Yamazaki, Masashi

    2018-02-01

    Intra-articular platelet-rich plasma (PRP) injection has been found to be effective for treating osteoarthritis in patients from Western countries; however, the safety and efficacy of PRP have not been sufficiently investigated in Japanese patients. The present study aimed to evaluate the safety and feasibility of intra-articular PRP injection in Japanese patients with knee osteoarthritis. PRP without white blood cells was prepared using a single-spin centrifuge (PRGF-Endoret; BTI Biotechnology Institute, Vitoria, Spain). A 6-mL PRP volume was injected in the knee joint three times at 1 week intervals. All patients were prospectively evaluated before intervention and at 1, 3, and 6 months after the treatment. Adverse events, the Visual Analog Scale (VAS) pain score, Japanese Knee Osteoarthritis Measure (JKOM) score and Japanese Orthopedic Association score were evaluated. Ten patients (all women; average age, 60.6 years) were treated. Only minor adverse events after injection were noted, and symptoms resolved within 48 hours after the injection. The average VAS pain scores were 71.6 mm and 18.4 mm at baseline and the 6-month follow-up, respectively (P PRP injection likely represents a safe treatment option for Japanese patients with mild-to-moderate knee osteoarthritis, and has the potential to relieve pain for up to 6 months, but further study is needed to verify the efficacy.

  6. Risk factors for surgical site infections following clean orthopaedic ...

    Risk factors for surgical site infections following clean orthopaedic operations. ... the host and environmental risk factors for surgical site infections following clean ... Materials and Methods: Consecutive patients who satisfied the inclusion ...

  7. A comparison of the risk of stillbirth associated with paternal pre-conception irradiation in the Sellafield workforce with that of stillbirth and untoward pregnancy outcome among Japanese atomic bomb survivors

    Little, M.P.

    1999-01-01

    A comparison is made of the relative risks associated with paternal pre-conception irradiation of stillbirth and untoward pregnancy outcome (stillbirths, congenital malformations, neonatal deaths) in the offspring of the Japanese atomic bomb survivors and of stillbirth in the offspring of Sellafield workers. It is concluded that the pre-conception exposure risks of stillbirth in the offspring of Sellafield workers are statistically incompatible with the Japanese data at the 5% level. Other human and experimental data relating to the induction of congenital abnormalities are briefly reviewed. (author)

  8. Haemodilution study in major orthopaedic surgery experience as a technique of blood conservation.

    Liaw, Y; Boon, P; Deshpande, S

    1994-08-01

    Haemodilution and auto-transfusion were carried out in 103 consecutive patients having major orthopaedic surgery. The records of 99 patients were available for retrospective assessment of this technique. Fifty-six per cent of the patients did not require any homologous blood transfusion. Homologous blood transfusion was given to 44% of the patients, who used up 99 units of blood in their entire hospital stay. There was no morbidity such as transfusion reaction, infection, decrease in platelets or re-operation for bleeding associated with the procedure, although there was one death secondary to myocardial infarction. This technique offered an alternative method to reduce the use of homologous blood transfusion in major orthopaedic operations.

  9. A basic introduction to statistics for the orthopaedic surgeon.

    Bertrand, Catherine; Van Riet, Roger; Verstreken, Frederik; Michielsen, Jef

    2012-02-01

    Orthopaedic surgeons should review the orthopaedic literature in order to keep pace with the latest insights and practices. A good understanding of basic statistical principles is of crucial importance to the ability to read articles critically, to interpret results and to arrive at correct conclusions. This paper explains some of the key concepts in statistics, including hypothesis testing, Type I and Type II errors, testing of normality, sample size and p values.

  10. Battlefield-Acquired Immunogenicity to Metals Affects Orthopaedic Implant Outcome

    2015-10-01

    Award Number: W81XWH-10-2-0138 TITLE: Battlefield-Acquired Immunogenicity to Metals Affects Orthopaedic Implant Outcome PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR...Immunogenicity to Metals Affects Orthopaedic pla t Outcome 5b. GRANT NUMBER W91ZSQ0135N646 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Nadim James...DISTRIBUTION / AVAILABILITY STATEMENT Approved for public release; distribution unlimited 13. SUPPLEM ENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT The effects of battlefield

  11. Bone Adaptation Around Orthopaedic Implants of Varying Materials

    Bagge, Mette

    1998-01-01

    The bone adaptation around orthopaedic implants is simulated using a three-dimensional finite element model. The remodeling scheme has its origin in optimization methods, and includes anisotropy and time-dependent loading......The bone adaptation around orthopaedic implants is simulated using a three-dimensional finite element model. The remodeling scheme has its origin in optimization methods, and includes anisotropy and time-dependent loading...

  12. Smartphone apps for orthopaedic sports medicine - a smart move?

    Wong, Seng Juong; Robertson, Greg A; Connor, Katie L; Brady, Richard R; Wood, Alexander M

    2015-01-01

    With the advent of smartphones together with their downloadable applications (apps), there is increasing opportunities for doctors, including orthopaedic sports surgeons, to integrate such technology into clinical practice. However, the clinical reliability of these medical apps remains questionable. We reviewed available apps themed specifically towards Orthopaedic Sports Medicine and related conditions and assessed the level of medical professional involvement in their design and content, along with a review of these apps. The most popular smartphone app stores (Android, Apple, Blackberry, Windows, Samsung, Nokia) were searched for Orthopaedic Sports medicine themed apps, using the search terms; Orthopaedic Sports Medicine, Orthopaedics, Sports medicine, Knee Injury, Shoulder Injury, Anterior Cruciate Ligament Tear, Medial Collateral Ligament Tear, Rotator Cuff Tear, Meniscal Tear, Tennis Elbow. All English language apps related to orthopaedic sports medicine were included. A total of 76 individual Orthopaedic Sports Medicine themed apps were identified. According to app store classifications, there were 45 (59 %) medical themed apps, 28 (37 %) health and fitness themed apps, 1 (1 %) business app, 1 (1 %) reference app and 1 (1 %) sports app. Forty-nine (64 %) apps were available for download free of charge. For those that charged access, the prices ranged from £0.69 to £69.99. Only 51 % of sports medicine apps had customer satisfaction ratings and 39 % had named medical professional involvement in their development or content. We found the majority of Orthopaedic Sports Medicine apps had no named medical professional involvement, raising concerns over their content and evidence-base. We recommend increased regulation of such apps to improve the accountability of app content.

  13. Do time-invariant confounders explain away the association between job stress and workers' mental health? Evidence from Japanese occupational panel data.

    Oshio, Takashi; Tsutsumi, Akizumi; Inoue, Akiomi

    2015-02-01

    It is well known that job stress is negatively related to workers' mental health, but most recent studies have not controlled for unobserved time-invariant confounders. In the current study, we attempted to validate previous observations on the association between job stress and workers' mental health, by removing the effects of unobserved time-invariant confounders. We used data from three to four waves of an occupational Japanese cohort survey, focusing on 31,382 observations of 9741 individuals who participated in at least two consecutive waves. We estimated mean-centered fixed effects models to explain psychological distress in terms of the Kessler 6 (K6) scores (range: 0-24) by eight job stress indicators related to the job demands-control, effort-reward imbalance, and organizational injustice models. Mean-centered fixed effects models reduced the magnitude of the association between jobs stress and K6 scores to 44.8-54.2% of those observed from pooled ordinary least squares. However, the association remained highly significant even after controlling for unobserved time-invariant confounders for all job stress indicators. In addition, alternatively specified models showed the robustness of the results. In all, we concluded that the validity of major job stress models, which link job stress and workers' mental health, was robust, although unobserved time-invariant confounders led to an overestimation of the association. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Light-intensity physical activity is associated with insulin resistance in elderly Japanese women independent of moderate-to vigorous-intensity physical activity.

