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Sample records for italy farm structure

  1. Is agritourism eco-friendly? A comparison between agritourisms and other farms in Italy using farm accountancy data network dataset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastronardi, Luigi; Giaccio, Vincenzo; Giannelli, Agostino; Scardera, Alfonso

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the results of research regarding the environmental performances of Italian farms with agritourism compared with farms without agritourism. In Italy, agritourism is considered an agricultural activity and can only be performed by a farmer. Moreover, Italian national legislation forces the farmer to dedicate himself mainly to traditional farming, rather than to tourism activities. For this reason, environmental performances have been highlighted by analyzing only features and production systems of the farms. By utilizing the most frequent indicators used in studies regarding sustainability, the authors show how Italian agritourisms tend to develop more environmentally friendly agricultural methods, which have a positive impact on biodiversity, landscape and natural resources. The empirical analysis is based on the Italian FADN (Farm Accountancy Data Network) dataset. The European FADN was created to represent farms' technical and economic operation in the European Union and on which it drafts the agricultural and rural policies. The dichotomous structure of the dependent variable (presence or absence of agritourism at the farm) has a propensity for an assessment method based on Binary Response Model Regression.

  2. Structural and economic dynamics in diversified Italian farms

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    Cristina Salvioni

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective of this work is to investigate the structural change and economic dynamics of farms pursuing diversification and differentiation strategies in Italy. The analysis was performed on a panel of data built on the basis of information collected by the Italian FADN between 2003-2009. For the purpose of the analysis, we divided the population of commercial Italian farms into a five-fold farm typology based on size and the extent of diversification and differentiation strategies adopted by the farms. In detail, farms are defined as differentiated when they make use of a system of quality certification, while they are defined as diversified when they take up non farming activities (agritourism, social farms etc.. The findings show that conventional farms remain by far the largest category within the population of Italian commercial farms, while only 13% of the total commercial farms are classified as differentiated and/or diversified. Farms adopting product differentiation strategies are found to have an income growth path similar to that of conventional farms. Yet the category of diversified farms is the only one showing an upward trend with regard to income per worker in the observed years, while farms relying entirely on agricultural products appear to perform poorly in terms of labour productivity.

  3. Durum Wheat in Conventional and Organic Farming: Yield Amount and Pasta Quality in Southern Italy

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    Massimo Fagnano

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Five durum wheat cultivars were grown in a Mediterranean area (Southern Italy under conventional and organic farming with the aim to evaluate agronomic, technological, sensory, and sanitary quality of grains and pasta. The cultivar Matt produced the best pasta quality under conventional cropping system, while the quality parameters evaluated were unsatisfactory under organic farming. The cultivar Saragolla showed the best yield amount and pasta quality in all the experimental conditions, thus proving to be the cultivar more adapt to organic farming. In all the tested experimental conditions, nivalenol (NIV and deoxynivalenol (DON occurrence was very low and the other mycotoxins evaluated were completely absent. These data confirm the low risk of mycotoxin contamination in the Mediterranean climate conditions. Finally, it has been possible to produce high-quality pasta in Southern Italy from durum wheat grown both in conventional and organic farming.

  4. Serological survey of hepatitis E virus infection in farmed and pet rabbits in Italy.

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    Di Bartolo, Ilaria; De Sabato, L; Marata, A; Martinelli, N; Magistrali, C F; Monini, M; Ponterio, E; Ostanello, F; Ruggeri, F M

    2016-05-01

    The recent identification in rabbits of hepatitis E viruses (HEV) related to viruses infecting humans raises the question of the role of this species as possible HEV reservoir. A serological survey on rabbit HEV infection was conducted in Italy during 2013-2014, including both farmed and pet rabbits. We found an anti-HEV antibody seroprevalence of 3.40 % in 206 farmed rabbits (collected on 7 farms) and 6.56 % in 122 pets. RNA was extracted from IgG-positive sera and analyzed by HEV-specific real-time RT-PCR. None of the samples were positive, confirming that no viremia was present in the presence of IgG. Only one serum sample from a farmed rabbit was positive for IgM, but no HEV RNA was detected in it. Pet rabbit feces were also tested for HEV RNA, with negative results. This finding suggests that HEV is circulating in rabbits in Italy.

  5. Durum wheat in conventional and organic farming: yield amount and pasta quality in Southern Italy.

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    Fagnano, Massimo; Fiorentino, Nunzio; D'Egidio, Maria Grazia; Quaranta, Fabrizio; Ritieni, Alberto; Ferracane, Rosalia; Raimondi, Giampaolo

    2012-01-01

    Five durum wheat cultivars were grown in a Mediterranean area (Southern Italy) under conventional and organic farming with the aim to evaluate agronomic, technological, sensory, and sanitary quality of grains and pasta. The cultivar Matt produced the best pasta quality under conventional cropping system, while the quality parameters evaluated were unsatisfactory under organic farming. The cultivar Saragolla showed the best yield amount and pasta quality in all the experimental conditions, thus proving to be the cultivar more adapt to organic farming. In all the tested experimental conditions, nivalenol (NIV) and deoxynivalenol (DON) occurrence was very low and the other mycotoxins evaluated were completely absent. These data confirm the low risk of mycotoxin contamination in the Mediterranean climate conditions. Finally, it has been possible to produce high-quality pasta in Southern Italy from durum wheat grown both in conventional and organic farming.

  6. Geo-referencing livestock farms as tool for studying cystic echinococcosis epidemiology in cattle and water buffaloes from southern Italy

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    Giuseppe Cringoli

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Cystic echinococcosis (CE, caused by the larval stages of the tapeworm Echinococcus granulosus, is known to be one of the most important parasitic infection in livestock worldwide and one of the most widespread zoonoses known. In the present study, we used a geographical information system (GIS to study the spatial structure of livestock (cattle, water buffaloes and sheep populations to gain a better understanding of the role of sheep as reservoir for the transmission of CE to cattle and water buffaloes. To this end, a survey on CE in cattle and water buffaloes from the Campania region of southern Italy was conducted and the geo-referenced results linked to the regional farm geo-referenced data within a GIS. The results showed a noteworthy prevalence of CE in cattle and water buffalo farms (overall prevalence = 18.6%. The elaboration of the data with a GIS approach showed a close proximity of the bovine and/or water buffalo CE positive farms with the ovine farms present in the study area, thus giving important information on the significance of sheep and free-ranging canids in the transmission cycles of CE in relation to cattle and water buffaloes. The significantly higher prevalence found in cattle as compared to water buffalo farms (20.0% versus 12.4% supports the key role of sheep in the CE transmission; indeed, within the 5 km radius buffer zones constructed around the cattle farms positive for CE, a higher number of (potentially infected sheep farms were found compared to those found within the buffer zones around the water buffalo farms. Furthermore, the average distances between the sheep and cattle farms falling in the same buffer zones were significantly lower than those between the sheep and water buffalo farms. We emphasize that the use of GIS is a novel approach to further our understanding of the epidemiology and control of CE and we encourage other groups to make use of it.

  7. Structural Changes and Dairy Chain Efficiency in Italy

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    Franco Rosa

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The dairy chain in Italy experienced substantial structural changes during the past years. Since the introduction of milk quotas in 1984, structural changes caused by consistent reduction of dairy farms, growing brand concentration at wholesale level, and diffusion of private labels at retail level may have altered the competitive market conditions, with increasing price asymmetry and inefficiencies in price transmission. We tested this hypothesis using the McCorriston and Sheldon’s successive oligopoly model, and we gave evidences of altered price transmission and consumer’s surplus distribution along the vertical chain in the examined period.

  8. Empirical Analysis of Farm Credit Risk under the Structure Model

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    Yan, Yan

    2009-01-01

    The study measures farm credit risk by using farm records collected by Farm Business Farm Management (FBFM) during the period 1995-2004. The study addresses the following questions: (1) whether farm's financial position is fully described by the structure model, (2) what are the determinants of farm capital structure under the structure model, (3)…

  9. Empirical Analysis of Farm Credit Risk under the Structure Model

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    Yan, Yan

    2009-01-01

    The study measures farm credit risk by using farm records collected by Farm Business Farm Management (FBFM) during the period 1995-2004. The study addresses the following questions: (1) whether farm's financial position is fully described by the structure model, (2) what are the determinants of farm capital structure under the structure model, (3)…

  10. Contribution of the calving interval to dairy farm profitability: results of a cluster analysis of FADN data for a major milk production area in southern Italy

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    G. Dono

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study we investigated the potential economic impact of good management of the calving interval on dairy farms. This involved the assessment of economics and production of a sample of farms, selected from the Farm Accountancy Data Network (FADN, and located in Sardinia, Italy. Two farm models were derived from clustering the sample by k-means, which were validated by verifying their consistency in relation to nutritional needs, feed supply and milk production of the herds. Differences in indices of performance and dynamics were found (e.g. ROE is -0.8% vs 4.7%, with evident linkages between economic performance, greater efficiency, reproductive capacity, and potential turnover. The model better performing reflected greater economic feeding efficiency and a shorter calving interval. Hence, management, more than structural aspects, determined the economic results of the sampled farms.

  11. Effect of farming strategies on environmental impact of intensive dairy farms in Italy.

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    Guerci, Matteo; Bava, Luciana; Zucali, Maddalena; Sandrucci, Anna; Penati, Chiara; Tamburini, Alberto

    2013-08-01

    Agriculture and animal husbandry are important contributors to global emissions of greenhouse (GHG) and acidifying gases. Moreover, they contribute to water pollution and to consumption of non-renewable natural resources such as land and energy. The Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology allows evaluation of the environmental impact of a process from the production of inputs to the final product and to assess simultaneously several environmental impact categories among which GHG emissions, acidification, eutrophication, land use and energy use. The main purpose of this study was to evaluate, using the LCA methodology, the environmental impact of milk production in a sample of 41 intensive Italian dairy farms and to identify, among different farming strategies, those associated with the best environmental performances. The functional unit was 1 kg Fat and Protein Corrected Milk (FPCM). Farms showed characteristics of high production intensity: FPCM, expressed as tonnes per hectare, was 30·8±15·1. Total GHG emission per kg FPCM at farm gate was 1·30±0·19 kg CO2 eq. The main contributors to climate change potential were emissions from barns and manure storage (50·1%) and emissions for production and transportation of purchased feeds (21·2%). Average emission of gases causing acidification to produce 1 kg FPCM was 19·7±3·6 g of SO2 eq. Eutrophication potential was 9·01±1·78 ${\\rm PO}_{\\rm 4}^{{\\rm 3} -} {\\rm eq}.$ per kg FPCM on average. Farms from this study needed on average 5·97±1·32 MJ per kg FPCM from non-renewable energy sources. Energy consumption was mainly due to off-farm activities (58%) associated with purchased factors. Land use was 1·51±0·25 m2 per kg FPCM. The farming strategy based on high conversion efficiency at animal level was identified as the most effective to mitigate the environmental impact per kg milk at farm gate, especially in terms of GHG production and non-renewable energy use per kg FPCM.

  12. Anthrax phylogenetic structure in Northern Italy

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    Corrò Michela

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anthrax has almost disappeared from mainland Europe, except for the Mediterranean region where cases are still reported. In Central and South Italy, anthrax is enzootic, but in the North there are currently no high risk areas, with only sporadic cases having been registered in the last few decades. Regional genetic and molecular characterizations of anthrax in these regions are still lacking. To investigate the potential molecular diversity of Bacillus anthracis in Northern Italy, canonical Single nucleotide polymorphism (canSNP and Multilocus variable number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA genotyping was performed against all isolates from animal outbreaks registered in the last twenty years in the region. Findings Six B. anthracis strains were analyzed. The canSNP analysis indicates the presence of three sublineages/subgroups each of which belong to one of the 12 worldwide CanSNP genotypes: B.Br.CNEVA (3 isolates, A.Br.005/006 (1 isolates and A.008/009 (2 isolate. The latter is the dominant canSNP genotype in Italy. The 15-loci MLVA analysis revealed five different genotypes among the isolates. Conclusions The major B branch and the A.Br.005/006 were recovered in the Northeast region. The genetic structure of anthrax discovered in this area differs from the rest of the country, suggesting the presence of a separate and independent B. anthracis molecular evolution niche. Although the isolates analyzed in this study are limited in quantity and representation, these results indicate that B. anthracis genetic diversity changes around the Alps.

  13. Assessing agro-environmental performance of dairy farms in northwest Italy based on aggregated results from indicators.

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    Gaudino, Stefano; Goia, Irene; Grignani, Carlo; Monaco, Stefano; Sacco, Dario

    2014-07-01

    Dairy farms control an important share of the agricultural area of Northern Italy. Zero grazing, large maize-cropped areas, high stocking densities, and high milk production make them intensive and prone to impact the environment. Currently, few published studies have proposed indicator sets able to describe the entire dairy farm system and their internal components. This work had four aims: i) to propose a list of agro-environmental indicators to assess dairy farms; ii) to understand which indicators classify farms best; iii) to evaluate the dairy farms based on the proposed indicator list; iv) to link farmer decisions to the consequent environmental pressures. Forty agro-environmental indicators selected for this study are described. Northern Italy dairy systems were analysed considering both farmer decision indicators (farm management) and the resulting pressure indicators that demonstrate environmental stress on the entire farming system, and its components: cropping system, livestock system, and milk production. The correlations among single indicators identified redundant indicators. Principal Components Analysis distinguished which indicators provided meaningful information about each pressure indicator group. Analysis of the communalities and the correlations among indicators identified those that best represented farm variability: Farm Gate N Balance, Greenhouse Gas Emission, and Net Energy of the farm system; Net Energy and Gross P Balance of the cropping system component; Energy Use Efficiency and Purchased Feed N Input of the livestock system component; N Eco-Efficiency of the milk production component. Farm evaluation, based on the complete list of selected indicators demonstrated organic farming resulted in uniformly high values, while farms with low milk-producing herds resulted in uniformly low values. Yet on other farms, the environmental quality varied greatly when different groups of pressure indicators were considered, which highlighted the

  14. Hepatitis E Virus (Genotype 3) in Slurry Samples from Swine Farming Activities in Italy.

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    La Rosa, G; Della Libera, S; Brambilla, M; Bisaglia, C; Pisani, G; Ciccaglione, A R; Bruni, R; Taffon, S; Equestre, M; Iaconelli, M

    2017-06-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is an emergent causative agent of acute hepatitis, transmitted by fecal-oral route. Infection with HEV is a global cause for morbidity and mortality throughout the world: it mainly causes large outbreaks in endemic areas and sporadic autochthonous cases in industrialized countries where HEV infections seem to be an emergent zoonotic disease. Infection of porcine livestock and its relationship with the human cases have been demonstrated. The present study describes an investigation on the prevalence and diversity of HEV in pig slurry in Italy. Slurry samples (24) were collected from ten farms located in North Italy during 2015 and analyzed for HEV, using four broad-range nested PCR assays targeting ORF1 (MTase), ORF2 (capsid) genes, and ORF2/3 regions. Overall, 18 samples (75%) were positive for HEV RNA, and characterized as genotype 3. Nine samples could be subtyped by ORF2 sequencing: Eight belonged to subtype 3f, while one sequence could not be characterized by blast analysis and phylogenetic analysis and may actually represent a new subtype. Furthermore, similarity of 99% was found between 3f Italian HEV sequences of human and swine origins. Real-Time PCR assay was also performed, in order to obtain quantitative data on positive samples. Two swine slurry samples were positive, containing 600 and 1000 UI per mL of sewage. The results of this study show that HEV strains belonging to zoonotic genotype 3 are widely present in swine excreta, and have high degree of identity with strains detected in autochthonous HEV cases. Improving swine farming operations safety and increasing operators' awareness of the zoonotic potential connected with the handling of swine effluents turn out to be key points in order to reduce the environmental and sanitary problem represented by the possible dissemination of HEV to water bodies.

  15. Parameters affecting the environmental impact of a range of dairy farming systems in Denmark, Germany and Italy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guerci, Matteo; Knudsen, Marie Trydeman; Bava, L.;

    2013-01-01

    in the farms with the highest stocking rate. The organic Danish farms had the lowest impact on biodiversity loss, which in general was positively influenced by the share of grassland in the system. A high proportion of grassland also had a significant positive effect on GWP, acidification and energy use......The environmental impact of 12 dairy farms in Denmark, Germany and Italy was evaluated using an LCA approach and the most important parameters influencing their environmental sustainability were identified. The farms represent different production methods (organic vs. conventional), summer feeding....... The proportion of grassland on farmland used for forage production or pasture varied from 0 to 100%. The lowest global warming potential (GWP), acidification, eutrophication and non-renewable energy use were achieved by the German pasture-based system, followed by the Danish organic dairy system and the very...

  16. Nitrogen excretion in dairy cow, beef and veal cattle, pig, and rabbit farms in Northern Italy

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    Giovanni Bittante

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Reference values for N excretion of different livestock production systems are required for the application of the Nitrate Directive (91/676/EC. A survey aimed to estimate N excretion from on-farm measurements of feed consumption and performance of dairy cows (104 herds, 9,984 cows, growing cattle (40 farms, 40,157 young bulls, veal calves (34 farms, 49,206 calves, growing pigs (39 farms, 161,278 pigs and rabbits (54 farms, 65,664 reproducing does was conducted in Veneto from 2002 to 2003. N excretion was computed as the difference between N consumption and N retained in animal products. Dairy cow yielded 8,366 ± 1,646 kg/year of milk, consumed 6,600 ± 928 kg/year of DM, containing 2.45 ± 0.2 % DM of N, and excreted 116 ± 25 kg of N/year. No significant correlation was found between milk yield and N excretion, but the correlation between dietary N concentration and N excretion was significant (r=0.66. For growing cattle, the following mean values were achieved: daily gain 1.25 ± 0.19 kg/d; feed conversion ratio 6.9 ± 0.9 kg of DM/kg, rounds/year 1.66 ± 0.38. Nitrogen consumed, retained and excreted were, respectively, 68.7 ± 5.4, 11.4 ± 1.9 and 57.3 ± 4.9 kg/place/year. For veal calves, N consumed was 24.1 ± 1.9 kg/place/year, 12.1 ± 0.8 kg of which were retained in the body and 12.0 ± 1.5 kg were excreted. For heavy pig production, N consumed, per place and per year, averaged 19.0 ± 1.9 kg, N retained was 5.2 ± 0.5 kg and N excreted was 13.8 ± 0.4 kg. In the close-cycle rabbit farms, the doe and the relative growing rabbits (43 sold per year consumed 11.2 ± 2.2 kg, retained 3.8 ± 0.7 kg and excreted 7.4 ± 1.5 kg N/doe/year. Nitrogen excretion estimated in this work can be considered as representative of some of the main animal production systems of the North-East of Italy. These values should not be considered as fixed, otherwise the implementation of the various strategies to reduce N excretion would not be possible. They

  17. What Factors Encourage Intrafamily Farm Succession in Mountain Areas? Evidence From an Alpine Valley in Italy

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    Daniele Cavicchioli

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Family farming plays a vital role in mountain areas. Its survival is related to multiple factors, including intrafamily farm succession. This study examined data on apple-producing family farms in an Italian Alpine valley, trying to identify which factors foster or discourage intrafamily succession and to what extent they do this, both at the farm level and from the potential successor's viewpoint. To do so, various farm, farmer, and individual characteristics were analyzed using probabilistic regression. We found that intrafamily succession was more likely when the farm was managed by a woman (+20% with a high school diploma (+13% who had at least 1 child with specialized education in agriculture (+27% and when farm sales had increased in recent years (+25%. We also found that a child's willingness to take over the family farm decreases as the number of farm children increases and when the child is a female with a high school diploma; however, the likelihood that children will take over the family business rises as farmer education level and work experience increase. These findings, while mixed, suggest that women play a key role in keeping family farming alive in mountain areas, along with education of family members, improved marketability of agricultural products, and in general, competitiveness and profitability of the family farm.

  18. A GIS-based interactive web decision support system for planning wind farms in Tuscany (Italy)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mari, Riccardo; Bottai, Lorenzo; Busillo, Caterina [Laboratory of Monitoring and Environmental Modelling for the sustainable development (LAMMA), Via Madonna del Piano 10, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Calastrini, Francesca; Gozzini, Bernardo; Gualtieri, Giovanni [Research National Council-Institute for biometeorology (CNR-IBIMET), Via Caproni 8, 50145 Firenze (Italy)

    2011-02-15

    In the framework of regional renewable energy policies, starting from 2008 the Tuscany Regional Authority promoted the ''WIND-GIS'' project aimed at assessing the large-scale wind potential of Tuscany region, Italy. This goal was achieved by developing an integrated Geographic Information System (GIS) based decision support system (DSS), compliant with Directive 2007/2/EC of European Commission (EC), which was designed to help public operators in the preliminary location of sites eligible for wind harness. To make the system an actually operative tool, it was conceived as a web-oriented interactive system that the public operators may freely access. The DSS was developed by using the MapServer open-source web-GIS application. Furthermore, the ''p.mapper'' front-end application developed in JavaScript and PHP/Mapscript was used, which enables a user-friendly interface to MapServer to be performed. System's wind resource data are estimated by the 2-km resolution application over Tuscany of a meteorological model chain through a 4-year period (January 2004-December 2007) with a 1-h time-step. Wind estimations at 75 m were taken into account in order to be addressed to large-scale wind turbines according to the Tuscany Energy Plan objectives of 300 MW installed power derived from wind within 2012. Furthermore, to overcome the problems posed by all groups involved with initially opposing positions in the location for new wind farms (e.g., investors vs. environmentalist groups), the DSS also encompasses a number of layers such as landscape, ecological and archaeological constrained areas. This paper presents the description of the DSS, as well as the application results in terms of maps of wind resource and energy yield once a 2-MW wind turbine has been set as a sample. The developed DSS is currently in use by the Tuscany Regional Authority for planning the regional wind energy strategy. (author)

  19. Flow Structure and Turbulence in Wind Farms

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    Stevens, Richard J. A. M.; Meneveau, Charles

    2017-01-01

    Similar to other renewable energy sources, wind energy is characterized by a low power density. Hence, for wind energy to make considerable contributions to the world's overall energy supply, large wind farms (on- and offshore) consisting of arrays of ever larger wind turbines are being envisioned and built. From a fluid mechanics perspective, wind farms encompass turbulent flow phenomena occurring at many spatial and temporal scales. Of particular interest to understanding mean power extraction and fluctuations in wind farms are the scales ranging from 1 to 10 m that comprise the wakes behind individual wind turbines, to motions reaching 100 m to kilometers in scale, inherently associated with the atmospheric boundary layer. In this review, we summarize current understanding of these flow phenomena (particularly mean and second-order statistics) through field studies, wind tunnel experiments, large-eddy simulations, and analytical modeling, emphasizing the most relevant features for wind farm design and operation.

  20. Flow Structure and Turbulence in Wind Farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stevens, Richard Johannes Antonius Maria; Meneveau, Charles

    2017-01-01

    Similar to other renewable energy sources, wind energy is characterized by a low power density. Hence, for wind energy to make considerable contributions to the world's overall energy supply, large wind farms (on- and offshore) consisting of arrays of ever larger wind turbines are being envisioned

  1. Flow Structure and Turbulence in Wind Farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stevens, Richard J.A.M.; Meneveau, Charles

    2017-01-01

    Similar to other renewable energy sources, wind energy is characterized by a low power density. Hence, for wind energy to make considerable contributions to the world's overall energy supply, large wind farms (on- and offshore) consisting of arrays of ever larger wind turbines are being envisioned a

  2. Use of a proactive herd management system in a dairy farm of northern italy: technical and economic results

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    Stefania Leonardi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Reproductive and economic data were recorded before and one year after the installation of Herd Navigator™ in a dairy farm with AMS (Automatic Milking System located in a mountain area of Northern Italy. Number of days open reduced from 166 to 103 days, number of days between the first and second insemination decreased from 45 to 28 days, and days for identifying an abortion were 80 % less, from 31 to 6 days. The preliminary results highlight the usefulness of the proactive herd management system installed for the reproduction management. A basic economic model is proposed to evaluate the potential economic benefits coming from the introduction of this technology. The model considers the benefits deriving from the reduction of reproduction problems and, consequently, of days open. Considering the effects related to the above mentioned aspects in a case study involving 60 dairy cows, a return on investment over 5 years has been calculated.

  3. Sustaining Food Production through Multifunctionality: The Dynamics of Large Farms in Italy

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    Rooij, de S.; Ventura, F.; Milone, P.; Ploeg, van der J.D.

    2014-01-01

    Theoretical approaches to multifunctional agriculture often posit a dichotomy between ‘productivist’ and multifunctional agriculture. However, this theoretical dichotomy runs counter to the tendency among many ‘productivist’ farms to now rely, to varying extents, on newly-developed multifunctional

  4. Structural damages of L'Aquila (Italy earthquake

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    H. Kaplan

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available On 6 April 2009 an earthquake of magnitude 6.3 occurred in L'Aquila city, Italy. In the city center and surrounding villages many masonry and reinforced concrete (RC buildings were heavily damaged or collapsed. After the earthquake, the inspection carried out in the region provided relevant results concerning the quality of the materials, method of construction and the performance of the structures. The region was initially inhabited in the 13th century and has many historic structures. The main structural materials are unreinforced masonry (URM composed of rubble stone, brick, and hollow clay tile. Masonry units suffered the worst damage. Wood flooring systems and corrugated steel roofs are common in URM buildings. Moreover, unconfined gable walls, excessive wall thicknesses without connection with each other are among the most common deficiencies of poorly constructed masonry structures. These walls caused an increase in earthquake loads. The quality of the materials and the construction were not in accordance with the standards. On the other hand, several modern, non-ductile concrete frame buildings have collapsed. Poor concrete quality and poor reinforcement detailing caused damage in reinforced concrete structures. Furthermore, many structural deficiencies such as non-ductile detailing, strong beams-weak columns and were commonly observed. In this paper, reasons why the buildings were damaged in the 6 April 2009 earthquake in L'Aquila, Italy are given. Some suggestions are made to prevent such disasters in the future.

  5. Structural damages of L'Aquila (Italy) earthquake

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    Kaplan, H.; Bilgin, H.; Yilmaz, S.; Binici, H.; Öztas, A.

    2010-03-01

    On 6 April 2009 an earthquake of magnitude 6.3 occurred in L'Aquila city, Italy. In the city center and surrounding villages many masonry and reinforced concrete (RC) buildings were heavily damaged or collapsed. After the earthquake, the inspection carried out in the region provided relevant results concerning the quality of the materials, method of construction and the performance of the structures. The region was initially inhabited in the 13th century and has many historic structures. The main structural materials are unreinforced masonry (URM) composed of rubble stone, brick, and hollow clay tile. Masonry units suffered the worst damage. Wood flooring systems and corrugated steel roofs are common in URM buildings. Moreover, unconfined gable walls, excessive wall thicknesses without connection with each other are among the most common deficiencies of poorly constructed masonry structures. These walls caused an increase in earthquake loads. The quality of the materials and the construction were not in accordance with the standards. On the other hand, several modern, non-ductile concrete frame buildings have collapsed. Poor concrete quality and poor reinforcement detailing caused damage in reinforced concrete structures. Furthermore, many structural deficiencies such as non-ductile detailing, strong beams-weak columns and were commonly observed. In this paper, reasons why the buildings were damaged in the 6 April 2009 earthquake in L'Aquila, Italy are given. Some suggestions are made to prevent such disasters in the future.

  6. Assessing soil-structure interaction during the 2016 central Italy seismic sequence (Italy: preliminary results

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    Arrigo Caserta

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We used the moderate-magnitude aftershocks succeeding to the 2016 August 24th, Mw = 6.0, Amatrice (Italy mainshok to asses, specially during an ongoing seismic sequence, the soil-structure interaction where cultural Heritage is involved. We have chosen as case study the San Giovanni Battista church (A.D. 1039  in Acquasanta Terme town, about 20 Km northeast of Amatrice. First of all we studied the soil shaking features in order to characterize the input to the monument. Then, using the recordings in the church, we tried to figure out  how the input seismic energy is distributed over the different monument parts. Some preliminary results are shown and discussed.

  7. Outbreak of fatal nitrate toxicosis associated with consumption of fennels (Foeniculum vulgare) in cattle farmed in Campania region (southern Italy).

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    Costagliola, Alessandro; Roperto, Franco; Benedetto, Domenico; Anastasio, Aniello; Marrone, Raffaele; Perillo, Antonella; Russo, Valeria; Papparella, Serenella; Paciello, Orlando

    2014-05-01

    Nitrate and nitrite are toxicants that have become increasingly significant environmental chemicals. Increase in environmental distribution of nitrogenous compounds, especially in surface and ground water, has been attributed to the intensive use of nitrate as agricultural fertilizers and to increasing amounts of nitrogenous wastes produced by municipalities, industries, and feedlots. The purpose of this study is to illustrate a fatal nitrate toxicosis in cattle associated with the consumption of fennels (Foeniculum vulgare). Fifteen cows from the same farm suddenly developed weakness, muscular tremors, respiratory distress, and finally convulsions. The affected animals died within 24 to 48 h from the onset of the clinical signs. Five cows underwent a complete post-mortem examination. In all examined animals, gross lesions included presence of dark unclotted blood around the nostrils and the anal region, moderate inflammation of the gastrointestinal mucosa, and brown discoloration of the skeletal muscles and kidneys. The histological examination showed tubular degeneration and congestion of glomerular vessels in the kidney. Toxicological analysis detected nitrates at 4 672.2 ppm in the fennels used to feed the animals. The source of exposure to nitrates was identified in the fennels. The fennels were grown in a polluted area of the Campania region in southern Italy and distributed in a public market for human consumption. The waste from the sale of the fennels was fed to the cows. The accumulation of nitrates in some vegetables poses a risk not only for animal health but also for human and environmental safety.

  8. Environmental, Economic and Social Efficiencies of Irrigated Farming Systems: Using Water Footprint Indicators to Compare Farm Income and Labor Generated per Volume of Water Available in Irrigated Farming Systems in Campania, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altobelli, F.; Meybeck, A.; Gitz, V.; Dalla Marta, A.; Cimino, O.

    2014-12-01

    Agriculture is not only producing food and other products. It is also a major economic sector, representing, especially in developing countries, an important part of GDP; and a major employer, with often more than half of the total workforce in many low income countries. In many of these countries irrigation plays a key role to increase and stabilize income, and it is likely to increase with climate change and increased variability of rain patterns. It is also a crucial mean to increase productivity of small holdings. In many countries, where holdings are small and even in some cases decreasing it is essential to enable farmers to ensure their food security and a decent income. In some countries, including India and many African countries, the workforce is expected to grow, with an important part of it to be employed in agriculture. At the same time many of the regions where agriculture is the most important from an economical and social point of view, are experiencing increasing water scarcity. In many cases, as has been noted for instance for the Mediterranean area, water availability is the main limiting factor to agricultural development. Increasingly agriculture is also in competition for water use with other economic activities. This calls for means to assess and compare agricultural productions systems and irrigation projects not only in terms of physical production of agricultural products but also in terms of income and jobs generated by the activity. In this study, we propose a methodology based on the blue water footprint for assessing and comparing different agricultural productions and farming systems in terms of economic and social outcomes for a given volume of blue water. Examples are drawn from the Campania region of Italy and based on data extracted from the Italian Farm Accountancy Data Network (FADN). This database contains, among other, data on crop production, irrigation management (irrigated surface, length of irrigation season, volumes of

  9. Transfer of single farm payment entitlements to farm successors: impact on structural change and rental prices in Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Mack

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the impact of tradable and non-tradable single farm payment (SFP entitlements for farm successors on structural change and the lease market. Using the example of Swiss agriculture, the effects on rental-price trends and farm-exit rates are investigated. An ex-ante normative impact analysis is performed with the agent-based agricultural-sector model SWISSland, which simulates structural change processes and income trends in Swiss agriculture over a period of up to 15 years. A land market implemented at municipality level simulates the plot-by-plot leasing of land to surrounding neighbouring agents that is common in Switzerland. Allocation of plots to tenants as well as lease pricing is modelled taking into account the farm-specific land rents. The results show that personalised SFP entitlements which could not be transferred to a farm successor not only cause an intensification of structural change, but would also thus lead to a substantial reduction in rental prices. SFP entitlements which were successfully transferred to farm successors have only a slight impact on structural change and the rental prices of arable land. Only for grassland in the mountain region does a stronger shift result in a significant reduction in rental prices.

  10. Deep structures and carbon dioxide degassing in central Italy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiodini, G.; Frondini, F.; Ponziani, F. [Perugia Univ. (Italy). Dept. of Earth Sciences

    1995-02-01

    In Tyrrhenian Central Italy large amounts of CO{sub 2} are produced at depth mainly by metamorphism of marine carbonate rocks. During their ascent, the gases are trapped in deep structures, made up of Mesozoic permeable limestones covered by impermeable terrains, which become sources of a high CO{sub 2} flux toward the surface. The anomalous CO{sub 2} concentrations are detectable in groundwaters. The general map of the groundwater PCO{sub 2} values shows a decrease in the CO{sub 2} production moving from the western geothermal areas of Tuscany and Latium to the eastern sector, which is characterized by a normal heat flow. The PCO{sub 2} distribution suggests that the NW-SE extensional faults, which bound Plio-Pleistocene grabens, provide the easiest routes for the gas ascent. The geological, geophysical and geothermal deep drilling data suggest that the CO{sub 2} anomalies found in the western sector correspond to deep permeable structures of possible geothermal interest. (author)

  11. Presence of Campylobacter and Arcobacter species in in-line milk filters of farms authorized to produce and sell raw milk and of a water buffalo dairy farm in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serraino, A; Florio, D; Giacometti, F; Piva, S; Mion, D; Zanoni, R G

    2013-05-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the presence of Campylobacter spp. and Arcobacter spp. in dairy herds authorized for the production and sale of raw milk and in a water buffalo dairy farm, and to test the antimicrobial susceptibility of the isolates. A total of 196 in-line milk filters were collected from 14 dairy farms (13 bovine and 1 water buffalo) for detection of Campylobacter spp. and Arcobacter spp. by microbiological culture. For each farm investigated, 1 isolate for each Campylobacter and Arcobacter species isolated was tested using the Etest method (AB Biodisk, Solna, Sweden) to evaluate the susceptibility to ciprofloxacin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, ampicillin, erythromycin, and gentamicin. A total of 52 isolates were detected in 49 milk filters in 12 farms (85.7%) out of 14 and the isolates were identified as Campylobacter jejuni (6), Campylobacter hyointestinalis ssp. hyointestinalis (8), Campylobacter concisus (1), Campylobacter fetus ssp. fetus (1), Arcobacter butzleri (22), and Arcobacter cryaerophilus (14). The small number of isolates tested for antimicrobial susceptibility precludes any epidemiological consideration but highlights that all Campylobacter isolates were susceptible to macrolides, which are the first-choice drugs for the treatment of campylobacteriosis, and that resistance to fluoroquinolones and tetracycline was detected; for Arcobacter isolates, resistance to ampicillin and chloramphenicol was detected. The sale of raw milk for human consumption by self-service automatic vending machines has been allowed in Italy since 2004 and the presence of C. jejuni in in-line milk filters confirms that raw milk consumption is a significant risk factor for human infection. The high occurrence of emerging Campylobacter spp. and Arcobacter spp. discovered in dairy farms authorized for production and sale of raw milk represents an emerging hazard for human health.

  12. Reliability Evaluation considering Structures of a Large Scale Wind Farm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shin, Je-Seok; Cha, Seung-Tae; Wu, Qiuwei

    2012-01-01

    evaluation on wind farm is necessarily required. Also, because large scale offshore wind farm has a long repair time and a high repair cost as well as a high investment cost, it is essential to take into account the economic aspect. One of methods to efficiently build and to operate wind farm is to construct......Wind energy is one of the most widely used renewable energy resources. Wind power has been connected to the grid as large scale wind farm which is made up of dozens of wind turbines, and the scale of wind farm is more increased recently. Due to intermittent and variable wind source, reliability...

  13. La gouvernance du journalisme en Italie. Structures, faiblesses, anomalies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marica Spalletta

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available En Italie, il existe un mécanisme très rigide d’accès à la profession journalistique, ce qui laisserait supposer que la gestion du système de l’information est solide et efficace. Cependant, en pratique, l’activité de ce gouvernement s’est révélée beaucoup moins incisive par rapport aux instruments qui sont mis à sa disposition, et ceci est confirmé par la grave période de crise, non seulement économique, que le système d’information italien traverse depuis des années. Cet article se propose de réfléchir sur les structures, les faiblesses et les anomalies du système de gouvernement du journalisme italien. Après avoir présenté l’évolution et le rôle actuel de l’organe qui le gouverne, l’Ordine dei giornalisti, cet article rappelle les résultats de trois différentes recherches, respectivement sur le sujet de la crédibilité du journalisme en Italie, sur les problématiques liées au journalisme politique, et enfin sur le rapport entre journalisme, communication institutionnelle et communication politique. L’objectif de notre réflexion est de comprendre si l’activité de l’Ordine dei Giornalisti s’est révélée régulière et incisive vis-à-vis de ces trois sujets (qui représentent trois « pathologies » du journalisme italien. Les résultats de ces recherches font émerger de nombreuses zones d’ombre, qui montrent que l’Ordine dei Giornalisti ne peut pas être considéré comme capable de faire face aux enjeux que l’évolution du journalisme pose à un système qui, de plus, se trouve dans le grave état de crise économique et de crédibilité. Le problème principal semble être de nature culturelle, et se trouve en amont des autres problématiques qui en découlent : la lacune la plus importante de l’Ordine se trouve dans son évidente incapacité à construire le substrat éthique et de valeurs sur lequel la profession devrait se fonder. Access to the journalistic profession in

  14. Genetic diversity and antimicrobial resistance profiles of Campylobacter coli and Campylobacter jejuni isolated from broiler chicken in farms and at time of slaughter in central Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pergola, S; Franciosini, M P; Comitini, F; Ciani, M; De Luca, S; Bellucci, S; Menchetti, L; Casagrande Proietti, P

    2017-05-01

    Genetic diversity and antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter coli and Campylobacter jejuni were investigated along the broiler chicken production chain in central Italy. Campylobacter sp. isolated from cloacal swabs in farms (n = 116) and from the neck skin of chilled and eviscerated carcasses at slaughter (n = 24) were identified as C. coli (n = 99) and C. jejuni (n = 41) by multiplex PCR. Characterization by single amplified fragment length polymorphism (s-AFLP) revealed a specific genotype of Campylobacter for each farm. Minimal inhibitory concentration showed high prevalence of fluoroquinolones (70%), tetracycline (70%) and erythromycin (30%) resistance among C. coli isolates. Campylobacter jejuni isolates showed lower prevalence of fluoroquinolone (39%) and tetracycline (10%) resistance, and all isolates were susceptible to erythromycin. The S-AFLP types of the C. coli and C. jejuni isolates were associated with their antimicrobial resistance profiles (P Campylobacter isolates suggested that a specific genotype was harboured in each farm. A considerable number of C. coli isolates were resistant to erythromycin. Campylobacter coli was detected more frequently than C. jejuni in contrast to common findings for poultry. The high prevalence of 30% resistance to erythromycin in C. coli strains isolated from poultry is worrisome, as this is the first antibiotic of choice to treat human campylobacteriosis. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  15. Farm succession as a result of the effect of the factors of the socio-geographical structure of farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boštjan Kerbler

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the most important results of research carried out within the framework of the doctoral thesis, “The relationship between succession on mountain farms in Slovenia and their socio-geographical structure”. In the introduction, the broader framework and purpose of the research is presented, while in the continuation the terms, methods and techniques employed are described, as well as the target group and research sample. The results follow systematically in a logical progression, whereas the conclusions include the author’s reflections and determinations regarding the results. In the conclusion, principled solutions to the indicated problems are offered. Since the effect of the factors of the socio-geographical structure of farms on farm succession is complex, solutions are not simple.

  16. [Beta-hexachlorocyclohexane contamination in dairy farms of the Sacco River Valley, Latium, Italy, 2005. A retrospective cohort study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sala, Marcello; Caminiti, Antonino; Rombolà, Pasquale; Volpe, Aldo; Roffi, Cristina; Caperna, Osvaldo; Miceli, Maria; Ubaldi, Alessandro; Battisti, Antonio; Scaramozzino, Paola

    2012-01-01

    in March 2005, the Italian National Monitoring System on Chemical Residuals in Food of Animal Origin detected levels of the pesticide beta-hexachlorocyclohexane (ß-HCH) that were 20 times higher than the legal limit of 0.003 mg/kg in bulk milk from a dairy farm in the Sacco River valley. ß-HCH, a lindane isomer and possible human carcinogen, was subsequently found in milk from several neighboring farms. A study was therefore undertaken to evaluate the extent and risk factors for contamination. all dairy cattle farms in the valley were enrolled in a retrospective cohort study and their bulk milk analyzed for ß-HCH. A questionnaire was administered to farmers to evaluate possible exposure factors. cases: dairy farms with at least one result indicating ß-HCH ≥ 0.002 mg/kg in bulk milk during the period april-june 2005; exposure: feeding animals on fodder cultivated in soils watered with and/or flooded by river water; participants: IZSLT, RMG Local Health Unit, FR Local Health Unit. attack rate, relative risk, attributable proportion among exposed. of 244 farms tested, 34 met the case definition (attack rate 14%). The exposure to fodder cultivated in soils watered with and/or flooded by river water was observed in 33/34 (97%) case-farms and in 23/210 (10.9%) of those with contamination milk (RR 110.8; 95%CI 15.5- 792). Attributable proportion among exposed was more than 99%. fodder cultivated near a contaminated river was the main risk factor for ß-HCH contaminated milk. On the basis of the epidemiologic evidence and laboratory testing, watering local fields with river water and production of fodder in farms with contaminated soil was banned, and all the animals from positive farms were culled.

  17. Characteristics of dairy farms in the North-Eastern part of Italy: rations, milk yield and nutrients excretion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Schiavon

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This survey was aimed to evaluate the characteristics of dairy farms in the North- Eastern part of Po valley in terms of ration composition, milk yield and N and P excretions. Eightynine farms, with Italian Holstein Friesian cows, were selected in order to cover different situations in term of farm size and milk yield (MY. MY and quality were obtained from the national database of functional controls. Each farm was visited in order to collect information about ingredients and chemical composition of rations used. Farms were classified in four groups differing for dietary crude protein density (LCP15.3% DM and for MY (LMY30 kg/d. N and P excretions were quantified by following a mass balance approach. Dietary crude protein content (CP was not correlated to milk yield (MY and quality. The estimated amounts of N excreted, discounted for 28% of N losses in atmosphere, were 78.5, 78.2, 87.2 and 89.1 kg/cow/year, and P excreted were 20.2, 18.6, 18.7 and 19.8 kg/cow/year for the LCPLMY, LCPHMY, HCPLMY, HCPHMY groups, respectively. On corn silage and cereals based rations, a dietary CP of 14.3% DM can support 31 kg MY/cow/day.

  18. On-farm evaluation of seed yield and oil quality of linseed (Linum usitatissimum L. in inland areas of Tuscany, Central Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana G. Angelini

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Traditional oilseed crops, such as linseed (Linum usitatissimum L., may represent valuable alternative crops in cropping systems dominated by cereals, due to their adaptability to poor soils and to their high economic value related to the interesting quality of the oil, which is being increasingly appreciated by consumers and industry. The aim of this study was to test the adaptability of linseed to the inland marginal areas of Tuscany, and to explore the levels of crop yield and oil quality which can be achieved in hilly and lowland environments. For three years (2011-2014, experimental open fields (1- 5 ha each were established and monitored in six commercial farms located in the inland countryside of Pisa province, Tuscany, Central Italy. The effect of environment (hilly and plain areas was assessed in terms of yield and yield components as well as oil content and composition. Interestingly, seed yield and biomass production were very stable over years in the two areas of cultivation, irrespectively of yearly differences in weather conditions. As expected, higher yields were obtained in plain than in hilly areas. Regarding oil composition, oil extracted from linseed grown in plain environments was richer in linolenic acid, while, oppositely, both oleic and linoleic acids were more abundant in oil from hilly areas. Definitively, our results demonstrated that linseed might be a valuable alternative to cereal crops for marginal lands of Tuscany and, more in general, of Central Italy.

  19. A survey on the occurrence of ochratoxin A in feeds and sera collected in conventional and organic poultry farms in Northern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Cavallarin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A survey has been conducted on conventional and organic poultry farms located in northern Italy in order to investigate the occurrence of ochratoxin A (OTA in feeds and sera in 2006. Ten poultry farms were monitored by taking 20 samples of feed and 94 samples of blood. OTA was assessed through immunoaffinity column purification and HPLC analysis. For in-house validation, recovery experiments, carried out on the spiked samples in the range of 1.0-10.0 μg OTA kg-1 and 0.3-3.0 ng OTA ml-1 for the feed and serum samples, respectively, led to overall recovery averages of 80.6% (RDS=7.3%, n=9 and 83.3% (RDS=3.1%, n=9, respectively. All the feed samples were contaminated by OTA with values ranging from 0.04 to 6.50 μg kg-1. Fiftythree percent of the sera samples were positive, with values ranging from 0.003- 0.165 ng ml-1. None of the feed samples was above the limits set by the European Union on OTA contamination in poultry feeds. No statistically significant differences in OTA contamination of feed or sera were observed either between the organic vs conventional group or between the laying hens vs broiler group.

  20. A concept of food-web structure in organic arable farming systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeding, F.W.; Snoo, de G.R.

    2003-01-01

    A proposal for a descriptive or topological farm food web is derived from field observations and from references in literature. Important themes in the food-web theory are tentatively applied to this preliminary model, explaining differences between local farm food-web structures and how they are re

  1. A concept of food-web structure in organic arable farming systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeding, F.W.; Snoo, de G.R.

    2003-01-01

    A proposal for a descriptive or topological farm food web is derived from field observations and from references in literature. Important themes in the food-web theory are tentatively applied to this preliminary model, explaining differences between local farm food-web structures and how they are re

  2. A concept of food-web structure in organic arable farming systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeding, F.W.; Snoo, de G.R.

    2003-01-01

    A proposal for a descriptive or topological farm food web is derived from field observations and from references in literature. Important themes in the food-web theory are tentatively applied to this preliminary model, explaining differences between local farm food-web structures and how they are

  3. Epidemiological modelling for the assessment of bovine tuberculosis surveillance in the dairy farm network in Emilia-Romagna (Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluigi Rossi

    2015-06-01

    Our analysis showed that slaughterhouse inspection is the most effective surveillance component in reducing the time for disease detection, while routine surveillance in reducing the number of multi-farms epidemics. On the other hand, testing exchanged cattle improved the performance of the surveillance system only marginally.

  4. Survey on antimicrobial residues in raw milk and antimicrobial use in dairy farms in the Emilia-Romagna region, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Serraino

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This survey investigated the antimicrobials most commonly used in dairy herds and antimicrobial residues most frequently detected in milk to evaluate the suitability of rapid screening tests to determine antimicrobial residues in milk. The investigation was carried out in 45 dairy herds consulting the farm administration records and in a national dairy industry collecting milk from almost all the dairy farms studied. Data were recorded on: i treatments with drugs containing antimicrobials during the 12 months prior to the visit; ii antimicrobial active substances present in the drugs; iii data from routine controls to detect antimicrobial residues (52,771 samples. The antimicrobial classes most commonly used were penicillins, cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones, macrolides, sulphonamides, tetracyclines, aminoglycosides and lyncosamides; the most frequently used antimicrobial not belonging to any of the previous groups was riphaximin. Sixty-four samples collected from milk trucks yielded antimicrobial residues exceeding the detection limit of the screening test used: sulphonamide residues were the most prevalent (3.4%, followed by tetracycline (0.3% and penicillins and cephalosporins (0.03%. The antimicrobial classes most commonly used on dairy farms are the same as the residues most frequently detected in milk. The association of several commercially available rapid test kits proved satisfactory for determination of the veterinary antimicrobial drugs most used on dairy farms but at least five kits are required. Therefore, knowledge of the most frequently used veterinary drugs and periodic monitoring are required for the dairy industry to develop a targeted and effective control plan.

  5. Short communication: Prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus in bulk tank milk from dairy goat farms in Northern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortimiglia, C; Bianchini, V; Franco, A; Caprioli, A; Battisti, A; Colombo, L; Stradiotto, K; Vezzoli, F; Luini, M

    2015-04-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is regarded as a leading cause of mastitis in goats. However, few data are available on the presence of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) in this species. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of S. aureus and MRSA in bulk tank milk samples from dairy goat farms in Northern Italy. Eighty-five out of 197 samples (43.1%) tested positive for S. aureus with counts ranging from 10 to more than 1.5 × 10(4) cfu/mL. The MRSA was screened by both direct plating followed by a disk diffusion test to evaluate methicillin resistance and a selective enrichment method. Methicillin-resistance was confirmed by mecA-specific PCR. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus was identified in 4 samples (2.0%) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) showed the presence of livestock-associated MRSA belonging to lineages ST398 (n = 3) and ST1 (n = 1). In one case we demonstrated that the same MRSA strain was able to persist over time on the farm, being isolated from both bulk tank milk and the udder of 3 goats 1 yr after the first isolation. The high prevalence of S. aureus-positive herds detected in this study and the presence of MRSA strains belonging to livestock-associated genotypes is of concern, and represents a novel finding in the Italian dairy goat production system. The application of stringent measures for the control of S. aureus mastitis at the farm level seems appropriate to reduce the economic losses, and to minimize the risk of foodborne illness and the transmission of MRSA to humans by occupational exposure. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Present-day 3D structural model of the Po Valley basin, Northern Italy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Turrini, C.; Lacombe, O.; Roure, F.

    2014-01-01

    A 3D structural model of the Po Valley basin (Northern Italy) was built by integrating the dataset available from the public domain (DEM, wells, isobath-maps, cross-sections, outcrop-trends).The model shows the complex foredeep-foreland architecture across the basin, from the Moho level to the topog

  7. Present-day 3D structural model of the Po Valley basin, Northern Italy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Turrini, C.; Lacombe, O.; Roure, F.

    2014-01-01

    A 3D structural model of the Po Valley basin (Northern Italy) was built by integrating the dataset available from the public domain (DEM, wells, isobath-maps, cross-sections, outcrop-trends).The model shows the complex foredeep-foreland architecture across the basin, from the Moho level to the

  8. Modelling the interactions between regional farming structure, nitrogen losses and environmental regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Happe, Kathrin; Hutchings, Nick; Dalgaard, Tommy;

    2011-01-01

    Changes in the structure of agriculture are known to affect emissions of environmental pollutants from agriculture. Such changes are often driven by structural changes in agricultural production, so structural changes are likely to have indirect effects on emissions. In a pilot study, we consider...... how linking two complementary simulation models might be used to explore these effects. The agent-based AgriPoliS model was used to simulate the structural dynamics of agricultural production. The results from AgriPoliS were passed via a number of intermediate models to the Farm-N model, which...... was used to estimate the nitrogen surplus and losses from each farm for each year. The modelling complex was exercised by simulating the effects of two plausible policy scenarios for each of 14 years. The initial sizes and types of farms were based on statistics from a region in Denmark and the farms were...

  9. Tracking the prevalence of rollover protective structures on U.S. farm tractors: 1993, 2001, and 2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loringer, Kelly A; Myers, John R

    2008-01-01

    Between 1992 and 2005, 1412 workers on farms died from tractor overturns. A Rollover Protective Structure (ROPS) is a proven intervention to reduce overturn deaths. However, farm characteristics that are associated with the adoption of ROPS are not well understood. ROPS prevalence statistics were derived from National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) surveys that tracked ROPS use on farms. Data were from the years 1993, 2001, and 2004. In 1993, 38% of tractors were equipped with ROPS. This increased to 51% by 2004. ROPS prevalence rates were higher on farms in the Southern region of the United States, on farms where the operator was 25-34 years old, and on farms with $100,000 or more of farm sales. Low ROPS prevalence rates were associated with farm operators 65 years old or older and with farms with less than $10,000 of farm product sales. The increase in ROPS prevalence between 1993 and 2004 has not been sufficient to decrease the rate of tractor overturn deaths on farms. Incentive programs targeting older farm operators and low-income farm operations are suggested to increase ROPS use on tractors. The study provides farm characteristics associated with low ROPS prevalence rates. The results can be used to target farms for future ROPS promotion activities.

  10. Prevalence of roll-over protective structure (ROPS)-equipped tractors on Hispanic-operated farms in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, John R

    2010-04-01

    Roll-over protective structures (ROPS) are known to prevent tractor overturn deaths, but not enough tractors are equipped with them in the United States to reduce the rate of these deaths to levels seen in several European countries. Recent literature has defined the use of ROPS on US farms in general, but little is known about ROPS use on Hispanic farm operations. Data from a national survey for the calendar year 2003 were used to assess the prevalence of ROPS use on Hispanic-operated farms. Farm characteristics previously identified to be associated with low ROPS prevalence rates on other farming operations were examined for these Hispanic farming operations. The overall ROPS prevalence rate on Hispanic farms was 52.2%. Adjusted odds ratios of potential risk factors found that the region where the farm was located and the acreage of the farm appeared to be the most significant indicators of the prevalence of ROPS on Hispanic farms. In addition, the age of the farm operator, the farm status as a full- or part-time operation, and the type of farm operation were also important factors. These findings were similar to those seen for racial minority farms and the general farming population. These results can be used to target ROPS promotion programs for Hispanic farmers across the United States.

  11. Chemometric data analysis application to Sparus aurata samples from two offshore farming plants along the Apulian (Italy) coastline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miniero, Roberto; Brambilla, Gianfranco; Chiaravalle, Eugenio; Mangiacotti, Michele; Brizzi, Giulio; Ingelido, Anna Maria; Abate, Vittorio; Cascone, Valeria; Ferri, Fabiola; Iacovella, Nicola; di Domenico, Alessandro

    2011-10-01

    The levels of polychlorodibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorodibenzofurans (PCDFs), dioxin-like polychlorobiphenyls (DL-PCBs), non-dioxin-like polychlorobiphenyls (NDL-PCBs), and polybromodiphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in fish collected from two marine offshore farming plants were determined. Each sample was constituted by specimens of the same size collected at the same time in four different seasons along the farming year. The feeds given were of industrial origin and the plants were positioned in two different sites respectively exposed to different environmental characteristics. A chemometric approach was applied to interpret the subtle differences observed in fish body burdens across the three chemical groups taken into consideration. The approach consisted in a stepwise multivariate process including a hierarchical cluster analysis (CA) and a linear discriminant analysis (DA). The two main clusters determined by CA were subjected to the canonical DA, backward and forward selection procedures to select the best discriminative functions. A clear temporal and spatial discrimination was found among the samples. Across the three chemical groups, the monthly separation seemed to depend on the growth process and the main exposure was due to the feed. In addition, the two plants differed significantly from the environmental point of view and the most important discriminating group of chemicals were the NDL-PCBs. The approach resulted really effective in discriminating the subtle differences and in individuating suggestions to improve the quality of culturing conditions.

  12. The structure and strength of public attitudes towards wind farm development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidwell, David Charles

    A growing social science literature seeks to understand why, despite broad public support for wind energy, proposals for specific projects are often met with strong local opposition. This gap between general and specific attitudes is viewed as a significant obstacle to the deployment of wind energy technologies. This dissertation applies theoretical perspectives and methodological tools from social psychology to provide insights on the structure and strength of attitudes towards the potential development of commercial wind farm in three coastal areas of Michigan. A survey of attitudes was completed by 375 residents in these communities and structural equation modeling was used to explore the relationship among variables. The analysis found that attitudes towards wind farm development are shaped by anticipated economic benefits to the community, but expectations of economic benefit are driven by personal values. Social psychology has long recognized that all attitudes are not created equal. Weak attitudes are fleeting and prone to change, while strong attitudes are stable over time and resistant to change. There are two fundamental paths to strong attitudes: repeated experience with an attitude object or the application of deeply held principles or values to that object. Structural equation models were also used to understand the strength of attitudes among the survey respondents. Both the anticipated effects of wind farm development and personal values were found to influence the strength of attitudes towards wind farms. However, while expectations that wind farm development will have positive effects on the economy bolster two measures of attitude strength (collective identity and importance), these expectations are associated with a decline in a third measure (confidence). A follow-up survey asking identical questions was completed by completed by 187 respondents to the initial survey. Linear regressions models were used to determine the effects of attitude

  13. Resistance genes, phage types and pulsed field gel electrophoresis pulsotypes in Salmonella enterica strains from laying hen farms in southern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camarda, Antonio; Pugliese, Nicola; Pupillo, Antonia; Oliva, Marta; Circella, Elena; Dionisi, Anna Maria; Ricci, Antonia; Legretto, Marilisa; Caroli, Anna; Pazzani, Carlo

    2013-08-06

    Twenty-four Salmonella enterica isolates (13 serovar Enteritidis and 11 Typhimurium) isolated from 5,600 samples from intensive laying hen farms in Italy in 1998-2007 were characterized for antimicrobial resistance genes, pulsotype and phage type. Most of S. Typhimurium strains were pulsotype STYMXB.0147 (81.8%), phage type DT143 and resistant to sulfamethoxazole encoded by sul2. Two multidrug resistant (MDR) strains were identified. One strain, STYMXB.0061, was resistant to ampicillin (A), chloramphenicol (C), streptomycin (S), sulfamethoxazole (Su) and tetracycline (T) encoded by the Salmonella Genomic Island SGI1. The second MDR strain, STYMXB.0110, was resistant to SSuT encoded by sul1 and sul2, aadA1 and tet(C)-flanked by an IS26 element, respectively. The tet(C) gene has been reported to confer low levels of resistance and it has very rarely been detected in S. Typhimurium from poultry. In the current study, the MIC value (32 µg/mL) was consistent with the breakpoint (≥16 µg/mL) reported for Enterobacteriaceae. Most of the S. Enteritidis strains were resistant to Su (encoded by sul2). One MDR strain (ANxSSuT) was identified. With the exception of nalidixic acid (Nx), the resistances were respectively encoded by bla(TEM), strAB, sul2 and tet(A) harbored by an IncN conjugative plasmid. All isolates were pulsotype SENTXB.0001 with PT14b being the most prevalent identified phage type (57.1%). In Europe, SENTXB.0001 is the predominant PFGE profile from clinical cases and the identification of PT14b has steadily been on the increase since 2001. The findings presented in this study highlight the potential spread of S. Enteritidis phage types PT14b and S. Typhimurium DT143 in a field of particular relevance for zoonoses. Additional, the presence of resistance genes and genetic elements (conjugative plasmid and IS element) underlines the need to assess routinely studies in field, such as poultry farms, relevant fot the public health and suitable for the storage

  14. Resistance Genes, Phage Types and Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis Pulsotypes in Salmonella enterica Strains from Laying Hen Farms in Southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Caroli

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-four Salmonella enterica isolates (13 serovar Enteritidis and 11 Typhimurium isolated from 5,600 samples from intensive laying hen farms in Italy in 1998–2007 were characterized for antimicrobial resistance genes, pulsotype and phage type. Most of S. Typhimurium strains were pulsotype STYMXB.0147 (81.8%, phage type DT143 and resistant to sulfamethoxazole encoded by sul2. Two multidrug resistant (MDR strains were identified. One strain, STYMXB.0061, was resistant to ampicillin (A, chloramphenicol (C, streptomycin (S, sulfamethoxazole (Su and tetracycline (T encoded by the Salmonella Genomic Island SGI1. The second MDR strain, STYMXB.0110, was resistant to SSuT encoded by sul1 and sul2, aadA1 and tet(C-flanked by an IS26 element, respectively. The tet(C gene has been reported to confer low levels of resistance and it has very rarely been detected in S. Typhimurium from poultry. In the current study, the MIC value (32 µg/mL was consistent with the breakpoint (³16 µg/mL reported for Enterobacteriaceae. Most of the S. Enteritidis strains were resistant to Su (encoded by sul2. One MDR strain (ANxSSuT was identified. With the exception of nalidixic acid (Nx, the resistances were respectively encoded by blaTEM, strAB, sul2 and tet(A harbored by an IncN conjugative plasmid. All isolates were pulsotype SENTXB.0001 with PT14b being the most prevalent identified phage type (57.1%. In Europe, SENTXB.0001 is the predominant PFGE profile from clinical cases and the identification of PT14b has steadily been on the increase since 2001. The findings presented in this study highlight the potential spread of S. Enteritidis phage types PT14b and S. Typhimurium DT143 in a field of particular relevance for zoonoses. Additional, the presence of resistance genes and genetic elements (conjugative plasmid and IS element underlines the need to assess routinely studies in field, such as poultry farms, relevant fot the public health and suitable for the storage

  15. A multivariate analysis for evaluating the environmental and economical aspects of agroecosystem sustainability in central Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Felice, Vincenzo; Mancinelli, Roberto; Proulx, Raphaël; Campiglia, Enio

    2012-05-15

    Over the past century farming activity has intensified worldwide, characterized by an increasing dependence on external inputs and on land conversion. Although the intensification of agriculture has increased productivity, the sustainability of agroecosystems has also been compromised. The objective of this study is to build multivariate relationships between farm structural characteristics and farm performance to highlight the relative costs and benefits of four main farming systems in Central Italy: organic, conventional, mixed and non-mixed farms. Results show that the relationship between cropping diversity and agroecological sustainability is associated to a mixed versus non-mixed farm management dichotomy, not to organic or conventional farming practices. The presence of livestock appears to have played an important role as an economic lever for diversifying the farm cropping system.

