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Sample records for japanese elderly men

  1. Association between vitamin K intake from fermented soybeans, natto, and bone mineral density in elderly Japanese men: the Fujiwara-kyo Osteoporosis Risk in Men (FORMEN) study.

    Fujita, Y; Iki, M; Tamaki, J; Kouda, K; Yura, A; Kadowaki, E; Sato, Y; Moon, J-S; Tomioka, K; Okamoto, N; Kurumatani, N

    2012-02-01

    A cross-sectional analysis of 1,662 community dwelling elderly Japanese men suggested that habitual natto intake was significantly associated with higher bone mineral density (BMD). When adjustment was made for undercarboxylated osteocalcin levels, this association was insignificant, showing the natto-bone association to be primarily mediated by vitamin K. Low vitamin K intake is associated with an increased risk of hip fracture, but reports have been inconsistent on its effect on BMD. Our first aim was to examine the association between BMD and intake of fermented soybeans, natto, which contain vitamin K1 (20 μg/pack) and K2 (380 μg/pack). Our second aim was to examine the association between undercarboxylated osteocalcin (ucOC), a biomarker of vitamin K intake, and BMD to evaluate the role of vitamin K in this association. Of the Japanese men aged ≥65 years who participated in the baseline survey of the Fujiwara-kyo Osteoporosis Risk in Men study, 1,662 men without diseases or medications known to affect bone metabolism were examined for associations between self-reported natto intake or serum ucOC levels with lumbar spine or hip BMD. The subjects with greater intake of natto showed significantly lower level of serum ucOC. Analysis after adjustment for confounding variables showed an association of greater intake of natto with both significantly higher BMD and lower risk of low BMD (T-score natto was associated with a beneficial effect on bone health in elderly men, and this association is primarily due to vitamin K content of natto, although the lack of information on dietary nutrient intake, including vitamin K1 and K2, prevented us from further examining the association.

  2. Utilization of bar and izakaya-pub establishments among middle-aged and elderly Japanese men to mitigate stress

    Ohnishi Mayumi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Japanese suicide rate is one of the highest among industrialized nations, especially following the economic crisis of the 1990s, with more than 30000 suicides every year since 1998. Previous studies have pointed out to relationships between overwork and/or job stress, and death and other health risks, and suggested several possible avenues for releasing stress and emotional burden, including suicidal ideation, through talking with intimate friends, family, and specialists, such as counselors and physicians. The present study was performed to explore the potential role of owners and managers of bars and izakaya-pub establishments in mitigating stress of middle-aged and elderly Japanese men by having informal conversations with them. A self-administered questionnaire was posted to all bars and izakaya-pubs registered in Ohmura-city, Nagasaki prefecture, in December 2009. Among 260 bars and izakaya-pubs, a total of 103 owners and managers completed the questionnaire. More than half of the respondents experienced engaging in conversations with their customers regarding customers’ various personal and private issues. The most frequently talked about problem was that regarding work (56.3%. Regardless of sex and age of the respondents, those with longer working experience in bar and izakaya-pub establishments were more likely to have had customers confiding in them financial problems including debts/loans (adjusted odds ratio: 5.48, p = 0.033. Owners and managers of bars and izakaya-pubs may be in a position to act as “listeners”, to whom middle-aged and elderly men can talk about their personal problems casually and without having to worry about conflict of interests, and direct those in need to professional counseling.

  3. Utilization of bar and izakaya-pub establishments among middle-aged and elderly Japanese men to mitigate stress.

    Ohnishi, Mayumi; Nakao, Rieko; Kawasaki, Ryokko; Nitta, Akiko; Hamada, Yukari; Nakane, Hideyuki

    2012-06-18

    Japanese suicide rate is one of the highest among industrialized nations, especially following the economic crisis of the 1990s, with more than 30000 suicides every year since 1998. Previous studies have pointed out to relationships between overwork and/or job stress, and death and other health risks, and suggested several possible avenues for releasing stress and emotional burden, including suicidal ideation, through talking with intimate friends, family, and specialists, such as counselors and physicians. The present study was performed to explore the potential role of owners and managers of bars and izakaya-pub establishments in mitigating stress of middle-aged and elderly Japanese men by having informal conversations with them. A self-administered questionnaire was posted to all bars and izakaya-pubs registered in Ohmura-city, Nagasaki prefecture, in December 2009. Among 260 bars and izakaya-pubs, a total of 103 owners and managers completed the questionnaire. More than half of the respondents experienced engaging in conversations with their customers regarding customers' various personal and private issues. The most frequently talked about problem was that regarding work (56.3%). Regardless of sex and age of the respondents, those with longer working experience in bar and izakaya-pub establishments were more likely to have had customers confiding in them financial problems including debts/loans (adjusted odds ratio: 5.48, p = 0.033). Owners and managers of bars and izakaya-pubs may be in a position to act as "listeners", to whom middle-aged and elderly men can talk about their personal problems casually and without having to worry about conflict of interests, and direct those in need to professional counseling.

  4. Strong influence of dietary intake and physical activity on body fatness in elderly Japanese men: age-associated loss of polygenic resistance against obesity.

    Tanisawa, Kumpei; Ito, Tomoko; Sun, Xiaomin; Ise, Ryuken; Oshima, Satomi; Cao, Zhen-Bo; Sakamoto, Shizuo; Tanaka, Masashi; Higuchi, Mitsuru

    2014-09-01

    Genome-wide association studies identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with body mass index (BMI) in middle-aged populations; however, it is unclear whether these SNPs are associated with body fatness in elderly people. We examined the association between genetic risk score (GRS) from BMI-associated SNPs and body fatness in elderly Japanese men. We also examined the contribution of GRS, dietary macronutrient intake, and physical activity to body fatness by different age groups. GRS was calculated from 10 BMI-associated SNPs in 84 middle-aged (30-64 years) and 97 elderly (65-79 years) Japanese men; subjects were divided into low, middle, and high GRS groups. Dietary macronutrient intake was assessed using a questionnaire, and physical activity was evaluated using both a questionnaire and an accelerometer. The middle-aged individuals with a high GRS had greater BMI; waist circumference; and total abdominal fat, visceral fat, and subcutaneous fat areas than the middle-aged individuals with low GRS, whereas the indicators were not different between the GRS groups in elderly individuals. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that GRS was the strongest predictor of BMI, total abdominal fat, and visceral fat in the middle-aged group, whereas fat, alcohol, and protein intakes or vigorous-intensity physical activity were more strongly associated with these indicators than was GRS in the elderly group. These results suggest that GRS from BMI-associated SNPs is not predictive of body fatness in elderly Japanese men. The stronger contribution of dietary macronutrient intake and physical activity to body fatness may attenuate the genetic predisposition in elderly men.

  5. Greater milk intake is associated with lower bone turnover, higher bone density, and higher bone microarchitecture index in a population of elderly Japanese men with relatively low dietary calcium intake: Fujiwara-kyo Osteoporosis Risk in Men (FORMEN) Study.

    Sato, Y; Iki, M; Fujita, Y; Tamaki, J; Kouda, K; Yura, A; Moon, J-S; Winzenrieth, R; Iwaki, H; Ishizuka, R; Amano, N; Tomioka, K; Okamoto, N; Kurumatani, N

    2015-05-01

    The effects of milk intake on bone health are not clear in elderly Asian men with low dietary calcium intake. This study showed that greater milk intake is associated with lower bone turnover, higher bone density, and higher bone microarchitecture index in community-dwelling elderly Japanese men. The consumption of milk or dairy products is widely recommended for maintaining bone health regardless of gender or age. However, little evidence exists on the beneficial effects of milk intake on bone health in elderly Japanese men characterized with relatively low dietary calcium intake. Here we examined whether or not greater milk intake was associated with lower bone turnover, higher bone density, and stronger bone microarchitecture in community-dwelling elderly Japanese men. Interviews were conducted to obtain information on medical history and lifestyle, including the amount of habitual milk intake, nutrient intake calculations based on a 1-week food diary, and measurements of areal bone mineral density (aBMD) at the lumbar spine (LS), total hip (TH), and femoral neck (FN) by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), trabecular bone score (TBS) using DXA images at LS, and biochemical markers of bone turnover in sera. Participants with a history of diseases or medications that affect bone metabolism, or with missing data, were excluded from the analysis. The median intake of milk in the 1479 participants (mean age, 73.0 ± 5.1 years) was one glass of milk per day. Bone turnover markers showed a decreasing trend (p turnover, higher aBMD, and higher TBS in community-dwelling elderly Japanese men.

  6. Cardiorespiratory Fitness is a Strong Predictor of the Cardio-ankle Vascular Index in Hypertensive Middle-aged and Elderly Japanese Men.

    Tanisawa, Kumpei; Ito, Tomoko; Sun, Xiaomin; Kawakami, Ryoko; Oshima, Satomi; Gando, Yuko; Cao, Zhen-Bo; Sakamoto, Shizuo; Higuchi, Mitsuru

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to examine whether cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is associated with arterial stiffening, evaluated using the cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI), independent of visceral fat (VF) in middle-aged and elderly Japanese men. We also examined whether the relationship between CRF and the CAVI is modified by age and/or hypertension. The CAVI was determined in 157 Japanese men (age range, 30-79 years), including 96 hypertensive subjects (61.1%). CRF was assessed by measuring the peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak). The subjects were divided into low- and high-CRF groups, and the VF area was assessed using magnetic resonance imaging. The VO2peak correlated with the CAVI following adjustment for age and body mass index in the middle-aged and elderly groups (all the subjects: r=-0.285, p<0.001; middle-aged: r=-0.240, p=0.040; elderly: r=-0.225, p=0.049). VF also correlated with the CAVI (r=0.230, p=0.004). A multiple linear regression analysis revealed that age (β=0.406, pmen.

  7. Relationship between bone turnover markers and the heel stiffness index measured by quantitative ultrasound in middle-aged and elderly Japanese men

    Nishimura, Takayuki; Arima, Kazuhiko; Abe, Yasuyo; Kanagae, Mitsuo; Mizukami, Satoshi; Okabe, Takuhiro; Tomita, Yoshihito; Goto, Hisashi; Horiguchi, Itsuko; Aoyagi, Kiyoshi

    2018-01-01

    Abstract The aim of the present study was to investigate the age-related patterns and the relationships between serum levels of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-5b (TRACP-5b) or bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP), and the heel stiffness index measured by quantitative ultrasound (QUS) in 429 Japanese men, with special emphasis on 2 age groups (40–59 years and 60 years or over). The heel stiffness index (bone mass) was measured by QUS. Serum samples were collected, and TRACP-5b and BAP levels were measured. The stiffness index was significantly decreased with age. Log (TRACP-5b) was significantly increased with age, but Log (BAP) was stable. Generalized linear models showed that higher levels of Log (TRACP-5b) and Log (BAP) were correlated with a lower stiffness index after adjusting for covariates in men aged 60 years or over, but not in men aged 40 to 59 years. In conclusion, higher rates of bone turnover markers were associated with a lower stiffness index only in elderly men. These results may indicate a different mechanism of low bone mass among different age groups of men. PMID:29465590

  8. Dizziness in elderly men.

    Davis, L E

    1994-11-01

    To evaluate the causes of dizziness in elderly men. A descriptive study involving the clinical and laboratory features of elderly men with dizziness. A university-affiliated Veterans Affairs medical center. One hundred seventeen consecutive men more than 50 years of age attending a general neurology clinic with the chief complaint of dizziness. The median duration of dizziness at first office visit was 45 weeks. Forty-nine percent of patients had more than one diagnosis that contributed to their dizziness. Dysfunctions of the peripheral vestibular system were found in 71% and were the principal causes in 56%. Benign positional vertigo was present in 34%. Disorders of the visual system were found in 26% but were the major cause in only 1%. Diagnoses involving the proprioceptive system were present in 17% and were the principal cause in 7%. Structural lesions of the brainstem or cerebellum or metabolic disorders that affected normal brainstem function were identified in 59% and were the major diagnoses in 22%. A psychophysiologic diagnosis was made in 6% but was the major diagnosis in only 3%. At the 6-months follow-up, 55% of patients improved, 34% were unchanged, 4% worsened, and 7% were lost to follow-up. Contrary to reports in the literature, dizziness in the elderly is more persistent, has more causes, is less often due to a psychophysiologic cause, and seems to be more incapacitating than dizziness in younger patients.

  9. Bacterial Pneumonia in Elderly Japanese Populations

    Naoya Miyashita

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial pneumonia is one of the most important infectious diseases in terms of incidence, effect on quality of life, mortality, and impact on society. Pneumonia was the third leading cause of death in Japan in 2011. In 2016, 119 650 Japanese people died of pneumonia, 96% of whom were aged 65 years and above. The symptoms of pneumonia in elderly people are often atypical. Aspiration pneumonia is seen more frequently than in young people because of swallowing dysfunction in the elderly. The mortality rate is also higher in the elderly than in young people. In Japan, the population is aging at an unprecedented rate, and pneumonia in the elderly will be increasingly important in medicine and medical economics in the future. To manage pneumonia in the elderly, it is important to accurately evaluate its severity, administer appropriate antibiotic treatment, and implement effective preventive measures.

  10. Hamlet and Japanese Men of Letters

    Kawachi Yoshiko

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Shakespeare has exerted a powerful influence on Japanese literature since he was accepted in the second half of the nineteenth century. Particularly Hamlet has had a strong impact on Japanese men of letters and provided them with the impetus to revive the play in contemporary literature. In this paper I discuss how they have utilized Hamlet for their creative activity and enriched Japanese literature.

  11. Associations among hair loss, oral sulfur-containing gases, and gastrointestinal and metabolic linked diseases in Japanese elderly men: pilot study

    Hamasaki Tomoko

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Male pattern baldness (MPB, an observable trait, has been reported to be associated with various diseases, such as prostate cancer and cardiovascular disease. Oral sulfur-containing gases have also been suggested to be useful as markers of systemic health condition. However, there are no known reports regarding the associations among MPB, and oral sulfur-containing gases, and systemic health conditions in males. Methods We studied 170 male subjects aged either 60 or 65 years old. The degree of MPB was assessed using the Norwood-Hamilton Baldness scale. Oral sulfur-containing gases were measured using a compact-designed device. All subjects completed physical and laboratory blood examinations, a face-to-face medical questionnaire, and an oral examination. Results There were significant differences between the levels of CH3SCH3 and baldness patterns, independent of age. When we analyzed whether the association was linked to systemic health condition, a strong significant association was observed between the level of CH3SCH3 and severe MPB in subjects with gastrointestinal diseases, hypertension, and hypercholesterolemia. Conclusion These results suggest that MPB is associated with the level of CH3SCH3, a sulfur-containing gas that causes oral malodor, in elderly Japanese males. Further, the association was intensified by the existence of gastrointestinal tract and metabolic disorders.

  12. Chronic diseases in elderly men

    Nielsen, Morten Frost Munk; Wraae, Kristian; Gudex, Claire

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: prevalence estimates for chronic diseases and associated risk factors are needed for priority setting and disease prevention strategies. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to estimate the self-reported and clinical prevalence of common chronic disorders in elderly men. STUDY......-reported data on risk factors and disease prevalence were compared with data from hospital medical records. RESULTS: physical inactivity, smoking and excessive alcohol intake were reported by 27, 22 and 17% of the study population, respectively. Except for diabetes, all the chronic diseases investigated......, including hypertension, musculoskeletal and respiratory diseases were underreported by study participants. Erectile dysfunction and hypogonadism were substantially underreported in the study population even though these diseases were found to affect 48 and 21% of the participants, respectively. CONCLUSIONS...

  13. [Psychodynamic hypothesis about suicidality in elderly men].

    Lindner, Reinhard

    2010-08-01

    Old men are overrepresented in the whole of all suicides. In contrast, only very few elderly men find their way to specialised treatment facilities. Elderly accept psychotherapy more rarely than younger persons. Therefore presentations on the psychodynamics of suicidality in old men are rare and mostly casuistical. By means of a stepwise reconstructable qualitative case comparison of five randomly chosen elderly suicidal men with ideal types of suicidal (younger) men concerning biography, suicidal symptoms and transference, psychodynamic hypothesis of suicidality in elderly men are developed. All patients came into psychotherapy in a specialised academic out-patient clinic for psychodynamic treatment of acute and chronic suicidality. The five elderly suicidal men predominantly were living in long-term, conflictuous sexual relationships and also had ambivalent relationships to their children. Suicidality in old age refers to lifelong existing intrapsychic conflicts, concerning (male) identity, self-esteem and a core conflict between fusion and separation wishes. The body gets a central role in suicidal experiences, being a defensive instance modified by age and/or physical illness, which brings up to consciousness aggressive and envious impulses, but also feelings of emptiness and insecurity, which have to be warded off again by projection into the body. In transference relationships there are on the one hand the regular transference, on the other hand an age specific turned around transference, with their counter transference reactions. The chosen methodological approach serves the systematic finding of hypotheses with a higher degree in evidence than hypotheses generated from single case studies. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart - New York.

  14. Japanese attitudes toward the elderly: A review of research findings.

    Koyano, W

    1989-10-01

    Reviewed are research findings related to Japanese attitudes toward the elderly. Although several studies approaching this theme have been published in Japan since 1952, most of them are not known outside Japan because they were written in Japanese. These studies explored the presence of negative attitudes which were usually masked with rituals of respect for the elderly. People's proper use of tatemae, culturally defined normative meaning, and honne, actual feeling, in their attitudes toward the elderly is discussed as a potential source of the American idealization of aging in Japan.

  15. [Suicide of elderly men in Brazil].

    Minayo, Maria Cecília de Souza; Meneghel, Stela Nazareth; Cavalcante, Fátima Gonçalves

    2012-10-01

    This paper assesses the suicide of elderly men in Brazil. The text is based on studies of gender and masculinity and emphasizes the sense of "hegemonic masculinity" within the logic of patriarchalism that, in the case of suicide, is expressed in the loss of employment as an existential reference and as a loss of honor. The study includes 40 cases of men over 60 who committed suicide between 2007 and 2010 in ten districts of the country. Using the psychosocial autopsy technique, data were collected and analyzed from their history and lifestyle; evaluation of the background to the act; the impact on their families; lethality of the method; proximity to sources of support; previous attempts; mental status which preceded the act; reaction of families and communities. Although many factors are associated with self-inflicted death in this social group, the influence of a hegemonic masculinity culture in the predominance of suicides among elderly men compared with elderly women is undeniable. It is essential to give special attention to men at the moment of transition from working life to retirement, loss or important family members, and when they are diagnosed with chronic and degenerative diseases that cause disabilities, loss of autonomy or sexual impotence.

  16. Optimal energy distribution of carbohydrate intake for Japanese elderly patients with type 2 diabetes: the Japanese Elderly Intervention Trial.

    Kamada, Chiemi; Yoshimura, Hidenori; Okumura, Ryota; Takahashi, Keiko; Iimuro, Satoshi; Ohashi, Yasuo; Araki, Atsushi; Umegaki, Hiroyuki; Sakurai, Takashi; Yoshimura, Yukio; Ito, Hideki

    2012-04-01

    In diet therapy for diabetes, optimal energy intake and the energy distribution of macronutrients (protein : fat : carbohydrate [PFC] energy ratio) are important. We aimed to clarify the correlation between the PFC energy ratio and metabolic parameters including glycated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and triglycerides in Japanese elderly patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus aged 65 years or older. Participants were 1173 diabetic patients aged 65 years or older with serum HbA1c level of >/=7.4% enrolled in the Japanese Elderly Diabetes Intervention Trial (J-EDIT). The participants were divided into four groups by the percentage of total energy intake (%E) of carbohydrate (C1: less than 55%E, C2: 55%E or more and less than 60%E, C3: 60%E or more and less than 65%E, and C4: 65%E or more). Relations of %E of carbohydrate to HbA1c and other metabolic parameters, energy intake and nutritional intake were examined. Furthermore, the subjects were divided into four categories by HbA1c levels by quartile method (Q1: less than 7.90%, Q2: 7.90% or more and less than 8.30%, Q3: 8.30% or more and less than 8.80%, Q4: 8.80% or more). Relations of HbA1c to other metabolic parameters, energy intake and nutritional intake were examined. The mean HbA1c levels in the four groups were C1: 8.40%, C2: 8.50%, C3: 8.41% and C4: 8.36% in men, and C1: 8.51%, C2: 8.47%, C3: 8.35% and C4: 8.52% in women, respectively. There were no significant differences and linear trend in HbA1c levels across groups. The mean triglyceride levels were in the range of 122-128 mg/dL in men from C1 to C3, although it was significantly higher in C4 (177 mg/dL). The mean triglyceride levels were in the range of 128-136 mg/dL in women from C1 to C3, although it was significantly higher in Q4 (150 mg/dL). Amounts of protein and fat intakes decreased with an increase of %E of carbohydrate, although amount of carbohydrate intake did not change significantly. As a result, %E of protein and fat, and energy intake decreased

  17. Health benefits associated with exercise habituation in older Japanese men.

    Tanaka, Kiyoji; Sakai, Tomoaki; Nakamura, Yoichi; Umeda, Noriko; Lee, Dong-Jun; Nakata, Yoshio; Hayashi, Yoichi; Akutsu, Tomomi; Okura, Tomohiro; Yamabuki, Keisuke

    2004-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of exercise habituation (3-32 years, mean 13.2 years) on physical vitality among five different groups. One hundred and two independent, community-dwelling elderly Japanese men, aged 64.6 +/- 6.6 years, were recruited as subjects. The vital age test battery consisted of various coronary heart disease risk factors and physical fitness elements. The results of analysis of variance revealed that vital age as an index of physical vitality was youngest in joggers (47.9 yr, N=18), intermediate in trekkers (55.8 yr, N=20) and walkers (59.1 yr, N=18), and oldest (69.6 yr, N=20) in patients with ischemic heart disease (IHD). The difference between chronological age and vital age was approximately 15 years (pexercising IHD patients. These results indicate that exercise habituation significantly affects the overall health status of most individuals, irrespective of mode of exercise. Among the three modes of exercise, jogging may be most beneficial. Furthermore, regularly exercising coronary patients may have physical vitality similar to that of sedentary men.

  18. Activity patterns of elderly men and women.

    Sidney, K H; Shephard, R J

    1977-01-01

    The activity patterns of elderly men and women (greater than 60 years) were examined by diaries, ECG taperecorders, and electro-chemical integrators. Although the subjects thought that they were active relative to others of their age, both activity measurements and initial assessments of fitness indicated an inactive life style. At different periods of the day, the heart rate averaged 70-90 beats per minute, and the physical training threshold was rarely approached. During the week, the women engaged in 90 min. more physical activity than the men. However, at the weekend the men added an average of 100 min. of physical activity, whereas the women carried out 30 min. less physical work. Introduction of a 1-hour physical activity class four times per week increased the average daily energy expenditure by 150-200 kCal, to 2500 kCal in the men and 2200 kCal in the women. The added activity was sufficient to augment aerobic power, to induce favorable changes in body composition and to initiate change in other areas of life style, including a diminished use of the car.

  19. Men and Masculinities in the Changing Japanese Family

    Umegaki, Hiroko

    2017-01-01

    The shifting topography of contemporary Japanese society is engendering a significant reorientation of men’s family relations. However, exactly how Japanese men are adapting to these broad-based trends, including parent-child relations, demographics, marriage norms, care provision, residential choices, and gender roles, as well as in the decline of Confucian worldviews, remains relatively obscure. In this dissertation, I explore men’s everyday practices underpinning their family relations as ...

  20. Experiences of Japanese men during the transition to fatherhood.

    Iwata, Hiroko

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand the meaning of the lived experience of Japanese men during the transition to fatherhood. Hermeneutic phenomenology was used. Participants were 12 Japanese men who had a first-time healthy child younger than 1 year of age, who were sought by using a purposeful sampling technique. The following six themes were identified: (1) feeling like a father; (2) realizing oneself as a husband; (3) finding the wife's pregnancy and delivery for the first time to be an impressive experience; (4) sharing time and space with one's child; (5) being aware of a change and trying to adjust to a new life; and (6) being aware of the difference between oneself and one's wife. These six themes created essence of the phenomenon of "becoming a father." This study revealed Japanese men's own voice on becoming first-time fathers of infants.

  1. Chronic disease prevalence among elderly Saudi men.

    Saquib, Nazmus; Saquib, Juliann; Alhadlag, Abdulrahman; Albakour, Mohamad Anas; Aljumah, Bader; Sughayyir, Mohammed; Alhomidan, Ziad; Alminderej, Omar; Aljaser, Mohamed; Al-Mazrou, Abdulrahman

    2017-01-01

    Saudi demographic composition has changed because of increased life expectancy and decreased fertility rates. Little data are available about health conditions among older adults in Saudi Arabia, who are expected to represent 20% of the population by 2050. The study aim was to assess the prevalence and risk factors for chronic conditions among older Saudi men. The sample pertained to 400 men (age ≥55 years) from Buraidah, Al-Qassim. Research assistants recruited participants in all the mosques from the randomly selected neighborhoods (16 of 95). They administered a structured questionnaire that assessed self-reported disease history (heart disease, hypertension, diabetes, asthma, gastric/peptic ulcer, and cancer), and medication use; participants' height, weight, blood pressure, and random blood glucose (glucometer) were measured. Multinomial logistic regressions were employed to assess correlates of number of chronic diseases. The mean and standard deviation for age and body mass index (BMI) were 63.0 ± 7.5 years and 28.9 ± 4.8 (kg/m 2 ), respectively. 78% (77.8%) were overweight or obese, 35.0% were employed, 54.5% walked daily, 9.3% were current smokers, and 85.0% belonged to the middle class. The prevalence of hypertension, diabetes, heart disease, asthma, ulcer, and cancer were: 71.3% 27.3%, 16.4%, 9.7%, 8.9%, and 2.0%, respectively. Of the participants, 31.0% had one, 34.5% had two or more, and 34.5% did not have any chronic diseases. The likelihood of chronic diseases increased with increased age, higher BMI, and current smoking. The chronic disease prevalence among the Saudi elderly men is substantial.

  2. Postural stability and occlusal status among Japanese elderly.

    Song-Yu, Xuan; Rodis, Omar M M; Ogata, Sagiri; Can-Hu, Jin; Nishimura, Michiko; Matsumura, Seishi

    2012-06-01

    There are still no data available on the relationship between postural stability and occlusal status among the elderly. To examine relationships between postural stability and occlusal status through a cohort study among elderly Japanese. Oral examination, occlusal status, postural stability and a questionnaire were conducted and given to 87 community-dwelling Japanese at enrolment. The average occlusal pressure of the female group was statistically higher than the male group while average occlusal pressure and postural stability length were lesser in the group with more remaining teeth. Postural stability area and number of remaining teeth showed statistically significant correlations. Postural stability length was lesser in the group with strong occlusal force. Furthermore, the number of decayed teeth was fewer in the good hygiene group. This study identified a close relationship between occlusal status and postural stability of Japanese older individuals. Occlusal hypofunction was observed more in those with occlusal problems, and a decrease in their occlusal functions resulted in postural instability. © 2011 The Gerodontology Society and John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  3. Semen quality of fertile Japanese men

    Iwamoto, Teruaki; Nozawa, Shiari; Yoshiike, Miki

    2013-01-01

    To establish a base line for future studies on temporal trends, to describe potential geographical differences in semen quality and reference values for studies of men from the general population.......To establish a base line for future studies on temporal trends, to describe potential geographical differences in semen quality and reference values for studies of men from the general population....

  4. An analysis of the impact of cell phone use on depressive symptoms among Japanese elders.

    Minagawa, Yuka; Saito, Yasuhiko

    2014-01-01

    There has been increasing interest in the impact of information and communication technologies, such as the computer and Internet, on physical and mental health status, but relatively little is known about the health effects of using cell phones. This study investigates how cell phone usage is associated with levels of depressive symptoms among Japanese men and women aged 65 years and older. We focus on social relationships, particularly intergenerational relationships between older parents and adult children, as a possible mediator in the association of cell phone use with late-life depressive symptoms. We therefore hypothesize that using cell phones contributes to the psychological well-being of older adults primarily through encouraging social relationships. We used 4 waves of data from the Nihon University Japanese Longitudinal Study of Aging (2001-2009) to analyze the impact of cell phone use on depressive symptoms. RESULTS are based on ordinary least squares regression analyses. Although the use of cell phones was related to lower levels of depressive symptoms among elderly Japanese people, controlling for sociodemographic characteristics and physical health conditions wiped out the effects for men. In contrast, the protective effects of using cell phones persisted among women, even net of all controls. Moreover, the impact of using cell phones was not explained by filial relationship measures, suggesting that cell phone use influences the mental health of older women independently of social engagement. Among the many advantages brought about by recent technological developments, cell phones appear to be an important contributor to the psychological well-being of Japanese elders. Researchers and policy makers should prioritize access to new technologies for older adults. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Estimated Dietary Polyphenol Intake and Major Food and Beverage Sources among Elderly Japanese

    Chie Taguchi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Estimating polyphenol intake contributes to the understanding of polyphenols’ health benefits. However, information about human polyphenol intake is scarce, especially in the elderly. This study aimed to estimate the dietary intake and major sources of polyphenols and to determine whether there is any relationship between polyphenol intake and micronutrient intake in healthy elderly Japanese. First, 610 subjects (569 men, 41 women; aged 67.3 ± 6.1 years completed food frequency questionnaires. We then calculated their total polyphenol intake using our polyphenol content database. Their average total polyphenol intake was 1492 ± 665 mg/day, the greatest part of which was provided by beverages (79.1%. The daily polyphenol intake differed largely among individuals (183–4854 mg/day, also attributable mostly to beverage consumption. Coffee (43.2% and green tea (26.6% were the major sources of total polyphenol; the top 20 food items accounted for >90%. The polyphenol intake did not strongly correlate with the intake of any micronutrient, suggesting that polyphenols may exert health benefits independently of nutritional intake. The polyphenol intake in this elderly population was slightly higher than previous data in Japanese adults, and beverages such as coffee and green tea contributed highly to the intake.

  6. Elder Abuse in Japan

    Arai, Mizuho

    2006-01-01

    Perceptions of elder abuse were examined in Japanese women (n =100) and men (n =46). Japanese women and men both emphasized physical aggression, followed by neglect and blaming, when giving examples of extremely abusive behavior. Physical aggression was also the most frequently mentioned type of moderate elder abuse, followed by neglect, economic…

  7. Autobiographical memory functions in young Japanese men and women.

    Maki, Yoichi; Kawasaki, Yayoi; Demiray, Burcu; Janssen, Steve M J

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined whether the three major functions of autobiographical memory observed in Western societies (i.e., directing-behaviour, social-bonding and self-continuity) also exist in an East Asian society. Two self-report measures were used to assess the autobiographical memory functions of Japanese men and women. Japanese young adults (N = 451, ages 17-28 years) first completed the original Thinking About Life Experiences (TALE) Questionnaire. They subsequently received three TALE items that represented memory functions and attempted to recall a specific instance of memory recall for each item. Confirmatory factor analyses on the TALE showed that the three functions were replicated in the current sample. However, Japanese participants reported lower levels of all three functions than American participants in a previous study. We also explored whether there was an effect of gender in this Japanese sample. Women reported higher levels of the self-continuity and social-bonding functions than men. Finally, participants recalled more specific instances of memory recall for the TALE items that had received higher ratings on the TALE, suggesting that the findings on the first measure were supported by the second measure. Results are discussed in relation to the functional approach to autobiographical memory in a cross-cultural context.

  8. GH administration and discontinuation in healthy elderly men

    Lange, K H; Isaksson, F; Rasmussen, M H

    2001-01-01

    GH administration results in increased lean body mass (LBM), decreased fat mass (FM) and increased energy expenditure (EE). GH therapy may therefore have potential benefits, especially in the elderly, who are known to have decreased function of the GH/IGF-I axis. Several studies have focused...... discontinuation on body composition, resting oxygen uptake (VO2), resting heart rate (HR) and GH related serum markers in healthy elderly men....

  9. The gender gap in depressive symptoms among Japanese elders: evaluating social support and health as mediating factors.

    Tiedt, Andrew D

    2010-09-01

    Depression has been described as the world's most prevalent illness and a leading cause of disability across age groups. The global literature on aging and depression reports greater prevalence of depressive symptoms among women than men. This research applies data from the Nihon University Japanese Longitudinal Study of Aging to the gender gap in depressive symptoms reported by Japanese elders. This study takes the position that cultural norms centered on obligations to care determine both the prevalence of social support and its application by family members. Since gender is the lens through which social and cultural expectations are filtered, the experiences of men and women are distinguished from one another. This study hypothesized that coresidency and filial obligations should protect elders from depression. At the same time, combative relationships within households were posited to aggravate depressive symptoms among mothers-in-law and daughters-in-law. Weak social support networks, as captured through not being married, living alone and lack of community contact were also hypothesized to exacerbate isolation and heighten depressive symptoms. The analyses found that receipt of support both protected elders as well as worsened depressive symptoms. While women reported greater frequency of depressive symptoms overall, results indicated that men experienced a larger effect of decreased mobility and transitions to poor physical health on depressive symptoms than women.

  10. Increase of mild disability in Japanese elders: A seven year follow-up cohort study

    Okochi Jiro

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Japan has the highest life expectancy in the world. In a 2002 census government report, 18.5% of Japanese were 65 years old and over and 7.9% were over 75 years old. In this ageing population, the increase in the number of dependent older persons, especially those with mild levels of disability, has had a significant impact on the insurance budget. This study examines the increase of mild disability and its related factors. Methods All community-dwelling residents aged 65 and over and without functional decline (n = 1560, of Omishima town, Japan, were assessed in 1996 using a simple illustrative measure, "the Typology of the Aged with Illustrations" to establish a baseline level of function and were followed annually until 2002. The prevalence and incidence of low to severe disability, and their association with chronic conditions present at the commencement of the study, was analyzed. A polychotomous logistic regression model was constructed to estimate the association of each chronic condition with two levels of disability. Results An increase in mild functional decline was more prevalent than severe functional decline. The accumulation of mild disability was more prominent in women. The major chronic conditions associated with mild disability were chronic arthritis and diabetes in women, and cerebrovascular accident and malignancy in men. Conclusion This study showed a tendency for mild disability prevalence to increase in Japanese elders, and some risk factors were identified. As mild disability increasingly prevalent, these findings will help determine priorities for its prevention in Japanese elders.

  11. Effects of Group Counseling Based on Logo Therapy to Decrease Loneliness in Elderly Men

    Negin Yazdanbakhsh

    2016-10-01

    Conclusion Group counseling based on logo therapy was found to decrease loneliness scores of elderly men. Therefore, the approach taken in this study can be considered as an appropriate method for psychological interventions in elderly men.

  12. Gender differences of social interactions and their effects on subjective well-being among Japanese elders.

    Okabayashi, Hideki; Hougham, Gavin W

    2014-01-01

    Gender differences of social interactions and their effects on subjective well-being among Japanese elders over three years were examined. Repeated measurements of 498 elders over a three-year survey interval were obtained from a baseline mail survey and two- and three-year follow-up surveys. Outcomes were analyzed using Hierarchical Linear Modeling. Male elders were more likely to have a spouse and work at paid jobs, while female elders were likely to have more frequent contacts with their child/children and more interactions with friends. As the elders aged over three years, life satisfaction decreased, while depression did not show any significant overall trend. There were no beneficial effects of social interactions on change in well-being, although social participation, interaction with friends, and conversation with spouse were beneficially related to baseline levels of both depressive tendency and life satisfaction. Among female elders only, the number of children had beneficial effects on life satisfaction. There are modest gender differences of the impact of social interactions on the well-being of Japanese elders, and the number of children seems to be more important as potential sources of support for female rather than male elders. Spousal conversation and non-obligatory social interaction such as unpaid social activities and friendship seem to be important for both male and female elders in Japan. These findings suggest that social relations among Japanese elders may be moving away from more gender dependent patterns seen in the past.

  13. Taxation categories for long-term care insurance premiums and mortality among elderly Japanese: a cohort study.

    Fujino, Yoshihisa; Tanaka, Ryuichi; Kubo, Tatsuhiko; Matsuda, Shinya

    2013-01-01

    This cohort study examined the association between taxation categories of long-term care insurance premiums and survival among elderly Japanese. A total of 3000 participants aged 60 years or older were randomly recruited in Y City, Japan in 2002, of whom 2964 provided complete information for analysis. Information on income level, mobility status, medical status, and vital status of each participant was collected annually from 2002 to 2006. Follow-up surveys on survival were conducted until August 2007. Hazard ratios (HRs) were estimated by a Cox model, using taxation categories at baseline. In these analyses, age-adjusted and age- and mobility-adjusted models were used. A significantly higher mortality risk was seen only in the lowest taxation category among men: as compared with men in the second highest taxation category, the HR in the lowest category was 2.53 (95% CI, 1.26-5.08, P = 0.009). This significant association between taxation category and mortality was lost after adjustment for mobility. There was no other difference in mortality among taxation categories in men or women. The present findings only partly supported our hypothesis that taxation category is a good indicator of socioeconomic status in examining health inequalities among elderly Japanese.

  14. The Impact of Japanese Corporate Transnationalism on Men's Involvement in Family Life and Relationships

    Yasuike, Akiko

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the ways in which Japanese corporate transnationalism affects husbands' involvement in family life and marital relationships primarily from a perspective of wives. It is based on interviews with 22 Japanese wives and 4 husbands. Studies of Japanese corporate transnationalism treat men as mere supervisors to local workers or…

  15. Colonization of the Tongue Surface in Japanese Independent Elders: A Preliminary Study

    Tomohisa Ohno

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Oral care is important to decrease oral bacteria, especially in the dependent elders. There have been some reports on oral microflora in the dependent elders. However, investigations involving healthy independent elders are limited. The purpose of this study was to obtain more information on the microflora in Japanese independent elders. One hundred Japanese independent elders aged 65 years or older participated in this study. Eighty-one independent elders (male: 44, female: 37, mean age: 72.7 ± 5.8 participated in this study. Their mean Barthel Index was 99.1 ± 3.1, and mean score of MMSE was 28.0 ± 2.3. The tongue bacterial flora was examinved to identify microorganisms by the culture method. The predominant aerobic organisms were Streptococcus spp. (detection rate: 100%, Neisseria spp. (96%, and Corynebacterium spp. (56%. Candida spp. was also isolated (32%. In this study, the oral microflora of the tongue in Japanese independent elders was clarified. The results of this investigation may contribute to research on oral bacteria in elder persons in the future.

  16. Psychological distress in Japanese men with localized prostate cancer

    Namiki, Shunichi; Saito, Seiichi; Arai, Yoichi; Tochigi, Tatsuo; Numata, Isao; Ioritani, Naomasa

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate: the level of psychological distress; and the relationships between the level of psychological distress and general or disease-specific HRQOL of Japanese men with localized prostate cancer following surgery or radiotherapy. The study was a retrospective cross-sectional survey of 253 men with localized prostate cancer treated with radical prostatectomy and 87 with external beam radiotherapy were collected. The measures used four questionnaires including: the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Health Survey; The University of California, Los Angeles Prostate Cancer Index; International Prostate Symptom Score; and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Mean anxiety and depression scores were 4.0 and 4.7, respectively (standard deviation, 3.3 and 3.7). On the anxiety section of HADS, 291 patients (85%) scored 7 points or less; and on the depression scale, 183 (54%) patients scored 4 points or less. Those 'cases' (HADS total, >10) with psychological distress scored lower in all domains of the general and disease related health-related quality of life (HRQOL) than the 'non-cases' (HADS total, ≤10) except for sexual domains. Logistic regression modeling suggested that the men who tended to experience moderate to high distress suffered from worse urinary and bowel symptoms. Most patients who underwent radical prostatectomy or external beam radiotherapy for localized prostate cancer experienced low levels of psychological distress after treatment. However, men who were experiencing urinary and bowel symptoms tended to suffer from moderate to higher distress compared with men reporting no or fewer such symptoms. (author)

  17. The Effect of Acute Endurance Exercise on Plasma Myostastin in Healthy Elderly Men

    Meysam Gholamali

    2015-04-01

    Conclusion Plasma Myostatin decreased significantly in the response to endurance exercise, in healthy elderly men. Presumably, according to the results of this study, prescription of endurance exercise may decrease Myostatin and subsequently sarcopenia in elderly people.

  18. High plasma homocyst(e)ine levels in elderly Japanese patients are associated with increased cardiovascular disease risk independently from markers of coagulation activation and endothelial cell damage.

    Kario, K; Duell, P B; Matsuo, T; Sakata, T; Kato, H; Shimada, K; Miyata, T

    2001-08-01

    Elevated plasma homocyst(e)ine is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in many populations, but the relationship between homocyst(e)ine and CVD in Japanese subjects has been unclear. It has been hypothesized that the link between homocyst(e)ine and CVD may be mediated in part by activation of coagulation and endothelial cell injury in the elderly Japanese subjects. To further evaluate this hypothesis, the present cross-sectional study was designed to assess the relationships among plasma homocyst(e)ine concentrations, risk of CVD, and markers of coagulation (fibrinogen, FVII, F1+2, FVIIa and FXIIa) and endothelial cell damage (vWF and thrombomodulin) in 146 elderly Japanese subjects (79 healthy controls and 67 patients with CVD). The geometric mean (range) of plasma homocyst(e)ine concentrations was 10.2 (3.2--33) micromol/l in 79 Japanese healthy elderly subjects. As expected, healthy female and male elderly subjects had homocyst(e)ine levels that were 2.5 and 5.3 micromol/; higher, respectively, compared to healthy young control subjects (n=62). Healthy young and elderly men had homocyst(e)ine levels that were 1.7 and 4.5 micromol/l higher, respectively, compared to values in women. This higher plasma homocyst(e)ine levels in the elderly subjects were negatively correlated with levels of folic acid, albumin and total cholesterol, but were not significantly related to markers of coagulation or endothelial cell-damage. The results of multiple logistic regression analyses suggested that high homocyst(e)ine levels were independently related to CVD risk. In addition, levels of FVIIa, and F1+2 were significantly higher in elderly Japanese patients with CVD compared to elderly subjects without CVD, but were unrelated to plasma homocyst(e)ine concentrations. In summary, elevated plasma concentrations of homocyst(e)ine, FVIIa, and F1+2 were associated with increased risk of CVD in elderly male and female Japanese subjects, but the association between homocyst

  19. Alcoholic Ketosis: Prevalence, Determinants, and Ketohepatitis in Japanese Alcoholic Men.

    Yokoyama, Akira; Yokoyama, Tetsuji; Mizukami, Takeshi; Matsui, Toshifumi; Shiraishi, Koichi; Kimura, Mitsuru; Matsushita, Sachio; Higuchi, Susumu; Maruyama, Katsuya

    2014-11-01

    Alcoholic ketosis and ketoacidosis are metabolic abnormalities often diagnosed in alcoholics in emergency departments. We attempted to identify determinants or factors associated with alcoholic ketosis. The subjects of this cross-sectional survey were 1588 Japanese alcoholic men (≥40 years) who came to an addiction center within 14 days of their last drink. The results of the dipstick urinalyses revealed a prevalence of ketosis of 34.0% (±, 21.5%; +, 8.9%; and 2+/3+; 3.6%) in the alcoholics. Higher urine ketone levels were associated with higher serum total bilirubin, aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase levels. A multivariate analysis by the proportional odds model showed that the odds ratio (95% confidence interval) for an increase in ketosis by one category was 0.94 (0.84-1.06) per 10-year increase in age, 0.93 (0.89-0.97) per 1-day increase in interval since the last drink, 1.78 (1.41-2.26) in the presence of slow-metabolizing alcohol dehydrogenase-1B (ADH1B*1/*1), 1.61 (1.10-2.36) and 1.30 (1.03-1.65) when the beverage of choice was whiskey and shochu, respectively (distilled no-carbohydrate beverages vs. the other beverages), 2.05 (1.27-3.32) in the presence of hypoglycemia Ketosis was a very common complication and frequently accompanied by alcoholic liver injury in our Japanese male alcoholic population, in which ADH1B*1/*1 genotype, consumption of whiskey or shochu, hypoglycemia, lower BMI and smoking were significant determinants of the development of ketosis. © The Author 2014. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  20. The Relationship between Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Concentration, Cardiorespiratory Fitness, and Insulin Resistance in Japanese Men

    Xiaomin Sun

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Here, we aim to investigate the independent and combined associations of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OHD and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF with glucose metabolism. Fasting blood samples of 107 men aged 40–79 years were analyzed for 25(OHD, glucose, insulin, glycated hemoglobin, and lipid profile. Homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR was calculated from the fasting concentrations of glucose and insulin. Visceral fat area (VFA was determined by magnetic resonance imaging and CRF by measuring maximal oxygen uptake. Median 25(OHD concentration was 36.3 nmol/L, while the prevalence of 25(OHD deficiency was 74.8%. Participants with high CRF had significantly lower HOMA-IR, glycated hemoglobin, and insulin values than participants with low CRF (p < 0.05. Higher 25(OHD concentration was strongly correlated with lower HOMA-IR and insulin values independent of VFA (p < 0.01 but significantly affected by CRF. In the high CRF group, participants with higher 25(OHD concentration had lower HOMA-IR values than participants with low 25(OHD concentration (p < 0.05. Higher 25(OHD and CRF are crucial for reducing insulin resistance regardless of abdominal fat. In addition, higher 25(OHD concentration may strengthen the effect of CRF on reducing insulin resistance in middle-aged and elderly Japanese men with high CRF.

  1. Soy food and isoflavone intake reduces the risk of cognitive impairment in elderly Japanese women.

    Nakamoto, Mariko; Otsuka, Rei; Nishita, Yukiko; Tange, Chikako; Tomida, Makiko; Kato, Yuki; Imai, Tomoko; Sakai, Tohru; Ando, Fujiko; Shimokata, Hiroshi

    2018-01-18

    Data were derived from the National Institute for Longevity Sciences-Longitudinal Study of Aging. Subjects comprised 403 men and 373 women aged 60-81 years at baseline who participated in the follow-up study at least once. Bean, soy product and soy isoflavone intake was assessed using a 3-day dietary record at baseline. Cognitive function was assessed by the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). MMSE scores of ≤23 were used to define cognitive impairment. The relationship between bean, soy product and soy isoflavone intake and cognitive impairment was assessed using a generalized estimating equation. Multivariate-adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) for cognitive impairment with a 1 s.d. increase in total bean, total soybean and total soy isoflavone intakes were 0.48 (0.28-0.81; p = 0.006), 0.51 (0.32-0.83; p = 0.007), and 0.55 (0.32-0.93; p = 0.026), respectively, in women. Total soybean and soy isoflavone intake might decrease the risk of cognitive impairment in elderly Japanese women.

  2. Rosalie Wolf Memorial Lecture: Reconsidering assumptions regarding men as elder abuse perpetrators and as elder abuse victims.

    Kosberg, Jordan I

    2014-01-01

    From research findings and practice experiences, it is concluded that abuse of older men is especially invisible and underreported, compared to abuse of older women. It is proposed that attention should be directed not to gender, but to those conditions in different countries and cultures leading to abuse of both older men and women, including (but not limited to) economic problems, few alternatives to family care of the elderly, violence, changing characteristics of the family, ageism, and sexism. Advocates for the prevention of elder abuse should work together in combating, reducing, and eliminating the problem of elder abuse of both older men and older women.

  3. Elder Care, Multiple Role Involvement, and Well-Being Among Middle-Aged Men and Women in Japan.

    Kikuzawa, Saeko

    2015-12-01

    Japan's population is aging at an unprecedented rate. Combined with the tradition of family responsibility for elder care, this rapid population aging has resulted in middle-aged Japanese people being much more likely today than in past decades to face the responsibility of caring for their elderly parents alongside their other major roles. Using nationally representative Japanese data, this study assessed the individual and combined implications of caregiving and other role involvements for the well-being of middle-aged men and women. Some evidence was found for deleterious psychological consequences of the caregiver role. However, in contrast to expectations, the interaction between the roles of caregiver and worker was positively associated with well-being among both men and women. The results suggest the importance of middle-aged adults being able to keep working when they have to care for their aging parents. Another important finding was significant gender differences in the psychological consequences of holding multiple family- and work-related roles and in combining these with the caregiver role. Further analysis showed that the spousal role was also negatively associated with depressive symptoms and positively associated with satisfaction for men but not for women. Gender differences in the findings appear to reflect the significant gender asymmetry in role experiences in Japan.

  4. Use of spoken and written Japanese did not protect Japanese-American men from cognitive decline in late life.

    Crane, Paul K; Gruhl, Jonathan C; Erosheva, Elena A; Gibbons, Laura E; McCurry, Susan M; Rhoads, Kristoffer; Nguyen, Viet; Arani, Keerthi; Masaki, Kamal; White, Lon

    2010-11-01

    Spoken bilingualism may be associated with cognitive reserve. Mastering a complicated written language may be associated with additional reserve. We sought to determine if midlife use of spoken and written Japanese was associated with lower rates of late life cognitive decline. Participants were second-generation Japanese-American men from the Hawaiian island of Oahu, born 1900-1919, free of dementia in 1991, and categorized based on midlife self-reported use of spoken and written Japanese (total n included in primary analysis = 2,520). Cognitive functioning was measured with the Cognitive Abilities Screening Instrument scored using item response theory. We used mixed effects models, controlling for age, income, education, smoking status, apolipoprotein E e4 alleles, and number of study visits. Rates of cognitive decline were not related to use of spoken or written Japanese. This finding was consistent across numerous sensitivity analyses. We did not find evidence to support the hypothesis that multilingualism is associated with cognitive reserve.

  5. Safety and efficacy of ipragliflozin in elderly versus non-elderly Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a subgroup analysis of the STELLA-LONG TERM study.

    Maegawa, Hiroshi; Tobe, Kazuyuki; Tabuchi, Hiromi; Nakamura, Ichiro; Uno, Satoshi

    2018-03-01

    This subgroup analysis of STELLA-LONG TERM interim data explored the long-term safety and efficacy of ipragliflozin in non-elderly vs. elderly Japanese type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients. STELLA-LONG TERM is an ongoing 3-year prospective surveillance study of Japanese T2DM patients receiving ipragliflozin 50 mg once daily. In this subgroup analysis, patient characteristics, laboratory variables, and adverse drug reactions (ADRs) were compared between non-elderly (<65 years) and elderly (≥65 years) patients. Non-elderly patients had significantly higher body mass index and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol than elderly patients (P < 0.001). The proportion of patients with hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) <8.0% was significantly higher among elderly patients (P < 0.001). HbA1c, fasting plasma glucose, and body weight significantly decreased from baseline to 3 and 12 months in both groups (all P < 0.05 vs. baseline). The ADR incidence was 10.83% vs. 10.42% in non-elderly and elderly patients. The incidence of skin complications was 0.98% vs. 1.65% and that of renal disorder was 0.47% vs. 0.95% in non-elderly and elderly patients (both P = 0.003). Ipragliflozin was effective in non-elderly and elderly Japanese T2DM patients in a real-world clinical setting. The incidence of renal disorder and skin complications was significantly higher in elderly vs. non-elderly patients.

  6. Determinants of meeting the public health recommendations for physical activity among community-dwelling elderly Japanese.

    Oka, Koichiro; Shibata, Ai

    2012-02-01

    Although regular physical activity can facilitate healthy aging, improve functional capacity, and prevent chronic diseases in the elderly, many of the Japanese elderly are not sufficiently active. Thus, examining the determinants is an important prerequisite for designing effective programs. The present study investigated the demographic, behavioral, psychosocial, and environmental determinants of meeting the national pedometer-determined physical activity recommendations for the elderly Japanese. Data were analyzed for 137 community-dwelling elderly Japanese aged 70 to 89 years (47% male, mean age = 74.5 years), who completed a questionnaire and wore a pedometer. Demographic (gender, age, marital status), behavioral (BMI, smoking, alcohol consumption), psychosocial (self-efficacy, social support, health professional advice), and environmental (perceived neighborhood environment) variables were self-reported. Averaged daily steps were obtained using 1-year pedometer measurements. Based on the national physical activity recommendations in Japan (males: 6700 steps; females: 5900 steps), the participants were divided into two categories - sufficiently active and insufficiently active. An adjusted logistic regression model was utilized. Totally, 47.4% of the participants (males: 51.5%; females: 43.8%) met the national recommendations. When adjusting for all other variables, a higher self-efficacy for exercise (AOR = 1.16; 95% CI: 1.04-1.28) and positive perception of the neighborhood environment (AOR = 1.43; 95% CI: 1.03-1.98) significantly influenced the meeting of the national recommendations. The findings clarified the need to identify effective intervention strategies to promote physical activity and suggest that an intervention design that accounts for these determinants may more effectively promote physical activity among the elderly Japanese.

  7. Apparel shopping behavior of elderly men and women.

    Chowdhary, U

    1989-06-01

    70 interested elderly (65 yr. and over) men and women participated in an investigation of older consumers' apparel-shopping behavior and satisfactions and dissatisfactions with available clothing and facilities. Analysis showed that the participants considered shopping ease, wide variety, and label/brand as some of the important factors while shopping for clothes. The respondents were satisfied with good selection, closeness of the mall, and reasonable sales. However, their dissatisfactions ranged from service to fit and size, youthful styles, and abundance of imported clothing. In-store displays, mail order catalogs, and window shopping were the most commonly used sources of apparel information. Several implications of the findings were discussed and suggestions for further research were made.

  8. Elderly women regulate brain blood flow better than men do.

    Deegan, Brian M; Sorond, Farzaneh A; Galica, Andrew; Lipsitz, Lewis A; O'Laighin, Gearoid; Serrador, Jorge M

    2011-07-01

    Orthostatic intolerance and falls differ between sexes and change with age. However, it remains unclear what role cerebral autoregulation may play in this response. This study was designed to determine whether cerebral autoregulation, assessed using transcranial Doppler ultrasound, is more effective in elderly females than in males. We used transcranial Doppler ultrasound to evaluate cerebral autoregulation in 544 (236 male) subjects older than age 70 years recruited as part of the MOBILIZE Boston study. The MOBILIZE Boston study is a prospective cohort study of a unique set of risk factors for falls in seniors in the Boston area. We assessed CO2 reactivity and transfer function gain, phase, and coherence during 5 minutes of quiet sitting and autoregulatory index during sit-to-stand tests. Male subjects had significantly lower CO2 reactivity (males, 1.10 ± 0.03; females, 1.32 ± 0.43 (cm/s)/%CO2; Peffective cerebral autoregulation. However, reduced autoregulation in males was not below the normal range, indicating autoregulation was intact but less effective. Female subjects were better able to maintain cerebral flow velocities during postural changes and demonstrated better cerebral autoregulation. The mechanisms of sex-based differences in autoregulation remain unclear but may partially explain the higher rates of orthostatic hypotension-related hospitalizations in elderly men.

  9. Lifestyle factors and visible skin aging in a population of Japanese elders

    Asakura, K; Nishiwaki, Y; Milojevic, A; Michikawa, T; Kikuchi, Y; Nakano, M; Iwasawa, S; Hillebrand, G; Miyamoto, K; Ono, M; Kinjo, Y; Akiba, S; Takebayashi, T

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The number of studies that use objective and quantitative methods to evaluate facial skin aging in elderly people is extremely limited, especially in Japan. Therefore, in this cross-sectional study we attempted to characterize the condition of facial skin (hyperpigmentation, pores, texture, and wrinkling) in Japanese adults aged 65 years or older by using objective and quantitative imaging methods. In addition, we aimed to identify lifestyle factors significantly associated with t...

  10. Assessing the Impact of Nationwide Smoking Cessation Interventions among Employed, Middle-Aged Japanese Men, 2005-2010.

    Koji Wada

    Full Text Available A variety of tobacco control interventions have become available in Japan over the past decade, however, the magnitude to which they have impacted on smoking rates may have varied by socioeconomic status such as job content, particularly for middle-aged men who were formerly long-term smokers. We conducted a longitudinal study to investigate the differences between smoking cessation strategies among a national sample of middle-aged Japanese employed men between 2005 and 2010.Data was extracted from a previous longitudinal survey of middle-aged and elderly people that had been conducted by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare. In 2005, 16,738 Japanese men aged 50-59 years were recruited and sent a questionnaire in each year of the study. We analyzed data for individuals who reported being current smokers at baseline. Cox's discrete time proportional hazard regression analysis was used to examine potential associations between smoking cessation and socioeconomic factors.Of the 6187 employed, male smokers who participated in 2005, 31% subsequently quit smoking during the 5-year follow-up period. Those working in manufacturing, transportation, or security were less likely to have quit smoking than those working in management. Having no marital partner, never having been married, or those experiencing psychological distress were significantly less likely to have quit smoking during this time.Although almost one-third of middle-aged, male smokers quit their habit between 2005 and 2010; the uptake of this national strategy appears to have been far from uniform across Japanese society. Socioeconomic factors such as occupation, marital status and psychological distress were negatively correlated with quitting, suggesting that these groups should be more aggressively targeted in further interventions.

  11. Efficacy of desmopressin in treatment of nocturia in elderly men

    Bijan Rezakhaniha

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nocturia may be due to urological and non-urological diseases and some of the possible underlying non-urological diseases may be life-threatening. We investigated the efficacy and safety of lowest dose of oral desmopressin in treatment of nocturia in elderly men. Methods: 60 old men referring to urology clinic of Imam Reza hospital in Tehran, Iran from 2008-2009 for treatment of nocturia were included in a double-blind placebo-controlled study. Patients were randomly divided into 2 study groups (30 patients in each group. Care was taken to match the patients of the 2 groups by age and clinical criteria. They complained of about 2 voids per night. We divided the patients into 2 study groups. Patients belonging to group A (n = 30 received placebo and patients of group B (n = 30 received 0.1 mg desmopressin at bed time for 8 weeks. Patients were assessed after 4 and 8 weeks of treatment. The means were compared using paired sample t-test and chi-square test for time of nocturia before and after treatments and also between the two groups. ANOVA test was used for assessement of statistical differences between outcomes of the two groups. Results: Mean number of nocturia before and after receiving desmopressin were 2.6 and 1.6 respectively which differed significantly (p < 0.001. Mean number of nocturia before and after receiving placebo were 2.5 and 2.3 respectively with no significant difference (p = 0.344. After 4 weeks of treatment with desmopressin, 17 patients (56.7% had less than 2 voids, 5 patients (16.7% had 2 voids and 8 (26.7% had more than 2 voids per night (p < 0.05. After 8 weeks, patients were evaluated and it was noticed that in group B, 4 patients (13.3% had 2 voids, 24 (80% had less than 2 voids and 2 patients (6.7% had more than 2 voids per night (p = 0.004. Conclusions: Oral administration of desmopressin is an effective and well-tolerated treatment for nocturia in elderly men.

  12. Relationship between alcohol consumption and periodontal tissue condition in community-dwelling elderly Japanese.

    Suwama, Kana; Yoshihara, Akihiro; Watanabe, Reiko; Stegaroiu, Roxana; Shibata, Satoko; Miyazaki, Hideo

    2018-03-25

    To examine the associations among alcohol consumption level, dietary intake and other lifestyle factors, and periodontal condition, in community-dwelling elderly Japanese of a specific age. The relationship between alcohol consumption level and periodontitis is a controversial issue. Participants were 438 dentate elders aged 73 years from a larger cohort survey of elders in Niigata City, Japan. Data collected from oral examination of each participant, including number of the existing teeth, mean probing pocket depth and mean clinical attachment level (CAL) were used for the analyses. A semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire and a lifestyle habit questionnaire were used to assess food and alcohol consumption, smoking experience, frequency of tooth brushing, interdental brush use, and visits to a dental clinic during the previous year. Blood glucose control was assessed by the glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) level. Body mass index was calculated from height and weight measurements. The relationships between each variable and the individual mean CAL were analysed by univariate and multivariate analyses. According to logistic regression analysis, the mean CAL was significantly associated with the number of existing teeth (odds ratio [OR] = 0.90; P dwelling elderly Japanese (aged 73 years) compared with non-drinking. Our results provide new evidence that high alcohol consumption is associated with an increased risk of periodontal disease and its progression. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S and The Gerodontology Association. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Dietary patterns associated with fall-related fracture in elderly Japanese: a population based prospective study.

    Monma, Yasutake; Niu, Kaijun; Iwasaki, Koh; Tomita, Naoki; Nakaya, Naoki; Hozawa, Atsushi; Kuriyama, Shinichi; Takayama, Shin; Seki, Takashi; Takeda, Takashi; Yaegashi, Nobuo; Ebihara, Satoru; Arai, Hiroyuki; Nagatomi, Ryoichi; Tsuji, Ichiro

    2010-06-01

    Diet is considered an important factor for bone health, but is composed of a wide variety of foods containing complex combinations of nutrients. Therefore we investigated the relationship between dietary patterns and fall-related fractures in the elderly. We designed a population-based prospective survey of 1178 elderly people in Japan in 2002. Dietary intake was assessed with a 75-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ), from which dietary patterns were created by factor analysis from 27 food groups. The frequency of fall-related fracture was investigated based on insurance claim records from 2002 until 2006. The relationship between the incidence of fall-related fracture and modifiable factors, including dietary patterns, were examined. The Cox proportional hazards regression model was used to examine the relationships between dietary patterns and incidence of fall-related fracture with adjustment for age, gender, Body Mass Index (BMI) and energy intake. Among 877 participants who agreed to a 4 year follow-up, 28 suffered from a fall-related fracture. Three dietary patterns were identified: mainly vegetable, mainly meat and mainly traditional Japanese. The moderately confirmed (see statistical methods) groups with a Meat pattern showed a reduced risk of fall-related fracture (Hazard ratio = 0.36, 95% CI = 0.13 - 0.94) after adjustment for age, gender, BMI and energy intake. The Vegetable pattern showed a significant risk increase (Hazard ratio = 2.67, 95% CI = 1.03 - 6.90) after adjustment for age, gender and BMI. The Traditional Japanese pattern had no relationship to the risk of fall-related fracture. The results of this study have the potential to reduce fall-related fracture risk in elderly Japanese. The results should be interpreted in light of the overall low meat intake of the Japanese population.

  14. Dietary patterns associated with fall-related fracture in elderly Japanese: a population based prospective study

    Yaegashi Nobuo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diet is considered an important factor for bone health, but is composed of a wide variety of foods containing complex combinations of nutrients. Therefore we investigated the relationship between dietary patterns and fall-related fractures in the elderly. Methods We designed a population-based prospective survey of 1178 elderly people in Japan in 2002. Dietary intake was assessed with a 75-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ, from which dietary patterns were created by factor analysis from 27 food groups. The frequency of fall-related fracture was investigated based on insurance claim records from 2002 until 2006. The relationship between the incidence of fall-related fracture and modifiable factors, including dietary patterns, were examined. The Cox proportional hazards regression model was used to examine the relationships between dietary patterns and incidence of fall-related fracture with adjustment for age, gender, Body Mass Index (BMI and energy intake. Results Among 877 participants who agreed to a 4 year follow-up, 28 suffered from a fall-related fracture. Three dietary patterns were identified: mainly vegetable, mainly meat and mainly traditional Japanese. The moderately confirmed (see statistical methods groups with a Meat pattern showed a reduced risk of fall-related fracture (Hazard ratio = 0.36, 95% CI = 0.13 - 0.94 after adjustment for age, gender, BMI and energy intake. The Vegetable pattern showed a significant risk increase (Hazard ratio = 2.67, 95% CI = 1.03 - 6.90 after adjustment for age, gender and BMI. The Traditional Japanese pattern had no relationship to the risk of fall-related fracture. Conclusions The results of this study have the potential to reduce fall-related fracture risk in elderly Japanese. The results should be interpreted in light of the overall low meat intake of the Japanese population.

  15. Sexual function and practice in elderly men of lower socioeconomic status.

    Cogen, R; Steinman, W

    1990-08-01

    Normal aging plus certain prevalent diseases are believed to render many elderly men impotent. Recent studies have suggested that educated middle-class and upper-class elderly men continue sexual activity, despite erectile dysfunction, by employing alternative practices such as mutual masturbation and oral sex. Few elderly men of lower socioeconomic background have been included in these studies, however. Using physician-administered interviews, 87 men attending an urban Veterans Administration geriatric clinic were studied to determine (1) the prevalence of erectile dysfunction, and (2) the sexual practices and attitudes of this group. Of the 87 men, 28% reported complete loss of erectile function, while 31% had frequent difficulties achieving vaginal intromission. Unlike economically advantaged groups, only 29% used mutual masturbation and 16% used oral sex. Attitudes toward these practices were negative. With one exception, men unable to perform coitus ceased all heterosexual activities.

  16. Local administration of growth hormone stimulates tendon collagen synthesis in elderly men

    Vestergaard, P; Jørgensen, J.O.L.; Olesen, J.L.

    2012-01-01

    Tendon collagen content and circulating growth hormone (GH) are reduced in elderly. In a placebo-controlled, double-blinded study, we examined if local injections of rhGH enhance collagen synthesis in healthy elderly men (61 ± 1 yr). Two injections of rhGH or saline (control) were injected into e...

  17. Lifestyle and Genetic Predictors of Stiffness Index in Community-dwelling Elderly Korean Men and Women

    Kyung-Ae Park, PhD

    2015-09-01

    Conclusions: Low SI was common in both elderly men and women. We found gender differences in factors linked to low SI. In multiple regression analysis, nutritional status and physical activity were more important factors in men, whereas alcohol consumption, educational level, and genetic polymorphism were significant factors predicting low SI in women. Gender-specific modifiable risk factors associated with low SI should be considered when developing osteoporosis prevention programs for the elderly.

  18. Use of Spoken and Written Japanese Did Not Protect Japanese-American Men From Cognitive Decline in Late Life

    Gruhl, Jonathan C.; Erosheva, Elena A.; Gibbons, Laura E.; McCurry, Susan M.; Rhoads, Kristoffer; Nguyen, Viet; Arani, Keerthi; Masaki, Kamal; White, Lon

    2010-01-01

    Objectives. Spoken bilingualism may be associated with cognitive reserve. Mastering a complicated written language may be associated with additional reserve. We sought to determine if midlife use of spoken and written Japanese was associated with lower rates of late life cognitive decline. Methods. Participants were second-generation Japanese-American men from the Hawaiian island of Oahu, born 1900–1919, free of dementia in 1991, and categorized based on midlife self-reported use of spoken and written Japanese (total n included in primary analysis = 2,520). Cognitive functioning was measured with the Cognitive Abilities Screening Instrument scored using item response theory. We used mixed effects models, controlling for age, income, education, smoking status, apolipoprotein E e4 alleles, and number of study visits. Results. Rates of cognitive decline were not related to use of spoken or written Japanese. This finding was consistent across numerous sensitivity analyses. Discussion. We did not find evidence to support the hypothesis that multilingualism is associated with cognitive reserve. PMID:20639282

  19. Relationship between masticatory function and frailty in community-dwelling Japanese elderly.

    Horibe, Yasuhiro; Watanabe, Yutaka; Hirano, Hirohiko; Edahiro, Ayako; Ishizaki, Ken; Ueda, Takayuki; Sakurai, Kaoru

    2017-12-28

    Frailty likely results in impaired functioning, and frail individuals requiring long-term care have recently attracted the attention of researchers. In the oral health field, the number of elderly individuals who require intervention for retaining occlusion has been increasing, as has the number of remaining teeth and required prosthetic treatment. Additionally, the number of elderly with reduced masticatory function has also been increasing, and frailty is a suspected factor. The aim of this study is to clarify the relationship between frailty and masticatory function decline. A cross-sectional study. A total of 747 participants (total mean age 73.6 ± 5.8 years old) underwent a comprehensive examination at the Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology. Three masticatory functions were evaluated: maximum occlusal force, mixing ability, and self-reported chewing ability. Frailty was determined using all 25 questions of the Basic checklist developed by the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare, following the method reported by Satake et al. Binomial logistic analysis clarified the relationship between frailty and evaluation of each of the three masticatory functions. Significant correlations of pre-frailty or frailty with maximum occlusal force, mixing ability, and subjective chewing ability were observed. All three masticatory functions (maximum occlusal force, mixing ability, and self-reported chewing ability) were associated with pre-frailty or frailty in community-dwelling Japanese elderly.

  20. Lifestyle and Genetic Predictors of Stiffness Index in Community-dwelling Elderly Korean Men and Women.

    Park, Kyung-Ae; Park, Yeon-Hwan; Suh, Min-Hee; Choi-Kwon, Smi

    2015-09-01

    Differing lifestyle, nutritional, and genetic factors may lead to a differing stiffness index (SI) determined by quantitative ultrasound in elderly men and women. The purpose of this study was to determine SI and the gender-specific factors associated with low SI in a Korean elderly cohort. This was a cross-sectional descriptive study identifying the gender-specific factors related to SI in 252 men and women aged 65 years and greater from local senior centers in Seoul, Korea between January and February 2009. The mean SI of elderly men was significantly higher than that of the women's. A multiple regression analysis reveals that age, nutritional status, and physical activity were predictive factors of lower SI in men, whereas age, alcohol consumption, educational level, and genetic polymorphism were predictive factors for elderly women. Low SI was common in both elderly men and women. We found gender differences in factors linked to low SI. In multiple regression analysis, nutritional status and physical activity were more important factors in men, whereas alcohol consumption, educational level, and genetic polymorphism were significant factors predicting low SI in women. Gender-specific modifiable risk factors associated with low SI should be considered when developing osteoporosis prevention programs for the elderly. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Comparison of HOMA-IR, HOMA-β% and disposition index between US white men and Japanese men in Japan: the ERA JUMP study.

    Ahuja, Vasudha; Kadowaki, Takashi; Evans, Rhobert W; Kadota, Aya; Okamura, Tomonori; El Khoudary, Samar R; Fujiyoshi, Akira; Barinas-Mitchell, Emma J M; Hisamatsu, Takashi; Vishnu, Abhishek; Miura, Katsuyuki; Maegawa, Hiroshi; El-Saed, Aiman; Kashiwagi, Atsunori; Kuller, Lewis H; Ueshima, Hirotsugu; Sekikawa, Akira

    2015-02-01

    At the same level of BMI, white people have less visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and are less susceptible to developing type 2 diabetes than Japanese people. No previous population-based studies have compared insulin resistance and insulin secretion between these two races in a standardised manner that accounts for VAT. We compared HOMA-IR, HOMA of beta cell function (HOMA-β%) and disposition index (DI) in US white men and Japanese men in Japan. We conducted a population-based, cross-sectional study, comprising 298 white men and 294 Japanese men aged 40-49 years without diabetes. Insulin, glucose, VAT and other measurements were performed at the University of Pittsburgh. We used ANCOVA to compare geometric means of HOMA-IR, HOMA-β% and DI, adjusting for VAT and other covariates. White men had higher HOMA-IR, HOMA-β% and DI than Japanese men, and the difference remained significant (p HOMA-IR, HOMA-β% and DI were significantly higher in white men even after further adjustment for BMI, impaired fasting glucose and other risk factors. The higher VAT-adjusted DI in white men than Japanese men may partly explain lower susceptibility of white people than Japanese people to developing type 2 diabetes. The results, however, should be interpreted with caution because the assessment of insulin indices was made using fasting samples and adjustment was not made for baseline glucose tolerance. Further studies using formal methods to evaluate insulin indices are warranted.

  2. Japanese men's success in altered fatherhood role in a foreign country.

    Taniguchi, Hatsumi; Shimada, Mieki; McIntyre, Meredith

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the meaning of the lived experience of childbirth and parenting of Japanese men who became fathers in a foreign country. Japanese men have been raised to maintain very strict gender roles, excluding them from sharing with their wives the experience of childbirth and the day-to-day parenting of young children. The study employed a descriptive phenomenological approach with in-depth interviews. Participants included nine Japanese men born and raised in Japan who were living in Honolulu. Three theme categories emerged from the data: "making active efforts in preparation for childbirth in a foreign country"; "challenges in pregnancy, childbirth, child care, and as husbands or partners"; and "challenges in transition to parenthood." Japanese men successfully altered their transitional and authoritarian gender role to a family orientated social structure, under the influence of Western values, when living in foreign country. By spending more time with their new family, they acknowledged the processes of becoming a father. The ability to adapt their expectations of fatherhood in line with Western values was enhanced by the support of coworkers, their mature age, rich educational background, and the personal financial resources of the male participants in the study. © The Author(s) 2014.

  3. [Cognitive function screening of community-dwelling elderly by Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status in Japanese (TICS-J)].

    Konagaya, Yoko; Watanabe, Tomoyuki; Takata, Kazuko; Ohta, Toshiki

    2008-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether the Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status in Japanese (TICS-J) is accepted among community-dwelling elderly, to examine the correlations among gender, age or the duration of education and the TICS-J, as well as to grasp the subjects with probable cognitive impairment. A total of 12,059 community-dwelling elderly were invited to join the cognitive screening by the TICS-J, among which 3,482 responded, of these we were actually able to measure 2,620 and found out the educational back ground of the 2,431. They counted 1,186 men (age 72.3+/-5.7 (mean+/-SD) years old, duration of education 11.4+/-2.9 years) and 1,245 women (72.4+/-5.8, 10.3+/-2.2). The TICS-J was administered according to the TICS manual. The TICS-J consisted of orientation concerning name, time and place, counting backward from 20 to 1, remembering a word list, 7 serial subtractions, naming of verbal descriptions, repetition, recent memory, praxis and opposites. The subjects were divided into two groups by the duration of education (less than 11 years, or 11 years or more), or four groups by age (65-69, 70-74, 75-79 and 80 years old or more). There were no significant differences of total TICS-J scores between men and women, 34.3+/-3.5 and 34.4+/-3.6, respectively. The mean total score of the high education group (35.3+/-3.0) was significantly higher than that of the low education group (33.3+/-3.8). Moreover, the averages of the total scores decreased according to age increase. The number of the subjects who showed the total TICS-J scores below the cut-off point of 33 was 564 (23.2%). There was no difference between men and women with the average total score of the TICS-J, however, there were correlations between ages and extent of education and their average total scores. The TICS-J is useful to assess the cognitive function of the community-dwelling elderly.

  4. Simultaneous Presentation of Giant Cell Arteritis and Myelodysplastic Syndrome in an Elderly Japanese Man.

    Senjo, Hajime; Higuchi, Takakazu; Morimoto, Masaya; Koyamada, Ryosuke; Yanaoka, Chisun; Okada, Sadamu

    2018-05-18

    An 81-year-old Japanese man presented with constitutional symptoms and anemia and was diagnosed with giant cell arteritis (GCA) and myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) simultaneously. His symptoms and anemia improved promptly with steroids; however, the MDS rapidly progressed to overt leukemia. While MDS patients are at an increased risk of autoimmune diseases, an association with GCA has rarely been reported. This case illustrates the importance of considering GCA as a cause of anemia in elderly patients if MDS is already diagnosed, even in countries where the prevalence of GCA is very low. The simultaneous development of GCA and MDS suggests a common pathogenetic link between these two diseases.

  5. Prevalence of sexual victimization and correlates of forced sex in Japanese men who have sex with men.

    Yasuharu Hidaka

    Full Text Available Studies of men who have sex with men (MSM in diverse geographic and cultural contexts have identified health challenges affecting this population. MSM might be particularly vulnerable to sexual victimization and forced sex. The aim of this research study was to examine prevalence of sexual victimization and correlates of forced sex among Japanese MSM. We recruited a sample of 5,731 Japanese MSM who completed an internet-administered survey. Participants reported on history of different types of sexual victimization, unprotected anal sex, other health risk behaviors, exposure to gay-related teasing and bullying, depression, and suicidality. Over one-fifth of the sample (21.4% reported experiencing at least one form of sexual victimization, and 8.7% reported a history of forced sex. MSM who had ever experienced forced sex were significantly more likely to report experiencing psychological risks (depression OR = 1.55, 95% CI = 1.28-1.89; attempted suicide OR = 2.25, 95% CI = 1.81-2.81; other forms of bullying OR = 1.38, 95% CI = 1.13-1.68 and other behavioral risks (unprotected anal sex OR = 1.56, 95% CI = 1.29-1.90; sex venue attendance OR = 1.27, 95% CI = 1.04-1.54; methamphetamine use OR = 1.57, 95% CI  = 1.05-1.36, compared to MSM who had not experienced forced sex. Efforts to develop holistic and integrated health services for Japanese MSM are warranted, particularly related to psychosocial determinants of HIV prevention. However, due to cultural factors that emphasize familial and social relations and that stigmatize same-sex behavior, Japanese MSM might experience challenges to seeking social support and health services. Interventions must be provided in safe and non-judgmental settings where Japanese MSM feel comfortable disclosing their health and social support needs.

