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Sample records for italian future il

  1. Alomar and Marinetti: Catalan and Italian Futurism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litvak de Perez de la Dehesa, Lil

    1972-01-01

    Suggests that a lecture on Futurism delivered in Catalan at the Ateneo in Barcelona on June 18, 1904, by Gabriel Alomar probably was the greatest influence on F. T. Marinetti and Italian Futurism. (DS)

  2. Serial correlation in the Italian futures market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianco, Simone; Reno, Roberto

    2005-05-01

    We study the serial correlation of high-frequency intraday returns on the Italian stock index futures (FIB30) in the period 2000-2002. We adopt three different methods of analysis: the spectral density via Fast Fourier Transform, Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (DFA) and the Variance Ratio test. We find that intraday autocorrelation is mostly negative for time scales lower than 20 minutes, but we support the efficiency of the Italian futures market.

  3. "Processing Instruction": un tipo di grammatica comunicativa per la classe di lingua straniera. Il caso del futuro italiano. (Processing Instruction: One Type of Communicative Grammar for the Foreign Language Classroom. The Case of the Italian Future Tense).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benati, Alessandro

    2000-01-01

    Examines the theoretical and practical rationale for processing instruction as a method of incorporating grammar instruction in a communicative foreign language approach. Presents results of a study on the role of processing instruction on the learning of the Italian future indicative tense by a group of English-speaking students. Results…

  4. "Processing Instruction": un tipo di grammatica comunicativa per la classe di lingua straniera. Il caso del futuro italiano. (Processing Instruction: One Type of Communicative Grammar for the Foreign Language Classroom. The Case of the Italian Future Tense).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benati, Alessandro

    2000-01-01

    Examines the theoretical and practical rationale for processing instruction as a method of incorporating grammar instruction in a communicative foreign language approach. Presents results of a study on the role of processing instruction on the learning of the Italian future indicative tense by a group of English-speaking students. Results…

  5. Il valore del piuccheperfetto nella lingua della stampa Italian contempiranea

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    Mitja Skubic

    1966-12-01

    Full Text Available Partiamo dal presupposto valido per un campo seniantico: se introduciamo nel campo semantico un elemento nuovo, il campo si tiorganizza, vale a dire, un cambiamento semantico di un elemento influisce, sulla semantica di altri elementi, o almeno di quelli  piú vicini. Se è così, anche la sparizione di un elemento provoca una nuova spartizione o una nuova delimitazione dei concetti di tutto il campo semantico almena degli elementi più vicini.

  6. The Italian VLBI Network: First Results and Future Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stagni, Matteo; Negusini, Monia; Bianco, Giuseppe; Sarti, Pierguido

    2016-12-01

    A first 24-hour Italian VLBI geodetic experiment, involving the Medicina, Noto, and Matera antennas, shaped as an IVS standard EUROPE, was successfully performed. In 2014, starting from the correlator output, a geodetic database was created and a typical solution of a small network was achieved, here presented. From this promising result we have planned new observations in 2016, involving the three Italian geodetic antennas. This could be the beginning of a possible routine activity, creating a data set that can be combined with GNSS observations to contribute to the National Geodetic Reference Datum. Particular care should be taken in the scheduling of the new experiments in order to optimize the number of usable observations. These observations can be used to study and plan future experiments in which the time and frequency standards can be given by an optical fiber link, thus having a common clock at different VLBI stations.

  7. La sostenibilità finanziaria della cultura. Il caso delle istituzioni teatrali italiane

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    Pier Luigi Sacco

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Il dibattito tra sostenitori del finanziamento pubblico all’arte e alla cultura e suoi oppositori ha origini lontane, ma mai come in questi mesi ha assunto un interesse così profondo, in funzione di un fondamentale trade-off che si acuisce sempre più: la restrizione dei budget di spesa a disposizione degli Stati occidentali da un lato, e i benefici sempre più marcati, anche di natura economica, che nuovi studi sembrano attribuire agli investimenti in arte e cultura dall’altro. Tramite un’analisi effettuata sui principali teatri italiani in termini di ricavi generati, il paper comprova l’impossibilità per le istituzioni culturali di potere conciliare in modo autonomo la propria mission di fondo con principi di sostenibilità finanziaria. Gli autori sostengono che il supporto al settore cultura rappresenta attualmente un’attività imprescindibile per uno Stato, non solo in funzione del carattere di meritorietà del bene culturale, ma soprattutto alla luce anche dei vantaggi di tipo economico, fino a pochi anni fa trascurati o meglio, difficilmente quantificabili, che la cultura è in grado di apportare per l’economia del «Sistema Paese»; vantaggi la cui quantificazione sarà possibile grazie al rapido sviluppo di metodologie valutative di prossima utilizzabilità. Debates between advocates of public financing to arts and culture and its opponents have far-off roots, but they never gained such an importance like in these months, because of a crucial trade-off that has been exacerbating more and more: from the one hand, budget allowance restrictions available to Western States; on the other hand, the even more marked benefits – also in economic terms – that new studies attribute to investments in arts and culture. Through an analysis conducted on the main Italian theatres as for ticket sales, the paper proves the impossibility for the cultural institutions to mesh autonomously their main mission with financial sustainability

  8. Il rapporto tra ICT e PMI italiane e le problematiche economico-organizzative dell'OS

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    Ripamonti, Laura A

    2010-01-01

    This technical report summarizes the preliminary findings of a project that has been developed in 2007 by an Italian company (Datanet, based in Siracusa, Italy) togheter with two Italian research institutions: Universita' degli Studi di Milano and Universita' Bocconi. The main aim of the OS4E (Open Source for Enterprises) project, has been to investigate if and how open source solutions could be profitabily and effectively exploited by an IT company based in the South of Italy, whose core business is IT systems integration and which operates in the market of Italian SMEs (Small and Medium Enterprises). Beside this goal, the project also aimed at developing effective tools and methodologies to support decision making processes while evaluating different alternative software applications based on OSS (open source software).

  9. [Future Psychiatry: a "Think Tank" for the Italian Psychiatry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bersani, Giuseppe

    2011-01-01

    The Future Psychiatry Project was founded with the goal to address the critical ratio of research/training / clinic. Ina series of regular meetings, each devoted to a specific clinical topic, data and more advanced models for the clinical area in questionwill be analyzed in an integrated and multidisciplinary approach and the real possibility of extension of development andprospects of scientific advances to the clinic and therapy will be evaluated.The primary methodological objective of the FuturePsychiatry meetings is the training method to overcome the common type of teacher/learner classroom teaching, albeit dividedinto the various possibilities offered by different types of educational meetings.The structure is informal, with features of intensiveseminars and suggested modes for better interaction.The objective is the "Think Tank", a common space for study and exchangeof knowledge, experiences, opinions and expectations, aimed at producing an integrated and shared dynamic result, thatcan provide a real reference point for participants and for all researchers and clinicians engaged in improving their level of updatingand best clinical activity.The first Future Psychiatry meeting was held in Sermoneta (Latina) in the halls of the Castello Caetanion September 16th to 18th 2010.The chosen topic was "The Future of Depression: the development of knowledge, the evolutionof therapies". The currently most advanced data of research were discussed and developed in their potential to reach ashared model taking into account the etiological complexity of Depression and to be a real reference to the possibility of applicationto real clinical experience.The main guidelines of the current research and major prospects for development of this in thefield Depression have been outlined, also in relation to the ongoing evolution and the future outlook of the models and tools oftherapy. Psychiatrists' clinical needs and expectations in front of the development of scientific

  10. IL-17 as a future therapeutic target for rheumatoid arthritis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, W.B. van den; Miossec, P.

    2009-01-01

    The discovery of interleukin (IL)-17 and its major cell source, the type 17 T-helper (TH17) lymphocyte, has been a major step in the understanding of erosive arthritis. This Review summarizes current knowledge of the role of IL-17 in this context derived from both animal models and studies in patien

  11. Il Fuoco or the fatal portrait : the XIXth century in the Italian silent cinema

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, I.L.

    1992-01-01

    Dans les années dix de notre siècle, un genre nouveau de film s'installe en Italie aux côtés des grandes productions historiques : le cinéma des divas dont l'histoire-type tourne autour des drames d'un "ménage à trois". Il Fuoco (Giovanni Pastrone, 1915) serait, selon l'auteur, un film moderne qui,

  12. Il Fuoco or the fatal portrait : the XIXth century in the Italian silent cinema

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, I.L.

    1992-01-01

    Dans les années dix de notre siècle, un genre nouveau de film s'installe en Italie aux côtés des grandes productions historiques : le cinéma des divas dont l'histoire-type tourne autour des drames d'un "ménage à trois". Il Fuoco (Giovanni Pastrone, 1915) serait, selon l'auteur, un film moderne qui,

  13. LA SCRITTURA NELLA CLASSE DI ITALIANO L2/LS IN UN CONTESTO INTERCULTURALE: IL CASO DELL’ITALIAN LEAVING CERTIFICATE EXAMINATION IN IRLANDA

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    Maira Preatoni

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available L’articolo prende in considerazione il ruolo che l’abilità della scrittura svolge nell’ambito dell’Italian Leaving Certificate Examination nella scuola superiore irlandese corrispondente all’esame di maturità della scuola italiana. Viene presentata e descritta la struttura dell’Italian Leaving Certificate Examination, se ne analizza il sillabo di riferimento secondo una prospettiva interculturale, una prospettiva che verrà poi utilizzata per esaminare la scrittura e proporre specifiche attività didattiche in questo specifico contesto di italiano come LS. Il focus sull’importanza della interculturalità è dato dal fatto che l’approccio alla lingua straniera sollecitato dal Leaving Certificate focalizza l’attenzione non solo sulla dimensione puramente linguistica e comunicativa dell’insegnamento-apprendimento di una lingua, ma soprattutto sugli aspetti socio-culturali. L’elemento culturale è fonte di particolare interesse, curiosità e miglioramento nell’apprendimento di una lingua ed è ormai requisito fondamentale per gli studenti, in questo caso irlandesi, che vogliano apprendere e padroneggiare la lingua italiana.  Writing in the Italian L2/LS classroom in an intercultural context: the case of Italian Leaving Certificate Examination in IrelandThe article considers the role writing plays in the Italian Leaving Certificate Examination in Irish high school, which corresponds to the esame di maturità in Italian schools. After presenting and describing the structure of the Italian Leaving Certificate Examination, we analyze the syllabus from a cross-cultural perspective. This intercultural approach is subsequently used to examine writing samples and to propose specific educational activities regarding this specific Italian LS context. The intercultural context is at the center of the approach to foreign language teaching required by the Leaving Certificate that focuses not only on purely linguistic and communicative

  14. Present and future association between obesity and hypogonadism in Italian male

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    Valentina Boddi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Obesity prevalence is increasing worldwide and it is nowadays considered a real public health problem. Obesity is associated with co-morbidities like cardiovascular diseases (CVD and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM, furthermore visceral obesity can be related to low testosterone (T plasma levels. The link between obesity and hypogonadism (HG is complex and not completely clarified. Current guidelines suggest that screening for HG should be done in subjects with obesity and T2DM. The aim of this evaluation is to assess the estimated actual and future prevalence of obesity and related co-morbidities, in particular HG, in the Italian general population. Materials and Methods: The Strategyst Consulting Inc. recently completed an epidemiology forecast model for several countries, looking at HG and CV/Metabolic Disease, based on National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES data collected between 1999-2010. Data from NHANES survey were used to evaluate the Italian estimated prevalence of obesity and HG. Results: Results show that obesity estimated prevalence will increase in 2030 also in Italy. In addition, also the prevalence of obese CVD and T2DM subjects will increase too. Even Italian HG prevalence is estimated to increase in the next two decades, irrespective of T threshold considered (< 8, 10 and 12 nmol/L. In obese CVD subjects the relative risk (RR of developing HG (T < 8 nmol/L is four times greater than in not-CVD obese subjects (RR = 4.1, 3.1 and 1.9 accordingly to the aforementioned T thresholds for defining HG. Accordingly, the estimated percentage of hypogonadal obese CVD and T2DM subjects will rise in 2030. Conclusions: The Strategyst epidemiology forecast model has allowed to assess the current and future prevalence of obesity and its relative co-morbidities like HG in Italy. Data emerged from this evaluation suggest that obesity and HG prevalence will increase in Italian population and confirm the complex link

  15. TES microcalorimeter development for future Italian X-ray astronomy missions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gatti, F. [Department of Physics, University and INFN of Genoa, Via Dodecaneso 33, 16146 Genoa (Italy)]. E-mail: flavio.gatti@ge.infn.it; Piro, L. [Istituto Astrofisica e Fisica Cosmica, INAF, 00133 Rome (Italy); Pergolesi, D. [Department of Physics, University and INFN of Genoa, Via Dodecaneso 33, 16146 Genoa (Italy); Colasanti, L. [Istituto Astrofisica e Fisica Cosmica, INAF, 00133 Rome (Italy); Gastaldo, L. [Department of Physics, University and INFN of Genoa, Via Dodecaneso 33, 16146 Genoa (Italy); Kichhoff-Institut fur Physik, Universitaet Heidelberg, INF 227, 69120 Heidekberg (Germany); Gomes, M. Ribeiro [Department of Physics, University and INFN of Genoa, Via Dodecaneso 33, 16146 Genoa (Italy); Repetto, P. [Department of Physics, University and INFN of Genoa, Via Dodecaneso 33, 16146 Genoa (Italy)

    2006-04-15

    A program for developing TES Ir-Au microcalorimeters for contributions to the XEUS detector and for applications to future Italian X-ray astronomy missions is under course. In particular, we will briefly describe ESTREMO, currently one of the possible options in the future national plans. Its main scientific goals are the spectroscopic study of extreme astrophysical objects, characterized by very large energy release over short time scale, in particular gamma-ray bursts and transient compact objects, and the study of the early and close-by Universe by using gamma-ray bursts as cosmological beacons. Presently, the energy resolution of our Ir-Au detector has been improved to about 5 eV at 6 keV, with rise time of about 10 {mu}s and fall time of few hundreds of microseconds. We are developing and studying the suitable absorbers for high count rate performances.

  16. Can we help in changing the future of Italian health care?

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    Mario Di Napoli

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available [The abstract of this article is not available. Here are the first sentences of the article. The full text is freely available upon registration]The retirement age of the baby boom generation is almost out-door. The proportion of ageing people will grow rapidly in the near future [1-3]. There will be fewer people to pay for the health and social care of the quickly aging population; furthermore, advancements in medical science will raise a new bar for quality in terms of the outcomes achieved in the treatment of illness [3]. An ageing population and the rising public expectations will produce an increase in costs and will impede timely access to care, thus jeopardising sustainability.The Italian National Health system is an example of a collapsing system: the ageing Italian workforce affects not only patient demographics but also the availability of clinicians. The upcoming wave of retiring health care professionals will occur in the exact moment when they will be more necessary. To overcome these challenges, our health care system will have to use its resources more effectively. Access and equity remain essential characteristics of our health care system, but are insufficient goals in terms of improving quality and achieving financial sustainability.

  17. Una proposta di riforma per il sistema pensionistico italiano (A Proposal of Reform for the Italian Pension System

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    Francesco Marchionne

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In Italy, the ageing of the population is leading to an increase of the pension expenditures. Before Dini reform in 1995, the earning-related contributory system was financed on a pay-as-you-go basis. It was too much generous for the economic and demographic conditions of the country, therefore it was reformed. Now the benefits are calculated on a defined-contribution formula that penalizes the early retirement and assures lower benefits. However, some considerations put the sustainability of the pension system for future generations under discussion. A multipillar system with capitalisation elements (public defined-benefit component, occupational pension funds and individual pension funds could reach this goal. In this study, a simulation generates the replacement ratios for the multipillar system in different scenarios and shows that the passage forward this scheme is possible, necessary and, under some conditions, not too expensive. In Italia, l’invecchiamento della popolazione sta portando a un incremento della spesa pensionistica. Prima della riforma Dini del 1995, il sistema retributivo, finanziato col meccanismo a ripartizione, era troppo generoso per le condizioni economico-demografiche del paese, così è stato riformato. Ora i benefici sono calcolati con un metodo contributivo che penalizza il pensionamento anticipato e assicura prestazioni inferiori. Ad ogni modo, alcune considerazioni mettono in discussione la sostenibilità finanziaria futura del sistema. Un sistema misto con elementi a capitalizzazione (componente pubblica a benefici definiti, fondi pensione occupazionali e fondi pensione individuali potrebbe raggiungere questo obiettivo. In questo studio, una simulazione genera i tassi di sostituzione della prima pensione rispetto all’ultimo salario per un sistema misto sotto differenti scenari e mostra che il passaggio verso questo schema è possibile, necessario e, sotto certe condizioni, non troppo costoso. JEL Codes: H55

  18. Radio-Shield, il primo esperimento italiano sulla Luna. (English Title: Radio-Shield, the first Italian experiment on the Moon)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbarossa, M.

    2017-10-01

    Nextly, the first Italian and European experiment will reach the lunar surface. Selected in the international contest Lab2Moon for under-25, the goal of the experiment is to investigate about the possible shielding properties of cyanobacteria against space radiations. If these microorganisms, in addition to providing oxygen and other resources, can also shield from space radiation, they can be used in the development of radiation shields in future interplanetary missions.

  19. Il tempo è lo specchio dell’eternità”. Strategie e strumenti di heritage marketing nelle imprese longeve italiane / “Il tempo è lo specchio dell’eternità” (Time is the mirror of eternity. Heritage marketing strategies and tools In Italian long-lived firms

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    Angelo Riviezzo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Il lavoro mira a indagare l’effettivo grado di utilizzo da parte delle imprese longeve italiane dei molteplici strumenti potenzialmente a disposizione per valorizzare in chiave strategica il proprio vissuto storico. A tal fi ne, si propone una sistematizzazione della letteratura sul tema atta a identificare in maniera puntuale i vari strumenti di heritage marketing e, successivamente, se ne indaga l’effettiva diffusione. In particolare, sono state raccolte e analizzate informazioni accurate sulle attività realizzate da 238 imprese di medie e grandi dimensioni iscritte nel Registro nazionale delle imprese storiche italiane di Unioncamere. L’indagine ha rivelato che le imprese longeve approcciano i singoli strumenti di heritage marketing in modo sperimentale e in mancanza di una visione integrata. Sono una minoranza quelle che mostrano di percepire i vantaggi di una convinta e pluriforme azione di valorizzazione del proprio vissuto storico. Il lavoro costituisce il primo esempio d’indagine su larga scala volta a investigare l’utilizzo dei diversi strumenti di heritage marketing e, rispetto a precedenti studi, si distingue per la numerosità delle imprese analizzate e per la completezza e l’eterogeneità degli strumenti considerati. The main aim of this study is to understand if and how Italian long-lived firms are oriented towards a strategic exploitation of their cultural and historical heritage. To this aim, first we reviewed the extant literature on the topic in order to identify the different tools potentially available to implement a heritage marketing strategy and, then, we investigated their actual level of use. A desk research covered 238 medium and large firms entered in the National Register of Italian Historical Firms edited by Unioncamere. For each firm we collected timely information about the different activities of heritage marketing carried out. Our study reveals that long-lived firms approach the single tools of

  20. Eutopie glocali per il Sud Italia. Sull’ermeneutica del soggetto di Lecce, Matera e Venezia, candidate italiane a Capitale europea della Cultura 2019

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    Paul Sambre

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Global eutopias for Southern Italy: about the hermeneutics of the subject of Lecce, Matera and Venice, Italian candidate cities for European Capital of Culture 2019This article proposes a critical discourse analysis (CDA of a debate between the Italian applicant cities seeking the title of European Capital of Culture 2019. The discourse concerning the cultural future of these cities highlights a process of change, involving different configurations of institutional stakeholders and/or local grassroots communities, which, top-down and/or bottom-up, reinvent the historical past of the city in order to comply with institutional EU requirements regarding the impact of regions on common European cultural heritage. The approaches adopted by Venice, Matera and Lecce are quite different in this respect: whereas Venice insists on its position within a cultural, economic and multilingual transnational macro-region, Matera reinvents itself as a new regional meeting ground between a local and global European culture, as a Southern (Italian city that can offer universal values to Europe as a whole, such as the notion of shame in times of crisis. At a theoretical level, discussion of the candidature of these potential future capitals of culture offers a corpus in which the discourse of social change, central to CDA, can be observed. Given the dynamic interplay between political requirements and regional activism (less present in Lecce’s arguments in the ECoC proposals, this research calls for an epistemological updating of CDA’s archaeological and static view on the Foucauldian relation between subjects and power in favor of Foucault’s late hermeneutic of the self-constituting subject.

  1. Level regulations of d'Idro italian lake; La regolazione del lago d'Idro. Analisi dei risultati conseguiti durante il triennio di sperimentazione

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    Muraca, A.; Arlati, E.; Colpani, E. [Brescia Univ., Brescia (Italy). Dipt. di Ingegneria Civile

    2000-08-01

    This paper analyze the regulation mode in experimental period in correlation with measured parameters. [Italian] Le modalita' di regolazione dei livelli del lago d'Idro (Provincia di Brescia) sono state oggetto di una profonda revisione nell'ultimo decennio. L'Autorita' di Bacino del Po ha emanato, nel 1993, una regola molto dettagliata, funzione dell'entita' degli apporti meteorici e delle modalita' di regolazione degli invasi idroelettrici che modulano le portate in ingresso al lago. Per verificare i risultati conseguibili con i nuovi criteri normativi, la stessa Autorita' di Bacino ha predisposto una sperimentazione di tre anni, installando una serie di misuratori per controllare il rispetto della regola proposta e gli effetti della stessa sul risparmio e la salvaguardia della risorsa idrica. L'articolo analizza, dopo una necessaria descrizione del contesto idraulico ed idrologico, le modalita' di regolazione realmente attuate durante il periodo della sperimentazione, correlandole ai parametri misurati, e propone alcune modifiche, al vaglio dell'Autorita' di Bacino, dei criteri in vigore.

  2. The Italian Geographers’ Document on the University Education of Future Primary School Teachers

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    Cristiano GIORDA

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This article describes an important document compiled by a group of Italian geographers whoteach in the Teaching Sciences faculty. Twenty-two university professors in an online communitydebated concepts and compared ideas in order to establish content, methods and didacticapproaches to be applied when training Primary School teachers (pupils aged 3-10 yrs. at ItalianUniversity to teach geography. The geographers involved started from an analysis of the recentscholastic reform, they discussed the theoretical aspects from the point of view of the currentgeographical debate and they decided upon the most efficient didactic approaches for trainingteachers and teaching geography to pupils. To this end, it was necessary to give considerablethought to the epistemological statutes relating to geography and to more active teaching methods,moving away from an approach based on descriptions and lists, the likes of which are no longersufficient for understanding today’s world.

  3. Optimal strategies for VOC emission abatement produced by solvent evaporation. The Italian case study; Strategie ottimali per la riduzione delle emissioni di composti organici volatili da uso di solventi: il caso italiano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vetrella, G.; Cirillo, M.C. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy). Dipt. Ambiente

    1998-07-01

    This work analyses technologies and costs of VOC (volatile organic compounds) abatement in the activities which belong to the solvent evaporation sector, and then it singles out the most successful strategies from the costs point of view to reduce the sector emissions on the base of fixed abatement objectives. The Italian case is discussed. [Italian] Il lavoro analizza tecnologie e costi di abbattimento dei COV (composti organici volatili) nel settore evaporazione solventi, e individua la strategia piu' efficace dal punto di vista dei costi per ridurre le emissioni del settore sulla base di prefissati obiettivi di abbattimento. Analizza la situazione italiana.

  4. The Italian System of Free Aids Provision for People with Disability:Future Developments

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    Maria Teresa Agati; Alessandro Giustini

    2011-01-01

    The Italian care situation with regards to prostheses and aids is satisfying.The norm which establishes the ways in which aids can be supplied to disabled people goes back to 1999 and,even though it is based on correct principles and even though it has produced positive effects in the improvement of the life of disabled people,it must be updated in the light of the more recent technological and scientific innovations and of the new information instruments such as the diffusion of information and communication systems.

  5. Future scenarios and conservation strategies for a rear-edge marginal population of Pinus nigra Arnold in Italian central Apennines

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    Maurizio Marchi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: To forecast the effects of climate change on the spatial distribution of Black pine of Villetta Barrea in its natural range and to define a possible conservation strategy for the species Area of study: A rear-edge marginal population of Pinus nigra spp. nigra in Abruzzo region, central Italian Apennines Matherials and Methods: For its adaptive and genetic traits this population is considered endemic of the Italian peninsula and represents a rear-edge marginal population of nigra subspecies. The spatial distribution of the tree in the administrative Region (Abruzzo was used to define the ecological traits while three modelling techniques (GLM, GAM, Random Forest were used to build a Species distribution model according to two climatic scenarios. Main results: The marginal population's range was predicted to shift at higher elevations as consequence of climatic adaptation. Many zones, represented by the higher part of the mountains surrounding the study area (currently bare and inhospitable for trees, were identified as suitable in future for the species. However, in the case of a rapid climate change, this marginal population may not be able to move as fast as necessary. An in-situ adaptive management integrated with an assisted migration protocol might be considered to enforce the natural regeneration and improve the richness and variability of the genetic pool. Research highlights: Most of the genetic richness is held in small populations at the borders of natural distribution of forest species. Monitoring this MAP could be useful to understand the adaptive processes of the species and could support the future management of many other within-core populations. Keywords: Species Distribution Models; Mediterranean forests; Abruzzo; climate change; altitudinal shift.

  6. Future scenarios and conservation strategies for a rear-edge marginal population of Pinus nigra Arnold in Italian central Apennines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchi, M.; Nocentini, S.; Ducci, F.

    2016-07-01

    Aim of the study: To forecast the effects of climate change on the spatial distribution of Black pine of Villetta Barrea in its natural range and to define a possible conservation strategy for the species. Area of study: A rear-edge marginal population of Pinus nigra spp. nigra in Abruzzo region, central Italian Apennines. Matherials and Methods: For its adaptive and genetic traits this population is considered endemic of the Italian peninsula and represents a rear-edge marginal population of nigra subspecies. The spatial distribution of the tree in the administrative Region (Abruzzo) was used to define the ecological traits while three modelling techniques (GLM, GAM, Random Forest) were used to build a Species distribution model according to two climatic scenarios. Main results: The marginal population's range was predicted to shift at higher elevations as consequence of climatic adaptation. Many zones, represented by the higher part of the mountains surrounding the study area (currently bare and inhospitable for trees), were identified as suitable in future for the species. However, in the case of a rapid climate change, this marginal population may not be able to move as fast as necessary. An in-situ adaptive management integrated with an assisted migration protocol might be considered to enforce the natural regeneration and improve the richness and variability of the genetic pool. Research highlights: Most of the genetic richness is held in small populations at the borders of natural distribution of forest species. Monitoring this MAP could be useful to understand the adaptive processes of the species and could support the future management of many other within-core populations. (Author)

  7. Una proposta di riforma per il sistema pensionistico italiano (A Proposal of Reform for the Italian Pension System

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    Francesco Marchionne

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available In Italy, the ageing of the population is leading to an increase of the pension expenditures. Before Dini reform in 1995, the earning-related contributory system was financed on a pay-as-you-go basis. It was too much generous for the economic and demographic conditions of the country, therefore it was reformed. Now the benefits are calculated on a defined-contribution formula that penalizes the early retirement and assures lower benefits. However, some considerations put the sustainability of the pension system for future generations under discussion. A multipillar system with capitalisation elements (public defined-benefit component, occupational pension funds and individual pension funds could reach this goal. In this study, a simulation generates the replacement ratios for the multipillar system in different scenarios and shows that the passage forward this scheme is possible, necessary and, under some conditions, not too expensive.

  8. Le futur de l'agriculture passe-t-il par la disparation des exploitations familiales ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mergeai, G.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Will future developments in the world of agriculture lead to the disappearance of family farms?. Compte tenu de son importance pour assurer le maintien à long terme d'une agriculture familiale dans les régions tropicales, nous faisons écho dans cet éditorial à l'organisation du forum mondial sur l'accès à la terre qui se tient du 31 mars au 2 avril 2016 à Valencia en Espagne pour traiter les problèmes majeurs liés à l'inégalité d'accès à la terre et aux ressources naturelles.L'humanité connaît actuellement une situation critique caractérisée par la persistance de la faim et d'une croissance démographique importante dans les pays les plus pauvres, l'exclusion, le chômage massif, une crise environnementale sans précédent et une perte de souveraineté alimentaire. Les accaparements fonciers à grande échelle qui accompagnent cette crise invitent à revisiter la question de l'accès à la terre et aux ressources productives. Faut-il sacrifier l'intérêt des populations concernées et des générations à venir à la rentabilité d'investissements financiers qui profitent à une minorité? Poursuivre cette démarche jusqu'au bout de sa logique aboutira à la destruction d'une part de plus en plus grande d'exploitations agricoles familiales au profit de grandes entreprises produisant un petit nombre de denrées, à la fois grandes consommatrices d'intrants de synthèse et d'énergie fossile, et employant un nombre de plus en plus restreint de travailleurs salariés.Ce modèle permettra-t-il la création d'emplois et de revenus pour des centaines de millions de paysans aujourd'hui sur la voie de l'exclusion, et autant ou davantage appelés à entrer sur le marché du travail? La révolution agricole à venir, susceptible à la fois de nourrir correctement 9 milliards d'humains, de donner du travail au plus grand nombre et d'éradiquer la faim, pourra-elle être basée, comme par le passé, sur unremplacement massif du travail

  9. The local property taxes and municipal federalism. Current and future inequity condition of Italian Property Taxation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Argiolas

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this paper is to analyze and compare the current local tax on real estate and the future and assessing criticality. The tax base is calculated by applying calculation methods that differ depending on the type of property you must tax. For buildings used for residential, the tax base is calculated on the basis of the cadastral income; in the case of building land is rather used the market value of land and buildings and, for rent, rural manor. The land property values are always lower than market values, which is because some time trying to implement a revision of the class with the objective of bringing the two values. The reclass procedure has recently been adopted in the municipality of Milano where it was decided to reclass of buildings located within a few micro-climates for the most central, in which houses were originally built affordable housing to meet the housing needs of the social classes poor and that over time turned into mansions in the city center. From 1 January 2012, the Imu will come into force, only municipal tax, which replaces the current Ici; the two taxes differ in the higher fixed rate (7.6 ‰, which does not involve substantial modifications to the old system tax. In this way, the result will be to produce an increase in the tax burden without solving the inequalities of the old system but increasing the gap. The Implementation Act contains provisions which IMU when applied to allow municipalities to solve some problems present in the Ici.

  10. The role of IL-18 in type 1 diabetic nephropathy: The problem and future treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsherbiny, Nehal M; Al-Gayyar, Mohammed M H

    2016-05-01

    Diabetic vascular complication is a leading cause of diabetic nephropathy, a progressive increase in urinary albumin excretion coupled with elevated blood pressure leading to declined glomerular filtration and eventually end stage renal failure. There is growing evidence that activated inflammation is contributing factor to the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy. Meanwhile, IL-18, a member of the IL-1 family of inflammatory cytokines, is involved in the development and progression of diabetic nephropathy. However, the benefits derived from the current therapeutics for diabetic nephropathy strategies still provide imperfect protection against renal progression. This imperfection points to the need for newer therapeutic agents that have potential to affect primary mechanisms contributing to the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy. Therefore, the recognition of IL-18 as significant pathogenic mediators in diabetic nephropathy leaves open the possibility of new potential therapeutic targets.

  11. Marketing; Il marketing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muscigna, M. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, S. Maria di Galeria, RM (Italy). Dipt. Innovazione

    1999-07-01

    The report discusses marketing strategies oriented to the organizations and analyzes its critical factors, which determine the success of the organization activity. [Italian] Il rapporto analizza i caratteri delle strategie del marketing orientato all'impresa. Vengono infine analizzati i fattori critici che determinano il successo o l'insuccesso delle scelte aziendali.

  12. Thermofluidodynamic modelling of the Adamello Glacier in a future climate scenario. Will the largest Italian glacier disappear by 2080?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranzi, Roberto; Svanera, Eros; Baroni, Carlo; Barontini, Stefano; Caronna, Paolo; Grossi, Giovanna; Salvatore, Maria Cristina

    2016-04-01

    A thermofluidodynamic model was applied to the study case of the Adamello glacier (17,24 km2, after ASTER 2003 data), located in the Central Alps. The dynamic of the glacier was first simulated in the current climate conditions (1996-2007) and then using future climate projection resulting from the PCM A1b scenarios. Using the finite element code Elmer the dynamic equations were solved for the velocity field and the free surface elevation. The glacier was modelled with a 3D mesh composed by 28050 nodes and subdivided into 10 vertical layers. Elevation of the free surface and bedrock recorded in 1991 and in 1996 were used as boundary and initial conditions. For each simulated year a top surface temperature of -7.5 °C was considered for the winter semester in the ablation season the glacier's temperature was set to 0°C. During melting a fixed bottom velocity was applied to simulate the slip behaviour. As a Neumann boundary condition on the glacier's top surface the seasonal mass balance estimated from the energy-balance over the 1995-2009 period was assumed, with a mean value of -1.4 m/a. The reliability of the energy balance was verified with point measurement at ablation stakes over two ablation seasons, with runoff data and remote sensing. The maximum simulated surface velocities of the order of 100 m/a, a value consistent with observations of speed of some ablation stakes. In order to assess the validity of the results, the change in the thickness of the glacier observed between 1998 and 2007 (DEM difference) was compared to the simulated change in the free surface elevation. Another useful application of the modeling result is the identification of the ice divide of 5 glaciological units in the Sarca and Oglio subbasins, separated from a hydrological point of view, which is not a trivial task to be performed in the field. Another verification is done comparing the simulated glacier's extent in the year 2015 starting from 1996 initial conditions. The simulation

  13. The past, present, and future of monoclonal antibodies to IL-5 and eosinophilic asthma: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patterson MF

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Megan F Patterson,1 Larry Borish,2,3 Joshua L Kennedy1,4 1Department of Pediatrics, Arkansas Children's Research Institute, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR, USA; 2Department of Medicine, Carter Immunology Center, University of Virginia Health Systems, Charlottesville, VA, USA; 3Department of Microbiology, Carter Immunology Center, University of Virginia Health Systems, Charlottesville, VA, USA; 4Department of Internal Medicine, Arkansas Children's Research Institute, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR, USA Abstract: Asthma is a heterogeneous syndrome that might be better described as a constellation of phenotypes or endotypes, each with distinct cellular and molecular mechanisms, rather than as a singular disease. One of these phenotypes is eosinophilic asthma. As the development of eosinophilic inflammation is categorically dependent on the biological activity of Interleukin (IL-5, IL-5 antagonism became an obvious target for therapy in this phenotype. Early trials of monoclonal antibodies targeting the biological activity of IL-5, including reslizumab, mepolizumab, and benralizumab, were performed on asthmatics with no concern for evidence of eosinophilia. These trials were largely unsuccessful. However, during these trials, researchers recognized the need to quantify eosinophilia in asthma subjects in order to identify those asthmatics in whom these medications would be more likely to improve symptoms and lung function. Using biomarkers, such as sputum and blood eosinophilia, recent studies of these medications have shown improvements in blood and sputum eosinophilia, forced expiratory volume in 1 second, and quality of life assessments as well as reducing occurrences of exacerbations. Moving forward, better and less invasive biomarkers of eosinophilia are necessary to ensure that the correct patients are chosen to receive these medications to receive maximal benefit. Keywords

  14. From O Paiz do Carnaval to Il Paese del Carnevale And Le Pays du Carnaval: the paratexts of the italian and French Translations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Bagno

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The year 2017 makes us remember the 90 years of the “Ata de Incineração” (Burning Act which destroyed more than 1600 books of Jorge Amado, and among them 214 copies of O Paiz do Carnval, a novel whose first translation, which was made into the Italian language, according to the desire of Amado himself, appeared only in 1984, with a “note” by Luciana Stegagno Picchio. Presupposing that, before the publication of the first edition of the novel (1931, the Italian lexicographer Panzini had already rejected, for Italy, the old English nicknames carnival land and land of carnival; this article wants to highlight which interpretations were vehicled, both by the paratext of the Italian translation and by the one of the French translation (1990, written by Alice Raillard. A translator who, however, took advantage of her famous interview Conversando com Jorge Amado, 1990 (Talking with Jorge Amado, which would open new paths to international criticism

  15. Il futuro dei Comuni minori. Etnografia di una trasformazione in corso - The future of small municipalities in Italy: Ethnography of a social and institutional change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele F. Fontefrancesco

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available What is the future for Italian inner areas? The article answers to this question by exploring the ongoing institutional and social transformations in a small municipality in North-Western Italy. This ethnography is based on the information gathered in the dual role of elected civil servant and anthropologist involved in the field for over a decade. The article reads abandonment, marginality, new forms of entrepreneurship and tourisms as elements of a paradoxical dynamic: while it is increasingly difficult for villagers to get access to the services offered in the cities, urban dwellers are getting more and more interested into the traditions and products made in the rural areas. This paradox of distance foreshadows the future of small municipalities; a time in which vital towns could become little more than ethnic zoos for the anthropological curiosity of city inhabitants.

  16. Italian Modernities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Bjørn; Forlenza, Rosario

    assumptions that have substituted for thought and that have perpetuated prejudices both within and outside Italy’s borders. Grounded in meticulous historical and ethnological research, Italian Modernities deserves as wide an audience as its scholarship is deep.” (Michael Herzfeld, Ernest E. Monrad Professor...

  17. Italian Succession Procedure

    OpenAIRE

    De Tullio, Giandomenico

    2012-01-01

    Italian inheritance law based on the Roman law of succession including legitimate succession and testamentary succession. The importance of drafting an Italian will and the legal requirements according to Italian Law.

  18. The future of telemedicine for the management of heart failure patients: a Consensus Document of the Italian Association of Hospital Cardiologists (A.N.M.C.O), the Italian Society of Cardiology (S.I.C.) and the Italian Society for Telemedicine and eHealth (Digital S.I.T.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Lenarda, Andrea; Casolo, Giancarlo; Gulizia, Michele Massimo; Aspromonte, Nadia; Scalvini, Simonetta; Mortara, Andrea; Alunni, Gianfranco; Ricci, Renato Pietro; Mantovan, Roberto; Russo, Giancarmine; Gensini, Gian Franco; Romeo, Francesco

    2017-05-01

    Telemedicine applied to heart failure patients is a tool for recording and providing remote transmission, storage and interpretation of cardiovascular parameters and/or useful diagnostic images to allow for intensive home monitoring of patients with advanced heart failure, or during the vulnerable post-acute phase, to improve patient's prognosis and quality of life. Recently, several meta-analyses have shown that telemedicine-supported care pathways are not only effective but also economically advantageous. Benefits seem to be substantial, with a 30-35% reduction in mortality and 15-20% decrease in hospitalizations. Patients implanted with cardiac devices can also benefit from an integrated remote clinical management since all modern devices can transmit technical and diagnostic data. However, telemedicine may provide benefits to heart failure patients only as part of a shared and integrated multi-disciplinary and multi-professional 'chronic care model'. Moreover, the future development of remote telemonitoring programs in Italy will require the primary use of products certified as medical devices, validated organizational solutions as well as legislative and administrative adoption of new care methods and the widespread growth of clinical care competence to remotely manage the complexity of chronicity. Through this consensus document, Italian Cardiology reaffirms its willingness to contribute promoting a new phase of qualitative assessment, standardization of processes and testing of telemedicine-based care models in heart failure. By recognizing the relevance of telemedicine for the care of non-hospitalized patients with heart failure, its strategic importance for the design of innovative models of care, and the many challenges and opportunities it raises, ANMCO and SIC through this document report a consensus on the main directions for its widespread and sustainable clinical implementation.

  19. The future of telemedicine for the management of heart failure patients: a Consensus Document of the Italian Association of Hospital Cardiologists (A.N.M.C.O), the Italian Society of Cardiology (S.I.C.) and the Italian Society for Telemedicine and eHealth (Digital S.I.T.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casolo, Giancarlo; Gulizia, Michele Massimo; Aspromonte, Nadia; Scalvini, Simonetta; Mortara, Andrea; Alunni, Gianfranco; Ricci, Renato Pietro; Mantovan, Roberto; Russo, Giancarmine; Gensini, Gian Franco; Romeo, Francesco

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Telemedicine applied to heart failure patients is a tool for recording and providing remote transmission, storage and interpretation of cardiovascular parameters and/or useful diagnostic images to allow for intensive home monitoring of patients with advanced heart failure, or during the vulnerable post-acute phase, to improve patient’s prognosis and quality of life. Recently, several meta-analyses have shown that telemedicine-supported care pathways are not only effective but also economically advantageous. Benefits seem to be substantial, with a 30–35% reduction in mortality and 15–20% decrease in hospitalizations. Patients implanted with cardiac devices can also benefit from an integrated remote clinical management since all modern devices can transmit technical and diagnostic data. However, telemedicine may provide benefits to heart failure patients only as part of a shared and integrated multi-disciplinary and multi-professional ‘chronic care model’. Moreover, the future development of remote telemonitoring programs in Italy will require the primary use of products certified as medical devices, validated organizational solutions as well as legislative and administrative adoption of new care methods and the widespread growth of clinical care competence to remotely manage the complexity of chronicity. Through this consensus document, Italian Cardiology reaffirms its willingness to contribute promoting a new phase of qualitative assessment, standardization of processes and testing of telemedicine-based care models in heart failure. By recognizing the relevance of telemedicine for the care of non-hospitalized patients with heart failure, its strategic importance for the design of innovative models of care, and the many challenges and opportunities it raises, ANMCO and SIC through this document report a consensus on the main directions for its widespread and sustainable clinical implementation PMID:28751839

  20. Memory Redux: The foibe on Italian Television

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knittel, S.C.

    2014-01-01

    This article argues that the overwhelming success of the television drama Il cuore nel pozzo (Alberto Negrin, 2005) signals a shift in the conception of national history and identity in the Italian popular imagination. In conjunction with Negrin’s earlier film Perlasca: un eroe italiano (2002), the

  1. [Italian Thesaurus of Bioethics, TIB].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarini, Claudia; Poltronieri, Elisabetta

    2004-01-01

    The article aims at illustrating the characteristics and functions of a monolingual thesaurus, focusing on the Italian Thesaurus of Bioethics (Thesaurus Italiano di Bioetica, TIB) the controlled vocabulary used to index and retrieve documents within SIBIL (Italian Online Bioethics Information System). TIB includes controlled terms (descriptors) translated from the Bioethics Thesaurus adopted by the Kennedy Institute of Ethics of the Georgetown University of Washington and revised according to the Italian context of study and scientific debate in the field of bioethics. The overall amount of TIB terms consists in over 1600 headings. Methods to link thesaurus terms hierarchically, by association and by showing synonyms as recommended in ISO standards are applied with reference to descriptors drawn from TIB. Future plans to make the English version of TIB available online within European networks are also illustrated, aiming at spreading information relating to bioethics at an international level.

  2. Italian Exposition

    CERN Multimedia

    Schopper,H

    1985-01-01

    Le DG parle dans son allocution à l'occasion de l'exposition (suivi d'une visite)de la contribution du Cern à la création d'une espace de la technologie européenne. Il parle de la manière comment organiser des formes fructueuses de coopération et coordination internationales dans ce domaine. "Afin de renforcer encore notre relation avec l'industrie et intensifier le transfert de la technologie nous proposerons au ministre de recherche de poursuivre dans le cadre du programme EUREKA ensemble avec les industries des programmes concrètes." Le ministre italien prend ensuite la parole.

  3. Il laser

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, William V

    1974-01-01

    Verso il 1960, il laser era ancora "una soluzione alla ricerca di un problema", ma fin dagli anni immediatamente successivi si è rivelato uno strumento insostituibile per le applicazioni più svariate.

  4. Role of IL-38 and Its Related Cytokines in Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianli Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Interleukin- (IL- 38 is a recently discovered cytokine and is the tenth member of the IL-1 cytokine family. IL-38 shares structural features with IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra and IL-36Ra. IL-36R is the specific receptor of IL-38, a partial receptor antagonist of IL-36. IL-38 inhibits the production of T-cell cytokines IL-17 and IL-22. IL-38 also inhibits the production of IL-8 induced by IL-36γ, thus inhibiting inflammatory responses. IL-38-related cytokines, including IL-1Ra and IL-36Ra, are involved in the regulation of inflammation and immune responses. The study of IL-38 and IL-38-related cytokines might provide new insights for developing anti-inflammatory treatments in the near future.