  16. Structure and management of beech (Fagus sylvatica L. forests in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nocentini S

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Beech forests characterise the landscape of many mountain areas in Italy, from the Alps to the southern regions. This paper analyses the relationship between stand structure and the management history of beech in Italy. The aim is to outline possible strategies for the sustainable management of these forest formations. The present structure of beech forests in Italy is the result of many interacting factors. According to the National Forest Inventory, more than half the total area covered by beech has a long history of coppicing. High forests cover 34% of the total beech area and 13% have complex structures which have not been classified in regular types. Coppices are very widespread mainly because of the past, but also present importance of firewood and charcoal for mountain populations. A particular type of beech coppice, the selection coppice (or uneven aged coppice, was traditional in Tuscany and in some alpine areas. Starting from the fifties, following the widespread use of other low cost energy sources and the depopulation of mountain areas, many beech coppices have been progressively abandoned. Forest policies have been increasingly directed to favouring beech coppice conversion to high forests, which are considered more productive and ecologically more functional. Beech high forests have a very interesting management history which is a very good example of the separation between classical forest management, i.e., forest management systems defined by “scientific forestry”, described in text books and usually prescribed in forest regulation plans, and real life forest management, i.e., how forests have been, and mostly still are, actually managed. The analysis of the management history of beech high forests in Italy shows that management systems which favour simplified stand structure and composition according to rigid, predetermined models have been rarely applied. However, the traditional silviculture of beech stands in Southern

  17. Genetic diversity and population structure of an Italian landrace of runner bean (Phaseolus coccineus L.): inferences for its safeguard and on-farm conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercati, F; Catarcione, G; Paolacci, A R; Abenavoli, M R; Sunseri, F; Ciaffi, M

    2015-08-01

    The landraces are considered important sources of valuable germplasm for breeding activities to face climatic changes as well as to satisfy the requirement of new varieties for marginal areas. Runner bean (Phaseolus coccineus L.) is one of the most cultivated Phaseolus species worldwide, but few studies have been addressed to assess the genetic diversity and structure within and among landrace populations. In the present study, 20 different populations of a runner bean landrace from Central Italy named "Fagiolone," together with 41 accessions from Italy and Mesoamerica, were evaluated by using 14 nuclear SSRs to establish its genetic structure and distinctiveness. Results indicated that "Fagiolone" landrace can be considered as a dynamic evolving open-pollinated population that shows a significant level of genetic variation, mostly detected within populations, and the presence of two main genetic groups, of which one distinguished from other Italian runner bean landraces. Results highlighted also a relevant importance of farmers' management practices able to influence the genetic structure of this landrace, in particular the seed exchanges and selection, and the past introduction in cultivation of landraces/cultivars similar to seed morphology, but genetically rather far from "Fagiolone." The most suitable on-farm strategies for seed collection, conservation and multiplication will be defined based on our results, as a model for threatened populations of other allogamous crop species. STRUCTURE and phylogenetic analyses indicated that Mesoamerican accessions and Italian landraces belong to two distinct gene pools confirming the hypothesis that Europe could be considered a secondary diversification center for P. coccineus.

  18. Structural analysis of the eruptive fissures at Mount Etna (Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Mazzarini

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Mount Etna produces frequent eruptions from its summit craters and from fissures on its flanks. The flank fissures trend approximately radially to the summit, and are mainly concentrated in three rift zones that are located on the NE, S and W flanks. Many flank eruptions result from lateral magma transfer from the central conduit into fractures intersecting the flanks, although some eruptions are fed through newly formed conduits that are not directly linked to the central conduit. We analyzed the structural features of eruptions from 1900 to the present, one of the most active periods in the documented eruptive history of Etna, which comprised 35 summit and 33 flank events. Except for a small eruption on the W flank in 1974, all of the flank eruptions in this interval occurred on or near the NE and S rifts. Eruptions in the NE sector were generally shorter, but their fissure systems developed more rapidly and were longer than those in the S sector. In contrast, summit eruptions had longer mean durations, but generally lower effusion rates (excluding paroxysmal events characterized by very high effusion rates that lasted only a few hours. This database was examined considering the main parameters (frequency and strike of the eruptive fissures that were active over the last ~2 ka. The distribution in time and space of summit and flank eruptions appears to be closely linked to the dynamics of the unstable E to S flank sector of Etna, which is undergoing periodic displacements induced by subvolcanic magma accumulation and gravitational pull. In this framework, magma accumulation below Etna exerts pressure against the unbuttressed E and S flanks, which have moved away from the rest of the volcano. This has caused an extension to the detachment zones, and has facilitated magma transfer from the central conduit into the flanks.

  19. Crustal structure of northern Italy from the ellipticity of Rayleigh waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berbellini, Andrea; Morelli, Andrea; Ferreira, Ana M. G.

    2017-04-01

    Northern Italy is a diverse geological region, including the wide and thick Po Plain sedimentary basin, which is bounded by the Alps and the Apennines. The seismically slow shallow structure of the Po Plain is difficult to retrieve with classical seismic measurements such as surface wave dispersion, yet the detailed structure of the region greatly affects seismic wave propagation and hence seismic ground shaking. Here we invert Rayleigh wave ellipticity measurements in the period range 10-60 s for 95 stations in northern Italy using a fully non linear approach to constrain vertical vS,vP and density profiles of the crust beneath each station. The ellipticity of Rayleigh wave ground motion is primarily sensitive to shear-wave velocity beneath the recording station, which reduces along-path contamination effects. We use the 3D layering structure in MAMBo, a previous model based on a compilation of geological and geophysical information for the Po Plain and surrounding regions of northern Italy, and employ ellipticity data to constrain vS,vP and density within its layers. We show that ellipticity data from ballistic teleseismic wave trains alone constrain the crustal structure well. This leads to MAMBo-E, an updated seismic model of the region's crust that inherits information available from previous seismic prospection and geological studies, while fitting new seismic data well. MAMBo-E brings new insights into lateral heterogeneity in the region's subsurface. Compared to MAMBo, it shows overall faster seismic anomalies in the region's Quaternary, Pliocene and Oligo-Miocene layers and better delineates the seismic structures of the Po Plain at depth. Two low velocity regions are mapped in the Mesozoic layer in the western and eastern parts of the Plain, which seem to correspond to the Monferrato sedimentary basin and to the Ferrara-Romagna thrust system, respectively.

  20. Effect of different feeding strategies in intensive dairy farming systems on milk fatty acid profiles, and implications on feeding costs in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borreani, G; Coppa, M; Revello-Chion, A; Comino, L; Giaccone, D; Ferlay, A; Tabacco, E

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this work was to characterize the fatty acid (FA) profile of milk from intensive dairy farming systems in the Po Plain (Italy) to estimate the costs of the adopted feeding strategies and to simulate the effect of supplementary premiums on the basis of milk FA composition on milk income. Twenty dairy farms with 5 different feeding strategies were studied: 3 corn silage-based systems in which cows were supplemented with a great proportion (CCH), a medium proportion (CCM), or without commercial concentrate mix (CC0), and 2 systems in which part of corn silage was replaced with grass or legume silage (HF) or with fresh herbage (G), cut and fed indoors. Bulk milk was sampled and lactating cow performance, feeding strategies and forage characteristics were recorded through a survey, 3 times during a year. The milk FA supplementary premium was calculated considering C18:3n-3 and saturated FA (SFA) concentrations, and ratio of total cis C18:1 isomers to C16:0. The CCH, CCM, and CC0 systems bought most of their dairy cow feeds off farm, which allowed them to increase milk production to 35,000 L/yr per hectare. Their low dry matter and crude protein self-sufficiency led to higher feeding costs per liter of milk (from €0.158 to €0.184), and highest income over feed cost was achieved only for milk yield performance greater than 10,000 kg/cow per year. The use of homegrown forages in HF and G increased dry matter and crude protein self-sufficiency and reduced the feeding costs per liter of milk from 9 to 22%, compared with the other studied systems, making HF and G feeding economically competitive, even for a lower milk yield per cow. The studied systems highlighted a remarkable variation in FA profiles. The concentrations of C16:0 and SFA were the highest in CCH (31.53 and 67.84 g/100g of FA) and G (31.23 and 68.45 g/100g of FA), because of the larger proportion of commercial concentrate mix in the cow diet. The concentrations of C16:0 and SFA were the lowest in

  1. Farm tractors, and the use of seat belts and roll-over protective structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelsey, T W; May, J J; Jenkins, P L

    1996-10-01

    Roll-over protective structures (ROPS) on farm tractors could significantly reduce the rate of fatal occupational injury on farms, but comparatively few tractors have them. Many of the policy discussions have focused on trying to identify the percentage of tractors that do not have ROPS, even though such a focus probably does not accurately represent effective protection by ROPS. This study investigates whether including differences in hours of usage, tractor activities, and seat belt use affects estimates of farm operators' protection by ROPS. In general, tractors used more hours a year were more likely to have ROPS. ROPS status also varied by tractor activity. When adjusting for seat belt use, effective ROPS protection is much less than when considering just ROPS status. Measures of the effective coverage of ROPS and policy responses should reflect these differences in hours, activities, and seat belt use.

  2. Structural and bio-technical analysis of terrestrial trout farms in Tokat province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nihat YEŞİLAYAR

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out by the aim of determining the feasibilities, structural and bio-technical problems of aquaculture facilities in Tokatprovince.Total 7 licensed fish farms and located in the fresh water were determined. All of them were visited and interviewed with their owners face to face. The data were collected in order to determine present condition of fish farms and their problems.Although total project capacities of farms were 96 tons/year, the actual production was found 96 tons/year. Average fishproductionof facilities16tons/yearwas found. The average feed conversion rate (FCR as found 1.09. We have figured out that ponds have not been productively used and stock density is very high in Tokat, present aquaculture investments must rearranged considering scientific data

  3. Integrated Layout and Support Structure Optimization for Offshore Wind Farm Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashuri, T.; Ponnurangam, C.; Zhang, J.; Rotea, M.

    2016-09-01

    This paper develops a multidisciplinary design optimization framework for integrated design optimization of offshore wind farm layout and support structure. A computational model is developed to characterize the physics of the wind farm wake, aerodynamic and hydrodynamic loads, response of the support structure to these loads, soil- structure interaction, as well as different cost elements. Levelized cost of energy is introduced as the objective function. The design constraints are the farm external boundary, and support structure buckling, first modal-frequency, fatigue damage and ultimate stresses. To evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed approach, four optimization scenarios are considered: a feasible baseline design, optimization of layout only, optimization of support structure only, and integrated design of the layout and support structure. Compared to the baseline design, the optimization results show that the isolated support structure design reduces the levelized cost of energy by 0.6%, the isolated layout design reduces the levelized cost of energy by 2.0%, and the integrated layout and support structure design reduces the levelized cost of energy by 2.6%.

  4. Measuring the environmental effects of organic farming: A meta-analysis of structural variables in empirical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ki Song; Choe, Young Chan; Park, Sung Hee

    2015-10-01

    This study examined the structural variables affecting the environmental effects of organic farming compared to those of conventional farming. A meta-analysis based on 107 studies and 360 observations published from 1977 to 2012 compared energy efficiency (EE) and greenhouse gas emissions (GHGE) for organic and conventional farming. The meta-analysis systematically analyzed the results of earlier comparative studies and used logistic regression to identify the structural variables that contributed to differences in the effects of organic and conventional farming on the environment. The statistical evidence identified characteristics that differentiated the environmental effects of organic and conventional farming, which is controversial. The results indicated that data sources, sample size and product type significantly affected EE, whereas product type, cropping pattern and measurement unit significantly affected the GHGE of organic farming compared to conventional farming. Superior effects of organic farming on the environment were more likely to appear for larger samples, primary data rather than secondary data, monocropping rather than multicropping, and crops other than fruits and vegetables. The environmental effects of organic farming were not affected by the study period, geographic location, farm size, cropping pattern, or measurement method.

  5. Do differences in food web structure between organic and conventional farms affect the ecosystem service of pest control?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macfadyen, Sarina; Gibson, Rachel; Polaszek, Andrew; Morris, Rebecca J; Craze, Paul G; Planqué, Robert; Symondson, William O C; Memmott, Jane

    2009-03-01

    While many studies have demonstrated that organic farms support greater levels of biodiversity, it is not known whether this translates into better provision of ecosystem services. Here we use a food-web approach to analyse the community structure and function at the whole-farm scale. Quantitative food webs from 10 replicate pairs of organic and conventional farms showed that organic farms have significantly more species at three trophic levels (plant, herbivore and parasitoid) and significantly different network structure. Herbivores on organic farms were attacked by more parasitoid species on organic farms than on conventional farms. However, differences in network structure did not translate into differences in robustness to simulated species loss and we found no difference in percentage parasitism (natural pest control) across a variety of host species. Furthermore, a manipulative field experiment demonstrated that the higher species richness of parasitoids on the organic farms did not increase mortality of a novel herbivore used to bioassay ecosystem service. The explanation for these differences is likely to include inherent differences in management strategies and landscape structure between the two farming systems.

  6. Structural development of livestock farms in a global perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henning Otte

    2015-01-01

    as a whole and in agriculture is seen. The vertical integration in the form of contract production and cooperative ownership is increasing in several places in the world. Labor emigration from agriculture is also a general feature during economic development, and this will intensify labor productivity......Structural development in agriculture has several international dimensions, and the topic is relevant and important for several reasons. There is a wide range of economic, structural and technological drivers that in a complex context both inhibits and promotes the structural development...

  7. Comparison of Farm Structures, Success Factors, Obstacles, Clients’ Expectations and Policy Wishes of Urban Farming’s Main Business Models in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Bernd Pölling

    2016-01-01

    Low-cost specialization, differentiation, and diversification are common business models of urban farms in developed countries. Similarities and differences between them as well as detailed insights into specific farm characteristics are widely absent in scientific discourses. This paper compares farm structures, success factors, obstacles, clients’ expectations, and policy wishes between specialized, differentiated, and diversified farms as well as diversifiers into agriculture. A standardiz...

  8. Assessment of tillage systems in organic farming: influence of soil structure on microbial biomass. First results

    OpenAIRE

    Vian, Jean François; Peigné, Joséphine; Chaussod, Rémi; Roger-Estrade, Jean

    2007-01-01

    Soil tillage modifies environmental conditions of soil microorganisms and their ability to release nitrogen. We compare the influence of reduced tillage (RT) and mouldboard ploughing (MP) on the soil microbial functioning in organic farming. In order to connect soil structure generated by these tillage systems on the soil microbial biomass we adopt a particular sampling scheme based on the morphological characterisation of the soil structure by the description of the soil profile. This method...

  9. Stand structure and dead wood characterization in cork forest of Calabria region (southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barreca L

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The cork forests are one the most interesting forest ecosystems in the Mediterranean area. Their distribution and ecological characteristics have undergone a significant transformation after the significant changes following the development and establishment of agricultural crops. Currently, only a few stands, which survive in hard to reach places, prove the wide spread distribution of this species was also in the recent past. This study describes the stand structure of some cork forests in Calabria region (southern Italy. In order, to characterize the vertical structure Latham index has been applied, while for the description of the horizontal distribution NBSI group indices has been used. Detailed surveys on dead wood were also conducted determining the occurring volume and its decay stage according to the decay classes system proposed by Hunter. The aim of this study is to provide guidelines for sustainable management of cork forests, improving and promoting the structural complexity and functional efficiency of these forest stands.

  10. MEDITERRANEAN FOREST TREE DECLINE IN ITALY: RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN DROUGHT, POLLUTANTS AND THE WAX STRUCTURE OF LEAVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. PAOLETTI

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available After presenting the situation of forest decline in Italy and analyzing the factors that play a contributing role, tbis paper studies the response of the epicuticular wax structures and the stomata in ten broadleaf species and one conifer to fog-like treatments with acids andlor surfactants and to severe water stress. The main results are that wax structure alterations vary in intensity in the different species studied and that the microstructural alterations observed in field conditions cannot be attributed only to severe drought. since sample trccs put through water stress simulations do nol differ significantly from controls. In the artificial surfactant treatment, a positive relationship between structural damage to tbe stomata and transpiration suggests possible synergies between the effects of drought and those of pollutants in inducing stress conditions in Mediterranean vegetation.

  11. Change in Farm Production Structure Within Different CAP Schemes – an LP Modelling Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaka ŽGAJNAR

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available After accession to European Union in 2004 direct payments became veryimportant income source also for farmers in Slovenia. But agricultural policy inplace at accession changed significantly in year 2007 as result of CAP reformimplementation. The objective of this study was to evaluate decision makingimpacts of direct payments scheme implemented with the reform: regional or morelikely hybrid scheme. The change in farm production structure was simulated withmodel, applying gross margin maximisation, based on static linear programmingapproach. The model has been developed in a spreadsheet framework in MS Excelplatform. A hypothetical farm has been chosen to analyse different scenarios andspecializations. Focus of the analysis was on cattle sector, since it is expected thatdecoupling is going to have significant influence on its optimal productionstructure. The reason is high level of direct payments that could in pre-reformscheme rise up to 70 % of total gross margin. Model results confirm that the reformshould have unfavourable impacts on cattle farms with intensive productionpractice. The results show that hybrid scheme has minor negative impacts in allcattle specializations, while regional scheme would be better option for sheepspecialized farm. Analysis has also shown growing importance of CAP pillar IIpayments, among them particularly agri-environmental measures. In all threeschemes budgetary payments enable farmers to improve financial results and inboth reform schemes they alleviate economic impacts of the CAP reform.

  12. Cost structure and profitability of Assaf dairy sheep farms in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milán, M J; Frendi, F; González-González, R; Caja, G

    2014-01-01

    Twenty dairy sheep farms of Assaf breed, located in the Spanish autonomous community of Castilla y León and included in a group receiving technical support, were used to study their production cost structure and to assess their economic profitability during 2009. On average, farms had 89.2±38.0 ha (own, 38%), 592±63 ewes, yielded 185.9±21.1×10(3) L/yr (i.e., 316±15 L/ewe), and were attended by 2.3±0.2 annual working units (family, 72%). Total annual income was €194.4±23.0×10(3)/yr (€1.0=$1.3) from milk (78.6%), lamb (13.2%), culled ewes (0.5%), and other sales (0.8%, wool and manure), and completed with the European Union sheep subsidy (6.9%). Total costs were €185.9±19.0×10(3)/yr to attend to feeding (61.6%), labor (18.2%), equipment maintenance and depreciation (7.6%), finances (3.0%), animal health (2.5%), energy, water and milking supplies (2.2%), milk recording (0.5%), and other costs (4.4%; assurances, shearing, association fees, and so on). Mean dairy sheep farm profit was €8.5±5.8×10(3)/yr (€7.4±8.3/ewe) on average, and varied between -€40.6 and €81.1/ewe among farms. Only 60% of farms were able to pay all costs, the rest had negative balances. Nevertheless, net margin was €31.0±6.5×10(3)/yr on average, varying between €0.6 and €108.4×10(3)/yr among farms. In this case, without including the opportunity costs, all farms had positive balances. Total annual cost (TAC; €/ewe) and total annual income (TAI; €/ewe) depended on milk yield (MY; L/ewe) and were TAC=161.6 + 0.502 MY (R(2)=0.50), and TAI=78.13 + 0.790 MY (R(2)=0.88), respectively, with the break-even point being 291 L/ewe. Conversely, farm TAC (€/yr) and farm TAI (€/yr) were also predicted as a function of the number of ewes (NOE) per flock, as TAC=18,401 + 282.8 NOE (R(2)=0.89) and TAI=330.9 NOE (R(2)=0.98), with the break-even point being 383 ewes/flock. Finally, according to the increasing trend expected for agricultural commodity prices, it was

  13. An ancient Mediterranean melting pot: investigating the uniparental genetic structure and population history of sicily and southern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarno, Stefania; Boattini, Alessio; Carta, Marilisa; Ferri, Gianmarco; Alù, Milena; Yao, Daniele Yang; Ciani, Graziella; Pettener, Davide; Luiselli, Donata

    2014-01-01

    Due to their strategic geographic location between three different continents, Sicily and Southern Italy have long represented a major Mediterranean crossroad where different peoples and cultures came together over time. However, its multi-layered history of migration pathways and cultural exchanges, has made the reconstruction of its genetic history and population structure extremely controversial and widely debated. To address this debate, we surveyed the genetic variability of 326 accurately selected individuals from 8 different provinces of Sicily and Southern Italy, through a comprehensive evaluation of both Y-chromosome and mtDNA genomes. The main goal was to investigate the structuring of maternal and paternal genetic pools within Sicily and Southern Italy, and to examine their degrees of interaction with other Mediterranean populations. Our findings show high levels of within-population variability, coupled with the lack of significant genetic sub-structures both within Sicily, as well as between Sicily and Southern Italy. When Sicilian and Southern Italian populations were contextualized within the Euro-Mediterranean genetic space, we observed different historical dynamics for maternal and paternal inheritances. Y-chromosome results highlight a significant genetic differentiation between the North-Western and South-Eastern part of the Mediterranean, the Italian Peninsula occupying an intermediate position therein. In particular, Sicily and Southern Italy reveal a shared paternal genetic background with the Balkan Peninsula and the time estimates of main Y-chromosome lineages signal paternal genetic traces of Neolithic and post-Neolithic migration events. On the contrary, despite showing some correspondence with its paternal counterpart, mtDNA reveals a substantially homogeneous genetic landscape, which may reflect older population events or different demographic dynamics between males and females. Overall, both uniparental genetic structures and TMRCA

  14. The Influence of Vegetation and Landscape Structural Connectivity on Butterflies (Lepidoptera: Papilionoidea and Hesperiidae), Carabids (Coleoptera: Carabidae), Syrphids (Diptera: Syrphidae), and Sawflies (Hymenoptera: Symphyta) in Northern Italy Farmland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgio, Giovanni; Sommaggio, Daniele; Marini, Mario; Puppi, Giovanna; Chiarucci, Alessandro; Landi, Sara; Fabbri, Roberto; Pesarini, Fausto; Genghini, Marco; Ferrari, Roberto; Muzzi, Enrico; van Lenteren, Joop C; Masetti, Antonio

    2015-10-01

    Landscape structure as well as local vegetation influence biodiversity in agroecosystems. A study was performed to evaluate the effect of floristic diversity, vegetation patterns, and landscape structural connectivity on butterflies (Lepidoptera: Papilionoidea and Hesperiidae), carabids (Coleoptera: Carabidae), syrphids (Diptera: Syrphidae), and sawflies (Hymenoptera: Symphyta). Vegetation analysis and insect samplings were carried out in nine sites within an intensively farmed landscape in northern Italy. Plant species richness and the percentage of tree, shrub, and herb cover were determined by means of the phytosociological method of Braun-Blanquet. Landscape structural connectivity was measured as the total length of hedgerow network (LHN) in a radius of 500 m around the center of each sampling transect. Butterflies species richness and abundance were positively associated both to herb cover and to plant species richness, but responded negatively to tree and shrub cover. Shrub cover was strictly correlated to both species richness and activity density of carabids. The species richness of syrphids was positively influenced by herb cover and plant richness, whereas their abundance was dependent on ligneous vegetation and LHN. Rarefaction analysis revealed that sawfly sampling was not robust and no relationship could be drawn with either vegetation parameters or structural connectivity. The specific responses of each insect group to the environmental factors should be considered in order to refine and optimize landscape management interventions targeting specific conservation endpoints. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. The structural setting of the Ischia Island Caldera (Italy): first evidence from seismic and gravity data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capuano, Paolo; De Matteis, Raffaella; Russo, Guido

    2015-09-01

    Ischia Island is one of the active volcanoes of the Neapolitan area (Italy). Hazard assessment of active, densely populated volcano is primarily based on knowledge of the volcano's past behaviour and of its present state. As a contribution to the definition of the present structural setting of Ischia Island, we constructed a new model of the shallow crust using geophysical data: seismic wave travel times and Bouguer anomaly data. We analysed these data sets through seismic tomography and gravity data inversion. The main results inferable from the 3D seismic and gravity images are the definition of the caldera rim along the perimeter of the island, as hypothesized by many authors, and the presence of a high velocity and density area inside the caldera consistent with extension of the resurgent block that characterizes the recent deformation of the island.

  16. Investigation of geothermal structures by magnetotellurics (MT): an example from the Mt. Amiata area, Italy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volpi, G. [CNR - Inst. of Geosciences and Earth Resources, Pisa (Italy); ENEL Greenpower, Pisa (Italy); Manzella, A. [CNR - Inst. of Geosciences and Earth Resources, Pisa (Italy); Fiordelisi, A. [ENEL Greenpower, Pisa (Italy)

    2003-04-01

    During 1999 a magnetotelluric (MT) survey was carried out on the southern margin of the Mt. Amiata geothermal region (Tuscany, Italy), with the aim of defining the shallow and deep electric structures related to the local geothermal reservoirs and system heat recharge. Local and remote data were collected along a SW-NE profile and processed with two different robust algorithms. After a detailed study of the EM strike, the data were inverted and two-dimensional (2D) models of electrical resistivity and impedance phase were computed. The interpretation revealed a good correlation between the features of the geothermal field and resistivity distribution at depth. In particular, a shallow conductor (0.5-4 km) detected by the MT survey shows a good correlation with the areal extension of the geothermal reservoirs. (Author)

  17. Glucokinase gene mutations: structural and genotype-phenotype analyses in MODY children from South Italy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Tinto

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Maturity onset diabetes of the young type 2 (or GCK MODY is a genetic form of diabetes mellitus provoked by mutations in the glucokinase gene (GCK. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We screened the GCK gene by direct sequencing in 30 patients from South Italy with suspected MODY. The mutation-induced structural alterations in the protein were analyzed by molecular modeling. The patients' biochemical, clinical and anamnestic data were obtained. Mutations were detected in 16/30 patients (53%; 9 of the 12 mutations identified were novel (p.Glu70Asp, p.Phe123Leu, p.Asp132Asn, p.His137Asp, p.Gly162Asp, p.Thr168Ala, p.Arg392Ser, p.Glu290X, p.Gln106_Met107delinsLeu and are in regions involved in structural rearrangements required for catalysis. The prevalence of mutation sites was higher in the small domain (7/12: approximately 59% than in the large (4/12: 33% domain or in the connection (1/12: 8% region of the protein. Mild diabetic phenotypes were detected in almost all patients [mean (SD OGTT = 7.8 mMol/L (1.8] and mean triglyceride levels were lower in mutated than in unmutated GCK patients (p = 0.04. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of GCK MODY is high in southern Italy, and the GCK small domain is a hot spot for MODY mutations. Both the severity of the GCK mutation and the genetic background seem to play a relevant role in the GCK MODY phenotype. Indeed, a partial genotype-phenotype correlation was identified in related patients (3 pairs of siblings but not in two unrelated children bearing the same mutation. Thus, the molecular approach allows the physician to confirm the diagnosis and to predict severity of the mutation.

  18. The area as a factor differentiating the level and structure of non-agricultural incomes of farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata Marcysiak

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is an attempt of show the range of influence of the area on level and structure of non-agricultural farms income. The research data come from 65 farms located in northern part of the Lublin voivodeship in the district of Biała Podlaska and Łuków. The analysis covers year 2007. The calculation of basic economic categories was made within FADN method which is used in the European system of agricultural accountancy. The lowest level of non-agricultural income among the investigated farms was noticed in farms up to 10 hectares. The main source of non-agricultural income in the investigated farms was paid work and pension benefits.

  19. Evidence of Apulian crustal structures related to low energy seismicity (Murge - Southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Pieri

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The discovery of recent co-seismic sedimentary structures and the detection of low energy seismic activity in the Murgian plateau (Apulia - Southern Italy motivated a more detailed examination of the tectonics in this part of the Apulian plate commonly believed to be aseismic. In particular, we examined the north-western zone where a seismic sequence with maximum magnitude 3.2 and tensional focal mechanism occurred in 1991. The analysis of the existing gravimetric data, integrated by three new profiles carried out across the epicentral area, disclosed an anomaly possibly due to an old tensional tectonic structure located within the upper crust. Even though the depth and the age hypothesised for the anomaly source would exclude a direct causal connection with the observed seismicity, this structure could be a shallower expression of a tectonic structure extending down to the crystalline basement: it could represent a zone of relative «weakness» where the regional stress, due to the interactions between Apennines and Apulian plate, encounters conditions facilitating the release of seismic energy.

  20. The structure and dynamics of a rhinolophid bat community of Latium (Central Italy (Chiroptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierangelo Crucitti

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The present paper summarizes the results of 3 years of observation made at six month intervals for six months at a time (18 field surveys in a man-made cave in Northern Latium (Central Italy from April 1992 to April 1995. Its aim is to analyze the main structural and dynamic features of a bat community which hibernates at the shelter. Rhinolophus ferrumequinum and especially Rhinolophus euryale are the most abundant species. Population dynamics of both species as well as that of Rhinoluphus hipposideros show higher levels of abundance between December and February of each semester. In mid-winter, large and sometimes mixed aggregations of Rhinolophus ferrumequinum and Rhinolophus euryale in deep hypothermia occur. A small number of Rhinolophus hipposideros, mainly adult males, was observed. The paper compares the structure of this community to the structure of another community of the same district which has been previously analyzed, in which Vespertilionidae, especially Miniopterus schreibersi, are much more abundant. Despite the difference in species composition, body size was found to be a significant and common feature (as highlighted by forearm length, of the dominant species in both communities, Rhinolophus euryale and Miniopterus schreibersi respectively.

  1. Consistent responses of the microbial community structure to organic farming along the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenhui; Wang, Hui; Feng, Youzhi; Wang, Lei; Xiao, Xingji; Xi, Yunguan; Luo, Xue; Sun, Ruibo; Ye, Xianfeng; Huang, Yan; Zhang, Zhengguang; Cui, Zhongli

    2016-01-01

    Soil microorganisms play a crucial role in the biogeochemical cycling of nutrient elements and maintaining soil health. We aimed to investigate the response of bacteria communities to organic farming over different crops (rice, tea and vegetable) along the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River of China. Compared with conventional farming, organic farming significantly increased soil nutrients, soil enzyme activities, and bacterial richness and diversity. A Venn diagram and principal component analysis revealed that the soils with 3 different crops under organic farming have more number and percent of shared OTUs (operational taxonomic units), and shared a highly similar microbial community structure. Under organic farming, several predominant guilds and major bacterial lineages (Rhizobiales, Thiotrichaceae, Micromonosporaceae, Desulfurellaceae and Myxococcales) contributing to nutrient (C, N, S and P) cycling were enriched, whereas the relative abundances of acid and alkali resistant microorganisms (Acidobacteriaceae and Sporolactobacillaceae) were increased under conventional farming practices. Our results indicated that, for all three crops, organic farming have a more stable microflora and the uniformity of the bacterial community structure. Organic agriculture significantly increased the abundance of some nutrition-related bacteria, while reducing some of the abundance of acid and alkali resistant bacteria. PMID:27725750

  2. Consistent responses of the microbial community structure to organic farming along the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenhui; Wang, Hui; Feng, Youzhi; Wang, Lei; Xiao, Xingji; Xi, Yunguan; Luo, Xue; Sun, Ruibo; Ye, Xianfeng; Huang, Yan; Zhang, Zhengguang; Cui, Zhongli

    2016-10-11

    Soil microorganisms play a crucial role in the biogeochemical cycling of nutrient elements and maintaining soil health. We aimed to investigate the response of bacteria communities to organic farming over different crops (rice, tea and vegetable) along the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River of China. Compared with conventional farming, organic farming significantly increased soil nutrients, soil enzyme activities, and bacterial richness and diversity. A Venn diagram and principal component analysis revealed that the soils with 3 different crops under organic farming have more number and percent of shared OTUs (operational taxonomic units), and shared a highly similar microbial community structure. Under organic farming, several predominant guilds and major bacterial lineages (Rhizobiales, Thiotrichaceae, Micromonosporaceae, Desulfurellaceae and Myxococcales) contributing to nutrient (C, N, S and P) cycling were enriched, whereas the relative abundances of acid and alkali resistant microorganisms (Acidobacteriaceae and Sporolactobacillaceae) were increased under conventional farming practices. Our results indicated that, for all three crops, organic farming have a more stable microflora and the uniformity of the bacterial community structure. Organic agriculture significantly increased the abundance of some nutrition-related bacteria, while reducing some of the abundance of acid and alkali resistant bacteria.

  3. AESIS: a support tool for the evaluation of sustainability of agroecosystems. Example of applications to organic and integrated farming systems in Tuscany, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaio Cesare Pacini

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural researchers widely recognise the importance of sustainable agricultural production systems and the need to develop appropriate methods to measure sustainability on the farm level. Policy makers need accounting and evaluation tools to be able to assess the potential of sustainable production practices and to provide appropriate agro-environmental policy measures. Farmers are in search of sustainable management tools to cope with regulations and enhance efficiency. This paper presents the outcomes of applications to organic and integrated farming of an indicator-based framework to evaluate sustainability of farming systems (Agro-Environmental Sustainability Information System, AESIS. The AESIS was described together with a review of applications dating from 1991 in a previous paper. The objective of the present paper is to present the AESIS application to organic and integrated farming systems in Val d’Elsa (Tuscany and discuss how it is adapted for application to ordinary farms. The AESIS is organised into a number of environmental and production systems. For each system, environmental critical points are identified with corresponding agro-environmental indicators and processing methods. Possible solutions to sustainability issues, and critical points of relevance to the agricultural sector of the local economic and agro-ecological zone, are formulated by including an experimental layout, identifying indicator thresholds and by defining management systems with corresponding policy measures. Alternative solutions are evaluated by calculating and measuring the relevant indicators. The outcomes of the AESIS applications are discussed with specific relevance to the operational adoptability of AESIS to ordinary, agri-touristic farms managed with the organic and the integrated production method, respectively. The AESIS framework proved to be sufficiently flexible to meet the requirements for ordinary farm applications while keeping a

  4. Preliminary aspects concerning phytoplankton structure in the Balta Mare – Carja 1 fish farm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria FETECAU

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The present paper presents information on the structure and the dynamics of the water ecosystem’s phytoplankton of the Carja 1 fish farm - Vaslui County, carps and Asian cyprinids are grown ascommon fish. To establish the structure and the dynamics of the phytoplankton, two samples from 6 stations were taken in the spring and in the autumn, using of a Garmin GPS 7- type navigation system.When analysing the number of individuals and the algae species present in the phytoplankton’s structure, one can notice the low development level of the vegetable plankton. From the quantity point of view, one can notice the numerical abundance of the clorophyceae in all the analysed samples. The dominant species were: Scenedesmus acuminatus, Scenedesmus quadricauda, Tetrastrum staurogenieforme. The small number of species and algae specimens determined in the phytoplankton’s structure emphasizes the reduced level of trophicity and biodiversity of the analysed ecosystem.

  5. Socialist and postsocialist land-use legacies determine farm woodland composition and structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plieninger, Tobias; Schaich, H.

    2014-01-01

    . Mean diameters and species richness values are high. Typical socialist woodland species are nonnative (mean 35 %) and/or coniferous (mean 51 %). Stands have a uniform, even-aged stand structure. Species richness/diversity indices are generally low. Postsocialist woodlands exhibit a high degree...... of variability. Percentages of nonnative (7 %) and coniferous (10 %) individuals are low. The findings suggest that socialist and postsocialist farmland and forest policies translated into distinct land-use legacies in the newly established farm woodlands, which differ considerably from the composition...

  6. Structural control on the directional amplification of seismic noise (Campo Imperatore, central Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pischiutta, M.; Fondriest, M.; Demurtas, M.; Magnoni, F.; Di Toro, G.; Rovelli, A.

    2017-08-01

    Seismic signals propagating across a fault may yield information on the internal structure of the fault zone. Here we have assessed the amplification of seismic noise (i.e., ambient vibrations generated by natural or anthropogenic disturbances) across the Vado di Corno Fault (Campo Imperatore, central Italy). The fault zone is considered as an exhumed analogue of the normal faults activated during the L'Aquila 2009 earthquake sequence. Detailed structural geological survey of the footwall block revealed that the fault zone is highly anisotropic and is affected by a complex network of faults and fractures with dominant WNW-ESE strike. We measured seismic noise with portable seismometers along a ∼500 m long transect perpendicular to the average fault strike. Seismic signals were processed calculating the horizontal-to-vertical spectral ratios and performing wavefield polarization analyses. We found a predominant NE-SW to NNE-SSW (i.e., ca. perpendicular to the average strike of the fault-fracture network) amplification of the horizontal component of the seismic waves. Numerical simulations of earthquake-induced ground motions ruled out the role of topography in controlling the polarization and the amplitude of the waves. Therefore, the higher seismic noise amplitude observed in the fault-perpendicular direction was related to the measured fracture network and the resulting stiffness anisotropy of the rock mass. These observations open new perspectives in using measures of ambient seismic noise, which are fast and inexpensive, to estimate the dominant orientation of fracture networks within fault zones.

  7. Crustal Velocity Structure From Local Earthquake Data In Southeastern Sicily (italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musumeci, C.; di Grazia, G.; Gresta, S.

    The monitoring of seismic activity in Southeastern Sicily (Italy) has been recently im- proved, by a 3-C digital seismic network. This effort has produced a homogeneous and complete dataset (324 local events recorded from January 1994 till October 2000) which we used to define the space and time distribution of the recent seismicity. We inverted P- and S-wave arrival times from 51 selected earthquakes to obtain a 1D velocity model, with the simultaneous inversion for hypocenters and velocity param- eters. Then, once tested the robustness of the model, we assess the reliability of the hypocentral locations it provides and we discuss the results taking into account the actual geophysical knowledge of the area derived by previous studies. The average distribution of the 1D locations can be considered representative of the true hypocen- tral position and then, the observed trend can represent a tectonic feature. Improve- ments in location accuracy are indicated by the reduced amplitude in the residuals, the smaller estimated location errors, and the increased tendency of many locations to cluster. Further, the distribution of hypocenters confirmed the absence of seismicity in the central part of the studied area along a NE-SW direction where several tectonic structures, geologically active, are evident at the surface. On the other hand, the lo- cation accuracy permitted us to define the deeper seismogenic structures of the area down to 35 km.

  8. Characterization of plant diversity of pastures and volatile organic compound analysis in ewe’s milk from a typical farm system in the Alta Murgia national park (southern Italy: opportunities for a sustainable land use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Ciani

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been an increasing interest of consumers in traditional dairy products whose origin from defined geographical areas is guaranteed. These products are appreciated for the distinctive sensorial characteristics, derived by extensive grazing system on natural and artificial pastures and traditional cheese-making techniques. Moreover, a considerable public interest is also attributed to typical dairy products for their role in stimulating the economy of rural areas and in preserving environment and biodiversity. Here we present the results of a survey on the botanical composition of Alta Murgia pastures, together with the analysis of VOCs (volatile organic compounds in milk from ewes reared under a typical farm system in the Alta Murgia National Park (Apulia region, southern Italy. Data from two less ordinary farm systems are also reported as external reference. The botanical composition of pastures was estimated by three modified Whittaker plots placed in the prevailing habitat types. Milk samples were analyzed for VOC compounds by head-space SPME/GC-MS. Consumer acceptance of cheese, made from each milk sample using homogeneous traditional cheese-making techniques, was evaluated. The study provides interesting insights on the floral composition of Alta Murgia pastures and the first characterization of VOC profiles in ewe’s raw milk from Alta Murgia.

  9. Quaternary structural evolution of Terracina and Gaeta basins (Eastern Tyrrhenian margin, Italy)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aiello, G.; Marsella, E.; Sacchi, M. [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Naples (Italy). Ist. di Ricerca Geomare Sud

    2000-07-01

    In the Terracina and Gaeta basins (Italy) quaternary sediments are displaced by normal faults, which affect also Meso-Cenozoic tectonic units of the acoustic basement. The extensional tectonics is characterized by normal faults systems trending NE-SW and E-W. In the Terracina basin, roughly N-S oriented, half-graben structures are down thrown seaward through normal faults; the Gaeta extensional basin, E-W oriented, has two main depo centers and is bounded to the north and to the south by E-W trending normal faults and to the east by a NW-SE trending normal faults. [Italian] I bacini di Terracina e Gaeta mostrano un significativo controllo tettonico sulla sedimentazione quaternaria, causato dalla presenza di faglie normali: esse dislocano le unita' tettoniche meso-cenozoiche che rappresentano il basamento acustico. Sistemi di faglie normali ad andamento NE-SW e E-W determinano nel bacino di Terracina una struttura di tipo semi-graben orientata N-S- e ribassata verso mare da faglie dirette. Il bacino di Gaeta rappresenta un bacino estensionale ad andamento E-W, articolato in due principali depocentri e delimitato verso nord e verso sud da faglie normali ad andamento E-W e verso est da una faglia diretta ad andamento NW-SE.

  10. An Ancient Mediterranean Melting Pot: Investigating the Uniparental Genetic Structure and Population History of Sicily and Southern Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Stefania Sarno; Alessio Boattini; Marilisa Carta; Gianmarco Ferri; Milena Alù; Daniele Yang Yao; Graziella Ciani; Davide Pettener; Donata Luiselli

    2014-01-01

    Due to their strategic geographic location between three different continents, Sicily and Southern Italy have long represented a major Mediterranean crossroad where different peoples and cultures came together over time. However, its multi-layered history of migration pathways and cultural exchanges, has made the reconstruction of its genetic history and population structure extremely controversial and widely debated. To address this debate, we surveyed the genetic variability of 326 accurate...

  11. AESIS: a support tool for the evaluation of sustainability of agroecosystems. Example of applications to organic and integrated farming systems in Tuscany, Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Gaio Cesare Pacini; Giulio Lazzerini; Concetta Vazzana

    2011-01-01

    Agricultural researchers widely recognise the importance of sustainable agricultural production systems and the need to develop appropriate methods to measure sustainability on the farm level. Policy makers need accounting and evaluation tools to be able to assess the potential of sustainable production practices and to provide appropriate agro-environmental policy measures. Farmers are in search of sustainable management tools to cope with regulations and enhance efficiency. This paper pres...

  12. Community structure of β-Proteobacterial ammonia-oxidizing bacteria in prawn farm sediment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying Ma; Lin Wang; Lumin Qian

    2008-01-01

    To examine the community structure of β-Proteobacterial ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) in prawn farm sediment, the 16S rRNA gene library was constructed with β-Proteobacterial AOB-specific primers. The library was screened by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis and clones with unique RFLP patterns were sequenced. Two groups of β-Proteobacterial AOB, the Nitrosomonas and the Nitrosospira, were detected. The Nitrosomonas occupied an absolute dominant position, accounting for more than 90% of total clones in the clone library, while the Nitrosospira accounting for 5.48%. Nitrosomonas-affiliated clones were grouped into the Nitrosomonas marina and the Nitrosomonas sp. Nm 143 clusters, and Nitrosospira-affiliated clones were grouped into the Nitrosospira cluster 1. No other clusters of β-Proteobacterial AOB were found. The results enriched our knowledge of AOB diversity in the prawn farm sediment and provided important foundational data for further functional studies of these microbes in mariculture environments.

  13. Integrated Bioenergy and Food Production—A German Survey on Structure and Developments of Anaerobic Digestion in Organic Farming Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Blumenstein

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Rising global energy needs and limited fossil fuel reserves have led to increased use of renewable energies. In Germany, this has entailed massive exploitation of agricultural biomass for biogas generation, associated with unsustainable farming practices. Organic agriculture not only reduces negative environmental impacts, organic farmers were also prime movers in anaerobic digestion (AD in Germany. This study’s aim was to identify the structure, development, and characteristics of biogas production associated with organic farming systems in order to estimate further development, as well as energetic and associated agronomic potentials. Surveys were conducted among organic farms with AD technology. 144 biogas plants could be included in the analysis. Total installed electrical capacity was 30.8 MWel, accounting for only 0.8% of the total installed electrical capacity in the German biogas sector. Recently, larger plant types (>250 kWel with increased use of (also purchased energy crops have emerged. Farmers noticed increases in yields (22% on average and quality of cash crops in arable farming through integrated biogas production. In conclusion, although the share of AD in organic farming is relatively small it can provide various complementary socio-ecological benefits such as the enhancement of food output through digestate fertilization without additional need for land, while simultaneously reducing greenhouse gas emissions from livestock manures and soils. However, to achieve this eco-functional intensification, AD systems and their management have to be well adapted to farm size and production focus and based primarily on residue biomass.

  14. Structure and genetic content of the megaplasmids of neurotoxigenic clostridium butyricum type E strains from Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacobino, Angelo; Scalfaro, Concetta; Franciosa, Giovanna

    2013-01-01

    We determined the genetic maps of the megaplasmids of six neutoroxigenic Clostridium butyricum type E strains from Italy using molecular and bioinformatics techniques. The megaplasmids are circular, not linear as we had previously proposed. The differently-sized megaplasmids share a genetic region that includes structural, metabolic and regulatory genes. In addition, we found that a 168 kb genetic region is present only in the larger megaplasmids of two tested strains, whereas it is absent from the smaller megaplasmids of the four remaining strains. The genetic region unique to the larger megaplasmids contains, among other features, a locus for clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) and CRISPR associated (cas) genes, i.e. a bacterial adaptive immune system providing sequence-specific protection from invading genetic elements. Some CRISPR spacer sequences of the neurotoxigenic C. butyricum type E strains showed homology to prophage, phage and plasmid sequences from closely related clostridia species or from distant species, all sharing the intestinal habitat, suggesting that the CRISPR locus might be involved in the microorganism adaptation to the human or animal intestinal environment. Besides, we report here that each of four distinct CRISPR spacers partially matched DNA sequences of different prophages and phages, at identical nucleotide locations. This suggests that, at least in neurotoxigenic C. butyricum type E, the CRISPR locus is potentially able to recognize the same conserved DNA sequence of different invading genetic elements, besides targeting sequences unique to previously encountered invading DNA, as currently predicted for a CRISPR locus. Thus, the results of this study introduce the possibility that CRISPR loci can provide resistance to a wider range of invading DNA elements than previously appreciated. Whether it is more advantageous for the peculiar neurotoxigenic C. butyricum type E strains to maintain or to lose the

  15. Structure and genetic content of the megaplasmids of neurotoxigenic clostridium butyricum type E strains from Italy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Iacobino

    Full Text Available We determined the genetic maps of the megaplasmids of six neutoroxigenic Clostridium butyricum type E strains from Italy using molecular and bioinformatics techniques. The megaplasmids are circular, not linear as we had previously proposed. The differently-sized megaplasmids share a genetic region that includes structural, metabolic and regulatory genes. In addition, we found that a 168 kb genetic region is present only in the larger megaplasmids of two tested strains, whereas it is absent from the smaller megaplasmids of the four remaining strains. The genetic region unique to the larger megaplasmids contains, among other features, a locus for clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR and CRISPR associated (cas genes, i.e. a bacterial adaptive immune system providing sequence-specific protection from invading genetic elements. Some CRISPR spacer sequences of the neurotoxigenic C. butyricum type E strains showed homology to prophage, phage and plasmid sequences from closely related clostridia species or from distant species, all sharing the intestinal habitat, suggesting that the CRISPR locus might be involved in the microorganism adaptation to the human or animal intestinal environment. Besides, we report here that each of four distinct CRISPR spacers partially matched DNA sequences of different prophages and phages, at identical nucleotide locations. This suggests that, at least in neurotoxigenic C. butyricum type E, the CRISPR locus is potentially able to recognize the same conserved DNA sequence of different invading genetic elements, besides targeting sequences unique to previously encountered invading DNA, as currently predicted for a CRISPR locus. Thus, the results of this study introduce the possibility that CRISPR loci can provide resistance to a wider range of invading DNA elements than previously appreciated. Whether it is more advantageous for the peculiar neurotoxigenic C. butyricum type E strains to maintain

  16. The shallow seismic structure of the Larderello geothermal field (Italy) as seen from Receiver Function analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piana Agostinetti, Nicola; Licciardi, Andrea; Piccinini, Davide; Mazzarini, Francesco; Musumeci, Giovanni; Saccorotti, Gilberto

    2017-04-01

    The Larderello field (Tuscany, Italy) is the oldest example in the world of geothermal energy exploitation for industrial purposes. Despite its century long history of exploration and exploitation, the deep structure (4-8km depth) of the Larderello field is still poorly known, due to (a) the lack of resolution of the applied exploration techniques and (b) the lack of interest in the investigation of deep geothermal reservoirs, given the abundant amount of energy extracted from the shallow reservoirs. Recently, the increasing demand of green-energy promoted a renewed interest in the geothermal industrial sector, which translated into new exploration efforts, especially to obtain a detailed characterization of deep geothermal sources. We investigate the seismic structure of the Larderello geothermal field using Receiver Function (RF) analysis. Crustal seismic structures are routinely investigated using the RF methodology, where teleseismic P-wave are analysed to extract P-to-S converted phases that can be related to the propagation of the P-wave across a seismic discontinuity. We compute RF from 26 seismic stations, belonging to both temporary and permanent networks: the GAPSS and RETREAT experiments and the Italian Seismic Network. The RF data-set is migrated at depth and decomposed into azimuthal harmonics. Computing the first, k=0, and the second, k=1, harmonics allows to separate the "isotropic" contribution, due to the change of the isotropic properties of the sampled materials (recorded on the k=0 harmonics), from the "anisotropic" contribution, where the energy is related to the propagation of the P-wave through anisotropic materials (recorded on the k=1 harmonics). Preliminary results allow us: (1) to infer the position of the main S-wave velocity discontinuities in the study area, mainly a shallow Tyrrhenian Moho and a very-low S-wave velocity body in the center of the Larderello dome, at about 5-15km depth; and (2) to map the presence of anisotropic

  17. Prevalence and characterization of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus carrying mecA or mecC and methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus in dairy sheep farms in central Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacinti, G; Carfora, V; Caprioli, A; Sagrafoli, D; Marri, N; Giangolini, G; Amoruso, R; Iurescia, M; Stravino, F; Dottarelli, S; Feltrin, F; Franco, A; Amatiste, S; Battisti, A

    2017-10-01

    Between January and May 2012, a total of 286 bulk tank milk samples from dairy sheep farms located in central Italy were tested for the presence of Staphylococcus aureus. One hundred fifty-three samples were positive for S. aureus (53.5%), with an average count of 2.53 log cfu/mL. A total of 679 S. aureus colonies were screened for methicillin resistance by the cefoxitin disk diffusion test, and 104 selected cefoxitin-susceptible isolates were also tested for their susceptibility to other antimicrobials representative of the most relevant classes active against Staphylococcus spp. by using the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. Two methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates, carrying respectively the mecA and the mecC genes, were detected in 2 samples from 2 different farms (prevalence 0.7%). The mecA-positive MRSA isolate was blaZ positive, belonged to spa type t127, sequence type (ST)1, clonal complex (CC)1, carried a staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) type IVa, and was phenotypically resistant to all the β-lactams tested and to erythromycin, streptomycin, kanamycin, and tetracycline. The mecC-positive MRSA isolate was negative for the chromosomally or plasmid-associated blaZ gene but positive for the blaZ allotype associated with SCCmec XI (blaZ-SCCmecXI), belonged to spa type 843, ST(CC)130, carried a SCCmec type XI, and was resistant only to β-lactams. Both MRSA were negative for the presence of specific immune-evasion and virulence genes such as those coding for the Panton-Valentine leucocidin, the toxic shock syndrome toxin 1, and the immune evasion cluster genes. Regarding the presence of the major S. aureus enterotoxin genes, the mecC-positive MRSA tested negative, whereas the ST (CC)1 mecA-positive MRSA harbored the seh gene. Among the 104 methicillin-susceptible S. aureus isolates examined for antimicrobial susceptibility, 63 (60.58%) were susceptible to all the antimicrobials tested, and 41 (39.42%) were resistant to at

  18. Direct Marketing and the Structure of Farm Sales: An Unconditional Quantile Regression Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Timothy A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of participation in direct marketing on the entire distribution of farm sales using the unconditional quantile regression (UQR) estimator. Our analysis yields unbiased estimates of the unconditional impact of direct marketing on farm sales and reveals the heterogeneous effects that occur across the distribution of farm sales. The impacts of direct marketing efforts are uniformly negative across the UQR results, but declines in sales tend to grow smaller as sales...

  19. Direct Marketing and the Structure of Farm Sales: An Unconditional Quantile Regression Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Timothy A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of participation in direct marketing on the entire distribution of farm sales using the unconditional quantile regression (UQR) estimator. Our analysis yields unbiased estimates of the unconditional impact of direct marketing on farm sales and reveals the heterogeneous effects that occur across the distribution of farm sales. The impacts of direct marketing efforts are uniformly negative across the UQR results, but declines in sales tend to grow smaller as sales...

  20. Structural Support, Networking and Individual Survival: Career Changes in Italy and Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barabasch, Antje; Merrill, Barbara; Zanazzi, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    Southern European countries, like Italy and Spain, have been severely affected by the recent economic crisis. This has affected their labour market in terms of increased unemployment, while many of those in employment feel more insecure. As a consequence, many individuals turn to education as a step to making a career change. The opportunities and…

  1. Nitrogen cycling and community structure of proteobacterial ß-subgroup ammonia-oxidizing bacteria within polluted marine fish farm sediments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McCaig, A.E.; Phillips, C.B.; Stephen, J.R.; Kowalchuk, G.A.; Harvey, S.M.; Herbert, R.A.; Embley, T.M.; Prosser, J.I.

    1999-01-01

    A multidisciplinary approach was used to study the effects of pollution from a marine fish farm on nitrification rates and on the community structure of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria in the underlying sediment. Organic content, ammonium concentrations, nitrification rates, and ammonia oxidizer most-pro

  2. Structural and morphological characterization of active intermontane basins: a case of the Gubbio captured basin (Umbria Pre-Apennines, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavitolo, Paolo; Menichetti, Marco; Nesci, Olivia; Savelli, Daniele; Troiani, Francesco

    2014-05-01

    Intermontane basins characterize many orogenic chains, where they are originated either by crustal stretching or gravitational collapse of the axial zones of the chain. Extensional and/or transtensional mechanisms generate structures with geometries controlled by fault-bounded depressed areas, which in some cases are seismogenetic. The western sector of the Northern Apennines in Central Italy is characterized by several intermontane basins filled by continental Plio-Pleistocene sediments. At present, a few of these basins are depressed endorheic areas, whereas most of them have been captured by river upstream erosion. The morphotectonic characterization at both regional and local scale of these structures is crucial considering the associated geological hazards due to clustered seismicity and seismic-related slope-instability along the basin-margins. This work presents a multi-disciplinary approach based on new and existing data to define the structural geometries, landforms and processes related to the genesis and the morphoevolution of the intermountain valleys/captured-basins in Central Italy. Quantitative geomorphological analyses from Digital Terrain Models (DTMs) are compared with geological and structural data and with geophysical investigations of active and sismogenetic faults bordering the Gubbio valley in the Umbria Pre-Apennines in central Italy. This 4 km-wide valley extends for ca. 20 km in NW-SE direction and is bounded along the NE margin by a SW-dipping listric normal fault with an offset of 1500 m. The area locates along one of the main seismogenic portion of the Apennine chain and recorded historical (i.e., April 29, 1984: Ms 5.3) and many instrumental earthquakes. In this study, new data on the slope-instability along the basin-margins and the influence of active tectonics and gravitational phenomena on the streams incision and aggradation are also provided.

  3. Management system for investigation academic development of An Vivarium and structural farm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Díaz Barzola

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The University Hospital is an academic structural complex science that allows comprehensive health care at the highest level to all human beings that require it. The main objectives enclosing this institution, is the comprehensive health care applied to research, and therefore to the integral formation of future professionals in the health of our country. The Faculty of Health Sciences at the Technical University of Babahoyo leaves aside the social problems, among which is health, which is why achieving the appropriate level of health is a success, the proposals would be more dormant than never. It is appropriate to review and disseminate these are: The creation of a management system INVESTIGATIVE DEVELOPMENT OF AN ACADEMIC AND STRUCTURAL FINCA Vivarium, which for the institutions and instances where Health Professionals are formed, one alternative is to conduct practices and investigations that are sustainable in structural and biological elements farms without affecting or altering the environment, the ecosystem. There are experiences in academic training in health units as Argentina, Brazil, Cuba, Spain, among other countries.

  4. Modeling the structure and operation of drug supply chains: The case of cocaine and heroin in Italy and Slovenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caulkins, Jonathan P; Disley, Emma; Tzvetkova, Marina; Pardal, Mafalda; Shah, Hemali; Zhang, Xiaoke

    2016-05-01

    Multiple layers of dealers connect international drug traffickers to users. The fundamental activity of these dealers is buying from higher-level dealers and re-selling in smaller quantities at the next lower market level. Each instance of this can be viewed as completing a drug dealing "cycle". This paper introduces an approach for combining isolated accounts of such cycles into a coherent model of the structure, span, and profitability of the various layers of the domestic supply chain for illegal drugs. The approach is illustrated by synthesizing data from interviews with 116 incarcerated dealers to elucidate the structure and operation of distribution networks for cocaine and heroin in Italy and Slovenia. Inmates' descriptions of cycles in the Italian cocaine market suggest fairly orderly networks, with reasonably well-defined market levels. The Italian heroin market appears to have more "level-jumpers" who skip a market level by making a larger number of sales per cycle, with each sale being of a considerably smaller weight. Slovenian data are sparser, but broadly consistent. Incorporating prices allows calculation of how much of the revenue from retail sales is retained by dealers at each market level. In the Italian cocaine market, both retail sellers and the international supply chain outside of Italy each appear to receive about 30-40% of what users spend, with the remaining 30% going to higher-level dealers operating in Italy (roughly 10% to those at the multi-kilo level and 20% to lower level wholesale dealers). Factoring in cycle frequencies permits rough estimation of the number of organizations at each market level per billion euros in retail sales, and of annual net revenues for organizations at each level. These analyses provide an approach to gaining insight into the structure and operation of the supply chain for illegal drugs. They also illustrate the value of two new graphical tools for describing illicit drug supply chains and hint at possible

  5. Temporal structure of aggregate power fluctuations in large-eddy simulations of extended wind-farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stevens, Richard Johannes Antonius Maria; Meneveau, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Fluctuations represent a major challenge for the incorporation of electric power from large wind-farms into power grids. Wind-farm power output fluctuates strongly in time, over various time scales. Understanding these fluctuations, especially their spatio-temporal characteristics, is particularly

  6. Temporal structure of aggregate power fluctuations in large-eddy simulations of extended wind-farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stevens, Richard J.A.M.; Meneveau, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Fluctuations represent a major challenge for the incorporation of electric power from large wind-farms into power grids. Wind-farm power output fluctuates strongly in time, over various time scales. Understanding these fluctuations, especially their spatio-temporal characteristics, is particularly i

  7. Assessing the impact of changes in the electricity price structure on dairy farm energy costs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Upton, J.R.; Murphy, M.; Shalloo, L.; Groot Koerkamp, P.W.G.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to provide information on the changes in electricity consumption and costs on dairy farms, through the simulation of various electricity tariffs that may exist in the future and how these tariffs interact with changes in farm management (i.e. shifting the milking operation to an earl

  8. Farm profitability and structural challenges - geographical patterns in the Danish agricultural economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård; Kristensen, Inge Toft

    2013-01-01

    . Using a least-squares approach, the method estimates economic figures for each farm in the population conditional on farm size, land allocation and number of different types of livestock. The method is used for describing the spatial patterns in economic returns to agriculture, using Denmark...

  9. Early impact of alternative thinning approaches on structure diversity and complexity at stand level in two beech forests in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Becagli

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Stand structure, tree density as well as tree spatial pattern define natural dynamics and competition process. They are therefore parameters used to define any silvicultural management type. This work aims to report first data resulting from a silvicultural experiment in beech forests. The objective of the trial is testing the structure manipulation in terms of diversity and the reduction of inter-tree competition of different thinning approaches. Alternative thinning methods have been applied in two independent experimental sites located in the pre-Alps and Southern Apennines, in Italy. Specific goals were to: (i verify the impact early after thinning implementation on forest structure through a set of diversity and competition metrics resulting from a literature review; (ii the sensitivity of tested indexes to effectively detect thinning manipulation. Main result show the low sensitivity of stand structure indexes and the ability of competition metrics to detect thinning outcome.

  10. Crustal structure, seismicity and seismotectonics of the Trentino region (Southern Alps, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viganò, Alfio; Scafidi, Davide; Martin, Silvana; Spallarossa, Daniele; Froner, Luca; Groaz, Oscar

    2013-04-01

    The Trentino region is located at the junction between the central and eastern Southern Alps (Italy), at the intersection between the Giudicarie, Schio-Vicenza and Valsugana fault systems. This area is characterized by relevant lithological and structural lateral heterogeneities, both at the crustal and lithospheric scales. A low-to-moderate seismicity is located in the upper crust, where faults are seismically active under a dominant compressive with variable strike-slip component regime. Here we study the crustal structure of this portion of the Southern Alps (Adria plate) from interpretation of local earthquake tomography images, in relation with distribution of relocated seismicity and regional tectonic patterns. Local earthquake tomography derives from a set of 476 selected earthquakes in the period 1994-2007, with local magnitudes comprised between 0.8 and 5.3. Hypocenter distribution, and number and quality of manually-repicked phases (6322 P and 5483 S) ensure optimal seismic ray coverage. Original recordings are principally from the Provincia Autonoma di Trento (PAT), that manages the Trentino seismic network since 1981, and from other networks (Istituto Nazionale di Oceanografia e di Geofisica Sperimentale - INOGS; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia - INGV; others available via the European Integrated Data Archive). The code HYPOELLIPSE is used to perform initial earthquake relocations. The code VELEST is then used to calculate a new minimum 1-D velocity model, as input for tomography. The 3-D tomographic inversion (V P and V P-V S ratio) is obtained via the code SIMULPS, with the implementation of an accurate shooting ray-tracer. The crustal volume is discretized in order to have a regular grid with a homogenous horizontal spatial resolution of 7.5 km. The resolution in depth varies according to the obtained minimum 1-D velocity model. Reliability and accuracy of results are estimated by analyzing the Resolution Diagonal Elements of the

  11. Avian influenza transmission risks: analysis of biosecurity measures and contact structure in Dutch poultry farming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ssematimba, A; Hagenaars, T J; de Wit, J J; Ruiterkamp, F; Fabri, T H; Stegeman, J A; de Jong, M C M

    2013-04-01

    In the 2003 epidemic of highly pathogenic avian influenza in Dutch poultry, between-farm virus transmission continued for considerable time despite control measures. Gaining more insight into the mechanisms of this spread is necessary for the possible development of better control strategies. We carried out an in-depth interview study aiming to systematically explore all the poultry production activities to identify the activities that could potentially be related to virus introduction and transmission. One of the between-farm contact risks that were identified is the movement of birds between farms during thinning with violations of on-farm biosecurity protocols. In addition, several other risky management practices, risky visitor behaviours and biosecurity breaches were identified. They include human and fomite contacts that occurred without observing biosecurity protocols, poor waste management practices, presence of other animal species on poultry farms, and poor biosecurity against risks from farm neighbourhood activities. Among the detailed practices identified, taking cell phones and jewellery into poultry houses, not observing shower-in protocols and the exchange of unclean farm equipment were common. Also, sometimes certain protocols or biosecurity facilities were lacking. We also asked the interviewed farmers about their perception of transmission risks and found that they had divergent opinions about the visitor- and neighbourhood-associated risks. We performed a qualitative assessment of contact risks (as transmission pathways) based on contact type, corresponding biosecurity practices, and contact frequency. This assessment suggests that the most risky contact types are bird movements during thinning and restocking, most human movements accessing poultry houses and proximity to other poultry farms. The overall risk posed by persons and equipment accessing storage rooms and the premises-only contacts was considered to be medium. Most of the exposure

  12. Shear Wave Structure of Umbria and Marche, Italy, Strong Motion Seismometer Sites Affected by the 1997-98 Umbria-Marche, Italy, Earthquake Sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayen, Robert; Scasserra, Giuseppe; Stewart, Jonathan P.; Lanzo, Giuseppe

    2008-01-01

    A long sequence of earthquakes, eight with magnitudes between 5 and 6, struck the Umbria and Marche regions of central Italy between September 26, 1997 and July 1998. The earthquake swarm caused severe structural damage, particularly to masonry buildings, and resulted in the loss of twelve lives and about 150 injuries. The source of the events was a single seismogenic structure that consists of several faults with a prevailing northwest-southeast strike and crosses the Umbria-Marche border. The focal mechanism of the largest shocks indicates that the events were the product of shallow extensional normal faulting along a NE-SW extension perpendicular to the trend of the Apennines. The network of analog seismometer stations in the Umbria and Marche regions recorded motions of the main September and October 1997 events and a dense array of mobile digital stations, installed since September 29, recorded most of the swarm. The permanent national network Rete Accelerometrica Nazionale (RAN) is administered and maintained by Dipartimento delle Protezione Civile (DPC: Civil Protection Department); the temporary array was managed by Servizio Sismico Nazionale (SSN) in cooperation with small agencies and Universities. ENEA, the operator of many seismometer stations in Umbria, is the public Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and the Environment. Many of the temporary and permanent stations in the Italian seismic network have little or no characterization of seismic velocities. In this study, we investigated 17 Italian sites using an active-source approach that employs low frequency harmonic waves to measure the dispersive nature of surface waves in the ground. We used the Spectral Analysis of Surface Wave (SASW) approach, coupled with an array of harmonic-wave electro-mechanical sources that are driven in-phase to excite the ground. An inversion algorithm using a non-linear least-squares best-fit method is used to compute shear wave velocities for up to 100

  13. Methanogen community structure in the rumens of farmed sheep, cattle and red deer fed different diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeyanathan, Jeyamalar; Kirs, Marek; Ronimus, Ron S; Hoskin, Simone O; Janssen, Peter H

    2011-05-01

    Development of inhibitors and vaccines that mitigate rumen-derived methane by targeting methanogens relies on knowledge of the methanogens present. We investigated the composition of archaeal communities in the rumens of farmed sheep (Ovis aries), cattle (Bos taurus) and red deer (Cervus elaphus) using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) to generate fingerprints of archaeal 16S rRNA genes. The total archaeal communities were relatively constant across species and diets, and were less variable and less diverse than bacterial communities. There were diet- and ruminant-species-based differences in archaeal community structure, but the same dominant archaea were present in all rumens. These were members of three coherent clades: species related to Methanobrevibacter ruminantium and Methanobrevibacter olleyae; species related to Methanobrevibacter gottschalkii, Methanobrevibacter thaueri and Methanobrevibacter millerae; and species of the genus Methanosphaera. Members of an archaeal group of unknown physiology, designated rumen cluster C (RCC), were also present. RCC-specific DGGE, clone library analysis and quantitative real-time PCR showed that their 16S rRNA gene sequences were very diverse and made up an average of 26.5% of the total archaea. RCC sequences were not readily detected in the DGGE patterns of total archaeal 16S rRNA genes because no single sequence type was abundant enough to form dominant bands.