  6. Self-reported Sleep Duration and Subclinical Atherosclerosis in a General Population of Japanese Men

    Suzuki, Sentaro; Arima, Hisatomi; Miyazaki, Soichiro; Fujiyoshi, Akira; Kadota, Aya; Takashima, Naoyuki; Hisamatsu, Takashi; Kadowaki, Sayaka; Zaid, Maryam; Torii, Sayuki; Horie, Minoru; Murata, Kiyoshi; Miura, Katsuyuki; Ueshima, Hirotsugu

    2018-01-01

    Aim: There are few data regarding associations between sleep duration and subclinical atherosclerosis in Japan. The aim of this study was to evaluate associations of self-reported sleep duration with calcification in the coronary arteries (CAC) and carotid intima media thickness (IMT) in Japanese men. Methods: This was a cross-sectional survey of 1093 randomly selected men from Kusatsu City, Japan. Average sleep duration on weekdays was estimated through questionnaire; CAC by computed tomography; and carotid IMT by ultrasonography. Results: The prevalence of CAC was 50.0% for participants with sleep duration 0.1). Conclusion: Self-reported sleep duration was not associated with increased CAC or carotid IMT in a general population of Japanese men. PMID:28747590

  7. Comparison of Some Cardiovascular Risk Factors between Active and Sedentary Elderly Men

    H. Najafgholizadeh

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: One of the major problems threatening the world’s people are cardiovascular diseases, accounting for 30% of the deaths. The factors exposing people to this danger are called risk factors. Objective: This study aimed to compare the cardiovascular risk factors and C-reactive protein between active and sedentary elderly men. Methods: The study was a descriptive comparison of two groups that were conducted in Rasht city in 2015. The subjects of this study consist of 30 active elderly men and 30 sedentary elderly men who were selected non-randomly and purposefully. Inclusion criteria of research for active subjects were have regular physical activity at least six months and don’t use cigarette and pills that affect profile lipids and inclusion criteria for sedentary subjects were don’t have regular physical activity and also don’t use cigarette and pills that affect profile lipids. The measured cardiovascular risk factors of subjects include fasting blood sugar (FBS, triglyceride (TG, total cholesterol (TC, highdensity lipoprotein (HDL, low-density lipoprotein (LDL, very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL, glycated haemoglobinA1c (HbA1c, and C-reactive protein (CRP. The statistical methods used for data analysis are Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, t-student, and U Mann-Whitney with significance level less than 0.05. Findings: The t-student exam shows that cardiovascular risk factors, including FBS, TG, TC, HDL, VLDL, HbA1c, and CRP, in active elderly men are lower than sedentary elderly men. This difference is also statistically significant (P≤0/01. Conclusion: The study showed that cardiovascular risk factors in active elderly men are less than sedentary ones. However, 80% of active elderly men had still at least one or several cardiovascular risk factors.

  8. Prevalence and morbidity of urethral Trichomonas vaginalis in Japanese men with or without urethritis.

    Seike, Kensaku; Maeda, Shin-Ichi; Kubota, Yasuaki; Tamaki, Masayoshi; Yasuda, Mitsuru; Deguchi, Takashi

    2013-09-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis is one of the pathogens causing sexually transmitted infections. This microorganism is a common pathogen among women, but its significance as a cause of morbidity among men remains uncertain. We sought to determine the prevalence and morbidity of T. vaginalis infection in Japanese men with and without urethritis. We examined urine specimens from 215 men with urethritis and 98 men without urethritis for the presence of urethral T. vaginalis by PCR assay. Only four patients-one with gonococcal urethritis, one with non-gonococcal chlamydial urethritis, one with non-gonococcal non-chlamydial urethritis and one without urethritis-were positive for T. vaginalis. The prevalence of T. vaginalis was 1.4% in men with urethritis and 1.0% in men without urethritis. A possible relation between the appearance of T. vaginalis and clinical symptoms was not confirmed. In the present study, the incidence of urethral T. vaginalis infection appears to be rare in Japanese men with or without urethritis, and T. vaginalis may be an uncommon pathogen in male urethritis in Japan.

  9. Antitrypsin and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among Japanese-American men.

    Roberts, A; Kagan, A; Rhoads, G G; Pierce, J A; Bruce, R M

    1977-10-01

    A total of 161 patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) plus 100 control subjects (identified during a study of heart disease in 6,860 Japanese-American men aged 52 to 75 years who were residing in Hawaii) were analyzed for phenotype in search of the antitrypsin gene Z, which has been shown to be associated with pulmonary emphysema in other racial groups. No carriers of the Z gene were found, and the question of whether the rarity or absence of this gene relates to a low frequency of COPD among Japanese-Americans is reviewed.

  10. Comparison of potentially preventable hospitalizations related to diabetes among Native Hawaiian, Chinese, Filipino, and Japanese elderly compared with whites, Hawai'i, December 2006-December 2010.

    Sentell, Tetine L; Ahn, Hyeong Jun; Juarez, Deborah T; Tseng, Chien-Wen; Chen, John J; Salvail, Florentina R; Miyamura, Jill; Mau, Marjorie L M

    2013-07-25

    Approximately 25% of individuals aged 65 years or older in the United States have diabetes mellitus. Diabetes rates in this age group are higher for Asian American and Pacific Islanders (AA/PI) than for whites. We examined racial/ethnic differences in diabetes-related potentially preventable hospitalizations (DRPH) among people aged 65 years or older for Japanese, Chinese, Filipinos, Native Hawaiians, and whites. Discharge data for hospitalizations in Hawai'i for people aged 65 years or older from December 2006 through December 2010 were compared. Annual rates of DRPH by patient were calculated for each racial/ethnic group by sex. Rate ratios (RRs) were calculated relative to whites. Multivariable models controlling for insurer, comorbidity, diabetes prevalence, age, and residence location provided final adjusted rates and RRs. A total of 1,815 DRPH were seen from 1,515 unique individuals. Unadjusted RRs for DRPH by patient were greater than 1 in all AA/PI study groups compared with whites, but were highest among Native Hawaiians and Filipinos [corrected]. In fully adjusted models accounting for higher diabetes prevalence in AA/PI groups, Native Hawaiian (adjusted rate ratio [aRR] = 1.59), Filipino (aRR = 2.26), and Japanese (aRR = 1.86) men retained significantly higher rates of diabetes-related potentially preventable hospitalizations than whites, as did Filipino women (aRR = 1.61). Native Hawaiian, Filipino, and Japanese men and Filipino women aged 65 years or older have a higher risk than whites for DRPH. Health care providers and public health programs for elderly patients should consider effective programs to reduce potentially preventable hospitalizations among Native Hawaiian, Filipino, and Japanese men and Filipino women aged 65 years or older.

  11. Body mass index influences prostate cancer risk at biopsy in Japanese men.

    Masuda, Hitoshi; Kagawa, Makoto; Kawakami, Satoru; Numao, Noboru; Matsuoka, Yoh; Yokoyama, Minato; Yamamoto, Shinya; Yonese, Junji; Fukui, Iwao; Kihara, Kazunori

    2013-07-01

    To determine the relationship between body mass index and prostate cancer risk at biopsy in Japanese men, and to compared the risk with that of Caucasian men. We retrospectively evaluated 3966 men with prostate-specific antigen levels from 2.5 to 19.9 ng/mL who underwent an initial extended prostate biopsy. Using logistic regression, odds ratios of each body mass index category for risk of prostate cancer and high-grade disease (Gleason score ≥4 + 3) were estimated after controlling for age, prostate-specific antigen, %free prostate-specific antigen, prostate volume, digital rectal examination findings, family history of prostate cancer and the number of biopsy cores. Patients were divided into six categories according to their body mass index (kg/m(2) ) as follows: body mass index and prostate cancer risk at biopsy, with an increased risk observed in men whose body mass index was ≥27.0 compared with the reference group. A significantly increased risk starting at body mass index ≥25.0 was found in high-grade disease. In contrast to our results, there has been no reported increase in the risk of prostate cancer at biopsy in Caucasians within the overweight range (body mass index of 25.0-29.9 based on World Health Organization classification). Japanese men within the overweight body mass index range who have an elevated prostate-specific antigen level also have a significant risk of harboring prostate cancer, especially high-grade disease. Overweight Japanese might be at greater prostate cancer risk at biopsy than overweight Caucasians. © 2012 The Japanese Urological Association.

  12. Relationship between pre-sarcopenia, sarcopenia and bone mineral density in elderly men.

    Pereira, Fernando Borges; Leite, André Ferreira; de Paula, Ana Patrícia

    2015-02-01

    Analyze the influence of sarcopenia in bone health of elderly men. This cross-sectional study evaluated 198 men aged over 60 years. Body composition was measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. The BMD was measured at the femoral neck, total hip, lumbar spine and 33% radius. The diagnosis of abnormal BMD was defined for men who presented densitometric diagnosis of osteopenia or osteoporosis defined by T-score of femoral neck, total hip and lumbar spine. The pre-sarcopenia and sarcopenia were defined according to the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People. The group diagnosed with normal BMD, compared to the group of abnormal BMD, have significantly higher body weight, body mass index, grip strength, lean mass, fat mass, and relative appendicular skeletal muscle mass (RASM). However, after multiple linear regression analysis, we found that only the RASM, lean mass, and handgrip strength in the dominant hand influenced the variability of the BMD after adjustment for age and weight. Regression analyzes showed a positive association between greater appendicular lean mass and a smaller number of elderly patients with abnormal BMD diagnostic. The regression analyzes showed that elderly men diagnosed with pre-sarcopenia and sarcopenia had more abnormal BMD than non-sarcopenic elderly men. We concluded that pre-sarcopenia and sarcopenia were associated with abnormal BMD. The lean mass, compared to fat mass, has a greater positive influence on the BMD of elderly men. This result suggests the importance of the increase in lean mass for the bone health of elderly men.

  13. Enhanced satellite cell proliferation with resistance training in elderly men and women

    Mackey, Abigail; Esmarck, B; Kadi, F

    2007-01-01

    In addition to the well-documented loss of muscle mass and strength associated with aging, there is evidence for the attenuating effects of aging on the number of satellite cells in human skeletal muscle. The aim of this study was to investigate the response of satellite cells in elderly men...... and women to 12 weeks of resistance training. Biopsies were collected from the m. vastus lateralis of 13 healthy elderly men and 16 healthy elderly women (mean age 76+/-SD 3 years) before and after the training period. Satellite cells were visualized by immunohistochemical staining of muscle cross.......15+/-0.06; mean+/-SD) and females (from 0.11+/-0.04 to 0.13+/-0.05). These results suggest that 12 weeks of resistance training is effective in enhancing the satellite cell pool in skeletal muscle in the elderly....

  14. Sense of life worth living (ikigai) and incident functional disability in elderly Japanese: The Tsurugaya Project.

    Mori, Kentaro; Kaiho, Yu; Tomata, Yasutake; Narita, Mamoru; Tanji, Fumiya; Sugiyama, Kemmyo; Sugawara, Yumi; Tsuji, Ichiro

    2017-04-01

    To test the hypothesis that elderly persons who feel ikigai (a sense of life worth living) have a lower risk of incident functional disability than those who do not. Recent studies have suggested that ikigai impacts on mortality. However, its impact upon disability is unknown. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between ikigai and incident functional disability among elderly persons. We conducted a prospective cohort study of 830 Japanese elderly persons aged ≥70 years as a comprehensive geriatric assessment in 2003. Information on ikigai was collected by self-reported questionnaire. Data on functional disability were retrieved from the public Long-term Care Insurance database in which participants were followed up for 11 years. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for incidence of functional disability were calculated for three groups delineated according to the presence of ikigai (“no”, “uncertain” or “yes”) using the Cox proportional hazards regression model. The 11-year incidence of functional disability was 53.3% (442 cases). As compared with the “no” group, the multiple-adjusted HR (95% CI) of incident functional disability was 0.61 (0.36–1.02) for the “uncertain” group and 0.50 (0.30–0.84) for the “yes” group. A stronger degree of ikigai is significantly associated with a lower risk of incident functional disability. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Substance use and sexual behaviours of Japanese men who have sex with men: A nationwide internet survey conducted in Japan

    Kimura Hirokazu

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Japanese men who have sex with men (MSM, especially those living in large metropolitan areas such as Tokyo and Osaka, are facing a growing HIV/AIDS epidemic. Although the Internet is used as a new venue for meeting sex partners, it can also serve as a useful research tool for investigating the risk behaviours of Japanese MSM. This Internet survey explored the extent of substance use and its association with sexual risk behaviours among Japanese MSM. Methods Between 28 February 2003 and 16 May 2003 MSM were recruited through 57 Japanese gay-oriented Web sites, gay magazines, and Internet mailing lists. Participants completed a structured questionnaire anonymously through the Internet. Results In total, 2,062 Japanese MSM completed the questionnaire. The average age of participants was 29.0 years and 70.5% identified as gay, 20.8% as bisexual, and 8.7% as other. Overall, 34.5% reported never using a substance, 45% reported ever using one type of substance (lifetime reported single substance users, and 19.6% had used more than 1 type of substance (lifetime reported multiple substance users in their lifetimes. The substances most commonly used were amyl nitrite (63.2%, 5-methoxy-N, N-diisopropyltryptamine (5MEO-DIPT (9.3%, and marijuana (5.7%. In the multivariate analysis, unprotected anal intercourse, having had 6 or more sexual partners, visiting a sex club/gay venue in the previous 6 months, a lower education level, and being 30 to 39 years of age were associated with both lifetime single and lifetime multiple substance use. Lifetime reported multiple substance use was also correlated with having a casual sex partner, having symptoms of depression, being diagnosed as HIV-positive, and greater HIV/AIDS-related knowledge. Conclusion This is the first Internet-based research focused on the sexual and substance use behaviours of MSM in Asia. Our findings suggest a compelling need for prevention interventions to reduce HIV risk

  16. Smoking, Smoking Cessation, and Measures of Subclinical Atherosclerosis in Multiple Vascular Beds in Japanese Men

    Hisamatsu, Takashi; Miura, Katsuyuki; Arima, Hisatomi; Kadota, Aya; Kadowaki, Sayaka; Torii, Sayuki; Suzuki, Sentaro; Miyagawa, Naoko; Sato, Atsushi; Yamazoe, Masahiro; Fujiyoshi, Akira; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Yamamoto, Takashi; Murata, Kiyoshi; Abbott, Robert D.

    2016-01-01

    Background Smoking is an overwhelming, but preventable, risk factor for cardiovascular diseases (CVD), although smoking prevalence remains high in developed and developing countries in East Asia. Methods and Results In a population?based sample of 1019 Japanese men aged 40 to 79?years, without CVD, we examined cross?sectional associations of smoking status, cumulative pack?years, daily consumption, and time since cessation, with subclinical atherosclerosis at 4 anatomically distinct vascular ...

  17. Association Between Sarcopenia and Mild Cognitive Impairment Using the Japanese Version of the SARC-F in Elderly Patients With Diabetes.

    Ida, Satoshi; Nakai, Mari; Ito, Sho; Ishihara, Yuki; Imataka, Kanako; Uchida, Akihiro; Monguchi, Kou; Kaneko, Ryutaro; Fujiwara, Ryoko; Takahashi, Hiroka; Murata, Kazuya

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between sarcopenia and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in elderly patients with diabetes using the Japanese version of the simple 5-item questionnaire (SARC-F-J). Cross-sectional study. Community hospital in Japan. Subjects were people with diabetes aged 65 years and older being treated on an outpatient basis at the Ise Red Cross Hospital. We used the Japanese version of the self-administered cognitive test Test Your Memory (TYM-J) to measure MCI and the self-administered questionnaire SARC-F-J, consisting of 5 items, to evaluate sarcopenia. We conducted a multiple logistic regression analysis with MCI as the dependent variable and sarcopenia as the explanatory variable to calculate the odds ratio of sarcopenia in association with MCI. A total of 250 cases (150 men and 100 women) were included in our study. The prevalence of sarcopenia in this sample was 19.5% and that of MCI was 40.3%. The adjusted odds ratio of sarcopenia in association with MCI was 2.96 (95% confidence interval, 1.09-7.70, P = .032). A statistically significant association was found between sarcopenia and MCI in an assessment of elderly patients with diabetes using the SARC-F-J. Copyright © 2017 AMDA – The Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Diet, Alcohol Consumption and Serum Lipid Levels of Elderly Men ...

    Methodology: Elderly subjects attending quarterly medical lectures organized by a non-governmental organization at the Federal Medical Centre, Asaba were recruited. Information on diet, alcohol consumption and hypertension were obtained and serum lipids were determined using standard cholesterol / low density ...

  19. Social Relationships, Psychosocial Adaptation, and Intrainstitutional Relocation of Elderly Men.

    Tesch, Stephanie A.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Studied intrainstitutional relocation of 40 men aged 53 to 91 and its effects on social integration, and behavioral and self-reported measures of psychosocial adaptation. Found in both longitudinal and time-lag analyses of pre- and post-relocation data, relocated men had lower scores on attitude toward aging dimension, fewer friends, and evidenced…

  20. Association of cardiorespiratory fitness and overweight with risk of type 2 diabetes in Japanese men.

    Keisuke Kuwahara

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Existing evidence is limited on what extent fitness can counterbalance type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM risk associated with obesity. We investigated the joint association of weight status and estimated VO2max, a marker of fitness, with the risk of developing T2DM among Japanese men using haemoglobin A1c and fasting glucose criterion. METHODS: The present study included 3,523 male employees aged 18-61 years without diabetes who provided health check-up and fitness data in Japan in 2003-2005. We calculated hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals for incident diabetes using the Cox regression model. RESULTS: During a mean follow-up of 6.0 years, 199 men developed diabetes. Multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (95% confidence interval of diabetes were 1.00 (reference, 1.44 (1.01-2.07, and 1.48 (1.03-2.13 for the highest through the lowest tertile of fitness (P for trend  = 0.04. Additional adjustment for body mass index largely attenuated the association of fitness with diabetes. Joint analysis showed that adjusted hazard ratios of diabetes were 1.00, 1.32, 2.94, and 1.83 in normal weight high-fit men, normal weight low-fit men, overweight high-fit men, and overweight low-fit men, respectively. CONCLUSION: The results suggest that weight control is more important than fitness in prevention of type 2 diabetes in Japanese men.

  1. Heavy flow autochtonic case of hepatitis E in elderly men

    S. V. Baramzina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents an analysis of the first clinical cases of acute hepatitis E autochtonic on the territory of the Kirov region. HEV-infection was diagnosed in 76 year old male, not to travel outside the region and the country for a long time, eat a lot of fresh fruit. A feature of the disease in non-endemic region was: severe course of hepatitis E in the elderly, with the development of clinic of acute liver failure and encephalopathy, the presence of the expressed syndrome cytolysis, cholestasis, hepatic-cell failure.Timely treatment of a patient for medical care, the lack of severe somatic diseases, chronic liver disease and adequate pathogenetic therapy helped to keep the patient’s life. In deciphering undifferentiated acute hepatitis in the elderly should be included in the scheme of examination and determination HEV RNA, a/HEV IgM and G.

  2. The diuretic action of weak and strong alcoholic beverages in elderly men

    Polhuis, Kristel C.M.M.; Wijnen, Annemarthe H.C.; Sierksma, Aafje; Calame, Wim; Tieland, Michael

    2017-01-01

    With ageing, there is a greater risk of dehydration. This study investigated the diuretic effect of alcoholic beverages varying in alcohol concentration in elderly men. Three alcoholic beverages (beer (AB), wine (AW), and spirits (S)) and their non-alcoholic counterparts (non-alcoholic beer (NAB),

  3. Myelin Breakdown Mediates Age-Related Slowing in Cognitive Processing Speed in Healthy Elderly Men

    Lu, Po H.; Lee, Grace J.; Tishler, Todd A.; Meghpara, Michael; Thompson, Paul M.; Bartzokis, George

    2013-01-01

    Background: To assess the hypothesis that in a sample of very healthy elderly men selected to minimize risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD) and cerebrovascular disease, myelin breakdown in late-myelinating regions mediates age-related slowing in cognitive processing speed (CPS). Materials and methods: The prefrontal lobe white matter and the genu of…

  4. Physical activity in relation to cognitive decline in elderly men: the FINE study

    Gelder, van B.M.; Tijhuis, M.A.R.; Kromhout, D.

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Physical activity may be associated with better cognition. OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether change in duration and intensity of physical activity is associated with 10-year cognitive decline in elderly men. METHODS: Data of 295 healthy survivors, born between 1900 and 1920, from the

  5. Coffee consumption is inversely associated with cognitive decline in elderly European men: the FINE Study

    Gelder, van B.M.; Buijsse, B.; Tijhuis, M.J.; Kalmijn, S.; Giampaoli, S.; Nissinen, A.; Kromhout, D.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate whether coffee consumption is associated with 10-year cognitive decline in elderly men, as results of previous studies obtained hitherto have been controversial and prospective information on this association has been lacking. Design, subjects and setting: Six hundred and

  6. Cardiovascular disease and cognitive performance in middle-aged and elderly men

    Muller, M.; Grobbee, D. E.; Aleman, A.; Bots, M.; van der Schouw, Y. T.

    Background: Decline of cognitive function with age may be due, in part, to atherosclerotic changes. The aim of the present study was to determine the relative contribution of cardiovascular disease (CVD) to cognitive functioning in middle-aged and elderly men. Methods: In a cross-sectional study,

  7. Physical activity and health characteristics : a survey among Dutch elderly women and men

    Hombergh, van den C.E.J.

    1995-01-01

    To study physical activity of elderly people and its relationship with health characteristics, a cross-sectional study was conducted in 1991/1992 in Arnhem, the Netherlands, among 515 women and 497 men, aged 65 to 85 years. Habitual physical activity was assessed with a questionnaire,

  8. Sarcopenia and its relationship with bone mineral density in middle-aged and elderly European men.

    Verschueren, S; Gielen, E; O'Neill, T W; Pye, S R; Adams, J E; Ward, K A; Wu, F C; Szulc, P; Laurent, M; Claessens, F; Vanderschueren, D; Boonen, S

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between reduced muscle mass (sarcopenia) and areal bone mineral density (BMD(a)) in middle-aged and elderly community-dwelling European men. Men with sarcopenia had significantly lower BMD(a) and were more likely to have osteoporosis compared with men without sarcopenia. In men, the relationship between reduced muscle mass (sarcopenia) and BMD(a) is unclear. This study aimed to determine this relationship in middle-aged and elderly community-dwelling men. Men aged 40-79 years from the Manchester (UK) and Leuven (Belgium) cohorts of the European Male Ageing Study were invited to attend for assessment including dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, from which appendicular lean mass (aLM), fat mass (FM) and whole-body, spine and hip BMD(a) were determined. Relative appendicular skeletal muscle mass (RASM) was calculated as aLM/height². Muscle strength was assessed in subjects from Leuven. Sarcopenia was defined by RASM at Sarcopenia in Older People (RASM at sarcopenia and osteoporosis. Six hundred seventy-nine men with a mean age of 59.6 (SD = 10.7), contributed data to the analysis; 11.9 % were sarcopenic by the conventional definition. After adjustment for age and centre, aLM, RASM and FM were positively associated with BMD(a). Men with RASM at sarcopenia were more likely to have osteoporosis compared with those with normal RASM (odds ratio = 3.0; 95 % CI = 1.6-5.8). Sarcopenia is associated with low BMD(a) and osteoporosis in middle-aged and elderly men. Further studies are necessary to assess whether maintaining muscle mass contributes to prevent osteoporosis.

  9. Occupational differences in suicide mortality among Japanese men of working age.

    Wada, Koji; Eguchi, Hisashi; Prieto-Merino, David; Smith, Derek R

    2016-01-15

    Although suicide rates among Japanese men of working-age have steadily increased over the past two decades, the distribution by occupation and industry is not uniform. Little is known regarding occupation and industry differences in relation to suicide risk. This study examined differences in suicide risk among Japanese men of working age (25-59 years) during 2010. We analysed the Japanese government's 2010 national survey data regarding occupation and industry-specific death rates. Poisson regression models were formulated for each occupation and industry to estimate the relative risk of death by suicide. Potential interactions between age and occupation/industry were also examined. Suicide incidence was highest among workers in the fields of agriculture and mining. When compared with referent groups (sales for occupation and wholesale and retail for industry), the age-adjusted relative risk of suicide was highest for administrative and managerial workers (Incident Relative Risk [IRR]: 3.91, 95% Confidence Interval [95%CI]: 3.16-4.85), service industries (IRR: 3.63, 95%CI: 2.93-4.51) and agriculture (IRR: 3.53, 95%CI: 2.84-4.38) occupations, and for mining (IRR: 23.9, 95%CI: 19.4-29.4), fisheries (IRR: 6.26, 95%CI: 5.03-7.80), electricity and gas (IRR: 5.86, 95%CI: 4.71-7.30) and agricultural industries (IRR: 4.73, 95%CI: 3.78-5.91). Bias resulting from misclassification of deceased individuals' occupation or industry was a potential limitation of this study. Furthermore, detailed information regarding occupation-related factors, such as employment status, had not been recorded in the initial survey. These findings help elucidate Japanese occupations and industries with a higher suicide risk, most likely due to economic changes or workplace factors relating to stress and depression. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Contribution of social relationships to self-rated health among Japanese community-dwelling elderly.

    Kawasaki, Ryoko; Nakao, Rieko; Ohnishi, Mayumi

    2018-05-01

    Objective: Participation in social activities is associated with physical and psychological health in the community-dwelling elderly population. We examined the two factors of social relations and community health resources, associated with higher self-rated health levels in the community-dwelling elderly. Methods: A total of 145 community-dwelling elderly people ≥ 65 years old from two neighborhood associations in Nagasaki City were recruited for this study, representing 85% of the officially registered ≥ 65-year-old population in the target area. Face-to-face interviews using a structured questionnaire were conducted by trained interviewers in August 2009, with questions related to sociodemographic characteristics, social relationships, and self-rated health (SRH). Community health resources (type and walking distance from home) were evaluated by one of the authors as a community assessment. Results: Seventy-eight community-dwelling elderly people (25 men and 53 women) participated in the study. Elderly people who reported going out every day were more likely to show higher SRH scores (excellent/good) than those going out less often (OR: 3.7; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.0, 14.2; P = 0.056). The numbers of interactions with friends in higher and lower SRH groups were 6.5 ± 8.4 (mean ± standard deviation) and 2.4 ± 1.1 ( P = 0.01, Mann-Whitney U test), respectively. The numbers of relatives talking on the phone in higher and lower SRH groups were 2.9 ± 1.3 and 2.2 ± 1.2 ( P = 0.031, Mann-Whitney U test), respectively. Meeting scores with friends in higher and lower SRH groups were 7.8 ± 5.8 and 4.5 ± 3.6 ( P = 0.068), respectively. The scores of community health resources among higher and lower SRH groups were 21.2 ± 1.5 and 20.9 ± 1.4 ( P = 0.547), respectively. The scores of community association/activities in higher and lower SRH groups were 3.9 ± 1.0 and 3.6 ± 0.9 ( P = 0.227), respectively. Conclusion: This study indicated the importance

  11. Topical adenosine increases thick hair ratio in Japanese men with androgenetic alopecia.

    Watanabe, Y; Nagashima, T; Hanzawa, N; Ishino, A; Nakazawa, Y; Ogo, M; Iwabuchi, T; Tajima, M

    2015-12-01

    Hair thickness is more important than hair density in the appearance of baldness in male with androgenetic alopecia (AGA). Adenosine improves hair loss by stimulating hair growth and by thickening hair shafts in women. The objective of this study was to evaluate the hair growth efficacy and safety of topical adenosine in men with AGA. A lotion containing either adenosine or niacinamide was administered to the scalps of 102 Japanese men twice daily for 6 months in a double-blind, randomized study. Efficacy was evaluated by dermatologists who assessed the quality of the hair and by calculating the percentages of vellus-like and thick hairs among the vertex hairs, as well as hair density. Adenosine was significantly (P < 0.05) superior to niacinamide in terms of global improvement of AGA, increase in the percentage of thick hairs (at least 60 μm) and self-assessment of hair thickness by the study participants. No causal adverse event due to the adenosine lotion was observed. These data indicate that adenosine increases thick hair ratio in Japanese men with AGA, and this compound is useful for the improvement of AGA. © 2015 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  12. An autopsy study of cerebrovascular disease in Japanese men who lived in Hiroshima, Japan and Honolulu, Hawaii

    Mitsuyama, Yoshio; Thompson, L.R.; Hayashi, Takuji; Lee, K.K.; Keehn, R.J.

    1979-01-01

    Evidence of cerebrovascular disease at autopsy was compared in two groups of men, 186 long time residents of Hiroshima, Japan and 253 men of Japanese ancestry long resident in Honolulu, Hawaii. They were from 45 to 71 years of age at death. Atherosclerosis of the circle of Willis and its major branches, sclerosis of the intraparenchymal arteries and the frequency of cerebral hemorrhage and cerebral infarct were compared in the two populations. The Honolulu subjects had significantly more atherosclerosis of the circle of Willis, but less intraparenchymal artery sclerosis and less cerebral infarction. Cerebral hemorrhage was equally frequent in the two cities. It was concluded that cerebral infarction is more frequent in Japanese men in Hiroshima than Honolulu, and that men of Japanese ancestry in Honolulu are spared an appreciable risk of cerebral infarction through decreased frequency of intraparenchymal arterial sclerosis despite higher levels of atherosclerosis of large intracranial arteries. (author)

  13. Chocolate, well-being and health among elderly men.

    Strandberg, T E; Strandberg, A Y; Pitkälä, K; Salomaa, V V; Tilvis, R S; Miettinen, T A

    2008-02-01

    We hypothesized that chocolate preference would be related to health and psychological well-being in old men. We have followed up a socio-economically homogenous group of men, born in 1919-1934, since the 1960s. In 2002-2003, a mailed questionnaire was used to assess the health and well-being (including questions related to positive life orientation, visual analogue scales and the Zung depression score) of survivors. In addition, candy preference was inquired. Those men who reported no candy consumption (n=108) were excluded from the analyses. Psychological well-being in old age. The response rate was 69% (1367 of 1991). Of the respondents, 860 and 399 preferred chocolate and other type of candy, respectively. The average age in both candy groups was 76 years. Of the respondents, 99% were home-dwelling, 96% were retired and 87% were presently married, without differences between the candy groups. Men preferring chocolate had lower body mass index and waist circumference, and they also reported more exercise and better subjective health (P=0.008) than other candy consumers. Variables related to psychological well-being were consistently better in those preferring chocolate. The differences were statistically significant in feeling of loneliness (P=0.01), feeling of happiness (P=0.01), having plans for the future (P=0.0002) and the Zung depression score (P=0.02). In this socioeconomically homogenous male cohort, chocolate preference in old age was associated with better health, optimism and better psychological well-being. The Academy of Finland, the Päivikki and Sakari Sohlberg Foundation, the Helsinki University Central Hospital and the Finnish Foundation for Cardiovascular Research.

  14. Cardiovascular Adaptations to Recreational Football Training in Men with Type 2 Diabetes, Untrained Elderly Men and in Men with Prostate Cancer Receiving Androgen Deprivation Therapy

    Schmidt, Jakob Friis

    Numerous people in the general population are not suffuciently physically active and the use of new exercise training modalities which could promote physically active lifestyles are important. The present PhD thesis includes studies , which investigated the effect of recreational football training...... in middle-aged men with type 2 diabetes, 65-75-year-old untrained men, men with prostate cancer receiving androgen deprivation therapy and the effect of life-long participation in football training in veteran football players. The primary purpose was to evaluate the structure and function of the heart...... by ultrasound (echocardiography) and in three studies football training was shown to have marked positive effects on the heart function. In addition cardiorespiratory fitness, blood pressure, resting heart rate and peripheral microvascular function was evaluated and in men with type 2 diabetes, elderly...

  15. Hormonal determinants of the severity of andropausal and depressive symptoms in middle-aged and elderly men with prediabetes.

    Rabijewski, Michał; Papierska, Lucyna; Kuczerowski, Roman; Piątkiewicz, Paweł

    2015-01-01

    Andropausal and depressive symptoms are common in aging males and may be associated with hormone deficiency. We investigated the severity of andropausal and depressive symptoms, as well as their hormonal determinants, in 196 middle-aged and elderly men (age range: 40-80 years) with prediabetes (PD) and in 184 healthy peers. PD was diagnosed according to the definition of the American Diabetes Association. The severity of andropausal and depressive symptoms was assessed using the Aging Males' Symptoms Rating Scale and the Self-Rating Depression Scale. Total testosterone (TT), calculated free testosterone (cFT), dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) were measured. The prevalence of andropausal syndrome in men with PD was significantly higher than that in healthy men (35% vs 11%, respectively). In men with PD aged 40-59 years, the severity of sexual, psychological, and all andropausal symptoms was greater than in healthy peers, while in elderly men (60-80 years), only the severity of psychological symptoms was greater than in healthy peers. The severity of depressive symptoms in the middle-aged men with PD was greater than in healthy peers, while the severity of depressive symptoms in elderly men with PD and healthy peers was similar. The higher prevalence of andropausal symptoms was independently associated with cFT and IGF-1 in middle-aged men and with TT and DHEAS in elderly men with PD. The more severe depression symptoms were associated with low TT and DHEAS in middle-aged men and with low cFT and DHEAS in elderly men with PD. In conclusion, the prevalence of andropausal symptoms, especially psychological, was higher in prediabetic patients as compared to healthy men, while the severity of depressive symptoms was higher only in middle-aged men with PD. Hormonal determinants of andropausal and depressive symptoms are different in middle-aged and elderly patients, but endocrine tests are necessary in all men with PD.

  16. The impact of effort-reward imbalance on quality of life among Japanese working men.

    Watanabe, Mayumi; Tanaka, Katsutoshi; Aratake, Yutaka; Kato, Noritada; Sakata, Yumi

    2008-07-01

    Health-related quality of life (HRQL) is an important measure of health outcome in working and healthy populations. Here, we investigated the impact of effort-reward imbalance (ERI), a representative work-stress model, on HRQL of Japanese working men. The study targeted 1,096 employees from a manufacturing plant in Japan. To assess HRQL and ERI, participants were surveyed using the Japanese version of the Short-Form 8 Health Survey (SF-8) and effort-reward imbalance model. Of the 1,096 employees, 1,057 provided valid responses to the questionnaire. For physical summary scores, the adjusted effort-reward imbalance odds ratios of middle vs. bottom and top vs. bottom tertiles were 0.24 (95% confidence interval, 0.08-0.70) and 0.09 (95% confidence interval, 0.03-0.28), respectively. For mental summary scores, ratios were 0.21 (95% confidence interval, 0.07-0.63) and 0.07 (95% confidence interval, 0.02-0.25), respectively. These findings demonstrate that effort-reward imbalance is independently associated with HRQL among Japanese employees.

  17. Association between shift work and the risk of death from biliary tract cancer in Japanese men.

    Lin, Yingsong; Nishiyama, Takeshi; Kurosawa, Michiko; Tamakoshi, Akiko; Kubo, Tatsuhiko; Fujino, Yoshihisa; Kikuchi, Shogo

    2015-10-21

    There is increasing evidence suggesting that shift work involving night work may increase cancer risk. We examined the association between working rotating shifts and the risk of death from biliary tract cancer among Japanese men who participated in the Japan Collaborative Cohort Study. Of the 46,395 men recruited, 22,224 men aged 40-65 at baseline (1988-1990) who reported working full-time or were self-employed were included in the present analysis. The study subjects were followed through December 31, 2009. Information regarding occupation and lifestyle factors was collected using a self-administered questionnaire. Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate the hazard ratio (HR) and 95 % confidence interval (CI) for the risk of death from biliary tract cancer in relation to shift work. During a mean 17-year follow-up, we observed 94 biliary tract cancer deaths, including 23 deaths from gallbladder cancer and 71 deaths from extrahepatic bile duct cancer. Overall, shift work was associated with a statistically non-significant increase in the risk of biliary tract cancer, with an HR of 1.50 (95 % CI: 0.81-2.77), among rotating shift workers. When the analysis was limited to extrahepatic bile duct cancer, a significant association appeared, with a multivariable-adjusted HR of 1.93 (95 % CI: 1.00-3.72) for rotating shift workers. Our data indicate that shift work may be associated with increased risk of death from extrahepatic bile duct cancer in this cohort of Japanese men. The association with gallbladder cancer remains unclear because of the small number of deaths.

  18. [Relationships between foot problems, fall experience and fear of falling among Japanese community-dwelling elderly].

    Harada, Kazuhiro; Oka, Koichiro; Shibata, Ai; Kaburagi, Hironobu; Nakamura, Yoshio

    2010-08-01

    Although a foot care program for long-term care prevention has been launched in Japan, few studies have examined its effectiveness. The purpose of the present investigation was to examine the association of foot problems with fall experience and fear of falling among Japanese community-dwelling elderly people. The participants were 10,581 community-dwelling elderly people (75.2 +/- 5.6 years) and the study design was cross-sectional using a questionnaire. Self-reported tinea pedis, skin problems (inflammation, swelling, or discoloration), nail problems (thickening or deformities), impairment (in function or blood flow), regular foot care, and wearing of appropriate shoes were selected as parameters of foot problems and their care. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to examine whether these were related to fall experience (in the past 1 year) and fear of falling adjusted for age, the Tokyo Metropolitan institute of gerontology index of competence, medical conditions, and lower limb functions. Forty-six percents of males and 39.0% of females reported at least one foot problem. After adjusting for covariates, tinea pedis (male: adjusted odds ratio = 1.37[95% confidence interval= 1.15-1.63], female: 1.29[1.08-1.53]), skin problems (male: 1.66[1.32-2.101, female: 1.37[1.13-1.66]), nail problems (male: 1.72[1.45-2.051, female: 1.48[1.26-1.74]), and functional impairment (male: 2.42[1.91-3.05], female: 1.66[1.36-2.04]) were significantly associated with fall experience. Also, each problem was negatively associated with fear of falling (tinea pedis[male: 1.37 [1.15-1.62], female: 1.25[1.07-1.47

  19. Associations between rice, noodle, and bread intake and sleep quality in Japanese men and women.

    Yoneyama, Satoko; Sakurai, Masaru; Nakamura, Koshi; Morikawa, Yuko; Miura, Katsuyuki; Nakashima, Motoko; Yoshita, Katsushi; Ishizaki, Masao; Kido, Teruhiko; Naruse, Yuchi; Nogawa, Kazuhiro; Suwazono, Yasushi; Sasaki, Satoshi; Nakagawa, Hideaki

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that a diet with a high-glycemic index is associated with good sleep quality. Therefore, we investigated the association of sleep quality with the intake of 3 common starchy foods with different glycemic indexes-rice, bread, and noodles-as well as the dietary glycemic index in a Japanese population. The participants were 1,848 men and women between 20 and 60 years of age. Rice, bread, and noodle consumption was evaluated using a self-administered diet history questionnaire. Sleep quality was evaluated by using the Japanese version of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and a global score >5.5 was considered to indicate poor sleep. Multivariate-adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) for poor sleep across the quintiles of rice consumption were 1.00 (reference), 0.68 (0.49-0.93), 0.61 (0.43-0.85), 0.59 (0.42-0.85), and 0.54 (0.37-0.81) (p for trend = 0.015); those for the quintiles of noodle consumption were 1.00 (reference), 1.25 (0.90-1.74), 1.05 (0.75-1.47), 1.31 (0.94-1.82), and 1.82 (1.31-2.51) (p for trend = 0.002). Bread intake was not associated with sleep quality. A higher dietary glycemic index was significantly associated with a lower risk of poor sleep (p for trend = 0.020). A high dietary glycemic index and high rice consumption are significantly associated with good sleep in Japanese men and women, whereas bread intake is not associated with sleep quality and noodle consumption is associated with poor sleep. The different associations of these starchy foods with sleep quality might be attributable to the different glycemic index of each food.

  20. Hormonal determinants of erectile dysfunction and lower urinary tract symptoms in middle-aged and elderly men with prediabetes.

    Rabijewski, Michał; Papierska, Lucyna; Kuczerowski, Roman; Piątkiewicz, Paweł

    2015-01-01

    Erectile dysfunction (ED) and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) are common in diabetic men. The aim of this study was to investigate hormonal determinants, the prevalence and severity of ED and LUTS in middle-aged and elderly men with prediabetes (PD). We investigated 176 men with PD and 184 healthy peers. PD was defined according American Diabetes Association. ED according IIEF scale and LUTS according IPSS scale were assessed. Total testosterone (TT), calculated free testosterone (cFT), dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) were measured. The prevalence of ED in patients with PD was higher than in control group (30 versus 24%) as well as the prevalence and severity of ED and LUTS in elderly (60-80 years) and middle-aged (40-59 years) men with PD was higher than in healthy peers. In middle-aged pre-diabetic men, the more severe LUTS symptoms were associated with low TT and DHEAS, while in elderly men with low cFT and DHEAS. The higher prevalence of ED in middle-aged men with PD was associated with cFT and DHEAS, while in elderly pre-diabetic men with TT and IGF-1. The prevalence and severity of LUTS and ED symptoms were higher in pre-diabetic men than in healthy peers. Hormonal determinants of these symptoms are different in middle-aged and elderly patients with PD.

  1. Decreased erythrocyte superoxide dismutase in elderly men with early nuclear cataract

    Rose Rose

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Imbalance between oxidative processes and antioxidant defenses has been considered to play a role in cataractogenesis, particularly in diabetes patients. Superoxide dismutase (SOD is an important precursor for oxidative stress in the human lens, and its activity is mainly dependent on the copper and zinc levels in the body. The aim of this study was to compare erythrocyte SOD, erythrocyte zinc and total serum testosterone levels in male patients with early senile nuclear cataract and evaluate the correlations between the parameters in all subjects. METHODS A community-based study of cross-sectional design was conducted at Cilandak District Primary Health Center where 52 adult and 17 elderly men with early senile nuclear cataract were chosen as the study subjects. Erythrocyte SOD, erythrocyte zinc, serum testosterone, and fasting blood glucose (FBG levels were measured in all subjects. Nuclear cataract stage was assessed with the Pentacam® instrument (Oculus, Germany. Independent Student t test and Pearson’s correlation were used to analyze the results. RESULTS Erythrocyte SOD level was significantly decreased in elderly men compared to adult men (p=0.014. Erythrocyte zinc, serum testosterone and FBG did not differ significantly in adult and elderly males (at p=0.304; p=0.145;and p=0.376, respectively. Erythrocyte SOD activity was significantly associated with erythrocyte zinc level (r=0.486; p=0.048. CONCLUSIONS Lower erythrocyte SOD activity was found in elderly males than in adult males with early nuclear cataract. There was a relationship between erythrocyte SOD and erythrocyte zinc level in elderly males with early nuclear cataract.

  2. Effects of concurrent and aerobic exercises on postexercise hypotension in elderly hypertensive men.

    Ferrari, Rodrigo; Umpierre, Daniel; Vogel, Guilherme; Vieira, Paulo J C; Santos, Lucas P; de Mello, Renato Bandeira; Tanaka, Hirofumi; Fuchs, Sandra C

    2017-11-01

    Despite the fact that simultaneous performance of resistance and aerobic exercises (i.e., concurrent exercise) has become a standard exercise prescription for the elderly, no information is available on its effects on post-exercise hypotension (PEH) in elderly men with hypertension. To compare the effects of different types of exercise on PEH in elderly men with hypertension. Twenty elderly men with essential hypertension participated in three crossover interventions, in random order, and on separate days: a non-exercise control session at seated rest, aerobic exercise performed for 45min, and 45min of concurrent resistance and aerobic exercise consisted of 4 sets of 8 repetitions at 70% 1RM of resistance exercise followed by aerobic exercise on treadmill. After each session, blood pressure (BP) was measured continuously for 1h in the laboratory and for 24h under ambulatory conditions. During the first hour in laboratory, diastolic BP was lower after aerobic (-5mmHg) and concurrent exercise (-6mmHg) in comparison with Control. Day-time diastolic BP was significantly lower after aerobic exercise (-7mmHg) when compared to the control. No significant differences were found among the three experimental sessions for night-time and 24-hour diastolic BP, as well as day-time, night-time and 24-hour systolic BP. Concurrent exercise produced acute PEH similar to aerobic exercise but such effect did not last as long as aerobic exercise in elderly patients with essential hypertension. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Decreased erythrocyte superoxide dismutase in elderly men with early nuclear cataract

    Rose

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Imbalance between oxidative processes and antioxidant defenses has been considered to play a role in cataractogenesis, particularly in diabetes patients. Superoxide dismutase (SOD is an important precursor for oxidative stress in the human lens, and its activity is mainly dependent on the copper and zinc levels in the body. The aim of this study was to compare erythrocyte SOD, erythrocyte zinc and total serum testosterone levels in male patients with early senile nuclear cataract and evaluate the correlations between the parameters in all subjects. METHODS A community-based study of cross-sectional design was conducted at Cilandak District Primary Health Center where 52 adult and 17 elderly men with early senile nuclear cataract were chosen as the study subjects. Erythrocyte SOD, erythrocyte zinc, serum testosterone, and fasting blood glucose (FBG levels were measured in all subjects. Nuclear cataract stage was assessed with the Pentacam® instrument (Oculus, Germany. Independent Student t test and Pearson’s correlation were used to analyze the results. RESULTS Erythrocyte SOD level was significantly decreased in elderly men compared to adult men (p=0.014. Erythrocyte zinc, serum testosterone and FBG did not differ significantly in adult and elderly males (at p=0.304; p=0.145;and p=0.376, respectively. Erythrocyte SOD activity was significantly associated with erythrocyte zinc level (r=0.486; p=0.048. CONCLUSIONS Lower erythrocyte SOD activity was found in elderly males than in adult males with early nuclear cataract. There was a relationship between erythrocyte SOD and erythrocyte zinc level in elderly males with early nuclear cataract.

  4. Cognitive function after spinal or general anesthesia for transurethral prostatectomy in elderly men.

    Haan, J; van Kleef, J W; Bloem, B R; Zwartendijk, J; Lanser, J B; Brand, R; van der Does, I G; Krul, E J; Elshove, H M; Moll, A C

    1991-06-01

    Cognitive functions in 53 elderly men who underwent a transurethral prostatectomy were assessed pre-operatively and 4 days and 3 months post-operatively. Thirteen patients had a preference for one particular type of anesthesia, and the remaining 40 were randomly allocated to receive either spinal or general anesthesia. Cognitive function was not different between the groups receiving different types of anesthesia at either time point and did not decrease post-operatively. No pre- or perioperative variable could distinguish the subgroup of patients who had a post-operative decrease of 2 points or more on the Mini-Mental State Examination. No difference in post-operative performance was found in the patient groups with pre-operative Mini-Mental State Examination scores above or under their age-specific norm. It is concluded that neither hospitalization nor the two forms of anesthesia investigated cause a decrease in cognitive function in elderly men.

  5. Bone mineral density at the hip predicts mortality in elderly men.

    Trivedi, D P; Khaw, K T

    2001-01-01

    Low bone density as assessed by calcaneal ultrasound has been associated with mortality in elderly men and women. We examined the relationship between bone density measured at the hip and all cause and cardiovascular mortality in elderly men. Men aged 65-76 years from the general community were recruited from general practices in Cambridge between 1991 and 1995. At baseline survey, data collection included health questionnaires, measures of anthropometry and cardiovascular risk factors, as well as bone mineral density (BMD) measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. All men have been followed up for vital status up to December 1999. BMD was significantly inversely related to mortality from all causes and cardiovascular disease, with decreasing rates with increasing bone density quartile, and an approximate halving of risk between the bottom and top quartile (p risk (95% CI 0.66-0.91) for all-cause mortality and 0.76 relative risk (95% CI 0.62-0.93) for cardiovascular disease mortality. The association remained significant after adjusting for age, body mass index, cigarette smoking status, serum cholesterol, systolic blood pressure, past history of heart attack, stroke or cancer and other lifestyle factors which included use of alcohol, physical activity and general health status. Low bone density at the hip is thus a strong and independent predictor of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in older men.

  6. Serum insulin-like growth factor binding protein-2 levels as an indicator of functional ability in elderly men

    A.W. van den Beld (Annewieke); W.F. Blum (Werner); H.A.P. Pols (Huib); D.E. Grobbee (Diederick); S.W.J. Lamberts (Steven)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: In a cross-sectional study in 403 healthy, independently living elderly men (mean age 78 years), we determined which are the main physiological determinants of functional ability in the elderly, and which components of the somatotropic system contribute to

  7. Association between Pulse Wave Velocity and Coronary Artery Calcification in Japanese men.

    Torii, Sayuki; Arima, Hisatomi; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Fujiyoshi, Akira; Kadota, Aya; Takashima, Naoyuki; Kadowaki, Sayaka; Hisamatsu, Takashi; Saito, Yoshino; Miyagawa, Naoko; Zaid, Maryam; Murakami, Yoshitaka; Abbott, Robert D; Horie, Minoru; Miura, Katsuyuki; Ueshima, Hirotsugu

    2015-01-01

    Pulse wave velocity (PWV) is a simple and valid clinical method for assessing arterial stiffness. Coronary artery calcification (CAC) is an intermediate stage in the process leading to overt cardiovascular disease (CVD) and an established determinant of coronary artery disease. This study aimed to examine the association between PWV and CAC in a population-based sample of Japanese men. This is a cross-sectional study of 986 randomly selected men aged 40-79 years from Shiga, Japan. CVD-free participants were examined from 2006 to 2008. Brachial-ankle PWV (baPWV) was measured using an automatic waveform analyzer. CAC was assessed using computed tomography. Agatston scores ≥ 10 were defined as the presence of CAC. Prevalence of CAC progressively increased with rising levels of baPWV: 20.6%, 41.7%, 56.3%, and 66.7% across baPWV quartiles < 1378, 1378-1563, 1564-1849, and > 1849 cm/s (P < 0.001 for trend). Associations remained significant after adjusting for age and other factors, including body mass index, systolic blood pressure, pulse rate, total and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, hemoglobin A1c, drinking, smoking and exercise status, and the use of medication to treat hypertension, dyslipidemia and diabetes (P=0.042 for trend). The optimal cutoff level of baPWV to detect CAC was 1612 cm/s using receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. Arterial stiffness as defined by an elevated baPWV is associated with an increased prevalence of CAC in a general population-based setting among Japanese men.

  8. Dynapenic Obesity and Prevalence of Type 2 Diabetes in Middle-Aged Japanese Men

    Ryoko Kawakami

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The independent and combined associations of muscle strength and obesity on the prevalence of type 2 diabetes in Japanese men remain unclear. Methods: Hand grip strength was cross-sectionally evaluated between 2011 and 2013 to assess muscle strength in 5039 male workers aged 40 to 64 years. Weight and height were measured, and overweight/obesity was defined as a body mass index ≥25 kg/m2. The prevalence of type 2 diabetes, defined as fasting plasma glucose ≥126 mg/dL and/or hemoglobin A1c ≥6.5% and/or self-reported physician-diagnosed diabetes, was evaluated. Odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI for the prevalence of type 2 diabetes were obtained using a logistic regression model. Results: In total, 611 participants had type 2 diabetes, and 1763 participants were overweight/obese. After adjustment for covariates, we found an inverse association between muscle strength and the prevalence of type 2 diabetes (P for trend <0.01. In addition, when the analyses were stratified by obesity status, the multivariable-adjusted OR per 2-standard-deviation increase in muscle strength was 0.64 (95% CI, 0.49–0.83 in the overweight/obese group, compared to a weaker relationship in the normal-weight group (OR 0.79 per 2-standard-deviation increase; 95% CI, 0.60–1.06. Conclusions: Dynapenia, an age-related decrease in muscle strength, is associated with increased prevalence of type 2 diabetes, and this relationship is stronger in overweight/obese middle-aged Japanese men than in normal-weight men.

  9. Training induced adaptations in characteristics of postural reflexes in elderly men.

    Granacher, U; Gollhofer, A; Strass, D

    2006-12-01

    The aging neuromuscular system is affected by structural and functional changes which lead to a general slowing down of neuromuscular performance and an increased risk of falling. The impact of heavy resistance (HR) training in the elderly on maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) and rate of force development (RFD) has been investigated in the past. However, the influence of sensorimotor (SENSO) training and HR training on the ability to compensate for gait perturbations has not yet been investigated in the elderly. Therefore, the purpose of the study was to examine the impact of HR and SENSO training in elderly men on unexpected treadmill perturbations. Functional reflex activity was recorded by means of surface EMG in 40 male subjects (>60 years) before and after 13 weeks of HR and SENSO training and in another 20 male subjects (>60 years), which served as a CONTROL-group. SENSO training resulted in a decrease in onset latency, an enhanced reflex activity in the prime mover as well as a decrease in maximal angular velocity of the ankle joint complex during the perturbation impulses. No significant changes were observed in the HR- and in the CONTROL-group. The results clearly indicate that SENSO training has an impact on spinal motor control mechanisms in the elderly. Training induced improvements in perception and procession of afferent information could be a possible reason for the increase in reflex contraction. Due to these adaptive processes, SENSO training could be a well-suited method for fall preventive programs in elderly people.

  10. Light-intensity physical activity is associated with insulin resistance in elderly Japanese women independent of moderate-to vigorous-intensity physical activity.

    Gando, Yuko; Murakami, Haruka; Kawakami, Ryoko; Tanaka, Noriko; Sanada, Kiyoshi; Tabata, Izumi; Higuchi, Mitsuru; Miyachi, Motohiko

    2014-02-01

    It is unclear whether light physical activity is beneficially associated with insulin resistance, similar to moderate and/or vigorous physical activity. This cross-sectional study was performed to determine the relationship between the amount of light physical activity, as determined with a triaxial accelerometer, and insulin resistance. A total of 807 healthy men and women participated in this study. Physical activity was measured using a triaxial accelerometer worn for 28 days and summarized as light intensity (1.1-2.9 METs) or moderate to vigorous intensity (≥ 3.0 METs). Insulin resistance was evaluated by HOMA_R (FPG [mg/dL] × IRI [μU/mL]/405). The daily time spent in light physical activity was inversely associated with HOMA_R (r = -0.173, P physical activity and HOMA_R remained statistically significant (β = -0.119, P physical activity remained significantly associated with HOMA_R following further adjustment for moderate to vigorous intensity activity (β = -0.125, P physical activity was modeled as quartiles, especially in elderly women. These cross-sectional data suggest that light-intensity physical activity is beneficially associated with insulin resistance in elderly Japanese women.

  11. A strong association between lipid accumulation product and diabetes mellitus in japanese women and men.

    Wakabayashi, Ichiro; Daimon, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    Lipid accumulation product (LAP) is a new continuous marker of lipid overaccumulation that predicts cardiovascular risk. The aim of this study was to determine the cutoff value for LAP and evaluate its usefulness. Using a database of results of health checkup examinations for 10,170 Japanese workers (35-40 years of age) conducted at their workplaces, the cutoff value for a high LAP was calculated by analyzing receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves for the relationships of LAP with hyperglycemia and diabetes. The cutoff value for LAP was 21.1 for women and 37.2 for men. The values were similar when calculated by analyzing the ROC curves for the relationships with hyperglycemia and diabetes. Using these cutoff values, the prevalence of a high LAP was calculated to be 23.7% in women and 28.8% in men. The odds ratio for diabetes in the subjects with vs. those without a high LAP, calculated after adjusting for age, smoking, alcohol consumption and regular exercise, was 19.09 (95% CI: 6.57-55.50) in women and 7.40 (95% CI: 5.10-10.75) in men. High odds ratios for hypertension (10.66 [95% CI: 7.77-14.63] in women and 7.31 [95% CI: 6.20-8.62] in men) were also obtained in the subjects with vs. those without a high LAP. Cutoff values for a high LAP in women and men were determined, and high odds ratios for diabetes and hypertension were obtained using the cutoff values for LAP. Further studies are needed to elucidate whether the proposed cutoff values are applicable to people of other ages, races and ethnicities.

  12. Impairments in Activities of Daily Living in Older Japanese Men in Hawaii and Japan

    Robert D. Abbott

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Hypertension and cigarette smoking are dominant risk factors for cardiovascular disease in Japan while in westernized countries, broader effects encompass obesity, diabetes, and hypercholesterolemia. This paper examines whether different associations also appear important in the manifestation of activities of daily living (ADL in older Japanese men in Hawaii and Japan. Methods. Measures of ADL (feeding, toileting, dressing, bathing, and walking around the house were assessed from 1995 to 1999 in 1,893 men in Hawaii and 543 men in Japan. Concomitant risk factors were measured from 1990 to 1993. Results. In Hawaii, diabetes increased the odds of ≥1 ADL impairment nearly 1.5-fold (P=.020. A similar association was absent in Japan. In contrast, the odds of an ADL impairment in Japan was increased more than 5-fold in the presence of stroke (P<.001. The association in Hawaii was significantly weaker (P=.007. In both cohorts, past alcohol use was associated with a greater likelihood of ADL impairment. Conclusion. In this comparison of genetically similar samples, findings suggest that different strengths in risk factor associations with cardiovascular disease in Japan and westernized countries may also include different strengths in associations with impaired ADL.

  13. Epidemiologic studies of coronary heart disease and stroke in Japanese men living in Japan, Hawaii, and California: mortality

    Worth, R M; Kato, H; Rhoads, G G; Kagan, A; Syme, S L

    1974-01-01

    Stroke, coronary heart desease (CHD), and total mortality are evaluated from death certificates in enumerated cohorts of 45 to 64 year-old Japanese men in Hiroshima and Nagasaki (1965--1970), in Honolulu (1966--1970), and in the San Francisco area (1968--1972). Total mortality is highest in Japan with no consistent differences between Japanese Americans in Honolulu and San Francisco. Age-specific CHD death rates are markedly lower in all three Japanese groups than in American whites. The CHD rates are consistently and significantly lower in Japan than in American Japanese. Stroke death rates for American Japanese men appear equivalent to figures for U.S. white men of the same age, but are significantly lower than in the Japan cohort for the 60 to 64 year old group. The number of stroke deaths below that age are too few as yet for analysis. Validation of mortality ascertainment and of the accuracy of death certification has been carried out in Japan and in Hawaii. The international differences in mortality do not appear to be entirely due to certification or other methodologic artifact. (auth)

  14. Muscle size, neuromuscular activation, and rapid force characteristics in elderly men and women

    Suetta, C; Aagaard, P; Magnusson, S P

    2007-01-01

    quadriceps muscle cross-sectional area (LCSA), contractile rate of force development (RFD, Delta force/Delta time), impulse (integral force dt), muscle activation deficit (interpolated twitch technique), maximal neuromuscular activity [electromyogram (EMG)], and antagonist muscle coactivation in elderly men......%), contractile RFD (W: 17-26%; M: 15-24%), impulse (W: 10-19%, M: 19-20%), maximal EMG amplitude (W: 22-25%, M: 22-28%), and an increased muscle activation deficit (-18%) compared with UN. Furthermore, women were less strong (AF: 40%; UN: 39%), had less muscle mass (AF: 33%; UN: 34%), and had a lower RFD (AF: 38......-50%; UN: 41-48%) compared with men. Similarly, maximum EMG amplitude was smaller for both agonists (AF: 51-63%; UN: 35-61%) and antagonist (AF: 49-64%; UN: 36-56%) muscles in women compared with men. However, when MVC and RFD were normalized to LCSA, there were no differences between genders. The present...

  15. High Serum Adiponectin Level Is a Risk Factor for Anemia in Japanese Men: A Prospective Observational Study of 1,029 Japanese Subjects.

    Kei Kohno

    Full Text Available Erythroid abnormalities including anemia and polycythemia are often observed in the general clinical setting. Because recent studies reported that adiponectin negatively affects hematopoiesis, we performed a prospective observational study to assess the relationship between anemia and adiponectin, as well as other parameters, in 1029 Japanese subjects (477 men and 552 women 40 years of age and older. Body measurements, blood tests, and nutrition intake studies were performed at baseline, and 5 to 7 years later (follow-up. Hemoglobin (Hb and hematocrit (Hct levels in men with high serum adiponectin levels were lower at follow-up than at baseline. Multiple regression analysis showed that age, body mass index, adiponectin, and glutamic-pyruvic transaminase were significantly associated with erythroid-related variables (red blood cells, Hb, and Hct in both men and women (P <0.05. In a logistic regression analysis, adiponectin, fasting blood glucose, and β-natriuretic peptide were significant risk factors for anemia in men, and blood urea nitrogen and amylase were significant risk factors in women. Physical features and nutrient intake were not risk factors for anemia. Our study demonstrates, both clinically and epidemiologically, that a high serum adiponectin level decreases the amounts of erythroid-related variables and is a risk factor for anemia in Japanese men.

  16. Men's Adultery as Sickness: Metaphor, Gender Categories and the Discursive Construction of Gender Differences on Japanese Television Consultation Programs

    Saft, Scott; Ohara, Yumiko

    2009-01-01

    This article describes how Japanese TV programs adopting a consultation framework construct different realities for women and men concerning a specific social phenomenon, namely adultery. To do so, two perspectives, the theory of metaphor promoted by George Lakoff and membership category analysis, are combined toward a discursive analysis which…

  17. Low serum vitamin D is associated with higher cortical porosity in elderly men.

    Sundh, D; Mellström, D; Ljunggren, Ö; Karlsson, M K; Ohlsson, C; Nilsson, M; Nilsson, A G; Lorentzon, M

    2016-11-01

    Bone loss at peripheral sites in the elderly is mainly cortical and involves increased cortical porosity. However, an association between bone loss at these sites and 25-hydroxyvitamin D has not been reported. To investigate the association between serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D, bone microstructure and areal bone mineral density (BMD) in elderly men. A population-based cohort of 444 elderly men (mean ± SD age 80.2 ± 3.5 years) was investigated. Bone microstructure was measured by high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography, areal BMD by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and parathyroid hormone levels by immunoassay. Mean cortical porosity at the distal tibia was 14.7% higher (12.5 ± 4.3% vs. 10.9 ± 4.1%, P vitamin D levels compared to the highest. In men with vitamin D deficiency (6.8 pmol L -1 )], cortical porosity was 17.2% higher than in vitamin D-sufficient men (P vitamin D supplementation and parathyroid hormone showed that 25-hydroxyvitamin D independently predicted cortical porosity (standardized β = -0.110, R 2 = 1.1%, P = 0.024), area (β = 0.123, R 2 = 1.4%, P = 0.007) and cortical volumetric BMD (β = 0.125, R 2 = 1.4%, P = 0.007) of the tibia as well as areal BMD of the femoral neck (β = 0.102, R 2 = 0.9%, P = 0.04). Serum vitamin D is associated with cortical porosity, area and density, indicating that bone fragility as a result of low vitamin D could be due to changes in cortical bone microstructure and geometry. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Internal Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Association for Publication of The Journal of Internal Medicine.

  18. Physiological and subjective responses to low relative humidity in young and elderly men.

    Sunwoo, Yujin; Chou, Chinmei; Takeshita, Junko; Murakami, Motoko; Tochihara, Yutaka

    2006-05-01

    In order to compare the physiological and the subjective responses to low relative humidity of elderly and young men, we measured saccharin clearance time (SCT), frequency of blinking, hydration state of the skin, transepidermal water loss (TEWL), sebum level recovery and skin temperatures as physiological responses. We asked subjects to evaluate thermal, dryness and comfort sensations as subjective responses using a rating scale. Eight non-smoking healthy male students (21.7+/-0.8 yr) and eight non-smoking healthy elderly men (71.1+/-4.1 yr) were selected. The pre-room conditions were maintained at an air temperature (Ta) of 25 degrees C and a relative humidity (RH) of 50%. The test-room conditions were adjusted to provide 25 degrees C Ta and RH levels of 10%, 30% and 50%. RH had no effect on the activity of the sebaceous gland or change of mean skin temperature. SCT of the elderly group under 10% RH was significantly longer than that of the young group. In particular, considering the SCT change, the nasal mucous membrane seems to be affected more in the elderly than in the young in low RH. Under 30% RH, the eyes and skin become dry, and under 10% RH the nasal mucous membrane becomes dry as well as the eyes and skin. These findings suggested that to avoid dryness of the eyes and skin, it is necessary to maintain greater than 30% RH, and to avoid dryness of the nasal mucous membrane, it is necessary to maintain greater than 10% RH. On the thermal sensation of the legs, at the lower humidity level, the elderly group felt cooler than the young group. On the dry sensation of the eyes and throat, the young group felt drier than the elderly group at the lower humidity levels. From the above results, the elderly group had difficulty in feeling dryness in the nasal mucous membrane despite being easily affected by low humidity. On the other hand, the young group felt the change of humidity sensitively despite not being severely affected by low humidity. Ocular mucosa and

  19. White blood cell counts, insulin resistance, vitamin D levels and sarcopenia in Korean elderly men.

    Kim, Sang-Hwan; Kwon, Hyun Seok; Hwang, Hee-Jin

    2017-05-01

    Sarcopenia is a major determinant of frailty, disability and mortality in the elderly. Whether low-grade inflammation, insulin resistance and vitamin D are independently associated with sarcopenia remains unclear. In our study, sarcopenia was defined as an appendicular skeletal muscle mass divided by height squared (ASM/Ht 2 ) that was sarcopenia in Korean elderly men aged more than 65 years was 11.2%. ASM/Ht 2 were positively associated with vitamin D levels, but negatively associated with white blood cell counts and HOMA-IR by multiple regression analysis. After adjustment for covariables, sarcopenia was associated with the highest quartile of WBC counts (OR = 2.93, 95% CI = 1.21-7.14) and the highest quartile of serum vitamin D levels (OR = 0.38, 95% CI = 0.15-0.95). In conclusion, the study findings suggest that higher WBC counts and lower vitamin D levels are independently associated with the presence of sarcopenia in community-dwelling elderly men. They also provide a basis for further studies of the complex immune-endocrine network in sarcopenia.

  20. BMI, life-style and psychological conditions in a sample of elderly Italian men and women.

    Marcellini, F; Giuli, C; Papa, R; Gagliardi, C; Malavolta, M; Mocchegiani, E

    2010-08-01

    To identify the relationship among cognitive status, psychological conditions, anthropometric measurements and life-style in a sample of elderly Italian men and women. Three hundred and six volunteers for ZINCAGE Project recruited. The sample was made up of healthy older adults living in the Marche Region aged 65 and over. All elderly were given a complete medical, anthropometric assessment, and psycho-social evaluation. Overall, the participants perceived themselves to be in very good or good (22%) or fair (69%) health; only 9% reported a poor health status. The 46% of the sample fell within the normal body mass index (BMI) range, though 38% were overweight, 12% were obese, and only 4% were underweight. In both sexes, BMI significantly decreased with age (psedentary activities (r=0.188; psedentary (r=0.221; psedentary (r=0.258; p<0.001) leisure activities were positively associated with education level (p<0.05). It was found that lower scores of physical activity were associated to higher scores of Geriatric Depression Scale (r=-0.425; p<0.01), lower scores of Mini Mental State Examination (r=0.266; p<0.001) and higher score of Perceived Stress Scale (r=-0.131; p<0.05). Men and women lead different lifestyles and have a different psychological status, with advancing age consequently stressing the need for healthy lifestyle programmes particularly in the case of overweight and obese elderly people.

  1. [Sexuality in the elderly: The role of the physicians in maintaining sexual health of older men].

    Chakkalakal, D; Weißbach, L

    2015-12-01

    Sexuality in the elderly is still a social taboo. A commitment by medical practices to address the topic of sexuality in later life is essential, given that the sexual health is part of the quality of life. Identification of barriers and discourse of effects in the physician's behavior when dealing with the sexuality of older people. Review and discussion of interdisciplinary literature and social discourse. Compilation of expert opinions. Although the introduction of phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitors led to a removal of taboos concerning erectile dysfunction, the sexuality of older men became narrowed to physiological aspects. The elderly still complain that consultations concerning their sexuality receives too little attention in medical practice. Problems are boundaries of shame and disregard of the sexuality of elderly. Sexuality in old age will have to become more prominent in medical practices, due to demographic changes and changing self-images of the elderly. The social role of physicians enables straightforward discussions about sexuality. Taking a sexual history and choosing an active approach proved to be practicable to discuss sexual problems with older people.

  2. Slightly increased BMI at young age is a risk factor for future hypertension in Japanese men.

    Yuki Someya

    Full Text Available Hypertension is developed easily in Asian adults with normal body mass index (BMI (~23 kg/m2, compared with other ethnicities with similar BMI. This study tested the hypothesis that slightly increased BMI at young age is a risk factor for future hypertension in Japanese men by historical cohort study.The study participants were 636 male alumni of the physical education school. They had available data on their physical examination at college age and follow-up investigation between 2007 and 2011. The participants were categorized into six categories: BMI at college age of <20.0 kg/m2, 20.0-21.0kg/m2, 21.0-22.0kg/m2, 22.0-23.0kg/m2, 23.0-24.0kg/m2, and ≥24.0kg/m2, and the incidence of hypertension was compared.This study covered 27-year follow-up period (interquartile range: IQR: 23-31 which included 17,059 person-years of observation. Subjects were 22 (22-22 years old at graduated college, and 49 (45-53 years old at first follow-up investigation. During the period, 120 men developed hypertension. The prevalence rates of hypertension for lowest to highest BMI categories were 9.4%, 14.6%, 16.1%, 17.5%, 30.3%, and 29.3%, respectively (p<0.001 for trend, and their hazard ratios were 1.00 (reference, 1.80 (95%CI: 0.65-4.94, 2.17 (0.83-5.64, 2.29 (0.89-5.92, 3.60 (1.37-9.47 and 4.72 (1.78-12.48, respectively (p<0.001 for trend. This trend was similar after adjustment for age, year of graduation, smoking, current exercise status and current dietary intake.Slightly increased BMI at young age is a risk factor for future hypertension in Japanese men.

  3. Age-related decrease in physical activity and functional fitness among elderly men and women

    Milanović Z

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Zoran Milanovic,1 Saša Pantelic,1 Nebojša Trajkovic,1 Goran Sporiš,2 Radmila Kostic,1 Nic James31Faculty of Sport and Physical Education, University of Niš, Niš, Serbia; 2Faculty of Kinesiology, University of Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia; 3London Sport Institute, Middlesex University, London, UKAim: To determine differences in physical activity level and functional fitness between young elderly (60–69 years and old elderly (70–80 years people with the hypothesis that an age-related decline would be found.Methods: A total of 1288 participants’ level of physical activity was evaluated using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire: 594 were male (mean ± standard deviation: body height 175.62 ± 9.78 cm; body weight 82.26 ± 31.33 kg and 694 female (mean ± standard deviation: body height 165.17 ± 23.12 cm; body weight 69.74 ± 12.44 kg. Functional fitness was also estimated using the Senior Fitness Test: back scratch, chair sit and reach, 8-foot up and go, chair stand up for 30 seconds, arm curl, and 2-minute step test.Results: Significant differences (P < 0.05 were found for all Senior Fitness tests between young elderly (60–69 years and old elderly (70–80 men. Similar results were found for the women, except no significant differences were found for the chair sit and reach and the 2-minute step test. From the viewpoint of energy consumption estimated by the International Physical Activity Questionnaire, moderate physical activity is dominant. In addition, with aging, among men and women older than 60 years, the value of the Metabolic Equivalent of Task in total physical activity significantly reduces (P < 0.05.Conclusions: This study found that the reduction in physical activity level and functional fitness was equal for both men and women and was due to the aging process. These differences between young and old elderly people were due to the reduction of muscle strength in both upper and lower limbs and changes in body

  4. Cereal Intake Increases and Dairy Products Decrease Risk of Cognitive Decline among Elderly Female Japanese.

    Otsuka, R; Kato, Y; Nishita, Y; Tange, C; Nakamoto, M; Tomida, M; Imai, T; Ando, F; Shimokata, H

    2014-01-01

    If cognitive decline can be prevented through changes in daily diet with no medical intervention, it will be highly significant for dementia prevention. This longitudinal study examined the associations of different food intakes on cognitive decline among Japanese subjects. Prospective cohort study. The National Institute for Longevity Sciences - Longitudinal Study of Aging, a community-based study. Participants included 298 males and 272 females aged 60 to 81 years at baseline who participated in the follow-up study (third to seventh wave) at least one time. Cognitive function was assessed with the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) in all study waves. Nutritional intake was assessed using a 3-day dietary record in the second wave. Cumulative data among participants with an MMSE >27 in the second wave were analyzed using a generalized estimating equation. Multivariate adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for an MMSE score ≤27 in each study wave according to a 1 standard deviation (SD) increase of each food intake at baseline were estimated, after adjusting for age, follow-up time, MMSE score at baseline, education, body mass index, annual household income, current smoking status, energy intake, and history of diseases. In men, after adjusting for age, and follow-up period, MMSE score at baseline, the adjusted OR for a decline in MMSE score was 1.20 (95% CI, 1.02-1.42; p=0.032) with a 1-SD increase in cereal intake. After adjusting for education and other confounding variables, the OR for a decrease in MMSE score did not reach statistical significance for this variable. In women, multivariate adjusted OR for MMSE decline was 1.43 (95% CI, 1.15-1.77; p=0.001) with a 1-SD increase in cereal intake and 0.80 (95% CI, 0.65-0.98; p=0.034) with a 1-SD increase in milk and dairy product intake. This study indicates that a 1-SD (108 g/day) decrease in cereal intake and a 1-SD (128 g/day) increase in milk and dairy product intake may have an

  5. Age-related decrease in physical activity and functional fitness among elderly men and women.

    Milanović, Zoran; Pantelić, Saša; Trajković, Nebojša; Sporiš, Goran; Kostić, Radmila; James, Nic

    2013-01-01

    To determine differences in physical activity level and functional fitness between young elderly (60-69 years) and old elderly (70-80 years) people with the hypothesis that an age-related decline would be found. A total of 1288 participants' level of physical activity was evaluated using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire: 594 were male (mean ± standard deviation: body height 175.62 ± 9.78 cm; body weight 82.26 ± 31.33 kg) and 694 female (mean ± standard deviation: body height 165.17 ± 23.12 cm; body weight 69.74 ± 12.44 kg). Functional fitness was also estimated using the Senior Fitness Test: back scratch, chair sit and reach, 8-foot up and go, chair stand up for 30 seconds, arm curl, and 2-minute step test. Significant differences (P men. Similar results were found for the women, except no significant differences were found for the chair sit and reach and the 2-minute step test. From the viewpoint of energy consumption estimated by the International Physical Activity Questionnaire, moderate physical activity is dominant. In addition, with aging, among men and women older than 60 years, the value of the Metabolic Equivalent of Task in total physical activity significantly reduces (P physical activity level and functional fitness was equal for both men and women and was due to the aging process. These differences between young and old elderly people were due to the reduction of muscle strength in both upper and lower limbs and changes in body-fat percentage, flexibility, agility, and endurance.

  6. Differences in stroke and ischemic heart disease mortality by occupation and industry among Japanese working-aged men.