  5. [10 questions to Alberto Giannetti on the future of pediatric dermatology. Interview by Francesca Farnetani] [Article in Italian] • 10 domande ad Alberto Giannetti sul futuro della dermatologia pediatrica. Intervista di Francesca Farnetani

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Giannetti

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Il dermatologo Alberto Giannetti risponde alle seguenti domande:1. Perché ha deciso di essere dermatologo?2. Lei ha vissuto quasi mezzo secolo di dermatologia: che cosa è cambiato e che cosa è rimasto invariato?3. Lei è stato uno dei fondatori della dermatologia pediatrica in Italia: ci può sintetizzare questa sua esperienza?4. Un secolo fa c’era un’alta prevalenza di casi di sifilide congenita, poi siamo passati attraverso le epatiti e l’AIDS ora siamo alle malattie trasmesse sessualmente che continuano a infettare il neonato. Ma sono l’equivalente delle antiche “pesti” o la medicina ha gli strumenti per rendere sicura la gravidanza e la nascita?5. Lei ha scritto che ogni età ha le sue malattie dermatologiche: dovesse riassumere in 15 righe gli insegnamenti da dare a un neonatologo, che cosa gli direbbe?6. Qual è l’errore più frequente che fa il pediatra in campo dermatologico?7. I medici di oggi sanno ancora valutare gli aspetti clinici e anamnestici? Non si rischia oggi di curare più l’esame di laboratorio che la persona?8. Facendo il gioco della torre, qual è l’aspetto della dermatologia che butterebbe giù per primo e quale non butterebbe mai?9. Negli ultimi decenni abbiamo assistito a grandi speranze per la medicina, l’immunologia, i trapianti, la genetica. Ma quali possono essere le prospettive future della dermatologia?10. Qual è il consiglio che darebbe oggi a un giovane dermatologo?

  6. Future-oriented or present-focused? The role of social support and identity styles on ‘futuring’ in Italian late adolescents and emerging adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sica, Luigia Simona; Crocetti, Elisabetta; Ragozini, Giancarlo; Aleni Sestito, Laura; Serafini, Toni

    2016-01-01

    Late adolescence and emerging adulthood are periods in the life cycle when individuals are involved in anticipating and planning for the future (futuring). However, in the last five or six years, as the effects of the recession have made themselves felt in Southern Europe, the situation that young p

  7. Future-oriented or present-focused? The role of social support and identity styles on ‘futuring’ in Italian late adolescents and emerging adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sica, Luigia Simona; Crocetti, Elisabetta; Ragozini, Giancarlo; Aleni Sestito, Laura; Serafini, Toni

    2016-01-01

    Late adolescence and emerging adulthood are periods in the life cycle when individuals are involved in anticipating and planning for the future (futuring). However, in the last five or six years, as the effects of the recession have made themselves felt in Southern Europe, the situation that young

  8. Italian information geographies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Paradiso

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction A range of papers focusing on Italian cases of ICTs use and changes in society are presented here in this NETCOM issue. A national research group on Geography of Information Society was founded in 2007 and hosted by the Italian Geographical Society later evolved in a specialty group within AgeI, the Association of Italian Geographers. This issue brings together papers from members of the Italian specialty group along the general theme of Internet mediation in everyday life. A pre...

  9. Health Information in Italian (Italiano)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → Italian (Italiano) URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/italian.html Health Information in Italian (Italiano) To use ...

  10. [Characteristics of Italian thermal parks and gardens: explorative study; therapeutic possibilities. I].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossi, F; Battista, A; Ricci, B; Mastroianni, S; Gurgo, A M; De Pasquale Ceratti, G

    1997-01-01

    There are reported the results of a research about thermal parks and thermal gardens own to 27 italian Spas. The considerable areas of green around Spas, the correct ratio with the number of subjects in thermal treatment and others arguments represent favourable elements for italian Medical Hydrology. The importance of green around Spas in Thermal Medicine and in Ecology il stressed.

  11. Futurism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foy, Jane Loring

    The objectives of this research report are to gain insight into the main problems of the future and to ascertain the attitudes that the general population has toward the treatment of these problems. In the first section of this report the future is explored socially, psychologically, and environmentally. The second section describes the techniques…

  12. South Italian Festivals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tak, Herman

    2000-01-01

    South Italian Festivals is a story and study of socio-economic changes in an Italian mountain town Calvello (Basilicata) over a five-hundred-year period; from traditional society to modernity. Instead of exploring a single festival the book studies a ritual one year cycle of local and ecclesiastical

  13. Adjuvant low-dose interleukin-2 (IL-2) plus interferon-α (IFN-α) in operable renal cell carcinoma (RCC): a phase III, randomized, multicentre trial of the Italian Oncology Group for Clinical Research (GOIRC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passalacqua, Rodolfo; Caminiti, Caterina; Buti, Sebastiano; Porta, Camillo; Camisa, Roberta; Braglia, Luca; Tomasello, Gianluca; Vaglio, Augusto; Labianca, Roberto; Rondini, Ermanno; Sabbatini, Roberto; Nastasi, Giuseppe; Artioli, Fabrizio; Prati, Andrea; Potenzoni, Michele; Pezzuolo, Debora; Oliva, Elena; Alberici, Federico; Buzio, Carlo

    2014-01-01

    There is currently no standard therapy to reduce the recurrence rate after surgery for renal cell carcinoma (RCC). The aim of this study was to assess efficacy and safety of adjuvant treatment with low doses of interleukin-2 (IL-2)+interferon-α (IFN-α) in operable RCC. The patients were randomized 1:1 to receive a 4-week cycle of low-dose IL-2+IFN-α or observation after primary surgery for RCC. Treatment cycles were repeated every 4 months for the first 2 years and every 6 months for the subsequent 3 years. The primary endpoint was recurrence-free survival (RFS); safety; and overall survival (OS) were secondary endpoints. ClinicalTrials.gov registration number was NCT00502034. 303/310 randomized patients (156 in the immunotherapy arm and 154 in the observation group) were evaluable at the intention-to-treat analyses. The 2 arms were well balanced. At a median follow-up of 52 months (range, 12-151 mo), RFS, and OS were similar, with an estimated hazard ratio (HR) of 0.84 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.54-1.31; P=0.44] and of 1.07 (95% CI, 0.64-1.79; P=0.79), respectively in the 2 groups. Unplanned, subgroup analysis showed a positive effect of the treatment for patients with age 60 years and younger, pN0, tumor grades 1-2, and pT3a stage. Among patients with the combined presence of ≥ 2 of these factors, immunotherapy had a positive effect on RFS (HR=0.44; 95% CI, 0.24-0.82; P ≤ 0.01), whereas patients with <2 factors in the treatment arm exhibited a significant poorer OS (HR=2.27; 95% CI, 1.03-5.03 P=0.037). Toxicity of immunotherapy was mild and limited to World Health Organization grade 1-2 in most cases. Adjuvant immunotherapy with IL-2+IFN-α showed no RFS or OS improvement in RCC patients who underwent radical surgery. The results of subset analysis here presented are only hypothesis generating.

  14. Google e il patrimonio culturale italiano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Bonacini

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available ITIn questo lavoro si intende ricostruire il ruolo svolto dal motore di ricerca google nella moderna società culturale e, soprattutto, il ruolo svolto da google nella comunicazione e valorizzazione del patrimonio culturale italiano attraverso il cultural institute e tutti i software e gli applicativi che google mette a disposizione della cultura.ENAim of this paper is the reconstruction of google’s role in modern cultural society and, above all, its role through the google cultural institute and its many softwares and applications, for communication and dissemination of italian cultural heritage.

  15. Italian active volcanoes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RobertoSantacroce; RenawCristofolini; LuigiLaVolpe; GiovanniOrsi; MauroRosi

    2003-01-01

    The eruptive histories, styles of activity and general modes of operation of the main active Italian volcanoes,Etna, Vulcano, Stromboli, Vesuvio, Campi Flegrei and Ischia, are described in a short summary.

  16. The Italian activist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catanzaro, Michele

    2012-02-01

    Italian theoretical physicist Giorgio Parisi has been an outspoken critic of Silvio Berlusconi's lack of support for science. He talks about how physics may fare under the new administration led by the economist Mario Monti.

  17. Italian protesters win concessions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartlidge, Edwin

    2008-12-01

    Thousands of researchers and students who have taken to the streets in protest at reforms of Italian universities and public research institutes have won some limited concessions from the government. The protesters had argued that the reforms, which include significant budget cuts, would further weaken a research base that is already short of resources. The Italian government maintains that its reforms are necessary to modernize a university system that is corrupt and inefficient, but has reversed some of the cuts.

  18. Associations of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-1 receptor antagonist, and IL-10 with dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogulu, Dilsah; Onay, Huseyin; Ozdemir, Yasemin; I Aslan, Gulcin; Ozkinay, Ferda; Kutukculer, Necil; Eronat, Cemal

    2015-03-01

    Streptococcus mutans is important in dental caries. Although the role of cytokines in the pathogenesis of dental caries is not clear, components of S. mutans were found to stimulate production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. We examined the associations of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra), and IL-10 with dental caries. Unstimulated whole saliva and blood samples were obtained from 108 children aged 6-12 years with high caries (decayed, missing, or filled teeth [dmft/DMFT] index >4, n = 37), moderate caries (dmft/DMFT = 1-4, n = 37), or caries-free (dmft/DMFT = 0, n = 34). S. mutans level was classified as low (caries was not correlated with salivary or serum concentrations of the studied cytokines. S. mutans level positively correlated with saliva IL-1β concentration and inversely correlated with saliva IL-1ra concentration. There was no correlation of IL-1β, IL-1ra, or IL-10 gene polymorphisms with dental caries. S. mutans is important in stimulating saliva IL-1β and inhibiting IL-1ra. Future studies of associations between cytokines and dental caries should investigate additional cytokines and enroll a larger number of participants.

  19. Il dolore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prof. Giorgio Cruccu

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Il dolore è l’aspetto negativo di un sistema sensitivo indispensabile alla vita, detto sistema nocicettivo, dal latino noxa e nocēre. I bambini con difetti congeniti della trasmissione o dell’elaborazione percettiva dei segnali dolorifici (analgesia congenita vanno incontro ad una serie di lesioni di cui non si accorgono, sempre più gravi. Crescendo, possono riconoscere il pericolo attraverso l’educazione e l’esperienza, ma, senza l’allarme dato dal dolore, molte malattie possono evolvere senza che siano combattute per tempo, in una spirale che spesso conduce al decesso.

  20. LA LINGUA ITALIANA E LE SCUOLE ITALIANE NEL TERRITORIO ISTRIANO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara De Battisti

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available L’articolo ricostruisce brevemente, dal punto di vista storico, le vicende della comunità italiana in Istria per contestualizzarne i mutamenti di carattere linguistico e socioculturale che essa ha vissuto, in particolare dal secondo dopoguerra ad oggi. Sulla base di studi e indagini  recenti, vengono prese in esame le lingue e i dialetti parlati dalla comunità italiana, la realtà multilingue e multiculturale dell’Istria attuale,  le istituzioni italiane presenti nel territorio istriano e la loro attività finalizzata alla permanenza della lingua e cultura italiana nella regione. In particolare si ricostruisce la storia della scuola di lingua italiana, le sue origini, il suo declino dopo la cessione dell’Istria alla Yugolaslavia e durante i difficili e drammatici anni dell’esodo di molti italiano dalla regione, la sua rinascita ed evoluzione dal 1980 ad oggi. Delle scuole di lingua italiana, che attualmente operano sia nel territorio istriano che fa parte della Slovenia sia in quello che fa parte della Croazia, si analizza la loro distribuzione nella regione, la loro organizzazione, il ruolo della lingua italiana come materia, come lingua di scolarizzazione e come lingua straniera, i problemi, ancora aperti, della formazione degli insegnanti e dei libri di testo, e si valuta la loro possibilità di evoluzione e di sviluppo.     Italian language and Italian schools in the territory if Istria   This article briefly discusses, from the historical point of view, the Italian community in Istria to contextualize the linguistic and socio cultural changes that have taken place in the region, especially after WWII. Based on recent surveys and studies, languages and dialects spoken in the Italian community, the multilungual and multicultural reality of Istria are examined, as well as the Italian institutions in the Istrian territory and their efforts to conserve Italian language and culture in the area.  In particular, the history of

  1. Predictive potential of IL-28B genetic testing for interferon based hepatitis C virus therapy in Pakistan: Current scenario and future perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afzal, Muhammad Sohail

    2016-09-18

    In Pakistan which ranked second in terms of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, it is highly needed to have an established diagnostic test for antiviral therapy response prediction. Interleukin 28B (IL-28B) genetic testing is widely used throughout the world for interferon based therapy prediction for HCV patients and is quite helpful not only for health care workers but also for the patients. There is a strong relationship between single nucleotide polymorphisms at or near the IL-28B gene and the sustained virological response with pegylated interferon plus ribavirin treatment for chronic hepatitis C. Pakistan is a resource limited country, with very low per capita income and there is no proper social security (health insurance) system. The allocated health budget by the government is very low and is used on other health emergencies like polio virus and dengue virus infection. Therefore it is proposed that there should be a well established diagnostic test on the basis of IL-28B which can predict the antiviral therapy response to strengthen health care set-up of Pakistan. This test once established will help in better management of HCV infected patients.

  2. An Avatar-Based Italian Sign Language Visualization System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falletto, Andrea; Prinetto, Paolo; Tiotto, Gabriele

    In this paper, we present an experimental system that supports the translation from Italian to Italian Sign Language (ISL) of the deaf and its visualization through a virtual character. Our objective is to develop a complete platform useful for any application and reusable on several platforms including Web, Digital Television and offline text translation. The system relies on a database that stores both a corpus of Italian words and words coded in the ISL notation system. An interface for the insertion of data is implemented, that allows future extensions and integrations.

  3. Il Gioco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Beronio

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Chi si occupa di teatro incontra il gioco innanzitutto come una categoria estetica insita nei processi che caratterizzano l’atto teatrale. Ma dall’approfondimento di tali meccanismi emerge anche la potenzialità conoscitiva del gioco, come condizione umana di profonda consapevolezza di sé. Attraverso un percorso che passa attraverso Breton, Platone, Huizinga, e Alessandro Fersen, viene qui proposta una lettura del gioco come carattere fondamentale dell’arte e della conoscenza.

  4. Italian in the Modern World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adorno, Elvira, Ed.

    This booklet of 15 reprinted letters sent in response to a query concerning the actual use of Italian in the United States designates various areas of professional application. Some reference to current Italian publications is included. It is hoped that these letters will help promote the study of Italian in American schools. (RL)

  5. MA AL CHERUBINI PIACE IL NOME FRANCESCO?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Lurà

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Il saggio nella prima parte  mette a confronto i nomi propri presenti  nel Cherubini , nel Vocabolario dei dialetti della Svizzera italiana e nel Lessico dialettale della Svizzera italiana, ed evidenzia  la diversità nei criteri di registrazione e nella tipologia della trattazione. Nella seconda parte l’indagine documenta la presenza nel Vocabolario milanese italiano di voci dei dialetti della Svizzera italiana e il crescente interesse per questi dialetti mostrato dal Cherubini dalla prima alla seconda edizione (1839, ne ricerca le fonti e ne individua le modalità di registrazione. But would Cherubini like the name Francesco? In the first part, this paper compares the proper names in Cherubini, in the Dictionary of the dialects of the Italian-speaking area of Switzerland and in the dialect of the Italian-speaking area Switzerland, and highlights the differences in registration criteria and types of treatment. The second part documents the presence of items from the vocabulary the Italian-speaking area Switzerland in the Milanese-Italian Dictionary and the growing interest shown by Cherubini for these dialects from the first to the second edition (1839, identifying the sources and the recording modes.

  6. Italian Minister visits CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Passing through Geneva, the Italian Deputy Minister for Productive Activities, Dr. Adolfo Urso, came to visit the SM18 hall where LHC magnets are tested. From left to right: Adolfo Urso, Deputy Minister for Productive Activities, CERN's Roberto Saban, Director General Luciano Maiani, Mario Gerbino, Director General of the Ministry and Lucio Rossi, LHC Main Magnet and Superconductors Group Leader.

  7. Le futur prix de l'énergie : faut-il orienter les prix du pétrole vers la hausse? The Future Price of Energy. Should Oil Prices Be Allowed to Driff Upwards?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desprairies P.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available II est à peu près universellement admis que les prix du pétrole vont augmenter d'ici la fin du siècle, du fait de l'épuisement des ressources de pétrole conventionnel à bon marché. L'évolution souhaitable des prix et leur niveau futur font par contre l'objet d'opinions variées. L'analyse du problème ne fait pas apparaître de raisons d'une hausse immédiate des prix au pétrole brut, ni de leur alignement à échéance rapide sur le prix des pétroles non-conventionnels les plus chers. Dans les prochaines années c'est l'offre et la demande de pétrole conventionnel qui commanderont les prix du pétrole, c'est-à-dire, le rythme d'investissements dans le pétrole conventionnel, le charbon, et l'électricité nucléaire. La hausse en prix constants peut difficilement reprendre avant qu'aient disparu les surplus de capacité de production, c'est-à-dire guère avant 1983/1985 si la croissance économique et l'offre de pétrole continuent d'évoluer aux allures actuellement prévisibles. Si l'on est tenté d'évaluer aux alentours du prix de vente actuel majoré de 50 %, soit une vingtaine de dollars (1978 le prix à long terme du pétrole, c'est beaucoup plus par référence aux souhaits supposés des pays producteurs et au pouvoir d'achat des pays acheteurs qu'au coct de production du pétrole non-conventionnel. Il est aujourd'hui peu probable que le dialogue entre pays exportateurs et acheteurs de pétrole, point de départ d'une hausse programmée des prix, se noue avant qu'une crise d'approvisionnements plus ou moins sévère n'ait rendu manifeste la nécessité d'un tel dialogue. It is almost universolly accepted that oil prices will rise between now and the end of the century on account of the depletion of cheop conventional oil resources. The evolution to be desired for prices and their future level, on the other hand, is the subiect of differing opinions. An onalysis of the problem does not reveal any raasons for an immediate

  8. Il filo di Aracne. Variazioni e riscritture italiane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Codeluppi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The skilful weaver Arachne proclaims the value of her work, challenges the goddess Athena and, for this reason, is punished by being transformed into a spider. Starting from the Ovidian archetype, this character has inspired several literary works in which her various peculiarities emerge. She is simultaneously a negative emblem of pride and a philanthropic heroine, an extraordinary artist and a patient artisan, a woman and an animal. This article aims to examine some of the authors who have adapted the Arachne myth, from Dante until the beginning of the twentieth century.

  9. Postfeminist (Dis)Entanglements: Transgression and Conformism in Contemporary Italian Teen Movies

    OpenAIRE

    Bonifazio, Paola

    2016-01-01

    According to film historian Giampiero Brunetta, the success of Luca Lucini’s Tre metri sopra il cielo (Three Steps Over Heaven, 2004) and Fabio Brizzi’s Notte prima degli esami (Night Before the Exams, 2006) is emblematic of the current “crisis” of Italian cinema. The premise of Brunetta’s negative comments are primarily aesthetics (bad script, bad direction), while other reviewers have blamed the same films for unrealistic portrayals of Italian teenagers, and expressed their concerns about t...

  10. Autoimmunity: regulatory B cells--IL-35 and IL-21 regulate the regulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedder, Thomas F; Leonard, Warren J

    2014-08-01

    IL-21 regulates the activity and number of IL-10-producing regulatory B cells (B10 cells) that modulate immune responses and limit diverse autoimmune diseases. A new study demonstrates that IL-35 has a similar function. Identifying regulatory circuits that control B10-cell function in vivo might open the door to future treatments for autoimmune diseases.

  11. Italian library associations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ksenija Petaros-Kmetec

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In Italy, five library associations of national significance function at present. There are special associations of ecclesiastic libraries, prison libraries, architecture libraries and libraries with artistic material. The role of the general national association, covering all types of libraries including documentation centres, is played by the Italian Library Association. It strive for the development of a contemporary Italian library system comparable to international standards, monitors library legislation, promotes education for librarians and keeps the librarians and the broader public informed about the importance of libraries and librarianship for society. The activity and efforts of the association are reflected through their website offering much information and links to similar sites. ILA presents and realises its activities for both, the librarians and the public users. A great deal of actions promoting libraries and the Library Association might be interesting for Slovenia and perhaps transferred to our environment.

  12. Women in Italian astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Matteucci, Francesca

    2014-01-01

    This document gives some quantitative facts about the role of women in Italian astronomy. More than 26% of Italian IAU members are women: this is the largest fraction among the world leading countries in astronomy. Most of this high fraction is due to their presence in INAF, where women make up 32% of the research staff (289 out of 908) and 40% of the technical/administrative staff (173 out of 433); the percentage is slightly lower among permanent research staff (180 out of 599, about 30%). The presence of women is lower in the Universities (27 out of 161, about 17%, among staff). In spite of these (mildly) positive facts, we notice that similarly to other countries (e.g. USA and Germany) career prospects for Italian astronomers are clearly worse for women than for men. Within INAF, the fraction of women is about 35-40% among non-permanent position, 36% for Investigators, 17% for Associato/Primo Ricercatore, and only 13% among Ordinario/Dirigente di Ricerca. The situation is even worse at University (only 6% ...

  13. Literary translation between Italian and English. Publishing trends in Italy, the UK and the USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Elisa Fina

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract - This study aims to investigate publishing trends in literary translation from English into Italian in Italy and from Italian into English in the UK and the USA over the 2000-2008 time span. The data were retrieved from the Index Translationum, an international bibliography of translations managed by UNESCO, and were then stored in three Microsoft Access databases, one for each country. The databases were analysed according to specific criteria, in order to determine trends concerning the amount of translated literature in the three countries, the main publishing houses dealing with translated works, and the most translated genres and authors. This paper is meant to provide a mainly descriptive, but necessary basis for future investigation of socio-cultural as well as market-led processes underlying publishers’ choices and gate-keeping in literary translation. Riassunto - Il presente studio si propone di ricavare e analizzare tendenze caratterizzanti il mercato della letteratura tradotta dall’inglese all’italiano in Italia e dall’italiano all’inglese in Regno Unito e negli Stati Uniti. I dati sono stati estratti da Index Translationum, una database bibliografico internazionale di traduzioni gestito dall’UNESCO, e sono stati inseriti in tre database Microsoft Acess, uno per ciascun Paese. I database sono stati analizzati secondo criteri specifici al fine di ricavare trend relativi alla quantità di letteratura tradotta nei tre Paesi, le maggiori case editrici che si interessano di letteratura tradotta, i generi e gli autori più tradotti. Questo studio intende fornire una base essenzialmente descrittiva ma necessaria per studi futuri sui processi socio-culturali e sulle dinamiche di mercato che influenzano le scelte degli editori, determinando così forme di controllo sul mercato della traduzione letteraria.

  14. Italian Textile Machinery Seminar in Bangladesh

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The Association of Italian Textile Machinery Manufacturers (ACIMIT) and the Italian Trade Commission will hold a technological seminar on "Italian textile machinery: the way to improve Bangladesh textile competitiveness"

  15. Società sicure e mutamento sociale: possibili sfide per il futuro/Secure societies and social changes: possible challenges in the future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sette Raffaella

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available L’obiettivo di questo articolo è quello di focalizzare l’attenzione su possibili strategie di intervento nell'ambito del settore correlato alla sicurezza urbana. Il punto di partenza riguarda l’impatto del mutamento sociale sullo spazio urbano relativamente alla sicurezza, uno degli argomenti al centro delle politiche e della ricerca dell’Unione Europea fino al 2020. L’autrice intende, in particolare, analizzare alcuni dei fattori che attualmente giocano un ruolo di primaria importanza nelle dinamiche di sicurezza/insicurezza, tra i quali: la crisi economica globale, che sta producendo una vasta serie di cambiamenti sulle strutture non solo economiche, ma anche politiche, sociali e culturali delle società contemporanee; l'infiltrazione della criminalità organizzata mafiosa nel tessuto socio-economico di svariati territori; i fenomeni dell'immigrazione e dell'invecchiamento della popolazione; la questione giustizia con particolare riferimento al reinserimento sociale dei detenuti. Infine, vengono proposti interventi e progettualità concreti per lo sviluppo di forme di interazione e di solidarietà sul territorio che mirino al riconoscimento della pluralità delle identità culturali e personali. Cet article a pour but d'indiquer des stratégies d’intervention possibles dans le domaine de la sécurité urbaine. Le point de départ est celui de l’impact du changement social sur l’espace urbain en matière de sécurité. Il s’agit de l’un des thèmes clés des politiques et de la recherche de l’Union Européenne jusqu’en 2020. L’auteur analyse certains facteurs qui jouent un rôle majeur dans les dynamiques de la sécurité/insécurité, parmi lesquels : la crise économique mondiale qui produit actuellement de profonds changements non seulement dans le domaine politique mais aussi dans les domaines économiques et sociaux ; l’infiltration du crime organisé mafieux dans la structure socio-économique de diff

  16. The Educational Expectations of Italian Children: The Role of Social Interactions with the Children of Immigrants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minello, Alessandra

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims to investigate to what extent the growing presence of children with immigrant background in the Italian school system has an impact on the educational expectations of Italian students in eighth grade. Educational expectations are individuals' plans for their future educational career, adjusted to the subjectively estimated…

  17. Identification and Characterization of a Novel IL-4 Receptor α Chain (IL-4Rα Antagonist to Inhibit IL-4 Signalling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayyar Ahmed

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: In recent times, allergy has become a financial, physical and psychological burden to the society as a whole. In allergic cascades, cytokine IL-4 binds to IL-4 receptor (IL-4R, consequently producing allergen-specific IgE antibodies by B cells. In addition, among other functions, IL-4 is also responsible for B and T cell proliferation and differentiation. Hence, characterization of novel antagonists that inhibit IL-4 signalling forms the overall aim of this study. Methods: Phage display was used to screen a random 12-mer synthetic peptide library with a human IL-4Rα to identify peptide candidates. Once identified, the peptides were commercially synthesized and used for in vitro immunoassays. Results: We have successfully used phage display to identify M13 phage clones that demonstrated specific binding to IL-4Rα. The peptide N1 was synthesized for use in ELISA, demonstrating significant binding to IL-4Rα and inhibiting interaction with cytokine IL-4. Furthermore, the peptide was tested in a transfected HEK-Blue IL-4 reporter cell line model, which produces alkaline phosphatase (AP. QUANTI-Blue, a substrate, breaks down in the presence of AP producing a blue coloration. Using this colorimetric analysis, >50% inhibition of IL-4 signalling was achieved. Conclusion: We have successfully identified and characterised a synthetic peptide antagonist against IL-4Rα, which effectively inhibits IL-4 interaction with the IL-4Rα in vitro. Since IL-4 interaction with IL-4Rα is a common pathway for many allergies, a prophylactic treatment can be devised by inhibiting this interaction for future treatment of allergies.

  18. Il mondo dentro il mondo

    CERN Document Server

    Barrow, John D

    1991-01-01

    Davvero esistono “lì fuori” leggi di natura, che stanno in attesa di essere scoperte, indipendenti dal nostro modo di pensare, o esse rappresentano soltanto la descrizione più conveniente di ciò che abbiamo visto? Come è nata l’idea stessa di “leggi di natura”? Queste costituiscono la realtà profonda o sono soltanto pezzi di un regolamento che ci siamo dati per organizzare meglio la nostra conoscenza del mondo? o semplici paletti che piantiamo e ci lasciamo alle spalle come segnali via via che procediamo nella giungla dell’esperienza? È possibile che non esistano affatto leggi di natura? Forse esse, e anche l’universo che da esse sembra regolato, sono del tutto creazioni della nostra mente: un’illusione che scompare appena cessiamo di pensarvi. Ma allora, che cosa accadrebbe, se non ci fossero osservatori dell’universo?». Interrogativi di questo genere, che incontriamo sulla soglia del Mondo dentro il mondo, sarebbero suonati eccentrici fino a qualche anno fa. Oggi, al contrario, circ...

  19. Interleukin (IL)-25: Pleiotropic roles in asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Xiujuan; Sun, Yongchang; Wang, Wei; Sun, Ying

    2016-05-01

    IL-25, also named IL-17E, is a distinct member of the IL-17 cytokine family, which can promote and augment T helper type 2 (Th2) responses locally or systemically. Growing evidence from experimental and clinical studies indicates that the expression of IL-25 and its cognate receptor, IL-17RB/RA, is markedly upregulated in asthmatic conditions. It has also been found that IL-25 induces not only typical eosinophilic inflammation and airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), but also airway remodelling, manifested by goblet cell hyperplasia, subepithelial collagen deposition and angiogenesis. This review will focus on the discovery, cellular origins and targets of IL-25, and try to update current animal and human studies elucidating the roles of IL-25 in asthma. We conclude that although IL-25 is a pleiotropic cytokine, it may only play its dominant role in a certain specific asthmatic endotype, named 'IL-25 high' phenotype. Thus, targeting IL-25 or its receptor might selectively benefit some subgroups with asthma. Furthermore, the major IL-25 producing as well as responsive cells in the changeable milieu of asthma should be assessed in the future.

  20. Funding fears spark Italian protests

    CERN Multimedia

    Abbott, A

    2001-01-01

    150 Italian scientists took part in a symbolic funeral in Milan for Italian research. Scientists are worried that the new government will reduce support for basic research. Rumours that budgets will be cut are being confirmed and last week the government rejected the 3-year plan of the National Research Council, which had proposed an expansion of staff (1/2 page).

  1. Visit of the Italian President

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    "CERN stands as the demonstration of the great results that science can achieve [...] when it succeeds in getting all the main players in international scientific cooperation involved," stated the President of the Italian Republic, Carlo Azeglio Ciampi, in front of an overcrowded and enthusiastic Main Auditorium. The President visited CERN on 2nd December, and met the CERN directorate as well as the Italians at CERN. With about 1500 Italians working at CERN, which is one sixth of the total personnel, they are the second largest nationality at CERN. The Italian President visited the CMS assembly hall and the LHC superconducting magnet test hall before meeting the CERN community, in particular Italian personnel, in the main auditorium. There he emphasised the role of CERN as a transnational model for research which not only achieved great results in science but is also a powerful vehicle for progress in other fields. President Ciampi visits the LHC superconducting test hall together with Luciano Maiani and Lu...

  2. Verso una IDT federata delle Regioni Italiane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Salvemini

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In Italia la Direttiva INSPIRE ha avuto sino ad ora l’impatto maggiore sulle Regioni Italiane ed ovviamente sugli utenti dei dati e dei servizi da esse messi a disposizione secondo i dettami della Direttiva. Per questo motivo il CISIS-CPSG ha ritenuto di mettere a punto (marzo 2013 uno studio dal titolo “PROPOSTA DI DEFINIZIONE DELLE LINEE GUIDA STRATEGICHE , TECNICHE ED AMMINISTRATIVE PER LA REALIZZAZIONE DI IDT REGIONALI E PER UN SISTEMA FEDERATO DI IDTREGIONALI” al quale si rimanda per la completa trattazione e gli approfondimenti.In the article an innovative patchwork model for integration of sub-national SDIs within national SDI is discussed according to the feasability study that the union of Italian Regions carried out in 2013 spring. Multi scale and innovative policies for SDIs management are discussed and essential information of national SDI evolution are explained.

  3. The IL-2 cytokine family in cancer immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Geok Choo; Radvanyi, Laszlo

    2014-08-01

    The use of cytokines from the IL-2 family (also called the common γ chain cytokine family) such as interleukin (IL)-2, IL-7, IL-15, and IL-21 to activate the immune system of cancer patients is one of the most important areas of current cancer immunotherapy research. The infusion of IL-2 at low or high doses for multiple cycles in patients with metastatic melanoma and renal cell carcinoma was the first successful immunotherapy for cancer proving that the immune system could completely eradicate tumor cells under certain conditions. The initial clinical success observed in some IL-2-treated patients encouraged further efforts focused on developing and improving the application of other IL-2 family cytokines (IL-4, IL-7, IL-9, IL-15, and IL-21) that have unique biological effects playing important roles in the development, proliferation, and function of specific subsets of lymphocytes at different stages of differentiation with some overlapping effects with IL-2. IL-7, IL-15, and IL-21, as well as mutant forms or variants of IL-2, are now also being actively pursued in the clinic with some measured early successes. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge on the biology of the IL-2 cytokine family focusing on IL-2, IL-15 and IL-21. We discuss the similarities and differences between the signaling pathways mediated by these cytokines and their immunomodulatory effects on different subsets of immune cells. Current clinical application of IL-2, IL-15 and IL-21 either as single agents or in combination with other biological agents and the limitation and potential drawbacks of these cytokines for cancer immunotherapy are also described. Lastly, we discuss the future direction of research on these cytokines, such as the development of new cytokine mutants and variants for improving cytokine-based immunotherapy through differential binding to specific receptor subunits.

  4. The Italian Way to Carsharing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Laurino

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Carsharing (CS is increasing its role worldwide as an alternative transport mode, often more sustainable than private transport with self-owned vehicles. We first focus on the main characteristics of those services and on the impacts they generated, starting from the analysis of  the literature on this topic. CS initiatives are growing everywhere, however numbers are still minor and impacts are still far from a level that can deliver significant aggregate benefits. This paper studies the existing Italian carsharing experiences, trying to understand its strengths, that have allowed its development, but also possible limits and weaknesses. The presence of a national coordination structure (Iniziativa Carsharing - ICS, unique in Europe and created to boost local initiatives providing standardisation and interoperability, surely helped the development of the system. Some initiatives have been successful in terms of membership (in particular Milan, Venice and Turin, but others have been discontinued. Italian users’ characteristics are similar to the ones of users abroad: the majority of users are well educated male, living in small households having one or no cars and using public transport every day. At present, Italian drivers generally still show a scarce propensity to share their cars, considered more as “goods” than as “services”. A case study in Milan, the first and most successful initiative in Italy, shows a significant increase in CS membership after the implementation of a city charging scheme (“Ecopass” at first, then “Area C”. Moving shared cars from garages to “on the street parking” has proved successful too. The usage of the service has changed in time: users have increased (+151% more than runs (+137% – 2006 to 2009, while average length and duration of each run have decreased (-30% and -43% respectively, 2006 to 2010. Milan’s initiative also put s into practice many incentives for users that likely

  5. Speech of italian ambassador

    CERN Multimedia

    Rubbia,C

    1990-01-01

    L'ambassadeur italien (nom?)fait un discours sur l'aspect de la recherche au Cern, une organisation internationale qui a comme but la connaissance dans sa forme la plus pure et libre d'un intérêt planétaire. Il remet un prix au DG C.Rubbia qui lui remercie en français

  6. Italian research on the Antarctic atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Rafanelli

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work after a short introduction on the structure of Programma Nazionale di Ricerche in Antartide, the different researches on atmospheric physics developed by Italian scientists are presented. The international activities are described, with particular attention both to APE experiment and the setting up of the new base in Dome-C. The results obtained are also discussed and the new projects proposed by SCAR or other international bodies are recalled. The reduction of funds and fall in young people interested in scientifi c studies represent the main problems for the future work.

  7. The Italian Optical Telecommunications Payload: Breadboard Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonino, L.; Caramia, M.; Catalano, V.; Ferrero, V.; Mata Calvo, R.

    2008-08-01

    The interest in satellite optical communication link has grown in the last years driven by the increasing demand in data downlink for scientific, planetary exploration and earth observation missions; in addition particular interest is also demonstrated by military market. In this context, the Italian Space Agency (ASI) is developing a program for feasibility demonstration of optical communication system with the goal of a prototype flight mission in the next future. The Paper intends to present the overall program plan and it is particularly focused on the activities performed during the Phase A2, relevant to stratospheric mission design and test campaign with an open field demonstrator of free space communications.

  8. Non-Standard Italian Dialect Heritage Speakers' Acquisition of Clitic Placement in Standard Italian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Lionel

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation examines the acquisition of object clitic placement in Standard Italian by heritage speakers (HSs) of non-standard Italian dialects. It compares two different groups of Standard Italian learners--Northern Italian dialect HSs and Southern Italian dialect HSs--whose heritage dialects contrast with each other in clitic word order.…

  9. Italian petroleum industry: Planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonaventura, R.

    1988-06-01

    The refining industry in Italy is at a turning point. AgipPetroli is on the stage of implementing a wide rationalization program of their industrial structures to reach the efficiency levels of their strongest competitors. This process is outlined within the framework of the evolution that the Italian and European industry is undergoing following the modifications which have occurred in the market starting from the first oil crisis. Furthermore, it is part of the AgipPetroli strategy to develop a plan aimed at adapting the structures to improve the quality of the products in accordance with the new environmental standards and to upgrade the value of the growing volumes of domestic crudes. This effort implies the adoption of advanced technologies which will also allow the Company to remain competitive in the long run.

  10. The Italian contribution to the CSES satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti, Livio

    2016-04-01

    We present the Italian contribution to the CSES (China Seismo-Electromagnetic Satellite) mission. The CSES satellite aims at investigating electromagnetic field, plasma and particles in the near-Earth environment in order to study in particular seismic precursors, particles fluxes (from Van Allen belts, cosmic rays, solar wind, etc.), anthropogenic electromagnetic pollution and more in general the atmosphere-ionosphere-magnetosphere coupling mechanisms that can affect the climate changes. The launch of CSES - the first of a series of several satellite missions - is scheduled by the end of 2016. The CSES satellite has been financed by the CNSA (China National Space Agency) and developed by CEA (China Earthquake Administration) together with several Chinese research institutes and private companies such as the DFH (that has developed the CAST2000 satellite platform). Italy participates to the CSES satellite mission with the LIMADOU project funded by ASI (Italian Space Agency) in collaboration with the Universities of Roma Tor Vergata, Uninettuno, Trento, Bologna and Perugia, as well as the INFN (Italian National Institute of Nuclear Physics), INGV (Italian National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology) and INAF-IAPS (Italian National Institute of Astrophysics and Planetology). Many analyses have shown that satellite observations of electromagnetic fields, plasma parameters and particle fluxes in low Earth orbit may be useful in order to study the existence of electromagnetic emissions associated with the occurrence of earthquakes of medium and high magnitude. Although the earthquakes forecasting is not possible today, it is certainly a major challenge - and perhaps even a duty - for science in the near future. The claims that the reported anomalies (of electromagnetic, plasma and particle parameters) are seismic precursors are still intensely debated and analyses for confirming claimed correlations are still lacking. In fact, ionospheric currents, plasma

  11. Italian Volcano Supersites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puglisi, G.

    2011-12-01

    Volcanic eruptions are among the geohazards that may have a substantial economic and social impact, even at worldwide scale. Large populated regions are prone to volcanic hazards worldwide. Even local phenomena may affect largely populated areas and in some cases even megacities, producing severe economic losses. On a regional or global perspective, large volcanic eruptions may affect the climate for years with potentially huge economic impacts, but even relatively small eruptions may inject large amounts of volcanic ash in the atmosphere and severely affect air traffic over entire continents. One of main challenges of the volcanological community is to continuously monitor and understand the internal processes leading to an eruption, in order to give substantial contributions to the risk reduction. Italian active volcanoes constitute natural laboratories and ideal sites where to apply the cutting-edge volcano observation systems, implement new monitoring systems and to test and improve the most advanced models and methods for investigate the volcanic processes. That's because of the long tradition of volcanological studies resulting into long-term data sets, both in-situ and from satellite systems, among the most complete and accurate worldwide, and the large spectrum of the threatening volcanic phenomena producing high local/regional/continental risks. This contribution aims at presenting the compound monitoring systems operating on the Italian active volcanoes, the main improvements achieved during the recent studies direct toward volcanic hazard forecast and risk reductions and the guidelines for a wide coordinated project aimed at applying the ideas of the GEO Supersites Initiative at Mt. Etna and Campi Flegrei / Vesuvius areas.

  12. Thirty years of pulsar studies at ESO. The Italian Contribution

    CERN Document Server

    Mignani, R P

    2012-01-01

    In May 1982, when Italy joined ESO, only two isolated neutron stars (INSs) had been identified in the optical: the Crab and Vela pulsars. Thanks to the ESO telescopes and the perseverance of a few Italian astronomers, now about 30 INSs have been identified in the optical/IR, and a new important channel in their multi-wavelength studies has been opened. In this contribution, I review the major steps in 30 years of INS studies at ESO, highlight the role of Italian astronomers, and introduce future perspectives with the E-ELT.

  13. Stroke: Diagnostic and Therapeutic Pathways 11th National Congress of the Italian Interdisciplinary Neurovascular Society (SINV), Florence, December 2002: Abstracts

    OpenAIRE

    Sergio Castellani; Gian Franco Gensini

    2002-01-01

    Il volume contiene gli abstracts dell'11° convegno SINV "Stroke: Diagnostic and Therapeutic Pathways 11th National Congress of the Italian Interdisciplinary Neurovascular Society (SINV), Florence, December 2002 - presidenti e "guest editors" Sergio Castellani e Gian Franco Gensini The volume contains the abstracts of 2002 SINV meeting: "Stroke: Diagnostic and Therapeutic Pathways 11th National Congress of the Italian Interdisciplinary Neurovascular Society (SINV), Florence, December ...

  14. IL-31 and IL-33 circulating levels in allergic contact dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarneri, F; Minciullo, P L; Mannucci, C; Calapai, F; Saitta, S; Cannavò, S P; Gangemi, S

    2015-09-01

    Enhanced IL-31 expression in skin biopsies is present in allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). IL-33 expression is induced in keratinocytes and in skin of ACD patients. This overexpression is present in both allergic and irritant conditions. The aim of this work was to test the systemic involvement of IL-31 and IL-33 in ACD. IL-31 levels were significantly higher in patients than in controls. IL-33 serum levels, on the contrary, were similar in patients and controls. This work shows a possible systemic involvement of IL-31 and the absence of a systemic involvement of IL-33 in ACD. IL-31 levels do not seem related to the allergen involved, and did not change on the strength of the allergen involved. More likely, IL-31 levels are related to the itch. IL-33, instead, is secreted from damaged or inflamed tissue and might function as an early warning system at the site of skin damage. In the future, IL-31 could be a possible therapeutic target of all pruritic skin diseases resistant to conventional therapies.

  15. Groundwater pollution with particular reference to the Italian situation; Inquinamento delle acque sotterranee con riferimento particolare alla situazione italiana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volterra, L. [Istituto Superiore di Sanita' , Rome (Italy)

    2000-01-01

    Italian groundwaters recharged under karstic soils, alluvional plains and volcanic areas are highly vulnerable. Microbial and biological contamination generally afflict mountain waters. Fertilisers and pesticides are typical pollutants of aquifers located under intensively cultivated soils. Hydrocarbons and solvent may pollute groundwaters situated under urban settlements, industrialised areas and highways. Many Italian groundwaters are naturally enriched with Radon. This will represent the emergent problem for Italian groundwaters destined to human consumption. [Italian] Le acque sotterranee italiane che si formano sotto suoli calcarei, pianure alluvionali e territori vulcanici fessurati sono assai vulnerabili. L'inquinamento microbiologico e biologico interessa per lo piu' le acque che scaturiscono in zone montane. L'inquinamento da fertilizzanti e pesticidi e' tipico degli acquiferi che si caricano sotto suoli intensivamente sfruttati sotto il profilo agricolo. Idrocarburi e solventi sono i contaminanti che si possono trovare in falde di aree densamente popolate e con alta intensita' di traffico. In futuro il problema emergente sara' il Radon di cui sono naturalmente arricchite molte delle acque sotterranee italiane.

  16. Advice of the Italian CCTN on the toxicity of Cannabis sativa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camoni, I. [ed.] [Istituto Superiore di Sanita`, Rome (Italy). Lab. di Tossicologia Applicata; Mucci, N. [ed.] [ISPESL, Monteporzio Catone, Roma (Italy). Dip. di Medicina del Lavoro; Paroli, E. [ed.] [Rome, Univ. `La Sapienza` (Italy). Fac. di Medicina, Ist. di Farmacologia

    1998-06-01

    This recommendation of the Italian National Toxicological Committee (CCTN) regards the possible toxic effects of some products derived from Cannabis sativa, indica variety. The CCTN has especially evaluated genotoxic, immunological and toxic to reproduction effects of these substances, on the basis of the results from both experimental studies and observations on humans. [Italiano] Il documento contiene il parere della CCTN sui potenziali effetti tossici di alcuni derivati della Cannabis sativa, varieta` indica. Il parere e` stato elaborato sulla base dei risultati sia di studi sperimentali sia dei limitati studi sull`uomo, prendendo in particolare considerazione gli effetti genotossici, tossico-riproduttivi ed immunologici.