  14. Design and Performance of EPS Footing for Lightweight Farm Structure on Peat Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Abdullah

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research project was to find a potential replacement for the conventional pile foundation principally for peat soil. It is fundamentally meant for lightweight and impermanent agricultural farm structures. Preceding the design and development of the foundation the physical characteristics of the in-situ peat such as; peat depth, soil consolidation, soil compressibility, water table, liquid limit, soil moisture content, soil bulk density, loss on ignition, soil bearing capacity and soil shear strength were verified. Two types of foundation designs i.e. single shell and pad foundations were assessed. Both utilized Expanded Polystyrene (EPS as the footing material. They were conceptually designed as floating foundation employing the weight compensation technique. The soil bearing capacity, soil shear strength, self-load and the lateral wind-load are factors taken into consideration in the footing design. The total design load was considered at 100 kg per foundation. The water table fluctuation, soil surface subsidence, the foundation vertical movement and its stability were constantly monitored. After a scheduled period, the foundations continue to stay intact.

  15. Temporal structure of aggregate power fluctuations in large-eddy simulations of extended wind-farms

    CERN Document Server

    Stevens, Richard J A M

    2014-01-01

    Fluctuations represent a major challenge for the incorporation of electric power from large wind-farms into power grids. Wind farm power output fluctuates strongly in time, over various time scales. Understanding these fluctuations, especially their spatio-temporal characteristics, is particularly important for the design of backup power systems that must be readily available in conjunction with wind-farms. In this work we analyze the power fluctuations associated with the wind-input variability at scales between minutes to several hours, using large eddy simulations (LES) of extended wind-parks, interacting with the atmospheric boundary layer. LES studies enable careful control of parameters and availability of wind-velocities simultaneously across the entire wind-farm. The present study focuses on neutral atmospheric conditions and flat terrain, using actuator-disk representations of the individual wind-turbines. We consider power from various aggregates of wind-turbines such as the total average power sign...

  16. INFLUENCE FISH FARMING IN TANKS ON STRUCTURAL AND FUNCTIONAL CHARACTERISTICS AND ACCUMULATION OF SEDIMENTS IN THE BASIN-COOLER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Starkо

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Establishing change the basic structural and functional characteristics of the sediments under the influence of waste going fish farming in tanks. Methodology. Bottom sediment samples were collected using a 1 m of dirt tube (SOI-1, according to the standard requirements. Water-physical properties of sediments were investigated in accordance the recommendations of B. Novikov (1985 and A. Denisova et al. (1987. Determination of the gross content of organic matter carried by loss after calcining. Oxygen consumption in sediments was studied by the method V. І. Romanenko and V. A. Romanenko (1969. Determination of the amount of sediments, which are formed from waste fish farming, carried out in two different ways: by calculating the income from tanks suspended solids and by direct determination of the sediment under the tanks. Findings. Was established that intensive fish farming waste flow predetermines a significant (up to 4 increase the organic matter content. Thus, even 2 years after the reduction of volumes of fish farming tanks and even remove volumetric mass of the skeleton to the initial values of deposits are not refundable. The concentration of organic substances in the zone of the tanks lines causes increased intake of dissolved oxygen, which leads to deterioration in gas mode, especially in the bottom layers of water and may cause suffocation situations. According to our research, the role of tanks lines in shaping total volume of sediment rather low (up to 2%, but their effect on the structural characteristics of sediments allows to evaluate the role of this activity in the overall balance of production-destruction processes as significant. Originality. Was first quantified the role of fish farming in tanks on the quantitative and qualitative characteristics of sediments cooling ponds Zmievsk TPР and Kursk NPP. Practical value. The results will be used in the development of water conservation measures in the integrated use of

  17. A STRUCTURAL INTEGRITY EVALUATION OF THE TANK FARM WASTE TRANSFER SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiersma, B.

    2006-03-09

    Radioactive supernate, salt, and/or sludge wastes (i.e., high level wastes) are confined in 49 underground storage tanks at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The waste is transported between tanks within and between the F and H area tank farms and other facilities on site via underground and a limited number of aboveground transfer lines. The Department of Energy - Savannah River Operations Office (DOE-SR) performed a comprehensive assessment of the structural integrity program for the Tank Farm waste transfer system at the SRS. This document addresses the following issues raised during the DOE assessment: (1) Inspections of failed or replaced transfer lines indicated that the wall thickness of some core and jacket piping is less than nominal; (2) No corrosion allowance is utilized in the transfer line structural qualification calculations. No basis for neglecting corrosion was provided in the calculations; (3) Wall loss due to erosion is not addressed in the transfer line structural qualification calculations; and (4) No basis is provided for neglecting intergranular stress corrosion cracking in the transfer line structural qualification calculations. The common theme in most of these issues is the need to assess the potential for occurrence of material degradation of the transfer line piping. The approach used to resolve these issues involved: (1) Review the design and specifications utilized to construct and fabricate the piping system; (2) Review degradation mechanisms for stainless steel and carbon steel and determine their relevance to the transfer line piping; (3) Review the transfer piping inspection data; (4) Life estimation calculations for the transfer lines; and (5) A Fitness-For-Service evaluation for one of the transfer line jackets. The evaluation concluded that the transfer line system piping has performed well for over fifty years. Although there have been instances of failures of the stainless steel core pipe during off-normal service, no significant

  18. Buffalo farms: same product, different strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Turri

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our paper is to investigate relationships between socio-demographic variables and access to rural development policy to sustain buffalo farm activity. An empirical analysis is applied, concerning buffalo farms of region Lazio, in Italy. Results confirms the hypothesis of strict interaction between access to policy and the explicative variables.

  19. INFLUENCE FISH FARMING IN TANKS ON STRUCTURAL AND FUNCTIONAL CHARACTERISTICS AND ACCUMULATION OF SEDIMENTS IN THE BASIN-COOLER

    OpenAIRE

    N. Starkо

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. Establishing change the basic structural and functional characteristics of the sediments under the influence of waste going fish farming in tanks. Methodology. Bottom sediment samples were collected using a 1 m of dirt tube (SOI-1), according to the standard requirements. Water-physical properties of sediments were investigated in accordance the recommendations of B. Novikov (1985) and A. Denisova et al. (1987). Determination of the gross content of organic matter carried by loss...

  20. Central Italy magnetotelluric investigation. Structures and relations to seismic events: analysis of initial data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Marianiuk

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available A scientific collaboration between the Warsaw Academy of Science, (Poland and the National Institute of Geophysics (Italy, gave rise to the installation of few stations for the long term measurement of magnetotelluric fields in central Italy. The selection of investigation sites was determined by the individual seismic interest of each location. The project began in the summer of 1991, with the installation of 2 magnetotelluric stations in the province of Isernia, (Collemeluccio and Montedimezzo. In 1992, 2 more stations became operative, one in the province of Rieti, (Fassinoro, the other in the province of L'Aquila, (S. Vittoria. For the purpose of this project, the magnetic observatory in L'Aquila was also equipped with electric lines, for the measurement of the telluric field. The aim of the analysis here presented, is to show that is possible to follow the temporal evolution of magnetotelluric characteristic parameters. At Collemeluccio this evolution was compared with the seismic released energy for events recorded within the study area.

  1. Response of soil microbial biomass and community structures to conventional and organic farming systems under identical crop rotations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esperschütz, Jürgen; Gattinger, Andreas; Mäder, Paul; Schloter, Michael; Fliessbach, Andreas

    2007-07-01

    In this study the influence of different farming systems on microbial community structure was analyzed using soil samples from the DOK long-term field experiment in Switzerland, which comprises organic (BIODYN and BIOORG) and conventional (CONFYM and CONMIN) farming systems as well as an unfertilized control (NOFERT). We examined microbial communities in winter wheat plots at two different points in the crop rotation (after potatoes and after maize). Employing extended polar lipid analysis up to 244 different phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA) and phospholipid ether lipids (PLEL) were detected. Higher concentrations of PLFA and PLEL in BIODYN and BIOORG indicated a significant influence of organic agriculture on microbial biomass. Farmyard manure (FYM) application consistently revealed the strongest, and the preceding crop the weakest, influence on domain-specific biomass, diversity indices and microbial community structures. Esterlinked PLFA from slowly growing bacteria (k-strategists) showed the strongest responses to long-term organic fertilization. Although the highest fungal biomass was found in the two organic systems of the DOK field trial, their contribution to the differentiation of community structures according to the management regime was relatively low. Prokaryotic communities responded most strongly to either conventional or organic farming management.

  2. Structural and hydrogeological features of Pleistocene shear zones in the area of Rome (Central Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Faccenna

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available The last tectonic episode observed in the Latium Tyrrhenian margin (Central Italy, few km cast of Rome, is represented by a set of middIe-upper Pleistocene N-S shear zones, characterised by complex geometric and kinematic setting. The easternmost of these shear zones displays a strike-slip component of motion and is located at the boundary between the Apennine carbonate chain and the volcanic areas. The distribution of travertine deposits and hydrothermal springs suggests that this fault zone acts as an impermeable barrier for lateral flow derived from superficial karstic circuit, and as a preferential upwelling surface for deep hydrothermal fluids. We propose that high fluid pressure could develop inside these fault zones favouring the reactivation of buried pre-existing crustal discontinuities and the local re-orientation of the stress field, as testified by the geometry and the kinematics of the surface fault pattern.

  3. Structures and dynamics of transnational cooperation networks: evidence based on Local Action Groups in the Veneto Region, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Pisani

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper assesses the structures and dynamics of transnational cooperation projects promoted by Local Action Groups (LAGs in different periods (from LEADER II to LEADER Axis using Social Network Analysis (SNA in a specific case study: the Veneto Region in Italy. The classical indexes of SNA have been critically examined, and the paper also presents innovative indexes that can capture the peculiarity of transnational cooperation: disaggregated densities of the network and transnational centrality of the node. These indexes are useful in order to quantify how transnational a network actually is, and to measure the power-information that each actor (LAG can acquire through its transnational contacts. The methodology can become a tool for Managing Authorities to implement new forms of evaluation of transnational cooperation of LAGs.

  4. The Structural Disempowerment of Eastern European Migrant Farm Workers in Norwegian Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rye, Johan Fredrik; Andrzejewska, Joanna

    2010-01-01

    Since the 2004 EU enlargement established one European common labour market, a large number of Eastern Europeans have taken up seasonal employment as hired farm workers in Norwegian agriculture. Much attention in the public has been given to the potential for "social dumping" of these migrating workers, as they are considered prone to…

  5. Scenarios of long-term farm structural change for application in climate change impact assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mandryk, M.; Reidsma, P.; Ittersum, van M.K.

    2012-01-01

    Towards 2050, climate change is one of the possible drivers that will change the farming landscape, but market, policy and technological development may be at least equally important. In the last decade, many studies assessed impacts of climate change and specific adaptation strategies. However, ada

  6. Avian influenza trasnmission risks: analysis of biosecuritiy measures and contact structure in Dutch poultry farming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ssematimba, A.; Hagenaars, T.H.J.; Wit, de J.J.; Ruiterkamp, F.; Fabri, T.H.F.; Stegeman, J.A.; Jong, de M.C.M.

    2013-01-01

    In the 2003 epidemic of highly pathogenic avian influenza in Dutch poultry, between-farm virus transmission continued for considerable time despite control measures. Gaining more insight into the mechanisms of this spread is necessary for the possible development of better control strategies. We car

  7. 'End to end' planktonic trophic web and its implications for the mussel farms in the Mar Piccolo of Taranto (Ionian Sea, Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karuza, Ana; Caroppo, Carmela; Monti, Marina; Camatti, Elisa; Di Poi, Elena; Stabili, Loredana; Auriemma, Rocco; Pansera, Marco; Cibic, Tamara; Del Negro, Paola

    2016-07-01

    The Mar Piccolo is a semi-enclosed basin subject to different natural and anthropogenic stressors. In order to better understand plankton dynamics and preferential carbon pathways within the planktonic trophic web, an integrated approach was adopted for the first time by examining all trophic levels (virioplankton, the heterotrophic and phototrophic fractions of pico-, nano- and microplankton, as well as mesozooplankton). Plankton abundance and biomass were investigated during four surveys in the period 2013-2014. Beside unveiling the dynamics of different plankton groups in the Mar Piccolo, the study revealed that high portion of the plankton carbon (C) pool was constituted by small-sized (Mar Piccolo exerts a profound impact on plankton communities, not only due to the important sequestration of the plankton biomass but also by strongly influencing its structure.

  8. Offshore Wind Farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundtang Petersen, Erik; Hasager, Charlotte Bay; Courtney, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The technology behind constructing wind farms offshore began to develop in 1991 when the Vindeby wind farm was installed off the Danish coast (11 Bonus 450 kW turbines). Resource assessment, grid connection, and wind farm operation are significant challenges for offshore wind power just...... as it is for the more traditional onshore wind power, which has been under development since the 1970s. However, offshore projects face extra technical challenges some of which requires in-depth scientific investigations. This article deals with some of the most outstanding challenges concerning the turbine structure...... concern are the problems associated with locating the turbines close together in a wind farm and the problems of placing several large wind farms in a confined area. The environmental impacts of offshore wind farms are also treated, but not the supply chain, that is, the harbors, the installation vessels...

  9. The Bologna Process in Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballarino, Gabriele; Perotti, Loris

    2012-01-01

    Italy was among the promoters of the Bologna Process and the early adopters of the reform. If one looks at its impact on the formal structure of curricula and study programmes, the reform undertaken under the Bologna banner seems to have been one of the major educational reforms ever achieved in Italy. This article describes how the Bologna…

  10. The uppermost crust structure of Ischia (southern Italy) from ambient noise Rayleigh waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strollo, R.; Nunziata, C.; Iannotta, A.; Iannotta, D.

    2015-05-01

    Ambient noise measurements were performed at the island of Ischia (southern Italy) along alignments of 2.4-7 km by using two three-component seismic stations. Synchronous noise recordings of 2-20 h were cross-correlated over 20-30 s windows, stacked and iteratively band-pass filtered to enhance the dispersive wave trains. Frequency time analysis was performed on the vertical and radial components of cross-correlations and the fundamental-mode Rayleigh wave group velocity was obtained. Validation of the dispersion data was possible with those obtained from an earthquake recording along a close path. The non-linear inversion of average Rayleigh wave group velocity dispersion curves along 13 paths (receiver inter-distances) allowed the definition of shear wave velocity models in the uppermost 1-2 km of the crust. The correlation of VS profiles vs. depth and drilling stratigraphy allowed to attribute VS lower than 1 km/s to tuffs and VS of 1.41 km/s to very fractured lavas. Higher VS are found in the central area of the island, in correspondence of the resurgent area. The top of the trachytic lava basement, with VS of 2.2-2.4 km/s and density of 2.3 g/cm3 is about 0.6-0.7 km deep b.s.l. in the centre of Ischia, below altered, very fractured lava or thermally altered tuff.

  11. Segmentation pattern and structural complexities in seismogenic extensional settings: The North Matese Fault System (Central Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrarini, Federica; Boncio, Paolo; de Nardis, Rita; Pappone, Gerardo; Cesarano, Massimo; Aucelli, Pietro P. C.; Lavecchia, Giusy

    2017-02-01

    We investigated the northern slope of the Matese Mts. (Molise, Central Italy) with the aim of characterizing the N- to NE-dipping active normal fault system in the Bojano basin, a sector of primary importance from a seismic hazard perspective. We collected field data to define the geometry and segmentation pattern of two sub-systems (Patalecchia-Colle di Mezzo and Bojano-Campochiaro). New evidence of late Quaternary faulting was obtained by exploiting well log interpretations. Kinematic analysis revealed the interaction of pre-Quaternary inherited (mainly E-W-striking) and newly formed (NW-SE-striking) normal faults. Slip accommodation through linkage was clearly noted in the case of the Patalecchia-Colle di Mezzo sub-system. Detailed topographic profiles across the active fault segments provided post-LGM (15 ± 3 kyr) slip rates up to ∼2 mm/yr which agree with the high deformation rates based on different approaches in the literature. Finally, the instrumental seismicity analysis constrained the bottom of the seismogenic layer to depths of 13-14 km, and the gathered information allowed us to reconstruct the North Matese seismogenic source. Its 3D geometry and dimensions agree with both the dimension-magnitude relationships and macroseismic information available for the 1805 earthquake (Mw 6.6), the main historical earthquake to have struck the Bojano basin.

  12. Novel mutations and structural implications in R-type pyruvate kinase-deficient patients from Southern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastore, L; Della Morte, R; Frisso, G; Alfinito, F; Vitale, D; Calise, R M; Ferraro, F; Zagari, A; Rotoli, B; Salvatore, F

    1998-01-01

    Deficiency of the R-type pyruvate kinase (R-PK) causes an autosomal recessive, hereditary, nonspherocytic hemolytic anemia (HNSHA). We screened seven unrelated patients from the south of Italy for the known mutations and found one patient homozygous for the 1529A (R510Q) mutation, two others bearing the 1456T (R486W) mutation, one homozygous and another heterozygous, and two heterozygotes for the 994A mutation (G332S). We also found three novel mutations at the heterozygote status: a G to C transversion in position 1010 (1010C; R337P) and a C to T transition in position 1492 (1492T; R498C), which are missense, and a T to G transversion in position 1523 (1523G; L508Z), which produces a stop codon with a subsequent loss of the C-terminal protein domain. The structural features of R-PK in the mutation-bearing regions were examined. In all cases the mutations altered the local conformation of the enzyme. Both G332S and R337P are in highly conserved sequence regions. In particular, the R337P mutation significantly affects the intersubunit interactions, because it is located in a region subjected to a large conformational change that occurs during the R-->T allosteric transition, which is essential for the enzyme activity. The R486W mutation affects an external pocketlike region, producing only a local conformational change; the R498C mutation changes the interactions among neighbouring residues; the R510Q mutation involves the loss of interdomain interactions that may reduce enzyme stability and activity. Our data also indicate that in patients from Southern Italy, pyruvate kinase deficiency is heterogeneous, the 1529A mutation, which is the most frequent mutation in the U.S. Caucasian population, having a lower frequency.

  13. PREVALENCE OF SOME HELMINTHS IN RODENTS CAPTURED FROM DIFFERENT CITY STRUCTURES INCLUDING POULTRY FARMS AND HUMAN POPULATION OF FAISALABAD, PAKISTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. RAFIQUE, S. A. RANA, H. A. KHAN AND A. SOHAIL1

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to investigate prevalence of zoonotic helminths from human, Rattus rattus (R. rattus, Rattus norvegicus (R. norvegicus and Mus musculus of eight different structures, namely grain shops in grain market, departmental stores, railway godowns, food processing plants (bakeries, poultry farms, houses in kachi-abadies, houses in departmental colonies and posh residences and banglows in Faisalabad city. All the structures were sampled for 2 months each and completed in 16 months. Highest prevalence (70% of Vsmpirolepis spp. was observed in R. rattus sampled from poultry farms, which was significantly higher (P<0.05 than the prevalence of all the helminths recovered from other structures. Hymenolepis nana (H. nana was observed in 60% of the sampled Mus musculus collected from kachi-abadies, which was significantly higher (P<0.05 than all other structures studies for H. nana, except R. rattus from kachi-abadies (55% and R. norvegicus from grain shops in grain market (55%. The rodent’s endo-parasites viz., Hymenolepis nana, Teania taenaeformis, Entrobius spps and Trichuiris spps observed in R. rattus, R. norvegicus and M. musculus at different percentages were also recorded in human stool samples with an incidence of 48, 21, 76 and 10%, respectively.

  14. Structural features of Panarea volcano in the frame of the Aeolian Arc (Italy): Implications for the 2002-2003 unrest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acocella, Valerio; Neri, Marco; Walter, Thomas R.

    2009-05-01

    Panarea, characterized by gas unrest in 2002-2003, is the volcanic island with the least constrained structure in the eastern-central Aeolian Arc (Italy). Based on structural measurements, we define here its deformation pattern relative to the Arc. The main deformations are subvertical extension fractures (63% of data), normal faults (25%) and dikes (12%). The mean orientation of the extension fractures and faults is ˜N38°E, with a mean opening direction of N135° ± 8°, implying extension with a moderate component of dextral shear. These data, matched with those available for Stromboli volcano (pure opening) and Vulcano, Lipari and Salina volcanoes (predominant dextral motions) along the eastern-central Arc, suggest a progressive westward rotation of the extension direction and an increase in the dextral shear. The dextral shear turns into compression in the western arc. The recent unrest at Panarea, coeval to that of nearby Stromboli, may also be explained by the structural context, as both volcanoes lie along the portion of the Arc subject to extension.

  15. Certified safe farm: identifying and removing hazards on the farm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rautiainen, R H; Grafft, L J; Kline, A K; Madsen, M D; Lange, J L; Donham, K J

    2010-04-01

    This article describes the development of the Certified Safe Farm (CSF) on-farm safety review tools, characterizes the safety improvements among participating farms during the study period, and evaluates differences in background variables between low and high scoring farms. Average farm review scores on 185 study farms improved from 82 to 96 during the five-year study (0-100 scale, 85 required for CSF certification). A total of 1292 safety improvements were reported at an estimated cost of $650 per farm. A wide range of improvements were made, including adding 9 rollover protective structures (ROPS), 59 power take-off (PTO) master shields, and 207 slow-moving vehicle (SMV) emblems; improving lighting on 72 machines: placing 171 warning decals on machinery; shielding 77 moving parts; locking up 17 chemical storage areas, adding 83 lockout/tagout improvements; and making general housekeeping upgrades in 62 farm buildings. The local, trained farm reviewers and the CSF review process overall were well received by participating farmers. In addition to our earlier findings where higher farm review scores were associated with lower self-reported health outcome costs, we found that those with higher farm work hours, younger age, pork production in confinement, beef production, poultry production, and reported exposure to agrichemicals had higher farm review scores than those who did not have these characteristics. Overall, the farm review process functioned as expected. encouraging physical improvements in the farm environment, and contributing to the multi-faceted CSF intervention program.

  16. Abolition of set-aside schemes, associated impacts on habitat structure and modelling of potential effects of cross-farm regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levin, G.; Jepsen, Martin Rudbeck

    2010-01-01

    In intensively farmed regions, habitat fragmentation represents a major pressure on biodiversity. Depending on its spatial setting, set-aside land can increase size and connectivity of habitats and thus counteract fragmentation. In 2008, the EU-wide set-aside obligation was suspended and a large...... proportion of set-aside land was re-cultivated. With Denmark as case we apply an indicator to measure the effect of set-aside land on spatial structure of semi-natural habitats in term of habitat size and connectivity. Furthermore, we model effects of a hypothetical spatial regulation, where set-aside land...... with the greatest benefit for habitat structure is retained as uncultivated, while set-aside land with the least effect is re-cultivated. The model is applied to individual farms and to farm agglomerations of increasing sizes, enabling us to explore potential effects of cross-farm regulation. The novelty of our...

  17. A multidisciplinary geological and geophysical approach to define structural and hydrogeological implications of the Molinaccio spring (Spello, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ercoli, Maurizio; Pauselli, Cristina; Forte, Emanuele; Di Matteo, Lucio; Mazzocca, Massimiliano; Frigeri, Alessandro; Federico, Costanzo

    2012-02-01

    In this paper, a multidisciplinary geological and geophysical approach has been applied in the complex area of Molinaccio spring (Spello, Umbria, Central Italy) to: 1) understand the large-scale geologic and tectonic structure of the area; 2) define the hydrogeological behavior of the various formations in relationship with the identified structural elements; 3) highlight at small-scale the tectonic structures and their relationships with the water caption tunnel, which is the draining structure of a still working, ancient Roman aqueduct giving water to the village of Spello and to the surrounding plain. Our approach includes different techniques like Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) and Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT), direct geological investigations, archaeological studies, GIS data collection and integration. The GPR data revealed, in the area of the water-caption tunnel, two main tectonic structures, both also confirmed by ERT data: the presence of a zone (maximum 2 m wide), interpreted as a normal fault area and an overthrust that puts in contact the permeable Scaglia Rossa limestone (Early Turonian-Middle Eocene), and the Scaglia Variegata-Cinerea marly limestones (Middle Eocene-Upper Oligocene) on the footwall, characterized by lower hydraulic permeability. Using some rough information available on the sub-surface path of the tunnel, that shows a sharp bend after a long straight course, together with the geophysical images, was possible to describe how Romans built the tunnel: they probably followed the wet outcropping rock during the excavation, and changed abruptly the dig direction when they intercepted the normal fault area, aligning then the excavation along its strike. This latter result is important also because recently a multidisciplinary project has been developed to restore and exploit the entire water supply structure, which is not only a well-preserved example of Roman remains with high archaeological value, but also a vital

  18. Animal Farm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐蓉蓉

    2015-01-01

    This essay first introduce the background of Animal Farm and a brief introduction of the author.Then it discuss three thesis about this novel and briefly discussed about it.At last it give highly review on Animal Farm.

  19. Beneficial effects on water management of simple hydraulic structures in wetland systems: the Vallevecchia case study, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrer, G M; Bonato, M; Smania, D; Barausse, A; Comis, C; Palmeri, L

    2011-01-01

    Conflicting water uses in coastal zones demand integrated approaches to achieve sustainable water resources management, protecting water quality while allowing those human activities which rely upon aquatic ecosystem services to thrive. This case study shows that the creation and simple management of hydraulic structures within constructed wetlands can markedly reduce the non-point pollution from agriculture and, simultaneously, benefit agricultural activities, particularly during hot and dry periods. The Vallevecchia wetland system is based on a reclaimed 900 ha-large drainage basin in Northern Italy, where droughts recently impacted agriculture causing water scarcity and saltwater intrusion. Rainwater and drained water are recirculated inside the system to limit saltwater intrusion, provide irrigation water during dry periods and reduce the agricultural nutrient loads discharged into the bordering, eutrophic Adriatic Sea. Monitoring (2003-2009) of water quality and flows highlights that the construction (ended in 2005) of a gated spillway to control the outflow, and of a 200,000 m3 basin for water storage, dramatically increased the removal of nutrients within the system. Strikingly, this improvement was achieved with a minimal management effort, e.g., each year the storage basin was filled once: a simple management of the hydraulic structures would greatly enhance the system efficiency, and store more water to irrigate and limit saltwater intrusion.

  20. Biogerontology in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odetti, Patrizio; Bergamini, Ettore

    2011-02-01

    In this paper experimental gerontology in Italy is reviewed on the basis of research developed in Academic and non Academic Centres. There are several groups across Italy working actively on basic science of aging producing high impact papers with a significant contribution to biogerontology. Some distinguished Italian scientist working abroad is also mentioned. Interesting issues on longevity and interventions on aging (including caloric restriction) and on aging brain are quoted. Relevant studies encompass the (glyco-)oxidative stress as direct damage mechanism and main process of theory of aging, other research lines include IGF-1, mitochondria DNA, obesity/sarcopenia and exercise and also an animal model for aging studies is reported. Notwithstanding financial restrictions and structure deficit the biogerontology research in Italy could be judged as good, but additional resources are necessary to keep this good rank.

  1. [Hydrological and edaphic structure of an oyster-farming site: Duna Blanca (Bay of Dakhla, south Morocco)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zidane, H; Orbi, A; Mouradi, A; Zidane, F; Blais, J F

    2008-09-01

    Morocco shelters lagoons, estuaries and bays along its paralic coasts which are among the most productive in the world. The Bay of Dakhla is the longest and the most important site in Morocco due to its halieutic richness. In fact, this bay is an ecosystem with great potential in terms of aquaculture, mainly shellfish farming, and shelters favorable zones for tapiculture, mytiliculture and ostreiculture, in accordance with ecological planning. A hydrological study (temperature, salinity, chlorophyll "a", suspended matter and organic matter) was conducted on a breeding project of the cupped oyster (Crassostrea gigas) installed on the Duna Blanca site since April 2003. A seasonal follow-up of sediment structure was carried out involving granulometric and metallic studies. The hydrological sampling was performed monthly on the surface and at the bottom, during spring tides, low tide and high tide. The results confirmed that the site encompasses a wealth of nutritive elements and a significant chlorophyll-rich biomass. A gradient of hypersalinity is well correlated with seasonal variation of the temperature. The sedimentary structure ranges from muddy-sandy to sandy type. The metal concentrations in the sediments never exceeded the toxicity thresholds. However, the site's production potential cannot be limitless and could be affected by the extension and installation of new conchylaceous farms.

  2. Fully exploitation of SBAS-DInSAR deformation time series for assessing structural damage: the case study of Rome, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonano, Manuela; Arangio, Stefania; Calò, Fabiana; Di Mauro, Maria; Marsella, Maria; Manunta, Michele

    2014-05-01

    Remote sensing techniques have demonstrated to be effective tools to support natural and man-made risk mitigation activities. Among these, the Differential Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) Interferometry (DInSAR) technology is largely exploited in geoscience, oil and gas extraction, and landslide fields. Recently, thanks to the large availability of high resolution SAR systems (10 m or less), as well as to the development of advanced data processing techniques, DInSAR products have also started to be effectively used for applications in urban areas to detect localized displacements affecting single buildings and infrastructures. The advanced DInSAR technique referred to as Small Baseline Subset (SBAS) (Lanari et al., 2004) allows us to generate very long deformation time series, by exploiting large SAR datasets spanning up to 20 years (Bonano et al., 2012). Thanks to its capability to investigate wide areas, the SBAS-DInSAR technique is particularly suitable to remotely analyse the structural conditions of buildings located in densely urbanized zones. In this work, we fully exploit the results achieved over the city of Rome, Italy, through the well-established SBAS-DInSAR approach, aimed at performing a quantitative assessment of structural damage in urban areas affected by ground deformation (Arangio et al., 2013). More in details, we present an innovative methodology that integrates the SBAS-DInSAR measurements within an existing model, in order to assess the damage, and possibly estimate the future structural conditions, of single buildings affected by significant foundation settlements. In particular, a semi-empirical approach, based on a laminated beam model (Finno et al., 2005), is applied to investigate the damage of buildings located in the southern part of the city. The obtained results are in substantial agreement with in situ surveys, proving that the presented approach is an effective tool for the preliminary evaluation of the structural conditions in

  3. Impacts of fish farm pollution on ecosystem structure and function of tropical headwater streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Rodrigo dos Santos; Aguiar, Anna Carolina Fornero; Boëchat, Iola Gonçalves; Gücker, Björn

    2013-03-01

    We investigated the impacts of effluent discharge from small flow-through fish farms on stream water characteristics, the benthic invertebrate community, whole-system nitrate uptake, and ecosystem metabolism of three tropical headwater streams in southeastern Brazil. Effluents were moderately, i.e. up to 20-fold enriched in particulate organic matter (POM) and inorganic nutrients in comparison to stream water at reference sites. Due to high dilution with stream water, effluent discharge resulted in up to 2.0-fold increases in stream water POM and up to 1.8-fold increases in inorganic nutrients only. Moderate impacts on the benthic invertebrate community were detected at one stream only. There was no consistent pattern of effluent impact on whole-stream nitrate uptake. Ecosystem metabolism, however, was clearly affected by effluent discharge. Stream reaches impacted by effluents exhibited significantly increased community respiration and primary productivity, stressing the importance of ecologically sound best management practices for small fish farms in the tropics.

  4. Recorded motions of the 6 April 2009 Mw 6.3 L'Aquila, Italy, earthquake and implications for building structural damage: Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celebi, M.; Bazzurro, P.; Chiaraluce, L.; Clemente, P.; Decanini, L.; Desortis, A.; Ellsworth, W.; Gorini, A.; Kalkan, E.; Marcucci, S.; Milana, G.; Mollaioli, F.; Olivieri, M.; Paolucci, R.; Rinaldis, D.; Rovelli, A.; Sabetta, F.; Stephens, C.

    2010-01-01

    The normal-faulting earthquake of 6 April 2009 in the Abruzzo Region of central Italy caused heavy losses of life and substantial damage to centuriesold buildings of significant cultural importance and to modern reinforcedconcrete- framed buildings with hollow masonry infill walls. Although structural deficiencies were significant and widespread, the study of the characteristics of strong motion data from the heavily affected area indicated that the short duration of strong shaking may have spared many more damaged buildings from collapsing. It is recognized that, with this caveat of shortduration shaking, the infill walls may have played a very important role in preventing further deterioration or collapse of many buildings. It is concluded that better new or retrofit construction practices that include reinforcedconcrete shear walls may prove helpful in reducing risks in such seismic areas of Italy, other Mediterranean countries, and even in United States, where there are large inventories of deficient structures. ?? 2010, Earthquake Engineering Research Institute.

  5. Hydraulic Binding Between Structural Elements and Groundwater Circulation in a Volcanic Aquifer : Insights from Riano Quarries District (Rome Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, David; Preziosi, Elisabetta; Ghergo, Stefano; Parrone, Daniele; Amalfitano, Stefano; Bruna Petrangeli, Anna; Zoppini, Annamaria

    2016-04-01

    A field survey and laboratory analysis of fracture systems crosscutting volcanic rocks was performed in the North-East of Rome urban area (Central Italy) to assess the hydraulic binding between structural elements, groundwater circulation and geochemistry. Fracture features (orientation, density, apertures, length and spacing) as well as groundwater heads and geochemical characteristics of rock and groundwater were analysed. We present and discuss the macro and mesostructural deformation pattern of the Riano quarries district (Central Italy) to highlight the close relationships between geological heterogeneity and water circulation. Laboratory analyses were carried out on rock samples: using XRF, microwave acid digestion and diffractometer to identify the chemical and mineralogical characters of the outcropping rock samples with a special focus on altered bands of fractures. On water samples using ICP-OES for major cations, ICP-MS for trace elements, IC for major anions and Spectrophotometry for NO2, PO4, NH4 . A total of 26 quarries with different dimension, shape and depth were examined by both remote and field analyses. Despite all the quarries were realized within the same tuff formation interval, a different fracture spatial distribution was recognized. From North to South a progressively increment of fracture density was observed. It was possible to observe a close relationship between orientation, spatial distribution and length. For each single fractured set, a 5° max orientation variation was observed, suggesting that fracture genesis was likely related to an extensional/transtensional tectonic process. Most of the fractures directly examined show an alteration band with different colors and thickness around the whole fracture shape. A preliminary overview of the laboratory results highlights that altered and unaltered tuffs (belonging to the same formation) show different chemical compositions. In particular, an enrichment of Mn, accompanied by a

  6. Structural features of the Middle Tirso Valley (Central Sardinia - Italy from geoelectrical and gravity data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Tramacere

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The Middle Tirso Valley is located in Central Sardinia and lies between two structural highs, the Marghine-Goceano chain and the Barbagia Paleozoic horst. The geological structures of the area, potentially interesting for its geothermal resources, are rather complex and dominated by two regional faults – the Marghine fault and the Nuoro fault – which affect the Palaeozoic basement and the Tertiary volcano-sedimentary deposits. Combined modelling of gravity and geoelectrical data defines the shape and extent of this Tertiary basin. The Bouguer anomaly is mainly characterized by a three-dimensional gravity low which has been named «Bolotana-Sedilo gravity low», corresponding to a structure generated by collapses attributable to transcurrent and extensional tectonic events. The down faulted zone is filled with a Tertiary low density volcano-sedimentary sequence extending southwards and overlain by Pliocene-Quaternary basalts. Another regional structure named «Tirso Fault» is proposed

  7. Bamboo structures: evoke the spirit workshop [organisation, facilitation, research] Brescia, Italy; 1-14 July 2009

    OpenAIRE

    Kolakowski, Marcin M.; Thompson, Alan

    2010-01-01

    Student workshop run by MM Kolakowski and Alan Thompson for architectural students. Construction of large scale bamboo structures: 18-metre high tower, 9-metre high wheel arches and other bamboo constructions.

  8. Effective crustal permeability controls fault evolution: An integrated structural, mineralogical and isotopic study in granitic gneiss, Monte Rosa, northern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawther, Susan E. M.; Dempster, Tim J.; Shipton, Zoe K.; Boyce, Adrian J.

    2016-10-01

    Two dextral faults within granitic gneiss in the Monte Rosa nappe, northern Italy reveal key differences in their evolution controlled by evolving permeability and water/rock reactions. The comparison reveals that identical host rock lithologies develop radically different mineralogies within the fault zones, resulting in fundamentally different deformation histories. Oxygen and hydrogen isotope analyses coupled to microstructural characterisation show that infiltration of meteoric water occurred into both fault zones. The smaller Virgin Fault shows evidence of periodic closed system behaviour, which promoted the growth of hydrothermal K-feldspar, whilst the more open system behaviour of the adjacent Ciao Ciao Fault generated a weaker muscovite-rich fault core, which promoted a step change in fault evolution. Effective crustal permeability is a vital control on fault evolution and, coupled to the temperature (i.e. depth) at which key mineral transformations occur, is probably a more significant factor than host rock strength in controlling fault development. The study suggests that whether a fault in granitic basement grows into a large structure may be largely controlled by the initial hydrological properties of the host rocks. Small faults exposed at the surface may therefore be evolutionary "dead-ends" that typically do not represent the early stages in the development of larger faults.

  9. Ottensite, brizziite and mopungite from Pereta mine (Tuscany, Italy): new occurrences and crystal structure refinement of mopungite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittarello, Erica; Cámara, Fernando; Ciriotti, Marco E.; Marengo, Alessandra

    2015-08-01

    Ottensite, Na3 (Sb2O3)(SbS3)·3H2O, brizziite, NaSbO3, and mopungite, NaSb(OH)6, have been found on several specimens from the antimony mine of Pereta (Grosseto, Tuscany, Italy). Ottensite from Pereta mine occurs as brilliant reddish-brown spheroidal aggregates, with a diameter up to 0.2 mm, formed by radially oriented individuals. These aggregates are associated with well-shaped tabular and pseudocubic colourless crystals of mopungite and platy aggregates of brizziite. This is the second world occurrence of ottensite and brizziite. The mineral species were characterized by electron microprobe analysis, X-ray diffraction study and microRaman spectroscopy. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction data were collected on a twinned crystal of mopungite and the structure was for the first time refined on a natural sample in space group P42/ n [unit cell parameters a = 8.036(3) Å, c = 7.926(6) Å, V = 511.88(5) Å3, Z = 4] obtaining an R 1 -index of 5.17, wR 2 of 13.52 and GooF of 1.247.

  10. Historical Photogrammetry and Terrestrial Laser Scanning for the 3d Virtual Reconstruction of Destroyed Structures: a Case Study in Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitelli, G.; Dellapasqua, M.; Girelli, V. A.; Sbaraglia, S.; Tinia, M. A.

    2017-05-01

    The current dramatic episodes of destruction of archaeological sites have again highlighted the problem of the safeguarding the threatened heritage and, if possible, recovering those damaged by all the armed conflicts of the past. The historical photogrammetry offers the possibility to recover a posteriori the geometrical and material properties of destroyed structures, reconstructing their 3D model to document, study and maintain their memory, until to support their real anastylosis. The presented work is about the 3D reconstruction of the civic tower of the little town of Sant'Alberto, near the city of Ravenna, Italy. The tower, as a symbol of resistance and pride of the town's population, was destroyed in December 1944 by German troops in retaliation, when they were forced to leave the area. A city committee has subsequently collected all the historical evidence concerning the tower, including a series of photographic images that can be used for the photogrammetric reconstruction; the images calibration and orientation have been solved using the geometric information derived by a terrestrial laser scanner survey realized in the area where the tower was originally located. Despite the scarcity and very poor quality of the available images, the conducted photogrammetric procedure has allowed a complete and qualitatively satisfying object reconstruction, also thanks to the use of geometric constraint tools offered by the chosen software. The integration between the obtained model of the old tower and the 3D TLS survey of the square made it possible to reconstruct the ancient situation of the area.

  11. Size, dynamics and structure of the lesser horseshoe bat (Rhinolophus hipposideros winter aggregations in central Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierangelo Crucitti

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The paper presents a study regarding the aggregations of the Lesser Horseshoe bat Rhinolophus hipposideros in Latium, Central Italy, based on data collected during 27 years in natural caves (limestone and artificial buildings (abandoned mines, ancient monuments and others. Furthermore some parameters including size, dynamics, sex ratio and age structures are investigated. The number of bats that occur at the hibernacula in winter is low over the whole territory of this region, the most numerous aggregations being 18 individual bats with an average of about 4 bats/visit. In the shelters of the area, the highest numbers of R. hipposideros, a stenotherm thermophilous species, is reached at the end of January, while at the beginning of spring (April few bats are generally observed. As in many other European populations, males are more commonly represented in winter samples; some caves harbour only adult males over a long time span, about 20 years. The results would suggest that some conservation measures should be introduced to protect this widespread but uncommon and threatened species.

  12. Struttura produttiva e sviluppo regionale di lungo periodo in Italia (Production Structure and Long-Run Regional Development in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulio Caianelli

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available During the 1990s the link between specialisation and/or variety of the production structure and long-run local development has been widely studied both at theoretical and empirical level. Following this research line, the aim of this paper is twofold. First of all, we analyse, by means of transition matrices, the evolution of the model of specialisation/variety of manufacturing industries at regional level in Italy during the twentieth century. Secondly, we investigate, from an econometric point of view, the potential impact of specialisation and/or of variety on the different growth rates of manufacturing employment of the Italian regions during the period 1927-91. In order to carry out this kind of empirical investigation, we have built up a new and original historical data set which, using statistical information drawn from the Italian Industrial Census carried out from 1911 to 1991, provides data on the number of employees for 15 manufacturing industries and for 18 regions.           JEL Codes: R12, L60, R11, R23Keywords: Manufacturing, Regional Development, Regional

  13. Integrated analysis of seismological, gravimetric and structural data for identification of active faults geometries in Abruzzo and Molise areas (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudiosi, Germana; Nappi, Rosa; Alessio, Giuliana; Porfido, Sabina; Cella, Federico; Fedi, Maurizio; Florio, Giovanni

    2015-04-01

    detected. The main results of our integrated analysis show a strong correlation among faults, hypocentral location of earthquakes and MDA lineaments from gravity data. Furthermore 2D seismic hypocentral locations together with high-resolution analysis of gravity anomalies have been correlated to estimate the fault systems parameters (strike, dip direction and dip angle) of some structures of the areas, through the application of the DEXP method (Fedi M. and M. Pilkington, 2012). References Fedi M., Cella F., Florio G., Rapolla A.; 2005: Multiscale Derivative Analysis of the gravity and magnetic fields of the Southern Apennines (Italy). In: Finetti I.R. (ed), CROP PROJECT: Deep Seismic Exploration of the Central Mediterranean and Italy, pp. 281-318. Fedi M., Pilkington M.; 2012: Understanding imaging methods for potential field data. Geophysics, 77: G13-G24. Gaudiosi G., Alessio G., Cella F., Fedi M., Florio G., Nappi, R.; 2012: Multiparametric data analysis for seismic sources identification in the Campanian area: merging of seismological, structural and gravimetric data. BGTA,. Vol. 53, n. 3, pp. 283-298.

  14. Electromagnetic imaging of the deep Campi Flegrei caldera structure (Southern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giulia Di Giuseppe, Maria; Isaia, Roberto; Patella, Domenico; Piochi, Monica; Troiano, Antonio

    2017-04-01

    The Campi Flegrei caldera (CFc) is the most hazardous volcano in Europe. Enormous investigative efforts have been done aimed to share its inner structure and to understand its unrest dynamics, making the CFc one of the main subjects of interest of modern volcanology. Due to the destructive potential and the active geothermal system, the CFc geological structures have been investigated through many different methodologies. A key role belongs to the applied geophysics that allows to gain knowledge about the volcanic setting and consequently to understand the dynamics of this active caldera system. So far, the main CFc structures have been not yet clearly defined. The strong heterogeneity of the territory associated to the composite coastal morphology and the extreme urbanization represent a major obstacle to apply the geophysical techniques. Therefore the geometry and configuration of the CFc plumbing system are still largely undefined, although seismic surveys nowadays detected findings of melt-bearing rocks, at least locally. Here a deep electromagnetic (EM) imaging the CFc is presented. A Magnetotelluric (MT) profile has been carried out across a 12 km-long transect, ideally intersecting the main recent volcano-tectonic structures. The peculiar sensitivity to subsurface fluids and melts, associated with huge electric conductivity contrasts, make the MT particularly well suited to be applied in active volcanic settings. The obtained results highlight the buried structures down to 10 km of depth providing an interpretative key into the overall caldera dynamics. In particular, the deep magmatic source is revealed, as well as the main ascent pathway of magmatic fluids and the related structures which critically contributing to the shallower-level of deformation at CFc.

  15. Organic farming and landscape structure: effects on insect-pollinated plant diversity in intensively managed grasslands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Eileen F; Kelly, Daniel L; Stout, Jane C

    2012-01-01

    Parallel declines in insect-pollinated plants and their pollinators have been reported as a result of agricultural intensification. Intensive arable plant communities have previously been shown to contain higher proportions of self-pollinated plants compared to natural or semi-natural plant communities. Though intensive grasslands are widespread, it is not known whether they show similar patterns to arable systems nor whether local and/or landscape factors are influential. We investigated plant community composition in 10 pairs of organic and conventional dairy farms across Ireland in relation to the local and landscape context. Relationships between plant groups and local factors (farming system, position in field and soil parameters) and landscape factors (e.g. landscape complexity) were investigated. The percentage cover of unimproved grassland was used as an inverse predictor of landscape complexity, as it was negatively correlated with habitat-type diversity. Intensive grasslands (organic and conventional) contained more insect-pollinated forbs than non-insect pollinated forbs. Organic field centres contained more insect-pollinated forbs than conventional field centres. Insect-pollinated forb richness in field edges (but not field centres) increased with increasing landscape complexity (% unimproved grassland) within 1, 3, 4 and 5km radii around sites, whereas non-insect pollinated forb richness was unrelated to landscape complexity. Pollination systems within intensive grassland communities may be different from those in arable systems. Our results indicate that organic management increases plant richness in field centres, but that landscape complexity exerts strong influences in both organic and conventional field edges. Insect-pollinated forb richness, unlike that for non-insect pollinated forbs, showed positive relationships to landscape complexity reflecting what has been documented for bees and other pollinators. The insect-pollinated forbs, their

  16. Structure refinement of Ag-free heyrovskýite from Vulcano (Aeolian Islands, Italy)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinto, Daniella; Balic Zunic, Tonci; Garavelli, Anna;

    2011-01-01

    -bearing heyrovskýite structures shows that during the 2 Pb ¿ Ag(Cu)+Bi substitution the increased content of Bi is incorporated preferentially in the Me5 site until 2/3 Bi occupancy and thereafter in the two central octahedrally coordinated sites (Me2 and Me3). Silver occupies exclusively marginal octahedrally...

  17. Comparison of Farm Structures, Success Factors, Obstacles, Clients’ Expectations and Policy Wishes of Urban Farming’s Main Business Models in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernd Pölling

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Low-cost specialization, differentiation, and diversification are common business models of urban farms in developed countries. Similarities and differences between them as well as detailed insights into specific farm characteristics are widely absent in scientific discourses. This paper compares farm structures, success factors, obstacles, clients’ expectations, and policy wishes between specialized, differentiated, and diversified farms as well as diversifiers into agriculture. A standardized questionnaire was used for 21 personal in-depth farm interviews located in metropolitan areas of North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. Being located in a metropolitan area is the most often named Unique Selling Proposition (USP. This is also mentioned as most important success factor followed by sociability and personal contact to clients, which both underpin the importance of direct producer-consumer linkages in urban settings. Additionally, it is assumed that a single food criterion is not sufficient to be successful, but several have to be merged to meet clients’ expectations. In terms of marketing, differentiated and diversified farmers prefer a multi-channel approach, while specialized farmers and diversifiers into agriculture focus mainly on one specific channel. While both specialized farmers and diversifiers into agriculture cultivate smaller areas of farmland, the latter one offers the greatest number of jobs including those outside agricultural production. The findings obtained are expected to support farms and agricultural advisory services in individual decision making of future business development strategies and increase knowledge of urban farming’s main business models.

  18. [Influence of Different Straws Returning with Landfill on Soil Microbial Community Structure Under Dry and Water Farming].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Mu-ling; Gao, Ming

    2015-11-01

    Based on rice, wheat, corn straw and rape, broad bean green stalk as the research object, using phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) method, combining principal component analysis method to study the soil microbial quantity, distribution of flora, community structure characteristics under dry and water farming as two different cultivated land use types. The PLFA analysis results showed that: under dry farming, total PLFA quantity ranged 8.35-25.15 nmol x g(-1), showed rape > broad bean > corn > rice > wheat, rape and broad bean significantly increased total PLFA quantity by 1.18 and 1.08 times compared to the treatment without straw; PLFA quantity of bacterial flora in treatments with straws was higher than that without straw, and fungal biomass was significantly increased, so was the species richness of microbial community. Under water faming, the treatments of different straws returning with landfill have improved the PLFA quantity of total soil microbial and flora comparing with the treatment without straw, fungi significantly increased, and species richness of microbial communities value also increased significantly. Total PLFA quantity ranged 4.04-22.19 nmol x g(-1), showed rice > corn > wheat > broad bean > rape, which in rape and broad bean treatments were lower than the treatment without straw; fungal PLFA amount in 5 kinds of straw except broad bean treatment was significantly higher than that of the treatment without straw, bacteria and total PLFA quantity in broad bean processing were significantly lower than those of other treatments, actinomycetes, G+, G- had no significant difference between all treatments; rice, wheat, corn, rape could significantly increase the soil microbial species richness index and dominance index under water faming. The results of principal component analysis showed that broad bean green stalk had the greatest impact on the microbial community structure in the dry soil, rape green stalk and wheat straw had the biggest influence on

  19. THE GENETIC STRUCTURE OF DIFFERENT AGE GROUPS OF SILVER (HYPOPHTHALMICHTHYS MOLITRIX AND BIGHEAD (ARISTICHTHYS NOBILIS CARPS FROM FISH FARM LIMANSKE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Т. Nagorniuk

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Studying the peculiarities of the genetic structure of different age groups of silver and bighead carps from fish farm Limanske with the use of genetic-biochemical markers. Methodology. The methods of vertical polyacrylamide and horizontal starch electrophoresis with our own modifications have been used for the study. Sampling of the biological material and histochemical staining of gel plates were carried out using the generally accepted methods. Statistical analysis of the obtained data were performed in "Biosys-I". Findings. We analyzed the genetic structure of age-1, age-1+ and age-2 of silver and bighead carps with the use of genetic-biochemical markers - Рralb, EST, MDH, МЕ, СА. We demonstrated the peculiarities of allele frequencies and genotypic composition of protein system loci. A high level of heterozygosity in the examined was detected loci for age-1 silver carp – 66.7-88.9% and age-1 bighead carp – 65.4-77.8%. A significantly higher level of the observed average heterozygosity compared to the expected heterozygosity of age-1 as silver carp (Ho = 75.9%, He = 49,6%, and bighead carp (Ho = 73,6%, He = 47,9% was observed. This fact indicated on the necessity for performing a stabilization of their genetic structure. The calculated Wright's F index in different age groups showed a predominance of the observed level of the average heterozygosity over the expected one for 22.7–53% in silver carp and 24.5-53.7% in bighead carp. A stabilization of the genetic structure in age-2 silver carp (Ho = 57.8%; He = 47.1% by the heterogeneity level was observed. Originality. For the first time we analyzed the genetic structure and the level of heterogeneity of the breeding groups of age-1, age-1+, age-2 silver and bighead carps from fish farm Limanske with the use of genetic-biochemical markers. Practical value. The results of the study can be used in selection and breeding works aimed at creating the breeding stocks of silver and

  20. Genetic diversity and population structure of leafy kale and Brassica rupestris Raf. in south Italy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maggioni, Lorenzo; von Bothmer, Roland; Poulsen, Gert

    2014-01-01

    Local varieties of leafy kales (Brassica oleracea L.) are grown in home gardens in Calabria and Sicily for self-consumption, in the same area where the wild relative Brassica rupestris Raf. also grows. With the use of AFLP markers, comparisons were made of the genetic diversity and population...... structure of ten wild and 22 cultivated populations, as well as of a hybrid population and of four commercial cultivars of different B. oleracea crops. The level of genetic diversity was higher in leafy kales than in wild populations and this diversity was mainly distributed within populations. Wild...... populations remained distinct from cultivated material. Additionally, most wild populations were distinctively isolated from each other. On the other hand, it was not possible to molecularly distinguish even geographically distant leafy kale populations from each other or from different B. oleracea crops...

  1. Territorial Systems, Regional Disparities and Sustainability: Economic Structure and Soil Degradation in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Salvati

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study was devoted to identify the evolutionary path of a number of local systems in a Mediterranean country vulnerable to soil degradation (SD in the last decades. A multivariate analysis was used to evaluate the socio-ecological conditions and to estimate rapidity-of-change of local systems by considering 6 bio-physical factors predisposing soil to degradation and 23 socioeconomic indicators over fifty years (1960–2010. Results indicate that systems’ development paths diverged during the investigated time period reflecting changes in the spatial organization and in the economic base of entire regions. Interestingly, economic performance and environmental quality do not seem to follow opposite trajectories. Local systems characterized by low per-capita income, agricultural specialization and population ageing, seem not to be associated with better and more stable ecological conditions. Local systems in affluent areas, featuring a mix of socioeconomic conditions with the prevalence of services in the economy and tourism specialization, showed relatively good ecological conditions and moderate-to-low SD vulnerability. Thus, affluent local systems do not necessarily reflect a higher pressure on the environment. These findings suggest that areas with a changing socio-demographic profile and a dynamic economic structure are compatible with low and stable levels of SD vulnerability.

  2. Structure and metamorphism of the Gran Paradiso massif, western Alps, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouwer, F. M.; Vissers, R. L. M.; Lamb, W. M.

    2002-05-01

    The pressure-temperature-time trajectory and structural history of high-pressure rocks presently exposed in the Gran Paradiso massif provide constraints on the processes that caused their thermal evolution and exhumation. High-pressure metamorphism of the rocks is found to have culminated at temperatures around 525 °C and pressures of 12 to 14 kbar. After high-pressure metamorphism, the rocks cooled during initial decompression, while undergoing top-to-the-west shear on chlorite-bearing shear bands and larger scale shear zones. Biotite-bearing shear bands and larger shear zones related to top-to-the-east deformation affected the Gran Paradiso massif during reheating to temperatures of around 550 °C at 6 to 7 kbar. Further exhumation occurred at relatively high temperatures. A potentially viable explanation of the observed stage of reheating before final cooling and exhumation is breakoff of a subducting slab in the upper mantle, allowing advective heat transfer to the base of the crust. Electronic supplementary material to this paper can be obtained by using the Springer LINK server located at http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00410-001-0357-6.

  3. A preliminary investigation into the genetic variation and population structure of Taenia hydatigena from Sardinia, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boufana, Belgees; Scala, Antonio; Lahmar, Samia; Pointing, Steve; Craig, Philip S; Dessì, Giorgia; Zidda, Antonella; Pipia, Anna Paola; Varcasia, Antonio

    2015-11-30

    Cysticercosis caused by the metacestode stage of Taenia hydatigena is endemic in Sardinia. Information on the genetic variation of this parasite is important for epidemiological studies and implementation of control programs. Using two mitochondrial genes, the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) and the NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 (ND1) we investigated the genetic variation and population structure of Cysticercus tenuicollis from Sardinian intermediate hosts and compared it to that from other hosts from various geographical regions. The parsimony cox1 network analysis indicated the existence of a common lineage for T. hydatigena and the overall diversity and neutrality indices indicated demographic expansion. Using the cox1 sequences, low pairwise fixation index (Fst) values were recorded for Sardinian, Iranian and Palestinian sheep C. tenuicollis which suggested the absence of genetic differentiation. Using the ND1 sequences, C. tenuicollis from Sardinian sheep appeared to be differentiated from those of goat and pig origin. In addition, goat C. tenuicollis were genetically different from adult T. hydatigena as indicated by the statistically significant Fst value. Our results are consistent with biochemical and morphological studies that suggest the existence of variants of T. hydatigena.

  4. Genetic diversity and population structure of leafy kale and Brassica rupestris Raf. in south Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggioni, Lorenzo; von Bothmer, Roland; Poulsen, Gert; Branca, Ferdinando; Bagger Jørgensen, Rikke

    2014-12-01

    Local varieties of leafy kales (Brassica oleracea L.) are grown in home gardens in Calabria and Sicily for self-consumption, in the same area where the wild relative Brassica rupestris Raf. also grows. With the use of AFLP markers, comparisons were made of the genetic diversity and population structure of ten wild and 22 cultivated populations, as well as of a hybrid population and of four commercial cultivars of different B. oleracea crops. The level of genetic diversity was higher in leafy kales than in wild populations and this diversity was mainly distributed within populations. Wild populations remained distinct from cultivated material. Additionally, most wild populations were distinctively isolated from each other. On the other hand, it was not possible to molecularly distinguish even geographically distant leafy kale populations from each other or from different B. oleracea crops. It was possible to detect inter-crossing between leafy kales and B. rupestris. Findings from this study illustrate the existing level of genetic diversity in the B. oleracea gene pool. Individual populations (either wild or leafy kales) with higher levels of genetic diversity have been identified and suggestions are given for an informed conservation strategy. Domestication hypotheses are also discussed.

  5. Farm Team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Debra

    2001-01-01

    Describes a Philadelphia high school in which urban students study agricultural sciences to prepare for college and careers. The campus has a complete working farm, and students are exposed to a wide range of agricultural career opportunities while also studying core academic subjects. The school's farm units are real businesses, so students are…

  6. EXAMINING THE PREFERENCE FOR SHADE STRUCTURES IN FARMED GREEN SEA TURTLES (CHELONIA MYDAS) AND SHADE'S EFFECT ON GROWTH AND TEMPERATURES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Martha; Mustin, Walter

    2017-03-01

    The Cayman Turtle Farm raises thousands of green sea turtles ( Chelonia mydas ) annually under aquaculture conditions. Historically, the turtles have been raised in tanks without routine access to a shade structure. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of adding a shade structure on curved carapace length (CCL) and weight gain of green sea turtles. In addition, water and cloacal temperatures were compared across treatment groups and shade cover preferences observed. Ninety turtles were split equally into three treatment groups for this 8-wk study. In the first group turtles were kept in tanks in full sun, the second group in half-shaded tanks, and the third group in tanks completely covered with shade cloth. Time-lapse cameras mounted above half-shaded tanks were used to determine turtle shade structure preferences throughout the day. There were no differences in CCL among treatment groups. Significant increases in weights were noted in turtles kept in full sun and half-shaded tanks versus the fully shaded tanks. Significantly higher water and cloacal turtle temperatures were noted in the full-sun tank compared with the half-shaded or completely shaded tanks. A significantly lower number of turtles was observed in the sun in the half-shaded tanks, indicating a possible preference by turtles for a shade structure. Results suggest that providing shade structures for sea turtles results in a significant decrease in both overall water temperature as well as a reduction in maximum high daily temperatures. Results also suggest that turtles exhibit a preference for shade structures when it is provided as an option. From these results, we recommend that a shade structure be provided when housing green sea turtles in outdoor enclosures.