    Wada, Koji; Eguchi, Hisashi; Prieto-Merino, David

    2016-12-01

    Occupation- and industry-based risks for stroke and ischemic heart disease may vary among Japanese working-aged men. We examined the differences in mortality rates between stroke and ischemic heart disease by occupation and industry among employed Japanese men aged 25-59 years. In 2010, we obtained occupation- and industry-specific vital statistics data from the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour, and Welfare dataset. We analyzed data for Japanese men who were aged 25-59 years in 2010, grouped in 5-year age intervals. We estimated the mortality rates of stroke and ischemic heart disease in each age group for occupation and industry categories as defined in the national census. We did not have detailed individual-level variables. We used the number of employees in 2010 as the denominator and the number of events as the numerator, assuming a Poisson distribution. We conducted separate regression models to estimate the incident relative risk for stroke and ischemic heart disease for each category compared with the reference categories "sales" (occupation) and "wholesale and retail" (industry). When compared with the reference groups, we found that occupations and industries with a relatively higher risk of stroke and ischemic heart disease were: service, administrative and managerial, agriculture and fisheries, construction and mining, electricity and gas, transport, and professional and engineering. This suggests there are occupation- and industry-based mortality risk differences of stroke and ischemic heart disease for Japanese working-aged men. These differences in risk might be explained to factors associated with specific occupations or industries, such as lifestyles or work styles, which should be explored in further research. The mortality risk differences of stroke and ischemic heart disease shown in the present study may reflect an excessive risk of Karoshi (death from overwork).

  7. Differences in stroke and ischemic heart disease mortality by occupation and industry among Japanese working-aged men

    Koji Wada

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Occupation- and industry-based risks for stroke and ischemic heart disease may vary among Japanese working-aged men. We examined the differences in mortality rates between stroke and ischemic heart disease by occupation and industry among employed Japanese men aged 25–59 years. In 2010, we obtained occupation- and industry-specific vital statistics data from the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour, and Welfare dataset. We analyzed data for Japanese men who were aged 25–59 years in 2010, grouped in 5-year age intervals. We estimated the mortality rates of stroke and ischemic heart disease in each age group for occupation and industry categories as defined in the national census. We did not have detailed individual-level variables. We used the number of employees in 2010 as the denominator and the number of events as the numerator, assuming a Poisson distribution. We conducted separate regression models to estimate the incident relative risk for stroke and ischemic heart disease for each category compared with the reference categories “sales” (occupation and “wholesale and retail” (industry. When compared with the reference groups, we found that occupations and industries with a relatively higher risk of stroke and ischemic heart disease were: service, administrative and managerial, agriculture and fisheries, construction and mining, electricity and gas, transport, and professional and engineering. This suggests there are occupation- and industry-based mortality risk differences of stroke and ischemic heart disease for Japanese working-aged men. These differences in risk might be explained to factors associated with specific occupations or industries, such as lifestyles or work styles, which should be explored in further research. The mortality risk differences of stroke and ischemic heart disease shown in the present study may reflect an excessive risk of Karoshi (death from overwork. Keywords: Occupation, Industry, Mortality

  8. Hormonal determinants of the severity of andropausal and depressive symptoms in middle-aged and elderly men with prediabetes

    Rabijewski M

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Michał Rabijewski,1 Lucyna Papierska,2 Roman Kuczerowski,1 Paweł Piątkiewicz11Department of Internal Diseases, Diabetology and Endocrinology, Medical University of Warsaw, 2Department of Endocrinology, Medical Centre for Postgraduate Education, Warsaw, PolandAbstract: Andropausal and depressive symptoms are common in aging males and may be associated with hormone deficiency. We investigated the severity of andropausal and depressive symptoms, as well as their hormonal determinants, in 196 middle-aged and elderly men (age range: 40–80 years with prediabetes (PD and in 184 healthy peers. PD was diagnosed according to the definition of the American Diabetes Association. The severity of andropausal and depressive symptoms was assessed using the Aging Males’ Symptoms Rating Scale and the Self-Rating Depression Scale. Total testosterone (TT, calculated free testosterone (cFT, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS, and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1 were measured. The prevalence of andropausal syndrome in men with PD was significantly higher than that in healthy men (35% vs 11%, respectively. In men with PD aged 40–59 years, the severity of sexual, psychological, and all andropausal symptoms was greater than in healthy peers, while in elderly men (60–80 years, only the severity of psychological symptoms was greater than in healthy peers. The severity of depressive symptoms in the middle-aged men with PD was greater than in healthy peers, while the severity of depressive symptoms in elderly men with PD and healthy peers was similar. The higher prevalence of andropausal symptoms was independently associated with cFT and IGF-1 in middle-aged men and with TT and DHEAS in elderly men with PD. The more severe depression symptoms were associated with low TT and DHEAS in middle-aged men and with low cFT and DHEAS in elderly men with PD. In conclusion, the prevalence of andropausal symptoms, especially psychological, was higher in prediabetic

  9. Examination of validity of fall risk assessment items for screening high fall risk elderly among the healthy community-dwelling Japanese population

    DEMURA, Shinichi; SATO, Susumu; YAMAJI, Shunsuke; KASUGA, Kosho; NAGASAWA, Yoshinori

    2010-01-01

    We aimed to examine the validity of fall risk assessment items for the healthy community-dwelling elderly Japanese population. Participants were 1122 healthy elderly individuals aged 60 years and over (380 males and 742 females). The percentage who had experienced a fall was 15.8%. This study used fall experience and 50 fall risk assessment items representing the five risk factors (symptoms of falling, physical function, disease and physical symptom, environment, and behavior and character), ...

  10. Sarcopenia and Predictors of Skeletal Muscle Mass in Elderly Men With and Without Obesity

    Katja Stoever MA

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the variables which show the highest association with muscle mass and to identify the most important predictors for muscle mass in elderly men with and without sarcopenia. Methods: A total of 71 men participated, aged ≥65 years. Sarcopenia was assessed using the definition of the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People with determining skeletal muscle index (SMI, hand-grip strength (HGS, and Short Physical Performance Battery. In addition, maximum strength at upper and lower extremities and physical activity were measured. Results: Strong correlations existed between SMI and gait speed, HGS, maximum isometric strength at leg and chest press. Physical activity showed low correlations with muscle strength. Regression analysis revealed HGS and gait speed as key predictors for SMI. Discussion: The recommendation is measuring gait speed and HGS in clinical practice at first followed by measuring muscle mass for determining sarcopenia.

  11. Environmental and Individual Correlates of Various Types of Physical Activity among Community-Dwelling Middle-Aged and Elderly Japanese

    Yoshinobu Saito

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have suggested the importance of the neighborhood environment in determining the specific type of physical activity. However, few studies on this topic have been undertaken in Japan. This study examined the association of three types of physical activity and their associations with individual and neighborhood environmental factors among middle-aged and elderly Japanese. Participants were 2,449 adults aged 40–69 living in Fujisawa city who had undergone health checkups and responded to our survey by mail. Individual factors, the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (long form, and its environmental module acted as inputs to the study. The adjusted odds ratios (ORs of high levels of moderate-to-vigorous intensity leisure-time physical activity (LTPA, walking for active recreation, and transportation were calculated in relation to individual and neighborhood environmental factors through multiple logistic regression models. Not working and good self-rated health were significantly associated with a higher level of each physical activity outcome. According to the adjusted ORs, higher educational attainment, higher economic status, good access to exercise facilities, and owning motor vehicles were associated with longer LTPA time. However, different sets of factors were associated with longer walking times for recreation and transportation. The results suggest that diverse individual and neighborhood environmental characteristics are associated with different physical activity outcomes. Therefore, customizing environments to become activity-friendly is necessary to increase physical activity effectively among middle-aged and elderly Japanese.

  12. Incidence of dementia and cause of death in elderly Japanese emigrants to Brazil before World War II.

    Meguro, Kenichi; Chubaci, Rosa Y S; Meguro, Mitsue; Kawamorida, Kazumi; Goto, Nobuko; Caramelli, Paulo

    2011-01-01

    In 1997 we examined the prevalence of dementia among the Japanese elderly immigrants living in the São Paulo metropolitan area (n=166). Herein, we followed up on these subjects for causes of death and dementia incidence. We were able to contact 108 subjects: 54 were already dead. The most common cause of death was cardiac disease. For dementia, 31.6% of the dead subjects were found to have developed dementia before they died, and 20.8 % of the living subjects were demented. As for the baseline the clinical dementia rating (CDR), 20.8 % of CDR 0 and 50.0 % of CDR 0.5 subjects developed dementia in the dead group; whereas in the living group, 23.9 % of CDR 0 and 52.6 % of CDR 0.5 developed dementia. As a whole, the incidence was 34.2 ‰ per 1000 person-years. Cardiac disease as the most common cause of death was probably due to the higher prevalence of diabetes mellitus. Compared with the previous study, the lower incidence of dementia from the CDR 0.5 group may have been due to a higher mortality rate. This is the first study on the incidence of dementia in elderly Japanese immigrants in Brazil. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Impact of body mass index, age and varicocele on reproductive hormone profile from elderly men

    K. G. R. Yamaçake

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objectives: To study the impact of obesity, age and varicocele on sexual hormones fof adult and elderly men. Materials and Methods: 875 men who were screened for prostate cancer were enrolled in this study. Data recorded comprised age, body mass index (BMI, serum levels of total testosterone (TT, free testosterone (FT, sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG, luteinizing hormone (LH and follicular stimulating hormone (FSH. Patients were divided in groups according to their BMI in underweight, normal weight, overweight and obese grades 1, 2 or 3. First, it was studied the association between age, BMI, and hormone profile. Then, clinical varicocele was evaluated in 298 patients to assess its correlation to the others parameters. Results: Obese patients had lower levels of TT, FT and SHBG (p<0.001 compared to underweight or normal weight patients. There were no differences in age (p=0.113, FSH serum levels (p=0.863 and LH serum levels (p=0.218 between obese and non-obese patients. Obese grade 3 had lower levels of TT and FT compared to obese grade 1 and 2 (p<0.05. There was no difference in the SHBG levels (p=0.120 among obese patients. There was no association between varicocele and BMI; and varicocele did not impact on testosterone or SHBG levels. Conclusions: Men with higher BMI have a lower serum level of TT, FT and SHBG. The presence of clinical varicocele as well as its grade has no impact on hormone profile in elderly men.

  14. Associations of ikigai as a positive psychological factor with all-cause mortality and cause-specific mortality among middle-aged and elderly Japanese people: findings from the Japan Collaborative Cohort Study.

    Tanno, Kozo; Sakata, Kiyomi; Ohsawa, Masaki; Onoda, Toshiyuki; Itai, Kazuyoshi; Yaegashi, Yumi; Tamakoshi, Akiko

    2009-07-01

    To determine whether presence of ikigai as a positive psychological factor is associated with decreased risks for all-cause and cause-specific mortality among middle-aged and elderly Japanese men and women. From 1988 to 1990, a total of 30,155 men and 43,117 women aged 40 to 79 years completed a lifestyle questionnaire including a question about ikigai. Mortality follow-up was available for a mean of 12.5 years and was classified as having occurred in the first 5 years or the subsequent follow-up period. Associations between ikigai and all-cause and cause-specific mortality were assessed using a Cox's regression model. Multivariate hazard ratios (HRs) were adjusted for age, body mass index, drinking and smoking status, physical activity, sleep duration, education, occupation, marital status, perceived mental stress, and medical history. During the follow-up period, 10,021 deaths were recorded. Men and women with ikigai had decreased risks of mortality from all causes in the long-term follow-up period; multivariate HRs (95% confidence intervals, CIs) were 0.85 (0.80-0.90) for men and 0.93 (0.86-1.00) for women. The risk of cardiovascular mortality was reduced in men with ikigai; the multivariate HR (95% CI) was 0.86 (0.76-0.97). Furthermore, men and women with ikigai had a decreased risk for mortality from external causes; multivariate HRs (95% CIs) were 0.74 (0.59-0.93) for men and 0.67 (0.51-0.88) for women. The findings suggest that a positive psychological factor such as ikigai is associated with longevity among Japanese people.

  15. Fish Consumption Moderates Depressive Symptomatology in Elderly Men and Women from the IKARIA Study

    Christina Chrysohoou

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The aim was to examine the association of depressive symptoms with fish eating habits, in elderly individuals. Methods. From June to October of 2009, we studied 330 men and 343 women, aged 65 to 100 years, permanent inhabitants of Ikaria Island. Among several characteristics, depression was assessed with the Geriatric Depression scale (GDS range 0–15, while dietary habits through a valid semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire. Results. Women had significantly higher values of the GDS compared to men (4.8±3.5 versus 3.3±3.1, =.001. Participants in the upper tertile of depression scale ate less frequent fish and consumed higher quantities of alcohol, compared to those in the lowest tertile (all 3 times/week versus never/rare was inversely associated with the odds of having GDS greater the median value (i.e., 4 (oddsratio=0.34, 95% CI: 0.19, 0.61, after controlling for several cofounders. Conclusion. Frequent fish consumption in elderly seems to moderate depression mood.

  16. Association between Sleep Disturbances and Leisure Activities in the Elderly: A Comparison between Men and Women.

    Hellström, Amanda; Hellström, Patrik; Willman, Ania; Fagerström, Cecilia

    2014-01-01

    It has been suggested that physical or social activity is associated with fewer sleep disturbances among elderly people. Women report more sleep disturbances than men, which could indicate a variation in activity patterns between the genders. The aim of this study was to investigate associations between sleep disturbances and leisure activities in men and women (n = 945) aged ≥60 years in a Swedish population. Sleep disturbances were measured using eight dichotomous questions and seventeen variables, covering a wide range of leisure activities. Few leisure activities were found to be associated with sleep disturbances and their importance decreased when the models were adjusted for confounders and gender interactions. After clustering the leisure activities and investigating individual activities, sociointellectual activities were shown to be significant for sleep. However, following adjustment for confounders and gender interactions, home maintenance was the only activity significant for sleep. Being a female increased the effect of home maintenance. Besides those leisure activities, poor/fair self-rated health (OR 7.50, CI: 4.27-11.81) and being female (OR 4.86, CI: 2.75-8.61) were found to have the highest association with poor sleep. Leisure activities pursued by elderly people should focus on activities of a sociointellectual nature, especially among women, to promote sleep.

  17. Association between Sleep Disturbances and Leisure Activities in the Elderly: A Comparison between Men and Women

    Amanda Hellström

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been suggested that physical or social activity is associated with fewer sleep disturbances among elderly people. Women report more sleep disturbances than men, which could indicate a variation in activity patterns between the genders. The aim of this study was to investigate associations between sleep disturbances and leisure activities in men and women (n = 945 aged ≥60 years in a Swedish population. Sleep disturbances were measured using eight dichotomous questions and seventeen variables, covering a wide range of leisure activities. Few leisure activities were found to be associated with sleep disturbances and their importance decreased when the models were adjusted for confounders and gender interactions. After clustering the leisure activities and investigating individual activities, sociointellectual activities were shown to be significant for sleep. However, following adjustment for confounders and gender interactions, home maintenance was the only activity significant for sleep. Being a female increased the effect of home maintenance. Besides those leisure activities, poor/fair self-rated health (OR 7.50, CI: 4.27–11.81 and being female (OR 4.86, CI: 2.75–8.61 were found to have the highest association with poor sleep. Leisure activities pursued by elderly people should focus on activities of a sociointellectual nature, especially among women, to promote sleep.

  18. Clinical significance of changes of serum contents of IL-8, CT, BGF and T in elderly men with osteoporosis

    Zhou Jian

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To study the clinical significance of changes of serum contents of IL-8 calcitonin (CT) bone glaprotein (BGF) and testosterone (T) in elderly men with osteoporosis. Methods: The serum IL-8, CT, BGP and T levels were determined with RIA in 33 elderly men with osteoporosis and 35 controls. Results: The serum levels of IL-8 were significantly higher, but levels of CT, BGP and T were significantly lower in the elderly men with osteoporosis than those in controls (P<0.01). There were significantly negative relationship between the serum levels of IL-8 and serum levels of CT, BGP and T (r = -0.4712, -0.5014, -0.4915, P<0.05). Conclusion: The changes of IL-8, CT, BGP and T levels correctly reflected increase of bone absorption with less osteogenesis, which was characteristic in osteoporosis. (authors)

  19. Muscle function and postural balance in lifelong trained male footballers compared with sedentary elderly men and youngsters

    Sundstrup, Emil; Jakobsen, Markus D.; Andersen, Lars Juel

    2010-01-01

    The present study investigated whether elderly subjects exposed to lifelong football training have better rapid muscle force characteristics, body composition and postural stability in comparison with untrained elderly. Ten elderly men exposed to lifelong football training (FTE; 69.6 ± 1.4 years....../s), higher total lean body mass (56.9 ± 0.8 vs 52.7 ± 2.2 kg) and better postural stability (Flamingo test: 15 ± 1 vs 33 ± 2 falls) compared with UE (P... in UE (Ppostural stability were consistently higher in elderly subjects exposed to lifelong football training, providing an enhanced ability to counteract unexpected perturbations in postural balance. The superior RFD and balance in elderly footballers were...

  20. Hormonal, lifestyle, and dietary factors in relation to leptin among elderly men.

    Lagiou, P; Signorello, L B; Mantzoros, C S; Trichopoulos, D; Hsieh, C C; Trichopoulou, A

    1999-01-01

    Leptin, the adipocyte-secreted protein product of the ob gene, has been strongly linked to obesity and is believed to play a role in the regulation of the reproductive system. This study examines the potential influence of lifestyle and dietary factors, as well as of other hormones, on serum levels of leptin. The authors studied a population of 48 healthy elderly Greek men. Sera from these men were analyzed for leptin, several steroid hormones, sex hormone-binding globulin, and insulin-like growth factor 1. The authors also utilized data from food frequency questionnaires and information on demographic, anthropometric, and lifestyle (cigarette smoking, alcohol and coffee drinking) factors. Using linear regression modeling, serum leptin levels were inversely associated with testosterone and positively associated with estradiol and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, after adjustment for the other hormones and body mass index (BMI). Leptin levels in men with a BMI >30 kg/m2 were 170% higher than in men with a BMI coffee drinking, or total energy intake, on the other. When total energy intake was separated into its three major components (carbohydrate, fat, and protein), it appeared that fat intake may have an isocalorically differential effect on serum leptin levels; one marginal quintile increase in fat intake corresponded to an 11% increase in leptin (95% CI 0-24%). Serum levels of leptin may be influenced by other endocrine factors, especially testosterone and estradiol, and may be positively associated with excess fat intake independently of obesity.

  1. Correlates of prolonged television viewing time in older Japanese men and women.

    Kikuchi, Hiroyuki; Inoue, Shigeru; Sugiyama, Takemi; Owen, Neville; Oka, Koichiro; Shimomitsu, Teruichi

    2013-03-09

    In addition to insufficient moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), prolonged sitting time is also a health risk for older adults. An understanding of population subgroups who have prolonged television viewing (TV) time, a predominant sedentary behavior, can aid in the development of relevant health promotion initiatives; however, few such studies have focused on older adults, the most sedentary segment of the population as a whole. The aim of this study is to examine the socio-demographic attributes associated with TV time among community-dwelling Japanese older men and women. A population-based, cross-sectional mail survey was used to collect data on TV time, MVPA, and socio-demographic characteristics. The survey was conducted from February through March 2010. Participants were 2700 community-dwelling older adults (aged 65-74 years, 50% men) who were randomly selected from the registry of residential addresses of three cities in Japan. Data from 1665 participants (mean age: 69.5 years, 52% men) who completed all variables for the present study were analyzed. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to calculate the odds ratios (ORs) of prolonged TV time (>2 hours/day) for each socio-demographic attribute, stratified by gender. Of the 1665 participants, 810 (48.6%) watched TV for more than 2 hours/day. The median television viewing time (25th, 75th percentile) was 2.00 (1.07, 3.50) hours/day. Prolonged TV time was associated with not in full-time employment, lower educational attainment, weight status, living in regional areas and low MVPA for the whole sample. For men, prolonged TV time was associated with lower educational attainment; (OR = 1.53, 95% CI: 1.12-2.07), underweight (OR = 1.63, 95% CI: 1.02-2.60), overweight (OR = 1.57, 95% CI: 1.11-2.21), and low MVPA (OR = 1.43, 95% CI: 1.02-2.02). For women, living in regional areas (OR = 2.02, 95% CI: 1.33-3.08), living alone (OR = 1.61, 95% CI: 1.03-2.49), not driving

  2. Long working hours and metabolic syndrome among Japanese men: a cross-sectional study

    2012-01-01

    Background The link between long working hours and health has been extensively studied for decades. Despite global concern regarding metabolic syndrome, however, no studies to date have solely evaluated the relationship between long working hours and that syndrome. We therefore examined the association between long working hours and metabolic syndrome in a cross-sectional study. Methods Between May and October 2009, we collected data from annual health checkups and questionnaires from employees at a manufacturing company in Shizuoka, Japan. Questionnaires were returned by 1,601 workers (response rate: 96.2%; 1,314 men, 287 women). After exclusions, including women because of a lack of overtime work, the analysis was performed for 933 men. We calculated odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for metabolic syndrome. Further, we conducted a stratified analysis by age-group (working hours and metabolic syndrome after adjusting for age, occupation, shift work, smoking status, frequency of alcohol consumption, and cohabiting status. Compared with subjects who worked 7–8 h/day, multivariate ORs for metabolic syndrome were 1.66 (95% CI, 0.91–3.01), 1.48 (95% CI, 0.75–2.90), and 2.32 (95% CI, 1.04–5.16) for those working 8–9 h/day, 9–10 h/day, and >10 h/day, respectively. Similar patterns were obtained when we excluded shift workers from the analysis. In age-stratified analysis, the corresponding ORs among workers aged ≥40 years were 2.02 (95% CI, 1.04–3.90), 1.21 (95% CI, 0.53–2.77), and 3.14 (95% CI, 1.24–7.95). In contrast, no clear association was found among workers aged working hours for increased risk of metabolic syndrome among Japanese male workers. PMID:22651100

  3. Long working hours and metabolic syndrome among Japanese men: a cross-sectional study.

    Kobayashi, Tomoko; Suzuki, Etsuji; Takao, Soshi; Doi, Hiroyuki

    2012-05-31

    The link between long working hours and health has been extensively studied for decades. Despite global concern regarding metabolic syndrome, however, no studies to date have solely evaluated the relationship between long working hours and that syndrome. We therefore examined the association between long working hours and metabolic syndrome in a cross-sectional study. Between May and October 2009, we collected data from annual health checkups and questionnaires from employees at a manufacturing company in Shizuoka, Japan. Questionnaires were returned by 1,601 workers (response rate: 96.2%; 1,314 men, 287 women). After exclusions, including women because of a lack of overtime work, the analysis was performed for 933 men. We calculated odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for metabolic syndrome. Further, we conducted a stratified analysis by age-group (working hours and metabolic syndrome after adjusting for age, occupation, shift work, smoking status, frequency of alcohol consumption, and cohabiting status. Compared with subjects who worked 7-8 h/day, multivariate ORs for metabolic syndrome were 1.66 (95% CI, 0.91-3.01), 1.48 (95% CI, 0.75-2.90), and 2.32 (95% CI, 1.04-5.16) for those working 8-9 h/day, 9-10 h/day, and >10 h/day, respectively. Similar patterns were obtained when we excluded shift workers from the analysis. In age-stratified analysis, the corresponding ORs among workers aged ≥ 40 years were 2.02 (95% CI, 1.04-3.90), 1.21 (95% CI, 0.53-2.77), and 3.14 (95% CI, 1.24-7.95). In contrast, no clear association was found among workers aged working hours for increased risk of metabolic syndrome among Japanese male workers.

  4. Comparison of the Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome Between the Criteria for Taiwanese and Japanese and the Projected Probability of Stroke in Elderly Hypertensive Taiwanese

    Ta-Chuan Hung

    2009-12-01

    Conclusion: Both criteria demonstrate that MS is highly prevalent in elderly hypertensive patients in Taiwan. Additionally in women, but not men, the predicted probability of stroke is higher in MS than in non-MS patients. The diagnosis of MS is potentially useful for identifying elderly hypertensive females with an elevated risk of stroke in Taiwan.

  5. Bone mineral density in lifelong trained male football players compared with young and elderly untrained men

    Marie Hagman

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of the present controlled cross-sectional study was to investigate proximal femur and whole-body bone mineral density (BMD, as well as bone turnover profile, in lifelong trained elderly male football players and young elite football players compared with untrained age-matched men. Methods: One hundred and forty healthy, non-smoking men participated in the study, including lifelong trained football players (FTE, n = 35 aged 65–80 years, elite football players (FTY, n = 35 aged 18–30 years, as well as untrained age-matched elderly (UE, n = 35 and young (UY, n = 35 men. All participants underwent a regional dual-energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA scan of the proximal femur and a whole-body DXA scan to determine BMD. From a resting blood sample, the bone turnover markers (BTMs osteocalcin, carboxy-terminal type-1 collagen crosslinks (CTX-1, procollagen type-1 amino-terminal propeptide (P1NP, and sclerostin were measured. Results: FTE had 7.3%–12.9% higher (p < 0.05 BMD of the femoral neck, wards, shaft, and total proximal femur in both legs compared to UE, and 9.3%–9.7% higher (p < 0.05 BMD in femoral trochanter in both legs compared to UY. FTY had 24.3%–37.4% higher (p < 0.001 BMD in all femoral regions and total proximal femur in both legs compared to UY. The whole-body DXA scan confirmed these results, with FTE showing similar whole-body BMD and 7.9% higher (p < 0.05 leg BMD compared to UY, and with FTY having 9.6% higher (p < 0.001 whole-body BMD and 18.2% higher (p < 0.001 leg BMD compared to UY. The plasma concentration of osteocalcin, CTX-1, and P1NP were 29%, 53%, and 52% higher (p < 0.01, respectively, in FTY compared to UY. Conclusion: BMD of the proximal femur and whole-body BMD are markedly higher in lifelong trained male football players aged 65–80 years and young elite football players aged 18–30 years compared to age-matched untrained men. Elderly football

  6. The nature of sleep in 10 bedridden elderly patients with disorders of consciousness in a Japanese hospital.

    Matsumoto, Masaru; Sugama, Junko; Nemoto, Tetsu; Kurita, Toshiharu; Matsuo, Junko; Dai, Misako; Ueta, Miyuki; Okuwa, Mayumi; Nakatani, Toshio; Tabata, Keiko; Sanada, Hiromi

    2015-01-01

    No previous study has satisfactorily clarified the nature of sleep in elderly bedridden people with disorders of consciousness (DOC). The objective of the present study was to clarify the sleep states of 10 elderly bedridden patients with DOC in a Japanese hospital to facilitate provision of evidence-based nursing care and appropriate adjustment of patients' environments. Nocturnal polysomnography recordings were analyzed according to the standard scoring criteria, and the patients' sleep stages and quality were investigated. Of the 10 patients, 9 showed slow wave sleep (SWS), 4 showed very high values for sleep efficiency (96-100%), and in 3 of these patients, the percentage of SWS was ≥ 20%. Furthermore, three of these four patients had 200 or more changes in sleep stage. Although the mechanism is unknown, the amount of SWS combined with the value of sleep efficiency suggests that the quality of sleep is poor in elderly bedridden patients with DOC. Further study is needed to determine better indicators of good sleep in this population. © The Author(s) 2014.

  7. Effect of floorball training on blood lipids, body composition, muscle strength, and functional capacity of elderly men

    Vorup Petersen, Jacob; Pedersen, Mogens Theisen; Melcher, Pia Grethe Sandfeld

    2017-01-01

    Floorball training consists of intense repeated exercise and may offer a motivating and social stimulating team activity in elderly individuals. However, the effect of floorball training in elderly adults on physiological adaptations important for health is not known. Thus, this study examined...... the effect of floorball training on blood lipids, muscle strength, body composition, and functional capacity of men aged 65-76 years. Thirty-nine recreational active men were randomized into a floorball group (FG; n = 22) or petanque group (PG; n = 17), in which training was performed 1 h twice a week for 12......-IR) was reduced (P performance in four different...

  8. Physical distress is associated with cardiovascular events in a high risk population of elderly men

    Klemsdal Tor O

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Self-reported health perceptions such as physical distress and quality of life are suggested independent predictors of mortality and morbidity in patients with established cardiovascular disease. This study examined the associations between these factors and three years incidence of cardiovascular events in a population of elderly men with long term hyperlipidemia. Methods We studied observational data in a cohort of 433 men aged 64–76 years from a prospective, 2 × 2 factorial designed, three-year interventional trial. Information of classical risk factors was obtained and the following questionnaires were administered at baseline: Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Physical Symptom Distress Index and Life Satisfaction Index. The occurrence of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, cerebrovascular incidences and peripheral arterial disease were registered throughout the study period. Continuous data with skewed distribution was split into tertiles. Hazard ratios (HR were calculated from Cox regression analyses to assess the associations between physical distress, quality of life and cardiovascular events. Results After three years, 49 cardiovascular events were registered, with similar incidence among subjects with and without established cardiovascular disease. In multivariate analyses adjusted for age, smoking, systolic blood pressure, serum glucose, HADS-anxiety and treatment-intervention, physical distress was positively associated (HR 3.1, 95% CI 1.2 – 7.9 for 3rd versus 1st tertile and quality of life negatively associated (HR 2.6, 95% CI 1.1–5.8 for 3rd versus 1st tertile with cardiovascular events. The association remained statistically significant only for physical distress (hazard ratio 2.8 95% CI 1.2 – 6.8, p Conclusion Physical distress, but not quality of life, was independently associated with increased risk of cardiovascular events in an observational study of elderly men predominantly

  9. Intelligence or years of education: which is better correlated with memory function in normal elderly Japanese subjects?

    Murayama, Norio; Iseki, Eizo; Tagaya, Hirokuni; Ota, Kazumi; Kasanuki, Koji; Fujishiro, Hiroshige; Arai, Heii; Sato, Kiyoshi

    2013-03-01

    We compared differences in intelligence and memory function between normal elderly Japanese subjects with more years of education and those with fewer years of education. We also investigated clinical and neuropsychological factors that are strongly correlated with memory function. There were 118 normal elderly subjects who underwent the Mini-Mental State Examination, Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, 3rd edition (WAIS-III), and Wechsler Memory Scale Revised. Subjects with at least 13 years of education were categorized as the H group, and those with 12 years of education or less were categorized as the L group. Age and Mini-Mental State Examination scores were not significantly different between the two groups. On the WAIS-III, there were significant differences between the two groups in Verbal IQ and Full Scale IQ. On the Wechsler Memory Scale Revised, there were significant differences between the two groups in Visual Memory, General Memory, and Delayed Recall. Correlation coefficients between memory function and the other factors demonstrated significant but weak correlations between years of education and General Memory (R = 0.22) and between years of education and Delayed Recall (R = 0.20). Strong correlations were found between Verbal IQ and Verbal Memory (R = 0.45), between Verbal IQ and General Memory (R = 0.49), between Full Scale IQ and General Memory (R = 0.50) and between Full Scale IQ and Delayed Recall (R = 0.48). In normal elderly Japanese subjects, years of education weakly correlated with memory function while Verbal IQ, Full Scale IQ and Verbal Comprehension on WAIS-III had stronger correlations with memory function. Verbal IQ and Verbal Comprehension on WAIS-III were found to be insusceptible to the cognitive decline characteristic of Alzheimer's disease or amnestic mild cognitive impairment. Therefore, verbal intelligence, as measured by Verbal IQ and Verbal Comprehension, may be the most useful factor for inferring premorbid memory function

  10. Bone mineral density in lifelong trained male football players compared with young and elderly untrained men

    Hagman, Marie; Helge, Eva Wulff; Hornstrup, Therese

    2018-01-01

    001) BMD in all femoral regions and total proximal femur in both legs compared to UY. The whole-body DXA scan confirmed these results, with FTE showing similar whole-body BMD and 7.9% higher (p 0.05) leg BMD compared to UY, and with FTY having 9.6% higher (p 001) whole-body BMD and 18.2...... men. Methods: One hundred and forty healthy, non-smoking men participated in the study, including lifelong trained football players (FTE, n = 35) aged 65-80 years, elite football players (FTY, n = 35) aged 18-30 years, as well as untrained age-matched elderly (UE, n = 35) and young (UY, n = 35) men....... All participants underwent a regional Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA) scan of the proximal femur and a whole-body DXA scan to determine BMD. From a resting blood sample, the bone turnover markers (BTMs) osteocalcin, carboxy-terminal type-1 collagen crosslinks (CTX-1), procollagen type-1 amino...

  11. Dietary patterns associated with fall-related fracture in elderly Japanese: a population based prospective study

    Monma, Yasutake; Niu, Kaijun; Iwasaki, Koh; Tomita, Naoki; Nakaya, Naoki; Hozawa, Atsushi; Kuriyama, Shinichi; Takayama, Shin; Seki, Takashi; Takeda, Takashi; Yaegashi, Nobuo; Ebihara, Satoru; Arai, Hiroyuki; Nagatomi, Ryoichi; Tsuji, Ichiro

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Diet is considered an important factor for bone health, but is composed of a wide variety of foods containing complex combinations of nutrients. Therefore we investigated the relationship between dietary patterns and fall-related fractures in the elderly. Methods We designed a population-based prospective survey of 1178 elderly people in Japan in 2002. Dietary intake was assessed with a 75-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ), from which dietary patterns were created by...

  12. Self-management of congestive heart failure among elderly men in Japan.

    Sano, Motohiro; Majima, Tomoko

    2018-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the process of self-management in elderly male patients with congestive heart failure among those who have had not needed re-hospitalization for more than 2 years. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 10 male congestive heart failure patients. Interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Data were analysed using the modified grounded theory approach. As a result of the analysis, the core concept identified was a process of living life such that symptoms do not worsen, while balancing good choices and preferences. By trial and error, the men tried to find the limits of physical capacity and dietary choices that would lead to the worsening of symptoms, while also trying to maintain quality of life to the extent possible. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  13. Risk factors for fracture in elderly men: a population-based prospective study

    Nielsen, Morten Frost; Abrahamsen, Bo; Masud, T

    2012-01-01

    .30-3.09) and pulmonary illness (1.90; 1.03-3.53) were associated with increased risk of osteoporotic fractures in adjusted models. CONCLUSION: These results underline the importance of assessment of dizziness, falls and those with a family history of hip fracture. Frequent urination and erectile dysfunction were......Risk factors for fractures were assessed in a random sample of 4,696 elderly men followed for 5.4 years. Results highlighted the importance of assessment of falls and dizziness as well as novel risk factors including frequent urination and erectile dysfunction. INTRODUCTION: Knowledge about risk...... in the forearm). Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to evaluate risk factors for any and osteoporotic fractures. The following variables were found to be associated with increased risk of any fracture in adjusted models family history of a hip fracture (HR; 95%CI: 1.56; 1.05-2.33), falls (2...

  14. The diuretic action of weak and strong alcoholic beverages in elderly men : a randomized diet-controlled crossover trial

    Polhuis, Kristel C M M; Wijnen, Annemarthe H C; Sierksma, Aafje; Calame, Wim; Tieland, Michael

    2017-01-01

    With ageing, there is a greater risk of dehydration. This study investigated the diuretic effect of alcoholic beverages varying in alcohol concentration in elderly men. Three alcoholic beverages (beer (AB), wine (AW), and spirits (S)) and their non-alcoholic counterparts (non-alcoholic beer (NAB),

  15. Efficacy of Desmopressin to Treat Nocturnal Polyuria in Elderly Men: Effects on Sleep Quality.

    Kim, Sun-Ouck; Yu, Ho Song; Kwon, Dongdeuk

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the efficacy of desmopressin in elderly patients with nocturnal polyuria (NP) to evaluate its effects on sleep quality. Patients with NP (defined as the nighttime urine production >33% of total 24-hour urine volume determined from a frequency-volume chart) were recruited. Desmopressin (0.2 mg) was treated orally at bedtime for 12 weeks. The participants completed the Medical Outcomes Study (MOS) Sleep Scale. The mean patient age was 62.7 ± 13.0 (range 42-78 years). The mean symptom duration was 42.2 ± 39.7 months. The number of nocturia episodes (from 3.49 ± 1.83 to 2.03 ± 1.35, p = 0.01), nocturnal urine volume (p = 0.01), NP index (p = 0.01), and nocturia index (p = 0.01) decreased significantly after treatment with desmopressin. Among the MOS Sleep Scale categories, hours slept/night (p = 0.042), shortness of breath (p = 0.019), and adequacy of sleep (p = 0.001) changed significantly with a decrease in the number of nocturia episodes. Adverse events were mild. Desmopressin is an effective treatment for NP and improved sleep quality in elderly men. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Long working hours and metabolic syndrome among Japanese men: a cross-sectional study

    Kobayashi Tomoko

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The link between long working hours and health has been extensively studied for decades. Despite global concern regarding metabolic syndrome, however, no studies to date have solely evaluated the relationship between long working hours and that syndrome. We therefore examined the association between long working hours and metabolic syndrome in a cross-sectional study. Methods Between May and October 2009, we collected data from annual health checkups and questionnaires from employees at a manufacturing company in Shizuoka, Japan. Questionnaires were returned by 1,601 workers (response rate: 96.2%; 1,314 men, 287 women. After exclusions, including women because of a lack of overtime work, the analysis was performed for 933 men. We calculated odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs for metabolic syndrome. Further, we conducted a stratified analysis by age-group ( Results Metabolic syndrome was identified in 110 workers (11.8%. We observed a positive association between working hours and metabolic syndrome after adjusting for age, occupation, shift work, smoking status, frequency of alcohol consumption, and cohabiting status. Compared with subjects who worked 7–8 h/day, multivariate ORs for metabolic syndrome were 1.66 (95% CI, 0.91–3.01, 1.48 (95% CI, 0.75–2.90, and 2.32 (95% CI, 1.04–5.16 for those working 8–9 h/day, 9–10 h/day, and >10 h/day, respectively. Similar patterns were obtained when we excluded shift workers from the analysis. In age-stratified analysis, the corresponding ORs among workers aged ≥40 years were 2.02 (95% CI, 1.04–3.90, 1.21 (95% CI, 0.53–2.77, and 3.14 (95% CI, 1.24–7.95. In contrast, no clear association was found among workers aged Conclusions The present study suggests that 10 h/day may be a trigger level of working hours for increased risk of metabolic syndrome among Japanese male workers.

  17. Interaction between body mass index and serum uric acid in relation to blood pressure in community-dwelling Japanese men.

    Kawamoto, Ryuichi; Ninomiya, Daisuke; Senzaki, Kensuke; Kumagi, Teru

    2018-01-01

    Few data is available on the association between body mass index (BMI), serum uric acid (SUA) levels and blood pressure (BP) categories in the disease continuum, when efforts for its prevention may be applicable. We performed a cross-sectional study to examine the association between BMI, SUA and BP in a community-dwelling sample of Japanese men. Individuals not on antihypertensive and uric acid lowering medications, and aged 50 to 90 years [817men aged 66 ± 9 (mean ± standard deviation) years] were recruited for the survey during a community based annual medical check-up. The main outcome was the presence of prehypertension [systolic BP (SBP) 120-139 mmHg and/or diastolic BP (DBP) 80-89 mmHg] and hypertension [SBP ≥ 140 and /or DBP ≥ 90]. In participants with a BMI of dwelling men.

  18. Randomized clinical trial comparing 5% and 1% topical minoxidil for the treatment of androgenetic alopecia in Japanese men.

    Tsuboi, Ryoji; Arano, Osamu; Nishikawa, Tooru; Yamada, Hidekazu; Katsuoka, Kensei

    2009-08-01

    Minoxidil is efficacious in inducing hair growth in patients with androgenetic alopecia by inducing hair follicles to undergo transition from the early to late anagen phase. Although the efficacy of 1% topical minoxidil has been confirmed in Japan, no controlled study of 5% topical minoxidil has been conducted using male Japanese subjects. The objective of this trial was to verify the superiority in clinical efficacy of 5% topical minoxidil to 1% topical minoxidil in a double-blind controlled study with male, Japanese androgenetic alopecia patients as the subjects. The trial included 300 Japanese male patients aged 20 years or older with androgenetic alopecia who were administered either 5% topical minoxidil (n = 150) or 1% topical minoxidil (n = 150) for 24 weeks. The mean change from the baseline in non-vellus hair/cm(2), the primary efficacy variable, was 26.4 (n = 142) in the 5% topical minoxidil group and 21.2 (n = 144) in the 1% topical minoxidil group at 16 weeks, the main time point for the evaluation. The difference between the groups was significant (P = 0.020). The incidence of adverse events was 8.7% (13/150) in the 5% group and 5.3% (8/150) in the 1% group, with no significant difference between the groups (chi(2)-test: P = 0.258). Our findings confirmed the superiority of 5% topical minoxidil to 1% topical minoxidil in treating Japanese men with androgenetic alopecia.

  19. [Homebound elderly in a Japanese community: related factors and change of mobility].

    Imuta, H; Yasumura, S; Fujita, M; Arai, H; Fukao, A

    1998-09-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the prevalence of homebound elderly (defined as people whose daily activities were limited to their home) and factors related to it among 300 community elderly residents aged 60 and over in Yamagata city. In 1995, the baseline survey was performed and the follow-up survey was conducted one year later. Subjects were divided into two groups according to the extent of their daily activities: the non-homebound group (defined as people whose daily activities extended into their community) and the homebound group. The main results were as follows; 1. The prevalence of homebound elderly was 7.7% in 1995. 2. Chi-square test or t test was performed to examine the relationship between homebound and various factors. Significant factors were age, history of hypertension, history of mental disease, incompetence of ADLs (walking, eating, toileting, bathing, dressing), interpersonal dependency, subjective health, 'ikigai' (meaningfulness of life), life style (cooking, cleaning, reading newspaper or magazine, watching TV, exercise, associate with friend) and TMIG (Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology) index of competence. The present study reveals that daily activities in community elderly residents is related to not only physical factors but also psychosocial factors. Using the significant variables in univariate analysis, multiple logistic regression analysis controlling for age was performed. Significant factors for homebound were incompetence of ADLs (walking, toileting), subjective health and TMIG index of competence. 3. Three out of 214 non-homebound elderly persons in 1995 changed to homebound in 1996.

  20. Echo intensity obtained from ultrasonography images reflecting muscle strength in elderly men

    Watanabe Y

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Yuya Watanabe,1 Yosuke Yamada,1,2 Yoshihiro Fukumoto,3 Tatsuro Ishihara,4 Keiichi Yokoyama,1 Tsukasa Yoshida,1 Motoko Miyake,1 Emi Yamagata,5 Misaka Kimura1 1Laboratory of Sports and Health Science, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto, Japan; 2Research Fellow, Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, Tokyo, Japan; 3Faculty of Rehabilitation, Kobe Gakuin University, Kobe, Japan; 4Faculty of Health and Sports Science, Doshisha University, Kyoto, Japan; 5Laboratory of Gerontological Nursing, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto, Japan Background: It is well known that loss of muscle mass (quantitative change is a major change that occurs with aging. Qualitative changes in skeletal muscle, such as increased intramuscular fat, also occur as one ages. Enhanced echo intensity (EI on ultrasonography images of skeletal muscle is believed to reflect muscle quality. Recent studies evaluating the quality of skeletal muscle using computer-aided gray scale analysis showed that EI is associated with muscle strength independently of age or muscle size in middle-aged and elderly women. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether muscle quality based on EI is associated with muscle strength independently of muscle size for elderly men. Methods: A total of 184 elderly men (65–91 years living independently in Kyoto, Japan, participated in this study. The EI, muscle thickness (MT, and subcutaneous fat thickness (FT of the anterior compartment of the right thigh were determined by assessing ultrasonography images. The maximum isometric torque of knee extension at a knee angle of 90° was measured. Results: The EI showed a significant negative correlation with muscle strength (r = -0.333, P < 0.001. Multivariate regression analysis revealed that the MT and EI of the knee extensor muscle were independently associated with maximum isometric knee extension strength. Even when partial correlation analysis was performed with age

  1. [Effects of social activities on life satisfaction among the elderly: four aspects in men and women].

    Okamoto, Hideaki

    2008-06-01

    The current study was performed to examine relationships between different aspects of social activities and life satisfaction among the elderly. This issue was investigated in men and women separately. Data for 612 older adults aged 65 to 84 years were obtained from a mail survey in an urban area. Life satisfaction was measured using the LSIK and social activities were assessed by asking respondents their degree of participation in each type of interaction. The focus was on four aspects: personal activities, socially-related activities, learning activities, and job activity. In order to examine relationships between different aspects of social activities and life satisfaction, the author used multiple regression analyses with the four types of social activity level as independent variables. All except job activity were categorized as lower, middle and higher levels, and work was categorized as low and high. Two models of multiple regression were employed. First, each of the four aspects of social activity was entered as an independent variable (Model 1); second, four aspects of social activity were entered as independent variables simultaneously (Model 2). The analyses were conducted separately for men and women, controlling for age, marital status, subjective economic status and IADL (instrumental activities of daily living). (1) The results of the multiple regression analyses (Model 1) were as follows: for both men and women, personal activities were positively associated with life satisfaction. For women, socially-related activities were also positively related to life satisfaction. For both men and women, learning activities and job activity exhibited statistically nonsignificant relationships with life satisfaction. (2) With Model 2, the results were as follows: among men, none of the aspects of social activity was significantly associated with life satisfaction. Among women, only personal activities were positively associated with life satisfaction. When all

  2. The effects of dietary protein intake on appendicular lean mass and muscle function in elderly men

    Mitchell, Cameron J; Milan, Amber M; Mitchell, Sarah M

    2017-01-01

    Background: The Recommended Daily Allowance (RDA) for protein intake in the adult population is widely promoted as 0.8 g · kg-1 · d-1 Aging may increase protein requirements, particularly to maintain muscle mass.Objective: We investigated whether controlled protein consumption at the current RDA...... or twice the RDA (2RDA) affects skeletal muscle mass and physical function in elderly men.Design: In this parallel-group randomized trial, 29 men aged >70 y [mean ± SD body mass index (in kg/m2): 28.3 ± 4.2] were provided with a complete diet containing either 0.8 (RDA) or 1.6 (2RDA) g protein · kg-1 · d-1...... energy balance (mean ± SD RDA: 209 ± 213 kcal/d; 2RDA 145 ± 214 kcal/d; P= 0.427 for difference between the groups). In comparison with RDA, whole-body lean mass increased in 2RDA (P = 0.001; 1.49 ± 1.30 kg, P

  3. Prevalence of Sarcopenia and Its Relationship with Sites of Fragility Fractures in Elderly Chinese Men and Women.

    Wei Hong

    Full Text Available Sarcopenia might be associated with bone fragility in elderly individuals. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of sarcopenia and its association with fragility fracture sites in elderly Chinese patients.Patients (322 men and 435 women aged 65-94 years and with a history of fragility fractures in the ankle, wrist, vertebrae or hip, and healthy men (n = 1263 and women (n = 1057 aged 65-92 years without a history of fractures were enrolled. Whole-body dual energy X-ray absorptiometry was used to analyze skeletal muscle mass index (SMI, fat mass and bone mineral density. Sarcopenia was defined as SMI less than two standard deviations below the mean of a young reference group.Sarcopenia occurrence varied with fracture location. Sarcopenia was more common in females with vertebral and hip fractures and in men with hip and ankle fractures than in the non-fracture group. Sarcopenia was significantly more prevalent in men with wrist, hip and ankle fractures than in women. SMI was correlated with BMD in different fracture groups. Logistic regression analyses revealed that lower SMI was associated with an increased risk of hip fracture both in men and women and ankle fracture in men.Sarcopenia may be an independent risk factor for hip and ankle fractures in men, and for hip fractures in women.

  4. Prevalence of Sarcopenia and Its Relationship with Sites of Fragility Fractures in Elderly Chinese Men and Women.

    Hong, Wei; Cheng, Qun; Zhu, Xiaoying; Zhu, Hanmin; Li, Huilin; Zhang, Xuemei; Zheng, Songbai; Du, Yanping; Tang, Wenjing; Xue, Sihong; Ye, Zhibin

    2015-01-01

    Sarcopenia might be associated with bone fragility in elderly individuals. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of sarcopenia and its association with fragility fracture sites in elderly Chinese patients. Patients (322 men and 435 women) aged 65-94 years and with a history of fragility fractures in the ankle, wrist, vertebrae or hip, and healthy men (n = 1263) and women (n = 1057) aged 65-92 years without a history of fractures were enrolled. Whole-body dual energy X-ray absorptiometry was used to analyze skeletal muscle mass index (SMI), fat mass and bone mineral density. Sarcopenia was defined as SMI less than two standard deviations below the mean of a young reference group. Sarcopenia occurrence varied with fracture location. Sarcopenia was more common in females with vertebral and hip fractures and in men with hip and ankle fractures than in the non-fracture group). Sarcopenia was significantly more prevalent in men with wrist, hip and ankle fractures than in women. SMI was correlated with BMD in different fracture groups. Logistic regression analyses revealed that lower SMI was associated with an increased risk of hip fracture both in men and women and ankle fracture in men. Sarcopenia may be an independent risk factor for hip and ankle fractures in men, and for hip fractures in women.

  5. Changes in body weight are significantly associated with changes in fasting plasma glucose and HDL cholesterol in Japanese men without abdominal obesity (waist circumference < 85 cm).

    Oda, Eiji; Kawai, Ryu

    2011-06-01

    The aims are to examine whether changes in body weight (dBW) are associated with changes in cardiovascular risk factors in Japanese men without abdominal obesity (waist circumference (WC) obesity. It is a retrospective study in 692 Japanese men without abdominal obesity who took annual health screening tests consecutively over one year. Standardized linear regression coefficients (SRCs) of dBW and dWC were calculated for changes in systolic blood pressure (dSBP), diastolic blood pressure (dDBP), fasting plasma glucose (dFPG), triglycerides (dTG), HDL cholesterol (dHDL), and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (dCRP). The SRCs of dBW for dFPG and dHDL were significant in all men and in men with each risk factor corresponding to the component of metabolic syndrome (MetS). The SRCs of dWC for dTG and dCRP were significant in all men but not in men with each risk factor corresponding to the MetS component. In conclusions, dBW were significantly associated with dFPG and dHDL in Japanese men without abdominal obesity. Therefore, abdominal obesity should not be considered as a necessary component of MetS in Japanese men. dBW may be more useful than dWC as a marker of changes in cardiovascular risk factors in lifestyle intervention programs.

  6. Suicídio de homens idosos no Brasil Suicide of elderly men in Brazil

    Maria Cecília de Souza Minayo

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Discute-se o suicídio de homens idosos no Brasil. O texto se fundamenta em estudos de gênero e masculinidades e dá ênfase ao sentido de "masculinidade hegemônica" dentro da lógica do patriarcalismo que, no caso dos suicídios, se expressa na perda do trabalho como referência existencial e no sentido de honra como escudo. O estudo contempla casos de 40 homens que faleceram por suicídio no período entre 2006 a 2009 em dez municípios do país e tinham idade acima de 60 anos. Pela técnica de autópsia psicossocial foram coletados e analisados dados da história e modo de vida; avaliação dos antecedentes; impacto na família; letalidade do método; proximidade de fontes de apoio; tentativas anteriores; estado mental que antecedeu o ato; reações da família e da comunidade. Embora sejam vários os fatores que se associam à morte autoinfligida nesse grupo social, é inegável a importância da cultura masculina hegemônica na preeminência do número de suicídios de homens idosos em relação com as mulheres idosas. É fundamental dar atenção especial aos homens nos momentos de passagem da vida laboral para a aposentadoria, nas situações de perdas de familiares referenciais e quando são diagnosticados com enfermidades crônicas degenerativas que provoquem deficiências, perda de autonomia ou impotência sexual.This paper assesses the suicide of elderly men in Brazil. The text is based on studies of gender and masculinity and emphasizes the sense of "hegemonic masculinity" within the logic of patriarchalism that, in the case of suicide, is expressed in the loss of employment as an existential reference and as a loss of honor. The study includes 40 cases of men over 60 who committed suicide between 2007 and 2010 in ten districts of the country. Using the psychosocial autopsy technique, data were collected and analyzed from their history and lifestyle; evaluation of the background to the act; the impact on their families; lethality

  7. The effect of 8 weeks deep-aquatic exercises on static balance and lower body strength among elderly men

    Ehsan Seyed jafari

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Back ground: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of deep aquatic exercises on lower body strength and balance among elderly men. Methods: Thirty elderly men over 65 years old were randomly divided into two equal groups including experimental and control groups. Experimental group participated in a deep aquatic exercise program that consisted of 60-minute sessions three times a week for 8 weeks while control group had no plan of exercise.  Muscle strength and balance was assessed before and after the program as pre and post-test by HHD (Hand-Held Dynamometer and BBS (Biodex Balance System respectively. Repeated measures two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA was performed on outcome variables.(p≥0.05.  Results: deep aquatic exercises promoted significant increases in the elderly men's muscle strength and balance, as assessed using HHD (p< 0.001 and the BBS (p< 0.001. Conclusion: The present deep-aquatic exercise training for the elderly are able to improve the muscle strength and static balance.

  8. Selfish spermatogonial selection: evidence from an immunohistochemical screen in testes of elderly men.

    Jasmine Lim

    Full Text Available The dominant congenital disorders Apert syndrome, achondroplasia and multiple endocrine neoplasia-caused by specific missense mutations in the FGFR2, FGFR3 and RET proteins respectively-represent classical examples of paternal age-effect mutation, a class that arises at particularly high frequencies in the sperm of older men. Previous analyses of DNA from randomly selected cadaveric testes showed that the levels of the corresponding FGFR2, FGFR3 and RET mutations exhibit very uneven spatial distributions, with localised hotspots surrounded by large mutation-negative areas. These studies imply that normal testes are mosaic for clusters of mutant cells: these clusters are predicted to have altered growth and signalling properties leading to their clonal expansion (selfish spermatogonial selection, but DNA extraction eliminates the possibility to study such processes at a tissue level. Using a panel of antibodies optimised for the detection of spermatocytic seminoma, a rare tumour of spermatogonial origin, we demonstrate that putative clonal events are frequent within normal testes of elderly men (mean age: 73.3 yrs and can be classed into two broad categories. We found numerous small (less than 200 cells cellular aggregations with distinct immunohistochemical characteristics, localised to a portion of the seminiferous tubule, which are of uncertain significance. However more infrequently we identified additional regions where entire seminiferous tubules had a circumferentially altered immunohistochemical appearance that extended through multiple serial sections that were physically contiguous (up to 1 mm in length, and exhibited enhanced staining for antibodies both to FGFR3 and a marker of downstream signal activation, pAKT. These findings support the concept that populations of spermatogonia in individual seminiferous tubules in the testes of older men are clonal mosaics with regard to their signalling properties and activation, thus fulfilling

  9. Endocrine determinants of incident sarcopenia in middle-aged and elderly European men

    Gielen, Evelien; O'Neill, Terence W; Pye, Stephen R; Adams, Judith E; Wu, Frederick C; Laurent, Michaël R; Claessens, Frank; Ward, Kate A; Boonen, Steven; Bouillon, Roger; Vanderschueren, Dirk; Verschueren, Sabine

    2015-01-01

    sarcopenia by any definition. Conclusions Low levels of T and 25OHD do not predict loss of muscle mass, gait speed, or grip strength in middle-aged and elderly community-dwelling European men. Low IGF-1 predicts change in gait speed in men aged ≥70 years. PMID:26401471

  10. Dietary Modification Trial in Community-Dwelling Japanese Elderly: A Pilot Study.

    Momoki, Chika; Tsuji, Taeko; Shikata, Yukina; Urade, Hana; Morimoto, Hideki; Nakajima, Shinya; Habu, Daiki

    2017-07-01

    This study examined the effects of 6-month nutrition education programs for community-dwelling elderly. This study enrolled 50 community-dwelling elderly who regularly visit outpatient clinics. The programs had three goals: salt reduction, increase in dietary fiber, and adequate protein intake. Since it would be difficult for elderly to achieve all goals concurrently, a single goal was chosen by participants themselves. Anthropometric measurements, blood sampling, and assessment of dietary intake were performed at baseline, 3 months, and 6 months. The nutrition education program for salt reduction was well accepted by the participants and the amount of daily salt intake showed median value of 9.6 g at baseline, 8.0 g at 3 months and 8.1 g at 6 months (P = 0.005). The amount of dietary fiber intake only slightly increased after taking the nutrition program (median value of 13.4 g at baseline, 15.3 g at 3 months and 15.5 g at 6 months; P = 0.695), because of difficulties in introducing new food options to the diet. After taking the adequate protein intake program, participants showed small decreases in protein (a modification from 1.24 g/kg IBW to 1.20 g/kg IBW) and salt intake (8.2 to 7.3 g) at 3 months, but the effects were not sustained at 6 months. This nutrition education program focusing on a single nutrient may serve as a strategy to successfully reduce salt intake and improve systolic blood pressure control in community-dwelling elderly individuals who regularly visit outpatient clinics. In our view, dietary and lifestyle habits should be taken into account as much as possible in nutrition education for elderly individuals.

  11. A cross-sectional study of sarcopenia in Japanese men and women: reference values and association with cardiovascular risk factors.

    Sanada, K; Miyachi, M; Tanimoto, M; Yamamoto, K; Murakami, H; Okumura, S; Gando, Y; Suzuki, K; Tabata, I; Higuchi, M

    2010-09-01

    In this study of Japanese men and women, we determine reference values for sarcopenia and test the hypothesis that sarcopenia is associated with risk factors for cardiovascular disease, independent of waist circumference. A total of 1,488 Japanese men and women aged 18-85 years participated in this study. Appendicular muscle mass (AMM) was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Reference values for classes 1 and 2 sarcopenia (skeletal muscle index: AMM/height2, kg m-2) in each sex were defined as values one and two standard deviations below the sex-specific means of reference values obtained in this study from young adults aged 18-40 years. The reference values for class 1 and class 2 sarcopenia were 7.77 and 6.87 kg m-2 in men and 6.12 and 5.46 kg m-2 in women. In subjects both with class 1 and class 2 sarcopenia, body mass index and % body fat were significantly lower than in normal subjects. Despite whole-blood glycohaemoglobin A1c in men with class 1 sarcopenia was significantly higher than in normal subjects, and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity in women both with class 1 and class 2 sarcopenia were significantly higher than in normal subjects, using one-way ANCOVA with adjustment for the covariate of waist circumference. Although sarcopenia is associated with thin body mass, it is associated with more glycation of serum proteins in men and with greater arterial stiffness in women, independent of waist circumference.

  12. Effect of 8-Week of Selected Aerobic Exercise on Static and Dynamic Balance in Healthy Elderly Inactive Men

    Masoud Mirmoezzi; Mojtaba Amini; Asghar Khaledan; Davood Khorshidi

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Old age refers to years near or passed the middle age and therefore, near to the end of life cycle. Old-aged people have limited reviving capability and are more at risk of catching diseases, syndromes, and ailments. Falling is one of the most common problems in the elderly that occur due to their inability to maintain balance. This study aimed to examine the effect of aerobic exercises on static and dynamic balance in healthy elderly inactive men. Methods &...

  13. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level and risk of falls in Japanese community-dwelling elderly women: a 1-year follow-up study.

    Shimizu, Y; Kim, H; Yoshida, H; Shimada, H; Suzuki, T

    2015-08-01

    The present prospective follow-up study among 1,393 community-dwelling elderly women aged 75 years or older was conducted to clarify the association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) level and risk of falls. Lower serum 25(OH)D, particularly level risk of falls. Serum 25(OH)D level has been revealed to be important factor not only for skeletal health but also for fall prevention among the elderly. Our previous cross-sectional study indicated that low serum 25(OH)D level is associated with inferior physical performance and falls among elderly Japanese women. The present prospective study was designed to clarify the association between serum 25(OH)D level and risk of falls before and after 1 year of follow-up. The community-dwelling elderly women aged 75 years or older (N = 1,393) who participated in a mass health examination were followed 1 year later by a mailed self-administered questionnaire. Responses were obtained from 1,285 subjects (response rate = 92.2%). The incidence of falls at baseline and at 1-year follow-up was 18.8 and 24.4%, respectively. The baseline prevalence of serum 25(OH)D falls and 1.47 (0.93-2.32) for recurrent falls vs. no falls adjusted for potential risk factors. Among elderly Japanese women, the lower serum 25(OH)D, particularly level risk of falls.

  14. The effects of continuous application of sunscreen on photoaged skin in Japanese elderly people – the relationship with the usage

    Mizuno M

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Makoto Mizuno,1,2 Kayo Kunimoto,1 Eiji Naru,2 Koichi Kameyama,2 Fukumi Furukawa,1 Yuki Yamamoto1,3 1Department of Dermatology, Wakayama Medical University, Wakayama, Japan; 2Fundamental Research Laboratories, KOSÉ Corporation, Tokyo, Japan; 3Department of Cosmetic Dermatology and Photomedicine, Wakayama Medical University, Wakayama, Japan Abstract: Since photoaging of skin is caused by chronic sun exposure, it is well-recognized that regular sunscreen use can help prevent photoaging of skin in fair-skinned people. Therefore, application of sunscreen is recommended for the prevention of photoaging in many countries. However, the relationship between UV exposure and photoaging has rarely been investigated in clinical studies in Japan. In addition, there have been almost no long-term interventional studies in Japanese people. We have previously conducted a study where Japanese actinic keratosis patients were instructed to continuously apply sunscreen. The results indicated that long-term application of sunscreen is effective in suppressing actinic keratosis progression and generation. In the present study, we investigated the effects of sunscreen on photoaged skin in 14 elderly Japanese people. Skin conditions such as water content, transepidermal water loss, the number of spots, wrinkles, and skin color tone uniformity were measured and compared before and after the study. A statistically significant difference was observed only in skin surface hydration. There were large inter-individual differences in amount of sunscreen used throughout the study. The changes in the number of spots and skin color tone uniformity during the 18 months showed good correlation with amount of sunscreen being used. These results suggest an increase in the number of spots and deterioration in skin color tone uniformity in the 18-month non-sunscreen application period, and that such skin conditions improved with increasing use of sunscreen. In this study, we suggested

  15. Epidemiologic studies of coronary heart disease and stroke in Japanese men living in Japan, Hawaii, and California: blood pressure distributions. [Blood pressure in Japanese men living in Japan, Hawaii, and California

    Winkelstein, W Jr; Kagan, A; Kato, H; Sacks, S T

    1974-01-01

    Blood pressure values were compared in men of Japanese ancestry resident in Japan, Hawaii, and California as a part of a large-scale comparative study of cardiovascular diseases. The median of systolic and diastolic blood pressure values failed to show a difference between men in Japan and Hawaii, but the median for those in San Francisco tended to be higher than the other two groups. However, blood pressure levels generally increase with weight. Therefore, when correction is made for the weight difference among the three groups, the foregoing difference in medians between the San Francisco and the other two groups is decreased, and with the exception of one or two age categories, the difference is not statistically significant. (auth)

  16. Relationship between RBC Mercury Levels and Serum n3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Concentrations among Japanese Men and Women

    Tsuji, M.; Ando, T.; Wakamiya, J.; Koriyama, Ch.; Akiba, S.; Kitano, T.

    2012-01-01

    Aims. To evaluate potential health risk and benefits of fish consumption, the association of fish consumption with total mercury levels in red blood cells (RBCs) and serum eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) concentrations was examined. Subjects and Methods. Study subjects were 269 Japanese (98 men and 171 women) living in a remote island of Kagoshima, and their blood was drawn in 1994. Results. Total mercury levels were related to weekly fish consumption among women (P=0.035) but not among men (P=0.643). However, serum EPA levels were not related to fish consumption in both women and men. In contrast, EPA levels in the high-density lipoprotein (HDL) fraction of the sera were significantly related to fish consumption (P values for men and women were 0.014 and 0.073, resp.). Interestingly, mercury levels were related to serum EPA levels and EPA in the HDL fraction of the sera (P=0.001) among women (P=0.005) but not among men. Sex differences in fish species consumed may be an explanation for the observed sex difference. Conclusion. Those findings suggest that the health benefit of fish consumption can be maximized by the careful selection of fish species consumed

  17. Body composition changes were related to nutrient intakes in elderly men but elderly women had a higher prevalence of sarcopenic obesity in a population of Korean adults.

    Oh, Chorong; Jho, Sunkug; No, Jae-Kyung; Kim, Hak-Seon

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we examined the relationship between sarcopenic obesity (SO) and nutrition status, according to sex in Korean adults who were 60 years or older. Body composition was categorized as SO, sarcopenic nonobesity, nonsarcopenic obesity, and nonsarcopenic nonobesity. Obesity was defined by body mass index. Sarcopenia was defined as an appendicular skeletal muscle mass divided by weight (Wt) of less than 1 SD below the sex-specific mean for young adults. Subjects included 1433 subjects (658 men and 775 women) who were 60 years or older and who participated in the fifth Korea National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey 2010. Sarcopenic obesity was more prevalent in women (31.3%) than in men (19.6%). Individuals with SO had significantly higher fasting insulin, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (male: 3.2 ± 1.4, female: 3.4 ± 2.1), and triglycerides (male: 167.3 ± 90.6 mg/dL, female: 160.7 ± 85.0 mg/dL). High-density lipoprotein was under the normal criteria (50 mg/dL) in women. Intake of nutrients associated with muscle loss (protein, vitamin D, calcium, and vitamin C) was significantly different among the male but not the female groups. Although protein intake was normal, calcium and vitamin D intakes were insufficient in all groups. In conclusion, body composition changes were related to nutrient intakes in elderly (60 years or older) men but not elderly women. Women had a higher prevalence of SO than did men, suggesting that early nutritional intervention in elderly women may help them address age-associated body composition changes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Association between the nutritional status and the severity of sarcopenia among community-dwelling elderly Japanese people.

    Komai, Satsuki; Watanabe, Yutaka; Fujiwara, Yoshinori; Kim, Hunkyung; Edahiro, Ayako; Kawai, Hisashi; Yoshida, Hideyo; Obuchi, Shuichi; Tanaka, Yayoi; Hirano, Hirohiko

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the association between nutritional evaluation indices (body mass index, albumin, and weight loss) and sarcopenia severity among community-dwelling elderly people in Japan. The subjects consisted of 758 community-dwelling elderly people ≥65 years of age, categorized into two groups by based on Operation of long life medical care system (medical care system for elderly in the latter stage of life), the cut-off value for age used was 75. The outcome measures were basic characteristics, anthropometric measures, physical function, and blood biochemistry (five assessments). The appendicular skeletal muscle mass was calculated via a bioelectrical impedance analysis. The subjects were categorized into three groups by the body mass index (BMI) [BMI 3 group]. The cut-off value for albumin used was 3.8 g/dL [A1b 2 group]. Weight loss was assessed using item 11 on the Kihon check list: "Have you experienced more than 2-3 kg weight loss over the past 6 months? Yes=1, No=0." [weight loss 2 group]. Sarcopenia was defined based on the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People definition, using the Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia cut-off values. All subjects were then categorized into four groups based on their sarcopenia status: non-sarcopenic (non-), pre-sarcopenic (pre-), sarcopenic (sarco-), or severely sarcopenic (severe-) [sarco4 group]. The prevalence of sarcopenia and severe sarcopenia in men was 5.6% (n=18) and 1.2% (n=4), respectively, and in women was 7.8% (n=34) and 1.6% (n=7), respectively. The analysis showed that, among the people (>75 years of age) with normal BMI (18.5-25.0), 10.4%-15.6% were in the Sarco group. Further, among women over 75 years of age with BMI >25.0, 5.7% (n=2) were in the Sarco group. There was a significant association between weight loss and sarcopenia severity in older men. No significant association between albumin levels and sarcopenia severity was observed. 80.0% of weight-loss was presented in above BMI 18

  19. Day-to-Day Blood Pressure Variability and Risk of Dementia in a General Japanese Elderly Population: The Hisayama Study.

    Oishi, Emi; Ohara, Tomoyuki; Sakata, Satoko; Fukuhara, Masayo; Hata, Jun; Yoshida, Daigo; Shibata, Mao; Ohtsubo, Toshio; Kitazono, Takanari; Kiyohara, Yutaka; Ninomiya, Toshiharu

    2017-08-08

    Several observational studies have reported that higher visit-to-visit blood pressure variability is a risk factor for cognitive impairment and dementia. However, no studies have investigated the association of day-to-day blood pressure variability assessed by home blood pressure measurement with the development of dementia. A total of 1674 community-dwelling Japanese elderly without dementia, ≥60 years of age, were followed up for 5 years (2007-2012). Home blood pressure was measured 3 times every morning for a median of 28 days. Day-to-day systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure variabilities, calculated as coefficients of variation (CoV) of home SBP and diastolic blood pressure, were categorized into quartiles. The hazard ratios and their 95% confidence intervals of the CoV levels of home blood pressure on the development of all-cause dementia, vascular dementia (VaD), and Alzheimer disease (AD) were computed with a Cox proportional hazards model. During the follow-up, 194 subjects developed all-cause dementia; of these, 47 had VaD and 134 had AD. The age- and sex-adjusted incidences of all-cause dementia, VaD, and AD increased significantly with increasing CoV levels of home SBP (all P for trend dementia, VaD, and AD were significantly higher in those in the fourth quartile (hazard ratio=2.27, 95% confidence interval=1.45-3.55, P dementia; hazard ratio=2.79, 95% confidence interval=1.04-7.51, P =0.03 for VaD; hazard ratio=2.22, 95% confidence interval=1.31-3.75, P dementia and AD. There was no interaction between home SBP levels and CoV levels of home SBP on the risk of each subtype of dementia. Our findings suggest that increased day-to-day blood pressure variability is, independently of average home blood pressure, a significant risk factor for the development of all-cause dementia, VaD, and AD in the general elderly Japanese population. © 2017 The Authors.

  20. Two weeks of one-leg immobilization decreases skeletal muscle respiratory capacity equally in young and elderly men

    Gram, Martin; Vigelsø Hansen, Andreas; Yokota, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    Physical inactivity affects human skeletal muscle mitochondrial oxidative capacity but the influence of aging combined with physical inactivity is not known. This study investigates the effect of two weeks of immobilization followed by six weeks of supervised cycle training on muscle oxidative...... capacity in 17 young (23±1years) and 15 elderly (68±1years) healthy men. We applied high-resolution respirometry in permeabilized fibers from muscle biopsies at inclusion after immobilization and training. Furthermore, protein content of mitochondrial complexes I-V, mitochondrial heat shock protein 70 (mt......HSP70) and voltage dependent anion channel (VDAC) were measured in skeletal muscle by Western blotting. The elderly men had lower content of complexes I-V and mtHSP70 but similar respiratory capacity and content of VDAC compared to the young. In both groups the respiratory capacity and protein content...

  1. Visceral adiposity, not abdominal subcutaneous fat area, is associated with high blood pressure in Japanese men. The Ohtori study

    Koh, Hideo; Hayashi, Tomoshige; Kogawa Sato, Kyoko

    2011-01-01

    Visceral adiposity is considered to have a key role in cardiometabolic diseases. The purpose of this study is to investigate cross-sectionally the association between intra-abdominal fat area (IAFA) measured by computed tomography (CT) and high blood pressure independent of abdominal subcutaneous fat area (ASFA) and insulin resistance. Study participants included 624 Japanese men not taking oral hypoglycemic medications or insulin. Abdominal, thoracic and thigh fat areas were measured by CT. Total fat area (TFA) was calculated as the sum of abdominal, thoracic and thigh fat area. Total subcutaneous fat area (TSFA) was defined as TFA minus IAFA. Hypertension and high normal blood pressure were defined using the 1999 criteria of the World Health Organization. Multiple-adjusted odds ratios of hypertension for tertiles of IAFA were 2.64 (95% confidence interval, 1.35-5.16) for tertile 2, and 5.08 (2.48-10.39) for tertile 3, compared with tertile 1 after adjusting for age, fasting immunoreactive insulin, diabetes status, ASFA, alcohol consumption, regular physical exercise and smoking habit. IAFA remained significantly associated with hypertension even after adjustment for ASFA, TSFA, TFA, body mass index or waist circumference, and no other measure of regional or total adiposity was associated with the odds of hypertension in models, which included IAFA. Similar results were obtained for the association between IAFA and the prevalence of high normal blood pressure or hypertension. In conclusion, greater visceral adiposity was associated with a higher odds of high blood pressure in Japanese men. (author)

  2. Carotid Velocities Determine Cerebral Blood Flow Deficits in Elderly Men with Carotid Stenosis <50%

    Arkadiusz Siennicki-Lantz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available To examine if mild carotid stenosis correlates with silent vascular brain changes, we studied a prospective population-based cohort “Men born in 1914.” Data from followups at ages 68 and 81, have been used. Carotid ultrasound was performed at age 81, and cerebral blood flow (CBF was measured with SPECT at age 82. Out of 123 stroke-free patients, carotid stenosis <50% was observed in 94% in the right and 89% in the left internal carotid arteries (ICAs. In these subjects, Peak Systolic Velocities in ICA correlated negatively with CBF in a majority of several brain areas, especially in mesial temporal area. Results were limited to normotensive until their seventies, who developed late-onset hypertension with a subsequent blood pressure, pulse pressure, and ankle-brachial index growth. Elderly with asymptomatic carotid stenosis <50% and peak systolic velocities in ICA 0.7–1.3 m/s, should be offered an intensified pharmacotherapy to prevent stroke or silent cerebrovascular events.

  3. Peripheral brain-derived neurotrophic factor is related to cardiovascular risk factors in active and inactive elderly men

    A. Zembron-Lacny

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Regular exercise plays an important preventive and therapeutic role in heart and vascular diseases, and beneficially affects brain function. In blood, the effects of exercise appear to be very complex and could include protection of vascular endothelial cells via neurotrophic factors and decreased oxidative stress. The purpose of this study was to identify the age-related changes in peripheral brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF and its relationship to oxidative damage and conventional cardiovascular disease (CVD biomarkers, such as atherogenic index, C-reactive protein (hsCRP and oxidized LDL (oxLDL, in active and inactive men. Seventeen elderly males (61-80 years and 17 young males (20-24 years participated in this study. According to the 6-min Åstrand-Rhyming bike test, the subjects were classified into active and inactive groups. The young and elderly active men had a significantly better lipoprotein profile and antioxidant status, as well as reduced oxidative damage and inflammatory state. The active young and elderly men had significantly higher plasma BDNF levels compared to their inactive peers. BDNF was correlated with VO2max (r=0.765, P<0.001. In addition, we observed a significant inverse correlation of BDNF with atherogenic index (TC/HDL, hsCRP and oxLDL. The findings demonstrate that a high level of cardiorespiratory fitness reflected in VO2max was associated with a higher level of circulating BDNF, which in turn was related to common CVD risk factors and oxidative damage markers in young and elderly men.

  4. Effect of floorball training on blood lipids, body composition, muscle strength, and functional capacity of elderly men.

    Vorup, J; Pedersen, M T; Melcher, P S; Dreier, R; Bangsbo, J

    2017-11-01

    Floorball training consists of intense repeated exercise and may offer a motivating and social stimulating team activity in elderly individuals. However, the effect of floorball training in elderly adults on physiological adaptations important for health is not known. Thus, this study examined the effect of floorball training on blood lipids, muscle strength, body composition, and functional capacity of men aged 65-76 years. Thirty-nine recreational active men were randomized into a floorball group (FG; n = 22) or petanque group (PG; n = 17), in which training was performed 1 h twice a week for 12 weeks. In FG and PG, average heart rate (HR) during training was 80% and 57%, respectively, of maximal HR. In FG, plasma low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and triglycerides were 11% and 8% lower (P functional capacity tests were better (P training period. No changes were observed in PG. In conclusion, 12 weeks of floorball training resulted in a number of favorable effects important for health and functional capacity, suggesting that floorball training can be used as a health-promoting activity in elderly men. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Social support and suicide in Japanese men and women - the Japan Public Health Center (JPHC)-based prospective study.