  17. A Checklist of the Mammals of small Italian islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Angelici

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Present knowledge on mammals of small Italian islands consists mainly of episodic records. In this paper we collect all available information about the distribution of wild mammals on 47 small Italian islands. A total of 37-38 species was found, including: 1 Erinaceomorpha, 4 Soricomorpha, 16-17 Chiroptera, 3 Lagomorpha, 7 Rodentia, 2 Carnivora and 4 Artiodactyla. The subspecific level has been identified whenever possible. The mammal fauna of the Isle of Elba (Tuscan Archipelago is the richest, with 24 species, while the most common species are Rattus rattus present on 47 islands Oryctolagus cuniculus (34, and Mus musculus (33. With the exception of Crocidura sicula, the current mammal fauna on small Italian islands originated from introductions.
    Riassunto Checklist dei mammiferi delle piccole isole italiane Lo stato attuale delle conoscenze sui mammiferi delle piccole isole del territorio italiano è frutto, perlopiù, di segnalazioni episodiche. Abbiamo raccolto le informazioni disponibili riguardo i mammiferi selvatici. Sono state prese in esame 47 isole, sulle quali è stata segnalata la presenza di un totale di 37-38 specie così ripartite: 1 Erinaceomorpha, 4 Soricomorpha, 16-17 Chiroptera, 3 Lagomorpha, 7 Rodentia, 2 Carnivora e 4 Artiodactyla. Quando possibile è stato identificato anche il livello subspecifico. In base ai dati finora disponibili, la teriofauna dell’Isola d’Elba (Arcipelago Toscano risulta quella più diversificata (24 specie, mentre le specie più diffuse sono Rattus rattus, presente su 47 isole, Oryctolagus cuniculus (34 e Mus musculus (33. Con l’eccezione di Crocidura sicula, i popolamenti attuali di mammiferi selvatici nelle piccole isole italiane sono originati da introduzioni operate dall’uomo.

  18. Il secondo principio

    CERN Document Server

    Atkins, Peter W

    1988-01-01

    L'asimmetria della Natura ; l'indicatore di una trasformazione ; scivolando verso il caos ; la quantificazione del caos ; la potenzialità del caos ; le trasformazioni del caos ; il dominio della temperatura ; caos costtrutivo ; le strutture del caos.

  19. ALLA SCOPERTA DEL PACKAGING DESIGN CON IL WEBQUEST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonietta Gobbis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Il seguente saggio tratta le possibilità di presentazione in Università straniere, dove si insegna l’ItalianoL2, di un aspetto culturale italiano di forte impatto all’estero come il design, attraverso l’innovativa metodologia del webquest. L’iniziale parte teorica descrive il webquest come metodo didattico costruttivista, con particolare riferimento alle sue caratteristiche, parti costituenti e tipologie. Nella seconda parte vengono dati esempi concreti di webquest di breve e lunga durata su due prodotti italiani molto famosi di packaging design, che hanno festeggiato il loro anniversario nel 2012: il Bacio Perugina e il Campari Soda. I risultati positivi di entrambi i progetti intendono mostrare i vantaggi di una didattica centrata sull’alunno basata su attività di problem-solving e strategie di cooperative learning.  Discovering packaging design through webquest The following essay deals about the possibilities to introduce a very successful cultural topic like Italian Design in Universities abroad, where Italian is taught as second foreign language, through the innovative methodology of WebQuests. The theoretical part describes WebQuests as constructivist didactic method with reference to its characteristics, main constituent parts  and typologies. In the second part we give concrete examples of short and long term WebQuests about two very famous packaging design Italian products which celebrated in 2012 their anniversary: BacioPerugina and Campari Soda. The positive results of both projects aim to show the advantages of learner-centered teaching methods based on problem-solving activities and cooperative learning strategies.

  20. Goethe's Italian Journey and the geological landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coratza, Paola; Panizza, Mario

    2015-04-01

    Over 220 years ago Johann Wolfgang von Goethe undertook a nearly two-years long and fascinating journey to Italy, a destination dreamed for a long time by the great German writer. During his journey from Alps to Sicily Goethe reflects on landscape, geology, morphology of "Il Bel Paese", sometimes providing detailed descriptions and acute observations concerning the great and enduring laws by which the earth and all within it are governed. He was an observer, with the eye of the geologist and landscape painter, as he himself stated, and therefore he had a 360 degree focus on all parts of the territory. From the Brenner Pass to Sicily, Goethe reflects on landscape, contrasting morphologies, the genesis of territories, providing detailed descriptions useful for reconstructing the conditions of the territory and crops of the late 18th century. His diary is a description of the impressions he received from the country and its people, mingled with reflections upon art, science and literature. Goethe studied mineralogical and geological phenomena and drew up notes on the life of the people, the climate and the plants. On various scientific occasions and, in particular, within the framework of the Italian Association "Geologia & Turismo", of the Working Group "Geomorphosites" of the International Association of Geomorphologists and the International Year of Planet Earth, the opportunity to re-examine Goethe's travels in Italy from a geological viewpoint was recognised. In the present paper an attempt was made to reproduce the geotourism itinerary ante litteram of the writer to Italy, one of the most important tourist destination worldwide, thanks to its rich cultural and natural heritage and the outstanding aesthetic qualities of the complex natural landscape. This project was essentially conceived with a twofold purpose. First of all, an attempt was made to reproduce the journey of a great writer, as an example of description of landscape perceived and described as

  1. Il diritto ecclesiastico e le stagioni della giurisprudenza costituzionale

    OpenAIRE

    Silvio Ferrari

    2011-01-01

    Intervento alla Tavola rotonda sul tema “Il diritto ecclesiastico e la formazione del diritto vivente nella giurisprudenza costituzionale” tenutasi in occasione della presentazione del volume a cura di R. Botta, Diritto ecclesiastico e Corte costituzionale, Edizioni Scientifiche Italiane, Napoli, 2006, per la celebrazione dei cinquant’anni di attività della Corte.I contributi citati nelle note fanno tutti parte del volume.SOMMARIO: 1. Le stagioni del passato e del pre...

  2. Il diritto ecclesiastico e le stagioni della giurisprudenza costituzionale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio Ferrari

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Intervento alla Tavola rotonda sul tema “Il diritto ecclesiastico e la formazione del diritto vivente nella giurisprudenza costituzionale” tenutasi in occasione della presentazione del volume a cura di R. Botta, Diritto ecclesiastico e Corte costituzionale, Edizioni Scientifiche Italiane, Napoli, 2006, per la celebrazione dei cinquant’anni di attività della Corte.I contributi citati nelle note fanno tutti parte del volume.SOMMARIO: 1. Le stagioni del passato e del presente – 2. Quale stagione per il futuro? Le risposte nell’Unione europea - 3. La situazione italiana: l’inerzia legislativa e la funzione della Corte.

  3. TNFα/IL-17 synergy inhibits IL-13 bioactivity via IL-13Rα2 induction

    OpenAIRE

    Badalyan, Vahe; Addo, Kezia; Thompson, Robert W.; Borthwick, Lee A.; Fisher, Andrew J.; Ort, Tatiana; Myers, Timothy G.; Thomas A Wynn; Ramalingam, Thirumalai R.

    2014-01-01

    IL-17 and TNFα synergistically induce surface expression of IL-13Rα2 on primary lung fibroblasts, rendering them unresponsive to IL-13. Neutralizing antibodies to IL-13Rα2 restored IL-13-mediated signaling and transcriptome studies confirmed IL-13Rα2 is an IL-13 decoy receptor.

  4. Il codice Pontecorvo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Di Lino

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Gli ultimi lavori di Pontecorvo, dopo il congedo dal cinema pensato per il grande schermo avvenuto con Ogro. Una serie di documentari, perlopiù regie collettive dal taglio politico e militante, con l’eccezione del cortometraggio Nostalgia di protezione. Il successo di Un altro mondo è possibile, il film sul G8 di Genova del 2001. L’addio definitivo, e il simbolico passaggio del testimone con suo figlio Marco. Esiste un “lascito” cinematografico del regista? L’influenza sul cinema americano contemporaneo, dalla New Hollywood in poi, e qualche equivoco. Alcuni possibili “eredi”, in Italia e all’estero.

  5. A Handbook for Teachers of Italian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollica, Anthony, Ed.

    This handbook for teachers of Italian consists of a collection of 16 essays by noted professionals in the field of Italian instruction: (1) "Fundamentals of Language Learning and Language Instruction," by A. Papalia; (2) "Linguistic Methodology and the Teacher of Italian," by R.J. Di Pietro; (3) "Preparation for Language Teaching," by F.J. Bosco;…

  6. Italian/Italiano. Resource Guides for Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Jenny

    This resource guide, intended for current prospective teachers of Italian, is designed as a source of information and inspiration for Italian instructors at all educational levels. The first of the guide's 11 chapters provides a brief general introduction to this book. Chapter 2 looks at the status of and rationale for Italian language instruction…

  7. Italian/Italiano. Resource Guides for Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Jenny

    This resource guide, intended for current prospective teachers of Italian, is designed as a source of information and inspiration for Italian instructors at all educational levels. The first of the guide's 11 chapters provides a brief general introduction to this book. Chapter 2 looks at the status of and rationale for Italian language instruction…

  8. Cytokine vaccination: neutralising IL-1alpha autoantibodies induced by immunisation with homologous IL-1alpha

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svenson, M; Hansen, M B; Thomsen, A R;

    2000-01-01

    High-affinity IgG autoantibodies (aAb) to IL-1alpha are among the most frequently found aAb to cytokines in humans. To establish an animal model with aAb to IL-1alpha, we immunised mice with recombinant murine IL-1alpha. Unprimed and Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG)-primed BALB/cA mice were vaccinated...... in mice by vaccination with recombinant murine IL-1alpha conjugated to PPD. Studies of the effects of IL-1alpha aAb in such animals may help clarify the importance of naturally occurring IL-1alpha aAb in humans and permit the evaluation of future therapies with cytokine aAb in patients...... with immunoinflammatory diseases and cytokine-dependent tumours....

  9. Il lavoro e le forme del fare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Sini

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Lavoro e conoscenza. La sessualità umana e il resto come prodotto economico. L'economia della vita eterna e il destino futuro del capitalismo.

    The essence of work and the structures of doing

    Work and knowledge. The human sexuality and the rest as economic products. The economy of eternal life and the future destination of capitalism.

  10. Role of IL-2 in cancer immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Tao; Zhou, Caicun; Ren, Shengxiang

    2016-06-01

    Interleukin-2 (IL-2) is one of the key cytokines with pleiotropic effects on immune system. It has been approved for the treatment of metastatic renal cell carcinoma and metastatic melanoma. Recent progress has been made in our understanding of IL-2 in regulating lymphocytes that has led to exciting new directions for cancer immunotherapy. While improved IL-2 formulations might be used as monotherapies, their combination with other anticancer immunotherapies, such as adoptive cell transfer regimens, antigen-specific vaccination, and blockade of immune checkpoint inhibitory molecules, for example cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4) and programmed death 1 (PD-1) mono-antibodies, would held the promise of treating metastatic cancer. Despite the comprehensive studies of IL-2 on immune system have established the application of IL-2 for cancer immunotherapy, a number of poignant obstacles remain for future research. In the present review, we will focus on the key biological features of IL-2, current applications, limitations, and future directions of IL-2 in cancer immunotherapy.

  11. Cytokine vaccination: neutralising IL-1alpha autoantibodies induced by immunisation with homologous IL-1alpha

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svenson, M; Hansen, M B; Thomsen, Allan Randrup;

    2000-01-01

    High-affinity IgG autoantibodies (aAb) to IL-1alpha are among the most frequently found aAb to cytokines in humans. To establish an animal model with aAb to IL-1alpha, we immunised mice with recombinant murine IL-1alpha. Unprimed and Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG)-primed BALB/cA mice were vaccinated...... in mice by vaccination with recombinant murine IL-1alpha conjugated to PPD. Studies of the effects of IL-1alpha aAb in such animals may help clarify the importance of naturally occurring IL-1alpha aAb in humans and permit the evaluation of future therapies with cytokine aAb in patients...... with IL-1alpha coupled to purified protein derivative of tuberculin (PPD). Both unprimed and primed animals developed IgG aAb to IL-1alpha. These aAb persisted at high levels more than 100 days after vaccination and did not cross-react with murine IL-1beta. The induced anti-IL-1alpha aAb inhibited binding...

  12. Mediterranean Diet Effect: an Italian picture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azzini Elena

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to evaluate the overall diet quality effects, mainly on antioxidant nutritional status and some cytokines related to the cellular immune response as well as oxidative stress in a healthy Italian population group. Methods An observational study was conducted on 131 healthy free-living subjects. Dietary intake was assessed by dietary diary. Standardised procedures were used to make anthropometric measurements. On blood samples (serum, plasma and whole blood were evaluated: antioxidant status by vitamin A, vitamin E, carotenoids, vitamin C, uric acid, SH groups, SOD and GPx activities; lipid blood profile by total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, triglycerides; total antioxidant capacity by FRAP and TRAP; the immune status by TNF-α, and IL-10 cytokines; the levels of malondialdehyde in the erythrocytes as marker of lipid peroxidation. Results The daily macronutrients intake (g/day have shown a high lipids consumption and significant differences between the sexes with regard to daily micronutrients intake. On total sample mean Mediterranean Diet Score (MDS was 4.5 ± 1.6 and no significant differences between the sexes were present. A greater adherence to a Mediterranean dietary pattern increases the circulating plasma levels of carotenoids (lutein plus zeaxanthin, cryptoxanthin, α and β-carotene, vitamin A and vitamin E. The levels of endogenous antioxidants were also improved. We observed higher levels in anti-inflammatory effect cytokines (IL-10 in subjects with MDS ≥ 6, by contrast, subjects with MDS ≤ 3 show higher levels in sense of proinflammatory (TNF α P 4. Our data suggest a protective role of vitamin A against chronic inflammatory conditions especially in subjects with the highest adherence to the Mediterranean-type dietary pattern. Conclusions Mediterranean dietary pattern is associated with significant amelioration of multiple risk factors, including a better

  13. Is there a future for Krakovo gardens in Ljubljana? Y a-t-il un avenir pour les jardins de Krakovo à Ljubljana ? ¿Existe un Futuro para los Jardines de Krakovo en Liubliana?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Vadnal

    2010-11-01

    la situation : il est prévu de créer des jardins permanents et temporaires dans l’ensemble de la ville mais il n’y a pas de place pour ces jardins en centre ville, dans les lieux visuellement exposés, ou à proximité des sites faisant partie du patrimoine culturel. Pourtant, dans le centre de Ljubljana, 1,8 ha de jardins ouvriers sont protégés car considérés comme faisant partie du patrimoine culturel. Le cas de ces jardins, connus sous le nom de jardins de Krakovo, a servi de base à une discussion sur les perspectives de l’agriculture urbaine à Ljubljana. Les jardins sont actuellement mal entretenus et la situation ne fait qu’empirer. Pour qu’ils continuent à être cultivés et pour préserver ainsi les avantages de ces espaces verts historiques, un modèle d’agriculture urbaine fonctionnelle a été élaboré et étudié avec les parties prenantes concernées : les propriétaires des terrains, la municipalité de Ljubljana, les fournisseurs/utilisateurs des activités dans les jardins et les habitants. Une analyse SWOT a montré que la stratégie visant à faire revivre les jardins de Krakovo en se basant sur le modèle de l’agriculture urbaine multifonctionnelle représente un bon point de départ pour leur futur développement. Les tests d’acceptabilité du modèle ont révélé que les parties prenantes clés, la municipalité de Ljubljana et les propriétaires terriens, se montrent plutôt réservées vis-à-vis de ce projet. Cela implique que les conditions institutionnelles nécessaires à sa mise en œuvre soient créées selon deux scénarios possibles : 1 par le biais d’un partenariat public-privé ; 2 sur la base du modèle de location et achat par la municipalité, du terrain sur lequel se trouvent les jardins de Krakovo.La agricultura urbana está más o menos marginada en la teoría, así como en la conceptualización del desarrollo sostenible de los pueblos eslovenos. El plan de desarrollo espacial de Liubliana refleja la

  14. Nonverbal Communication among Italian Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferri-Bernardoni, Joseph M.

    Participant observation and author introspection were used to collect data in this study of nonverbal communication among Italian Americans in three large American cities. Discussion is given to kinesics (gestures and signs), haptics (touch), proxemics (interiors of homes, exteriors of homes, and spatial arrangements at a wedding dinner), and…

  15. Education and Italian Regional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Liberto, Adriana

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we study the connection between growth and human capital in a convergence regression for the panel of Italian regions. We include measures of average primary, secondary and tertiary education. We find that increased education seems to contribute to growth only in the South. Decomposing total schooling into its three constituent…

  16. Security Implications Of Italian Nationalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    227 Although Italians take pride in many of their traditions, longstanding political instability and inefficiency are not sources of satisfaction . A...it would move towards overcoming a division of labour among allies that is obsolete, thereby allowing for more effective management of current

  17. L’INTEGRAZIONE DELLE SECONDE GENERAZIONI E IL RUOLO DELL’ITALIANO PER LO STUDIO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Molina

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Come sta reagendo la scuola italiana di fronte alla presenza crescente dei figli dell’immigrazione? In assenza di direttive e di chiare indicazioni didattiche da parte delle autorità ministeriali, le scuole hanno risposto all’emergenza mettendo in campo l’unica risorsa abbondante di cui disponevano: la buona volontà dei docenti. Si è così assistito a un decennio di sperimentazioni e di proposte autonomamente gestite con un’infinità di iniziative di prima accoglienza e di educazione interculturale. Ma, se guardiamo al futuro, quali potrebbero essere le prospettive? Come si realizzerà l’integrazione delle seconde generazioni in Italia? Il contributo descrive le possibili traiettorie, partendo dal presupposto che l’integrazione non sarà l’esito di un percorso unico, uguale per tutti, ma discenderà da un vero e proprio mosaico di combinazioni originali tra diversi territori e comunità immigrate, ognuno con la propria identità e cultura. In tale direzione si muove il progetto sperimentale “Italiano per studiare”, promosso e sostenuto dalla Fondazione Giovanni Agnelli, in collaborazione con USR Piemonte e con l’ASAI di Torino che offre ai ragazzi di origine immigrata, con una buona conoscenza dell’italiano orale, un corso di rafforzamento della comprensione e dell’uso dell’italiano scritto, per migliorarne l’approccio ai testi disciplinari e dunque la capacità di studio.THE INTEGRATION OF SECOND GENERATION IMMIGRANTS AND THE ROLE OF ITALIAN AT SCHOOLHow are Italian schools reacting to the growing presence of the children of immigrants? In the absence of directives and clear didactic indications on the part of the Ministry, schools have addressed the emergency by making use of the only plentiful resource they have: the good will of the teachers. The past decade has been characterized by experimentation and autonomous proposals managed thanks to countless integration initiatives and intercultural education. But if

  18. Il toponimo friulano Nimis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Gusmani

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Il contributo si concentra sull'origine del toponimo Nimis, località a nord di Udine, il cui nome è attestato per la prima volta in Paolo Diacono. Per quanto riguarda l'etimo, l'unico in circolazione risulta esser quello proposto da F. Schürr (1930, secondo il quale il toponimo friulano risalirebbe ad una forma celtica affine alla denominazione in età classica della città di Nîmes (provenzale Nemse, cio è Nemausus. Contrariamente a tale interpretazione, l'autore raccoglie indizi a favore dell'eventualità che il toponimo sia di origine slava, riconducendolo ad un prototipo paleoslavo němici. La forma Nimis sarebbe il risultato della 'friulanizzazione' del lessema slavo presente nel dialetto sloveno della valle del Torre situata a poca distanza dalla località friulana in questione.

  19. Il problema del litio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Antona, F.

    1995-03-01

    Contents: 1. Introduzione. 2. La nucleosintesi del Big Bang. 3. Il litio nelle stelle di popolazione II. 4. I modelli stellari standard. 5. Il litio negli ammassi aperti. 6. Meccanismi di distruzione "non standard". 7. I modelli non-standard applicati alla popolazione II. 8. L'evoluzione Galattica del litio. 9. Quali stelle producono litio? 10. Il litio come elemento chiave per dare un nome agli oggetti stellari più minuscoli. 11. Conclusioni.

  20. Il muro come galleria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duccio Dogheria

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Il muro, nel suo grigio rigore formale, nella sua fredda geometria, nel suo intento divisorio, nasconde spesso il cielo. Sovente il linguaggio dell’arte, ma non di meno quello della comunicazione, hanno interferito con le sue algide barriere. In molti casi, beninteso, non è che il potere in altre forme, che interferisce con se stesso: pensiamo ai bandi affissi agli angoli delle città, o le lettere d’indulgenza papali -spesso impreziosite da miniature al punto da poterle considerare antenate dal manifesto- che nel corso del medioevo venivano affisse sulle porte delle chiese.

  1. Innovation and competitivity. The case of the districts of Faenza and Prato; Innovazione e competitivita'. Il caso dei distretti di Faenza e di Prato

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Traverso, A. [ENEA, Funzione Centrale Studi, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy)

    2001-07-01

    Market's globalization is quickly producing the review of the traditional and international competition orders. For this reason the industrial districts, which are the highest expression of an economic and productive tissue based on the small and medium enterprises, are forced to begin a new formulation of their own structural, organizational, technological and productive distinctive features. The object of this work is, at first, to explain the peculiarities of the distrectual events, and, consequently, to analyse the competitive situation and the future prospects of two italian highly specialized productive areas: the textile district of Prato and the ceramic territory of Faenza. A particular attention will be especially reserved on the role assumed by the innovative aspects (technological and organizational) which it can be noted in that transformation process of the main distrectual competitive paradigms. [Italian] La globalizzazione dei mercati sta velocemente imponendo una revisione delle tradizionali regole della competizione internazionale. Per questo motivo i distretti industriali, che sono la massima espressione di un tessuto economico e produttivo fondato sulla piccola e media impresa, sono stati costretti ad intraprendere un percorso di riformulazione delle proprie caratteristiche strutturali, organizzative, tecnologiche e produttive. Lo scopo di questo lavoro e' di illustrare, in un primo momento, i contorni del fenomeno distrettuale e, conseguentemente, di analizzare la situazione competitiva e le prospettive di sviluppo di due aree italiane fortemente specializzate dal punto di vista produttivo: il distretto tessile di Prato ed il comprensorio della ceramica di Faenza. Una particolare attenzione verra' riservata, nel corso dell'analisi, al ruolo assunto dagli aspetti innovativi (technologici ed innovativi) in questo processo di trasformazione dei principali paradigmi competitivi distrettuali.

  2. LIPSI. IL LESSICO DI FREQUENZA DELL’ITALIANO PARLATO IN SVIZZERA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Prada

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available L'articolo illustra le caratteristiche del LIPSI, il lessico di frequenza dell'italiano parlato in Svizzera.  Il LIPSI, elaborato con metodi di linguistica computazionale sulla base di  materiali linguistici raccolti sul campo, è il risultato di una ricerca durata quattro anni realizzata nell'ambito dei progetti dell' OLSI (Osservatorio linguistico della Svizzera italiana, istituito per la promozione della lingua e della cultura del Cantone Ticino.  Il LIPSI non solo fornisce la lista di frequenza di circa 13.000 parole dell'italiano parlato nel Cantone Ticino e nelle Valli Grigioni italiane, ma la confronta con quella del LIP e di altri strumenti di statistica linguistica  apparsi in Italia, e approfondisce alcuni aspetti che chiariscono meglio i contorni dell'italiano "statale" svizzero. Tale denominazione  si fonda su ragioni di natura sia geografica-politica-amministrativa sia interne alla varietà e propone una considerazione dell'italiano come una lingua pluricentrica, una lingua cioè che presenta accanto al tradizionale centro metropolitano italiano, imperniato sul modello fiorentino assorbito nella lingua letteraria con apporti di altre varietà, un altro centro almeno parzialmente autonomo di irradiazione e di sviluppo, quello della Svizzera italiana. Il LIPSI si configura inoltre come strumento metodologico importante per la ricerca e la didattica nell'ambito dell'italiano L1/L2.   This article illustrates the characteristics of LIPSI, the frequency lexicon of Italian spoken in Switzerland. LIPSI was compiled using computational linguistics methods based on materials collected in the field. It is the result of a four-year study carried out as part of OLSI (Osservatorio linguistico della Svizzera italiana, an institution which promotes the language and culture of Canton Ticino. LIPSI not only supplies a frequency list of about 13,000 Italian words spoken in Canton Ticino and the Italian Grigioni Valley, but it also compares this

  3. Two independently constructed Italian trait taxonomies : Comparisons among Italian and between Italian and Germanic languages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Raad, Boele; Di Blas, L; Perugini, M

    1998-01-01

    Two existing selection procedures are distinguished, exemplified in the Dutch and German trait taxonomies. The characteristic features of the two approaches are identified in two independently constructed Italian taxonomies. We test the two approaches for their effects on the resulting trait

  4. IL POETA E IL SUO TEMPO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheick Tidiane Gay

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available La letteratura ha una funzione etica cui non può rinunciare. Il letterato, la figura più importante su un territorio, ha il compito di leggere la realtà, di interpretarla, di comunicarla. È il faro che si deve accendere e guidare le azioni degli uomini: un popolo che rinuncia ai suoi letterati e all’etica della letteratura, è un popolo che si perde. Così egli canta la Negritudine, la storia e il dolore della sua gente; e la sua poesia, con un forte impegno civile, si propone di dar voce a chi non ce l’ha.  The poet and his times Literature has an undeniable ethical function. The writer, the most important figure in a place, has the task of reading, interpreting and communicating reality. Literature is the beacon that one turns to and that guides the actions of people. A country that renounces its writers and the ethics of literature is a lost nation. Thus the writer sings of Negritude, the history and the pain of his people. Her poetry, with strong social commitment, aims to give voice to those who do not have one.

  5. IL-32 promotes angiogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nold-Petry, C.A.; Rudloff, I.; Baumer, Y.; Ruvo, M.; Marasco, D.; Botti, P.; Farkas, L.; Cho, S.X.; Zepp, J.A.; Azam, T.; Dinkel, H.; Palmer, B.E.; Boisvert, W.A.; Cool, C.D.; Taraseviciene-Stewart, L.; Heinhuis, B.; Joosten, L.A.; Dinarello, C.A.; Voelkel, N.F.; Nold, M.F.

    2014-01-01

    IL-32 is a multifaceted cytokine with a role in infections, autoimmune diseases, and cancer, and it exerts diverse functions, including aggravation of inflammation and inhibition of virus propagation. We previously identified IL-32 as a critical regulator of endothelial cell (EC) functions, and we n

  6. Il cervello Qualitativo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Liccione

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Il cervello qualitativo: senso comune, cervello e fallacia mereologica. Capita frequentemente di leggere articoli neuroscientifici nei quali si trovano frasi del tipo: “il neurone vede”, “il cervello pensa”, “i lobi frontali decidono”. Ad esempio, secondo F. Crick (2005: “What you see is not what is really there; it is what your brain believes is there”, oppure, secondo B. Libet (1985 “the brain decides to initiate or, at least, to prepare to initiate the act before there is any reportable subjective awareness that such a decision has taken place” (cit. in Bennett et al, 2007. Quest’aspetto del linguaggio neuroscientifico è stato accusato di fallacia mereologica. La mereologia è la logica delle relazioni tra il tutto e le parti (mereos = “parte”. Secondo i fautori della fallacia mereologica, quando il neuroscienziato (o lo psicologo, il filosofo ecc. asserisono che il cervello pensa, stanno commettendo l’errore di riferire attributi psicologici che riguardano l’individuo (esemplare non ripetibile e non divisibile senza alterazione a una sua specifica parte (il cervello.

  7. IL-32 promotes angiogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nold-Petry, C.A.; Rudloff, I.; Baumer, Y.; Ruvo, M.; Marasco, D.; Botti, P.; Farkas, L.; Cho, S.X.; Zepp, J.A.; Azam, T.; Dinkel, H.; Palmer, B.E.; Boisvert, W.A.; Cool, C.D.; Taraseviciene-Stewart, L.; Heinhuis, B.; Joosten, L.A.; Dinarello, C.A.; Voelkel, N.F.; Nold, M.F.

    2014-01-01

    IL-32 is a multifaceted cytokine with a role in infections, autoimmune diseases, and cancer, and it exerts diverse functions, including aggravation of inflammation and inhibition of virus propagation. We previously identified IL-32 as a critical regulator of endothelial cell (EC) functions, and we

  8. Pensare con il cuore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Boella

    2008-07-01

    Si delinea così il rapporto fra l'io e il tu che, nella persona umana, costituisce l'essere come amore, in quanto la persona si viene costruendo a partire essenzialmente dall'incontro, secondo la logica della relazione che si rivela appunto come logica dell'amore.

  9. Novel biologic therapies in development targeting IL-12/IL-23

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerkhof, P.C.M. van de

    2010-01-01

    Recent research has identified the importance of interleukin 12 (IL)-12 and IL-23 in the immunopathogenesis of psoriasis. The p40 subunit common to IL-12 and IL-23 is an attractive target for selective therapy. Clinical study data are available for two anti-IL-12/23 therapies: ustekinumab (CNTO

  10. The Italian Dystonia Registry: rationale, design and preliminary findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defazio, Giovanni; Esposito, M; Abbruzzese, G; Scaglione, C L; Fabbrini, G; Ferrazzano, G; Peluso, S; Pellicciari, R; Gigante, A F; Cossu, G; Arca, R; Avanzino, L; Bono, F; Mazza, M R; Bertolasi, L; Bacchin, R; Eleopra, R; Lettieri, C; Morgante, F; Altavista, M C; Polidori, L; Liguori, R; Misceo, S; Squintani, G; Tinazzi, M; Ceravolo, R; Unti, E; Magistrelli, L; Coletti Moja, M; Modugno, N; Petracca, M; Tambasco, N; Cotelli, M S; Aguggia, M; Pisani, A; Romano, M; Zibetti, M; Bentivoglio, A R; Albanese, A; Girlanda, P; Berardelli, A

    2017-05-01

    The Italian Dystonia Registry is a multicenter data collection system that will prospectively assess the phenomenology and natural history of adult-onset dystonia and will serve as a basis for future etiological, pathophysiological and therapeutic studies. In the first 6 months of activity, 20 movement disorders Italian centres have adhered to the registry and 664 patients have been recruited. Baseline historical information from this cohort provides the first general overview of adult-onset dystonia in Italy. The cohort was characterized by a lower education level than the Italian population, and most patients were employed as artisans, builders, farmers, or unskilled workers. The clinical features of our sample confirmed the peculiar characteristics of adult-onset dystonia, i.e. gender preference, peak age at onset in the sixth decade, predominance of cervical dystonia and blepharospasm over the other focal dystonias, and a tendency to spread to adjacent body parts, The sample also confirmed the association between eye symptoms and blepharospasm, whereas no clear association emerged between extracranial injury and dystonia in a body site. Adult-onset dystonia patients and the Italian population shared similar burden of arterial hypertension, type 2 diabetes, coronary heart disease, dyslipidemia, and hypothyroidism, while hyperthyroidism was more frequent in the dystonia population. Geographic stratification of the study population yielded no major difference in the most clinical and phenomenological features of dystonia. Analysis of baseline information from recruited patients indicates that the Italian Dystonia Registry may be a useful tool to capture the real world clinical practice of physicians that visit dystonia patients.

  11. Neoliberty & co. The Architectural Review against 1950s Italian historicism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel López Segura

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available AbstractBuilding upon the Neoliberty polemics (second half of the 1950s, this article offers a revision of the debate on the historicity of architecture that opposed distinguished Italian and British intellectual circles. While the Italian contribution has been extensively analyzed, the existing literature has not dwelt on the reasons why the British refused any operative recovery of history; a gap this article intends to fi ll. From a methodological point of view, given the media nature of the debate, our analysis has been mainly textual, and has focused on the two journals that channelled the exchanges: the Milanese Casabella and the London based Architectural Review. The article is equally of interest as it explores an early episode which already announced two of the paths the architecture of the following decades would follow: postmodern historicism and high-tech.The reasons for the misunderstanding were of diverse nature. First, the different urban cultures present in one country and the other would explain the diverging esteem for the paradoxically Cosmopolitan provincialism of Milan and Turin, admirer of XIXth century bourgeois urbanity. Moreover, Reyner Banham from the English magazine was determined to promote contemporary architecture that would follow the postulates of his beloved Futurism: rejection of tradition and technological assimilation. However, a calm reading of his writings reveals that his antihistoricist stance was not as extreme as is usually believed.The role played by J. M. Richards, editor of Architectural Review, is more problematic. Though he shared many concerns with his Italian counterparts, he did not appease the virulence of the campaign his journal headed. Finally, Nikolaus Pevsner's historiographical project differed from the one the Italians fostered, regarding interpretative keys and methods. The Italian research followed the steps of Benedetto Croce, a position hardly attuned to the Anglo-German historian

  12. [MISSCARE Survey - Italian Version: findings from an Italian validation study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sist, Luisa; Contini, Carla; Bandini, Anna; Bandini, Stefania; Massa, Licia; Zanin, Roberta; Maricchio, Rita; Gianesini, Gloria; Bassi, Erika; Tartaglini, Daniela; Palese, Alvisa; Ferraresi, Annamaria

    2017-01-01

    The Missed Nursing Care (MNC) refers to nursing interventions that are not completed, partially completed, or postponed. Despite the relevance of MNC, no assessment tools are available in the Italian context, and no data regarding the occurrence of this phenomenon has been documented on a large scale to date. The study aims were: (1) to validate the Italian version of the MISSCARE Survey tool; (2) to measure the prevalence of missed interventions and reasons for missed care as perceived by clinical nurses working in Italian health care settings. After having conducted the forward and backward translation, pre-pilot and pilot phases were developed to ensure face and content validity as well as semantic and conceptual equivalence of the Italian version with the original version. The MISSCARE survey questionnaire was then distributed to 1,233 clinical nurses of whom 1,003 completed the questionnaire. Overall, 979 questionnaires were analysed. The questionnaires were completed from January to March 2012, by nurses working in medical and surgical hospital departments in the Emilia Romagna region of Italy. Construct validity and internal consistency of the instrument were assessed. The face and content validity were ascertained by a group of experts. The instrument acceptability was good given that 79.4% of respondents replied to all items. Construct validity was investigated by an Exploratory Factor Analysis. Four factors explaining 64.18% of variance emerged: communication, lack of facilities/supplies, lack of staff, and unexpected events. Internal consistency, evaluated with Cronbach a, was 0.94. The nursing interventions omitted with greater frequency were, in order: ambulation (74.8%), passive mobilization (69.6%) and oral care (51.3%). The three main reasons for missed interventions were: an unexpected increase in the number of patients (90.5%), increased instability of the clinical condition (86.1%) and insufficient human resources (85.5%). The Italian version of

  13. Language Policy and Planning: The Case of Italian Sign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geraci, Carlo

    2012-01-01

    Italian Sign Language (LIS) is the name of the language used by the Italian Deaf community. The acronym LIS derives from Lingua italiana dei segni ("Italian language of signs"), although nowadays Italians refers to LIS as Lingua dei segni italiana, reflecting the more appropriate phrasing "Italian sign language." Historically,…

  14. Language Policy and Planning: The Case of Italian Sign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geraci, Carlo

    2012-01-01

    Italian Sign Language (LIS) is the name of the language used by the Italian Deaf community. The acronym LIS derives from Lingua italiana dei segni ("Italian language of signs"), although nowadays Italians refers to LIS as Lingua dei segni italiana, reflecting the more appropriate phrasing "Italian sign language." Historically,…

  15. Il volto cosmopolita dell’Europa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Taglioli

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Il saggio intende leggere l’Europa attraverso il concetto di cosmopolitismo che ne riflette la natura, la storia e le possibilità future. Idea e ideale etico-normativo di comunanza e di apertura alla differenza la nozione si trasforma in modalità ibride nel corso della storia europea e permette di visualizzare le dinamiche di resistenza e di mutamento che vanno componendo il percorso di unificazione. Da imperativo e progetto razionale il cosmopolitismo va riconfigurandosi come nuova modalità percettiva, acquista un valore empirico-analitico in una realtà che sembra farsi strutturalmente cosmopolita e apre la riflessione sulle trasformazioni democratiche dell’Unione e sul ruolo che è chiamata ad assolvere per rispondere alla sfide della contemporaneità.

  16. Effect of TGF-β1 on the Expression of IL-12, IL-15, IL-18, IL-4 and IL-10 in Heart Transplantation Rejection in Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Jinping; LI Ping; GAO Sihai; WANG Xianguo; GAO Xiaojian

    2007-01-01

    To investigate the effect of TGF-β1 on the expressions of IL-12, IL-15, IL-18, IL-4 and IL-10 in heart transplantation rejection in rats, a model of rat cervical heterotopic heart transplanta-tion was set up and the model rats were randomly divided into three groups: control group, transplant group and TGF-β1 group. The mRNA expression levels of IL-12, IL-15, IL-18, IL-4 and IL-10 were determined by RT-PCR at the 5th day after the transplantation. The mRNA expression levels of IL-12,IL-15, IL-18 were increased obviously and those of IL-4, IL-10 were significantly decreased in the transplant group as compared with the control group (P<0.01). In the TGF-β1 group, the mRNA ex-pression levels of IL-12, IL-15, IL-18 were significantly decreased and those of IL-4, IL-10 were sig-nificantly increased as compared with the transplant group (P<0.01). The immunosuppressive effect of TGF-β1 on heart transplantation rejection was related to its inhibition of the expressions of Th1-type cytokines (IL-12, IL-15, IL-18 etc) and its promotion of the expressions of Th2-tpye cyto-kines (IL-4, IL-10).

  17. Somatotype of elite Italian gymnasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massidda, Myosotis; Toselli, Stefania; Brasili, Patricia; Calò, Carla M

    2013-09-01

    The somatotyping method is especially helpful in sports in which the body could directly influence the biomechanics of movements and the performance's results. The purpose of this study was to determine the somatotype of elite Italian gymnasts and to compare it in terms of competition levels. The sample comprised 64 elite gymnasts (42 females (F), somatotype 1.4-4.4-3.2; and 22 males (M), somatotype 1.6-6.3-2.1) belonging to the Italian National Artistic Gymnastic Team (2007) at different competition levels: Allieve, Junior, and Senior. Mean whole somatotypes, by competition levels, were not significantly different in both sexes (Female gymnasts: Allieve, 1.3-4.6-3.3; Junior, 1.3-4.2-3.6; Senior, 1.7-4.2-2.7; Male gymnasts: Junior, 1.5-6.3-2.5; Senior, 1.7-6.3-1.6). Male Junior gymnasts exhibited greater ectomorphy than Senior athletes (F1,20 = 7.75, p < 0.01). Compared to other elite athletes male and female gymnasts tend to be less endomorphic and more mesomorphic. This study highlighted the peculiarities of the somatotype of Italian elite gymnasts and their strong homogeneity, evident also from the low values of somatotype attitudinal mean (SAM). The results emphasize the need for a specific somatotype to reach an elite level in sport and the need to integrate the somatotype analysis between the scientific instruments for selecting talent also in artistic gymnastics.

  18. The Caspian Sea question. Perspectives for the new millennium; Il gioco del Mar Caspio: prospettive per il nuovo millennio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahgat, G. [Indiana Univ., Pennsylvania (United States). Dept. of Political Science

    1999-12-01

    The break-up of the Soviet Union in the early 1990s opened the door for the international oil companies to explore and develop the Caspian Sea's hydrocarbons resources. The full utilisation of this wealth, however, has been hindered by disagreement over the ownership of the basin and the choice of export routes. Another important obstacle is the troubled relationship between the United States and Iran. [Italian] Il crollo dell'Unione Sovietica nei primi anni '90 ha consentito alle compagnie petrolifere internazionali di esplorare e sviluppare le risorse di idrocarburi del Mar Caspio. Il disaccordo sulla proprieta del bacino e sulla scelta delle rotte di esportazione ha tuttavia impedito il pieno sfruttamento di questa ricchezza. Un altro importante ostacolo e dato dalle difficili relazioni tra Stati Uniti e Iran.

  19. Interleukins (ILs), a fascinating family of cytokines. Part II: ILs from IL-20 to IL-38.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fietta, Pieranna; Costa, Elvira; Delsante, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    Every nucleated cell can produce and respond to cytokines, extracellular proteic/glycoproteic mediators that constitute a complex, interconnected, and flexible signaling network, addressed to modulate cell behavior and homeostasis through the interaction with high-affinity surface receptors. These messenger molecules, whose main characteristics are potency, pleiotropism, and redundancy, primarily act in autocrine, paracrine, and juxtacrine way, but can also display systemic activity in endocrine-like modality. They are generally classified according to their cellular sources, three-dimensional structure, or biological functions. Among cytokines, interleukins (ILs) represent a fascinating and multifunctional group of immunomodulators that primarily mediate the leukocyte cross-talk (hence the name), and mainly regulate the immune cell proliferation, differentiation, growth, survival, activation, and functions. Up to 38 ILs have been so far identified, numbered according to the order of discovery, and grouped in different subsets, based on distinguishing structural/functional features. Due to their crucial role in regulating inflammation and immune response, ILs are known to be involved in the pathogenesis of human inflammatory/autoimmune diseases. Therefore, they have increasingly attracted great interest as effective or promising therapeutic targets. The biology and functions of the hitherto identified human ILs are reviewed and discussed: herein, ILs from IL-20 to IL-38 are presented.

  20. Interleukins (ILs), a fascinating family of cytokines. Part I: ILs from IL-1 to IL-19.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fietta, Pieranna; Costa, Elvira; Delsante, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    Every nucleated cell can produce and respond to cytokines, extracellular proteic/glycoproteic mediators that constitute a complex, interconnected, and flexible signaling network, addressed to modulate cell behavior and homeostasis through the interaction with high-affinity surface receptors. These messenger molecules, whose main characteristics are potency, pleiotropism, and redundancy, primarily act in autocrine, paracrine, and juxtacrine way, but can also display systemic activity in endocrine-like modality. They are generally classified according to their cellular sources, three-dimensional structure, or biological functions. Among cytokines, interleukins (ILs) represent a fascinating and multifunctional group of immunomodulators that primarily mediate the leukocyte cross-talk (hence the name), and mainly regulate the immune cell proliferation, differentiation, growth, survival, activation, and functions. Up to 38 ILs have been so far identified, numbered according to the order of discovery, and grouped in different subsets, based on distinguishing structural/functional features. Due to their crucial role in regulating inflammation and immune response, ILs are known to be involved in the pathogenesis of human inflammatory/autoimmune diseases. Therefore, they have increasingly attracted great interest as effective or promising therapeutic targets. The biology and functions of the hitherto identified human ILs are reviewed and discussed: in this first section of the article, ILs from IL-1 to IL-19 are presented.

  1. Italian Journal of Animal Science - Presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Russo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The publication of the first issue of the Italian Journal of Animal Science marks two important events for the Associazione Scientifica di Produzione Animale -ASPA- (Italian Scientific Association of Animal Production: the birth of a new scientific journal in English and the end of the publication in Italian of the remarkable journal Zootecnica e Nutrizione Animale, which was started in 1975, as the official organ of the Association.

  2. Italian Journal of Animal Science - Presentation

    OpenAIRE

    Vincenzo Russo

    2010-01-01

    The publication of the first issue of the Italian Journal of Animal Science marks two important events for the Associazione Scientifica di Produzione Animale -ASPA- (Italian Scientific Association of Animal Production): the birth of a new scientific journal in English and the end of the publication in Italian of the remarkable journal Zootecnica e Nutrizione Animale, which was started in 1975, as the official organ of the Association.

  3. Strategies targeting the IL-4/IL-13 axes in disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Richard D; Fung, Michael

    2015-09-01

    IL-4 and IL-13 are pleiotropic Th2 cytokines produced by a wide variety of different cell types and responsible for a broad range of biology and functions. Physiologically, Th2 cytokines are known to mediate host defense against parasites but they can also trigger disease if their activities are dysregulated. In this review we discuss the rationale for targeting the IL-4/IL-13 axes in asthma, atopic dermatitis, allergic rhinitis, COPD, cancer, inflammatory bowel disease, autoimmune disease and fibrotic disease as well as evaluating the associated clinical data derived from blocking IL-4, IL-13 or IL-4 and IL-13 together.