    Gando, Yuko; Murakami, Haruka; Kawakami, Ryoko; Tanaka, Noriko; Sanada, Kiyoshi; Tabata, Izumi; Higuchi, Mitsuru; Miyachi, Motohiko

    2014-02-01

    It is unclear whether light physical activity is beneficially associated with insulin resistance, similar to moderate and/or vigorous physical activity. This cross-sectional study was performed to determine the relationship between the amount of light physical activity, as determined with a triaxial accelerometer, and insulin resistance. A total of 807 healthy men and women participated in this study. Physical activity was measured using a triaxial accelerometer worn for 28 days and summarized as light intensity (1.1-2.9 METs) or moderate to vigorous intensity (≥ 3.0 METs). Insulin resistance was evaluated by HOMA_R (FPG [mg/dL] × IRI [μU/mL]/405). The daily time spent in light physical activity was inversely associated with HOMA_R (r = -0.173, P physical activity and HOMA_R remained statistically significant (β = -0.119, P physical activity remained significantly associated with HOMA_R following further adjustment for moderate to vigorous intensity activity (β = -0.125, P physical activity was modeled as quartiles, especially in elderly women. These cross-sectional data suggest that light-intensity physical activity is beneficially associated with insulin resistance in elderly Japanese women.

  15. The Relationship of Obesity to Increasing Health-Care Burden in the Setting of Orthopaedic Polytrauma.

    Licht, Heather; Murray, Mark; Vassaur, John; Jupiter, Daniel C; Regner, Justin L; Chaput, Christopher D

    2015-11-18

    With the rise of obesity in the American population, there has been a proportionate increase of obesity in the trauma population. The purpose of this study was to use a computed tomography-based measurement of adiposity to determine if obesity is associated with an increased burden to the health-care system in patients with orthopaedic polytrauma. A prospective comprehensive trauma database at a level-I trauma center was utilized to identify 301 patients with polytrauma who had orthopaedic injuries and intensive care unit admission from 2006 to 2011. Routine thoracoabdominal computed tomographic scans allowed for measurement of the truncal adiposity volume. The truncal three-dimensional reconstruction body mass index was calculated from the computed tomography-based volumes based on a previously validated algorithm. A truncal three-dimensional reconstruction body mass index of obese patients and ≥ 30 kg/m(2) denoted obese patients. The need for orthopaedic surgical procedure, in-hospital mortality, length of stay, hospital charges, and discharge disposition were compared between the two groups. Of the 301 patients, 21.6% were classified as obese (truncal three-dimensional reconstruction body mass index of ≥ 30 kg/m(2)). Higher truncal three-dimensional reconstruction body mass index was associated with longer hospital length of stay (p = 0.02), more days spent in the intensive care unit (p = 0.03), more frequent discharge to a long-term care facility (p obesity on patients with polytrauma. Obese patients were found to have higher total hospital charges, longer hospital stays, discharge to a continuing-care facility, and a higher rate of orthopaedic surgical intervention. Copyright © 2015 by The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Incorporated.

  16. Readability of Orthopaedic Patient-reported Outcome Measures: Is There a Fundamental Failure to Communicate?

    Perez, Jorge L; Mosher, Zachary A; Watson, Shawna L; Sheppard, Evan D; Brabston, Eugene W; McGwin, Gerald; Ponce, Brent A

    2017-08-01

    Patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) are increasingly used to quantify patients' perceptions of functional ability. The American Medical Association and NIH suggest patient materials be written at or below 6th to 8th grade reading levels, respectively, yet one recent study asserts that few PROMs comply with these recommendations, and suggests that the majority of PROMs are written at too high of a reading level for self-administered patient use. Notably, this study was limited in its use of only one readability algorithm, although there is no commonly accepted, standard readability algorithm for healthcare-related materials. Our study, using multiple readability equations and heeding equal weight to each, hopes to yield a broader, all-encompassing estimate of readability, thereby offering a more accurate assessment of the readability of orthopaedic PROMS. (1) What proportion of orthopaedic-related PROMs and orthopaedic-related portions of the NIH Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS ® ) are written at or below the 6th and 8th grade levels? (2) Is there a correlation between the number of questions in the PROM and reading level? (3) Using systematic edits based on guidelines from the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, what proportion of PROMs achieved American Medical Association and NIH-recommended reading levels? Eighty-six (86) independent, orthopaedic and general wellness PROMs, drawn from commonly referenced orthopaedic websites and prior studies, were chosen for analysis. Additionally, owing to their increasing use in orthopaedics, four relevant short forms, and 11 adult, physical health question banks from the PROMIS ® , were included for analysis. All documents were analyzed for reading grade levels using 19 unique readability algorithms. Descriptive statistics were performed using SPSS Version 22.0. The majority of the independent PROMs (64 of 86; 74%) were written at or below the 6th grade level, with 81 of 86

  17. Association of eating three meals irregularly with changes in BMI and weight among young Japanese men and women: A 2-year follow-up.

    Ibe, Yoko; Miyakawa, Happei; Fuse-Nagase, Yasuko; Hirose, Ayumi Sugawara; Hirasawa, Reiko; Yachi, Yoko; Fujihara, Kazuya; Kobayashi, Kazuto; Shimano, Hitoshi; Sone, Hirohito

    2016-09-01

    Epidemiological longitudinal investigations of the association between not eating three meals regularly and changes in BMI and weight are scarce. The aim of this study was to investigate whether or not regularly eating three meals was associated with changes in BMI and weight in young Japanese men and women. Study participants were 1241 men and 897 women aged 19.0±1.2 and 18.8±0.8years, respectively, who underwent health checkups at a university in Japan in 2001 as the baseline and subsequently in 2003. Weight and height were measured at baseline and 2years later. Whether an individual ate three meals regularly was determined by a self-report questionnaire in 2001. During the 2-year follow-up, the BMI gain was 0.347 for men and 0.067 for women. In the logistic regression analysis, for men, eating three meals irregularly was significantly associated with a 4% BMI gain (OR 1.60, CI 1.11-2.30), 6% BMI gain (OR 1.72, CI 1.12-2.63), 4kg weight gain (OR 2.01, CI 1.29-3.13), 6kg weight gain (OR 1.86, CI 1.02-3.37), and incidence of obesity (BMI ≧ 25)(OR 2.96, CI 1.22-7.17). For women, eating three meals irregularly was significantly associated with a 4% BMI loss (OR 1.99, CI 1.01-3.94), 6% BMI loss (OR 2.79, CI 1.29-6.03), 4kg weight loss (OR 3.85, CI 1.62-9.12), 6kg weight loss (OR 7.65, CI 2.06-28.46), and the incidence of underweight (OR 3.95, CI 1.32-11.89). The current results suggested that eating three meals irregularly was associated with subsequent BMI and weight gains for men and subsequent BMI and weight losses for women; both groups were around 20years of age. Self-reported eating behavior in this study might be used to screen and evaluate young Japanese men and women at high risk for changes in BMI and weight in a practical clinical setting. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Analysis of gender differences in genetic risk: association of TNFAIP3 polymorphism with male childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus in the Japanese population.

    Keisuke Kadota

    Full Text Available Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE is a systemic multisystem autoimmune disorder influenced by genetic background and environmental factors. Our aim here was to replicate findings of associations between 7 of the implicated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in IRF5, BLK, STAT4, TNFAIP3, SPP1, TNIP1 and ETS1 genes with susceptibility to childhood-onset SLE in the Japanese population. In particular, we focused on gender differences in allelic frequencies.The 7 SNPs were genotyped using TaqMan assays in 75 patients with childhood-onset SLE and in 190 healthy controls. The relationship between the cumulative number of risk alleles and SLE manifestations was explored in childhood-onset SLE. Logistic regression was used to test the effect of each polymorphism on susceptibility to SLE, and Wilcoxon rank sum testing was used for comparison of total risk alleles. Data on rs7574865 in the STAT4 gene and rs9138 in SPP1 were replicated for associations with SLE when comparing cases and controls (corrected P values ranging from 0.0043 to 0.027. The rs2230926 allele of TNFAIP3 was associated with susceptibility to SLE in males, but after Bonferroni correction there were no significant associations with any of the other four SNPs in IRF5, BLK, TNIP1 and ETS1 genes. The cumulative number of risk alleles was significantly increased in childhood-onset SLE relative to healthy controls (P = 0.0000041. Male SLE patients had a slightly but significantly higher frequency of the TNFAIP3 (rs2230926G risk allele than female patients (odds ratio [OR] = 4.05, 95% confidence interval [95%CI] = 1.46-11.2 P<0.05.Associations of polymorphisms in STAT4 and SPP1 with childhood-onset SLE were confirmed in a Japanese population. Although these are preliminary results for a limited number of cases, TNFAIP3 rs2230926G may be an important predictor of disease onset in males. We also replicated findings that the cumulative number of risk alleles was significantly

  19. Associations of HbA1c and fasting plasma glucose with incident diabetes: Implications for pre-diabetes thresholds in a Japanese population.