  7. Adoption of rollover protective structures (ROPS) on U.S. farm tractors by state: 1993-1995, 2001, and 2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hard, D L; Myers, J R

    2011-04-01

    This research compares state-level rollover protective structure (ROPS) prevalence rates from the early and mid-1990s to those observed in the years 2001 and 2004. In addition, state-level ROPS prevalence rates are compared to state-level tractor overturn fatality rates. Tractor data for 1993-1995 and for 2001 and 2004 for all tractors and ROPS-equipped tractors in use on U.S. farms were derived from surveys conducted for NIOSH by the USDA-NASS. Changes in ROPS prevalence rates at the state level between the two time periods were assessed using a two-sample paired t-test with unequal sample sizes. Poisson regression was used to assess the association between ROPS prevalence rates and tractor overturn fatality rates at the state level. Overall, 49 of the 50 states had an observed increase in the percentage of farm tractors equipped with ROPS from 1993-1995 to 2001 and 2004. This increase was statistically significant for 34 states. Large shifts in ROPS prevalence were found within individual states and in clusters of states. These include a major increase in the southeastern U.S. and some western states. However, a core of states in the northeast (many of them in or near the Appalachian Mountains) through the upper midwest remain in the bottom quartile for ROPS prevalence. For the years 1992 through 2004, the highest fatality rates were observed in many of the same states that were identified previously as having persistently low ROPS prevalence rates. There is a clear relationship between low state-level ROPS prevalence rates and high state-specific tractor overturn fatality rates. While progress has been made in increasing the percentage of ROPS-equipped farm tractors, it is projected that ROPS prevalence rates will not reach a protective level nationally until after 2015. Regionally, the northeast and midwest will not reach protective levels of ROPS-equipped tractors until after 2020. Based on the adoption rates observed, tractor overturn rates will likely

  8. Investigation of the buried structure of the Volturara Irpina Basin (southern Italy) by microtremor and gravimetric data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maresca, Rosalba; Berrino, Giovanna

    2016-05-01

    We investigated the structure of the Volturara Irpina Plain, a small intra-mountain basin in southern Italy. Microtremor Horizontal-to-Vertical Spectral Ratio (HVSR) measurements were performed on a 50-point grid across the plain, and contour maps of the peak frequencies and maximum amplitudes of the HVSR curves were constructed. In the deepest part of the plain, the fundamental resonance frequencies were 0.8 Hz to 0.9 Hz. Assuming that the HVSR peak frequencies interpret the fundamental resonance frequencies, and taking into account the shear-wave velocity-depth relationship derived from down-hole data, a first thickness-frequency relationship for the plain was estimated. The sediment thickness corresponds to the depth from the ground surface of the seismic basement. A power-law thickness-frequency relationship was also derived through nonlinear regression fitting of the borehole data that intercepted the bedrock. Finally, the contour map of the depth of the seismic basement was constructed by averaging the thickness estimates from the two different approaches. Gravity measurements were also acquired on a 54-point grid across the plain, most of which coincided with microtremor stations. From these data, the Bouguer gravity anomaly was computed with reference to the 1980 Ellipsoid, and using a density of 2670 kg/m3, we propose a three-dimensional interpretation of the buried structure of the plain that is mainly formed by three overlapped layers. The separately obtained microtremor and gravity results were also compared, using constraints from the drillings. Thus, we interpret the first layer as Plio-Pleistocenic sediments mostly composed of clay, silty clay, and gravel. The underlying basement has maximum depth ~ 500 m below ground level (altitude, ~ 200 m a.s.l.), and corresponds to Mesozoic carbonate rocks. These rocks are nonhomogeneous, with an upper, less compact, layer formed by unstable rocks with clay, or fractured rocks with water circulation. This is

  9. Explaining the changing institutional organisation of Dutch farms: the role of farmer's attitudes, advisory network and structural factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongeneel, R.A.; Polman, N.B.P.; Slangen, L.H.G.

    2005-01-01

    Although the family farm remains the dominant organisational form for farms there are changes in the legal mode of organisation. Applying the new institutional economics and economic organisation theory the different organisation modes are explained, mainly in terms of control and income rights. Imp

  10. Explaining the changing institutional organisation of Dutch farms: the role of farmer's attitudes, advisory network and structural factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongeneel, R.A.; Polman, N.B.P.; Slangen, L.H.G.

    2005-01-01

    Although the family farm remains the dominant organisational form for farms there are changes in the legal mode of organisation. Applying the new institutional economics and economic organisation theory the different organisation modes are explained, mainly in terms of control and income rights.

  11. The use of the Electrical Resistivity Tomography to image deep volcanic structures: a methodological study applied to Mt. Vesuvius (Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troiano, Antonio; Giulia Di Giuseppe, Maria; Somma, Renato; Brandi, Giuseppe; Troise, Claudia; De Natale, Giuseppe

    2016-04-01

    increasing of the information overlapping. We present a study concerning this capability, applying the deep ERT imaging to the Mt. Vesuvius (Italy), that is among the most surveyed active volcanoes in the world for the great concern due to the high level of urbanization existing all around its slopes. 12 wireless ERT stations has been distributed along a nearly straight NW-SE transect, about 7 km long and passing about 2 km south of the Vesuvius crater. Despite several recent works present various MT imaging of the same area, a strong degree of uncertainty still persist due to contrasting results. Deep ERT imaging could furnish useful elements to resolve such ambiguity. An accurate analysis of the coherence degree of the artificial ERT source signals has been performed up to a several km distance. Performance of different statistical estimator has been evaluated and a deep imaging has been tested in order to resolve structures up to a few km depths.

  12. The structural setting of the Ischia Island (Phlegrean Volcanic District, Southern Italy): Inferences from geophysics and geochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paoletti, Valeria; D'Antonio, Massimo; Rapolla, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we give an overview of the recent geophysical, geochemical and volcanological studies concerning the island of Ischia within the geological and tectonic framework of Southern Italy. Ischia is an active volcanic field that had a complex volcanic history resulting from dominant explosive and minor effusive activity, several caldera collapses, and renewed volcanism from vents located inside the collapsed area. The island is morphologically dominated by Mt. Epomeo, the result of a prominent resurgence phenomenon taking place since ca. 33 ka BP, and responsible for ca. 900 m of total uplift, one of the largest known compared to the relatively small size of the caldera. The uplift was accompanied by activation of faults, seismic activity and renewal of volcanism, and may be considered a main factor for inducing slope instability. For Ischia, volcanological, petrological and geophysical studies are, at present, limited compared to the other active volcanoes of the Neapolitan Area. Furthermore, the island is characterized by high volcanic, seismic and hydrogeological risks. Thus, this review is aimed at highlighting aspects of the knowledge on Ischia that need more investigations, in order to better assess some characteristics of its structural setting. Features such as the precise location of the caldera boundaries and the depth of the magma chamber representing the drive for the resurgence still need to be well defined. A critical analysis of all lines of evidence relevant to the current theories about the island resurgence (resurgent block vs. resurgent dome) has been carried out. Our analysis reveals that the resurgent block model, differently from the resurgent dome model, is consistent with the most significant features, such as tilting of the resurgent block, faults type, dip and distribution at the edges of the block, and occurrence of most of the past 10 ka eruption vents on the eastern sector of the island. However, as both model require an input of

  13. Imaging 2D structures by the CSAMT method: application to the Pantano di S. Gregorio Magno faulted basin (Southern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troiano, Antonio; Di Giuseppe, Maria Giulia; Petrillo, Zaccaria; Patella, Domenico

    2009-06-01

    A controlled source audiofrequency magnetotelluric (CSAMT) survey has been undertaken in the Pantano di San Gregorio Magno faulted basin, an earthquake prone area of Southern Apennines in Italy. A dataset from 11 soundings, distributed along a nearly N-S 780 m long profile, was acquired in the basin's easternmost area, where the fewest data are available as to the faulting shallow features. A preliminary skew analysis allowed a prevailing 2D nature of the dataset to be ascertained. Then, using a single-site multi-frequency approach, Dantzig's simplex algorithm was introduced for the first time to estimate the CSAMT decomposition parameters. The simplex algorithm, freely available online, proved to be fast and efficient. By this approach, the TM and TE mode field diagrams were obtained and a N35°W ± 10° 2D strike mean direction was estimated along the profile, in substantial agreement with the fault traces within the basin. A 2D inversion of the apparent resistivity and phase curves at seven almost noise-free sites distributed along the central portion of the profile was finally elaborated, reinforced by a sensitivity analysis, which allowed the best resolved portion of the model to be imaged from the first few meters of depth down to a mean depth of 300 m b.g.l. From the inverted section, the following features have been outlined: (i) a cover layer with resistivity in the range 3-30 Ω m ascribed to the Quaternary lacustrine clayey deposits filling the basin, down to an average depth of about 35 m b.g.l., underlain by a structure with resistivity over 50 Ω m up to about 600 Ω m, ascribed to the Mesozoic carbonate bedrock; (ii) a system of two normal faults within the carbonate basement, extending down to the maximum best resolved depth of the order of 300 m b.g.l.; (iii) two wedge-shaped domains separating the opposite blocks of the faults with resistivity ranging between 30 Ω m and 50 Ω m and horizontal extent of the order of some tens of metres, likely

  14. Role of low angle normal faulting and basement thrusting on the structural architecture of the Northern Apennines (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molli, Giancarlo; Carlini, Mirko; Vescovi, Paolo; Artoni, Andrea; Balsamo, Fabrizio; Camurri, Francesca; Clemenzi, Luca; Storti, Fabrizio; Torelli, Luigi

    2017-04-01

    The Northern Apennines of Italy are a classical site for studying fundamental issues in thrust wedges, such as ophiolite formation and emplacement, interplay between tectonics and sedimentation, role of out-of-sequence thrusting, syn-orogenic versus post-orogenic extension, along strike segmentation, etc. Accordingly, the Northern Apennines have been extensively studied since more than two centuries ago. Despite the huge amount of available data with different resolution, a 3D comprehensive regional view combining in a modern framework all available surface and subsurface information for contiguous sectors of the chain is still lacking. We performed such an attempt in the area framed between the Taro valley to the north and the northern termination of the Alpi Apuane to the south. The region includes the main morphostructural zones of the North-West Apennines from the Tyrrhenian coast West-Northwest of La Spezia, through the main topographic divide of the Apennines, to the external frontal part of the chain. The area has been investigated through a multidisciplinary approach that integrated: 1) surface geological data collected during the last two decades of structural and stratigraphic field works in the internal as well as external sectors of the chain; 2) subsurface geological data including: a) interpretation of 1200 Km of seismic reflection profiles tied to surface geology and b) analysis of 39 boreholes stratigraphies. The construction of two regional NE-SW trending cross-sections (the Levanto-Pontremoli-Parma to the North and the La Spezia-Sarzana-North Apuane-Cerreto to the South), connected by the NW-SE trending Taro River-Lunigiana Area-Alpi Apuane composite section, allowed us to illustrate (i) the role of out-of-sequence blind thrusting in the basement, (ii) the presence of low angle normal faulting and its relationships with recent to active high angle normal faulting. Both extensional and contractional systems have relevant implications for the

  15. Farm Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... same bacterium that has become resistant to certain antibiotics, which can make infections harder to treat. MRSA can be passed back and forth between people and farm animals through direct contact. In humans, MRSA can cause ...

  16. Community investment in wind farms: funding structure effects in wind energy infrastructure development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beery, Joshua A; Day, Jennifer E

    2015-03-03

    Wind energy development is an increasingly popular form of renewable energy infrastructure in rural areas. Communities generally perceive socioeconomic benefits accrue and that community funding structures are preferable to corporate structures, yet lack supporting quantitative data to inform energy policy. This study uses the Everpower wind development, to be located in Midwestern Ohio, as a hypothetical modeling environment to identify and examine socioeconomic impact trends arising from corporate, community and diversified funding structures. Analysis of five National Renewable Energy Laboratory Jobs and Economic Development Impact models incorporating local economic data and review of relevant literature were conducted. The findings suggest that community and diversified funding structures exhibit 40-100% higher socioeconomic impact levels than corporate structures. Prioritization of funding sources and retention of federal tax incentives were identified as key elements. The incorporation of local shares was found to mitigate the negative effects of foreign private equity, local debt financing increased economic output and opportunities for private equity investment were identified. The results provide the groundwork for energy policies focused to maximize socioeconomic impacts while creating opportunities for inclusive economic participation and improved social acceptance levels fundamental to the deployment of renewable energy technology.

  17. 7 CFR 761.103 - Farm assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Agency assesses each farming operation to determine the applicant's financial condition, organizational structure, management strengths and weaknesses, appropriate levels of Agency oversight, credit counseling... assessment must evaluate, at a minimum, the: (1) Farm organization and key personnel qualifications; (2) Type...

  18. Farm size and growth in field crop and dairy farms in France, Hungary and Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Bakucs

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to investigate the relationship between size and farm growth. The existing theories of the association between size and farm growth give mixed results by countries and over time. This paper pursues a twofold objective: on one hand, to test the validity of Gibrat’s Law for French, Hungarian and Slovenian specialized dairy and crop farms during the pre- and post-accession period to the European Union membership. Dairy and crops farms are prevailing in the farming structure of these countries. Using Farm Accountancy Data Network datasets makes it necessary to avoid biases due to heterogeneous structures across the farming systems. Thus we use quantile regressions to control for farm size related heterogeneity in the samples. On the other hand, the main novelty of this paper is the comparative analysis of the relationship between farm size and farm growth between transition Hungarian and Slovenian and non-transition French farming sectors, characterized by rather different farm structures. The results reject the validity of Gibrat’s Law for crop farms in Hungary and to a lesser extent in France, and for French and Slovenian dairy farms. We provide evidence that smaller farms grew faster than larger ones over the studied period 2001-2007 for France, 2001-2008 for Hungary, and 2004-2008 for Slovenia. Conversely, the results for Slovenia suggest that the rate of growth of crop farms in terms of its land is independent from its size.

  19. Structural and Financial Characteristics of U.S. Sugar Beet Farms. Agricultural Economic Report Number 584.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clauson, Annette L.; Hoff, Frederic L.

    This report analyzes production and financial characteristics of sugar beet producers in seven regions. Section 1 examines the structural characteristics of U.S. sugar beet producers. Sugar beet production; land use, tenure, irrigation, and livestock enterprises are considered. Section 2 discusses production costs, including cost estimates,…

  20. Functional and structural microbial diversity in organic and conventional viticulture: organic farming benefits natural biocontrol agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Florian; Moser, Gerit; Müller, Henry; Berg, Gabriele

    2011-03-01

    Statistically significant differences in the structure and function of above-ground grapevine-associated microorganisms from organically and conventionally managed vineyards were found. Aureobasidium pullulans, a copper-detoxifying fungus and biocontrol agent, plays a key role in explaining these differences. The black fungus was strongly enriched in the communities of organically managed plants and yielded a higher indigenous antiphytopathogenic potential.

  1. The change of sowing structure as a strategy for improving competitiveness of family farms directed at the final production of fattened beef cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todorović Saša Z.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to examine the impact of sowing structure on family farm competiveness using the model of family farm directed at the final production of fattened beef cattle in the conditions of unchanged estate size. Applying a partial budget analysis, it was examined whether the decision on buying alfalfa hay or mercantile maize on the market and changing the sowing structure was economically justified and under what conditions using additional procedure of sensitive analysis. Applying this approach, it was investigated to what extent that decision contributed to improving the family farm profitability. The results of the conducted research show that the decision on buying mercantile maize mainly contributes to improving competitiveness of family farms directed at the final production of fattened beef cattle compared with the decision on buying alfalfa hay. It is the consequence of the fact that buying mercantile maize on the market will enable sowing structure changes, that is, buying mercantile maize will make the area free, which according to some conservative estimations, can be used for the production of sufficient amounts of alfalfa and silage maize for fattening of additional 19 head, whereas buying alfalfa hay will make the area free, which can be used for production of sufficient amounts of mercantile and silage maize for fattening of additional 6 head. In addition, it is shown that more rational way of organizing family farms directed at the final production of fattened beef cattle can additionally use available land resources and in that way increase profitability and improve competitiveness.

  2. Diachronic analysis of farmers' strategies within a protected area of central Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Silvestri

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The farm can be considered as the decision unit in the agricultural land management, therefore it is the most suitable scale to analyse the farmers’ strategies of production. In this paper we describe the results of a comparison between two enquiries carried out in 1992-93 and 2009-10 on more than 30 farms, corresponding to about 1500 ha of utilised agricultural area (UAA, within the boundaries of the San Rossore, Migliarino, Massaciuccoli Regional Park (central-western Italy. We calculate a set of agri-environmental indicators both at territory and farm scale in order to point out the changes occurred over almost twenty years in the farms’ structure, management and production features. The results showed that the major differences were related to fertilisers management (clearly decreasing, to the reduction of some crop types (industrial crops and to the strong decrease of the gross marketable production. Furthermore, apparently stable indicators, such as the utilised agricultural area and the farm tractors’ power, were actually the result of the compensation of contrasting trends. Farmers’ behaviours were substantially homogeneous within the same typology of farm, highlighting common evolution strategies. The desirability of the occurred changes was also evaluated, underlining the improvement of environmental sustainability of the current cropping systems and a greater social acceptability of agricultural activities, while the evaluation from the farmers’ point of view was less satisfactory.

  3. Farming termites determine the genetic population structure of Termitomyces fungal symbionts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobre, Tânia; Fernandes, Cecília; Boomsma, Jacobus J; Korb, Judith; Aanen, Duur K

    2011-05-01

    Symbiotic interactions between macrotermitine termites and their fungal symbionts have a moderate degree of specificity. Consistent with horizontal symbiont transmission, host switching has been frequent over evolutionary time so that single termite species can often be associated with several fungal symbionts. However, even in the few termite lineages that secondarily adopted vertical symbiont transmission, the fungal symbionts are not monophyletic. We addressed this paradox by studying differential transmission of fungal symbionts by alate male and female reproductives, and the genetic population structure of Termitomyces fungus gardens across 74 colonies of Macrotermes bellicosus in four west and central African countries. We confirm earlier, more limited, studies showing that the Termitomyces symbionts of M. bellicosus are normally transmitted vertically and clonally by dispersing males. We also document that the symbionts associated with this termite species belong to three main lineages that do not constitute a monophyletic group. The most common lineage occurs over the entire geographical region that we studied, including west, central and southern Africa, where it is also associated with the alternative termite hosts Macrotermes subhyalinus and Macrotermes natalensis. While Termitomyces associated with these alternative hosts are horizontally transmitted and recombine freely, the genetic population structure of the same Termitomyces associated with M. bellicosus is consistent with predominantly clonal reproduction and only occasional recombination. This implies that the genetic population structure of Termitomyces is controlled by the termite host and not by the Termitomyces symbiont.

  4. Immigrant Workers and Farm Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malchow-Møller, Nikolaj; Munch, Jakob R.; Seidelin, Claus Aastrup

    2013-01-01

    In many developed countries, the agricultural sector has experienced a significant inflow of immigrants. At the same time, agriculture is still in a process of structural transformation, resulting in fewer but larger and presumably more efficient farms. We exploit matched employer-employee data...... for Danish farms in 1980–2008 to analyze the micro-level relationship between these two developments. Farms employing immigrants tend to be both larger than and no less productive than other farms. Furthermore, an increased use of immigrants is associated with an improvement in job creation and revenue......, which at least partially seems to reflect a causal effect of immigrants....

  5. Temporal Genetic Variance and Propagule-Driven Genetic Structure Characterize Naturalized Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) from a Patagonian Lake Impacted by Trout Farming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeb, Lisa W.; Seeb, James E.; Arismendi, Ivan; Hernández, Cristián E.; Gajardo, Gonzalo; Galleguillos, Ricardo; Cádiz, Maria I.; Musleh, Selim S.

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge about the genetic underpinnings of invasions—a theme addressed by invasion genetics as a discipline—is still scarce amid well documented ecological impacts of non-native species on ecosystems of Patagonia in South America. One of the most invasive species in Patagonia’s freshwater systems and elsewhere is rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). This species was introduced to Chile during the early twentieth century for stocking and promoting recreational fishing; during the late twentieth century was reintroduced for farming purposes and is now naturalized. We used population- and individual-based inference from single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) to illuminate three objectives related to the establishment and naturalization of Rainbow Trout in Lake Llanquihue. This lake has been intensively used for trout farming during the last three decades. Our results emanate from samples collected from five inlet streams over two seasons, winter and spring. First, we found that significant intra- population (temporal) genetic variance was greater than inter-population (spatial) genetic variance, downplaying the importance of spatial divergence during the process of naturalization. Allele frequency differences between cohorts, consistent with variation in fish length between spring and winter collections, might explain temporal genetic differences. Second, individual-based Bayesian clustering suggested that genetic structure within Lake Llanquihue was largely driven by putative farm propagules found at one single stream during spring, but not in winter. This suggests that farm broodstock might migrate upstream to breed during spring at that particular stream. It is unclear whether interbreeding has occurred between “pure” naturalized and farm trout in this and other streams. Third, estimates of the annual number of breeders (Nb) were below 73 in half of the collections, suggestive of genetically small and recently founded populations that might experience

  6. Crustal structure of Tolfa domes complex (northern Latium - Italy) inferred from receiver functions analysis: an interplay between tectonics and magmatism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttinelli, M.; Bianchi, I.; Anselmi, M.; Chiarabba, C.; de Rita, D.; Quattrocchi, F.

    2010-12-01

    The Tolfa-Cerite volcanic district developed along the Tyrrhenian passive margin of central Italy, as part of magmatic processes started during the middle Pliocene. In this area the uncertainties on the deep crustal structures and the definition of the intrusive bodies geometry are focal issues that still need to be addressed. After the onset of the spreading of the Tyrrhenian sea during the Late Miocene, the emplacement of the intrusive bodies of the Tolfa complex (TDC), in a general back-arc geodynamical regime, generally occurred in a low stretching rate, in correspondence of the junctions between major lithospheric discontinuities. Normal faults, located at the edge of Mio-Pliocene basins, were used as preferential pathways for the rising of magmatic masses from the mantle to the surface. We used teleseismic recordings at the TOLF and MAON broad band station of the INGV seismic network (located between the Argentario promontory and Tolfa-Ceriti dome complexes -TDC-) to image the principal seismic velocity discontinuities by receiver function analysis (RF's). Together with RF’s velocity models of the area computed using the teleseismic events recorded by a temporary network of eight stations deployed around the TDC, we achieve a general crustal model of this area. The geometry of the seismic network has been defined to focus on the crustal structure beneath the TDC, trying to define the main velocity changes attributable to the intrusive bodies, the calcareous basal complex, the deep metamorphic basement, the lower crust and the Moho. The analysis of these data show the Moho at a depth of 23 km in the TDC area and 20 km in the Argentario area. Crustal models also show an unexpected velocity decrease between 12 and 18 km, consistent with a slight dropdown of the Vp/Vs ratio, imputable to a regional mid-crustal shear zone inherited from the previous alpine orogenesis, re-activated in extensional tectonic by the early opening phases of the Tyrrhenian sea. Above

  7. Institutional and structural barriers for implementing on-farm water saving irrigation systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Søren Marcus; Boesen, Mads Vejlby; Ørum, Jens Erik

    2013-01-01

    Population growth and increased global water demand has intensified the need to apply water more efficiently. As the main global water user the agricultural sector needs special attention. In this study, the water saving potential of new drip irrigation systems has been investigated in five...... to new water saving technologies are low in many of these regions due to low profitability of water savings and various institutional and structural barriers. On Crete, however, attempts have been made with regulation and volumetric water levies, resulting in the adoption of water saving technology...... are suggested to improve incentives to save water among farmers....

  8. Farming termites determine the genetic population structure of Termitomyces fungal symbionts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nobre, Tânia; Fernandes, Cecília; Boomsma, Jacobus J

    2011-01-01

    fungal symbionts. However, even in the few termite lineages that secondarily adopted vertical symbiont transmission, the fungal symbionts are not monophyletic. We addressed this paradox by studying differential transmission of fungal symbionts by alate male and female reproductives, and the genetic......Symbiotic interactions between macrotermitine termites and their fungal symbionts have a moderate degree of specificity. Consistent with horizontal symbiont transmission, host switching has been frequent over evolutionary time so that single termite species can often be associated with several...... associated with the alternative termite hosts Macrotermes subhyalinus and Macrotermes natalensis. While Termitomyces associated with these alternative hosts are horizontally transmitted and recombine freely, the genetic population structure of the same Termitomyces associated with M. bellicosus is consistent...

  9. Farm Tourism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blichfeldt, Bodil Stilling; Nielsen, Niels Christian; Nissen, Kathrine Aae

    2011-01-01

    This paper draws on a study of one specific type of small tourism enterprises (i.e. farm tourism enterprises) and argues that these enterprises differ from other enterprises in relation to a series of issues other than merely size. The analysis shows that enterprises such as these are characterized...... by blurriness of boundaries between „home spheres‟ and work situations as well as by a unique blend of commercial and private hospitality. Furthermore, the study shows that „social‟ motivations and non-monetary benefits gained through host-guest interactions are of great importance to the hosts. In particular......, our study suggests that it is problematic to threat farm tourism enterprises as if they have much in common with both larger corporations and other types of SMTEs. Farm tourism enterprises seem to differ significantly from other enterprises as the hosts are not in the tourism business because...

  10. Ant Farm

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Publié à l’occasion de l’exposition d’Ant Farm au Frac Centre du 12 au 23 décembre 2007, ce très beau catalogue, qui fait état des dix ans de création du collectif californien, propose un nombre important de documents iconographiques, de notices et de textes concernant leurs différents projets. Fondé en 1968 par Doug Michels et Chip Lord, rejoints par la suite par Curtis Schreier, Hudson Marquez, Douglas Hurr et d’autres encore, le collectif Ant Farm a marqué les esprits par quelques œuvres s...

  11. Update on Fish Disease Situation in Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Vendramin, Niccolò; Toffan, A.

    2012-01-01

    In this presentation we provide a general overview of the aquatic animal health issues related to the aquaculture sector and wild environment in Italy in 2011.Considering saltwater species European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) and Gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) are still the most widely farmed species, nevertheless some “new” candidates are employed often.The first two species represents more than 95% of the total production while the remaining is obtained by different promising candid...

  12. Venice, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Four hundred bridges cross the labyrinth of canals that form the 120 islands of Venice, situated in a saltwater lagoon between the mouths of the Po and Piave rivers in northeast Italy. All traffic in the city moves by boat. Venice is connected to the mainland, 4 kilometers (2.5 miles) away, by ferries as well as a causeway for road and rail traffic. The Grand Canal winds through the city for about 3 kilometers (about 2 miles), dividing it into two nearly equal sections. According to tradition, Venice was founded in 452, when the inhabitants of Aquileia, Padua, and several other northern Italian cities took refuge on the islands of the lagoon from the Teutonic tribes invading Italy at that time.This image was acquired on December 9, 2001 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER will image Earth for the next 6 years to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA

  13. Wind tunnel measurements of wake structure and wind farm power for actuator disk model wind turbines in yaw

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howland, Michael; Bossuyt, Juliaan; Kang, Justin; Meyers, Johan; Meneveau, Charles

    2016-11-01

    Reducing wake losses in wind farms by deflecting the wakes through turbine yawing has been shown to be a feasible wind farm control approach. In this work, the deflection and morphology of wakes behind a wind turbine operating in yawed conditions are studied using wind tunnel experiments of a wind turbine modeled as a porous disk in a uniform inflow. First, by measuring velocity distributions at various downstream positions and comparing with prior studies, we confirm that the nonrotating wind turbine model in yaw generates realistic wake deflections. Second, we characterize the wake shape and make observations of what is termed a "curled wake," displaying significant spanwise asymmetry. Through the use of a 100 porous disk micro-wind farm, total wind farm power output is studied for a variety of yaw configurations. Strain gages on the tower of the porous disk models are used to measure the thrust force as a substitute for turbine power. The frequency response of these measurements goes up to the natural frequency of the model and allows studying the spatiotemporal characteristics of the power output under the effects of yawing. This work has been funded by the National Science Foundation (Grants CBET-113380 and IIA-1243482, the WINDINSPIRE project). JB and JM are supported by ERC (ActiveWindFarms, Grant No. 306471).

  14. National Farm Medicine Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Research Areas Applied Sciences Biomedical Informatics Clinical Research Epidemiology Farm Medicine Human Genetics Oral-Systemic Health Clinical ... Consulting Agritourism Farm MAPPER Lyme Disease ROPS Rebate Zika Virus National Farm Medicine Center The National Farm ...

  15. Low virulent infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAV-HPR0) is prevalent and geographically structured in Norwegian salmon farming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyngstad, Trude M; Kristoffersen, Anja B; Hjortaas, Monika J; Devold, Magnus; Aspehaug, Vidar; Larssen, Rolf B; Jansen, Peder A

    2012-11-19

    Infectious salmon anaemia (ISA) is a severe disease in farmed Atlantic salmon Salmo salar that has caused epidemic outbreaks in most salmon-producing countries worldwide. The disease is caused by virulent ISA virus (ISAV). Low virulent variants of the virus, characterised by a full-length sequence in the highly polymorphic region of segment 6 in the virus genome, have been reported with increasing frequencies. These variants of the virus, termed HPR0, have been proposed to be ancestors of virulent ISAV. We examined this idea through studies of the phylogeographic and environmental distribution of ISAV-HPR0, as well as phylogeographic associations between virulent ISAV and ISAV-HPR0. Samples from 232 fish groups were screened for ISAV. Real-time RT-PCR was used for detection of ISAV, and the ISAV haemagglutinin esterase (HE) gene was characterised for positive samples. A Mantel test was used to test phylogeographic associations between pairs of ISAV-HPR0 HE gene sequences. A rank test was used to test associations between HE gene sequences from virulent ISAV and ISAV-HPR0. ISAV-HPR0 was detected in fish groups both in freshwater and marine environments, and in juveniles, on-grown marine salmon and broodstock salmon. Genetic and geographic distances between pairs of ISAV-HPR0 HE gene sequences were positively correlated, suggesting that the population of ISAV-HPR0 is geographically structured. Finally, we found a spatial association between fish groups with virulent ISAV (n = 21) and fish groups with ISAV-HPR0 (n = 27), supporting the hypothesis that ISAV-HPR0 may undergo a transition to virulent ISAV.

  16. Amaranth farming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarklev, Araceli; Kjær, Tyge; Kjærgård, Bente

    2008-01-01

    natural resources that small-scale farmers have to combat the abovementioned problems. The study identified several local and regional barriers for increasing the level of farming, production, processing and consumption. A striking and paradoxical limitation is the monopolization practices developed...... by some of the associations in relation to knowledge and technology transfer, seeds distribution and contact to potential national and foreign buyers....

  17. Molecular farming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merck, K.B.; Vereijken, J.M.

    2006-01-01

    Molecular Farming is a new and emerging technology that promises relatively cheap and flexible production of large quantities of pharmaceuticals in genetically modified plants. Many stakeholders are involved in the production of pharmaceuticals in plants, which complicates the discussion on the poss

  18. Can Organic Farming Reduce Vulnerabilities and Enhance the Resilience of the European Food System? A Critical Assessment Using System Dynamics Structural Thinking Tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Brzezina

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In a world of growing complexity and uncertainty, food systems must be resilient, i.e., able to deliver sustainable and equitable food and nutrition security in the face of multiple shocks and stresses. The resilience of the European food system that relies mostly on conventional agriculture is a matter of genuine concern and a new approach is called for. Does then organic farming have the potential to reduce vulnerabilities and improve the resilience of the European food system to shocks and stresses? In this paper, we use system dynamics structural thinking tools to identify the vulnerabilities of the conventional food system that result from both its internal structure as well as its exposure to external disturbances. Further, we evaluate whether organic farming can reduce the vulnerabilities. We argue here that organic farming has some potential to bring resilience to the European food system, but it has to be carefully designed and implemented to overcome the contradictions between the dominant socio-economic organization of food production and the ability to enact all organic farming’s principles—health, ecology, fairness and care—on a broader scale.

  19. Organic farming benefits local plant diversity in vineyard farms located in intensive agricultural landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimbene, Juri; Marini, Lorenzo; Paoletti, Maurizio G

    2012-05-01

    The majority of research on organic farming has considered arable and grassland farming systems in Central and Northern Europe, whilst only a few studies have been carried out in Mediterranean agro-systems, such as vineyards, despite their economic importance. The main aim of the study was to test whether organic farming enhances local plant species richness in both crop and non-crop areas of vineyard farms located in intensive conventional landscapes. Nine conventional and nine organic farms were selected in an intensively cultivated region (i.e. no gradient in landscape composition) in northern Italy. In each farm, vascular plants were sampled in one vineyard and in two non-crop linear habitats, grass strips and hedgerows, adjacent to vineyards and therefore potentially influenced by farming. We used linear mixed models to test the effect of farming, and species longevity (annual vs. perennial) separately for the three habitat types. In our intensive agricultural landscapes organic farming promoted local plant species richness in vineyard fields, and grassland strips while we found no effect for linear hedgerows. Differences in species richness were not associated to differences in species composition, indicating that similar plant communities were hosted in vineyard farms independently of the management type. This negative effect of conventional farming was probably due to the use of herbicides, while mechanical operations and mowing regime did not differ between organic and conventional farms. In grassland strips, and only marginally in vineyards, we found that the positive effect of organic farming was more pronounced for perennial than annual species.

  20. Fertility pattern and family structure in three Alpine settlements in South Tyrol (italy): marriage cohorts from 1750 to 1949.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gögele, Martin; Pattaro, Cristian; Fuchsberger, Christian; Pramstaller, Peter Paul

    2009-09-01

    Stelvio, Martello and Curon, three villages of the Venosta Valley, South Tyrol (Italy), were recently included in a large genetic survey because of their isolation. This study focuses on the long-term reproductive behaviour of these villages. Family size, age at marriage and marital fertility were estimated based on a genealogy going back in the 17th century. Marriage behaviour was characterized by an elevated age at marriage and a large proportion of adults never getting married. Marital fertility was among the highest worldwide, because couples tried to use the short time at their disposal to have the largest possible number of children. Together with the already known null population expansion and high geographic endogamy rates, the reduced number of siblings who had the opportunity to get married could have favoured an increased genetic homogeneity.

  1. Phytochemical Analysis, Biological Activity, and Secretory Structures of Stachys annua (L.) L. subsp. annua (Lamiaceae) from Central Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venditti, Alessandro; Bianco, Armandodoriano; Quassinti, Luana; Bramucci, Massimo; Lupidi, Giulio; Damiano, Silvia; Papa, Fabrizio; Vittori, Sauro; Maleci Bini, Laura; Giuliani, Claudia; Lucarini, Domenico; Maggi, Filippo

    2015-08-01

    Stachys annua subsp. annua, well-known in central Italy as 'stregona annuale', is an annual, small, slightly-scented herb, commonly found in fields and uncultivated areas in almost all regions of Italy. In folk medicine, its aerial parts were used as anti-catarrhal, febrifuge, tonic, and vulnerary. In the present work, the chemical composition of the flowering aerial parts was studied. The hydrodistilled volatile oil, analysed by GC/MS, showed sesquiterpenoids as the major fraction (42.5%); phytol (9.8%), germacrene D (9.2%), and spathulenol (8.5%) were the most abundant constituents. The volatile oil was assayed for antioxidant and cytotoxic activity by DPPH, ABTS, FRAP, and MTT methods. The cytotoxicity results against HCT116, A375, and MDA-MB 231 human tumor cell lines were significant, with IC50 values of 23.5, 37.2, and 41.5 μg/ml, respectively, whereas the antioxidant power was negligible. The EtOH extract was composed mainly of three glycosidic flavonoids, namely 7-{[2-O-(6-O-acetyl-β-D-allopyranosyl)-β-D-glucopyranosyl]oxy}-5,8-dihydroxy-2-(4-methoxyphenyl)-4H-1-benzopyran-4-one (1), 7-{[6-O-acetyl-2-O-(6-O-acetyl-β-D-allopyranosyl)-β-D-glucopyranosyl]oxy}-2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-5,8-dihydroxy-4H-1-benzopyran-4-one (2), and 7-{[6-O-acetyl-2-O-(β-D-allopyranosyl)-β-D-glucopyranosyl]oxy}-2-(3-hydroxy-4-methoxyphenyl)-5,8-dihydroxy-4H-1-benzopyran-4-one (3). On the contrary, iridoids, considered chemotaxonomic markers of the genus Stachys, were absent in this species. Finally, the morphological and histochemical survey showed that glandular trichomes were composed of two main types, i.e. peltate type A and capitate types B and C giving positive response for both lipids and polyphenols.

  2. Strength of materials and theory of elasticity in 19th century Italy a brief account of the history of mechanics of solids and structures

    CERN Document Server

    Capecchi, Danilo

    2015-01-01

    This book examines the theoretical foundations underpinning the field of strength of materials/theory of elasticity, beginning from the origins of the modern theory of elasticity. While the focus is on the advances made within Italy during the nineteenth century, these achievements are framed within the overall European context. The vital contributions of Italian mathematicians, mathematical physicists, and engineers in respect of the theory of elasticity, continuum mechanics, structural mechanics, the principle of least work, and graphical methods in engineering are carefully explained and discussed. The book represents a work of historical research that primarily comprises original contributions and summaries of work published in journals. It is directed at those graduates in engineering, but also in architecture, who wish to achieve a more global and critical view of the discipline and will also be invaluable for all scholars of the history of mechanics.

  3. Towards management of coastal erosion problems and human structure impacts using GIS tools: case study in Ragusa Province, Southern Sicily, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anfuso, G.; Martínez Del Pozo, J. A.

    2005-08-01

    A geomorphologic approach, combined with GIS spatial analysis, was used to investigate a 90-km long coastal sector in Southern Sicily, Italy, affected by important erosive processes. Applied methodology allowed the creation of a database involving a range of coastal characteristics thereby providing helpful information on coastal processes and general sediment circulation patterns. Coastal erosion, mainly linked to the construction of ports and harbours, has been locally mitigated by the construction of solid structures which themselves generate significant environmental stress in downdrift areas. In recent times, several nourishment projects have been planned to solve existing erosive problems, yet there is still a lack of a general erosion management plan based on the installation of port and harbour by-passing systems and including the phasing out of current beach cleaning and port maintenance procedures that produce a great quantity of sediments.

  4. Amaranth farming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarklev, Araceli; Kjær, Tyge; Kjærgård, Bente

    2008-01-01

    Though amaranth has been studied intensively for its exceptional nutritional properties, little has been reported about its capacity for fighting poverty, securing food supplies, turning migrations, or its impact on the environment and the prospect for mprovement of living conditions of those...... natural resources that small-scale farmers have to combat the abovementioned problems. The study identified several local and regional barriers for increasing the level of farming, production, processing and consumption. A striking and paradoxical limitation is the monopolization practices developed...

  5. How can farming intensification affect the environmental impact of milk production?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bava, L; Sandrucci, A; Zucali, M; Guerci, M; Tamburini, A

    2014-07-01

    The intensification process of the livestock sector has been characterized in recent decades by increasing output of product per hectare, increasing stocking rate, including more concentrated feed in the diet, and improving the genetic merit of the breeds. In dairy farming, the effects of intensification on the environmental impact of milk production are not completely clarified. The aim of the current study was to assess the environmental impacts of dairy production by a life cycle approach and to identify relations between farming intensity and environmental performances expressed on milk and land units. A group of 28 dairy farms located in northern Italy was involved in the study; data collected during personal interviews of farmers were analyzed to estimate emissions (global warming potential, acidification, and eutrophication potentials) and nonrenewable source consumption (energy and land use). The environmental impacts of milk production obtained from the life cycle assessment were similar to those of other recent studies and showed high variability among the farms. From a cluster analysis, 3 groups of farms were identified, characterized by different levels of production intensity. Clusters of farms showed similar environmental performances on product basis, despite important differences in terms of intensification level, management, and structural characteristics. Our study pointed out that, from a product perspective, the most environmentally friendly way to produce milk is not clearly identifiable. However, the principal component analysis showed that some characteristics related to farming intensification, such as milk production per cow, dairy efficiency, and stocking density, were negatively related to the impacts per kilogram of product, suggesting a role of these factors in the mitigation strategy of environmental burden of milk production on a global scale. Considering the environmental burden on a local perspective, the impacts per hectare were

  6. First surveys on genetic variability and structure of field maple (Acer campestre L. in natural and managed populations in the landscape of central and southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fulvio Ducci

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 14 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Four Tuscan populations (central Italy and three Italian populations from southern Italy (Campania were sampled to compare their genetic variability and genetic structure. In each geographical area one of the sampled populations is originated naturally in forest and used as a local reference. The remaining populations were originated artificially. Indeed, field maple was traditionally used in Italy to supply fresh fodder to animals in dry summer period as tree twigs or to train up grape trees in the fields edges. This tradition initiated  at the time of Etruscans and continued throughout the Roman partitioning of agriculture landscape. Biochemical markers were used to explore variability in the examined populations (5 enzyme systems by 11 loci. Results showed that the main amount of variation is due to the individual component as for most of the scattered hardwoods in Europe and that differentiation among populations for these neutral  traits is relatively low. On the other hand, the natural populations in both the geographical areas showed a very high level of panmittic equilibrium, whilst the artificial populations were really distant from this condition showing a high probability of “founder effect”. This could be determined by the former system of self-supplying reproductive material carried out by farmers, based on the wild offspring collection growing around few mother trees. Discussion is focused also on how handling the opportunity given by many hundreds kilometers of lines  in the agriculture landscape as a way of managing diversity for this species. st1\\:*{behavior:url(#ieooui } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabella normale"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso

  7. Integrated Methodologies for the 3D Survey and the Structural Monitoring of Industrial Archaeology: The Case of the Casalecchio di Reno Sluice, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Bitelli

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an example of integrated surveying and monitoring activities for the control of an ancient structure, the Casalecchio di Reno sluice, located near Bologna, Italy. Several geomatic techniques were applied (classical topography, high-precision spirit levelling, terrestrial laser scanning, digital close-range photogrammetry, and thermal imagery. All these measurements were put together in a unique reference system and used in order to study the stability and the movements of the structure over the period of time observed. Moreover, the metrical investigations allowed the creation of a 3D model of the structure, and the comparison between two situations, before and after the serious damages suffered by the sluice during the winter season 2008-2009. Along with the detailed investigations performed on individual portions of the structure, an analysis of the whole sluice, carried out at a regional scale, was done via the use of aerial photogrammetry, using both recently acquired images and historical photogrammetric coverage. The measurements were carried out as part of a major consolidation and restoration activity, carried out by the “Consorzio della Chiusa di Casalecchio e del Canale di Reno”.

  8. Buried volcanic structures in the Gulf of Naples (Southern Tyrrhenian Sea, Italy resulting from high resolution magnetic survey and seismic profiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ruggieri

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present a correlation between volcanic structures and magnetic anomalies in the Gulf of Naples (Southern Tyrrhenian Sea based on high resolution magnetic profiling. A densely spaced grid of magnetic profiles coupled with multichannel seismics (seismic source Watergun 15 cubic inch was recorded in the Gulf of Naples, representing an active volcanic area during the Late Quaternary (volcanic centers of Somma-Vesuvius, Phlegraean Fields and Ischia and Procida islands. The dataset was collected during the oceanographic cruise GMS00-05 which took place during October-November 2000 in the South Tyrrhenian Sea onboard of the R/V Urania (National Research Council, Italy. Shallow volcanic structures in the subsurface of the gulf were recognized by seismo-stratigraphic analysis of high resolution profiles; the volcanic nature of some of these structures was inferred identifying the magnetic anomalies on a high resolution magnetic anomaly map of the gulf. Even if qualitative, the correlations between seismic and magnetic profiles allow us to better assess the geological structure of the Gulf of Naples.

  9. Toxoplasma gondii infections in sheep in Sicily, southern Italy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesco, G; Buffolano, W; La Chiusa, S

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the burden of Toxoplasma gondii-infections in sheep in Sicily, southern Italy and the risk factors for infection. Sera from 1961 sheep were collected just before slaughtering from 62 farms located in 8 out of 9 Sicilian administrative districts. The sera were...

  10. Revisiting reproduction and population structure and dynamics of Procambarus clarkii eight years after its introduction into Lake Trasimeno (Central Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dörr A.J.M.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Understanding population dynamics and regulation is fundamental for predicting establishment and spread of invasive alien species. In addition, the population biology of invasive alien species offers an opportunity to study basic ecological processes. In this context, we investigated reproductive and growth plasticity in the invasive crayfish Procambarus clarkii in Lake Trasimeno (central Italy. In total, 3153 crayfish were collected monthly from June 2007 to July 2009. The molt status was assessed by evaluating the exoskeleton hardness. To assess the reproductive cycle, the gonado-somatic and wet hepato-somatic indices were calculated for females. The reproductive status of males was appraised as well. We estimated growth and longevity using the von Bertalanffy growth function, and calculated the total, natural and fishing mortality indices. We then compared our present data with those obtained from the same population eight years before. Our results indicate some changes in population dynamics and in both molting and reproductive periods since the initial invasion of the shallow lake investigated. Long-term differences in the life history of the Trasimeno population may be the result of selective pressures different from those of the native range, but may also result from colonization events and human interference caused by professional fishing activities.

  11. Inferences on the lithospheric structure of Campi Flegrei District (southern Italy) from seismic noise cross-correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costanzo, M. R.; Nunziata, C.

    2017-04-01

    Lithospheric VS models are defined in the Campi Flegrei District (southern Italy) through the non-linear inversion of the group velocity dispersion curves of fundamental-mode Rayleigh waves extracted from ambient noise cross-correlations between two receivers, and the regional group and phase velocities of the Italian cellular lithospheric model (1° × 1° cells). Four paths are investigated, of which one (ISCHIA-MIS) across two adjoining cells. The distribution of VS shows a pyroclastic covering with VS increasing from 0.3-0.7 km/s to 2.1 km/s. It rests on a lava or carbonate basement, about 5-6 km thick, with VS increasing from 2.1 km/s to 3.1 km/s at about 2 km of depth and rising to ∼0.6 km towards the island of Procida. A metamorphic layer is detected at an average depth of 7.7 km with VS of 3.8-3.9 km/s, about 5 km thick, overlying a low velocity layer (VS of 3.5 km/s) at about 11-12 km of depth. The VS model along the ISCHIA-MIS path, as average of the models obtained by combining local and regional dispersion data of the two adjoining cells, is well consistent with the other paths. The Moho discontinuity is retrieved at about 23 km of depth with VS of 4.2 km/s.

  12. Depth-to-the-bottom optimization for magnetic data inversion: Magnetic structure of the Latium volcanic region, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caratori Tontini, F.; Cocchi, L.; Carmisciano, C.

    2006-11-01

    We present an algorithm for the linear inversion of two-dimensional (2-D) surface magnetic data to obtain 3-D models of the susceptibility of the source. The forward model is discretized by a mesh of prismatic cells with constant magnetization that allows the recovery of a complete 3-D generating source. As the number of cells are normally greater than the amount of available data, we have to solve an underdetermined linear inverse problem. A Tikhonov regularization of the solution is introduced as a depth-weighting function adapted from Li and Oldenburg (1996) to close the source toward the bottom. The main novelty of this method is a first-stage optimization that gives information about the depth to the bottom of the generating source. This parameter permits both the evaluation of the appropriate vertical extension of the mesh and the definition of the shape of the regularizing depth-weighting distribution. After discussing the performance of this method by showing the results of various synthetic tests, we invert the magnetic anomalies of the volcanic edifices in the Latium region in central Italy to define their 3-D source distribution.

  13. Case study of seismic performance assessment of irregular RC buildings: hospital structure of Avezzano (L'Aquila, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraioli, Massimiliano

    2015-03-01

    Most published studies on inelastic earthquake response of non-symmetric buildings are based on simplified inelastic, highly idealized models, while general conclusions regarding the inelastic torsional response of multistory building are still lacking. This paper aims to provide a useful contribution in the study of the torsional response of real irregular buildings. To this aim, the manuscript reports the comprehensive study on the seismic vulnerability of an irregular RC building: the hospital building of Avezzano (L'Aquila Italy). For this multi-story building, which is irregular in both plan and elevation, the application of nonlinear static evaluation procedures is by no means straightforward. The study proposes a nonlinear static procedure based on pushover analysis under the multimodal distribution of lateral loads and a capacity spectrum method. This pushover procedure accounts for mass distribution, higher modes contribution and mode-shapes correlation. Furthermore, due to its non-iterative feature, it avoids problems of non-convergence and multiple solutions of the conventional capacity spectrum method. Applied to a real case study, the procedure is used to investigate, in a 3D plan irregular building, the sensitivity of torsional inelastic response to lateral force distribution, higher modes contribution, accidental eccentricity and controlled point for monitoring the target displacement.

  14. The Relationship of Dairy Farm Eco-Efficiency with Intensification and Self-Sufficiency. Evidence from the French Dairy Sector Using Life Cycle Analysis, Data Envelopment Analysis and Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soteriades, Andreas Diomedes; Stott, Alistair William; Moreau, Sindy; Charroin, Thierry; Blanchard, Melanie; Liu, Jiayi; Faverdin, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    We aimed at quantifying the extent to which agricultural management practices linked to animal production and land use affect environmental outcomes at a larger scale. Two practices closely linked to farm environmental performance at a larger scale are farming intensity, often resulting in greater off-farm environmental impacts (land, non-renewable energy use etc.) associated with the production of imported inputs (e.g. concentrates, fertilizer); and the degree of self-sufficiency, i.e. the farm’s capacity to produce goods from its own resources, with higher control over nutrient recycling and thus minimization of losses to the environment, often resulting in greater on-farm impacts (eutrophication, acidification etc.). We explored the relationship of these practices with farm environmental performance for 185 French specialized dairy farms. We used Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modelling to build, and relate, latent variables of environmental performance, intensification and self-sufficiency. Proxy indicators reflected the latent variables for intensification (milk yield/cow, use of maize silage etc.) and self-sufficiency (home-grown feed/total feed use, on-farm energy/total energy use etc.). Environmental performance was represented by an aggregate ‘eco-efficiency’ score per farm derived from a Data Envelopment Analysis model fed with LCA and farm output data. The dataset was split into two spatially heterogeneous (bio-physical conditions, production patterns) regions. For both regions, eco-efficiency was significantly negatively related with milk yield/cow and the use of maize silage and imported concentrates. However, these results might not necessarily hold for intensive yet more self-sufficient farms. This requires further investigation with latent variables for intensification and self-sufficiency that do not largely overlap- a modelling challenge that occurred here. We conclude that the environmental ‘sustainability’ of intensive dairy

  15. Three decades of farmed escapees in the wild: a spatio-temporal analysis of Atlantic salmon population genetic structure throughout Norway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin A Glover

    Full Text Available Each year, hundreds of thousands of domesticated farmed Atlantic salmon escape into the wild. In Norway, which is the world's largest commercial producer, many native Atlantic salmon populations have experienced large numbers of escapees on the spawning grounds for the past 15-30 years. In order to study the potential genetic impact, we conducted a spatio-temporal analysis of 3049 fish from 21 populations throughout Norway, sampled in the period 1970-2010. Based upon the analysis of 22 microsatellites, individual admixture, F(ST and increased allelic richness revealed temporal genetic changes in six of the populations. These changes were highly significant in four of them. For example, 76% and 100% of the fish comprising the contemporary samples for the rivers Vosso and Opo were excluded from their respective historical samples at P=0.001. Based upon several genetic parameters, including simulations, genetic drift was excluded as the primary cause of the observed genetic changes. In the remaining 15 populations, some of which had also been exposed to high numbers of escapees, clear genetic changes were not detected. Significant population genetic structuring was observed among the 21 populations in the historical (global F(ST =0.038 and contemporary data sets (global F(ST =0.030, although significantly reduced with time (P=0.008. This reduction was especially distinct when looking at the six populations displaying temporal changes (global F(ST dropped from 0.058 to 0.039, P=0.006. We draw two main conclusions: 1. The majority of the historical population genetic structure throughout Norway still appears to be retained, suggesting a low to modest overall success of farmed escapees in the wild; 2. Genetic introgression of farmed escapees in native salmon populations has been strongly population-dependent, and it appears to be linked with the density of the native population.

  16. Italy at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Caroline Laignel

    2005-01-01

    15 - 17 November 2005 Main Building Bldg 60 - ground and 1st floor 09:00 - 17:30 Twenty-six companies will present their latest technology at the "Italy at CERN" exhibition. Italian industry will exhibit products and technologies which are related to the field of particle physics. The main subjects are: electrical engineering, electronics, logistics, mechanical engineering, vacuum and low-temperature technology.   The exhibition is being organised by the INFN in Padua. The exhibitors are listed below.   A detailed programme will be available in due course : from your Departmental secretariat, at the exhibition, on the FI homepage http://fi-dep.web.cern.ch/fi-dep/structure/memberstates/exhibitions_visits.htm LIST OF EXHIBITORS  Ansaldo Superconduttori Spa CAEN Spa CECOM Snc Consorzio Canavese Export CPE Italia Spa Criotec Impianti Srl CTE Sistemi Srl Carpenteria S. Antonio Spa E.E.I. Equipaggiamenti Elettronici Industriali Elettronica Conduttori Srl Goma Elettronica Spa ICAR Spa Intercond Spa Keno...

  17. Gestalt psychology in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verstegen, I

    2000-01-01

    Graz gestalt psychology was introduced into Italy after World War I with Vittorio Benussi's emigration to Padua. His earliest adherent, Cesare Musatti, defended Graz theory, but after Benussi's premature death became an adherent of the Berlin gestalt psychology of Wertheimer-Köhler-Koffka. He trained his two most important students, Fabio Metelli and Gaetano Kanizsa, in orthodox Berlin theory. They established rigid "schools" in Padua and Trieste. The structure of Italian academics allowed for such strict orthodoxy, quite unlike the situation in America, where scientific objectivity mitigated against schools. In the 1960s, some of the students of Metelli and Kanizsa (above all Bozzi) initiated a realist movement-felt in Kanizsa's late work-that was quite independent of that of J. J. Gibson. Finally, more recently, Benussi and Graz theorizing have been embraced again, sentimentally, as a predecedent to Kanizsa-Bozzi.

  18. Micro-chemical and micro-structural investigation of the corrosion products on `` The Dancing Satyr'' (Mazara del Vallo, Sicily, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingo, G. M.; Riccucci, C.; Faraldi, F.; Casaletto, M. P.; Guida, G.

    2010-09-01

    The “ Dancing Satyr”, a bronze statue measuring more than 2 metres in height and weighting 108 kg, represents one of the most important recent archaeological finds in Italy. The statue was discovered on the floor of the Sicilian channel (the portion of the Mediterranean sea between Sicily and Tunisia), not far from the south-western Sicilian coast, under 500 metres of seawater in 1998. The bronze statue depicts a nude satyr captured in a frenzied whirling movement during a dance in honour of Dionysus, the God of wine. Though some scholars dated it to the IV century B.C. as an original Praxiteles work or a copy thereof, it could be also dated either back to the Hellenistic period (III or II century B.C.) or possibly to the Roman Empire age (early II century A.D.). The nature and structure of the corrosion products grown on the Dancing Satyr surface and the metallurgical features of the statue were investigated taking into account the nature of the marine environment of provenance. A detailed micro-chemical and micro-structural characterisation was performed by means of the combined use of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive spectrometry (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and optical microscopy (OM). Results provided good insight into the different corrosion layers and a tentative correlation of the patina nature and the chemical composition of the statue and the marine context is proposed.

  19. Farm Typology in the Berambadi Watershed (India: Farming Systems Are Determined by Farm Size and Access to Groundwater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion Robert

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Farmers’ production decisions and agricultural practices directly and indirectly influence the quantity and quality of natural resources, some being depleted common resources such as groundwater. Representing farming systems while accounting for their flexibility is needed to evaluate targeted, regional water management policies. Farmers’ decisions regarding investing in irrigation and adopting cropping systems are inherently dynamic and must adapt to changes in climate and agronomic, economic and social, and institutional, conditions. To represent this diversity, we developed a typology of Indian farmers from a survey of 684 farms in Berambadi, an agricultural watershed in southern India (state of Karnataka. The survey provided information on farm structure, the cropping system and farm practices, water management for irrigation, and economic performances of the farm. Descriptive statistics and multivariate analysis (Multiple Correspondence Analysis and Agglomerative Hierarchical Clustering were used to analyze relationships between observed factors and establish the farm typology. We identified three main types of farms: (1 large diversified and productivist farms; (2 small and marginal rainfed farms, and (3 small irrigated marketing farms. This typology represents the heterogeneity of farms in the Berambadi watershed.

  20. Selective microenvironmental effects play a role in shaping genetic diversity and structure in a Phaseolus vulgaris L. landrace: implications for on-farm conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiranti, B; Negri, V

    2007-12-01

    Little is known about the organization of landrace diversity and about the forces that shape and maintain within- and among-landrace population diversity. However, this knowledge is essential for conservation and breeding activities. The first aim of this study was to obtain some insight into how variation has been sculptured within a cultivated environment and to identify the loci that potentially underlie selective effects by using a Phaseolus vulgaris L. landrace case study whose natural and human environment and morpho-physiological traits are known in detail. The second aim of this study was to define an appropriate on-farm conservation strategy which can serve as a model for other populations. The farmers' populations of this threatened landrace were examined with 28 single sequence repeat molecular markers. The landrace appears to be a genetically structured population in which substantial diversity is maintained at the subpopulation level (62% of the total variance). Evidence of locus-specific selective effects was obtained for five of the 13 loci-differentiating subpopulations. Their role is discussed. Our data suggest that a complex interaction of factors (differential microenvironmental selection pressures by farmers and by biotic and abiotic conditions, migration rate and drift) explains the observed pattern of diversity. Appropriate on-farm conservation of a structured landrace requires the maintenance of the entire population.

  1. Livestock systems and farming styles in Eastern Italian Alps: an on-farm survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Ramanzin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to study the relationships between livestock systems, landscape maintenance and farming styles in the Belluno Province, a mountainous area of the Eastern Italian Alps. A total of 65 farms were sampled on the basis of livestock category farmed and herd size. Farms were visited to collect information on technical and productive aspects, on landscape features of land managed, which was identified by aerial photographs and digitised in a GIS environment, and on the farmers’ background, attitudes and approach to farming. Six different livestock systems were identified: intensive beef cattle (2 farms; extensive beef cattle (12 farms; large sheep/goat farms (9 farms; small sheep/goat farms (6 farms; intensive dairy cattle (14 farms and extensive dairy cattle (22 farms. The intensive systems had larger herds, modern structures and equipment, and were strongly production oriented, whereas the extensive systems had smaller herds and productivity, with often traditional or obsolete structures and equipment, but showed a tendency to diversify production by means of on-farm cheese making and/or mixed farming of different livestock categories. The ability to maintain meadows and pastures was greater for the extensive systems, especially in steep areas, while the annual nitrogen output, estimated as kg N/ha, was lower. Data on the farmers’ background and attitudes were analysed with a non-hierarchical cluster procedure that clustered the farmers into 4 farming styles widely different in motivations to farming, innovative capability, and ability to diversify income sources and ensure farm economic viability. The farming styles were distributed across all livestock systems, indicating the lack of a linkage between the assignment of a farm to a livestock system and the way the farm is managed. This study demonstrates that in mountain areas variability of livestock systems may be high, and that they differ not only in production practices

  2. Present situation and future challenges of beef cattle production in Italy and the role of the research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Cozzi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims at describing the current features and the future challenges of the beef cattle production systems in Italy. The first part of the article analyzes the main domestic production systems of veal calves and more adult beef cattle in terms of farm size and location, housing structures, feeding plans and cattle genotypes. The second part is address towards the analysis of a set of issues related to the current systems of production which could become important critical points in the short future. Potential solutions to reduce the environmental impact of the beef farms, to improve the animal welfare and to limit the import of foreign young livestock to be finished in our fattening units are proposed and discussed in the light of the more recent advances of the scientific research.

  3. Homo habitus: agency, structure and the transformation of tradition in the constitution of the TRB foraging-farming communities in the North European plain (ca 4500–2000 BC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Zvelebil

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The current generally accepted view of the dispersal of farming into Europe is that farming groups in the eastern Mediterranean colonised selectively optimal farming areas. The role of contact between indigenous hunter-gatherers and incoming farmers was very important to the operation of this process. This general view of the spread of farming at a broad inter-regional scale gives us our understanding of the origins of the Neolithic but merits closer examination at the local and regional level, as increasingly it is becoming apparent that the causes and motivations may have differed. In this paper, Mesolithic to Neolithic communities with evidence of the transition from hunter-gatherer to farmer will be examined at a regional scale, in the central part of the north European plain, focussing on Kujavia. Additionally, the theory of structuration will be applied in order to elucidate the transition process at this level.

  4. Management risk factors for calf mortality in intensive Italian dairy farms

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    High calf mortality is an important factor of economic loss in dairy production. At present, limited data are available on calf rearing practices and calf mortality in Italian dairy farming. The aim of the study was to identify the most important management risk factors for preweaning calf mortality in Italian dairy farms. A group of 28 intensive dairy farms from Lombardy (Italy) were visited to collect information about calf management and calf mortality. Female calf mortality showed high va...

  5. Associations between soil bacterial community structure and nutrient cycling functions in long-term organic farm soils following cover crop and organic fertilizer amendment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Adria L; Sheaffer, Craig C; Wyse, Donald L; Staley, Christopher; Gould, Trevor J; Sadowsky, Michael J

    2016-10-01

    Agricultural management practices can produce changes in soil microbial populations whose functions are crucial to crop production and may be detectable using high-throughput sequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA. To apply sequencing-derived bacterial community structure data to on-farm decision-making will require a better understanding of the complex associations between soil microbial community structure and soil function. Here 16S rRNA sequencing was used to profile soil bacterial communities following application of cover crops and organic fertilizer treatments in certified organic field cropping systems. Amendment treatments were hairy vetch (Vicia villosa), winter rye (Secale cereale), oilseed radish (Raphanus sativus), buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum), beef manure, pelleted poultry manure, Sustane(®) 8-2-4, and a no-amendment control. Enzyme activities, net N mineralization, soil respiration, and soil physicochemical properties including nutrient levels, organic matter (OM) and pH were measured. Relationships between these functional and physicochemical parameters and soil bacterial community structure were assessed using multivariate methods including redundancy analysis, discriminant analysis, and Bayesian inference. Several cover crops and fertilizers affected soil functions including N-acetyl-β-d-glucosaminidase and β-glucosidase activity. Effects, however, were not consistent across locations and sampling timepoints. Correlations were observed among functional parameters and relative abundances of individual bacterial families and phyla. Bayesian analysis inferred no directional relationships between functional activities, bacterial families, and physicochemical parameters. Soil functional profiles were more strongly predicted by location than by treatment, and differences were largely explained by soil physicochemical parameters. Composition of soil bacterial communities was predictive of soil functional profiles. Differences in soil function were

  6. Organic farming at the farm level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Brian H.; Madsen, Niels; Ørum, Jens Erik

    The purpose of this report is to present possible impacts of new technology and changes in legislation on the profitability of different types of organic farms. The aim is also to look at both the current and future trends in the organic area in Denmark. The farm level analyses are carried out...... as part of a larger project entitled “Economic analyses of the future development of organic farming – effects at the field, farm, sector and macroeconomic level”. The project links effects at the field-level with analyses at the farm level. These effects are then used in sector and macroeconomic analyses...