  4. Accumulation chamber as monitoring system for biogas emission from solid waste land filling: preliminary experimental results and elaborations on italian provincial scale; Camera di accumulo portatile per il monitoraggio di emissioni di biogas da discarica: risultati sperimentali ed elaborazioni preliminari a scala provinciale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capaccioni, B.; Pirillo, L. [Urbino Univ. Carlo Bo, Urbino (Italy). Istituto di Vulcanologia e Geochimica; Didero, M. [Urbino Univ. Carlo Bo, Urbino (Italy). Istituto di Geologia Applicata; Lucci, P.; Scartoni, P. [Area Territorio e Ambiente Provincia di Arezzo, Arezzo (Italy). Servizio Ecologia; Tatano, F. [Urbino Univ. Carlo Bo, Urbino (Italy). Facolta' di Scienze Ambientali

    2005-04-01

    On site CO{sub 2} flux measurements with the static, not stationary accumulation chamber system were experimentally carried out in no. 5 MSW (active and closed) landfills located in the territory of the Province of Arezzo (Tuscany Region). Corresponding CO{sub 2} emission flux maps were contoured and analysed, revealing a possible, preliminary geometrical classification of biogas dispersion: diffuse dispersion (internal), lateral/angular dispersion (internal), and external dispersion. Also specific (volume and surface) biogas emission parameters were calculated and graphically compared for the monitored inactive facilities. [Italian] La metodologia strumentale portatile della camera di accumulo, statica non stazionaria, e' stata adoperata sperimentalmente per la misura on site di flussi puntuali di emissione di CO{sub 2} in cinque discariche (attive e non) per RSU ed assimilabili localizzate nel territorio della Provincia di Arezzo. Si sono elaborate, ed analizzate criticamente, le corrispondenti mappe areali di flusso, che hanno consentito di delineare una possibile classificazione geometrica - ancorche' preliminare - di dispersioni di biogas generabili da discarica: diffuse interne, laterali/angolari interne, esterne. Con riferimento alle discariche inattive d'indagine, si sono altresi' determinati, e rappresentati graficamente, i valori di possibili parametri specifici (volumetrico, superficiale) di dispersione di biogas.

  5. Opera in the Italian Language Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, Salvatore

    1989-01-01

    Describes class activities for incorporating and teaching about opera into the Italian language instruction classroom, focusing on the enhancement of cultural knowledge and understanding that opera offers. (CB)

  6. Nutritional habits in Italian university students

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Teleman, Adele Anna; de Waure, Chiara; Soffiani, Valentina; Poscia, Andrea; Di Pietro, Maria Luisa

    2015-01-01

    .... We analyzed data collected from Italian university students regarding consumption of fruits, vegetables, fast-foods, sweets, energizing drinks, and coffee, average number of eating episodes per day...

  7. Opera in the Italian Language Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, Salvatore

    1989-01-01

    Describes class activities for incorporating and teaching about opera into the Italian language instruction classroom, focusing on the enhancement of cultural knowledge and understanding that opera offers. (CB)

  8. Interleukins IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12 and periimplant disease. An update

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Candel-Martí, Maria-Eugenia; Flichy-Fernández, Antonio-Juan; Alegre-Domingo, Teresa; Ata-Ali, Javier; Peñarrocha-Diago, Maria A

    2011-01-01

    ... (IL-12)) as markers of periimplant disease (mucositis and periimplantitis). An increase in the levels of these cytokines in dental implant crevicular fluid may give rise to a lack of osteointegration, bone loss or implant failure...

  9. Contribution of the IL-17/IL-23 axis to the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cătană, Cristina-Sorina; Berindan Neagoe, Ioana; Cozma, Vasile; Magdaş, Cristian; Tăbăran, Flaviu; Dumitraşcu, Dan Lucian

    2015-05-21

    Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) are chronic disorders of modern society, requiring management strategies aimed at prolonging an active life and establishing the exact etiology and pathogenesis. These idiopathic diseases have environmental, genetic, immunologic, inflammatory, and oxidative stress components. On the one hand, recent advances have shown that abnormal immune reactions against the microorganisms of the intestinal flora are responsible for the inflammation in genetically susceptible individuals. On the other hand, in addition to T helper cell-type (Th) 1 and Th2 immune responses, other subsets of T cells, namely regulatory T cells and Th17 maintained by IL-23 are likely to develop IBD. IL-23 acts on innate immune system members and also facilitates the expansion and maintenance of Th17 cells. The IL-17/IL-23 axis is relevant in IBD pathogenesis both in human and experimental studies. Novel biomarkers of IBD could be calprotectin, microRNAs, and serum proinflammatory cytokines. An efficient strategy for IBD therapy is represented by the combination of IL-17A and IL-17F in acute IL-17A knockout TNBS-induced colitis, and also definite decrease of the inflammatory process in IL-17F knockout, DSS-induced colitis have been observed. Studying the correlation between innate and adaptive immune systems, we hope to obtain a focused review in order to facilitate future approaches aimed at elucidating the immunological mechanisms that control gut inflammation.

  10. Il teatro degli spiriti.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Pussetti

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Questo saggio è dedicato a un culto di possessione, in cui tutte ledonne, investite dagli spiriti degli uomini morti prima dell’iniziazione, compiono un percorso iniziatico parallelo a quello maschile, consentendo a queste anime, potenzialmente pericolose, di completare il cammino che non hanno potuto percorrere da vivi e quindi di raggiungere serenamente il mondo dei morti, come antenati protettori del villaggio

  11. Cytokines (interleukin-9, IL-17, IL-22, IL-25 and IL-33 and asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahim Farahani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Asthma is a reversible airway obstruction that is characterized by constriction of airway smooth muscle, hyper secretion of mucus, edema and airway hyper responsiveness (AHR, mucus secretion and thickening of the basement membrane underlying the airway epithelium. During the process of airway inflammation, complex interactions of innate and adaptive immune cells as well as structural cells and their cytokines have many important roles. It was believed that airway inflammation is orchestrated by allergen specific T helper (Th 2 cells, which recruit and accumulate in the lungs and produce a range of different effector cytokines. However, more recent studies have revealed the potential collaboration of other helper T cells and their cytokines in this process. Th17 cell may have a role in severe asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Interleukin (IL-9-producing subset called Th9 cell, Th22 cells which primarily secrete IL-22, IL-13 and tumor necrosis factor-α and Th25 cells via producing IL-25 are believed to be important for initiating allergic reactions and developing airway inflammation. Cytokines are important in asthma and play a critical role in orchestrating the allergic inflammatory response, although the precise role of each cytokine remains to be determined. The aim of this review is to summarize the current knowledge about the possible roles of newly identified helper T cells derived cytokines (IL-9, 17, 22, 25 and IL-33 in asthma. The potential therapeutic applications emerging from the roles of these cytokines will be discussed as well.

  12. Abitare il transito. Il pensiero delle pratiche di Carlo Sini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Berretta

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the original Italian philosophical adventure of the last fifty years, the figure of Carlo Sini is certainly one of the most profound and fascinating. His education, begun following the Milanese teaching of Giovanni Emanuele Barié and then of Enzo Paci, therefore between Kant, Hegel and Husserl, opens furthermore to various influences, from American Pragmatism to Nietzsche’s Genealogy, up to contemporary Hermeneutics. Starting from that, Sini has developed the perspective of the thought of the practices that, in the light of the difference between event and meaning, contemplated in an ethical sense, leads to a result that doesn’t exclude the truth, in a relativistic direction. This instead opens up to difference and to the relationship of the future of the «errant planet» (the earth, accepting its Copernican fate. This perspective, provided by great theoretical sharpness, identifies Sini as one of the most interesting contemporary philosophers, and not only at a national level.

  13. Marseille et L'Invasion italienne vue par Louis Bertrand. « Ribattiamo il chiodo » Marseilles and the Italian Invasion as seen by Louis Bertrand Marsella y la Invasión italiana, vista por Louis Bertrand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Felici

    1996-05-01

    Full Text Available Cet article traite du roman L'invasion publié en 1907, dont l'auteur Louis Bertrand accumule les clichés xénophobes et racistes sur les immigrés italiens à Marseille, qui constituaient alors un cinquième de la population de la ville. Le roman exprime non seulement la peur de l'"invasion" du territoire français par des étrangers, mais reflète aussi la progression d'idées que Bertrand – ultranationaliste et antidémocrate, considérait comme dangereuses pour le bon peuple travailleur et respectueux.This article is about a novel which was published in 1907, L’Invasion. Louis Bertrand, the author, presented the reader with a collection of xenophobic and racist clichés about Italian immigrants in Marseilles, who accounted for one fifth of the town’s population at the time. But the novel expresses the fear not only of the « invasion » of French territory by strangers, but also of the spread of ideas which Bertrand, as a nationalist extremist and an anti-democrat, deemed dangerous for the good, respectful and hard-working people.En este artículo se considera una novela publicada en 1907, L’Invasion. El autor, Louis Bertrand, va acumulando los clichés xenófobos y racistas sobre los inmigrados italianos de Marsella, quienes representan entonces más o menos una quinta parte de la población de Marsella. Pero esa novela no sólo expresa el miedo de la "invasión" del territorio francés por unos extranjeros, sino que refleja sobre todo el miedo a que se propaguen las ideas que Bertrand, ultranacionalista y antidemócrata, considera peligrosas para la gente buena del pueblo, trabajadora y respetuosa.

  14. Veterinarians in environmental protection; Il veterinario nella protezione ambientale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ioppolo, A.; Achene, L.; Cappella, M.G. [eds.] [Istituto Superiore di Sanita' , Rome (Italy). Lab. di Medicina Veterinaria

    1999-07-01

    The main contributions of the Fifth and Sixth Courses: Veterinary medicine and environmental contamination, held at the Italian National Institute of Health on October 27-31 1997, and September 28-October 2 1998, are presented. The volume is divided into three sections: general concepts (evolution of environmental protection in the European community, veterinary drugs in Europe, drugs and environmental contamination, aquaculture and environmental contamination); problematic aspects and methodologies applied to the environmental pollution (animal pathologies and environmental quality, toxic algae and aquaculture, aquatic organisms as indicators of environmental contamination, use of arthropods to assess environmental quality); field experiences (monitoring of chemical contaminants by an experimental institute of veterinary services, quality of compost in the light of aspects of management and market). [Italian] Sono riportati alcuni interventi presentati al quinto e al sesto corso di medicina veterinaria ed inquinamento ambientale che si sono svolti rispettivamente il 27-31 ottobre 1997 e il 28 settembre-2 ottobre 1998 presso l'Istituto Superiore di Sanita'. Il volume e' diviso in tre sezioni: contributi generali (evoluzione della tutela ambientale nella Comunita' Europea, i farmaci veterinari in Europa), utilizzo di farmaci e inquinamento (patologie degli animali e inquinamento, alghe tossiche e acquacultura, metodi per la valutazione della qualita' ambientale con organismi acquatici, artropodi terrestri come bioindicatori); esperienze sul campo (compostaggio di qualita'); problematiche gestionali e di mercato, esperienze di un monitoraggio di contaminanti chimici in un istituto zooprofilattico sperimentale.

  15. The Italian National Seismic Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelini, Alberto

    2016-04-01

    The Italian National Seismic Network is composed by about 400 stations, mainly broadband, installed in the Country and in the surrounding regions. About 110 stations feature also collocated strong motion instruments. The Centro Nazionale Terremoti, (National Earthquake Center), CNT, has installed and operates most of these stations, although a considerable number of stations contributing to the INGV surveillance has been installed and is maintained by other INGV sections (Napoli, Catania, Bologna, Milano) or even other Italian or European Institutions. The important technological upgrades carried out in the last years has allowed for significant improvements of the seismic monitoring of Italy and of the Euro-Mediterranean Countries. The adopted data transmission systems include satellite, wireless connections and wired lines. The Seedlink protocol has been adopted for data transmission. INGV is a primary node of EIDA (European Integrated Data Archive) for archiving and distributing, continuous, quality checked data. The data acquisition system was designed to accomplish, in near-real-time, automatic earthquake detection and hypocenter and magnitude determination (moment tensors, shake maps, etc.). Database archiving of all parametric results are closely linked to the existing procedures of the INGV seismic monitoring environment. Overall, the Italian earthquake surveillance service provides, in quasi real-time, hypocenter parameters which are then revised routinely by the analysts of the Bollettino Sismico Nazionale. The results are published on the web page http://cnt.rm.ingv.it/ and are publicly available to both the scientific community and the the general public. This presentation will describe the various activities and resulting products of the Centro Nazionale Terremoti. spanning from data acquisition to archiving, distribution and specialised products.

  16. IL-10 and its related cytokines for treatment of inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming-Cai; He, Shao-Heng

    2004-03-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs), including Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis are chronic inflammatory disorders of gastrointestinal tract. Although the etiology is incompletely understood, initiation and aggravation of the inflammatory process seem to be due to a massive local mucosal immune response. Interleukin-10 (IL-10) is a regulatory cytokine which inhibits both antigen presentation and subsequent pro-inflammatory cytokine release, and it is proposed as a potent anti-inflammatory biological therapy in chronic IBD. Many methods of IL-10 as a treatment for IBD have been published. The new strategies of IL-10 treatment, including recombinant IL-10, the use of genetically modified bacteria, gelatine microsphere containing IL-10, adenoviral vectors encoding IL-10 and combining regulatory T cells are discussed in this review. The advantages and disadvantages of these IL-10 therapies are summarized. Although most results of recombinant IL-10 therapies are disappointing in clinical testing because of lacking efficacy or side effects, therapeutic strategies utilizing gene therapy may enhance mucosal delivery and increase therapeutic response. Novel IL-10-related cytokines, including IL-19, IL-20, IL-22, IL-24, IL-26, IL-28 and IL-29, are involved in regulation of inflammatory and immune responses. The use of IL-10 and IL-10-related cytokines will provide new insights into cell-based and gene-based treatment against IBD in near future.

  17. IL-10 and its related cytokines for treatment of inflammatory bowel disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming-Cai Li; Shao-Heng He

    2004-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs), including Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis are chronic inflammatory disorders of gastrointestinal tract. Although the etiology is incompletely understood, initiation and aggravation of the inflammatory process seem to be due to a massive local mucosal immune response. Interleukin-10 (IL-10) is a regulatory cytokine which inhibits both antigen presentation and subsequent pro-inflammatory cytokine release, and it is proposed as a potent anti-inflammatory biological therapy in chronic IBD. Many methods of IL-10 as a treatment for IBD have been published. The new strategies of IL-10 treatment, including recombinant IL-10, the use of genetically modified bacteria, gelatine microsphere containing IL-10,adenoviral vectors encoding IL-10 and combining regulatory T cells are discussed in this review. The advantages and disadvantages of these IL-10 therapies are summarized.Although most results of recombinant IL-10 therapies are disappointing in clinical testing because of lacking efficacy or side effects, therapeutic strategies utilizing gene therapy may enhance mucosal delivery and increase therapeutic response. Novel IL-10-related cytokines, including IL-t9, IL-20, IL-22, IL-24, IL-26, IL-28 and IL-29, are involved in regulation of inflammatory and immune responses. The use of IL-10 and IL-10-related cytokines will provide new insights into cell-based and gene-based treatment against IBD in near future.

  18. Competition Advocacy: the Italian Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Rebecchini

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Competition advocacy is considered, together with enforcement, the core business of an antitrust authority. Broadly speaking there are at least three main tasks regularly performed by most, if not all, antitrust agencies that are amenable to the advocacy function: addressing laws and regulations in order to remove unnecessary impediments to competition; engaging in sector enquiries to understand markets behavior and identify critical issues; explaining the benefits of open competitive markets to the public opinion. This article examines these three main tasks and outlines the challenges for competition agencies, with references to the experience of the Italian Competition Authority (ICA and the initiatives undertaken at international level.

  19. Commentary: IL-4 and IL-13 receptors and signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Sarah M; Heller, Nicola M

    2015-09-01

    Interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-13 were discovered approximately 30years ago and were immediately linked to allergy and atopic diseases. Since then, new roles for IL-4 and IL-13 and their receptors in normal gestation, fetal development and neurological function and in the pathogenesis of cancer and fibrosis have been appreciated. Studying IL-4/-13 and their receptors has revealed important clues about cytokine biology and led to the development of numerous experimental therapeutics. Here we aim to highlight new discoveries and consolidate concepts in the field of IL-4 and IL-13 structure, receptor regulation, signaling and experimental therapeutics.

  20. Secondary Predicates in Italian and English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlo, Paola

    An analysis of the nature of secondary predicates takes a comparative approach, using Italian and English. Distributional properties and extraction facts are accounted for, and an explanation for the fact that resultatives are not allowed in Romance languages is sought on the basis of Italian evidence. It is argued that the semantic distinction…

  1. Counseling the Nontraditional Italian-American Student.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGregoria, Barbara

    1987-01-01

    Draws from interviews with five female Italian-American community college students who were over 30 when they began or resumed their education to assess the special educational and counseling needs of these non-traditional students. Cites lack of family support, restrictive sex-role stereotyping, and negative images of Italian-Americans as…

  2. Italian Textile Machinery Industry Focuses on Sustainability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    As for fashion industry,Italian brands always play as one of the leaders influencing the global trends.This time,in Shanghai,the Italian textile machinery manufacturers highlight the latest proposals on sustainability and eco-friendly technology.

  3. Assessing the Cost Efficiency of Italian Universities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agasisti, Tommaso; Salerno, Carlo

    2007-01-01

    This study uses Data Envelopment Analysis to evaluate the cost efficiency of 52 Italian public universities. In addition to being one of the first such cost studies of the Italian system, it explicitly takes into account the internal cost structure of institutions’ education programs; a task not pre

  4. A nice book on Italian rodents

    OpenAIRE

    Bellavere C

    2008-01-01

    A recent book on the Italian rodents is presented. The book treats the ecology of rodents as well as more applied topics like the impact of rodents on human activities and the management and control of rodents populations. Written in Italian.

  5. Il corpo della strega

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georges Bertin

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Come già evidenziato a proposito di altre pratiche, il sabba, attività ludica profana, religiosa, conferiva a ciascuno la possibilità di giocare efficacemente con la dinamica di un mondo da cui emergeva una figura archetipica, la strega, principale attore di questa danza in tondo. Il sabba era, dunque, uno dei luoghi ove si cristallizzavano le figure del proibito, questo per il suo carattere sacro, per la violenza istituzionale che presiedeva alla formazione dei rapporti sociali, e conferiva anche, per le caratteristiche di protesta che rivela, un'immagine sempre esaltante della capacità delle società a resistere. Il problema della nostra epoca ove rifioriscono le streghe nelle più svariate forme è, forse, quello di riallacciarsi con la dimensione gruppale dei nostri svaghi, nelle loro differenti forme e, contemporaneamente, con perdita di energia, a quanto presiedeva ai sabba e alla loro risoluzione sacrificale. In contro-corrente ai modelli meccanici che assegnano dei limiti precisi e funzionali ai corpi asserviti ad un ideale di controllo, il corpo sabbatico con la sua enfasi sulle posizioni limite (ciò che si rimproverava d'altronde alle streghe, era veramente corpo mistico.

  6. Bologna Process within the Italian University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Binanti

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper exposes the Italian reform of higher education beginning from the ministerial law of 1999 and put really in practice in the Italian university since 2001. The structure of the university, the different types from courses, doctorate and agencies of established evaluation and advising are explained, as well others decrees concerning documents, specially the supplement to diploma.Later the article analyzes the reality of the change in the higher Italian education and presents the difficulties due on the one hand to the increase of the demand of higher education in the country and by another one to the economic difficulties motivated by the budgetary limitations and the little tradition of the Italian university with respect to the diversification of the financing sources.The author comments next the change about the methodology and the difficulties and contradictions between the model proposed by the process of Bologna and the reality of the university students in whom the profile has changed and in its majority not rather deals with students oftwenty years dedicating full time to yours studies but the students that at the sametime works and adult people who have arrived after the university.Referring to structure of degrees, he comments the difficulty that has had to happen of the traditional Italian structure of «laurea quatriennale» tofirst cycles of three years in which in many occasions the studies have been compacted that previously lasted four years. Next to this, the diversity ofthe academic offerin the Masters with a great freedom on the part of the universities make something difficult to future financing of these studies and their viability in the different universities.Finally it refers how the implantation of system ECTS has benefited mobility in the Italian university when facilitating specially equivalences between the European universities and consequently to assure to the student the taking in consideration from the

  7. Curcumin inhibits imiquimod-induced psoriasis-like inflammation by inhibiting IL-1beta and IL-6 production in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Sun

    Full Text Available Curcumin, a selective phosphorylase kinase inhibitor, is a naturally occurring phytochemical present in turmeric. Curcumin has been confirmed to have anti-inflammatory properties in addition to the ability to decrease the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in keratinocytes. The interleukin-23 (IL-23/IL-17A cytokine axis plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of psoriasis. Here, we report that topical use of a curcumin gel formulation strongly inhibited imiquimod (IMQ-induced psoriasis-like inflammation, the development of which was based on the IL-23/IL-17A axis. IMQ-induced epidermal hyperplasia and inflammation in BALB/c mouse ear was significantly inhibited following curcumin treatment. Real-time PCR showed that mRNA levels of IL-17A, IL-17F, IL-22, IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α cytokines were decreased significantly by curcumin in ear skin, an effect similar to that of clobetasol. In addition, we found that curcumin may enhance the proliferation of epidermis γδ T cells but inhibit dermal γδ T cell proliferation. We inferred that curcumin was capable of impacting the IL-23/IL-17A axis by inhibiting IL-1β/IL-6 and then indirectly down-regulating IL-17A/IL-22 production. In conclusion, curcumin can relieve the IMQ-induced psoriasis-like inflammation in a mouse model, similar to the effects of clobetasol. Therefore, we have every reason to expect that curcumin will be used in the treatment of psoriasis in the future.

  8. Epilepsy and vaccinations: Italian guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruna, Dario; Balestri, Paolo; Zamponi, Nelia; Grosso, Salvatore; Gobbi, Giuseppe; Romeo, Antonino; Franzoni, Emilio; Osti, Maria; Capovilla, Giuseppe; Longhi, Riccardo; Verrotti, Alberto

    2013-10-01

    Reports of childhood epilepsies in temporal association with vaccination have had a great impact on the acceptance of vaccination programs by health care providers, but little is known about this possible temporal association and about the types of seizures following vaccinations. For these reasons the Italian League Against Epilepsy (LICE), in collaboration with other Italian scientific societies, has decided to generate Guidelines on Vaccinations and Epilepsy. The aim of Guidelines on Vaccinations and Epilepsy is to present recent unequivocal evidence from published reports on the possible relationship between vaccines and epilepsy in order to provide information about contraindications and risks of vaccinations in patients with epilepsy. The following main issues have been addressed: (1) whether contraindications to vaccinations exist in patients with febrile convulsions, epilepsy, and/or epileptic encephalopathies; and (2) whether any vaccinations can cause febrile seizures, epilepsy, and/or epileptic encephalopathies. Diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) vaccination and measles, mumps, and rubella vaccination (MMR) increase significantly the risk of febrile seizures. Recent observations and data about the relationships between vaccination and epileptic encephalopathy show that some cases of apparent vaccine-induced encephalopathy could in fact be caused by an inherent genetic defect with no causal relationship with vaccination.

  9. Italian Rett database and biobank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampieri, Katia; Meloni, Ilaria; Scala, Elisa; Ariani, Francesca; Caselli, Rossella; Pescucci, Chiara; Longo, Ilaria; Artuso, Rosangela; Bruttini, Mirella; Mencarelli, Maria Antonietta; Speciale, Caterina; Causarano, Vincenza; Hayek, Giuseppe; Zappella, Michele; Renieri, Alessandra; Mari, Francesca

    2007-04-01

    Rett syndrome is the second most common cause of severe mental retardation in females, with an incidence of approximately 1 out of 10,000 live female births. In addition to the classic form, a number of Rett variants have been described. MECP2 gene mutations are responsible for about 90% of classic cases and for a lower percentage of variant cases. Recently, CDKL5 mutations have been identified in the early onset seizures variant and other atypical Rett patients. While the high percentage of MECP2 mutations in classic patients supports the hypothesis of a single disease gene, the low frequency of mutated variant cases suggests genetic heterogeneity. Since 1998, we have performed clinical evaluation and molecular analysis of a large number of Italian Rett patients. The Italian Rett Syndrome (RTT) database has been developed to share data and samples of our RTT collection with the scientific community (http://www.biobank.unisi.it). This is the first RTT database that has been connected with a biobank. It allows the user to immediately visualize the list of available RTT samples and, using the "Search by" tool, to rapidly select those with specific clinical and molecular features. By contacting bank curators, users can request the samples of interest for their studies. This database encourages collaboration projects with clinicians and researchers from around the world and provides important resources that will help to better define the pathogenic mechanisms underlying Rett syndrome. Copyright 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  10. The role of natural gas in assessing environmental cost of fossil fuels; Il valore del gas naturale nella valutazione dei costi ambientali dei combustibili fossili

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riva, A.; Trebeschi, C. [SNAM SpA (Italy)

    1999-08-01

    The actual price of a resource is the results of its internal and external costs. Internal costs means the price paid by the users in order to utilise the resource. On the other hand, externals costs, which are associated with the resource, are not paid directly by the users, but they shall be paid for by the society of the future generations. The article presents methodologies and issues relevant to energy policy decisions, when it comes to evaluating and using environmental external costs of fossil fuel life, with particular consideration to the end-use phase. The results of published studies on environmental costs of energy sources and an analysis applied to the Italia case show that natural gas as a significantly higher environmental value than other fossil fuels. The range of values depends upon the technologies considered and on the assumptions adopted when assessment environmental damages. [Italian] Il costo reale di una risorsa e' dato dalla somma del suo costo interno e del suo costo esterno. Il costo interno e' il costo che l'utente paga per poter utilizzare la risorsa. I costi esterni sono invece i costi associati alla risorsa per i quali l'utilizzatore non paga in prima persona un prezzo. Questi costi sono quindi trasferiti in blocco alla societa' o alle future generazioni. Sono presentate le metodologie e le problematiche per la valutazione e l'utilizzo nelle decisioni di politica energetica dei costi esterni ambientali del ciclo di vita dei combustibili fossili, con particolare attenzione per la fase degli usi finali. I dati di letteratura riguardanti i costi ambientali delle fonti energetiche ed un'analisi applicata al caso dell'Italia, dimostrano che il gas naturale ha un valore ambientale ben maggiore di altri combustibili fossili. Tale valore dipende dalla tecnologia considerata e dalle ipotesi adottate per la valutazione dei danni ambientali.

  11. IL web tutorials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldegård, Jette; Lund, Haakon

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents the results from a study on information literacy in a higher education (HE) context based on a larger research project evaluating 3 Norwegian IL web tutorials at 6 universities and colleges in Norway. The aim was to evaluate how the 3 web tutorials served students’ information...... seeking and writing process in an study context and to identify barriers to the employment and use of the IL web tutorials, hence to the underlying information literacy intentions by the developer. Both qualitative and quantitative methods were employed. A clear mismatch was found between intention...... and use of the web tutorials. In addition, usability only played a minor role compared to relevance. It is concluded that the positive expectations of the IL web tutorials tend to be overrated by the developers. Suggestions for further research are presented....

  12. Il cervello Empatico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Baffigi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Empatia (gr. En –dentro- Pathos – emozione è un termine che rispecchia una facoltà che nasce, probabilmente, con la nascita stessa dell’uomo. La derivazione del termine empatia è fatta risalire a “empatheia” (passione, la possibilità dell’ “ingresso nella sofferenza” dell’altro fino all’immedesimazione. Originariamente, il termine empatia definisce il rapporto dell’Aedo con il suo pubblico, nei termini del coinvolgimento che porta ad una consonanza emotiva dei vissuti. Sta scritto nell’Odissea, mentre Ulisse racconta le sue disavventure: “Così narrava e tutti rimasero muti, in silenzio / vinti dal fascino nella sala ombrosa”(Od. XI, 333-4.

  13. Type I IL-1 Receptor (IL-1RI as Potential New Therapeutic Target for Bronchial Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyh-Hong Lee

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The IL-1R/TLR family has been receiving considerable attention as potential regulators of inflammation through their ability to act as either activators or suppressors of inflammation. Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by airway hyperresponsiveness, allergic inflammation, elevated serum total, allergen-specific IgE levels, and increased Th2 cytokine production. The discovery that the IL-1RI–IL-1 and ST2–IL-33 pathways are crucial for allergic inflammation has raised interest in these receptors as potential targets for developing new therapeutic strategies for bronchial asthma. This paper discusses the current use of neutralizing mAb or soluble receptor constructs to deplete cytokines, the use of neutralizing mAb or recombinant receptor antagonists to block cytokine receptors, and gene therapy from experimental studies in asthma. Targeting IL-1RI–IL-1 as well as ST2–IL-33 pathways may promise a disease-modifying approach in the future.

  14. Italian Moles: a Morphometric approach to their systematic relationships / Le talpe italiane: un approccio morfometrico alle relazioni sistematiche

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Loy

    1986-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract It has been performed a multivariate analysis on skeletal components (mandible of Italian moles (T. europaea, T. romana, T. caeca. The results indicate that the three taxa are highly discriminated. The Wagner network produced shows a greater distance between T. romana and T. europaea than between the latter and T. caeca. The three taxa are considered phenetically as different species. Riassunto Per chiarire le relazioni sistematiche tra le talpe italiane (T. europaea, T. romana, T. caeca è stata condotta un'analisi multivariata su componenti scheletrici (mandibola. I risultati indicano che i tre taxa sono altamente discriminati. Il Wagner network mostra una maggiore distanza tra T. romana e T. europaea rispetto a T. caeca. Su base fenetica i tre taxa sono quindi considerati specie separate.

  15. Dostoevskij e il sillogismo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Peace

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Si presenta di seguito la prima traduzione italiana del saggio di Richard Peace Dostoevsky and the Syllogism, pubblicato in lingua originale nel volume IX (2005 della collana Dostoevsky Studies, New Series. Il saggio è dedicato alla rielaborazione del sillogismo aristotelico da parte dei personaggi dostoevskiani nell’ambito del dibattito fra le due principali correnti filosofiche della Russia ottocentesca: l’ «occidentalismo» e lo «slavofilismo». Peace evidenzia come Dostoevskij miri a dimostrare che il ragionamento sillogistico sia estraneo alla forma mentis russa attraverso i fallimenti argomentativi dei suoi «ideofori»

  16. IL web tutorials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldegård, Jette; Lund, Haakon

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents the results from a study on information literacy in a higher education (HE) context based on a larger research project evaluating 3 Norwegian IL web tutorials at 6 universities and colleges in Norway. The aim was to evaluate how the 3 web tutorials served students’ information...... seeking and writing process in an study context and to identify barriers to the employment and use of the IL web tutorials, hence to the underlying information literacy intentions by the developer. Both qualitative and quantitative methods were employed. A clear mismatch was found between intention...

  17. Role of the Inflammasome, IL-1β, and IL-18 in Bacterial Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoranjan Sahoo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The inflammasome is an important innate immune pathway that regulates at least two host responses protective against infections: (1 secretion of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL-18 and (2 induction of pyroptosis, a form of cell death. Inflammasomes, of which different types have been identified, are multiprotein complexes containing pattern recognition receptors belonging to the Nod-like receptor family or the PYHIN family and the protease caspase-1. The molecular aspects involved in the activation of different inflammasomes by various pathogens are being rapidly elucidated, and their role during infections is being characterized. Production of IL-1β and IL-18 and induction of pyroptosis of the infected cell have been shown to be protective against many infectious agents. Here, we review the recent literature concerning inflammasome activation in the context of bacterial infections and identify important questions to be answered in the future.

  18. Donne e antifascismo in Tunisia tra il primo e il secondo dopoguerra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Caruso

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available L’articolo intende ricostruire i principali momenti della militanza antifascista femminile in Tunisia. Il lavoro inizia ripercorrendo brevemente la storia della comunità italiana in Tunisia e la nascita del movimento antifascista, ma pone l’accento sulla militanza femminile nel movimento. Delle militanti conoscevamo solo alcune donne borghesi che hanno lasciato traccia del loro operato attraverso la pubblicazione di biografie. Grazie alla consultazione del fondo del Casellario Politico presso l’Archivio Centrale di Stato, sono emersi i fascicoli di diciassette donne italiane impegnate nella lotta al fascismo in Tunisia, donne delle quali non avevamo alcuna notizia. Integrando le informazioni tratte dalle biografie con quelle ricavate dai fascicoli dell’Archivio di Stato, è stato possibile ricostruire a tutto campo l’attività antifascista femminile.

  19. Il bianco e il nero nella fraseologia italiana e spagnola:

    OpenAIRE

    Stanič, Daša

    2012-01-01

    This article considers the semantic values of "white" and "black" in Italian and Spanish phraseology. These two colors are among all those that form the greatest number of phraseological units. Consulting Italian and Spanish dictionaries, bilingual dictionaries, phraseological dictionaries and chosen corpora of the two languages, 232 phraseological units with "white" and "black" were found. The most common type are collocations of the type adjective plus noun. In this paper, the phraseologica...

  20. Birth of a science centre. Italian phenomenology (Italian original version

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Rodari

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available In May 2004 the Balì Museum, Planetarium and interactive science museum, was opened to the public in Italy: 35 hands-on exhibits designed according to the interactive tradition of the Exploratorium in San Francisco, an astronomic observatory for educational activities, a Planetarium with 70 places. With a total investment of about three million euros, about two thirds of which were spent on restructuring the splendid eighteenth-century villa in which it is housed, the undertaking may be considered a small one in comparison with other European science centres. Three million euros: perhaps enough to cover the cost of only the splendid circular access ramp to the brand-new Cosmocaixa in Barcelona, an investment of one hundred million euros. But the interesting aspect of the story of the Balì Museum (but also of other Italian stories, as we shall see lies in the fact that this lively and advanced science centre stands in the bucolic region of the Marches, next to a small town of only 800 inhabitants (Saltara, in the Province of Pesaro and Urbino, in a municipal territory that has a total of 5000. Whereas in Italy the projects for science centres comparable with the Catalan one, for example projects for Rome and Turin, never get off the ground, smaller ones are opening in small and medium-sized towns: why is this? And what does the unusual location of the centres entail for science communication in Italy? This Focus does not claim to tell the whole truth about Italian interactive museums, but it does offer some phenomenological cues to open a debate on the cultural, economic and political premises that favour their lives.

  1. Markers of Deception in Italian Speech

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katelyn eSpence

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Lying is a universal activity and the detection of lying a universal concern. Presently, there is great interest in determining objective measures of deception. The examination of speech, in particular, holds promise in this regard; yet, most of what we know about the relationship between speech and lying is based on the assessment of English-speaking participants. Few studies have examined indicators of deception in languages other than English. The world’s languages differ in significant ways, and cross-linguistic studies of deceptive communications are a research imperative. Here we review some of these differences amongst the world’s languages, and provide an overview of a number of recent studies demonstrating that cross-linguistic research is a worthwhile endeavour. In addition, we report the results of an empirical investigation of pitch, response latency, and speech rate as cues to deception in Italian speech. True and false opinions were elicited in an audio-taped interview. A within subjects analysis revealed no significant difference between the average pitch of the two conditions; however, speech rate was significantly slower, while response latency was longer, during deception compared with truth-telling. We explore the implications of these findings and propose directions for future research, with the aim of expanding the cross-linguistic branch of research on markers of deception.

  2. Features of the Italian National Inventory of Chemical Substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binetti, R; Marcello, I

    1994-01-01

    The Italian National Inventory of Chemical Substances (Inventario nazionale delle sostanze chimiche, INSC), a factual data bank on chemical toxicology produced by the Istituto Superiore di Sanità (ISS), consists of a computerized system on existing chemicals developed for routinary and emergency needs. Historical background, current status and future direction of INSC are discussed. The structure and the feature of INSC are briefly examined. Aspects of retrieval of information and the criteria for the inclusion of data and priority selection are also considered.

  3. Where the Italian Journal of Public Health is going? A tale of the last two years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe La Torre

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Extract:

    Two years ago, speaking about the future of the Italian Journal of Public Health, we told that the reason why the journal is also an international journal (almost 40% of published papers come from outside Italy is “mainly due to our membership to EUPHA and to several scientific network”.

  4. MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF PORTUGUESE ITALIAN RYEGRASS LANDRACES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V LOPES

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam. is one of the most important forage grass species in Europe. In Portugal 34% of the cultivated area is dedicated to animal fodder. Italian ryegrass area in Entre Douro e Minho (EDM region was mainly with landraces. Changes in traditional agricultural systems are contributing to a major loss of genetic diversity mainly to landraces. Portuguese Italian ryegrass landraces are threatened since nineteen years and collecting missions took place in EDM to ex situ conservation. The main Italian ryegrass landraces from EDM are “castelhano’s” and “verdeal’s” agro type. The aim of this study was to evaluate the existence of morphological variability between EDM Italian ryegrass landraces, to analyse the existence of duplicates in the germplasm collection and to evaluate the farmer’ classification. The landraces were characterised based on morphological traits of International Plant Genetic Resources Institute and International Union for the Protection of New Varieties of Plants descriptors list and the most discriminated traits were utilised in the multivariate analysis, using NTSYS v.2.0. Italian ryegrass accessions belong to two different agro types based on morphological characteristics and farmers identified. Each landrace showed inter-population variability mainly on “verdeal” landrace. It was possible to differentiate the most of ryegrass accessions using the morphological traits used were initial stage of plant maturity. The EDM germplasm preserves the Italian ryegrass genetic diversity, which is conserved in ex situ and is a good basis for research programs.

  5. The European arrest warrant in the Italian republic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marin, Luisa

    2008-01-01

    Italian veto in the EU Council reversed by Berlusconi – Italian Parliament: lack of trust in other European Union member states – Italian implementing Act: in between the Framework Decision and the Italian legal order – Case-law of the Corte Cassazione: interpretations in conformity with the

  6. 9 CFR 319.145 - Italian sausage products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Italian sausage products. 319.145... Sausage § 319.145 Italian sausage products. (a) Italian sausage products are cured or uncured sausages... optional ingredients listed in paragraph (b) of this section. (1) “Italian Sausage” shall be prepared with...

  7. Authentic Italian food as Mamma used to make it!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jan Halberg; d'Ambrosio, Luigi

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation is to explore how Italian restaurants define authentic Italian culinary experiences and how these experiences are designed and rendered to the restaurants’ guests.......The purpose of this investigation is to explore how Italian restaurants define authentic Italian culinary experiences and how these experiences are designed and rendered to the restaurants’ guests....

  8. The European Arrest Warrant in the Italian Republic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marin, Luisa

    2008-01-01

    Italian veto in the EU Council reversed by Berlusconi – Italian Parliament: lack of trust in other European Union member states – Italian implementing Act: in between the Framework Decision and the Italian legal order – Case-law of the Corte Cassazione: interpretations in conformity with the Framewo

  9. Il pericolo degli ebook

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Chiara Pievatolo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available I libri stampati: si possono acquistare anonimamente in contanti; quindi se ne è proprietari: non dobbiamo firmare una licenza che ne restringe l’uso: il loro formato è noto e per leggerli non occorrono tecnologie proprietarie; si possono dare, prestare o...

  10. Il Carmide di Platone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Chiara Pievatolo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available L’ipertesto dedicata al Carmide di Platone, composto per l’uso degli studenti dell’ateneo pisano, è a disposizione di tutti qui. Il Carmide è – canonicamente – un dialogo aporetico. Ma almeno dei suoi paradossi – quello di una superscienza che pretende...

  11. Il dono del racconto

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Polito, Paola

    1998-01-01

    'importanza assunta nel romanzo dal piano dell'enunciazione come luogo privilegiato di manifestazione del soggetto quale esperiente una vicenda di maturazione. Il protagonista, qui, non solo si rappresenta in ciò che enuncia e riferisce, ma anche e soprattutto si svela nelle modalità specifiche del proprio discorso...

  12. Helping You Buy ILS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibbarelli, Pamela R.

    2010-01-01

    This article is the fourth in a series of articles published annually by "Computers in Libraries" surveying integrated library systems and services (ILSs). The purpose of the annual survey is to enable comparison of the ILSs that are available. ILS vendors are in constant pursuit of an ever-changing, consistently vague definition of what the…

  13. Oltre il postmoderno?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cecchini, Leonardo

    2014-01-01

    literature ’do’ today to call itself engaged? In the first part of this paper, I try to give a short description of the way in which the radical mutations in the field of culture at the end of the last century were discussed in Italy, outlining in particular Oltre il postmoderno? the debate between...

  14. Il Simposio di Platone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Chiara Pievatolo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pensate che i testi antichi siano semplicemente vecchi? Che l’amore platonico non vada mai  al sodo? Leggere il Simposio di Platone confrontandosi direttamente col testo, com’è possibile fare grazie al Perseus Project, vi farà cambiare idea.

  15. Il diabete che migra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Infante

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Nel gennaio 2007 ha avuto inizio il “Corso di Counseling e Terapie Interculturali”; nello stesso gennaio il Servizio di Diabetologia Pediatrica dell’Azienda Universitaria Ospedaliera Policlinico Tor Vergata di Roma ha richiesto la mia collaborazione per un progetto relativo all’alleanza e all’aderenza terapeutica del minore straniero affetto da diabete mellito. Ho avuto l’opportunità di partecipare a questo progetto, poiché avevo avuto precedenti esperienze nel Servizio di Medicina Solidale e delle Migrazioni, progetto del medesimo Policlinico. Questo progetto riguarda tutti i minori autoctoni e migranti affetti dalla suddetta patologia, in cura presso l’Unità Operativa di Diabetologia Pediatrica. Il mio ruolo principale all’interno del progetto è quello di apportare un doppio ascolto medico-counselor durante le visite di controllo, che possono variare a seconda dell’andamento della patologia, da una cadenza mensile ad una quindicinale. Durante questi colloqui il mio primo intento è quello di approcciarmi alla famiglia in un’ottica sistemica, in seguito di affrontare una ricostruzione autobiografica della storia familiare e del processo migratorio.

  16. Il Raffrescamento per Ventilazione

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perino, Marco; Heiselberg, Per Kvols

    2016-01-01

    termicamente e sempre più a tenuta d'aria. Tali misure hanno consentito indubbiamente di ridurre la domanda energetica per il riscaldamento invernale, ma hanno determinato delle crescenti problematiche di surriscaldamento dell'ambiente interno. Molti degli edifici ad alta efficienza energeti-ca di nuova...

  17. Il Fedone di Platone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Chiara Pievatolo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nei colloqui precedenti si erano toccate molte opinioni filosofiche sbagliate, e allora Socrate dice: “Sarebbe ben comprensibile se uno, a motivo dell’irritazione per tante cose sbagliate, per il resto della sua vita prendesse in odio ogni discorso sull’essere e lo...

  18. Mac-1 Regulates IL-13 Activity in Macrophages by Directly Interacting with IL-13Rα1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Chunzhang; Zhao, Juanjuan; Doughty, Emily K; Migliorini, Mary; Strickland, Dudley K; Kann, Maricel G; Zhang, Li

    2015-08-28

    Mac-1 exhibits a unique inhibitory activity toward IL-13-induced JAK/STAT activation and thereby regulates macrophage to foam cell transformation. However, the underlying molecular mechanism is unknown. In this study, we report the identification of IL-13Rα1, a component of the IL-13 receptor (IL-13R), as a novel ligand of integrin Mac-1, using a co-evolution-based algorithm. Biochemical analyses demonstrated that recombinant IL-13Rα1 binds Mac-1 in a purified system and supports Mac-1-mediated cell adhesion. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments revealed that endogenous Mac-1 forms a complex with IL-13Rα1 in solution, and confocal fluorescence microscopy demonstrated that these two receptors co-localize with each other on the surface of macrophages. Moreover, we found that genetic inactivation of Mac-1 promotes IL-13-induced JAK/STAT activation in macrophages, resulting in enhanced polarization along the alternative activation pathway. Importantly, we observed that Mac-1(-/-) macrophages exhibit increased expression of foam cell differentiation markers including 15-lipoxygenase and lectin-type oxidized LDL receptor-1 both in vitro and in vivo. Indeed, we found that Mac-1(-/-)LDLR(-/-) mice develop significantly more foam cells than control LDLR(-/-) mice, using an in vivo model of foam cell formation. Together, our data establish for the first time a molecular mechanism by which Mac-1 regulates the signaling activity of IL-13 in macrophages. This newly identified IL-13Rα1/Mac-1-dependent pathway may offer novel targets for therapeutic intervention in the future.