    Nakagami, Tomoko; Tanaka, Yuki; Oya, Junko; Kurita, Moritoshi; Isago, Chisato; Hasegawa, Yukiko; Ito, Arata; Hirota, Naoki; Tsuzura, Reika; Uchigata, Yasuko

    2016-12-01

    This study assessed pre-diabetes (pre-DM) cutoffs for HbA1c and fasting plasma glucose (FPG) that were associated with an increased risk of incident DM. We evaluated 2267 non-diabetic Japanese health-check examinees (HbA1c: HbA1c of ≥6.5% (≥48mmol/mol), FPG of ≥7.0mmol/L, or physician-diagnosed DM. During 11047 person-years, we identified 99 incident DM cases (4.3%). The incidence of DM increased with increasing baseline HbA1c or FPG levels, and the change points (95% confidence intervals) were 5.7% (5.6-5.7%; 39mmol/mol [38-39mmol/mol]) for HbA1c and 5.5mmol/L (5.5-5.6mmol/L) for FPG. The adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for incident DM per one standard deviation-increase in HbA1c and FPG were 5.5 (4.4-6.8) and 4.0 (3.2-4.8), respectively. The adjusted HRs for incident DM were significantly higher at HbA1c of 5.7-6.4% (39-46mmol/mol) or FPG of 5.5-6.9mmol/L, compared to HbA1c of HbA1c and 5.5mmol/L for FPG in this Japanese population. Copyright © 2016 Primary Care Diabetes Europe. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Identifying the factors and root causes associated with the unintentional usage of an adrenaline auto-injector in Japanese children and their caregivers.

    Sasaki, Kemal; Nakagawa, Tomoko; Sugiura, Shiro; Ebisawa, Motohiro; Ito, Komei

    2018-03-05

    The unintentional usage of adrenaline auto-injectors may cause injury to caregivers or patients. To prevent such incidents, we assessed the causative factors of these incidents. The Anaphylaxis Working Group of the Japanese Society of Pediatric Allergy and Clinical Immunology requested that society members register cases in which adrenaline auto-injectors were unintentionally used. One hundred cases were reported from June 2015 to March 2016. We identified the root causes of 70 child and 25 adult cases, separately. The incidents occurred with repeated prescriptions as well as the first prescription. Three cases resulted in a failure to administer an adrenaline auto-injector to children with anaphylaxis. Four caregivers used it with improper application (epilepsy or enteritis). Among the child cases, the median age at the time of the incident was 5.5 years (range, 2-14 years). Five children injected the adrenaline auto-injector on their own body trunk. Twenty children were not the allergic patients themselves. Improper management protocol of the device and the child's development were concomitantly involved in most of the cases. A variety of human behaviors were identified as the root causes in the adult cases. At least 34 cases were associated with mix-ups between the actual and training device. Health workers should provide sufficient education regarding safety use of adrenaline auto-injector for caregivers tailored to their experience levels at both first and repeated prescriptions. Such education must cover anticipatory behavior based on normal child development. Devices should also be further improved to prevent such incidents. Copyright © 2018 Japanese Society of Allergology. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. IFNL4 ss469415590 Variant Is Associated with Treatment Response in Japanese HCV Genotype 1 Infected Individuals Treated with IFN-Including Regimens

    Tatsuo Miyamura

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Eradication of hepatitis C virus (HCV is still challenging even if interferon- (IFN- free regimens with direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs for HCV-infected individuals are available in clinical practice. IFNL4 is a newly described protein, associated with human antiviral defenses. We investigated whether IFNL4 ss469415590 variant has an effect on the prediction of treatment response in HCV-infected patients treated with IFN-including regimens. Patients and Methods. In all, 185 patients infected with HCV genotype 1 treated with peg-IFN plus ribavirin, with or without telaprevir, were genotyped for IFNL4 ss469415590. We retrospectively investigated whether the role of IFNL4 ss469415590 variant and other factors could predict sustained virological response (SVR in Japanese patients infected with HCV genotype 1. Results. There were 65.7%, 31.5%, and 2.8% patients in the IFNL4 ss469415590 TT/TT, TT/-G, and -G/-G groups, respectively. SVR rates were 82.1% or 49.3% in patients treated with peg-IFN plus ribavirin with or without telaprevir, respectively. IFNL4 ss469415590 variant and HCV viral loads or IFNL4 ss469415590 variant and early virological response were better predictors of SVR in patients treated with peg-IFN plus ribavirin with or without telaprevir, respectively. Conclusion. In the era of DAAs, measurement of IFNL4 ss469415590 variant could help the prediction of SVR in Japanese HCV genotype 1 infected individuals treated with IFN-including regimens.

  2. An international survey to identify the intrinsic and extrinsic factors of research studies most likely to change orthopaedic practice.

    Thornley, P; de Sa, D; Evaniew, N; Farrokhyar, F; Bhandari, M; Ghert, M

    2016-04-01

    Evidence -based medicine (EBM) is designed to inform clinical decision-making within all medical specialties, including orthopaedic surgery. We recently published a pilot survey of the Canadian Orthopaedic Association (COA) membership and demonstrated that the adoption of EBM principles is variable among Canadian orthopaedic surgeons. The objective of this study was to conduct a broader international survey of orthopaedic surgeons to identify characteristics of research studies perceived as being most influential in informing clinical decision-making. A 29-question electronic survey was distributed to the readership of an established orthopaedic journal with international readership. The survey aimed to analyse the influence of both extrinsic (journal quality, investigator profiles, etc.) and intrinsic characteristics (study design, sample size, etc.) of research studies in relation to their influence on practice patterns. A total of 353 surgeons completed the survey. Surgeons achieved consensus on the 'importance' of three key designs on their practices: randomised controlled trials (94%), meta-analyses (75%) and systematic reviews (66%). The vast majority of respondents support the use of current evidence over historical clinical training; however subjective factors such as journal reputation (72%) and investigator profile (68%) continue to influence clinical decision-making strongly. Although intrinsic factors such as study design and sample size have some influence on clinical decision-making, surgeon respondents are equally influenced by extrinsic factors such as investigator reputation and perceived journal quality.Cite this article: Dr M. Ghert. An international survey to identify the intrinsic and extrinsic factors of research studies most likely to change orthopaedic practice. Bone Joint Res 2016;5:130-136. DOI: 10.1302/2046-3758.54.2000578. © 2016 Ghert et al.

  3. Attitudes towards the Use of Masculine and Feminine Japanese among Foreign Professionals: What Can Learners Learn from Professionals?

    Itakura, Hiroko

    2009-01-01

    Subordinate femininity associated with feminine Japanese has been found to pose barriers for foreign language learners of Japanese, especially among Western female learners of Japanese. The present study investigates attitudes towards the use of both masculine and feminine Japanese among non-native professional speakers of Japanese. The latter's…

  4. Computer Assisted Orthopaedic Surgery – CAOS

    Enes M. Kanlić

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available The use of computer navigation in orthopedic surgery allows for real time intraoperative feedback resulting in higher precision of bone cuts, better alignment of implants and extremities, easier fracture reductions, less radiation and better documentation than what is possible in classical orthopaedic procedures. There is no need for direct and repeated visualization of many anatomical landmarks (classical method in order to have good intraoperative orientation. Navigation technology depicts anatomy and position of "smart tools" on the screen allowing for high surgical precision (smaller number of outliers from desired goal and with less soft tissue dissection (minimally invasive surgery - MIS. As a result, there are more happy patients with less pain, faster recovery, better functional outcome and well positioned, long lasting implants. In general, navigation cases are longer on the average 10 to 20 minutes, special training is required and equipment is relatively expensive. CAOS applications in knee and hip joint replacement are discussed.