    Poudel-Tandukar, Kalpana; Nanri, Akiko; Mizoue, Tetsuya; Matsushita, Yumi; Takahashi, Yoshihiko; Noda, Mitsuhiko; Inoue, Manami; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2011-12-01

    Although the important role of social support in mental health is acknowledged, no prospective study has yet examined the relation of social support to suicide. Here, we investigated the association between social support and suicide in a cohort of Japanese men and women. A total of 26,672 men and 29,865 women aged 40-69 years enrolled in the Japan Public Health Center-based prospective study in 1993-1994 completed a self-administered questionnaire which included four items of social support, and were followed for death through December 2005. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) of suicidal death by social support index were estimated using a Cox proportional hazards regression model. A total of 180 suicidal deaths were recorded during an average of 12 years' follow-up. Men and women with the highest level of social support had a significantly decreased risk of suicide, with HRs (95% CI) for the highest versus lowest social support group of 0.56 (0.33-0.94) and 0.38 (0.16-0.89) in men and women, respectively. Esteem support and having four or more friends were associated with a lower risk of suicide in women [0.32 (0.13-0.77)] and in both sexes [men: 0.56 (0.36-0.88); women: 0.65 (0.32-1.30)], respectively, whereas confident support was not. These findings suggest that social support may be important for suicide prevention. Avoiding social isolation may decrease the incidence of suicide in men and women, and esteem support can provide additional benefit for women. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Prevalence of idiopathic normal-pressure hydrocephalus in the elderly population of a Japanese rural community

    Hiraoka, Kotaro; Meguro, Kenichi; Mori, Etsuro

    2008-01-01

    The prevalence of idiopathic normal-pressure hydrocephalus (NPH) in a community was investigated by retrospective analysis of data from a previous community-based study of 170 randomly selected elderly residents aged 65 years or older. Magnetic resonance (MR) images of the subjects were reviewed for the specific structural features of idiopathic NPH, i.e. ventricular enlargement and narrow cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) space at high convexity and high midline areas. The clinical features of idiopathic NPH, gait disturbance, urinary incontinence, and cognitive impairment, were evaluated on the basis of records of the subjects' neurological examinations, a health questionnaire, the Mini-Mental State Examination, and Clinical Dementia Rating. Thirteen of the 170 subjects showed lateral ventricular enlargement greater than 0.3 on Evans' index. Five subjects (2.9%) demonstrated both ventricular enlargement and narrow CSF space at the high convexity/midline. All five subjects with these MR imaging signs had cognitive impairment, one had gait disturbance, and one had urinary incontinence. The present study found 2.9% of community-dwelling elderly subjects showed radiological and clinical features consistent with idiopathic NPH. (author)

  7. Yellow Tongue Coating is Associated With Diabetes Mellitus Among Japanese Non-smoking Men and Women: The Toon Health Study.

    Tomooka, Kiyohide; Saito, Isao; Furukawa, Shinya; Maruyama, Koutatsu; Eguchi, Eri; Iso, Hiroyasu; Tanigawa, Takeshi

    2017-12-28

    Yellow tongue coating is one of the clinical signs for diabetes mellitus according to traditional East Asian medicine. Few reports have been available on the association between yellow tongue coating and the prevalence of type 2 diabetes in the general population. We examined that association among population samples of non-smoking men and women. The study subjects were Japanese non-smoking men (n = 315) and women (n = 654) aged 30-79 years who resided in Toon city and participated in the Toon Health Study from July 2011 through November 2014. Tongue coating was assessed by a nationally licensed acupuncturist and classified into three categories of white (normal), light yellow, and yellow. We performed an oral glucose tolerance test to confirm the presence of diabetes mellitus and prediabetes. The associations between yellow tongue coating and the prevalence of diabetes mellitus and prediabetes were examined using multivariable logistic regression analyses, adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, drinking status, and physical activity. The multivariable odds ratios of diabetes mellitus were 1.39 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.72-2.67) for light yellow tongue coating and 2.23 (95% CI, 1.16-4.30) for yellow tongue coating compared with white tongue coating. The respective multivariable odds ratios of prediabetes were 1.13 (95% CI, 0.80-1.61) and 1.43 (95% CI, 0.96-2.12). Yellow tongue coating was associated with higher prevalence of diabetes mellitus and tended to be associated with that of prediabetes among Japanese non-smoking men and women.

  8. Mild Clinical Course of Severe Fever with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome Virus Infection in an Elderly Japanese Patient

    Yuko Ohagi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS is an emerging infectious and hemorrhagic disease recently described in China and western Japan. A 71-year-old healthy Japanese woman noticed a tick biting her after harvesting in an orchard and removed it herself. She developed diarrhea, anorexia, and chills eight days later. Because these symptoms continued, she visited a primary care physician 6 days after the onset. Laboratory data revealed thrombocytopenia, leukocytopenia, and elevated liver enzymes. She was then referred to our hospital. Although not completely fulfilling the diagnostic criteria used in a retrospective study in Japan, SFTS was suspected, and we detected SFTS virus in the patient’s blood using RT-PCR. However, she recovered without intensive treatment and severe complications 13 days after the onset. In this report, we present a mild clinical course of SFTS virus infection in Japan in detail.

  9. [Independent and interdependent self-schema in Japanese adolescents and elders].

    Takata, Toshitake

    2007-12-01

    The study investigated the functions of self-schema pertaining to independent and interdependent self-construal. Four groups of participants, who had (a) independent schema, (b) interdependent schema, (c) both schemata, or (d) neither schema (aschematic), were compared in cognitive performance on a schema-relevant information processing task. Study I, with college students, found that interdependent schemata were used in the task by the interdependent (b) and the both (c) group, but independent schemata were not used by the independent (a) and the both (c) group. Study II, with aged participants, found that not only the interdependent schemata were used by the interdependent (b) and the both (c) group, but also independent schemata were used by the independent (a) and the both (c) group. These findings provide evidence for Takata's (2004) hypotheses that the interdependent self is internalized in adolescence and the independent self develops after adulthood in Japanese culture.

  10. Identification of Novel Recombinant Forms of Hepatitis B Virus Generated from Genotypes Ae and G in HIV-1-Positive Japanese Men Who Have Sex with Men.

    Kojima, Yoko; Kawahata, Takuya; Mori, Haruyo; Furubayashi, Keiichi; Taniguchi, Yasushi; Itoda, Ichiro; Komano, Jun

    2015-07-01

    The rare hepatitis B virus (HBV) genotype G (HBV/G) coinfects HIV-1-positive individuals along with HBV/A and generates recombinants. However, the circulation of HBV A/G recombinants remains poorly understood. This molecular epidemiologic study examined HBV A/G recombinants in Japanese HIV-1-positive men who have sex with men (MSM). Initially, blood specimens submitted for confirmatory tests of HIV infection in Osaka and Tokyo, Japan, from 2006 to 2013 were examined for HIV-1, and HIV-1-positive specimens were screened for HBV. Among 817 specimens from HIV-1-positive individuals, HBsAg was detected in 59 specimens; of these, HBV/Ae (alternatively A2), a subgenotype of HBV/A prevalent in Europe and North America, was identified in 70.2%, HBV/C in 17.5%, and HBV/G in 10.5%, and HBV/E in 1.8% according to the core gene sequence. The full-length genome analysis of HBV was performed on HBV/G-positive specimens because some HBV A/G recombinants were historically overlooked by genotyping based on a partial genome analysis. It revealed that five of the specimens contained novel Ae/G recombinants, the core gene of which had a high sequence similarity to HBV/G. Detailed analyses showed that novel recombinants were coinfected with HBV/Ae in a recombinant-dominant fashion. No major drug-resistant mutations were found in the newly identified HBV Ae/G recombinants. Some of the individuals asymptomatically coinfected with HIV/HBV suffered mild liver injury. This study demonstrated that novel Ae/G HBV recombinants were identified in Japanese HIV-1-positive MSM. The pathogenicity of novel HBV Ae/G recombinants should be examined in a future longitudinal study. Surveillance of such viruses in HIV-1-positive individuals should be emphasized.

  11. Relationship between home care service use and changes in the care needs level of Japanese elderly.

    Kato, Gohei; Tamiya, Nanako; Kashiwagi, Masayo; Sato, Mikiya; Takahashi, Hideto

    2009-12-21

    With the introduction of long-term care insurance (LTCI) in Japan, more home care services are available for the community-dwelling elderly. To deliver effective home care services, it is important to know the effects of service use. In this study, as the first step to determine this, we sought to describe different home service use in the sustained/improved group and deteriorated group in their care needs levels, and to report the relationship between the use of home care services and changes in care needs levels. The participants included 624 of a total of 1,474 users of LTCI services in one city in Japan. Home care service users were stratified into a 'lower care needs level subgroup' and a 'higher care needs level subgroup' based on the baseline care needs level. Simple statistical comparison and multiple logistic regression analyses in which the change in care needs level was set as a dependent variable were performed. Gender, age, and baseline care needs level were designated as control variables. Home based services were treated as independent variables. In this study, home care services consisted of home help, home bathing services, a visiting nurse, home rehabilitation, nursing home daycare, health daycare, loan of medical devices, respite stay in a nursing home, respite stay in a health care facility, respite stay in a sanatorium-type medical care facility, and medical management by a physician. In the lower care needs level subgroup, age (OR = 1.04, CI, 1.01-1.08), use of respite stay in a nursing home (OR = 2.55; CI, 1.43-4.56), and the number of types of long-term care services (OR = 1.33; CI, 1.02-1.74) used during an 11 month period were significantly related to a deterioration of the user's care needs level. In the higher care needs level subgroup, use of medical management by a physician (OR = 6.99; CI, 1.42-41.25) was significantly related to a deterioration of the user's care needs level. There were no home based services significantly related to

  12. Psychological impact of serial prostate-specific antigen tests in Japanese men waiting for prostate biopsy.

    Kobayashi, Minoru; Nukui, Akinori; Kamai, Takao

    2017-02-01

    It is common to repeat prostate-specific antigen (PSA) measurements for men with intermediate PSA elevation before prostate biopsy. In this scenario, men with persistently elevated PSA values may have considerable psychological distress. We attempted to determine whether elevated PSA values have psychological effects on these men in association with the timing of measurement, PSA kinetics, and biopsy results. In order to investigate the initial and late effects of PSA tests on psychological distress during serial measurements, two groups of men with screen-positive results (PSA ≥3 ng/ml) were studied-205 men whose first questionnaires regarding anxiety and depression were taken at initial screening (group A), and 103 men whose questionnaires were taken at repeated measurement for prior PSA elevation (group B). The level of distress was generally low. There were no significant differences in distress between the two groups, suggesting a constant psychological effect by elevated PSA values over a long period of time. The distress of men in group A increased significantly as PSA levels rose and decreased when they fell to normal range. On the other hand, the distress of men in group B did not change regardless of PSA kinetics, indicating that their psychological condition seemed susceptible to subtle PSA change only in the initial phase of measurements. Unexpectedly, men with benign results showed insignificant but higher distress after prostate biopsy. Although a small fraction of men have psychological distress caused by changes in PSA levels, the benefits, risks (psychological and physical), and limitations of PSA tests must be adequately explained to the patients before entering the screening program.

  13. Association of body flexibility and carotid atherosclerosis in Japanese middle-aged men: a cross-sectional study

    Imoto, Takayuki; Kida, Akira; Yokochi, Takashi; Iwase, Mitsunori; Kozawa, Kenji

    2018-01-01

    Objective This study examined the associations of body flexibility with carotid arterial remodelling, including intima–media thickness (IMT) and plaque formation in middle-aged men. Methods The subjects of this cross-sectional study included 1354 Japanese men aged 35–59 years without histories of stroke or cardiac diseases. The arm extensibility test, which can estimate flexibility of the upper extremity (composed of shoulder external rotation and forearm supination), and the sit-and-reach test were performed. Common carotid IMT and plaque formation (≥1.1 mm) were estimated by ultrasound. Results The proportion of subjects who fully completed the arm extensibility test was 55.0%, and who had plaques in the common carotid artery was 37.8%. IMT was associated with poor arm extensibility (β=–0.073, 95% CI –0.02224 to –0.00041, P=0.004), while plaque formation was associated with poor sit-and-reach (OR 0.98579, 95% CI 0.97257 to 0.99919, P=0.038) after adjustment by all covariates. Conclusions This study demonstrated that poor upper extremity and trunk flexibility were associated with characteristics of early onset of atherosclerosis. Furthermore, these associations were independent of covariates such as age, blood pressure, blood lipids glucose levels and abdominal fat accumulation, handgrip strength and lifestyle, including sleeping, drinking, exercise and smoking habits. Poor flexibility may reflect subclinical atherosclerosis in middle-aged men. PMID:29306892

  14. Relationship Between Self-Regulation and Balance-Confidence in Active and Inactive Elderly Men

    Fatemeh Sadat Hosseini

    2018-01-01

    Conclusion This study confirms that lack of self-regulation in the elderly can lead to decreased physical activity and restrictions. It is suggested that self-regulation should be emphasized in the elderly so that they can overcome their environmental issues and enhance their balance confidence.

  15. Knee and ankle range of motion during stepping down in elderly compared to young men

    Lark, S.D.; Buckley, J.G.; Jones, D.A.; Sargeant, A.J.

    2004-01-01

    A major factor limiting mobility in elderly subjects is their difficulty with descending steps but the physiological and biomechanical basis of this problem is not well understood. To address this question we have compared the kinematics of stepping down in six elderly male subjects and six weight-

  16. Hyperinsulinemia correlates with low levels of plasma B-type natriuretic peptide in Japanese men irrespective of fat distribution

    Nakatsuji Hideaki

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP, a member of the natriuretic peptide family, is a cardiac-derived secretory hormone with natriuretic, diuretic, and vasorelaxant activities. Intraabdominal fat accumulation is associated with atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases and cardiac dysfunction. Circulating BNP levels are relatively low (within the normal limits in obesity and the metabolic syndrome. However, the relationship between plasma BNP levels and visceral fat accumulation in general population has not been reported. The present study analyzed the relationships between plasma BNP levels and various clinical variables, including insulin, visceral and subcutaneous fat area (VFA and SFA, respectively, in normal Japanese men. Methods The study (Victor-J study subjects were consecutive 500 Japanese male workers, who underwent a health checkup and were measured VFA and SFA by computed tomography. Results Age-adjusted simple linear regression analysis showed that log-BNP correlated positively with HDL-cholesterol, and negatively with VFA, log-immunoreactive insulin (IRI, log-triglyceride, and LDL-cholesterol, but not body mass index or SFA. Stepwise multiple regression analysis identified log-IRI and HDL-cholesterol as significant determinants of log-BNP. Subjects with IRI ≥5.5 μIU/mL had lower plasma BNP levels than those with IRI 2, visceral fat accumulation (VFA, cutoff value 100 cm2 and subcutaneous fat accumulation (SFA, cutoff value 128 cm2. Conclusions Our study showed that hyperinsulinemia correlated with low levels of plasma BNP in general men, irrespective of fat distribution. Trial registration UMIN 000004318.

  17. Exercise and Nutritional Supplementation on Community-Dwelling Elderly Japanese Women With Sarcopenic Obesity: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Kim, Hunkyung; Kim, Miji; Kojima, Narumi; Fujino, Ken; Hosoi, Erika; Kobayashi, Hisamine; Somekawa, Shinji; Niki, Yoshifumi; Yamashiro, Yukari; Yoshida, Hideyo

    2016-11-01

    To investigate the effects of exercise and/or nutritional supplementation on body composition, blood components, and physical function in community-dwelling elderly Japanese women with sarcopenic obesity. Randomized controlled trial. Urban community in Tokyo, Japan. Among 1213 community-dwelling elderly women over 70 years of age, 307 were defined with sarcopenic obesity, and 139 women participated in the study. Participants were randomly assigned to one of four intervention groups. The exercise and nutrition (Ex + N) and exercise only (Ex) groups attended 60-minute exercise classes twice a week for 3 months. The Ex + N and nutrition only (N) groups were provided with essential amino acid supplementation and tea fortified with catechins to be taken daily for 3 months. Health education classes were provided to the control (HE) group every 2 weeks. Bioelectric impedance analysis was used to measure body composition. Skeletal muscle mass index was calculated using measures of muscle mass and height. Physical function measures included grip strength, knee extension strength, usual walking speed, and walking parameters (stride, step length, width, walking angles). Blood samples were obtained to analyze levels of albumin, triglycerides, cholesterol, hemoglobin A1c, leptin, cystatin C, vitamin D, interleukin-6, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein. Significant between-group × time interactions were observed in usual walking speed (P = .012), stride (P = .004), right step length (P = .003), average number of steps (P = .029), and vitamin D (P exercise and nutrition have beneficial effects on individual variables of body composition, blood components, and physical function, improvements in muscle mass and variable combinations such as percent fat + skeletal muscle mass index or percent fat + physical functions were not observed in this population. Further large-scale and long-term investigation is necessary. Copyright © 2016 AMDA – The Society

  18. Informal and formal support among community-dwelling Japanese American elders living alone in Chicagoland: an in-depth qualitative study.

    Lau, Denys T; Machizawa, Sayaka; Doi, Mary

    2012-06-01

    A key public health approach to promote independent living and avoid nursing home placement is ensuring that elders can obtain adequate informal support from family and friends, as well as formal support from community services. This study aims to describe the use of informal and formal support among community-dwelling Nikkei elders living alone, and explore perceived barriers hindering their use of such support. We conducted English and Japanese semi-structured, open-ended interviews in Chicagoland with a convenience sample of 34 Nikkei elders age 60+ who were functionally independent and living alone; 9 family/friends; and 10 local service providers. According to participants, for informal support, Nikkei elders relied mainly on: family for homemaking and health management; partners for emotional and emergency support; friends for emotional and transportation support; and neighbors for emergency assistance. Perceived barriers to informal support included elders' attitudinal impediments (feeling burdensome, reciprocating support, self-reliance), family-related interpersonal circumstances (poor communication, distance, intergenerational differences); and friendship/neighbor-related interpersonal situations (difficulty making friends, relocation, health decline/death). For formal support, Nikkei elders primarily used adult day care/cultural programs for socializing and learning and in-home care for personal/homemaking assistance and companionship. Barriers to formal support included attitudinal impediments (stoicism, privacy, frugality); perception of care (incompatibility with services, poor opinions of in-home care quality); and accessibility (geographical distance, lack of transportation). In summary, this study provides important preliminary insights for future community strategies that will target resources and training for support networks of Nikkei elders living alone to maximize their likelihood to age in place independently.

  19. Evaluation of a Japanese version of the Mini-Mental State Examination in elderly persons.

    Ideno, Yuki; Takayama, Mitsuyo; Hayashi, Kunihiko; Takagi, Hirofumi; Sugai, Yuichi

    2012-04-01

    This study aimed to examine the validity and item-response characteristics of the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), which is used for assessing cognitive function, in Japanese older adults. Factor analysis and item response analysis were carried out for MMSE responses (n = 1971) from older adults living in the community (n = 1339) or in a nursing home (n = 632), including Alzheimer-type dementia (n = 330), vascular dementia (n = 36), frontotemporal dementia (n = 7), mixed Alzheimer-type and frontotemporal type dementia (n = 27), and age-related cognitive decline (n = 29). When choosing the cut-off score of 23 points for the MMSE, sensitivity and specificity for each item were calculated. A three-factor solution was found to be most appropriate by factor analysis: complex processing, simple processing and working memory. The item characteristics curves showed unidimensionality with high reproducibility. We identified a simplified scale comprising 10 items in all participants: "naming", "three-step command", "registration", "repeat a sentence", "write a complete sentence", "copies drawing of two polygons", "orientation to place", "delayed recall", "orientation to time" and "serial sevens" tasks. Sensitivity and specificity for both "year" task and "day" task were more than 90% ("year": sensitivity 92.5%, specificity 96.3%; "day": sensitivity 92.4%, specificity 91.7%). For the Alzheimer-type dementia patients, the five-factor solution was suggested by factor analysis and the MMSE also had unidimensionality in terms of level of difficulty. We found that the MMSE had multiple cognitive areas. We showed that the MMSE could be used as an essentially unidimensional measure of cognitive ability and the question about orientation to time might be useful in the simplest assessment to identify cognitive dysfunction. © 2011 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  20. Elderly Men Have Low Levels of Anti-Müllerian Hormone and Inhibin B, but with High Interpersonal Variation: A Cross-Sectional Study of the Sertoli Cell Hormones in 615 Community-Dwelling Men

    Chong, Yih Harng; Dennis, Nicola A.; Connolly, Martin J.; Teh, Ruth; Jones, Gregory T.; van Rij, Andre M.; Farrand, Stephanie; Campbell, A. John; MLennan, Ian S.

    2013-01-01

    The Sertoli cells of the testes secrete anti-Müllerian hormone (Müllerian inhibiting Substance, AMH) and inhibin B (InhB). AMH triggers the degeneration of the uterine precursor in male embryos, whereas InhB is part of the gonadal-pituitary axis for the regulation of sperm production in adults. However, both hormones are also putative regulators of homeostasis, and age-related changes in these hormones may therefore be important to the health status of elderly men. The levels of AMH in elderly men are unknown, with limited information being available about age-related changes in InhB. We have therefore used ELISAs to measure Sertoli cell hormone levels in 3 cohorts of community-dwelling men in New Zealand. In total, 615 men were examined, 493 of which were aged 65 or older. Serum AMH and InhB levels inversely correlated with age in men older than 50 years (p<0.001) but not in the younger men. A minority of elderly men had undetectable levels of AMH and InhB. The variation in hormone levels between similarly aged men increased with the age of men. AMH and InhB partially correlated with each other as expected (r = 0.48, p<0.001). However, the ratio of the two Sertoli hormones varied significantly between men, with this variation increasing with age. Elderly men selected for the absence of cardiovascular disease had AMH levels similar to those of young men whereas their InhB levels did not differ from aged-matched controls. These data suggests that Sertoli cell number and function changes with age, but with the extent and nature of the changes varying between men. PMID:23940675

  1. Socioeconomic Inequalities in Oral Health among Middle-Aged and Elderly Japanese: NIPPON DATA2010.

    Murakami, Keiko; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Nakamura, Mieko; Ninomiya, Toshiharu; Ojima, Toshiyuki; Shirai, Kayoko; Nagahata, Tomomi; Kadota, Aya; Okuda, Nagako; Nishi, Nobuo; Okamura, Tomonori; Ueshima, Hirotsugu; Okayama, Akira; Miura, Katsuyuki

    2018-01-01

    Most studies on socioeconomic inequalities in oral health have not considered the effects of behavioral and biological factors and age differences. Furthermore, the nationwide status of inequalities remains unclear in Japan. We analyzed data from 2,089 residents aged ≥40 years throughout Japan. The lowest quartile of the number of remaining teeth for each 10-year age category was defined as poor oral health. Behavioral and biological factors included smoking status, obesity, diabetes mellitus, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, and the use of dental devices. Multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine the associations of educational attainment and equivalent household expenditure (EHE) with oral health, and stratified analyses by age category were also conducted (40-64 years and ≥65 years). Lower education and lower EHE were significantly associated with an increased risk of poor oral health after adjusting for age, sex, employment status, marital and living statuses, and EHE/education; the odds ratio for junior high school education compared with ≥college education was 1.84 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.36-2.49), and the odds ratio of the lowest compared with the highest EHE quartile was 1.91 (95% CI, 1.43-2.56). Further adjustments for behavioral and biological factors attenuated but did not eliminate these associations. EHE was significantly associated with oral health among elderly adults only, with a significant interaction by age category. Those with a lower education and those with lower EHE had a significantly higher risk of poor oral health, even after adjustments for behavioral and biological factors.

  2. Prevalence of knee osteoarthritis, lumbar spondylosis, and osteoporosis in Japanese men and women: the research on osteoarthritis/osteoporosis against disability study.

    Yoshimura, Noriko; Muraki, Shigeyuki; Oka, Hiroyuki; Mabuchi, Akihiko; En-Yo, Yoshio; Yoshida, Munehito; Saika, Akihiko; Yoshida, Hideyo; Suzuki, Takao; Yamamoto, Seizo; Ishibashi, Hideaki; Kawaguchi, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Kozo; Akune, Toru

    2009-01-01

    Musculoskeletal diseases, especially osteoarthritis (OA) and osteoporosis (OP), impair activities of daily life (ADL) and quality of life (QOL) in the elderly. Although preventive strategies for these diseases are urgently required in an aging society, epidemiological data on these diseases are scant. To clarify the prevalence of knee osteoarthritis (KOA), lumbar spondylosis (LS), and osteoporosis (OP) in Japan, and estimate the number of people with these diseases, we started a large-scale population-based cohort study entitled research on osteoarthritis/osteoporosis against disability (ROAD) in 2005. This study involved the collection of clinical information from three cohorts composed of participants located in urban, mountainous, and coastal areas. KOA and LS were radiographically defined as a grade of > or =2 by the Kellgren-Lawrence scale; OP was defined by the criteria of the Japanese Society for Bone and Mineral Research. The 3,040 participants in total were divided into six groups based on their age: or =80 years. The prevalence of KOA in the age groups or =80 years 0, 9.1, 24.3, 35.2, 48.2, and 51.6%, respectively, in men, and the prevalence in women of the same age groups was 3.2, 11.4, 30.3, 57.1, 71.9, and 80.7%, respectively. With respect to the age groups, the prevalence of LS was 14.3, 45.5, 72.9, 74.6, 85.3, and 90.1% in men, and 9.7, 28.6, 41.7, 55.4, 75.1, and 78.2% in women, respectively. Data of the prevalence of OP at the lumbar spine and femoral neck were also obtained. The estimated number of patients with KOA, LS, and L2-L4 and femoral neck OP in Japan was approximately 25, 38, 6.4, and 11 million, respectively. In summary, we estimated the prevalence of OA and OP, and the number of people affected with these diseases in Japan. The ROAD study will elucidate epidemiological evidence concerning determinants of bone and joint disease.

  3. The effects of long-term endurance training on the immune and endocrine systems of elderly men: the role of cytokines and anabolic hormones

    Natale Valéria

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background a decline in immune and endocrine function occurs with aging. The main purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of long-term endurance training on the immune and endocrine system of elderly men. The possible interaction between these systems was also analysed. Results elderly runners showed a significantly higher T cell proliferative response and IL-2 production than sedentary elderly controls. IL-2 production was similar to that in young adults. Their serum IL-6 levels were significantly lower than their sedentary peers. They also showed significantly lower IL-3 production in comparison to sedentary elderly subjects but similar to the youngs. Anabolic hormone levels did not differ between elderly groups and no clear correlation was found between hormones and cytokine levels. Conclusion highly conditioned elderly men seem to have relatively better preserved immune system than the sedentary elderly men. Long-term endurance training has the potential to decelerate the age-related decline in immune function but not the deterioration in endocrine function.

  4. [A study of factors influenced by self-efficacy for exercise among community-dwelling elderly men in urban areas].

    Takai, Itsushi

    2012-01-01

    It is important to promote self-efficacy for exercise for developing exercise habit. The purpose of this study was to investigate factors influenced by self-efficacy for exercise among community-dwelling elderly men in urban areas. The subjects were 69 elderly men (mean age of 74.2±2.0 SD) who had given approval for participation in the study. We examined the following factors: family situation, history of falls, frequency of going out, stage model of a change, self-efficacy for exercise, fall efficacy scale (FES), geriatric depression scale (GDS), subjective health, functional ability and motor function (5 m walking time, chair stand test-5times). Analysis of variance was used to assess a stage model of a change differences in self-efficacy for exercise and other measures. Correlation analysis and multiple regression analysis were performed to determine the relationships between self-efficacy for exercise and other measures. We found that self-efficacy of exercise, FES, GDS (pSelf-efficacy for exercise was found to correlate with psychological factors and functional ability (|r|=0.47-0.67). Multiple regression analysis revealed that the independent factors related to self-efficacy for exercise were FES and GDS. FES and GDS were found to be significant and independent predictors of self-efficacy for exercise in community-dwelling elderly men in urban areas. We should consider not only the approach based on behavioral science but also mental support for depression and fear of falling to promote exercise self-efficacy.

  5. Association of personality traits with oral health-related quality of life independently of objective oral health status: a study of community-dwelling elderly Japanese.

    Takeshita, Hajime; Ikebe, Kazunori; Kagawa, Ryosuke; Okada, Tadashi; Gondo, Yasuyuki; Nakagawa, Takeshi; Ishioka, Yoshiko; Inomata, Chisato; Tada, Sayaka; Matsuda, Ken-ichi; Kurushima, Yuko; Enoki, Kaori; Kamide, Kei; Masui, Yukie; Takahashi, Ryutaro; Arai, Yasumichi; Maeda, Yoshinobu

    2015-03-01

    Oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) is being increasingly used in epidemiologic studies of dentistry. However, patient-reported OHRQoL does not always coincide with clinical measures. Previous studies have shown a relationship between OHRQoL and personality, but did not concomitantly investigate oral function. We aimed to examine the association among personality traits, oral function, and OHRQoL using a large sample of community-dwelling Japanese elderly. The participants (n = 938; age, 69-71 years) were drawn from a complete enumeration of an urban area and a rural area of both the Tokyo metropolitan area and Hyogo Prefecture. The self-perceived impact of OHRQoL was measured using the Geriatric Oral Health Assessment Index (GOHAI). The oral status and socioeconomic characteristics were recorded in each participant, and personality traits (neuroticism, extraversion, openness to experience, agreeableness, and conscientiousness) were assessed with the NEO-five-factor inventory. Multiple linear regression analysis was performed to examine the relationships between OHRQoL and other factors, with p Personality traits are associated with OHRQoL independently of objective measures of oral health status in community-dwelling elderly Japanese. This study showed personality traits are associated with OHRQoL independently of dental status and oral function in old Japanese people. As elderly patients undergo increasingly complex dental treatments, there is a need to evaluate patient personality traits prior to dental treatment and predict patient expectations and responses to planned treatment. This is advantageous in determining the most appropriate therapy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. LOX-1 ligands containing apolipoprotein B and carotid intima-media thickness in middle-aged community-dwelling US Caucasian and Japanese men.

    Okamura, Tomonori; Sekikawa, Akira; Sawamura, Tatsuya; Kadowaki, Takashi; Barinas-Mitchell, Emma; Mackey, Rachel H; Kadota, Aya; Evans, Rhobert W; Edmundowicz, Daniel; Higashiyama, Aya; Nakamura, Yasuyuki; Abbott, Robert D; Miura, Katsuyuki; Fujiyoshi, Akira; Fujita, Yoshiko; Murakami, Yoshitaka; Miyamatsu, Naomi; Kakino, Akemi; Maegawa, Hiroshi; Murata, Kiyoshi; Horie, Minoru; Mitsunami, Kenichi; Kashiwagi, Atsunori; Kuller, Lewis H; Ueshima, Hirotsugu

    2013-07-01

    The serum level of LOX-1 ligand containing ApoB (LAB) may reflect atherogenicity better than LDL cholesterol (LDLC), total LDL particles and usual measurement of oxidized LDL. The association between LAB and intima-media thickness (IMT) of carotid artery was investigated by ultrasound in US and Japan men. Participants were 297 US Caucasian and 310 Japanese men, aged 40-49 years without past history of cardiovascular disease. Serum LAB levels were measured by ELISAs with recombinant LOX-1 and monoclonal anti-apolipoprotein B antibody. Serum LAB levels [median (interquartile range), μg/L] were 1321 (936, 1730) in US Caucasians and 940 (688, 1259) in Japanese. For Caucasian men, average IMT was higher in higher LAB quartile, which was 0.653, 0.667, 0.688, and 0.702 mm, respectively (p for trend = 0.02). Linear regression analysis showed serum LAB was significantly associated with IMT after adjustment for LDLC or total LDL particles in addition to other traditional or novel risk factors for atherosclerosis such as C-reactive protein. However, there was no significant relationship between LAB and IMT in Japanese men. Serum LAB, a new candidate biomarker for residual risk, was associated with an increased carotid IMT in US Caucasian men independently of various risk factors; however, ethnic difference should be clarified in the future. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Autopsy study of small cardiac scars in Japanese men who lived in Hiroshima, Japan and Honolulu, Hawaii

    Steer, A.; Lee, S.S.; Stemmermann, G.N.; Yamamoto, Tsutomu; Rhoads, G.G.

    1978-10-01

    Japanese men long resident in Honolulu, Hawaii have significantly more ischemic heart disease, but significantly fewer small cardiac scars than men in Hiroshima, Japan. These scars occur in three forms: 1) small scars in the mural myocardium which account for the difference in frequency of small lesions in the two cities, and are of uncertain etiology; 2) areas of diffuse fibrosis in the papillary muscles. These are equally frequent in the two cities, and are associated with advancing age and sclerosis of papillary muscle arteries; and 3) focal scars in the papillary muscles. These are more frequent in Honolulu than Hiroshima. They are healed infarcts due to ischemic heart disease and are associated with a severe degree of extramural coronary artery sclerosis. Small mural myocardial scars, when present, are usually found in multiple sites, and are not related to age at death or heart weight. They are more common in the presence of sclerosis of intramural small arteries, but this association does not explain their more frequent occurrence in Hiroshima. There is no evidence that they are related to A-bomb radiation exposure. (author)

  8. Alcohol consumption is associated with an increased risk of erosive esophagitis and Barrett's epithelium in Japanese men

    Goto Ayumu

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence regarding the association between alcohol consumption and the gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD spectrum has been conflicting. We examined the association between alcohol consumption and erosive esophagitis and Barrett's epithelium in Japanese men. Methods The study population comprised 463 men subjects who had undergone an upper endoscopy at the Gastroenterology Division of Yokohama City University Hospital between August 2005 and July 2006. The presence of erosive esophagitis and Barrett's epithelium was diagnosed based on the Los Angeles Classification and the Prague C and M Criteria, respectively. We divided the study population into four groups: never drinkers, light drinkers (less than 25.0 g of ethanol per day, moderate drinkers (25.0 to 50.0 g of ethanol per day, and heavy drinkers (more than 50.0 g of ethanol per day. A linear regression of the logistic regression analysis was used to analyze the dose-response trends. Results Compared with never drinkers, light drinkers (less than 25.0 g ethanol per day, moderate drinkers (25.0 to 50.0 g per day, and heavy drinkers (more than 50.0 g per day had ORs for erosive esophagitis of 1.110 (95% CI: 0.553 – 2.228, p = 0.7688, 1.880 (95% CI: 1.015 – 3.484, p = 0.0445 and 1.988 (95% CI: 1.120 – 3.534, p = 0.0190, respectively. These groups had ORs for Barrett's epithelium of 1.278 (95% CI: 0.752 – 2.170, p = 0.3643, 1.458 (95% CI: 0.873 – 2.433, p = 0.1500, and 1.912 (95% CI: 1.185 – 3.086, p = 0.0079, respectively. The odds ratios/grams (alcohol/day of dose response trends for erosive esophagitis and Barrett's epithelium were 1.015 (95% CI: 1.004–1.026, p = 0.0066 and 1.012 (95% CI: 1.003–1.021, p = 0.0079, respectively. Conclusion These findings suggest that alcohol consumption in Japanese men tends to be associated with an increased risk of erosive esophagitis and Barrett's epithelium.

  9. The relative and absolute reliability of the Functional Independence and Difficulty Scale in community-dwelling frail elderly Japanese people using long-term care insurance services.

    Saito, Takashi; Izawa, Kazuhiro P; Watanabe, Shuichiro

    2017-06-01

    The newly developed Functional Independence and Difficulty Scale is a tool for assessing the performance of basic activities of daily living in terms of both independence and difficulty. The reliability of this new scale has not been assessed. The aim of this study was to examine the relative reliability and absolute reliability of the newly developed scale in community-dwelling frail elderly people in Japan. Participants were 47 community-dwelling elderly subjects (22 for assessing test-retest reliability and 25 for assessing inter-rater reliability). As relative reliability indices, intra-class correlation coefficients were used. From an absolute reliability perspective, we conducted Bland-Altman analysis and calculated the limit of agreement or minimal detectable change to determine the acceptable range of error. Intra-class correlation coefficients for test-retest and inter-rater reliability were 0.90 (P reliability was -5.2 to 1.8, representing an increase of over six points for improvement and a decrease of over two points for decline of basic activities of daily living ability. The minimal detectable change for inter-rater reliability was 3.7, indicating that a three-point difference might be existed between difference raters. The results of this study demonstrated that the FIDS appeared to be a reliable instrument for use in Japanese community-dwelling frail elderly people. While further research using a large and more diverse sample of participants is needed, our findings support the use of FIDS in clinical practice or clinical research targeting frail elderly Japanese people.

  10. Cost-effectiveness of vitamin D and calcium supplementation in the treatment of elderly women and men with osteoporosis.

    Hiligsmann, Mickaël; Ben Sedrine, Wafa; Bruyère, Olivier; Evers, Silvia M; Rabenda, Véronique; Reginster, Jean-Yves

    2015-02-01

    The supplementation with vitamin D and calcium has been recommended for elderly, specifically those with increased risk of fractures older than 65 years. This study aims to assess the cost-effectiveness of vitamin D and calcium supplementation in elderly women and men with osteoporosis and therefore to assess if this recommendation is justified in terms of cost-effectiveness. A validated model for economic evaluations in osteoporosis was used to estimate the cost per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) gained of vitamin D/calcium supplementation compared with no treatment. The model was populated with cost and epidemiological data from a Belgian health-care perspective. Analyses were conducted in women and men with a diagnosis of osteoporosis (i.e. bone mineral density T-score ≤-2.5). A literature search was conducted to describe the efficacy of vitamin D and calcium in terms of fracture risk reduction. The cost per QALY gained of vitamin D/calcium supplementation was estimated at €40 578 and €23 477 in women and men aged 60 years, respectively. These values decreased to €7912 and €10 250 at the age of 70 years and vitamin D and calcium supplementation was cost-saving at the age of 80 years, meaning that treatment cost was less than the costs of treating osteoporotic fractures of the no-treatment group. This study suggests that vitamin D and calcium supplementation is cost-effective for women and men with osteoporosis aged over 60 years. From an economic perspective, vitamin D and calcium should therefore be administrated in these populations including those also taking other osteoporotic treatments. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  11. The relationship between serum IGF-1, handgrip strength, physical performance and falls in elderly men and women.

    Van Nieuwpoort, Caroline; Vlot, Mariska; Schaap, Laura; Lips, Paul; Drent, Madeleine

    2018-05-22

    Human aging is accompanied by a decrease in growth hormone secretion and serum IGF-1 levels. Also, loss of muscle mass, strength and impairment of physical performance, ending in a state of frailty, are seen in elderly. We aimed to investigate whether handgrip strength, physical performance and recurrent falls are related to serum IGF-1 levels in community dwelling elderly. Observational cohort study (cross-sectional and prospective). We studied the association between IGF-1 and handgrip strength, physical performance and falls in participants of the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam. 1292 participants were included (633 men, 659 women). Serum IGF-1 levels were divided into quartiles (IGF-1-Q1 to IGF-1-Q4). Data on falls were collected prospectively for a period of three years. All analyses were stratified for age and physical activity and adjusted for relevant confounders. Men with a low physical activity score in IGF-1-Q1 and IGF-1-Q2 of the younger age group had a lower handgrip strength compared to IGF-1-Q4. In younger more active males in IGF-1-Q2 physical performance was worse. Recurrent fallers were less prevalent in older, low active males with low IGF-1 levels. In females, recurrent fallers were more prevalent in older, more active females in IGF-1-Q2. IGF-1 quartile may predict changes in handgrip strength and physical performance in men and women. Our results indicate that lower IGF-1 levels are associated with lower handgrip strength and worse physical performance, but less recurrent fallers especially in men. Associations were often more robust in IGF-1-Q2. Future studies on this topic are desirable.

  12. The Diuretic Action of Weak and Strong Alcoholic Beverages in Elderly Men: A Randomized Diet-Controlled Crossover Trial.

    Polhuis, Kristel C M M; Wijnen, Annemarthe H C; Sierksma, Aafje; Calame, Wim; Tieland, Michael

    2017-06-28

    With ageing, there is a greater risk of dehydration. This study investigated the diuretic effect of alcoholic beverages varying in alcohol concentration in elderly men. Three alcoholic beverages (beer (AB), wine (AW), and spirits (S)) and their non-alcoholic counterparts (non-alcoholic beer (NAB), non-alcoholic wine (NAW), and water (W)) were tested in a diet-controlled randomized crossover trial. For the alcoholic beverages, alcohol intake equaled a moderate amount of 30 g. An equal volume of beverage was given for the non-alcoholic counterpart. After consumption, the urine output was collected every hour for 4 h and the total 24 h urine output was measured. AW and S resulted in a higher cumulative urine output compared to NAW and W during the first 4 h (effect size: 0.25 mL p 0.40, p > 0.10). AB and NAB did not differ at any time point (effect size: -0.02 mL p > 0.70). For urine osmolality, and the sodium and potassium concentration, the findings were in line. In conclusion, only moderate amounts of stronger alcoholic beverages, such as wine and spirits, resulted in a short and small diuretic effect in elderly men.

  13. Increase in tendon protein synthesis in response to insulin-like growth factor-I is preserved in elderly men

    Nielsen, Rie Harboe; Holm, Lars; Malmgaard-Clausen, Nikolaj Mølkjær

    2014-01-01

    the in vivo IGF-I stimulation of tendon protein synthesis in elderly compared with young men. We injected IGF-I in the patellar tendons of young (n = 11, 20-30 yr of age) and old (n = 11, 66-75 yr of age) men, and the acute fractional synthesis rate (FSR) of tendon protein was measured with the stable isotope.......01). This increase in protein synthesis was seen in both young and old men, with no differences between age groups. The old group had markedly lower serum IGF-I levels compared with young (165 ± 17 vs. 281 ± 27 ng/ml, P protein synthesis in both young and old men...... technique and compared with the contralateral side (injected with saline as control). We found that tendons injected with IGF-I had significantly higher protein FSR compared with controls (old group: 0.018 ± 0.015 vs. 0.008 ± 0.008, young group: 0.016 ± 0.009 vs. 0.009 ± 0.006%/h, mean ± SE, P

  14. Physical activity is inversely associated with multimorbidity in elderly men: results from the KORA-Age Augsburg Study.

    Autenrieth, Christine S; Kirchberger, Inge; Heier, Margit; Zimmermann, Anja-Kerstin; Peters, Annette; Döring, Angela; Thorand, Barbara

    2013-07-01

    Physical activity is suggested to play a key role in the prevention of several chronic diseases. However, data on the association between physical activity and multimorbidity are lacking. Using data from 1007 men and women aged 65-94 years who participated in the population-based KORA (Cooperative Health Research in the Region of Augsburg)-Age project conducted in Augsburg/Germany and two adjacent counties in 2008/09, 13 chronic conditions were identified, and physical activity scores were calculated based on the self-reported physical activity scale for the elderly (PASE). Multivariable sex-specific logistic regression was applied to determine the association of the continuous physical activity score with multimorbidity (≥ 2 out of 13 diseases). Physical activity (mean PASE score±SD) was higher in men (125.1 ± 59.2) than in women (112.2 ± 49.2). Among men, the odds ratio (OR) for multimorbidity was 0.73 (95% CI: 0.60-0.90) for a 1 standard deviation increase of the PASE score. No significant results could be observed for women (OR: 1.05; 95% CI: 0.83-1.33). We demonstrated an inverse association between physical activity and multimorbidity among men. Further prospective studies have to confirm the temporality of effects. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Determinants of platelet aggregation in 50-70-year-old men from three Japanese communities.

    Imano, Hironori; Iso, Hiroyasu; Sato, Shinichi; Kitamura, Akihiko; Okamura, Tomonori; Tanigawa, Takeshi; Ohira, Tetsuya; Kudo, Minako; Naito, Yoshihiko; Iida, Minoru; Shimamoto, Takashi

    2002-12-01

    To investigate the association of lifestyle and constitutional variables with platelet aggregation, we examined the platelet aggregation, serum fatty acid composition, alcohol intake, smoking, and dietary intake of seafood and soybean estimated by a 1-week dietary record in 448 males aged 50-70 in three rural Japanese communities: Ikawa, Akita prefecture (northeast coast), Noichi, Kochi prefecture (southwest coast), and Kyowa, Ibaraki prefecture (central inland). Platelet aggregatory threshold index (PATI) was used to determine the minimum concentration of adenosine 5'-diphosphate (ADP) that caused a non-reversible aggregation of platelets. Intake of seafood and n3-polyunsaturated fatty acid and ingestion of ethanol were higher in the northeast coastal community than in the other two communities. Mean platelet and white blood cell counts were lower in northeast coastal community than in the other two communities. The geometric mean PATI was higher (i.e. platelet aggregation was lower) in the northeast coastal community than the other two communities. Within the entire sample, platelet aggregation correlated inversely with serum level of n3-polyunsaturated fatty acids and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, an index of alcohol consumption, and positively with platelet and white blood cell counts. Platelet aggregation tended to correlate positively with serum arachidonic acid. There was no correlation between smoking and platelet aggregation. Our results suggest that seafood intake and moderate alcohol consumption reduce platelet aggregation.

  16. [Elder].

    Arroyo, Pedro; Gutiérrez-Robledo, Luis Miguel

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this review is to present scientific evidence on the biological, dietary, cultural and economic advantages of cow´s milk and dairy products intake in adults, with emphasis on the elderly. The role of milk and dairy products as part of the regular diet, as well as their contribution to a healthy diet for the aged population is described. The updated scientific references on the importance of milk and dairy products on the dietary management of the most prevalent diseases of the eldery -among these energy-protein malnutrition, sarcopenia, obesity, sarcopenic obesity, osteoporosis, diabetes and cardiovascular diseases- are presented.

  17. Associations of gender role attitudes with fertility intentions: A Japanese population-based study on single men and women of reproductive ages.

    Kato, Tsuguhiko

    2018-06-01

    Japan has been experiencing low fertility for many years. In this study, I investigated the relationship between gender role attitudes and fertility intentions among Japanese single men and women of reproductive ages. Utilizing the Longitudinal Survey of Adults in the 21st Century data, 8944 men and 7924 women aged 20-34 years with single, childless status were analyzed. Gender role attitudes were assessed by participants' preferences for the division of labor between a man and a woman: income earning, housework, and childcare. Those who preferred men to earn income and women to perform housework and childcare were considered to have traditional attitudes, whereas those who preferred women and men to share these responsibilities were considered to have egalitarian attitudes. Outcomes were fertility intentions measured by a desire to have children and ideal number of children. Logistic regression analyses were conducted. Egalitarian attitudes about income earning and housework were associated with low fertility intentions (a lesser desire for children) compared to traditional attitudes: adjusted odds ratios were 1.56 [1.36, 1.80] for men and 1.47 [1.26, 1.72] for women with income earning. Men's preference for sharing childcare responsibility was associated with high fertility intentions. Japanese society has not shifted away from the traditional division of labor despite the increase in female labor force participation. Low fertility intentions among Japanese men and women with egalitarian attitudes suggest that institutional support for balancing work and family may be necessary to improve the low fertility trend. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Increasing in Eating Disorders and Their Role in Social-Physical Anxiety in Active Elderly Men

    M Homayounnia Firoozjah

    2015-09-01

    Result: Results showed a significant and positive relationship between eating disorders and social-physical anxiety (p=0/001. Symptoms of anorexia nervosa and anorexia are strongest variables in the prediction of social anxiety symptoms limbs (p=0/001. Compared with bulimia nervosa, component of anorexia nervosa had a greater role in eating disorders in elderlies. Conclusions: This research suggests that by regularly adjusting their eating habits and physical activity in elderlies, their attitudes toward participation in the community can positively change. So that, by adequate and regular exercise, they could have a positive view of their body.

  19. Providing housing and care to elderly homeless men and women in Australia.

    Lipmann, Bryan

    2003-01-01

    People who are unemployed and who lack the resources to buy adequate food, shelter, or basic health care services face an endless struggle to survive. It is frequently a degrading and humiliating experience. The elderly homeless, who are often frail and sick, are particularly disadvantaged in this struggle. Yet resources are often available to welfare providers to care for the aged homeless. All that is needed is a willingness for providers and government agencies to acknowledge the existence of homelessness among the elderly and be prepared to alleviate the problem.

  20. Greater Fall Risk in Elderly Women Than in Men Is Associated With Increased Gait Variability During Multitasking.

    Johansson, Jonas; Nordström, Anna; Nordström, Peter

    2016-06-01

    As 90% of fractures are caused by falls, and as fractures are more common in elderly women than in elderly men, a better understanding of potential sex differences in fall rates and underlying mechanisms is needed. The purpose of this study was to determine whether women are more prone than men to falling, and to evaluate whether the risk of falling is associated with variations in gait patterns. The cohort for this prospective observational study consisted of 1390 community-dwelling men and women aged 70 years, examined in a health survey between July 2012 and November 2014. Gait patterns were measured using a computerized walkway system during normal-speed, fast-speed, and dual-task trials. Triaxial accelerometers were used to collect objective data on physical activity, and self-reported fall data were collected by telephone 6 and 12 months after examination. Incident low-energy falls were defined as unexpected events in which participants came to rest on the ground. During the follow-up period, 148 study participants (88 women, 60 men; P = .01) reported falls. After adjusting for multiple confounders, including objective measures of physical activity, socioeconomic factors, cardiovascular disease, and cognitive function, the odds ratio for falling in women was 1.49 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.02-2.19). Variations in gait pattern were significantly (20%-40%) increased in fallers compared with nonfallers during the dual-task trial for step width, step length, stride length, step time, stance time, stride velocity, and single support time (all P women showed 15% to 35% increased variability in all of these gait parameters during the dual-task trial compared with men (all P women were at greater risk of falls compared with their male counterparts. This increased risk was associated with increased variation in gait pattern during dual-task activities, and may contribute to women's greater fracture risk compared with men. Copyright © 2016 AMDA – The

  1. Alcohol-independent beneficial cardiometabolic profile of individuals with hyper-HDL cholesterolemia in Japanese men and women.

    Wakabayashi, Ichiro; Daimon, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    There is limited information on characterization of individuals with hyper-high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterolemia. The purpose of this study was to investigate the cardiometabolic profile of individuals with hyper-HDL cholesterolemia in comparison with the profile of individuals with normo-HDL cholesterolemia. The subjects were Japanese men and women who had hyper-HDL cholesterolemia (≥100 mg/dL) and their control subjects who had normal HDL cholesterol levels (≥40 and hyper- and normo-HDL cholesterolemic groups. Both in men and women, body mass index, waist-to-height ratio, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and hemoglobin A1c were significantly lower in subjects with hyper-HDL cholesterolemia than in subjects with normo-HDL cholesterolemia, whereas systolic and diastolic blood pressure levels were not significantly different between the 2 groups. In generalized estimating equation with adjustment for smoking and regular exercise, odds ratios of the hyper- vs normo-HDL cholesterolemic groups were significantly lower than the reference level of 1.00 for high body mass index, high waist-to-height ratio, hypertriglyceridemia, hyper-low-density lipoprotein cholesterolemia, high lipid accumulation product, and metabolic syndrome. The previously mentioned results were obtained both in age-matched analysis and in age- and alcohol intake-matched analysis, although the percentage of regular drinkers was significantly higher in the hyper-HDL cholesterolemic group than in the age-matched control group. Hyper-HDL cholesterolemia was inversely associated with obesity, dyslipidemia, and metabolic syndrome in the analysis using alcohol intake-matched subject groups. Therefore, the association of hyper-HDL cholesterolemia with lower cardiometabolic risk is thought to be independent of habitual alcohol drinking. Copyright © 2015 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Associations of Job Stress Indicators with Oxidative Biomarkers in Japanese Men and Women

    Jiro Takaki

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Some researchers have suggested that oxidative damage may be one of the mechanisms linking job stress with coronary heart disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between job stress indicators and oxidative biomarkers. The study included 567 subjects (272 men, 295 women who answered questionnaires related to their work and underwent a medical examination. Job stress evaluated using the demands-control-support model was measured using the Job Content Questionnaire. Effort-reward imbalance was measured using the Effort-Reward Imbalance Questionnaire. Urinary hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG were measured by the modified ferrous ion oxidation xylenol orange version-1 method and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively. In men, the changes in the odds ratios for high urinary H2O2 associated with a 1-standard-deviation (SD increase in worksite social support were 0.69 (95% confidence interval (CI 0.53, 0.91 univariately and 0.68 (95%CI 0.51, 0.90 after adjustment for covariates. The change in the odds ratio for high urinary H2O2 associated with a 1-SD increase in effort-reward ratio was 1.35 (95% CI 1.03, 1.78 after adjustment for covariates. In women, there were no significant associations of the two job stress indicators with urinary H2O2 and 8-OHdG levels after adjustment for covariates (p > 0.05.

  3. Significance of common variants on human chromosome 8q24 in relation to the risk of prostate cancer in native Japanese men

    Hosoi Takayuki

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Common variants on human chromosome 8q24, rs1447295 (C/A and rs6983267 (T/G, have been recently linked to the prevalence of prostate cancer in European and American populations. Here, we evaluated whether the single-nucleotide polymorphisms rs1447295 and rs6983267 were associated with the risk of sporadic prostate cancer as well as latent prostate cancer in a native Japanese population. Results We analyzed genomic DNA samples from 391 sporadic prostate cancer patients, 323 controls who had died from causes unrelated to cancer and 112 Japanese men who were diagnosed as having latent prostate cancer based on autopsy results. The polymorphisms were determined by allelic discrimination using a fluorescent-based TaqMan assay. The A allele of rs1447295 was significantly associated with the risk of sporadic prostate cancer (p = 0.04; age-adjusted OR, 1.34, while the G allele of rs6983267 showed a trend towards being a high-risk allele (p = 0.06; age-adjusted OR, 1.27. No significant difference between these two polymorphisms and the risk of latent prostate cancer was observed in the present Japanese population. Conclusion Known variants on human chromosome 8q24 may be risk factors for sporadic prostate cancer in native Japanese men.

  4. Fasting and non-fasting triglycerides and risk of ischemic cardiovascular disease in Japanese men and women: the Circulatory Risk in Communities Study (CIRCS).

    Iso, Hiroyasu; Imano, Hironori; Yamagishi, Kazumasa; Ohira, Tetsuya; Cui, Renzhe; Noda, Hiroyuki; Sato, Shinichi; Kiyama, Masahiko; Okada, Takeo; Hitsumoto, Shinichi; Tanigawa, Takeshi; Kitamura, Akihiko

    2014-11-01

    Non-fasting triglycerides were reported to have a greater impact on risk of ischemic cardiovascular events than fasting triglycerides. However, evidence from Asia, where the prevalence of dyslipidemia is generally lower, has been limited. We used 1975-1986 baseline surveys to investigate cohort data of 10,659 (4264 men and 6395 women) residents aged 40-69 years, initially free from ischemic heart disease and stroke, in four Japanese communities. Serum triglyceride concentrations at baseline were obtained for 2424 fasting (≥8 h after meal) and 8235 non-fasting (triglycerides were 1.71 (1.14-2.59), P for trend = 0.013, for fasting participants and 1.60 (1.25-2.05), P for trend triglycerides are predictive of risk of ischemic cardiovascular disease for Japanese men, as are non-fasting triglycerides for women. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  5. The relationship between senses of humor and Mindfulness with Anxiety of death in elderly men refer to Jahandidegan center of seven region of Municipality in Tehran city

    Elahe Hosseinzadeh

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective: Ageing period is a time to encounter the facts of life like the death. The acceptance of the reality for all of elders is not easy, but some of research evidences indicated that the two psychological elements including; the sense of humor and mindfulness can be reducing the anxiety of death. The main aim of this study was to assess the relationship between senses of humor and mindfulness with anxiety of death in elderly men. Methods: The current study is descriptive with Correlation .The statistical research community included; all elderly men of District 7 and the Jahandidegan (Ageing centers of Tehran Municipality in 1394-95. The sample statistical of present research of 100 people between 65 to 75 years old of elderly men by “Available sampling method”. Data collection tools include mental state examination (MMSE, Screening subjects and Sense of Humor Questionnaire (SHQ, Mindfulness questionnaire and Templar Death Anxiety Inventory (DAS. In order to analyze data from tables’ descriptive statistics, Pearson correlation and stepwise regression were used. Results: The results showed that between senses of humor and mindfulness there is a significant negative relationship with death anxiety. The results show that the total variable used to predict 28% of the variance in death anxiety. Humor also has higher effective rate on death anxiety of in elderly men prediction. Conclusion: The findings of present study revealed that the psychological components like; sense of humor and mindfulness can be reduce the anxiety of death in male elderlies. Therefore, elderly counselors and clinicians could be used these two elements for reduction most of anxiety including; the death.  Paper Type: Research Article

  6. Vitamin D sufficiency is associated with low incidence of limb and vertebral fractures in community-dwelling elderly Japanese women: the Muramatsu Study.

    Nakamura, K; Saito, T; Oyama, M; Oshiki, R; Kobayashi, R; Nishiwaki, T; Nashimoto, M; Tsuchiya, Y

    2011-01-01

    Data on the association between vitamin D status and osteoporotic fracture in Asians are sparse. We conducted a 6-year cohort study of 773 community-dwelling elderly Japanese women and found that serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) ≥ 71 nmol/L was associated with a reduced risk of osteoporotic limb and vertebral fractures. Data on the association between vitamin D status and osteoporotic fracture in Asians are sparse. This study aimed to clarify the association between vitamin D and other markers of nutritional status with the incidence of fracture in elderly Japanese women. We conducted a cohort study with a 6-year follow-up of 773 community-dwelling women aged 69 years and older. The 6-year follow-up ended in 2009. We assessed serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D, undercarboxylated osteocalcin (an index of vitamin K status), and calcium intake. The primary outcome was incident limb and vertebral fractures. Covariates were forearm bone mineral density (BMD), age, body mass index, osteoporosis treatment, and physical activity. The mean serum 25(OH)D concentration was 60.0 nmol/L. Thirty-seven limb fractures and 14 vertebral fractures occurred in 4,392 person-years. Lower forearm BMD was significantly associated with increased incident fracture (P = 0.0242). The adjusted hazard ratios (HR) of fracture for the first quartile (fracture. Sufficient vitamin D status, i.e., serum 25(OH)D ≥ 71 nmol/L, is associated with low limb and vertebral fracture risk in community-dwelling elderly women.

  7. Measurement of special access to home visit nursing services among Japanese disabled elderly people: using GIS and claim data.

    Naruse, Takashi; Matsumoto, Hiroshige; Fujisaki-Sakai, Mahiro; Nagata, Satoko

    2017-05-30

    Home care service demands are increasing in Japan; this necessitates improved service allocation. This study examined the relationship between home visit nursing (HVN) service use and the proportion of elderly people living within 10 min' travel of HVN agencies. The population of elderly people living within reach of HVN agencies for each of 17 municipalities in one low-density prefecture was calculated using public data and geographic information systems. Multilevel logistic analysis for 2641 elderly people was conducted using medical and long-term care insurance claims data from October 2010 to examine the association between the proportion of elderly people reachable by HVNs and service usage in 13 municipalities. Municipality variables included HVN agency allocation appropriateness. Individual variables included HVN usage and demographic variables. The reachable proportion of the elderly population ranged from 0.0 to 90.2% in the examined municipalities. The reachable proportion of the elderly population was significantly positively correlated with HVN use (odds ratio: 1.938; confidence interval: 1.265-2.967). Residents living in municipalities with a lower reachable proportion of the elderly population are less likely to use HVN services. Public health interventions should increase the reachable proportion of the elderly population in order to improve HVN service use.

  8. A Radiographic Study on the Associations of Age and Prevalence of Vertebral Fractures with Abdominal Aortic Calcification in Japanese Postmenopausal Women and Men

    Jun Iwamoto

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to determine the associations of age and history of non- and low-traumatic fractures with the severity of abdominal aortic calcification in Japanese postmenopausal women and men. Four hundred and one Japanese persons (24 men and 377 postmenopausal women, mean age: 73.8 years for whom thoracic and lumbar spine radiographs had been obtained to evaluate their posture prior to patient participation in a fall-prevention exercise program were enrolled. The associations of sex, age, history of hip fracture, prevalence of vertebral fracture, and spondylosis grade (the Nathan degree with the severity of abdominal aortic calcification (length of calcification, as evaluated according to the number of vertebral bodies were analyzed. Nine subjects (2.2% had a history of hip fracture, and 221 (55.1% had at least one prevalent vertebral fracture. Two hundred and sixty-seven subjects (66.6% had first-degree spondylosis. Age and the number of prevalent vertebral fractures, but not sex, history of hip fracture, or spondylosis grade, were significantly associated with the severity of abdominal aortic calcification. The present study confirmed that age and the number of vertebral fractures were associated with the severity of abdominal aortic calcification in Japanese postmenopausal women and men.

  9. Attempted suicide, psychological health and exposure to harassment among Japanese homosexual, bisexual or other men questioning their sexual orientation recruited via the internet.

    Hidaka, Y; Operario, D

    2006-11-01

    To investigate the rates of attempted suicide and its association with psychological distress, experiences of bullying and verbal harassment, and demographic characteristics among Japanese homosexual, bisexual or other men questioning their sexual orientation. A cross-sectional design using Japanese participants recruited through the internet. Of the 1025 respondents, 154 (15%) of the men reported a history of attempted suicide, 716 (70%) showed high levels of anxiety and 133 (13%) showed high levels of depression. 851 (83%) experienced school bullying and 615 (60%) were verbally harassed because of being perceived by others as homosexual. Independent correlates of attempted suicide were psychological distress, history of being verbally harassed, history of sex with a woman, history of meeting a male through the internet, disclosing sexual orientation to six or more friends and not having a university degree. Mental health services and prevention programmes are needed to deal with the psychological consequences of social stigma for Japanese men who are homosexual, bisexual or questioning their sexual orientation.

  10. Attempted suicide, psychological health and exposure to harassment among Japanese homosexual, bisexual or other men questioning their sexual orientation recruited via the internet

    Hidaka, Y; Operario, D

    2006-01-01

    Objective To investigate the rates of attempted suicide and its association with psychological distress, experiences of bullying and verbal harassment, and demographic characteristics among Japanese homosexual, bisexual or other men questioning their sexual orientation. Design A cross‐sectional design using Japanese participants recruited through the internet. Results Of the 1025 respondents, 154 (15%) of the men reported a history of attempted suicide, 716 (70%) showed high levels of anxiety and 133 (13%) showed high levels of depression. 851 (83%) experienced school bullying and 615 (60%) were verbally harassed because of being perceived by others as homosexual. Independent correlates of attempted suicide were psychological distress, history of being verbally harassed, history of sex with a woman, history of meeting a male through the internet, disclosing sexual orientation to six or more friends and not having a university degree. Conclusions Mental health services and prevention programmes are needed to deal with the psychological consequences of social stigma for Japanese men who are homosexual, bisexual or questioning their sexual orientation. PMID:17053285

  11. Effects of exercise training on regulation of skeletal muscle glucose metabolism in elderly men

    Biensø, Rasmus Sjørup; Olesen, Jesper; Gliemann, Lasse

    2015-01-01

    glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and a muscle biopsy was obtained from the vastus lateralis before and 45 minutes into the OGTT. Blood samples were collected before and up to 120 minutes after glucose intake. RESULTS: Exercise training increased Hexokinase II, GLUT4, Akt2, glycogen synthase (GS), pyruvate......) phosphorylation was increased after exercise training. In the trained state, the PDHa activity was reduced following glucose intake and without changes in phosphorylation level of PDH-E1α. CONCLUSIONS: The present results suggest that exercise training improves glucose regulation in elderly subjects by enhancing......BACKGROUND: The aim was to investigate the molecular mechanisms behind exercise training-induced improvements in glucose regulation in aged subjects. METHODS: Twelve elderly male subjects completed 8 weeks of exercise training. Before and after the training period, the subjects completed an oral...

  12. Men

    ... A A A Listen En Español Men Historically, men have not been comfortable discussing issues about their health, particularly conditions like diabetes, depression or sexual dysfunction. This has resulted in shorter ...

  13. Skeletal muscle adaptation to immobilization and subsequent retraining in elderly men

    Dideriksen, K; Boesen, A P; Kristiansen, J F

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may enhance resistance training induced gain in skeletal muscle mass and strength, but it is unknown if NSAIDs affects muscle loss during periods of inactivity in elderly individuals. Thus, we studied the influence of NSAID treatment on h...... weeks of retraining and whey protein supplementation. After 6weeks of retraining and whey protein supplementation, muscle mass and strength increased beyond baseline levels, and NSAID treatment did not significantly influence this in elderly.......BACKGROUND: Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may enhance resistance training induced gain in skeletal muscle mass and strength, but it is unknown if NSAIDs affects muscle loss during periods of inactivity in elderly individuals. Thus, we studied the influence of NSAID treatment...... isolate was ingested (2×20g/d) throughout the whole study period. Plasma inflammatory markers, quadriceps muscle mass and strength, and muscle gene expression were investigated. RESULTS: Muscle mass and strength decreased after 2weeks of immobilization (P

  14. Termination of dobutamine infusion causes transient rebound left heart diastolic dysfunction in healthy elderly women but not in men

    Ahtarovski, Kiril A; Iversen, Kasper K; Lønborg, Jacob T

    2013-01-01

    Men and women are known to react differently to stress. Thus, stress cardiomyopathy almost solely strikes women. Stress cardiomyopathy is suggested to relate to sex differences in catecholamine reaction. Left heart function during dobutamine stress is well described, but sex-specific inotropic...... and lusitropic response to abrupt termination of dobutamine stress is not. We aimed to investigate sex differences in left ventricular (LV) and atrial (LA) function during and after dobutamine stress. We enrolled 20 healthy elderly subjects (60-70 yr, 10 females) and measured their LV and LA volumes throughout......, and conduit volumes. Sex differences were not observed at rest or during dobutamine stress. Compared with prestress values, at T15 a rebound decrease in LV peak filling rate was observed in women (-22 ± 3%, P...

  15. Effect of 8-Week of Selected Aerobic Exercise on Static and Dynamic Balance in Healthy Elderly Inactive Men

    Masoud Mirmoezzi

    2016-04-01

    Conclusion: Our results showed that regular aerobic exercise improves dynamic balance in elderly men. We also found that jogging and walking improved dynamic balance. The improvement in balance may be due to the increase in nervous compatibility (due to exercise; increase in fitness, strength, and motion domain; improvement in aerobic status, response time and mental status; improvement in neuromuscular control, including a decrease in changing movement units; and improvement in simultaneous movement units. Furthermore, there is a positive relationship between body composition and movement with balance. Therefore, regular aerobic activities are recommended as a suitable training method for improving balance.

  16. Reduction of free fatty acids by acipimox enhances the growth hormone (GH) responses to GH-releasing peptide 2 in elderly men

    Smid, HEC; de Vries, WR; Niesink, M; Bolscher, E; Waasdorp, EJ; Dieguez, C; Casanueva, FF; Koppeschaar, HPF

    2000-01-01

    GH release is increased by reducing circulating free fatty acids (FFAs). Aging is associated with decreased plasma GH concentrations. We evaluated GH releasing capacity in nine healthy elderly men after administration of GH-releasing peptide 2 (GHRP-2), with or without pretreatment with the

  17. Interrelationships of spontaneous growth hormone axis activity, body fat, and serum lipids in healthy elderly women and men.

    O'Connor, K G; Harman, S M; Stevens, T E; Jayme, J J; Bellantoni, M F; Busby-Whitehead, M J; Christmas, C; Münzer, T; Tobin, J D; Roy, T A; Cottrell, E; St Clair, C; Pabst, K M; Blackman, M R

    1999-11-01

    Aging is associated with decreased growth hormone (GH) secretion and plasma insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) levels, increased total and abdominal fat, total and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, and triglycerides, and reduced high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol. Similar changes in lipids and body composition occur in nonelderly GH-deficient adults and are reversed with GH administration. To examine whether GH/IGF-I axis function in the elderly is related to the lipid profile independently of body fat, we evaluated GH secretion, serum IGF-I and IGF binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) levels, adiposity via the body mass index (BMI), waist to hip ratio (WHR), dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and circulating lipids in 101 healthy subjects older than 65 years. Integrated nocturnal GH secretion (log IAUPGH) was inversely related (P HDL cholesterol (P HDL cholesterol was inversely related to the WHR (P body fat, to be an independent determinant of total (P HDL cholesterol (P HDL in women (P body fat or lipid measures, except for a positive correlation of IGF-I with triglycerides in men. Thus, endogenous nocturnal GH secretion predicts total, LDL, and HDL cholesterol levels independently of total or abdominal fat, suggesting that it is an independent cardiometabolic risk factor in healthy elderly people.

  18. Dietary pattern and mortality in Japanese elderly patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: does a vegetable- and fish-rich diet improve mortality? An explanatory study.

    Iimuro, Satoshi; Yoshimura, Yukio; Umegaki, Hiroyuki; Sakurai, Takashi; Araki, Atsushi; Ohashi, Yasuo; Iijima, Katsuya; Ito, Hideki

    2012-04-01

    To assess the effect of dietary patterns on all deaths and diabetes-related deaths in the Japanese Elderly Diabetes Intervention Trial (J-EDIT). We investigated relationships between that of overall mortality and dietary pattern, and diabetes-related deaths and dietary pattern as observed among 912 registered cases of the J-EDIT study, which is a prospective follow-up study of elderly Japanese type 2 diabetic patients. Factor analysis with the factor number 3 led to deriving three dietary patterns (healthy type, snack type and greasy type). The relationship between these patterns and overall mortality or diabetes-related death was investigated. Although not statistically significant, there was a lower tendency of overall mortality and diabetes-related deaths for the healthy type dietary pattern. When the tendencies of overall mortality were analyzed for "young-old," who are younger than 75 years-of age, and "old-old" of over 75 years-of-age, the mortality rate for the greasy type and healthy type dietary patterns were nearly the same and higher than the snack type dietary pattern in young-old. In contrast, in old-old, a higher mortality rate was reported for the greasy type dietary pattern and a lower mortality rate was reported for the healthy type dietary pattern. The hazard ratio by Cox regression analysis for greasy type to healthy type in old-old was 3.03 (P = 0.04, CI 1.07-8.57). Furthermore, in old-old, as vegetable consumption increased, the lower the tendency foroverall mortality, and the more fish that was consumed, the overall mortality significantly decreased (P = 0.020) in the tertile. The greasy type dietary pattern with an increased amount of sugar, fat and meat led to poor life prognosis for elderly Japanese type 2 diabetic patients. The healthy type dietary pattern rich in vegetable and fish, which is similar to the Mediterranean diet and Dietary Approach to Stop Hypertension diet, was suggested to improve life prognosis. © 2012 Japan Geriatrics

  19. Energy intake compensation after 3 weeks of restricted energy intake in young and elderly men.

    Winkels, Renate M; Jolink-Stoppelenburg, Angelique; de Graaf, Kees; Siebelink, Els; Mars, Monica; de Groot, Lisette

    2011-05-01

    Decreased energy intake in older persons poses these people at risk of progressive weight loss. It may result from a failure to regulate energy intake and expenditure after periods of underfeeding. The objective of this study was to investigate if a period of underfeeding differentially influences energy intake of older compared with young men and, additionally, to study potential underlying mechanisms, namely changes in gastric emptying rate and cholecystokinin (CCK) levels in blood. Dietary intervention of 3 phases. After a phase of energy balance, we fed participants in phase 2 by a mean of 70% of their needs for 21 days. During phase 3, we assessed ad libitum energy intake of the participants during 9 days. At the end of phases 1 and 2, we assessed appetite, gastric emptying, and CCK levels in blood in response to a test meal. Fifteen young (age 24 years [range 20-34], body mass index 23.0 kg/m(2) ± 2.3) and 17 older (age 68 years [64-85], body mass index 24.5 kg/m(2) ± 1.9) men participated in this study. During energy balance, mean energy intake of young men (14.3 ± 2.3 MJ/day) was significantly higher than that of older men (11.3 ± 1.8 MJ/day, P men and to 14.4 ± 3.2 MJ/day in older men. Ad lib energy intake after underfeeding did not differ between young and older men (analysis of covariance, with energy intake during phase 1 as covariate, P = .99). There were no differential changes in body weight, body composition, resting energy expenditure, gastric emptying rate, CCK-8 levels, and appetite between young and older men during the study. Our results do not indicate that older men have an impaired ability to control energy intake after a period of underfeeding compared with younger men. NCT00561145. Copyright © 2011 American Medical Directors Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Prospective study of ready-to-eat breakfast cereal consumption and cognitive decline among elderly men and women.

    Wengreen, H; Nelson, C; Munger, R G; Corcoran, C

    2011-03-01

    To examine associations between frequency of ready-to-eat-cereal (RTEC) consumption and cognitive function among elderly men and women of the Cache County Study on Memory Health and Aging in Utah. A population-based prospective cohort study established in Cache County, Utah in 1995. 3831 men and women > 65 years of age who were living in Cache County, Utah in 1995. Diet was assessed using a 142-item food frequency questionnaire at baseline. Cognitive function was assessed using an adapted version of the Modified Mini-Mental State examination (3MS) at baseline and three subsequent interviews over 11 years. RTEC consumption was defined as daily, weekly, or infrequent use. In multivariable models, more frequent RTEC consumption was not associated with a cognitive benefit. Those consuming RTEC weekly but less than daily scored higher on their baseline 3MS than did those consuming RTEC more or less frequently (91.7, 90.6, 90.6, respectively; p-value < 0.001). This association was maintained across 11 years of observation such that those consuming RTEC weekly but less than daily declined on average 3.96 points compared to an average 5.13 and 4.57 point decline for those consuming cereal more or less frequently (p-value = 0.0009). Those consuming RTEC at least daily had poorer cognitive performance at baseline and over 11 years of follow-up compared to those who consumed cereal more or less frequently. RTEC is a nutrient dense food, but should not replace the consumption of other healthy foods in the diets' of elderly people. Associations between RTEC consumption, dietary patterns, and cognitive function deserve further study.

  1. Identification of cognitive impairment and mental illness in elderly homeless men: Before and after access to primary health care.

    Joyce, David P; Limbos, Marjolaine

    2009-11-01

    To describe the occurrence of mental health problems and cognitive impairment in a group of elderly homeless men and to demonstrate how clinical examination and screening tests used in a shelter setting might be helpful in identifying mental illness and cognitive impairment. Cross-sectional study including face-to-face interviews and review of medical records. A community-based homeless shelter in an urban metropolitan centre (Toronto, Ont). A total of 49 male participants 55 years of age or older. The average duration of homelessness was 8.8 (SD 10.2) years. Participants were admitted to a community-based shelter that offered access to regular meals, personal support and housing workers, nursing, and a primary care physician. Medical chart review was undertaken to identify mental illness or cognitive impairment diagnosed either before or after admission to the facility. The 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15) and the Folstein Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) were administered. Previous or new diagnosis of mental illness or cognitive impairment. Thirty-six of the participants (73.5%) had previous or new diagnoses. The most prevalent diagnosis was schizophrenia or psychotic disorders (n = 17), followed by depression (n = 11), anxiety disorders (n = 3), cognitive impairment (n = 8), and bipolar affective disorder (n = 1). A total of 37% of participants were given new mental health diagnoses during the study. The GDS-15 identified 9 people with depression and the MMSE uncovered 11 individuals with cognitive impairment who had not been previously diagnosed. This study suggests that providing access to primary care physicians and other services in a community-based shelter program can assist in identification of mental illness and cognitive impairment in elderly homeless men. Use of brief screening tools for depression and cognitive impairment (like the GDS-15 and the MMSE) could be helpful in this highrisk group.

  2. Exploring gender perceptions of risk of HIV infection and related behaviour among elderly men and women of Ga-Rankuwa, Gauteng Province, South Africa.

    Lekalakala-Mokgele, Eucebious

    2016-12-01

    The literature shows that there are important differences between women and men in the underlying mechanisms of transmission of HIV infection and AIDS, as well as in the social and economic consequences of HIV/AIDS. These stem from sexual behaviour and socially constructed 'gender' differences between women and men in roles and responsibilities. Despite the fact that numerous gender-related sociocultural factors influence HIV/AIDS protective behaviours, little gender specificity is included in HIV prevention among the elderly. In order to close this gap, this study explored gender-related perceptions of risk of HIV infection among elderly men and women of Ga-Rankuwa in Gauteng Province, South Africa. This qualitative study used purposive sampling to conduct three focus group interviews with 22 women and 10 men who were above 60 years of age. Findings revealed that both genders blame each other for the spreading of HIV/AIDS. Male participants displayed the tendency to have multiple partners, whereas females accepted that males are promiscuous. Mixed perceptions about disclosure of HIV status were found. Condom use was a challenge, as men did not know how to introduce it with their wives, and some female participants indicated that men are resistant to using condoms. The elderly men also believed that women will have sex in exchange for money. It is concluded that there is a need for substantial behaviour change among both elderly males and females, which should address gender power relations. More in-depth and extensive research in this area is recommended.