  19. Mac-1 Regulates IL-13 Activity in Macrophages by Directly Interacting with IL-13Rα1*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Chunzhang; Zhao, Juanjuan; Doughty, Emily K.; Migliorini, Mary; Strickland, Dudley K.; Kann, Maricel G.; Zhang, Li

    2015-01-01

    Mac-1 exhibits a unique inhibitory activity toward IL-13-induced JAK/STAT activation and thereby regulates macrophage to foam cell transformation. However, the underlying molecular mechanism is unknown. In this study, we report the identification of IL-13Rα1, a component of the IL-13 receptor (IL-13R), as a novel ligand of integrin Mac-1, using a co-evolution-based algorithm. Biochemical analyses demonstrated that recombinant IL-13Rα1 binds Mac-1 in a purified system and supports Mac-1-mediated cell adhesion. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments revealed that endogenous Mac-1 forms a complex with IL-13Rα1 in solution, and confocal fluorescence microscopy demonstrated that these two receptors co-localize with each other on the surface of macrophages. Moreover, we found that genetic inactivation of Mac-1 promotes IL-13-induced JAK/STAT activation in macrophages, resulting in enhanced polarization along the alternative activation pathway. Importantly, we observed that Mac-1−/− macrophages exhibit increased expression of foam cell differentiation markers including 15-lipoxygenase and lectin-type oxidized LDL receptor-1 both in vitro and in vivo. Indeed, we found that Mac-1−/−LDLR−/− mice develop significantly more foam cells than control LDLR−/− mice, using an in vivo model of foam cell formation. Together, our data establish for the first time a molecular mechanism by which Mac-1 regulates the signaling activity of IL-13 in macrophages. This newly identified IL-13Rα1/Mac-1-dependent pathway may offer novel targets for therapeutic intervention in the future. PMID:26160172

  20. ALICE honours two Italian suppliers

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    During the ALICE week held in Bologna from 19 to 23 June, the Collaboration recognized two of its top suppliers. From left to right: Robert Terpin (MIPOT), Pier Luigi Bellutti (ITC), Andrea Zanotti, President of ITC, Luciano Bosisio (Trieste University), Gennady Zinovjev (Kiev), Catherine Decosse (CERN), Lodovico Riccati, ALICE Collaboration Board Chair (INFN Torino), Paolo Giubellino (INFN Torino), Mario Zen, Director of ITC, Maurizio Boscardin (ITC), Paolo Tonella (ITC), Jurgen Schukraft, ALICE Spokesperson (CERN), Giacomo Vito Margagliotti (Trieste University), Nevio Grion (INFN Trieste), Marco Bregant (INFN Trieste). Front row from left to right: Paolo Traverso (ITC), Federico Carminati, ALICE Computing Project Leader (CERN), and Jean-Robert Lutz, ITS-SSD Project leader (IPHC Strasbourg). It is in the picturesque city of Bologna that the ALICE Collaboration has rewarded two Italian suppliers, Istituto Trentino di Cultura ITC-irst (Trento) and MIPOT (Cormons), both involved in the construction of the Sili...

  1. Regulation of Antitumor Immune Responses by the IL-12 Family Cytokines, IL-12, IL-23, and IL-27

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingli Xu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The interleukin (IL-12 family, which is composed of heterodimeric cytokines including IL-12, IL-23, and IL-27, is produced by antigen-presenting cells such as macrophages and dendritic cells and plays critical roles in the regulation of helper T (Th cell differentiation. IL-12 induces IFN- production by NK and T cells and differentiation to Th1 cells. IL-23 induces IL-17 production by memory T cells and expands and maintains inflammatory Th17 cells. IL-27 induces the early Th1 differentiation and generation of IL-10-producing regulatory T cells. In addition, these cytokines induce distinct immune responses to tumors. IL-12 activates signal transducers and activator of transcription (STAT4 and enhances antitumor cellular immunity through interferon (IFN- production. IL-27 activates STAT1, as does IFN- and STAT3 as well, and enhances antitumor immunity by augmenting cellular and humoral immunities. In contrast, although exogenously overexpressed IL-23 enhances antitumor immunity via memory T cells, endogenous IL-23 promotes protumor immunity through STAT3 activation by inducing inflammatory responses including IL-17 production.

  2. Energy efficiency: The Italian situation and opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clerici, Alessandro; Beccarello, Massimo; Gallanti, Massimo

    2010-09-15

    The paper reports the results of a study led by Confindustria (Italian Federation of Industrial Associations) on the Italian situation with respect to energy efficiency policies and their effective implementations. The study is being continuously updated with the contributions of ENEA (Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Sustainable Economic Development) and ERSE (previously CESI Ricerca) and highlights the obtainable savings through efficient technologies now already available for applications in the final uses of energy for both the industrial, commercial and domestic sectors.

  3. Catholic Modernity and the Italian Constitution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Bjørn; Forlenza, Rosario

    2016-01-01

    This article analyzes the Catholic contribution to the Italian republican and democratic Constitution of 1948. The focus is on the specific way in which the Italian citizen became symbolically coded as a ‘person’ and not as an ‘individual’, inspired by Catholic social philosophy. The Catholic...... project for the new Constitution had a considerable impact on modern Italian culture and politics and on the building of a modern mass democracy and welfare state. During the crucial historical juncture that followed the collapse of Fascism, Catholic politicians and intellectuals sought to interpret...

  4. Italian as lingua franca, the law of connected vessels and the improvement of the results into the multilingual class. About a teaching experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessia Terrusi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This contribution takes cue from a teaching experience of Italian L2 to A1-level immigrant students within the SPRAR project in Lucca from November 2015 to May 2016. During lessons, the class has been enriched with students from different places in the world and who talked very different languages. Multilingualism had only one underlying theme: the Italian language used during the lessons. It was the same Italian language which they got accustomed to by living in Italy since about a year. The experience started from the hard fact that the only common knowledge was this basic-level Italian language. So a new strategy was tested: to create couples or small groups made up with students linguistically different (like anglophones with francophones. They were forced to use Italian language and let other students understand through their previous knowledges due to the daily contact with the Italian reality. This brought very positive results such as the creation of discussions about the activities, the mutual correction of mistakes, the increase of communication skills through alternative strategies (like mime or drawing. Despite the different individual and initial levels, Italian language as lingua franca let them understand Italian language more efficiently.L’italiano come lingua franca, il principio dei vasi comunicanti e il miglioramento dei risultati nella classe plurilingue. Un’esperienza didatticaIl presente contributo trae spunto da un’esperienza di insegnamento di italiano L2, livello A1, a immigrati adulti all’interno del progetto SPRAR (Sistema di Protezione per Richiedenti Asilo e Rifugiati di Lucca svoltasi tra novembre 2015 e maggio 2016. Il gruppo di corsisti era formato da adulti provenienti da diverse zone del mondo e parlanti lingue distanti tra loro. Tutti vivevano in Italia da circa un anno e poiché l’unica conoscenza comune e di eguale livello era proprio quella – basilare – dell’italiano, si è sperimentata la

  5. Il trasferimento lessicale: ambito italiano-francese.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pia Galetto

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 14 MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabella normale"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman";} Il contributo, incentrato sul tema dell’italianismo in prospettiva lessicografica tra storia, etimologia e cultura, tocca i problemi della durata del prestito italiano in francese, delle motivazioni che lo hanno generato, della funzione mediatrice che lo caratterizza, dell’estensione semantica in sincronia e diacronia e dell’aspetto derivazionale.  Normal 0 14 MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabella normale"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman";} The article focuses on Italianisms from a lexicographical perspective embracing history, etymology and culture and involving issues related to the duration of borrowings from Italian in French, the motives that generated it, the mediating function by which it is characterized, its semantic range, both synchronic and diachronic, and the aspect of derivations.   

  6. La camorra e il caso Cirillo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A cura di Sarah Mazzenzana

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available La sezione “Storia e Memoria” offre una selezione di brani tratti dal “Rapporto sulla Camorra” redatto dalla Commissione Parlamentare Antimafia nel 1993. Per la prima volta nella storia la Commissione rivolge la sua attenzione specificamente alla Camorra, fenomeno criminale fino a quel momento sottovalutato. Pubblichiamo qui la terza parte del rapporto, la quale offre uno spaccato degli eventi che hanno permesso la crescita imprenditoriale della Camorra: la ricostruzione delle aree colpite dal terremoto dell’Irpinia del 1980, l’ascesa della Nuova Camorra Organizzata di Raffaele Cutolo e infine il sequestro dell’allora assessore regionale ai lavori pubblici, Ciro Cirillo, episodio che sconvolse la politica e le istituzioni mettendone a nudo le complicità. Parole chiave: camorra; Commissione Parlamentare Antimafia; terremoto; sequestro Cirillo; imprenditoria The section “History and Memory” reports a selection of excerpts from the “Rapporto sulla Camorra”, issued by the Italian Parliamentary Anti-Mafia Commission in 1993. For the first time in its history, the Parliamentary Anti-Mafia Commission drew its attention specifically on a phenomenon which until that moment had been understimated. This document offers a significant  and thorough  understanding of the Camorra by dealing with the historical events that allowed the Campania criminal organisation’s entrepreneurial development, including the building reconstruction of the areas hit by the 1980 Irpinia earthquake , the growth of the Nuova Camorra Organizzata and the kidnapping of politician Ciro Cirillo.  Keywords: camorra; Italian Parliamentary Anti-mafia Commission; earthquake; Cirillo kidnapping; enterprise

  7. The Future of Futures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frankel, Christian; Ossandón, José

    2013-01-01

    Review of Elena Esposito: The Future of Futures. The Time of Money in Financing and Society Cheltenham. Edward Elgar, 2011.......Review of Elena Esposito: The Future of Futures. The Time of Money in Financing and Society Cheltenham. Edward Elgar, 2011....

  8. Geografie e cartografie di guerra: "Il Trentino. Cenni geografici, storici, economici. Con un’appendice sull’Alto Adige" di Cesare Battisti (1915

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Proto

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Il Trentino. Cenni geografici, storici, economici. Con un’appendice sull’Alto Adige is a thematic atlas edited in 1915 by the Italian geographer and politician Cesare Battisti (1875-1916. The atlas represents an original and considerable work related to the exploitation and representation of a regional study. It also reproduces and applies the most important geographical theories of coeval Italian and international geography. In this work Battisti distanced himself from his traditional socialist oriented approach to embrace radical nationalist positions. This is provided by his acceptance to consider the whole southern portion of the Austrian Tirol till the Alpine watershed as part of the Italian nation.

  9. Oltre il postmoderno?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cecchini, Leonardo

    2014-01-01

    ; a cognitive, philosophical and / or ethical attitude and they attribute to the word meanings similar to those of the English term commitment. Equally varied are the ways in which the linguistic and stylistic mediation between culture and social and political life has been understood, since the literary...... and with different content, took a stand in regard of the social reality and political life of the country.With the appearance of postmodernism in the late Seventies, and during the following couple of decades, the concept of impegno has disappeared from the cultural debate in Italy to reappear vehemently...... proponents and opponents of postmodernism or between ’apocalyptic’ and ’integrated’ according to the successful formula introduced by Umberto Eco already in 1964. In the second part, I will focus on the Memorandum on the New Italian Epic, written and published in 2009 by the writers’ collective Wu Ming...

  10. Il mare per comunicare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Elena Carnemolla

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In 1885 the Italian government entered into contract with Pirelli for the construction and maintenance of twelve cables to connect various islands with the mainland. For the execution of the contract, Pirelli built a cable-sheathing factory at San Bartolomeo, near La Spezia, ordering to Thompson yard the cable-ship Città di Milano, which worked also beyond national borders. It wrecked at Filicudi in 1919. In 1944 Ernesto Del Grande, a Pirelli cableman, wrote a story on this, also organizing a portfolio with seventy-two images. The two sources, belonging respectively to the Archivio Storico Pirelli and the Biblioteca Sormani, are published for the first time, with a selection of thirty-six images of the last one.

  11. Data on interleukin (IL)-2- and IL-15-dependent changes in IL-2Rβ and IL-2Rγ complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osinalde, Nerea; Sánchez-Quiles, Virginia; Blagoev, Blagoy

    2017-01-01

    We provide detailed datasets from our analysis of the proteins that associate with IL-2Rβ and IL-2Rγ in T-cells stimulated with IL-2 or IL-15 compared with resting T-cells, as identified by SILAC-based quantitative proteomics. We also include quantitative data regarding site-specific phosphorylat...... "Characterization of receptor-associated protein complex assembly in Interleukin (IL)-2- and IL-15-activated T-lymphocytes" (Osinalde et al., 2016 [1]). The mass spectrometry data have been deposited to the ProteomeEXchange Constorium with the identifier PXD002386....

  12. IL-4 and IL-13 signaling in allergic airway disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gour, Naina; Wills-Karp, Marsha

    2015-09-01

    Aberrant production of the prototypical type 2 cytokines, interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-13 has long been associated with the pathogenesis of allergic disorders. Despite tremendous scientific inquiry, the similarities in their structure, and receptor usage have made it difficult to ascertain the distinct role that these two look-alike cytokines play in the onset and perpetuation of allergic inflammation. However, recent discoveries of differences in receptor distribution, utilization/assembly and affinity between IL-4 and IL-13, along with the discovery of unique innate lymphoid 2 cells (ILC2) which preferentially produce IL-13, not IL-4, are beginning to shed light on these mysteries. The purpose of this chapter is to review our current understanding of the distinct roles that IL-4 and IL-13 play in allergic inflammatory states and the utility of their modulation as potential therapeutic strategies for the treatment of allergic disorders.

  13. Il nucleo terrestre: il cuore magnetico della Terra

    OpenAIRE

    De Santis, A.

    2006-01-01

    Il campo magnetico terrestre è una proprietà intrinseca del nostro pianeta e di altri oggetti del sistema solare. Il Sole stesso possiede un forte campo magnetico che si inverte quasi ciclicamente ogni 10-11 anni; tale comportamento è visibile attraverso la medesima ciclicità delle macchie solari che denotano sulla superficie l’intensa attività magnetica della nostra stella. Il campo magnetico terrestre è importantissimo per la vita sulla Terra. Esso protegge il pianeta dalle p...

  14. Online Italian fandoms of American TV shows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora Benecchi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Internet has changed media fandom in two main ways: it helps fans connect with each other despite physical distance, leading to the formation of international fan communities; and it helps fans connect with the creators of the TV show, deepening the relationship between TV producers and international fandoms. To assess whether Italian fan communities active online are indeed part of transnational online communities and whether the Internet has actually altered their relationship with the creators of the original text they are devoted to, qualitative analysis and narrative interviews of 26 Italian fans of American TV shows were conducted to explore the fan-producer relationship. Results indicated that the online Italian fans surveyed preferred to stay local, rather than using geography-leveling online tools. Further, the sampled Italian fans' relationships with the show runners were mediated or even absent.

  15. The history of Italian psychiatry during Fascism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piazzi, Andrea; Testa, Luana; Del Missier, Giovanni; Dario, Mariopaolo; Stocco, Ester

    2011-09-01

    Specific features characterized Italian psychiatry during Fascism (1922-45), distinguishing it from Nazi psychiatry and giving rise to different operational outcomes, so we have investigated the state of Italian psychiatry during this period. We review the historical situation that preceded it and describe the social and health policies that Fascism introduced following new legislative and regulatory acts. We examine the preventive and therapeutic role played by psychiatry (the electric shock was an Italian invention) and, thanks to the Enciclopedia Italiano published during those years, we are able to highlight psychiatry's relationship to psychology, psychoanalysis, philosophy and religion. The shortcomings of Italian psychiatric research and practice are also seen in terms of what the State failed to do rather than what it did.

  16. Eurasia Project—2007 Italian Camp Held

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>From July 14 to 29,the Eurasia Project—2007 Italian Camp was held at the Castle Fusano Country Club in Rome. 52 high school students from Germany,Poland,Italy and China participated in the summer camp.

  17. Il cattivo psicoanalista

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimiliano Tosolini

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Il cattivo psicoanalista dunque, in genere, rischia di essere colui che si isola, che pratica poco e che, quando pratica, crede di poter operare al di là delle conoscenze e delle altre esperienze dei colleghi. Per tale ragione è necessario che la comunità degli psicoanalisti sia ancora più unita, oltre che per continuare ad esistere come psicoanalisti, anche, e soprattutto, per esistere come buoni psicoanalisti. Uno dei compiti del Coopi (Coordinamento Psicoanalisti Italiani è anche questo, oltre alla divulgazione della psicoanalisi mantenendone viva l'esistenza, il Coopi ha tra i suoi fondamenti quello di dare l'opportunità a tutti gli analisti di esercitare la buona pratica tramite lo scambio culturale e umano che solo attraverso gli incontri nelle reciproche differenze è possibile realizzare.

  18. Il libro di fisica

    CERN Document Server

    Asimov, Isaac

    1986-01-01

    Isaac Asimov, illustre studioso e brillante divulgatore scientifico, ma anche grandissimo scrittore di science fiction, ha costruito questa volta una vera e propria «biografia delle scienze fisiche». Il presente volume, che nel mondo anglosassone è diventato una «bibbia della fisica», ci introduce, in forma semplice ma rigorosa, ai segreti dei quasar e dei buchi neri, dei quark e degli acceleratori di particelle, dell'intelligenza artificiale e delle fonti di energia, sia essa quella «sporca» sia quella «pulita». Un vero, completo manuale, ma anche un «romanzo» affascinante sia per il profano sia per l'uomo di scienza.

  19. Il cervello Cosciente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcello Massimini

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Si può definire la coscienza come tutto ciò che scompare quando cadiamo addormentati in un sonno senza sogni, oppure come tutto ciò che scompare quando siamo sottoposti ad anestesia generale. Questa definizione, basata sulla nostra esperienza soggettiva, è generale, ampiamente condivisa, ma chiaramente pre-scientifica. Una definizione scientifica di coscienza presuppone che si affronti (e che si risolva il problema cervello-coscienza. In sostanza, risolvere questo problema significa rispondere alla seguente domanda: “come fa un pugno di neuroni racchiuso nel cranio ad ospitare un soggetto che vede rosso?”. I filosofi chiamano questo problema “the hard problem” (il problema difficile e molti ritengono che non sia affrontabile scientificamente; assumendo una posizione ancora più radicale, alcuni filosofi negano che vi sia un rapporto causale tra l’attività del cervello e la nostra esperienza soggettiva.

  20. IL-6 enhances plasma IL-1ra, IL-10, and cortisol in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steensberg, Adam; Fischer, Christian Philip; Keller, Charlotte

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to test the hypothesis that a transient increase in plasma IL-6 induces an anti-inflammatory environment in humans. Therefore, young healthy volunteers received a low dose of recombinant human (rh)IL-6 or saline for 3 h. Plasma IL-6 levels during rhIL-6 infusion...... number without effects on plasma epinephrine, body temperature, mean arterial pressure, or heart rate. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that physiological concentrations of IL-6 induce an anti-inflammatory rather than an inflammatory response in humans and that IL-6, independently of TNF......-induced leukocyte trafficking....

  1. Il crepuscolo delle idee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Chiara Pievatolo

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Segnalo questo dibattito non perché sia originale, ma perché non lo è per nulla: il suo tema è infatti quello, famosissimo, della critica alla scrittura contenuta nel mito platonico di Theuth, anche se non sempre chi discute ne è consapevole. Secondo Neal Gabler (* stiamo attualmente vivendo in un’età post-illuministica e “post-ideale”. Internet offre l’accesso [...

  2. Il cattivo psicoanalista

    OpenAIRE

    Massimiliano Tosolini

    2015-01-01

    Il cattivo psicoanalista dunque, in genere, rischia di essere colui che si isola, che pratica poco e che, quando pratica, crede di poter operare al di là delle conoscenze e delle altre esperienze dei colleghi. Per tale ragione è necessario che la comunità degli psicoanalisti sia ancora più unita, oltre che per continuare ad esistere come psicoanalisti, anche, e soprattutto, per esistere come buoni psicoanalisti. Uno dei compiti del Coopi (Coordinamento Psicoanalisti Italiani) è anche questo, ...

  3. Il progetto Linked Heritage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzia Piccininno

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available ItLinked Heritage è uno dei progetti di punta finanziati dalla Commissione europea per alimentare Europeana, il portale dei contenuti culturali digitali europei. Linked Heritage raccoglie, sotto il coordinamento dell’ICCU, un consorzio molto vasto i cui partner provengono da quasi tutti i paesi dell’Unione più Russia e Israele; essi forniranno a Europeana ben 3 milioni di risorse digitali. Oltre al tema dell’aggregazione di contenuti culturali digitali, Linked Heritage sta esplorando altri temi fondamentali per Europeana come il multilinguismo, i linked data e il rapporto con possibili partner commerciali. Linked Heritage è l’ultimo in ordine di tempo di una serie di iniziative progettuali avviate da un consorzio europeo di istituzioni che opera insieme da oltre dieci anni nell’ambito del patrimonio culturale digitale.EnLinked Heritage is one of the flagship projects funded by the European commission to feed Europeana, the portal of the European digital cultural content. Linked Heritage has a very large partnership, coordinated by ICCU, whose members come from many European countries, Russia and Israel; they will supply Europeana with 3 million digital resources. Beyond the aggregation of digital cultural content, Linked Heritage is exploring other topics which are essential for Europeana, like multilingualism, linked data and the relationship with the commercial partners. Linked Heritage is the last one in time of a series of projects made up by a European consortium of institutions that has been working for over ten years in the field of digital cultural heritage.

  4. Harmonization and development of resources and tools for Italian natural language processing within the PARLI project

    CERN Document Server

    Bosco, Cristina; Delmonte, Rodolfo; Moschitti, Alessandro; Simi, Maria

    2015-01-01

    The papers collected in this volume are selected as a sample of the progress in Natural Language Processing (NLP) performed within the Italian NLP community and especially attested by the PARLI project. PARLI (Portale per l’Accesso alle Risorse in Lingua Italiana) is a project partially funded by the Ministero Italiano per l’Università e la Ricerca (PRIN 2008) from 2008 to 2012 for monitoring and fostering the harmonic growth and coordination of the activities of Italian NLP. It was proposed by various teams of researchers working in Italian universities and research institutions. According to the spirit of the PARLI project, most of the resources and tools created within the project and here described are freely distributed and they did not terminate their life at the end of the project itself, hoping they could be a key factor in future development of computational linguistics.

  5. Assessment of the Effects of IL9, IL9R, IL17A, and IL17F Gene ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of IL genes Polymorphisms on women with Allergic Rhinitis. Annals of Medical ... be engaged.[3,4]. The interleukin-9 receptor gene (IL9R), belonging to the hematopoietin ..... Asthma and bronchial hyperresponsiveness linked to the XY ...

  6. Italian citizenship and the descendants of Italian citizens emigrated in Colombia. Removing a social injustice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimiliano Castellari

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Law is often the source of social discriminations, but, at the same time, it can be thekey to delete these social discriminations. The authors try to give an example of thisphenomenon, by analyzing the impact of the Italian citizenship’s rules over the descendantsof the Italian citizens emigrated abroad and, especially, in South America.Indeed, according to the former Italian law, only fathers could transmit iure sanguinisthe citizenship to their children: moreover, women automatically lost theItalian citizenship if they get a foreign citizenship by concluding a marriage witha foreign husband.These rules hardly discriminate the Italian women emigrated abroad and, especially,their descendants who were prevented to get the Italian’s citizenship.These discriminatory rules were finally deleted by the Italian Constitutional Courtin the Seventies and in the Eighties: however, the effects of those rules still persisted,since the decision of the Constitutional Court could not overcome the temporal limit of the entry into force of the Constitution (01.01.1948 and, therefore, could not“cover” the discriminatory facts occurred before that date.Finally in 2009, the Italian Supreme Court, by extending the effects ratione temporisof the decisions of the Constitutional Court, “reopened the doors” of the Italiancitizenship to a huge number of Italian citizenship born from Italian women beforethe 01.01.1948.Therefore, the authors focus on the social impact of this decision for all the potentialItalian citizens living in South America and try to assess its juridical effects overthe Italian law.

  7. IL WORKSHOP DI FONETICA IN ITALIANO L2/LS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia Calabrò

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Lavorare sugli aspetti fonetico-fonologici di una lingua straniera sembra essere ritenuta un’impresa abbastanza ardua da parte dei docenti e un lavoro faticosissimo da parte degli apprendenti. Attraverso un’esperienza iniziata con studenti lusofoni del brasile si vuole presentare il workshop di fonetica nell’italiano L2 come proposta di didattica integrativa al fine di sensibilizzare gli studenti ai tratti segmentali e soprasegmentali della L2 a contrasto con quelli della loro L1. Nel presente contributo verranno presentate alcune attività riguardanti la percezione e l’articolazione dei suoni vocalici, la tecnica della proprioception e la presentazione della tabella fonemica per le vocali, le trascrizioni fonetiche e la durata vocalica in sillaba accentata. Tutte le attività prevedono un coinvolgimento personale e totale del singolo apprendente e di tutta la classe in quanto il workshop si avvale di multimodalità, multimedialità e apprendimento collaborativo al fine di scoprire i suoni della L2 e riflettere sulla loro percezione e articolazione.Italian L2/FL phonetic workshopsSecond language phonetics and phonological aspects are considered difficult to teach and learn by teachers and learners respectively. Based on a teaching experience with Brazilian students, this paper aims at presenting phonetic workshops in Italian as a second language to raise consciousness in students about the FL segmental and suprasegmental aspects in contrast to those of their L1. Some activities related to Italian vowels will be presented: perception and articulation, the proprioception technique and the phonemic chart, phonetic transcriptions and vowel length in stressed syllables. The activities involve the students in a more personal, total and physical way in collaboration with their classmates. The workshop designed as multimodal, multimedia and cooperative, aiming at discovering the sounds of the FL and reflecting on the perception and articulation

  8. IL-33 Enhanced the Proliferation and Constitutive Production of IL-13 and IL-5 by Fibrocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hisako Hayashi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Interleukin-33 appears to play important roles in the induction of allergic airway inflammation. However, whether IL-33 is involved in airway remodeling remains unclear. Because fibrocytes contribute to tissue remodeling in the setting of chronic inflammation, we examined the effects of IL-33 on fibrocyte functions. Fibrocytes were generated in vitro from peripheral blood mononuclear cells by culturing in the presence of platelet derived growth factors and the cells were stimulated with IL-33. IL-33 enhanced cell proliferation, α-SMA expression, and pro-MMP-9 activity by the fibrocytes without increasing endogenous transforming growth factor-β1 production. Fibrocytes constitutively expressed IL-13 and IL-5, and their production was augmented by stimulation with IL-33. Dexamethasone inhibited the functions of fibrocytes, but IL-33 made fibrocytes slightly refractory to the inhibitory effect of dexamethasone in terms of IL-13 production. Montelukast suppressed IL-13 production by nonstimulated fibrocytes but not those stimulated by IL-33. These findings suggest that IL-33 is involved in the airway remodeling process through its modulation of fibrocyte function independent of antigen stimulation. IL-33 might partially reduce the therapeutic effects of glucocorticoid and cysteinyl leukotriene receptor antagonist on fibrocyte-mediated Th2 responses.

  9. Il ricordo di Bernardo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Caporale

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Capita, nella vita, di incontrare il dolore perun amico che ci lascia, per un collaboratoreprezioso che non c’è più, per un professionistadi livello che se ne va e scava un vuoto, un buco,che poi non si colma.Ecco, questo è successo a noi dell’IstitutoZooprofilattico Sperimentale dell’Abruzzo e delMolise quando Bernardo Di Emidio, il 23gennaio, è mancato. Abbiamo incontrato undolore grande (e mi perdonerete se parlo delmio, io personalmente in quel dolore sonoinciampato con violenza, perché l’amico DiEmidio aveva condiviso in tutto il tempo in cuiabbiamo lavorato insieme, ogni preoccupazione,tensione, soddisfazione e progettualità.Difficile, per me, è stato ricordarlo proprio ilgiorno dopo la sua morte, in apertura di unconvegno, con la platea piena della gentedell’Istituto e ognuno con gli occhi rossi, losgomento e la solitudine già forte della perditascolpita sul volto. L’abbiamo salutato lì, gli hodetto grazie e ciao da parte di tutti gli altri, manon l’abbiamo mai salutato davvero.Non l’ha ancora fatto nessuno di noi, echissà se lo faremo mai, perché da Bernardonon vogliamo separarci.Sulle pagine di questa rivista, che rendonomerito e onore a tanti ottimi professionisti,proprio su una rivista scientifica, che per ilnostro ambiente è il momento del confronto,spesso «della verità», voglio ricordareBernardo Di Emidio.Voglio ricordarlo all’intera comunitàscientifica per quel grande lavoratore che èstato, per quella piena fiducia che i suoicollaboratori gli davano, per quel bellissimo rapporto che con loro aveva saputo costruire,ricominciando ad ogni nuovo arrivo. Loro, isuoi collaboratori, l’hanno sostenuto fino allafine, hanno continuato a considerarlo il lorocapo, anche durante i momenti più brutti edurante gli ultimi.Non hanno mai fatto a meno del suoparere, della sua approvazione, non si sono allontanati, non si allontano nemmeno oggi, da quel solco di umanità e scientificità che Di Emidio, in anni e

  10. Interleukin (IL)-19, IL-20 and IL-24 are produced by and act on keratinocytes and are distinct from classical ILs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunz, Stefanie; Wolk, Kerstin; Witte, Ellen; Witte, Katrin; Doecke, Wolf-Dietrich; Volk, Hans-Dieter; Sterry, Wolfram; Asadullah, Khusru; Sabat, Robert

    2006-12-01

    Due to their structural similarity, interleukin (IL)-19, IL-20, IL-22, IL-24 and IL-26 were combined with IL-10 in the so-called IL-10 family. To expand the knowledge on IL-19, IL-20 and IL-24, we systematically and quantitatively analysed the expression of these mediators and their receptor chains in vitro and in vivo under various conditions and in comparison with other IL-10 family members. In vitro, IL-19, IL-20 and IL-24 were produced not only by activated immune cells, particularly monocytes, but also to a similar extent by keratinocytes. IL-1beta increased the expression of these mediators 1000-fold (IL-19) and 10-fold (IL-20 and IL-24) in keratinocytes. In vivo, these cytokines were expressed preferentially in inflamed tissues. The absence of either R1 chain for the two types of receptor complexes for these cytokines (IL-20R1/IL-20R2 and IL-22R1/IL-20R2) on immune cells implies that they cannot act on these cells. In fact, IL-19, IL-20 and IL-24 did not induce activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) molecules in immune cells. Instead, several tissues, particularly the skin, tissues from the reproductive and respiratory systems, and various glands appeared to be the main targets of these mediators. Keratinocytes expressed both receptor complexes; however, the expression of IL-22R1 was 10 times higher than that of IL-20R1. Interferon-gamma further increased the expression of IL-22R1 and decreased that of IL-20R1, suggesting that under T1 cytokine conditions these mediators primarily affect keratinocytes via the IL-22R1/IL-20R2 complex. In summary, these data support the notion that IL-19, IL-20 and IL-24 are distinct from classical ILs and constitute a separate subfamily of mediators within the IL-10 family.

  11. Autochthonous Linguistic Minorities in the Italian Alps:

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernst Steinicke

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available More than any other area in Western Europe, the Alps, especially the Italian Alps, are home to great ethno-cultural diversity: there, no less than seven autochthonous linguistic minorities coexist side by side with the respective official majority. Now being considered an important cultural heritage by the state as well as by the regions, new legislation offers protection to all ‘linguistic-historic minorities’ in Italy. Our study shows, however, that it is quite difficult to maintain such groups, since it is largely unknown where exactly the minority areas are situated. Based on that, local actor groups in various communities take advantage of this lack of knowledge and declare themselves minority territories although they show no linguistic varieties. An important objective of this project is therefore to present a cartographic representation of this linguistic diversity. Subsequently, the contribution discusses case studies of distinct ethno-linguistic self-awareness. Even though with Law No. 482 a first important step was taken to preserve the linguistic minorities, their progressive decline by territorial and numerical criteria cannot be denied. Today, besides unfavorable bio-demographic factors and “diffuse ethnicity,” other causes are current demographic processes. In this framework the amenity migrants, those new immigrants who have discovered the mountains as a new, desirable settlement space, play a decisive role by reinforcing the assimilation process.Les Alpes, plus précisément les Alpes italiennes, plus que toute autre région d'Europe Occidentale, sont un lieu de grande diversité ethnoculturelle : pas moins de sept minorités linguistiques autochtones y coexistent, côte à côte avec la majorité officielle correspondante. Maintenant considérées comme un héritage culturel important par les états ainsi que par les régions, une nouvelle législation offre une protection à toutes les « minorités linguistiques

  12. Radon risk in the house; Il rischio radon nelle abitazioni

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bressa, G. [Padua Univ., Padua (Italy). Dipt. di Farmacologia e Anestesiologia, Lab. di Tossicologia

    2001-04-01

    Radon was discovered in 1900, but its potential dangerousness for man was fully understood only in 1950. Being a radioactive natural gas - and therefore particularly dangerous - radon results from the long decay chain of radionuclides, such as thorium and radium. Some igneous rocks (granite, tufa and lava) as well as coal are considered to be the main sources of this radionuclide. A number of epidemiologic studies have shown the carcinogenicity of this element, particularly among miners and workers subjected to high level exposure in confined spaces such as basements, garages, cellars, etc. There are, however, some techniques to remove radon in order to reduce exposure to minimum values. [Italian] Il radon fu scoperto nel 1900, ma solo nel 1950 si comprese la sua potenziale pericolosita' per l'uomo. Il radon e' particolarmente pericoloso essendo un gas naturale radioattivo. Esso proviene dalla lunga catena di decadimento di radionuclidi come il torio e di radio. Sorgenti di tale radionuclide sono da considerarsi principalmente alcune rocce ignee (graniti, tufi e lave) e il carbone. Diversi studi epidemiologici hanno evidenziato la cancerogenicita' di tale elemento, specie tra i minatori e soggetti esposti ad alti livelli in ambienti confinati quali scantinati, garage sotterranei, ecc.. Esistono comunque tecniche di intervento per la rimozione del gas radon in modo tale da ridurre l'esposizione a valori minimi.

  13. "Governare il diabete" ("to steer diabetes"): a new proposal for diabetic camps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvatoni, Alessandro; Pompili, Valeria; Biasoli, Roberta; Cardani, Roberta; Arioli, Gianluigi; Nespoli, Luigi

    2003-01-01

    "Governare il diabete" (the Italian translation of "to steer diabetes") is a project which gives young diabetics the opportunity of sailing with non-diabetic companions in a protected and educational environment. The education technique, based on the parallelism between sailing and diabetes, encourage correct self-management of both diabetes related and unrelated problems. The impact of the experience on self-esteem, quality of life and metabolic control is currently under investigation.

  14. DEVOLUTION IN ITALIAN CULTURAL POLICIES MICRO VIEW AND ACTUAL IMPACTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Monti

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available

    Devolution has definitely become a ‘flagship’ in the Italian political debate. It has affected any aspect of public policy over the last 17 years and the cultural sector has not been spared. Its key aim is to decentralise legal and administration powers in a way that could reduce the burden of State offices work and set up a more efficient and effective administration able to meet citizens’ needs. After a long tradition of centralized policies and administration, long, costly and often in efficient procedures required a profound change. The reforms were so ledby the ideal to implement public policies closest to citizens’ needs, to provide direct responses and increase their participation to local governments’ actions (democratization and participative policy, to deliver more effective services (better performance and distribute more equally the burden of administrative work of State offices (decentralisation of day-to-day administration.

     

    La Devolution e la politica culturale italiana

    La Devolution riveste un punto centrale nel dibattito politico italiano: ha riguardato ogni aspetto della politica pubblica negli ultimi 17 anni, e il settore culturale non ne è stato risparmiato. L'obbiettivo principale è quello di decentralizzare i poteri giuridici e amministrativi in modo da ridurre il peso del lavoro degli uffici pubblici statali, e di organizzare un'amministrazione più efficiente ed efficace in grado di soddisfare le necessità dei cittadini. Dopo una lunga tradizione basata su politica e amministrazione centralizzate, procedure lunghe, costose e spesso inefficienti richiedevano un profondo cambiamento. Le riforme sono state quindi indirizzate all'implemento di politiche pubbliche più vicine ai cittadini, a incrementare la loro partecipazione nelle azioni di governo locali (politica di democratizzazione e partecipativa, a fornire servizi più efficienti (migliori prestazioni e a distribuire

  15. Environmental impact of heavy metals. Vanadium; Impatto ambientale da metalli pesanti. Il vanadio (V)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bressa, G. (comp.)

    2001-09-01

    In this paper is presented the environmental impact of vanadium production, environmental distribution biological accumulation are reported. [Italian] Il vanadio (V) e' un metallo scarsamente presente in natura, classificandosi al 21mo posto dopo l'arsenico per abbondanza nella crosta terrestre. Tuttavia e' rinvenibile nell'atmosfera di aree industrializzate dove si utilizzano il carbone fossile e l'olio combustibile. Infatti fonti principali di inquinamento ambientale sono costituiti dai greggi petroliferi che contengono in soluzione una serie di metalli tra cui il vanadio. Per inalazione di polveri contenenti V si hanno generalmente effetti sull'apparato respiratorio con irritazione nasale ed epistassi, bronchiti ed enfisema polmonare, mentre a livello nervoso si manifestano effetti neurotossici sul centro vasomotori e sul controllo nervoso della contrazione cardiaca, con riduzione complessiva della funzionalita' cardica. Recentemente e' stato osservato che il V esercita effetti allergici ed infiammatori.

  16. Il volgare e il principe. Politica culturale e questione della lingua alla corte di Cosimo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margherita Quaglino

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Il principato di Cosimo I rappresenta un periodo di snodo fondamentale per la questione della lingua italiana. Il contributo ripercorre la bibliografia degli ultimi vent’anni con l’intento di definirne le principali traiettorie e individuarne l’originalità e le prospettive future rispetto agli studi precedenti. Sono esaminati in particolare gli studi relativi all’opera di Benedetto Varchi e Vincenzio Borghini; ai volgarizzamenti di Giovan Battista Gelli e Cosimo Bartoli; alla redazione e all’edizione delle Vite di Vasari e al rapporto tra letterati e artisti nella celebrazione del potere.

  17. College and University Italian Programs in North America: Where Is Italian Phonetics and Phonology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Keith

    1990-01-01

    Argues for the inclusion of courses in phonetics and phonology in college Italian programs, claiming that the myth of Italian as a phonetic language blurs the clear need for such training and that students actually require advanced coursework in phonetics and phonology to improve their articulation and pronunciation. (43 references) (Author/CB)

  18. College and University Italian Programs in North America: Where Is Italian Phonetics and Phonology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Keith

    1990-01-01

    Argues for the inclusion of courses in phonetics and phonology in college Italian programs, claiming that the myth of Italian as a phonetic language blurs the clear need for such training and that students actually require advanced coursework in phonetics and phonology to improve their articulation and pronunciation. (43 references) (Author/CB)

  19. Pronominal Objects in English-Italian and Spanish-Italian Bilingual Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serratrice, Ludovica; Sorace, Antonella; Filiaci, Francesca; Baldo, Michela

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the role of typological relatedness, language of the community, and age, in predicting similarities and differences between English-Italian, Spanish-Italian bilingual children and their monolingual child and adult counterparts in the acceptability of pre- and postverbal object pronouns in [[plus or minus]focus] contexts in…

  20. Il Geoportale della Lombardia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donata Del Puppo

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Lombardy GeoportalRegion Lombardy is setting up the regional SDI in the INSPIRE perspective, involving both local Public Administrations and the private sector in the process of disseminating and sharing the geographic data and services available in Lombardy. The access point of the regional SDI is the Lombardy Geoportal, a Web place where users can publish or search for geographic data, applications and services, view maps, download data and share their geographic knowledge. The Lombardy Geoportal has been implemented by customizing the ESRI GIS Portal Toolkit, in order to be compliant with the Italian and the INSPIRE needs; The Geoportal is built on top of REGIS, the Regional Enterprise platform for Geographic Information Services, which consists of an technological infrastructure (based on ESRI Enterprise components and basic services to build up geographic solutions. 

  1. Linguistic and cognitive skills in Sardinian-Italian bilingual children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria eGarraffa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We report the results of a study which tested receptive Italian grammatical competence and general cognitive abilities in bilingual Italian-Sardinian children and age-matched monolingual Italian children attending the first and second year of primary school in the Nuoro province of Sardinia, where Sardinian is still widely spoken. The results show that across age groups the performance of Sardinian-Italian bilingual children is in most cases indistinguishable from that of monolingual Italian children, in terms of both Italian language skills and general cognitive abilities. However, where there are differences, these emerge gradually over time and are mostly in favor of bilingual children.

  2. Il cervello Geniale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiziano Cornegliani

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Il genio, nella sua accezione corrente, è – secondo la definizione che ne fornisce la Treccani – “la somma potenza creatrice dello spirito umano, propria per virtù innata di pochi ed eccezionali individui, i quali per mezzo del loro talento giungono a straordinarie altezze nell’ambito dell’arte o della scienza”. E così in effetti è. Quando noi pensiamo al genio, la mente corre subito a Leonardo da Vinci, o Mozart, o Raffaello e Michelangelo, o naturalmente a Shakespeare. E ci chiediamo come sia possibile.

  3. Il muro nella mente:

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Concilio

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A 78 anni, Nadine Gordimer, premio Nobel per la letteratura nel 1991, è infaticabile: il suo ultimo romanzo The Pick up è stato pubblicato negli Stati Uniti e in Inghilterra, dove ha ricevuto però tiepida accoglienza,e ora anche in Italia1. Alcuni mesi fa, tuttavia, Nadine Gordimer veniva ricordata dai giornali per un’impresa non letteraria: si tratta di un film-documentario dal titolo Johannesburg-Berlin, The Wall in the Mind, che Gordimer ha scritto e che ha girato con suo figlio, Hugo Cassirer, nel 1995-1996.

  4. Il Codice di autodisciplina

    OpenAIRE

    Cuccu, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    SOMMARIO: 1. Il nuovo Codice di Autodisciplina delle Società Quotate. – 2. Un breve sguardo di insieme. – 2.1. Composizione del consiglio di amministrazione. – 2.2. Ruolo e funzionamento del consiglio di amministrazione. – 2.3. L’organizzazione e i compiti dei comitati interni al consiglio. – 2.4. Sistema di controllo interno. – 3. Le raccomandazioni del Codice. – 3.1. Una nuova impostazione chiarificatrice. – 3.2. L’impulso dato dal d. lgs. 39/2010. – 4. I punti deboli del Codice. – 4.1. La ...

  5. International Travelers' Sociodemographic, Health, and Travel Characteristics: An Italian Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troiano, Gianmarco; Mercone, Astrid; Bagnoli, Alessandra; Nante, Nicola

    Approximately the 8% of travelers requires medical care, with the diagnosis of a vaccine-preventable disease. The aim of our study was to analyze the socio-demographic, health and travel characteristics of the Italian international travelers. We conducted a cross sectional study from January 2015 to June 2016, at the Travel Medicine Clinic of Siena, asking the doctor to interview patients who attended the Clinic, recording socio-demographic and travel information, malaria prophylaxis, vaccinations. The data were organized in a database and processed by software Stata®. We collected 419 questionnaires. Patients chose 71 countries for their travels; the favorite destinations were: India (6.31%), Thailand (6.31%), and Brazil (5.10%). The mean length of stay was 36.17 days. Italians, students, and freelancers tended to stay abroad for a longer time (mean: 36.4 days, 59.87 days and 64.16 days respectively). 33.17% of our sample used drugs for malaria chemoprophylaxis: 71.9% of them used Atovaquone/Proguanil (Malarone®), 26.6% used Mefloquine (Lariam®), 1.5% other drugs. The vaccinations that travelers mostly got in our study were to prevent hepatitis A (n = 264), the typhoid fever (n = 187), the Tetanus + Diphtheria + Pertussis (n = 165), the Yellow fever (n = 118) and the cholera (n = 78). Twenty-eight (6.68%) refused some recommended vaccinations. The vaccines mostly refused were for Typhoid fever (n = 20), hepatitis a (n = 9), and cholera (n = 9). Our results demonstrated that Italian international travelers are at-risk because of their poor vaccinations adherence. This implies that pre-travel counseling is fundamental to increase the knowledge of the risks and the compliance of future travelers. Copyright © 2016 Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Influenza vaccination coverage among medical residents: an Italian multicenter survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costantino, Claudio; Mazzucco, Walter; Azzolini, Elena; Baldini, Cesare; Bergomi, Margherita; Biafiore, Alessio Daniele; Bianco, Manuela; Borsari, Lucia; Cacciari, Paolo; Cadeddu, Chiara; Camia, Paola; Carluccio, Eugenia; Conti, Andrea; De Waure, Chiara; Di Gregori, Valentina; Fabiani, Leila; Fallico, Roberto; Filisetti, Barbara; Flacco, Maria E; Franco, Elisabetta; Furnari, Roberto; Galis, Veronica; Gallea, Maria R; Gallone, Maria F; Gallone, Serena; Gelatti, Umberto; Gilardi, Francesco; Giuliani, Anna R; Grillo, Orazio C; Lanati, Niccolò; Mascaretti, Silvia; Mattei, Antonella; Micò, Rocco; Morciano, Laura; Nante, Nicola; Napoli, Giuseppe; Nobile, Carmelo Giuseppe; Palladino, Raffaele; Parisi, Salvatore; Passaro, Maria; Pelissero, Gabriele; Quarto, Michele; Ricciardi, Walter; Romano, Gabriele; Rustico, Ennio; Saponari, Anita; Schioppa, Francesco S; Signorelli, Carlo; Siliquini, Roberta; Trabacchi, Valeria; Triassi, Maria; Varetta, Alessia; Ziglio, Andrea; Zoccali, Angela; Vitale, Francesco; Amodio, Emanuele

    2014-01-01

    Although influenza vaccination is recognized to be safe and effective, recent studies have confirmed that immunization coverage among health care workers remain generally low, especially among medical residents (MRs). Aim of the present multicenter study was to investigate attitudes and determinants associated with acceptance of influenza vaccination among Italian MRs. A survey was performed in 2012 on MRs attending post-graduate schools of 18 Italian Universities. Each participant was interviewed via an anonymous, self-administered, web-based questionnaire including questions on attitudes regarding influenza vaccination. A total of 2506 MRs were recruited in the survey and 299 (11.9%) of these stated they had accepted influenza vaccination in 2011-2012 season. Vaccinated MRs were older (P = 0.006), working in clinical settings (P = 0.048), and vaccinated in the 2 previous seasons (P<0.001 in both seasons). Moreover, MRs who had recommended influenza vaccination to their patients were significantly more compliant with influenza vaccination uptake in 2011-2012 season (P<0.001). "To avoid spreading influenza among patients" was recognized as the main reason for accepting vaccination by less than 15% of vaccinated MRs. Italian MRs seem to have a very low compliance with influenza vaccination and they seem to accept influenza vaccination as a habit that is unrelated to professional and ethical responsibility. Otherwise, residents who refuse vaccination in the previous seasons usually maintain their behaviors. Promoting correct attitudes and good practice in order to improve the influenza immunization rates of MRs could represent a decisive goal for increasing immunization coverage among health care workers of the future.