  5. A metrology solution for the orthopaedic industry

    Bills, P; Brown, L; Jiang, X; Blunt, L

    2005-01-01

    Total joint replacement is one of the most common elective surgical procedures performed worldwide, with an estimate of 1.5 million operations performed annually. Currently joint replacements are expected to function for 10-15 years, however, with an increase in life expectancy, and a greater call for knee replacement due to increased activity levels, there is a requirement to improve their function to offer longer term improved quality of life for patients. The amount of wear that a joint incurs is seen as a good indicator of performance, with higher wear rates typically leading to reduced function and premature failure. New technologies and materials are pushing traditional wear assessment methods to their limits, and novel metrology solutions are required to assess wear of joints following in vivo and in vitro use. This paper presents one such measurement technique; a scanning co-ordinate metrology machine for geometrical assessment. A case study is presented to show the application of this technology to a real orthopaedic measurement problem: the wear of components in total knee replacement. This technique shows good results and provides a basis for further developing techniques for geometrical wear assessment of total joint replacements

  6. What Provisions Do Orthopaedic Programs Make for Maternity, Paternity, and Adoption Leave?

    Weiss, Jennifer; Teuscher, David

    2016-09-01

    The process of choosing medical specialty and residency programs is multifaceted. Today's generation of medical students may have an increased interest in work-life balance and time with their families. In considering this factor, medical students may be influenced by policy regarding maternity, paternity, and adoption leave during residency and fellowship training. Current policy among orthopaedic programs regarding maternity, paternity, and adoption leave is not well described. To understand the influence these policies may have on the choices that medical students make in choosing their specialty, the policies must first be better understood. (1) What proportion of orthopaedic programs have formal or unwritten policies regarding maternity, paternity, and adoptive leave? (2) What are the provisions for time away, allotment of time, and makeup options for trainees who take leave? (3) What proportion of orthopaedic programs report utilization of leave, and what proportions of leave are for maternity, paternity, or adoptive reasons? Accredited programs in orthopaedic surgery were identified through the Council of Orthopedic Residency Directors within the American Orthopaedic Association. Current program directors of these accredited programs were surveyed. The survey was emailed to 144 program directors, of which 141 emails were delivered. Responses were received from 45 program directors, representing 31% of programs. The survey focused on maternity, paternity, and adoptive leave, and it consisted of questions designed to explore program policies (formal, unwritten, no policy, or in development), time considerations (amount allowed, allocation of time away, and makeup requirements), and utilization (trainees who took leave and type of leave used). Most respondents have maternity leave policy (formal: 36 of 45 [80%]; unwritten: 17 of 45 [38%]). Sixteen programs (16 of 45 [36%]) reported having both a formal and an unwritten maternity leave policy. Less than half of

  7. Low intake of vegetables, high intake of confectionary, and unhealthy eating habits are associated with poor sleep quality among middle-aged female Japanese workers.

    Katagiri, Ryoko; Asakura, Keiko; Kobayashi, Satomi; Suga, Hitomi; Sasaki, Satoshi

    2014-01-01

    Although workers with poor sleep quality are reported to have problems with work performance, few studies have assessed the association between dietary factors and sleep quality using validated indexes. Here, we examined this association using information acquired from validated questionnaires. A total of 3,129 female workers aged 34 to 65 years were analyzed. Dietary intake was assessed using a self-administered diet history questionnaire (DHQ), and subjective sleep quality was assessed using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). The relationship between the intake of several food groups and nutrients and sleep quality was examined using multivariable logistic regression models. The effect of eating habits on sleep quality was also examined. Poor sleep quality was associated with low intake of vegetables (p for trend 0.002) and fish (p for trend 0.04) and high intake of confectionary (p for trend 0.004) and noodles (p for trend 0.03) after adjustment for potential confounding factors (age, body mass index, physical activity, depression score, employment status, alcohol intake and smoking status). Poor sleep quality was also significantly and positively associated with consumption of energy drinks and sugar-sweetened beverages, skipping breakfast, and eating irregularly. In addition, poor sleep quality was significantly associated with high carbohydrate intake (p for trend 0.03). A low intake of vegetables and fish, high intake of confectionary and noodles and unhealthy eating habits were independently associated with poor sleep quality. Poor sleep quality was also associated with high carbohydrate intake in free-living Japanese middle-aged female workers.

  8. Association between the Frequency of Protein-Rich Food Intakes and Kihon-Checklist Frailty Indices in Older Japanese Adults: The Kyoto-Kameoka Study.

    Yamaguchi, Miwa; Yamada, Yosuke; Nanri, Hinako; Nozawa, Yoshizu; Itoi, Aya; Yoshimura, Eiichi; Watanabe, Yuya; Yoshida, Tsukasa; Yokoyama, Keiichi; Goto, Chiho; Ishikawa-Takata, Kazuko; Kobayashi, Hisamine; Kimura, Misaka

    2018-01-13

    We aimed to investigate whether frequencies of protein-rich food intake were associated with frailty among older Japanese adults. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2011 among 3843 men and 4331 women in a population-based cohort of Kameoka city, Kyoto Prefecture, Japan. Frailty was assessed by the weighted score based on the 25-item Kihon-Checklist. The frequency of protein-rich food intake was examined as "seafood", "meat", "dairy products", "eggs", and "soy products". The outcome of frailty was analyzed with a multiple logistic regression model using the frequency of protein-rich food intake. When compared to the first quartile, it was observed that there was a significant association between the lower adjusted prevalence ratio (PR) for frailty and the frequency of seafood intake in the fourth quartile among men (PR 0.64, 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.42, 0.99) and from the second quartile to the third quartile among women (PR 0.61, 95% CI, 0.43, 0.85; PR 0.64, 95% CI, 0.46, 0.91). The frequency of dairy products intake in the third quartile among women was significantly associated with a lower PR for frailty ( p -value = 0.013). Our findings suggest that the consumption of seafood and dairy products may help older adults in maintaining their independence.

  9. Association between the Frequency of Protein-Rich Food Intakes and Kihon-Checklist Frailty Indices in Older Japanese Adults: The Kyoto-Kameoka Study

    Miwa Yamaguchi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to investigate whether frequencies of protein-rich food intake were associated with frailty among older Japanese adults. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2011 among 3843 men and 4331 women in a population-based cohort of Kameoka city, Kyoto Prefecture, Japan. Frailty was assessed by the weighted score based on the 25-item Kihon-Checklist. The frequency of protein-rich food intake was examined as “seafood”, “meat”, “dairy products”, “eggs”, and “soy products”. The outcome of frailty was analyzed with a multiple logistic regression model using the frequency of protein-rich food intake. When compared to the first quartile, it was observed that there was a significant association between the lower adjusted prevalence ratio (PR for frailty and the frequency of seafood intake in the fourth quartile among men (PR 0.64, 95% confidence interval (CI, 0.42, 0.99 and from the second quartile to the third quartile among women (PR 0.61, 95% CI, 0.43, 0.85; PR 0.64, 95% CI, 0.46, 0.91. The frequency of dairy products intake in the third quartile among women was significantly associated with a lower PR for frailty (p-value = 0.013. Our findings suggest that the consumption of seafood and dairy products may help older adults in maintaining their independence.

  10. The dilemma for Japanese students

    Martinsen, Anders

    2014-01-01

    The Japanese job hunting system inhibits Japanese students from studying abroad. A Japanese professor says it is a huge dilemma for the students.......The Japanese job hunting system inhibits Japanese students from studying abroad. A Japanese professor says it is a huge dilemma for the students....

  11. Mechanical compatibility of sol-gel annealing with titanium for orthopaedic prostheses.

    Greer, Andrew I M; Lim, Teoh S; Brydone, Alistair S; Gadegaard, Nikolaj

    2016-01-01

    Sol-gel processing is an attractive method for large-scale surface coating due to its facile and inexpensive preparation, even with the inclusion of precision nanotopographies. These are desirable traits for metal orthopaedic prostheses where ceramic coatings are known to be osteoinductive and the effects may be amplified through nanotexturing. However there are a few concerns associated with the application of sol-gel technology to orthopaedics. Primarily, the annealing stage required to transform the sol-gel into a ceramic may compromise the physical integrity of the underlying metal. Secondly, loose particles on medical implants can be carcinogenic and cause inflammation so the coating needs to be strongly bonded to the implant. These concerns are addressed in this paper. Titanium, the dominant material for orthopaedics at present, is examined before and after sol-gel processing for changes in hardness and flexural modulus. Wear resistance, bending and pull tests are also performed to evaluate the ceramic coating. The findings suggest that sol-gel coatings will be compatible with titanium implants for an optimum temperature of 500 °C.