  7. Monitoring dam structural health from space: Insights from novel InSAR techniques and multi-parametric modeling applied to the Pertusillo dam Basilicata, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milillo, Pietro; Perissin, Daniele; Salzer, Jacqueline T.; Lundgren, Paul; Lacava, Giusy; Milillo, Giovanni; Serio, Carmine

    2016-10-01

    The availability of new constellations of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) sensors is leading to important advances in infrastructure monitoring. These constellations offer the advantage of reduced revisit times, providing low-latency data that enable analysis that can identify infrastructure instability and dynamic deformation processes. In this paper we use COSMO-SkyMed (CSK) and TerraSAR-X (TSX) data to monitor seasonal induced deformation at the Pertusillo dam (Basilicata, Italy) using multi-temporal SAR data analysis. We analyzed 198 images spanning 2010-2015 using a coherent and incoherent PS approach to merge COSMO-SkyMed adjacent tracks and TerraSAR-X acquisitions, respectively. We used hydrostatic-seasonal-temporal (HST) and hydrostatic-temperature-temporal (HTT) models to interpret the non-linear deformation at the dam wall using ground measurements together with SAR time-series analysis. Different look geometries allowed us to characterize the horizontal deformation field typically observed at dams. Within the limits of our models and the SAR acquisition sampling we found that most of the deformation at the Pertusillo dam can be explained by taking into account only thermal seasonal dilation and hydrostatic pressure. The different models show slightly different results when interpreting the aging term at the dam wall. The results highlight how short-revisit SAR satellites in combination with models widely used in the literature for interpreting pendulum and GPS data can be used for supporting structural health monitoring and provide valuable information to ground users directly involved in field measurements.

  8. Sensitivity of broad-band ground-motion simulations to earthquake source and Earth structure variations: an application to the Messina Straits (Italy)

    KAUST Repository

    Imperatori, W.

    2012-03-01

    In this paper, we investigate ground-motion variability due to different faulting approximations and crustal-model parametrizations in the Messina Straits area (Southern Italy). Considering three 1-D velocity models proposed for this region and a total of 72 different source realizations, we compute broad-band (0-10 Hz) synthetics for Mw 7.0 events using a fault plane geometry recently proposed. We explore source complexity in terms of classic kinematic (constant rise-time and rupture speed) and pseudo-dynamic models (variable rise-time and rupture speed). Heterogeneous slip distributions are generated using a Von Karman autocorrelation function. Rise-time variability is related to slip, whereas rupture speed variations are connected to static stress drop. Boxcar, triangle and modified Yoffe are the adopted source time functions. We find that ground-motion variability associated to differences in crustal models is constant and becomes important at intermediate and long periods. On the other hand, source-induced ground-motion variability is negligible at long periods and strong at intermediate-short periods. Using our source-modelling approach and the three different 1-D structural models, we investigate shaking levels for the 1908 Mw 7.1 Messina earthquake adopting a recently proposed model for fault geometry and final slip. Our simulations suggest that peak levels in Messina and Reggio Calabria must have reached 0.6-0.7 g during this earthquake.

  9. Crustal structure of Northern Latium (central Italy) from receiver functions analysis: New evidences of a post-collisional back-arc margin evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttinelli, Mauro; Chiarabba, Claudio; Anselmi, Mario; Bianchi, Irene; De Rita, Donatella; Quattrocchi, Fedora

    2014-05-01

    The crustal velocity structure in a region of central Apennines of Italy at the hinge between the highly stretched portion of the Monte Argentario promontory and the magmatic province of the Tolfa Domes Complex (Northern Latium) is discussed in this study. S-wave velocities at depth have been constrained by the modeling of P-wave receiver functions (RF) from both temporary and permanent broadband seismic stations. The computer 3D Vs models show a thin crust (19-25 km) made of a shallow and thin sedimentary cover, a very high velocity and anisotropic layer related to a metamorphic basement, and a low Vs anisotropic layer in the middle-lower crust above a shallow Moho discontinuity modeled at about 20 km depth. The volcano-tectonic evolution of this portion of Tyrrhenian back-arc margin has been strongly influenced by its peculiar crustal architecture. The low-Vs layer acted as a shear zone in the middle-lower crust during the Tyrrhenian extension, also helping the development of Plio-Quaternary magmatism. Our findings potentially give new constraints on the evolution of the area and to the general comprehension of back-arc development in collisional regions.

  10. Volcano-tectonic structures, gravity and helium in geothermal areas of Tuscany and Latium (Vulsini volcanic district), Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di, Filippo M.; Lombardi, S.; Nappi, G.; Reimer, G.M.; Renzulli, A.; Toro, B.

    1999-01-01

    Since the early 1980s, geological and structural mapping, gravity, and helium soil-gas studies have been performed in the eastern sector of the Vulsini Volcanic District (Roman Magmatic Province) in an attempt to locate potential geothermal reservoirs. This area is characterised by an anomalous geothermal gradient of > 100??C/km, and by widespread hydrothermal mineralization, thermal springs, high gas fluxes, and fossil and current travertine deposits. The results of these surveys indicate the existence of a number of fault systems, with N-S and E-W structures that appear to be superimposed on older NW-SE and NE-SW features. Comparison of the results of the various studies also reveals differences in permeability and potential reservoir structures at depth.Since the early 1980s, geological and structural mapping, gravity, and helium soil-gas studies have been performed in the eastern sector of the Vulsini Volcanic District (Roman Magmatic Province) in an attempt to locate potential geothermal reservoirs. This area is characterised by an anomalous geothermal gradient of > 100??C/km, and by widespread hydrothermal mineralization, thermal springs, high gas fluxes, and fossil and current travertine deposits. The results of these surveys indicate the existence of a number of fault systems, with N-S and E-W structures that appear to be superimposed on older NW-SE and NE-SW features. Comparison of the results of the various studies also reveals differences in permeability and potential reservoir structures at depth.

  11. [The influence of the socio-economic structure of the breeding farms of Franches-Montagnes horses on the conditions of husbandry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poncet, P A; Ionita, J C; Doherr, M G; Steiger, A

    2006-04-01

    The socio-economic structure of the breeding farms of Franches-Montagnes horses (FM) in Switzerland is evaluated on the basis of an investigation carried out in 2002 by the Swiss FM breeding federation. Questionnaires were sent to 3500 of its members and the results include data from 968 breeding enterprises, housing a total of 3965 FM. The quality of the husbandry of FM varies according to factors such as the altitude and the geographical situation of the farms and studs. Socio-economic parameters, such as the role of FM in the business, their use (breeding, driving, riding) and the age and level of professional education of the owners may also have an effect on standards of husbandry. The results show that the owners for whom FM represent a source of income more frequently keep their horses in standing stalls, but give them more time to exercise at liberty than the horses belonging to amateur breeders. Younger and better educated breeders are more likely to house their animals in groups.

  12. DEWI partnership in Italy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durante, F.; Dutilleux, P.; Klug, H.; Winkler, W. [DEWI, Wilhelmshaven (Germany)

    2006-02-15

    DEWI already has offices in Germany, France, Spain and Brazil. In order to cooperate with a local partner on the fast growing market of Italy, DEWI has signed a partnership contract with Fichtner Italia. In DEWI's main office in Wilhelmshaven the Italian micro siting specialist Francesco Durante is the contact person for Italy. (orig.)

  13. Counseling in Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remley, Theodore P.; Bacchini, Eugenio; Krieg, Paul

    2010-01-01

    The counseling profession in Italy is in an early stage of development. No university preparation programs exist, and counselors are not employed in schools. Counselors maintain private practices, work in agencies, and are employed by the government. Counselors receive their preparation in Italy from professional associations in programs that…

  14. Organic Farming in Austria

    OpenAIRE

    Vogl, C.R.; Heß, J

    1999-01-01

    During the present decade, Austria has experienced a dramatic increase in organic farming among those countries that comprise the European Union (EU). For example, in 1992, approximately 2,000 farms were practicing organic, ecological, or biodynamic farming methodes. By 1997 the number of certified organic farms plus those in transition from conventional farming had increased 10-fold to some 20,000 farms. This represents almost 9% of the total farms in Austria and an area of 345,375 ha, or 10...

  15. Soft-sediment deformation structures in seismically affected deep-sea Miocene turbidites (Cilento Basin, southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valente Alessio

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Soft-sediment deformation structures (SSDS are widespread in the upper part of the S. Mauro Formation (Cilento Group, Middle-Late Miocene. The succession is represented mainly by thick and very thick, massive, coarse-grained sandstones, deposited by rapid sedimentation of high-density turbidity currents. The most common SSDS are short pillars, dishes, sedimentary sills and convolutions. They occur mostly in the upper parts of sandstone beds. Vertical tubes of 4-5 cm in diameter and up to 50 cm long constitute the most striking structures. They begin in the middle part of sandstone beds, which are basically massive or contain faint dish structures. These tubes can bifurcate upwards and/ or pass into bedding-parallel veins or dikes. The vertical tubes sometimes form sand volcanoes on the then sedimentary surface.

  16. Volcano-tectonic structures, gravity and helium in geothermal areas of Tuscany and Latium (Vulsini volcanic district), Italy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Filippo, Michele; Lombardi, Salvatore; Toro, Beniamino [Universita di Roma ' La Sapienza' , Dip. di Scienze della Terra, Roma (Italy); Nappi, Giovanni; Renzulli, Alberto [Universita di Urbino, Ist. di Mineralogia e Petrologia, Urbino (Italy); Reimer, G. Michael [U.S. Geological Survey, Federal Center, Denver, CO (United States)

    1999-06-01

    Since the early 1980s, geological and structural mapping, gravity, and helium soil-gas studies have been performed in the eastern sector of the Vulsini Volcanic District (Roman Magmatic Province) in an attempt to locate potential geothermal reservoirs. This area is characterised by an anomalous geothermal gradient of 100degC/km, and by widespread hydrothermal mineralisation, thermal springs, high gas fluxes, and fossil and current travertine deposits. The results of these surveys indicate the existence of a number of fault systems, with N-S and E-W structures that appear to be superimposed on older NW-SE and NE-SW features. Comparison of the results of the various studies also reveals differences in permeability and potential reservoir structures at depth. (Author)

  17. New geological insights and structural control on fluid circulation in La Fossa cone (Vulcano, Aeolian Islands, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barde-Cabusson, S.; Finizola, A.; Revil, A.; Ricci, T.; Piscitelli, S.; Rizzo, E.; Angeletti, B.; Balasco, M.; Bennati, L.; Byrdina, S.; Carzaniga, N.; Crespy, A.; Di Gangi, F.; Morin, J.; Perrone, A.; Rossi, M.; Roulleau, E.; Suski, B.; Villeneuve, N.

    2009-09-01

    Electric resistivity tomography (ERT), self-potential (SP), soil CO 2 flux, and temperature are used to study the inner structure of La Fossa cone (Vulcano, Aeolian Islands). Nine profiles were performed across the cone with a measurement spacing of 20 m. The crater rims of La Fossa cone are underlined by sharp horizontal resistivity contrasts. SP, CO 2 flux, and temperature anomalies underline these boundaries which we interpret as structural limits associated to preferential circulation of fluids. The Pietre Cotte crater and Gran Cratere crater enclose the main hydrothermal system, identified at the centre of the edifice on the base of low electrical resistivity values (<20 Ω m) and strong CO 2 degassing, SP, and temperature anomalies. In the periphery, the hydrothermal activity is also visible along structural boundaries such as the Punte Nere, Forgia Vecchia, and Palizzi crater rims and at the base of the cone, on the southern side of the edifice, along a fault attributed to the NW main tectonic trend of the island. Inside the Punte Nere crater, the ERT sections show an electrical resistive body that we interpret as an intrusion or a dome. This magmatic body is reconstructed in 3D using the available ERT profiles. Its shape and position, with respect to the Pietre Cotte crater fault, allows replacing this structure in the chronology of the development of the volcano. It corresponds to a late phase of activity of the Punte Nere edifice. Considering the position of the SP, soil CO 2 flux, and temperature maxima and the repartition of conductive zones related to hydrothermal circulation with respect to the main structural features, La Fossa cone could be considered as a relevant example of the strong influence of pre-existing structures on hydrothermal fluid circulation at the scale of a volcanic edifice.

  18. Biofilm responses to marine fish farm wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanz-Lazaro, Carlos, E-mail: carsanz@um.es [Departamento de Ecologia e Hidrologia, Facultad de Biologia, Universidad de Murcia, 30100 Murcia (Spain); Navarrete-Mier, Francisco; Marin, Arnaldo [Departamento de Ecologia e Hidrologia, Facultad de Biologia, Universidad de Murcia, 30100 Murcia (Spain)

    2011-03-15

    The changes in the biofilm community due to organic matter enrichment, eutrophication and metal contamination derived from fish farming were studied. The biofilm biomass, polysaccharide content, trophic niche and element accumulation were quantified along an environmental gradient of fish farm wastes in two seasons. Biofilm structure and trophic diversity was influenced by seasonality as well as by the fish farm waste load. Fish farming enhanced the accumulation of organic carbon, nutrients, selenium and metals by the biofilm community. The accumulation pattern of these elements was similar regardless of the structure and trophic niche of the community. This suggests that the biofilm communities can be considered a reliable tool for assessing dissolved aquaculture wastes. Due to the ubiquity of biofilms and its wide range of consumers, its role as a sink of dissolved wastes may have important implications for the transfer of aquaculture wastes to higher trophic levels in coastal systems. - Research highlights: > Biofilms can act as a trophic pathway of fish farm dissolved wastes. > Biofilms are reliable tools for monitoring fish farm dissolved wastes. > The influence of the fish farm dissolved wastes can be detected 120-350 m from farm. - Under the influence of fish farming biofilm accumulates organic carbon, nutrients, selenium and metals, regardless of the structure and trophic niche of the community.

  19. Mixed crop-livestock farming systems: a sustainable way to produce beef? Commercial farms results, questions and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veysset, P; Lherm, M; Bébin, D; Roulenc, M

    2014-08-01

    Mixed crop-livestock (MC-L) farming has gained broad consensus as an economically and environmentally sustainable farming system. Working on a Charolais-area suckler cattle farms network, we subdivided the 66 farms of a constant sample, for 2 years (2010 and 2011), into four groups: (i) 'specialized conventional livestock farms' (100% grassland-based farms (GF), n=7); (ii) 'integrated conventional crop-livestock farms' (specialized farms that only market animal products but that grow cereal crops on-farm for animal feed, n=31); (iii) 'mixed conventional crop-livestock farms' (farms that sell beef and cereal crops to market, n=21); and (iv) organic farms (n=7). We analyse the differences in structure and in drivers of technical, economic and environmental performances. The figures for all the farms over 2 years (2010 and 2011) were pooled into a single sample for each group. The farms that sell crops alongside beef miss out on potential economies of scale. These farms are bigger than specialized beef farms (with or without on-farm feed crops) and all types of farms show comparable economic performances. The big MC-L farms make heavier and consequently less efficient use of inputs. This use of less efficient inputs also weakens their environmental performances. This subpopulation of suckler cattle farms appears unable to translate a MC-L strategy into economies of scope. Organic farms most efficiently exploit the diversity of herd feed resources, thus positioning organic agriculture as a prototype MC-L system meeting the core principles of agroecology.

  20. The Sacred Mountain of Varallo in Italy: seismic risk assessment by acoustic emission and structural numerical models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpinteri, Alberto; Lacidogna, Giuseppe; Invernizzi, Stefano; Accornero, Federico

    2013-01-01

    We examine an application of Acoustic Emission (AE) technique for a probabilistic analysis in time and space of earthquakes, in order to preserve the valuable Italian Renaissance Architectural Complex named "The Sacred Mountain of Varallo." Among the forty-five chapels of the Renaissance Complex, the structure of the Chapel XVII is of particular concern due to its uncertain structural condition and due to the level of stress caused by the regional seismicity. Therefore, lifetime assessment, taking into account the evolution of damage phenomena, is necessary to preserve the reliability and safety of this masterpiece of cultural heritage. A continuous AE monitoring was performed to assess the structural behavior of the Chapel. During the monitoring period, a correlation between peaks of AE activity in the masonry of the "Sacred Mountain of Varallo" and regional seismicity was found. Although the two phenomena take place on very different scales, the AE in materials and the earthquakes in Earth's crust, belong to the same class of invariance. In addition, an accurate finite element model, performed with DIANA finite element code, is presented to describe the dynamic behavior of Chapel XVII structure, confirming visual and instrumental inspections of regional seismic effects.

  1. The Sacred Mountain of Varallo in Italy: Seismic Risk Assessment by Acoustic Emission and Structural Numerical Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Carpinteri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We examine an application of Acoustic Emission (AE technique for a probabilistic analysis in time and space of earthquakes, in order to preserve the valuable Italian Renaissance Architectural Complex named “The Sacred Mountain of Varallo.” Among the forty-five chapels of the Renaissance Complex, the structure of the Chapel XVII is of particular concern due to its uncertain structural condition and due to the level of stress caused by the regional seismicity. Therefore, lifetime assessment, taking into account the evolution of damage phenomena, is necessary to preserve the reliability and safety of this masterpiece of cultural heritage. A continuous AE monitoring was performed to assess the structural behavior of the Chapel. During the monitoring period, a correlation between peaks of AE activity in the masonry of the “Sacred Mountain of Varallo” and regional seismicity was found. Although the two phenomena take place on very different scales, the AE in materials and the earthquakes in Earth’s crust, belong to the same class of invariance. In addition, an accurate finite element model, performed with DIANA finite element code, is presented to describe the dynamic behavior of Chapel XVII structure, confirming visual and instrumental inspections of regional seismic effects.

  2. Integrated geophysical survey for the geological structural and hydrogeothermal study of the North-western Gargano promontory (Southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Schiavone

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available A multimethodological geophysical survey was performed in the north-western part of the Gargano promontory to study the geological structural setting and the underground fluid flow characteristics. The area has a complex tectonics with some magmatic outcrops and shallow low-enthalpy waters. Electrical, seismic reflection, gravimetric and magnetic surveys were carried out to reconstruct the geological structures; and in order to delineate the hydrogeothermal characteristics of the area, the self-potential survey was mainly used. Moreover magnetic and self-potential measurements were also performed in the Lesina lake. The joint three-dimensional interpretation of the geophysical data disclosed a large horst and graben structure covering a large part of the area. In the central part of the horst a large ramified volcanic body was modelled. The models show some intrusions rising from it to or near to the surface. The main structures are well deep-seated in the Crust and along them deep warm fluids rise as the SP data interpretation indicates.

  3. Occupational and Qualification Structures in the Field of Environmental Protection in the Metal and Chemical Industries in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanzani, Claudio

    This report provides an initial analysis of the occupational and qualification structures in the field of environmental protection in the Italian metal and chemical industries. The first two chapters review the legislative background, situation in industry, and provision of environmental education and training. The third chapter presents results…

  4. Seismogenesis in Central Apennines, Italy: an integrated analysis of minor earthquake sequences and structural data in the Amatrice-Campotosto area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Rozzi

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available We present a seismotectonic study of the Amatrice-Campotosto area (Central Italy based on an integrated analysis of minor earthquake sequences, geological data and crustal rheology. The area has been affected by three small-magnitude seismic sequences: August 1992 (M=3.9, June 1994 (M=3.7 and October 1996 (M=4.0. The hypocentral locations and fault plane solutions of the 1996 sequence are based on original data; the seismological features of the 1992 and 1994 sequences are summarised from literature. The active WSWdipping Mt. Gorzano normal fault is interpreted as the common seismogenic structure for the three analysed sequences. The mean state of stress obtained by inversion of focal mechanisms (WSW-ENE-trending deviatoric tension is comparable to that responsible for finite Quaternary displacement, showing that the stress field has not changed since the onset of extensional tectonics. Available morphotectonic data integrated with original structural data show that the Mt. Gorzano Fault extends for ~28 km along strike. The along-strike displacement profile is typical of an isolated fault, without significant internal segmentation. The strong evidence of late Quaternary activity in the southern part of the fault (with lower displacement gradient is explained in this work in terms of displacement profile readjustment within a fault unable to grow further laterally. The depth distribution of seismicity and the crustal rheology yield a thickness of ~15 km for the brittle layer. An area of ~530 km2 is estimated for the entire Mt. Gorzano Fault surface. In historical times, the northern portion of the fault was probably activated during the 1639 Amatrice earthquake (I = X, M~ 6.3, but this is not the largest event we expect on the fault. We propose that a large earthquake might activate the entire 28 km long Mt. Gorzano Fault, with an expected Mmax up to 6.7.

  5. Lead-Antimony Sulfosalts from Tuscany (Italy. XX. Members of the Jordanite–Geocronite Series from the Pollone Mine, Valdicastello Carducci: Occurrence and Crystal Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Biagioni

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available A crystal-chemical study of historical specimens as well as new ones belonging to the jordanite–geocronite series from the Pollone baryte + pyrite ± (Pb-Zn-Ag ore deposit (Valdicastello Carducci, Apuan Alps, Tuscany, Italy has been performed. These crystals were collected in quartz extension veins embedded in three different occurrences: (i baryte + pyrite orebodies; (ii schist layers interbedded between baryte + pyrite orebodies; and (iii schists at the contact with pyrite-poor baryte orebodies. Electron-microprobe data indicated the occurrence of three distinct groups of compositions within the sample suite. These correspond to As-bearing geocronite, Sb-rich jordanite, and Sb-bearing jordanite, with mean compositions Pb14Sb3.8As2.2S23, Pb14Sb2.9As3.1S23, and Pb14Sb2.6As3.4S23, respectively. Crystals representative of these different compositions have been investigated through single-crystal X-Ray diffraction studies and their crystal structures have been solved to R1 = 0.078, 0.069, and 0.033, respectively. The unit-cell volume decreases passing through As-bearing geocronite (V = 2149.5(3 Å3 to Sb-bearing jordanite (V = 2132.3(3 Å3. The As-to-Sb substitution takes place preferentially at the Sb4 site; through the increasing of the Sb content, Sb can substitute As also at the As6 site. According to the structural study of the ore deposit, formation of jordanite–geocronite is subordinated to a late Alpine deformative D2 stage, which permitted in situ remobilization of preexisting sulfide ore in small quartz extension veins. Such a local recrystallization would explain the variability of the As/(As + Sb ratio of the members of the jordanite series, reflecting the heterogeneity of the orebody.

  6. Peri-Urban Matters. Changing Olive Growing Patterns in Central Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Laura Palazzo

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available For centuries, olive growing has played a major role in the central regions of Italy, with hectares of olive groves surrounding hill towns and hamlets as part of a strong deep-rooted farming tradition. With reference to Lazio and Abruzzo, this article makes use of historical documentation, geographical surveys and in-depth interviews with professionals and experts, in order to provide evidence of how olive growing, once of the mixed type, now with specialized cultivations, has somehow challenged the structural features of traditional landscapes. In some cases, this ancient farming tradition has been awarded the ‘Protected Designation of Origin Brand’ according to strict technical production policies. Besides intensive crops, today also practiced on flat ground, for some years now, olive trees have been cultivated by ‘hobby farmers’. This is frequent in fringe areas, threatened by urban sprawl, within small plots belonging to detached family homes conferring a sense of rural ‘revival’. Whether all these diverse settlement patterns are socially and economically sustainable is debatable. Definitely, such persistence in land use, which now and again can be read even as a material survival of certain tree specimens, allows for olive farming as an enduring cultural practice in the face of increasing urbanization.

  7. Dynamics and structure of natural regeneration in three high elevation LTER area in the Dolomites (North-Eastern Alps, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soraruf L

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Regeneration structures and spatial patterns of European larch (Larix decidua Miller, Swiss stone pine (Pinus cembra L. and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L. Karst., were analyzed in three high elevation LTER area in the Dolomites (North-Eastern Alps. Larch and spruce regeneration is mainly affected by dense forest cover and grasses competition whereas stone pine is mostly sensitive to late snow melting, fungal diseases and wild ungulate damages. The current stand and regeneration structure suggests that larch has been highly fostered in the past due to silvo-pastoral management practices. All species show a clear tendency to spatial intraspecific aggregation especially at short-distances. The spatial patterns of larch regeneration are more complex than the other two species, more heavily affected by a main factor such as the nutcracker (Nucifraga caryocatactes L. seed dispersal for stone pine or presence of canopy gaps for spruce. However, spatial patterns of all species depend on the number of the available microsites, that often match at small distance driving the formation of small mixed and unevenaged patches. Combining the age structure and spatial pattern information we were able to better understand the small-scale patterns and processes and the role of the past disturbances on the regeneration dynamics in space and time.

  8. The use of HVSR measurements for investigating buried tectonic structures: the Mirandola anticline, Northern Italy, as a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarabusi, G.; Caputo, R.

    2017-01-01

    The Mirandola anticline represents a buried fault-propagation fold which has been growing during Quaternary due to the seismogenic activity of a blind segment belonging to the broader Ferrara Arc. The last reactivation occurred during the May 2012 Emilia sequence. In correspondence with this structure, the thickness of the marine and continental deposits of the Po Plain foredeep is particularly reduced. In order to better define the shallow geometry of this tectonic structure, and hence its recent activity, we investigated in a depth range which is intermediate between the surficial morphological observations and seismic profiles information. In particular, we carried out numerous passive seismic measurements (single-station microtremor) for obtaining the horizontal-to-vertical spectral ratio. The results of a combined analysis of the peak frequency and its amplitude nicely fit the available geological information, suggesting that this low-cost geophysical technique could be successfully applied in other sectors of wide morphologically flat alluvial plains to investigate blind and completely buried potential seismogenic structures.

  9. Water table response to an experimental alley farming trial: dissecting the spatial and temporal structure of the data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noorduijn, S L; Ghadouani, A; Vogwill, R; Smettem, K R J; Legendre, P

    2010-09-01

    Clearing vegetation for traditional agriculture diminishes native habitat and reduces plant transpiration, leading to increased groundwater recharge and onset of dryland salinization due to rising groundwater and mobilization of salt stores in the soil profile. This change in hydrology and salinity can also negatively affect biodiversity in many semiarid regions. Alternating native perennial tree belts with mono-species agriculture within the tree belt alleys is one possible system that can provide recharge control and recover some of the ecosystem services of degraded agricultural landscapes. To assess the effect of this agroforestry technique on groundwater levels, an alley farming trial was established in 1995, incorporating different combinations of belt width, alley width, and revegetation density. Transects of piezometers within each design have been monitored from October 1995 to January 2008. The data set consisted of 70 piezometers monitored on 39 dates. Two trends were observed within the raw data: An increase in water table depth with time and an increase in the range of depths monitored at the site were clearly discernible. However, simple hydrograph analysis of the data has proved unsuccessful at distinguishing the effect of the tree belts on the water table morphology. The statistical techniques employed in this paper to show the effect of the experiment on the water table were variation partitioning, principal coordinates of neighbor matrices (PCNM), and canonical redundancy analysis (RDA). The environmental variables (alley farming design, distance of piezometer from the tree belt, and percentage vegetation cover including edge effect) explained 20-30% of the variation of the transformed and detrended data for the entire site. The spatial PCNM variables explained a further 20-30% of the variation. Partitioning of the site into a northern and southern block increased the proportion of explained variation for the plots in the northern block. The

  10. Robotic surgery in Italy national survey (2011).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, Eugenio; Pansadoro, Vito

    2013-03-01

    Robotic surgery in Italy has become a clinical reality that is gaining increasing acceptance. As of 2011 after the United States, Italy together with Germany is the country with the largest number of active Robotic centers, 46, and da Vinci Robots installed, with at least 116 operators already trained. The number of interventions performed in Italy in 2011 exceeded 6,000 and in 2010 were 4,784, with prevalence for urology, general surgery and gynecology, however these interventions have also begun to be applied in other fields such as cervicofacial, cardiothoracic and pediatric surgery. In Italy Robotic centers are mostly located in Northern Italy, while in the South there are only a few centers, and four regions are lacking altogether. Of the 46 centers which were started in 1999, the vast majority is still operational and almost half handle over 200 cases a year. The quality of the work is also especially high with large diffusion of radical prostatectomy in urology and liver resection and colic in general surgery. The method is very well accepted among operators, over 80 %, and among patients, over 95 %. From the analysis of world literature and a survey carried out in Italy, Robotic surgery, which at the moment could be better defined as telesurgery, represents a significant advantage for operators and a consistent gain for the patient. However, it still has important limits such as high cost and non-structured training of operators.

  11. Structural settings of the carbonatic "basament" and its relationship with magma uprising in the gulf of Naples (Southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Fusi

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available The carbonatic "basement" of the Gulf of Naples, a peri-tyrrhenian basin located on the western side of the Southern Apenninic chain, was studied in detail by means of seismic reflection profiles both on the mainland and in the sea. The carbonatic "basement" dips toward the north-west with an angle of 100 and is affected by brittle extensional tectonics. This structural setting is related to the extension of the Tyrrhenian Sea, which caused the development of horst and graben-like structure along the western margin of the Apennines. Some normal faults with a regional relevance were recognised: 1 a N 110° trending fault responsible for the sinking of the carbonic "basement" below Mount Somma-Vesuvius; 2 a N 1O° trending fault, along which five sub- marine volcanoes are aligned; 3 a N70° fault, which separates the Gulf of Naples from the Gulf of Salerno. The first two faults, arranged radially with respect to the shallow magmatic chamber of Phlegraean Fields, are interpreted as the main uprising route for magma in this area. The carbonatic "basement"cannot be recognized in seismic profiles in the Phlegraean area; a tectonic feature responsible for this is hypothesised.

  12. Italy of censuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, G M

    1983-06-01

    To supplement census data on Italy's economy, Istat conducted a sample survey of 2% of households. This paper reports survey findings in 3 areas: age structure of the population, employment and unemployment patterns by region, and structure of the productive system. Those over age 65 years have increased from 11% of the population in 1971 to 13% in 1981 and are forecast to constitute 14.5% in 1991. Women accounted for 51.3% of the total population in 1981 but 58.5% of those over age 65. 12% of households have a member over age 75. The 0-14 year age group has declined from 24.4% of the population in 1971 to 21.5% in 1981 and is projected to comprise 17.4% in 1991. The labor force activity rate was 39.8% in 1981. Unemployment was set at 14.7% in the census sample compared with 9.1% in Istat's quarterly survey of the labor force. 60% of the difference between these 2 figures was accounted for by Campania, Sicily, Puglia, Calabria, and Latium. These 5 regions, which account for only 30% of total employment, are the areas with the most acute employment problems and highest proportions of casual employment in agriculture and traditional services. Agriculture accounted for 22% of total unemployment, construction for 18.5%, and traditional industry for 14%--percentages that are higher than the share of total employment represented by these sectors. In the South, 20.4% of employment is in agriculture, 18.1% in industry, 12.6% in construction, and 48.9% in services. The average worker in the South supports 3.3 persons compared with 2.5 persons in the North. Survey results indicate a substantial shift in the sectoral composition of employment as well as a change in the size of productive units. There has been an increase in the highly specialized components of the economy, including services to firms. The average size of factories has declined, with a proliferation of small and medium sized units. These findings suggest a need to broaden and deepen Italy's industrial base

  13. Sedimentary structures formed by upper-regime flows on a Pleistocene carbonate ramp (Favignana Calcarenite, Sicily, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slootman, Arnoud; Moscariello, Andrea; Cartigny, Matthieu; de Boer, Poppe

    2015-04-01

    Antidune, chute-and-pool and cyclic step deposits are found in the outcrops of the Pleistocene calcarenite wedge of Favignana Island. These deposits were formed on a prograding carbonate ramp. Three zones are identified: inner-mid ramp (shoreface), ramp slope, and outer ramp (offshore). The ramp slope dips 3° to 10° and drops 30-40 m over 400-600 m. The ramp slope and outer ramp show a succession of bioturbated dune cross beds with up to 10 m-thick, intercalated event beds containing supercritical-flow structures. Grain sizes range from coarse sand to granules, with large rhodoliths (algal balls) and shells as gravel-sized clasts. It is our aim to provide insight into the processes that create upper-regime flow structures and the hydraulic parameters of their generating flows. During normal storms, wind-driven currents generated submarine dunes that migrated across the sea floor. During exceptional high-energy events (megastorms, tsunamis), large amounts of skeletal debris from the carbonate factory were transported towards the top of the ramp slope, where under the effect of gravity sustained supercritical sediment gravity flows were generated. In a case study of bedform evolution, we present the formation of a large downstream-asymmetric bedform with two antidunes superimposed on its upstream flank. A stepwise flow reconstruction reveals the progressive steepening of the antidunes until critical steepness is reached, and the first and, shortly after, the second antidune wave breaks. The two hydraulic jumps thus formed, developed a temporary cyclic step morphology (i.e. hydraulic jump, accelerating subcritical flow, supercritical chute, hydraulic jump etc.). The bedform geometries are used to reconstruct the nature of the catastrophic events that were active on the ramp slope. The wave length of the antidunes is measured from outcrop, which, through hydraulic equations, allows for estimation of mean flow velocity as a function of sediment concentration in the

  14. Structural analysis and tectonic implications of a shallow layer-parallel shear zone in the central Apennines (Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavani, S.; Cifelli, F.

    2009-04-01

    The central Apennines is a Neogenic NE verging fold-and-thrust belt, characterized by inherited lower Liassic structures and by different paleogeographic domains (with different rheological behaviours), which played a first order role in the tectonic evolution of the belt. The N-S trending Olevano-Antrodoco, one of the major thrusts of this area, is commonly interpreted as an oblique out-of-sequence structure, along which the Sabina slope domain (to the west) overthrusted the Latium-Abruzzi carbonate platform domain (to the East), reactivating the original Liassic to Miocenic boundary. Paleomagnetic data indicate that the Sabina domain and the Latium-Abruzzi domain were characterized by the occurrence of opposite vertical-axis rotations, clockwise and counterclockwise, respectively, in the two domains, suggesting a different tectonic evolution of these sectors. However, paleomagnetic data can provide only partial information on the kinematic evolution of this area because rocks suitable for paleomagnetic analysis are not widespread in the Latium-Abruzzi domain. Moreover, rocks exposed in the two domains do not allow performing analyses on sediments of the same ages. In this work, in order to provide additional kinematic and geometric constraints to the tectonic evolution of this part of Central Apennines, a mesostructural study was carried out in a decollement level, exposed in both Sabina and Latium-Abruzzi domains and located at the top of the meso-cenozoic carbonatic sequence. The Anisotropy of Magnetic Susceptibility (AMS) analysis was integrated with the structural analysis, representing an additional rock fabric indicator used to unravel the deformational history of the studied rocks. The analysed decollement was active in the early stages of the belt evolution and consists of a thick shear zone dominated by pressure solution cleavage oblique to bedding. The widespread exposition of this level, allows using the pressure solution cleavage as a regional

  15. Tectonic structure and post-Hercynian evolution of the Serre, Calabrian Arc, southern Italy: Geological, petrological and radiometric evidences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moro, Aldo Del; Paglionico, Antonio; Piccarreta, Giuseppe; Rottura, Alessandro

    1986-04-01

    Conflicting opinions exist concerning the structure and the post-Hercynian evolution of the Serre. The present paper deals with these topics on the basis of new geological, petrological and radiometric evidence. The composition of the so-called Stilo and Polia-Copanello units has been redefined. The above domains—former sections of upper and lower Palaeozoic continental crust respectively—came into contact, due to transcurrent movements 130-140 Ma ago. A significant vertical component during the transcurrent movements, probably, exhumed the former section of lower crust. The above domains, juxtaposed, were successively involved as a single kinematic body in the Alpine orogenesis. The results enable us to make inferences for the Calabrian Arc evolution and call attention to similarities between an Austro-Alpine element (Stilo + Polia-Copanello) of the Calabrian chain and a South-Alpine sector of the Alps (Ivrea + Ceneri zones).

  16. Temporal and spatial changes in the composition and structure of helminth component communities in European eels Anguilla anguilla in an Adriatic coastal lagoon and some freshwaters in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dezfuli, Bahram Sayyaf; Giari, Luisa; Castaldelli, Giuseppe; Lanzoni, Mattia; Rossi, Remigio; Lorenzoni, Massimo; Kennedy, Clive Russell

    2014-01-01

    The composition and diversity of the helminth component communities in eels Anguilla anguilla were determined in three separate localities in Italy: an Adriatic coastal lagoon, Comacchio and two freshwater localities, the River Po and the Lake Piediluco. Data from Comacchio lagoon were analysed over 15 years to determine whether community composition and diversity changed significantly overtime. The community was species rich (nine species, all marine except Proteocephalus macrocephalus) and was dominated by a suite of digeneans: Deropristis inflata, Helicometra fasciata, Lecithochirium musculus and Bucephalus anguillae. The community showed little change in composition over the period, but the relative abundance and dominance of the species did alter. By contrast, the component communities in the freshwater localities were species poor and the dominant species were freshwater acanthocephalans, Pomphorhyncus laevis in River Po and Acanthocephalus rhinensis in Lake Piediluco. The helminth community of Lake Piediluco with five species was richer than that of the River Po with only three species, but was poorer than that of Comacchio lagoons. Similarity indices between samples from Comacchio were high; between the lagoon and the freshwater localities and between the two freshwater localities, similarity indices were very low. Helminth component community structure in coastal lagoons was comparable across Europe. The helminth community in the River Po was similar to those in the River Tiber and other European rivers whilst that in Lake Piediluco was similar to that in other European lakes. Levels of the pathogenic Anguillicoloides crassus in swim bladders were consistently lower in prevalence and abundance in the coastal lagoons than in freshwater localities. This suggests that this parasite may have little impact on migrating eels if they are indeed primarily of marine origin and so it may be of little importance in the recent decline of eel populations throughout

  17. Active tectonic structures and submarine landslides offshore southern Apulia (Italy): a new scenario for the 1743 earthquake and subsequent tsunami

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milia, Alfonsa; Iannace, Pietro; Torrente, Maurizio M.

    2017-06-01

    The southern Apulia foreland recorded a strong (Imax=X MCS) earthquake in 1743 and a concomitant tsunami, which struck the southeastern Salento coast. The seismo-genetic fault and the triggering factors of the tsunami are unknown. Three-dimensional interpretation of multichannel seismic profiles calibrated by wells using a GIS software enabled the recognition of the stratigraphic succession, structural framework, and submarine landslides offshore Salento. A thin Pliocene unit overlying the Mesozoic-Cenozoic substrate is covered by a Pleistocene succession separated by a Middle Pleistocene unconformity that formed during the regional uplift of Salento. The latter gave rise to the morphologic conditions for the deposition of a prograding wedge off the Salento coast, with a shelf break located at 150 m depth. Normal faults, mainly oriented NW-SE, displaced the early Lower Pleistocene succession and are buried by younger deposits. Since the Middle Pleistocene, a compressional event gave rise to the Apulia uplift and large folds and basement-involved reverse faults that are active in the eastern part of Apulia. A huge (58 km3) slump affecting the Middle Pleistocene prograding wedge has been documented offshore the southeast coast of Salento. The proposed geological scenario of the 1743 earthquake and subsequent tsunami is (1) an initial strong earthquake (Imax=X MCS) associated with a thrust fault located in the eastern sector of the Apulia offshore, (2) a shacking-induced large-volume slump offshore Otranto, and (3) landslide-triggered tsunamis that struck the Salento coast.

  18. Structure of a normal seismogenic fault zone in carbonates: The Vado di Corno Fault, Campo Imperatore, Central Apennines (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demurtas, Matteo; Fondriest, Michele; Balsamo, Fabrizio; Clemenzi, Luca; Storti, Fabrizio; Bistacchi, Andrea; Di Toro, Giulio

    2016-09-01

    The Vado di Corno Fault Zone (VCFZ) is an active extensional fault cutting through carbonates in the Italian Central Apennines. The fault zone was exhumed from ∼2 km depth and accommodated a normal throw of ∼2 km since Early-Pleistocene. In the studied area, the master fault of the VCFZ dips N210/54° and juxtaposes Quaternary colluvial deposits in the hangingwall with cataclastic dolostones in the footwall. Detailed mapping of the fault zone rocks within the ∼300 m thick footwall-block evidenced the presence of five main structural units (Low Strain Damage Zone, High Strain Damage Zone, Breccia Unit, Cataclastic Unit 1 and Cataclastic Unit 2). The Breccia Unit results from the Pleistocene extensional reactivation of a pre-existing Pliocene thrust. The Cataclastic Unit 1 forms a ∼40 m thick band lining the master fault and recording in-situ shattering due to the propagation of multiple seismic ruptures. Seismic faulting is suggested also by the occurrence of mirror-like slip surfaces, highly localized sheared calcite-bearing veins and fluidized cataclasites. The VCFZ architecture compares well with seismological studies of the L'Aquila 2009 seismic sequence (mainshock MW 6.1), which imaged the reactivation of shallow-seated low-angle normal faults (Breccia Unit) cut by major high-angle normal faults (Cataclastic Units).

  19. Active tectonic structures and submarine landslides offshore southern Apulia (Italy): a new scenario for the 1743 earthquake and subsequent tsunami

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milia, Alfonsa; Iannace, Pietro; Torrente, Maurizio M.

    2017-01-01

    The southern Apulia foreland recorded a strong (Imax=X MCS) earthquake in 1743 and a concomitant tsunami, which struck the southeastern Salento coast. The seismo-genetic fault and the triggering factors of the tsunami are unknown. Three-dimensional interpretation of multichannel seismic profiles calibrated by wells using a GIS software enabled the recognition of the stratigraphic succession, structural framework, and submarine landslides offshore Salento. A thin Pliocene unit overlying the Mesozoic-Cenozoic substrate is covered by a Pleistocene succession separated by a Middle Pleistocene unconformity that formed during the regional uplift of Salento. The latter gave rise to the morphologic conditions for the deposition of a prograding wedge off the Salento coast, with a shelf break located at 150 m depth. Normal faults, mainly oriented NW-SE, displaced the early Lower Pleistocene succession and are buried by younger deposits. Since the Middle Pleistocene, a compressional event gave rise to the Apulia uplift and large folds and basement-involved reverse faults that are active in the eastern part of Apulia. A huge (58 km3) slump affecting the Middle Pleistocene prograding wedge has been documented offshore the southeast coast of Salento. The proposed geological scenario of the 1743 earthquake and subsequent tsunami is (1) an initial strong earthquake (Imax=X MCS) associated with a thrust fault located in the eastern sector of the Apulia offshore, (2) a shacking-induced large-volume slump offshore Otranto, and (3) landslide-triggered tsunamis that struck the Salento coast.

  20. Projected Cropping Patterns, Livestock Enterprises, Processing Activities, Capital Requirements, Employment, Income, and Training Needs for Alternative Farm Organizational Structures for the Navajo Indian Irrigation Project. A Special Report to the Four Corners Regional Commission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorman, William D.; And Others

    Information on the expected cropping patterns, livestock enterprises, processing and related activities, income and employment opportunities, capital needs, and training requirements for alternative farm organizational structures that could be selected for development of the Navajo Indian Irrigation Project is presented in this report. The major…

  1. Grassland Farming System: Components, Structure and Function%草地畜牧业系统:要素、结构和功能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周道玮; 钟荣珍; 孙海霞; 刘华伟; 王敏玲; 余苗; 李光棣

    2013-01-01

    草地饲草生产联系牲畜生产组成一个紧密的整体,形成草地畜牧业系统,能量和营养在土壤-饲草-牲畜间转移流动,形成结构,并输出牲畜生产成为系统功能.草地畜牧业系统具有系统的一般特征:整体性、结构性、层次性、功能性、动态性;同时,又有独特的特征,即半自然半人工性,自然性主要表现为饲草生产是一个受土壤、气候决定的自然过程,人工性主要表现为牲畜放牧生产和饲养生产是一个有人工作用的过程.草地畜牧业系统各要素具有复杂的影响因子,并构筑成子系统,子系统的数量关系决定主系统的功能.定义草地畜牧业系统,并将各要素及其子系统纳入到统一的草地畜牧业系统有助于综合理解草地管理及其牲畜生产,有助于从系统层次进行思考,而不是纠缠于特定类型、性质、组成要素及其之间的关系或相互作用等细节.中国年用饲草料7亿t,生产2000万t牲畜,饲草转化率仅为2%~3%,系统效率非常低,发展有粮草地畜牧业对于促进北方草地畜牧业系统效率、保护草地具有根本意义.%Grassland farming system concepts consist of forage and livestock production as affected by grazing and driven by marketing. Energy and nutrients transferred from forage to animals form the system structure and function. Grassland farming system has generally common characteristics; for example behavior, structure, relationship, and integration. The system also has its specific characteristics, as influenced by being both a semi natural and semi human-made system. Its natural attribute is represented by a production process of grass/forage depending on soil and climate, while the human-made attribute is represented by a process of livestock production depending on forage quantities and qualities and labor involvement. Each component of the system has a series of elements to form a subsystem which allows total system

  2. Spatio-temporal analysis of the urban-rural gradient structure: an application in a Mediterranean mountainous landscape (Serra San Bruno, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modica, G.; Vizzari, M.; Pollino, M.; Fichera, C. R.; Zoccali, P.; Di Fazio, S.

    2012-12-01

    The most recent and significant transformations of European landscapes have occurred as a consequence of a series of diffused, varied and often connected phenomena: urban growth and sprawl, agricultural intensification in the most suitable areas and agricultural abandonment in marginal areas. These phenomena can affect dramatically ecosystems' structure and functioning, since certain modifications cause landscape fragmentation while others tend to increase homogeneity. Thus, a thorough comprehension of the evolution trends of landscapes, in particular those linked to urban-rural relations, is crucial for a sustainable landscape planning. In this framework, the main objectives of the present paper are: (a) to investigate Land Use/Land Cover (LULC) transformations and dynamics that occurred over the period 1955-2006 in the municipality of Serra San Bruno (Calabria, Italy), an area particularly representative of the Mediterranean mountainous landscape; (b) to compare the settlement growth with the urban planning tools in charge in the study area; (c) to examine the relationship between urban-rural gradient, landscape metrics, demographic and physical variables; (d) to investigate the evolution of urban-rural gradient composition and configuration along significant axes of landscape changes. Data with a high level of detail (minimum mapping unit 0.2 ha) were obtained through the digitisation of historical aerial photographs and digital orthophotos identifying LULC classes according to the Corine Land Cover legend. The investigated period was divided into four significant time intervals, which were specifically analysed to detect LULC changes. Differently from previous studies, in the present research the spatio-temporal analysis of urban-rural gradient was performed through three subsequent steps: (1) kernel density analysis of settlements; (2) analysis of landscape structure by means of metrics calculated using a moving window method; (3) analysis of composition and

  3. Spatio-temporal analysis of the urban-rural gradient structure: an application in a Mediterranean mountainous landscape (Serra San Bruno, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Modica

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The most recent and significant transformations of European landscapes have occurred as a consequence of a series of diffused, varied and often connected phenomena: urban growth and sprawl, agricultural intensification in the most suitable areas and agricultural abandonment in marginal areas. These phenomena can affect dramatically ecosystems' structure and functioning, since certain modifications cause landscape fragmentation while others tend to increase homogeneity. Thus, a thorough comprehension of the evolution trends of landscapes, in particular those linked to urban-rural relations, is crucial for a sustainable landscape planning.

    In this framework, the main objectives of the present paper are: (a to investigate Land Use/Land Cover (LULC transformations and dynamics occurred over the period 1955–2006 in the municipality of Serra San Bruno (Calabria, Italy, an area particularly representative of the Mediterranean mountainous landscape; (b to compare the settlement growth with the urban planning tools in charge in the study area; (c to examine the relationship between urban-rural gradient, landscape metrics, demographic and physical variables; (d to investigate the evolution of urban-rural gradient composition and configuration along significant axes of landscape changes.

    Data with a high level of detail (minimum mapping unit 0.2 ha were obtained through the digitisation of historical aerial photographs and digital orthophotos identifying LULC classes according to the Corine Land Cover legend. The investigated period was divided into four significant time intervals, which were specifically analysed to detect LULC changes.

    Differently from previous studies, in the present research the spatio-temporal analysis of urban-rural gradient was performed through three subsequent steps: (1 kernel density analysis of settlements; (2 analysis of landscape structure by means of metrics calculated using a moving window method

  4. CleverFarm final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-09-15

    Wind turbine technology has ventured in recent years from prototypes and first deployments towards large power plant scale projects. With this, also the ownership structure of wind farms changed: from single farmers to cooperatives, and to large multi-national developers specialised in building and running wind power projects. At the same time, the best sites for wind energy were already taken, leading to more remote sites and offshore sites being developed. Both these developments lead to an increased wish for remote monitoring of turbines. Ideally, the turbine would know on its own accord when it would need maintenance, and call the maintenance crew autonomously. The crew then would have all the information they need to have before they go out to the turbine and do the necessary tasks. Having knowledge of the type of fault that has happened would help the maintenance crew to deal with it efficiently. This also could mean to wait until the next scheduled maintenance is due. The potential savings for this alone are considerable, if you think of the plans for offshore wind farms tens of kilometres from the coast, where access would probably be by helicopter. The idea behind this project was to take the existing techniques developed for optimising and enhancing the performance of wind farms, integrate them into one system and implement the system at a number of wind farms. The techniques include remote measuring of the status and production of the wind farm, short-term prediction of the expected wind speeds at and power output from the wind farm, models for wake calculations, remote control of wind farm production and so on. (au)

  5. CleverFarm final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-09-15

    Wind turbine technology has ventured in recent years from prototypes and first deployments towards large power plant scale projects. With this, also the ownership structure of wind farms changed: from single farmers to cooperatives, and to large multi-national developers specialised in building and running wind power projects. At the same time, the best sites for wind energy were already taken, leading to more remote sites and offshore sites being developed. Both these developments lead to an increased wish for remote monitoring of turbines. Ideally, the turbine would know on its own accord when it would need maintenance, and call the maintenance crew autonomously. The crew then would have all the information they need to have before they go out to the turbine and do the necessary tasks. Having knowledge of the type of fault that has happened would help the maintenance crew to deal with it efficiently. This also could mean to wait until the next scheduled maintenance is due. The potential savings for this alone are considerable, if you think of the plans for offshore wind farms tens of kilometres from the coast, where access would probably be by helicopter. The idea behind this project was to take the existing techniques developed for optimising and enhancing the performance of wind farms, integrate them into one system and implement the system at a number of wind farms. The techniques include remote measuring of the status and production of the wind farm, short-term prediction of the expected wind speeds at and power output from the wind farm, models for wake calculations, remote control of wind farm production and so on. (au)

  6. PECULIARITIES OF THE GENETIC STRUCTURE OF RAINBOW TROUT (ONCORHYNCHUS MYKISS GROUPS AT THE FISH FARM “SLOBODA BANILOV”, CHERNIVTSI REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Р. Mendrishora

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Study of the peculiarities of the genetic structure based on genetic-biochemical markers in age-1+ and 2+ rainbow trout of the fish farm “Sloboda Banilov”, Chernivtsi region Methodology. We used the methods of vertical polyacrylamide and horizontal starch electrophoresis with own modification. Sampling of biological material and histochemical and staining of gel plates were performed according to generally accepted methods. The frequency of allele and genotypic variants were calculated, actual and expected level of heterozygosis for each individual locus and the level of mean heterozygosis per locus were determined, Wright F fixation index was calculated. Statistical processing of experimental data was performed with the use "Biosys-1" software. Findings. We performed an analysis of the genetic structure of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss groups with the use of genetic-biochemical markers — esterase loci (EST, EC 3.1.1.1, carboanhydrase (CA, EC 4.2.1.1, isocitrate dehydrohenase (IDH, EC1.1.1.41, superoxide dismutase (SОD, EC 1.15.1.1. We showed the peculiarities of the distribution of allele variants of the studied loci of rainbow trout. The genotypic composition of biochemical system loci supposed the surplus of fish with heterozygous genotypes by SOD locus in age-1+ fish (Go=26; Ge=15.3, χ2=15.4, Р<0.001, as well as by EST loci (Go=22; Ge=14.6, χ2=7.9, Р<0.01 Originality. For the first time we performed an assessment of the genetic structure based on genetic-biochemical markers and calculated the level of heterozygosis in age-1+ and 2+ rainbow trout reared at the fish farm “Sloboda Banyliv” of Chernivtsi region. Practical value. Results of the study can be used for solving various tasks of group and individual identification of populations when forming the stocks for optimizing their genetic structure. Experimental data of the frequency of allele and genotype distribution will be used for studying the effect of

  7. Rupestrian culture in Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Crescenzi, C

    2012-01-01

    Rupestrian culture in Italy. L'articolo descrive sinteticamente le aree di studio, di alcune regioni italiane interessate dal fenomeno dell’architettura rupestre, che sono state oggetto dei workshop realizzati nell'ambito del progetto di ricerca internazionale Cultural Rupestrian Heritage in the Circum-Mediterraneam Area-cinp. Programme Culture 2007-2013, Budget 2010, Strand 1.1 Multi-annual cooperation project, Strand 1.2.1- Cooperation measures. estrian culture in Italy

  8. Italy at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Caroline Laignel

    2005-01-01

    15 - 17 November 2005 Main Building Bldg 60 - ground and 1st floor 09:00 - 17:30 Twenty-six companies will present their latest technology at the "Italy at CERN" exhibition. Italian industry will exhibit products and technologies which are related to the field of particle physics.The main subjects are: electrical engineering, electronics, logistics, mechanical engineering, vacuum and low-temperature technology. The exhibition is being organised by the INFN in Padua.The exhibitors are listed below.A detailed programme will be available in due course : from your Departmental secretariat, at the exhibition, on the FI homepage http://fi-dep.web.cern.ch/fi-dep/structure/memberstates/exhibitions_visits.htm LIST OF EXHIBITORS  Ansaldo Superconduttori Spa CAEN Spa CECOM Snc Consorzio Canavese Export CPE Italia Spa Criotec Impianti Srl CTE Sistemi Srl Carpenteria S. Antonio Spa E.E.I. Equipaggiamenti Elettronici Industriali Elettronica Conduttori Srl Goma Elettronica Spa ICAR Spa Intercond Spa Kenotec Srl O...

  9. ITALY AT CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    FI Department

    2008-01-01

    4 – 6 March 2008 Main Building Bldg 60 - ground and 1st floor 09.00 hrs - 17.30 hrs Nineteen companies will present their latest technology at the "Italy at CERN" exhibition. Italian industry will exhibit products and technologies related to the field of particle physics. The main subjects are civil engineering and buildings, data processing, electrical engineering, electronics, industrial support, mechanical engineering, particle detectors and vacuum and low-temperature technology. The exhibition is being organised by the INFN of Padova. The exhibitors are listed below. More details on the firms can be found at the following link: http://fi-dep.web.cern.ch/fi-dep/structure/memberstates/exhibitions_visits.htm LIST OF EXHIBITORS Boffetti Impianti S.r.l. Bozzi & Figli S.r.l. C.A.E.N. S.p.A. Cavicel S.p.A. Comecer S.p.A. E.E.I. Elettronica Conduttori S.r.l. Euromec S.r.l. Eurotech S.p.A. IRST Fondazione Bruno Kessler IVG Colbacchini S.p.A. Krohne Italia S.r.l. Luvata For...

  10. Italy au CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    FI Department

    2008-01-01

    4 – 6 March 2008 Main Building Bldg 60 - ground and 1st floor 09.00 hrs - 17.30 hrs Nineteen companies will present their latest technology at the "Italy at CERN" exhibition. Italian industry will exhibit products and technologies related to the field of particle physics. The main subjects are civil engineering and buildings, data processing, electrical engineering, electronics, industrial support, mechanical engineering, particle detectors and vacuum and low-temperature technology. The exhibition is being organised by the INFN of Padova. The exhibitors are listed below. More details on the firms can be found at the following link: http://fi-dep.web.cern.ch/fi-dep/structure/memberstates/exhibitions_visits.htm LIST OF EXHIBITORS Boffetti Impianti S.r.l. Bozzi & Figli S.r.l. C.A.E.N. S.p.A. Cavicel S.p.A. Comecer S.p.A. E.E.I. Elettronica Conduttori S.r.l. Euromec S.r.l. Eurotech S.p.A. IRST Fondazione Bruno Kessler IVG Colbacchini S.p.A. Krohne Italia S.r.l. Luvata For...

  11. Current status of geothermal energy in Italy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carella, R.

    Italy has been one of the first countries to develop applications or its geothermal energy resources. As a resource it is both abundant and available in the high temperature range. A world premiere was the electricity production in Tuscany (Western Italy) output 56 which at present is 3200 GWh/y from 624 MW of operating capacity. In the low-enthalpy field Italy has enjoyed widespread development of spas, both for therapeutic and heating purposes. The latter's output has now attained presently 127,000 TOE/y. District and other residential heating amount to about 37,000 TOE/y and include two recent very significant projects in the Po Valley (Ferrara and Vicenza). Some large-size greenhouse complexes are heated by geothermal fluids (M. Amiata in Tuscany and Pantani in Latium) as well as fish farms on the Tyrrhenian coast. Agricultural applications account for 19,000 TOE/y. While the outlook is bright for electricity production which is due to increase substantially in the next decade, the short-term future is uncertain for low enthalpy resources, especially in view of low energy prices. Given the abundance of the resources and their environmental benefits, longer term prospects should be good, particularly if energy prices firm up. 1 fig.

  12. 3D architecture and structural characterization of the Lima Valley low-angle fault system (Northern Apennines, Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemenzi, L.; Molli, G.; Botti, F.; Ungari, A.; Storti, F.

    2012-04-01

    The nappe pile of the northern Apennines is characterized, from bottom to top, by metamorphic units (Apuane and Massa), overlain by the anchimetamorphic cover unit (Tuscan Nappe), in turn overlain by remnants of former intraoceanic accretionary wedge (Subligurian and Ligurian units) and by the Epiligurian wedge-top sediments. The upper part of the structural edifice, in several areas, is dismembered and thinned by low-angle extensional fault systems, such as those described in southern Tuscany (Carmignani et al., 1994) and in southernmost Liguria (e.g. Tellaro detachment, Storti, 1995). Here we present another example of such low-angle fault systems, exposed in the Lima valley (northern Tuscany). It consists of a well developed bedding-parallel fault system which appears to be, in turn, affected by superimposed folds and late-stage normal faults (Botti et al., 2010). The original geometry of the low-angle fault system has been reconstructed and superimposed deformations have been restored. The fault system is composed by two first order segments, both of them showing bedding-parallel attitude and top-to-NE kinematics. The uppermost segment causes the tectonic repetition of the pelagic sediments of Scaglia fm. (Upper Cretaceous - Oligocene) and the sandstone of Macigno fm. (Oligocene - Miocene); the lowermost one causes the direct contact of the Macigno fm. on the pelagic carbonate of the Maiolica fm. (Upper Jurassic - Lower Cretaceous), via the elision of the Scaglia fm.. In the central part of the study area, other formations are elided by the lowermost fault segment, giving the direct contact of the Macigno fm. with the Calcare selcifero di Limano fm. (Lower Jurassic). The damage zone of the two main tectonic contacts has been studied in detail to investigate the role of the different lithologies involved. In the Macigno sandstone, a foliated cataclasite developed in the proximity of the fault core, intercalated with smaller lithons of less deformed rock

  13. Three cases of ophthalmomyiasis externa by sheep botfly Oestrus ovis in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dono, Mariella; Bertonati, Maria Rosa; Poggi, Roberto; Teneggi, Elena; Maddalo, Francesco; Via, Fabrizio; Orlandi, Rita; Maroli, Michele; Roncella, Silvio; Fedeli, Franco; Battolla, Enrico

    2005-10-01

    Human infection with the sheep nasal botfly Oestrus ovis is sporadic and is often the consequence of an accidental deposit of the larvae by an adult botfly in the eye. This infestation results in external ophthalmomyiasis that, although a very rare condition, is more common among people living close to farming communities. We report three cases of O. ovis infestation which occurred in Italy in a limited area of La Spezia province (Le Cinque Terre), Italy during summer 2004. None of the patients had contact with wild or farm animals.

  14. Wind Farm Structures’ Impact on Harmonic Emission and Grid Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kocewiak, Lukasz Hubert; Hjerrild, Jesper; Bak, Claus Leth

    The impact of a wind farm’s internal structures on harmonic emission at the point of common coupling and on the whole system frequency characteristic is investigated in this paper. The largest wind farms in the world, Horns Rev 2 Offshore Wind Farm and Polish Karnice Onshore Wind Farm...

  15. 47 CFR 17.9 - Designated antenna farm areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Designated antenna farm areas. 17.9 Section 17... ANTENNA STRUCTURES Federal Aviation Administration Notification Criteria § 17.9 Designated antenna farm areas. The areas described in the following paragraphs of this section are established as antenna farm...

  16. 47 CFR 17.8 - Establishment of antenna farm areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Establishment of antenna farm areas. 17.8... LIGHTING OF ANTENNA STRUCTURES Federal Aviation Administration Notification Criteria § 17.8 Establishment of antenna farm areas. (a) Each antenna farm area will be established by an appropriate rulemaking...

  17. Organic farming at the farm level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Brian H.; Madsen, Niels; Ørum, Jens Erik

    The purpose of this report is to present possible impacts of new technology and changes in legislation on the profitability of different types of organic farms. The aim is also to look at both the current and future trends in the organic area in Denmark. The farm level analyses are carried out...... as part of a larger project entitled “Economic analyses of the future development of organic farming – effects at the field, farm, sector and macroeconomic level”. The project links effects at the field-level with analyses at the farm level. These effects are then used in sector and macroeconomic analyses......, which are described in other reports from Food and Resource Economic Institute (Jacobsen, 2005 and Andersen et al., 2005). This gives coherent results from the field to the macroeconomic level regarding changes in technology and legislation....