  3. Genetic variation in the raptor gene is associated with overweight but not hypertension in American men of Japanese ancestry.

    Morris, Brian J; Carnes, Bruce A; Chen, Randi; Donlon, Timothy A; He, Qimei; Grove, John S; Masaki, Kamal H; Elliott, Ayako; Willcox, Donald C; Allsopp, Richard; Willcox, Bradley J

    2015-04-01

    The mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway is pivotal for cell growth. Regulatory associated protein of mTOR complex I (Raptor) is a unique component of this pro-growth complex. The present study tested whether variation across the raptor gene (RPTOR) is associated with overweight and hypertension. We tested 61 common (allele frequency ≥ 0.1) tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that captured most of the genetic variation across RPTOR in 374 subjects of normal lifespan and 439 subjects with a lifespan exceeding 95 years for association with overweight/obesity, essential hypertension, and isolated systolic hypertension. Subjects were drawn from the Honolulu Heart Program, a homogeneous population of American men of Japanese ancestry, well characterized for phenotypes relevant to conditions of aging. Hypertension status was ascertained when subjects were 45-68 years old. Statistical evaluation involved contingency table analysis, logistic regression, and the powerful method of recursive partitioning. After analysis of RPTOR genotypes by each statistical approach, we found no significant association between genetic variation in RPTOR and either essential hypertension or isolated systolic hypertension. Models generated by recursive partitioning analysis showed that RPTOR SNPs significantly enhanced the ability of the model to accurately assign individuals to either the overweight/obese or the non-overweight/obese groups (P = 0.008 by 1-tailed Z test). Common genetic variation in RPTOR is associated with overweight/obesity but does not discernibly contribute to either essential hypertension or isolated systolic hypertension in the population studied. © American Journal of Hypertension, Ltd 2014. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. HOMA-IR and the risk of hyperuricemia: a prospective study in non-diabetic Japanese men.

    Nakamura, Koshi; Sakurai, Masaru; Miura, Katsuyuki; Morikawa, Yuko; Nagasawa, Shin-Ya; Ishizaki, Masao; Kido, Teruhiko; Naruse, Yuchi; Nakashima, Motoko; Nogawa, Kazuhiro; Suwazono, Yasushi; Nakagawa, Hideaki

    2014-10-01

    To examine the relation of insulin resistant status determined by homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) with the risk of incident hyperuricemia. The study participants included 2071 Japanese men without hyperuricemia and diabetes, aged 35-54 years. The participants had undergone annual heath examinations for 6 years to compare incident hyperuricemia (serum uric acid >416.4μmol/L (7.0mg/dL) and/or taking medication for hyperuricemia) in four groups based on quartiles of baseline HOMA-IR. During follow-up there were 331 incident cases of hyperuricemia. The hazard ratios for hyperuricemia, compared with HOMA-IR ≤0.66, were 1.42 (95% confidence interval 1.02-1.98) for HOMA-IR 0.67-0.98, 1.20 (0.86-1.68) for HOMA-IR 0.99-1.49 and 1.44 (1.04-1.98) for HOMA-IR ≥1.50 after adjustment for baseline serum uric acid, creatinine, hypercholesterolemia and hypertension status, age, alcohol intake, and smoking and exercise habits. The hazard ratio associated with an increase of one standard deviation in lnHOMA-IR (1.85 as one geometric standard deviation of HOMA-IR) was 1.14 (1.03-1.28) (p for trend=0.02). Increased HOMA-IR independently predicted the subsequent development of hyperuricemia. Insulin resistance itself or compensatory hyperinsulinemia may contribute to the development of hyperuricemia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Health related quality of life in Japanese men after radical prostatectomy or radiation therapy for localized prostate cancer

    Namiki, Shunichi

    2004-01-01

    We performed a retrospective survey of general and disease specific health-related quality of life (HRQOL) after radical prostatectomy (RP) and external beam radiotherapy (XRT) in Japanese men. A total of 186 patients underwent RP and 78 underwent XRT for clinically localized prostate cancer between 2000 and 2002. We measured the general and disease specific HRQOL with the Medical Outcomes Study (MOS) 36-Item Health Survey and the University of California, Los Angeles Prostate Cancer Index, respectively. Each treatment group was further divided into four subgroups according to the time scale. Patients from the RP group were significantly younger than those from the XRT group. The tumor characteristics differed significantly in their distributions among the treatment groups. Patients undergoing XRT had low scores in most of the general measures of HRQOL just after treatment, but after 6 months there were no differences between the treatment groups, except for the physical domains. The RP group was associated with worse urinary function, whereas the XRT group had worse bowel function and bother during the first 6 months after treatment. Thereafter, however, urinary and bowel domain did not differ between the groups. Both groups reported poor sexual function, although the RP group scored lower sexual bother. The patients who underwent RP had significantly worse urinary and better bowel function than those treated with XRT. Both treatment groups had decrements in sexual function throughout the post-treatment period; careful attention should be paid to this side-effect in preoperative counselling, especially in younger patients, regardless of the primary treatments. (author)

  6. Comparison of nocturia response to desmopressin treatment in elderly men with and without nocturnal polyuria in real-life practice.

    Chen, S-L; Huang, Y-H; Hung, T-W; Ou, Y-C

    2016-05-01

    To evaluate the safety and efficacy of low-dose desmopressin in elderly men with and without nocturnal polyuria (NP) in real-life practice. Patients with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS)/ benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) who were≧ 65 years old with refractory nocturia were enrolled in this study. We retrospectively analysed elderly men treated with adding desmopressin to current medications for nocturia according to category of the baseline nocturnal urine volume. The 48-h frequency volume chart (FVC), International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) and quality of life (QoL) were initially assessed and re-evaluated 12 weeks later. Serum sodium level was checked 1 week, 4 weeks, and 12 weeks after initiation of desmopressin therapy or suspected hyponatremia event. The mean change in numbers of nocturnal voids was evaluated for efficacy of treatment. A total of 136 patients were included with 55 in non-NP group and 81 in NP group. Hypertension was more common in NP group in regard of comorbidities. During treatment period, there were significant reductions of nocturnal voids from 4.22 ± 1.38 to 2.31 ± 0.98 (p < 0.001) in non-NP group and from 4.52 ± 1.23 to 2.07 ± 0.89 (p < 0.001) in NP group. The reduction in nocturnal voids was more significant in NP group (2.44 ± 1.15 vs. 1.91 ± 1.48, p = 0.003). The mean decrease in serum sodium levels were 3.89 ± 1.22 mmol/l (p < 0.001) in non-NP group and 4.69 ± 3.5 mmol/l (p < 0.001) in NP group at the extreme value. Long-term treatment with low-dose desmopressin is safe and effective for nocturia with or without NP in elderly patients with LUTS/BPH during real-life practice. Patients should be well informed about the disease and are closely followed. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Bone mineral density in lifelong trained male football players compared with young and elderly untrained men

    Hagman, Marie; Helge, Eva Wulff; Hornstrup, Therese

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the present controlled cross-sectional study was to investigate proximal femur and whole-body bone mineral density (BMD), as well as bone turnover profile, in lifelong trained elderly male football players and young elite football players compared with untrained age....... All participants underwent a regional Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA) scan of the proximal femur and a whole-body DXA scan to determine BMD. From a resting blood sample, the bone turnover markers (BTMs) osteocalcin, carboxy-terminal type-1 collagen crosslinks (CTX-1), procollagen type-1 amino...

  8. Stability and change in structural social relations as predictor of mortality among elderly women and men

    Lund, Rikke; Modvig, J; Due, P

    2000-01-01

    In a follow-up study of 70-95 years old women and men (n = 911) we studied the association between change and stability in three structural aspects of social relations (contact frequency, contact diversity, cohabitation status) from 1986-1990 and mortality after the next four years in 1994. Women.......02-14.94) and ORdiv: 6.04 (1.30-28.03). In summary, we found rather larger age differences in the strength of the association between change in structural social relations and mortality. Furthermore, the associations seemed stronger among women than men, which may however mainly be explained by the small number...

  9. Associations of low-intensity light physical activity with physical performance in community-dwelling elderly Japanese: A cross-sectional study.

    Kazuhiro P Izawa

    Full Text Available Physical activity and physical performance relate to quality of life, mortality, and morbidity in elderly people. However, little is known about differences in physical performance related to low-intensity light physical activity (LLPA, high-intensity light physical activity (HLPA, and moderate-intensity physical activity (MPA and how they are separated by sex in elderly populations.This study aimed to determine differences in LLPA, HLPA, MPA, and physical performance, and associations between these measures in community-dwelling elderly men and women.Physical activity and physical performance such as timed-up-and-go test, one-leg standing time, and maximum gait speed were measured in 181 community-dwelling elderly men (mean age, 75.1 ± 5.3 years and 109 women (mean age, 73.4 ± 4.8 years in 2013. Physical activity was classified as LLPA (1.6~1.9 METs of physical activity, HLPA (2.0~2.9 METs of physical activity, and MPA (over 3 METs of physical activity. The association between the values of these three intensities of physical activity in the participants was assessed by Pearson's correlation coefficients. Multiple linear regression analyses were used to assess the association of physical performance values with the three groups defined by accelerometer-measured physical activity intensity adjusted for sociographic, behavioral, and multiple diseases in the participants.MPA was beneficially associated with all physical performance indicators in the men (all P<0.05 and women (all P<0.05. Only HLPA showed significant associations with the timed-up-and-go test (P = 0.001 and maximum gait speed (P = 0.006 in women.These results may support the notion that not only HLPA in women but MPA in both sexes appears to improve physical performance in elderly populations.The present study findings provide novel epidemiological evidence for the potential benefits of HLPA in women and also reinforce the potential benefits of MPA in both sexes, which is the

  10. Differing Pattern of Ambulatory Blood Pressure in Very Elderly Men Expresses Dynamics in Atherosclerotic Load in the Senescence

    Arkadiusz Siennicki-Lantz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available To assess an impact of vascular risk factors on ambulatory blood pressure measurement (ABPM in the elderly, we followed up a population-based cohort of men from 68 until 82 years, when 104 survivors underwent ABPM. Results. At age 68, hypertension and high clinic blood pressure (CBP did not predict ABPM level. Smoking and low ankle-brachial index (ABI predicted higher ABPM variability and pulse pressure (PP, but not absolute ABPM values. At age 82, hypertension, high or increasing CBP, strongly positively correlated with all variables of ABPM. Carotid stenosis, low or declining ABI during followup, correlated with higher nocturnal ABPM and PP. Concluding. Hypertension and vascular risk factors in a cohort of 68-year-old men do not result in higher ABPM at age 82, possibly due to inflection point in their pressure development. Higher ABPM reflects instead an increasing CBP and aggravating atherosclerosis during the preceding decade in that part of the cohort with previously favorable risk factor status.

  11. The Relationship between Alcohol Consumption and Incidence of Glycometabolic Abnormality in Middle-Aged and Elderly Chinese Men

    Siwen Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The relationship between alcohol consumption and glycometabolic abnormality is controversial, especially in different ethnic population. In this study, a cross-sectional survey was carried out to examine the relationship between alcohol consumption and glycometabolic abnormality in middle-aged and elderly Chinese men. Methods. Using cluster random sampling, Chinese men aged more than 40 years from Changchun, China, were given standardized questionnaires. In total, 1996 individuals, for whom complete data was available, were recruited into the study. We calculated the incidence of prediabetes and newly diagnosed diabetes by three levels of alcohol consumption: light, moderate, and heavy. Multivariate logistic regression models adjusted for socioeconomic variables and diabetes-related risk factors were used to analyze the association between alcohol consumption and the onset of prediabetes and diabetes. Results. The univariate analysis revealed higher incidence of prediabetes among drinkers (32.8% compared with nondrinkers (28.6%, particularly in heavy alcohol consumers. The logistic regression analysis showed that alcohol consumption, especially heavy consumption, was an independent risk factor for prediabetes. Conclusions. Alcohol consumption, heavy consumption in particular, is an independent risk factor for the development of prediabetes, but not for diabetes.

  12. β-Hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB) supplementation and resistance exercise significantly reduce abdominal adiposity in healthy elderly men.

    Stout, Jeffrey R; Fukuda, David H; Kendall, Kristina L; Smith-Ryan, Abbie E; Moon, Jordan R; Hoffman, Jay R

    2015-04-01

    The effects of 12-weeks of HMB ingestion and resistance training (RT) on abdominal adiposity were examined in 48 men (66-78 yrs). All participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 groups: no-training placebo (NT-PL), HMB only (NT-HMB), RT with PL (RT-PL), or HMB with RT (RT-HMB). DXA was used to estimate abdominal fat mass (AFM) by placing the region of interest over the L1-L4 region of the spine. Outcomes were assessed by ANCOVA, with Bonferroni-corrected pairwise comparisons. Baseline AFM values were used as the covariate. The ANCOVA indicated a significant difference (p = 0.013) between group means for the adjusted posttest AFM values (mean (kg) ± SE: NT-PL = 2.59 ± 0.06; NT-HMB = 2.59 ± 0.61; RT-PL = 2.59 ± 0.62; RT-HMB = 2.34 ± 0.61). The pairwise comparisons indicated that AFM following the intervention period in the RT-HMB group was significantly less than NT-PL (p = 0.013), NT-HMB (p = 0.011), and RT-PL (p = 0.010). These data suggested that HMB in combination with 12 weeks of RT decreased AFM in elderly men. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Kanji and Kana agraphia in mild cognitive impairment and dementia: A trans-cultural comparison of elderly Japanese subjects living in Japan and Brazil

    Kyoko Akanuma

    Full Text Available Abstract This study verifies the environmental effects on agraphia in mild cognitive impairment and dementia. We compared elderly Japanese subjects living in Japan and Brazil. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed the database of the Prevalence Study 1998 in Tajiri (n=497, Miyagi, Japan and the Prevalence Study 1997 of elderly Japanese immigrants living in Brazil (n=166, migrated from Japan and living in the São Paulo Metropolitan Area. In three Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR groups, i.e., CDR 0 (healthy, CDR 0.5 (questionable dementia, and CDR 1+ (dementia , the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE item of spontaneous writing and the Cognitive Abilities Screening Instrument (CASI domain of dictation were analyzed with regard to the number of Kanji and Kana characters. Formal errors in characters and pragmatic errors were also analyzed. Results: The immigrants in Brazil wrote similar numbers of Kanji or Kana characters compared to the residents of Japan. In spontaneous writing, the formal Kanji errors were greater in the CDR 1+ group of immigrants. In writing from dictation, all the immigrant CDR groups made more formal errors in Kana than the Japan residents. No significant differences in pragmatic errors were detected between the two groups. Conclusions: Subjects living in Japan use Kanji frequently, and thus the form of written characters was simplified, which might be assessed as mild formal errors. In immigrants, the deterioration in Kanji and Kana writing was partly due to decreased daily usage of the characters. Lower levels of education of immigrants might also be related to the number of Kanji errors.

  14. Conjugal bereavement and well-being of elderly men and women : A preliminary study

    Nieboer, A.P.; Lindenberg, S.M.; Ormel, J.

    1998-01-01

    Considerable variation in the effects of the loss of the spouse have been reported, and there is lack of agreement regarding the effects of gender and bereavement on well-being. The objective of this article is to examine time-differences in the consequences of bereavement for men and women.

  15. Effect of light-load resistance exercise on postprandial amino acid transporter expression in elderly men

    Agergaard, Jakob; Bülow, Jacob; Jensen, Jacob K

    2017-01-01

    An impaired amino acid sensing is associated with age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass. We tested whether light-load resistance exercise (LL-RE) affects postprandial amino acid transporter (AAT) expression in aging skeletal muscle. Untrained, healthy men (age: +65 years) were subjected to 13 h...

  16. Duration and intensity of physical activity and disability among European elderly men

    van den Brink, Carolien L.; Picavet, Hsusanj; van den Bos, Geertrudis A. M.; Giampaoli, Simona; Nissinen, Aulikki; Kromhout, Daan

    2005-01-01

    Purpose. To investigate the relationship between duration and intensity of physical activity and disability 10 years later, and to investigate the possible effect of selective mortality. Method. Longitudinal data of 560 men aged 70 - 89 years, without disability at baseline from the Finland, Italy

  17. Myofibrillar protein synthesis following ingestion of soy protein isolate at rest and after resistance exercise in elderly men

    Yang Yifan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increased amino acid availability stimulates muscle protein synthesis, however, aged muscle appears less responsive to the anabolic effects of amino acids when compared to the young. We aimed to compare changes in myofibrillar protein synthesis (MPS in elderly men at rest and after resistance exercise following ingestion of different doses of soy protein and compare the responses to those we previously observed with ingestion of whey protein isolate. Methods Thirty elderly men (age 71 ± 5 y completed a bout of unilateral knee-extensor resistance exercise prior to ingesting no protein (0 g, or either 20 g or 40 g of soy protein isolate (0, S20, and S40 respectively. We compared these responses to previous responses from similar aged men who had ingested 20 g and 40 g of whey protein isolate (W20 and W40. A primed constant infusion of L-[1-13 C]leucine and L-[ring-13 C6]phenylalanine and skeletal muscle biopsies were used to measure whole-body leucine oxidation and MPS over 4 h post-protein consumption in both exercised and non-exercised legs. Results Whole-body leucine oxidation increased with protein ingestion and was significantly greater for S20 vs. W20 (P = 0.003. Rates of MPS for S20 were less than W20 (P = 0.02 and not different from 0 g (P = 0.41 in both exercised and non-exercised leg muscles. For S40, MPS was also reduced compared with W40 under both rested and post-exercise conditions (both P P = 0.04. Conclusions The relationship between protein intake and MPS is both dose and protein source-dependent, with isolated soy showing a reduced ability, as compared to isolated whey protein, to stimulate MPS under both rested and post-exercise conditions. These differences may relate to the lower postprandial leucinemia and greater rates of amino acid oxidation following ingestion of soy versus whey protein.

  18. Marital status and mortality among middle age and elderly men and women in urban Shanghai.

    Va, Puthiery; Yang, Wan-Shui; Nechuta, Sarah; Chow, Wong-Ho; Cai, Hui; Yang, Gong; Gao, Shan; Gao, Yu-Tang; Zheng, Wei; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Xiang, Yong-Bing

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that marital status is associated with mortality, but few studies have been conducted in China where increasing aging population and divorce rates may have major impact on health and total mortality. We examined the association of marital status with mortality using data from the Shanghai Women's Health Study (1996-2009) and Shanghai Men's Health Study (2002-2009), two population-based cohort studies of 74,942 women aged 40-70 years and 61,500 men aged 40-74 years at the study enrollment. Deaths were identified by biennial home visits and record linkage with the vital statistics registry. Marital status was categorized as married, never married, divorced, widowed, and all unmarried categories combined. Cox regression models were used to derive hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI). Unmarried and widowed women had an increased all-cause HR = 1.11, 95% CI: 1.03, 1.21 and HR = 1.10, 95% CI: 1.02, 1.20 respectively) and cancer (HR = 1.17, 95% CI: 1.04, 1.32 and HR = 1.18, 95% CI: 1.04, 1.34 respectively) mortality. Never married women had excess all-cause mortality (HR = 1.46, 95% CI: 1.03, 2.09). Divorce was associated with elevated cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality in women (HR = 1.47, 95% CI: 1.01, 2.13) and elevated all-cause mortality (HR = 2.45, 95% CI: 1.55, 3.86) in men. Amongst men, not being married was associated with excess all-cause (HR = 1.45, 95% CI: 1.12, 1.88) and CVD (HR = 1.65, 95% CI: 1.07, 2.54) mortality. Marriage is associated with decreased all cause mortality and CVD mortality, in particular, among both Chinese men and women.

  19. Marital status and mortality among middle age and elderly men and women in urban Shanghai.

    Puthiery Va

    Full Text Available Previous studies have suggested that marital status is associated with mortality, but few studies have been conducted in China where increasing aging population and divorce rates may have major impact on health and total mortality.We examined the association of marital status with mortality using data from the Shanghai Women's Health Study (1996-2009 and Shanghai Men's Health Study (2002-2009, two population-based cohort studies of 74,942 women aged 40-70 years and 61,500 men aged 40-74 years at the study enrollment. Deaths were identified by biennial home visits and record linkage with the vital statistics registry. Marital status was categorized as married, never married, divorced, widowed, and all unmarried categories combined. Cox regression models were used to derive hazard ratios (HR and 95% confidence interval (CI.Unmarried and widowed women had an increased all-cause HR = 1.11, 95% CI: 1.03, 1.21 and HR = 1.10, 95% CI: 1.02, 1.20 respectively and cancer (HR = 1.17, 95% CI: 1.04, 1.32 and HR = 1.18, 95% CI: 1.04, 1.34 respectively mortality. Never married women had excess all-cause mortality (HR = 1.46, 95% CI: 1.03, 2.09. Divorce was associated with elevated cardiovascular disease (CVD mortality in women (HR = 1.47, 95% CI: 1.01, 2.13 and elevated all-cause mortality (HR = 2.45, 95% CI: 1.55, 3.86 in men. Amongst men, not being married was associated with excess all-cause (HR = 1.45, 95% CI: 1.12, 1.88 and CVD (HR = 1.65, 95% CI: 1.07, 2.54 mortality.Marriage is associated with decreased all cause mortality and CVD mortality, in particular, among both Chinese men and women.

  20. Association of Circulating 25(OHD and Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms: A Four-Year Prospective Study among Elderly Chinese Men

    Zhao-Min Liu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The role of vitamin D in relation to lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS remains inconclusive. This four-year longitudinal study aims to explore the association of circulating 25(OHD and LUTS in elderly Chinese men. Two thousand Chinese men aged 65 and older were recruited from a local community, of which 1998 (99.9% at baseline and 1564 (78.2% at four-year follow-up reported data on LUTS, and 988 of the randomly chosen subpopulation were assayed for serum 25(OHD by radioimmunoassay at baseline. LUTS were evaluated by a validated International Prostate Symptoms Scale (IPSS. Data on demographic characteristics, lifestyle factors, health, and medications were collected. Serum parathyroid and sex steroid hormones and genotypes of vitamin D receptors were assayed. The association of serum 25(OHD and LUTS was examined by using multivariable regression models. Serum 25(OHD was not significantly associated with the changes of IPSS or the risk of LUTS in overall participants. However, among men with 25(OHD ≤ 60 nmol/L, each 10 nmol/L increase of 25(OHD over 0 nmol/L was significantly associated with 1.3 lower points of IPSS or a 51.6% decreased risk for moderate/severe LUTS four years later. Adjustment for serum androstenedione (p = 0.019 and dehydropiandrosterone (p = 0.037 attenuated the associations. Our study suggested that among individuals with low vitamin D status, the increase of the 25(OHD level may be associated with a lowered risk of LUTS.

  1. Trends in coronary risk factors and electrocardiogram findings from 1977 to 2009 with 10-year mortality in Japanese elderly males - The Tanushimaru Study.

    Nakamura, Sachiko; Adachi, Hisashi; Enomoto, Mika; Fukami, Ako; Kumagai, Eita; Nohara, Yume; Kono, Shoko; Nakao, Erika; Sakaue, Akiko; Tsuru, Tomoko; Morikawa, Nagisa; Fukumoto, Yoshihiro

    2017-10-01

    An understanding of the trends in regard to coronary risk factors and electrocardiogram (ECG) findings has an important role in public health. We investigated the trends in coronary risk factors and main ECG findings in 1977, 1989, 1999, and 2009 in the Japanese cohort of the Seven Countries Study, in Tanushimaru, a typical farming town on Kyushu Island. A total of 1397 subjects (231 in 1977, 332 in 1989, 389 in 1999, and 445 in 2009) were enrolled in this study, and all of them were males aged over 65 years. In coronary risk factors, total cholesterol levels, diastolic blood pressure, body mass index, and uric acid significantly increased during these 3 decades. The prevalence of smokers markedly decreased from 56.7% in 1977 to 16.8% in 2009. ECG changes during 3 decades were wider QRS interval, increased prevalence of major abnormality, reduced heart rate, shortened PR interval and corrected QT, and decreased prevalence of left ventricular hypertrophy. Age, smoking habits, major and minor abnormalities in ECG were associated with mortality in 1977-1987. Age, total cholesterol levels (inversely) and corrected QT were associated with mortality in 1989-1999. Age, smoking habits, heart rate, and systolic blood pressure were associated with mortality in 1999-2009. Predictors of mortality have changed with the times. Coronary risk factors such as smoking, increased heart rate, and elevated blood pressure have been recently associated with mortalities in elderly male Japanese general population. Copyright © 2016 Japanese College of Cardiology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Bone mineral density and mortality in elderly men and women: the Rotterdam Study.

    Van Der Klift, M; Pols, H A P; Geleijnse, J M; Van Der Kuip, D A M; Hofman, A; De Laet, C E D H

    2002-04-01

    Recent studies have shown that a low bone mineral density (BMD) is associated with a higher risk of mortality. Most studies have investigated this relationship in women only and presented their risk estimates per standard deviation change in BMD. However, when using this approach, a BMD threshold might be missed when relative risks are presented in the traditional manner. Therefore, in this study our aim was to model the relation between BMD and all-cause mortality. In the Rotterdam Study, follow-up was complete for 5819 men and women aged > or =55 years for whom BMD data were available. During an average follow-up of 5.4 years, 399 men and 317 women died. We calculated BMD Z scores using measurements performed at the femoral neck. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to fit the model. An average BMD, reflected by a Z score = 0, was used as the reference. For women, no significant relationship between BMD and overall mortality was observed. For men, however, a cubic model best fitted the relationship under study, also after adjusting for age and body mass index (BMI). The risk of mortality increased when BMD was below average. Similar results were found when separate curves were made for diabetics and nondiabetics, smokers (ever or never), and tertiles of BMI. Excluding subjects who had suffered hip fractures, or adjusting for the number of drugs used and for lower limb disability, essentially did not change results. This suggests that low BMD is not mainly due to morbidity and impaired mobility in our cohort, which makes this a less likely explanation for the observed relation with mortality. The results of our study suggest that, in men, a nonlinear relationship between BMD and mortality exists, which is independent of comorbidity, whereas, in women, no significant relationship was observed.

  3. Non-invasive monitoring of core body temperature rhythms over 72 h in 10 bedridden elderly patients with disorders of consciousness in a Japanese hospital: a pilot study.

    Matsumoto, Masaru; Sugama, Junko; Okuwa, Mayumi; Dai, Misako; Matsuo, Junko; Sanada, Hiromi

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to elucidate the body core temperature rhythms of bedridden elderly patients with disorders of consciousness (DOC) in a Japanese hospital using a simple, non-invasive, deep-body thermometer. We measured body core temperature on the surface of abdomen in 10 bedridden elderly patients with DOC continuously over 72 h. A non-heated core body temperature thermometer was used. The cycle of the body core temperature rhythm was initially derived by using the least squares method. Then, based on that rhythm, the mean, amplitude, and times of day of the highest and lowest body temperatures during the optimum cycle were determined using the cosinor method. We found a 24-h cycle in seven of the 10 patients. One patient had a 6-h, one a 12-h, and one a 63-h cycle. The mean value of the cosine curve in the respective optimum cycles was 36.48 ± 0.34 °C, and the amplitude was 0.22 ± 0.09 °C. Of the seven subjects with 24-h cycles, the highest body temperature occurred between 12:58 and 14:44 h in four. In addition to 24-h cycles of core temperature rhythm, short cycles of 12 and 6-h and a long cycle of 63-h were seen. In order to understand the temperature rhythms of bedridden elderly patients with DOC, it is necessary to monitor their core body temperatures, ideally using a simple, non-invasive device. In the future, it will be important to investigate the relationship of the core temperature rhythm to nursing care and living environment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Lower serum endogenous secretory receptor for advanced glycation end product level as a risk factor of metabolic syndrome among Japanese adult men: a 2-year longitudinal study.

    Momma, Haruki; Niu, Kaijun; Kobayashi, Yoritoshi; Huang, Cong; Chujo, Masahiko; Otomo, Atsushi; Tadaura, Hiroko; Miyata, Toshio; Nagatomi, Ryoichi

    2014-02-01

    Receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) activation by its ligands is implicated in obesity-related metabolic disease and accelerated atherothrombosis. Circulating soluble (sRAGE) and/or endogenous secretory RAGE (esRAGE) may counteract the detrimental effects of RAGE. This study aimed at determining the relationship between circulating RAGE and metabolic syndrome (MetS) incidence among Japanese adult men. This 2-year longitudinal study included 426 Japanese men aged 30-83 years who had no MetS at baseline. Serum esRAGE and sRAGE were assayed by ELISA at baseline. Incident metabolic syndrome, defined according to the Asian cutoff based on the 2009 criteria of the American Heart Association Scientific Statements, was evaluated after the 2-year follow-up. During the follow-up period, 55 participants (12.9%) had newly diagnosed MetS. In the multiple logistic models comparing MetS risk in the lowest with that in the highest tertile of baseline esRAGE, a high serum esRAGE level was found to be significantly associated with a low risk of MetS [odds ratios (95% confidence interval), 0.37 (0.14-0.95); P for trend = 0.038] after adjusting for lifestyle and sociodemographic factors, serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein level, estimated glomerular filtration rate, and MetS components at baseline. Although sRAGE and esRAGE were strongly correlated (r(s) = 0.88), the sRAGE level was not associated with MetS incidence. A high circulating esRAGE level, but not sRAGE level, was associated with a low MetS incidence among Japanese adult men.

  5. Reference Values and Age Differences in Body Composition of Community-Dwelling Older Japanese Men and Women: A Pooled Analysis of Four Cohort Studies.

    Satoshi Seino

    Full Text Available To determine age- and sex-specific body composition reference values and investigate age differences in these parameters for community-dwelling older Japanese men and women, using direct segmental multi-frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis.We conducted a pooled analysis of data collected in four cohort studies between 2008 and 2012: Kusatsu Longitudinal Study, Hatoyama Cohort Study, Itabashi Cohort Study, and Kashiwa Cohort Study. The pooled analysis included cross-sectional data from 4478 nondisabled, community-dwelling adults aged 65-94 years (2145 men, 2333 women; mean age: 72.9 years in men and 72.6 years in women. Body weight, fat mass (FM, percentage FM, fat-free mass (FFM, and appendicular lean soft tissue mass were measured using the InBody 720 and 430 (Biospace Co. Ltd, Seoul, Korea. The values were then normalized by height in meters squared to determine body mass index (BMI, FM index (FMI, FFM index (FFMI, and skeletal muscle mass index (SMI.Simple means (standard deviation of BMI, percentage FM, FMI, FFMI, and SMI were 23.4 (2.9 kg/m(2, 24.9 (6.3%, 5.96 (2.09 kg/m(2, 17.4 (1.5 kg/m(2, and 7.29 (0.76 kg/m(2, respectively, in men and 22.7 (3.3 kg/m(2, 31.7 (7.1%, 7.40 (2.61 kg/m(2, 15.3 (1.2 kg/m(2, and 5.86 (0.67 kg/m(2, respectively, in women. We then calculated quartiles and quintiles for these indices after stratifying for sex and 5-year age group. FFMI and SMI decreased significantly with age in both sexes (P < 0.001 for trends, but FFMI remained constant among the women with only a 1% decrease up to age 84 years. Percentage FM increased significantly, with age (P < 0.001 in men and P = 0.045 in women for trends, but FMI was unchanged in both sexes (P = 0.147 in men and P = 0.176 in women for trends.The present data should be useful in the clinical evaluation of body composition of older Japanese and for international comparisons. The small age-related decrease in FFMI may be a noteworthy characteristic of body composition

  6. Swallowing Function and Nutritional Status in Japanese Elderly People Receiving Home-care Services: A 1-year Longitudinal Study.

    Okabe, Y; Furuta, M; Akifusa, S; Takeuchi, K; Adachi, M; Kinoshita, T; Kikutani, T; Nakamura, S; Yamashita, Y

    2016-01-01

    Malnutrition is a serious health concern for frail elderly people. Poor oral function leading to insufficient food intake can contribute to the development of malnutrition. In the present study, we explored the longitudinal association of malnutrition with oral function, including oral health status and swallowing function, in elderly people receiving home nursing care. Prospective observational cohort study with 1-year follow-up. Two mid-sized cities in Fukuoka, Japan from November 2010 to March 2012. One hundred and ninety-seven individuals, aged ≥ 60 years, living at home and receiving home-care services because of physical disabilities, without malnutrition. Oral health status, swallowing function, taking modified-texture diets such as minced or pureed foods, nutritional status, cognitive function, and activities of daily living were assessed at baseline. The associations between malnutrition at 1-year follow-up and these related factors were analyzed using a logistic regression model. Swallowing disorders [risk ratio (RR): 5.21, 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 1.65-16.43] were associated with malnutrition. On the other hand, oral health status did not have a direct association with malnutrition. Swallowing disorders may be associated with the incidence of malnutrition in elderly people receiving home-care. The findings indicate that maintaining swallowing function may contribute to the prevention of malnutrition in frail elderly people.

  7. Cardiovascular function is better in veteran football players than age-matched untrained elderly healthy men

    Schmidt, Jakob Friis; Andersen, Thomas Rostgaard; Andersen, Lars Juel

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine whether lifelong football training may improve cardiovascular function, physical fitness, and body composition. Our subjects were 17 male veteran football players (VPG; 68.1 ± 2.1 years) and 26 healthy age-matched untrained men who served as a control group (CG......, RHI was 21% higher (P training is associated with better LV systolic function, physical fitness......, microvascular function, and a healthier body composition. Overall, VPG have better cardiovascular function compared with CG, which may reduce their cardiovascular morbidity and mortality....

  8. Rest-activity circadian rhythms and bone mineral density in elderly men

    Tara S. Rogers

    2017-12-01

    Conclusions: The data demonstrate modest associations between overall circadian rhythmicity of rest and activity (measured by pseudo F-statistic, as well as daytime to nighttime activity ratio (measured by alpha statistic, aBMD and ΔaBMD, but adjustment for covariates related to lifestyle, BMI and comorbidities attenuated most of these associations. These results suggest that RAR patterns are not independently associated with aBMD or four-year ΔaBMD at the total hip or femoral neck in older men, but additional research is needed.

  9. Investigating the associations between productive housework activities, sleep hours and self-reported health among elderly men and women in western industrialised countries.

    Adjei, Nicholas Kofi; Brand, Tilman

    2018-01-11

    After retirement, elderly men and women allocate more time to housework activities, compared to working-age adults. Nonetheless, sleep constitutes the lengthiest time use activity among the elderly, but there has not been any study on the associations between time spent on housework activities, sleep duration and self-reported health among the older population. This study not only examined individual associations between self-reported health and both housework activities and sleep duration, but it also explored self-reported health by the interaction effect between housework activities and sleep duration separately for men and women. Pooled data from the Multinational Time Use Study (MTUS) on 15,333 men and 20,907 women from Germany, Italy, Spain, UK, France, the Netherlands and the US were analysed. Multiple binary logistic regression models were used to examine the associations between three broad categories of housework activities ((1) cooking, cleaning and shopping, (2) gardening and maintenance; (3) childcare) and health. We further investigated the extent to which total housework hours and sleep duration were associated with self-reported health for men and women separately. We found a positive association between time devoted to housework activities, total housework and health status among elderly men and women. Compared to those who spent 1 to 3 h on total productive housework, elderly people who spent >3 to 6 h/day had higher odds of reporting good health (OR = 1.25; 95% CI = 1.14-1.37 among men and OR = 1.10; 95% CI = 1.01-1.20 among women). Both short (8 h) sleep duration were negatively associated with health for both genders. However, the interactive associations between total productive housework, sleep duration, and self-reported health varied among men and women. Among women, long hours of housework combined with either short or long sleep was negatively associated with health. Although time allocation to housework activities may

  10. Cardiorespiratory fitness modulates the acute flow-mediated dilation response following high-intensity but not moderate-intensity exercise in elderly men.

    Bailey, Tom G; Perissiou, Maria; Windsor, Mark; Russell, Fraser; Golledge, Jonathan; Green, Daniel J; Askew, Christopher D

    2017-05-01

    Impaired endothelial function is observed with aging and in those with low cardiorespiratory fitness (V̇o 2peak ). Improvements in endothelial function with exercise training are somewhat dependent on the intensity of exercise. While the acute stimulus for this improvement is not completely understood, it may, in part, be due to the flow-mediated dilation (FMD) response to acute exercise. We examined the hypothesis that exercise intensity alters the brachial (systemic) FMD response in elderly men and is modulated by V̇o 2peak Forty-seven elderly men were stratified into lower (V̇o 2peak = 24.3 ± 2.9 ml·kg -1 ·min -1 ; n = 27) and higher fit groups (V̇o 2peak = 35.4 ± 5.5 ml·kg -1 ·min -1 ; n = 20) after a test of cycling peak power output (PPO). In randomized order, participants undertook moderate-intensity continuous exercise (MICE; 40% PPO) or high-intensity interval cycling exercise (HIIE; 70% PPO) or no-exercise control. Brachial FMD was assessed at rest and 10 and 60 min after exercise. FMD increased after MICE in both groups {increase of 0.86% [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.17-1.56], P = 0.01} and normalized after 60 min. In the lower fit group, FMD was reduced after HIIE [reduction of 0.85% (95% CI, 0.12-1.58), P = 0.02] and remained decreased at 60 min. In the higher fit group, FMD was unchanged immediately after HIIE and increased after 60 min [increase of 1.52% (95% CI, 0.41-2.62), P exercise control, FMD was reduced in both groups after 60 min ( P = 0.05). Exercise intensity alters the acute FMD response in elderly men and V̇o 2peak modulates the FMD response following HIIE but not MICE. The sustained decrease in FMD in the lower fit group following HIIE may represent a signal for vascular adaptation or endothelial fatigue. NEW & NOTEWORTHY This study is the first to show that moderate-intensity continuous cycling exercise increased flow-mediated dilation (FMD) transiently before normalization of FMD after 1 h, irrespective of

  11. Early life origins cognitive decline: findings in elderly men in the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study.

    Katri Raikkonen

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To examine whether the adverse effects of slow prenatal and postnatal growth on cognitive function persist to old age and predict age related cognitive decline. DESIGN AND SETTING: A longitudinal birth cohort study of men born in Helsinki, Finland 1934-44. PARTICIPANTS: Nine-hundred-thirty-one men of the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study, with detailed data on growth from birth to adulthood, aged 20.1 (SD = 1.4 at the first and 67.9 (SD = 2.5 years at the second cognitive testing. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The Finnish Defense Forces Basic Intellectual Ability Test assessed twice over nearly five decades apart. RESULTS: Lower weight, length and head circumference at birth were associated with lower cognitive ability at 67.9 years (1.04-1.55 points lower ability per each standard deviation [SD] unit decrease in body size, 95% Confidence Interval [95%CI]: 0.05 to 2.72 and with cognitive decline after 20.1 years (0.07-0.11 SD decline over time per each SD decrease in body size, 95%CI:0.00 to 0.19. Men who were born larger were more likely to perform better in the cognitive ability test over time (1.22-1.43 increase in odds to remain in the top relative to the lower two thirds in ability over time per each SD increase in body size, 95%CI:1.04 to 1.79 and were more resilient to cognitive decline after 20.1 years (0.69 to 0.76 decrease in odds to decline from than remain in the top third of ability over time per each SD increase in body size, 95%CI:0.49 to 0.99. Slower growth between birth and two years in weight, height and body mass index was associated with lower cognitive ability at 67.9 years, but not with cognitive decline. CONCLUSIONS: Poorer lifetime cognitive ability is predicted by slower growth before and after birth. In predicting resilience to age related cognitive decline, the period before birth seems to be more critical.

  12. Lifetime cigarette smoking is associated with abdominal obesity in a community-based sample of Japanese men: The Shiga Epidemiological Study of Subclinical Atherosclerosis (SESSA

    Akira Fujiyoshi

    2016-12-01

    We analyzed 513 men (median age, 58.2 years; current smokers, 40.1%. Two-thirds showed body mass index (BMI < 25 kg/m2 (median, 23.5 kg/m2. Overall, greater lifetime smoking group was associated with greater WHR and VSR. On average, one higher smoking group was associated with 0.005 higher WHR (95% CI, 0.001–0.008; P = 0.005 and 0.041 greater VSR (95% CI, 0.009–0.073; P = 0.012 after adjustment for potential confounders, including BMI. In this sample of relatively lean Japanese men, greater lifetime smoking was associated with a metabolically more adverse fat distribution. Although smoking is commonly associated with lower BMI, minimizing the amount of lifetime smoking should be advocated.

  13. Variation in Adherence to External Beam Radiotherapy Quality Measures Among Elderly Men With Localized Prostate Cancer

    Bekelman, Justin E.; Zelefsky, Michael J.; Jang, Thomas L.; Basch, Ethan M.; Schrag, Deborah

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To characterize the variation in adherence to quality measures of external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) for localized prostate cancer and its relation to patient and provider characteristics in a population-based, representative sample of U.S. men. Methods and Materials: We evaluated EBRT quality measures proposed by a RAND expert panel of physicians among men aged ≥65 years diagnosed between 2000 and 2002 with localized prostate cancer and treated with primary EBRT using data from the linked Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER)-Medicare program. We assessed the adherence to five EBRT quality measures that were amenable to analysis using SEER-Medicare data: (1) use of conformal RT planning; (2) use of high-energy (>10-MV) photons; (3) use of custom immobilization; (4) completion of two follow-up visits with a radiation oncologist in the year after therapy; and (5) radiation oncologist board certification. Results: Of the 11,674 patients, 85% had received conformal RT planning, 75% had received high-energy photons, and 97% had received custom immobilization. One-third of patients had completed two follow-up visits with a radiation oncologist, although 91% had at least one visit with a urologist or radiation oncologist. Most patients (85%) had been treated by a board-certified radiation oncologist. Conclusions: The overall high adherence to EBRT quality measures masked substantial variation in geography, socioeconomic status in the area of residence, and teaching affiliation of the RT facility. Future research should examine the reasons for the variations in these measures and whether the variation is associated with important clinical outcomes

  14. Locomotion Mode Affects the Physiological Strain during Exercise at Walk-Run Transition Speed inElderly Men.

    Freire, Raul; Farinatti, Paulo; Cunha, Felipe; Silva, Brenno; Monteiro, Walace

    2017-07-01

    This study investigated cardiorespiratory responses and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) during prolonged walking and running exercise performed at the walk-run transition speed (WRTS) in untrained healthy elderly men. 20 volunteers (mean±SE, age: 68.4±1.2 yrs; height: 170.0±0.02 cm; body mass: 74.7±2.3 kg) performed the following bouts of exercise: a) maximal cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET); b) specific protocol to detect WRTS; and c) two 30-min walking and running bouts at WRTS. Expired gases were collected during exercise bouts via the Ultima CardiO 2 metabolic analyzer. Compared to walking, running at the WRTS resulted in higher oxygen uptake (>0.27 L·min -1 ), pulmonary ventilation (>7.7 L·min -1 ), carbon dioxide output (>0.23 L·min -1 ), heart rate (>15 beats·min -1 ), oxygen pulse (>0.88 15 mL·beats -1 ), energy expenditure (>27 kcal) and cost of oxygen transport (>43 mL·kg -1 ·km -1 ·bout -1 ). The increase of overall and local RPEs with exercise duration was similar across locomotion modes (Pexercise tolerance. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  15. Factors associated with the use of dietary supplements and over-the-counter medications in Japanese elderly patients.

    Masumoto, Shoichi; Sato, Mikiya; Maeno, Takami; Ichinohe, Yumiko; Maeno, Tetsuhiro

    2018-01-24

    The use of dietary supplements and over-the-counter (OTC) drugs is increasing, and there is adequate concern about potential harmful effects. However, there are limited reports on the concurrent use of nonprescription medications with prescription medications in elderly patients. Therefore, this study was conducted to describe the use of dietary supplements and OTC drugs, and to identify predictors for their use in elderly patients using medications prescribed for chronic diseases. This was a cross-sectional study that enrolled 729 patients aged ≥65 years with chronic diseases, between January and March 2016. Data regarding socio-demographic status, medical condition, number of prescriptions, use of nonprescription medications, and psychological status were collected using a self-administered questionnaire and by review of medical records. Data regarding use of dietary supplements and OTC drugs were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Logistic regression analysis was applied to investigate factors associated with the use of dietary supplements and OTC drugs. The regular use of nonprescription drugs was reported by 32.5% of patients. Vitamins were the most commonly used dietary supplements in elderly patients. Female sex, higher educational qualifications, and good economic status were identified as predictors for the use of nonprescription medications. Concurrent use of nonprescription medications with more than 5 prescription medications was detected in 12.2% of participants. The disclosure rate of the use of nonprescription medications by patients to the physician was 30.3%. The use of dietary supplements and OTC drugs was common in elderly patients with chronic diseases, and its use is associated with sex, education, and economic status. General practitioners (GPs) need to recognize the potential use of nonprescription medications, considering that polypharmacy was common and disclosure rate was low in this study.

  16. Baseline estradiol concentration in community-dwelling Japanese American men is not associated with intra-abdominal fat accumulation over 10 years.

    Kocarnik, Beverly M; Boyko, Edward J; Matsumoto, Alvin M; Fujimoto, Wilfred Y; Hayashi, Tomoshige; Leonetti, Donna L; Page, Stephanie T

    The role of plasma estradiol in the accumulation of intra-abdominal fat (IAF) in men is uncertain. Cross-sectional studies using imaging of IAF have shown either a positive or no association. In contrast, a randomised controlled trial using an aromatase inhibitor to suppress estradiol production found an association between oestrogen deficiency and short-term IAF accumulation. No longitudinal study has been conducted to examine the relationship between plasma estradiol concentration and the change in IAF area measured using direct imaging. This is a longitudinal observational study in community-dwelling Japanese-American men (n=215, mean age 52 years, BMI 25.4kg/m 2 ). IAF and subcutaneous fat areas were assessed using computerized tomography (CT) at baseline, 5 and 10 years. Baseline plasma estradiol concentrations were measured using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Univariate analysis found no association between baseline estradiol concentration and baseline IAF, or 5- or 10-year changes in IAF area (r=-0.05 for both time points, p=0.45 and p=0.43, respectively). Multivariate linear regression analysis of the change in IAF area by baseline estradiol concentration adjusted for age, baseline IAF area, and weight change found no association with either the 5- or 10-year IAF area change (p=0.52 and p=0.55, respectively). Plasma estradiol concentration was not associated with baseline IAF nor with change in IAF area over 5 or 10 years based on serial CT scans in community-dwelling Japanese-American men. These results do not support a role for oestrogen deficiency in IAF accumulation in men. Copyright © 2015 Asia Oceania Association for the Study of Obesity. All rights reserved.

  17. The relationships between oral status, physical and mental health, nutritional status and diet type in elderly Japanese women with dementia.

    Sadamori, Shinsuke; Hayashi, Syouji; Hamada, Taizo

    2008-12-01

    To suggest methods for maintaining an adequate nutritional status for elderly patients with dementia by evaluating the relationships between oral status, physical and mental health, and feeding conditions. Feeding difficulties in dementia patients are related to food intake, and failure to eat may be associated with weight loss in long-term care facilities. The relationship between compromised oral function and diet is still unclear. A cross-sectional study of 94 elderly women with dementia (mean age 89.6 +/- 5.6 years) from a nursing home was undertaken to investigate their oral, physical and mental and nutritional status. There were significant differences in serum albumin (p = 0.0284), N-ADL (p = 0.0005), NM scale (p = 0.0004) and HDS-R (p = 0.0004) between denture wearers and non-denture wearers. However, there were no significant differences in body mass index between denture wearers and non-denture wearers. A suitable type of diet and assistance with feeding could maintain the nutritional status of elderly patients with dementia if they are still feeding themselves. The nutritional support team will benefit from the participation of a dentist.

  18. GH administration changes myosin heavy chain isoforms in skeletal muscle but does not augment muscle strength or hypertrophy, either alone or combined with resistance exercise training in healthy elderly men

    Lange, Kai Henrik Wiborg; Andersen, Jesper Løvind; Beyer, Nina

    2002-01-01

    GH administration, either alone or combined with resistance exercise training (RT), has attracted interest as a means of increasing muscle mass and strength in the elderly. In the present study, 31 healthy, elderly men [age, 74 +/- 1 yr (mean +/- SEM)] were assigned to either RT [3 sessions/wk, 3...

  19. Symptomatological and cognitive correlates of vascular comorbidity in older-elderly (at least 75 years old) men with major depressive disorder.

    Wang, Yu-Yuan; Chang, Yun-Hsuan; Lee, Sheng-Yu; Huang, Chih-Chun; Lee, I-Hui; Yeh, Tzung-Lieh; Yang, Yen-Kuang; Ku, Yan-Chiou; Lu, Ru-Band

    2012-11-01

    Depression is a common geriatric psychiatric disorder increasing with age among elderly people (≥ 75 years old), especially those with medical comorbidities. They have higher suicide rates than younger men, but these are paid less attention. Elderly men (n=141) who were newly admitted residents of the Veterans' Home in Tainan, Taiwan from 2004 to 2006 were recruited and screened for major depression. Specialist physicians obtained past histories of medical illnesses through chart reviews, interview, and health examinations. Fifty-nine of the 141 elderly people had major depression and participated in this study. Thirty-nine men in the group with vascular comorbidities (VC), and 20 in the group without (NVC) vascular comorbidities were compared. The VC group had more time-orientation impairment, greater psychomotor retardation, and diminished concentration/decision-making than did the NVC group. Psychomotor retardation and other cognitive function impairments (e.g., concentration and decision-making) are characteristic manifestations among patients with major depression and vascular comorbidity compared with those without vascular comorbidity. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Effects of 3-year denosumab treatment on hip structure in Japanese postmenopausal women and men with osteoporosis

    Teruki Sone

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Denosumab, a human monoclonal antibody against RANK ligand, is shown to have strong anti-fracture effects in Japanese osteoporosis patients. However, there have been no data showing actions on Japanese bone architecture. Here we show that denosumab continuously improves several geometrical parameters calculated by hip structural analysis for 3 years. Compared to placebo, denosumab significantly increased bone mineral density, cortical thickness and cross sectional area in all of the three analyzed areas: the narrow neck, intertrochanter and femoral shaft. The subsequent derived mechanical parameters, cross-sectional moment of inertia, section modulus and buckling ratio, were also improved by denosumab. In addition, the improvement of these parameters was also observed in the patients that had switched from placebo to denosumab treatment. The present study suggests the structural evidence explaining the strong anti-fracture efficacy of denosumab and its significant effects on cortical bone in Japanese.

  1. Tibiofemoral osteoarthritis affects quality of life and function in elderly Koreans, with women more adversely affected than men.

    Kim, Inje; Kim, Hyun Ah; Seo, Young-Il; Song, Yeong Wook; Hunter, David J; Jeong, Jin Young; Kim, Dong Hyun

    2010-06-22

    The prevalence of knee osteoarthritis(OA) in East Asia is as common for men and even higher for women than that reported in the Caucasian population. Since both population aging and economic growth have taken place at a much faster pace in Asian countries, such as South Korea, one would expect knee OA to become a major public health problem. However, few studies have examined the influence of knee OA on the quality of life (QoL) and physical function in Asia. The aim of this cross-sectional study is to investigate the influence of knee osteoarthritis (OA) on the quality of life (QoL), function and lower extremity physical performance and the gender difference in its influence in elderly community residents in Korea. Participants were from the population-based Hallym Aging Study (HAS). The mean age of the 504 study subjects was 70.2 years and 274 (54%) were women. Demographic information was obtained by questionnaire, and radiographic evaluations consisted of weight-bearing semi-flexed knee radiographs. Self-reported QoL and function were assessed using Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis (WOMAC) Index and Short Form 12-item (SF-12). Performance-based lower extremity function was assessed using the tests consisting of standing balance, usual walk and chair stands. The odds ratios(ORs) for belonging to the worst quartile of WOMAC and physical performance test were calculated by logistic regression analysis in radiographic knee OA compared to non-OA after adjustment of confounders. Scores for SF-12 items were analyzed using general linear models and means adjusted for age, BMI and OA severity were compared. Subjects with radiographic knee OA had significantly increased OR for belonging to the worst WOMAC quartile(for pain, 2.13,95% confidence interval[CI], 1.33-3.40, for stiffness, 2.94,95% CI,1.78-4.86, and for function, 2.97, 95% CI,1.83-4.81) and significantly worse SF-12 scores compared to non-OA after adjustment of age, BMI and sex. Women had

  2. Tibiofemoral osteoarthritis affects quality of life and function in elderly Koreans, with women more adversely affected than men

    Hunter David J

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of knee osteoarthritis(OA in East Asia is as common for men and even higher for women than that reported in the Caucasian population. Since both population aging and economic growth have taken place at a much faster pace in Asian countries, such as South Korea, one would expect knee OA to become a major public health problem. However, few studies have examined the influence of knee OA on the quality of life (QoL and physical function in Asia. The aim of this cross-sectional study is to investigate the influence of knee osteoarthritis (OA on the quality of life (QoL, function and lower extremity physical performance and the gender difference in its influence in elderly community residents in Korea. Methods Participants were from the population-based Hallym Aging Study (HAS. The mean age of the 504 study subjects was 70.2 years and 274 (54% were women. Demographic information was obtained by questionnaire, and radiographic evaluations consisted of weight-bearing semi-flexed knee radiographs. Self-reported QoL and function were assessed using Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis (WOMAC Index and Short Form 12-item (SF-12. Performance-based lower extremity function was assessed using the tests consisting of standing balance, usual walk and chair stands. The odds ratios(ORs for belonging to the worst quartile of WOMAC and physical performance test were calculated by logistic regression analysis in radiographic knee OA compared to non-OA after adjustment of confounders. Scores for SF-12 items were analyzed using general linear models and means adjusted for age, BMI and OA severity were compared. Results Subjects with radiographic knee OA had significantly increased OR for belonging to the worst WOMAC quartile(for pain, 2.13,95% confidence interval[CI], 1.33-3.40, for stiffness, 2.94,95% CI,1.78-4.86, and for function, 2.97, 95% CI,1.83-4.81 and significantly worse SF-12 scores compared to non

  3. Sugar-sweetened beverage and diet soda consumption and the 7-year risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus in middle-aged Japanese men.

    Sakurai, M; Nakamura, K; Miura, K; Takamura, T; Yoshita, K; Nagasawa, S Y; Morikawa, Y; Ishizaki, M; Kido, T; Naruse, Y; Suwazono, Y; Sasaki, S; Nakagawa, H

    2014-02-01

    This cohort study investigated the association between sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) and diet soda consumption and the incidence of type 2 diabetes in Japanese men. The participants were 2,037 employees of a factory in Japan. We measured consumption of SSB and diet soda using a self-administered diet history questionnaire. The incidence of diabetes was determined in annual medical examinations over a 7-year period. Hazard ratios (HRs) with 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) for diabetes were estimated after adjusting for age, body mass index, family history, and dietary and other lifestyle factors. During the study, 170 participants developed diabetes. The crude incidence rates (/1,000 person-years) across participants who were rare/never SSB consumers, Diet soda consumption was significantly associated with the incident risk of diabetes (P for trend = 0.013), and multivariate-adjusted HRs compared to rare/never diet soda consumers were 1.05 (0.62-1.78) and 1.70 (1.13-2.55), respectively, for participants who consumed diet soda was significantly associated with an increased risk for diabetes in Japanese men. Diet soda is not always effective at preventing type 2 diabetes even though it is a zero-calorie drink.

  4. Dietary patterns and all-cause, cancer, and cardiovascular disease mortality in Japanese men and women: The Japan public health center-based prospective study.

    Akiko Nanri

    Full Text Available A meta-analysis showed an inverse association of a prudent/healthy dietary pattern with all-cause mortality and no association of a western/unhealthy dietary pattern. However, the association of distinctive dietary patterns of Japanese population with mortality remains unclear. We prospectively investigated the association between dietary patterns and all-cause, cancer, and cardiovascular disease mortality among Japanese adults.Participants were 36,737 men and 44,983 women aged 45-74 years who participated in the second survey of the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study (1995-1998 and who had no history of serious disease. Dietary patterns were derived from principal component analysis of the consumption of 134 food and beverage items ascertained by a food frequency questionnaire. Hazard ratios of death from the second survey to December 2012 were estimated using cox proportional hazard regression analysis.A prudent dietary pattern, which was characterized by high intake of vegetables, fruit, soy products, potatoes, seaweed, mushrooms, and fish, was significantly associated with decreased risk of all-cause and cardiovascular disease mortality. The multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals of all-cause and cardiovascular disease mortality for the highest versus lowest quartile of the prudent dietary pattern score were 0.82 (0.77 to 0.86 and 0.72 (0.64 to 0.79, respectively (P for trend <0.001 in both. A Westernized dietary pattern, characterized by high intake of meat, processed meat, bread, and dairy products, was also inversely associated with risk of all-cause, cancer, and cardiovascular disease mortality. A traditional Japanese dietary pattern was not associated with these risks.The prudent and Westernized dietary patterns were associated with a decreased risk of all-cause and cardiovascular disease mortality in Japanese adults.

  5. Safety and effectiveness of tofogliflozin in elderly Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: A post-marketing study (J-STEP/EL Study).

    Utsunomiya, Kazunori; Shimmoto, Naoki; Senda, Masayuki; Kurihara, Yuji; Gunji, Ryoji; Fujii, Shoko; Kakiuchi, Seigo; Fujiwara, Hisataka; Kameda, Hiroyuki; Tamura, Masahiro; Kaku, Kohei

    2017-11-01

    Although sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors are a promising treatment for type 2 diabetes mellitus, they are associated with concerns about specific adverse drug reactions. We carried out a 1-year post-marketing study of tofogliflozin, a novel agent in this class, in Japanese elderly patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. This was a prospective, observational and multicenter post-marketing study carried out in the context of routine clinical practice. The study included all type 2 diabetes patients aged ≥65 years who started treatment with tofogliflozin during the first 3 months after its launch on 23 May 2014. Of 1,535 patients registered, 1,507 patients whose electronic case report forms were collected and who had at least one follow-up visit were included in the safety analysis. A total of 270 of 1,507 patients (17.92%) had at least one adverse drug reaction to tofogliflozin. The incidences of adverse drug reactions of special interest, namely, polyuria/pollakiuria, volume depletion-related events, urinary tract infection, genital infection, hypoglycemia and skin disorders were 2.92, 3.85, 2.06, 1.33, 1.06 and 2.39%, respectively. Among those patients evaluable for clinical effectiveness, the mean change in glycated hemoglobin and bodyweight from baseline to last visit was -0.46% (P < 0.0001) and -2.71 kg (P < 0.0001), respectively. The present study showed that the incidence of adverse drug reactions to tofogliflozin in this study of elderly patients aged ≥65 years differed little from the incidence in the preapproval clinical trials. It was shown that tofogliflozin significantly decreased glycated hemoglobin levels. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Diabetes Investigation published by Asian Association for the Study of Diabetes (AASD) and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  6. Oncological and functional outcomes of elderly men treated with HIFU vs. minimally invasive radical prostatectomy: A propensity score analysis.

    Capogrosso, Paolo; Barret, Eric; Sanchez-Salas, Rafael; Nunes-Silva, Igor; Rozet, François; Galiano, Marc; Ventimiglia, Eugenio; Briganti, Alberto; Salonia, Andrea; Montorsi, Francesco; Cathelineau, Xavier

    2018-01-01

    To assess outcomes of whole gland high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) as compared with minimally-invasive radical prostatectomy (MIRP) in elderly patients. Patients aged ≥70 years with, cT1-cT2 disease, biopsy Gleason score (GS) 3 + 3 or 3 + 4 and preoperative PSA ≤10 ng/mL were submitted to either whole-gland HIFU or MIRP. Propensity-score matching analysis was performed to ensure the baseline equivalence of groups. Follow-up visits were routinely performed assessing PSA and urinary function according to the International Continence Score (ICS) and the International Prostatic Symptoms Score (IPSS) questionnaires. Estimated rates of salvage-treatment free survival (SFS) overall-survival (OS), cancer-specific survival (CSS) and metastasis-free survival (MTS) were assessed and compared. Overall, 84 (33.3%) and 168 (66.7%) patients were treated with HIFU and MIRP, respectively. MIRP was associated with a 5-yrs SFS of 93.4% compared to 74.8% for HIFU (p < 0.01). The two groups did not differ in terms of OS and MTS. No cancer-related deaths were registered. Patients treated with HIFU showed better short-term (6-mos) continence outcomes [mean-ICS: 1.7 vs. 4.8; p = 0.005] but higher IPSS mean scores at 12-mos assessment. A comparable rate of patients experiencing post-treatment Clavien-Dindo grade ≥III complications was observed within the two groups. Whole-gland HIFU is a feasible treatment in elderly men with low-to intermediate-risk PCa and could be considered for patients either unfit for surgery, or willing a non-invasive treatment with a low morbidity burden, although a non-negligible risk of requiring subsequent treatment for recurrence should be expected. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd, BASO ~ The Association for Cancer Surgery, and the European Society of Surgical Oncology. All rights reserved.

  7. Health-related quality of life in Japanese men with localized prostate cancer. Assessment with the SF-8

    Sugimoto, Mikio; Kakehi, Yoshiyuki; Takegami, Misa; Fukuhara, Shunichi; Suzukamo, Yoshimi

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate health related quality of life (HRQOL) using the Medical Outcomes Study 8-items Short Form Health Survey (SF-8) questionnaire in Japanese patients with early prostate cancer. A cross-sectional analysis was done in 457 patients with prostate cancer treated with radical prostatectomy, external beam radiotherapy, brachytherapy, androgen deprivation therapy, and watchful waiting or a combination these therapies. General HRQOL was measured using the Japanese version of the SF-8 questionnaire and disease-specific HRQOL was assessed using the Japanese version of the Extended Prostate Cancer Index Composite. The external beam radiotherapy group reported significantly lower values for the physical health component summary score (PCS) in comparison to the radical prostatectomy and brachytherapy groups (P<0.05). In the analysis of both the PCS and the mental health component summary score (MCS) over time after treatment, higher scores with time were found in the radical prostatectomy group. No significant change over time after androgen deprivation therapy in the PCS was found. In contrast, the MCS was found to deteriorate in the early period, showing a significant increase over time. SF-8 in combination with the Extended Prostate Cancer Index Composite has shown to be a helpful tool in the HRQOL assessment of Japanese patients treated for localized prostate cancer. (author)

  8. Association of eating three meals irregularly with changes in BMI and weight among young Japanese men and women: A 2-year follow-up.

    Ibe, Yoko; Miyakawa, Happei; Fuse-Nagase, Yasuko; Hirose, Ayumi Sugawara; Hirasawa, Reiko; Yachi, Yoko; Fujihara, Kazuya; Kobayashi, Kazuto; Shimano, Hitoshi; Sone, Hirohito

    2016-09-01

    Epidemiological longitudinal investigations of the association between not eating three meals regularly and changes in BMI and weight are scarce. The aim of this study was to investigate whether or not regularly eating three meals was associated with changes in BMI and weight in young Japanese men and women. Study participants were 1241 men and 897 women aged 19.0±1.2 and 18.8±0.8years, respectively, who underwent health checkups at a university in Japan in 2001 as the baseline and subsequently in 2003. Weight and height were measured at baseline and 2years later. Whether an individual ate three meals regularly was determined by a self-report questionnaire in 2001. During the 2-year follow-up, the BMI gain was 0.347 for men and 0.067 for women. In the logistic regression analysis, for men, eating three meals irregularly was significantly associated with a 4% BMI gain (OR 1.60, CI 1.11-2.30), 6% BMI gain (OR 1.72, CI 1.12-2.63), 4kg weight gain (OR 2.01, CI 1.29-3.13), 6kg weight gain (OR 1.86, CI 1.02-3.37), and incidence of obesity (BMI ≧ 25)(OR 2.96, CI 1.22-7.17). For women, eating three meals irregularly was significantly associated with a 4% BMI loss (OR 1.99, CI 1.01-3.94), 6% BMI loss (OR 2.79, CI 1.29-6.03), 4kg weight loss (OR 3.85, CI 1.62-9.12), 6kg weight loss (OR 7.65, CI 2.06-28.46), and the incidence of underweight (OR 3.95, CI 1.32-11.89). The current results suggested that eating three meals irregularly was associated with subsequent BMI and weight gains for men and subsequent BMI and weight losses for women; both groups were around 20years of age. Self-reported eating behavior in this study might be used to screen and evaluate young Japanese men and women at high risk for changes in BMI and weight in a practical clinical setting. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Association of Adiponectin With Cancer and All-Cause Mortality in a Japanese Community-Dwelling Elderly Cohort: A Case-Cohort Study.

    Kojima, Reiji; Ukawa, Shigekazu; Zhao, Wenjing; Suzuki, Koji; Yamada, Hiroya; Tsushita, Kazuyo; Kawamura, Takashi; Okabayashi, Satoe; Wakai, Kenji; Noma, Hisashi; Ando, Masahiko; Tamakoshi, Akiko

    2018-03-24

    Most studies of plasma adiponectin (APN) and mortality among community-dwelling elderly focus on cardiovascular disease, but data on the relationship between plasma APN and cancer mortality is exiguous. We investigated whether APN is associated with cancer mortality in community-dwelling elderly people. We conducted a case-cohort study within the New Integrated Suburban Seniority Investigation (NISSIN) Project using a randomly drawn sub-cohort of 697 subjects (351 men and 346 women; mean age 64.5 [standard deviation, 0.5] years) among whom we compared cases of all-cause death (n = 269) and cancer death (n = 149) during a mean follow-up duration of 10.8 (standard deviation, 3.7) years. Associations between APN and mortality were assessed using weighted Cox regression analyses. We observed significant positive associations between the APN concentration and cancer death in the first and third APN tertiles compared with the second APN tertile (hazard ratio [HR] T1 vs T2 , 1.67; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.00-2.79 and HR T3 vs T2 , 2.10; 95% CI, 1.30-3.40). Further adjustment for possible confounders attenuated the association (HR T1 vs T2 , 1.63; 95% CI, 0.93-2.84 and HR T3 vs T2 , 2.10; 95% CI, 1.26-3.50). A similar but weaker association was seen for all-cause mortality (multivariate HR T1 vs T2 , 1.45; 95% CI, 0.95-2.21 and HR T3 vs T2 , 1.51; 95% CI, 1.01-2.25). Plasma APN and cancer mortality have a significant relationship among community-dwelling elderly people, which warrants further study.

  10. Effects of social support and self-esteem on depressive symptoms in Japanese middle-aged and elderly people.

    Fukukawa, Y; Tsuboi, S; Niino, N; Ando, F; Kosugi, S; Shimokata, H

    2000-04-01

    We examined the relationship among social support, self-esteem, and depression. The subjects were 1,116 Japanese community-dwelling adults aged between 40-79, who were the first wave participants of the National Institute for Longevity Sciences--Longitudinal Study of Aging (NILS-LSA). Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were performed on the Rosenberg's self-esteem scale that supported the superiority of the bi-dimensional structure of the scale marked by self-confidence and self-deprecation subscales. The subsequent causal analyses, using structural equation modeling, demonstrated that social support reduced depressed affect through an increase in self-confidence and a decrease in self-deprecation. By contrast, social support did not show a direct effect on depressed affect. The findings suggest the importance of esteem-improving elements of social support in reducing depressive symptoms.

  11. Physiological effects beyond the significant gain in muscle mass in sarcopenic elderly men: evidence from a randomized clinical trial using a protein-rich food

    Alemán-Mateo H

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Heliodoro Alemán-Mateo,1 Liliana Macías,1 Julián Esparza-Romero,1 Humberto Astiazaran-García,1 Ana Luz Blancas21Coordinación de Nutrición, Centro de Investigación en Alimentación y Desarrollo, AC, Hermosillo, Sonora, México; 2Dirección General de Servicios de Salud a la Persona, Hermosillo, Sonora, MéxicoBackground: Sarcopenia is strongly associated with an inadequate intake of dietary protein. Dietary protein supplementation boosts muscle-protein synthesis and increases muscle mass in the elderly. This study tested whether adding a protein-rich food, ricotta cheese, to the habitual diet increased total appendicular skeletal muscle mass and strength in elderly people.Methods: Participants (n = 40, were sarcopenic elderly men and women over 60 years of age. Two comparison groups were formed at random and followed for 3 months: the intervention group received 210 g/day of ricotta cheese plus the habitual diet, while the control group followed the habitual diet with no additional intervention. Total appendicular skeletal muscle (TASM was assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, while strength was measured using a handheld dynamometer at baseline and after the intervention period. The primary outcomes were the percentage of relative change in TASM and strength.Results: The percentage of relative change in TASM was not significant between the groups after the intervention period. Muscle strength improved in the intervention group, but showed only a tendency towards significance (P = 0.06. Secondary analysis showed that the men in the intervention group gained 270 g in TASM compared to those in the control group, and improved their fasting insulin levels (P = 0.05, muscle strength, lean body mass in the arms, and body weight variables.Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that a nutritional intervention using a high-quality protein food, specifically ricotta cheese, in order to increase the amount of protein intake might not

  12. Greater fruit intake was associated with better bone mineral status among Chinese elderly men and women: results of Hong Kong Mr. Os and Ms. Os studies.

    Liu, Zhao-min; Leung, Jason; Wong, Samuel Yeung-shan; Wong, Carmen Ka Man; Chan, Ruth; Woo, Jean

    2015-04-01

    Although studies in white populations have reported the beneficial effects of intakes of fruit and vegetables (F&V) on bone mass, limited data are available in Asians, especially among the elderly population. We examined the association of F&V intakes and bone mineral status in Chinese elderly adults and explored the potential mechanisms. The study was a population-based cross-sectional study among 4000 Hong Kong Chinese men and women aged 65 years and older. Habitual F&V intakes were ascertained from a validated food frequency questionnaire. Bone mineral measurements of the whole body, hip, lumber spine, and femoral neck were made by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Information on demographic, health, and lifestyles factors was obtained by standardized questionnaire. Relations between F&V intakes and bone mass at various sites were assessed by regression models. Whole-body and femoral neck bone mineral density and content were significantly and positively associated with fruit intake in both men and women, even when adjustment for a range of potential confounders was made. A daily increase of 100 g/kcal total fruit intake was associated with 4.5% and 6.4% increase of BMD at whole body, and 3.9% and 4.8% increase at the femoral neck in men and women, respectively. No significant association was found between vegetable intake and bone mass. The adjustment for vitamin C intake, but not dietary acid load, attenuated the association between fruit intake and bone mass. Greater fruit intake was independently associated with better bone mineral status among Chinese elderly men and women. The association is probably modified by dietary vitamin C. Copyright © 2015 AMDA – The Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Association between non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations and mortality from coronary heart disease among Japanese men and women: the Ibaraki Prefectural Health Study.

    Noda, Hiroyuki; Iso, Hiroyasu; Irie, Fujiko; Sairenchi, Toshimi; Ohtaka, Emiko; Ohta, Hitoshi

    2010-02-01

    The aim of this study was to examine whether non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-cholesterol) raises the risk of coronary heart disease in a dose-response fashion in a non-obese population with low total cholesterol levels and high HDL-cholesterol levels, such as Japanese. A total of 30,802 men and 60,417 women, aged 40 to 79 years with no history of stroke or coronary heart disease, completed a baseline risk factor survey in 1993 under the auspices of the Ibaraki Prefectural Health Study. Systematic mortality surveillance through 2003 identified 539 coronary heart disease deaths. The mean values for non-HDL-cholesterol were 140 mg/dL for men and 151 mg/dL for women. The corresponding mean values were 193 mg/dL and 208 mg/dL total cholesterol and 52 mg/dL and 57 mg/dL HDL-cholesterol, respectively. Men with non-HDL-cholesterol > or = 180 mg/dL had a two-fold higher age-adjusted risk of mortality from coronary heart disease than did those with non-HDL-cholesterol or = 180 mg/dL versus <100 mg/dL of non-HDL-cholesterol was 2.22 (95% confidence interval: 1.37 to 3.62) for men and 0.71 (0.37 to 1.34) for women. Higher concentrations of non-HDL-cholesterol were associated with an increased risk of mortality from coronary heart disease for men, but not for women.

  14. Effect of Water-Based Training Frequency on the Balance and Motor Function in Sedentary Elderly Men

    Rasoul Dokht Abdiyan

    2016-07-01

    Conclusion: It was concluded that the balance and movement ability factors of elderly people are highly affected by the volume of practice to training frequency. However, the increase in training frequency could improve other physical factors such as muscle strength and flexibility in the elderly.

  15. Identification of Facilitators and Deterrents of the Quality of Life in Elderly Women and Men: A Phenomenological Research

    Ali Imanzadeh

    2018-01-01

    Conclusion Our study indicates that to improve the life, the elderly should pay attention to factors such as the role of religious beliefs, proper nutrition, meeting relatives, reminiscence, and establishing proper social relationships. In addition, removing barriers such as breaking the taboo of elderly marriage, financial support, and providing counseling services could improve their quality of life.

  16. A comparison of the 12-year mortality and predictive factors of coronary heart disease among Japanese men in Japan and Hawaii

    Yano, Katsuhiko; Maclean, C.J.; Reed, D.M.; Shimizu, Yukiko; Sasaki, Hideo; Kodama, Kazunori; Kato, Hiroo; Kagan, A.

    1988-08-01

    The mortality and predictive factors of coronary heart disease (CHD) among men of Japanese ancestry in Japan and Hawaii were compared on the basis of 12 - year follow-up data using comparable methods of case ascertainment and risk factor measurements. Among 1,687 men (Japan) and 7,536 men (Hawaii) who were free of CHD and aged 45 - 69 at baseline examination, 20 (Japan) and 123 (Hawaii) cases of fatal CHD were identified. The age-adjusted mortality rate was 40 % higher in Hawaii than in Japan. The difference was not statistically significant, but consistent with earlier studies. More than half of this difference in mortality rate was attributed to different levels of known risk factors in the two cohorts. In multivariate analysis using the combined population, age, blood pressure, serum cholesterol, serum glucose, cigarette smoking, and alcohol intake (inversely) remained as significant predictors of CHD mortality. Although the associations of risk factors with CHD tended to be stronger in Hawaii than in Japan, there was no statistically significant difference in regression coefficient for any of the risk factors studied. These findings cannot be claimed definitive because of the small number of cases, especially in Japan. (author)

  17. Patterns of Declining Use and the Adverse Effect of Primary Androgen Deprivation on All-cause Mortality in Elderly Men with Prostate Cancer.