  12. Barriers and strategies for the clinical translation of advanced orthopaedic tissue engineering protocols.

    Madry, H; Alini, M; Stoddart, M J; Evans, C; Miclau, T; Steiner, S

    2014-05-06

    Research in orthopaedic tissue engineering has intensified over the last decade and new protocols continue to emerge. The clinical translation of these new applications, however, remains associated with a number of obstacles. This report highlights the major issues that impede the clinical translation of advanced tissue engineering concepts, discusses strategies to overcome these barriers, and examines the need to increase incentives for translational strategies. The statements are based on presentations and discussions held at the AO Foundation-sponsored symposium "Where Science meets Clinics 2013" held at the Congress Center in Davos, Switzerland, in September, 2013. The event organisers convened a diverse group of over one hundred stakeholders involved in clinical translation of orthopaedic tissue engineering, including scientists, clinicians, healthcare industry professionals and regulatory agency representatives. A major point that emerged from the discussions was that there continues to be a critical need for early trans-disciplinary communication and collaboration in the development and execution of research approaches. Equally importantly was the need to address the shortage of sustained funding programs for multidisciplinary teams conducting translational research. Such detailed discussions between experts contribute towards the development of a roadmap to more successfully advance the clinical translation of novel tissue engineering concepts and ultimately improve patient care in orthopaedic and trauma surgery.

  13. Barriers and strategies for the clinical translation of advanced orthopaedic tissue engineering protocols

    H Madry

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Research in orthopaedic tissue engineering has intensified over the last decade and new protocols continue to emerge. The clinical translation of these new applications, however, remains associated with a number of obstacles. This report highlights the major issues that impede the clinical translation of advanced tissue engineering concepts, discusses strategies to overcome these barriers, and examines the need to increase incentives for translational strategies. The statements are based on presentations and discussions held at the AO Foundation-sponsored symposium "Where Science meets Clinics 2013" held at the Congress Center in Davos, Switzerland, in September, 2013. The event organisers convened a diverse group of over one hundred stakeholders involved in clinical translation of orthopaedic tissue engineering, including scientists, clinicians, healthcare industry professionals and regulatory agency representatives. A major point that emerged from the discussions was that there continues to be a critical need for early trans-disciplinary communication and collaboration in the development and execution of research approaches. Equally importantly was the need to address the shortage of sustained funding programs for multidisciplinary teams conducting translational research. Such detailed discussions between experts contribute towards the development of a roadmap to more successfully advance the clinical translation of novel tissue engineering concepts and ultimately improve patient care in orthopaedic and trauma surgery.

  14. Alcohol Dehydrogenase-1B (rs1229984) and Aldehyde Dehydrogenase-2 (rs671) Genotypes and Alcoholic Ketosis Are Associated with the Serum Uric Acid Level in Japanese Alcoholic Men.

    Yokoyama, Akira; Yokoyama, Tetsuji; Mizukami, Takeshi; Matsui, Toshifumi; Kimura, Mitsuru; Matsushita, Sachio; Higuchi, Susumu; Maruyama, Katsuya

    2016-05-01

    To identify determinants of hyperuricemia in alcoholics. The serum uric acid (UA) levels of 1759 Japanese alcoholic men (≥40 years) were measured on their first visit or within 3 days after admission; ADH1B and ALDH2 genotyping on blood DNA samples were performed. Dipstick urinalyses for ketonuria and serum UA measurements were simultaneously performed for 621 men on their first visit. Serum UA levels of >416 μmol/l (7.0 mg/dl) and ≥535 μmol/l (9.0 mg/dl) were observed in 30.4 and 7.8% of the subjects, respectively. Ketonuria was positive in 35.9% of the subjects, and a multivariate analysis revealed that the ketosis level was positively associated with the UA level. The presence of the ADH1B*2 allele and the ALDH2*1/*1 genotype increased the odds ratio (OR; 95% confidence interval) among subjects with a high UA level of >416 μmol/l (vs. ≤416 μmol/l; 2.04 [1.58-2.65] and 1.48 [1.09-2.01], respectively) and those with a high UA level of ≥535 μmol/l (vs. ≤416 μmol/l; 2.29 [1.42-3.71] and 3.03 [1.51-6.08], respectively). The ADH1B*2 plus ALDH2*1/*1 combination yielded the highest ORs (2.86 [1.61-5.10] and 6.21 [1.49-25.88] for a UA level of >416 μmol/l and ≥535 μmol/l, respectively), compared with the ADH1B*1/*1 plus ALDH2*1/*2 combination. The presence of diabetes and the consumption of Japanese sake rather than beer were negatively associated with the UA levels. The faster metabolism of ethanol and acetaldehyde by the ADH1B*2 allele and ALDH2*1/*1 genotype and higher ketosis levels were associated with higher UA levels in alcoholics, while diabetes and the consumption of sake were negative determinants. © The Author 2015. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  15. The Japanese Mind: Understanding Contemporary Japanese Culture.

    Davies, Roger J., Ed.; Ikeno, Osamu, Ed.

    This collection of essays offers an overview of contemporary Japanese culture, and can serve as a resource for classes studying Japan. The 28 essays offer an informative, accessible look at the values, attitudes, behavior patterns, and communication styles of modern Japan from the unique perspective of the Japanese people. Filled with examples…

  16. Safety syringes and anti-needlestick devices in orthopaedic surgery.

    Sibbitt, Wilmer L; Band, Philip A; Kettwich, Lawrence G; Sibbitt, Cristina R; Sibbitt, Lori J; Bankhurst, Arthur D

    2011-09-07

    The American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgery (AAOS), The Joint Commission, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), and the Needlestick Safety and Prevention Act encourage the integration of safety-engineered devices to prevent needlestick injuries to health-care workers and patients. We hypothesized that safety syringes and needles could be used in outpatient orthopaedic injection and aspiration procedures. The study investigated the orthopaedic uses and procedural idiosyncrasies of safety-engineered devices, including (1) four safety needles (Eclipse, SafetyGlide, SurGuard, and Magellan), (2) a mechanical safety syringe (RPD), (3) two automatic retractable syringes (Integra, VanishPoint), (4) three manual retractable syringes (Procedur-SF, Baksnap, Invirosnap), and (5) three shielded syringes (Safety-Lok, Monoject, and Digitally Activated Shielded [DAS] Syringe). The devices were first tested ex vivo, and then 1300 devices were used for 425 subjects undergoing outpatient arthrocentesis, intra-articular injections, local anesthesia, aspiration biopsy, and ultrasound-guided procedures. During the clinical observation, there were no accidental needlesticks (0 needlesticks per 1300 devices). Safety needles could be successfully used on a Luer syringe but were limited to ≤1.5 in (≤3.81 cm) in length and the shield could interfere with sonography. The mechanical safety syringes functioned well in all orthopaedic procedures. Automatic retractable syringes were too small for arthrocentesis of the knee, and the plunger blew out and prematurely collapsed with high-pressure injections. The manual retractable syringes and shielded syringes could be used with conventional needles for most orthopaedic procedures. The most effective and reliable safety devices for orthopaedic syringe procedures are shielded safety needles, mechanical syringes, manual retractable syringes, and shielded syringes, but not automatic retractable syringes. Even when adopting

  17. Association of Physical Performance and Pain With Fear of Falling Among Community—Dwelling Japanese Women Aged 65 Years and Older

    Tomita, Yoshihito; Arima, Kazuhiko; Kanagae, Mitsuo; Okabe, Takuhiro; Mizukami, Satoshi; Nishimura, Takayuki; Abe, Yasuyo; Goto, Hisashi; Horiguchi, Itsuko; Aoyagi, Kiyoshi

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Our aim was to explore the association of physical performance and pain with fear of falling among community-dwelling Japanese women. The subjects were 278 women aged 65 years and over. We collected information on fear of falling, painful joints, comorbidities, falls in the previous year, and cataracts. Walking time (distance of 6 m), chair stand time (5 times), grip strength, the timed up and go test (TUG), and functional reach were measured. The prevalence of fear of falling was 36.3%, and it increased with age, but it was not significant (P = 0.081). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that poor physical performance (longer walking time, longer chair stand time, weaker grip strength, and longer TUG) and pain (low back, and upper and lower extremity pain) were significantly associated with fear of falling after adjusting for age, body mass index, comorbidities, falls in the previous year, and cataracts. Maintaining physical functioning and managing pain may be important for elderly women with fear of falling. PMID:26334906

  18. Perinatal exposure to a high-fat diet is associated with reduced hepatic sympathetic innervation in one-year old male Japanese macaques.