  7. A scale for assessing Italian schools and classes inclusiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucio Cottini

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents in detail the procedures for developing and validating a tool for assessing the inclusive process pertaining to school contexts called “Inclusive Process Assessment Scale”. The Scale, which is the outcome of the joined work of the authors, sets itself both as an assessing and self-assessing tool, useful for allowing on one hand specific types of evaluation and, on the other, promoting thoughts on inclusive education’s quality indicators, thus contributing to the planning and ongoing adjustment of the educational project of the school and the class. The tool, in its computer version as well, allows for the planning of researches that can collect evidences supporting the full inclusion organization of Italian schools.Una scala per valutare l’inclusività delle scuole e delle classi italianeIl contributo presenta in dettaglio le procedure di costruzione e validazione di uno strumento per valutare i processi inclusivi riferiti ai contesti scolastici, chiamato “Scala di Valutazione dei Processi Inclusivi”. Frutto del lavoro congiunto svolto dagli autori, la Scala si pone come uno strumento valutativo e autovalutativo utile a consentire da un lato, la realizzazione di specifiche forme di misurazione e, dall’altro, la promozione di processi di riflessione sugli indicatori di qualità dell’educazione inclusiva, per contribuire alla progettazione e alla regolazione in itinere del progetto educativo della scuola e della classe. Lo strumento, anche nella sua versione digitale, consente di pianificare ricerche, che possono raccogliere evidenze in grado di avvalorare l’organizzazione scolastica italiana di full inclusion.

  8. Il nuovo ordine pubblico concordatario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Sammassimo

    2015-10-01

     Abstract: In the decision n. 16379/2014, the Italian Supreme Court states that three years of conjugal life is an obstacle to the exequatur procedure of the ecclesiastical sentences of nullity of marriage. This statement has already been supported by other decisions taken by the Court during 2015 and has de facto determined a new public policy, valid only for ecclesiastical sentences but not, for example, applicable to judgments made abroad. This new public policy is more restrictive than both the international public policy and the Italian public policy.

  9. Il bilinguismo disegnato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graziella Favaro

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Il tema della diversità linguistica e del riconoscimento e della valorizzazione delle forme di bilinguismo dei bambini e dei ragazzi è cruciale nella scuola multiculturale e plurilingue. Ma quale rappresentazione della “mente bilingue” hanno i parlanti una o più lingue? Come immaginano la testa di chi e bilingue e dove collocano le diverse parole? Abbiamo chiesto agli alunni, piccoli e grandi, di alcune scuole di “disegnare il bilinguismo”: emergono in maniera vivida i “posti” diversi in cui le lingue si installano, i dubbi e le spiegazioni dei bambini, la necessità del controllo e la coloritura affettiva dell’uno e dell’altro idioma.  Drawing bilingualism The theme of linguistic diversity and the recognition and appreciation of forms of bilingualism in children and young people is crucial in a multilingual, multicultural school environment. But how do speakers of one or more languages imagine a “bilingual mind”? How do they imagine a bilingual person’s head and where are the different words located? We asked school children to “draw bilingualism”. The “placement” of the different languages, the children’s doubts and explanations and their need to check and the affective coloring of one and the other language emerged.

  10. Tradurre sotto il fascismo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Bibbò

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Cesare Pavese, per primo, parlò degli anni Trenta come del decennio – italiano – delle traduzioni. Christopher Rundle parte da lì per un importante studio sul "problema delle traduzioni" durante il fascismo, Publishing Translations in Fascist Italy, Peter Lang, 2010. Riesce così a fornire un panorama convincente di uno dei dibattiti più caratteristici del Ventennio, e a ridiscutere alcuni assunti come la centralità della letteratura anglo-americana nelle preoccupazioni dei "censori". Perché di amministrazione della cultura si parla: della censura porosa e discontinua – o comunque tardiva – messa in atto dal fascismo per limitare “l’invasione delle traduzioni”. Un interesse, quello nei confronti della politica e della censura editoriale durante i fascismi che sembra ormai centrale negli studi di italianistica e traduttologia.Il secondo volume recensito - Christopher Rundle and Kate Sturge, Translation under Fascism, Palgrave Macmillan, 2010 presenta una serie di studi sullo statuto delle traduzioni durante i regimi totalitari. Questa collezione di saggi va oltre i confini italiani e tedeschi e si occupa delle politiche di traduzione dei regimi fascisti europei, contribuendo ad allargare e mettere in discussione non solo la nostra conoscenza delle pratiche censorie in diversi ambiti espressivi, ma anche la stessa idea di regime fascista. 

  11. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) production by astrocytes: autocrine regulation by IL-6 and the soluble IL-6 receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Wagoner, N J; Oh, J W; Repovic, P; Benveniste, E N

    1999-07-01

    In the CNS, astrocytes are a major inducible source of interleukin-6 (IL-6). Although IL-6 has beneficial effects in the CNS because of its neurotrophic properties, its overexpression is generally detrimental, adding to the pathophysiology associated with CNS disorders. Many factors have been shown to induce IL-6 expression by astrocytes, particularly the cytokines tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1beta). However, the role of IL-6 in its own regulation in astrocytes has not been determined. In this study, we examined the influence of IL-6 alone or in combination with TNF-alpha or IL-1beta on IL-6 expression. IL-6 alone had no effect on IL-6 expression; however, the addition of the soluble IL-6 receptor (sIL-6R) induced IL-6 transcripts. Addition of TNF-alpha or IL-1beta plus IL-6/sIL-6R led to synergistic increases in IL-6 expression. This synergy also occurred in the absence of exogenously added IL-6, attributable to TNF-alpha- or IL-1beta-induced endogenous IL-6 protein production. IL-6 upregulation seen in the presence of TNF-alpha or IL-1beta plus IL-6/sIL-6R was transcriptional, based on nuclear run-on analysis. Experiments were extended to other IL-6 family members to determine their role in IL-6 regulation in astrocytes. Oncostatin M (OSM) induced IL-6 alone and synergized with TNF-alpha for enhanced expression. These results demonstrate that IL-6/sIL-6R and OSM play an important role in the regulation of IL-6 expression within the CNS, particularly in conjunction with the proinflammatory cytokines TNF-alpha and IL-1beta.

  12. Questionable research practices among italian research psychologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnoli, Franca; Wicherts, Jelte M; Veldkamp, Coosje L S; Albiero, Paolo; Cubelli, Roberto

    2017-01-01

    A survey in the United States revealed that an alarmingly large percentage of university psychologists admitted having used questionable research practices that can contaminate the research literature with false positive and biased findings. We conducted a replication of this study among Italian research psychologists to investigate whether these findings generalize to other countries. All the original materials were translated into Italian, and members of the Italian Association of Psychology were invited to participate via an online survey. The percentages of Italian psychologists who admitted to having used ten questionable research practices were similar to the results obtained in the United States although there were small but significant differences in self-admission rates for some QRPs. Nearly all researchers (88%) admitted using at least one of the practices, and researchers generally considered a practice possibly defensible if they admitted using it, but Italian researchers were much less likely than US researchers to consider a practice defensible. Participants' estimates of the percentage of researchers who have used these practices were greater than the self-admission rates, and participants estimated that researchers would be unlikely to admit it. In written responses, participants argued that some of these practices are not questionable and they have used some practices because reviewers and journals demand it. The similarity of results obtained in the United States, this study, and a related study conducted in Germany suggest that adoption of these practices is an international phenomenon and is likely due to systemic features of the international research and publication processes.

  13. Survey of Italian human milk banks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Nisi, Giuseppe; Moro, Guido E; Arslanoglu, Sertac; Ambruzzi, Amalia M; Biasini, Augusto; Profeti, Claudio; Tonetto, Paola; Bertino, Enrico

    2015-05-01

    At present, the Italian Association of Donor Human Milk Banks (Associazione Italiana Banche del Latte Umano Donato, AIBLUD) consists of 31 milk banks, whose management is based on Italian Guidelines. In 2013, AIBLUD performed a systematic survey to collect data on the activities of banks operating in Italy in the years previous to this date. The purpose of this survey was to evaluate the operational procedures of Italian Human Milk Banks in order to identify both areas of strength and room for improvement. A questionnaire was utilized to obtain national data from the 28 banks active in the year 2012 in order to evaluate the number of donors, volume of human milk collected, and other information relating to the period 2007 to 2012. In all, 89% of the banks (25/28) responded to the survey. Data received primarily concerned the number of donors, volume of milk collected, and average amount of milk from each donor in the period 2007 to 2012. It was evident that in 2012 human milk banks collected a higher volume of milk than in 2007. Further, the average amount of milk from each donor was higher. Most of the milk banks were following the Italian Guidelines for traceability, control of donors, bacteriological checks, method of pasteurization, storage, thawing, type of containers, and utilization of the Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points system. This survey identified both areas of strength and room for improvement in the Italian human milk banks. © The Author(s) 2015.

  14. Questionable research practices among italian research psychologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicherts, Jelte M.; Veldkamp, Coosje L. S.; Albiero, Paolo; Cubelli, Roberto

    2017-01-01

    A survey in the United States revealed that an alarmingly large percentage of university psychologists admitted having used questionable research practices that can contaminate the research literature with false positive and biased findings. We conducted a replication of this study among Italian research psychologists to investigate whether these findings generalize to other countries. All the original materials were translated into Italian, and members of the Italian Association of Psychology were invited to participate via an online survey. The percentages of Italian psychologists who admitted to having used ten questionable research practices were similar to the results obtained in the United States although there were small but significant differences in self-admission rates for some QRPs. Nearly all researchers (88%) admitted using at least one of the practices, and researchers generally considered a practice possibly defensible if they admitted using it, but Italian researchers were much less likely than US researchers to consider a practice defensible. Participants’ estimates of the percentage of researchers who have used these practices were greater than the self-admission rates, and participants estimated that researchers would be unlikely to admit it. In written responses, participants argued that some of these practices are not questionable and they have used some practices because reviewers and journals demand it. The similarity of results obtained in the United States, this study, and a related study conducted in Germany suggest that adoption of these practices is an international phenomenon and is likely due to systemic features of the international research and publication processes. PMID:28296929

  15. Ri/leggere Revelli. Metonimia per una presentazione de "Il catalogo per soggetti" di Carlo Revelli Re/reading Revelli. Metonymy for a presentation of Carlo Revelli's "Il catalogo per soggetti"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pino Buizza

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The essay traces the story and outlines the structure of the book "Il catalogo per soggetti" written by Carlo Revelli. The book was recently republished, and it looks like a milestone in the history of Italian subject classification.Although facing the change of the tools and the 40 years passed after its first publication, the volume still remains an essential reading in order to understand and practice subject cataloguing.Il saggio ripercorre la storia e la struttura del volume "Il catalogo per soggetti" di Carlo Revelli, recentemente ripubblicato e diventato una pietra miliare nella storia della soggettazione in Italia. Il testo di Revelli, pur dovendo fare i conti con il cambiamento degli strumenti e dopo 40 anni dalla sua prima pubblicazione, rimane fondamentale per la comprensione e la messa in pratica della soggettazione nella catalogazione.

  16. Il danno alla persona del lavoratore: il mobbing orizzontale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Gentile

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Sommario:1. Il mobbing tra diritto civile e diritto del lavoro – 2. Il fenomeno mobbing: gli studi iniziali e la definizione – 3. Le concrete condotte integranti fattispecie di mobbing – 4. Onere della prova – 5. Il mobbing orizzontale – 6. L’elemento soggettivo di colpevolezza del da­tore di lavoro nella responsabilità ex art. 2087 c.c. per mobbing orizzontale

  17. Social networking addiction, attachment style, and validation of the Italian version of the Bergen Social Media Addiction Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monacis, Lucia; de Palo, Valeria; Griffiths, Mark D; Sinatra, Maria

    2017-06-01

    Aim Research into social networking addiction has greatly increased over the last decade. However, the number of validated instruments assessing addiction to social networking sites (SNSs) remains few, and none have been validated in the Italian language. Consequently, this study tested the psychometric properties of the Italian version of the Bergen Social Media Addiction Scale (BSMAS), as well as providing empirical data concerning the relationship between attachment styles and SNS addiction. Methods A total of 769 participants were recruited to this study. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and multigroup analyses were applied to assess construct validity of the Italian version of the BSMAS. Reliability analyses comprised the average variance extracted, the standard error of measurement, and the factor determinacy coefficient. Results Indices obtained from the CFA showed the Italian version of the BSMAS to have an excellent fit of the model to the data, thus confirming the single-factor structure of the instrument. Measurement invariance was established at configural, metric, and strict invariances across age groups, and at configural and metric levels across gender groups. Internal consistency was supported by several indicators. In addition, the theoretical associations between SNS addiction and attachment styles were generally supported. Conclusion This study provides evidence that the Italian version of the BSMAS is a psychometrically robust tool that can be used in future Italian research into social networking addiction.

  18. Italian singer Annalisa at CERN for a week of filming

    CERN Multimedia

    Stefania Pandolfi

    2015-01-01

    CERN welcomed Italian singer-songwriter Annalisa for a week-long visit to the Laboratory to shoot an Italian television production about the Laboratory.   Annalisa in the CERN Control Centre.   The Italian artist has a degree in physics from the University of Turin, Italy. She is a singer and songwriter, famous for her successful participation in the Italian talent show, Amici di Maria De Filippi. She has recorded four albums as solo artist and has participated twice in the Sanremo Music Festival, the most important Italian song contest. She has also received numerous Italian music awards, and has earned international recognition. Thanks to her knowledge of physics and her great influence with the Italian youth, Annalisa was selected to host an Italian television production about CERN aimed at young people. 

  19. Il bizzarro mondo dei quanti

    CERN Document Server

    Camejo, Silvia Arroyo

    2008-01-01

    Scritto prima dell'esame di maturità da una giovane di eccezionale talento, questo libro colma il vuoto esistente tra la letteratura divulgativa sulla fisica quantistica, che normalmente evita ogni formula matematica, e la letteratura specialistica, ben farcita, invece, di matematica avanzata. L'autrice, appena diciannovenne, con l'ausilio della sola matematica della scuola superiore, introduce il lettore ai principi della fisica dei quanti. Se ne ricava uno sguardo profondo sul microcosmo, il regno affascinante delle particelle elementari: oggetti il cui comportamento si distingue in modo drastico e fondamentale da tutto ciò a cui è avvezzo il nostro umano buonsenso. "Un libro... che avrei desiderato avere a 17 anni". Silvia Arroyo Camejo "In modo assolutamente preciso dal punto di vista fisico, l'autrice spiega con grande passione e divertimento i fondamenti della moderna fisica quantistica ... " Prof. Reinhold A. Bertlmann "Un libro stupefacente di un'autrice straordinaria! Si avverte il suo entusiasmo ...

  20. Il paesaggio dell’architettura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Zermani

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available l saggio si articola come un’itinerario tra alcuni progetti italiani proposti come “occasioni di applicazione di un modo d’intendere l’architettura nel rapporto con il paesaggio smarrito, che cambia, ma potrebbe custodire ancora i valori di ciò che Heidegger definiva il “soggiorno”: la riconoscibilità intesa come misura”. Le architetture, come strumenti di conoscenza dello spazio, entrano nel paesaggio per diventarne speciali “misuratori”.Partendo dai luoghi del paesaggio padano, Noceto, con il Nuovo Municipio, con la minimale Cappella della Madonna, con il Padiglione privato, e Varano, con la Casa dal grande occhio spalancato sul bosco, alle terre umbre, con la Chiesa ed il Centro Parrocchiale di Perugia ed il Cimitero di Sansepolcro, si propone un percorso di ricerca di una identità dell’architettura italiana contemporanea nella dimensione paesaggistica. 

  1. Italian Frontotemporal Dementia Network (FTD Group-SINDEM): sharing clinical and diagnostic procedures in Frontotemporal Dementia in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borroni, B; Turrone, R; Galimberti, D; Nacmias, B; Alberici, A; Benussi, A; Caffarra, P; Caltagirone, C; Cappa, S F; Frisoni, G B; Ghidoni, R; Marra, C; Padovani, A; Rainero, I; Scarpini, E; Silani, V; Sorbi, S; Tagliavini, F; Tremolizzo, L; Bruni, A C

    2015-05-01

    In the prospect of improved disease management and future clinical trials in Frontotemporal Dementia, it is desirable to share common diagnostic procedures. To this aim, the Italian FTD Network, under the aegis of the Italian Neurological Society for Dementia, has been established. Currently, 85 Italian Centers involved in dementia care are part of the network. Each Center completed a questionnaire on the local clinical procedures, focused on (1) clinical assessment, (2) use of neuroimaging and genetics; (3) support for patients and caregivers; (4) an opinion about the prevalence of FTD. The analyses of the results documented a comprehensive clinical and instrumental approach to FTD patients and their caregivers in Italy, with about 1,000 newly diagnosed cases per year and 2,500 patients currently followed by the participating Centers. In analogy to other European FTD consortia, future aims will be devoted to collect data on epidemiology of FTD and its subtypes and to provide harmonization of procedures among Centers.

  2. Il cervello Ossessivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Gilardini

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Tutte le mattine esco e rientro in casa almeno 3 volte, con il dubbio di aver lasciato la luce della stanza accesa (fortuna della società elettrica quando non ci ritorno o l’armadio aperto (gioia del mio gatto quando non lo vedo. Arrivata al lavoro, la stessa cosa mi capita con la chiusura dell’auto, sia mai che la lasci aperta per farmi rubare quei pochi cd che ho comprato. Chi legge questo pezzo di certo si sta immedesimando nel mio inizio di giornata, anzi magari vince la partita su quante volte capita a lui/lei di rifare le stesse cose. Ma questo tipo di comportamento è figlio della disattenzione e della fretta. L’ossessione è ben altra cosa.

  3. Ornitonimia istriana: il pettirosso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goran Filipi

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available Il lavoro presenta un commento linguistico (soprattutto etimologico ai nomi del pettirosso nelle parlate istriane (istroveneto, istrioto, istrorumeno, croato, sloveno e montenegrino. Abbiamo raccolto i nomi in 135 luoghi della regione istro -quameri­ na (isola di Veglia compresa. Un elenco completo di tutti i nomi raccolti per questa specie verrà data alla fine del saggio. Per non confondere ii lettore le parole di tutti gli idiomi si riportano con la stessa grafia (I'alfabeto croato. L' accento viene segnato come si usa nelle rispettive parlate, tranne per le parole rumene dove si adotta ii sistema croato (perché corrisponde alla realtà fonetica dell' istrorumeno.

  4. Il Cinema Ritrovato

    OpenAIRE

    Taillibert, Christel

    2007-01-01

    Bologne, 1-8 juillet 2000 Girls, ladies, starsIl y a cinq ans, l’équipe de Bologne entamait un programme d’exploration des origines du star-system aux États-Unis avec un hommage rendu à Greta Garbo. Poursuivi depuis lors, ce projet prenait cette année la forme d’une section intitulée « Girls, Ladies, Stars : actrices américaines dans les années vingt », composée d’une vingtaine de films dédiés à neuf des plus grandes stars du cinéma muet outre-Atlantique. On put ainsi retrouver Pauline Freder...

  5. Il congiuntivo nel Goldoni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitja Skubic

    1970-11-01

    Full Text Available Nelle sue commeclie dialettali, Goldoni spesso ricorre al congiuntivo. La forma e tanto frequente e tanta è la coerenza nell'uso che ci testimonia della popolarita del congiuntivo nel veneziano parlato del suo tempo. E ancora non sapremmo elencarne tutte le forme, giacche, nel presente almeno, una speciale per il congiuntivo esiste quasi solo per la 3.a persona (come nell'indicativo, anche nel congiuntivo coincidono la 3.a del sg. e la 3.a del pl.. Pochi sono i verbi che mostrano una forma a parte per il congiuntivo nella La pers. sg. Citiamo dalla Casa nova: »fe conto che sia morto per vu«, I, 6; »E no le vol ehe maledissa sta casa e che diga roba de quel strambo de so fradelo«, II, 5; »se no volè che vaga, lasserò star«, II, 6; »bisognerà che dipenda da ela«, I, 6; »ghe son, bisogna che ghe staga, I, 2; »Bisognerà che m'inzegna da qualche altra banda«, I, 15. Quasi inesistente la 2.a pers. sg.; >>Siestu benedeta, dove che tu xe«, Rusteghi, II, 3. La scarsità della forma nel congiuntivo è da riconnettere alla scarsità della 2.a pers. in generale nelle commedie. Non ci sono forme del congiuntivo nel plurale: »avanti che lo spartimo, fevelo mostrare«, Baruffe, I, 5; »acciò che vegni a discreditar la mia casa«, Rusteghi, II, 3; »son vegnua a posta, acciò che parlè”, Rusteghi, III, 2.

  6. Increased number of IL-2, IL-2 receptor and IL-10 positive cells in premalignant lesions of the cervix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mindiola, Raimy; Caulejas, Diana; Núñez-Troconis, José; Araujo, Mary; Delgado, Mariela; Mosquera, Jesús

    2008-12-01

    Previous studies have shown the involvement of the immune response in the progression of human uterine cervix cancer. The aim of this study was to determine the expression of Interleukin-2 (IL-2), IL-2 receptor (IL-2R) and Interleukin 10 (IL-10) in different grades of cervical intraepithelial neoplasias of the exocervix (CIN 1, 2 and 3), and its relationship with the serum cytokine profiles and human papilomavirus (HPV) infection status. Indirect immunofluorescence was used to study the expression of IL-2, IL-2R and IL-10 in human cervical samples from 50 patients and 9 normal controls. Serum IL-2, IL-2R and IL-10 were measured by ELISA and HPV DNA and HPV types were identified by PCR. Increased number of IL-2, IL-2R and IL-10 positive cells were observed in the cervix from patients with CIN, associated with the grades of dysplasia. A significant correlation was observed between IL-2 and IL-2R (p>0.0001), IL-2 and IL-10 (p>0.0001), as well as IL-10 and IL-2R (p>0.0001). Twenty percent of patients were HPV positive and 84% of those patients were tissue cytokine positive. These results suggest that IL-2, IL-2R and IL-10 tissue expression may play a role in the development of cervical intraepithelial dysplasias.

  7. Italian Validation of Homophobia Scale (HS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomo Ciocca, PsyD, PhD

    2015-09-01

    Conclusions: The Italian validation of the HS revealed the use of this self‐report test to have good psychometric properties. This study offers a new tool to assess homophobia. In this regard, the HS can be introduced into the clinical praxis and into programs for the prevention of homophobic behavior. Ciocca G, Capuano N, Tuziak B, Mollaioli D, Limoncin E, Valsecchi D, Carosa E, Gravina GL, Gianfrilli D, Lenzi A, and Jannini EA. Italian validation of Homophobia Scale (HS. Sex Med 2015;3:213–218.

  8. La materia e il cielo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Zermani

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Il testo che l’architetto Paolo Zermani propone per questo convegno si articola in tre parti. La prima è premessa ai due esempi proposti dalla propria vasta attività di progettista. Si tratta di mettere a sbalzo la liminalità dello spazio sacro, ossia il suo costruirsi al limite tra terra e cielo, confine materiale di più ampia significanza simbolica, tra fisica e metafisica, tra elementi evocativi, comunque materiali, e il “cielo dei cieli” di cui parla Agostino.  Intersezione di queste valenze è ancora il tipo architettonico, nella sintesi tra oriente ed occidente offerta dalla cultura romana e dalla forma della croce.Il significato del paesaggio nella composizione dell’architettura è esemplificato nella descrizione di due progetti: il Cimitero di Sansepolcro e il Nuovo Tempio per la Cremazione di Parma, il primo innestato nel Paesaggio Collinare di Piero della Francesca, il secondo incastonato nelle maglie della Limitatio Romana della pianura padana in prossimità di Valera, recinto sacro e nuovo altare della città di Parma. (abstract a cura di Luigi Bartolomei

  9. Italian Textile Machines on Show at TECHTEXTILE 2009

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ In 2009 edition of Techtextil,which will take place next June in Frankfrut,ACIMIT (Association of Italian Textile Machinery Manufactures)and ICE (Italian Institute for Foreign Trade)have organized a Meeting Point.It will host about 10 Italian machinery manufacturers involved in the production of machines for technical textiles.

  10. China Becomes the Second Largest Market for Italian Textile

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    A few days ago, Milano Unica, the Italian Top Textile Fabric Exhibition was held in Beijing. Silvio Albini, President of the Italian textile fabric show, told reporters that China has become the second largest market for Italian textiles, including Hong Kong. Meanwhile, China is a complex fast-growing market with great demand.

  11. 75 FR 64611 - Italian American Heritage and Culture Month, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-19

    ... Proclamation 8585--Italian American Heritage and Culture Month, 2010 #0; #0; #0; Presidential Documents #0; #0...; #0; #0;Title 3-- #0;The President ] Proclamation 8585 of October 14, 2010 Italian American Heritage..., generations of Italian Americans have helped shape our society and steer the course of our history. During...

  12. Italian in the Linguistic Landscape of Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coluzzi, Paolo

    2017-01-01

    This article looks at the presence of Italian in the linguistic landscape (LL) of Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Rather surprisingly, Italian is quite visible, and it might even be the most used European language after English. After a general introduction on the Italian language and Malaysia, including the latter's LL, the article goes on to outline the…

  13. ITALIAN TEXTILE MACHINERY WORKSHOP IN SUZHOU(CHINA)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The Association of Italian Textile Machinery Manufacturers (ACIMIT)and the Italian Trade Commission(ICE)held a technical workshop on Italian textile machinery for the production of technical textiles and nonwovens in China.The workshop occurred in Suzhou(Juangsu Province),on May 24th-25th,2007.

  14. Il dolore nascosto: la malattia di Parkinson oltre il movimento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucio Tremolizzo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Il quadro clinico della malattia di Parkinson non è limitato ai classici sintomi motori, ma è arricchito da numerosi disordini non motori, significativamente correlati alla qualità di vita del paziente e dei caregivers. Si stima che quasi il 90% dei pazienti presenti almeno un sintomo non motorio durante la malattia.

  15. L’arte di vedere il mondo. Il nuovo realismo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr Voronskij

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Traduzione italiana del saggio di Aleksandr Voronskij L’arte di vedere il mondo. Il nuovo realismo (Iskusstvo videt’ mir. Sbornik statej, 1928, a cura di Cinzia De Lotto e Adalgisa Mingati.  

  16. Impact of Immunogenetic IL28B Polymorphism on Natural Outcome of HCV Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valli De Re

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With the aim of investigating whether interleukin 28B gene (IL28B rs1297860 polymorphism is associated with different hepatitis C (HCV infection statuses, we compared IL28B allelic distribution in an Italian case series of 1050 patients with chronic infection and different outcomes, 47 individuals who spontaneously cleared HCV, and 178 blood donors. Furthermore, we compared IL28B variants among 3882 Caucasian patients with chronic infection, 397 with spontaneous clearance, and 1366 blood donors reported in PubMed. Overall data confirmed a relation between IL28B C allele and HCV spontaneous clearance. Furthermore, we found that IL28B T allele had a weak relation with chronic HCV progression to hepatocellular carcinoma. Study findings are in accordance with the hepatocellular carcinogenic model where IL28B TT genotype, by promoting a persistent chronic hepatitis which leads to both hepatocyte injury and chronic inflammation, could facilitate HCC development. Conversely, patients with lymphoproliferative disorders had not any significantly different IL28B rs1297860 allelic distribution than those with chronic HCV, but, like all chronic HCV-related diseases, they showed a lower CC frequency than patients who spontaneously cleared HCV. Study results confirmed the model of persistent HCV infection as a risk factor for the pathogenesis of both liver and lymphoproliferative disorders.

  17. Personal monitoring services available at Institute for Radiation Protection of ENEA; Il servizo di dosimetria personale dell'Istituto per la Radioprotezione dell'ENEA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fantuzzi, E.; Bonarelli, T. [ENEA Centro Ricerche Ezio Clementel, Bologna (Italy). Dipt. Ambiente

    1999-07-01

    Personnel monitoring provides the means to measure and record the radiation doses received by individual workers. The ionising radiation decree (230/95) set out the circumstances when the assessment and recording of person's exposure is legally required. Many employers issue dosemeters to staff even though there is no legal requirement to do so. This may be part of a quality assurance programme or as a reassurance measure. Dosemeter readings will serve to ensure compliance with legal dose limits and assure the employer that radiation exposure is as low as reasonably achievable. The ENEA (National Agency for New Technology, Energy and the Environment) IRP (Institute for Radiation Protection) individual monitoring service has been running for over 30 years. It offers personnel dosemeters which are based on its expertise and backed up by continual research and development. The report provides details of the dosemeters in use at IRP enable to decide which ones most suit the needs and shows IMS's organisation, customer and communications, dose reports form and administrative items. A short mention of future development will also be given. [Italian] La dosimetria individuale fornisce gli strumenti per misurare e registrare le dosi da radiazioni ionizzanti ricevute dai lavoratori esposti. Il decreto legislativo 230/95 stabilisce le circostanze in cui il monitoraggio individuale e' legalmente richiesto. Molti datori di lavoro forniscono dosimetri individuali anche quando non vi e' una richiesta legale spesso per seguire le regole di un programma di assicurazione di qualita' relativo alla radioprotezione o per ottenere una conferma che il principio ALARA sia soddisfatto. Il servzio di dosimetria personale dell'Istituto per la Radioprotezione dell'ENEA e' attivo da oltre 30 anni e offre dosimetri sviluppati sulla propria esperienza nelle tecniche dosimetriche che vengono continuamente aggiornati e adeguati rispecchiando lo stato dell

  18. IL-1Ra对阿霉素肾病大鼠血清IL-6、IL-10、IL-13、IL-1的影响%EFFECTS OF IL-1 RECEPTOR ANTAGONIST ON SERUM IL-6,IL-10,IL-13,AND IL-1 LEVELS IN ADRIAMYCIN NEPHROSIS IN RATS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林娜; 刘运广; 覃志坚; 李强

    2009-01-01

    目的:探讨IL-1Ra对阿霉素肾病大鼠血清IL-6、IL-10、IL-13 、IL-1的影响.方法:将大鼠随机分为正常对照组(A组, n=10)、阿霉素肾病组(B组,n=10)、阿霉素肾病IL-1Ra治疗组(C组,n=10)、阿霉素肾病生理盐水治疗组(D组,n=10), 2周后检测尿24 hUP、血清IL-6、IL-10、IL-13、IL-1、Al、T-ch、BUN、Scr.结果:B、C、D组血清IL-6、IL-10、IL-13水平明显高于A组(P0.05).结论:IL-1Ra对阿霉素肾病大鼠有明显治疗作用的同时能提高抗炎细胞因子IL-6、IL-10、IL-13的血清水平.

  19. IL-5 and IL-5 receptor in asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotsimbos ATC

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophils, along with mast cells are key cells involved in the innate immune response against parasitic infection whereas the adaptive immune response is largely dependent on lymphocytes. In chronic parasitic disease and in chronic allergic disease, IL-5 is predominantly a T cell derived cytokine which is particularly important for the terminal differentiation, activation and survival of committed eosinophil precursors. The human IL-5 gene is located on chromosome 5 in a gene cluster that contains the evolutionary related IL-4 family of cytokine genes. The human IL-5 receptor complex is a heterodimer consisting of a unique a subunit (predominantly expressed on eosinophils and a beta subunit which is shared between the receptors for IL-3 & GM-CSF (more widely expressed. The a subunit is required for ligand-specific binding whereas association with the beta subunit results in increased binding affinity. The alternative splicing of the alphaIL-5R gene which contains 14 exons can yield several alphaIL-5R isoforms including a membrane-anchored isoform (alphaIL-5Rm and a soluble isoform (alphaIL-5Rs. Cytokines such as IL-5 produce specific and non-specific cellular responses through specific cell membrane receptor mediated activation of intracellular signal transduction pathways which, to a large part, regulate gene expression. The major intracellular signal transduction mechanism is activation of non-receptor associated tyrosine kinases including JAK and MAP kinases which can then transduce signals via a novel family of transcriptional factors named signal transducers and activators of transcription (STATS. JAK2, STAT1 and STAT 5 appear to be particularly important in IL-5 mediated eosinophil responses. Asthma is characterized by episodic airways obstruction, increased bronchial responsiveness, and airway inflammation. Several studies have shown an association between the number of activated T cells and eosinophils in the airways and abnormalities

  20. IL-1b, IL-6 and IL-8 Levels in Gyneco-Obstetric Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Basso

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. During pregnancy cytokines and inflammatory mediators stimulate the expression of prostaglandin, the levels of which determine the onset of labor. The aim of this work was to study interleukin IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-8 levels in the vaginal discharge, serum and urine of pregnant women with genitourinary infection before and after specific treatment. One hundred and fifty-one patients were studied during the second or third trimester of their pregnancy.

  1. IL-12 Family Cytokines: General Characteristics, Pathogenic Microorganisms, Receptors, and Signalling Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behzadi, Payam; Behzadi, Elham; Ranjbar, Reza

    2016-03-01

    Among a wide range of cytokines, the Interleukin 12 (IL-12) family has its unique structural, functional, and immunological characteristics that have made this family as important immunological playmakers. Because of the importance of IL-12 heterodimeric cytokines in microbial infections, autoimmune diseases, and cancers, the authors of this literature discuss about the general characteristics of IL-12 family members, the interactions between IL-12 cytokines and pathogenic microorganisms, the interleukins receptors and their strategies for selecting different signalling pathways. IL-12 and IL-23 are similar in p40 subunits and both are involved in proinflammatory responses while, IL-27 and IL-35 contribute to anti-inflammatory activities; however, IL-27 is also involved in pro-inflammatory responses. There are some similarities and dissimilarities among IL-12 family members which make them a unique bridge between innate and adaptive immune systems. The bioactivities of IL-12 family indicate a brilliant promise for their applications in different fields of medicine. The members of IL-12 family are candidate for several therapeutics including gene therapy, cancer therapy, tumour therapy, and vaccination. To have an accurate diagnostic technique and definite treatment regarding to infectious diseases, the playmakers of IL-12 family as effective criteria together with microarray technology are the best choices for current and future applications.

  2. Intestinal expression of the anti-inflammatory interleukin-1 homologue IL-37 in pediatric inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidlich, Simon; Bulau, Ana-Maria; Schwerd, Tobias; Althans, Johanna; Kappler, Roland; Koletzko, Sibylle; Mayr, Doris; Bufler, Philip

    2014-08-01

    The function of interleukin (IL)-37 has not been resolved. We recently showed that IL-37 suppresses colonic inflammation in mice. To gain more insight into its relevance in human disease, we investigated the expression of IL-37 in the intestine of pediatric patients with chronic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Intestinal biopsies were obtained from children with IBD (18 Crohn disease [CD], 14 ulcerative colitis [UC] and 11 controls) during endoscopy and analyzed for IL-37 expression by immunohistochemistry and real-time polymerase chain reaction. Results were correlated with immunostaining for IL-18 and IL-17, messenger RNA (mRNA) levels of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, and clinical parameters. IL-37 protein was detected in epithelial cells and submucosal lymphoid cells of patients with CD and UC as well as healthy controls. IL-37 protein expression tended to be higher with submucosal lymphoid cell infiltration of patients with CD and UC and correlated with histological severity score of inflammation. IL-18 showed a staining pattern similar to that of IL-37, whereas staining for IL-17 revealed distinct positive cells scattered in the submucosal layer. mRNA expression of IL-8, IL-17, and IL-10 was upregulated in patients with CD and UC. mRNA levels of IL-18 and IL-37 were not significantly elevated compared with controls. Levels of IL-37 and IL-18 mRNA showed a positive correlation in the CD group. IL-37 protein is expressed in healthy and diseased bowel tissue. IL-37 and IL-18 show a similar expression pattern and correlate at mRNA levels. Future studies are warranted to delineate the specific contribution of IL-37 to modulate chronic bowel inflammation in humans.

  3. Italian Crime Fiction: A Barbarian Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Weller

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes a means of analysing the differences between Detective Fiction and Crime Fiction, in terms of multi genre content, concentrating especially on the development of Italian works in these fields. It also provides a shortened case study, analysing The Hound of the Baskervilles in this way.

  4. Trading strategies in the Italian interbank market

    CERN Document Server

    Iori, Giulia; Renò, Roberto; Iori, Giulia

    2006-01-01

    Using a data set which includes all transactions among banks in the Italian money market, we study their trading strategies and the dependence among them. We use the Fourier method to compute the variance-covariance matrix of trading strategies. Our results indicate that well defined patterns arise. Two main communities of banks, which can be coarsely identified as small and large banks, emerge.

  5. Stress Assignment in Reading Italian Polysyllabic Pseudowords

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulpizio, Simone; Arduino, Lisa S.; Paizi, Despina; Burani, Cristina

    2013-01-01

    In 4 naming experiments we investigated how Italian readers assign stress to pseudowords. We assessed whether participants assign stress following distributional information such as stress neighborhood (the proportion and number of existent words sharing orthographic ending and stress pattern) and whether such distributional information affects…

  6. Opera: A Natural Component of Italian Courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Keith

    1998-01-01

    Presents ideas for a special unit about opera that can be used in high school or college Italian courses. Offers a rationale for using opera, discusses opera in terms of multiple intelligences, explains the integration of an opera unit into regular curriculum, and describes how to develop an opera unit and what concepts to teach. (SM)

  7. Gold Rush to China for Italian Machines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Italy exported two billion worth of textile machines in 2006, 46% of which went to Asia.China paid 365 million Euro to become the largest importer of ltaly’s machines in Aisa.China, a country that sustains Italian interest in coming,is the country where the investment in textile machines is growing...

  8. Italian Textite Machinery Industry Focuses on Sustainability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Ting

    2010-01-01

    @@ At the ITMA Asia+CITME 2010,which was held on June 22at the Shanghai New International Expo Centre in Shanghai,Italian textile machinery manufacturers represented one of the largest foreign delegations: 115exhibitors occupying a total surface area of about 4,000 sq.meters.

  9. Typical and Delayed Lexical Development in Italian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rescorla, Leslie; Frigerio, Alessandra; Sali, Maria Enrica; Spataro, Pietro; Longobardi, Emiddia

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The Language Development Survey (LDS; Rescorla, 1989) was used to compare Italian and English lexical development. The authors addressed the issue of universal versus language-specific aspects of lexical development by testing language, age, and gender effects on vocabulary scores and by comparing vocabulary composition across languages.…

  10. Opera: A Natural Component of Italian Courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Keith

    1998-01-01

    Presents ideas for a special unit about opera that can be used in high school or college Italian courses. Offers a rationale for using opera, discusses opera in terms of multiple intelligences, explains the integration of an opera unit into regular curriculum, and describes how to develop an opera unit and what concepts to teach. (SM)

  11. Stress Assignment in Reading Italian Polysyllabic Pseudowords

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulpizio, Simone; Arduino, Lisa S.; Paizi, Despina; Burani, Cristina

    2013-01-01

    In 4 naming experiments we investigated how Italian readers assign stress to pseudowords. We assessed whether participants assign stress following distributional information such as stress neighborhood (the proportion and number of existent words sharing orthographic ending and stress pattern) and whether such distributional information affects…

  12. The Eureka program and Italian participation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mancini, C.

    This paper describes the Eureka program. The topics developed are historical aspects, the relationship to the SDI program, funding, international cooperation, program management, incentives and problems regarding technology transfer. The Italian involvement is described with reference to research and development in various fields - science, medicine, telecommunications,etc.

  13. IPSE: The Italian package for scientific experiments on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angrilli, F.; Debei, S.; Rossi, F.; De Marchi, E.; Ferrario, R.; Prendin, W.; Terribile, A.; Espinasse, S.; Flaminis, E.

    2004-01-01

    Italian Package for Scientific Experiments (IPSE) is a scientific autonomous micro-laboratory for Mars soil and environmental in situ analysis. It is designed to provide the capability to serve, handle and manage scientific miniaturised instruments accommodated inside its envelope. It provides mission management, power conditioning, thermal control, data storage and handling. Its miniaturised sample transfer chain has the capability to receive, handle and accurately position Martian soil samples under the instruments. IPSE is an example of a small and flexible laboratory, that can be integrated on different Landers and Rovers. The strict constraints of the mission make optimisation (in terms of mass, volume, power and data storage) necessary to maximise the scientific payload. Hence, adopting state-of-the-art technological solutions becomes crucial. Technological evaluation models of the most challenging subsystems have been built. Possible future developments are outlined.

  14. Italian and Russian Verse: Two Cultures and Two Mentalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Garzonio

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Italian and Russian Verse: Two Cultures and Two Mentalities The present text was given as a talk at Stanford University in 2003. Here the author presents a comparative analysis of Russian and Italian versification and pays attention to the cultural contacts between these two poetical traditions in an effort to define the role played by Italian patterns in Russian verse. In this perspective the author offers a history of Russian poetical translation of Italian texts pointing out the different opinions of Russian poets about the “musicality” of Italian verse. The combined influence of language and culture in modelling different Russian poetical forms in a chronological perspective is underlined.

  15. The Wheelchair Use Confidence Scale: Italian translation, adaptation, and validation of the short form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berardi, Anna; De Santis, Rita; Tofani, Marco; Maru, Marquez; Santilli, Valter; Rushton, Paula W; Mollica, Roberta; Galeoto, Giovanni

    2017-07-31

    We developed an Italian version of the Wheelchair Use Confidence Scale for Manual Users-Short Form (WheelCon-M-I-short form) and examined its reliability and validity. The original scale was translated from English to Italian using the "Translation and Cultural Adaptation of Patient Reported Outcomes Measures-Principles of Good Practice" guidelines. The WheelCon-M-I-short form was administered to experienced manual wheelchair users who had a variety of diagnoses. Its internal consistency and test-retest reliability were examined. Its concurrent validity was evaluated using Pearson correlation coefficients with the Italian version of the Wheelchair Outcome Measure (WhOM-I) and the Italian version of the Barthel index (BI). The WheelCon-M-I-short form was administered to 31 subjects. The mean ± SD of the WheelCon-M-I-short form score was 7.5 ± 1.9. All WheelCon-M-I-short form items were either identical or similar in meaning to the WheelCon-M-short form items. Cronbach's α for the WheelCon-M-I-short form was 0.95 (p Italian BI scores was 0.638 (p Italian population. Implication for Rehabilitation The WheelCon-M-I-short form is a valid outcome measure available for assessing wheelchair confidence, according to Bandura's social cognitive theory, self-efficacy is a better predictor of future behavior than skill itself. Translation of the WheelCon-M-short form into the WheelCon-M-I-short form provides a new tool for Italian professionals. Clinicians now have a method to measure this invisible barrier to wheelchair use, and they will be able to make informed decisions when prescribing the use of manual wheelchairs and when training clients in their use. The WheelCon-M-I-short form also provides researchers with a tool in an important and relevant area of study for future research.

  16. Abitare il paradosso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Capra

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    L'articolo intende presentare spunti per una rilettura delle tesi esposte da Donald Woods Winnicott secondo una prospettiva filosofica di stampo pragmatico-ermeneutico, con particolare riferimento al tema della istituzione e costituzione della relazione oggettuale, nell’intento di ricercare, rendendolo evidente, il lgouo dvoe un oegtgto copmlesso cmoe qeutsa fsrae asusme un singifiacto e la fliosoifa, sloo in un mdoo più avevrtito riseptto alle sicezne, è psosiblie.