  18. Population genetic structure in farm and feral American mink (Neovison vison) inferred from RAD sequencing-generated single nucleotide polymorphisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thirstrup, Janne Pia; Ruiz-Gonzalez, Aritz; Pujolar, José Martin

    2015-01-01

    Feral American mink populations (Neovison vison), derived from mink farms, are widespread in Europe. In this study we investigated genetic diversity and genetic differentiation between feral and farm mink using a panel of genetic markers (194 SNP) generated from RAD sequencing data. Sampling incl...

  19. Values in Organic Farming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgård, Bente; Pedersen, Kirsten Bransholm; Land, Birgit

    The study focuses on the recent debate about what is, or what constitutes, organic farming and what is the right path for organic farming in the future. The study is based on a critical discourse analysis of the controversy about suspending the private standard for organic farming adopted...

  20. Values in Organic Farming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgård, Bente; Pedersen, Kirsten Bransholm; Land, Birgit

    The study focuses on the recent debate about what is, or what constitutes, organic farming and what is the right path for organic farming in the future. The study is based on a critical discourse analysis of the controversy about suspending the private standard for organic farming adopted...

  1. Welfare issues of modern laying hen farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Ferrante

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This review starts with a brief outline of poultry behaviour and biology and a description of the present laying hen farming situation in Italy. Moreover, it points out the situation of EU legislation currently in effect for laying hen welfare. It then reviews the main welfare issues of layer farming. The following aspects are considered: rearing system (e.g. stocking density, light intensity and photoperiod, equipment and facilities and some health aspects. All these aspects represent important issues for farmed species, but special attention should be paid when we deal with intensively farmed species like poultry, where a lot of potential stressors may impair the welfare with consequences on health and production. The adoption of suitable housing systems and of adequate management techniques, as well as the presence of well trained stockpersons with a sound knowledge of poultry physiology and behaviour, are particularly important in guaranteeing a sufficient welfare level to poultry. Therefore, the adoption of specific codes of recommendations is highly desirable.

  2. Farm nitrogen balances in six European agricultural landscapes – a method for farming system assessment, emission hotspot identification, and mitigation measure evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Tommy; Bienkowski, J.; Bleeker, A.

    2012-01-01

    Six agricultural landscapes in Poland (PL), the Netherlands (NL), France (FR), Italy (IT), Scotland (UK) and Denmark (DK) were studied, and a common method was developed for undertaking farm inventories and the derivation of farm nitrogen (N) balances and N surplus from the in total 222 farms and...... with other methods for the assessment of landscape N emissions and farm N efficiency, including more detailed N sink and N source hotspot mapping, measurements and modelling.......Six agricultural landscapes in Poland (PL), the Netherlands (NL), France (FR), Italy (IT), Scotland (UK) and Denmark (DK) were studied, and a common method was developed for undertaking farm inventories and the derivation of farm nitrogen (N) balances and N surplus from the in total 222 farms...... and 11 440 ha of farmland. In all landscapes, a large variation in the farm N surplus was found, and thereby a large potential for reductions. The highest average N surpluses were found in the most livestock-intensive landscapes of IT, FR, and NL; on average 202 ± 28, 179 ± 63 and 178 ± 20 kg N ha−1yr−1...

  3. The structure and evolution of the Becca d'Aver continental sliver in the Western Alps (Valtournenche, Italy): A first ascent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirst, Frederik; Froitzheim, Nikolaus; Nagel, Thorsten

    2013-04-01

    The Becca d'Aver continental sliver (BACS) is a fragment of continental crust within the ocean-derived Combin Zone in the western Valtournenche of Italy. The lithologically heterogeneous fragment consists mainly of metasedimentary sequences (e.g. quartzites, micaschists, paragneisses). It is floored by a sole of serpentinite and has been folded into a N-facing synform. Short-term mapping and sampling along a N-S trending, 2 km long traverse revealed the potential of the BACS to provide further information on the tectonic evolution of the Combin Zone in particular and the Western Alps in general. Two main tectonic units can be distinguished: 1) The BACS with its sole of serpentinite and 2) the underlying Combin Zone. In the study area, the Combin Zone can be further subdivided into two units: a structurally lower ophiolitic nappe consisting of greenschists and serpentinite and a structurally higher nappe consisting mainly of calcschists with minor serpentinite and greenschist lenses and, in its basal part, a Mesozoic succession of quartzites and cellular dolomite. Stretching lineations in all units strike uniformly NW-SE; foliations mostly dip to the S. The BACS shows a higher metamorphic grade than surrounding greenschist-facies rocks of the Combin Zone as evident from the occurrence of garnet-bearing assemblages. However, the age of this imprint is unknown so that it could be either Variscan or related to Alpine accretion. The BACS displays diverse deformation structures: folding of a pre-Alpine metamorphic layering shows that the whole fragment has been folded into a N-facing synform with a steeply-dipping upper limb and a shallowly-dipping lower limb. Preferably in fold hinge zones, L-tectonites can be found which is in contrast to the S>L-tectonites of the surrounding Combin Zone. Since the orientation of stretching lineations in the L-tectonites is the same as in the Combin Zone they are interpreted to have formed during the same deformational event. The

  4. Alley Farming in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teerapol Silakul

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Poverty alleviation and environmental preservation are very important issues to many governments. Alley farming is beneficial to the environment because it conserves soil and sustains yields over time. Specifically, alley farming reduces soil erosion, which is a major problem in Thailand. Alley farming was conducted on a farmer’s field at Khaokwan Thong, a village in Uthaithani Province, Northern Thailand. We did a two-by-two factorial with and without alley farming, and with and without fertilizer. From this study, we observed that the two species used, Leucaena leucocephala and Acacia auriculiformis, grow well in Thailand, and that alley farming is suitable for Thailand. Few Thai farmers have heard about alley farming. However, it is nevertheless useful to know that there is potential for alley farming in Thailand using the two species. These plants, based upon the diameter and height measurements provided, grew well.

  5. Wind Turbine Converter Control Interaction with Complex Wind Farm Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kocewiak, Lukasz Hubert; Hjerrild, Jesper; Bak, Claus Leth

    2013-01-01

    in this study. It is shown that wind farm components, such as long high-voltage alternating current cables and park transformers, can introduce significant low-frequency series resonances seen from the wind turbine terminals that can affect wind turbine control system operation and overall wind farm stability......This study presents wind turbine converter stability analysis of wind farms in frequency domain. The interaction between the wind turbine control system and the wind farm structure in wind farms is deeply investigated. Two wind farms (i.e. Horns Rev II and Karnice) are taken into consideration....... The same wind turbine converter control strategy is evaluated in two different wind farms. It is emphasised that the grid-side converter controller should be characterised by sufficient harmonic/noise rejection and adjusted depending on wind farms to which it is connected. Various stability indices...

  6. Wind Turbine Converter Control Interaction with Complex Wind Farm Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kocewiak, Lukasz Hubert; Hjerrild, Jesper; Bak, Claus Leth

    2013-01-01

    . The same wind turbine converter control strategy is evaluated in two different wind farms. It is emphasised that the grid-side converter controller should be characterised by sufficient harmonic/noise rejection and adjusted depending on wind farms to which it is connected. Various stability indices......This study presents wind turbine converter stability analysis of wind farms in frequency domain. The interaction between the wind turbine control system and the wind farm structure in wind farms is deeply investigated. Two wind farms (i.e. Horns Rev II and Karnice) are taken into consideration...... in this study. It is shown that wind farm components, such as long high-voltage alternating current cables and park transformers, can introduce significant low-frequency series resonances seen from the wind turbine terminals that can affect wind turbine control system operation and overall wind farm stability...

  7. Handing down the Farm? The Increasing Uncertainty of Irrigated Farm Succession in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, S.; Bjornlund, H.; Zuo, A.; Edwards, J.

    2012-01-01

    Farming is still primarily a family concern in Australia. Having a farm successor in place is important as it is associated with the likelihood of the current farmer adapting to external conditions and hence may have long-term implications for the structure and profitability of agriculture. We used current and historical surveys across a number of…

  8. Potential of controlled traffic farming with automatic guidance on an organic farm in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, G.D.; Mosquera, J.; Wel, van der C.; Klooster, van der A.; Steenhuizen, J.W.

    2007-01-01

    Some organic farms in the Netherlands use RTK-DGPS guidance of machinery over fixed traffic lanes to achieve non-trafficked cropping zones with optimum soil structure. These lanes are not yet used for harvesting and primary tillage. The potential of such a seasonal controlled traffic farming (SCTF)

  9. On-farm assessment of tillage impact on the vertical distribution of soil organic carbon and structural soil properties in a semiarid region in Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jemai, Imene; Ben Aissa, Nadhira; Ben Guirat, Saida; Ben-Hammouda, Moncef; Gallali, Tahar

    2012-12-30

    In semiarid areas, low and erratic rainfall, together with the intensive agricultural use of soils, has depleted soil organic carbon and degraded the soil's chemical, biological and physical fertility. To develop efficient soil-management practices for the rapid restoration of severely degraded soils, no-till, mulch-based cropping systems have been adopted. Thus, a study was conducted on a farm to evaluate the effect of a no-tillage system (NT) versus conventional tillage (CT) on the vertical (0-50 cm) distribution of soil organic carbon (SOC), bulk density (BD), total porosity (TP), structural instability (SI), stable aggregates and infiltration coefficient (Ks) in a clay loam soil under rain-fed conditions in a semiarid region of north-western Tunisia. CT consisting of moldboard plowing to a depth of 20 cm was used for continuous wheat production. NT by direct drilling under residue was used for 3 (NT3) and 7 (NT7) years in wheat/fava bean and wheat/sulla crop rotations, respectively. SOC was more significantly increased (p Ks was not affected by the NT3 treatment but was improved at a depth of 0-30 cm by the NT7 treatment. Changes in BD, TP and Ks in the NT7 plot were significant only in the first 10 cm of the soil. Both NT3 and NT7 considerably reduced SI (p < 0.1) and enhanced stable aggregates (p < 0.05) across the soil profile. These differences were most pronounced under NT7 at a depth of 0-10 cm. The stratification ratio (SR) of the selected soil properties, except that of SI, showed significant differences between the CT and NT trials, indicating an improvement in soil quality. NT management in the farming systems of north-western Tunisia was demonstrated in this study to improve soil quality, especially in the surface layers, by increasing storage of organic carbon and enhancing the physical properties of the soil. These effects were most pronounced in the long term.

  10. Wind Farm Control Survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Torben; Bak, Thomas; Svenstrup, Mikael

    2013-01-01

    This document is a delivery in the project NORCOWE. It is part of work package WP3.2.2. The main goal is to establish the present state-of-the-art for wind farm control for both research and practice. The main approach will be to study the literature. This will of cause be much more efficient...... for the research part than for the practice part. It is however not the intention to do company interviews or similar. This report is structured into a section for each WF control objective. These sections then includes the important control project issues: choice of input and output, control method, and modelling...... used for controller design and simulation respectively. A short section then discusses published literature from industry. Finally a conclusion is given discussing established results, open challenges and necessary research. An appendix present a method for optimising the energy in a one row wind...

  11. Evaluation of different agronomic managements on rice mesofauna: a case study in Piedmont (North Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landi, Silvia; d'Errico, Giada; Gagnarli, Elena; Barzanti, Gian Paolo; Cito, Annarita; Papini, Rossella; Simoni, Sauro; Roversi, Pio Federico

    2014-05-01

    Rice is the most important cereal crop in the developing world and, in Europe, Italy is leader in rice production. The intensive cultivation of rice leads to continuous inputs chemicals as fertilizers, weeding and pesticides. The intensification of sustainable rice production by minimizing the impact on the environment of cultivation is a main issue . In this context this study, supported by the Italian National Project POLORISO (MIPAAF), aims to afford preliminary indications about the evaluation of ecological impact by different managements on soil mesofauna biodiversity. Biomonitoring of soil mesofauna, in particular nematodes and microarthropods, allows to determine the effects of crop management on the communities; the lack and/or reduction of these organisms can allow inference on the soil quality. This preliminary study aims at evaluate the different influence of conventional, integrated and biological managements on mesofauna communities. The samplings were conducted in Summer and Autumn 2013 near Vercelli (North Italy) in three study sites with similar pedologic characteristics but different in control strategies (conventional, organic farming, Integrated Pest Management (IPM)). The extraction of nematodes and microarthropods was performed by Bermann method and the Berlese-Tullgren selector, respectively. All specimens were counted and determined up to the order level. The biological soil quality was evaluated by Maturity Index (MI) for nematodes, BSQar and the soil Biological Classes (sBC)(range I-VII) for microarthropods. Regarding nematodes, Rhabditidae, Dorylamidae, Mononchidae, Tylenchidae and Heteroderidae were the most represented families. The Principal Component Analysis (PCA) evidenced that the trophic group of plant parasites was favored in organic farming, while groups of omnivores and predators were abundant in the other managements. The lowest nematodes' abundance was found in submerged rice soil with dominance of omnivores and plant

  12. Wine tourism in Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Cinelli Colombini D

    2015-01-01

    Donatella Cinelli Colombini Orcia Doc Wine Consortium, Rocca d’Orcia , Italy Abstract: This text includes the history of wine tourism in Italy since 1993, when the first edition of the event “Cantine Aperte” (Open Cellars), Wine Day, took place. The movement grew from the initial 25 wineries to the 21,000 that participate today in opening their doors to the public, while visitors grew in numbers from a couple of hundred, 20 years ago, to the current 4 to 6 milli...

  13. Application of “taxocene surrogation” and “taxonomic sufficiency” concepts to fish farming environmental monitoring. Comparison of BOPA index versus polychaete assemblage structure

    OpenAIRE

    Aguado Giménez, Felipe; Gairin Deulofeu, Joan Ignasi; Martinez-Garcia, Elena; Fernandez-Gonzalez, Victoria; Ballester-Moltó, Mateo; Cerezo-Valverde, Jesús; Sanchez-Jerez, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    “Taxocene surrogation” and “taxonomic sufficiency” concepts were applied to the monitoring of soft bottoms macrobenthic assemblages influenced by fish farming following two approaches. Polychaete assemblage evaluation through multivariate analysis and the benthic index BOPA were compared. Six fish farms along the Spanish Mediterranean coast were monitored. Polychaete assemblage provided a suitable picture of the impact gradient, being correlated with total free sulphides. BOPA did not support...

  14. Prevalence of thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. in farmed hares (Lepus europaeus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santaniello, Antonio; Dipineto, Ludovico; Veneziano, Vincenzo; Mariani, Ugo; Fioretti, Alessandro; Menna, Lucia Francesca

    2014-10-01

    Thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. were isolated from 118/240 (49.2%) rectal swabs from commercially farmed hares (Lepus europaeus) in southern Italy. Using multiplex PCR, Campylobacter coli was identified in 118/118 (100%) positive samples, while 17/118 (14.4%) positive samples were also positive for Campylobacter jejuni. Adult hares had a higher prevalence of infection with Campylobacter spp. than juvenile hares.

  15. Boosting Farm Produce Supply

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    In the wake of escalating inflation,securing farm produce supply and stablizing grain prices could help to alleviate economic pressure The Chinese Government has pledged to secure a stable supply of farm produce.According to a document released after the annual Central Rural Work Conference held on December 22-23 in Beijing,preventing short supplies of farm produce and avoiding"ex-

  16. ABOUT SPONGE FARMING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marijana Pećarević

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Sponges are the simplest multicellular animals. Farming of sponges is facilitated by their asexual reproduction and great ability of regeneration. Farming of filter-feeding sponges is environment friendly, and it can positively influence on environmental impact of other aquaculture activities. Natural populations of sponges in Mediterranean Sea are endangered by inappropriate overfishing. Farming of sponges is possible solution for regeneration and protection of natural populations.

  17. Feeding management and milk production in organic and conventional buffalo farms

    OpenAIRE

    V. Proto; F. Grasso; De Rosa, G.; F. Masucci; A. Di Francia

    2010-01-01

    The feeding management, milk yield and milk composition were investigated in two adjacent buffalo farms, one organic certified (on average, 220 lactating buffalo cows) and one conventional (on average, 314 lactating buffalo cows) located in the Sele Plain (southern Italy). Milk samples from the two farm were collected twice a month during the period from June to November 2006. Milk production was also recorded. The investigated milk components were the content of protein, fat, lactose, urea a...

  18. ECONOMICS OF DAIRY FARMING IN TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özgür Bor

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study dairy farming activities in Turkey are employed to prove that small-scale agricultural production is disappearing rapidly due to costly investment and mechanization needs. For that purpose the cost structure and the investment needs in starting a dairy farm are analyzed. The results show that the capital requirements of building a dairy farm with optimal capacity are hard to reach for small farmers unless a system of marketing and production agricultural cooperatives and/or institutions are organized.

  19. War and Comics (Italy)

    OpenAIRE

    Bianchi, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Comics played a very important role in the total mobilization in Italy. Firstly in the cities and then in the trenches, they were a new propaganda tool and explanation of the war for children and soldiers with low literacy. At the same time, the war changed the history of comics and the magazine market for children and youth

  20. Italy. [CME Country Reports].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Council of Europe, Strasbourg (France). Documentation Center for Education in Europe.

    Ever since 1946, increased emigration in Italy has been paralleled by a slow but steady increase in educational activity. In 1971, Law No. 153 was adopted which provides for special educational arrangements to be made for migrant workers and their spouses adopted by the Italian Government are based on the need for Italian children to: (1) be…

  1. Personal Identity in Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crocetti, Elisabetta; Rabaglietti, Emanuela; Sica, Luigia Simona

    2012-01-01

    This chapter discusses specifics of identity formation in Italian adolescents and emerging adults. We review consistent evidence illustrating that, in Italy, a progressive deferral of transition to adulthood strongly impacts youth identity development by stimulating identity exploration and postponement of identity commitments. We also consider…

  2. Italy 2000 - 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Onesti

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This section of the review includes Italian dance books from 2000 till now. Texts has been selected following the scientific approach of the review, in order to outline the contemporary panorama of dance studies in Italy. Titles has been organized in two ways by subject, as an indication, and year of publication.

  3. Collection for Italy

    CERN Multimedia

    Fabiola Gianotti, Director-General, and Ghislain Roy, President of the Staff Association

    2016-01-01

    Following the earthquake of 24 August in central Italy, many of you have expressed your solidarity. The collection to support the victims raised a total of 10 000 CHF, which was transferred in its entirety to Italy’s civil protection through the Italian delegation to the CERN Council. The CERN Directorate and the CERN Staff Association sincerely thank you for your generosity.

  4. Personal Identity in Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crocetti, Elisabetta; Rabaglietti, Emanuela; Sica, Luigia Simona

    2012-01-01

    This chapter discusses specifics of identity formation in Italian adolescents and emerging adults. We review consistent evidence illustrating that, in Italy, a progressive deferral of transition to adulthood strongly impacts youth identity development by stimulating identity exploration and postponement of identity commitments. We also consider…

  5. Optimization of sustainable buildings envelopes for extensive sheep farming through the use of dynamic energy simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Elena Menconi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Extensive sheep farming can be seen as a marginal market, compared to other livestock and agricultural activities, taking into account only the economic absolute values. But for many rural marginal areas within the European Community member states, in particular for those located in the Mediterranean area on hills or mountains with high landscape value, extensive sheep farming is not only the longest practiced animal farming activity, but also the most interesting considering its adaptability to the territorial morphology and the restrictions that have been established over the years in terms of sustainable rural development practices. At the moment, most of the structures used in this type of farming are built using low cost and sometimes recycled, but often unsuitable, materials. Few specific studies have been carried out on this particular issue assuming, presumably, that the very low profit margins of these activities made impossible any restructuring. Taken this into account, the new Rural Development Plans that will be issued in 2014 will surely contain some measure dedicated to innovations in farming structures and technology towards facilitating the application of the principles of energy optimization. This is the framework in which the present research has developed. The software that has been applied to perform the energy optimization analysis is the dynamic energy simulation engine Energy Plus. A case study farm has been identified in the small village of Ceseggi (PG, situated in Central Italy. For the case study optimum thermo hygrometric conditions have been identified to ensure the welfare of animals and operators and it has been hypothesized the insertion of an ideal HVAC system to achieve them. Afterwards were evaluated the different energy requirements of the building while varying the insulation material used on the vertical surfaces. The greater goal is to verify which could be the best insulation material for vertical

  6. Farm Health and Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... jobs in the United States. Farms have many health and safety hazards, including Chemicals and pesticides Machinery, ... equipment can also reduce accidents. Occupational Safety and Health Administration

  7. Benthic community structure and biomarker responses of the clam Scrobicularia plana in a shallow tidal creek affected by fish farm effluents (Rio San Pedro, SW Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Claudio; Mattioli, Mattia; Fabbri, Elena; Yáñez, Eleuterio; Delvalls, T Angel; Martín-Díaz, M Laura

    2012-10-15

    The effects of solid organic wastes from a marine fish farm on sediments were tested using benthic community as ecological indicators and biomarkers in native clam (Scrobicularia plana) as biochemical indicators. The benthic fauna and clam samples were collected in the intertidal sediment in October 2010 from five sites of the Rio San Pedro (RSP) creek, following a gradient of contamination from the aquaculture effluent to the control site. Numbers of species, abundance, richness and Shannon diversity were the biodiversity indicators measured in benthic fauna. Morphological and reproduction status of clams were assessed using the condition factor and gonado-somatic index, respectively. Phase I and Phase II detoxification enzymatic activities (ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD), glutathione S-transferase (GST)), antioxidant enzymatic activities (glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione reductase (GR)) and oxidative stress parameters (Lipid Peroxidation (LPO) and DNA strand breaks) were measured in clams' digestive gland tissues. In parallel, temperature and salinity in the adjacent water, redox potential, pH and organic matter in sediment, and dissolved oxygen in the interstitial water were measured. The results suggested that RSP showed a spatial gradient characterised by hypoxia/anoxia, reduced potential, acidic conditions and high organic enrichment in sediments at the most contaminated sites. Significant (pbiodiversity indicators were observed in the areas impacted by the aquaculture discharges. Biomarkers did not show a clear pattern and of all biochemical responses tested, GPX, DNA damage and LPO were the most sensitive ones and showed significant (ppolluted sites. Benthic biodiversity indicators were significantly (pchanges of the benthic population structure and health status of the exposed organisms.

  8. Migrant Farm Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slesinger, Doris P.; Pfeffer, Max J.

    This paper documents migrant farm workers as being among the most persistently underprivileged groups in American society. Migrant farm workers typically receive low wages from irregular employment and live in poverty with access to only substandard housing and inadequate health care. The lack of economic improvement stems from a number of…

  9. Not Your Family Farm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenopir, Carol; Baker, Gayle; Grogg, Jill E.

    2007-01-01

    The information industry continues to consolidate, just as agribusiness has consolidated and now dominates farming. Both the family farm and the small information company still exist but are becoming rarer in an age of mergers, acquisitions, and increased economies of scale. Small companies distinguish themselves by high quality, special themes,…

  10. Conscientious objection in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minerva, Francesca

    2015-02-01

    The law regulating abortion in Italy gives healthcare practitioners the option to make a conscientious objection to activities that are specific and necessary to an abortive intervention. Conscientious objectors among Italian gynaecologists amount to about 70%. This means that only a few doctors are available to perform abortions, and therefore access to abortion is subject to constraints. In 2012 the International Planned Parenthood Federation European Network (IPPF EN) lodged a complaint against Italy to the European Committee of Social Rights, claiming that the inadequate protection of the right to access abortion implies a violation of the right to health. In this paper I will discuss the Italian situation with respect to conscientious objection to abortion and I will suggest possible solutions to the problem.

  11. Mt. Vesuvius, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    This ASTER image of Mt. Vesuvius Italy was acquired September 26, 2000, and covers an area of 36 by 45 km. Vesuvius overlooks the city of Naples and the Bay of Naples in central Italy. In 79 AD, Vesuvius erupted cataclysmically, burying all of the surrounding cites with up to 30 m of ash. The towns of Pompeii and Herculanaeum were rediscovered in the 18th century, and excavated in the 20th century. They provide a snapshot of Roman life from 2000 years ago: perfectly preserved are wooden objects, food items, and the casts of hundreds of victims. Vesuvius is intensively monitored for potential signs of unrest that could signal the beginning of another eruption. The image is centered at 40.8 degrees north latitude, 14.4 degrees east longitude. The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  12. Mount Vesuvius, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    This Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) image of Mt. Vesuvius, Italy was acquired September 26, 2000. The full-size false-color image covers an area of 36 by 45 km. Vesuvius overlooks the city of Naples and the Bay of Naples in central Italy. (Popocatepetl and Mount Fuji are other volcanos surrounded by dense urban areas.) In 79 AD, Vesuvius erupted cataclysmically, burying all of the surrounding cites with up to 30 m of ash. The towns of Pompeii and Herculanaeum were rediscovered in the 18th century, and excavated in the 20th century. They provide a snapshot of Roman life from 2000 years ago: perfectly preserved are wooden objects, food items, and the casts of hundreds of victims. Vesuvius is intensively monitored for potential signs of unrest that could signal the beginning of another eruption. Image courtesy NASA/GSFC/MITI/ERSDAC/JAROS, and U.S./Japan ASTER Science Team

  13. Mount Vesuvius, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    This Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) image of Mt. Vesuvius, Italy was acquired September 26, 2000. The full-size false-color image covers an area of 36 by 45 km. Vesuvius overlooks the city of Naples and the Bay of Naples in central Italy. (Popocatepetl and Mount Fuji are other volcanos surrounded by dense urban areas.) In 79 AD, Vesuvius erupted cataclysmically, burying all of the surrounding cites with up to 30 m of ash. The towns of Pompeii and Herculanaeum were rediscovered in the 18th century, and excavated in the 20th century. They provide a snapshot of Roman life from 2000 years ago: perfectly preserved are wooden objects, food items, and the casts of hundreds of victims. Vesuvius is intensively monitored for potential signs of unrest that could signal the beginning of another eruption. Image courtesy NASA/GSFC/MITI/ERSDAC/JAROS, and U.S./Japan ASTER Science Team

  14. Migration discourses in Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Benelli, Elena

    2013-01-01

    In the last thirty years, Italy has undergone an anthropological revolution: from a country of emigration that exported millions of emigrants around the world, it has reversed its vocation and has become a country of immigration. The presence of the newcomers on the Italian territory has not always been welcomed and integration has been problematical on diverse levels. In this article I explore how the rhetoric of the State, its laws and the media have portrayed the newcomers under the negati...

  15. Group Psychotherapy in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannone, Francesca; Giordano, Cecilia; Di Blasi, Maria

    2015-10-01

    This article describes the history and the prevailing orientations of group psychotherapy in Italy (psychoanalytically oriented, psychodrama, CBT groups) and particularly group analysis. Provided free of charge by the Italian health system, group psychotherapy is growing, but its expansion is patchy. The main pathways of Italian training in the different group psychotherapy orientations are also presented. Clinical-theoretical elaboration on self development, psychopathology related to group experiences, and the methodological attention paid to objectives and methods in different clinical groups are issues related to group therapy in Italy. Difficulties in the relationship between research and clinical practice are discussed, as well as the empirical research network that tries to bridge the gap between research and clinical work in group psychotherapy. The economic crisis in Italy has led to massive cuts in health care and to an increasing demand for some forms of psychological treatment. For these reasons, and because of its positive cost-benefit ratio, group psychotherapy is now considered an important tool in the national health care system to expand the clinical response to different forms of psychological distress.

  16. STRATEGY TO INCREASE THE FARM COMPETITIVENESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Sgroi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Italy’s wine-growing production structure is highly pulverized. So, for many wine-growing farms lowering the production cost represents the only way of gaining a competitive advantage. Production at average unit costs lower than competitors allows to improve profitability. Among farming operations, winter pruning and tying of productive vine-branches require a high human labor. For this reason the paper presents the results of research conducted on a sample of Sicilian wine-producing farms in order to study the cost-effectiveness to make the pruning and the subsequent ligation of productive branches with tools that facilitate the work. The economic analysis, after the determination of minimum optimum size, shows that the investment is suitable for both large or small farms. This denotes how the process innovation could represent a way to achieve a cost leadership and improve profit margin.

  17. AX Tank Farm tank removal study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SKELLY, W.A.

    1999-02-24

    This report examines the feasibility of remediating ancillary equipment associated with the 241-AX Tank Farm at the Hanford Site. Ancillary equipment includes surface structures and equipment, process waste piping, ventilation components, wells, and pits, boxes, sumps, and tanks used to make waste transfers to/from the AX tanks and adjoining tank farms. Two remedial alternatives are considered: (1) excavation and removal of all ancillary equipment items, and (2) in-situ stabilization by grout filling, the 241-AX Tank Farm is being employed as a strawman in engineering studies evaluating clean and landfill closure options for Hanford single-shell tanks. This is one of several reports being prepared for use by the Hanford Tanks Initiative Project to explore potential closure options and to develop retrieval performance evaluation criteria for tank farms.

  18. Attendance in cancer screening programmes in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grazia Grazzini

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: The European Community recommends mammography, cervical and colorectal cancer screening programmes. In Italy, cancer screening programmes have been included in the Basic Healthcare Parameters (Livelli Essenziali di Assistenza since 2001. Full national coverage of a population-based organized screening programme has been planned for in Italy and is being implemented. Since 2005, the Ministry of Health - Department of Prevention has formally charged The National Centre for Screening Monitoring (Osservatorio Nazionale Screening –ONS- with monitoring and promoting screening programmes nationwide. Participation of target populations is a key indicator of the impact and efficacy of a screening programme in reducing cancer mortality.

    Methods: Attendance of invitees is one of the indicators calculated every year in the quality control of Italian screening programmes. Data collection is organized by means of a structured questionnaire, sent by ONS to the referent for data collection in each Region, who then returns the completed questionnaires to the Regional Centre. Questionnaires are then sent to the National Centre. Logical and epidemiologic checks are performed at both levels. Every year ONS publishes reports on the results of the surveys. A feasibility study for a National data warehouse based on individual records is in progress. The national survey “Multiscopo sulle famiglie” and the Passi Study (Progetti delle Aziende Sanitarie per la Salute in Italia provided additional information regarding spontaneous preventive health care activities in the Italian population.

    Results: Mammography screening: In 2006, 78.2% of Italian women aged 50-69 lived in areas where organised screening was in place (theoretical extension, however, the distribution of the screening activity is not uniform (higher in Northern/Central Italy compared with Southern

  19. Transition Management and Social Innovation in Rural Areas: Lessons from Social Farming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Iacovo, Francesco; Moruzzo, Roberta; Rossignoli, Cristiano; Scarpellini, Paola

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The article reflects on transition management in rural areas and the possible implications for extension services able to support social innovation and rural change, starting from experiences on social farming in different areas of Italy. Design/methodology/approach: By presenting three case studies we investigate the role of social…

  20. Transition Management and Social Innovation in Rural Areas: Lessons from Social Farming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Iacovo, Francesco; Moruzzo, Roberta; Rossignoli, Cristiano; Scarpellini, Paola

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The article reflects on transition management in rural areas and the possible implications for extension services able to support social innovation and rural change, starting from experiences on social farming in different areas of Italy. Design/methodology/approach: By presenting three case studies we investigate the role of social…

  1. Ethics committees in Italy--a time for change?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wray, E

    2000-01-01

    The Comitato Nazionale per la Bioetica (CNB) in Italy has recently produced an unprecedented discussion document on the state of ethics committees in Italy, with an invitation to interested parties to comment on proposed changes to their fundamental structure. After this consultation, and taking note of relevant official publications and the most recent national and international literature on the subject, the CNB proposes to produce a final, definitive document that will consider options for the future development of such committees.

  2. Observing farming systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noe, Egon; Alrøe, Hugo Fjelsted

    2012-01-01

    In Denmark, agriculture is becoming increasingly specialised, and more and more actors are becoming involved in farm decision making. These trends are more or less pronounced in other European countries as well. We therefore find that to understand modern farming systems, we have to shift the focus...... of analysis from individual farmers to communication and social relations. This is where Luhmann’s social systems theory can offer new insights. Firstly, it can help observe and understand the operational closure and system logic of a farming system and how this closure is produced and reproduced. Secondly...

  3. Wind farm design optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carreau, Michel; Morgenroth, Michael; Belashov, Oleg; Mdimagh, Asma; Hertz, Alain; Marcotte, Odile

    2010-09-15

    Innovative numerical computer tools have been developed to streamline the estimation, the design process and to optimize the Wind Farm Design with respect to the overall return on investment. The optimization engine can find the collector system layout automatically which provide a powerful tool to quickly study various alternative taking into account more precisely various constraints or factors that previously would have been too costly to analyze in details with precision. Our Wind Farm Tools have evolved through numerous projects and created value for our clients yielding Wind Farm projects with projected higher returns.

  4. Green Care Farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone R. de Bruin PhD

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To explore the value of day services at green care farms (GCFs in terms of social participation for people with dementia. Method: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with people with dementia who attended day services at a GCF (GCF group, n = 21, were on a waiting list (WL for day services at a GCF (WL group, n = 12, or attended day services in a regular day care facility (RDCF group, n = 17 and with their family caregivers. Results: People with dementia in the GCF and WL group were primarily males, with an average age of 71 and 76 years, respectively, who almost all had a spousal caregiver. People with dementia in the RDCF group were mostly females with an average age of 85 years, most of whom had a non-spousal caregiver. For both the GCF and RDCF groups, it was indicated that day services made people with dementia feel part of society. The most important domains of social participation addressed by RDCFs were social interactions and recreational activities. GCFs additionally addressed the domains “paid employment” and “volunteer work.” Conclusion: GCFs are valuable in terms of social participation for a particular group of people with dementia. Matching characteristics of adult day services (ADS centers to the preferences and capacities of people with dementia is of importance. Diversity in ADS centers is therefore desirable.

  5. Rainfed farming systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tow, P. G

    2011-01-01

    "While agriculturists need a good grasp of the many separate aspects of agriculture, it is essential that they also understand the functioning of farming systems as a whole and how they can be best managed...

  6. FarmStats_CNTYFARM

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — This datalayer contains Vermont agricultural data describing changes in farming activity (1860-1997), by county, extracted from U.S. Census of Agriculture. Initial...

  7. Agriculture: Organic Farming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organic Farming - Organically grown food is food grown and processed using no synthetic fertilizers or pesticides. Pesticides derived from natural sources (such as biological pesticides) may be used in producing organically grown food.

  8. CONTRACT BROILER FARMING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todsadee Areerat

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In Thailand, poultry sector is the main economic growth of livestock sector, especially broiler production. The rapid expansion in broiler production has been made possible by the increase in the number of commercial farms or contract farming. The objective of this research was to understand better how contract farming works, who gets involved and why and who benefits from the agreement. The study is based on the broiler file survey in Chiang Mai province of Thailand. As the results, contract farming looks quite attractive for farmers as well as for private companies but most of the farmers complained about long waiting until the delivery of the next cycle of chicks have started.

  9. Farming techniques for seaweeds

    OpenAIRE

    Castaños, M.; Buendia, R.

    1998-01-01

    Details are given of farming methods developed by the SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department for 3 different seaweeds: 1) Bottom line culture method for Kappaphycus; 2) Pond culture of Gracilaria; and, 3) Gracilariopsis bailinae, the new seaweed on the block.

  10. [Social cooperatives in Italy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villotti, P; Zaniboni, S; Fraccaroli, F

    2014-06-01

    This paper describes the role of social cooperatives in Italy as a type of economic, non-profit organization and their role in contributing to the economic and social growth of the country. The purpose of this paper is to learn more about the experience of the Italian social cooperatives in promoting the work integration process of disadvantaged workers, especially those suffering from mental disorders, from a theoretical and an empirical point of view. Social enterprise is the most popular and consolidated legal and organizational model for social enterprises in Italy, introduced by Law 381/91. Developed during the early 1980s, and formally recognized by law in the early 1990s, social cooperatives aim at pursuing the general interest of the community to promote the human needs and social inclusion of citizens. They are orientated towards aims that go beyond the interest of the business owners, the primary beneficiary of their activities is the community, or groups of disadvantaged people. In Italy, Law 381/91 distinguishes between two categories of social cooperatives, those producing goods of social utility, such as culture, welfare and educational services (A-type), and those providing economic activities for the integration of disadvantaged people into employment (B-type). The main purpose of B-type social cooperatives is to integrate disadvantaged people into the open labour market. This goal is reached after a period of training and working experience inside the firm, during which the staff works to improve both the social and professional abilities of disadvantaged people. During the years, B-type social co-ops acquired a particular relevance in the care of people with mental disorders by offering them with job opportunities. Having a job is central in the recovery process of people suffering from mental diseases, meaning that B-type social co-ops in Italy play an important rehabilitative and integrative role for this vulnerable population of workers. The

  11. Classification of Specialized Farms Applying Multivariate Statistical Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzana Hloušková

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Classification of specialized farms applying multivariate statistical methods The paper is aimed at application of advanced multivariate statistical methods when classifying cattle breeding farming enterprises by their economic size. Advantage of the model is its ability to use a few selected indicators compared to the complex methodology of current classification model that requires knowledge of detailed structure of the herd turnover and structure of cultivated crops. Output of the paper is intended to be applied within farm structure research focused on future development of Czech agriculture. As data source, the farming enterprises database for 2014 has been used, from the FADN CZ system. The predictive model proposed exploits knowledge of actual size classes of the farms tested. Outcomes of the linear discriminatory analysis multifactor classification method have supported the chance of filing farming enterprises in the group of Small farms (98 % filed correctly, and the Large and Very Large enterprises (100 % filed correctly. The Medium Size farms have been correctly filed at 58.11 % only. Partial shortages of the process presented have been found when discriminating Medium and Small farms.

  12. Summary of Data Farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary Horne

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Data Farming is a process that has been developed to support decision-makers by answering questions that are not currently addressed. Data farming uses an inter-disciplinary approach that includes modeling and simulation, high performance computing, and statistical analysis to examine questions of interest with a large number of alternatives. Data farming allows for the examination of uncertain events with numerous possible outcomes and provides the capability of executing enough experiments so that both overall and unexpected results may be captured and examined for insights. Harnessing the power of data farming to apply it to our questions is essential to providing support not currently available to decision-makers. This support is critically needed in answering questions inherent in the scenarios we expect to confront in the future as the challenges our forces face become more complex and uncertain. This article was created on the basis of work conducted by Task Group MSG-088 “Data Farming in Support of NATO”, which is being applied in MSG-124 “Developing Actionable Data Farming Decision Support for NATO” of the Science and Technology Organization, North Atlantic Treaty Organization (STO NATO.

  13. Italy at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    From 23 to 26 June, Italian industry went on display at CERN for the ninth time. Twenty-four Italian firms working closely with CERN showed off the latest high-energy physics technology developed by them. Guido Possa, Vice-Minister for Education, Universities and Research, inaugurated the exhibition on 24 June. He took the opportunity afforded by his visit to tour Building SM18, where LHC magnets are tested and assembled, before inspecting the assembly hall for ATLAS detector components. Guido Possa, Italian Vice-Minister for Education, Universities and Research, is seen visiting one of the "Italy at CERN" exhibition stands.

  14. Regional legislation in Italy for the protection of local varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Bertacchini

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the consequences of regional legislation in Italy on protecting local and autochthonous varieties. In accordance with the objectives of the FAO treaty on plant genetic resources (ITPGRFA, these laws have emerged as one of the most interesting institutional attempts at Italian and European level towards enhancing and protecting agricultural biodiversity. A description of the regional laws and their implementation highlights the importance of supporting farming systems that are close relationship with the territory and local communities, creating sufficient juridical space for the varieties that are not part of the ‘formal’ seed system.

  15. Searching for the effects of the May-June 2012 Emilia seismic sequence (northern Italy: medium-depth deformation structures at the periphery of the epicentral area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Borgatti

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In 2012, a seismic sequence occurred in the lowlands of the Emilia-Romagna Region (northern Italy, between the borders of the Modena, Ferrara and Bologna Provinces. It consisted of seven mainshocks (5.9 > Ml > 5 that were recorded between May 20 and 29, 2012 [INGV 2012a] and 2,200 minor earthquakes [INGV 2012b]. An interferometric analysis [Bignami et al. 2012, Salvi et al. 2012, this volume] highlighted three main deformation areas, each of which was 12 km wide (from S to N and 10 km to 20 km long in an ESE-WNW to E-W direction, thus affecting an area of about 600 km2 (Figure 1. Field and aerial geological surveys recorded numerous surficial effects, such as: (i sediment liquefaction [Crespellani et al. 2012]; (ii localized ground fissures resembling surficial faulting [Fioravante and Giretti 2012] (Figure 2; (iii groundwater levels rising up to 400 cm above the local ground level in phreatic wells during the mainshocks (lower values were observed in confined aquifers; and (iv dormancy of previously known sinkholes [Borgatti et al. 2010, Cremonini 2010a, and references therein]. Some of the observed surface phenomena were previously recorded as coseismic effects during the earthquakes of Ferrara (1570 and Argenta (1624 [Boschi et al. 1995, Galli 2000], together with the early rising of the water level of the Po River in the Stellata section. […

  16. Library system of Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataša Gerbec

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In the European extent, Italy is the cradle of libraries and library sciences. In the past, Italian national public libraries played an important role through their vast book treasury. But only during the last thirty years have public libraries been developed following the Anglo-American public library model. Italy does not have any uniform or general legislation concerning libraries. On the state level, this area is regulated by some separate acts, while on the regional level there is a collection of various acts and regulations. Libraries are not strictly divided into general categories. It is required that the professionals engaged in Italian libraries should have secondary or university education. The level of their professional tasks depends on the type of library and its capacity. The competency for the development in the field of librarianship is assigned to The Ministry of Cultural and Environment Heritage as well as to its subordinate institutions (Central Institute for the Union catalogue of Italian Libraries and for Bibliographic Information, Central Institute for Book Pathology, Observatory for International Libraries Programmes.

  17. An Optimal Control Scheme to Minimize Loads in Wind Farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soleimanzadeh, Maryam; Wisniewski, Rafal

    2012-01-01

    This work presents a control algorithm for wind farms that optimizes the power production of the farm and helps to increase the lifetime of wind turbines components. The control algorithm is a centralized approach, and it determines the power reference signals for individual wind turbines...... such that the structural loads of the wind turbines in low frequencies are reduced. The controller is relatively easy to implement on a wind farm, and in here the results of simulating the controller on a small wind farm is presented....

  18. An Optimal Control Scheme to Minimize Loads in Wind Farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soleimanzadeh, Maryam; Wisniewski, Rafal

    2012-01-01

    This work presents a control algorithm for wind farms that optimizes the power production of the farm and helps to increase the lifetime of wind turbines components. The control algorithm is a centralized approach, and it determines the power reference signals for individual wind turbines...... such that the structural loads of the wind turbines in low frequencies are reduced. The controller is relatively easy to implement on a wind farm, and in here the results of simulating the controller on a small wind farm is presented....

  19. [A note on induced abortion in Italy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cagiano De Azevedo, R

    1980-01-01

    The adoption of a recent law on abortion (1978) makes available in Italy new statistics at both the national and regional levels. Following the official source of ISTAT, the abortion rate/100 livebirths in 1979 was about 28%, about 40% in the northern part of Italy, and only 16% in Mezzogiorno. This abortion rate, as an average data at the national level, corresponds to a normal position among similar rates in western countries; closer to EEC member states. But the regional variability seems a very interesting new aspect of the Italian tryptic (north, center, south) largely presented in many demographic indicators. 3 factors are presented as a possible explication of this variability: a real different attitude of women and couples towards abortion from cultural, religious, and political points of view; the coexistence of legal and illegal abortion despite the adoption of a new liberal law; and the very important disequilibrium in the distribution of structures and medical services available to assure abortions in different parts of the country. Some other demographic points related to abortion are also presented here, particularly in connection with age structure of women and their marital status. Future trends in abortion with subsequent effects on fertility are also discussed at the end of this article. The arguments follow 2 alternatives presented in Italy by the National Committee on Population and the Committee of Demographic Studies. (author's modified)

  20. Centimeter-scale surface deformation caused by the 2011 Mineral, Virginia, earthquake sequence at the Carter farm site—Subsidiary structures with a quaternary history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Richard W.; Schindler, J. Stephen; Pavich, Milan J.; Horton, J. Wright; Carter, Mark W.

    2016-08-25

    Centimeter-scale ground-surface deformation was produced by the August 23, 2011, magnitude (M) 5.8 earthquake that occurred in Mineral, Virginia. Ground-surface deformation also resulted from the earthquake aftershock sequence. This deformation occurred along a linear northeast-trend near Pendleton, Virginia. It is approximately 10 kilometers (km) northeast of the M5.8 epicenter and near the northeastern periphery of the epicentral area as defined by aftershocks. The ground-surface deformation extends over a distance of approximately 1.4 km and consists of parallel, small-scale (a few centimeters (cm) in amplitude) linear ridges and swales. Individual ridge and swale features are discontinuous and vary in length across a zone that ranges from about 20 meters (m) to less than 5 m in width. At one location, three fence posts and adjoining rails were vertically misaligned. Approximately 5 cm of uplift on one post provides a maximum estimate of vertical change from pre-earthquake conditions along the ridge and swale features. There was no change in the alignment of fence posts, indicating that deformation was entirely vertical. A broad monoclinal flexure with approximately 1 m of relief was identified by transit survey across surface deformation at the Carter farm site. There, surface deformation overlies the Carter farm fault, which is a zone of brittle faulting and fracturing along quartz veins, striking N40°E and dipping approximately 75°SE. Brecciation and shearing along this fault is interpreted as Quaternary in age because it disrupts the modern B-soil horizon. However, deformation is confined to saprolitized schist of the Ordovician Quantico Formation and the lowermost portion of overlying residuum, and is absent in the uppermost residuum and colluvial layer at the ground surface. Because there is a lack of surface shearing and very low relief, landslide processes were not a causative mechanism for the surface deformation. Two possible tectonic models and one

  1. The technical efficiency of specialised milk farms: a regional view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spička, Jindřich; Smutka, Luboš

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the article is to evaluate production efficiency and its determinants of specialised dairy farming among the EU regions. In the most of European regions, there is a relatively high significance of small specialised farms including dairy farms. The DEAVRS method (data envelopment analysis with variable returns to scale) reveals efficient and inefficient regions including the scale efficiency. In the next step, the two-sample t-test determines differences of economic and structural indicators between efficient and inefficient regions. The research reveals that substitution of labour by capital/contract work explains the variability of the farm net value added per AWU (annual work unit) income indicator by more than 30%. The significant economic determinants of production efficiency in specialised dairy farming are farm size, herd size, crop output per hectare, productivity of energy, and capital (at α = 0.01). Specialised dairy farms in efficient regions have significantly higher farm net value added per AWU than inefficient regions. Agricultural enterprises in inefficient regions have a more extensive structure and produce more noncommodity output (public goods). Specialised dairy farms in efficient regions have a slightly higher milk yield, specific livestock costs of feed, bedding, and veterinary services per livestock unit.

  2. The Technical Efficiency of Specialised Milk Farms: A Regional View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jindřich Špička

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to evaluate production efficiency and its determinants of specialised dairy farming among the EU regions. In the most of European regions, there is a relatively high significance of small specialised farms including dairy farms. The DEAVRS method (data envelopment analysis with variable returns to scale reveals efficient and inefficient regions including the scale efficiency. In the next step, the two-sample t-test determines differences of economic and structural indicators between efficient and inefficient regions. The research reveals that substitution of labour by capital/contract work explains the variability of the farm net value added per AWU (annual work unit income indicator by more than 30%. The significant economic determinants of production efficiency in specialised dairy farming are farm size, herd size, crop output per hectare, productivity of energy, and capital (at α=0.01. Specialised dairy farms in efficient regions have significantly higher farm net value added per AWU than inefficient regions. Agricultural enterprises in inefficient regions have a more extensive structure and produce more noncommodity output (public goods. Specialised dairy farms in efficient regions have a slightly higher milk yield, specific livestock costs of feed, bedding, and veterinary services per livestock unit.

  3. Testicular damage and farming environments - An integrative ecotoxicological link.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parelho, Carolina; Bernardo, Filipe; Camarinho, Ricardo; Rodrigues, Armindo Santos; Garcia, Patrícia

    2016-07-01

    The exposure to agrochemicals during farming activities affects the function of the reproductive system, as revealed by the increasing worldwide evidence of male infertility amongst farmers. The main objective of this study was to untangle the link between agricultural practices and male reproductive impairment due to chronic exposure to xenobiotics (such as agrochemicals) in conventional and organic farming environments. For this purpose, male wild mice (Mus musculus) populations from sites representing two distinct farming practices (conventional and organic farming systems) were used as bioindicators for observable effects of testicular damage, namely on a set of histological and cellular parameters: (i) relative volumetric density of different spermatogenic cells and interstitial space; (ii) damage in the seminiferous tubules and (iii) apoptotic cells in the germinal epithelium. Results showed that mice from the conventional farming site bioaccumulated higher Pb hepatic loads, while mice from the organic farming site tend to bioaccumulate higher Cd hepatic loads. In general, for the analyzed testicular damage related parameters, mice from the organic farming site showed a similar performance than mice from the reference site. Mice from the conventional farming site stood out not only by underperforming in most studied parameters, while displaying an association between Pb hepatic loads and the observed testicular structural and functional disruption, but also by the increased stress index (Integrated Biomarker Response value). This study highlights the potential damaging effects of conventional farming practices on testicular structure and function, under natural conditions, raising concern about ensuing fertility risks for farmers.

  4. How ICT is changing the nature of the farm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poppe, K.J.; Wolfert, J.; Verdouw, C.N.

    2014-01-01

    Modern information-based technologies, such as self-driving tractors, GPS, milk robots, automated egg production, satellite data and social media, will change farm practices and agricultural structure and contribute to the prosperity and resilience of farming systems. Based on macro-trends and niche

  5. How ICT is changing the nature of the farm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poppe, K.J.; Wolfert, J.; Verdouw, C.N.

    2014-01-01

    Modern information-based technologies, such as self-driving tractors, GPS, milk robots, automated egg production, satellite data and social media, will change farm practices and agricultural structure and contribute to the prosperity and resilience of farming systems. Based on macro-trends and niche

  6. Wind Turbine Control Impact on Stability of Wind Farms Based on Real-Life Systems Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kocewiak, Lukasz Hubert; Hjerrild, Jesper; Bak, Claus Leth

    2012-01-01

    that wind farm components such as long HVAC cables and park transformers can introduce significant low-frequency series resonances seen form the wind turbine terminals which can affect wind turbine control system operation and overall wind farm stability. The same wind turbine converter control strategy......This paper presents stability analysis of wind farms in frequency domain. The interaction between the wind turbine control system and the wind farm structure in wind farms is deeply investigated. Two wind farms (i.e. Horns Rev II and Karnice) are taken in to consideration in the study. It is shown...

  7. The influence of vegetation and landscape structural connectivity on butterflies (Lepidoptera: Papilionoidea and Hesperiidae), Carabids (Coleoptera: Carabidae), Syrphids (Diptera: Syrphidae), and sawflies (Hymenoptera: Symphyta) in Northern Italy farmland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burgio, G.; Sommaggio, D.; Marini, M.; Chiarucci, A.; Landi, S.; Fabbri, R.; Pesarini, F.; Genghini, M.; Ferrari, R.; Muzzi, E.; Lenteren, van J.C.; Masetti, A.

    2015-01-01

    Landscape structure as well as local vegetation influence biodiversity in agroecosystems. A study was performed to evaluate the effect of floristic diversity, vegetation patterns, and landscape structural connectivity on butterflies (Lepidoptera: Papilionoidea and Hesperiidae), carabids (Coleoptera:

  8. Italy at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2011-01-01

    Nineteen companies will present their latest technology at the industrial exhibition “Italy at CERN”. Italian industries will exhibit products and technologies related to the field of particle physics. The full event programme is available here.   Individual interviews will take place at either the companies’ exhibition stands or in the Main Building’s conference rooms. The firms will be in contact with relevant users and technicians, but anyone wishing to speak with a particular firm is welcome to visit the exhibition or to get in touch with organiser Karin Robert. Italian Industries will also be sponsoring a free concert in the Main Auditorium on Tuesday 11 October at 8:00 pm. The "Trio Poem" concert will feature music by Beethoven and A. Dvořák, with Alberto Torin on the piano, Enrico Carraro on the violin, and Davide Bernardi on the cello.

  9. ITALY AT CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    23 - 26 June 2003 Main Building Bldg 60 - ground and 1st floor 09.30 hrs - 17.30 hrs Twenty-four companies will present their latest technology at the "Italy at CERN" exhibition. The Italian industry will exhibit products and technologies which are related to the field of particle physics. The main subjects are: cryogenics and vacuum technologies, electric power and power electronics, mechanical components, small and precision machined mechanical components, engineering, industrial plants, industrial machinery, automation, telecommunication, instrumentation, data processing and electronics. The exhibition is being organised by the INFN of Padova. There follows: - the list of exhibitors. A detailed programme will be available in due course: - from your Divisional secretariat, - at the exhibition, - on the SPL homepage http://spl-div.web.cern.ch/spl-div/member_states/exhibitions_visits.htm LISTE DES EXPOSANTS / LIST OF EXHIBITORS 1 Aerimpianti Spa13 Europa Metalli - LMI spa 2 AERSAT Spa14 FBM ICOSS srl 3 Anda...

  10. ITALY AT CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    23 - 26 June 2003 Main Building Bldg 60 - ground and 1st floor 09.00 hrs - 17.30 hrs Twenty-four companies will present their latest technology at the "Italy at CERN" exhibition. The Italian industry will exhibit products and technologies which are related to the field of particle physics. The main subjects are: cryogenics and vacuum technologies, electric power and power electronics, mechanical components, small and precision machined mechanical components, engineering, industrial plants, industrial machinery, automation, telecommunication, instrumentation, data processing and electronics. The exhibition is being organised by the INFN of Padova. There follows : - the list of exhibitors. A detailed programme will be available in due course at : - your Divisional secretariat, - the exhibition, - on the SPL homepage http://spl-div.web.cern.ch/spl-div/member_states/exhibitions_visits.htm LIST OF EXHIBITORS 1 Aerimpianti Spa13 Europa Metalli - LMI spa 2 AERSAT Spa14 FBM ICOSS srl 3 Andalo' Gianni Srl15 Finsys...

  11. Long Island Solar Farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anders, R.

    2013-05-01

    The Long Island Solar Farm (LISF) is a remarkable success story, whereby very different interest groups found a way to capitalize on unusual circumstances to develop a mutually beneficial source of renewable energy. The uniqueness of the circumstances that were necessary to develop the Long Island Solar Farm make it very difficult to replicate. The project is, however, an unparalleled resource for solar energy research, which will greatly inform large-scale PV solar development in the East. Lastly, the LISF is a superb model for the process by which the project developed and the innovation and leadership shown by the different players.

  12. Wind Farm Recommendation Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Reisenauer

    2011-05-01

    On April 21, 2011, an Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Land Use Committee meeting was convened to develop a wind farm recommendation for the Executive Council and a list of proposed actions for proceeding with the recommendation. In terms of land use, the INL Land Use Committee unanimously agrees that Site 6 is the preferred location of the alternatives presented for an INL wind farm. However, further studies and resolution to questions raised (stated in this report) by the INL Land Use Committee are needed for the preferred location. Studies include, but are not limited to, wind viability (6 months), bats (2 years), and the visual impact of the wind farm. In addition, cultural resource surveys and consultation (1 month) and the National Environmental Policy Act process (9 to 12 months) need to be completed. Furthermore, there is no documented evidence of developers expressing interest in constructing a small wind farm on INL, nor a specific list of expectations or concessions for which a developer might expect INL to cover the cost. To date, INL assumes the National Environmental Policy Act activities will be paid for by the Department of Energy and INL (the environmental assessment has only received partial funding). However, other concessions also may be expected by developers such as roads, fencing, power line installation, tie-ins to substations, annual maintenance, snow removal, access control, down-time, and remediation. These types of concessions have not been documented, as a request, from a developer and INL has not identified the short and long-term cost liabilities for such concessions should a developer expect INL to cover these costs. INL has not identified a go-no-go funding level or the priority this Wind Farm Project might have with respect to other nuclear-related projects, should the wind farm remain an unfunded mandate. The Land Use Committee recommends Legal be consulted to determine what, if any, liabilities exist with the Wind Farm Project and

  13. Technologies in organic farming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    (pollution) and consequences for human health. Broader ideas about ecosystems and the recycling of nutrients between the agricultural sector and the urban population are notably absent. On the basis of these findings the paper concludes by discussing the relationship between the consumers’ values that guide......In organic farming a dilemma is posed by the heavy reliance on nutrients from conventional livestock farming. For Danish organic plant producers the influx of conventional nutrients accounts for up to 70% of their nutrients. Facing this problem, Danish organic farmers’ organizations have decided...

  14. Drew Goodman, Earthbound Farm

    OpenAIRE

    Rabkin, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    Drew Goodman is CEO and co-founder, with his wife, Myra, of Earthbound Farm, based in San Juan Bautista, California. Two years after its 1984 inception on 2.5 Carmel Valley acres, Earthbound became the first successful purveyor of pre-washed salads bagged for retail sale. The company now produces more than 100 varieties of certified organic salads, fruits, and vegetables on a total of about 33,000 acres, with individual farms ranging from five to 680 acres in California, Arizona, Washington, ...

  15. Phylogeography, phylodynamics and transmission chains of bovine viral diarrhea virus subtype 1f in Northern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerutti, Francesco; Luzzago, Camilla; Lauzi, Stefania; Ebranati, Erika; Caruso, Claudio; Masoero, Loretta; Moreno, Ana; Acutis, Pier Luigi; Zehender, Gianguglielmo; Peletto, Simone

    2016-11-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) type 1 in Italy is characterized by high genetic diversity, with at least 20 subtypes. Subtype 1f is endemic in a restricted geographic area, meaning that it has local distribution. We investigated the population dynamics of BVDV-1f in Northern Italy and characterized the transmission chains of a subset of samples from Piedmont and Aosta Valley regions. A total of 51 samples from 1966 to 2013 were considered and 5' UTR sequences were used for phylogeography. A subset of 12 samples was selected for Npro gene sequencing and further characterization of the transmission chains using both molecular and epidemiological data. Phylogeography estimated the root of BVDV-1f tree in Veneto in 1965. Four significant subclades included sequences clustering by region: Lombardy (n=3), Lombardy and Emilia-Romagna (n=7), Piedmont (n=17), Piedmont and Aosta Valley (n=21). The Piedmont-only subclade has a ladder-like branching structure, while the Piedmont and Aosta Valley subclade has a nearly complete binary structure. In the subset, the outbreak reconstruction identified one sample from Piedmont as the most probable source of infection for the Aosta Valley cases. An ad hoc questionnaire submitted to public veterinarians revealed connections between sampled and non-sampled farms by means of trades, exhibitions and markets. According to the phylogeography, BVDV-1f moved westward, entering from Veneto, and spreading to Lombardy and Emilia-Romagna in the early 1990s, and finally to Piedmont and Aosta Valley in the first decade of 2000s. Both phylogeographic analyses on the whole dataset and on the selection of Npro dataset pointed out that subtype 1f entered Aosta Valley from Piedmont. The integration of molecular and epidemiological data revealed connections between farms, and such approach should be considered in any control plan. In Aosta Valley, the study showed that BVDV1f can be controlled only monitoring the introduction of cattle from Piedmont

  16. An autonomous weeding robot for organic farming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, T.; Asselt, van C.J.; Bontsema, J.; Müller, J.; Straten, van G.

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this research is the replacement of hand weeding in organic farming by a device working autonomously at ¯eld level. The autonomous weeding robot was designed using a structured design approach, giving a good overview of the total design. A vehicle was developed with a diesel engine,

  17. Wind Farm Decentralized Dynamic Modeling With Parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soltani, Mohsen; Shakeri, Sayyed Mojtaba; Grunnet, Jacob Deleuran;

    2010-01-01

    Development of dynamic wind flow models for wind farms is part of the research in European research FP7 project AEOLUS. The objective of this report is to provide decentralized dynamic wind flow models with parameters. The report presents a structure for decentralized flow models with inputs from...

  18. An autonomous weeding robot for organic farming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, T.; Asselt, van C.J.; Bontsema, J.; Müller, J.; Straten, van G.

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this research is the replacement of hand weeding in organic farming by a device working autonomously at ¯eld level. The autonomous weeding robot was designed using a structured design approach, giving a good overview of the total design. A vehicle was developed with a diesel engine,

  19. Ground deformation and source geometry of the 24 August 2016 Amatrice earthquake (Central Italy) investigated through analytical and numerical modeling of DInSAR measurements and structural-geological data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavecchia, G.; Castaldo, R.; Nardis, R.; De Novellis, V.; Ferrarini, F.; Pepe, S.; Brozzetti, F.; Solaro, G.; Cirillo, D.; Bonano, M.; Boncio, P.; Casu, F.; De Luca, C.; Lanari, R.; Manunta, M.; Manzo, M.; Pepe, A.; Zinno, I.; Tizzani, P.

    2016-12-01

    We investigate the ground deformation and source geometry of the 2016 Amatrice earthquake (Central Italy) by exploiting ALOS2 and Sentinel-1 coseismic differential interferometric synthetic aperture radar (DInSAR) measurements. They reveal two NNW-SSE striking surface deformation lobes, which could be the effect of two distinct faults or the rupture propagation of a single fault. We examine both cases through a single and a double dislocation planar source. Subsequently, we extend our analysis by applying a 3-D finite elements approach jointly exploiting DInSAR measurements and an independent, structurally constrained, 3-D fault model. This model is based on a double fault system including the two northern Gorzano and Redentore-Vettoretto faults (NGF and RVF) which merge into a single WSW dipping fault surface at the hypocentral depth (8 km). The retrieved best fit coseismic surface deformation pattern well supports the exploited structural model. The maximum displacements occur at 5-7 km depth, reaching 90 cm on the RVF footwall and 80 cm on the NGF hanging wall. The von Mises stress field confirms the retrieved seismogenic scenario.

  20. Wind farm models and control strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Poul Ejnar; Hansen, Anca Daniela; Iov, F.;

    2005-01-01

    models for a fixed speed wind turbine with active stall control and a variable speed wind turbine with doubly-fed induction generator. After that, the 3 wind farm concepts and control strategies are described.The 3 concepts are AC connected doubly fed turbines, AC connected active stall turbines and DC......This report describes models and control strategies for 3 different concepts of wind farms. Initially, the potential in improvement of grid integration, structural loads and energy production is investigated in a survey of opportunities. Then simulationmodels are described, including wind turbine...

  1. Wind farm models and control strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soerensen, Poul; Hansen, Anca D.; Iov, F.; Blaabjerg, F.; Donovan, M.H.