    Wilmon F Grant

    Full Text Available Our group recently demonstrated that maternal high-fat diet (HFD consumption is associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, increased apoptosis, and changes in gluconeogenic gene expression and chromatin structure in fetal nonhuman primate (NHP liver. However, little is known about the long-term effects that a HFD has on hepatic nervous system development in offspring, a system that plays an important role in regulating hepatic metabolism. Utilizing immunohistochemistry and Real-Time PCR, we quantified sympathetic nerve fiber density, apoptosis, inflammation, and other autonomic components in the livers of fetal and one-year old Japanese macaques chronically exposed to a HFD. We found that HFD exposure in-utero and throughout the postnatal period (HFD/HFD, when compared to animals receiving a CTR diet for the same developmental period (CTR/CTR, is associated with a 1.7 fold decrease in periportal sympathetic innervation, a 5 fold decrease in parenchymal sympathetic innervation, and a 2.5 fold increase in hepatic apoptosis in the livers of one-year old male animals. Additionally, we observed an increase in hepatic inflammation and a decrease in a key component of the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway in one-year old HFD/HFD offspring. Taken together, these findings reinforce the impact that continuous exposure to a HFD has in the development of long-term hepatic pathologies in offspring and highlights a potential neuroanatomical basis for hepatic metabolic dysfunction.

  19. Preliminary mortality survey from 1973 to 1977 of Japanese radiological technologists and analyses of the association of mortality with cumulative doses

    Aoyama, Takashi; Ishizaka, Masatsuna; Yamamoto, Yoichi; Kano, Eiichi; Nikaido, Osamu.

    1981-01-01

    The Japan Association of Radiologic Technologists reported that, from 1941 to 1978, 395 deaths occurred among Japanese radiological technologists who belong to the association. Using these data, Sakka, Kitabatake and colleagues, and the present authors studied mortality and cause of death among these technologists for 11 years from 1955 to 1965, for 7 years from 1966 to 1972, and for 5 years from 1973 to 1977, respectively. In general, the number of cancer deaths in the three studies was less than expected. However, Kitabatake et al. and the present authors found that deaths from skin cancer were significantly more frequent than expected. The present authors recently estimated the cumulative doses of radiation exposure for the majority of deaths (268 out of 395). The mean dose of radiation related to cancer deaths was then compared with that for non-cancer deaths. Also the proportional mortality ratios for cancers were observed in relation to the estimated dose level. In the present study, however, statistical tests to assess for the relationship between mortality and dose of radiation exposure showed no correlation, for the majority of deaths from cancer. (author)

  20. The association between health-related quality of life/dietary satisfaction and perceived food environment among Japanese individuals with spinal cord injury.

    Hata, K; Inayama, T; Yoshiike, N

    2017-08-01

    Cross-sectional. To examine the association between health-related quality of life (HRQOL)/dietary satisfaction and perceived food environment in community-dwelling individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI). Members of the Spinal Injuries Japan organization. Subjects were 2007 Japanese individuals with SCI. A questionnaire conducted in 2015 included items addressing sociodemographic characteristics, HRQOL, dietary satisfaction and eight perceived food environment items. Responses from 506 individuals were analyzed (valid response rate=25%). Dependent variables were the physical and mental summary scores of the HRQOL and dietary satisfaction. The independent variable was the perceived food environment. We used a univariate analysis (in Model 1) and a multivariate analysis (in Models 2 and 3) as part of a binominal logistic regression analysis. In Model 3, we divided and analyzed the perceived food environment variable into 'access to food' and 'access to information'. Both physical and mental summary scores were related to 'dietary information acquisition in the community'. Dietary satisfaction was related to 'balanced meals in the household', 'food and health information available from family' and 'right health and dietary information acquisition from the media'. HRQOL and dietary satisfaction were differentially associated with perceived food environment factors in community-dwelling individuals with SCI. HRQOL was positively related to dietary information of perceived food environment in the community. Dietary satisfaction was positively related to perceived food environment in the household.

  1. [Age- and sex-specific reference intervals for 10 health examination items: mega-data from a Japanese Health Service Association].

    Suka, Machi; Yoshida, Katsumi; Kawai, Tadashi; Aoki, Yoshikazu; Yamane, Noriyuki; Yamauchi, Kuniaki

    2005-07-01

    To determine age- and sex-specific reference intervals for 10 health examination items in Japanese adults. Health examination data were accumulated from 24 different prefectural health service associations affiliated with the Japan Association of Health Service. Those who were non-smokers, drank less than 7 days/week, and had a body mass index of 18.5-24.9kg/m2 were sampled as a reference population (n = 737,538; 224,947 men and 512,591 women). After classified by age and sex, reference intervals for 10 health examination items (systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, triglyceride, glucose, uric acid, AST, ALT, gamma-GT, and hemoglobin) were estimated using the parametric and nonparametric methods. In every item except for hemoglobin, men had higher reference intervals than women. Systolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, and glucose showed an upward trend in values with increasing age. Hemoglobin showed a downward trend in values with increasing age. Triglyceride, ALT, and gamma-GT reached a peak in middle age. Overall, parametric estimates showed narrower reference intervals than non-parametric estimates. Reference intervals vary with age and sex. Age- and sex-specific reference intervals may contribute to better assessment of health examination data.

  2. Association between Selective Beta-adrenergic Drugs and Blood Pressure Elevation: Data Mining of the Japanese Adverse Drug Event Report (JADER) Database.

    Ohyama, Katsuhiro; Inoue, Michiko

    2016-01-01

    Selective beta-adrenergic drugs are used clinically to treat various diseases. Because of imperfect receptor selectivity, beta-adrenergic drugs cause some adverse drug events by stimulating other adrenergic receptors. To examine the association between selective beta-adrenergic drugs and blood pressure elevation, we reviewed the Japanese Adverse Drug Event Reports (JADERs) submitted to the Japan Pharmaceuticals and Medical Devices Agency. We used the Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities (MedDRA) Preferred Terms extracted from Standardized MedDRA queries for hypertension to identify events related to blood pressure elevation. Spontaneous adverse event reports from April 2004 through May 2015 in JADERs, a data mining algorithm, and the reporting odds ratio (ROR) were used for quantitative signal detection, and assessed by the case/non-case method. Safety signals are considered significant if the ROR estimates and lower bound of the 95% confidence interval (CI) exceed 1. A total of 2021 reports were included in this study. Among the nine drugs examined, significant signals were found, based on the 95%CI for salbutamol (ROR: 9.94, 95%CI: 3.09-31.93) and mirabegron (ROR: 7.52, 95%CI: 4.89-11.55). The results of this study indicate that some selective beta-adrenergic drugs are associated with blood pressure elevation. Considering the frequency of their indications, attention should be paid to their use in elderly patients to avoid adverse events.

  3. Morphological and molecular characterization of a new genus and new species of parazoanthid (Anthozoa: Hexacorallia: Zoantharia) associated with Japanese Red Coral

    Reimer, J. D.; Nonaka, M.; Sinniger, F.; Iwase, F.

    2008-12-01

    The Order Zoantharia has long been taxonomically neglected primarily due to difficulty in examining the internal morphology of sand-encrusted zoanthids. However, recent work using molecular markers has shown an unexpectedly high diversity of previously “hidden” taxa (families and genera) within Zoantharia (=Zoanthidea, Zoanthiniaria). In this study, unidentified sediment-encrusting zoanthid specimens ( n = 8) were collected from living Japanese Red Coral Paracorallium japonicum (Family Coralliidae) during precious coral harvesting by Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) and manned submersible (February 2004-January 2006) at depths of 194-250 m at six locations between Ishigaki-jima Island and Kikai-jima Island, southern Japan. DNA sequences (mitochondrial 16S ribosomal DNA [mt 16S rDNA], cytochrome oxidase subunit I [COI], nuclear internal transcribed spacer of ribosomal DNA [ITS-rDNA]) unambiguously place these specimens in a previously undescribed, new monophyletic lineage within the family Parazoanthidae. Corallizoanthus tsukaharai, gen. n. et sp. n. is the first reported zoanthid species associated with the family Coralliidae and unlike other described gorgonian-associated zoanthids ( Savalia spp .) does not secrete its own hard axis. Morphologically, C. tsukaharai sp. n. is characterized by generally unitary polyps and bright yellow external coloration.