    To inhabit the paradox

    The article aims to present ideas for a new reading of theses expounded by Donald Woods Winnicott, according to a philosophical perspective of pragmatic-hermeneutic kind, with special reference to the establishment and constitution of the object relationship, in order to search, making it clear, the palce wehre an ojbect as copmelx as tihs prahse tkeas on a maeinng and piholposhy, olny in a way mroe exerpineced tahn secinecs, is psoislbe.

     

     

  17. Translating Jane Austen’s Mansfield Park for contemporary Italian readers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Sangiorgi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract - My Italian translation of the novel Mansfield Park by Jane Austen was published by Rusconi Libri in 2012. The present contribution aims to describe and discuss some aspects of my practical experience in translating this novel. A particular focus will be on the issue of what it means, from both the cultural and the literary point of view, to translate this book into Italian in the 21st century, and on the strategies I adopted in order to translate certain aspects of the author’s language and style. Riassunto - Nel 2012 è stata pubblicata la mia traduzione in lingua italiana del romanzo Mansfield Park di Jane Austen. Il presente contributo intende osservare e discutere alcuni elementi culturali e linguistici legati al processo traduttivo di questo testo, con particolare riferimento a due principali questioni. La prima riguarda il significato stesso del tradurre in lingua italiana l’opera di Jane Austen nel ventunesimo secolo, sia dal punto di vista culturale che letterario. La seconda questione entra nel merito delle strategie traduttive che ho scelto per rendere specifici aspetti del linguaggio e dello stile propri dell’autrice inglese.

  18. E-books for Italian school, between Law Requirements and Publishers' Choices L'ebook per le scuole italiane fra requisiti normativi e scelte editoriali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Vincelli

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Il saggio presenta un'analisi del quadro legislativo italiano sulla transizione dei libri di testo dal formato cartaceo a quello digitale, oltre a una panoramica sull'offerta dei maggiori editori a riguardo, prendendo come esempio i libri di testo di Latino per le scuole superiori. Il concetto di libro digitale viene declinato oggi principalmente in due forme: il libro "on-line", digitale (generalmente in PDF o Epub, equivalente ai testi tradizionali a stampa per struttura e tipo di utilizzo; il libro che integra le caratteristiche del libro sia digitale che a stampa con una serie di materiali digitali supplementari. L'opinione dell'autrice è che l'offerta di pubblicazioni scolastiche in formato digitale si attiene a un'interpretazione limitata della legge italiana, e che dunque si prospettano nuove ipotesi che possano unire in modo efficace l'autorevolezza e il valore culturale dei libri di testo con le soluzioni più avanzate del digitale.

    This paper offers an analysis of the Italian legislation about the transition from printed school-books to digital ones and, in turn, it presents an overview of the digital publishing offer of major media groups, by taking as case study the Latin textbooks for high-schools. The concept of digital book has been declined nowadays in two main forms: the first one is the so-called "on-line book", which are digital books (typically in PDF or ePub format equivalent in structure and in the mode of use to classical printed books; the latter form integrates printed or digital books with a set of varied, and often incoherent, supplementary digital materials. The conclusion is that the current offer of digital publishing about school-books is a narrow interpretation of the Italian legislation, and thus it foresees the design of new paradigms that efficaciously merge the authoritativeness and cultural value of school-books with the advanced features and the new way of uses of digital media.

  19. A workflow for in silico design of hIL-10 and ebvIL-10 inhibitors using well-known miniprotein scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dueñas, Salvador; Aguila, Sergio A; Pimienta, Genaro

    2017-04-01

    The over-expression of immune-suppressors such as IL-10 is a crucial landmark in both tumor progression, and latent viral and parasite infection. IL-10 is a multifunctional protein. Besides its immune-cell suppressive function, it also promotes B-cell tumorigenesis of lymphomas and melanoma. Human pathogens like unicellular parasites and viruses that remain latent inside B cells promote the over-expression of hIL-10 upon infection, which inhibits cell-mediated immune surveillance, and at the same time mediates B cell proliferation. The B-cell specific oncogenic latent virus Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) encodes a viral homologue of hIL-10 (ebvIL-10), expressed during lytic viral proliferation. Once expressed, ebvIL-10 inhibits cell-mediated immune surveillance, assuring EBV re-infection. During long-term latency, EBV-infected B cells over-express hIL-10 to assure B-cell proliferation, occasionally inducing EBV-mediated lymphomas. The amino acid sequences of hIL-10 and ebvIL-10 are more than 80% identical and thus have a very similar tridimensional structure. Based on their published crystallographic structures bound to their human receptor IL10R1, we report a structure-based design of hIL-10 and ebvIL-10 inhibitors based on 3 loops from IL10R1 that establish specific hydrogen bonds with the two IL10s. We have grafted these loops onto a permissible loop in three well-known miniprotein scaffolds-the Conus snail toxin MVIIA, the plant-derived trypsin inhibitor EETI, and the human appetite modulator AgRP. Our computational workflow described in detail below was invigorated by the negative and positive controls implemented, and therefore paves the way for future in vitro and in vivo validation assays of the IL-10 inhibitors engineered.

  20. IL-3 and IL-33 induces IL-9 secretion from human basophils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Britta C.; Jensen, Bettina Margrethe; Blom, Lars

    Background IL-9 has been suggested to play an important role in chronic inflammation due to its effect on remodeling and cell recruitment. Since basophils can be found in inflamed tissue, we wanted to test if human basophils are capable of secreting IL-9 under the influence of growth or tissue...... factors like IL-3 or IL-33, respectively. Methods Basophils, purified from buffy coat blood by negative selection (purity > 95%), were cultured for 24 hours in RPMI culture medium (1x106 cells/ml) supplemented with 5% human serum, and IL-3 (10 ng/ml) and/or IL-33 (50 ng/ml). The cells were then analysed...... by FACS for ST2 expression where basophils were gated as FceRIa+CD3-CD14-CD19-CD56-. The supernatant was tested for IL-9 using a multiplex magnetic bead assay. Results Human basophils have recently been described to express the IL-33 receptor ST2. In agreement with previous findings, our results showed...

  1. IL CAMPO GEOMAGNETICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. MOLINA

    1972-06-01

    Full Text Available Questo lavoro non è un trattato sul campo geomagnetico e nemmeno
    una rassegna sull'argomento, almeno nel significato che normalmente
    si attribuisce al termine « rassegna »; esso è semplicemente
    un tentativo di condensare in termini comprensibili agli studiosi non
    specializzati ciò che oggi si sa o si ipotizza sul magnetismo terrestre
    e sulle sue cause. Chi scrive si è sempre trovato a disagio di fronte
    alle richieste di una spiegazione sull'origine del campo magnetico
    terrestre: o si cerca di cavarsela con poche parole (« si tratta di correnti
    elettriche indotte nell'interno della Terra » che possono forse accontentare
    chi non si occupa in modo particolare di problemi scientifici
    ma non possono soddisfare un fisico, oppure ci si sente obbligati a
    tentare faticosamente di approfondire, sia per capirli personalmente
    che per poterli poi spiegare agli altri, argomenti e ragionamenti che
    sono in realtà accessibili solo a un fisico teorico ben preparato. Apparentemente
    non esiste una via di mezzo, come del resto in molti altri
    campi della fisica contemporanea.
    La presente monografia rappresenta appunto il tentativo di trovare
    questa via di mezzo: nel terzo capitolo, dedicato alle teorie sull'origine
    del campo geomagnetico, si cerca di descrivere qualitativamente
    i principali processi fisici proposti come sorgenti del campo,
    dopo un accenno ai fondamenti fisici e matematici sui quali sono state
    elaborate le varie teorie. Senza farmi soverchie illusioni di essere riuscito
    nell'intento, mi dichiarerei tuttavia soddisfatto se questo lavoro
    destasse sull'argomento l'interesse di qualche giovane ricercatore, incoraggiandolo
    ad un approfondimento.

  2. Il degrado abusivo e il "degrado legale" del territorio: gli ecomostri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Cicchetti

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Il fenomeno di una urbanizzazione senza criteri né misure, collegata a ragioni turistiche, molto spesso opportunistiche, è affrontato dalla giurisprudenza nella sua azione di controllo del territorio: ne sono un caso esemplare gli “ecomostri”, ormai comunemente e tristemente sono conosciuti dalla società civile. Queste costruzioni di grande impatto territoriale, ambientale e paesaggistico, in alcuni casi sono legittimati da interventi normativi non bene soppesati e in altri avvengono in maniera c.d. abusiva, con l’unica conseguenza, in entrambe le ipotesi, di deturpare l’ambiente circostante sotto molteplici profili, non ultimo quello incidente su località turistiche. Il contributo si pone l’obiettivo di contribuire ad una politica turistica attenta al profilo ambientale: occorre individuare una maggiore cogenza e conoscenza normativa a favore di una pianificazione urbanistica e politica del paesaggio, in grado di sostenere il recupero, la riqualificazione e valorizzazione delle bellezze naturali presenti sul territorio. Solo il coinvolgimento e la necessaria collaborazione di tutti i soggetti del territorio per una programmazione orientata a realizzare uno «sviluppo capace di rispondere ai bisogni delle generazioni attuali, senza compromettere la capacità delle generazioni future di rispondere ai propri».

  3. Il discreto e il continuo complementarita in matematica

    CERN Document Server

    Kuyk, Willem

    1982-01-01

    Nato dall'esperienza didattica dell'autore, il libro si presenta come un testo interdisciplinare di matematica e di filosofia, inteso a fornire un quadro complessivo dello stato attuale dei fondamenti della matematica.

  4. IFN-γ, IL-4 and IL-13 modulate responsiveness of human airway smooth muscle cells to IL-13

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michoud Marie-Claire

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background IL-13 is a critical mediator of allergic asthma and associated airway hyperresponsiveness. IL-13 acts through a receptor complex comprised of IL-13Rα1 and IL-4Rα subunits with subsequent activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 6 (STAT6. The IL-13Rα2 receptor may act as a decoy receptor. In human airway smooth muscle (HASM cells, IL-13 enhances cellular proliferation, calcium responses to agonists and induces eotaxin production. We investigated the effects of pre-treatment with IL-4, IL-13 and IFN-γ on the responses of HASM cells to IL-13. Methods Cultured HASM were examined for expression of IL-13 receptor subunits using polymerase chain reaction, immunofluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. Effects of cytokine pre-treatment on IL-13-induced cell responses were assessed by looking at STAT6 phosphorylation using Western blot, eotaxin secretion and calcium responses to histamine. Results IL-13Rα1, IL-4Rα and IL-13Rα2 subunits were expressed on HASM cells. IL-13 induced phosphorylation of STAT6 which reached a maximum by 30 minutes. Pre-treatment with IL-4, IL-13 and, to a lesser degree, IFN-γ reduced peak STAT6 phosphorylation in response to IL-13. IL-13, but not IFN-γ, pre-treatment abrogated IL-13-induced eotaxin secretion. Pre-treatment with IL-4 or IL-13 abrogated IL-13-induced augmentation of the calcium transient evoked by histamine. Cytokine pre-treatment did not affect expression of IL-13Rα1 and IL-4Rα but increased expression of IL-13Rα2. An anti-IL-13Rα2 neutralizing antibody did not prevent the cytokine pre-treatment effects on STAT6 phosphorylation. Cytokine pre-treatment increased SOCS-1, but not SOCS-3, mRNA expression which was not associated with significant increases in protein expression. Conclusion Pre-treatment with IL-4 and IL-13, but not IFN-γ, induced desensitization of the HASM cells to IL-13 as measured by eotaxin secretion and calcium transients to histamine

  5. Radiation technology facilities operating at the italian ENEA-Casaccia research center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tata, A.; Festinesi, A.; Rosa, R. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy). Dipt. Innovazione

    1998-04-01

    The ENEA Casaccia Research Center, 20 km far from Rome, is the main Italian technological research Center, with more than 2000 scientists involved in several advanced research fields (materials, energy, environment, etc.). Within the frame of radiation technology, three main facilities are in service at full power at the Casaccia research Center: a 1 MW TRIGA Mark II reactor (RC-1); a 5 kW fast source reactor (TAPIRO); a 3.7 x 10{sup 15} Bq Cobalt-60 irradiation plant (CALLIOPE). Main R-D programmes carried out regard medical radioisotopes and radio trackers production, neutron radiography, neutron activation analysis, radiation damage analysis, neutron diffractometry, foodstuffs treatment, crosslinking processes, wastes (hazardous, chemical, hospital) processing. The paper provides a features description of utilized facilities and reports main present carried out projects. [Italiano] Il Centro Ricerca ENEA della casaccia, situato a 20 km circa da Roma, e` il maggiore centro di ricerca tecnologica italiano, con oltre 2000 ricercatori impegnati in numerosi campi di ricerca avanzata (materiali, energia, ambiente, etc.). Nell`ambito delle tecnologie di irraggiamento, sono presenti e pienamente funzionanti presso il C.R. Casaccia tre principali impianti: un reattore termico TRIGA mark II da 1 MW (RC-1); un reattore-sorgente veloce da 5 kW (TAPIRO); un impianto di irraggiamento a Cobalto-60 da 3.7. x 10{sup 15} Bq (CALLIOPE). I principali programmi R-D condotti riguardano la produzione di radioisotopi e radiotraccianti di utilizzo in campo medico, la radiografia neutronica, l`analisi per attivazione neutronica, l`analisi del danno da radiazioni, la diffrattometria neutronica, il trattamento di derrate alimentari, i processi di reticolazione polimerica, il trattamento di rifiuti (tossico-nocivi, chimici, ospedaliri). Il presente lavoro fornisce una descrizione tecnica degli impianti, nonche` indicazioni sui principali programmo condotti attualmente presso tali impienti.

  6. La riforma del sistema previdenziale ovvero il rapporto che non fu scritto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. CASTELLINO

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The Italian pension system, historically formed through continuously overlapping layers that lacked the foundation of a unified vision and the ability to look beyond short-term effects, possessed major characteristics of imbalance and of inequality at the beginning of the 1990s. Today a further intervention in the pension system is necessary to integrate and complete (and in some respects correct the process of rationalisation and reorganisation that began with the measures taken in 1992, and to bring the burden on future generations back to tolerable levels.  JEL Codes: H55Keywords: Social security, Italian pension system

  7. Psychometric properties of the Italian version of the Developmental Coordination Disorder Questionnaire (DCDQ-Italian).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caravale, Barbara; Baldi, Silvia; Capone, Luca; Presaghi, Fabio; Balottin, Umberto; Zoppello, Marina

    2014-11-14

    A valid tool that contributes to the diagnosis of Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) is represented by the Developmental Coordination Disorder Questionnaire 2007 (DCDQ'07). Recently we developed the Italian version of DCDQ (DCDQ-Italian). The aim of this study was to further analyze the psychometric properties in a sample of Italian school children aged 5-12 years and to establish cut-off scores with respect to age groups. A total of 698 parents completed the DCDQ-Italian and 45 of them repeated it after 2 weeks for test-retest reliability. One hundred and seventeen children were tested using the Movement Assessment Battery for Children. Confirmatory factor analysis supported this version to be consistent with the original. Cronbach's alpha for the total score was 0.89 and test-retest reliability was 0.88. Two-ways ANOVA for total and single subscales showed a significant main effect for age group only and not for gender. Sensitivity and specificity for our community based sample were 59% and 65% respectively, considering the cut-off scores for the 15th percentile of M-ABC and increasing when age groups were taken into account (ROC curve=0.62). The agreement with the original was good if 15th is considered. This is the first study on the psychometric property of DCDQ in a community sample of Italian children. The DCDQ-Italian could be used as a screening tool for motor coordination difficulties in Italian children. Slight differences in cut-offs should be considered when using this version. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. IL6 and IL10 are genetic susceptibility factors of periodontal disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Scapoli

    2012-01-01

    Conclusions: The present investigation indicated that polymorphisms of IL6 and IL10 constitute risk factors for chronic periodontitis, while there was no evidence implicating a specific IL1A or IL1B genotype.

  9. Prostaglandin mediates IL-23/IL-17-induced neutrophil migration in inflammation by inhibiting IL-12 and IFNγ production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemos, Henrique P.; Grespan, Renata; Vieira, Silvio M.; Cunha, Thiago M.; Verri, Waldiceu A.; Fernandes, Karla S. S.; Souto, Fabricio O.; McInnes, Iain B.; Ferreira, Sergio H.; Liew, Foo Y.; Cunha, Fernando Q.

    2009-01-01

    IL-23/IL-17-induced neutrophil recruitment plays a pivotal role in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). However, the mechanism of the neutrophil recruitment is obscure. Here we report that prostaglandin enhances the IL-23/IL-17-induced neutrophil migration in a murine model of RA by inhibiting IL-12 and IFN γ production. Methylated BSA (mBSA) and IL-23-induced neutrophil migration was inhibited by anti-IL-23 and anti-IL-17 antibodies, COX inhibitors, IL-12, or IFNγ but was enhanced by prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). IL-23-induced IL-17 production was increased by PGE2 and suppressed by COX-inhibition or IL-12. Furthermore, COX inhibition failed to reduce IL-23-induced neutrophil migration in IL-12- or IFNγ-deficient mice. IL-17-induced neutrophil migration was not affected by COX inhibitors, IL-12, or IFNγ but was inhibited by MK886 (a leukotriene synthesis inhibitor), anti-TNFα, anti-CXCL1, and anti-CXCL5 antibodies and by repertaxin (a CXCR1/2 antagonist). These treatments all inhibited mBSA- or IL-23-induced neutrophil migration. IL-17 induced neutrophil chemotaxis through a CXC chemokines-dependent pathway. Our results suggest that prostaglandin plays an important role in IL-23-induced neutrophil migration in arthritis by enhancing IL-17 synthesis and by inhibiting IL-12 and IFNγ production. We thus provide a mechanism for the pathogenic role of the IL-23/IL-17 axis in RA and also suggest an additional mechanism of action for nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. PMID:19289819

  10. Prostaglandin mediates IL-23/IL-17-induced neutrophil migration in inflammation by inhibiting IL-12 and IFNgamma production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemos, Henrique P; Grespan, Renata; Vieira, Silvio M; Cunha, Thiago M; Verri, Waldiceu A; Fernandes, Karla S S; Souto, Fabricio O; McInnes, Iain B; Ferreira, Sergio H; Liew, Foo Y; Cunha, Fernando Q

    2009-04-07

    IL-23/IL-17-induced neutrophil recruitment plays a pivotal role in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). However, the mechanism of the neutrophil recruitment is obscure. Here we report that prostaglandin enhances the IL-23/IL-17-induced neutrophil migration in a murine model of RA by inhibiting IL-12 and IFN gamma production. Methylated BSA (mBSA) and IL-23-induced neutrophil migration was inhibited by anti-IL-23 and anti-IL-17 antibodies, COX inhibitors, IL-12, or IFNgamma but was enhanced by prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)). IL-23-induced IL-17 production was increased by PGE(2) and suppressed by COX-inhibition or IL-12. Furthermore, COX inhibition failed to reduce IL-23-induced neutrophil migration in IL-12- or IFNgamma-deficient mice. IL-17-induced neutrophil migration was not affected by COX inhibitors, IL-12, or IFNgamma but was inhibited by MK886 (a leukotriene synthesis inhibitor), anti-TNFalpha, anti-CXCL1, and anti-CXCL5 antibodies and by repertaxin (a CXCR1/2 antagonist). These treatments all inhibited mBSA- or IL-23-induced neutrophil migration. IL-17 induced neutrophil chemotaxis through a CXC chemokines-dependent pathway. Our results suggest that prostaglandin plays an important role in IL-23-induced neutrophil migration in arthritis by enhancing IL-17 synthesis and by inhibiting IL-12 and IFNgamma production. We thus provide a mechanism for the pathogenic role of the IL-23/IL-17 axis in RA and also suggest an additional mechanism of action for nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.

  11. Biomass consumption for energetic purpose in the household sector; Il consumo energetico di biomassa a fini domestici nel settore domestico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerardi, V.; Perrella, G. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, S. Maria di Galeria, RM (Italy). Dipt. Energia; Masia, F. [CIRM Research market srl, Milan (Italy)

    1999-07-01

    The report shows the results of a sampling survey performed to determine the biomass consumption for energetic purpose in the household sector. In particular, the methodology and sampling plan adopted to get a result with an error, at national level, of {+-}2.4%. are illustrated. Data are described and discusses. [Italian] Nel rapproto sono riportati i risultati di una indagine campionaria effettuata per determinare il consumo di biomassa a fini energetici nel settore domestico. Viene illustrata la metodologia ed il piano di campionamento adottato per avere un risultato che abbia a livello nazionale un errore del {+-}2.4%. I dati riportati vengono analizzati e discussi.

  12. Correlation of Serum IL-12, IL-10 and IL-18 and TB%血清IL-12、IL-10及IL-18与肺结核的相关性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗建业; 邓菲丹

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of tuberculosis patients serum interleukin-12(IL-12), interleukin-10 (IL-10) and interleukin-18(IL-18) expression in and of serum IL-12, IL-10 and IL-18 with tuberculosis relevance. Methods Randomly select the first 80 cases of pulmonary tuber-culosis retreatment group, 120 cases of pulmonary tuberculosis for initial treatment group, 100 cases of physical health for the control group; blood were detected three groups of IL-12, IL-10 and IL-18 levels and compared three groups of serum IL-12, IL-10 and IL-18 levels and clinical significance proposed. Results Before treatment, the retreatment group serum IL-12, IL-10 and IL-18 levels were significantly higher than the initial treatment group and the control group, which differences were statistically significant (P0.05). Conclusions IL-12, IL-10 and IL-18 involved in the incidence of tuberculosis, development, testing related to serum lev-els of inflammatory factors contribute to the assessment of pulmonary disease and therapeutic effi-cacy of the change process.%目的:探讨肺结核患者对血清白细胞介素-12(IL-12)、白细胞介素-10(IL-10)和白细胞介素-18(IL-18)表达的影响,并分析血清IL-12、IL-10和IL-18与肺结核的相关性。方法随机选择首次复治肺结核80例为复治组,初治肺结核120例为初治组,体检健康100例为对照组;分别检测三组的血IL-12、IL-10和IL-18水平,并比较三组血清IL-12、IL-10和IL-18水平与临床意义。结果治疗前,复治组血清IL-12、IL-10和IL-18水平均明显高于初治组、对照组,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05);初治组血清IL-12、IL-10和IL-18水平均与对照组比较,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05);治疗后,三组的血清IL-12、IL-10和IL-18水平均比较,差异均无有统计学意义(P>0.05)。结论 IL-12、IL-10和IL-18参与了肺结核的发生、发展,检测相关血清炎症因子水平有助于对肺结核疾病

  13. Italian students win a trip to CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    The six winners of the Progetto Lauree Scientifiche came to CERN to discover the LHC experiments. Six Italian high-school students visited CERN last week as part of a biennial project sponsored by the Italian Research ministry, the University of Ferrara and INFN. A total of 160 enthusiastic students took part in the project, which aims to introduce and foster interest in higher levels of science and technology. The Progetto Lauree Scientifiche prize was awarded to these students for their excellent grades in an examination covering various areas of physics, including laser, solid and particle physics. The winners spent six days at CERN touring the Laboratory and seeing first-hand the various aspects of research in one of the leading European centres, as well as the excitement of the particle physics adventure.

  14. 22nd Italian Workshop on Neural Nets

    CERN Document Server

    Bassis, Simone; Esposito, Anna; Morabito, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    This volume collects a selection of contributions which has been presented at the 22nd Italian Workshop on Neural Networks, the yearly meeting of the Italian Society for Neural Networks (SIREN). The conference was held in Italy, Vietri sul Mare (Salerno), during May 17-19, 2012. The annual meeting of SIREN is sponsored by International Neural Network Society (INNS), European Neural Network Society (ENNS) and IEEE Computational Intelligence Society (CIS). The book – as well as the workshop-  is organized in three main components, two special sessions and a group of regular sessions featuring different aspects and point of views of artificial neural networks and natural intelligence, also including applications of present compelling interest.

  15. Genetic variability of Italian Heavy Draught Horse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Maretto

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze the genetic variability of the Italian Heavy Draught Horse (IHDH breed using a panel of 23 microsatellite markers. We also compared the population structure of the IHDH to other two unrelated breeds (Italian Haflinger, IH and Quarter Horse, QH. The IHDH showed a genetic variability comparable with other European heavy draught horse breeds and with the IH and QH breeds analyzed. Clustering analyses using a posterior Bayesian approach clearly differentiated the three breeds; it also showed a fragmentation of the IHDH in three subpopulations that need to be further investigated. These findings are an indicator of the present situation of the IHDH and will contribute to the conservation and implementation of the selection programme for this breed.

  16. Association study of functional polymorphisms in interleukins and interleukin receptors genes: IL1A, IL1B, IL1RN, IL6, IL6R, IL10, IL10RA and TGFB1 in schizophrenia in Polish population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapelski, Pawel; Skibinska, Maria; Maciukiewicz, Malgorzata; Wilkosc, Monika; Frydecka, Dorota; Groszewska, Agata; Narozna, Beata; Dmitrzak-Weglarz, Monika; Czerski, Piotr; Pawlak, Joanna; Rajewska-Rager, Aleksandra; Leszczynska-Rodziewicz, Anna; Slopien, Agnieszka; Zaremba, Dorota; Twarowska-Hauser, Joanna

    2015-12-01

    Schizophrenia has been associated with a large range of autoimmune diseases, with a history of any autoimmune disease being associated with a 45% increase in risk for the illness. The inflammatory system may trigger or modulate the course of schizophrenia through complex mechanisms influencing neurodevelopment, neuroplasticity and neurotransmission. In particular, increases or imbalance in cytokine before birth or during the early stages of life may affect neurodevelopment and produce vulnerability to the disease. A total of 27 polymorphisms of IL1N gene: rs1800587, rs17561; IL1B gene: rs1143634, rs1143643, rs16944, rs4848306, rs1143623, rs1143633, rs1143627; IL1RN gene: rs419598, rs315952, rs9005, rs4251961; IL6 gene: rs1800795, rs1800797; IL6R gene: rs4537545, rs4845617, rs2228145, IL10 gene: rs1800896, rs1800871, rs1800872, rs1800890, rs6676671; IL10RA gene: rs2229113, rs3135932; TGF1B gene: rs1800469, rs1800470; each selected on the basis of molecular evidence for functionality, were investigated in this study. Analysis was performed on a group of 621 patients with diagnosis of schizophrenia and 531 healthy controls in Polish population. An association of rs4848306 in IL1B gene, rs4251961 in IL1RN gene, rs2228145 and rs4537545 in IL6R with schizophrenia have been observed. rs6676671 in IL10 was associated with early age of onset. Strong linkage disequilibrium was observed between analyzed polymorphisms in each gene, except of IL10RA. We observed that haplotypes composed of rs4537545 and rs2228145 in IL6R gene were associated with schizophrenia. Analyses with family history of schizophrenia, other psychiatric disorders and alcohol abuse/dependence did not show any positive findings. Further studies on larger groups along with correlation with circulating protein levels are needed.

  17. The italian zoological gardens and their role in mammal systematic studies, conservation biology and museum collections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spartaco Gippoliti

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The opportunities offered to scientific research by living mammal collections are generally overlooked in Italy. This paper presents a short historical overview of the scientific investigations done on captive mammals from Italian zoos, especially those concerning taxonomic research. A glimpse of the opportunities offered by zoo specimens for scientific research is presented utilising examples from the National Museums Scotland. The importance of increasing care in the identification of individual animals by studbook and ISIS numbers is also highlighted. We argue that a stronger collaboration between zoos, museums and universities is needed to maximise the scientific and conservation value of Italian mammal collections. Riassunto I giardini zoologici italiani e il loro ruolo negli studi sistematici sui mammiferi, biologia della conservazione e collezioni museali. Generalmente, in Italia, le opportunità scientifiche offerte dai reperti provenienti da giardini zoologici sono sottovalutate. Il presente lavoro offre una sintesi storica delle ricerche, soprattutto di carattere tassonomico e sistematico, realizzate su materiale di zoo italiani. Vengono presentati poi esempi delle ricerche compiute presso i National Museums della Scozia utilizzando materiale proveniente da zoo di tutta Europa, e le loro ricadute nel campo della sistematica, biologia della conservazione e benessere animale. Viene evidenziata la necessità di incrementare le informazioni concernenti ogni individuo in cattività, anche utilizzando i sistemi identificativi quali studbook e ISIS, per massimizzarne il valore scientifico. Si conclude chiedendo una maggiore collaborazione tra zoo e musei italiani, a tutto vantaggio della comunità scientifica nazionale.

  18. Satellite reentry predictions for the Italian civil protection authorities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anselmo, Luciano; Pardini, Carmen

    2013-06-01

    and remarkably stable, all qualities that made it very useful for civil protection applications. This paper presents the work done, the information issued to the Italian authorities, the results obtained and the lesson learned during the three above mentioned campaigns. They might be of some help and offer useful insights on reentry predictions for civil protection applications if really dangerous space objects were to decay from orbit without control in the future.

  19. A note on the Italian public debt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. GIAVAZZI

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The work deals with the current level and growth rate of Italy’s public debt. First, by looking at the evidence available, the author establishes the causes of the rapid growth in public debt, and the extent to which the Italian experience has been shared by other European countries. The issue of dynamic instability is then addressed. Finally, the author attempts to answer the question whether a fiscal contraction now is indeed a reasonable policy option.  

  20. The Liberty Style - Italian Art Nouveau Architecture

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    Goriunov Vasilii

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article refers the architecture of Italy of the end of the 19- the beginning of the 20 centuries. It shoes the origin of the term “Italian Liberty architecture”, its main centers, its peculiarities and the buildings of its leading representatives. The assessment of importance of such studies provide the right understanding of the processes in European architecture of this time.

  1. Porta Palazzo, Anthropology of an Italian Market

    OpenAIRE

    Medina, F. Xavier

    2014-01-01

    Rachel E. Black, Porta Palazzo, The Anthropology of an Italian Market, Philadelphia, University of Pennsylvania Press, 2012, 221 pp. Foreword by Carlo Petrini. Markets are trading spaces of a universal nature. They are places where people buy and sell small quantities of goods – mostly food, though not exclusively. Markets are also prime, symbolic places for fresh products; displayed in an eye-catching way, the goods emanate a whole range of colours, textures, aromas and smells that captivate...

  2. Nutritional habits in Italian university students

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Dietary habits have been indicated by research as key elements in both disease pathogenesis and prevention and health promotion. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analyzed data collected from Italian university students regarding consumption of fruits, vegetables, fast-foods, sweets, energizing drinks, and coffee, average number of eating episodes per day and regularity of breakfast habits. RESULTS: 44% of the university student population eats in average at least 1 portion of fruit per...

  3. Europeanization Process in Italian Social Work Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The article shows the process of Europeanization of the Italian social work education. After a brief excursus of the development of social work education in Italy, the paper presents the experiences made in the context of Socrates Erasmus project. Considering the results of the Thematic Network in Social Work organised by Parma University, some reflections are presented on the effects of Europeanization both respect the teachers and the students.

  4. Italian Microhistory, anthropology and judicial archives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eulalia Hernández Ciro

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available From the interceptions between the Italian microhistory and anthropology, this article aims to provide a central debate of contemporary historiography account of popular culture and subaltern classes from the intensive and exhaustive judicial proceedings. To do this, some of the impacts of anthropology will be addressed in the historical work, as the appearance and questioning notion of popular culture, the ethnographic value of court files and finally, some possibilities in the case of Judicial Historical Archive of Medellin.

  5. Itineraries and specificities of Italian medical anthropology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seppilli, Tullio

    2012-04-01

    This paper describes the birth (or rebirth) of Italian medical anthropology around the middle of the 1950s, and its subsequent complex development up to the present. During this fairly long process, the author played a role that was probably of some importance, that of both a direct witness and active participant. Here these developments are briefly reviewed, in an attempt to single out some of the stimuli and the most significant occasions that have happened, their theoretical and methodological reference points, the main lines of research that have been tackled along the way, as well as the 'social demand' and the 'social use' that have integrated and oriented the practice of the new discipline within the horizon of some of the more general problems of Italian society. In outlining here the profile of and the various events in Italian medical anthropology, this paper takes into account the fact that, although a medical anthropology with that name and the disciplinary set-up that are now internationally attributed to it began in Italy only in the mid-1950s, important lines of research to which we would today attach that name had been undertaken long ago.

  6. Ionizing radiations in Italian health care structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fizzano, M.R.; Frusteri, L. [Technical Advisory Dept. for Risk Assessment and Prevention, Italian Workers Compensation Authority, Rome (Italy)

    2006-07-01

    The Council of the European Union has completely renewed the framework regarding radiation protection by adopting some directives: Directive 97/43 EURATOM lays down the general principles of the radiation protection of individuals undergoing exposure to ionising radiations related to medical exposures, as a supplement of Directive 96/29 EURATOM laying down the basic safety standards for the protection of the health of workers and the general public against the dangers arising from ionising radiations.The incorporation into Italian legislation of the European Community directives on the improvement of health and safety at work has promoted a vast effort in order to revise the surveillance approach in many facilities, including hospitals. In Italy, safety law is referred to every workplace; anyway the use of ionising radiations is ruled by specific laws. So in the health care structures it is necessary integrating both the laws and this process is often difficult to carry on. The Italian Legislative Decree 230/95, one the main laws that aim to protect workers against ionising radiations, introduced Directive 96/29/EURATOM. This Decree asks that a doctor and a technical expert analyse the workplace and classify area and workers in according to dose of ionising radiation established by law. The Italian Legislative Decree 626/94 asks that risk analysis in general is made by doctor and specialist in risk. So, in case of risk from ionising radiation, all these figures have to cooperate in order to make an evaluation risk document. (N.C.)

  7. The geochemical atlas of Italian soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vivo, Benedetto; Cicchella, Domenico; Albanese, Stefano; Dinelli, Enrico; Giaccio, Lucia; Lima, Annamaria; Valera, Paolo

    2014-05-01

    The geochemical Atlas of Italian agricultural and grazing land soils was carried out as part of GEMAS project whose objective was to characterize soils of rural areas of the whole Europe. Soil samples were collected at an average sampling density of 1 site per 2500 km2. Two different sample types were collected: (1) 121 agricultural soils (Ap) on regularly ploughed land to a depth of 20 cm and (2) 121 grazing land soils (Gr) (land under permanent grass cover) to a depth of 10 cm. All soil samples were air dried, sieved to pH, TOC, total carbon and total sulphur, LOI, CEC, Sr-isotopes, Pb-isotopes, MIR-spectra. By means of a GIS software, georeferenced data of the Italian territory were used to produce the geochemical maps of all the analysed elements for both agricultural and grazing land soils. Specifically, for each element and sampling media a map reporting interpolated data and graduated dots was produced; univariate statistics and graphs were also associated to each map. The Atlas also contain: 5 maps for regional variability of factor scores of elemental associations resulting from R-mode factor analysis and 15 baseline and land use maps for some selected elements (As, Be, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, Sn, Tl, V, Zn) following the Italian intervention criteria.

  8. Genetics and biotechnologies in Italian mass media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mini Silvio

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available S everal researchers operating in the sociological field have recently theorised that genetics and biotechnologies are at the core of the public perception of science. The present study aims at verifying empirically whether or not this is mirrored in Italian mass media, as well as at analysing the topics most frequently present in Italian newspapers and the economic and editorial reasons behind the results of editorial choices. Besides, it provides statistics about the major Italian newspapers published in the last third of 2002. This period has been chosen because some important news was published in December: it consequently offered the chance to carry out a long-term analysis as well as a study of the most important differences - in content and editorial lay-out - between scientific articles which are published in the appropriate sections inside the newspaper and those which make the front page. Ours are going to be purely quantitative considerations; but, from the point of view of the content, the data are sufficient to identify various narrative currents. These currents could be the object of further research on the frames used to contextualize the news and the reasons (anthropological, socio-cultural and editorial for the way they are used by editorial staffs.

  9. Residential construction cost: An Italian survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canesi, Rubina; Marella, Giuliano

    2017-04-01

    This paper reports data describing development projects for new buildings according to construction costs in North-East Italy. A survey was carried out on local companies undertaking new residential development projects in two Italian regions (Veneto and Lombardy). The aim of this survey was to record new real estate construction projects, collecting both technical and socio-economic cost features. It is extremely difficult to collect such data for the Italian real estate construction sector, due to its lack of transparency, so that the novelty for the Italian scenario is the dataset itself. Another interest perspective of this survey is that socio-economic characteristics were also recorded; they are often studied in urban economics, but are usually related to property purchase prices and values, not to construction costs. The data come from an analysis of Canesi and Marella regarding the relationship between the trend of construction costs and the socio-economic conditions of the reference setting, such as the mean years of schooling of the workforce, housing market trends, and average per capita income.

  10. Informative management system for administrative management; Il sistema informativo per il reporting e il controllo di gestione di un ente complesso. Realizzazione di un prototipo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Onofrio, M.G.; Minelle, F. [Rome Univ. La Sapienza, Rome (Italy). Fac. di Scienze Matematiche, Fisiche e Naturali; Di Marco, R.A. [ENEA, Sede Centrale, Rome (Italy). Funzione Centrale Informatica

    1999-07-01

    The need to optimate the total functionality of the firm, introducing suitable Control System of inherit and merit evaluation concerning the administrative-management results, strengthens the assumption of responsibility from the managerial staff and promotes the operative and management decentralization. In this context assumes a remarkable importance the function of the Informative Management System which has got to assure, in a realistic, qualified and effectual way, a good support to all activities it can make easy, not only the standard working but also the achievement of the programmatic targets. In the present context, where the development of technology often exceeds that one of the organization structures, it is right to redesign the Informative Management System, considering that often the management informatics procedures are obsolete. The statement of the carried out work bases itself on the observation of the business management process: in order to achieve its targets, the firm transform some resources, each one with its own cycle of life, through stages of management classifiable in merit evaluation, decision, execution and control. These stages are carried out by treatment of the Information that represent the link among them, the main resource of the whole organization and the basis of the Informative Management System. Considering the information as an element characterizing the firm, in that it comes from a complicated system which permits to assert that the fulfilment of on effective and efficient management depends largely from its capacity to use the Information. [Italian] La necessita' di ottimizzare la funzionalita' complessiva dell'azienda, introducendo adeguati sistemi di controllo di merito e di valutazione dei risultati a livello amministrativo-gestionale rafforza l'assunzione di responsabilita' da parte della struttura dirigenziale e favorisce il decentramento gestionale e operativo. In questo contesto assume

  11. Psychological and social correlates of doping attitudes among Italian athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucchetti, Giulia; Candela, Filippo; Villosio, Carlo

    2015-02-01

    This study aims to identify the main psychological and social correlates of doping attitudes among Italian athletes. It is well recognized that athlete disposition and attitude towards doping is one of the factors responsible for doping behavior. Less is known, however, about the factors that sustain the level of athletes' attitudes towards doping. The main psychological (i.e., perfectionism, sport motivation, self-confidence and life satisfaction) and social correlates (i.e., social network and contact with people who use sports drugs) of attitudes towards doping among Italian athletes are examined in this paper. Differences are hypothesized regarding the type of sport (resistance sport vs. non-resistance sport) and athlete participation in competitive sport (i.e., agonistics) or in non-competitive sport (i.e., amateurs) on the level of attitude towards doping. The research hypothesis is that each of these constructs affects the level of athletes' attitudes toward doping. Data were collected from a sample of athletes (N=109), aged from 15 to 45 (M=31.5; SD=13.78) recruited in a Sports Medicine Center. Socio-demographic information, attitude towards doping, psychological and social variables were assessed through self-report questionnaire. Hierarchical multiple regression showed that both psychological (i.e., extrinsic motivation, perfectionism) and social variables (i.e., athletes' contact with doping users) were associated with athletes' attitudes towards doping. The results highlighted that athletes with excessive perfectionism, extrinsically motivated and who have contact with doping users have a positive attitude toward doping. Athletes who exhibit these characteristics should be considered at risk and monitored to prevent possible future sports drug use. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Food group consumption in an Italian population using the updated food classification system FoodEx2: Results from the Italian Nutrition & HEalth Survey (INHES) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pounis, G; Bonanni, A; Ruggiero, E; Di Castelnuovo, A; Costanzo, S; Persichillo, M; Bonaccio, M; Cerletti, C; Riccardi, G; Donati, M B; de Gaetano, G; Iacoviello, L

    2017-04-01

    Dietary habits evolve over time, being influenced by many factors and complex interactions. This work aimed at evaluating the updated information on food group consumption in Italy. A total of 8944 (4768 women and 4176 men) participants aged >18 years from all over Italy recruited in 2010-13 (Italian Nutrition & HEalth Survey, INHES) was analyzed. The recruitment was performed using computer-assisted-telephone-interviewing and one-day 24-h dietary recall retrieved from all participants. The updated, second version, of FoodEx2 food classification system was applied to extract data on food group consumption. The participation rate was 53%; 6.2% of the participants declared to follow a special diet, the most prevalent being hypo-caloric diets (55.7% of special diets). Men compared to women presented significantly higher intakes of "grains and grain-based products", "meat and meat products", "animal and vegetable fats and oils and primary derivatives" and "alcoholic beverages" (P for allfood imitates and food supplements" (P for allfood group intake among age groups, geographical regions and educational level groups were also identified (P for allconsumption of more than 70 food groups and sub-groups were illustrated in different strata. The present analysis could be considered as an updated source of information for future nutrition research in Italy and in the EU. Copyright © 2017 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition, and the Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Circulating low IL-23: IL-35 cytokine ratio promotes progression associated with poor prognosisin breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guanghui; Liang, Yanfang; Guan, Xin; Chen, Hui; Liu, Qiankun; Lin, Bihua; Chen, Can; Huang, Mingyuan; Chen, Jianan; Wu, Weiquan; Liang, Yi; Zhou, Keyuan; Zeng, Jincheng

    2016-01-01

    The interleukin (IL)-12 family, composed of heterodimeric cytokines including IL-12 (formed by IL-12p35 and IL-12p40 subunits), IL-23 (formed by IL-23p19 and IL-12p40 subunits), IL-27 (formed by IL-27p28 and EBI3 subunits) and IL-35 (formed by IL-12p35 and EBI3 subunits), establishes a link between innate and adaptive immunity that involves different immune effector cells and cytokines to tumors. However, the role of IL-12 family in breast cancer (BC) progression and prognosis remains unclear. In the present study, we demonstrated evidence indicating that EBI3, IL-12p35 and IL-12p40 but not IL-23p19 or IL-27p28 were highly expressed in BC tissues, suggested that tumor derived EBI3, IL-12p35 and IL-12p40 were associated with tumor progression. Circulating IL-12 and IL-23 low expressed, but IL-27 and IL-35 high expressed in BC patients, especially circulating IL-23 associated with IL-35 to mediate BC tumor resection. Ki-67, p53 and EGFR expression on BC tissues, as well as CA125, CA153 and CA199 levels on BC bloods increased when circulating IL-23: IL-35 ratio decreased. Together, for the first time, our data suggest that circulating IL-23: IL-35 ratio may be an important indicator association with BC progression and prognosis. However, further research should be carried out to assess the implications of circulating IL-23: IL-35 ratio in a larger sample size.

  14. HEFFICON: HIV Effectiveness Italian Conference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antinori, Andrea; Andreoni, Massimo; Perno, Carlo Federico; Lazzarin, Adriano

    2015-04-01

    Since the first acquired immunodeficiency syndrome cases were reported in 1981, more than 1.5 million people have been diagnosed with Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 in Europe, including more than 136,000 new HIV cases in 2013. Recent epidemiological data estimate an incidence of 5-10 newly diagnosed HIV infections per 100,000 population per year in Europe and an average prevalence of infection of 5.7 cases per 100,000 population. In the absence of an effective curative strategy for HIV, optimization of prevention policies and clinical management of HIV positive patients is fundamental to reduce the impact of the HIV pandemic on public health. Clinical trials represent an essential tool for translating research findings into routine clinical practice. Careful evaluation and planning of clinical trials are therefore mandatory in order to provide relevant information to clinicians. The HEFFICON Project was conceived to investigate and pinpoint methodological issues and critical points that need to be addressed in future clinical studies to increase the translation of experimental results to the real life environment.

  15. Il Castello di Tomar e il convento di Cristo. La storia ed il tempo presente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro Barbosa

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available L’insieme monumentale del Castello dei Templari e del Convento di Cristo di Tomar conserva, nei suoi luoghi e nel paesaggio, sette secoli della storia del Portogallo e della cultura europea. Negli ultimi vent’anni i cambiamenti subiti dalla società portoghese si riflettono anche in questo patrimonio storico architettonico: sia la partenza delle istituzioni che lo abitavano dall’inizio del XX secolo, sia il nuovo sguardo della società civile verso il monumento. Tra la storia ed il tempo presente, la vita culturale lì sviluppata in questo periodo ne costituisce la testimonianza. Il nuovo sguardo, sia culturale che scientifico, cerca inoltre di applicare le nuove tecnologie, come l’uso di CAD e della modellazione digitale, nella produzione di strumenti di conservazione e gestione dell’insieme monumentale.