    2005-08-01

    This report describes models and control strategies for 3 different concepts of wind farms. Initially, the potential in improvement of grid integration, structural loads and energy production is investigated in a survey of opportunities. Then simulation models are described, including wind turbine models for a fixed speed wind turbine with active stall control and a variable speed wind turbine with doubly-fed induction generator. After that, the 3 wind farm concepts and control strategies are described. The 3 concepts are AC connected doubly fed turbines, AC connected active stall turbines and DC connected active stall turbines. Finally, some simulation examples and conclusions are presented. (au)

  2. Turbulence and entrainment length scales in large wind farms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Søren J.; Sørensen, Jens N.; Mikkelsen, Robert F.

    2017-03-01

    A number of large wind farms are modelled using large eddy simulations to elucidate the entrainment process. A reference simulation without turbines and three farm simulations with different degrees of imposed atmospheric turbulence are presented. The entrainment process is assessed using proper orthogonal decomposition, which is employed to detect the largest and most energetic coherent turbulent structures. The dominant length scales responsible for the entrainment process are shown to grow further into the wind farm, but to be limited in extent by the streamwise turbine spacing, which could be taken into account when developing farm layouts. The self-organized motion or large coherent structures also yield high correlations between the power productions of consecutive turbines, which can be exploited through dynamic farm control. This article is part of the themed issue 'Wind energy in complex terrains'.

  3. Turbulence and entrainment length scales in large wind farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Søren J; Sørensen, Jens N; Mikkelsen, Robert F

    2017-04-13

    A number of large wind farms are modelled using large eddy simulations to elucidate the entrainment process. A reference simulation without turbines and three farm simulations with different degrees of imposed atmospheric turbulence are presented. The entrainment process is assessed using proper orthogonal decomposition, which is employed to detect the largest and most energetic coherent turbulent structures. The dominant length scales responsible for the entrainment process are shown to grow further into the wind farm, but to be limited in extent by the streamwise turbine spacing, which could be taken into account when developing farm layouts. The self-organized motion or large coherent structures also yield high correlations between the power productions of consecutive turbines, which can be exploited through dynamic farm control.This article is part of the themed issue 'Wind energy in complex terrains'.

  4. Prevalence of ROPS-equipped tractors on minority operated farms in the US.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, John R

    2009-05-01

    Tractor overturns kill an average of 100 farmers and farm workers per year. Roll-over protective structures (ROPS) are a proven intervention, but are not on a sufficient number of tractors in the US to reduce these deaths. Little has been reported on ROPS use by racial minority farm operators. Data from the NIOSH OISPA survey were used to assess ROPS prevalence rates from a random sample of racial minority farm operators for the year 2003, and ROPS prevalence rates from a random sample of all US farms for the year 2004. ROPS prevalence rates on minority farming operations follow similar patterns to ROPS prevalence rates on all US farms. A low prevalence of ROPS on farms was associated with operators over the age of 65 years, farms with small acreages, and farms operated on a part-time basis. The race of the operator had little impact on ROPS prevalence rates. Factors such as acreage, farm operator age, region of the US, and full- or part-time farming status influence ROPS prevalence rates on farms more than the race of the operator. Understanding how ROPS prevalence differs across these farm and farm operator characteristics has the potential to efficiently target areas for ROPS promotion programs across the US. Copyright 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. Differences in macrofaunal and seagrass assemblages in seagrass beds with and without seaweed farms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eklöf, J. S.; de la Torre Castro, M.; Adelsköld, L.; Jiddawi, N. S.; Kautsky, N.

    2005-05-01

    Since it was introduced to Zanzibar (Tanzania), seaweed farming has significantly contributed to local, socio-economic development. However, several investigations have shown impacts on the coastal environment near where the farms are located. As many seaweed farms are located on seagrass beds, there is a risk that seaweed farming could affect seagrass beds, and thereby disturb important ecosystem functions and the flow of ecological goods and services. This study compares characteristics of macrophytes (focusing on seagrasses), benthic macrofauna and sediment in seagrass beds, with and without seaweed farms, and a sand bank without vegetation in Chwaka Bay, Zanzibar. The results showed that seagrass beds underneath seaweed farms generally had less seagrass and macroalgae, finer sediment, lower sediment organic matter content and a reduced abundance and biomass of macrofauna, than seagrass beds without seaweed farms. Further, the macrofaunal community structure in seaweed farms showed more similarities to that on the sand bank than in the unfarmed seagrass beds. Most of the dissimilarity was attributable to Lucinidae (suspension-feeding bivalves), which were almost absent in the seaweed farms, resulting in the large difference in biomass between the seaweed farms and the unfarmed seagrass beds. When interpreted together with information from farmers, the observed pattern is believed to be caused by the seaweed farming activities. This indicates that more research is needed to establish the effects of seaweed farming on seagrass beds, and that more attention should be given to the location of farms and the choice of farming methods.

  6. Urban Farm Business Plan Handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Urban Farm Business Plan Handbook (this document) provides guidance for developing a business plan for the startup and operation of an urban farm. It focuses on food and non-food related cultivated agriculture.

  7. Monitoring nutrient flows and economic performance in African farming systems (NUTMON); II. tool development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, van den H.; Jager, de A.; Vlaming, J.

    1998-01-01

    Farm-NUTMON is a research tool that integrates the assessment of stocks and flows of the macro-nutrients nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium on the one hand and economic farm analysis on the other. The tool is applicable at both the farm and the activity level. It includes a structured questionnaire,

  8. Monitoring nutrient flows and economic performance in African farming systems (NUTMON); II. tool development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, van den H.; Jager, de A.; Vlaming, J.

    1998-01-01

    Farm-NUTMON is a research tool that integrates the assessment of stocks and flows of the macro-nutrients nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium on the one hand and economic farm analysis on the other. The tool is applicable at both the farm and the activity level. It includes a structured questionnaire,

  9. Italy INAF Data Center Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negusini, M.; Sarti, P.

    2013-01-01

    This report summarizes the activities of the Italian INAF VLBI Data Center. Our Data Center is located in Bologna, Italy and belongs to the Institute of Radioastronomy, which is part of the National Institute of Astrophysics.

  10. Stratigraphic and geophysical integrated methodologies for the interpretation of sulphur water formational environment in Salento (Italy)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Margiotta, S.; Negri, S. [Dipartimento di Scienze dei Materiali-Osservatorio di Fisica, Chimica, Geologia Ambientali-Universita del Salento (Italy)

    2008-06-13

    The Salento coal deposits (south-eastern Italy) are unutilized because these deposits are thin and nearly uneconomic but they have a high scientific and economic value due to their high organic sulphur content. The studied area is located in the western Salento peninsula where wells used by a fish-farm (''Ittica Ugento'') have shown high concentrations of hydrogen sulphide. Data from surface and boreholes stratigraphic surveys integrated with electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) allow us to define the structure, depths and geometry of the aquifer and its relationship with saltwater intrusion. Induced polarization (IP) with pole-dipole array survey has been carried out near the coastline. The value measured was over 50 msec. A direct relationship is shown to exist between IP values and the aquifer containing sulphur water. The high resolution of the data obtained with the applied methods not only shows the validity of the methodology but is the key to evaluating the groundwater resources of the area. The proposed mechanism is that of entrapment of sulphur water in a graben structure: when sulphate-enriched waters of marine origin come into contact with organic substances and lignite deposits (Galatone Formation, Oligocene), they are deprived not only of free oxygen, but also generate hydrogen sulphide as a result of the reduction of sulphates. (author)

  11. Farm animal welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandøe, Peter; Christiansen, Stine Billeschou; Appleby, M. C.

    2003-01-01

    An experimental survey was undertaken to explore the links between the characteristics of a moral issue, the degree of moral intensity/moral imperative associated with the issue (Jones, 1991), and people’s stated willingness to pay (wtp) for policy to address the issue. Two farm animal welfare...

  12. NORCOWE Reference Wind Farm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Thomas; Graham, Angus

    2015-01-01

    Offshore wind farms are complex systems, influenced by both the environment (e.g. wind, waves, current and seabed) and the design characteristics of the equipment available for installation (e.g. turbine type, foundations, cabling and distance to shore). These aspects govern the capital and opera...

  13. FARM ANIMAL WELFARE ECONOMICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.T. CZISZTER

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the literature regarding the economics of the farm animal welfare. The following issues are addressed: productions costs and savings of the animal welfare regulations, benefits of improved animal welfare, and consumers’ willingness to pay for animal-friendly products.

  14. Farm animal welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandøe, Peter; Christiansen, Stine Billeschou; Appleby, M. C.

    2003-01-01

    An experimental survey was undertaken to explore the links between the characteristics of a moral issue, the degree of moral intensity/moral imperative associated with the issue (Jones, 1991), and people’s stated willingness to pay (wtp) for policy to address the issue. Two farm animal welfare...

  15. Population pressure and farm fragmentation:

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    small but farms are further fragmented into diminutive size fields due to ... terms of household characteristics; land use and performance indicators; technology adoption .... 'best' unit of measurement of farm size, and size of enterprises within farms will ..... less common, accounting for 18 percent (3 percent) and 10 percent (7.

  16. Detection of Caliciviruses in young pheasants (Phasianus colchicus with enteritis in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilaria Capua

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available During June 2004 a severe enteritis was reported in a farm of 21-28 day old pheasants reared in intensive conditions in North-Eastern Italy. Mortality in the flock had reached 25%. Virological investigations on cell culture of the gut content yielded reoviruses while electron microscopy examination revealed viral particles morphologically related to calicivirus in association with parvovirus-like and rod shaped virus-like particles.

  17. Evaluation of the risk factors contributing to the African swine fever occurrence in Sardinia, Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez-López, Beatriz; Perez, Andres M.; Feliziani, Francesco; Rolesu, Sandro; Mur, Lina; José M. Sánchez-Vizcaíno

    2015-01-01

    This study assesses the relation between hypothesized risk factors and African swine fever virus (ASFV) distribution in Sardinia (Italy) after the beginning of the eradication program in 1993, using a Bayesian multivariable logistic regression mixed model. Results indicate that the probability of ASFV occurrence in Sardinia was associated to particular socio-cultural, productive and economical factors found in the region, particularly to large number of confined (i.e., closed) farms (most of ...

  18. Molecular evolution and phylogeography of co-circulating IHNV and VHSV in Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Miriam Abbadi; Alice Fusaro; Chiara Ceolin; Claudia Casarotto; Rosita Quartesan; Manuela Dalla Pozza; Giovanni Cattoli; Anna Toffan; Holmes, Edward C.; Valentina Panzarin

    2016-01-01

    Infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) and viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) are the most important viral pathogens impacting rainbow trout farming. These viruses are persistent in Italy, where they are responsible for severe disease outbreaks (epizootics) that affect the profitability of the trout industry. Despite the importance of IHNV and VHSV, little is known about their evolution at a local scale, although this is likely to be important for virus eradication and contr...

  19. Carbon footprints of organic dairying in six European countries—real farm data analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hietala, Sanna; Smith, Laurence; Knudsen, Marie Trydeman;

    2015-01-01

    Dairy farming is the largest agricultural contributor to greenhouse gas emissions in Europe. In this study, the carbon footprint of organic dairying was evaluated by means of a life cycle assessment, based on real farm data from six European countries: Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, Italy...... equivalents per kilogramme of energy-corrected milk with standard deviation of 0.22, which is consistent with recent studies. The main contributor to this is enteric fermentation from producing animals, resulting in 45 % of total GHG emissions, which is also consistent with previous studies....... and United Kingdom. A total of 34 farms were analysed. The assessment was carried out using an attributional approach with system boundaries from cradle to farm gate. In relation to dairy production, a functional unit of 1 kg of energy corrected milk was used. The results gave an average of 1.32 kg CO2...

  20. Integrated physical-chemical procedure for soil organic carbon frationation and characterization during transition to organic farming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two field experiments in the South of Italy were established in 2009 to study and characterize SOM during transition to organic farming. Experiments included a cereal/leguminous rotation fertilized with permitted organic amendments with three replications. A sequential fractionation procedure was us...

  1. Challenges of conservation agriculture practices on silty soils. Effects on soil pore and gas transport characteristics in North-eastern Italy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piccoli, Ilaria; Schjønning, Per; Lamandé, Mathieu

    2017-01-01

    of this study was to evaluate the effect of CA practices on gas transport characteristics in the silty soils of the Veneto Region (North-Eastern Italy). In 2010, a field experiment comparing CA practices (no-tillage, cover crop and residues retention) to conventional intensive tillage (IT) system...... was established in four farms located in the Veneto low plain. In fall 2015, 144 undisturbed 100 cm3 soil cores where collected at two different layers (3–6.5 cm and 20–23.5 cm) and analysed for air-filled porosity, air permeability, gas diffusivity and soil structure indices derived. Gas transport measurements...... highlighted low transmission properties of the silty soils independently from agronomic management. Both air permeability and relative gas diffusivity showed poor aerated conditions being generally

  2. Climate change and agricultural risk management: the role of the family-farm characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaranta, G.; Salvia, R.

    2009-04-01

    incidence and distribution of natural events, constitutes the theoretical background of the emphasis posed on social agents. Innovative interpretative frameworks, derived from this paradigm, are necessary in order to reshape both management approaches and policy elaboration. Local authorities and local actors should increase awareness and have suitable and new tools to improve the management and to mitigate the risks impacts on agro-natural resources where the role of the social agents is explicitly acknowledged. Mitigation and adaptation strategies should be shaped mainly taking in account the end-users characteristics. The framework presented and discussed in this paper internalizes the social agents perspective recognizing that perception of the risks in the agricultural sector may affect the farmers compliance decision and the level of management practices undertaken. Therefore the intensity of management practices both structural and non-structural has captured in two participatory stages: a model of perception in the first stage and a model of adoption (compliance) and the level of adoption of management practices. In the first stage the factors that condition the farmer perception of the risk linked to water availability are examined. The factors considered are household-specific elements that influence diffusion of information, social capital, farm assets, labour force characteristics. The second stage is finalized to examine the factors that determine the rate of adoption. The methodology has been used in a pilot area of Southern Italy and it has demonstrated to be very effective in depicting farm behaviours definitely showing a great attitude to be utilized for policies ex-ante evaluation and rural policies formulation.

  3. Turbulence and entrainment length scales in large wind farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Søren Juhl; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær; Mikkelsen, Robert Flemming

    2017-01-01

    be taken into account when developing farm layouts. The self-organized motion or large coherent structures also yield high correlations between the power productions of consecutive turbines, which can be exploited through dynamic farm control.This article is part of the themed issue 'Wind energy in complex...... orthogonal decomposition, which is employed to detect the largest and most energetic coherent turbulent structures. The dominant length scales responsible for the entrainment process are shown to grow further into the wind farm, but to be limited in extent by the streamwise turbine spacing, which could...

  4. Distribution and arrest of vertical through-going joints in shallow-water carbonates: Insights from an integrated virtual outcrop - field structural analysis of a reservoir-scale exposure (Sorrento Peninsula, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corradetti, Amerigo; Tavani, Stefano; Parente, Mariano; Iannace, Alessandro; Vinci, Francesco; Pirmez, Carlos; Torrieri, Stefano; Giorgioni, Maurizio; Pignalosa, Antonio; Mazzoli, Stefano

    2017-04-01

    Through-going joints cutting across several beds are often invoked to match large-scale permeability patterns in tight carbonate reservoirs. However, despite the importance of these structures for fluid flow, only few field studies focused on the understanding and estimation of through-going joint dimensional parameters, including spacing and vertical extent in relation to stratigraphy. Recent improvements in the construction of virtual models of outcrops can greatly help to overcome many logistic issues, favoring the evaluation of relationships between jointing and stratigraphy at the reservoir scale. In this study, we present the results obtained from integrating field measurements and stratigraphic logs with a virtual outcrop model of a carbonate platform reservoir analogue in the Sorrento peninsula (Italy). The outcrop consists of a nearly vertical cliff exposing a monocline of alternating gently-dipping shallow-water limestones and dolostones, crossed by several vertical joints of different size. This study allowed us to define how major through-going joints pass across thick beds (bed thickness > 30 cm), while they arrest against packages made of thinly stratified layers. In essence, through-going joints arrest on "weak" levels, consisting of thinly bedded layers interposed between packages made of thick beds, in the same manner as bed-confined joints arrest on less competent interlayers.

  5. Morpho-structural evolution of the valley-slope systems and related implications on slope-scale gravitational processes: New results from the Mt. Genzana case history (Central Apennines, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della Seta, M.; Esposito, C.; Marmoni, G. M.; Martino, S.; Scarascia Mugnozza, G.; Troiani, F.

    2017-07-01

    This work is aimed at constraining a slope-scale, deep-seated gravitational slope deformation (DSGSD) and an associated rockslide-avalanche in the frame of the Quaternary morpho-structural evolution of Central Apennines (Italy). The study area is the western slope of the Mt. Genzana calcareous ridge, for which a conceptual slope evolutionary model had been already proposed. The existing model has highlighted the role of inherited geological-structural setting combined with Quaternary morpho-evolution in the onset of rock-slope deformational processes until paroxysmal phases (i.e. occurrence of massive rock slope failures). In this work, the previous conceptual evolutionary model was strengthened and detailed by means of a mid-term landscape evolution model, based on the study of geomorphic markers hanging at different elevations above the present valley floor. The Quaternary landscape evolution was also constrained by means of time-dependent landscape metrics. Consequently, it was possible to back-analyse the observed DSGSD process from its onset up to the occurrence of localized massive rock slope failures, through a time-dependent stress-strain numerical modeling. The results of such a multi-modeling approach: i) highlighted the importance of rock mass creep during some stages of the morpho-evolution; ii) pointed out the relevant role of the inherited structural pattern in identifying the preferential strain concentration zones and failure surfaces; and iii) confirmed the hypothesis that the Scanno rockslide-avalanche scar is the result of two separate failure events, as an initial landslide involving the lower part of the slope that favoured a subsequent failure in the upper part of the slope.

  6. Mechanization in firewood harvesting in southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to survey current mechanization level of coppice harvesting in Southern Italy. The cooperation of the General Direction of the National Forest Service (NFS has been a basic tool of survey. A questionnaire compiled on purpose was sent to each Forest Station (hereinafter referred to as CS in the following regions: Basilicata, Campania and Calabria. A high percentage (80% of the CSs did fulfill the questionnaire. The answers highlight that: i the main assortment currently produced is firewood; ii the level of harvesting mechanization is rather low, equipment being quite obsolete: indeed, the most widely used machineries are farm tractors partly adapted to forest harvesting and equipped with cages or back winch; iii the use of animals for hauling (mules and oxen, the latter in Calabria is still quite frequent, while forest tractors, polyethylene chutes and cable cranes are almost absent; iv the use of individual protection (DPI and machinery protection devices (DPM is on average quite low.

  7. Education in Fascist Italy (1922-1945

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Silvério Baia Horta

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes education in Italy in the period of 1922-1945, identifying the mechanisms put into practice, by the fascist regime, so that schools would serve its interests. Beginning with the Gentile Reform, it examines the process of schools’ fascist indoctrination in its different levels. This process begins with the Teachers’ Associations in 1935, and increases with the schools’ militarization. In 1938, racist laws were introduced in the teaching system. It reaches its climax with the School Letter in 1939. All this structure began to collapse in 1943 with Mussolini’s fall.

  8. Characterisation of wild rabbit commercial game farms in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro González-Redondo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to characterise the wild rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus commercial game farms in Spain using variables related to structure, management and marketing. To this end, a structured survey was administered in 2009 to 21 privately-owned farms. This subsector was an average age of 13. The average size of the breeding stock of the farms was 431 does and 64 bucks. Eighty-five percent of the farms kept all or part of the breeding stock in cages and 38.1% used artificial insemination. All the farms carried out breeder self-replacement, 4.8% by buying wild rabbits from other farms, whereas 38.1% captured wild rabbits for this purpose. Nineteen percent of the wild rabbit game farms also produced other game species, mainly red-legged partridge (Alectoris rufa, pheasant (Phasianus colchicus and quail (Coturnix coturnix. Fourteen percent of the farms supplied wild rabbits to be used as prey to be released in programmes for the conservation of endangered predators, and 38.1% supplied breeding rabbits to be used by other farms to replace culled animals. Eighty-six percent of the farms offered the service of transporting the animals from the farm to the hunting grounds to their clients, and 14.3% advised customers on how to successfully release and restock hunting grounds. Seventy-six percent of the farms marketed their products throughout Spain, and 38.1% exported wild rabbits to neighbouring countries, mainly Portugal and France. Forty-three percent of the farms advertised themselves in hunting magazines, 19.1% promoted themselves by attending livestock and game fairs, and 38.1% had their own websites. In conclusion, this alternative rabbit production system constitutes a well-established subsector in Spain, despite being only 2 decades old. It also seems that it has not yet reached its development maturity. It shows wide diversity in terms of farm size and structure, as well as marketing and promotional activities.

  9. Wind Farms: Modeling and Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soleimanzadeh, Maryam

    2012-01-01

    provides the state space form of the dynamic wind farm model. The model provides an approximation of the behavior of the flow in wind farms, and obtains the wind speed in the vicinity of each wind turbine. The control algorithms in this work are mostly on the basis of the developed wind farm model......The primary purpose of this work is to develop control algorithms for wind farms to optimize the power production and augment the lifetime of wind turbines in wind farms. In this regard, a dynamical model for wind farms was required to be the basis of the controller design. In the first stage......, a dynamical model has been developed for the wind flow in wind farms. The model is based on the spatial discretization of the linearized Navier-Stokes equation combined with the vortex cylinder theory. The spatial discretization of the model is performed using the Finite Difference Method (FDM), which...

  10. Temporal and spatial quantification of farm and landscape functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Peter Stubkjær

    This PhD thesis presents a study on the spatial distribution of agricultural functions at farm and landscape levels. The study focuses on conceptualization of multifunctionality. The concrete conceptual steps include: identification of indicators of four farm and landscape functions – production......, residence, habitat, and recreation; development of a method for quantifying farm functionality and assessing multifunctionality; and definition of a farm typology based on multifunctionality strategies. Empirical data from farm interviews were used in the study to test the developed methods. The results...... is generally decreases and a tendency of increased segregation of the rural landscape is observed. In perspective, further studies on quantification in tangible units, synergies and trade-offs between functions at different scales, and correlations between structures and functions are needed....

  11. Comparison among NH3 and GHGs emissive patterns from different housing solutions of dairy farms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldini, Cecilia; Borgonovo, Federica; Gardoni, Davide; Guarino, Marcella

    2016-09-01

    Agriculture and livestock farming are known to be activities emitting relevant quantities of atmospheric pollutants. In particular, in intensive animal farming, buildings can be identified as a relevant source of ammonia and greenhouse gases. This study aimed at: i) determining the emission factors of NH3, N2O, CH4, and CO2 from different dairy farms in Italy, and ii) assessing the effects of the different floor types and manure-handling systems used, in order to minimize the impact of this important productive sector. A measurement campaign was carried out for 27 months in four naturally ventilated dairy cattle buildings with different floor types, layouts and manure management systems, representative of the most common technologies in the north of Italy. Gas emissions were measured with the ;static chamber method;: a chamber was placed above the floor farm and an infrared photoacoustic detector (IPD) was used to monitor gas accumulation over time. In the feeding alleys, emissions of NH3 were higher from solid floors than from flushing systems and perforated floors. N2O emissions were significantly different among farms but the absolute values were relatively low. CH4 and CO2 emissions were higher from perforated floors than from other types of housing solution. Regarding the cubicles, the emissions of NH3 were approximately equal from the two housing solution studied. Contrariwise, N2O, CH4 and CO2 emissions were different between the cubicles with rubber mat and those with straw where the highest values were found.

  12. Wind farm production estimates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben J.; Larsen, Gunner Chr.; Aagaard Madsen, Helge;

    2012-01-01

    on a 3GHz pc. The turbine controller is fully implemented. Initially, production estimates of a single turbine under free and wake conditions, respectively, are compared for (undis- turbed) mean wind speeds ranging from 3m/s to 25m/s. The undisturbed situation refers to a wind direction bin defined......In this paper, the Dynamic Wake Meandering (DWM) model is applied for simulation of wind farm production. In addition to the numerical simulations, measured data have been analyzed in order to provide the basis for a full-scale verification of the model performance. The basic idea behind...... as 270◦ ±5◦, whereas the wake situation refers to the wind direction bin 319◦ ±5◦. In the latter case, the investigated turbine operated in the wake of 6 upstream turbines, with the mean wind direction being equal to the orientation of the wind turbine row. The production of the entire wind farm has been...

  13. Transgenic Farm Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Morse B.; Eastridge, Janet S.; Paroczay, Ernest W.

    Conventional science to improve muscle and meat parameters has involved breeding strategies, such as selection of dominant traits or selection of preferred traits by cross breeding, and the use of endogenous and exogenous hormones. Improvements in the quality of food products that enter the market have largely been the result of postharvest intervention strategies. Biotechnology is a more extreme scientific method that offers the potential to improve the quality, yield, and safety of food products by direct genetic manipulation. In the December 13, 2007 issue of the Southeast Farm Press, an article by Roy Roberson pointed out that biotechnology is driving most segments of U.S. farm growth. He indicated that nationwide, the agriculture industry is booming and much of that growth is the result of biotechnology advancements.

  14. Particularities of farm accounting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lapteș, R.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, agriculture has become one of the most important fields of activity, significant funds being allotted within the EU budget to finance the European agriculture. In this context, organising the accounting of economic entities which carry out their activity in the agricultural sector has acquired new meanings. The goal of the present study is to bring into the light the particularities of the farm accounting on two levels: on the one hand, from the perspective of the international accounting referential and, on the other hand, in compliance with the national accounting regulations. The most important conclusion of this work is that, in post-1990 Romania, no interest was further manifested for the refinement of aspects specific to farm accounting.

  15. Organic food and farming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kledal, Paul Rye

    The paper is based on research conducted for DARCOF II (Danish Research Centre for Organic Farming, www.darcof.dk). The aim of the research project is to analyze the future development of the Danish organic food sector through focusing on two agro-commodities: vegetables and pork. Emphasis...... is placed on identification of economic forces within the supply chains. The main conclusions of the paper – being the results from the organic vegetable chain – are that the rules and regulations, and the development of alternative transaction processes in organic food and farming have so far been founded...... conventional farmers – declining prices, concentration of production and shift in bargaining power to the retailers. Logically, this situation will lead eventually to increasing conflicts between organic values and their subordination to free market forces, i.e. conventionalization. In the same time retailers...

  16. Amy Courtney: Freewheelin' Farm

    OpenAIRE

    Rabkin, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    Shareholders in Freewheelin’ Farm’s community supported agriculture program enjoy an unusual perk: delivery by bicycle-drawn trailer. Freewheelin’ founder Amy Courtney, a 1997 graduate of UCSC’s Apprenticeship in Ecological Horticulture, strives to produce fresh, healthy food while minimizing her environmental footprint. Courtney started the farm in 2002 with almost no motorized vehicles, incorporating used equipment and recycled materials wherever possible in the farm’s operations. She and h...

  17. Wind farm production estimates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben J.; Larsen, Gunner Chr.; Aagaard Madsen, Helge

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, the Dynamic Wake Meandering (DWM) model is applied for simulation of wind farm production. In addition to the numerical simulations, measured data have been analyzed in order to provide the basis for a full-scale verification of the model performance. The basic idea behind the DWMm......In this paper, the Dynamic Wake Meandering (DWM) model is applied for simulation of wind farm production. In addition to the numerical simulations, measured data have been analyzed in order to provide the basis for a full-scale verification of the model performance. The basic idea behind...... on a 3GHz pc. The turbine controller is fully implemented. Initially, production estimates of a single turbine under free and wake conditions, respectively, are compared for (undis- turbed) mean wind speeds ranging from 3m/s to 25m/s. The undisturbed situation refers to a wind direction bin defined...... as 270◦ ±5◦, whereas the wake situation refers to the wind direction bin 319◦ ±5◦. In the latter case, the investigated turbine operated in the wake of 6 upstream turbines, with the mean wind direction being equal to the orientation of the wind turbine row. The production of the entire wind farm has been...

  18. Modelling Farm Animal Welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Lisa M; Part, Chérie E

    2013-05-16

    The use of models in the life sciences has greatly expanded in scope and advanced in technique in recent decades. However, the range, type and complexity of models used in farm animal welfare is comparatively poor, despite the great scope for use of modeling in this field of research. In this paper, we review the different modeling approaches used in farm animal welfare science to date, discussing the types of questions they have been used to answer, the merits and problems associated with the method, and possible future applications of each technique. We find that the most frequently published types of model used in farm animal welfare are conceptual and assessment models; two types of model that are frequently (though not exclusively) based on expert opinion. Simulation, optimization, scenario, and systems modeling approaches are rarer in animal welfare, despite being commonly used in other related fields. Finally, common issues such as a lack of quantitative data to parameterize models, and model selection and validation are discussed throughout the review, with possible solutions and alternative approaches suggested.

  19. Modelling Farm Animal Welfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chérie E. Part

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The use of models in the life sciences has greatly expanded in scope and advanced in technique in recent decades. However, the range, type and complexity of models used in farm animal welfare is comparatively poor, despite the great scope for use of modeling in this field of research. In this paper, we review the different modeling approaches used in farm animal welfare science to date, discussing the types of questions they have been used to answer, the merits and problems associated with the method, and possible future applications of each technique. We find that the most frequently published types of model used in farm animal welfare are conceptual and assessment models; two types of model that are frequently (though not exclusively based on expert opinion. Simulation, optimization, scenario, and systems modeling approaches are rarer in animal welfare, despite being commonly used in other related fields. Finally, common issues such as a lack of quantitative data to parameterize models, and model selection and validation are discussed throughout the review, with possible solutions and alternative approaches suggested.

  20. Dynamic simulation of sustainable farm development scenarios using cognitive modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuzhyk Kateryna

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic simulation of sustainable farm development scenarios using cognitive modeling. The paper presents a dynamic simulation system of sustainable development scenarios on farms using cognitive modeling. The system incorporates relevant variables which affect the sustainable development of farms. Its user provides answers to strategic issues connected with the level of farm sustainability over a long-term perspective of dynamic development. The work contains a description of the model structure as well as the results of simulations carried out on 16 farms in northern Ukraine. The results show that the process of sustainability is based mainly on the potential for innovation in agricultural production and biodiversity. The user is able to simulate various scenarios for the sustainable development of a farm and visualize the influence of factors on the economic and social situation, as well as on environmental aspects. Upon carrying out a series of simulations, it was determined that the development of farms characterized by sustainable development is based on additional profit, which serves as the main motivation for transforming a conventional farm into a sustainable one. Nevertheless, additional profit is not the only driving force in the system of sustainable development. The standard of living, market condition, and legal regulations as well as government support also play a significant motivational role.

  1. Uses of glyphosate in German arable farming – operational aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiese, Armin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Glyphosate is the most frequently used herbicide active ingredient in Germany. Studies regarding its usage in non-GMO arable farming are still rare even though it plays an important role in several agronomic situations. Therefore, we conducted a comprehensive survey, which was carried out among conventional German farms in Winter 2014/2015. Based on the results of this survey we analyzed via cluster analysis how types of farms differ in terms of glyphosate usage. An illustration of seven clusters allows deep insights into arable farm structures. The farm types can be distinguished regarding their tillage system and similar to this differentiation also concerning their intensity of glyphosate application. Furthermore, it becomes obvious that farm clusters with a higher level of glyphosate usage are characterized by a lower number of labourers per hectare, more arable land and/or enhanced cover cropping. Moreover, groups of farmers who rely more on glyphosate are more likely to state that they need glyphosate for herbicide resistance management. Farmers’ assessments of the economic importance of glyphosate usage vary depending on the type of farm. By means of the farm clusters, the most important situations of glyphosate usage can be further analyzed economically and scenarios for impact assessments can be made.

  2. Fatto in Italia: Refashioning Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiziana Ferrero-Regis

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses how the Made in Italy brand helped Italy to recover from economic recession in the 1980s, but also how it redefined the country's identity after the traumatic years of terrorism and especially after the murder of the Christian Democratic Party Secretary, Aldo Moro, at the hands of the Red Brigades. In this period cinema as a form of artistic achievement declined, while fashion and industrial design moved at the centre stage of economic and creative success. The rampant consumerism of the 1980s, fuelled by tax reforms that favoured a wider urban middle class, the retreat of unionism, the abandonment of collective bargaining in many industrial sectors, industrial restructuring with the consequent growth of black market economy in the provincial areas of the so-called Third Italy first and the South later, were all factors that contributed to a social and economic shift within Italy itself. Commercial consumption, propagated by the proliferation of local commercial television networks, hedonism and a re-articulation of identity through appearance replaced the 1970s' political activism and ideological opposition to fashion. Ultimately, 'Made in Italy' was a multidimensional phenomenon that presented itself as a new cultural model for the country’s political tribes of the 1970s.

  3. A foxy view of human beauty: implications of the farm fox experiment for understanding the origins of structural and experiential aspects of facial attractiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elia, I E

    2013-09-01

    Within 20 years, experimental selection of quantified "not too aggressive, not too fearful" behavior to human approach was shown in silver foxes (Vulpes vulpes) to produce a neotenic package of traits in adults: ability to seek, induce, and sustain contact (called friendly or rapport behavior); relatively short limbs and foreshortened skull/face; and light pigmentation areas. Earlier sexual maturation, prolonged receptivity, and larger litters were also noted. The increased estradiol supporting these changes was apparently also responsible for faster skeletal maturation, including earlier fusion of the basicranium causing tooth crowding, but also paedomorphic craniofacial proportions that we find attractive in our own and other species. In this paper, these important findings of the farm fox experiment are juxtaposed with insights from social psychology, physical anthropology, and neuroscience about facial beauty and reaction to it. Since many unrelated species show some or all of the neotenic package or domestication profile when they have achieved rapport past the juvenile stage, craniofacial proportions considered attractive are discussed as genetically and hormonally linked to the evolution of rapport--social contact, trust, and cooperation--whether by natural, intuitive, intentional, or mixed paths of selection.

  4. Design of Sustainable Agricultural Buildings. A Case Study of a Wine Cellar in Tuscany, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Conti

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This research concerns the design of an agricultural building with a high degree of sustainability, located in a farm in the south of the Tuscany region, Italy. The building, intended mainly as a wine cellar, offers innovative construction solutions of high deconstructability and has features of low environmental impact, economic competitiveness and constructive simplicity. In particular, the design of the basement cellar involves the use of gabions and stones for the realization of the foundations, the ground retaining walls and all other bearing walls. A different solution is adopted for the external wall which remains entirely above ground. It is also made by gabions, but it is externally covered with a coat of straw bales and is plastered with clay or lime. The roof-bearing structure is made of steel beams and galvanized steel sheets. A layer of fertile soil is arranged on the roof to form a green roof system. This research aims to spread the design criteria of deconstructable buildings, based on the use of natural materials with low environmental and economic impact. Where it is not possible to employ natural materials, reusable or recyclable materials are used.

  5. Geomorphological analysis of sinkhole and landslide hazard in a karst area of the Venetian Prealps- Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiberi, Valentina

    2010-05-01

    In the pedemountain area of the Asiago Plateau (Venetian Prealps - NE Italy) sinkholes and landslides represent in many cases a complex response to karst processes. Field survey showed that both soil and bedrock are involved, mainly represented by colluvial-alluvial sediments and carbonate rocks. Preliminary observations also reveal the key role of piping and cave-collapse phenomena and the importance of human remedial measures. Within study area, these processes cause damage mainly to agricultural and pasture activities and expose peoples and farm animals to very high hazards. This work provides preliminary results of geomorphological analysis carried out to define sinkhole and landslide hazard and his connections with karst processes. During first phases of the research program, an inventory of interesting phenomena has been elaborated employing GIS technologies. The database has been constantly revised and enriched with new field measurements and thematic maps (i.e. geomorphological, geo-structural, hydrogeological, caves development maps). Specifically, field survey focused on the morphodynamic definition of instability elements allowing to recognize a wide range of morphotypes (mainly with regard to sinkholes) and polygenic morphologies (i.e. mixed sinkholes-landslides configurations). Geomorphological analysis also revealed specific evolutionary trends of instability processes; they could be useful employed to program more effective mitigation strategies.

  6. Forecasting wind power production from a wind farm using the RAMS model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tiriolo, L.; Torcasio, R. C.; Montesanti, S.;

    2015-01-01

    The importance of wind power forecast is commonly recognized because it represents a useful tool for grid integration and facilitates the energy trading. This work considers an example of power forecast for a wind farm in the Apennines in Central Italy. The orography around the site is complex...... and the horizontal resolution of the wind forecast has an important role. To explore this point we compared the performance of two 48 h wind power forecasts using the winds predicted by the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS) for the year 2011. The two forecasts differ only for the horizontal resolution...... of the ECMWF Integrated Forecasting System (IFS), whose horizontal resolution over Central Italy is about 25 km at the time considered in this paper. Because wind observations were not available for the site, the power curve for the whole wind farm was derived from the ECMWF wind operational analyses available...

  7. Can Organic Farming Reduce Vulnerabilities and Enhance the Resilience of the European Food System? A Critical Assessment Using System Dynamics Structural Thinking Tools

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brzezina, Natalia; Kopainsky, Birgit; Mathijs, Erik

    2016-01-01

    ...? In this paper, we use system dynamics structural thinking tools to identify the vulnerabilities of the conventional food system that result from both its internal structure as well as its exposure...

  8. Heterogeneity of farms entering export supply chains: the case of fruit growers from central-south Chile

    OpenAIRE

    J. A. Barrena Ruiz; L. A. Nahuelhual Muñoz; A. Engler Palma; R. Echeverría Pezoa; G. Cofré Bravo

    2013-01-01

    The increasing stringency of world food markets requires farmers to adjust farm structure and commercial strategies to remain integrated in export supply chains. The goal of this study was to identify and characterize different types of fresh fruit farms with regard to farm structural and commercial strategies for a representative sample of fresh fruit growers from central-south Chile exporting to world markets. A typology of farms was constructed based on multivariate analysis, according to ...

  9. Environmental effects on natural frequencies of the San Pietro bell tower in Perugia, Italy, and their removal for structural performance assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubertini, Filippo; Comanducci, Gabriele; Cavalagli, Nicola; Laura Pisello, Anna; Luigi Materazzi, Annibale; Cotana, Franco

    2017-01-01

    Continuously identified natural frequencies of vibration can provide unique information for low-cost automated condition assessment of civil constructions and infrastructures. However, the effects of changes in environmental parameters, such as temperature and humidity, need to be effectively investigated and accurately removed from identified frequency data for an effective performance assessment. This task is particularly challenging in the case of historical constructions that are typically massive and heterogeneous masonry structures characterized by complex variations of materials' properties with varying environmental parameters and by a differential heat conduction process where thermal capacity plays a major role. While there is abundance of documented monitoring data highlighting correlations between environmental parameters and natural frequencies in the case of new structures, such as long-span bridges, similar studies for historical constructions are still missing, with only a few literature works occasionally reporting increments in natural frequencies with increasing temperature of construction materials due to the closure of internal micro-cracks in the mortar layers caused by thermal expansion. In order to gain some knowledge on the effects of changes in temperature and humidity on the natural frequencies of slender masonry buildings, the paper focuses on the case study of an Italian monumental bell tower that has been monitored by the authors for more than nine months. Correlations between natural frequencies and environmental parameters are investigated in detail and the predictive capabilities of linear statistical regressive models based on the use of several environmental continuous monitoring sensors are assessed. At the end, three basic mechanisms governing environmentally-induced changes in the dynamic behavior of the tower are identified and essential information is achieved on the optimal location and minimum number of environmental

  10. Active faulting, 3-D geological architecture and Plio-Quaternary structural evolution of extensional basins in the central Apennine chain, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gori, Stefano; Falcucci, Emanuela; Ladina, Chiara; Marzorati, Simone; Galadini, Fabrizio

    2017-03-01

    The general basin and range Apennine topographic characteristic is generally attributed to the presently active normal fault systems, whose long-term activity (throughout the Quaternary) is supposed to have been responsible for the creation of morphological/structural highs and lows. By coupling field geological survey and geophysical investigations, we reconstructed the 3-D geological model of an inner tectonic basin of the central Apennines, the Subequana Valley, bounded to the northeast by the southern segment of one of the major active and seismogenic normal faults of the Apennines, known as the Middle Aterno Valley-Subequana Valley fault system. Our analyses revealed that, since the late Pliocene, the basin evolved in a double half-graben configuration through a polyphase tectonic development. An early phase, Late Pliocene-Early Pleistocene in age, was controlled by the ENE-WSW-striking and SSE-dipping Avezzano-Bussi fault, that determined the formation of an early depocentre towards the N-NW. Subsequently, the main fault became the NW-SE-striking faults, which drove the formation during the Quaternary of a new fault-related depocentre towards the NE. By considering the available geological information, a similar structural evolution has likely involved three close tectonic basins aligned along the Avezzano-Bussi fault, namely the Fucino Basin, the Subequana Valley, and the Sulmona Basin, and it has been probably experienced by other tectonic basins of the chain. The present work therefore points out the role of pre-existing transverse tectonic structures, inherited by previous tectonic phases, in accommodating the ongoing tectonic deformation and, consequently, in influencing the structural characteristics of the major active normal faults. This has implications in terms of earthquake fault rupture propagation and segmentation. Lastly, the morpho-tectonic setting of the Apennine chain results from the superposition of deformation events whose geological

  11. Are large farms more efficient? Tenure security, farm size and farm efficiency: evidence from northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yuepeng; Ma, Xianlei; Shi, Xiaoping

    2017-04-01

    How to increase production efficiency, guarantee grain security, and increase farmers' income using the limited farmland is a great challenge that China is facing. Although theory predicts that secure property rights and moderate scale management of farmland can increase land productivity, reduce farm-related costs, and raise farmer's income, empirical studies on the size and magnitude of these effects are scarce. A number of studies have examined the impacts of land tenure or farm size on productivity or efficiency, respectively. There are also a few studies linking farm size, land tenure and efficiency together. However, to our best knowledge, there are no studies considering tenure security and farm efficiency together for different farm scales in China. In addition, there is little study analyzing the profit frontier. In this study, we particularly focus on the impacts of land tenure security and farm size on farm profit efficiency, using farm level data collected from 23 villages, 811 households in Liaoning in 2015. 7 different farm scales have been identified to further represent small farms, median farms, moderate-scale farms, and large farms. Technical efficiency is analyzed with stochastic frontier production function. The profit efficiency is regressed on a set of explanatory variables which includes farm size dummies, land tenure security indexes, and household characteristics. We found that: 1) The technical efficiency scores for production efficiency (average score = 0.998) indicate that it is already very close to the production frontier, and thus there is little room to improve production efficiency. However, there is larger space to raise profit efficiency (average score = 0.768) by investing more on farm size expansion, seed, hired labor, pesticide, and irrigation. 2) Farms between 50-80 mu are most efficient from the viewpoint of profit efficiency. The so-called moderate-scale farms (100-150 mu) according to the governmental guideline show no

  12. UAV-Based Photogrammetry and Integrated Technologies for Architectural Applications—Methodological Strategies for the After-Quake Survey of Vertical Structures in Mantua (Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiana Achille

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the survey of tall buildings in an emergency context like in the case of post-seismic events. The after-earthquake survey has to guarantee time-savings, high precision and security during the operational stages. The main goal is to optimize the application of methodologies based on acquisition and automatic elaborations of photogrammetric data even with the use of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV systems in order to provide fast and low cost operations. The suggested methods integrate new technologies with commonly used technologies like TLS and topographic acquisition. The value of the photogrammetric application is demonstrated by a test case, based on the comparison of acquisition, calibration and 3D modeling results in case of use of a laser scanner, metric camera and amateur reflex camera. The test would help us to demonstrate the efficiency of image based methods in the acquisition of complex architecture. The case study is Santa Barbara Bell tower in Mantua. The applied survey solution allows a complete 3D database of the complex architectural structure to be obtained for the extraction of all the information needed for significant intervention. This demonstrates the applicability of the photogrammetry using UAV for the survey of vertical structures, complex buildings and difficult accessible architectural parts, providing high precision results.

  13. UAV-Based Photogrammetry and Integrated Technologies for Architectural Applications--Methodological Strategies for the After-Quake Survey of Vertical Structures in Mantua (Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achille, Cristiana; Adami, Andrea; Chiarini, Silvia; Cremonesi, Stefano; Fassi, Francesco; Fregonese, Luigi; Taffurelli, Laura

    2015-06-30

    This paper examines the survey of tall buildings in an emergency context like in the case of post-seismic events. The after-earthquake survey has to guarantee time-savings, high precision and security during the operational stages. The main goal is to optimize the application of methodologies based on acquisition and automatic elaborations of photogrammetric data even with the use of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) systems in order to provide fast and low cost operations. The suggested methods integrate new technologies with commonly used technologies like TLS and topographic acquisition. The value of the photogrammetric application is demonstrated by a test case, based on the comparison of acquisition, calibration and 3D modeling results in case of use of a laser scanner, metric camera and amateur reflex camera. The test would help us to demonstrate the efficiency of image based methods in the acquisition of complex architecture. The case study is Santa Barbara Bell tower in Mantua. The applied survey solution allows a complete 3D database of the complex architectural structure to be obtained for the extraction of all the information needed for significant intervention. This demonstrates the applicability of the photogrammetry using UAV for the survey of vertical structures, complex buildings and difficult accessible architectural parts, providing high precision results.

  14. UAV-Based Photogrammetry and Integrated Technologies for Architectural Applications—Methodological Strategies for the After-Quake Survey of Vertical Structures in Mantua (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achille, Cristiana; Adami, Andrea; Chiarini, Silvia; Cremonesi, Stefano; Fassi, Francesco; Fregonese, Luigi; Taffurelli, Laura

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the survey of tall buildings in an emergency context like in the case of post-seismic events. The after-earthquake survey has to guarantee time-savings, high precision and security during the operational stages. The main goal is to optimize the application of methodologies based on acquisition and automatic elaborations of photogrammetric data even with the use of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) systems in order to provide fast and low cost operations. The suggested methods integrate new technologies with commonly used technologies like TLS and topographic acquisition. The value of the photogrammetric application is demonstrated by a test case, based on the comparison of acquisition, calibration and 3D modeling results in case of use of a laser scanner, metric camera and amateur reflex camera. The test would help us to demonstrate the efficiency of image based methods in the acquisition of complex architecture. The case study is Santa Barbara Bell tower in Mantua. The applied survey solution allows a complete 3D database of the complex architectural structure to be obtained for the extraction of all the information needed for significant intervention. This demonstrates the applicability of the photogrammetry using UAV for the survey of vertical structures, complex buildings and difficult accessible architectural parts, providing high precision results. PMID:26134108

  15. Fault Tolerant Wind Farm Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Peter Fogh; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2013-01-01

    with best at a wind turbine control level. However, some faults are better dealt with at the wind farm control level, if the wind turbine is located in a wind farm. In this paper a benchmark model for fault detection and isolation, and fault tolerant control of wind turbines implemented at the wind farm...... control level is presented. The benchmark model includes a small wind farm of nine wind turbines, based on simple models of the wind turbines as well as the wind and interactions between wind turbines in the wind farm. The model includes wind and power references scenarios as well as three relevant fault...... scenarios. This benchmark model is used in an international competition dealing with Wind Farm fault detection and isolation and fault tolerant control....

  16. The shallow structure of the 2009 Mw 6.1 L'Aquila earthquake fault-system (Italy): new insights from integrated high-resolution refraction tomography and detailed geologic mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villani, Fabio; Improta, Luigi; Pucci, Stefano; Civico, Riccardo; Pantosti, Daniela

    2015-04-01

    The 6 April 2009 Mw 6.1 L'Aquila earthquake (central Italy) was caused by the Paganica Fault, which belongs to a ~20 km long network of normal faults (Paganica-San Demetrio Fault System, PSDFS). The hangingwall of the PSDFS hosts a wide Quaternary continental basin (Middle Aterno valley) with complex geometry, structural setting and sedimentary evolution. Before the 2009 earthquake, the shallow crustal structure in the epicentral area was poorly known. Here, we report results of a 2-D high-resolution seismic investigation carried out in 2010 in the NE portion of the basin, across the Paganica Fault, in a challenging urban environment. The survey consisted of 5 dense wide-aperture seismic profiles that run NE-SW for a total length of 8 km. Around 80,000 hand-picked first-arrival traveltimes were input to a non-linear multi-scale tomographic inversion. The merged profiles allow depicting a reliable cross-section of the Middle Aterno basin down to ~300 m depth. In addition, we show for the first time P-wave velocity images across the causative fault of the 6 April 2009 earthquake. Interpretation of the Vp tomograms is constrained by a few drillings and by results of a detailed geologic survey. We interpret low-Vp regions (1500-2000 m/s) as lacustrine sediments and higher Vp bodies (Vp up to 3000 m/s) as coarse fluvial and alluvial fan deposits sited above a Meso-Cenozoic carbonate substratum (Vp >3500-4000 m/s) that shows a very irregular morphology. The improved knowledge of the Middle Aterno valley geological setting together with new tomographic Vp images yield new insights on the buried structure and long-term evolution of two small basins (Bazzano and Paganica basins) crossed by the seismic lines. In particular, the Paganica basin developed since Early-Middle Pleistocene due to the Paganica SW-dipping master fault and its splays. Seismic imaging revealed that the basin infill consists almost exclusively of coarse alluvial fan deposits. We were able to detect 2

  17. Development of a Scaled Smart Wind Farm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pol, Suhas; Taylor, Amelia; McKeon, Dalton; Castillo, Luciano; Perez, Isaias; Beibei, Ren; Sheng, Jian; Westergaard, Carsten; Burak, Aksak; Araya, Guillermo; Hussain, Fazle

    2013-11-01

    A model wind farm consisting of 3X5 horizontal axis turbines with a rotor diameter of 4 m (to be expanded to 5X20 turbines of 2 m diameter) is being developed on TTU campus. Real field turbine wake evolution and interactions will be studied by employing particle image velocimetry. A 10 m tower upstream of the wind farm as well as a 200 m tower located 500 m from the site will be used to characterize the atmospheric condition and its influence on the wake evolution. Of particular interest is the role of coherent structures in the atmosphere and the wake on the downward transport of overhead momentum--hence the effectiveness of the wind farm. From the recorded data episodes of stable, unstable and neutral atmosphere will be conditionally sampled to understand the effect of atmospheric stability on wind farm dynamics. The effect of various turbine-turbine separation and orientation on the downward momentum transport will be studied - quite feasible since the turbine models are portable. In addition to aerodynamic studies the facility we will also test control algorithms.

  18. Soil management practices under organic farming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aly, Adel; Chami Ziad, Al; Hamdy, Atef

    2015-04-01

    Organic farming methods combine scientific knowledge of ecology and modern technology with traditional farming practices based on naturally occurring biological processes. Soil building practices such as crop rotations, intercropping, symbiotic associations, cover crops, organic fertilizers and minimum tillage are central to organic practices. Those practices encourage soil formation and structure and creating more stable systems. In farm nutrient and energy cycling is increased and the retentive abilities of the soil for nutrients and water are enhanced. Such management techniques also play an important role in soil erosion control. The length of time that the soil is exposed to erosive forces is decreased, soil biodiversity is increased, and nutrient losses are reduced, helping to maintain and enhance soil productivity. Organic farming as systematized and certifiable approach for agriculture, there is no surprise that it faces some challenges among both farmers and public sector. This can be clearly demonstrated particularly in the absence of the essential conditions needed to implement successfully the soil management practices like green manure and composting to improve soil fertility including crop rotation, cover cropping and reduced tillage. Those issues beside others will be fully discussed highlighting their beneficial impact on the environmental soil characteristics. Keywords: soil fertility, organic matter, plant nutrition

  19. Interconnection France-Italy; Interconnexion France-Italie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    These documents presents the rules, defined by RTE, of the attribution of electric power transportation capacity between France and Italy. The contract form and the general principles are given in annexes. A guide to the application form is provided. (A.L.B.)

  20. Social Farming Rural Development Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Gheorghe ZUGRAVU

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper follows two main objectives: to understand farmers’ perception and image of social services and to identify communication levers in order to improve the perceived image of social farming. Orientations in terms of communication are product-focused and aim at enhancing the reputation of social farming consequently with impact on rural development. This paper conducted a questionnaire survey of Romanian farmers’ perception toward social agricultural. The empirical study indicated that farmers shown different awareness to social farming.

  1. Understanding crop and farm management

    OpenAIRE

    Chongtham, Iman Raj

    2016-01-01

    Agriculture faces challenges in meeting rising demand for food, feed, fibre and fuel while coping with pressure from globalisation, limited natural resources and climate change. Farmers will choose management practices based on their goals and available resources and these practices will influence farm performance. The aim of this thesis was to understand farmers’ crop and farm management practices and their links to farm(er) characteristics, productivity, biodiversity, marketing channels and...

  2. Design and farm animal welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, W T

    1976-07-24

    Farm animal welfare and the design of farm buildings and equipment are interrelated. The animals' requirements and preferences should first be estimated and ways in which this can be done are discussed, as are methods of assessment of their environment. Some examples of the influence which housing and equipment design can have are given. Attention is drawn to the difficulties inherent in the assessment of farm animal welfare and the postulation made that the veterinarian is well fitted to carry out such assessments.

  3. Effects of Turbine Spacings in Very Large Wind Farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    farm. LES simulations of large wind farms are performed with full aero-elastic Actuator Lines. The simulations investigate the inherent dynamics inside wind farms in the absence of atmospheric turbulence compared to cases with atmospheric turbulence. Resulting low frequency structures are inherent......The Dynamic Wake Meandering model(DWM) by Larsen et al.(2007) is considered state of the art for modelling the wake behind a wind turbine. DWM assumes a quasi-steady wake deficit transported as a passive tracer by large atmospheric scales. The approach is also applied to wake interaction within...

  4. SUPPORT FOR ORGANIC FARMING IN POLAND AFTER 2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Golinowska

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Support for organic farming after 2004 till now includes two programming periods. Surcharges from the EU budget are the main source of financing in agricultural sector. Founds from PROW allocated between 2004 and 2011 grew over 135.42k EUR and all transfers grew over 408.19k EUR. The aim of the research was to analyse changes regarding support for organic farming, taking into account its features including an area of agricultural crops, permanent grasslands, vegetables and orchards. Diversification of the amount of aid for organic farming in Poland is big and depends on the structure of ecological land use and organic farms’ surface.

  5. From species divergence to population structure: a multimarker approach on the most basal lineage of Salamandridae, the spectacled salamanders (genus Salamandrina) from Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauswaldt, J Susanne; Angelini, Claudio; Gehara, Marcelo; Benavides, Edgar; Polok, Andy; Steinfartz, Sebastian

    2014-01-01

    The Apennine Peninsula is one of Europe's main glacial refugial areas and harbors a large number of lineages and species. Here, a pattern of higher genetic diversity in the south compared to that of the north is characteristic of most vertebrates; however, most studies that have produced these results have relied only on inferences based on mitochondrial DNA. The spectacled salamanders (genus Salamandrina) are endemic to the Apennine Peninsula and have diverged into two sibling species: S. terdigitata (in the south) and S. perspicillata (in the north), presumably in the late Miocene or early Pliocene. By sequencing one mitochondrial (cytb) and two nuclear genes (RAG1 and POMC) and genotyping 10 microsatellite loci, we traced the evolution of these sibling species from their divergence to their contemporary population structure at a fine scale. Using a multilocus coalescent-based approach, we estimated the temporal divergence of both species at approximately 2.25 mya (million years ago), which, hence, is much younger than previous estimates. The classical pattern of high genetic diversity in the south and lower diversity in the north was confirmed only for some markers, and the demographic histories of the two species differed substantially. Whereas S. perspicillata (north) expanded from a single major refugium in the center of the Apennine Peninsula, populations of S. terdigitata (south) persisted through cooler periods in multiple refugia. Further, the fine-scale population genetic structure of 16 S. perspicillata populations revealed significant genetic differentiation, even across short geographic distances. The results of our study stress that for a better understanding of phylogeographic patterns and past demographic processes, both mitochondrial and multiple nuclear loci should be analyzed to avoid gene-specific, and possibly biased results.

  6. Multidisciplinary approach for fault detection: Integration of PS-InSAR, geomorphological, stratigraphic and structural data in the Venafro intermontane basin (Central-Southern Apennines, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amato, Vincenzo; Aucelli, Pietro P. C.; Bellucci Sessa, Eliana; Cesarano, Massimo; Incontri, Pietro; Pappone, Gerardo; Valente, Ettore; Vilardo, Giuseppe

    2017-04-01

    A multidisciplinary methodology, integrating stratigraphic, geomorphological and structural data, combined with GIS-aided analysis and PS-InSAR interferometric data, was applied to characterize the relationships between ground deformations and the stratigraphic and the morphostructural setting of the Venafro intermontane basin. This basin is a morphostructural depression related to NW-SE and NE-SW oriented high angle normal faults bordering and crossing it. In particular, a well-known active fault crossing the plain is the Aquae Juliae Fault, whose recent activity is evidenced by archeoseismological data. The approach applied here reveals new evidence of possible faulting, acting during the Lower to Upper Pleistocene, which has driven the morphotectonic and the environmental evolution of the basin. In particular, the tectonic setting emerging from this study highlights the influence of the NW-SE oriented extensional phase during the late Lower Pleistocene - early Middle Pleistocene, in the generation of NE-SW trending, SE dipping, high-angle faults and NW-SE trending, high-angle transtensive faults. This phase has been followed by a NE-SW extensional one, responsible for the formation of NW-SE trending, both NW and SE dipping, high-angle normal faults, and the reactivation of the oldest NE-SW oriented structures. These NW-SE trending normal faults include the Aquae Juliae Fault and a new one, unknown until now, crossing the plain between the Venafro village and the Colle Cupone Mt. (hereinafter named the Venafro-Colle Cupone Fault, VCCF). This fault has controlled deposition of the youngest sedimentary units (late Middle Pleistocene to late Upper Pleistocene) suggesting its recent activity and it is well constrained by PS-InSAR data, as testified by the increase of the subsidence rate in the hanging wall block.

  7. FarmVille For Dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Morales, Angela

    2011-01-01

    The only how-to, full-color book available on the game sensation FarmVille. With more than 80 million active players since the game?s release in 2009, there seems no end to the growing popularity of FarmVille. Whether accessed through the Facebook application or from the game?s Web site, this application is a worldwide phenomenon. Yet, there has been no beginner guide that offers an introduction to newcomers and updates to experienced players?until now. FarmVille For Dummies is aimed at getting novices acquainted with FarmVille rules and regulations, while more savvy players can sharpen their

  8. Faulting mechanism of the Campania–Lucania 1980 earthquake, Italy, from high-resolution, 3D velocity structure, aftershock relocation, fault-plane solutions, and post-seismic deformation modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Scarpa

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available

    This study performs a detailed reconstruction of the rupture mechanism of the 1980 Campania–Lucania (southern Italy earthquake. This is achieved by relocation of the main event through computation of fault-plane solutions of the aftershocks, P-wave velocity inversion, and analysis of post-seismic ground deformation, which provide an overall picture of the faulting mechanism. All of these data are in favor of a complex rupture mechanism, as already identified by many studies, which consists of three separate events. The present study defines a graben-like rupture, with the first event rupturing a (>20-km-long segment of a large, high-angle, NE-dipping, SE-NW-striking, normal fault. The two successive ruptures occurred separately, the first along the southern segment, and the second along the northern segment, of a complementary SW-dipping, normal fault. This mechanism is well evidenced by the revised location of the hypocenter of the main event, and the location of the aftershocks and their fault-plane solutions, as well as by the underlying three-dimensional P-wave velocity structure. The model proposed by Amoruso et al. [2005a] that was based on the inversion of co-seismic vertical displacement data is confirmed by the present analyses, as it satisfies all of the available experimental observations, and better constrains the location and fault-plane solutions of the aftershocks, the velocity discontinuities, and the rupture observations at the surface. This conclusion is also supported by analyses of the post-seismic data.

  9. Typologies of dairy farms with automatic milking system in northwest Spain and farmers’ satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángel Castro

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the characteristics of the dairy farms that installed an automatic milking system (AMS. A survey of 38 dairy farms with AMS, in Galicia (Spain, collected information on quantitative and qualitative variables. Following elimination of redundant variables, categorical principal component analysis identified 4 factors accounting for 43.7% of the total variance. Using these factors, the farms studied were subjected to hierarchical cluster analysis which differentiated 4 types of farms: (A farms with more leisure and quality of life where the AMS covered the expectations of farmers (29%; (B farms that removed cows more often due to AMS and farmers with more stress (34%; (C farms with little leisure and farmers with no successor (21%; (D large farms with many fulltime employees (FTE where the AMS had covered farmer’s expectations the least (11%. Generally the farms were based on a family structure with a high percentage of FTE. With the adoption of AMS these farms sought to increase milk production, save labour and have more flexibility. With 87% of farms with free cow traffic the activity that took the most of the farmer’s time was fetching cows for milking (1 h/day. Nearly 58% of farmers were completely satisfied with their AMS, although this value reached 91% in farms with herd sizes below the average which were better adapted to the use of one AMS.

  10. Rural poverty and export farming in Guatemala.

    OpenAIRE

    1984-01-01

    ILO pub-WEP pub. Working paper on rural poverty and the dualistic nature of agrarian structures (dualistic farming) in Guatemala - examines level and trend of rural poverty through indicators such as household income, housing, illiteracy and nutrition; notes paradox of high rate of agricultural development and severe poverty in rural areas; analyses nature of agrarian system leading to internal migration of peasant farmers and aspects of rural employment; focuses on high economic growth and l...

  11. Structure and Secondary Production of a Soft Bottom Macrobenthic Community in a Brackish Lagoon (Sacca di Goro, north-eastern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mistri, M.; Rossi, R.; Fano, E. A.

    2001-05-01

    The composition and distribution of the macrobenthic community in a lagoon in the Po River delta was investigated by taking monthly samples at three sites during 1994. A total of 38 macroinvertebrate taxa, representing five phyla, were identified. Gastropods, amphipods, and chironomid larvae dominated the macrofauna in term of abundance, while in terms of biomass bivalves were the dominant taxon. Monthly total invertebrate abundance showed considerable fluctuations, depending on the season and on the presence of the red macroalgae Gracilaria verrucosa. In the central area of the lagoon, a significant relationship was demonstrated between macrobenthic community parameters and amount of macroalgal cover. Taking the most important species, i.e. those that contributed most to similarity within sites, only Cerastoderma glaucum was found to be negatively related to the amount of macroalgal biomass. Mean annual secondary production varied between 50 and 75 g AFDW m -2yr -1depending on the site, yielding P/B ratios between 1·02 and 1·08. Confinement and moderate disturbance due to the presence of algal cover are hypothesized to determine structure, composition, and production of the macrobenthic community in the Sacca di Goro.