  4. Orthopaedic Considerations for the Adult With Osteogenesis Imperfecta.

    Roberts, Timothy T; Cepela, Daniel J; Uhl, Richard L; Lozman, Jeffery

    2016-05-01

    Osteogenesis imperfecta is a heritable group of collagen-related disorders that affects up to 50,000 people in the United States. Although the disease is most symptomatic in childhood, adults with osteogenesis imperfecta also are affected by the sequelae of the disease. Orthopaedic manifestations include posttraumatic and accelerated degenerative joint disease, kyphoscoliosis, and spondylolisthesis. Other manifestations of abnormal collagen include brittle dentition, hearing loss, cardiac valve abnormalities, and basilar invagination. In general, nonsurgical treatment is preferred for management of acute fractures. High rates of malunion, nonunion, and subsequent deformity have been reported with both closed and open treatment. When surgery is necessary, surgeons should opt for load-sharing intramedullary devices that span the entire length of the bone; locking plates and excessively rigid fixation generally should be avoided. Arthroplasty may be considered for active patients, but the procedure frequently is associated with complications in this patient population. Underlying deformities, such as malunion, bowing, rotational malalignment, coxa vara, and acetabular protrusio, pose specific surgical challenges and underscore the importance of preoperative planning.

  5. Associations of Walking Speed, Grip Strength, and Standing Balance With Total and Cause-Specific Mortality in a General Population of Japanese Elders.

    Nofuji, Yu; Shinkai, Shoji; Taniguchi, Yu; Amano, Hidenori; Nishi, Mariko; Murayama, Hiroshi; Fujiwara, Yoshinori; Suzuki, Takao

    2016-02-01

    Walking speed, grip strength, and standing balance are key components of physical performance in older people. The present study aimed to evaluate (1) associations of these physical performance measures with cause-specific mortality, (2) independent associations of individual physical performance measures with mortality, and (3) the added value of combined use of the 3 physical performance measures in predicting all-cause and cause-specific mortality. Prospective cohort study with a follow-up of 10.5 years. Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology Longitudinal Interdisciplinary Study on Aging (TMIG-LISA), Japan. A total of 1085 initially nondisabled older Japanese aged 65 to 89 years. Usual walking speed, grip strength, and standing balance were measured at baseline survey. During follow-up, 324 deaths occurred (122 of cardiovascular disease, 75 of cancer, 115 of other causes, and 12 of unknown causes). All 3 physical performance measures were significantly associated with all-cause, cardiovascular, and other-cause mortality, but not with cancer mortality, independent of potential confounders. When all 3 physical performance measures were simultaneously entered into the model, each was significantly independently associated with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. The C statistics for all-cause and cardiovascular mortality were significantly increased by adding grip strength and standing balance to walking speed (P balance predicted all-cause, cardiovascular, and other-cause mortality, but not cancer mortality, independent of covariates. Moreover, these 3 components of physical performance were independently associated with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality and their combined use increased prognostic power. Copyright © 2016 AMDA – The Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Differences in histological features and PD-L1 expression between sporadic microsatellite instability and Lynch-syndrome-associated disease in Japanese patients with colorectal cancer.

    Yamada, Rin; Yamaguchi, Tatsuro; Iijima, Takeru; Wakaume, Rika; Takao, Misato; Koizumi, Koichi; Hishima, Tsunekazu; Horiguchi, Shin-Ichiro

    2018-06-01

    The field of immunotherapy has recently focused on cancers with microsatellite instability (MSI). These cancers include both Lynch-syndrome-associated tumors, which are caused by mismatch repair (MMR) germline mutations, and sporadic MSI tumors, which are mainly attributed to MLH1 promoter methylation. The present study aimed to clarify differences in the histological and PD-L1 expression profiles between these two types of MSI cancers in Japanese patients. Among 908 cases of colorectal cancer treated via surgical resection from 2008 to 2014, we identified 64 MSI cancers, including 36 sporadic MSI and 28 Lynch-syndrome-associated cancers, using a BRAF V600E mutation analysis and MLH1 methylation analysis. Of the latter subgroup, 21 (75%) harbored MMR germline mutations. The following were more frequent with sporadic MSI than with Lynch syndrome associated cancers: poor differentiation (50.0 vs. 7.1%, P = 0.0002), especially solid type (30.6 vs. 3.6%, P = 0.0061); medullary morphology (19.4 and 0%, P = 0.015), Crohn-like lymphoid reaction (50.0 vs. 25.0%, P = 0.042), and PD-L1 expression (25.0 vs. 3.6%, P = 0.034). However, the groups did not differ in terms of the mean invasive front and intratumoral CD8-positive cell densities. In a logistic regression analysis, PD-L1 expression correlated with poor differentiation (odds ratio: 7.65, 95% confidence interval: 1.55-37.7, P = 0.012), but not with the difference between sporadic MSI cancer and Lynch-syndrome-associated cancer (odds ratio: 4.74, 95% confidence interval: 0.50-45.0, P = 0.176). Therefore, compared with Lynch-syndrome-associated cancers, sporadic MSI cancers are more frequently solid, poorly differentiated medullary cancers that express PD-L1.

  7. Allergies in orthopaedic and trauma surgery.

    Lohmann, C H; Hameister, R; Singh, G

    2017-02-01

    Hypersensitivity reactions to implants in orthopaedic and trauma surgery are a rare but devastating complication. They are considered as a delayed-type of hypersensitivity reaction (type IV), characterized by an antigen activation of sensitized T-lymphocytes releasing various cytokines and may result in osteoclast activation and bone resorption. Potential haptens are originated from metal alloys or bone-cement. A meta-analysis has confirmed a higher probability of developing a metal hypersensitivity postoperatively and noted a greater risk of failed replacements compared to stable implants. Hypersensitivity to implants may present with a variety of symptoms such as pain, joint effusion, delayed wound/bone healing, persistent secretion, allergic dermatitis (localized or systemic), clicking noises, loss of joint function, instability and failure of the implant. Various diagnostic options have been offered, including patch testing, metal alloy patch testing, histology, lymphocyte transformation test (LTT), memory lymphocyte immunostimulation assay (MELISA), leukocyte migration inhibition test (LIF) and lymphocyte activation test (LAT). No significant differences between in vivo and in vitro methods have been found. Due to unconvincing evidence for screening methods, predictive tests are not recommended for routine performance. Infectious aetiology always needs to be excluded. As there is a lack of evidence on large-scale studies with regards to the optimal treatment option, management currently relies on individual case-by-case decisions. Several options for patients with (suspected) metal-related hypersensitivity exist and may include materials based on ceramic, titanium or oxinium or modified surfaces. Promising results have been reported, but long-term experience is lacking. More large-scaled studies are needed in this context. In patients with bone-cement hypersensitivity, the component suspected for hypersensitivity should be avoided. The development of

  8. Significant association of periodontal disease with anti-citrullinated peptide antibody in a Japanese healthy population - The Nagahama study.