    Sammon, Jesse D; Abdollah, Firas; Reznor, Gally; Pucheril, Daniel; Choueiri, Toni K; Hu, Jim C; Kim, Simon P; Schmid, Marianne; Sood, Akshay; Sun, Maxine; Kibel, Adam S; Nguyen, Paul L; Menon, Mani; Trinh, Quoc-Dien

    2015-07-01

    Primary androgen deprivation therapy (pADT) is commonly used to treat elderly men diagnosed with localized prostate cancer (CaP), despite the lack of evidence supporting its use. To examine the effect of pADT on mortality and to assess contemporary trends of pADT use in elderly men with CaP. Men older than 65 yr residing in Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) registry areas diagnosed with localized or locally advanced CaP between 1992 and 2009 and not receiving definitive therapy. Propensity score (PS)-weighted Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate the effect of pADT use on overall survival among patients receiving pADT. The interaction between comorbidity-adjusted life expectancy (LE) and pADT use was assessed within the Cox and PS-weighted models. Contemporary (2004-2009) trends for pADT use were analyzed by linear regression. The primary cohort included 46 376 men, of whom 17 873 received pADT (39%). Patients with >10 yr LE had lower pADT utilization rates than patients with short LE. Between 2004 and 2009, the use of pADT in men with localized CaP decreased by 14% (from 36% to 22%). Relative to observation, pADT was associated with a survival disadvantage, with a hazard ratio for all-cause mortality of 1.37 (95% confidence interval 1.20-1.56). Limitations included biases not accounted for by the PS-weighted model, changes in CaP staging over the study period, the absence of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) data prior to 2004, and the limits of retrospective analysis to demonstrate causality. The use of pADT in elderly men with localized CaP has decreased over time. For men forgoing primary definitive therapy, the use of pADT is not associated with a survival benefit compared to observation, and denies men an opportunity for cure with definitive therapy. The deleterious effect of pADT is most pronounced in men with prolonged LE. In this report, we assessed the effect of primary androgen deprivation (pADT) on prostate cancer

  18. No additional effect of different types of physical activity on 10-hour muscle protein synthesis in elderly men on a controlled energy- and protein-sufficient diet

    Bulow, Jacob; Agergaard, Jakob; Kjær, Michael

    2016-01-01

    protein synthesis (MPS) are less investigated. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of daily physical activities upon MPS in elderly individuals. Methods: A total of 24 elderly men (70 +/- 1 year) were recruited and randomly assigned: inactivity in form of bed-rest (IA), daily physical......-hour myofibrillar protein fractional synthesis rates (FSR), and typical prerequisites for calculating FSR were fulfilled. Physical activities were monitored, and venous blood and muscle biopsies collected. Results: Physical activity was highest in the DA compared to both the IA and RE groups. Nutrient...... activities (DA), or heavy resistance exercise (RE). All groups undertook a normal eating routine containing carbohydrates (52 E%), fat (32 E%), and protein (16 E%). Ingestion of labeled milk protein ([1-C-13] leucine-labeled whey and caseinate) served to maintain tracer enrichment for determination of 10...

  19. Peak expiratory flow mediates the relationship between handgrip strength and timed up and go performance in elderly women, but not men.

    Ritti-Dias, Raphael Mendes; Cucato, Gabriel Grizzo; de Mello Franco, Fábio Gazelato; Cendoroglo, Maysa Seabra; Nasri, Fábio; Monteiro-Costa, Maria Luiza; de Carvalho, José Antonio Maluf; de Matos, Luciana Diniz Nagem Janot

    2016-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to verify if there is sex difference in the associations among handgrip strength, peak expiratory flow (PEF) and timed up and go (TUG) test results. The sample included 288 consecutive elderly men (n=93) and women (n=195). Functional capacity was measured using the TUG test, and muscle strength was measured based on handgrip. Moreover, as a measure of current health status, PEF was evaluated. Linear regression procedures were performed to analyze the relationships between handgrip and both PEF and TUG test results, with adjustment for confounders, and to identify the possible mediating role of PEF in the association between handgrip strength and TUG test results. In men, handgrip strength was associated with both PEF and TUG performance (prelationship between handgrip strength and TUG performance remained significant. In women, handgrip strength was also associated with both PEF and TUG performance (prelationship between handgrip strength and TUG performance was no longer significant. Mobility in the elderly is sex dependent. In particular, PEF mediates the relationship between handgrip strength and TUG performance in women, but not in men.

  20. Genetic contribution to the relationship between social role function and depressive symptoms in Japanese elderly twins: a twin study.

    Nishihara, Reiko; Inui, Fujio; Kato, Kenji; Tomizawa, Rie; Hayakawa, Kazuo

    2011-03-01

    Social role function is the capacity to maintain interpersonal relationships and is essential for being independent in the community. Limitations in social role function often coexist with depressive symptoms, suggesting a possible common mechanistic basis. We investigated whether the observed association between these traits is mainly a result of genetic or environmental influences. In 2008, a questionnaire was sent to 745 male twins aged 65 years and older. Our sample included 397 male twins. The number of monozygotic twins was 302, and dizygotic was 95. Among the twin pairs for whom data were available for both twins, 75 twin pairs (150 individuals) were monozygotic and 28 pairs (56 individuals) were dizygotic. Social role function was assessed using the Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology Index of Competence. Depressive symptoms were measured by the 15-item version of the Geriatric Depression Scale. Relative importance of genes and environments for the phenotypes was calculated using structural equation analyses. Our results show that genetic influence was the major contributor to the relationship between social role function and depressive symptoms, and non-shared environmental influence was important for overall variation in each trait. We concluded that focusing on a non-shared environment is an essential approach for maintaining social role function and psychological well-being. It is suggested that treatments specific to depressive symptoms are more effective than indirect intervention targeting social role function. © 2011 The Authors. Psychogeriatrics © 2011 Japanese Psychogeriatric Society.

  1. Impact of penile rehabilitation with low-dose vardenafil on recovery of erectile function in Japanese men following nerve-sparing radical prostatectomy

    Yuzo Nakano

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Erectile dysfunction (ED is a major complication after radical prostatectomy (RP; however, debate continues regarding the efficacy of penile rehabilitation in the recovery of the postoperative erectile function (EF. This study included a total of 103 consecutive sexually active Japanese men with localized prostate cancer undergoing nerve-sparing RP, and analyzed the postoperative EF, focusing on the significance of penile rehabilitation. In this series, 24 and 79 patients underwent bilateral and unilateral nerve-sparing RPs, respectively, and 10 or 20 mg of vardenafil was administered to 35 patients at least once weekly, who agreed to undergo penile rehabilitation. Twelve months after RP, 48 (46.6% of the 103 patients were judged to have recovered EF sufficient for sexual intercourse without any assistance. The proportion of patients who recovered EF in those undergoing penile rehabilitation (60.0% was significantly greater than that in those without penile rehabilitation (38.2%. Of several parameters examined, the preoperative International Index of Erectile Function-5 (IIEF-5 score and nerve-sparing procedure were significantly associated with the postoperative EF recovery rates in patients with and without management by penile rehabilitation, respectively. Furthermore, univariate analysis identified the preoperative IIEF-5 score, nerve-sparing procedure and penile rehabilitation as significant predictors of EF recovery, among which the preoperative IIEF-5 score and nerve-sparing procedure appeared to be independently associated with EF recovery. Considering these findings, despite the lack of independent significance, penile rehabilitation with low-dose vardenafil could exert a beneficial effect on EF recovery in Japanese men following nerve-sparing RP.

  2. Aloe sterol supplementation improves skin elasticity in Japanese men with sunlight-exposed skin: a 12-week double-blind, randomized controlled trial

    Tanaka M

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Miyuki Tanaka,1 Yuki Yamamoto,2 Eriko Misawa,1 Kazumi Nabeshima,1 Marie Saito,1 Koji Yamauchi,1 Fumiaki Abe,1 Fukumi Furukawa2 1Functional Food Ingredients Department, Food Ingredients & Technology Institute, Morinaga Milk Industry Co., Ltd., Zama, Kanagawa, 2Department of Dermatology, Wakayama Medical University, Kimiidera, Wakayama, Japan Background/objective: Recently, it was confirmed that the daily oral intake of plant sterols of Aloe vera gel (Aloe sterol significantly increases the skin barrier function, moisture, and elasticity in photoprotected skin. This study aimed to investigate whether Aloe sterol intake affected skin conditions following sunlight exposure in Japanese men. Methods: We performed a 12-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study to evaluate the effects of oral Aloe sterol supplementation on skin conditions in 48 apparently healthy men (age range: 30–59 years; average: 45 years. The subjects were instructed to expose the measurement position of the arms to the sunlight outdoors every day for 12 weeks. The skin parameters were measured at 0 (baseline, 4, 8, and 12 weeks. Results: Depending on the time for the revelation of the sunlight, the b* value and melanin index increased and the skin moisture decreased. After taking an Aloe sterol tablet daily for 12 weeks, the skin elasticity index (R2, R5, and R7 levels were significantly higher than the baseline value. There were no differences between the groups in these skin elasticity values. In the subgroup analysis of subjects aged <46 years, the change in the R5 and R7 was significantly higher in the Aloe group than in the placebo group at 8 weeks (P=0.0412 and P=0.0410, respectively. There was a difference in the quantity of sun exposure between each subject, and an additional clinical study that standardizes the amount of ultraviolet rays is warranted. No Aloe sterol intake-dependent harmful phenomenon was observed during the intake period

  3. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the SEPTIN12 gene may be associated with azoospermia by meiotic arrest in Japanese men.

    Miyamoto, Toshinobu; Tsujimura, Akira; Miyagawa, Yasushi; Koh, Eitetsu; Namiki, Mikio; Horikawa, Michiharu; Saijo, Yasuaki; Sengoku, Kazuo

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the association between SEPTIN12 gene variants and the risk of azoospermia caused by meiotic arrest. Mutational analysis of the SEPTIN12 gene was performed using DNA from 30 Japanese patients with azoospermia by meiotic arrest and 140 fertile male controls. The frequencies of the c.204G>C (Gln38His) allele and the CC genotype were significantly higher in patients than in fertile controls (p C (Gln38His) variant in the SEPTIN12 gene was associated with increased susceptibility to azoospermia caused by meiotic arrest.

  4. Association of sarcopenia with functional decline in community-dwelling elderly subjects in Japan.

    Tanimoto, Yoshimi; Watanabe, Misuzu; Sun, Wei; Tanimoto, Keiji; Shishikura, Kanako; Sugiura, Yumiko; Kusabiraki, Toshiyuki; Kono, Koichi

    2013-10-01

    The present study aimed to determine the association of sarcopenia, defined by muscle mass, muscle strength and physical performance, with functional disability from a 2-year cohort study of community-dwelling elderly Japanese people. Participants were 743 community-dwelling elderly Japanese people aged 65 years or older. We used bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) to measure muscle mass, grip strength to measure muscle strength, and usual walking speed to measure physical performance in a baseline study. Functional disability was defined using an activities of daily living (ADL) scale and instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) scale at baseline and during follow-up examinations 2 years later. Logistic regression analysis, adjusted for age and body mass index, was used to examine the association between sarcopenia and the occurrence of functional disability. In the present study, 7.8% of men and 10.2% of women were classified as having sarcopenia. Among sarcopenia patients in the baseline study, 36.8% of men and 18.8% of women became dependent in ADL at 2-year follow up. From the logistic regression analysis adjusted by age and body mass index, sarcopenia was significantly associated with the occurrences of physical disability compared with normal subjects in both men and women. Sarcopenia, defined by muscle mass, muscle strength and physical performance, was associated with functional decline over a 2-year period in elderly Japanese. Interventions to prevent sarcopenia are very important to prevent functional decline among elderly individuals. © 2013 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  5. Genetic polymorphisms of alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenases and glutathione S-transferase M1 and drinking, smoking, and diet in Japanese men with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

    Yokoyama, Akira; Kato, Hoichi; Yokoyama, Tetsuji; Tsujinaka, Toshimasa; Muto, Manabu; Omori, Tai; Haneda, Tatsumasa; Kumagai, Yoshiya; Igaki, Hiroyasu; Yokoyama, Masako; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Fukuda, Haruhiko; Yoshimizu, Haruko

    2002-11-01

    The genetic polymorphisms of aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 (ALDH2), alcohol dehydrogenase-2 (ADH2), ADH3, and glutathione S-transferase M1 (GSTM1) influence the metabolism of alcohol and other carcinogens. The ALDH2*1/2*2 genotype, which encodes inactive ALDH2, and ADH2*1/2*1, which encodes the low-activity form of ADH2, enhance the risk for esophageal cancer in East Asian alcoholics. This case-control study of whether the enzyme-related vulnerability for esophageal cancer can be extended to a general population involved 234 Japanese men with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and 634 cancer-free Japanese men who received annual health checkups. The GSTM1 genotype was not associated with the risk for this cancer. Light drinkers (1-8.9 units/week) with ALDH2*1/2*2 had an esophageal cancer risk 5.82 times that of light drinkers with ALDH2*1/2*1 (reference category), and their risk was similar to that of moderate drinkers (9-17.9 units/week) with ALDH2*1/2*1 (odds ratio = 5.58). The risk for moderate drinkers with ALDH2*1/2*2 (OR = 55.84) exceeded that for heavy drinkers (18+ units/week) with ALDH2*1/2*1 (OR = 10.38). Similar increased risks were observed for those with ADH2*1/2*1. A multiple logistic model including ALDH2, ADH2, and ADH3 genotypes showed that the ADH3 genotype does not significantly affect the risk for esophageal cancer. For individuals with both ALDH2*1/2*2 and ADH2*1/2*1, the risk of esophageal cancer was enhanced in a multiplicative fashion (OR = 30.12), whereas for those with either ALDH2*1/2*2 or ADH2*1/2*1 alone the ORs were 7.36 and 4.11. In comparison with the estimated population-attributable risks for preference for strong alcoholic beverages (30.7%), smoking (53.6%) and for lower intake of green and yellow vegetables (25.7%) and fruit (37.6%), an extraordinarily high proportion of the excessive risk for esophageal cancer in the Japanese males can be attributed to drinking (90.9%), particularly drinking by persons with inactive heterozygous ALDH

  6. Association of Coffee Consumption with Sarcopenia in Korean Elderly Men: Analysis Using the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2008?2011

    Chung, Hyewon; Moon, Ji Hyun; Kim, Ju Il; Kong, Mi Hee; Huh, Jung Sik; Kim, Hyeon Ju

    2017-01-01

    Background Sarcopenia is an age-related loss of muscle mass and strength. Coffee has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties that have been shown to be inversely related to the mechanism of sarcopenia. While there have been some studies on the effect of coffee on sarcopenia in animals, studies on the topic in humans are rare. Therefore, we investigated this relationship in elderly Korean men. Methods The cross-sectional data were derived from the 2008?2011 Korea National Health and Nutri...

  7. Prevalence of falls and the association with knee osteoarthritis and lumbar spondylosis as well as knee and lower back pain in Japanese men and women.

    Muraki, Shigeyuki; Akune, Toru; Oka, Hiroyuki; En-Yo, Yoshio; Yoshida, Munehito; Nakamura, Kozo; Kawaguchi, Hiroshi; Yoshimura, Noriko

    2011-10-01

    There is little information on falls by sex and age strata in Japan, and few factors associated with falls have been established. However, the association between bone and joint diseases and falls remains unclear. We examined prevalence of falls by sex and age strata, determined its association with radiographic osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee and lumbar spine, and determined knee and lower back pain after single and multiple falls. A questionnaire assessed the number of falls during 12 months preceding baseline. Knee and lumbar spine radiographs were read by Kellgren/Lawrence (K/L) grade; radiographic knee OA and lumbar spondylosis were defined as a K/L grade of 3 or 4. Knee and lower back pain were estimated by an interview. A total of 587 men and 1,088 women (mean ± SD age 65.3 ± 12.0 years) were analyzed. During 1 year, 79 (13.5%) men and 207 (19.0%) women reported at least 1 fall. With increasing age, the prevalence of multiple falls was higher in women, but lower in elderly men age >60 years. In men, few factors were significantly associated with falls. In women, radiographic knee OA and lumbar spondylosis, as well as knee and lower back pain, were significantly associated with multiple falls without adjustment. Lower back pain and knee pain were independently associated with multiple falls in women after adjustment. Lower back pain and knee pain were significantly associated with multiple falls in women. Copyright © 2011 by the American College of Rheumatology.

  8. Are eating habits effective screening indicators for anemia in elderly Japanese people? The Kyushu-Asakura Project (KAP).

    Hirakawa, Yoshihisa

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to explore whether the presence of unhealthy eating habits is an effective indicator of anemia among older people or not. We used data from a prospective observational cohort study of all users who underwent an annual health checkup at a public clinic in a rural area. The subjects of the present study were 150 users aged 75 years and older who underwent the checkup between January and September 2010. The subjects were first divided by gender and further separated into anemic and non-anemic subgroups according to their estimated anemia prevalences: Hb eating habits between the anemic and non-anemic groups. Both among the women and the men aged 75 and over, there were no significant differences in any items including eating habits between the two anemic subgroups. Our results suggest that the presence of unhealthy eating habits is not an effective indicator of anemia among older people.

  9. Epidemiologic studies of coronary heart disease and stroke in Japanese men living in Japan, Hawaii, and California: prevalence of coronary and hypertensive heart disease and associated risk factors. [Coronary and hypertensive heart disease in Japanese men living in Japan, Hawaii, and California

    Marmot, M G; Syme, S L; Kagan, A; Kato, H; Cohen, J B; Belsky, J L

    1974-01-01

    A study of coronary heart disease (CHD) among Japanese migrants compared with Japanese living in Japan provided the opportunity to study factors possibly responsible for the high rates of CHD in America as compared with Japan. Comparable methods were employed in examining 11,900 men of Japanese ancestry aged 45-69 living in Japan, Hawaii, and California. The age-adjusted prevalence rates/1000 for definite CHD as determined by electrocardiogram were: Japan 5.3, Hawaii 5.2, and California 10.8. For definite plus possible CHD the rates were 25.4, 34.7, and 44.6. The prevalence of angina pectoris and pain of possible myocardial infarction, determined by questionnaire, showed a similar gradient. Elevated serum cholesterol showed a Japan < Hawaii < California gradient, but the prevalence of hypertension in Japan was intermediate between the prevalence in Hawaii and the higher prevalence in California. The three geographical locations were compared as to prevalence of CHD at comparable levels of blood pressure and cholesterol. At each blood pressure level and at each cholesterol level, the greater prevalence of CHD in California persisted. These facts, plus the near universality of smoking in Japan, suggest that conventional risk factors only partly explain the observed gradient in CHD. (auth)

  10. Japanese study of tofogliflozin with type 2 diabetes mellitus patients in an observational study of the elderly (J-STEP/EL): A 12-week interim analysis.

    Utsunomiya, Kazunori; Shimmoto, Naoki; Senda, Masayuki; Kurihara, Yuji; Gunji, Ryoji; Kameda, Hiroyuki; Tamura, Masahiro; Mihara, Hanako; Kaku, Kohei

    2016-09-01

    Sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitors are a promising treatment for type 2 diabetes mellitus, but are associated with concerns about specific adverse drug reactions. We carried out a 1-year post-marketing surveillance of tofogliflozin, a novel agent in this class, in Japanese elderly patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and here report the results of a 12-week interim analysis, focusing on adverse drug reactions of special interest. The present prospective observational study included all type 2 diabetes mellitus patients aged ≥65 years who started tofogliflozin during the first 3 months after its launch. Data on demographic and baseline characteristics, clinical course and adverse events were collected. Of 1,535 patients registered, 1,506 patients whose electronic case report forms were collected and who had at least one follow-up visit were included in the safety analysis at 12 weeks. A total of 178 of 1,506 patients (11.82%) had at least one adverse drug reaction to tofogliflozin. The incidence of adverse drug reactions of special interest (polyuria/pollakiuria, volume depletion-related events, urinary tract infection, genital infection, skin disorders and hypoglycemia) was 2.19, 2.32, 1.33, 1.13, 1.46 and 0.73%, respectively. No new safety concerns were identified. Among those evaluable for clinical effectiveness, the mean (standard deviation) glycated hemoglobin decreased from 7.65% (1.35%) at baseline to 7.25% (1.16%) at 12 weeks by 0.39% (0.94%; P type 2 diabetes mellitus during the early post-marketing period. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Diabetes Investigation published by Asian Association for the Study of Diabetes (AASD) and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  11. Clinical Data Mining Related to the Japanese Kampo Concept “Hie” (Oversensitivity to Coldness in Men and Pre- and Postmenopausal Women

    H. Tokunaga

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available “Hie” is a subjective oversensitivity to cold and a condition experienced in 60% of Japanese citizens. The condition of hie has not been documented in Western medicine. However, in Kampo medicine, hie is an important target of treatment, because it has been considered one of the sources of all kinds of diseases. This study aimed to clarify the symptoms and findings associated with hie and contribute to increased precision in hie diagnosis. During 2005-2006, data from interviews of 1691 patients during their initial visit to the Kampo Clinic of Keio University Hospital were analyzed using a classification and regression tree (CART analysis, a data mining technique. Symptoms and findings characteristic of each group are follows as, postmenopausal women: fatigability, absence of lower abdominal pain, and absence of hot flashes of feet: women with menstruation: leg swelling, knee pain, and abdominal pain; men: insomnia, leg weakness, and absence of excess saliva. From the perspective of Kampo medicine the result suggested that the feature of hie condition in postmenopausal women, women with menstruation, and men is statistically different.

  12. Incidence and predictors of sarcopenia onset in community-dwelling elderly Japanese women: 4-year follow-up study.

    Kim, Hunkyung; Suzuki, Takao; Kim, Miji; Kojima, Narumi; Yoshida, Yuko; Hirano, Hirohiko; Saito, Kyoko; Iwasa, Hajime; Shimada, Hiroyuki; Hosoi, Erika; Yoshida, Hideyo

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have explored the prevalence and risk factors of sarcopenia, but they have been based on cross-sectional data. The objective of this study was to determine the incidence and predictors of the onset of sarcopenia over 4 years in community-dwelling elderly women. Four-year longitudinal follow-up study. Urban community in Tokyo, Japan. A total of 538 nonsarcopenic women older than 75 years. Body composition was determined by bioelectrical impedance analysis. Functional fitness measurements, including grip strength, usual walking speed, timed up and go (TUG), and interview surveys were conducted at baseline and 4-year follow-up. Blood samples were obtained to analyze serum albumin and hemoglobin A1c, and kidney function was analyzed using serum creatinine and cystatin C. Sarcopenia was defined based on the criteria suggested by the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People, and the development of all stages, that is, presarcopenia, sarcopenia, and severe sarcopenia as well as the components of sarcopenia skeletal muscle index (SMI), grip strength, and walking speed, were analyzed. The incidence of total sarcopenia was 39.6% (presarcopenia 23.8%, sarcopenia 11.2%, severe sarcopenia 4.6%). Older age was significantly predictive of the development of presarcopenia and severe sarcopenia. Body mass index (BMI) lower than 21.0 kg/m(2) was significantly predictive of the development of all stages of sarcopenia, as well as declines in SMI, grip strength, and walking speed. Slow TUG was a predictor of the development of presarcopenia and severe sarcopenia. Increased calf circumference showed protective effects from the development of all stages of sarcopenia. Greater albumin levels also showed lower risk of declines in SMI, walking speed, and development of presarcopenia. Cystatin C was positively associated with the development of severe sarcopenia (odds ratio 1.83, 95% confidence interval 1.08-3.12). Heart disease and hyperlipidemia history were

  13. Predictors of Prostate Cancer-Specific Mortality in Elderly Men With Intermediate-Risk Prostate Cancer Treated With Brachytherapy With or Without External Beam Radiation Therapy

    Nanda, Akash; Chen, M.-H.; Moran, Brian J.; Braccioforte, Michelle H.; Dosoretz, Daniel; Salenius, Sharon; Katin, Michael; Ross, Rudi; D'Amico, Anthony V.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To identify clinical factors associated with prostate cancer-specific mortality (PCSM), adjusting for comorbidity, in elderly men with intermediate-risk prostate cancer treated with brachytherapy alone or in conjunction with external beam radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: The study cohort comprised 1,978 men of median age 71 (interquartile range, 66-75) years with intermediate-risk disease (Gleason score 7, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) 20 ng/mL or less, tumor category T2c or less). Fine and Gray's multivariable competing risks regression was used to assess whether prevalent cardiovascular disease (CVD), age, treatment, year of brachytherapy, PSA level, or tumor category was associated with the risk of PCSM. Results: After a median follow-up of 3.2 (interquartile range, 1.7-5.4) years, the presence of CVD was significantly associated with a decreased risk of PCSM (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.20; 95% CI 0.04-0.99; p = 0.05), whereas an increasing PSA level was significantly associated with an increased risk of PCSM (adjusted hazard ratio 1.14; 95% CI 1.02-1.27; p = 0.02). In the absence of CVD, cumulative incidence estimates of PCSM were higher (p = 0.03) in men with PSA levels above as compared with the median PSA level (7.3 ng/mL) or less; however, in the setting of CVD there was no difference (p = 0.27) in these estimates stratified by the median PSA level (6.9 ng/mL). Conclusions: In elderly men with intermediate-risk prostate cancer, CVD status is a negative predictor of PCSM and affects the prognostic capacity of pretreatment PSA level. These observations support the potential utility of prerandomization stratification by comorbidity to more accurately assess prognostic factors and treatment effects within this population.

  14. Sarcopenia and sarcopenic obesity and their association with dyslipidemia in Korean elderly men: the 2008-2010 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Baek, S J; Nam, G E; Han, K D; Choi, S W; Jung, S W; Bok, A R; Kim, Y H; Lee, K S; Han, B D; Kim, D H

    2014-03-01

    Recently, aging has been shown to be associated with sarcopenic obesity (SO), of which decreased muscle mass and increased fat mass are features. Sarcopenia and obesity alone are known to be associated with abnormal lipid metabolism. However, it remains unclear whether SO has greater adverse effects on dyslipidemia than on sarcopenia or obesity alone. We aimed to investigate the association between SO and dyslipidemia in elderly Koreans. This study was based on data collected during the 2008-2010 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. We included 1,466 men and 2,017 women aged 65 years and over. Sarcopenia was indicated in participants with height- or weight-adjusted appendicular skeletal muscle that was 1 standard deviation below the sex-specific mean for the young reference group, and obesity was defined as a body mass index ≥ 25 kg/m(2). Dyslipidemia was defined according to the National Cholesterol Education Program-Adult Treatment Panel III. After adjusting for confounding factors, the SO group had a higher risk for dyslipidemia [odds ratio (OR) 2.82 (95 % confidence interval 1.76-4.51)] than the obese group [2.12 (1.11-4.07)] and sarcopenic group [1.46 (1.01-2.11)] (p elderly men, SO was associated with an increased risk for dyslipidemia compared with sarcopenia or obesity alone.

  15. Sexuality and sense of self in later life: Japanese men's and women's reflections on sex and aging.

    Moore, Katrina L

    2010-06-01

    The aim of this article is to provide a nuanced analysis of the transformation of sexuality that occurs with age. Drawing on several ethnographic narratives of married men and women over the age of 60 in Japan, this article provides insight into gender-specific experiences of marital sexuality, the impact of extra-marital sexual activity on marital relationships, and the development of "sibling-like" relationships as couples grow older. It also highlights the continuing importance of sexual desire in later life, especially to men's sense of self. This article contributes to the growing scholarship on the sexuality of older persons around the world and makes a case for the importance of the life history interview as a methodology for illuminating the complex relationship between gender, sexuality, and aging.

  16. Genetic Polymorphisms of Alcohol Dehydrogenase and Aldehyde Dehydrogenase: Alcohol Use and Type 2 Diabetes in Japanese Men

    Yin, Guang; Ohnaka, Keizo; Morita, Makiko; Tabata, Shinji; Tajima, Osamu; Kono, Suminori

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the association of ADH1B (rs1229984) and ALDH2 (rs671) polymorphisms with glucose tolerance status, as determined by a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test, and effect modification of these polymorphisms on the association between alcohol consumption and glucose intolerance in male officials of the Self-Defense Forces. The study subjects included 1520 men with normal glucose tolerance, 553 with prediabetic condition (impaired fasting glucose and impaired glucose tolerance)...

  17. Television viewing time and mortality from stroke and coronary artery disease among Japanese men and women -- the Japan Collaborative Cohort Study.

    Ikehara, Satoyo; Iso, Hiroyasu; Wada, Yasuhiko; Tanabe, Naohito; Watanabe, Yoshiyuki; Kikuchi, Shogo; Tamakoshi, Akiko

    2015-01-01

    No study has examined the association between television (TV) viewing time and mortality from stroke and coronary artery disease (CAD) in Japanese. A total of 35,959 men and 49,940 women aged 40-79 years without a history of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cancer were followed from 1988-1990 until 2009. During 19.2 median years of follow-up, there were 2,553 deaths from stroke, 1,206 from CAD and 5,835 from total CVD. Compared with viewing TV for TV viewing. The multivariable hazard ratios (HRs) for ≥6 h/day of TV viewing were 1.15 (95% confidence interval: 0.96-1.37) for stroke, 1.33 (1.03-1.72) for CAD and 1.19 (1.06-1.34) for total CVD. The corresponding HRs for each 1-h/day increment in TV viewing time were 1.01 (0.99-1.04), 1.04 (1.01-1.08) and 1.02 (1.01-1.04), respectively. The excess risk of mortality from CAD and total CVD was somewhat attenuated after further adjustment for potential mediators such as history of hypertension and diabetes: the multivariable HRs for ≥6 h/day of TV viewing were 1.24 (0.96-1.61) and 1.14 (1.02-1.28). The corresponding HRs for each 1-h/day increment in TV viewing time were 1.03 (1.00-1.07) and 1.01 (1.00-1.03). Prolonged TV viewing was associated with a small but significant increase in mortality from CAD and total CVD in Japanese.

  18. Incidence and risk factors for radiographic lumbar spondylosis and lower back pain in Japanese men and women: the ROAD study.

    Muraki, S; Akune, T; Oka, H; Ishimoto, Y; Nagata, K; Yoshida, M; Tokimura, F; Nakamura, K; Kawaguchi, H; Yoshimura, N

    2012-07-01

    To determine the incidence of radiographic lumbar spondylosis (LS)and lower back pain, and their risk factors in Japan using a large-scale population from the nationwide cohort Research on Osteoarthritis/osteoporosis Against Disability (ROAD) Study. Participants in the ROAD study who had been recruited between 2005 and 2007 were followed up with lumbar spine radiography for 3 years. A total of 2,282 paired radiographs (75% of the original sample) were scored using Kellgren and Lawrence (KL) grades, and the incidence and progression rate of radiographic LS was analyzed. The incidence of lower back pain was also examined. In addition, associations between risk factors and incident and progressive radiographic LS as well as incident lower back pain were tested. Given a 3.3-year follow-up, the incidence of KL≥2 radiographic LS was 50.0% and 34.4% (15.3% and 10.5% per year), while that of KL≥3 LS was 15.3% and 23.7% (4.6% and 7.2% per year) in men and women, respectively. The progression rate of LS was 20.5% and 27.4% (6.2% and 8.3% per year) in men and in women, respectively. In addition, the incidence of lower back pain was 28.3% and 31.2% (8.6% and 9.5% per year) in men and women. Lower back pain was not significantly associated with incident radiographic LS, while a more severe KL grade at baseline was associated with incident lower back pain. The present longitudinal study revealed a high incidence of radiographic LS in Japan. Copyright © 2012 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Alcohol Dehydrogenase-1B (rs1229984) and Aldehyde Dehydrogenase-2 (rs671) Genotypes and Alcoholic Ketosis Are Associated with the Serum Uric Acid Level in Japanese Alcoholic Men.

    Yokoyama, Akira; Yokoyama, Tetsuji; Mizukami, Takeshi; Matsui, Toshifumi; Kimura, Mitsuru; Matsushita, Sachio; Higuchi, Susumu; Maruyama, Katsuya

    2016-05-01

    To identify determinants of hyperuricemia in alcoholics. The serum uric acid (UA) levels of 1759 Japanese alcoholic men (≥40 years) were measured on their first visit or within 3 days after admission; ADH1B and ALDH2 genotyping on blood DNA samples were performed. Dipstick urinalyses for ketonuria and serum UA measurements were simultaneously performed for 621 men on their first visit. Serum UA levels of >416 μmol/l (7.0 mg/dl) and ≥535 μmol/l (9.0 mg/dl) were observed in 30.4 and 7.8% of the subjects, respectively. Ketonuria was positive in 35.9% of the subjects, and a multivariate analysis revealed that the ketosis level was positively associated with the UA level. The presence of the ADH1B*2 allele and the ALDH2*1/*1 genotype increased the odds ratio (OR; 95% confidence interval) among subjects with a high UA level of >416 μmol/l (vs. ≤416 μmol/l; 2.04 [1.58-2.65] and 1.48 [1.09-2.01], respectively) and those with a high UA level of ≥535 μmol/l (vs. ≤416 μmol/l; 2.29 [1.42-3.71] and 3.03 [1.51-6.08], respectively). The ADH1B*2 plus ALDH2*1/*1 combination yielded the highest ORs (2.86 [1.61-5.10] and 6.21 [1.49-25.88] for a UA level of >416 μmol/l and ≥535 μmol/l, respectively), compared with the ADH1B*1/*1 plus ALDH2*1/*2 combination. The presence of diabetes and the consumption of Japanese sake rather than beer were negatively associated with the UA levels. The faster metabolism of ethanol and acetaldehyde by the ADH1B*2 allele and ALDH2*1/*1 genotype and higher ketosis levels were associated with higher UA levels in alcoholics, while diabetes and the consumption of sake were negative determinants. © The Author 2015. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  20. The Effects of Aroma Foot Massage on Blood Pressure and Anxiety in Japanese Community-Dwelling Men and Women: A Crossover Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Eri Eguchi

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of aroma foot massage on blood pressure, anxiety, and health-related quality of life (QOL in Japanese community-dwelling men and women using a crossover randomized controlled trial.Fifty-seven eligible participants (5 men and 52 women aged 27 to 72 were randomly divided into 2 intervention groups (group A: n = 29; group B: n = 28 to participate in aroma foot massages 12 times during the 4-week intervention period. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP, respectively, heart rate, state anxiety, and health-related QOL were measured at the baseline, 4-week follow-up, and 8-week follow-up. The effects of the aroma foot massage intervention on these factors and the proportion of participants with anxiety were analyzed using a linear mixed-effect model for a crossover design adjusted for participant and period effects. Furthermore, the relationship between the changes in SBP and state anxiety among participants with relieved anxiety was assessed using a linear regression model.Aroma foot massage significantly decreased the mean SBP (p = 0.02, DBP (p = 0.006, and state anxiety (p = 0.003 as well as the proportion of participants with anxiety (p = 0.003. Although it was not statistically significant (p = 0.088, aroma foot massage also increased the score of mental health-related QOL. The change in SBP had a significant and positive correlation with the change in state anxiety (p = 0.01 among participants with relieved anxiety.The self-administered aroma foot massage intervention significantly decreased the mean SBP and DBP as well as the state anxiety score, and tended to increase the mental health-related QOL scores. The results suggest that aroma foot massage may be an easy and effective way to improve mental health and blood pressure.University Hospital Medical Information Network 000014260.

  1. The Association of Fasting Glucose, Insulin, and C-Peptide, with 19-Year Incidence of Coronary Heart Disease in Older Japanese-American Men; the Honolulu Heart Program

    Nazneem Wahab

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The role of fasting glucose, insulin levels, and C-peptide in coronary heart disease (CHD in non-diabetic individuals remains uncertain. We examined the association between fasting glucose, insulin and C-peptide with the long-term incidence of CHD in Japanese-American men. In 1980–1982, from a random sample of the Honolulu Heart Program men (n = 1378, aged 61–81 years, data on several CHD and metabolic risk factors were obtained to examine the relation of fasting glucose, insulin and C-peptide to 19-year CHD incidence. Age-adjusted incidence of CHD increased with increasing quintiles of glucose, insulin and C-peptide. Age-adjusted CHD rates in the glucose quintiles were 11.9, 11.6, 14.4, 18.1 and 24.1 per 1000 person-years (trend p < 0.001. In individual Cox models (lowest quintiles of glucose, insulin and C-peptide as reference the relative risks (95% confidence interval of CHD incidence for the glucose quintiles adjusting for age, smoking, hypertension, cholesterol, physical activity, and body mass index, were 0.9 (0.6–1.4, 1.2 (0.8–1.8, 1.4 (0.9–2.2, and 1.7 (1.1–2.6, respectively (trend p = 0.004. Insulin and C-peptide were not significantly associated with CHD on multivariate analysis. Fasting glucose remained the only significant predictor of increased CHD risk (p = 0.003 in a model combining all 3 metabolic variables. In this cohort, only fasting glucose independently predicts long-term incidence of CHD. Age-adjusted insulin and C-peptide levels were associated with CHD incidence, but after adjustment for other risk factors, do not independently predict CHD.

  2. Relative deprivation in income and mortality by leading causes among older Japanese men and women: AGES cohort study.

    Kondo, Naoki; Saito, Masashige; Hikichi, Hiroyuki; Aida, Jun; Ojima, Toshiyuki; Kondo, Katsunori; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2015-07-01

    Relative deprivation of income is hypothesised to generate frustration and stress through upward social comparison with one's peers. If psychosocial stress is the mechanism, relative deprivation should be more strongly associated with specific health outcomes, such as cardiovascular disease (compared with other health outcomes, eg, non-tobacco-related cancer). We evaluated the association between relative income deprivation and mortality by leading causes, using a cohort of 21 031 community-dwelling adults aged 65 years or older. A baseline mail-in survey was conducted in 2003. Information on cause-specific mortality was obtained from death certificates. Our relative deprivation measure was the Yitzhaki Index, derived from the aggregate income shortfall for each person, relative to individuals with higher incomes in that person's reference group. Reference groups were defined according to gender, age group and same municipality of residence. We identified 1682 deaths during the 4.5 years of follow-up. A Cox regression demonstrated that, after controlling for demographic, health and socioeconomic factors including income, the HR for death from cardiovascular diseases per SD increase in relative deprivation was 1.50 (95% CI 1.09 to 2.08) in men, whereas HRs for mortality by cancer and other diseases were close to the null value. Additional adjustment for depressive symptoms and health behaviours (eg, smoking and preventive care utilisation) attenuated the excess risks for mortality from cardiovascular disease by 9%. Relative deprivation was not associated with mortality for women. The results partially support our hypothesised mechanism: relative deprivation increases health risks via psychosocial stress among men. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  3. Un-Autobiographical Autobiographies: Investigating the Life-Stories of Ten Elderly Nisei Christian Women at a Local Japanese American Church

    Okamura, Naoki

    2010-01-01

    Traise Yamamoto, a professor of English and a scholar of biographical studies, made the following remark in her book "Masking Selves, Making Subjects" (1999). She wrote, "Nisei (second-generation Japanese American) women's autobiographies are frustratingly un-autobiographical" (103). Yamamoto, who is a Japanese-American woman herself, saw the lack…

  4. Validity of Short and Long Self-Administered Food Frequency Questionnaires in Ranking Dietary Intake in Middle-Aged and Elderly Japanese in the Japan Public Health Center-Based Prospective Study for the Next Generation (JPHC-NEXT) Protocol Area

    Yokoyama, Yuta; Takachi, Ribeka; Ishihara, Junko; Ishii, Yuri; Sasazuki, Shizuka; Sawada, Norie; Shinozawa, Yurie; Tanaka, Junta; Kato, Erika; Kitamura, Kaori; Nakamura, Kazutoshi; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2016-01-01

    Background Longitudinal epidemiological studies require both the periodic update of intake information via repeated dietary survey and the minimization of subject burden in responding to questionnaires. We developed a 66-item Food Frequency Questionnaire (short-FFQ) for the Japan Public Health Center-based prospective Study for the Next Generation (JPHC-NEXT) follow-up survey using major foods from the FFQ developed for the original JPHC Study. For the JPHC-NEXT baseline survey, we used a larger 172-item FFQ (long-FFQ), which was also derived from the JPHC-FFQ. We compared the validity of ranking individuals by levels of dietary consumption by these FFQs among residents of selected JPHC-NEXT study areas. Methods From 2012 to 2013, 240 men and women aged 40–74 years from five areas in the JPHC-NEXT protocol were asked to respond to the long-FFQ and provide 12-day weighed food records (WFR) as reference; 228 also completed the short-FFQ. Spearman’s correlation coefficients (CCs) between estimates from the FFQs and WFR were calculated and corrected for intra-individual variation of the WFR. Results Median CC values for energy and 53 nutrients for the short-FFQ for men and women were 0.46 and 0.44, respectively. Respective values for the long-FFQ were 0.50 and 0.43. Compared with the long-FFQ, cross-classification into exact plus adjacent quintiles with the short-FFQ ranged from 68% to 91% in men and 58% to 85% in women. Conclusions Similar to the long-FFQ, the short-FFQ provided reasonably valid measures for ranking middle-aged and elderly Japanese for many nutrients and food groups. The short-FFQ can be used in follow-up surveys in prospective cohort studies aimed at updating diet rank information. PMID:27064130

  5. Nicotine cut-off value in human hair as a tool to distinguish active from passive smokers: A cross-sectional study in Japanese men.

    Tsuji, Masayoshi; Kanda, Hideyuki; Hayakawa, Takehito; Mori, Yayoi; Ito, Teruna; Hidaka, Tomoo; Kakamu, Takeyasu; Kumagai, Tomohiro; Osaki, Yoneatsu; Kawazoe, Miki; Sato, Sei; Fukushima, Tetsuhito

    2017-07-19

    Nicotine concentration in hair is a useful marker of tobacco exposure. Detection of nicotine in the hair of non-smokers indicates passive smoking. Accurate measurement of nicotine among active and passive smokers can help in smoking cessation programs or programs designed to prevent secondhand smoke exposure. To establish, using high-performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection (HPLC/UV), a hair nicotine cut-off value to distinguish active from passive smokers. Hair samples were collected from randomly chosen Japanese men (n= 192) between 2009 and 2011. Nicotine and cotinine levels in hair were measured using HPLC/UV with column-switching. T-tests and chi-square tests were performed to compare active and passive smokers, while receiver operating characteristic curves were used to evaluate the effectiveness of the cut-off value. There were 69 active smokers and 123 passive smokers. The nicotine and cotinine concentrations in hair were significantly higher in active than in passive smokers (psmokers. Nicotine and cotinine concentrations in hair clearly distinguished active from passive smokers.

  6. The topical penta-peptide Gly-Pro-Ile-Gly-Ser increases the proportion of thick hair in Japanese men with androgenetic alopecia.

    Iwabuchi, Tokuro; Takeda, Shunsuke; Yamanishi, Haruyo; Ideta, Ritsuro; Ehama, Ritsuko; Tsuruda, Akinori; Shibata, Hideaki; Ito, Tomoko; Komatsu, Nobuyuki; Terai, Keiko; Oka, Syuichi

    2016-06-01

    A penta-peptide, Gly-Pro-Ile-Gly-Ser (GPIGS), promotes proliferation of mouse hair keratinocytes and accelerates hair growth in mice. This study focused on the ability of the peptide to promote human hair growth. We used a human hair keratinocyte proliferation assay and organ cultures of human hair follicle as in vitro systems. The lotions with and without the penta-peptide were administered to 22 Japanese men with androgenetic alopecia (AGA) for 4 months in a double-blind and randomized clinical study. The penta-peptide significantly stimulated the proliferation of human hair keratinocytes at a concentration of 2.3 μm (P baldness (P = 0.020) when blinded reviewers graded photographs of the participants according to a standardized baldness scale. No adverse dermatological effects due to treatment were noted during this clinical study. This penta-peptide promotes proliferation of human hair keratinocytes and hair shaft elongation of human hair follicles, in vitro. This peptide increases thick hair ratio in vivo, and this compound is useful for the improvement of AGA. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Are the Early Postoperative Outcomes of Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting Surgery in Elderly Women Worse Compared to Men's?

    Ahmet Yüksel

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To investigate the impact of gender difference in early postoperative outcomes in elderly patients (aged 70 or older undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting surgery. Methods: Between October 2009 and December 2013, a total of 223 elderly patients (aged 70 or older undergoing isolated primary coronary artery bypass grafting surgery were included in this retrospective observational cohort study. Patients were divided into two groups according to their gender. The patients' medical records were collected, their baseline preoperative characteristics, operative data, and postoperative outcomes were retrospectively reviewed, and the effect of gender difference in the early postoperative outcomes was analyzed. Results: Group 1 (female patients and Group 2 (male patients consisted of 71 and 152 patients, respectively. Mean age of patients was 74.4±3.6 years (range: 70-84 years. The level of EuroSCORE I, the incidence of hypertension and hyperlipidemia were significantly higher in Group 1, while the rate of smoking was significantly higher in Group 2. Mean postoperative intubation time, length of intensive care unit and hospital stay were longer in female patients than in male patients, but these differences were not statistically significant. No statistically significant difference between two groups in terms of the transfusion of blood products was observed. The rates of in-hospital mortality and major postoperative complications were statistically similar between the two groups. Conclusion: In conclusion, the female gender was not associated with worse early postoperative outcomes in elderly patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting surgery.

  8. Neuromuscular adaptations to strength and concurrent training in elderly men. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2012v14n4p483

    Luiz Fernando Martins Kruel

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2012v14n4p483This paper aimed to review the results of studies on neuromuscular adaptations to strength training (ST and concurrent training (CT in elderly men. A literature search was conducted using PubMed, Scopus, and SciELO. The search was limited to studies published from 1980 to 2012. A total of 3,390 articles were retrieved. After reading their titles, 127 studies were further evaluated by reading their abstracts. This resulted in 92 papers that were read in full; 25 of these were selected and their results were described in the present review. Several studies showed that, in elderly subjects, ST can produce increases in muscle strength, power, activation and mass. ST-induced strength gain may be explained by neural and morphological adaptations. The main neural adaptations to ST included increased recruitment of motor units and increased motor unit firing rate. Morphological adaptations included increases in the physiological cross-sectional area (CSA of the muscle, in muscle thickness, in muscle fiber pennation angle, and changes in muscle myosin heavy-chain isoforms, resulting in the conversion of muscle fiber from subtype IIx to IIa. The inclusion of moderate-to-high inten- sity (60-85% of maximum strength ST in the routine of this population is recommended to improve neuromuscular function. CT can promote significant neuromuscular adaptations, but these gains may be of a lower magnitude than those obtained with ST. Although CT has an interference effect on neuromuscular adaptations, it also promotes improvement in cardiovascular function and is therefore the most frequently recommended intervention for health promotion in the elderly.

  9. Does vitamin-D intake during resistance training improve the skeletal muscle hypertrophic and strength response in young and elderly men? – a randomized controlled trial

    Agergaard, Jakob; Trøstrup, Jeanette; Uth, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    analyzed for fiber type morphology changes and mRNA expression of vitamin-D receptor (VDR), cytochrome p450 27B1 (CYP27B1) and Myostatin. RESULTS: In the vitamin-D groups, serum 25(OH)D concentration increased significantly and at week 12 was significantly different from placebo in both young men (71.6 vs.......0001) with no difference between vitamin-D and placebo groups. Vitamin-D intake and resistance training increased strength/CSA in elderly compared to young (p = 0.008). In the young vitamin-D group, the change in fiber type IIa percentage was greater after 12 weeks training (p = 0.030) and Myostatin mRNA expression lower...

  10. Green tea and vitamin E enhance exercise-induced benefits in body composition, glucose homeostasis, and antioxidant status in elderly men and women.

    Narotzki, Baruch; Reznick, Abraham Z; Navot-Mintzer, Dalya; Dagan, Bracha; Levy, Yishai

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the effects of green tea plus vitamin E in addition to exercise on body composition and metabolic and antioxidant parameters in healthy elderly individuals. Interventional randomized controlled prospective trial. For 12 weeks, 22 elderly men and women (age: 71.1 ± 1.2 years; body mass index: 28.3 ± 0.5 kg/m(2) [mean ± SE]) undertook 30 minutes of moderately intense walking 6 d/wk. They were randomly assigned to ingest either green tea plus vitamin E (GTVE; 3 cups and 400 IU, respectively; n = 11) or placebo (n = 11). Data on anthropometrics, fasting insulin and glucose levels, physical fitness, dietary intake, safety parameters, and biomarkers of oxidation status were recorded and analyzed at the start and end of the study. Though dietary intake was unchanged, improved exercise capacity was followed by a significant reduction in body weight and fasting insulin levels in all participants. Additional consumption of GTVE resulted in a twofold increase in serum vitamin E (from 20.4 to 40.6 μmol/L, p fasting glucose levels (from 5.30 to 4.98 mmol/L, p benefits in body composition and glucose tolerance and may also lower oxidative burden.

  11. Incremental predictive value of sarcopenia for incident fracture in an elderly Chinese cohort: results from the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men (MrOs) Study.

    Yu, Ruby; Leung, Jason; Woo, Jean

    2014-08-01

    We examined whether sarcopenia is predictive of incident fractures among older men, whether the inclusion of sarcopenia in models adds any incremental value to bone mineral density (BMD), and whether sarcopenia is associated with a higher risk of fractures in elderly with osteoporosis. A cohort of 2000 community-dwelling men aged ≥65 years were examined for which detailed information regarding demographics, socioeconomic, medical history, clinical, and lifestyle factors were documented. Body composition and BMD were measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Sarcopenia was defined according to the Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia (AWGS) algorithm. Incident fractures were documented during the follow-up period from 2001 to 2013, and related to sarcopenia and its component measures using Cox proportional hazard regressions. The contribution of sarcopenia for predicting fracture risk was evaluated by receiver operating characteristic analysis, net reclassification improvement (NRI), and integrated discrimination improvement (IDI). During an average of 11.3 years of follow-up, 226 (11.3%) men sustained at least 1 incident fracture, making the incidence of fractures 1200.6/100,000 person-years. After multivariate adjustments, sarcopenia was associated with increased fracture risk (hazard ratio [HR], 1.87, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.26-2.79) independent of BMD and other clinical risk factors. The addition of sarcopenia did not significantly increase area under curve or IDI but significantly improved the predictive ability on fracture risk over BMD and other clinical risk factors by 5.12% (P sarcopenia (sarco-osteoporosis) resulted in a significantly increased risk of fractures (HR, 3.49, 95% CI, 1.76-6.90) compared with those with normal BMD and without sarcopenia. This study confirms that sarcopenia is a predictor of fracture risk in this elderly men cohort, establishes that sarcopenia provides incremental predictive value for fractures over the

  12. A Western Diet Pattern Is Associated with Higher Concentrations of Blood and Bone Lead among Middle-Aged and Elderly Men.

    Wang, Xin; Ding, Ning; Tucker, Katherine L; Weisskopf, Marc G; Sparrow, David; Hu, Howard; Park, Sung Kyun

    2017-07-01

    Background: Little is known about the effects of overall dietary pattern on lead concentration. Objective: We examined the association of overall dietary patterns, derived from a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire, with bone and blood lead concentrations. Methods: These longitudinal analyses included mostly non-Hispanic white, middle-aged-to-elderly men from the Veterans Affairs Normative Aging Study. Long-term lead exposures were measured as tibia and patella lead concentrations by using K-shell-X-ray fluorescence. Short-term lead exposures were measured as blood lead concentrations by using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy. Dietary pattern scores were derived by using factor analysis. Linear mixed-effects models were utilized to predict blood lead concentrations among 983 men, aged 44-92 y at baseline, with a total of 3273 observations (during 1987-2008). We constructed linear regression models to determine the relations between dietary patterns and bone lead concentrations among 649 participants with an age range of 49-93 y. Results: Two major dietary patterns were identified: a prudent dietary pattern, characterized by high intakes of fruit, legumes, vegetables, whole grains, poultry, and seafood; and a Western dietary pattern, characterized by high intakes of processed meat, red meat, refined grains, high-fat dairy products, French fries, butter, and eggs. After adjusting for age, smoking status, body mass index, total energy intake, education, occupation, neighborhood-based education and income level, men in the highest tertile of the Western pattern score (compared with the lowest) had 0.91 μg/dL (95% CI: 0.41, 1.42 μg/dL) higher blood lead, 5.96 μg/g (95% CI: 1.76, 10.16 μg/g) higher patella lead, and 3.83 μg/g (95% CI: 0.97, 6.70 μg/g) higher tibia lead. No significant association was detected with the prudent dietary pattern in the adjusted model. Conclusions: These findings suggest that the Western diet is associated with

  13. High doses of vitamin C plus E reduce strength training-induced improvements in areal bone mineral density in elderly men.

    Stunes, Astrid Kamilla; Syversen, Unni; Berntsen, Sveinung; Paulsen, Gøran; Stea, Tonje H; Hetlelid, Ken J; Lohne-Seiler, Hilde; Mosti, Mats Peder; Bjørnsen, Thomas; Raastad, Truls; Haugeberg, Glenn

    2017-06-01

    Resistance training is beneficial for maintaining bone mass. We aimed to investigate the skeletal effects of high doses of antioxidants [vitamin C + E (α-tocopherol)] supplementation during 12-week supervised strength training in healthy, elderly men METHODS: Design: double-blinded randomized placebo-controlled study. Participants followed a supervised, undulating periodic exercise program with weekly adjusted load: 3 sessions/week and 3-15 repetitions maximum (RM) sets/exercise. The control group (CG, n = 17, 67 ± 5 years) received placebo and the antioxidant group (AO, n = 16, 70 ± 7 years) 1000 mg vitamin C + 235 mg vitamin E, daily. Areal bone mineral density (aBMD) at whole body, lumbar spine (L1-L4), total hip, and femoral neck were measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry and muscle strength by 1RM. Serum analyses of bone-related factors and adipokines were performed. In the CG, total hip aBMD increased by 1.0% (CI: 0.3-1.7) versus pretest and lumbar spine aBMD increased by 0.9% (CI: -0.2 to 2.0) compared to the AO. In the CG, there was an increase in serum concentrations of insulin-like growth factor 1 [+27.3% (CI: -0.3 to 54.9)] and leptin [+31.2% (CI: 9.8-52.6)) versus pretest, and a decrease in sclerostin [-9.9% (CI: 4.4-15.3)] versus pretest and versus AO. Serum bone formation markers P1NP and osteocalcin increased in both groups, while the bone resorption marker CTX-1 remained unchanged. High doses of antioxidant supplementations may constrain the favorable skeletal benefits of 12 weeks of resistance exercise in healthy elderly men.

  14. Serum betaine is inversely associated with low lean mass mainly in men in a Chinese middle-aged and elderly community-dwelling population.

    Huang, Bi-Xia; Zhu, Ying-Ying; Tan, Xu-Ying; Lan, Qiu-Ye; Li, Chun-Lei; Chen, Yu-Ming; Zhu, Hui-Lian

    2016-06-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that betaine supplements increase lean body mass in livestock and improve muscle performance in human beings, but evidence for its effect on human lean mass is limited. Our study assessed the association of circulating betaine with lean mass and its composition in Chinese adults. A community-based study was conducted on 1996 Guangzhou residents (weight/mass: 1381/615) aged 50-75 years between 2008 and 2010. An interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to collect general baseline information. Fasting serum betaine was assessed using HPLC-MS. A total of 1590 participants completed the body composition analysis performed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry during a mean of 3·2 years of follow-up. After adjustment for age, regression analyses demonstrated a positive association of serum betaine with percentage of lean mass (LM%) of the entire body, trunk and limbs in men (all Pwomen (P=0·016). Each sd increase in serum betaine was associated with increases in LM% of 0·609 (whole body), 0·811 (trunk), 0·422 (limbs), 0·632 (arms) and 0·346 (legs) in men and 0·350 (trunk) in women. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that the prevalence of lower LM% decreased by 17 % (whole body) and 14 % (trunk) in women and 23 % (whole body), 28 % (trunk), 22 % (arms) and 26 % (percentage skeletal muscle index) in men with each sd increment in serum betaine. Elevated circulating betaine was associated with a higher LM% and lower prevalence of lower LM% in middle-aged and elderly Chinese adults, particularly men.

  15. Coffee consumption and CYP1A2 genotype in relation to bone mineral density of the proximal femur in elderly men and women: a cohort study

    Lind Lars

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Drinking coffee has been linked to reduced calcium conservation, but it is less clear whether it leads to sustained bone mineral loss and if individual predisposition for caffeine metabolism might be important in this context. Therefore, the relation between consumption of coffee and bone mineral density (BMD at the proximal femur in men and women was studied, taking into account, for the first time, genotypes for cytochrome P450 1A2 (CYP1A2 associated with metabolism of caffeine. Methods Dietary intakes of 359 men and 358 women (aged 72 years, participants of the Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS, were assessed by a 7-day food diary. Two years later, BMD for total proximal femur, femoral neck and trochanteric regions of the proximal femur were measured by Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA. Genotypes of CYP1A2 were determined. Adjusted means of BMD for each category of coffee consumption were calculated. Results Men consuming 4 cups of coffee or more per day had 4% lower BMD at the proximal femur (p = 0.04 compared with low or non-consumers of coffee. This difference was not observed in women. In high consumers of coffee, those with rapid metabolism of caffeine (C/C genotype had lower BMD at the femoral neck (p = 0.01 and at the trochanter (p = 0.03 than slow metabolizers (T/T and C/T genotypes. Calcium intake did not modify the relation between coffee and BMD. Conclusion High consumption of coffee seems to contribute to a reduction in BMD of the proximal femur in elderly men, but not in women. BMD was lower in high consumers of coffee with rapid metabolism of caffeine, suggesting that rapid metabolizers of caffeine may constitute a risk group for bone loss induced by coffee.

  16. Coffee consumption and CYP1A2 genotype in relation to bone mineral density of the proximal femur in elderly men and women: a cohort study.

    Hallström, Helena; Melhus, Håkan; Glynn, Anders; Lind, Lars; Syvänen, Ann-Christine; Michaëlsson, Karl

    2010-02-22

    Drinking coffee has been linked to reduced calcium conservation, but it is less clear whether it leads to sustained bone mineral loss and if individual predisposition for caffeine metabolism might be important in this context. Therefore, the relation between consumption of coffee and bone mineral density (BMD) at the proximal femur in men and women was studied, taking into account, for the first time, genotypes for cytochrome P450 1A2 (CYP1A2) associated with metabolism of caffeine. Dietary intakes of 359 men and 358 women (aged 72 years), participants of the Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS), were assessed by a 7-day food diary. Two years later, BMD for total proximal femur, femoral neck and trochanteric regions of the proximal femur were measured by Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Genotypes of CYP1A2 were determined. Adjusted means of BMD for each category of coffee consumption were calculated. Men consuming 4 cups of coffee or more per day had 4% lower BMD at the proximal femur (p = 0.04) compared with low or non-consumers of coffee. This difference was not observed in women. In high consumers of coffee, those with rapid metabolism of caffeine (C/C genotype) had lower BMD at the femoral neck (p = 0.01) and at the trochanter (p = 0.03) than slow metabolizers (T/T and C/T genotypes). Calcium intake did not modify the relation between coffee and BMD. High consumption of coffee seems to contribute to a reduction in BMD of the proximal femur in elderly men, but not in women. BMD was lower in high consumers of coffee with rapid metabolism of caffeine, suggesting that rapid metabolizers of caffeine may constitute a risk group for bone loss induced by coffee.

  17. Health Benefits of Daily Walking on Mortality Among Younger-Elderly Men With or Without Major Critical Diseases in the New Integrated Suburban Seniority Investigation Project: A Prospective Cohort Study

    Wenjing Zhao

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Regular physical activity contributes to the prevention of cancer, cardiovascular disease, and other chronic diseases. However, the frequency of physical activity often declines with age, particularly among the elderly. Thus, we investigated the effects of daily walking on mortality among younger-elderly men (65–74 years with or without major critical diseases (heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, or cancer. Methods: We assessed 1239 community-dwelling men aged 64/65 years from the New Integrated Suburban Seniority Investigation Project. We estimated hazard ratios (HRs of all-cause mortality and 95% confidence intervals (CIs according to daily walking duration and adjusted for potential confounders, including survey year, marital status, work status, education, smoking and drinking status, BMI, regular exercise, regular sports, sleeping time, medical status, disease history, and functional capacity. Results: For men without critical diseases, mortality risk declined linearly with increased walking time after adjustment for confounders (Ptrend = 0.018. Walking ≥2 hours/day was significantly associated with lower all-cause mortality (HR 0.49; 95% CI, 0.27–0.90. For men with critical diseases, walking 1–2 hours/day showed a protective effect on mortality compared with walking <0.5 hours/day after adjustment for confounders (HR 0.29; 95% CI, 0.06–1.20. Walking ≥2 hours/day showed no benefit on mortality in men with critical diseases, even after adjustment for confounders. Conclusions: Different duration of daily walking was associated with decreased mortality for younger-elderly men with or without critical diseases, independent of sociodemographic and lifestyle factors, BMI, medical status, disease history, and functional capacity. Incorporating regular walking into daily lives of younger-elderly men may improve longevity and successful aging.

  18. Health Benefits of Daily Walking on Mortality Among Younger-Elderly Men With or Without Major Critical Diseases in the New Integrated Suburban Seniority Investigation Project: A Prospective Cohort Study.

    Zhao, Wenjing; Ukawa, Shigekazu; Kawamura, Takashi; Wakai, Kenji; Ando, Masahiko; Tsushita, Kazuyo; Tamakoshi, Akiko

    2015-01-01

    Regular physical activity contributes to the prevention of cancer, cardiovascular disease, and other chronic diseases. However, the frequency of physical activity often declines with age, particularly among the elderly. Thus, we investigated the effects of daily walking on mortality among younger-elderly men (65-74 years) with or without major critical diseases (heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, or cancer). We assessed 1239 community-dwelling men aged 64/65 years from the New Integrated Suburban Seniority Investigation Project. We estimated hazard ratios (HRs) of all-cause mortality and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) according to daily walking duration and adjusted for potential confounders, including survey year, marital status, work status, education, smoking and drinking status, BMI, regular exercise, regular sports, sleeping time, medical status, disease history, and functional capacity. For men without critical diseases, mortality risk declined linearly with increased walking time after adjustment for confounders (Ptrend = 0.018). Walking ≥2 hours/day was significantly associated with lower all-cause mortality (HR 0.49; 95% CI, 0.27-0.90). For men with critical diseases, walking 1-2 hours/day showed a protective effect on mortality compared with walking Walking ≥2 hours/day showed no benefit on mortality in men with critical diseases, even after adjustment for confounders. Different duration of daily walking was associated with decreased mortality for younger-elderly men with or without critical diseases, independent of sociodemographic and lifestyle factors, BMI, medical status, disease history, and functional capacity. Incorporating regular walking into daily lives of younger-elderly men may improve longevity and successful aging.

  19. Femoral neck BMD is a strong predictor of hip fracture susceptibility in elderly men and women because it detects cortical bone instability: the Rotterdam Study.

    Rivadeneira, Fernando; Zillikens, M Carola; De Laet, Chris Edh; Hofman, Albert; Uitterlinden, André G; Beck, Thomas J; Pols, Huibert Ap

    2007-11-01

    We studied HSA measurements in relation to hip fracture risk in 4,806 individuals (2,740 women). Hip fractures (n = 147) occurred at the same absolute levels of bone instability in both sexes. Cortical instability (propensity of thinner cortices in wide diameters to buckle) explains why hip fracture risk at different BMD levels is the same across sexes. Despite the sexual dimorphism of bone, hip fracture risk is very similar in men and women at the same absolute BMD. We aimed to elucidate the main structural properties of bone that underlie the measured BMD and that ultimately determines the risk of hip fracture in elderly men and women. This study is part of the Rotterdam Study (a large prospective population-based cohort) and included 147 incident hip fracture cases in 4,806 participants with DXA-derived hip structural analysis (mean follow-up, 8.6 yr). Indices compared in relation to fracture included neck width, cortical thickness, section modulus (an index of bending strength), and buckling ratio (an index of cortical bone instability). We used a mathematical model to calculate the hip fracture distribution by femoral neck BMD, BMC, bone area, and hip structure analysis (HSA) parameters (cortical thickness, section modulus narrow neck width, and buckling ratio) and compared it with prospective data from the Rotterdam Study. In the prospective data, hip fracture cases in both sexes had lower BMD, thinner cortices, greater bone width, lower strength, and higher instability at baseline. In fractured individuals, men had an average BMD that was 0.09 g/cm(2) higher than women (p men and women. No significant differences were observed between the areas under the ROC curves of BMD (0.8146 in women and 0.8048 in men) and the buckling ratio (0.8161 in women and 0.7759 in men). The buckling ratio (an index of bone instability) portrays in both sexes the critical balance between cortical thickness and bone width. Our findings suggest that extreme thinning of cortices in

  20. Risk factors for low back pain and sciatica in elderly men-the MrOS Sweden study.

    Kherad, Mehrsa; Rosengren, Björn E; Hasserius, Ralph; Nilsson, Jan-Åke; Redlund-Johnell, Inga; Ohlsson, Claes; Mellström, Dan; Lorentzon, Mattiaz; Ljunggren, Östen; Karlsson, Magnus K

    2017-01-08

    The aim of this study was to identify whether factors beyond anatomical abnormalities are associated with low back pain (LBP) and LBP with sciatica (SCI) in older men. Mister Osteoporosis Sweden includes 3,014 men aged 69–81 years. They answered questionnaires on lifestyle and whether they had experienced LBP and SCI during the preceding 12 months. About 3,007 men answered the back pain (BP) questions, 258 reported BP without specified region. We identified 1,388 with no BP, 1,361 with any LBP (regardless of SCI), 1,074 of those with LBP also indicated if they had experienced LBP (n = 615), LBP+SCI (n = 459). About 49% of those with LBP and 54% of those with LBP+SCI rated their health as poor/very poor (P < 0.001). Men with any LBP to a greater extent than those without BP had poor self-estimated health, depressive symptoms, dizziness, fall tendency, serious comorbidity (diabetes, stroke, coronary heart disease, pulmonary disease and/or cancer) (all P < 0.001), foreign background, were smokers (all P < 0.01), had low physical activity and used walking aids (all P < 0.05). Men with LBP+SCI to a greater extent than those with LBP had lower education, lower self-estimated health, comorbidity, dizziness and used walking aids (all P < 0.001). In older men with LBP and SCI, anatomical abnormalities such as vertebral fractures, metastases, central or lateral spinal stenosis or degenerative conditions may only in part explain prevalent symptoms and disability. Social and lifestyle factors must also be evaluated since they are associated not only with unspecific LBP but also with LBP with SCI.

  1. Contributing Determinants to Hearing Loss in Elderly Men and Women: Results from the Population-Based Rotterdam Study

    S.C. Rigters (Stephanie); R.M. Metselaar (Mick); Wieringa, M.H. (Marjan H.); De Jong, R.J.B. (Robert J. Baatenburg); A. Hofman (Albert); A. Goedegebure (Andre)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractTo contribute to a better understanding of the etiology in age-related hearing loss, we carried out a cross-sectional study of 3,315 participants (aged 52-99 years) in the Rotterdam Study, to analyze both low- and high-frequency hearing loss in men and women. Hearing thresholds with

  2. Dietary pattern and 20 year mortality in elderly men in Finland, Italy and the Netherlands: Longitudinal cohort study.

    Huijbregts, P.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Résénen, L.; Fidanza, F.; Nissinen, A.; Menotti, A.; Kromhout, D.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association of dietary pattern and mortality in international data. DESIGN: Cohort study with 20 years' follow up of mortality. SETTING: Five cohorts in Finland, the Netherlands, and Italy. SUBJECTS: Population based random sample of 3045 men aged 50-70 years in 1970.

  3. Alcohol dehydrogenase-1B genotype (rs1229984) is a strong determinant of the relationship between body weight and alcohol intake in Japanese alcoholic men.

    Yokoyama, Akira; Yokoyama, Tetsuji; Matsui, Toshifumi; Mizukami, Takeshi; Matsushita, Sachio; Higuchi, Susumu; Maruyama, Katsuya

    2013-07-01

    The calories in alcoholic beverages consumed by alcoholics are a major energy source and a strong modifier of their body weight. Genetic polymorphisms of alcohol dehydrogenase-1B (ADH1B) and aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 (ALDH2) affect susceptibility to alcoholism and may affect body weight via gene-associated differences in fuel utilization in alcoholics. We evaluated associations between ADH1B/ALDH2 genotypes and the body weight and body mass index (BMI) of 1,301 Japanese alcoholic men at the time of their first visit to an addiction center. Median (25th to 75th) caloric intake in the form of alcoholic beverages was 864 (588 to 1,176) kcal/d. Age-adjusted caloric intake did not differ according to ADH1B/ALDH2 genotypes. The body weight and BMI values showed that the ADH1B*2/*2 and *1/*2 carriers (n = 939) were significantly leaner than the ADH1B*1/*1 carriers (n = 362) irrespective of age, drinking, smoking, and dietary habits. The age-adjusted body weight values of the ADH1B*2/*2, ADH1B*1/*2, and ADH1B*1/*1 carriers were 58.4 ± 0.4, 58.7 ± 0.5, and 63.6 ± 0.5 kg, respectively (ADH1B*2 vs. ADH1B*1/*1 carriers, p strong determinant of body weight in the alcoholics. The more rapid EtOH elimination associated with the ADH1B*2 allele may result in less efficient utilization of EtOH as an energy source in alcoholics. Copyright © 2013 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  4. Physical activity, smoking, and alcohol consumption in association with incidence of type 2 diabetes among middle-aged and elderly Chinese men.

    Liang Shi

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM is a prevalent chronic disease worldwide. The prevalence of T2DM is increasing rapidly in China. Understanding the contribution of modifiable lifestyle factors on T2DM risk is imperative to prevent the development of T2DM in China.We examined associations between lifestyle factors including physical activity, smoking and alcohol consumption with incidence of T2DM among middle-aged and elderly men in urban Shanghai. Information on socio-demographics, lifestyle habits, dietary habits, and disease history was collected via in-person interviews. Anthropometric measurements were taken. A total of 51 464 Chinese men aged 40-74 years free of T2DM, coronary heart disease (CHD, and stroke at baseline were included in the current study. Incident T2DM was identified through follow-up surveys conducted every 2-3 years. Cox proportional hazard analyses were conducted to evaluate associations between lifestyle risk factors and incidence of T2DM.We documented 1304 new cases of T2DM during 276 929 person-years of follow-up (average: 5.4 years. Physical activity was inversely associated with T2DM risk. Daily living, commuting, and total physical activity METs had inverse negative dose-response relationships with T2DM (P-trend = 0.0033, 0.0022, and <0.0001, respectively. Regular participation in exercise or sports reduced T2DM risk (HR = 0.86, 95%CI: 0.76-0.98. Moderate alcohol intake (1-3 drinks/day was inversely related to T2DM risk (HR = 0.80, 95%CI: 0.67-0.94. Cigarette smoking, on the other hand, was associated with increased T2DM risk; HRs were 1.25 (95%CI: 1.00-1.56 for smoking more than 20 cigarettes per day and 1.28 (95%CI: 1.04-1.57 for smoking more than 40 pack-years.Physical activity and moderate alcohol intake are inversely associated with T2DM risk, whereas smoking was positively associated with T2DM risk among middle-age and elderly Chinese men. Preventive measures should be developed to focus on these modifiable

  5. Low-carbohydrate diet and type 2 diabetes risk in Japanese men and women: the Japan Public Health Center-Based Prospective Study.

    Akiko Nanri

    Full Text Available Evidence is sparse and contradictory regarding the association between low-carbohydrate diet score and type 2 diabetes risk, and no prospective study examined the association among Asians, who consume greater amount of carbohydrate. We prospectively investigated the association of low-carbohydrate diet score with type 2 diabetes risk.Participants were 27,799 men and 36,875 women aged 45-75 years who participated in the second survey of the Japan Public Health Center-Based Prospective Study and who had no history of diabetes. Dietary intake was ascertained by using a validated food-frequency questionnaire, and low-carbohydrate diet score was calculated from total carbohydrate, fat, and protein intake. The scores for high animal protein and fat or for high plant protein and fat were also calculated. Odds ratios of self-reported, physician-diagnosed type 2 diabetes over 5-year were estimated by using logistic regression.During the 5-year period, 1191 new cases of type 2 diabetes were self-reported. Low-carbohydrate diet score for high total protein and fat was significantly associated with a decreased risk of type 2 diabetes in women (P for trend <0.001; the multivariable-adjusted odds ratio of type 2 diabetes for the highest quintile of the score were 0.63 (95% confidence interval 0.46-0.84, compared with those for the lowest quintile. Additional adjustment for dietary glycemic load attenuated the association (odds ratio 0.75, 95% confidence interval 0.45-1.25. When the score separated for animal and for plant protein and fat, the score for high animal protein and fat was inversely associated with type 2 diabetes in women, whereas the score for high plant protein and fat was not associated in both men and women.Low-carbohydrate diet was associated with decreased risk of type 2 diabetes in Japanese women and this association may be partly attributable to high intake of white rice. The association for animal-based and plant-based low

  6. Associations between dietary n-6 and n-3 fatty acids and arachidonic acid compositions in plasma and erythrocytes in young and elderly Japanese volunteers

    Kawabata Terue

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We reported that the compositions of arachidonic acid (ARA in erythrocytes and plasma phospholipids (PL in the elderly were lower than those in the young, though the ARA intake was nearly identical. Objective We further analyzed data in four study groups with different ages and sexes, and determined that the blood ARA levels were affected by the kinds of dietary fatty acids ingested. Methods One hundred and four healthy young and elderly volunteers were recruited. Dietary records together with photographic records from 28 consecutive days were reviewed and the fatty acid composition in plasma lipid fractions and erythrocyte PL was analyzed. Results No correlations for ARA between dietary fatty acids and blood lipid fractions were observed. A significant negative correlation between eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA + docosahexaenoic acid (DHA intake and ARA composition in erythrocyte PL was observed. ARA composition in erythrocyte PL was significantly lower in elderly subjects than in young subjects, because EPA and DHA intake in elderly subjects was higher than in young subjects. However, after removing the effect of dietary EPA+DHA intake, the ARA composition in erythrocyte PL in elderly subjects was significantly lower than that in young subjects. Conclusions Changes in physical conditions with aging influenced the low ARA composition of erythrocyte in elderly subjects in addition to the effects of dietary EPA and DHA.

  7. Social care and support for elderly men and women in an urban and a rural area of Nepal.

    Kshetri, Dan Bahadur Baidwar; Smith, Cairns S; Khadka, Mira

    2012-09-01

    This study has aimed to describe the care and support for urban and rural elderly people of Bhaktapur district, Nepal. Efforts were made to identify the feeling of some features of general well-beings associated to mental health, person responsible for care and support, capability to perform daily routine activities, sources of finance and ownership to the property. More than half of the respondents were found having single or multiple features of loneliness, anxiety, depression and insomnia. The rate of point prevalence loneliness was found higher in the above 80 years of age, urban respondents. Almost 9 in 10 respondents were capable themselves to dress, walk and maintain personal hygiene and majority of them were assisted by spouse, son/daughter-in-laws. Family support was common sources of income and ownership to the property was absolutely high.

  8. Positive effects of 1-year football and strength training on mechanical muscle function and functional capacity in elderly men

    Sundstrup, Emil; Jakobsen, Markus Due; Andersen, Lars L.

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: A decline in physical capacity takes place with increasing age that negatively affects overall physical function including work ability and the ability to perform typical activities of daily living (ADL). The overall aim of the present study was to determine the neuromuscular adaptations...... to long-term (1 year) football and strength training in older untrained adults, and to assess the concurrent effect on functional ADL capacity. METHODS: Twenty-seven healthy elderly males (68.2 ± 3.2 years) were randomly assigned to 12 months of either recreational football training (FT: n = 10), strength...... training (ST: n = 9) or served as inactive controls (CON: n = 8). Recreational football training consisted of small-sided training sessions whereas strength training consisted of high intensity exercises targeting the lower extremity and upper body. Maximal thigh muscle strength and rate of force...

  9. Predictive value of health-related fitness tests for self-reported mobility difficulties among high-functioning elderly men and women.

    Hämäläinen, H Pauliina; Suni, Jaana H; Pasanen, Matti E; Malmberg, Jarmo J; Miilunpalo, Seppo I

    2006-06-01

    The functional independence of elderly populations deteriorates with age. Several tests of physical performance have been developed for screening elderly persons who are at risk of losing their functional independence. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether several components of health-related fitness (HRF) are valid in predicting the occurrence of self-reported mobility difficulties (MD) among high-functioning older adults. Subjects were community-dwelling men and women, born 1917-1941, who participated in the assessment of HRF [6.1-m (20-ft) walk, one-leg stand, backwards walk, trunk side-bending, dynamic back extension, one-leg squat, 1-km walk] and who were free of MD in 1996 (no difficulties in walking 2- km, n=788; no difficulties in climbing stairs, n=647). Postal questionnaires were used to assess the prevalence of MD in 1996 and the occurrence of new MD in 2002. Logistic regression analysis was used as the statistical method. Both inability to perform the backwards walk and a poorer result in it were associated with risk of walking difficulties in the logistic model, with all the statistically significant single test items included. Results of 1-km walk time and one-leg squat strength test were also associated with risk, although the squat was statistically significant only in two older birth cohorts. Regarding stair-climbing difficulties, poorer results in the 1-km walk, dynamic back extension and one-leg squat tests were associated with increased risk of MD. The backwards walk, one-leg squat, dynamic back extension and 1-km walk tests were the best predictors of MD. These tests are recommended for use in screening high-functioning older people at risk of MD, as well as to target physical activity counseling to those components of HRF that are important for functional independence.