  12. Spatial allocation of farming systems and farming indicators in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kempen, Markus; Elbersen, Berien S.; Staritsky, Igor

    2011-01-01

    sample farms making it possible to aggregate farm types both to natural and to lower scale administrative regions. This spatial flexibility allows providing input data to economic or bio-physical models at their desired resolution. The allocation approach is implemented as a constrained optimization...

  13. Energy balance in IPM rice farms compared to conventional farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Fazeli

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Integrated Pest Management based on Farmer Field Schools (IPM/FFS is a program aimed to guide farmers toward managing agricultural pests in an environmentally responsible manner. This program has been in practice during the recent decade in the north of Iran. A study was conducted to evaluate the overall impacts of IPM/FFS program on energy balance and economic revenue of paddy (Oryza sativa L. farms compared with conventional farms (no IPM. The data of inputs, management practices, and output (yield of 238 paddy farms (135 IPM farms and 103 conventional farms located in a semi-Mediterranean climate were collected in 2010 and 2011. Total energy input, energy output, energy efficiency, and energy productivity were determined as indicators of energy balance. The total energy requirement for paddy production in IPM system was 48756 MJ ha−1, indicating that 8% more energy was used in IPM farms than that in conventional farms. It was noticed that IPM program in this region failed to reduce the consumption of chemical pesticides in paddy farms and the conventional system was more energy efficient than IPM system. Although paddy yield of the two systems was similar, the economic net return in IPM system was almost 20% higher than the conventional system due to the higher price of paddy produced in IPM system.

  14. Whole Farm Nutrient Balance Calculator for New York Dairy Farms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soberon, Melanie A.; Ketterings, Quirine M.; Rasmussen, Caroline N.; Czymmek, Karl J.

    2013-01-01

    Nutrient loss and accumulation as well as associated environmental degradation have been a concern for animal agriculture for many decades. Federal and New York (NY) regulations apply to Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations and a comprehensive nutrient management plan (CNMP) is required for regulated farms. The whole farm nutrient mass balance…

  15. Whole Farm Nutrient Balance Calculator for New York Dairy Farms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soberon, Melanie A.; Ketterings, Quirine M.; Rasmussen, Caroline N.; Czymmek, Karl J.

    2013-01-01

    Nutrient loss and accumulation as well as associated environmental degradation have been a concern for animal agriculture for many decades. Federal and New York (NY) regulations apply to Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations and a comprehensive nutrient management plan (CNMP) is required for regulated farms. The whole farm nutrient mass balance…

  16. Spatial allocation of farming systems and farming indicators in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kempen, M.; Elbersen, B.S.; Staritsky, I.G.; Andersen, E.; Heckelei, T.

    2011-01-01

    In this article an approach to spatially allocate farm information to a specific environmental context is presented. At this moment the European wide farm information is only available at a rather aggregated administrative level. The suggested allocation approach adds a spatial dimension to all samp

  17. Fatal Naegleria fowleri Meningoencephalitis, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaglia, Massimo; Gatti, Simonetta; Rossetti, Flavio; Alaggio, Rita; Laverda, Anna Maria; Zhou, Ling; Xiao, Lihua; Visvesvara, Govinda S.

    2004-01-01

    We report the first case of primary amebic meningoencephalitis in Italy, in a 9-year-old boy. Clinical course was fulminant, and diagnosis was made by identifying amebas in stained brain sections and by indirect immunofluorescence analysis. Naegleria fowleri was characterized as genotype I on the basis of polymerase chain reaction test results. PMID:15504272

  18. The Radio Phenomenon in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faenza, Roberto

    One in a series of studies of experiments in new audiovisual techniques in Europe and the situations in some member countries, this paper traces the development of radio in Italy. Opposing views about radio broadcasting (public monopoly vs. freedom of broadcasting) are examined, and the various political and legal aspects of communications in…

  19. ICPP tank farm closure study. Volume 2: Engineering design files

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-02-01

    Volume 2 contains the following topical sections: Tank farm heel flushing/pH adjustment; Grouting experiments for immobilization of tank farm heel; Savannah River high level waste tank 20 closure; Tank farm closure information; Clean closure of tank farm; Remediation issues; Remote demolition techniques; Decision concerning EIS for debris treatment facility; CERCLA/RCRA issues; Area of contamination determination; Containment building of debris treatment facility; Double containment issues; Characterization costs; Packaging and disposal options for the waste resulting from the total removal of the tank farm; Take-off calculations for the total removal of soils and structures at the tank farm; Vessel off-gas systems; Jet-grouted polymer and subsurface walls; Exposure calculations for total removal of tank farm; Recommended instrumentation during retrieval operations; High level waste tank concrete encasement evaluation; Recommended heavy equipment and sizing equipment for total removal activities; Tank buoyancy constraints; Grout and concrete formulas for tank heel solidification; Tank heel pH requirements; Tank cooling water; Evaluation of conservatism of vehicle loading on vaults; Typical vault dimensions and approximately tank and vault void volumes; Radiological concerns for temporary vessel off-gas system; Flushing calculations for tank heels; Grout lift depth analysis; Decontamination solution for waste transfer piping; Grout lift determination for filling tank and vault voids; sprung structure vendor data; Grout flow properties through a 2--4 inch pipe; Tank farm load limitations; NRC low level waste grout; Project data sheet calculations; Dose rates for tank farm closure tasks; Exposure and shielding calculations for grout lines; TFF radionuclide release rates; Documentation of the clean closure of a system with listed waste discharge; and Documentation of the ORNL method of radionuclide concentrations in tanks.

  20. Socio-Economic Farm Types Calculated from the Agricultural Holdings Census in 2000

    OpenAIRE

    Udovc, Andrej; Kovacic, Matija; Kramaric, Franci

    2005-01-01

    The paper presents the newly developed methodology for defining a socio-economic structure of farms, which was developed to analyse the socio-economic structure of Slovene farms based on data from Agricultural holdings census performed in year 2000. Developed methodology enables to define four main socio-economic types of farms: fulltime, part-time, supplementary and aged, based on data about employment status and work engagement of the core members of the farm’s family. The results are showi...

  1. Polarimetric Features of Oyster Farm Observed by AIRSAR and JERS-1

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, S.-K.; Hong, S.-H.; Kim, S.-W.; Yamaguchi, Y.; Won, J. -S.; Yamaguchi, Yoshio; 山口, 芳雄

    2006-01-01

    The polarimetric features of an oyster farm in a coastal area are analyzed to verify the applicability of radar polarimetry and interferometry. L-band Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (AIRSAR) data and Japan Earth Resources Satellite (JERS-1) data are used to examine the unique structure of an oyster farm located in South Korea. A specific feature of the oyster farm is the presence of numerous arrays of structures of various orientations that consist of exercise-bar-shaped poles protruding a...

  2. Integrating facies and structural analyses with subsidence history in a Jurassic-Cretaceous intraplatform basin: Outcome for paleogeography of the Panormide Southern Tethyan margin (NW Sicily, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basilone, Luca; Sulli, Attilio; Gasparo Morticelli, Maurizio

    2016-06-01

    We illustrate the tectono-sedimentary evolution of a Jurassic-Cretaceous intraplatform basin in a fold and thrust belt present setting (Cala Rossa basin). Detailed stratigraphy and facies analysis of Upper Triassic-Eocene successions outcropping in the Palermo Mts (NW Sicily), integrated with structural analysis, restoration and basin analysis, led to recognize and describe into the intraplatform basin the proximal and distal depositional areas respect to the bordered carbonate platform sectors. Carbonate platform was characterized by a rimmed reef growing with progradational trends towards the basin, as suggested by the several reworked shallow-water materials interlayered into the deep-water succession. More, the occurrence of thick resedimented breccia levels into the deep-water succession suggests the time and the characters of synsedimentary tectonics occurred during the Late Jurassic. The study sections, involved in the building processes of the Sicilian fold and thrust belt, were restored in order to obtain the original width of the Cala Rossa basin, useful to reconstruct the original geometries and opening mechanisms of the basin. Basin analysis allowed reconstructing the subsidence history of three sectors with different paleobathymetry, evidencing the role exerted by tectonics in the evolution of the narrow Cala Rossa basin. In our interpretation, a transtensional dextral Lower Jurassic fault system, WNW-ESE (present-day) oriented, has activated a wedge shaped pull-apart basin. In the frame of the geodynamic evolution of the Southern Tethyan rifted continental margin, the Cala Rossa basin could have been affected by Jurassic transtensional faults related to the lateral westward motion of Africa relative to Europe.

  3. The development of a structured schedule for collecting ICF-CY-based information on disability in school and preschool children: an action research from Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raggi, Alberto; Meucci, Paolo; Leonardi, Matilde; Barbera, Tiziana; Villano, Annamaria; Caputo, Maria R; Grassi, Alessandra

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study was to present the development of an instrument to collect disability information in school settings, based on the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health, Children and Youth version (ICF-CY): the ICF-PEI Schedule (ICF-CY-based schedule for Individualized Education Plan). Through an action-research process, a group of 14 teachers participated in the definition of a comprehensive list of ICF-CY categories, which were then used in a pilot test: categories relevant in at least 30% of the cases were retained. Teachers also reported the most relevant difficulties they had in using the ICF-CY questionnaires: these were discussed in plenary. On the basis of a pilot test and teachers' difficulties, a set of structured, easy to use and feasible questions for the school context were developed. A total of 118 ICF-CY categories were included in the preliminary list and 67 were retained. The most relevant difficulties in using ICF-CY questionnaires were as follows: obtaining reliable information on bodily impairments; using capacity in activities and participation; using qualifiers in 'borderline situations'; and identifying systems and policies as barriers or facilitators. The ICF-PEI Schedule is composed of 62 items, with a simplified rating scale. Teachers are asked to rate performance, which is directly observed, and to address which environmental factors impact it; thus, environmental factor rating is simplified. The ICF-PEI Schedule was drafted as a feasible instrument for school settings to collect and exploit functioning and disability data. Teachers can fruitfully employ it to assist in the definition of educational objectives and verify them longitudinally.

  4. The Campi Flegrei Deep Drilling Project (CFDDP): New insight on caldera structure, evolution and hazard implications for the Naples area (Southern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Natale, Giuseppe; Troise, Claudia; Mark, Darren; Mormone, Angela; Piochi, Monica; Di Vito, Mauro A.; Isaia, Roberto; Carlino, Stefano; Barra, Diana; Somma, Renato

    2016-12-01

    The 501 m deep hole of the Campi Flegrei Deep Drilling Project, located west of the Naples metropolitan area and inside the Campi Flegrei caldera, gives new insight to reconstruct the volcano-tectonic evolution of this highly populated volcano. It is one of the highest risk volcanic areas in the world, but its tectonic structure, eruptive history, and size of the largest eruptions are intensely debated in the literature. New stratigraphic and 40Ar/39Ar geochronological dating allow us to determine, for the first time, the age of intracaldera deposits belonging to the two highest magnitude caldera-forming eruptions (i.e., Campanian Ignimbrite, CI, 39 ka, and Neapolitan Yellow Tuff, NYT, 14.9 ka) and to estimate the amount of collapse. Tuffs from 439 m of depth yield the first 40Ar/39Ar age of ca. 39 ka within the caldera, consistent with the CI. Volcanic rocks from the NYT were, moreover, detected between 250 and 160 m. Our findings highlight: (i) a reduction of the area affected by caldera collapse, which appears to not include the city of Naples; (ii) a small volume of the infilling caldera deposits, particularly for the CI, and (iii) the need for reassessment of the collapse amounts and mechanisms related to larger eruptions. Our results also imply a revaluation of volcanic risk for the eastern caldera area, including the city of Naples. The results of this study point out that large calderas are characterized by complex collapse mechanisms and dynamics, whose understanding needs more robust constraints, which can be obtained from scientific drilling.

  5. Indication of pollution in a teaching and research farm reservoir

    OpenAIRE

    Taiwo, Y.F.

    2001-01-01

    The production and productivity of a water body is largely dependent on its quality. One major source of water pollution is from the agrochemicals from nearby farmlands. The quality of water in the Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching and Research Farm Reservoir (Ile-Ife, Nigeria) was monitored between October, 1993 and March, 1994. Structured questionnaires were administered to obtain information on the types of agrochemicals in use on the farm. Water samples were collected fortnightly for an...

  6. Eruptive history of western and central Aeolian Islands volcanoes (South Tyrrhenian Sea, Italy): temporal evolution of magmatism and of morphological structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leocat, E.; Gillot, P.; Peccerillo, A.

    2010-12-01

    The Aeolian Island archipelago is a complex volcanic province located on the continental margin of the Calabro-Peloritan basement. It emplaced in a geodynamic setting linked to the convergence of African and European plates. In this study, we focused on the western and central volcanoes that are respectively Alicudi-Filicudi-Salina and Lipari-Vulcano. They erupted the whole range of magmas typical of convergence settings : from calc-alkaline (CA) to potassic series (KS) through high-K CA (HKCA) and shoshonitic series (SHO). All these magma products were emitted in a span time of less than 300 ka that attests to the complexity of the volcano-tectonic evolution of this province. We report new geochronological data, based on the K/Ar Cassignol-Gillot technique, which is well suited for dating Quaternary volcanic materials. New geochemical analyses were realized on the dated samples in order to study the temporal evolution of the magmatism. These data sets were coupled with geomorphological analysis to study the relation between main morphological structures and eruptive styles. Before 180 ka, only the Filicudi, Salina and Lipari volcanoes had emerged activity. Their magmas have relatively the same CA composition, whereas some Lipari lavas have early HKCA affinity. Around 120-130 ka, Alicudi and Vulcano emerged simultaneously at the extremities of the archipelago. Alicudi products are less various and have the more primitive composition. SHO and HKCA products were emitted on Lipari and Vulcano, while only CA magmas were emplaced on Filicudi and Salina. After 40 ka, the last activity of Filicudi is characterized by mafic magmas of HKCA affinity. To the other extremity, similar products of SHO affinity were emplaced in southern Lipari and northern Vulcano. At this period, explosive activity with dacitic pumices occurred in Salina. The degree of differentiation and the K enrichment increase from western sector to central sector volcanoes and through time except at

  7. Molecular evolution and phylogeography of co-circulating IHNV and VHSV in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Abbadi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV and viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV are the most important viral pathogens impacting rainbow trout farming. These viruses are persistent in Italy, where they are responsible for severe disease outbreaks (epizootics that affect the profitability of the trout industry. Despite the importance of IHNV and VHSV, little is known about their evolution at a local scale, although this is likely to be important for virus eradication and control. To address this issue we performed a detailed molecular evolutionary and epidemiological analysis of IHNV and VHSV in trout farms from northern Italy. Full-length glycoprotein gene sequences of a selection of VHSV (n=108 and IHNV (n=89 strains were obtained. This revealed that Italian VHSV strains belong to sublineages Ia1 and Ia2 of genotype Ia and are distributed into 7 genetic clusters. In contrast, all Italian IHNV isolates fell within genogroup E, for which only a single genetic cluster was identified. More striking was that IHNV has evolved more rapidly than VHSV (mean rates of 11 and 7.3 × 10-4 nucleotide substitutions per site, per year, respectively, indicating that these viruses exhibit fundamentally different evolutionary dynamics. The time to the most recent common ancestor of both IHNV and VHSV was consistent with the first reports of these pathogens in Italy. By combining sequence data with epidemiological information it was possible to identify different patterns of virus spread among trout farms, in which adjacent facilities can be infected by either genetically similar or different viruses, and farms located in different water catchments can be infected by identical strains. Overall, these findings highlight the importance of combining molecular and epidemiological information to identify the determinants of IHN and VHS spread, and to provide data that is central to future surveillance strategies and possibly control.

  8. Molecular Evolution and Phylogeography of Co-circulating IHNV and VHSV in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbadi, Miriam; Fusaro, Alice; Ceolin, Chiara; Casarotto, Claudia; Quartesan, Rosita; Dalla Pozza, Manuela; Cattoli, Giovanni; Toffan, Anna; Holmes, Edward C; Panzarin, Valentina

    2016-01-01

    Infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) and viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) are the most important viral pathogens impacting rainbow trout farming. These viruses are persistent in Italy, where they are responsible for severe disease outbreaks (epizootics) that affect the profitability of the trout industry. Despite the importance of IHNV and VHSV, little is known about their evolution at a local scale, although this is likely to be important for virus eradication and control. To address this issue we performed a detailed molecular evolutionary and epidemiological analysis of IHNV and VHSV in trout farms from northern Italy. Full-length glycoprotein gene sequences of a selection of VHSV (n = 108) and IHNV (n = 89) strains were obtained. This revealed that Italian VHSV strains belong to sublineages Ia1 and Ia2 of genotype Ia and are distributed into 7 genetic clusters. In contrast, all Italian IHNV isolates fell within genogroup E, for which only a single genetic cluster was identified. More striking was that IHNV has evolved more rapidly than VHSV (mean rates of 11 and 7.3 × 10(-4) nucleotide substitutions per site, per year, respectively), indicating that these viruses exhibit fundamentally different evolutionary dynamics. The time to the most recent common ancestor of both IHNV and VHSV was consistent with the first reports of these pathogens in Italy. By combining sequence data with epidemiological information it was possible to identify different patterns of virus spread among trout farms, in which adjacent facilities can be infected by either genetically similar or different viruses, and farms located in different water catchments can be infected by identical strains. Overall, these findings highlight the importance of combining molecular and epidemiological information to identify the determinants of IHN and VHS spread, and to provide data that is central to future surveillance strategies and possibly control.

  9. Crustal blocks and seismicity in the Central Apennines of Italy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bella, F.; Della Monica, G. (Rome, Univ. ' Roma III' (Italy). Dip di Fisica ' E. Amaldi' ); Caputo, M. (Rome, Univ. ' La Sapienza' (Italy). Dip. di Fisica ' E. Fermi' )

    Kinematics and geo dynamics of crustal-block structures separated by compliant zones with viscoelastic rheology play an important role in defining the conditions for many deformation events such as ordinary seismic ruptures, silent and slow earthquakes and aseismic fault creep phenomena. New seismological data from the Latium-Abruzzi carbonatic platform of central Italy fit a block-tectonic modelling previously proposed for this area on the basis of structural and paleomagnetic evidences.

  10. Livestock Farming Under Climate Change Conditions

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Koelle, B

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available for livestock farming under changing environmental conditions. Farming with livestock can be challenging, especially when farming in arid areas. This handbook is primarily informed by the experience of farmers in the South African winter rainfall area....

  11. Strategy and risk in farming

    OpenAIRE

    Huirne, R.B.M.

    2002-01-01

    Issues that are relevant in current farm management are discussed. First, three basic farm management theories are presented: (1) decision-making theory; (1) system theory; and (3) theory of management by objectives. Next, two new developments are introduced, namely, strategic management and risk management.

  12. Intelligent control on wind farm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wei, Mu; Chen, Zhe

    2010-01-01

    with the wind farm makes the grid more vulnerable. The communication technologies have been considered as a solution to solve the problems according to the IEC 61400-25 series protocols. This paper presents the significance of communication technologies in wind farm system by the simulations on some practical...

  13. Grieving for the Family Farm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeller, Simon H.

    1986-01-01

    Reviews impact of recent agricultural trends in South Dakota. Outlines Kubler-Ross' stages of grief/adaptation that farm families must negotiate as they cope with the trauma of the loss of their farms. Indicates service providers must overcome farmers' mistrust for human welfare services and reach out to this vulnerable population. (NEC)

  14. Food and farm products surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poston, T.M.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the radiological analyses performed on food and farm samples collected during 1994. The food and farm sampling design addresses the potential influence of Hanford Site releases. Details of the sampling design and radionuclides analyzed are included in this section.

  15. Offshore wind farms: Danish experiences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gravesen, H.; Taylor, D.; Petersen, A. [Carl Bro Group, Edinburgh (United Kingdom)

    2000-07-01

    Denmark has extensive plans for offshore wind farms, and by 2030 parks to generate some 5,500 MW of power will be constructed. Out of this 4,000 MW will be offshore and to date 15 sites have been identified. Carl Bro Group are currently involved in the programme carrying out basic and detailed design, including EIA for 5 sites where construction is planned to take place before 2005. The first phase consists of the installation of 150MW wind farms. In Middelgrunden, off shore from Copenhagen, a scheme is well advanced to install 20 windmills generating approximately 40MW of power. This project is the largest offshore wind farm in the world and illustrates Denmark's commitment to sustainability. The paper gives an overview of the plans for offshore wind farms in Denmark and includes a detailed description of the farm at Middelgrunden, with emphasis on environmental, aesthetic, safety, design, construction and installation aspects. (Author)

  16. TOPFARM wind farm optimization tool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Réthoré, Pierre-Elouan; Fuglsang, Peter; Larsen, Torben J.;

    the optimization problem includes elements as energy production, turbine degradation, operation and maintenance costs, electrical grid costs and foundation costs. The objective function is optimized using a dedicated multi fidelity approach with the locations of individual turbines in the wind farm spanning......A wind farm optimization framework is presented in detail and demonstrated on two test cases: 1) Middelgrunden and 2) Stags Holt/Coldham. A detailed flow model describing the instationary flow within a wind farm is used together with an aeroelastic model to determine production and fatigue loading...... of wind farm wind turbines. Based on generic load cases, the wind farm production and fatigue evaluations are subsequently condensed in a large pre-calculated database for rapid calculation of lifetime equivalent loads and energy production in the optimization loop.. The objective function defining...

  17. Influence of Organic Farming on the Potato Transcriptome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Pacifico

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Organic agriculture sparks a lively debate on its potential health and environmental benefits. Comparative studies often investigate the response of crops to organic farming through targeted approaches and within a limited experimental work. To clarify this issue, the transcriptomic profile of a cultivar of the potato grown for two years under organic and conventional farming was compared with the profile of an experimental clone grown in the same location of Southern Italy for one year. Transcriptomic raw data were obtained through Potato Oligo Chip Initiative (POCI microarrays and were processed using unsupervised coupling multivariate statistical analysis and bioinformatics (MapMan software. One-hundred-forty-four genes showed the same expression in both years, and 113 showed the same expression in both genotypes. Their functional characterization revealed the strong involvement of the farming system in metabolism associated with the nutritional aspects of organic tubers (e.g., phenylpropanoid, flavonoid, glycoalcaloid, asparagine, ascorbic acid. Moreover, further investigation showed that eight of 42,034 features exhibited the same trend of expression irrespective of the year and genotype, making them possible candidates as markers of traceability. This paper raises the issue regarding the choice of genotype in organic management and the relevance of assessing seasonal conditions effects when studying the effects of organic cultivation on tuber metabolism.

  18. Characteristics of New Jersey Agritourism Farms

    OpenAIRE

    Schilling, Brian J.; Sullivan, Kevin P.

    2014-01-01

    Agritourism is an important alternative farm enterprise strategy in the U.S., especially for farms operating under urban influence. This paper develops a logit model to identify the characteristics of farms engaged in agritourism using 2007 Census of Agriculture respondent-level records. New Jersey, which ranks first nationally in the proportion of farm income derived from agritourism, provides the geographic context. We find that fruit/vegetable farms, rural residential/retirement farms, and...

  19. First data on canids depredation on livestock in an area of recent recolonization by wolf in central Italy : considerations on conflict survey and prevention methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magrini Caterina

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Wolf and dog depredation on livestock in the province of Rieti, central Italy, in 2007-2008, was studied. The study area was characterized by a high degree of human disturbance, widespread presence of free ranging dogs and a recent wolf recolonization. Because of the ineffectiveness of compensation programmes, it was not possible to use the official statistics to investigate the extent of the conflict, but sample interviews and surveys of farmers were used. Also, the farming protection tecniques adopted for different livestock species were analysed; the most utilized husbandry method was stabling for cattle and pigs, annual fenced grazing for horses and sheeps, and annual open grazing only for goats. Although sheep farms were the most attacked because of their availability (33.6% of the whole farms, goat farms were the most selected by predators because of their accessibility (40% of farms kept goats in annual open grazing. Management implications to mitigate livestock depredation were discussed.

  20. Biomass plantations - energy farming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul, S.

    1981-02-01

    Mounting oil import bills in India are restricting her development programmes by forcing the cutting down of the import of other essential items. But the countries of the tropics have abundant sunlight and vast tracts of arable wastelands. Energy farming is proposed in the shape of energy plantations through forestry or energy cropping through agricultural media, to provide power fuels for transport and the industries and also to provide fuelwoods for the domestic sector. Short rotation cultivation is discussed and results are given of two main species that are being tried, ipil-ipil and Casuarina. Evaluations are made on the use of various crops such as sugar cane, cassava and kenaf as fuel crops together with hydrocarbon plants and aquatic biomass. (Refs. 20)

  1. Influencing Factors on Farming System Development in Shandong Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The developmental situation of the farming system in Shandong Province is introduced.At present,Shandong Province is at the semi-intensive,semi-commercial and semi-sufficiency level of farming system.Eastern coast and central Shandong agricultural zones are moving in the direction of modern farming system,having formed a preliminary new pattern of the coordinated development of grain,feedstuff,economic and other crops.Influencing factors on the development of farming system in Shandong Province is analyzed,which are agricultural production condition and input level,population and food,policy measures,development of natural resources and regions,agricultural industrialization and urbanization level,and scientific and technological level.Total population will be within 100 million at the year 2020;per capita annual share of grain will be 475 kilograms;and there is great pressure on grain production.Therefore,we must change the pattern of agricultural development and accelerate the establishment of modern farming system.Agricultural machinery,water conservancy projects,and chemical fertilizer application have greatly affected the development of farming system.Improvement of production conditions has promoted the adjustment of agricultural structure,increased the planting ratio of winter wheat-summer maize,and improved multiple-cropping index.Development of agricultural industrialization has promoted the transfer of rural labor force and the establishment of modern farming system;while the unbalanced development of cities has restricted the establishment of modern farming system.Therefore,the appropriate policy,scientific and rational regional distribution,and advanced science and technology can help to set up the modern farming system in Shandong Province.

  2. A Simulation Software for the Analysis of Cropping Systems in Livestock Farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tommaso Maggiore

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Simulation models can support quantitative and integrated analyses of agricultural systems. In this paper we describe VA.TE., a computer program developed to support the preparation and evaluation of nitrogen fertilising plans for livestock farms in the Lombardy region (northern Italy. The program integrates the cropping systems simulation model CropSyst with several regional agricultural databases, and provides the users with a simple framework for applying the model and interpreting results. VA.TE. makes good use of available data, integrating into a single relational database existing information about soils, climate, farms, animal breeds, crops and crop managements, and providing estimates of missing input variables. A simulation engine manages the entire simulation process: choice of farms to be simulated, model parameterisation, creation of model inputs, simulation of scenarios and analysis of model outputs. The program permits to apply at farm scale a model originally designed for the lower scale of homogeneous land parcel. It manages alternative simulation scenarios for each farm, helping to identify solutions to combine low nitrate losses and satisfactory crop yields. Example simulation results for three farms located on different soils and having varying levels of nitrogen surplus show that the integrated system (model + database can manage various simulations automatically, and that strategies to improve N management can be refined by analysing the simulated amounts and temporal patterns of nitrogen leaching.We conclude by discussing the issues regarding the integration of existing regional databases with simulation models.

  3. Feeding management and milk production in organic and conventional buffalo farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Proto

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The feeding management, milk yield and milk composition were investigated in two adjacent buffalo farms, one organic certified (on average, 220 lactating buffalo cows and one conventional (on average, 314 lactating buffalo cows located in the Sele Plain (southern Italy. Milk samples from the two farm were collected twice a month during the period from June to November 2006. Milk production was also recorded. The investigated milk components were the content of protein, fat, lactose, urea and the number of somatic cells. The following features about the feeding management of lactating buffalo cows were recorded during monthly farm visits: feed used, herbage utilization, ration composition. Fat and protein correct milk yield was higher in conventional farm than in organic one, but milk components were similar between the farms. The greatest differences were found in the somatic cell count, lower in organic milk than in conventional one, and the urea content, which was higher in organic milk than in conventional farm, but still within the normal range reported for buffalo milk.

  4. SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF THE FARMS IN POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jadwiga Zaród

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Based on statistical data of the Central Statistical Offi ce regarding Polish farms two linear-dynamic multicriteria optimization models have been created. The fi rst model concerned plant production, the other plant and animal production. In both models, objective functions maximized agricultural income and production, and minimized loss of organic soil matter. Balancing these three objectives is the essence of a farm’s sustainable development. The models have been solved with goal programming. The optimal solution yielded a production structure allowing for the highest quality of production, under given conditions of agricultural income, with no degradation of the natural environment. The goal of the following article is to confi rm whether it is possible to simultaneously realize the production, economic and ecological goals of Polish farms over the course of four years.

  5. Diagnostic and clinical observation on the infectious bronchitis virus strain Q1 in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Toffan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the diagnostic and clinical observations of an infectious bronchitis virus (IBV variant, referred to as Q1, in clinically ill chickens in Italy. This IBV variant was described for the first time in 1998 in China. In the autumn of 2011 it caused a small-scale epidemic in non-vaccinated meat chickens in farms located in Northern Italy. The disease was characterized by increased mortality, kidney lesions and proventriculitis. Histopatological observations confirmed the nephritis and described an unusual erosive/necrotic proventriculitis with infiltration of lymphocytes, plasma cells and heterophils, as well as fibroplasia in the lamina propria. Despite these findings and the isolation of the Q1 IB virus directly from proventricular tissue, further studies are necessary to confirm the role of this IBV strain in the development of proventricular lesions. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that all the IBV isolates were very similar and probably had a common origin. The IBV Q1 variant appears to be now endemic in the North of Italy and at times it is detected in vaccinated backyard and commercial broiler farms. The importance of continuous monitoring in controlling the spread of known or emerging IBV variants is underlined.

  6. Improving farm-level physical and financial data availability at EU level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lampkin, N.; Boone, J.A.; Kramer, K.J.; Rippin, M.; Willer, H.; Wolfert, J.

    2006-01-01

    This paper summarises the main findings and recommendations of the EISFOM (European Information System for Organic Markets) project with respect to organic farm level data. At the EU level, the Farm Structure Survey and EU Reg. 2092/91 provide the most detailed data on production structures (crop ar

  7. Dairy barns and roll-over protection on farm tractors: work environment impacts on the adoption of roll-over protective structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelsey, T W; Dennis, J W; Jenkins, P L

    1994-04-01

    A mailed survey of one group of dairy farmers supports the informal perception that roll-over protective structure (ROPS)-equipped tractors are considered unusable for in-barn tasks. This attitude must be addressed in order to achieve greater use of safety equipment.

  8. Facilitating smallholder tree farming in fragmented tropical landscapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahman, Syed Ajijur; Sunderland, Terry; Roshetko, James M.

    2017-01-01

    Under changing land use in tropical Asia, there is evidence of forest product diversification through implementation of tree-based farming by smallholders. This paper assesses in two locations, West Java, Indonesia and eastern Bangladesh, current land use conditions from the perspective of smallh......Under changing land use in tropical Asia, there is evidence of forest product diversification through implementation of tree-based farming by smallholders. This paper assesses in two locations, West Java, Indonesia and eastern Bangladesh, current land use conditions from the perspective...... of smallholder farmers, the factors that facilitate their adoption of tree farming, and the potential of landscape-scale approaches to foster sustainable land management. Data were collected through rapid rural appraisals, focus group discussions, field observations, semi-structured interviews of farm households...... to adoption will require management at a landscape scale, including elements of both segregation and integration of land uses, supported by competent government policies and local communities having sufficiently high social capital....

  9. Kelp growth on an ocean farm in relation to fertilizing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerard, V.A.; North, W.J.

    1980-01-01

    Results of fertilizing experiments on the test farm supported previous evidence that low macronutrient supplies limit kelp growth in offshore surface water. Enhanced N contents of blade tissues from adult and juvenile plants and enhanced growth of juvenile plants indicates that artificially upwelled deep water could provide a suitable source of nutrients. However, measurement of harvestable production depends on our ability to prevent damage to plants by currents and abrasion, which would be edge effects on a large-scale ocean farm. Three adult Macrocystis plants have been held successfully on the test farm for one year by locating them away from major structural elements. At least ten times that many plants, suitably protected and fertilized with deep water, are necessary to accomplish the immediate goal of determining yield. The test farm is now being redesigned to meet these requirements.

  10. Descriptive and social network analysis of pig transport data recorded by quality assured pig farms in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R P; Cook, A J C; Christley, R M

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this study was to examine farm-to-farm pig movement connections, and the usage of hauliers and abattoirs, for farms in the United Kingdom (UK), to determine the interconnectivity of the pig farm network and the implications this may have for the transmission and control of Salmonella, which was chosen as an example of an important endemic disease. Data were collected from three Quality Assurance Schemes on the use of abattoirs and livestock hauliers by commercial pig farms, and the supply of pigs to and from farms. The observed dataset had considerable variability in the number of direct (farm-to-farm) and indirect (via hauliers or abattoirs) connections between each farm over a 12-month period. The use of multiple hauliers and abattoirs by many farms resulted in considerable interconnectivity between farms due to these indirect routes. The network displayed a higher level of clustering, and short network distances between farms, than that shown by equivalent randomly generated datasets, indicating that infectious diseases might transmit quickly amongst farms but within certain clusters of farms, thus limiting the total number of farms affected. This structure and the occurrence of multiple indirect routes between many pairs of farms (via pig movements to other interconnected farms or from hauliers used by both farms), may indicate that targeting surveillance and controls on those farms with high network centrality characteristics (degree, betweenness) alone would not prove effective. Encouraging all farms within the network to reduce the number of connections might be a useful way of reducing Salmonella prevalence as it would reduce the effect of high prevalence on other farms within the network. The analysis also highlighted differences in the connections between geographical regions that were used to discuss the comparatively low Salmonella prevalence in Scotland detected by previous studies. Farms identified as belonging to large companies, as

  11. Renaissance Neurosurgery: Italy's Iconic Contributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanda, Anil; Khan, Imad Saeed; Apuzzo, Michael L

    2016-03-01

    Various changes in the sociopolitical milieu of Italy led to the increasing tolerance of the study of cadavers in the late Middle Ages. The efforts of Mondino de Liuzzi (1276-1326) and Guido da Vigevano (1280-1349) led to an explosion of cadaver-centric studies in centers such as Bologna, Florence, and Padua during the Renaissance period. Legendary scientists from this era, including Leonardo Da Vinci, Andreas Vesalius, Bartolomeo Eustachio, and Costanzo Varolio, furthered the study of neuroanatomy. The various texts produced during this period not only helped increase the understanding of neuroanatomy and neurophysiology but also led to the formalization of medical education. With increased understanding came new techniques to address various neurosurgical problems from skull fractures to severed peripheral nerves. The present study aims to review the major developments in Italy during the vibrant Renaissance period that led to major progress in the field of neurosurgery. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Republic of Italy (country profile).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakkert, R

    1986-02-01

    This discussion of Italy focuses on the following: cities and regions; population growth; households and families; housing and construction; ethnicity and religion; education; economy and labor force; consumption; and transport and communications. Italy, with its total area of 116,374 square miles, is about the size of Florida and Georgia combined. Its 56.6 million people form the 2nd largest population in Western Europe, after West Germany, but slightly larger than Great Britain and France. The main administrative divisions are 20 regions, subdivided into 95 provinces. The provinces in turn are divided into 8090 "comuni" or municipalities. The 6 cities with more than 500,000 people are Roma, Milano, Napoli, Torino, Genova, and Palermo. They account for 14% of the population. The 43 cities with between 100,000-500,000 account for another 13%. There are 373 middle-sized communities with between 20,000 and 100,000 people, accounting for 26% of population. Italy has a regional problem. The line separating the regions of Emilia Romagna, Toscana, Umbria, and Lazio from the regions to the south and east is important. The regions north of it hold 62% of the population but are responsible for 73% of the gross national product (GNP) and 78% of the industrial product. The regions to the south are economically much weaker. At the time of the last Italian census on October 25, 1981, the country counted 56.6 million inhabitants. Compared to 33.5 million at the turn of the century, this implies an average annual growth rate of .61%. Between 1900-70, nearly 20 million Italians left their country. Most settled in the US, Argentina, and Brazil. Beginning in the 1960s, a new sort of migration was added as young Italians temporarily left to work in the more prosperous countries of northern Europe. The birthrate, which had declined slowly to 18/1000 during the 1960s, fell more rapidly during the 1970s, to 10.9/1000 in 1981 and 10.3 in 1984. The death rate in Italy has changed little

  13. Italy's Prime Minister visits CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Stefania Pandolfi

    2015-01-01

    On Tuesday, 7 July 2015, the Prime Minister of the Italian Republic, Matteo Renzi, visited CERN. He was accompanied by a delegation that included Italy's Minister for Education, University and Research, Stefania Giannini.   From left to right: Fernando Ferroni, President of the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN); Sergio Bertolucci, CERN Director for Research and Scientific Computing; Stefania Giannini, Italy's Minister of Education, University and Research; Matteo Renzi, Prime Minister of the Italian Republic; Fabiola Gianotti, CERN Director-General Designate; Rolf Heuer, CERN Director-General.   The Prime Minister was welcomed by members of the CERN Management together with former CERN Director-General and Senator for Life of the Italian Republic, Carlo Rubbia. After a brief general introduction to CERN’s activities by Rolf Heuer, the Italian delegation visited LHC Point 1. After a tour of the ATLAS control room, they donned helmets to visit th...

  14. Evaluation of the risk factors contributing to the African Swine Fever occurrence in Sardinia, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz eMartínez-López

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study assesses the relation between hypothesized risk factors and African swine fever virus (ASFV distribution in Sardinia (Italy after the beginning of the eradication program in 1993, using a Bayesian multivariable logistic regression mixed model. Results indicate that the probability of ASFV occurrence in Sardinia was associated to particular socio-cultural, productive and economical factors found in the region, particularly to large number of confined (i.e. closed farms (most of them backyard, high roads density, high mean altitude, large number of open fattening farms, and large number of pigs per commune. Conversely, large proportion of open farms with at least one census and large proportion of open farms per commune, were found to be protective factors for ASFV. Results suggest that basic preventive and control strategies, such as yearly census or registration of the pigs per farm and better control of the public lands where pigs are usually raised, together with endanced effords of outreach and communication with pig producers should help in the success of the eradication program for ASF in the Island. Methods and results presented here will inform decision making to better control and eradicate ASF in Sardinia and in all those areas with similar management and epidemiological conditions.

  15. THE ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF COW MILK IN THE NORTHEAST OF ITALY

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    Alessandro Dalla Riva

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a “from cradle to farm gate” Life Cycle Assessment on cow milk produced in Northeast Italy. System boundaries consider milk and meat delivered at farm gate, including all upstream emissions. All farm activities were considered. Inputs and outputs required in one year are counted and information about 34 dairy farms are used to represent the production area. Different allocation approaches were used to share resources and emissions between milk and meat. Functional unit was one kg of raw milk. The Ecoinvent v3.1 and Agri-footprint v1.0 database were used for secondary data, and SimaPro© 8 was the main software in the analysis. The following impact categories were investigated: Climate Change (CC, Terrestrial Acidification (TA, Freshwater Eutrophication (FE, Land Occupation (LO, Water Depletion (WD and Cumulative Fossil Energy Demand (CFED. Purchased feed production was the first emitter, followed by on-farm crop production, animals and manure management emissions. Considering the most debated impact categories, 1.80-2.19 kg CO2eq and 8.84-10.78 MJ represent, respectively, CC and CFED per kg of raw milk. This research could be applied in regional studies on environmental impact of Italian dairy production.

  16. Malignant pleural mesothelioma in Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Bianchi Claudio; Bianchi Tommaso

    2009-01-01

    This study reviews a series of 811 malignant pleural mesothelioma cases, diagnosed at hospitals in Trieste and Monfalcone districts of north eastern Italy, a narrow coastal strip with a population of about three lakh, in the period 1968-2008. The diagnosis was based on histological examination in 801 cases, and cytological findings in 10. Necropsy was performed in 610 cases. Occupational histories were obtained directly from the patients or their relatives through personal or telephone interv...

  17. Italy INAF Analysis Center Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negusini, M.; Sarti, P.

    2013-01-01

    This report summarizes the activity of the Italian INAF VLBI Analysis Center. Our Analysis Center is located in Bologna, Italy and belongs to the Institute of Radioastronomy, which is part of the National Institute of Astrophysics. IRA runs the observatories of Medicina and Noto, where two 32-m VLBI AZ-EL telescopes are situated. This report contains the AC's VLBI data analysis activities and shortly outlines the investigations into the co-locations of space geodetic instruments.

  18. Inner structure of La Fossa di Vulcano (Vulcano Island, southern Tyrrhenian Sea, Italy) revealed by high-resolution electric resistivity tomography coupled with self-potential, temperature, and CO2 diffuse degassing measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revil, A.; Finizola, A.; Piscitelli, S.; Rizzo, E.; Ricci, T.; Crespy, A.; Angeletti, B.; Balasco, M.; Barde Cabusson, S.; Bennati, L.; BolèVe, A.; Byrdina, S.; Carzaniga, N.; di Gangi, F.; Morin, J.; Perrone, A.; Rossi, M.; Roulleau, E.; Suski, B.

    2008-07-01

    La Fossa cone is an active stratovolcano located on Vulcano Island in the Aeolian Archipelago (southern Italy). Its activity is characterized by explosive phreatic and phreatomagmatic eruptions producing wet and dry pyroclastic surges, pumice fall deposits, and highly viscous lava flows. Nine 2-D electrical resistivity tomograms (ERTs; electrode spacing 20 m, with a depth of investigation >200 m) were obtained to image the edifice. In addition, we also measured the self-potential, the CO2 flux from the soil, and the temperature along these profiles at the same locations. These data provide complementary information to interpret the ERT profiles. The ERT profiles allow us to identify the main structural boundaries (and their associated fluid circulations) defining the shallow architecture of the Fossa cone. The hydrothermal system is identified by very low values of the electrical resistivity (400 Ω m). Inside the crater it is possible to follow the plumbing system of the main fumarolic areas. On the flank of the edifice a thick layer of tuff is also marked by very low resistivity values (in the range 1-20 Ω m) because of its composition in clays and zeolites. The ashes and pyroclastic materials ejected during the nineteenth-century eruptions and partially covering the flank of the volcano correspond to relatively resistive materials (several hundreds to several thousands Ω m). We carried out laboratory measurements of the electrical resistivity and the streaming potential coupling coefficient of the main materials forming the volcanic edifice. A 2-D simulation of the groundwater flow is performed over the edifice using a commercial finite element code. Input parameters are the topography, the ERT cross section, and the value of the measured streaming current coupling coefficient. From this simulation we computed the self-potential field, and we found good agreement with the measured self-potential data by adjusting the boundary conditions for the flux of water

  19. The family in Italy: cultural changes and implications for treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luciano, Mario; Sampogna, Gaia; del Vecchio, Valeria; Giacco, Domenico; Mulè, Alice; de Rosa, Corrado; Fiorillo, Andrea; Maj, Mario

    2012-04-01

    In Italy family is characterized by strong ties and is based on mutual aid of all its members. In the last 20 years, the structure of families has been significantly influenced by demographic, economic and professional changes, determining a transition from a patriarchal to a nuclear family model, with a higher number of single-parent families, single-person households, childless couples, same-sex couples. However, this transition has been slower than that occurring in other countries, probably as an ongoing impact of prevalent Catholic ideology. Major demographic changes in Italian families include, 1) a decrease in the number of marriages, delays in getting married and an high number of civil ceremonies, 2) a reduced birth rate; Italy is becoming one of the European countries with lowest growth rate, and with an increasing number of births out of wedlock, 3) an increased marital instability, with a constantly growing number of legal separations. Like many countries, relatives in Italy are highly involved in the care of patients with physical and mental disorders. There are a number of psychosocial interventions used in Italy including the 'Milan Systemic Approach' and family psycho-educational interventions. However, there are difficulties in implementing these interventions which are highlighted in this paper. We recommend research strategies to identify the best options to involve families in the care of mentally ill patients and to adequately support them.

  20. Heterogeneity of farms entering export supply chains: the case of fruit growers from central-south Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Barrena Ruiz

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The increasing stringency of world food markets requires farmers to adjust farm structure and commercial strategies to remain integrated in export supply chains. The goal of this study was to identify and characterize different types of fresh fruit farms with regard to farm structural and commercial strategies for a representative sample of fresh fruit growers from central-south Chile exporting to world markets. A typology of farms was constructed based on multivariate analysis, according to which five types of farms were differentiated from five distinct factors. Cluster I comprised the smallest and uncertified farms (14.3% of the sample. The remaining four clusters comprised certified farms, but with different farm structural and commercial characteristics. Cluster II (15.1% was composed of farms located further from market connections. Cluster III (23.9% comprised farms with the highest number of fruit species, and consequently, more diversified in fruit production. Cluster IV (8.8% was the smallest group, and comprised the largest firms. Finally, Cluster V (37.8% was composed of highly specialized fruit farms, with the highest proportion of hectares dedicated to the production of a single fruit species. The results show the heterogeneity among fresh fruit farms and support the need for differentiated incentives and technological transfer schemes from the public sector and fruit companies in order to successfully keep farmers within export supply chains.

  1. Heterogeneity of farms entering export supply chains: the case of fruit growers from central-south Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrena, J.; Nahuelhual, L.; Engler, A.; Echeverria, R.; Cofre, G.

    2013-06-01

    The increasing stringency of world food markets requires farmers to adjust farm structure and commercial strategies to remain integrated in export supply chains. The goal of this study was to identify and characterize different types of fresh fruit farms with regard to farm structural and commercial strategies for a representative sample of fresh fruit growers from central-south Chile exporting to world markets. A typology of farms was constructed based on multivariate analysis, according to which five types of farms were differentiated from five distinct factors. Cluster I comprised the smallest and uncertified farms (14.3% of the sample). The remaining four clusters comprised certified farms, but with different farm structural and commercial characteristics. Cluster II (15.1%) was composed of farms located further from market connections. Cluster III (23.9%) comprised farms with the highest number of fruit species, and consequently, more diversified in fruit production. Cluster IV (8.8%) was the smallest group, and comprised the largest firms. Finally, Cluster V (37.8%) was composed of highly specialized fruit farms, with the highest proportion of hectares dedicated to the production of a single fruit species. The results show the heterogeneity among fresh fruit farms and support the need for differentiated incentives and technological transfer schemes from the public sector and fruit companies in order to successfully keep farmers within export supply chains. (Author) 40 refs.

  2. BIOITALY: NATURE 2000 IN ITALY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. BLASI

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available

    The author recalls goals and deadlines of the Europena Community Habitats Directive 94/43/EEC and of the Natura 2000 Network. After saying that Italy has up to now only marginally took part in the definition of habitats and species to be included in the Annexes I, II, II e IV of the Habitat Directive, he underlines that only the collaboration between the Italian Botanical Society and the Italian Ministry of Environment – Nature Conservation Services, has allowed Italy to fill the gap with other countries. Furthermore, he relates the ongoing progress of Natura 2000 in Italy (Bioitaly: about 2700 sites collected, a useful collaboration between botanists, zoologists and ecologists, the constitution of a list of new habitats and species to be included into the Annexes of the Directive. Finally, he wishes a closer working relationship among phytosociologists, botanists and ecologists, in order to avoid the risk of replacing in the CORINE project the phytosociological approach with a less satisfactory physiognomic classification.

  3. Seismic risk perception in Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crescimbene, Massimo; La Longa, Federica; Camassi, Romano; Pino, Nicola Alessandro; Peruzza, Laura

    2014-05-01

    Risk perception is a fundamental element in the definition and the adoption of preventive counter-measures. In order to develop effective information and risk communication strategies, the perception of risks and the influencing factors should be known. This paper presents results of a survey on seismic risk perception in Italy conducted from January 2013 to present . The research design combines a psychometric and a cultural theoretic approach. More than 7,000 on-line tests have been compiled. The data collected show that in Italy seismic risk perception is strongly underestimated; 86 on 100 Italian citizens, living in the most dangerous zone (namely Zone 1), do not have a correct perception of seismic hazard. From these observations we deem that extremely urgent measures are required in Italy to reach an effective way to communicate seismic risk. Finally, the research presents a comparison between groups on seismic risk perception: a group involved in campaigns of information and education on seismic risk and a control group.

  4. Pharmacovigilance in Italy: An overview

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    Carmela Mazzitello

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Spontaneous reporting of adverse drug reactions (ADRs is the basis of pharmacovigilance. In fact, ADRs are associated with a high degree of morbidity and mortality. However, underreporting by all healthcare professionals remains the major problem in Italy and in the rest of the world. The dissemination of pharmacovigilance knowledge among Italian healthcare professionals, and the new pharmacovigilance regulations may promote the early detection and reporting of ADRs. This review examines the legislative framework concerning the pharmacovigilance in Italy. Materials and Methods: The information was collected from scientific articles and the websites of the Italian Ministry of Health and the Italian Medicines Agency (Agenzia Italiana del Farmaco, AIFA. Results: The pharmacovigilance system, both in Italy and Europe, has undergone profound changes. European legislation on pharmacovigilance has been changed in 2010 according to the EU Regulation 1235/2010 and Directive 2010/84/EU. Basically, the changes tend to increase the efficiency, speed and transparency of pharmacovigilance activities. The new Regulation (1235/2010 and the Directive (2010/84/EU aim to strengthen the system of pharmacovigilance, establish more precisely who is obliged to do what, and allow faster and easier circulation and retrieval of information about ADRs. Conclusion: A greater knowledge on what is the Italian pharmacovigilance legislation will be useful to improve the status of ADRs reporting and spread the culture of spontaneous reporting.

  5. Adaptively Smoothed Seismicity Earthquake Forecasts for Italy

    CERN Document Server

    Werner, M J; Jackson, D D; Kagan, Y Y; Wiemer, S

    2010-01-01

    We present a model for estimating the probabilities of future earthquakes of magnitudes m > 4.95 in Italy. The model, a slightly modified version of the one proposed for California by Helmstetter et al. (2007) and Werner et al. (2010), approximates seismicity by a spatially heterogeneous, temporally homogeneous Poisson point process. The temporal, spatial and magnitude dimensions are entirely decoupled. Magnitudes are independently and identically distributed according to a tapered Gutenberg-Richter magnitude distribution. We estimated the spatial distribution of future seismicity by smoothing the locations of past earthquakes listed in two Italian catalogs: a short instrumental catalog and a longer instrumental and historical catalog. The bandwidth of the adaptive spatial kernel is estimated by optimizing the predictive power of the kernel estimate of the spatial earthquake density in retrospective forecasts. When available and trustworthy, we used small earthquakes m>2.95 to illuminate active fault structur...

  6. Using the Amatrice (Italy) seismic sequence we asses the soil-structure in the case of San Giovanni Battista church (A.D. 1039) in Acquasanta Terme town. We tried to figure out how the input seismic energy is distributed over the different monument parts. Some preliminary results are shown and discussed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caserta, A.; Doumaz, F.; Costanzo, A.; Buongiorno, M. F.

    2016-12-01

    We used the moderate-magnitude aftershocks succeeding to the 2016 August 24th, Mw = 6.0, Amatrice (Italy) mainshok to asses, specially during an ongoing seismic sequence, the soil-structure interaction where cultural Heritage is involved. We have chosen as case study the San Giovanni Battista church (A.D. 1039) in Acquasanta Terme town, about 20 Km northeast of Amatrice. First of all we studied the soil shaking features in order to characterize the input to the monument. Then, using the recordings in the church, we tried to figure out how the input seismic energy is distributed over the different monument parts. Some preliminary results are shown and discussed.

  7. Les discussions inter-orthodoxes sur le sujet de la diaspora et la décision de l’Eglise Orthodoxe Roumaine de réorganiser ses structures ecclésiales en France et en Italie après 1990

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca Dima

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Using the method of discourse analysis, this paper intends to illustrate the manner in which the context represented by the inter-orthodox relations had a certain role in the Romanian Orthodox Church’s decision to (reorganize its ecclesiastical structures abroad after 1990.Using as case studies the contexts of France and Italy, the hypothesis this study uses is that without being the only explanation for the Romanian Orthodox Church’s decision to (reorganize its institutional infrastructure, the concurrence of the other Orthodox Churches over the jurisdiction of the Romanian orthodox communities had a stimulating role.

  8. CDF II production farm project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baranovski, A.; Benjamin, D.; Cooper, G.; Farrington, S.; Genser, K.; Hou, S.; Hsieh, T.; Kotwal, A.; Lipeles, E.; Murat, P.; Norman, M.; /Fermilab /Duke U. /Taiwan,

    2006-12-01

    We describe the architecture and discuss our operational experience in running the off-line reconstruction farm of the CDFII experiment. The Linux PC-based farm performs a wide set of tasks,ranging from producing calibrations and primary event reconstruction to large scale ntuple production.The farm control software uses a standard Condor toolkit and the data handling part is based on SAM (Sequential Access via Metadata)software.During its lifetime,the CDFII experiment will integrate a large amount of data (several petabytes)and the data processing chain is one of the key components of the successful physics program of the experiment.

  9. Discrimination of origin of farmed trout by means of biometrical parameters, fillet composition and flavor volatile compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Caprino

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available To date it is well known that the quality of farmed trout is affected by diet composition, by feeding regime, by husbandrypractices and by rearing conditions and environment. The trout processing industry and the large-scale retail trade, in considerationof the wide variability of trout quality and characteristics, have imposed, or will soon impose, quality criteria forthe end product. Moreover, recent food scares and the malpractices of some food producers have increased public requestsfor traceability. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the main chemical quality and the biometrical characteristicsof rainbow trout produced in three different farms in Italy (two intensive farms, located one on mountain and one onplain, and an extensive farm in which fish fed only on naturally available nutrients and to establish whether farmed troutorigins could be differentiated by these parameters. Trout farmed in the intensive mountain farm (IMF showed the highestcrude lipid content in the fillets and the fatty acids of their fillets were characterized by the highest percentage of MUFA.Trout farmed in the intensive plain farm (IPF were characterized by low dressing percentage, and the lipid of their filletswas rich in n-6 fatty acids. Trout stocked for the last year of their life in the extensive farm (EF were leaner both in thecarcass and in the fillets. The analysis of flavor volatile compounds showed some differences in the bouquet design, particularlydifferences in the amounts of n-3 and n-6 derivates volatile aldehydes and alcohols. All data significantly different(Pequations generating a strong prediction model for classification of farmed trout respective to their origins.

  10. Volumetric characterization of the flow over miniature wind farms: An experimental study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wing, Lai; Troolin, Dan; Hyun, Jin Kim; Tobin, Nicolas; Zuniga Zamalloa, Carlo; Chamorro, Leonardo P.

    2014-11-01

    An internal boundary layer is known to develop from the interaction between wind farms and the atmospheric boundary layer. It possesses characteristic features able to modulate the turbulence dynamics over large regions and eventually modify the micro climate in the vicinity of the wind farm. In this study, we examine the structure of the turbulence above various miniature wind farm configurations using 3D Particle Image velocimetry (PIV). Each miniature wind farm is placed in the boundary-layer wind tunnel at the Mechanical Science Engineering, UIUC. The turbines are fabricated using 3D printing and have a loading system that controls their tip-speed ratio and allows for characterizing the loads. Volumetric PIV is performed at various locations over and downstream a series of wind farm layouts. High-order turbulence statistics, turbulence structure and characteristic coherent motions are obtained and discussed in terms of the wind farm layout.

  11. Genetic considerations on the introduction of farmed fish in marine protected areas: The case of study of white seabream restocking in the Gulf of Castellammare (Southern Tyrrhenian Sea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Wangüemert, Mercedes; Fernández, Tomás Vega; Pérez-Ruzafa, Angel; Giacalone, Maximiliano; D'Anna, Giovanni; Badalamenti, Fabio

    2012-02-01

    Human exploitation has drastically reduced the abundance and distribution of several marine fish and invertebrate populations through overfishing and habitat destruction. Restocking can potentially mitigate these impacts and help to reconstitute depleted stocks but genetic repercussions must be considered. In the present study, the degree of genetic similarity between white seabream (Diplodus sargus Linnaeus 1758) individuals reared for restocking purposes and the receiving population in the Gulf of Castellammare fishery reserve (Sicily, Italy) was assessed using microsatellites. We also inferred the spatial pattern of the genetic structure of D. sargus and connectivity along Sicilian coasts. The farmed population showed significant heterozygosity deficiency in 6 loci and an important reduction in the number of alleles, which could indicate an incipient inbreeding. Both the farmed population and the target one for restocking (Castellammare fishery reserve), showed high and significant values of genetic differentiation due to different allele frequencies, number of privative alleles and total number of alleles. These findings indicate a low degree of genetic similarity between both populations, therefore this restocking initiative is not advisable. The genetic connectivity pattern, highly consistent with oceanographic currents, identified two distinct metapopulations of white seabream around Sicily. Thus it is recommended to utilize broods from the same metapopulation for restocking purposes to provide a better genetic match to the wild populations.

  12. ANTIPARASITICAL PROTECTION IN SHEEP FARMS

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    DOINA ARDELEANU

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Through our researches were carried out at ICDCOC- Palas, Constantza, we proposed ourselves to establish the poly-parasitism structure on sheep, as well as elaborating efficientical methods for anti-parasitical prophylaxis and fighting in sheep populations and pasture sourfaces, in order to ensuring anti-parasitical protection in sheep exploitations The copro-parasitological examinations was carried ovoscopicaly (flotation - by Willis and Mc. Master methods; sediment – by polyvalent method and larvoscopicaly – by Baermann method. The parasitological examination of coprological smears which were harvested on sheep showed the presence of polyparasitism phenomenon with protozoans (coccidiae: Eimeria spp. and helmints (cestodae: Moniesia expansa; gastro-intestinal nemathodes: Trichostrongylus spp., Nematodirus spp., Strongyloides papillosus and pulmonary nemathodes: Müellerius capillaris, Protostrongylus rufescens, Dictyocaulus filaria. Also, we proposed ourselves to study the paresites and their intermediary stages on pastures which were exploited with sheep, comparatively with mowed pastures. In the ansamble of research activities a special place is occupied by testing differents methods, in order to prevention and fighting of parasitical infestations on sheep and pasture in sheep farms.

  13. Confidant Relations in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Isaacs

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Confidants are often described as the individuals with whom we choose to disclose personal, intimate matters. The presence of a confidant is associated with both mental and physical health benefits. In this study, 135 Italian adults responded to a structured questionnaire that asked if they had a confidant, and if so, to describe various features of the relationship. The vast majority of participants (91% reported the presence of a confidant and regarded this relationship as personally important, high in mutuality and trust, and involving minimal lying. Confidants were significantly more likely to be of the opposite sex. Participants overall were significantly more likely to choose a spouse or other family member as their confidant, rather than someone outside of the family network. Familial confidants were generally seen as closer, and of greater value, than non-familial confidants. These findings are discussed within the context of Italian culture.

  14. Typology of dairy farming systems in the Mediterranean basin (Case of Algeria)

    OpenAIRE

    Kaouche-Adjlane S.; Ghozlane F.; Mati A.

    2015-01-01

    Characterization of breeding dairy cattle systems from the Mediterranean basin was conducted on 16 farms in the north center region of Algeria through a survey. Results are highly variable both structurally and in techno- economic management terms. The principal component analysis and clusters analysis have identified four groups of farms that differ in feeding strategies. The first group contains four farms that promote the use of forages (61.8% of the tot...

  15. Development of Seismic Demand for Chang-Bin Offshore Wind Farm in Taiwan Strait

    OpenAIRE

    Yu-Kai Wang; Juin-Fu Chai; Yu-Wen Chang; Ti-Ying Huang; Yu-Shu Kuo

    2016-01-01

    Taiwan is located on the Pacific seismic belt, and the soil conditions of Taiwan’s offshore wind farms are softer than those in Europe. To ensure safety and stability of the offshore wind turbine supporting structures, it is important to assess the offshore wind farms seismic forces reasonably. In this paper, the relevant seismic and geological data are obtained for Chang-Bin offshore wind farm in Taiwan Strait, the probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) is carried out, and the first un...

  16. Measuring the costs of biosecurity on poultry farms: a case study in broiler production in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Siekkinen Kirsi-Maarit; Heikkilä Jaakko; Tammiranta Niina; Rosengren Heidi

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Farm-level biosecurity provides the foundation for biosecurity along the entire production chain. Many risk management practices are constantly in place, regardless of whether there is a disease outbreak or not. Nonetheless, the farm-level costs of preventive biosecurity have rarely been assessed. We examined the costs incurred by preventive biosecurity for Finnish poultry farms. Methods We used a semi-structured phone interview and obtained results from 17 broiler produce...

  17. Comparison of three distinct management strategies for pig slurry applied to three groups of farms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dauden, A.; Teresa, M.; Siegler, C.; Bescos, B.; Burton, C.

    2009-07-01

    Poor management of pig slurry can lead to the contamination of the soil, water and air, which is mostly of the result of sur-plus nutrients. Such environmental impact from pig farming are common in areas with intensive livestock farming. The projects primary objectives is to demonstrate at farm scale the application of the three main manure management technologies deployed within structured local schemes to minimize the environmental impact. (Author)

  18. Three-fold embeddedness of farm development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Methorst, R.G.; Roep, D.; Verstegen, J.A.A.M.

    2016-01-01

    Farm development strategy is affected by, and affects, the biophysical and socio-economic context of the farm leading to agri-environmental challenges for farm development. For effective policies and support programmes it is important to understand the drivers for choices farm development. Three-fol

  19. Planning farm succession: how to be successful

    OpenAIRE

    Stephens, Mike

    2011-01-01

    Planning farm succession is really good farm planning in its broadest aspect. Unfortunately very few farmers and their families have devoted sufficient time to working out how the farm business will be transferred. After demonstrating the importance of the farm succession issue, this article goes on to explaining a method of successfully tackling the process.

  20. Organic Farming, Gender, and the Labor Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Alan; Mogyorody, Veronika

    2007-01-01

    This paper seeks to explain variations in gender participation in farm production and decision-making through an analysis of organic farm types, sizes, and orientations. Based on both survey and case study data, the analysis shows that female farmers on vegetable farms and mixed livestock/cash crop farms are more likely to be involved in farm…