    Terao, Chikashi; Asai, Keita; Hashimoto, Motomu; Yamazaki, Toru; Ohmura, Koichiro; Yamaguchi, Akihiko; Takahashi, Katsu; Takei, Noriko; Ishii, Takanori; Kawaguchi, Takahisa; Tabara, Yasuharu; Takahashi, Meiko; Nakayama, Takeo; Kosugi, Shinji; Sekine, Akihiro; Fujii, Takao; Yamada, Ryo; Mimori, Tsuneyo; Matsuda, Fumihiko; Bessho, Kazuhisa

    2015-05-01

    Anti-citrullinated peptide antibody (ACPA) is a highly specific autoantibody to rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Recent studies have revealed that periodontal disease (PD) is closely associated with RA and production of ACPA in RA. Analyses of associations between PD and ACPA production in a healthy population may deepen our understandings. Here, we analyzed a total of 9554 adult healthy subjects. ACPA and IgM-rheumatoid factor (RF) was quantified and PD status was evaluated using the number of missing teeth (MT), the Community Periodontal Index (CPI) and Loss of Attachment (LA) for these subjects. PD status was analyzed for its association with the positivity and categorical levels of ACPA and RF conditioned for covariates which were shown to be associated with PD, ACPA or RF. As a result, all of MT, CPI and LA showed suggestive or significant associations with positivity (p = 0.024, 0.0042 and 0.037, respectively) and levels of ACPA (p ≤ 0.00031), but none of the PD parameters were associated with those of RF. These association patterns were also observed when we analyzed 6206 non-smokers of the participants. The significant associations between PD parameters and positivity and levels of ACPA in healthy population support the fundamental involvement of PD with ACPA production. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Orthopaedic admissions due to sports and recreation injuries.

    Delaney, R A

    2009-02-01

    The health benefits of exercise may be attenuated by sports and recreation related injury (SRI). Though the majority of SRI are mild and self-limiting, a significant number are serious and require orthopaedic intervention. The aims of this study were to assess the burden of these serious injuries on the orthopaedic inpatient service, and to investigate potential target areas for injury prevention. All 1,590 SRI seen in the ED over a 3-month period were analysed using the Patient Information Management System to determine which patients received inpatient orthopaedic care. The medical records of those 63 patients who required inpatient care under orthopaedics were reviewed and data collected on demographic features, history, operative procedure and theatre resources, and length of hospital stay. Data were analyzed using SPSS. SRI accounted for 12.3% of all ED presentations. The principal activities resulting in injury requiring orthopaedic care were soccer, hurling and informal play e.g. trampoline. Falls made up 37% of the overall mechanism of injury but 68% of the injuries severe enough to require operative management. Most operative procedures were performed as part of a routine day trauma list but 20% were performed out of hours. This group of injuries places a significant burden on a busy trauma service. Injury prevention measures such as public education regarding falls in sport may have a role in reducing this burden.

  10. Are the claims made in orthopaedic print advertisements valid?

    Davidson, Donald J; Rankin, Kenneth S; Jensen, Cyrus D; Moverley, Robert; Reed, Mike R; Sprowson, Andrew P

    2014-05-01

    Advertisements are commonplace in orthopaedic journals and may influence the readership with claims of clinical and scientific fact. Since the last assessment of the claims made in orthopaedic print advertisements ten years ago, there have been legislative changes and media scrutiny which have shaped this practice. The purpose of this study is to re-evaluate these claims. Fifty claims from 50 advertisements were chosen randomly from six highly respected peer-reviewed orthopaedic journals (published July-December 2011). The evidence supporting each claim was assessed and validated by three orthopaedic surgeons. The assessors, blinded to product and company, rated the evidence and answered the following questions: Does the evidence as presented support the claim made in the advertisement and what is the quality of that evidence? Is the claim supported by enough evidence to influence your own clinical practice? Twenty-eight claims cited evidence from published literature, four from public presentations, 11 from manufacturer "data held on file" and seven had no supporting evidence. Only 12 claims were considered to have high-quality evidence and only 11 were considered well supported. A strong correlation was seen between the quality of evidence and strength of support (Spearman r = 0.945, p advertisements. High-quality evidence is required by orthopaedic surgeons to influence clinical practice and this evidence should be sought by manufacturers wishing to market a successful product.

  11. A genome-wide association study for body weight in Japanese Thoroughbred racehorses clarifies candidate regions on chromosomes 3, 9, 15, and 18

    TOZAKI, Teruaki; KIKUCHI, Mio; KAKOI, Hironaga; HIROTA, Kei-ichi; NAGATA, Shun-ichi

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Body weight is an important trait to confirm growth and development in humans and animals. In Thoroughbred racehorses, it is measured in the postnatal, training, and racing periods to evaluate growth and training degrees. The body weight of mature Thoroughbred racehorses generally ranges from 400 to 600 kg, and this broad range is likely influenced by environmental and genetic factors. Therefore, a genome-wide association study (GWAS) using the Equine SNP70 BeadChip was performed to identify the genomic regions associated with body weight in Japanese Thoroughbred racehorses using 851 individuals. The average body weight of these horses was 473.9 kg (standard deviation: 28.0) at the age of 3, and GWAS identified statistically significant SNPs on chromosomes 3 (BIEC2_808466, P=2.32E-14), 9 (BIEC2_1105503, P=1.03E-7), 15 (BIEC2_322669, P=9.50E-6), and 18 (BIEC2_417274, P=1.44E-14), which were associated with body weight as a quantitative trait. The genomic regions on chromosomes 3, 9, 15, and 18 included ligand-dependent nuclear receptor compressor-like protein (LCORL), zinc finger and AT hook domain containing (ZFAT), tribbles pseudokinase 2 (TRIB2), and myostatin (MSTN), respectively, as candidate genes. LCORL and ZFAT are associated with withers height in horses, whereas MSTN affects muscle mass. Thus, the genomic regions identified in this study seem to affect the body weight of Thoroughbred racehorses. Although this information is useful for breeding and growth management of the horses, the production of genetically modified animals and gene doping (abuse/misuse of gene therapy) should be prohibited to maintain horse racing integrity. PMID:29270069

  12. Association between plasma concentrations of branched-chain amino acids and adipokines in Japanese adults without diabetes

    Katagiri, Ryoko; Goto, Atsushi; Budhathoki, Sanjeev; Yamaji, Taiki; Yamamoto, Hiroshi; Kato, Yumiko; Iwasaki, Motoki; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2018-01-01

    Previous studies have consistently reported an association between circulating levels of branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) or adipokines and insulin resistance; however, the association between BCAA and adipokine levels remains to be clarified. In this cross-sectional study involving 678 participants (435 men) without diabetes, plasma BCAA (valine, leucine, and isoleucine), adipokine (total and high molecular weight [HMW] adiponectin, leptin, and tumor necrosis factor-α [TNF-α]) concentratio...

  13. Japanese wives in Japanese-Australian intermarriages

    Jared Denman

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The diasporic experiences of Japanese partners married to Australians and living in Australia are largely unexamined. This article is based on a study, conducted for an honours thesis, which invited four Japanese wives living in South East Queensland to describe, together with their Australian husbands, their family’s interactions with Japan, its language and culture, and the local Japanese community. It was recognised that the extensive social networks these wives had established and maintained with local Japanese women from other Japanese-Australian intermarriage families were an important part of their migrant experience. This article will firstly review the literature on contemporary Japanese- Australian intermarriage in Australia and Japanese lifestyle migration to Australia. It will then describe and examine the involvement and motivations of the four wives in their social networks. Entry into motherhood was found to be the impetus for developing and participating in informal, autonomous networks. Additionally, regular visits to Japan were focused on engagement with existing family and friendship networks. The contemporary experience of intermarriage for these women is decidedly transnational and fundamentally different from that of the war brides, or sensō hanayome.

  14. Does Orthopaedic Outpatient Care Reduce Emergency Department Utilization After Total Joint Arthroplasty?

    Chaudhary, Muhammad Ali; Lange, Jeffrey K; Pak, Linda M; Blucher, Justin A; Barton, Lauren B; Sturgeon, Daniel J; Koehlmoos, Tracey; Haider, Adil H; Schoenfeld, Andrew J

    2018-05-22

    Emergency department (ED) visits after elective surgical procedures are a potential target for interventions to reduce healthcare costs. More than 1 million total joint arthroplasties (TJAs) are performed each year with postsurgical ED utilization estimated in the range of 10%. We asked whether (1) outpatient orthopaedic care was associated with reduced ED utilization and (2) whether there were identifiable factors associated with ED utilization within the first 30 and 90 days after TJA. An analysis of adult TRICARE beneficiaries who underwent TJA (2006-2014) was performed. TRICARE is the insurance program of the Department of Defense, covering > 9 million beneficiaries. ED use within 90 days of surgery was the primary outcome and postoperative outpatient orthopaedic care the primary explanatory variable. Patient demographics (age, sex, race, beneficiary category), clin