  10. Identification of late-onset hypogonadism in middle-aged and elderly men from a community of China

    Liu, Zhi-Yong; Zhou, Ren-Yuan; Lu, Xin; Zeng, Qin-Song; Wang, Hui-Qing; Li, Zheng; Sun, Ying-Hao

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the essential criteria for late-onset hypogonadism (LOH) syndrome based on the presence of symptoms associated with low testosterone levels in Han Chinese men. Blood tests for total testosterone (TT) and sex hormone–binding globulin (SHBG) were performed, and the aging male symptoms (AMS) questionnaire was conducted in a randomly selected cohort composed of 944 Chinese men aged 40 to 79 years from nine urban communities. Three sexual symptoms (decreased ability/frequency of sexual activity, decreased number of morning erections, and decreased libido) were confirmed to be related to the total and free testosterone levels. The thresholds for TT were approximately 12.55 nmol l−1 for a decreased ability/frequency to perform sex, 12.55 nmol l−1 for decreased frequency of morning erections, and 14.35 nmol l−1 for decreased sexual desire. The calculated free testosterone (CFT) thresholds for these three sexual symptoms were 281.14, 264.90, and 287.21 pmol l−1, respectively. TT <13.21 nmol l−1 (OR = 1.4, 95%CI: 1.0–1.9, P = 0.037) or CFT <268.89 pmol l−1 (OR = 1.5, 95%CI: 1.1–20, P = 0.020) was associated with an increase in the aforementioned three sexual symptoms. The prevalence of LOH was 9.1% under the criteria, including all three sexual symptoms with TT levels <13.21 nmol l−1 and CFT levels <268.89 pmol l−1. Our results may improve the diagnostic accuracy of LOH in older men. PMID:26354142

  11. Identification of late-onset hypogonadism in middle-aged and elderly men from a community of China

    Zhi-Yong Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigated the essential criteria for late-onset hypogonadism (LOH syndrome based on the presence of symptoms associated with low testosterone levels in Han Chinese men. Blood tests for total testosterone (TT and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG were performed, and the aging male symptoms (AMS questionnaire was conducted in a randomly selected cohort composed of 944 Chinese men aged 40 to 79 years from nine urban communities. Three sexual symptoms (decreased ability/frequency of sexual activity, decreased number of morning erections, and decreased libido were confirmed to be related to the total and free testosterone levels. The thresholds for TT were approximately 12.55 nmol l−1 for a decreased ability/frequency to perform sex, 12.55 nmol l−1 for decreased frequency of morning erections, and 14.35 nmol l−1 for decreased sexual desire. The calculated free testosterone (CFT thresholds for these three sexual symptoms were 281.14, 264.90, and 287.21 pmol l−1 , respectively. TT <13.21 nmol l−1 (OR = 1.4, 95%CI: 1.0-1.9, P = 0.037 or CFT <268.89 pmol l−1 (OR = 1.5, 95%CI: 1.1-20, P = 0.020 was associated with an increase in the aforementioned three sexual symptoms. The prevalence of LOH was 9.1% under the criteria, including all three sexual symptoms with TT levels <13.21 nmol l−1 and CFT levels <268.89 pmol l−1 . Our results may improve the diagnostic accuracy of LOH in older men.

  12. Localized prostate cancer in elderly men aged 80-89, findings from a population-based registry.

    Vatandoust, S; Kichenadasse, G; O'Callaghan, M; Vincent, A D; Kopsaftis, T; Walsh, S; Borg, M; Karapetis, C S; Moretti, K

    2018-03-30

    To investigate the rate of death due to Prostate Cancer (PCa) and disease characteristics in patients diagnosed with Localized Prostate Cancer (LPCa) at age 80-89 years in comparison with men diagnosed at age 70-79. This is a retrospective study of data from the South Australian Prostate Cancer Clinical Outcomes Collaborative (SA-PCCOC). Included were men diagnosed between 2005 and 2014, aged ≥70 with no evidence of metastatic disease at presentation. Propensity score matching and competing risk Fine and Grey regression were used to assess the chance of treatment (curative v non-curative) and treatment effect on PCa specific-mortality. Of the 1951 eligible patients, 1428 (76%) aged 70-79, and 460 (24%) aged 80-89 yr at diagnosis (median age of 74 (IQR=72-76) and 83 (IQR=81-85) respectively). The 80-89 group had higher Gleason scores and PSA values (all pcopyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  13. Alcohol Dehydrogenase-1B (rs1229984) and Aldehyde Dehydrogenase-2 (rs671) Genotypes Are Strong Determinants of the Serum Triglyceride and Cholesterol Levels of Japanese Alcoholic Men.

    Yokoyama, Akira; Yokoyama, Tetsuji; Matsui, Toshifumi; Mizukami, Takeshi; Kimura, Mitsuru; Matsushita, Sachio; Higuchi, Susumu; Maruyama, Katsuya

    2015-01-01

    Elevated serum triglyceride (TG) and high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels are common in drinkers. The fast-metabolizing alcohol dehydrogenase-1B encoded by the ADH1B*2 allele (vs. ADH1B*1/*1 genotype) and inactive aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 encoded by the ALDH2*2 allele (vs. ALDH2*1/*1 genotype) modify ethanol metabolism and are prevalent (≈90% and ≈40%, respectively) in East Asians. We attempted to evaluate the associations between the ADH1B and ALDH2 genotypes and lipid levels in alcoholics. The population consisted of 1806 Japanese alcoholic men (≥40 years) who had undergone ADH1B and ALDH2 genotyping and whose serum TG, total cholesterol, and HDL-C levels in the fasting state had been measured within 3 days after admission. High serum levels of TG (≥150 mg/dl), HDL-C (>80 mg/dl), and low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C calculated by the Friedewald formula ≥140 mg/dl) were observed in 24.3%, 16.8%, and 15.6%, respectively, of the subjects. Diabetes, cirrhosis, smoking, and body mass index (BMI) affected the serum lipid levels. Multivariate analysis revealed that the presence of the ADH1B*2 allele and the active ALDH2*1/*1 genotype increased the odds ratio (OR; 95% confidence interval) for a high TG level (2.22 [1.67-2.94] and 1.39 [0.99-1.96], respectively), and decreased the OR for a high HDL-C level (0.37 [0.28-0.49] and 0.51 [0.37-0.69], respectively). The presence of the ADH1B*2 allele decreased the OR for a high LDL-C level (0.60 [0.45-0.80]). The ADH1B*2 plus ALDH2*1/*1 combination yielded the highest ORs for high TG levels and lowest OR for a high HDL-C level. The genotype effects were more prominent in relation to the higher levels of TG (≥220 mg/dl) and HDL-C (≥100 mg/dl). The fast-metabolizing ADH1B and active ALDH2, and especially a combination of the two were strongly associated with higher serum TG levels and lower serum HDL-C levels of alcoholics. The fast-metabolizing ADH1B was associated with lower serum LDL

  14. [Relapse prevention program consisting of coping skills training, cue exposure treatment, and letter therapy for Japanese alcoholic men who relapsed after standard cognitive-behavioral therapy].

    Yokoyama, Akira; Matsushita, Sachio; Toyama, Tomomi; Nakayama, Hideki; Takimura, Tsuyoshi; Kimura, Mitsuru; Yoneda, Junichi; Maesato, Hitoshi; Mizukami, Takeshi; Higuchi, Susumu; Yokoyama, Tetsuji

    2015-04-01

    Coping skills training (CST) and cue exposure treatment (CET) have yielded favorable outcomes when used to treat alcoholics. We conducted 6-week inpatient programs that consisted of 9 CST group sessions (n = 117) during 2005-2009 and 9 CST group sessions plus 4 CET group sessions (n = 49) during 2009-2011 and subsequent 1-year letter therapy for Japanese alcoholic men who had relapsed and been readmitted after standard cognitive-behavioral inpatient therapy. When patients received a letter containing encouraging words every 2 weeks, they were asked to reread their CST and CET records and to respond to the letter by marking drinking days on a calendar and naming the skills on a list of the 9 CST themes and CET that were useful for maintaining abstinence during that 2-week period. The estimated percentages of achievement of 30 or fewer drinking days during the one year of letter therapy were 36.1 - 45.8%. 'Non-smoking', '2nd admission', and 'After age-limit job retirement' were significant factors in achieving good outcomes. The 'usefulness' responses for 'Increasing pleasant activities', 'CET', 'Anger management', ' Managing negative thinking', 'Problem solving', and ' Seemingly irrelevant decisions' as percentages of overall responses to the letters were significantly higher, in order of decreasing percentages, in the achiever group than in the non-achiever group, but the differences between the groups in ' Managing urges to drink', ' Drink refusal skills', ' Planning for emergencies', and ' Receiving criticism about drinking' were not significant. The odds ratios for achievement of 30 or fewer drinking days during the 1-year period increased significantly by 1.15 -1.31 fold per 10% increment in the 'usefulness' ratio for 'Increasing pleasant activities'. The difference in percentage achievement between the group treated by CST alone and the group treated by CST plus CET was not significant. In conclusion, some coping skills were more useful for relapse prevention

  15. Alcohol Dehydrogenase-1B (rs1229984 and Aldehyde Dehydrogenase-2 (rs671 Genotypes Are Strong Determinants of the Serum Triglyceride and Cholesterol Levels of Japanese Alcoholic Men.

    Akira Yokoyama

    Full Text Available Elevated serum triglyceride (TG and high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C levels are common in drinkers. The fast-metabolizing alcohol dehydrogenase-1B encoded by the ADH1B*2 allele (vs. ADH1B*1/*1 genotype and inactive aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 encoded by the ALDH2*2 allele (vs. ALDH2*1/*1 genotype modify ethanol metabolism and are prevalent (≈90% and ≈40%, respectively in East Asians. We attempted to evaluate the associations between the ADH1B and ALDH2 genotypes and lipid levels in alcoholics.The population consisted of 1806 Japanese alcoholic men (≥40 years who had undergone ADH1B and ALDH2 genotyping and whose serum TG, total cholesterol, and HDL-C levels in the fasting state had been measured within 3 days after admission.High serum levels of TG (≥150 mg/dl, HDL-C (>80 mg/dl, and low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C calculated by the Friedewald formula ≥140 mg/dl were observed in 24.3%, 16.8%, and 15.6%, respectively, of the subjects. Diabetes, cirrhosis, smoking, and body mass index (BMI affected the serum lipid levels. Multivariate analysis revealed that the presence of the ADH1B*2 allele and the active ALDH2*1/*1 genotype increased the odds ratio (OR; 95% confidence interval for a high TG level (2.22 [1.67-2.94] and 1.39 [0.99-1.96], respectively, and decreased the OR for a high HDL-C level (0.37 [0.28-0.49] and 0.51 [0.37-0.69], respectively. The presence of the ADH1B*2 allele decreased the OR for a high LDL-C level (0.60 [0.45-0.80]. The ADH1B*2 plus ALDH2*1/*1 combination yielded the highest ORs for high TG levels and lowest OR for a high HDL-C level. The genotype effects were more prominent in relation to the higher levels of TG (≥220 mg/dl and HDL-C (≥100 mg/dl.The fast-metabolizing ADH1B and active ALDH2, and especially a combination of the two were strongly associated with higher serum TG levels and lower serum HDL-C levels of alcoholics. The fast-metabolizing ADH1B was associated with lower serum LDL

  16. Circulating levels of perfluoroalkyl substances are associated with dietary patterns - A cross sectional study in elderly Swedish men and women.

    Sjogren, Per; Montse, Rachel; Lampa, Erik; Salihovic, Samira; van Bavel, Bert; Lind, Lars; Lind, P Monica

    2016-10-01

    In our daily life, we are exposed to perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) with possible health implications. The main exposure route for these substances is diet but comparative studies on how dietary habits influence exposure are lacking. To examine the relations between blood levels of PFAS and adherence to three predefined dietary patterns (a WHO recommended diet, a Mediterranean-like diet, and a Low-Carbohydrate High-Protein (LCHP) diet) in an elderly Swedish population. Dietary data from 7-day food records and serum concentrations of PFAS were obtained from a 70-year-old Swedish population (n=844), the Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS) study. The Healthy Diet Indicator score (based on WHO recommendations), the Mediterranean Diet Score and LCHP score were used to assess adherence. Multivariate linear regression was used to assess the associations between eight major PFAS and adherence to each dietary pattern. The WHO recommended diet was positively associated with perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS). The LCHP diet was positively related to four out of eight PFAS; namely, perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA) and perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnDA). The Mediterranean-like diet was positively associated with most PFAS; namely perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorooctane sulfonamide (PFOSA), PFHxS, PFNA, PFDA, and PFUnDA. All dietary patterns were positively associated with blood levels of PFAS. The highest body burden of PFAS was found in individuals with high adherence to a Mediterranean-like diet, whilst individuals who more closely followed the officially recommended diet displayed a lower body burden of these compounds. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Positive effects of 1-year football and strength training on mechanical muscle function and functional capacity in elderly men.

    Sundstrup, Emil; Jakobsen, Markus Due; Andersen, Lars Louis; Andersen, Thomas Rostgaard; Randers, Morten Bredsgaard; Helge, Jørn Wulff; Suetta, Charlotte; Schmidt, Jakob Friis; Bangsbo, Jens; Krustrup, Peter; Aagaard, Per

    2016-06-01

    A decline in physical capacity takes place with increasing age that negatively affects overall physical function including work ability and the ability to perform typical activities of daily living (ADL). The overall aim of the present study was to determine the neuromuscular adaptations to long-term (1 year) football and strength training in older untrained adults, and to assess the concurrent effect on functional ADL capacity. Twenty-seven healthy elderly males (68.2 ± 3.2 years) were randomly assigned to 12 months of either recreational football training (FT: n = 10), strength training (ST: n = 9) or served as inactive controls (CON: n = 8). Recreational football training consisted of small-sided training sessions whereas strength training consisted of high intensity exercises targeting the lower extremity and upper body. Maximal thigh muscle strength and rate of force development (RFD) were assessed with isokinetic dynamometry, while postural balance and vertical jumping performance were evaluated using force plate analysis. Furthermore, functional ability was evaluated by stair-ascent and chair-rising testing. A total of nine, nine and seven participants from FT, ST and CON, respectively, were included in the analysis. Both exercise regimens led to substantial gains in functional ability, evidenced by 24 and 18 % reduced stair-ascent time, and 32 and 21 % increased chair-rising performance in FT and ST, respectively (all P football training mainly resulted in enhanced hamstring strength (18 %, P football training mainly included enhanced strength and rapid force capacity of the hamstring muscles. Gains in functional ability were observed in response to both training regimens, evidenced by reduced stair-ascent time and increased chair-rising performance. Long-term football exercise and strength training both appear to be effective interventional strategies to improve factors of importance for ADL by counteracting the age-related decline in lower

  18. Optimal waist circumference cut-off points and ability of different metabolic syndrome criteria for predicting diabetes in Japanese men and women: Japan Epidemiology Collaboration on Occupational Health Study

    Huanhuan Hu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We sought to establish the optimal waist circumference (WC cut-off point for predicting diabetes mellitus (DM and to compare the predictive ability of the metabolic syndrome (MetS criteria of the Joint Interim Statement (JIS and the Japanese Committee of the Criteria for MetS (JCCMS for DM in Japanese. Methods Participants of the Japan Epidemiology Collaboration on Occupational Health Study, who were aged 20–69 years and free of DM at baseline (n = 54,980, were followed-up for a maximum of 6 years. Time-dependent receiver operating characteristic analysis was used to determine the optimal cut-off points of WC for predicting DM. Time-dependent sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values for the prediction of DM were compared between the JIS and JCCMS MetS criteria. Results During 234,926 person-years of follow-up, 3180 individuals developed DM. Receiver operating characteristic analysis suggested that the most suitable cut-off point of WC for predicting incident DM was 85 cm for men and 80 cm for women. MetS was associated with 3–4 times increased hazard for developing DM in men and 7–9 times in women. Of the MetS criteria tested, the JIS criteria using our proposed WC cut-off points (85 cm for men and 80 cm for women had the highest sensitivity (54.5 % for men and 43.5 % for women for predicting DM. The sensitivity and specificity of the JCCMS MetS criteria were ~37.7 and 98.9 %, respectively. Conclusion Data from the present large cohort of workers suggest that WC cut-offs of 85 cm for men and 80 cm for women may be appropriate for predicting DM for Japanese. The JIS criteria can detect more people who later develop DM than does the JCCMS criteria.

  19. Person-centredness in elder care: A secondary analysis of data from a study among home-dwelling men and women in the Faroe Islands.

    Róin, Ása

    2018-06-01

    As individuals in Western societies age, there is increasing demand for home-based care to help older people stay in their homes for as long as possible and provide services that ensure a person's quality of life in old age. Numerous attempts are made to develop a framework to secure quality of care. However, research has shown insufficient quality in care for older people. In this study, the purpose is to study how older people's experiences with home care reflect a person-centred approach to care. Data derived from an earlier study on ageing among home-dwelling men and women who are aged 67-91 and living in the Faroe Islands. Person-centredness as a concept is an often quoted, but ill-defined concept. Most studies concerning person-centred care are conducted within hospital wards or long-term care institutions. Empirical studies concerning home-dwelling older people receiving home care are scarce. The study is a secondary analysis of data from an earlier qualitative study. Latent thematic analysis was used which meant coding issues of potential interest and collecting these codes into themes. Three themes appeared to combine the initial codes: sense of involvement, sense of meaningfulness and contextual conditions. Overall, the analysis showed that the users were seldom involved in planning or scheduling the care they received. What they were offered did not always make sense to them or correspond to their needs or preferences. The number of interviews included was limited. However, findings from this study point at some possible barriers to successful implementation of person-centredness within elder care. Especially, contextual conditions seem to limit the facilitation of person-centred practices. Healthcare providers must take the user's preferences, resources and networks into consideration when coordinating and planning home care and, importantly, be open for negotiating needs. It is important to draw attention to the contrast between political intentions

  20. Selection of useful items for fall risk screening for community dwelling Japanese elderly from the perspective of fall experience, physical function, and age level differences.

    Demura, Shinichi; Yamada, Takayoshi; Uchiyama, Masanobu; Sugiura, Hiroki; Hamazaki, Hiroshi

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to examine useful items for screening the fall risk of community dwelling elderly from various perspectives, including fall experience, physical function level, and age level difference. 968 independently living elderly persons over the age of 60 (age: 70.0 ± 7.0) responded to 80 fall risk items representing 7 factors (physical function, fall history, using devices, fear of falling and inactivity, dosing, disease and disability, and environment) and an ADL questionnaire. The high fall risk response rate was calculated for each item and tested for statistical significance among age groups and those with and without fall experience. Cramer's V was calculated to examine the relationship between each item and the ADL. In addition, we selected items with significant differences in the high fall risk response rates between the faller and the non-faller groups, a significant relationship with ADL, and a significant difference among age groups. A total of 40 useful items were selected from each fall risk factor (decrease in physical function: 21 items, fall history: 2 items, device usage: 3 items, fear of falling and inactivity: 5 items, dosing: 0 items, disease and disability: 8 items, and environment: 1 item). Selected items can comprehensively and properly assess the fall risk of the healthy elderly as compared with existing questionnaires. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Association between dietary patterns and cognitive function among 70-year-old Japanese elderly: a cross-sectional analysis of the SONIC study.

    Okubo, Hitomi; Inagaki, Hiroki; Gondo, Yasuyuki; Kamide, Kei; Ikebe, Kazunori; Masui, Yukie; Arai, Yasumichi; Ishizaki, Tatsuro; Sasaki, Satoshi; Nakagawa, Takeshi; Kabayama, Mai; Sugimoto, Ken; Rakugi, Hiromi; Maeda, Yoshinobu

    2017-09-11

    An increasing number of studies in Western countries have shown that healthy dietary patterns may have a protective effect against cognitive decline and dementia. However, information on this relationship among non-Western populations with different cultural settings is extremely limited. We aim to examine the relationship between dietary patterns and cognitive function among older Japanese people. This cross-sectional study included 635 community-dwelling people aged 69-71 years who participated in the prospective cohort study titled Septuagenarians, Octogenarians, Nonagenarians Investigation with Centenarians (SONIC). Diet was assessed over a one-month period with a validated, brief-type, self-administered diet history questionnaire. Dietary patterns from thirty-three predefined food groups [energy-adjusted food (g/d)] were extracted by factor analysis. Cognitive function was assessed using the Japanese version of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA-J). Multivariate regression analysis was performed to examine the relationship between dietary patterns and cognitive function. Three dietary patterns were identified: the 'Plant foods and fish', 'Rice and miso soup', and 'Animal food' patterns. The 'Plant foods and fish' pattern, characterized by high intakes of green and other vegetables, soy products, seaweeds, mushrooms, potatoes, fruit, fish, and green tea, was significantly associated with a higher MoCA-J score [MoCA-J score per one-quartile increase in dietary pattern: β = 0.56 (95% CI: 0.33, 0.79), P for trend cognitive function. To confirm the possibility of reverse causation we also conducted a sensitivity analysis excluding 186 subjects who reported substantial changes in their diet for any reason, but the results did not change materially. This preliminary cross-sectional study suggests that a diet with high intakes of vegetables, soy products, fruit, and fish may have a beneficial effect on cognitive function in older Japanese people. Further

  2. Engagement in paid work as a protective predictor of basic activities of daily living disability in Japanese urban and rural community-dwelling elderly residents: An 8-year prospective study.

    Fujiwara, Yoshinori; Shinkai, Shoji; Kobayashi, Erika; Minami, Ushio; Suzuki, Hiroyuki; Yoshida, Hideyo; Ishizaki, Tatsuro; Kumagai, Shu; Watanabe, Shuichiro; Furuna, Taketo; Suzuki, Takao

    2016-01-01

    To examine whether engaging in paid work is a predictor of maintaining good functional health among Japanese older adults in both urban and rural communities. We used the 8-year longitudinal Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology Longitudinal Interdisciplinary Study on Aging with 306 and 675 persons aged 65-84 years from Koganei City (urban) and Nangai Village (rural), respectively, who are independent in basic activities of daily living (BADL). In order to examine the declining patterns in BADL and evaluate the predictive value of working status for future BADL disability, we applied the log-rank test of cumulative proportion curves and the Cox proportional hazard model by sex, controlling for age, research fields, years of education, marital state, chronic medical conditions, pain, instrumental activities of daily living (IADL), smoking status, exercise habits, life satisfaction, usual walking speed and serum albumin for evaluating the predictive value of working status at baseline for future BADL disability. In both areas, participants who were not working were more likely to decline in BADL than those working (P women in urban Koganei. Male participants who did not engage in paid work had a higher adjusted hazard ratio of onset of BADL disability, compared with those working, but this was not seen for female participants. Working might be protective from a decline in BADL only for men, but not for women. Regarding the difference of sex roles in conventional Japanese society, working would be an effective solution especially for men to participate in social activities. © 2015 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  3. Interrelationship of oral health status, swallowing function, nutritional status, and cognitive ability with activities of daily living in Japanese elderly people receiving home care services due to physical disabilities.

    Furuta, Michiko; Komiya-Nonaka, Manae; Akifusa, Sumio; Shimazaki, Yoshihiro; Adachi, Munehisa; Kinoshita, Toshinori; Kikutani, Takeshi; Yamashita, Yoshihisa

    2013-04-01

    Malnutrition and cognitive impairment lead to declines in activities of daily living (ADL). Nutritional status and cognitive ability have been shown to correlate with oral health status and swallowing function. However, the complex relationship among the factors that affect decline in ADL is not understood. We examined direct and indirect relationships among oral health status, swallowing function, nutritional status, cognitive ability, and ADL in Japanese elderly people living at home and receiving home care services because of physical disabilities. Participants were 286 subjects aged 60 years and older (mean age, 84.5±7.9 years) living at home and receiving home care services. Oral health status (the number of teeth and wearing dentures) was assessed, and swallowing function was examined using cervical auscultation. Additionally, ADL, cognitive ability, and nutritional status were assessed using the Barthel Index, the Clinical Dementia Rating Scale, and the Mini Nutritional Assessment-Short Form, respectively. Path analysis was used to test pathways from these factors to ADL. The mean number of teeth present in the participants was 8.6±9.9 (edentates, 40.6%). Dysphagia, malnutrition, and severe cognitive impairment were found in 31.1%, 14.0%, and 21.3% of the participants, respectively. Path analysis indicated that poor oral health status and cognitive impairment had a direct effect on denture wearing, and the consequent dysphagia, in addition to cognitive impairment, was positively associated with malnutrition. Malnutrition as well as dysphagia and cognitive impairment directly limited ADL. A lower number of teeth are positively related to swallowing dysfunction, whereas denture wearing contributes to recovery of swallowing function. Dysphagia, cognitive impairment, and malnutrition directly and indirectly decreased ADL in elderly people living at home and receiving home nursing care. The findings suggest that preventing tooth loss and encouraging denture

  4. Japanese language and Japanese science

    Tanikawa, Kiyotaka

    2003-08-01

    Japanese mathematical scientists including astronomers, physicists, and mathematicians obtain ideas in Japanese, discuss their problems in Japanese, and arrive at conclusions in Japanese, and yet they write their results in foreign languages such as English. This uncomfortable situation has continued for nearly one hundred years and has had serious effects on Japanese science. In this short report, the author discusses and analyses these effects. In order to put Japanese science on a sound basis, the author proposes to increase the number of articles, reviews and textbooks in Japanese, first by translation and second by the voluntary efforts of scientists themselves. As centers devoted to this activity, the author proposes to construct "Airborne Libraries" which are maintained and accumulate in an electronic form the scientific documents written in Japanese.

  5. Increases in physical activity is as important as smoking cessation for reduction in total mortality in elderly men: 12 years of follow-up of the Oslo II study.

    Holme, I; Anderssen, S A

    2015-06-01

    Physical activity (PA) at leisure by the elderly, and its relationship to cardiovascular (CV) and non-CV mortality, with and without competing risk, has been scarcely described. We determined the relationships between PA, smoking and 12-year CV, non-CV and all-cause mortality in elderly Oslo men screened for CV disease in 1972-1973 and 2000. Among 14,846 men born during 1923-1932 and participating in 1972-1973, there were 5738 participants in 2000. During the 12 years follow-up 2154 died. Cox regression modelling of mortality endpoints, with and without competing risk, was applied analysing PA variables hours per week of light or vigorous PA intensity and degree of PA at leisure. Comparisons of predictive ability between PA and smoking were done by receiver operating characteristics. Thirty minutes of PA per 6 days a week was associated with about 40% mortality risk reduction. There was a 5 years increased lifetime when comparing sedentary and moderate to vigorous physically active men. Associations to CV or non-CV mortality were slightly weakened, allowing competing risk. Conditional on the prevalence of smoking and PA, the degree of PA at leisure was almost as predictive as smoking with regard to the effects on mortality. Increase in PA was as beneficial as smoking cessation in reducing mortality. Even at the age of 73 years, PA is associated highly with mortality between groups of sedentary and active persons. Allowing for competing risk did not weaken these associations markedly. Public health strategies in elderly men should include efforts to increase PA in line with efforts to reduce smoking behaviour. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  6. Actual use of and satisfaction associated with rollators and "shopping carts" among frail elderly Japanese people using day-service facilities.

    Kitajima, Eiji; Moriuchi, Takefumi; Iso, Naoki; Sagari, Akira; Kikuchi, Yasuyuki; Higashi, Toshio

    2017-07-01

    Purpose This study aimed at clarifying the actual use of and satisfaction with rollators and "shopping carts" (wheeled walkers with storage) among frail elderly people, who were certified by a long-term care insurance system as users of facilities that provide day-service nursing care and rehabilitation. Methods We identified 1247 frail elderly people who used day-service facilities, and evaluated their actual use of, and satisfaction with, rollators and shopping carts. Results Forty-four (3.5%) individuals used rollators, and 53 (4.3%) used shopping carts. The shopping cart group contained more individuals who were certified as care level 1 (26.4%), than the rollator group (20.5%), and 52.8% of the shopping cart group was certified as care levels 1-3. The scores for "repairs and services" and "follow-up" from the Quebec User Evaluation of Satisfaction with assistive Technology second version (QUEST 2.0) survey were significantly higher in the rollator group than in the shopping cart group. Conclusions The QUEST 2.0 scores revealed that shopping cart users exhibit insufficient "repairs and services" and "follow-up" scores. As frail elderly people with poor care status accounted for >50% of the shopping cart group, these individuals urgently need walking aids that are tailored to their care status. Implications for Rehabilitation We conclude that walking aid fitting must be tailored to each persons care status, and suggest that a system should be established to allow occupational or physical therapists to provide this fitting Moreover, our analysis of the QUEST2.0 service scores revealed that repairs, services, and follow-up are insufficient to meet the needs of shopping cart users.

  7. [Transdisciplinary Approach for Sarcopenia. Sarcopenia : definition and the criteria for Asian elderly people].

    Yuki, Atsumu; Ando, Fujiko; Shimokata, Hiroshi

    2014-10-01

    Sarcopenia is a syndrome characterized by loss of skeletal muscle mass and function (strength and physical performance) with a risk of adverse outcomes. Asian criteria have been decided recently by the Asia Working Group for Sarcopenia (AWGS) . AWGS defined sarcopenia as low skeletal muscle mass plus low muscle strength and/or low physical performance based on the previous reports. AWGS recommend cutoff values for muscle mass (7.0 kg/m(2) for men and 5.4 kg/m(2) for women by using dual X-ray absorptiometry, and 7.0 kg/m(2) for men and 5.7 kg/m(2) for women by using bioelectrical impedance analysis) , handgrip strength (sarcopenia in Japanese elderly men and women diagnosed using Asian criteria was 9.6% and 7.7%, respectively. The estimated number of prevalent cases of sarcopenia in Japanese elderly men and women was approximately 1.3 million and 1.4 million, respectively.

  8. Self-reported health problems, health care utilisation and unmet health care needs of elderly men and women in an urban municipality and a rural area of Bhaktapur District of Nepal.

    Kshetri, Dan B B; Smith, William C S

    2011-06-01

    The study aimed to identify the felt common health problems, utilisation of health services and unmet needs of urban and rural elderly people of Bhaktapur district, Nepal. It was a cross sectional population study of people aged 60 years or more where 204 respondents were interviewed in 2009. The common felt problems were pain and swelling of joints (65.7%), indigestion (63.7%), excessive tiredness (38.2%) and hypertension (35.8%). Pain and swelling of joints (72.5%) and back pain (40.4%) were higher in rural elderly population whereas indigestion (67.6%) and hypertension (37.85%) were higher in urban population. Pain and swelling of joints (66.7%) and indigestion (69.6%) were higher in males, and hypertension (50.0%), back pain (38.2%) and chronic bronchitis/asthma (39.2%) were higher in females. The unmet needs varied between different health problems. In general women had more unmet needs than men, where 80 unmet needs were identified for the 102 men compared with 105 for the 102 women, and these unmet needs increased dramatically with age. This approach yields new insights into the health care needs of the elderly and will be helpful to health care planners.

  9. Effect of Omega-3 and Vitamins E + C Supplements on the Concentration of Serum B-Vitamins and Plasma Redox Aminothiol Antioxidant Status in Elderly Men after Strength Training for Three Months.

    Stea, Tonje Holte; Stølevik, Solvor B; Berntsen, Sveinung; Ezzathkah Bastani, Nasser; Paulsen, Gøran; Lohne Seiler, Hilde; Hetlelid, Ken J; Blomhoff, Rune; Mansoor, Mohammad Azam

    2016-01-01

    Data on redox plasma aminothiol status in individuals on strength training are very limited. Therefore, we studied the effect of omega-3 and vitamins E + C supplementation on the concentration of B-vitamins and redox aminothiol status in elderly men after strength training for 3 months. Healthy men, age 60 ± 6 (mean ± SD) were randomly divided into 3 groups: group I received placebo (n = 17), group II consumed omega-3 (700 mg, n = 17), and group III consumed vitamins E + C (235 mg +1 g, n = 16) daily for 3 months. All participants completed a strength training program for the same period. The concentration of serum vitamin B12 decreased and the concentration of serum folate increased in group I after the intervention (p = 0.01, p = 0.009). The concentration of plasma 5-pyridoxal phosphate decreased in groups II and III (p = 0.03 and p = 0.01), whereas the concentration of serum uric acid decreased only in group II (p = 0.02). We detected an increase in the concentration of reduced form of aminothiols in all groups (p vitamins E + C supplementation affect the concentrations of serum B-vitamins and redox plasma aminothiol status in healthy elderly men on strength training. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Association between sarcopenia and higher-level functional capacity in daily living in community-dwelling elderly subjects in Japan.

    Tanimoto, Yoshimi; Watanabe, Misuzu; Sun, Wei; Sugiura, Yumiko; Tsuda, Yuko; Kimura, Motoshi; Hayashida, Itsushi; Kusabiraki, Toshiyuki; Kono, Koichi

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the association between sarcopenia, defined by muscle mass, muscle strength, and physical performance, and higher-level functional capacity in community-dwelling Japanese elderly people. Subjects were 1158 elderly, community-dwelling Japanese people aged 65 or older. We used bioelectrical impedance analysis to measure muscle mass, grip strength to measure muscle strength, and usual walking speed to measure physical performance. Sarcopenia was characterized by low muscle mass, plus low muscle strength or low physical performance. Subjects without low muscle mass, low muscle strength, and low physical performance were classified as "normal." Examination of higher-level functional capacity was performed using the Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology Index of Competence (TMIG-IC). The TMIG-IC is a 13-item questionnaire completed by the subject; it contains five questions on self-maintenance and four questions each on intellectual activity and social role. Sarcopenia was identified in 11.3% and 10.7% of men and women, respectively. The percentage of disability for instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) was 39.0% in men with sarcopenia and 30.6% in women with sarcopenia. After adjustment for age, in men, sarcopenia was significantly associated with IADL disability compared with intermediate and normal subjects. In women, sarcopenia was significantly associated with every subscale of the TMIG-IC disability compared with intermediate and normal subjects. This study revealed that sarcopenia, defined by muscle mass, muscle strength, and physical performance, had a significant association with disability in higher-level functional capacity in elderly Japanese subjects. Interventions to prevent sarcopenia may prevent higher-level functional disability among elderly people. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. 'I start my day by thinking about what we're going to have for dinner'--a qualitative study on approaches to food-related activities among elderly men with somatic diseases.

    Kullberg, Kerstin; Björklund, Anita; Sidenvall, Birgitta; Åberg, Anna Cristina

    2011-06-01

    The aim of this study was to address the question of how older men with somatic diseases living in their own home approach the question of food-related activities (FRA). Further, any adaptations of these activities necessitated by effects of diseases and of altered life circumstances were explored. Interviews were conducted with a purposeful sample of 18 co-living and single-living men, 64-84 years old. They were diagnosed with Parkinson's disease, rheumatoid arthritis or stroke. In the analysis, a thematic framework was used. The findings revealed three food-related approaches, namely 'Cooking as a pleasure', describing joy in cooking; 'Cooking as a need', indicating no habits or skills in cooking; and 'Food is served', that is, being served meals by a partner. It was found that gender-related roles in particular, but also changed life circumstances, activity limitations, personal interests, and a wish to maintain continuity and independence, affected the men's approaches to these activities. This knowledge may be useful in attempts to facilitate and support FRA among elderly men with diseases. Health care efforts to promote FRA should preferably be individualised in respect to older men's approaches to these activities. © 2010 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences © 2010 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  12. Frequency of soup intake is inversely associated with body mass index, waist circumference, and waist-to-hip ratio, but not with other metabolic risk factors in Japanese men.

    Kuroda, Motonaka; Ohta, Masanori; Okufuji, Tatsuya; Takigami, Chieko; Eguchi, Masafumi; Hayabuchi, Hitomi; Ikeda, Masaharu

    2011-01-01

    Several previous studies have shown that the intake of soup negatively correlates with the body mass index (BMI), serum cholesterol and triacylglycerol levels, and blood pressure, suggesting that soup intake reduces metabolic risk. However, the correlation between soup intake and various metabolic risk factors has not been well-established. Especially, it has not been investigated in Asian countries. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of the frequency of soup intake and metabolic risk factors such as BMI, waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, serum cholesterol, serum triacylglycerol, blood glucose, and glycated hemoglobin. A cross-sectional study of 103 Japanese men aged 24 to 75 years was conducted. The intake of soup and other food was investigated by semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaires. The correlation between the frequency of soup intake and metabolic risk factors was analyzed by multiple regression analysis with a linear model. The median value of frequency of soup intake was 7.0 times per week. After adjusting for confounding factors such as age, energy intake, energy from alcohol intake, current smoking, and estimated energy expenditure, the frequency of soup intake was found to have a significant inverse association with BMI (P=0.040), waist circumference (P=0.024), and waist-to-hip ratio (P=0.001). However, no significant associations with other metabolic risk factors were found. Frequency of soup intake is negatively correlated with obesity-related physical parameters in Japanese men. Copyright © 2011 American Dietetic Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. No effect of anti-inflammatory medication on postprandial and postexercise muscle protein synthesis in elderly men with slightly elevated systemic inflammation

    Dideriksen, Kasper Juel; Reitelseder, Søren; Malmgaard-Clausen, Nikolai Mølkjær

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Based on circulating C-reactive protein (CRP) levels, some individuals develop slightly increased inflammation as they age. In elderly inflamed rats, the muscle response to protein feeding is impaired, whereas it can be maintained by treatment with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs...... (NSAIDs). It is unknown whether this applies to elderly humans with increased inflammation. Thus, the muscle response to whey protein bolus ingestion with and without acute resistance exercise was compared between healthy elderly individuals and elderly individuals with slightly increased inflammation......protein synthetic response was measured as the fractional synthetic rate (FSR) and p70S6K phosphorylation-to-total protein ratio. RESULTS: The basal myofibrillar FSR and the myofibrillar FSR responses to whey protein bolus ingestion with and without acute resistance exercise were...

  14. Potentially inappropriate medications in elderly Japanese patients: effects of pharmacists' assessment and intervention based on Screening Tool of Older Persons' Potentially Inappropriate Prescriptions criteria ver.2.

    Kimura, T; Ogura, F; Yamamoto, K; Uda, A; Nishioka, T; Kume, M; Makimoto, H; Yano, I; Hirai, M

    2017-04-01

    The Screening Tool of Older Persons' Potentially Inappropriate Prescriptions (stopp) criteria were updated in 2014 (stopp criteria ver.2), but few studies have evaluated the usefulness of stopp criteria in elderly patients. This prospective observational study evaluated the prevalence of potentially inappropriate medications (PIMs), and the efficacy of hospital pharmacists' assessment and intervention based on stopp criteria ver.2. The study was conducted at three medical units of Kobe University Hospital between April 2015 and March 2016. Pharmacists assessed and detected PIMs based on stopp criteria ver.2 and considered the patient's intention to change the prescription at the time of admission of each patient. If the pharmacists judged that benefits outweighed risks of prescription change and the patients consented to change the medications, they recommended the doctor to change the prescription. If there was a risk of exacerbation of disease by the change of medications and the pharmacists judged it to be difficult to adjust medications during hospitalization or the patients did not consent to change the medications, they did not recommend to change it. The pharmacists and the doctors discussed and finally decided whether to change the PIMs or not. The number of patients prescribed PIMs, the number and contents of PIMs, and the number of medications changed after pharmacists' intervention were calculated. Totally, 822 new inpatients aged ≥65 years prescribed ≥1 daily medicine were included. Their median (interquartile range) age was 75·0 (71·0-80·0) years, and 54·9% were male. According to the criteria, 346 patients (42·1%) were prescribed ≥1 PIMs. Patients prescribed PIMs took significantly more medications than others: 10·0 (7·0-13·0) vs. 6·0 (4·0-9·0), P older people (benzodiazepines) (30/67) and (iii) drugs that predictably increase the risk of falls in older people (hypnotic Z-drugs) (15/31). Over 40% elderly patients were prescribed PIMs

  15. Long-term care-service use and increases in care-need level among home-based elderly people in a Japanese urban area.

    Koike, Soichi; Furui, Yuji

    2013-04-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effects of home-based long-term care insurance services on an increase in care need levels and discuss its policy implications. We analyzed care need certification and long-term care service use data for 3006 non-institutionalized elderly persons in a Tokyo ward effective as of October 2009 and 2010. Individual care need assessment intervals and their corresponding changes in care need level were calculated from data at two data acquisition points of care need assessment. Those who had been certified but did not use any long-term care insurance service were defined as the control group. The Cox proportionate hazard model was used to determine whether the use of a long-term care insurance service is associated with increased care need level. After adjusting for sex, age, and care need level, the hazard ratio for the probability of increased care need level among service users was calculated as 0.75 (95% confidence interval, 0.64-0.88; p Home-based long-term care service use may prevent an increase in care need level. Administrative data on care need certification and services use could be an effective tool for evaluating the long-term care insurance system. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects of sleep management with self-help treatment for the Japanese elderly with chronic insomnia: a quasi-experimental study.

    Tamura, Norihisa; Tanaka, Hideki

    2017-08-01

    This study aimed to determine whether sleep management with self-help treatment is more effective in improving insomnia, compared to a waiting-list control. A total of 51 participants with insomnia, aged ≥60 years, were assigned to two groups: the treatment group or waiting-list control group. Intervention included sleep education, group work, moderately intense exercise, and self-help treatment using a sleep diary for 2 weeks. Participants completed the Insomnia Severity Index (ISI-J) and sleep diaries wearing an activity recorder pre- and post-treatment. The treatment group showed a significant improvement in the ISI-J with a fairly large effect size (Cohen's d: within = 0.78, between = 0.70), whereas the waiting-list control group did not. Sleep diary and activity recorder data showed small to moderate effect sizes in the treatment group. Thus, sleep management with self-help treatment was superior to a waiting-list control for insomnia severity in the targeted elderly population.

  17. Use of a unipedal standing test to assess the ambulation reacquisition time during the early postoperative stage after hip fracture in elderly Japanese: prospective study.

    Murata, Koichi; Sugitani, Shigeki; Yoshioka, Hiroki; Noguchi, Takashi; Aoto, Toshiyuki; Nakamura, Takashi

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to predict the ambulation reacquisition time after hip fracture in elderly people using the unipedal standing test during the early postoperative stage. Patients with an intertrochanteric fracture treated with internal fixation (n = 35) and patients with a femoral neck fracture treated with hemiarthroplasty (n = 22) were included. A unipedal standing test using the nonoperated leg was performed on days 3 and 7 after the operation. Among the patients with an intertrochanteric fracture, those with a positive result on the unipedal standing test on postoperative day (POD) 3 attained gait with parallel guide bars (BG) and walker-assisted gait (WG) significantly earlier than did patients with a negative result on the unipedal standing test. Patients with a positive result on the unipedal standing test on POD 7 attained BG, WG, and cane-assisted gait (CG) significantly earlier than did patients with a negative test. Among patients with a femoral neck fracture, those with a positive unipedal standing test result on POD 3 attained BG, WG, and CG significantly earlier than did patients with a negative test. Those with a positive test result on POD 7 attained BG, WG, and CG significantly earlier than did patients with a negative test. The unipedal standing test given during the early postoperative stage is a good test for predicting the ambulation reacquisition time. Moreover, it gives information that can help determine the need for subacute rehabilitation and about discharge planning and health service provision.

  18. Diseases that precede disability among latter-stage elderly individuals in Japan.

    Naruse, Takashi; Sakai, Mahiro; Matsumoto, Hiroshige; Nagata, Satoko

    2015-08-01

    Understanding causes of disability among elderly individuals is an important public health issue, particularly because of the increasing rate of disabled elderly individuals and the social costs in a rapidly aging society. Accordingly, we aimed to describe the diseases that precede disability and investigate the types of diseases that are related to severe disability among Japanese elderly individuals aged over 75 years. Using claim data from the latter-stage elderly healthcare system and long-term care insurance system, we identified 76,265 elderly individuals over 75 years old who did not qualify as disabled on April 1, 2011. Among them, 3,715 elderly individuals who had been newly qualified as disabled between April 1, 2011 and March 31, 2012 were selected. Disease codes from the medical claim data in the 6 months prior to disability were collected. All descriptions were developed separately for six groups divided by gender and disability level (low, middle, and high). The results of the ordinal logistic analysis including sex and age revealed that men tended to have significantly higher levels of disability (β = 0.417, p disability level groups. In low-level disability groups, cancer in men (12.8%) and arthropathy and fracture in women (11.9% and 13.5%, respectively) were as common as cerebrovascular disorder (12.2% and 9.7%, in men and women, respectively). Stroke was the most common disease for all genders and disability levels. The diseases preceding low-level disability differed by gender. This study demonstrated the need to consider arthropathy and fracture as well as CVD in order to prevent disability.

  19. Perceived stress and coping strategies in relation to body mass index: cross-sectional study of 12,045 Japanese men and women.

    Shimanoe, Chisato; Hara, Megumi; Nishida, Yuichiro; Nanri, Hinako; Otsuka, Yasuko; Nakamura, Kazuyo; Higaki, Yasuki; Imaizumi, Takeshi; Taguchi, Naoto; Sakamoto, Tatsuhiko; Horita, Mikako; Shinchi, Koichi; Tanaka, Keitaro

    2015-01-01

    Accumulated evidence suggests a weak positive relationship between psychosocial stress and body mass index (BMI), but little is known about stress coping strategies and BMI. We aimed to examine if perceived stress and coping strategies are related to BMI, with any of their mutual interactions on BMI. This cross-sectional study included 5,063 men and 6,982 women aged 40-69 years. A self-administered questionnaire ascertained perceived stress and 5 items of coping strategies (emotion expression, emotional support seeking, positive reappraisal, problem solving, and disengagement). Analyses were performed by gender with adjustment for age, socioeconomic status, and lifestyle factors. No significant associations were detected between perceived stress and BMI in either men (P(trend) = 0.09) or women (P(trend) = 0.58). In men, however, 'disengagement' showed an inverse association with BMI (P(trend) stress. A possible interaction between perceived stress and 'disengagement' on BMI was found in men (P(interaction) = 0.027); the inverse association between 'disengagement' and BMI was more evident in higher levels of stress (β = -0.13, P(trend) = 0.21 in low; β = -0.22, P(trend) = 0.01 in medium; and β = -0.24, P(trend) = 0.06 in high). In men, 'disengagement' was inversely associated with overweight/obesity (odds ratio 0.79, 95% confidential interval 0.67-0.95), and "positive reappraisal" was positively associated with it (1.25, 1.02-1.54). Coping strategies may have an important role in developing overweight/obesity, particularly in men.

  20. Perceived stress and coping strategies in relation to body mass index: cross-sectional study of 12,045 Japanese men and women.

    Chisato Shimanoe

    Full Text Available Accumulated evidence suggests a weak positive relationship between psychosocial stress and body mass index (BMI, but little is known about stress coping strategies and BMI.We aimed to examine if perceived stress and coping strategies are related to BMI, with any of their mutual interactions on BMI.This cross-sectional study included 5,063 men and 6,982 women aged 40-69 years. A self-administered questionnaire ascertained perceived stress and 5 items of coping strategies (emotion expression, emotional support seeking, positive reappraisal, problem solving, and disengagement. Analyses were performed by gender with adjustment for age, socioeconomic status, and lifestyle factors.No significant associations were detected between perceived stress and BMI in either men (P(trend = 0.09 or women (P(trend = 0.58. In men, however, 'disengagement' showed an inverse association with BMI (P(trend < 0.001, and 'positive reappraisal' and 'problem solving' revealed a positive association with BMI (P(trend = 0.04 and 0.007, respectively even after controlling for perceived stress. A possible interaction between perceived stress and 'disengagement' on BMI was found in men (P(interaction = 0.027; the inverse association between 'disengagement' and BMI was more evident in higher levels of stress (β = -0.13, P(trend = 0.21 in low; β = -0.22, P(trend = 0.01 in medium; and β = -0.24, P(trend = 0.06 in high. In men, 'disengagement' was inversely associated with overweight/obesity (odds ratio 0.79, 95% confidential interval 0.67-0.95, and "positive reappraisal" was positively associated with it (1.25, 1.02-1.54.Coping strategies may have an important role in developing overweight/obesity, particularly in men.

  1. Bowel Movement Frequency, Laxative Use, and Mortality From Coronary Heart Disease and Stroke Among Japanese Men and Women: The Japan Collaborative Cohort (JACC Study

    Yasuhiko Kubota

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The associations of bowel movement frequency and laxative use with cardiovascular disease (CVD are unclear. Methods: A total of 72 014 subjects (29 668 men and 42 346 women aged 40 to 79 years, without a history of CVD or cancer, completed a lifestyle questionnaire at baseline between 1988 and 1990 that included information on bowel movement frequency (daily, every 2–3 days, or once every 4 or more days and laxative use (yes or no, and were followed-up until 2009. Results: During the subjects’ 1 165 569 person-years of follow-up, we documented 977 deaths from coronary heart disease (561 men and 416 women, 2024 from total stroke (1028 men and 996 women, 1127 from ischemic stroke (606 men and 521 women, and 828 from hemorrhagic stroke (388 men and 440 women. The prevalence of CVD risk factors, such as diabetes, stress, depression, and physical inactivity, was higher in laxative users and in those with a lower frequency of bowel movements. The multivariable HRs (95% confidence intervals [CIs] of laxative users were as follows: 1.56 (95% CI, 1.21–2.03 for coronary heart disease and 1.37 (95% CI, 1.07–1.76 for ischemic stroke in men, and 1.27 (95% CI, 1.08–1.49 for total stroke, and 1.45 (95% CI, 1.17–1.79 for ischemic stroke in women. Similar results were observed even after the exclusion of deaths that occurred early in the follow-up period. A significant association between bowel movement frequency and mortality from CVD was not observed. Conclusions: Constipation could be a marker of exposure to CVD risk factors, and laxative use could be a risk factor for mortality from coronary heart disease and ischemic stroke.

  2. Associations of Walking Speed, Grip Strength, and Standing Balance With Total and Cause-Specific Mortality in a General Population of Japanese Elders.

    Nofuji, Yu; Shinkai, Shoji; Taniguchi, Yu; Amano, Hidenori; Nishi, Mariko; Murayama, Hiroshi; Fujiwara, Yoshinori; Suzuki, Takao

    2016-02-01

    Walking speed, grip strength, and standing balance are key components of physical performance in older people. The present study aimed to evaluate (1) associations of these physical performance measures with cause-specific mortality, (2) independent associations of individual physical performance measures with mortality, and (3) the added value of combined use of the 3 physical performance measures in predicting all-cause and cause-specific mortality. Prospective cohort study with a follow-up of 10.5 years. Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology Longitudinal Interdisciplinary Study on Aging (TMIG-LISA), Japan. A total of 1085 initially nondisabled older Japanese aged 65 to 89 years. Usual walking speed, grip strength, and standing balance were measured at baseline survey. During follow-up, 324 deaths occurred (122 of cardiovascular disease, 75 of cancer, 115 of other causes, and 12 of unknown causes). All 3 physical performance measures were significantly associated with all-cause, cardiovascular, and other-cause mortality, but not with cancer mortality, independent of potential confounders. When all 3 physical performance measures were simultaneously entered into the model, each was significantly independently associated with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. The C statistics for all-cause and cardiovascular mortality were significantly increased by adding grip strength and standing balance to walking speed (P balance predicted all-cause, cardiovascular, and other-cause mortality, but not cancer mortality, independent of covariates. Moreover, these 3 components of physical performance were independently associated with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality and their combined use increased prognostic power. Copyright © 2016 AMDA – The Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level is strong risk factor for acquired color vision impairment in young to middle-aged Japanese men: the Okubo Color Study Report 2.

    Shoji, Takuhei; Sakurai, Yutaka; Sato, Hiroki; Chihara, Etsuo; Ishida, Masahiro; Omae, Kazuyuki

    2010-06-01

    To investigate associations between blood low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels and the prevalence of acquired color vision impairment (ACVI) in middle-aged Japanese men. Participants in this cross-sectional study underwent color vision testing, ophthalmic examination, a standardized interview and examination of venous blood samples. Ishihara plates, a Lanthony 15-hue desaturated panel, and Standard pseudoisochromatic Plates part 2 were used to examine color vision ability. The Farnsworth-Munsell 100-hue test was performed to define ACVI. Smoking status and alcohol intake were recorded during the interview. We performed logistic regression analysis adjusted for age, LDL-C level, systemic hypertension, diabetes, cataract, glaucoma, overweight, smoking status, and alcohol intake. Adjusted odds ratios for four LDL-C levels were calculated. A total of 1042 men were enrolled, 872 participants were eligible for the study, and 31 subjects were diagnosed with ACVI. As compared to the lowest LDL-C category level (or=160 mg/dl). The multiple-adjusted ORs were 2.91 (95% CI, 0.87-9.70) for the 2nd highest category and 3.81 (95% CI, 1.03-14.05) for the highest level. Tests for trend were significant (Pmen with elevated LDL-C levels. These changes might be related to deteriorated neurologic function associated with lipid metabolite abnormalities. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Year-long changes in protein metabolism in elderly men and women supplemented with a nutrition cocktail of beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB), L-arginine, and L-lysine.

    Baier, Shawn; Johannsen, Darcy; Abumrad, Naji; Rathmacher, John A; Nissen, Steven; Flakoll, Paul

    2009-01-01

    A major contributing factor to the loss of mobility in elderly people is the gradual and continuous loss of lean body mass. To determine whether supplementation of an amino acid cocktail daily for 1 year could improve the age-associated changes in protein turnover and lean body mass in elderly people. Elderly (76+/-1.6 years) women (n=39) and men (n=38) were recruited for a double-blinded controlled study. Study participants were randomly assigned to either an isonitrogenous control-supplement (n=37) or a treatment-supplement (HMB/Arg/Lys) consisting of beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate, L-arginine, and L-lysine (n=40) for the 1-year study. Lean tissue mass was measured using both bioelectrical-impedance analysis (BIA) and dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Rates of whole-body protein turnover were estimated using primed/intermittent oral doses of 15N-glycine. In subjects taking the HMB/Arg/Lys supplement, lean tissue increased over the year of study while in the control group, lean tissue did not change. Compared with control, HMB/Arg/Lys increased body cell mass (BIA) by 1.6% (P=.002) and lean mass (DXA) by 1.2% (P=.05). The rates of protein turnover were significantly increased 8% and 12% in the HMB/Arg/Lys-supplemented group while rates of protein turnover decreased 11% and 9% in the control-supplemented subjects (P<.01), at 3 and 12 months, respectively. Consumption of a simple amino acid-related cocktail increased protein turnover and lean tissue in elderly individuals in a year-long study.

  5. Generational Differences in Japanese Attitudes toward Women's Employment.

    Engel, John W.

    Traditional ideals discourage Japanese women from working outside the home. This study was conducted to explore generational differences in Japanese attitudes toward women's employment and to interpret those differences in terms of social change. Questionnaires were distributed to approximately 900 Japanese men and women. Subjects were classified…

  6. Sarcopenia and falls in community-dwelling elderly subjects in Japan: Defining sarcopenia according to criteria of the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People.

    Tanimoto, Yoshimi; Watanabe, Misuzu; Sun, Wei; Sugiura, Yumiko; Hayashida, Itsushi; Kusabiraki, Toshiyuki; Tamaki, Junko

    2014-01-01

    This study assessed the association between sarcopenia (using the definition of the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People) and fall in the past year among community-dwelling Japanese elderly. Subjects were 1110 community-dwelling Japanese aged 65 or older. We used bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) to measure muscle mass, grip strength to measure muscle strength, and usual walking speed to measure physical performance in a baseline study. "Sarcopenia" was characterized by low muscle mass and low muscle strength or low physical performance. "Presarcopenia" was characterized only by low muscle mass. Subjects who did not have any of these deficiencies were classified as "normal." We then administered a questionnaire assessing age, sex, household status, chronic illness, lifestyle-related habits, and fall. This study showed the prevalence of fall was 16.9% and 21.3% in men and women, respectively, while that of sarcopenia was 13.4% and 14.9% in men and women, respectively. In men and women, the prevalence of sarcopenia was higher among those who had fallen. A logistic regression analysis using age, body fat, current drinker status, and physical inactivity for men, and age, body fat, smoking, and diabetes for women as covariate variables revealed that sarcopenia was significantly associated with a history of fall. The odds ratio for fall in the sarcopenia group relative to the normal group was 4.42 (95%CI 2.08-9.39) in men and 2.34 (95%CI 1.39-3.94) in women. This study revealed sarcopenia to be associated with falling in elderly Japanese. Sarcopenia prevention interventions may help prevent falls among elderly individuals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Trends in gastrectomy and ADH1B and ALDH2 genotypes in Japanese alcoholic men and their gene-gastrectomy, gene-gene and gene-age interactions for risk of alcoholism.

    Yokoyama, Akira; Yokoyama, Tetsuji; Matsui, Toshifumi; Mizukami, Takeshi; Kimura, Mitsuru; Matsushita, Sachio; Higuchi, Susumu; Maruyama, Katsuya

    2013-01-01

    The life-time drinking profiles of Japanese alcoholics have shown that gastrectomy increases susceptibility to alcoholism. We investigated the trends in gastrectomy and alcohol dehydrogenase-1B (ADH1B) and aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 (ALDH2) genotypes and their interactions in alcoholics. This survey was conducted on 4879 Japanese alcoholic men 40 years of age or older who underwent routine gastrointestinal endoscopic screening during the period 1996-2010. ADH1B/ALDH2 genotyping was performed in 3702 patients. A history of gastrectomy was found in 508 (10.4%) patients. The reason for the gastrectomy was peptic ulcer in 317 patients and gastric cancer in 187 patients. The frequency of gastrectomy had gradually decreased from 13.3% in 1996-2000 to 10.5% in 2001-2005 and to 7.8% in 2006-2010 (P alcoholism-susceptibility genotypes, ADH1B*1/*1 and ALDH2*1/*1, modestly but significantly tended not to occur in the same individual (P = 0.026). The frequency of ADH1B*1/*1 decreased with ascending age groups. The high frequency of history of gastrectomy suggested that gastrectomy is still a risk factor for alcoholism, although the percentage decreased during the period. The alcoholism-susceptibility genotype ADH1B*1/*1 was less frequent in the gastrectomy group, suggesting a competitive gene-gastrectomy interaction for alcoholism. A gene-gene interaction and gene-age interactions regarding the ADH1B genotype were observed.

  8. Lifestyle- and diet-related factors in late-life depression - a 5-year follow-up of elderly European men: the FINE study

    Bots, S.; Tijhuis, M.J.; Giampaoli, S.; Kromhout, D.; Nissinen, A.

    2008-01-01

    Objective Late-life depression is one of the main health problems among elderly populations and a key element of healthy ageing. Causal relationships of lifestyle- and diet-related factors in late-life depression are unclear. This study investigates prospective associations of lifestyle- and

  9. Lower extremity physical performance and hip bone mineral density in elderly black and white men and women : cross-sectional associations in the Health ABC Study

    Taaffe, Dennis R; Simonsick, Eleanor M; Visser, Marjolein; Volpato, Stefano; Nevitt, Michael C; Cauley, Jane A; Tylavsky, Frances A; Harris, Tamara B

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Aging is characterized by declines in physical capacity and bone mineral density (BMD), both of which contribute to increased risk for fracture. However, it is unclear if these factors coexist or are independent in elderly people, and if a relationship does exist, whether it varies by

  10. Vascular status and physical functioning: the association between vascular status and physical functioning in middle-aged and elderly men: a cross-sectional study

    Prof. Dr. Marieke J. Schuurmans; Ilse Arts; Yvonne van der Schouw; Diederick Grobbee

    2010-01-01

    Living independently is an important component of quality of life. Cardiovascular diseases are prominent among the chronic conditions that predispose elderly people to functional limitations and disability, which impair quality of life. Insight into factors that play a role in the development

  11. Japanese dreams

    Sejrup, Jens

    2018-01-01

    This paper traces the history of a Japanese-funded annex to the Van Gogh Museum in Amsterdam over the past twenty-five years. The analysis focuses on three key years in the building’s history: 1991, 1999, and 2015. Critically examining public debate and media coverage of the building in contempor......This paper traces the history of a Japanese-funded annex to the Van Gogh Museum in Amsterdam over the past twenty-five years. The analysis focuses on three key years in the building’s history: 1991, 1999, and 2015. Critically examining public debate and media coverage of the building...... in contemporary Dutch- and Japanese-language sources, I argue that changing claims and public perceptions of Japan reflected the country’s shifting economic fortunes and international position during the period. The sources consistently framed the Japanese-designed building within a language of dreams. However...

  12. Epidemiologic studies of coronary heart disease and stroke in Japanese men living in Japan, Hawaii, and California: demographic, physical, dietary, and biochemical characteristics

    Kagan, A.; Harris, B.R.; Winkelstein, W. Jr.; Johnson, K.G.; Kato, H.; Syme, S.L.; Rhoads, G.G.; Gay, M.L.; Nichaman, M.Z.; Hamilton, H.B.; Tillotson, J.

    1973-01-01

    These summary descriptive data of ethnically similar cohorts of indigenous and migrant Japanese males have shown similarities or slight differences in characteristics wholly or largely genetically determined, such as blood groups, stature, and skeletal size. Differences have been noted in characteristics largely environmental or behavioral, such as diet and cigarette smoking habit, as well as in characteristics determined by a varying mixture of genetic and environmental influences, such as weight, blood pressure, glucose tolerance, and serum lipid and uric acid levels. Detailed analyses of the distributions of laboratory variables, of dietary data obtained by different methods, and of correlations among laboratory, dietary, physical, and demographic variables are currently in progress. Also part of the study plan are determinations of disease prevalence from evaluation of examination, laboratory, and electrocardiographic findings, of disease incidence from repeat examinations and from surveillance of hospital records, and of cause-specific mortality from hospital records, and from death certificates. In addition, at Hiroshima and Honolulu a uniform autopsy protocol is in use. All of these disease findings will be correlated with characteristics determined by questionnaire, interview, examination, and laboratory analyses in order to determine the relations between the measured variables and the occurrence of CHD and stroke. (U.S.)

  13. The Impact of Multiple Roles on Psychological Distress among Japanese Workers.

    Honda, Ayumi; Abe, Yasuyo; Date, Yutaka; Honda, Sumihisa

    2015-06-01

    There has been considerable interest in Japanese society in the problem of work-related stress leading to depressive symptoms, and an increasing number of primary houseworkers maintain paid employment. The purpose of this study was to examine the differential impact of multiple roles associated with psychological distress among Japanese workers. We studied 722 men and women aged 18-83 years in a cross-sectional study. The K10 questionnaire was used to examine psychological distress. The proportion of participants with psychological distress was higher in women (17.8%) compared with men (11.5%). Having three roles significantly decreased the risk of psychological distress [women: odds ratio (OR), 0.37-fold; men: OR, 0.41] compared with only one role. In working married women, there was significantly less psychological distress (OR, 0.27), and those with childrearing or caregiving responsibilities for elderly parents had significantly less psychological distress (OR, 0.38) than those with only an employment role. Similarly, working married men who had childrearing or caregiving responsibilities for elderly parents had significantly less psychological distress (OR, 0.41) than those who had only an employment role. The present study demonstrated that participants who had only an employment role had an increased risk of psychological distress. The degree of psychological distress was not determined solely by the number of roles. It is important to have balance between work and family life to reduce role conflict and/or role submersion, which in turn may reduce the risk of psychological distress.

  14. Erectile dysfunction is independently associated with apnea-hypopnea index and oxygen desaturation index in elderly, but not younger, community-dwelling men.

    Martin, Sean A; Appleton, Sarah L; Adams, Robert J; Taylor, Anne W; Vincent, Andrew; Brook, Nicholas R; Catcheside, Peter G; Vakulin, Andrew; McEvoy, R Douglas; Antic, Nick A; Wittert, Gary A

    2017-08-01

    To examine the association between obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and other sleep indices using polysomnography (PSG) data and erectile dysfunction (ED) in a representative cohort of men. Cross-sectional. Community-based. Aged 40+ years (n=734; mean age [SD], 60.8 [10.9]). Men with no prior OSA diagnosis who underwent in-home PSG (Embletta X100; 2010-11) and ED assessment (Global Impotence Rating) were selected. Un-adjusted and multi-adjusted regression models of ED were fitted against PSG measures, along with qualifying sociodemographic, lifestyle, and health-related covariates. Mediation effects were examined using the Baron-Kenny method. Of the men examined, 24.7% (n=181) had ED, most notably in men older than 65years (cf. men 35-49 and 50-64years; Pmen. Given an observed ageinteraction within OSA categories (P=.005), analyses were repeated in age-stratified samples (men younger than 65years, only severe OSA was found to have an association with ED (2.01; 1.13-4.69) in unadjusted models. For men aged 65+ years, an independent association with ED was found for apnea-hyponea index (AHI; 1.55;1.02-2.36), moderate (AHI:10.0-19.9; 1.79;1.18-2.43), and severe (AHI:20.0+; 4.84;2.56-9.93) OSA, and oxygen desaturation index (ODI; both continuous [1.48;1.03-1.99] and >16 seconds [2.79;1.23-6.32]). The effect of AHI on ED was shown to be primarily mediated through ODI (63.4%, Sobel P value=.29). In younger, community-based men, there appeared no independent relationship between objective measures of sleep and ED. However, there appears a strong, independent relationship between OSA, ODI, and ED in men 65 years and older. Copyright © 2017 National Sleep Foundation. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of a Community-Based Program for Oral Health and Nutrition on Cost-Effectiveness by Preventing Disability in Japanese Frail Elderly: A Quasi-Experimental Study Using Propensity Score Matching.

    Tomata, Yasutake; Watanabe, Takashi; Sugiyama, Kemmyo; Zhang, Shu; Sugawara, Yumi; Tsuji, Ichiro

    2017-08-01

    In the Japanese Long-Term Care Insurance (LTCI) system, a community-based program for oral health and nutrition (OHN program) has been implemented with the aim of reducing incident disability and care costs. However, the effectiveness of this program has not been confirmed epidemiologically. The purpose of the present study was to test the hypothesis that the OHN program does reduce incident disability and care costs. A prospective study with a 28-month follow-up period was conducted using data from administrative databases at Tagajo City, Japan. Among frail elderly persons (aged 65 years or more) who were enrolled in the LTCI program in Tagajo, 64 participants in the OHN program and 128 controls (nonparticipants) were selected by propensity score matching. We used 2 types of outcome measure: composite outcome (incident disability and death) and care cost. Data on incident disability were retrieved from the public LTCI database. Care cost was defined as the total amount of LTCI service cost added to medical care cost. The hazard ratio of composite outcome was significantly lower for the intervention group than for the control group (hazard ratio = 0.32, 95% confidence interval 0.12-0.82). Even when we set incident disability as an outcome, the hazard ratio for the intervention group did not change (hazard ratio = 0.33, 95% confidence interval 0.11-0.97). The mean cumulative care cost during the 28 months tended to be lower for the intervention group ($4893) than that for the control group ($5770), but this was not statistically significant by the gamma regression model (cost ratio = 0.85, P = .513). The mean care cost per unit follow-up period (1 month) for the intervention group was significantly lower (cost ratio = 0.54, P = .027). The results of this study suggest that the OHN program is effective for preventing incident disability and, consequently, for saving care costs per unit survival period. Copyright © 2017 AMDA – The Society for Post

  16. Prevalence and etiology of dementia in a Japanese community.

    Ueda, K; Kawano, H; Hasuo, Y; Fujishima, M

    1992-06-01

    We sought to determine the type-specific prevalence of dementia and its risk factors in elderly persons from the Japanese community of Hisayama. We studied the prevalence of dementia in 887 Hisayama residents (353 men and 534 women) aged 65 years or older (screening rate, 94.6%) using various items of clinical information, neurological examination, and dementia scales. We also studied brain morphology in 50 of 59 determined to have dementia by computed tomography or autopsy during the subsequent 54-month period. Factors relevant to dementia were compared between 27 patients with vascular dementia and 789 control subjects without dementia in a retrospective fashion. The prevalence rate of dementia among Hisayama residents aged 65 or older was estimated at 6.7%, with a females to males ratio of 1:2. Among 50 cases of dementia in which brain morphology was examined, the frequency of vascular dementia was 56%; this rate was 2.2 times higher than that for senile dementia of the Alzheimer type. Aging, hypertension, electrocardiographic abnormalities, and high hematocrit were significantly (p less than 0.05) and independently associated with the occurrence of vascular dementia. Prevalence of dementia among the Hisayama residents was relatively identical to that previously reported, but vascular dementia was more predominant. Risk factors for vascular dementia were similar to those for lacunar infarcts. Control of hypertension may be a key to reducing dementia among the Japanese population.

  17. Lactic-fermented egg white reduced serum cholesterol concentrations in mildly hypercholesterolemic Japanese men: a double-blind, parallel-arm design.

    Matsuoka, Ryosuke; Usuda, Mika; Masuda, Yasunobu; Kunou, Masaaki; Utsunomiya, Kazunori

    2017-05-30

    Lactic-fermented egg white (LE), produced by lactic acid fermentation of egg white, is an easy-to-consume form of egg white. Here we assessed the effect of daily consumption of LE for 8 weeks on serum total cholesterol (TC) levels. The study followed a double-blind, parallel-arm design and included 88 adult men with mild hypercholesterolemia (mean ± standard error) serum TC levels, 229 ± 1.6 mg/dL; range, 204-259 mg/dL). The subjects were randomly divided into three groups, which consumed LE containing 4, 6, or 8 g of protein daily for 8 weeks. Blood samples were collected before starting LE consumption (baseline) and at 4 and 8 weeks to measure serum TC and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels. After 8 weeks of consumption, serum TC levels in the 8 g group decreased by 11.0 ± 3.7 mg/dL, a significant decrease compared to baseline (p < 0.05) and a significantly greater decrease than for the 4 g group (3.1 ± 3.4 mg/dL; p < 0.05). Serum LDL-C levels in the 8 g group decreased by 13.7 ± 3.1 mg/dL, again a significant decrease compared with baseline (p < 0.05) and a significantly greater decrease than that for the 4 g group (2.1 ± 2.9 mg/dL; p < 0.05). Consumption of LE for 8 weeks at a daily dose of 8 g of proteins reduced serum TC and LDL-C levels in men with mild hypercholesterolemia, suggesting this may be effective in helping to prevent arteriosclerotic diseases. This clinical trial was retrospectively registered with the Japan Medical Association Center for Clinical Trials, (JMA-IIA00279; registered on 13/03/2017; https://dbcentre3.jmacct.med.or.jp/JMACTR/App/JMACTRE02_04/JMACTRE02_04.aspx?kbn=3&seqno=6530 ).

  18. Elderly Suicide

    Elderly Suicide Fact Sheet Based on 2012 Data (2014) Overview • The elderly (ages 65 and older) made up 13. ... population; they accounted for 16.37% of all suicides in the US. • The rate of suicides for ...

  19. Increased risk of mortality associated with social isolation in older men: Only when feeling lonely? Results from the Amsterdam Study of the Elderly (AMSTEL)

    Holwerda, T.J.; Beekman, A.T.F.; Deeg, D.J.H.; Stek, M.L.; Tilburg, van T.G.; Visser, P.J.; Schmand, B.A.; Jonker, C.; Schoevers, R.

    2012-01-01

    Background. Loneliness has a significant influence on both physical and mental health. Few studies have investigated the possible associations of loneliness with mortality risk, impact on men and women and whether this impact concerns the situation of being alone (social isolation), experiencing

  20. The absence of conflict between paid-work hours and the provision of instrumental support to elderly parents among middle-aged women and men

    A.E. van Putten (Anne); J.D. Vlasblom (Jan Dirk); P.A. Dykstra (Pearl); J.J. Schippers (Joop)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThis study assesses the relationship between the number of work hours and the provision of instrumental support to parents among 779 middle-aged women and men in dual-worker couples in The Netherlands. Using data from the Netherlands Kinship Panel Study collected during 2002-04, we

  1. Increased risk of mortality associated with social isolation in older men: Only when feeling lonely? Results from the Amsterdam Study of the Elderly (AMSTEL)

    Holwerda, T.J.; Beekman, A.T.F.; Deeg, D.J.H.; Stek, M.L.; van Tilburg, T.G.; Visser, P.J.; Schmand, B.A.; Jonker, C.; Schoevers, R.

    2012-01-01

    Background Loneliness has a significant influence on both physical and mental health. Few studies have investigated the possible associations of loneliness with mortality risk, impact on men and women and whether this impact concerns the situation of being alone (social isolation), experiencing

  2. Increased risk of mortality associated with social isolation in older men : only when feeling lonely? Results from the Amsterdam Study of the Elderly (AMSTEL)

    Holwerda, T. J.; Beekman, A. T. F.; Deeg, D. J. H.; Stek, M. L.; van Tilburg, T. G.; Visser, P. J.; Schmand, B.; Jonker, C.; Schoevers, R. A.

    Background. Loneliness has a significant influence on both physical and mental health. Few studies have investigated the possible associations of loneliness with mortality risk, impact on men and women and whether this impact concerns the situation of being alone (social isolation), experiencing

  3. Increased risk of mortality associated with social isolation in older men: only when feeling lonely? Results from the Amsterdam Study of the Elderly (AMSTEL)

    Holwerda, T. J.; Beekman, A. T. F.; Deeg, D. J. H.; Stek, M. L.; van Tilburg, T. G.; Visser, P. J.; Schmand, B.; Jonker, C.; Schoevers, R. A.

    2012-01-01

    Loneliness has a significant influence on both physical and mental health. Few studies have investigated the possible associations of loneliness with mortality risk, impact on men and women and whether this impact concerns the situation of being alone (social isolation), experiencing loneliness

  4. Increased risk of mortality associated with social isolation in older men: only when feeling lonely? Results from the Amsterdam Study of the Elderly (AMSTEL)

    Holwerda, T.J.; Beekman, A.T.F.; Deeg, D.J.H.; Stek, M.L.; van Tilburg, T.G.; Visser, P.J.; Schmand, B.; Jonker, C.; Schoevers, R.A.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Loneliness has a significant influence on both physical and mental health. Few studies have investigated the possible associations of loneliness with mortality risk, impact on men and women and whether this impact concerns the situation of being alone (social isolation), experiencing

  5. Old men living alone

    Hansen, Kristian Frausing; Munk, Karen Pallesgaard

    . 1. An electronic survey is distributed nationwide to municipal preventive home visitors in order to obtain information about their views on the men’s particular needs and the suitability of current health care services. 2. A group of elderly men living alone is interviewed about their own opinions...

  6. Prevalence and Burden of Gait Disorders in Elderly Men and Women Aged 60–97 Years: A Population-Based Study

    Mahlknecht, Philipp; Kiechl, Stefan; Bloem, Bastiaan R.; Willeit, Johann; Scherfler, Christoph; Gasperi, Arno; Rungger, Gregorio; Poewe, Werner; Seppi, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    Background Although gait disorders are common in the elderly, the prevalence and overall burden of these disorders in the general community is not well defined. Methods In a cross-sectional investigation of the population-based Bruneck Study cohort, 488 community-residing elderly aged 60–97 years underwent a thorough neurological assessment including a standardized gait evaluation. Gait disorders were classified according to an accepted scheme and their associations to falls, neuropsychological measures, and quality of life were explored. Results Overall, 32.2% (95% confidence interval [CI] 28.2%–36.4%) of participants presented with impaired gait. Prevalence increased with age (pgait. A total of 24.0% (95%CI 20.4%–28.0%) manifested neurological gait disorders, 17.4% (14.3%–21.0%) non-neurological gait problems, and 9.2% (6.9%–12.1%) a combination of both. While there was no association of neurological gait disorders with gender, non-neurological gait disorders were more frequent in women (p = 0.012). Within the group of neurological gait disorders 69.2% (95%CI 60.3%–76.9%) had a single distinct entity and 30.8% (23.1%–39.7%) had multiple neurological causes for gait impairment. Gait disorders had a significant negative impact on quantitative gait measures, but only neurological gait disorders were associated with recurrent falls (odds ratio 3.3; 95%CI 1.4–7.5; p = 0.005 for single and 7.1; 2.7–18.7; pgait disorders). Finally, we detected a significant association of gait disorders, in particular neurological gait disorders, with depressed mood, cognitive dysfunction, and compromised quality of life. Conclusions Gait disorders are common in the general elderly population and are associated with reduced mobility. Neurological gait disorders in particular are associated with recurrent falls, lower cognitive function, depressed mood, and diminished quality of life. PMID:23894511

  7. Relationships between FTO rs9939609, MC4R rs17782313, and PPARγ rs1801282 polymorphisms and the occurrence of selected metabolic and hormonal disorders in middle-aged and elderly men – a preliminary study

    Rotter I

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Iwona Rotter,1 Karolina Skonieczna-Żydecka,2 Danuta Kosik-Bogacka,3 Grażyna Adler,2 Aleksandra Rył,4 Maria Laszczyńska4 1Department of Medical Rehabilitation, 2Department of Gerontobiology, 3Department of Biology and Medical Parasitology, 4Department of Histology and Developmental Biology, Pomeranian Medical University, Szczecin, Poland Purpose: Metabolic disorders, including MetS, obesity, and lipid disorders, may be related to genetic factors. Metabolic disorders are associated with decreased TS levels in aging men. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between FTO rs9939609, MC4R rs17782313, and PPARɣ rs1801282 polymorphisms and the presence of MetS and its components, the concurrent lipid disorders, as well as sex hormone concentrations. Subjects and methods: This study involved 272 men of Caucasian descent aged 50–75 years. Lipid profile, including TCh, LDL, HDL, and TG, was evaluated by spectrophotometric method. Anthropometric measurements concerned WC and blood pressure. MetS was diagnosed according to the criteria of the IDF. Sex hormone profile, including TST, FTS, E2, DHEAS, and SHBG, was examined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Polymorphisms within FTO, MC4R, and PPARɣ genes were identified using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragments length polymorphism. Results: This study did not show links between the analyzed genetic polymorphisms and the presence of MetS, T2DM, HT, and obesity. However, higher concentrations of TCh and LDL were found in men with the FTO rs9939609 polymorphism in the recessive mode of inheritance (P=0.03 and P=0.05, respectively. Lower WC was found to be associated with MC4R rs17782313 gene inherited in the same model (P=0.005. Conclusion: FTO rs9939609, MC4R rs17782313, and PPARɣ rs1801282 polymorphisms seem to have little effect on the incidence of metabolic malfunctions and no effect on androgen-related disorders in the examined middle-aged and elderly men

  8. Not all elderly people benefit from vitamin D supplementation with respect to physical function: results from the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men Study, Hong Kong.

    Chan, Ruth; Chan, Dicken; Woo, Jean; Ohlsson, Claes; Mellström, Dan; Kwok, Timothy; Leung, Ping Chung

    2012-02-01

    To examine vitamin D status and its association with physical performance and muscle mass in older Chinese men. Cross-sectional and prospective cohort study design. Hong Kong, People's of Republic of China. Nine hundred thirty-nine community-dwelling men aged 65 and older for cross-sectional analysis and 714 for longitudinal analysis. Baseline serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) was measured using a competitive radioimmunoassay kit. Baseline and 4-year physical performance measures (grip strength, 6-m walking speed, step length in a 6-m walk, time to complete five chair stands) were measured, and appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASM) was assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Data were collected for confounding factors: demographic, number of diseases, smoking, alcohol use, body mass index, physical activity, diet, season of blood sampling, and serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) level. Multivariate regression analyses were performed with adjustments for confounding factors. Mean ± standard deviation serum 25OHD level of this sample of Chinese community-dwelling older men who had a high level of baseline physical function was 77.9 ± 20.5 nmol/L; 94.1% of participants had serum 25OHD levels of 50 nmol/L or greater. Median (interquartile range) serum PTH level was 4.1 pmol/L (3.1-5.5 pmol/L). After adjustment for potential confounding factors, serum 25OHD levels were not associated with baseline or 4-year change in physical performance measures and ASM. In Chinese older men who are vitamin D replete and have a high level of baseline physical function, vitamin D may not have an important role in physical function and muscle mass. © 2012, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2011, The American Geriatrics Society.

  9. Double blind randomized placebo-controlled trial on the effects of testosterone supplementation in elderly men with moderate to low testosterone levels: design and baseline characteristics [ISRCTN23688581

    Verhaar Harald JJ

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In ageing men testosterone levels decline, while cognitive function, muscle and bone mass, sexual hair growth, libido and sexual activity decline and the risk of cardiovascular diseases increase. We set up a double-blind, randomized placebo-controlled trial to investigate the effects of testosterone supplementation on functional mobility, quality of life, body composition, cognitive function, vascular function and risk factors, and bone mineral density in older hypogonadal men. We recruited 237 men with serum testosterone levels below 13.7 nmol/L and ages 60–80 years. They were randomized to either four capsules of 40 mg testosterone undecanoate (TU or placebo daily for 26 weeks. Primary endpoints are functional mobility and quality of life. Secondary endpoints are body composition, cognitive function, aortic stiffness and cardiovascular risk factors and bone mineral density. Effects on prostate, liver and hematological parameters will be studied with respect to safety. Measure of effect will be the difference in change from baseline visit to final visit between TU and placebo. We will study whether the effect of TU differs across subgroups of baseline waist girth ( At baseline, mean age, BMI and testosterone levels were 67 years, 27 kg/m2 and 10.72 nmol/L, respectively.

  10. Decline of plasma 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) levels upon testosterone administration to elderly men with subnormal plasma testosterone and high DHT levels.

    Gooren, L J; Saad, F; Haide, A; Yassin, A

    2008-10-01

    The study was performed to measure the impact of testosterone (T) administration on circulating levels of 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone (DHT). Group 1 (32 men; mean age 61 years; mean T 6.9 +/- 1.9 nmol l(-1)) were treated for 15 months with long-acting T undecanoate. Group 2 (23 men, mean age 60 years, mean T 7.6 +/- 2.0 nmol l(-1)) were treated for 9 months with T gel. Plasma T and DHT were measured before and after 9 months T administration. In the men treated with T undecanoate plasma T and DHT were also measured after 12 and 15 months. Before T administration, plasma DHT ranged from 0.39 to 1.76 nmol l(-1) (0.30-1.90 nmol l(-1)). Mean DHT declined upon T administration from 0.95 +/- 0.50 to 0.55 +/- 0.30 nmol l(-1) (P DHT > 0.60 nmol l(-1) had fallen from 1.29 +/- 0.50 to 0.70 +/- 0.60 nmol l(-1) (P DHT levels declined upon T administration when they were in the higher range of normal (>0.6 nmol l(-1)), with a profound shift of DHT/T ratios presumed to be an indicator of a reduced 5alpha-reductase activity. Below plasma DHT levels of 0.6 nmol l(-1), responses of plasma DHT to T administration varied.

  11. Conflicting views on elder care responsibility in Japan.

    Lee, Kristen Schultz

    2016-05-01

    I examine the attitudinal ambivalence created by conflicting social expectations regarding parent-child devotion, filial obligation and family membership, and gender norms in a national population of Japanese adults. I ask: in a context of rapidly changing family and elder care norms, how do different beliefs and attitudes overlap and conflict and how are they related to elder care preferences? I analyze data from the 2006 Japanese General Social Survey and use Latent Class Analysis to identify latent groups in the population defined by their beliefs and examine the relationship between class membership and elder care preferences. I found variation in the population with respect to the measured beliefs as well as a relationship between patterns of beliefs and choice of elder caregiver. I found conflicting expectations regarding elder care responsibility in one latent class and this class also expressed elder care preferences that conflict with at least some of their strongly held beliefs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Childcare Support by Elderly Males in the Community : Their Awareness and Issues of Childcare Support

    塩谷, 侑佳

    2017-01-01

    The declining birthrate and aging population is progressing in Japan. Under such circumstances,\\childcare support by elderly people is required in society. Childcare support by elderly men has lately attracted\\considerable attention. The purpose of this study is to clarify the consciousness of elderly men working on\\childcare support in the community. For this purpose, I had interviews with them. The interviews revealed their\\advantages and difficulties felt by elderly men working on childcar...

  13. Representations and uses of medicinal plants in elderly men Representaciones y usos de las plantas medicinales en mayores Representações e usos de plantas medicinais por homens idosos

    Silvia Cristina da Silva Lima

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to know and understand the representations and use of medicinal plants by elderly men assisted in the Family Health Strategies of Dourados, MS. Participated in this study, 18 elderly men aged over 60 years, using four or more medications. The research was conducted with qualitative approach. The results showed that there is still the consumption of medicinal plants among the elderly, especially in the treatment of minor harm. The representations about the plants seem anchored in the concept of safety; they are natural and few side effects. Its use is made concurrently with the manufactured medicines without regard to risk of interactions. Older men use medicinal plants, without however reporting to health professionals. Therefore, it is necessary continuing education focused on phytotherapy health team and nursing, contributing to safe and effective use of medicinal plants.El objetivo de este estudio fue conocer y comprender las representaciones y el uso de plantas medicinales por los mayores asistidos en Estrategias de Salud de la Familia de Dourados/MS. Participaron de ese estudio 18 hombres de edad con edad igual o superior a 60 años, haciendo uso de cuatro o más medicamentos. Se trató de investigación cualitativa, descriptiva y exploratoria. Los resultados apuntaron que aun existe el consumo de plantas medicinales entre los mayores, principalmente en el tratamiento de mortalidades menores. Las representaciones sobre las plantas medicinales parecen ancladas en la concepción de seguridad, o sea, son naturales y pocos efectos colaterales. Su uso es hecho concomitantemente con los medicamentos industrializados, sin atentar los riesgos de las interacciones. Los mayores utilizan las plantas medicinales sin, sin embargo, relatar a los profesionales de salud. Luego, se hace necesario la educación permanente del equipo de salud y de la enfermería vuelta para la fitoterapia, aportando al uso seguro y eficaz de las

  14. [A comparison of the associations of dynapenia and sarcopenia with fear of falling in elderly diabetic patients].

    Ida, Satoshi; Murata, Kazuya; Ishihara, Yuki; Imataka, Kanako; Kaneko, Ryutaro; Fujiwara, Ryoko; Takahashi, Hiroka

    2017-01-01

    To comparatively investigate whether dynapenia and sarcopenia, as defined by the Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia (AWGS), are associated with fear of falling in elderly patients with diabetes. The subjects were outpatients with diabetes who were at least 65 years of age when they visited our hospital. Sarcopenia was evaluated based on the AWGS definition. The cutoff values for the appendicular skeletal mass index (multi-frequency bioelectrical impedance method), grip strength, and walking speed were, respectively, 7.0 kg/m 2 for men and 5.7 kg/m 2 for women, 26 kg for men and 18 kg for women, and ≤0.8 m/s for both men and women. Those with grip strength of less than or equal to the cutoff value were considered to have dynapenia. Fear of falling was assessed by a self-administered questionnaire survey with the Fall Efficacy Scale (FES) Japanese version. A multiple regression analysis was conducted using the FES score as a dependent variable and dynapenia or sarcopenia and moderators as explanatory variables. A total of 202 patients (male, n=127; female, n=75) were analyzed in this study. The FES scores of the patients with and without sarcopenia did not differ to a statistically significant extent in either male or female patients. The multiple regression analysis revealed a statistically significant association between dynapenia and the FES score in men (P=0.028). In elderly outpatients with diabetes, no association was found between sarcopenia and the fear of falling in either men or women. In contrast, a statistically significant association was found between dynapenia and fear of falling in men. This suggests the importance paying attention to the fear of falling when examining elderly male diabetes patients with dynapenia.

  15. Work-related Stress, Caregiver Role, and Depressive Symptoms among Japanese Workers.

    Honda, Ayumi; Date, Yutaka; Abe, Yasuyo; Aoyagi, Kiyoshi; Honda, Sumihisa

    2014-03-01

    In Japan, more than 60% of employees are reported to suffer from anxiety and stress. Consequently, Japanese society has begun to address such important issues as psychogenic disability and job-related suicide. Furthermore, given the aging of society and the surge in the number of elderly people requiring care, it is necessary to adequately and proactively support employees who care for their elderly relatives. The purpose of the present study was to investigate caregiver burden in caring for elderly relatives and work-related stress factors associated with mental health among employees. We studied 722 men and women aged 18-83 years in a cross-sectional study. The K10 questionnaire was used to examine mental health status. The proportion of participants with a high K10 score was 15% (n = 106). Having little conversation with their supervisor and/or coworkers significantly increased the risk of depression [odds ratio (OR) 1.8], as did high job overload (OR 2.7) and job dissatisfaction (OR 3.8), compared with employees who frequently conversed with their supervisor and/or coworkers. Caring for elderly relatives as a prominent characteristic of an employee was a significant risk factor for depression (OR 2.1). The present study demonstrated that employees who were caring for elderly relatives were significantly associated with an increased risk of depression. To prevent depressive disorders, it may be important to focus on reducing the work-caregiving role conflict, as well as enhancing employees' job control and better rewarding their efforts in the workplace.

  16. Reduced plasma levels of glucagon-like peptide-1 in elderly men are associated with impaired glucose tolerance but not with coronary heart disease

    Nathanson, D; Zethelius, B; Berne, C

    2009-01-01

    stimulated GLP-1 levels and: (1) cardiovascular risk factors (blood pressure, lipids, urinary albumin, waist circumference and insulin sensitivity index [M/I] assessed by euglycaemic-hyperinsulinaemic clamp); and (2) impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and type 2 diabetes mellitus. RESULTS: During the follow......AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Besides the insulinotropic effects of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) mimetics, their effects on endothelial dysfunction and myocardial ischaemia are of interest. No previous study has investigated associations between plasma levels of GLP-1 and CHD. METHODS: We investigated...... longitudinal relationships of fasting GLP-1 with the dynamic GLP-1 response after OGTT (difference between 60 min OGTT-stimulated and fasting GLP-1 levels [DeltaGLP-1]) and CHD in a population-based cohort of 71-year-old men. In the same cohort, we also cross-sectionally investigated the association between...

  17. Resting, night-time, and 24 h heart rate as markers of cardiovascular risk in middle-aged and elderly men and women with no apparent heart disease

    Johansen, Christine D; Olsen, Rasmus H; Pedersen, Lene R

    2013-01-01

    AimsIncreased heart rate (HR) is a predictor of all-cause and cardiovascular (CV) mortality. We tested which measure of HR had the strongest prognostic value in a population with no apparent heart disease.Methods and resultsSix hundred and fifty-three men and women between the age of 55 and 75...... adjusted model, only night-time HR remained in the model, hazard ratio = 1.17 (1.05-1.30), P = 0.005.ConclusionIn middle-aged subjects with no apparent heart disease, all measures of increased HR were associated with increased mortality and CV risk. However, night-time HR was the only parameter...

  18. Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) including structural PFOS isomers in plasma from elderly men and women from Sweden: Results from the Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS).

    Salihovic, Samira; Kärrman, Anna; Lind, Lars; Lind, P Monica; Lindström, Gunilla; van Bavel, Bert

    2015-09-01

    Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are a class of compounds with unique chemical properties that have been shown useful in a wide variety of applications because they provide materials with reduced surface tension and exceptional non-stick properties. PFASs are commonly found in impregnation materials, coatings of papers and textiles, fire-fighting foams, pesticides, and cleaning agents. The potential for human exposure to PFASs is high because of their widespread distribution. The aim of this study was to investigate levels of PFASs in men and women from Sweden and to assess the influence of gender and parity among women. Levels of 13 PFASs were determined in plasma samples collected during 2001-2004 from 1016 (507 women) 70year-old participants from the population-based Prospective Study of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS). The PFASs studied were nine perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs), four perfluorinated sulfonic acids (PFSAs) and perfluorooctane sulfonamide (PFOSA). In addition, structural isomers of perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) were determined in a subset of 398 individuals. The detection rates were high and the majority of the studied compounds were detected in more than 75% of the participants. Levels of the selected analytes were found to be similar to other studies of non-occupationally exposed populations. Gender differences were observed in levels of PFHpA which was higher in men, while PFHxS was higher in women. Parity among women was shown to have a minor effect on PFAS concentrations and we found primi- and multiparous women to have slightly lower levels of PFUnDA when compared to nulliparous women. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Independent from muscle power and balance performance, a creatinine clearance below 65 ml/min is a significant and independent risk factor for falls and fall-related fractures in elderly men and women diagnosed with osteoporosis.

    Dukas, L; Schacht, E; Runge, M

    2010-07-01

    We assessed in a cross-sectional study in elderly men and women with osteoporosis, the association between the creatinine clearance (CrCl) and the performance in different balance and muscle power and function tests and found that a decreasing creatinine clearance was significantly associated with lower balance and muscle power. To determine if a creatinine clearance of balance and an increased risk for falls and fractures. We assessed in a cross-sectional-study in 1781 German osteoporotic patients, the association between the CrCl, the physical performance, and the number of falls and fractures. Controlling for age, gender, BMI, and osteoporosis treatment (fracture analysis only), a decreasing CrCl was associated with lower physical performance in the timed-up-and-go test (corr -0.2337, P risk for falls (47.7% vs. 36.2%, P = 0.0008) and fall-related fractures (33.1% vs. 22.9%, P = 0.0003) compared with a CrCl of >or=65 ml/min. In this study, we found a significant gender-independent correlation between decreasing CrCl and lower performance in balance and muscle power tests. Reduced muscle power and balance may therefore be involved in the low creatinine clearance associated increased risk for falls and fall-related fractures. Furthermore, we found that a CrCl balance tests, is a significant risk factor for falls and fractures.

  20. Work Environment and Japanese Fathers' Involvement in Child Care

    Ishii-Kuntz, Masako

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies mainly examined individual and family factors affecting Japanese fathers' involvement in child care. Along with these factors, we examine how work-related factors such as father-friendly environment at work, workplace's accommodation of parental needs, job stress, and autonomy are associated with Japanese men's participation in…

  1. Handling Japanese without a Japanese Operating System.

    Hatasa, Kazumi; And Others

    1992-01-01

    The Macintosh HyperCard environment has become a popular platform for Japanese language courseware because of its flexibility and ease of programing. This project created Japanese bitmap font files for the JIS Levels 1 and 2, and writing XFCNs for font manipulation, Japanese kana input, and answer correction. (12 references) (Author/LB)

  2. Circulating levels of perfluoroalkyl substances are associated with dietary patterns – A cross sectional study in elderly Swedish men and women

    Sjogren, Per, E-mail: per.sjogren@pubcare.uu.se [Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism, Uppsala University, Uppsala (Sweden); Montse, Rachel, E-mail: charlesrachel@gmail.com [Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism, Uppsala University, Uppsala (Sweden); Lampa, Erik, E-mail: erik.lampa@ucr.uu.se [Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Uppsala University, Uppsala (Sweden); Salihovic, Samira, E-mail: samira.salihovic@medsci.uu.se [Department of Medical Sciences, Molecular Epidemiology and Science for Life Laboratory, Uppsala University, Uppsala (Sweden); Bavel, Bert van, E-mail: Bert.VanBavel@oru.se [MTM Research Centre, Örebro University, Örebro (Sweden); Lind, Lars, E-mail: lars.lind@medsci.uu.se [Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiovascular Epidemiology, Uppsala University, Uppsala (Sweden); Lind, P. Monica, E-mail: monica.lind@medsci.uu.se [Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Uppsala University, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2016-10-15

    Background: In our daily life, we are exposed to perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) with possible health implications. The main exposure route for these substances is diet but comparative studies on how dietary habits influence exposure are lacking. Objectives: To examine the relations between blood levels of PFAS and adherence to three predefined dietary patterns (a WHO recommended diet, a Mediterranean-like diet, and a Low-Carbohydrate High-Protein (LCHP) diet) in an elderly Swedish population. Methods: Dietary data from 7-day food records and serum concentrations of PFAS were obtained from a 70-year-old Swedish population (n=844), the Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS) study. The Healthy Diet Indicator score (based on WHO recommendations), the Mediterranean Diet Score and LCHP score were used to assess adherence. Multivariate linear regression was used to assess the associations between eight major PFAS and adherence to each dietary pattern. Results: The WHO recommended diet was positively associated with perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS). The LCHP diet was positively related to four out of eight PFAS; namely, perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA) and perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnDA). The Mediterranean-like diet was positively associated with most PFAS; namely perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorooctane sulfonamide (PFOSA), PFHxS, PFNA, PFDA, and PFUnDA. Conclusions: All dietary patterns were positively associated with blood levels of PFAS. The highest body burden of PFAS was found in individuals with high adherence to a Mediterranean-like diet, whilst individuals who more closely followed the officially recommended diet displayed a lower body burden of these compounds. - Highlights: • Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) quantified in blood of 70-y-old Swedish subjects. • Adherence to predefined dietary patterns was associated with circulating PFAS. • A

  3. Circulating levels of perfluoroalkyl substances are associated with dietary patterns – A cross sectional study in elderly Swedish men and women

    Sjogren, Per; Montse, Rachel; Lampa, Erik; Salihovic, Samira; Bavel, Bert van; Lind, Lars; Lind, P. Monica

    2016-01-01

    Background: In our daily life, we are exposed to perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) with possible health implications. The main exposure route for these substances is diet but comparative studies on how dietary habits influence exposure are lacking. Objectives: To examine the relations between blood levels of PFAS and adherence to three predefined dietary patterns (a WHO recommended diet, a Mediterranean-like diet, and a Low-Carbohydrate High-Protein (LCHP) diet) in an elderly Swedish population. Methods: Dietary data from 7-day food records and serum concentrations of PFAS were obtained from a 70-year-old Swedish population (n=844), the Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS) study. The Healthy Diet Indicator score (based on WHO recommendations), the Mediterranean Diet Score and LCHP score were used to assess adherence. Multivariate linear regression was used to assess the associations between eight major PFAS and adherence to each dietary pattern. Results: The WHO recommended diet was positively associated with perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS). The LCHP diet was positively related to four out of eight PFAS; namely, perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA) and perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnDA). The Mediterranean-like diet was positively associated with most PFAS; namely perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorooctane sulfonamide (PFOSA), PFHxS, PFNA, PFDA, and PFUnDA. Conclusions: All dietary patterns were positively associated with blood levels of PFAS. The highest body burden of PFAS was found in individuals with high adherence to a Mediterranean-like diet, whilst individuals who more closely followed the officially recommended diet displayed a lower body burden of these compounds. - Highlights: • Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) quantified in blood of 70-y-old Swedish subjects. • Adherence to predefined dietary patterns was associated with circulating PFAS. • A

  4. Theories and measures of elder abuse.

    Abolfathi Momtaz, Yadollah; Hamid, Tengku Aizan; Ibrahim, Rahimah

    2013-09-01

    Elder abuse is a pervasive phenomenon around the world with devastating effects on the victims. Although it is not a new phenomenon, interest in examining elder abuse is relatively new. This paper aims to provide an overview of the aetiological theories and measures of elder abuse. The paper briefly reviews theories to explain causes of elder abuse and then discusses the most commonly used measures of elder abuse. Based on the reviewed theories, it can be concluded that elder abuse is a multifactorial problem that may affect elderly people from different backgrounds and involve a wide variety of potential perpetrators, including caregivers, adult children, and partners. The review of existing measurement instruments notes that many different screening and assessment instruments have been developed to identify elders who are at risk for or are victims of abuse. However, there is a real need for more measurements of elder abuse, as the current instruments are limited in scope. © 2013 The Authors. Psychogeriatrics © 2013 Japanese Psychogeriatric Society.

  5. Elder Abuse among African Americans

    Tauriac, Jesse J.; Scruggs, Natoschia

    2006-01-01

    Perceptions of extreme, moderate, and mild forms of elder abuse among African-American women (n=25) and men (n=10) were examined. African-American respondents emphasized physical abuse when giving examples of extremely abusive behavior. Along with physical abuse, verbal abuse was the most frequently identified form of abuse, and was significantly…

  6. Different methods of calculating ankle-brachial index in mid-elderly men and women: the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    Miname, M; Bensenor, I M; Lotufo, P A

    2016-01-01

    The ankle-brachial index (ABI) is a marker of subclinical atherosclerosis related to health-adverse outcomes. ABI is inexpensive compared to other indexes, such as coronary calcium score and determination of carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT). Our objective was to identify how the ABI can be applied to primary care. Three different methods of calculating the ABI were compared among 13,921 men and women aged 35 to 74 years who were free of cardiovascular diseases and enrolled in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). The ABI ratio had the same denominator for the three categories created (the highest value for arm systolic blood pressure), and the numerator was based on the four readings for leg systolic blood pressure: the highest (ABI-HIGH), the mean (ABI-MEAN), and the lowest (ABI-LOW). The cut-off for analysis was ABI20% without the inclusion of ABI<1.0 was 4.9%. For ABI-HIGH, ABI-MEAN and ABI-LOW, the increase in percentage points was 0.3, 0.7, and 2.3%, respectively, and the relative increment was 6.1, 14.3, and 46.9%. In conclusion, all methods were acceptable, but ABI-LOW was more suitable for prevention purposes.

  7. Sex Differences in Japanese Work Ethics.

    Engel, John W.

    Work values influence economic productivity of individuals and families worldwide. Since Japan's recent technological and economic productivity and growth have been phenomenal, a study was conducted to compare contemporary Japanese men's and women's work related values and beliefs. Work values questionnaires were distributed to over 900 Japanese…

  8. Quantile Regression Analysis of the Distributional Effects of Air Pollution on Blood Pressure, Heart Rate Variability, Blood Lipids, and Biomarkers of Inflammation in Elderly American Men: The Normative Aging Study.

    Bind, Marie-Abele; Peters, Annette; Koutrakis, Petros; Coull, Brent; Vokonas, Pantel; Schwartz, Joel

    2016-08-01

    . Bind MA, Peters A, Koutrakis P, Coull B, Vokonas P, Schwartz J. 2016. Quantile regression analysis of the distributional effects of air pollution on blood pressure, heart rate variability, blood lipids, and biomarkers of inflammation in elderly American men: the Normative Aging Study. Environ Health Perspect 124:1189-1198; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1510044.

  9. Sex and the city: Differences in disease- and disability-free life years, and active community participation of elderly men and women in 7 cities in Latin America and the Caribbean

    Hennis Anselm J

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The world's population is ageing, and four of the top 10 most rapidly ageing developing nations are from the region of Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC. Although an ageing population heralds likely increases in chronic disease, disability-related dependence, and economic burden, the societal contribution of the chronically ill or those with disability is not often measured. Methods We calculated country-specific prevalences of 'disability' (difficulty with at least one activity of daily living, 'disease' and 'co-morbidity' (presence of at least one, and at least two, of seven chronic diseases/conditions, respectively, and 'active community engagement' (using five levels of community participation, from less than weekly community contact to voluntary or paid work in seven LAC cities. We estimated remaining life expectancy (LE with and without disability, disease and co-morbidity, and investigated age, sex, and regional variations in disability-free LE. Finally, we modeled the association of disease, co-morbidity and disability with active community participation using an ordinal regression model, adjusted for depression. Results Overall, 77% of the LAC elderly had at least one chronic disease/condition, 44% had co-morbidity and 19% had a disability. The proportion of disability-free LE declined between the youngest (60–64 years and the eldest (90 years and over age-groups for both men (from 85% to 55% and women (from 75% to 45%. Disease-free and co-morbidity-free LE, however, remained at approximately 30% and 62%, respectively, for men (20% and 48% for women, until 80–84 years of age, then increased. Only Bridgetown's participants had statistically significantly longer disability-free LE than the regional average (IRR = 1.08; 95%CI 1.05–1.10; p Conclusion There is an increasing burden of disease and disability with older age across the LAC region. As these nations cope with resulting social and economic demands

  10. Green Tea Consumption Affects Cognitive Dysfunction in the Elderly: A Pilot Study

    Kazuki Ide

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Green tea is known to have various health benefits for humans. However, the effect of green tea consumption on cognitive dysfunction remains to be clinically verified. We conducted a clinical study to investigate the effects of green tea consumption on cognitive dysfunction. Twelve elderly nursing home residents with cognitive dysfunction (Mini-Mental State Examination Japanese version (MMSE-J score: <28 participated in the study (2 men, 10 women; mean age, 88 years. The participants consumed green tea powder 2 g/day for 3 months. After three months of green tea consumption, the participants’ MMSE-J scores were significantly improved (before, 15.3 ± 7.7; after, 17.0 ± 8.2; p = 0.03. This result suggests that green tea consumption may be effective in improving cognitive function or reducing the progression of cognitive dysfunction; however, long-term large-scale controlled studies are needed to further clarify the effect.

  11. Metabolic syndrome in Iranian elderly

    Nizal Sarrafzadegan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This study aimed to compare Iranian elderly with the youth and middle aged population in terms of the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its components in Iranian elderly METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted using the information from the third phase of Isfahan Healthy Heart Program. Male and female residents of Isfahan who aged over 19 years were selected by multistage cluster random sampling. A questionnaire including demographic characteristics, health status, medical history, medications used, as well as waist circumference, weight, height and systolic and diastolic blood pressures was completed for all participants. Fasting blood samples were obtained from all subjects and examined for fasting blood sugar and lipid profile. RESULTS: The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in individuals aged over 60 years was significantly higher than those under 60 (49.5% vs. 17.5%, respectively; P < 0.001. It was also more prevalent among elderly females than in males (59.2% vs. 39.8%, respectively; P < 0.005. Some anthropometric measures such as height, body mass index, abdominal circumference, waist-hip ratio, and waist to height ratio were significantly different in men and women below 60 years in comparison with those over 60 years (P < 0.05. Moreover, there were significant differences in most studied parameters between the elderly and non-elderly women (P < 0.001. Based on the findings of this study, the risk factors for cardiovascular diseases were significantly more prevalent in men and women over 60 years. T-test and Mann-Whitney were used for quantitative data and the square-chi test is performed for qualitative data.    CONCLUSION: This study showed that metabolic syndrome has a relatively high prevalence in Iranian elderly people (especially in women. Therefore, early diagnosis and management of the complication are recommended among this high-risk group. Keywords: Metabolic Syndrome, Elderly, Iran

  12. [Fall risk factors and sex differences among community-dwelling elderly individuals in Japan. A Kameoka study].

    Masumoto, Taeko; Yamada, Yosuke; Yamada, Minoru; Nakaya, Tomoki; Miyake, Motoko; Watanabe, Yuya; Yoshida, Tsukasa; Yokoyama, Keiichi; Yamagata, Emi; Date, Heiwa; Nanri, Hinako; Komatsu, Mitsuyo; Yoshinaka, Yasuko; Fujiwara, Yoshinori; Okayama, Yasuko; Kimura, Misaka

    2015-01-01

    Although factors associated with falls might differ between men and women, no large-scale studies were conducted to examine the sex difference of risk factors for falls in Japanese elderly. The purpose of this study was to examine fall risk factors and sex differences among community-dwelling elderly individuals using a complete survey of the geriatric population in Kameoka city. A self-administered questionnaire survey was conducted with 18,231 community-dwelling elderly individuals aged 65 years or over in Kameoka city, Kyoto Prefecture, between July and August 2011, excluding people who were publicly certified with a long-term care need of grade 3 or higher. The questionnaire was individually distributed and collected via mail. Out of 12,159 responders (recovery rate of 72.2%), we analyzed the data of 12,054 elderly individuals who were not certified as having long-term care needs. The questionnaire was composed of basic attributes, a simple screening test for fall risk, the Kihon Check List with 25 items, and the Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology (TMIG) index of competence with 13 items. These items were grouped into nine factors: motor function, malnutrition, oral function, houseboundness, forgetfulness, depression, Instrumental Activity of Daily Living (IADL), intellectual activities, and social role. Of all the respondents, 20.8% experienced falls within the last year, and 26.6% were classified as having high fall risk. Fall risk increased with age in both sexes, and risk in all age groups was higher for women than for men. All factors were significantly associated with fall risk in both sexes. After controlling for these factors, a significant relationship was found between fall risk and motor function, malnutrition, oral function, forgetfulness, depression, and IADL in men and motor function, oral function, forgetfulness, depression, and IADL in women. The deterioration of motor function was associated with three-times-higher risk than non

  13. Fear of Falling among Community-dwelling Elderly Women Receiving Visiting Nursing Services in Japan

    Takai, Kiyako; Honda, Sumihisa; Ye, Zhaojia; Abe, Yasuyo; Takamura, Noboru; Osaki, Makoto; Kusano, Yosuke; Takemoto, Tai-Ichiro; Aoyagi, Kiyoshi

    2007-01-01

    Although fear of falling is a common and serious problem among elderly people, little is known about the risk factors associated with fear of falling among frail elderly persons in Japan. To assess the fear of falling and investigate related factors, we conducted a study among 167 Japanese women aged 59 or older, who were receiving visiting nursing services. Fear of falling was measured by asking subjects about being afraid of falling (yes/no) and completing the Japanese version of Falls Effi...

  14. The representation of women in Japanese written media The representation of women in Japanese written media

    Seiko Yasumoto

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to investigate the representation of women in Japanese society in relation to men with respect to the use of language. One selected section of the published media has been used to determine if the Japanese language still propagates the traditional role of women as being different to and beneath that of men or if there has been some change. The traditional relationship of women to men is called in Japanese dan-son jo-hi and dates back to before the Meiji era. dan-son jo-hi involves the idea that men should be respected and not women, that women have lower status than men in society. As a case study, the magazine AERA that purports to be the “Time magazine of Japan” was selected. Thirty articles published between 2000 and 2002 from “Josei” the women’s section of AERA, were examined by using three analytical techniques: Content analysis; Foregrounding analysis; Gender control and Gender image analysis. These three analyses show that the messages about a woman’s role vary from one of promoting historical traditional attitudes through to more current “Western attitudes” with respect to equal status for women. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the representation of women in Japanese society in relation to men with respect to the use of language. One selected section of the published media has been used to determine if the Japanese language still propagates the traditional role of women as being different to and beneath that of men or if there has been some change. The traditional relationship of women to men is called in Japanese dan-son jo-hi and dates back to before the Meiji era. dan-son jo-hi involves the idea that men should be respected and not women, that women have lower status than men in society. As a case study, the magazine AERA that purports to be the “Time magazine of Japan” was selected. Thirty articles published between 2000 and 2002 from “Josei” the women’s section

  15. The dilemma for Japanese students

    Martinsen, Anders

    2014-01-01

    The Japanese job hunting system inhibits Japanese students from studying abroad. A Japanese professor says it is a huge dilemma for the students.......The Japanese job hunting system inhibits Japanese students from studying abroad. A Japanese professor says it is a huge dilemma for the students....

  16. The Impacts of Social Support and Cognitive Function on Depression among Community-Dwelling Older Japanese Americans.

    Kim, Bum Jung; Nakaoka, Susan; Underwood, Charna

    2017-02-17

    Research has demonstrated a relationship between social support, cognitive function, and depression among older adults, yet fewer studies have explored this association with Japanese American elders. This study aims to examine depression and describe its relationship with social support, cognitive function, and socioeconomic condition among Japanese American elders. A cross-sectional study of 205 Japanese American elders was conducted in Honolulu and Los Angeles County. A hierarchical regression model was used with depression as a dependent variable and with independent variables such as social support, cognitive function, and socioeconomic status. The study found that social support and cognitive function were significantly associated with depression for Japanese American elders. Also age and education were significantly associated with depression. Based on the findings, the study indicates the importance of developing preventive strategies to reduce the depression issue using culturally tailored programs to the study population.

  17. The Japanese Mind: Understanding Contemporary Japanese Culture.

    Davies, Roger J., Ed.; Ikeno, Osamu, Ed.

    This collection of essays offers an overview of contemporary Japanese culture, and can serve as a resource for classes studying Japan. The 28 essays offer an informative, accessible look at the values, attitudes, behavior patterns, and communication styles of modern Japan from the unique perspective of the Japanese people. Filled with examples…

  18. [Factors related to sarcopenia in community-dwelling elderly subjects in Japan].

    Tanimoto, Yoshimi; Watanabe, Misuzu; Sugiura, Yumiko; Hayashida, Itsushi; Kusabiraki, Toshiyuki; Kono, Koichi

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed at determining the factors associated with sarcopenia, defined as low muscle mass and strength and low physical performance, in community-dwelling elderly subjects in Japan. The subjects included 1,074 elderly, community-dwelling Japanese people aged 65 years or older. We measured appendicular muscle mass (AMM) by bioelectrical impedance analysis, grip strength, and usual walking speed. A low muscle mass was defined by the AMM index (AMI, weight [kg]/height [m(2)] as >2 standard deviations below the mean AMI for normal young subjects. The lowest quartile for grip strength and usual walking speed were classified as low muscle strength and low physical performance, respectively. "Sarcopenia" was characterized by a low muscle mass, combined with either a low muscle strength or low physical performance. Subjects without low muscle mass or strength and low physical performance were classified as "normal." Subjects were classified as being "intermediate" if they were neither "sarcopenic" nor "normal." Items in the questionnaire included residential status, past medical history, admission during the past year, smoking and drinking habits, leisure-time physical activity, health status, depression, masticatory ability, and dietary variety score. Sarcopenia was identified in 13.7% of men and 15.5% of women. Among men, a large proportion of subjects with sarcopenia had poor masticatory ability and a low dietary variety score compared with normal or intermediate subjects. Among women, a large proportion of the subjects with sarcopenia lived alone, had poor exercise habits, considered themselves to be unhealthy, and had poor masticatory ability compared with normal or intermediate subjects. A multiple logistic regression analysis showed that age and dietary variety in men and age and masticatory ability in women were associated with sarcopenia. The present study carried out in Japan showed that sarcopenia, assessed by muscle mass, muscle strength, and physical

  19. Achievement of Target Blood Pressure Levels among Japanese Workers with Hypertension and Healthy Lifestyle Characteristics Associated with Therapeutic Failure.

    Nagako Kudo

    Full Text Available Few studies have examined Japanese with regard to the achievement rates for target blood pressure levels, or the relationship between these rates and healthy lifestyle characteristics in patients with hypertension as defined by the newly established hypertension management guidelines (JSH2014. The aim of this study was to elucidate achievement rates and examine healthy lifestyle characteristics associated with achievement status among Japanese.This cross-sectional study, conducted in January-December 2012, examined blood pressure control and healthy lifestyle characteristics in 8,001 Japanese workers with hypertension (mean age, 57.0 years; 78.8% were men who participated in a workplace health checkup. Data were collected from workplace medical checkup records and participants' self-administered questionnaires. We divided into 5 groups [G1; young, middle-aged, and early-phase elderly patients (65-74 years old without diabetes mellitus or chronic kidney disease (CKD (<140/90 mmHg, G2; late-phase elderly patients (≥75 years old without diabetes mellitus or CKD (<150/90 mmHg, G3; diabetic patients (<130/80 mmHg, G4; patients with CKD (<130/80 mmHg, and G5; patients with cerebrovascular and/or coronary artery diseases (<140/90 mmHg] according to JSH2014. And then, achievement rates were calculated in each group. Multivariate analysis identified healthy lifestyle characteristics associated with "therapeutic failure" of target blood pressure.Target blood pressures were achieved by 60.2% of young, middle-aged, and early-phase elderly patients (G1, 71.4% of late-phase elderly patients (G2, 30.5% of diabetic patients (G3, 33.4% of those with chronic kidney disease (G4, and 66.0% of those with cerebrovascular and/or coronary artery diseases (G5. A body mass index of 18.5-24.9 and non-daily alcohol consumption were protective factors, and adequate sleep was found to contribute to therapeutic success.We found low achievement rates for treatment goals

  20. Comparison of femoroacetabular impingement-related radiographic features in a convenience sample of Japanese patients with and without herniation pits

    Mineta, Kazuaki; Goto, Tomohiro; Wada, Keizo; Tamaki, Yasuaki; Hamada, Daisuke; Higashino, Kosaku; Sairyo, Koichi

    2016-01-01

    To examine the prevalence of herniation pits (HPs) and to evaluate differences in radiographic features related to femoroacetabular impingement - a hip disorder with abnormal abutment between the acetabulum and femur - between hips with and without HPs in a convenience sample of Japanese patients. We reviewed 1,178 hips on each side (695 men, 483 women; mean age, 58.2 years) using computed tomographic images. The radiological assessments of hip morphology were performed by measuring the lateral center edge angle, acetabular index, acetabular version, alpha angle, and femoral head-neck offset. HPs were defined as the round or oval cystic lesions surrounded by sclerotic bone located below the anterior femoral neck cortex. Intraclass and interclass reproducibility of all radiographic measurements was acceptable (ICC: 0.71-0.98). The prevalence of HPs was 13.9 % in all subjects and was significantly higher in men (18.1 %) than in women (7.8 %; p < 0.001). HPs were larger in male (p < 0.001) and elderly subjects (p < 0.005). In subjects with HPs, the alpha angle was larger and femoral head-neck offset and offset ratio were smaller in the cohort overall and in men. Logistic regression analysis revealed the association between radiological cam-type FAI and HPs in all subjects (odds ratio: 1.86, p < 0.001). We revealed the prevalence of HPs and showed it has a predilection for men in this Japanese cohort. Femoral head asphericity or small head-neck offset was more common in subjects with HPs than those without HPs. (orig.)

  1. Men's Health

    ... men need to pay more attention to their health. Compared to women, men are more likely to ... regular checkups and medical care There are also health conditions that only affect men, such as prostate ...

  2. Testosterone and frailty in elderly men

    Emmelot-Vonk, M.H.

    2009-01-01

    With aging, there is an increase of the incidence of frailty. Frailty is associated with adverse health outcomes, like falls and fractures, disabilities, hospitalization, institutionalization and mortality. It is generally accepted that frailty, unlike the aging process, is in part reversible and

  3. Elderly Turkish Migrants in Denmark

    Blaakilde, Anne Leonora; Petersen, Signe Sofia Gronwald; Yazici, Suzan

    and a higher proportion of self-reported illness and are in higher risk of health problems and morbidity than their Danish counterparts. Furthermore, their health differences increase more by age. The research project aimed at finding possible explanations for these differences among Turkish and ethnic Danish......Elderly Turkish migrants in Denmark: Health in a life course perspective Objective According to Statistics Denmark, Turkish immigrants constitute the largest immigrant group in Denmark with 1.1% of the population (60,390 people) in 2012. They account for a higher rate of chronic ailments...... elderly people by studying the every day life of elderly Turkish migrants. Methods Qualitative interviews were carried out with 12 Turkish men and 18 women aged 54-80. The interviews had a focus on their health practices and health perceptions in a life history perspective. The interviews were...

  4. Sex differences in factors contributing to family-to-work and work-to-family conflict in Japanese civil servants.

    Fujimura, Yuko; Sekine, Michikazu; Tatsuse, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    As the number of dual-earner couples in Japan has increased, work-life balance has become important. This study aimed to examine the factors that contribute to work-family conflict. The participants included 3,594 (2,332 men and 1,262 women) civil servants aged 20-59 working for local government on the west coast of Japan. Logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate whether work, family, or lifestyle characteristics were associated with work-family conflict. For men, family-to-work conflict was associated with being elderly, having low-grade employment, working long hours, raising children, and sleeping shorter hours. For women, being married and raising children were strong determinants of family-to-work conflict, and being middle-aged, working long hours, and sleeping shorter hours were also associated with this type of conflict. Regarding work-to-family conflict, working long hours was the strongest determinant of conflict in both sexes. In men, being elderly, living with family, eating dinner late, and sleeping shorter hours were also associated with work-to-family conflict. In women, having high-grade employment, being married, raising children, and eating dinner late were associated with work-to-family conflict. This study showed that working long hours was the primary determinant of work-to-family conflict in both sexes and that being married and raising children were strong factors of family-to-work conflict in women only. Sex differences may reflect divergence of the social and domestic roles of men and women in Japanese society. To improve the work-life balance, general and sex-specific health policies may be required.

  5. Japanese wives in Japanese-Australian intermarriages

    Jared Denman

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The diasporic experiences of Japanese partners married to Australians and living in Australia are largely unexamined. This article is based on a study, conducted for an honours thesis, which invited four Japanese wives living in South East Queensland to describe, together with their Australian husbands, their family’s interactions with Japan, its language and culture, and the local Japanese community. It was recognised that the extensive social networks these wives had established and maintained with local Japanese women from other Japanese-Australian intermarriage families were an important part of their migrant experience. This article will firstly review the literature on contemporary Japanese- Australian intermarriage in Australia and Japanese lifestyle migration to Australia. It will then describe and examine the involvement and motivations of the four wives in their social networks. Entry into motherhood was found to be the impetus for developing and participating in informal, autonomous networks. Additionally, regular visits to Japan were focused on engagement with existing family and friendship networks. The contemporary experience of intermarriage for these women is decidedly transnational and fundamentally different from that of the war brides, or sensō hanayome.

  6. Elder abuse

    1999-01-01

    Elder abuse takes many forms and occurs in a variety of settings; it is both under-recognised and under-reported. Despite a lack of statutory guidelines or legislation, effective management is possible. More could be done to recognise abuse, and healthcare workers need to be vigilant, paying attention to both the circumstances in which abuse occurs and its warning signs.

  7. Low percentage of free prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is a strong predictor of later detection of prostate cancer among Japanese men with serum levels of total PSA of 4.0 ng/mL or less.

    Sasaki, Mitsuharu; Ishidoya, Shigeto; Ito, Akihiro; Saito, Hideo; Yamada, Shigeyuki; Mitsuzuka, Koji; Kaiho, Yasuhiro; Shibuya, Daisuke; Yamaguchi, Takuhiro; Arai, Yoichi

    2014-11-01

    To investigate the effect of the percentage of free prostate-specific antigen (%fPSA) on future prostate cancer risk. We examined serum total PSA (tPSA) and %fPSA annually in a prostate cancer-screening cohort between July 2001 and June 2011. Men with tPSA >4.0 ng/mL or tPSA of 2.0-4.0 ng/mL with %fPSA ≤12% were screened as positive and were recommended to undergo a biopsy. The study population consisted of 6368 men, aged 40-79 years, who had tPSA ≤4.0 ng/mL at initial screening and who subsequently underwent 1 or more screenings. We calculated the cumulative risk and hazard ratio of prostate cancer stratified by the initial %fPSA groups as quartiles of prostate cancer patients. During a median follow-up of 36 months, 119 men were diagnosed with prostate cancer. The lowest quartile of %fPSA (22.2%). For the subset with an initial tPSA ≤1.0 ng/mL, all men diagnosed with cancer had an initial %fPSA ≤33.3% (median). For the subset with tPSA >1.0 ng/mL, men with %fPSA ≤23.0% (median) had significantly higher risk for cancer than those with %fPSA >23.0% (P men with prostate cancer in whom pathologic findings were available, 79 (69.3%) had a Gleason score ≥3 + 4 = 7. A low %fPSA is a strong predictor of a subsequent diagnosis of prostate cancer among men with tPSA levels ≤4.0 ng/mL. Measurement of %fPSA might enhance the detection of high-grade cancer that warrants aggressive treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Reference Japanese man

    Tanaka, Giichiro

    1985-01-01

    To make real and accurate dose assessment method so far, it is necessitated to provide ''Reference Japanese Man'' based on anotomical, physiological and biochemical data of Japanese people instead of the Reference Man presented in ICRP Publications 23 and 30. This review describes present status of researched for the purpose of establishing of Reference Japanese Man. The Reference Japanese Man is defined as a male or female adult who lives in Japan with a Japanese life-style and food custom. His stature and body weight, and the other data was decided as mean values of male or female people of Japan. As for food custom, Japanese people take significantly smaller amount of meat and milk products than Western people, while larger intake amount of cereals and marine products such as fish or seaweeds. Weight of organs is a principal factor for internal dose assessment and mean values for living Japanese adult has been investigated and the value employable for dose assessment for organs and tissues are shown. To employ these values of Reference Japanese Man, it should be taken into account of age. Metabolic parameters should also be considered. Iodine metabolism in Japanese is quite different from that of Western people. The above-mentioned data are now tentatively employing in modification of table of MIRD method and others. (Takagi, S.)

  9. Acculturation Stress and Depression among Asian Immigrant Elders

    Mui, Ada C.; Kang, Suk-Young

    2006-01-01

    This study examines the association between acculturation stress and depressive symptoms in a regional probability sample (n = 407) of six groups of Asian immigrant elders (Chinese, Korean, Indian, Filipino, Vietnamese, and Japanese). Findings suggest that about 40 percent of the sample were depressed, indicating higher depression rates than found…

  10. Study of Health and Social Indicators of Elderly Women in Iran

    Marzieh Shirazi Khah

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: by reducing the fertility rate and Improve health& social conditions in Iran, increases the statistics of population older women also follow the whole population of seniors. So that in two decades than has increased the population of elderly women to total female population of 3 percent to 4.1 percent in the recent census in 2006 to 7 percent and is expected that increasing continues this trend the next decades. Global statistics show that significantly more elderly woman than elderly men in most countries, developed and developing, But according to the Statistical Center of Iran shows that during 1976-2006 has increased in every decade the number of elderly women in Iran Due to improved health services, social and economic, but has reduced the population of elderly women than elderly men This happened while usually Is less life expectancy in men than women .therefore In this paper we study the population status, health, education, family status, employment, quality of life and isolation of elderly women in Iran and We review different reasons than elderly women than elderly men in gender. Methods & Materials: This study is a descriptive-analytical study and a library that was used in the Statistics Center of Iran as the country's census is the most documented. In addition, we search for related database in English and Persian, including pubmed, medline, ISI and Web site World Health Organization and Scientific Information Database To obtain demographic and social information about the Iranian elderly population. Also took advantage of the views of experts to analyze the findings gerontology, epidemiology and sociology on gender differences in the elderly population in Iran. Result: With a deep look at the situation of elderly women from different dimensions, including physical health, psychological-psychological, familial, social and... Understand that Despite the efforts and improvements in health status, social and economic in

  11. Japanese Encephalitis: Frequently Asked Questions

    ... the vaccine, what should I do? What is Japanese encephalitis? Japanese encephalitis (JE) is a potentially severe ... cause inflammation of the brain (encephalitis). Where does Japanese encephalitis occur? JE occurs in Asia and parts ...

  12. No effect modification of serum bilirubin or coffee consumption on the association of gamma-glutamyltransferase with glycated hemoglobin in a cross-sectional study of Japanese men and women

    Wang Zhenjie

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oxidative stress has been implicated in the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Bilirubin is a potent endogenous antioxidant, and coffee is a major source of exogenous antioxidants. Serum gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT, a marker of oxidative stress, is a strong predictor of the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus. This study evaluated the effect modification of bilirubin and coffee consumption on the association of serum GGT with glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c and the combined effect of bilirubin and coffee on HbA1c concentrations. Methods The subjects were 4492 men and 6242 women aged 49–76 years who participated in the baseline survey of an on-going cohort study on lifestyle-related diseases in Fukuoka, Japan. Geometric means of HbA1c were examined according to quartile categories of GGT, with stratification by serum total bilirubin (≥ 0.6 mg/dL versus less in men and ≥ 0.5 mg/dL versus less in women and coffee consumption ( Results HbA1 concentrations increased progressively with increasing levels of GGT in both men and women. The increasing trend of HbA1c concentrations associated with GGT did not differ by either bilirubin status or coffee consumption. Both men and women with high bilirubin had consistently lower concentrations of HbA1c across the GGT quartiles. Higher coffee consumption was associated with lower concentrations of HbA1c in women with low bilirubin (trend P = 0.04, but not with high bilirubin (trend P = 0.37. There was no such association between coffee and HbA1c in men with either low or high bilirubin levels. Conclusions Bilirubin is possibly protective against deterioration of glucose metabolism. Further studies are needed regarding the combined effect of bilirubin and coffee on glucose metabolism.

  13. Surgical management of colorectal cancer for the aging population—A survey by the Japanese Society for Cancer of Colon and Rectum

    Hiroshi Matsuoka

    2018-03-01

    Conclusion: Japanese Society for Cancer of the Colon and Rectum member institutions often used the same surgical treatment strategies for both elderly and younger patients with the exception of performing intersphincteric resection.

  14. Japanese Media in English.

    Tanaka, Sachiko Oda

    1995-01-01

    Describes the use of English in the media in Japan, focusing on the role and history of English-language newspapers, radio, and television programs, as well as the proliferation of English-language films shown in Japanese cinemas. Discusses the implications of English in the Japanese media. (20 references) (MDM)

  15. Predictors of length of stay in a ward for demented elderly: gender differences.

    Ono, Toshiyuki; Tamai, Akira; Takeuchi, Daisuke; Tamai, Yuzuru; Iseki, Hidenori; Fukushima, Hiromi; Kasahara, Sumie

    2010-09-01

    In our previous studies, we found both gender differences among care recipients and predictors that influenced outcomes after discharge from a ward for demented elderly. Here, we investigate predictors that influence the length of stay for each sex. We studied the data of 390 patients with dementia who were hospitalized in a ward for demented elderly between 1 April 2000 and 31 March 2008, and treated until 31 March 2009. The patients were divided into groups classified by gender. We analyzed the gender differences of characteristics and evaluated the predictors that influenced the length of stay in the ward for demented elderly using Cox's proportional hazards model. A model using the initial scores of the Revised Hasegawa Dementia Scale (HDS-R), Assessment Scale for Symptoms of Dementia (ASSD) and Nishimura's activity of daily living scale (N-ADL), which were examined on admission, was named Model 1. In Model 1, we checked the effect of each patient's characteristics, except for complications and destinations, on their length of stay. Model 2 used the final scores of HDS-R, ASSD and N-ADL including complications and destinations. There was a clear gender difference in the length of stay. The length of stay of women was longer than that of men. It was difficult to predict the length of stay in Model 1. Age was the only predictor in women and no predictor was identified in men. In Model 2, complications and the final HDS-R and N-ADL scores were predictors of the length of stay in men. Age, complications and destinations were predictors of the length of stay in women. It was observed that there were gender differences among predictors of the length of stay. However, it was difficult to predict the length of stay on admission. Retrospectively, the length of stay was determined by physical and psychological conditions, not by the social variables in men. In women, it was supposed that the caregiver's wish to give care at home reduced the length of stay. Besides

  16. Joint effect of longevity-associated mitochondrial DNA 5178 C/A polymorphism and alcohol consumption on risk of hyper-LDL cholesterolemia in middle-aged Japanese men

    Shirasawa Takako

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Combined effects between mitochondrial DNA 5178 (Mt5178 C/A polymorphism and alcohol consumption on the risk of hypertension or hyperuricemia have been reported. The objective of this study was to investigate whether Mt5178 C/A polymorphism modulates the effects of alcohol consumption on the risk of dyslipidemia. Methods A total of 394 male subjects were selected from among individuals visiting the hospital for regular medical check-ups. After Mt5178 C/A genotyping, a cross-sectional study assessing the combined effect of Mt5178 polymorphism and alcohol consumption on the risk of dyslipidemia was conducted. Results For men with Mt5178C, alcohol consumption was significantly and negatively associated with the risk of hyper-low-density lipoprotein (LDL cholesterolemia (serum LDL cholesterol ≥ 140 mg/dl (P for trend = 0.015. After adjustment for age, body mass index (BMI, habitual smoking, coffee consumption and use of antihypertensive medicine, the odds ratio (OR for hyper-LDL cholesterolemia was significantly lower in daily drinkers with Mt5178C than non-drinkers with Mt5178C (OR = 0.360, 95% confidence intervals: 0.153-0.847. A significant and negative association between alcohol consumption and serum LDL cholesterol levels was also observed in Mt5178C genotypic men (P for trend Conclusions For Mt5178C genotypic men, alcohol consumption may reduce the risk of hyper-LDL cholesterolemia.

  17. The elderly patients' dignity

    Høy, Bente; Hall, E.O.C.; Wagner, L.

    2007-01-01

    the principles of nursing practice, protecting, enhancing and promoting the elderly patient's health potential. It is suggested that these themes of dignity provide a frame of reference in elder care; they shape the understanding of when health issues become a concern for health-promoting care for the elderly...... patient and what goals should be defined. Key words: Dignity, elderly patient, phenomenological hermeneutical method....

  18. Gender Perspectives in Self-Assessment of Quality of Life of the Elderly in South-Western Nigeria. Are there variations in quality of life among ageing men and women?

    Akanni Akinyemi

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This study examined gender variations in self reported quality of life among randomly selectedelderly populations in selected Yoruba communities in three local government areas of Osun StateNigeria. Data was generated through cross-sectional survey of 947 elderly population aged 60 yearsand above. Two internationally tested instruments were used to assess quality of life status amongthe respondents- Activities of Daily Life (with 14 items scales (ADL and Aging Male Symptoms(AMS (with 17 items scales and adapted for both males and females. Findings showed that elderlyfemale fared better than the male counterparts on some of the measures. Also, females were morelikely than their spouse to be able to cope without any assistance. Results from males with a livingspouse showed that majority of the spouse (females were more likely to need assistance for usualdaily activities compared with the male (husband. This trend was also confirmed among femalerespondents as a fewer proportion of spouse (male can cope without any help compared withfemales. The AMS showed that male reported a better health status in the domains of sexual,psychosocial and somatic measures. The study concluded that measures of quality of life were likelyto favour elderly females than males because of many challenges and responsibilities of males. Thestudy raised the need for more in-depth studies to investigate the role of social –cultural factors ofmale dominance and patriarchal system on quality of life of the elderly from the gender lens.

  19. Interaction between dietary marine-derived n-3 fatty acids intake and J-point elevation on the risk of cardiac death: a 24-year follow-up of Japanese men.

    Hisamatsu, Takashi; Miura, Katsuyuki; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Yamamoto, Takashi; Fujiyoshi, Akira; Miyagawa, Naoko; Kadota, Aya; Takashima, Naoyuki; Okuda, Nagako; Matsumura, Yasuhiro; Yoshita, Katsushi; Kita, Yoshikuni; Murakami, Yoshitaka; Nakamura, Yasuyuki; Okamura, Tomonori; Horie, Minoru; Okayama, Akira; Ueshima, Hirotsugu

    2013-07-01

    Higher marine-derived n-3 fatty acids (MDn3FAs) intake reduces the risk of sudden cardiac death via antiarrhythmic effects. The article evaluates whether MDn3FAs intake attenuates the increased risk of cardiac death associated with J-point elevation (JPE), characterised by an elevation of QRS-ST junction (J-point) ≥0.1 mV on electrocardiography. A prospective population-based cohort study. The National Survey on Circulatory Disorders and the National Nutrition Survey of Japan. A total of 4348 community-dwelling men (mean age 49.3 years), without cardiovascular diseases at baseline, from randomly selected areas across Japan. Cardiac death (200 men) during the 24-year follow-up. Dietary MDn3FAs intake was assessed using a dietary method to estimate individual intake of household-based weighed food records for 3 days. Cox models were used to calculate HRs and 95% CIs adjusted for possible confounding factors. JPE was present in 340 participants (7.8%). The median daily intake of MDn3FAs was 0.35%kcal (0.92 g/day). The risk of cardiac death was significantly higher in participants with JPE than in those without JPE in the low intake group (death was statistically significant (p=0.006). The increased risk of cardiac death associated with JPE may be attenuated by higher dietary MDn3FAs intake.

  20. Did Government Intervention on Firm’s Employment Policies Have an Effect on the Employment of Elderly Workers?

    Nishimura, Yoshinori

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyzes whether government intervention on firms’ employment policies have an effect on the employment of the elderly. As a result of the pensionable age increasing in Japan, this policy makes a di↵erence between the mandatory retirement age and the pensionable age. The Japanese government has obliged firms to employ elderly workers until they reach the pensionable age. According to literature, the labor force participation rate of elderly male workers increased after the implemen...

  1. [Associations between workplace bullying, harassment, and stress reactions of professional caregivers at welfare facilities for the elderly in Japan].

    Taniguchi, Toshiyo; Takaki, Jiro; Harano, Kaori; Hirokawa, Kumi; Takahashi, Kazumi; Fukuoka, Etsuko

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe workplace bullying experienced by professional caregivers at welfare facilities for the elderly in Japan and to confirm its effects on stress reactions. A cross-sectional survey was carried out using self-administered questionnaires in 2009 of all the employees working in rural area of facilities for long-term care. Among the 1,233 respondents who filled out all questionnaires concerning stress reactions the Japanese version of the Negative Acts Questionnaire (NAQ) (response rate: 63.9%), we analyzed 897 professional caregivers. We measured stress reactions by using the stress reaction scores of the Brief Job Stress Questionnaire (29 items) and workplace bullying and harassment by using NAQ. We used the unpaired t-test and analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) to compare crude and adjusted average stress reactions with groups classified on the basis of each subscale of the NAQ or all of them. About 40% of both men and women suffered from "malicious gossip" and over 60% of both men and women experienced "someone withholding necessary information so that their work gets complicated". Among women, scores of the lack of vigor and fatigue were significantly higher in caregivers targeted by person-related bullying than those not targeted (psexual harassment than those not targeted (pworkplace bullying or harassment could may aggravate effects on psychological stress responses. While among men, work-related bullying was positively associated with vigor.

  2. [Development of a Japanese version of the TALE scale].

    Ochiai, Tsutomu; Oguchi, Takashi

    2013-12-01

    The Thinking About Life Experiences (TALE) Scale (Bluck & Alea, 2011) has three subscales that assess the self, social, and directive functions of autobiographical memory. This study constructs a Japanese version of the TALE Scale and examines its reliability and validity. Fifteen items that assess the three functions of autobiographical memory were translated into Japanese. We conducted an online investigation with 600 men and women between 20-59 years of age. In Study 1, exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis identified that the three-factor structure of the Japanese version of the TALE Scale was the same as the original TALE Scale. Sufficient internal consistency of the scale was found, and the construct validity of the scale was supported by correlation analysis. Study 2 confirmed that the test-retest reliabilities of the three subscales were sufficient. Thus, this Japanese version of the TALE Scale is useful to assess autobiographical memory functions in Japan.

  3. 2011 Japanese Nuclear Incident

    EPA’s RadNet system monitored the environmental radiation levels in the United States and parts of the Pacific following the Japanese Nuclear Incident. Learn about EPA’s response and view historical laboratory data and news releases.

  4. Japanese views on ASSET

    Hirano, M [Department of Reactor Safety Research, Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst. (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    The presentation briefly reviews the following aspects directed to ensuring NPP safety: Japanese participation in ASSET activities; views to ASSET activities; recent operating experience in Japan; future ASSET activities.

  5. Japanese supercomputer technology

    Buzbee, B.L.; Ewald, R.H.; Worlton, W.J.

    1982-01-01

    In February 1982, computer scientists from the Los Alamos National Laboratory and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory visited several Japanese computer manufacturers. The purpose of these visits was to assess the state of the art of Japanese supercomputer technology and to advise Japanese computer vendors of the needs of the US Department of Energy (DOE) for more powerful supercomputers. The Japanese foresee a domestic need for large-scale computing capabilities for nuclear fusion, image analysis for the Earth Resources Satellite, meteorological forecast, electrical power system analysis (power flow, stability, optimization), structural and thermal analysis of satellites, and very large scale integrated circuit design and simulation. To meet this need, Japan has launched an ambitious program to advance supercomputer technology. This program is described

  6. Japanese views on ASSET

    Hirano, M.

    1997-01-01

    The presentation briefly reviews the following aspects directed to ensuring NPP safety: Japanese participation in ASSET activities; views to ASSET activities; recent operating experience in Japan; future ASSET activities

  7. Reference Japanese man

    Tanaka, G.-I.; Kawamura, H.; Nakahara, Y.

    1979-01-01

    The weight of organs from autopsy cases of normal Japanese adults, children, and infants is presented for the purpose of approaching a Reference Japanese Man. The skeletal content and the daily intake of alkaline earth elements are given. A lower rate of transfer (K 2 ) to the thyroid gland of ingested radioiodine, as well as a remarkably shorter biological half-life than the data adopted by ICRP, is also proved as a result of this study. (author)

  8. Disability and handicap among elderly Singaporeans.

    Yadav, S S

    2001-08-01

    Singapore's elderly population has been growing rapidly and is expected to constitute more than 25 percent of the total population by the year 2030. The ageing process brings with it a host of health problems. Here the question arises--Are the increasing years of life going to create a high proportion of sick and disabled elderly people, or a rich human resource of healthy senior citizens? Since more women are living longer than men, who would face a higher risk of disability and handicap? These questions are yet to be answered in Singapore. This paper seeks answers to these questions. The study is based on a sample survey of 1209 elderly Singaporeans living in Kampong Glam, Kreta Ayer and Bukit Merah parliamentary constituencies which have some of the highest proportions of the aged population. The results revealed that more than half of the aged had a disability and the rate of disability was significantly higher among the women as compared to the men. More than one-third of the elderly had a handicap and the rate of handicap among the women was twice as much as that among the men. Severity of handicap was directly correlated with age.

  9. [Male sexuality in the elderly].

    Rinnab, L; Schrader, A J; Schrader, M; Zengerling, F

    2012-10-01

    Male sexuality in the elderly is an important issue with a growing relevance. In contrast to the assumption of an asexual state when becoming older, recent representative surveys show that the majority of men maintain sexual desires and fantasies into old age. Sexual activity primarily depends on the availability of a partner and on maintaining intimacy and sexuality in the face of changes in the sexual response cycle and increasing comorbidity. This review aims to clarify the normal aging process, the sexual behavior of aging males and the prevalence of sexual dysfunction.

  10. Teaching Japanese Popular Culture

    Deborah Shamoon

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Japanese popular culture has arrived on American college campuses as never before. Student interest in Japanese manga (comic books, anime (animated films and television shows, and video games drives much of the enrollment in Japanese courses and Japanese majors and minors. In response to student interest, as well as the establishment of popular culture as a topic of serious academic scholarship, the demand for courses on Japanese popular culture has never been higher. Yet the number of scholars specializing in the study of popular culture is still relatively small. This can potentially create problems, as faculty teach outside their expertise, and perhaps face an uncomfortable situation in which the students know more about the topic than the professor. In this article, I will offer some suggestions and advice for faculty creating a popular culture course for the first time, based on my experiences teaching undergraduates at the University of Notre Dame. The course I developed reflects my background in Japanese literature and film, and is but one example of many possible approaches to the topic. The sample syllabus and list of resources at the end of this article provide citations for all text and media sources mentioned.

  11. The Survey of Relationship Between Religious Orientation and Happiness Among the Elderly Man and Woman in Tehran

    Dawood Ghaderi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to survey relationship between religious orientation and happiness in elderly man and woman in Tehran. Methods & Materials: The present study was descriptive and causal- Comparative. In order to survey the relationship between religious orientation and happiness among the elderly men and women in Tehran 389 aged people above 60 years including 247 men and 142 women were selected by multi stage cluster sampling. The research instruments were Allport religion orientation questionnaire and happiness inventory of Oxford. Results: The result showed that religion orientation and happiness in elderly man and woman (P<0/01 have significant positive relationship. The amount of happiness among these who had religion internal orientation were further that who had external religions orientation (P<0.01. The relationship between religion external orientation and happiness in both elderly men and women was not significant. The amount of happiness among old women was significantly further that old men (P<0.01. The elderly woman in two internal and external religion orientation in general earn higher markers than elderly men (P<0.01. Conclusion: The result shows that there is positive relationship between religion orientation and happiness among elderly men and women. We conclude that people with internal religion orientation were happier in both genders. On the confirm of most studies in the field of religion psychology we could conclude that the elderly women are more religious than elderly men. More research in the field of studied varieties can represent brighter data.

  12. Recent trends in elderly suicide rates in England and Wales.

    Hoxey, K; Shah, A

    2000-03-01

    The proportion of elderly in the population is increasing due to increased life expectancy and falling birth rate, and suicide rates increase with age. This study examined the following in England and Wales: (i) recent trends in the elderly suicide rate; (ii) recent trends in method-specific elderly suicide rate; (iii) the relationship between elderly population size and elderly suicide rate in recent years; and (iv) the sex difference in overall and method-specific elderly suicide rate. Data on the various suicide variables were ascertained from the annually published mortality data for years 1985 to 1996. The main findings of this study were: (i) there is a trend towards decline in the overall pure and combined suicide rates for elderly men and women over the 12 year study period; (ii) the main contributors to this decline are suicides due to poisoning by solid and liquid substances (E950), hanging, strangulation and suffocation (E953), drowning (E954), firearms and explosives (E955), and jumping from high places (E957); (iii) the overall pure and combined suicide rates and that for most categories of suicide was higher in men compared to women; and (iv) suicide rates decreased with an increase in the elderly population size. Suicide rates can decline due to a number of reasons. The challenge now is to ensure further decline in suicide rates to meet the Our Healthier Nations target.

  13. Factors associated with sarcopenia in institutionalized elderly.

    Mesquita, Alice Ferreira; Silva, Emanuelle Cruz da; Eickemberg, Michaela; Roriz, Anna Karla Carneiro; Barreto-Medeiros, Jairza Maria; Ramos, Lílian Barbosa

    2017-03-30

    The sarcopenia is a negative aspect for the health of the elderly, increased the risk for disease and mortality. Additionally can contributes greatly to functional reducing capacity and quality of life. To identify the prevalence and factors associated with sarcopenia in institutionalized elderly. This is a cross-sectional study, conducted with 216 elderly people, aged ≥ 60 years, of both sexes, residents in long-term care facilities in Salvador-Bahia, Brazil. To identify sarcopenia was used the skeletal muscle Index. Covariates were considered: gender, age, time of institutionalization, type of institution, body mass index and functional capacity. The Association between sarcopenia and covariates was evaluated using the Poisson regression model with robust variance. The prevalence of sarcopenia in the elderly was 72.2% and this condition was associated with male sex (PR = 1,33; CI 95% = 1,081,65), thinness (PR = 1,29; CI 95% = 1,16-1,43) and obesity (PR = 0,37; CI 95% = 0,23-0,61). The prevalence of sarcopenia was high among the elderly living in long-term institutions, especially among men. Elderly with thinness showed greater impairment of muscle reserves, while the state of obesity was protective.

  14. Forecasting Trends in Disability in a Super-Aging Society: Adapting the Future Elderly Model to Japan

    Chen, Brian K.; Jalal, Hawre; Hashimoto, Hideki; Suen, Sze-chuan; Eggleston, Karen; Hurley, Michael; Schoemaker, Lena; Bhattacharya, Jay

    2016-01-01

    Japan has experienced pronounced population aging, and now has the highest proportion of elderly adults in the world. Yet few projections of Japan’s future demography go beyond estimating population by age and sex to forecast the complex evolution of the health and functioning of the future elderly. This study estimates a new state-transition microsimulation model – the Japanese Future Elderly Model (FEM) – for Japan. We use the model to forecast disability and health for Japan’s future elderly. Our simulation suggests that by 2040, over 27 percent of Japan’s elderly will exhibit 3 or more limitations in IADLs and social functioning; almost one in 4 will experience difficulties with 3 or more ADLs; and approximately one in 5 will suffer limitations in cognitive or intellectual functioning. Since the majority of the increase in disability arises from the aging of the Japanese population, prevention efforts that reduce age-specific morbidity can help reduce the burden of disability but may have only a limited impact on reducing the overall prevalence of disability among Japanese elderly. While both age and morbidity contribute to a predicted increase in disability burden among elderly Japanese in the future, our simulation results suggest that the impact of population aging exceeds the effect of age-specific morbidity on increasing disability in Japan’s future. PMID:28580275

  15. Effect of a 12-day balneotherapy programme on pain, mood, sleep, and depression in healthy elderly people.

    Latorre-Román, Pedro Ángel; Rentero-Blanco, Manuel; Laredo-Aguilera, Jose Alberto; García-Pinillos, Felipe

    2015-03-01

    The main purpose of this study is to analyze the effect of a 12-day balneotherapy programme on pain, mood state, sleep, and depression in older adults. In this study, 52 elderly adults from different areas of Spain participated in a social hydrotherapy programme created by the government's Institute for Elderly and Social Services, known as IMSERSO; participants included 23 men (age, 69.74 ± 5.19 years) and 29 women (age, 70.31 ± 6.76 years). Pain was analyzed using the visual analogue scale. Mood was assessed using the Profile of Mood Status. Sleep was assessed using the Oviedo Sleep Questionnaire. Depression was assessed using the Geriatric Depression Scale. The balneotherapy programme was undertaken at Balneario San Andrés (Jaén, Spain). The water at Balneario San Andrés, according to the Handbook of Spanish Mineral Water, is a hypothermic (≥20°C) hard water of medium mineralization, with bicarbonate, sulfate, sodium, and magnesium as the dominant ions. Balneotherapy produced significant improvements (P balneotherapy programme has a positive effect on pain, mood, sleep quality, and depression in healthy older people. © 2014 The Authors. Psychogeriatrics © 2014 Japanese Psychogeriatric Society.

  16. [Relationships between walking hours, sleeping hours, meaningfulness of life (ikigai) and mortality in the elderly: prospective cohort study].

    Seki, N

    2001-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine lifestyle factors in the elderly that affected longevity, using a population-based prospective study. The participants were 440 men and 625 women aged 60 to 74 living in a rural Japanese community. The baseline data such as age, sex, present illness, walking hours per day, sleeping hours per day, alcohol consumption, a history of smoking, and "ikigai" (meaningfulness of life) were collected in July 1990. During 90 months of follow-up from July 1990 to December 31 1997, there were 123 deaths. By Cox's multivariate hazard model adjusted age, sex, and medical histories, walking > or = 1 hour/day (HR = 0.63, 95% CI 0.44-0.91) and an "ikigai" (HR = 0.66, 95% CI 0.44-0.99) lowered the risk for all-cause mortality independently. In regard to hours of sleep, the cumulative survival curve showed that 7 hours/day was the border and sleeping > or = 7 hours/day lowered the risk (HR = 0.49 95% CI 0.33-0.74). Based on the findings in this study, walking > or = 1 hour/day, sleeping > or = 7 hours/day, and "ikigai" are important factors for longevity in the elderly.

  17. Elder Abuse - Multiple Languages

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Elder Abuse URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Elder Abuse - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  18. Comparison of postmenopausal endogenous sex hormones among Japanese, Japanese Brazilians, and non-Japanese Brazilians

    Maciel Maria

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Differences in sex hormone levels among populations might contribute to the variation in breast cancer incidence across countries. Previous studies have shown higher breast cancer incidence and mortality among Japanese Brazilians than among Japanese. To clarify the difference in hormone levels among populations, we compared postmenopausal endogenous sex hormone levels among Japanese living in Japan, Japanese Brazilians living in the state of São Paulo, and non-Japanese Brazilians living in the state of São Paulo. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted using a control group of case-control studies in Nagano, Japan, and São Paulo, Brazil. Participants were postmenopausal women older than 55 years of age who provided blood samples. We measured estradiol, estrone, androstenedione, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS, testosterone and free testosterone by radioimmunoassay; bioavailable estradiol by the ammonium sulfate precipitation method; and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG by immunoradiometric assay. A total of 363 women were included for the present analyses, comprising 185 Japanese, 44 Japanese Brazilians and 134 non-Japanese Brazilians. Results Japanese Brazilians had significantly higher levels of estradiol, bioavailable estradiol, estrone, testosterone and free testosterone levels, and lower SHBG levels, than Japanese. Japanese Brazilians also had significantly higher levels of bioavailable estradiol, estrone and DHEAS and lower levels of SHBG and androstenedione than non-Japanese Brazilians. Levels of estradiol, testosterone and free testosterone, however, did not differ between Japanese Brazilians and non-Japanese Brazilians. These differences were observed even after adjustment for known breast cancer risk factors. We also found an increase in estrogen and androgen levels with increasing body mass index, but no association for most of the other known risk factors. Conclusions We found higher levels of