  16. Italianization Accomplished. Forms and Structures of Albanian Television’s Dependency on Italian Media and Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Carelli

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available After the fall of the Berlin Wall and the end of communist regimes in 1989, national media systems of the Eastern European countries belonging to the Soviet bloc began a process of transformation along the way of liberalization and commercialization. In Albania, this process occurred in different phases, but with a common trend, that is the Italian television as a structural, economic and cultural model to inspire. In this article, I try to outline the deep influences and legacies between Italian and Albanian television systems (dating back to the last years of the regime showing how, despite a progressive sliding towards americanization, they remain a typical landmark of Albanian media. From the formats of the first programmes after the regime to the recent appearances of Italian Tv presenters (in particular, from Berlusconi's channels on Albanian private channels, we can observe a subtle but rooted and continuous dependency from the country on the other side of the Adriatic Sea.  

  17. We-Caring: Searching for Online Health Information by Italian Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cioni, Elisabetta; Lovari, Alessandro; Tronu, Paola

    2016-11-28

    Using data collected by the Italian National Institute of Statistics on 19,000 Italian adults who had accessed the Internet in 2013, our study investigates the interaction between online health information-seeking behaviors and family obligations among household members. The study presents a detailed picture of the likelihood of online health information searching according to health status and gendered family roles. Findings of binomial logistic regression models highlight that family obligations per se influence the probability of searching, regardless of the health of the seeker and that of family members. Illness, whether affecting the seeker or other individuals within the family network, proves to be another trigger for online health information seeking. Directions for future research and practical implications for public health organizations are discussed.

  18. IL-35 and Autoimmunity: a Comprehensive Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jinjung; Leung, Patrick S C; Bowlus, Christopher; Gershwin, M Eric

    2015-12-01

    Interleukin 35 (IL-35) is the most recently identified member of the IL-12 family of cytokines and offers the potential to be a target for new therapies for autoimmune, inflammatory, and infectious diseases. Similar to other members of the IL-12 family including IL-12, IL-23, and IL-27, IL-35 is composed of a heterodimer of α and β chains, which in the case of IL-35 are the p35 and Epstein-Barr virus-induced gene 3 (EBI3) proteins. However, unlike its proinflammatory relatives, IL-35 has immunosuppressive effects that are mediated through regulatory T and B cells. Although there are limited data available regarding the role of IL-35 in human autoimmunity, several murine models of autoimmunity suggest that IL-35 may have potent effects in regulating immunoreactivity via IL-10-dependent mechanisms. We suggest that similar effects are operational in human disease and IL-35-directed therapies hold significant promise. In particular, we emphasize that IL-35 has immunosuppressive ability that are mediated via regulatory T and B cells that are IL-10 dependent. Further, although deletion of IL-35 does not result in spontaneous breach of tolerance, recombinant IL-35 can improve autoimmune responses in several experimental models.

  19. Open letter to the Italian Ministry of University and Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O'Grady K

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Open letter to the Minister of Italian University. The government should get advice from the best Italian scientists for the necessary reform of the Italian University, with special concern to crucial processes as the appointment of new professors and academic evaluation. The current government proposal for a random draw of evaluation committees in charge for the appointment of new professors is considered as a wrong solution and harmful tool for dealing with such a crucial process.

  20. On German-Croatian and Italian-Croatian Language Contact

    OpenAIRE

    Glovacki-Bernardi, Zrinjka; Jernej, Mirna

    2004-01-01

    Croatia has always been a multilingual environment. The influence of German and Italian was empowered through direct political influence. During the second part of the 18th and in the 19th century native speakers of German and Italian used Croatian as a second language carrying out their duties at work. This bilingualism can tentatively be referred to as bureaucratic bilingualism. Native Croatian speakers used Italian and German as a second language in certain social areas. Suc...

  1. Representation of the serial killer on the Italian Internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villano, P; Bastianoni, P; Melotti, G

    2001-10-01

    The representation of serial killers was examined from the analysis of 317 Web pages in the Italian language to study how the psychological profiles of serial killers are described on the Italian Internet. The correspondence analysis of the content of these Web pages shows that in Italy the serial killer is associated with words such as "monster" and "horror," which suggest and imply psychological perversion and aberrant acts. These traits are peculiar for the Italian scenario.

  2. Quantitative Contribution of IL2Rγ to the Dynamic Formation of IL2-IL2R Complexes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis F Ponce

    Full Text Available Interleukin-2 (IL2 is a growth factor for several immune cells and its function depends on its binding to IL2Rs in the cell membrane. The most accepted model for the assembling of IL2-IL2R complexes in the cell membrane is the Affinity Conversion Model (ACM. This model postulates that IL2R receptor association is sequential and dependent on ligand binding. Most likely free IL2 binds first to IL2Rα, and then this complex binds to IL2Rβ, and finally to IL2Rγ (γc. However, in previous mathematical models representing this process, the binding of γc has not been taken into account. In this work, the quantitative contribution of the number of IL2Rγ chain to the IL2-IL2R apparent binding affinity and signaling is studied. A mathematical model of the affinity conversion process including the γ chain in the dynamic, has been formulated. The model was calibrated by fitting it to experimental data, specifically, Scatchard plots obtained using human cell lines. This paper demonstrates how the model correctly explains available experimental observations. It was estimated, for the first time, the value of the kinetic coefficients of IL2-IL2R complexes interaction in the cell membrane. Moreover, the number of IL2R components in different cell lines was also estimated. It was obtained a variable distribution in the number of IL2R components depending on the cell type and the activation state. Of most significance, the study predicts that not only the number of IL2Rα and IL2Rβ, but also the number of γc determine the capacity of the cell to capture and retain IL2 in signalling complexes. Moreover, it is also showed that different cells might use different pathways to bind IL2 as consequence of its IL2R components distribution in the membrane.

  3. IL-3、IL-5及IL-8与鼻息肉的关系研究%Relationship study between IL-3,IL-5 and IL-8 and Nasal polypus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵雯

    2010-01-01

    Objective To explore the role of IL-3,IL-5 and IL-8 in the genesis and development of nasal polypus(NP) by testing IL-3 ,IL-5 and IL-8 Value in Nasal polypus issue. Methods 50 cases of nasal polyps and 30 casesof normal middle turbinate mucosa were involved in this study. Concentrations of IL-3, IL-5 and IL-8 were determined by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA). Results The levels of IL-3 ,IL-5 and IL-8 in Nasal polypus issue were significantly higher than that in control group( P < 0.05 ). Conclusion The levels of IL-3, IL-5 and IL-8 in Nasal polypus issue rised,They likely played a certain role in the genesis and development of NP.%目的 检测鼻息肉组织中白细胞介素-3(IL-3)、白细胞介素-5(IL-5)和白细胞介素-8(IL-8)的含量,探讨细胞因子在鼻息肉形成中的作用.方法 标本取自50例鼻息肉患者的息肉组织(研究组)和30例行鼻中隔手术患者的正常下鼻甲黏膜(对照组),用酶联免疫吸附测定(ELISA)法检测IL-3、IL-5和IL-8在鼻息肉标本和正常下鼻甲黏膜的含量.结果 鼻息肉组织IL-3、IL-5和IL,-8的水平明显高于对照组,两组间差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 IL,-3、IL-5和IL-8在鼻息肉组织中明显升高,提示其可能与鼻息肉的发病机制有关.

  4. ‹‹IN AIUTO ALL’UNITÀ DELLA LINGUA E CONTRO GLI ERRORI PROVENIENTI DAL DIALETTO››. IL SILLABARIO E IL VOCABOLARIETTO DI ANTONINO TRAINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michela Dota

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Il titolo del presente contributo condensa da una parte le coordinate operative della legislazione scolastica elementare post-unitaria, in particolare riguardo all’ortoepia, e d’altra parte la ricezione di quelle coordinate nella pubblicistica scolastica elementare coeva. Il saggio considera entrambi i cardini della questione: dopo aver esposto brevemente le linee guida della legislazione circa il rapporto tra lingua e dialetti e sulla corretta pronuncia, si analizzano due strumenti didattici, concepiti per la duplice utenza dei maestri e degli alunni, nei quali si concretano due atteggiamenti sensibilmente diversi sulla questione ortoepica. Infine, dall’analisi di questi due sussidi si dedurrà il rapporto, raccomandato più o meno esplicitamente, che doveva intercorrere tra dialetto e lingua nelle aule scolastiche. «In help to the unit of language and against the mistakes coming from dialects». Spelling book and little vocabulary by Antonino TrainaThe title of this contribution epitomizes the praxis of the post-unification legislation concerning primary school, particularly about orthoepy, and the reception of that legislation by the authors of textbooksfor primary school. After having exposed the guidelines of the legislation about the relation between Italian and dialects and about correct pronunciation, this article analyzes two teaching tools (a spelling book and a vocabulary, that can be used by both teachers and students. It’s notable that the spelling book and the vocabulary have a different perspective on orthoepy. Finally, from their analysis it is deduced the model proposed for the relation between Italian and dialects in classrooms.

  5. Noun-Noun Compounds in Italian Sports Column as a Proof of Tendencies in Modern Italian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Szemberska

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The compounding is a fundamental process of word formation and its importance to our understanding of language is crucial. The study of compounds for the last few years has been at the centre of attention in such areas of linguistics as computational approaches, psycholinguistics and language acquisition. Linguists advanced hypotheses not only regarding the construction of compounds, but also where they fit into the model of grammar. The paper attempts to answer some basic questions pertaining to lexical creativity in nominal compounding in Italian sports column. These include the definition of the concept, the types of noun-noun compounds in Modern Italian and a brief comparison of these types.

  6. IL-28 and IL-29: newcomers to the interferon family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzé, Gilles; Monneron, Danièle

    2007-01-01

    IL-28 and IL-29 were recently described as members of a new cytokine family that shares with type I interferon (IFN) the same Jak/Stat signalling pathway driving expression of a common set of genes. Accordingly, they have been named IFN lambda. IFNs lambda exhibit several common features with type I IFNs: antiviral activity, antiproliferative activity and in vivo antitumour activity. Importantly, however, IFNs lambda bind to a distinct membrane receptor, composed of IFNLR1 and IL10R2. This specific receptor usage suggests that this cytokine family does not merely replicate the type I IFN system and justifies its designation as type III IFN by the nomenclature committee of the International Society of Interferon and Cytokine Research.

  7. Hadrontherapy from the Italian Radiation Oncologist point of view: face the reality. The Italian Society of Oncological Radiotherapy (AIRO) survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marvaso, Giulia; Vischioni, Barbara; Jereczek-Fossa, Barbara Alicja; Ciardo, Delia; Fossati, Piero; Giandini, Tommaso; Morlino, Sara; Carrara, Mauro; Romanelli, Paola; Russi, Elvio; Valvo, Francesca; Valdagni, Riccardo; Orecchia, Roberto

    2017-02-01

    Hadrontherapy has been in constant progress in the past decades. Due to the increasing interest in this field and the spreading of the technique in Italy and worldwide, the Italian Society of Radiation Oncology surveyed (by an online survey) its members regarding their perception of hadrontherapy. The survey outline addressed different items all related to hadrontherapy, such as: demographics (3 items), personal knowledge (5 items), actual use in clinical practice (5 items), and future perspectives and development (5 items). The survey was filled in by 224 radiation oncologists (RO). Among them, 74.6 % were RO with more than 5 years of clinical practice, and only 10.4 % RO in training. Median age was 46 years (range 27-77). 32.24 % admitted average knowledge about heavy particles radiobiology rationale and 32.42 % about the ongoing particle therapy clinical trials. Radioresistant tumors are perceived as-principal indications for carbon ions in 39.3 % of responders, and pediatric malignancies for protons in 37 %. Re-irradiation is highly recommended for 52.2 %. Strikingly, 38.8 % of participating ROs reported that, in the daily clinical practice, approximately less than 1 out of 10 patients asks to be referred for hadrontherapy. On the other side, 35.7 % claimed need for at least 3 up to 5 particle therapy centers in Italy. Overall, the results of the present survey highlight the interest of the Italian RO community for particle therapy among the other radiotherapy technique. Analysis of our results might picture the clinical attitude of the RO community towards hadrontherapy in Italy, and help in promoting targeted initiatives to spread clinical results and knowledge about technical innovations in this field.

  8. Serum TNF-α, sTNFR1, IL-6, IL-8 and IL-10 levels in Weil's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyriakidis, Ioannis; Samara, Pinelopi; Papa, Anna

    2011-05-01

    Studies on cytokine levels in Weil's syndrome are lacking. In this study, TNF-α, sTNFR1, IL-6, IL-8 and IL-10 levels were measured in 44 serum samples of patients diagnosed with Leptospira interrogans serovar icterohaemorrhagiae infection. TNF-α levels linked with pulmonary hemorrhagic implications, while elevated sTNFR1 and IL-10 levels linked with fatal cases. IL-6 and IL-8 did not seem to affect the outcome of the disease. Immune response pattern in Weil's syndrome bears resemblance to other patterns described for hemorrhagic fevers. IL-10/TNF-α ratio is proposed as a marker for prognosis.

  9. Future Events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adli Tıp Uzmanları Derneği ATUD

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available 1\t9 Joint Meeting with the Forensic Science Service: - Crimes of the Millennium. 2-\t5 November 2000. Stakis Hotel, Bromsgrove, Birmingham. Convener; Mike Loveland. Details from Forensic Science Society Office. Tel: 01423 506068 2\tCrime Scene Technology Workshop 2 A Crime Scene Practicum November 6-10, 2000 Evanston, IL Contact: Registrar Northwestern University, Traffic Institute 405 Church St. Evanston, IL 60201 (800 323-4011 3\tAPIS Curriculum November 13-15, 2000 Youngsville, NC Instructors: Marty Ludas, Johnny Leonard Contact: Clara Carroll Sirchie Fingerprint Labs, Inc. 100 Hunter Place Youngsville, NC 27596 (800 356-7311 4\tCrime Scene Technology Workshop 3 Advanced Techniques November 13-17, 2000 Evanston, IL Contact: Registrar Northwestern University, Traffic Institute 405 Church St. Evanston, IL 60201 (800 323-4011 5\tInvestigative Photography Workshop I Comprehensive Photographic Techniques December 4-8, 2000 Evanston, IL Contact: Registrar Northwestern University, Traffic Institute 405 Church St. Evanston, IL 60201 (800 323-4011 6\tInvestigative Photography Workshop 2 Advanced Techniques December 11-15, 2000 Evanston, IL Contact: Registrar Northwestern University, Traffic Institute 405 Church St. Evanston, IL 60201 (800 323-4011 7\tBloodstain Evidence Workshop I The Significance of Bloodstain Evidence in Death Scene Investigations December 11-15, 2000 Evanston, IL Contact: Registrar Northwestern University, Traffic Institute 405 Church St. Evanston, IL 60201 (800 323-4011 8\tOne Hundred Years of Fingerprint Detection and Identification June 16-30, 2001 London, Great Britain Contact: Maurice Garvie or David Smith New Scotland Yard The Broadway London, SW1H0BG Great Britain 9\tInternational Assoc, for Identification Annual Conference July 22-28, 2001 Dorai Resort, Miami, FL Contact: Candy Murray 20601 Netherland St. Orlando, FL 32833 (407 568-7436 conference@theiai.org

  10. Association between IL-1β polymorphisms and gastritis risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaoming; Cai, Hongxing; Li, Zhouru; Li, Shanshan; Yin, Wenjiang; Dong, Guokai; Kuai, Jinxia; He, Yihui; Jia, Jing

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection of the human stomach regularly leads to chronic gastric inflammation. The cytokine gene interleukin (IL)-1β has been implicated in influencing the pathology of inflammation induced by H. pylori infection. Currently, several studies have been carried out to investigate the association of IL-1β-511 (rs16944) and IL-1β-31 (rs1143627) polymorphisms with gastritis risk; however, the results are inconsistent and inconclusive. To assess the effect of IL-1β polymorphisms on gastritis susceptibility, we conducted a meta-analysis. Methods: Up to March 15, 2016, 2205 cases and 2289 controls were collected from 12 published case–control studies. Summarized odds ratios and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for IL-1β-511 and IL-1β-31 polymorphisms and gastritis risk were estimated using fixed- or random-effects models when appropriate. Heterogeneity was assessed by chi-squared-based Q-statistic test, and the sources of heterogeneity were explored by subgroup analyses and logistic meta-regression analyses. Publication bias was evaluated by Begg funnel plot and Egger test. Sensitivity analyses were also performed. Results: The results provided evidences that the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in IL-1β-31 might be associated with the gastritis risk, especially in the Caucasian population, while SNPs in the IL-1β-511 might not be. Conclusion: Our studies may be helpful in supplementing the disease monitoring of gastritis in the future, and additional studies to determine the exact molecular mechanisms might inspire interventions to protect the susceptible subgroups. PMID:28151895

  11. Il grande Gatsby: note a margine di una traduzione

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tommaso Pincio

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In questa breve nota lo scrittore e traduttore Tommaso Pincio riflette sul fascino esercitato da Il Grande Gatsby – libro e personaggio, il narratore e la lingua – su generazioni diverse di americani: quelle degli anni Venti, degli anni Cinquanta e di oggi. Commenti, aneddoti e citazioni guidano quell’esplorazione dello spirito del libro che ha permesso a Pincio di riprodurne lo stile per i lettori italiani. Questo contributo è originariamente apparso sul blog personale dell’autore, all’indirizzo http://tommasopincio.net.In this brief note, writer and translator Tommaso Pincio reflects on the haunting fascination exerted by The Great Gatsby – the book, the character, its narrator and language – on a range of American generations: those of the Twenties, of the Fifties, and the present one. Comments, anecdotes and quotations guide Pincio’s exploration into the spirit of the book, one that enabled him to reproduce its style for the Italian readership. This contribution first appeared on Pincio’s own blog, whose address is http://tommasopincio.net. 

  12. Creative IL embedding at Royal Holloway, University of London 2013

    OpenAIRE

    Burke, Russell; Coles, Kim; Downes, Sian; Woods, Emma

    2015-01-01

    n 2013, Helen Westwood and Russell Burke presented at LILAC about how information literacy was embedded in Geography courses at Royal Holloway. One of our plans for the future was to embed IL across the college. In May 2014, a paper was accepted at the College’s Learning, Teaching and Quality Committee making IL training and assessment a requirement for all first year undergraduate courses from 2014/15. This poster will show the steps involved in achieving this outcome, the challenges we have...

  13. Analysis of allelic expression patterns of IL-2, IL-3, IL-4, and IL-13 in human CD4+ T cell clones.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bayley, J.P.; Bakker, AM; Kaijzel, EL; Wierenga, EA; Pouw Kraan, van der C.T.M.; Huizinga, T.W.; Verweij, C.L.

    2003-01-01

    The occurrence of monoallelic expression of cytokine genes in single cells has been convincingly demonstrated, but there have been few reports of this phenomenon in T cell clones. Here we describe studies on the expression of alleles of the human genes encoding IL-2, IL-3, IL-4, and IL-13 in human C

  14. Dialogo sopra "Il catalogo per soggetti" di Carlo Revelli Dialogue concerning the Carlo Revelli's "Il catalogo per soggetti"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Cheti

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Il contributo presenta, in forma dialogica, i contenuti de "Il catalogo per autori" di Carlo Revelli (1970, ripubblicato di recente. Un approccio sistematico alla catalogazione per soggetti, nel quale l'autore unisce, a una notevole esperienza pratica, un'ampia informazione teorica e storica. L'importanza dell'opera nel panorama della biblioteconomia italiana è indubbia, sia come strumento di lavoro in biblioteca e come testo di riferimento per la formazione di bibliotecari. Tutto ciò ne fa un classico della biblioteconomia italiana nel campo della catalogazione.This article presents, in the form of a conversation, the content of the "The Author Catalog" by Carlo Revelli, published in the '70s and recently reprinted. Carlo Revelli puts together a systematic approach to the subject cataloguing, a great experience, and a wide theoretic and historical information. The importance of this work in the context of Italian library Science is beyond doubt as it is a tool for working in library and for the training of new librarians. It is the classic cataloguing book. Despite technology advancements that undermine its application, this work keeps intact its value for the understading of subject indexing.

  15. Girolamo Murari Dalla Corte e il suo poema Pietro il Grande, Imperadore I ed autocrata di tutte le Russie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marialuisa Ferrazzi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Marialuisa FerrazziGirolamo Murari Dalla Corte and his poem Pietro il Grande, Imperadore I ed autocrata di tutte le RussieThis study focuses on Pietro il Grande, Imperadore I ed autocrata di tutte le Russie. Canti XII in ottava rima, a poem by the Mantuan Count, Girolamo Murari Dalla Corte. The work, which examines the conflict between Peter the Great and Charles XII of Sweden, was first published in Verona in 1803. 1814 saw the issue of a second edition, in which the author – who dedicated his work to the then reigning tsar, Alexander I – attempted to match the ideological perspective of the account to the changes occurring in the international political situation after the demise of Napoleon’s power. While presenting the historical and stylistic-structural aspects of the poem, the article also considers the relationship established with the Russian world by certain sectors of the Italian intelligencija, in particular by Venetian publishing houses, in the last decades of the 18th century. On the basis of Murari Dalla Corte’s papers, the last part of the article pieces together the sadly unsuccessful attempts made by the writer over a period of 20 years to obtain official recognition of the dedication of his poem from the Russian Court.

  16. La sfida del trasferimento tecnologico Le Università italiane si raccontano

    CERN Document Server

    Piccaluga, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    L’opera presenta e descrive il fenomeno del trasferimento tecnologico da università a industria attraverso una prospettiva originale, da “insider”, cioè la prospettiva delle università. Il volume racconta, attraverso la penna degli stessi protagonisti, la nascita, la crescita e le esperienze degli Uffici di Trasferimento Tecnologico (TTO) delle principali università italiane, facendo emergere l’eterogeneità delle loro ambizioni, dei traguardi raggiunti e delle risorse a loro disposizione per la valorizzazione della ricerca scientifica. L’idea di fondo dell’opera è che i “numeri” danno una visione importante ma solo parziale di quello che è un TTO universitario. Il nostro lavoro a stretto contatto con i professionisti del trasferimento tecnologico ci ha dimostrato che l’attività di tali uffici è ricca di storie significative e ad alto contenuto formativo, dove l’elemento umano, e le modalità con cui esso è gestito, giocano un ruolo centrale nel trasferimento di conoscenza dal mon...

  17. Italian feminism, workerism and autonomy in the 1970s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Cuninghame

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Cet essai examine certaines des différences entre le féminisme italien ouvriériste et les féminismes de tendance libérale, socialiste et séparatiste dans les années 1970. Il décrit l'émergence des principales organisations féministes ouvriéristes, émergence étroitement liée à de problématiques telles que le « travail » de reproduction non rémunéré ainsi que la violence physique et sexuelle contre les femmes. Les problèmes liés aux relations entre le féminisme et le mouvement social anti-capitaliste Autonomia sont également explorés.En este ensayo se analizan algunas de las diferencias entre el feminismo obrerista italiano y los feminismos liberal, socialista y separatista en el decenio de los 1970. Se describe el surgimiento de las principales organizaciones feministas obreristas en torno a las cuestiones de « trabajo » no remunerado de reproducción y de la violencia física y sexual contra la mujer. Los problemas vinculados a las relaciones entre el feminismo y el movimiento social anticapitalista Autonomía también son explorados.This essay discusses some of the differences between Italian workerist feminism and liberal, socialist and separatist feminisms during the 1970s. It outlines the emergence of the main workerist feminist organizations around the issues of unpaid reproductive labour and of physical and sexual violence against women. The problems linked to relations between feminism and the anti-capitalist Autonomia social movement are also explored.

  18. Il potere di Prometeo e il dovere di Kant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Picchetti

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Kant ci suggerisce qualcosa che Prometeo e il mito greco avevano già accennato. L'imperativo che pone freno al fare, è già in sé nel soggetto ed è per questo che egli che egli è responsabile delle proprie azioni, indipendentemente dalla legge scritta.

  19. Il Sole, il genoma e Internet strumenti delle revoluzioni scientifiche

    CERN Document Server

    Dyson, Freeman J

    2000-01-01

    In queste appassionate conferenze «di soglia» Dyson si sporge sul domani con la visionarietà di un Verne o di un Wells, consapevole però di abbozzare «solo uno dei corsi possibili, tra i milioni di altri che il futuro potrà riservarci». Il nuovo trivio di forze rivoluzionarie che, secondo il modello di Dyson, muoverà lo sviluppo ha nomi noti a tutti, e disputati da molti: energia solare, ingegneria genetica, rete di comunicazione globale. Un loro utilizzo flessibile e sinergico arriverebbe a ridisegnare il paesaggio sociale del pianeta, facendo affluire verso aree depresse risorse ora concentrate in pochi paesi, e ridando vita ovunque all'economia di villaggio. La raccolta di energia da una fonte equidistribuita come la luce solare potrebbe infatti avvenire attraverso coltivazioni arboree manipolate genetica mente allo scopo, con costi sostenibili e senza pregiudizio della ecodiversità. Sia che guardi al prossimo futuro terrestre sia che contempli la prospettiva non troppo lontana di insediamenti uma...

  20. Energy efficiency indicators. Case study, Liguria; Indicatori di efficienza energetica. Il caso Liguria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciarallo, M.A. [ENEA, Divisione Promozione degli Usi Efficienti e Diversificazione dell' Energia, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, S. Maria Galeria, RM (Italy)

    2001-07-01

    The report examines the trend in the Liguria Region's energy requirements over the period 1988-1996. The trend was analysed using the regional energy balances and energy efficiency indicators, both in aggregate form and on a single sector basis. The residential sector, in particular, was singled out for an in-depth analysis using publishing and processed data. [Italian] Il presente rapporto esamina l'evoluzione delle caratteristiche energetiche della Regione Liguria attraverso l'analisi degli indicatori di efficienza energetica. Tale analisi e' stata svolta sia a livello aggregato che con riferimento ai singoli settori di attivita'. Particolare attenzione e' stata dedicata al settore residenziale, per il quale e' stato svolto un esame piu' approfondito attraverso un lavoro di raccolta e di elaborazione dati. Il periodo di riferimento va dal 1988 al 1966 dal momento che questo e' l'ultimo anno per il quale sono disponibili i dati economici Istat utilizzati per il calcolo degli indicatori.

  1. Il programma dell'universo

    CERN Document Server

    Lloyd, Seth

    2006-01-01

    Da quando l'universo ha avuto inizio, ha cominciato a calcolare il proprio comportamento. All'inizio il computer-universo produceva strutture semplici, particelle elementari e leggi elementari della fisica; col passare del tempo ha processato "informazioni" sempre più complesse, producendo strutture sempre più intricate (galassie, stelle, pianeti), ma sempre secondo leggi semplici. Ogni cosa deve quindi la propria esistenza alla capacità intrinseca della materia e dell'energia di processare informazione. Se si decifrasse fino in fondo si potrebbe, con un computer quantistico di dimensioni ridotte, comprendere l'universo nel suo insieme.

  2. Il Dio dell'Eriugena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Magnavacca

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available In un universo interpretato come sogno da decifrare, la metafisica è lo strumento, secondo Borges, con cui l’uomo tenta di rendere coerente questo sogno. Il pensiero di Eriugena è particolarmente affascinante per Borges, in quanto accetta la sfida della veritigine: un Dio che dal nulla della sua indeterminatezza dà luogo al mondo, dispiegandosi negli archetipi che popolano il sogno dell’universo. Una fantastica metafisica che allontana dall’uomo lo sgomento per la condanna alla propria individualità.

  3. 尖锐湿疣组织IL-2、IL-4、IL-1O、IL-18的表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡凯; 程方雄; 陈蓓; 韩林; 马鸣

    2012-01-01

    目的:探讨尖锐湿疣(CA)患者治疗前、后血清中白介素2(IL-2)、白介素4(IL-4)、白介素10(IL-10)和白介素18(IL-18)的水平变化在CA免疫发病机制中的作用.方法:用酶联免疫吸附法(ELISA)分别检测30例CA患者在治疗前和治疗后3个月未复发时血清IL-2、IL-4、IL-10和IL-18的水平,并与20例正常人作比较.结果:CA患者治疗前血清中IL2水平明显低于正常对照组(P>0.01),IL-4、IL-10和IL-18水平明显高于正常对照组(P>0.05);治疗后3个月末血清IL-2、IL-4、IL-10、IL-18的水平同正常对照组相比,差异无统计学意义(P均>0.05).结论:人乳头瘤病毒(HPV)感染可造成患者细胞免疫功能异常,IL2、IL-4、IL-10和IL-18在CA免疫发病机制中可能起重要作用.

  4. Italian Studies, Italian Theory and the politics of trans-lation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Minca, C.

    2016-01-01

    Italian Theory has emerged as the result of the search for new conceptual frameworks in the face of a series of international political events concerning not only the proliferation of states of exception but also of new forms of politicization of life related to biomedical science and the

  5. Enhanced Interleukin (IL)-13 Responses in Mice Lacking IL-13 Receptor α 2

    OpenAIRE

    Wood, Nancy; Whitters, Matthew J.; Jacobson, Bruce A; Witek, JoAnn; Sypek, Joseph P; Kasaian, Marion; Eppihimer, Michael J.; Unger, Michelle; Tanaka, Takashi; Goldman, Samuel J; Collins, Mary; Donaldson, Debra D.; Grusby, Michael J.

    2003-01-01

    Interleukin (IL)-13 has recently been shown to play important and unique roles in asthma, parasite immunity, and tumor recurrence. At least two distinct receptor components, IL-4 receptor (R)α and IL-13Rα1, mediate the diverse actions of IL-13. We have recently described an additional high affinity receptor for IL-13, IL-13Rα2, whose function in IL-13 signaling is unknown. To better appreciate the functional importance of IL-13Rα2, mice deficient in IL-13Rα2 were generated by gene targeting. ...

  6. Italian Validation of Homophobia Scale (HS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciocca, Giacomo; Capuano, Nicolina; Tuziak, Bogdan; Mollaioli, Daniele; Limoncin, Erika; Valsecchi, Diana; Carosa, Eleonora; Gravina, Giovanni L; Gianfrilli, Daniele; Lenzi, Andrea; Jannini, Emmanuele A

    2015-09-01

    The Homophobia Scale (HS) is a valid tool to assess homophobia. This test is self-reporting, composed of 25 items, which assesses a total score and three factors linked to homophobia: behavior/negative affect, affect/behavioral aggression, and negative cognition. The aim of this study was to validate the HS in the Italian context. An Italian translation of the HS was carried out by two bilingual people, after which an English native translated the test back into the English language. A psychologist and sexologist checked the translated items from a clinical point of view. We recruited 100 subjects aged18-65 for the Italian validation of the HS. The Pearson coefficient and Cronbach's α coefficient were performed to test the test-retest reliability and internal consistency. A sociodemographic questionnaire including the main information as age, geographic distribution, partnership status, education, religious orientation, and sex orientation was administrated together with the translated version of HS. The analysis of the internal consistency showed an overall Cronbach's α coefficient of 0.92. In the four domains, the Cronbach's α coefficient was 0.90 in behavior/negative affect, 0.94 in affect/behavioral aggression, and 0.92 in negative cognition, whereas in the total score was 0.86. The test-retest reliability showed the following results: the HS total score was r = 0.93 (P homophobia. In this regard, the HS can be introduced into the clinical praxis and into programs for the prevention of homophobic behavior.

  7. Nurses' Job satisfaction: an Italian study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansoni, J; De Caro, W; Marucci, A R; Sorrentino, M; Mayner, L; Lancia, L

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the work presented was to assess job satisfaction of a number of nurses from different departments working in public hospitals in Italy. The assessment was carried out through the combined use of questionnaires, which measured different aspects of job satisfaction, such as coping abilities, stress level and optimism/pessimism. The literature supports the fact that nurses' job dissatisfaction is closely connected with high levels of stress, burnout and physical and mental exhaustion, together with high workload levels and the complexity of care. The growing interest in measuring the levels of nurses' job satisfaction is attributable to a number of problems that have been raised worldwide, two of which are becoming ever so important: turnover and shortage of nurses. The research question is: Which are the main motivating factors of Italian nurses' job satisfaction/dissatisfaction? The study used a convenience (non probability) sample of 1,304 nurses from 15 different wards working in Italian public hospitals from a number of cities in northern, central and southern Italy. The survey instrument was a questionnaire consisting of 205 items which included 5 different questionnaires combined together. The results show a low level of job satisfaction (IWS= 11.5, JSS=126.4). However, the participants were overall happy about their job and considered autonomy and salary important factors for job satisfaction. Research has shown that the nurses' level of satisfaction in Italian hospitals is low. The results revealed dissatisfaction with task requirements, organizational policies and advance in career. Nurses interviewed did not feel stressed and showed to be optimistic overall. New research on the subject should be conducted by focusing on ward differences, North and South of Italy and on gender differences.

  8. Noi siamo quello che ricordiamo - Le frazze di Crucoli: il teatro, il rito, il riscatto sociale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tonia Mingrone

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract - IT Questo lavoro nasce da una ricerca di campo sulle frazze, termine dialettale che indica le farse di Carnevale che si rappresentavano fino a cinquant’anni fa in molti paesi calabresi, tra cui il mio, Crucoli, in provincia di Crotone. Lo scopo di questo lavoro non è fare un resoconto esaustivo di tutto ciò che accadeva a Crucoli durante la celebrazione del Carnevale, impresa assai difficile dal momento che non ci sono documenti scritti e quindi bisogna affidarsi ai racconti orali delle persone intervistate, spesso non fedeli alla realtà, perché modificati dal tempo e dalla memoria. L’approccio con cui ho intrapreso questa ricerca è sicuramente legato all’aspetto teatrale e performativo dell’evento, senza trascurarne la rilevanza antropologica. Il materiale raccolto è frutto di interviste e colloqui con la gente del posto unito ad un grande lavoro di ricerca bibliografica di autori che avevano trattato di questo argomento in relazione ai loro paesi di origine.Lo scopo è quello di delineare l’organizzazione e lo svolgimento delle frazze, cercando di ricostruire la sua durata e le ripercussioni sulla comunità, nonché dimostrare ancora una volta come il teatro, messo a disposizione di alcuni eventi, diventi un mezzo forte di liberazione e di contestazione. Abstract - FR Cet article prend sa naissance par une recherche sur champ concernant les frazze, terme dialectal qui dénote les farces du Carnaval mises en scène jusqu'à il y a cinquante ans dans plusieurs villages en Calabria, entre eux le mien, Crucoli, dans la province de Crotone. La raison de ce travail n'est pas d'accomplir un compte rendu exhaustif de tout ce qui avait lieu à Crucoli pendant la célébration du Carnaval, l'exploit étant très difficile, du moment qu'aucun document écrit a été parvenu et par conséquence il est nécessaire de se remettre aux contes des témoins interviewés, souvent pas fidèles au réel, parce-que détournés par les

  9. BUSINESS COMMUNICATION AND ITALIAN COMMERCIAL CORRESPONDENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SILVIA MADINCEA PAȘCU

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Despite more frequent use of e-mails, fax messages, or memos, letters still have their role in trade. At the same time, this form of correspondence adapts itself to current times, with the purpose of not being eliminated by "competition", adopting new formats and structures.The present paper tries to make a brief presentation of the main means of communication, with a particular accent on business correspondence.A detailed description will be given to the types of Italian business letters (circulars, bids, requests, orders, etc., to their subcategories (external and internal circulars, offers of goods and services etc., to their aesthetic format and to their structures.

  10. Cleopatra sulle scene italiane del secondo Novecento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariagabriella Cambiaghi

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Even if a large number of plays were written about Cleopatra from the 16th century on, they rarely were actually staged, with the only exception of the very difficult Shakespeare’s Antony and Cleopatra. This is quite the only play which has been staged in the 20th century Italian theaters as well, thanks to the effort of directors such as Renzo Ricci and Mario Missiroli. Only in recent years Cleopatra was protagonist of a new play, written by Giovanni Testori.

  11. Chlamydophila felis: plasmid detection in Italian isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Francesco, Antonietta; Donati, Manuela; Salvatore, Daniela; Cevenini, Roberto; Di Paolo, Maria; Baldelli, Raffaella

    2010-04-01

    Plasmids have been detected in the majority of strains in the genus Chlamydia and in many Chlamydophila species. Previous studies showed that FP Pring and FP Cello Chlamydophila felis strains have an extrachromosomial plasmid, whereas the FP Baker strain does not. Azuma et al. recently sequenced the entire genomic DNA sequence of the Japanese Cp. felis strain Fe/C-56 and described a 7,552 base pair circular plasmid. In the present study a highly conserved plasmid gene was detected in 11 Italian Cp. felis isolates, showing 100% nucleotide identity with the plasmid gene of Fe/C-56 Cp. felis strain.

  12. IL-17/Th17 mediated synovial inflammation is IL-22 independent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.P. van Hamburg (Jan Piet); O.B.J. Corneth (Odilia); S.M.J. Paulissen (Sandra); N. Davelaar (Nadine); P. Asmawidjaja (Patrick); A.M.C. Mus (Adriana); E.W. Lubberts (Erik)

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstractABSTRACT Background: Interleukin (IL)-17A and Th17 cells are critically involved in T cell-mediated synovial inflammation. Besides IL-17A, Th17 cells produce IL-22. Recently, Th22 cells were discovered, which produce IL- 22 in the absence of IL-17. However, it remains

  13. Role of IL-1alpha and IL-1beta in ischemic brain damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutin, H; LeFeuvre, R A; Horai, R; Asano, M; Iwakura, Y; Rothwell, N J

    2001-08-01

    The cytokine interleukin-1 (IL-1) has been strongly implicated in the pathogenesis of ischemic brain damage. Evidence to date suggests that the major form of IL-1 contributing to ischemic injury is IL-1beta rather than IL-1alpha, but this has not been tested directly. The objective of the present study was to compare the effects of transient cerebral ischemia [30 min middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO)] on neuronal injury in wild-type (WT) mice and in IL-1alpha, IL-1beta, or both IL-1alpha and IL-1beta knock-out (KO) mice. Mice lacking both forms of IL-1 exhibited dramatically reduced ischemic infarct volumes compared with wild type (total volume, 70%; cortex, 87% reduction). Ischemic damage compared with WT mice was not significantly altered in mice lacking either IL-1alpha or IL-1beta alone. IL-1beta mRNA, but not IL-1alpha or the IL-1 type 1 receptor, was strongly induced by MCAO in WT and IL-1alpha KO mice. Administration (intracerebroventricularly) of recombinant IL-1 receptor antagonist significantly reduced infarct volume in WT (-32%) and IL-1alpha KO (-48%) mice, but had no effect on injury in IL-1beta or IL-1alpha/beta KO mice. These data confirm that IL-1 plays a major role in ischemic brain injury. They also show that chronic deletion of IL-1alpha or IL-1beta fails to influence brain damage, probably because of compensatory changes in the IL-1 system in IL-1alpha KO mice and changes in IL-1-independent mediators of neuronal death in IL-1beta KO mice.

  14. POLA-POLA PENGGUNAAN KATA ISIM DAN FI'IL DALAM AL-QUR’AN

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    Ridhoul Wahidi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to examine the use of the word isim and fi’il in the Qur'an. This research method is to process data related to the books of fi’il and isim that have relevance aspect to the language of the Qur’an. Among the results of this study are: the nature of isim is not only a noun, but also adjectives, state, pronouns, appoint, name, and mashdar. Isim divided into seven categories there are (mudzakkar, muannats, simplex, mutsanna, and plural, and ma'rifat nakirah, munsharif and ghair munsharif, maqshur and manqush, jamid and musytaq, mu'rab and mabni. While fi’il consists of three parts, (simple past fi’il madhi, simple present fi’il mudhari ', and simple future fi’il amr. DOI: 10.15408/a.v1i2.1143

  15. Italian in Malta: A Socio-Educational Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruana, Sandro

    2013-01-01

    In this contribution I present an overview of Italian in Malta, the third language of Malta, focusing on the role of this language within educational institutions and other domains of society. Italian was one of Malta's official languages till 1936 and, historically, it was used mainly within administrative and cultural spheres of society.…

  16. Socio-Demographic Vulnerability: The Condition of Italian Young People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busetta, A.; Milito, A. M.

    2010-01-01

    For a kind of inertia effect, today the Italian welfare state protects the older too much and, on the contrary, it does not counter sufficiently the new risks associated with other phases of life. Not much seems to be implemented in favour of Italian young people who, as a matter of fact, seem to suffer a lot from the present changes: young people…

  17. Strategic Management Accounting in Universities: The Italian Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agasisti, Tommaso; Arnaboldi, Michela; Azzone, Giovanni

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents an investigation of management accounting in four major Italian universities, which have been struggling to build their strategy in a context of significant change. Following many OECD countries the Italian government has been changing its higher education system by giving more autonomy to universities. These changes pose a…

  18. An Italian Social Learning Experience in High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieri, Michelle; Diamantini, Davide; Paini, Germano

    2013-01-01

    This work focuses on an experience of social learning realized in six Italian high schools in the 2012-2013 academic year. In this experience we used ThinkTag Smart, a new learning platform, to train 400 students. After an introduction concerning Information and Communication Technologies in Italian schools, this contribution will describe the…

  19. Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) and corn (Zea mays)competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Italian ryegrass is an annual/biennial grass that is typically used as a pasture crop or a cover crop along roadsides, rights-of-way, and industrial areas. Glyphosate-resistant (GR) Italian ryegrass populations have been documented around the world, mostly in orchard and vineyard situations. The fir...

  20. Occupational Gender Stereotypes and Problem-Solving in Italian Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginevra, Maria Cristina; Nota, Laura

    2017-01-01

    The first purpose of the study was to establish how Italian adolescents perceive jobs in the newly emerging economy sectors as well as more traditional jobs from gender-stereotyped and gender-segregated perspectives. The second purpose was to verify the role of problem-solving and gender in gender-role stereotyping. A total of 217 Italian high…

  1. Italian in Malta: A Socio-Educational Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruana, Sandro

    2013-01-01

    In this contribution I present an overview of Italian in Malta, the third language of Malta, focusing on the role of this language within educational institutions and other domains of society. Italian was one of Malta's official languages till 1936 and, historically, it was used mainly within administrative and cultural spheres of society. Contact…

  2. Collective Training & Thinking in JAMD : The Italian JPOWX Experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, L.R.M.A.; Schavemaker-Piva, O.; Meijer, Y.G.S.; Nuvoloni, P.; Cioli, C.; Manca, R.; Argiolas, G.

    2009-01-01

    Mission Training through Distributed Simulation (MTDS) has established itself as a powerful tool for collective training in the military domain. This potential has been recognized by the Italian Joint Forces Command and has led to the Italian participation in the 10th edition of Exercise Joint Proje

  3. Italian schools in Minas Gerais: organization, curriculum and social relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maysa Gomes Rodrigues

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Current research discusses the organization of Italian schools (private or linked to charities by their circumstances and curricula. The immigration phenomenon in Minas Gerais brought a large population of Italian immigrants on whose experience several schools were founded in some towns of the state of Minas Gerais,Brazil. Current essay investigates the common and differentiating factors of Italian Schools in the state? Documentary sources were analyzed on the organization of the following schools: Italian School linked to the Italian Beneficent Association in Belo Horizonte, and the schools Regina Margherita and Umberto Primo in Juiz de For a. The Umberto Primo school was associated to the Italian Society Umberto Primo and the Italian school Dante Alighieri was associated to the Società Dante Alighieri in Ouro Fino andUmbertoPrimoSchool in Nova Lima, linked to the Società Italiana of this town between 1899 and 1911. Current analysis contributes towards the clarification of similarities and differentiations on the organization of Italian Schools, and, inevitably, to the understanding of the schooling of immigrants in Minas Gerais.

  4. Strategic Management Accounting in Universities: The Italian Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agasisti, Tommaso; Arnaboldi, Michela; Azzone, Giovanni

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents an investigation of management accounting in four major Italian universities, which have been struggling to build their strategy in a context of significant change. Following many OECD countries the Italian government has been changing its higher education system by giving more autonomy to universities. These changes pose a…

  5. Divergent Thinking in Italian Students with and without Reading Impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigozzi, Lucia; Tarchi, Christian; Pinto, Giuliana; Donfrancesco, Renato

    2016-01-01

    Several studies have explored the relationship between dyslexia and creativity, but results have been rather mixed. This study examines whether Italian dyslexic children are more creative than their peers without a reading impairment. One hundred ninety Italian children aged between 9 and 13 participated in this study, divided into two groups:…

  6. 尖锐湿疣组织IL-2、IL-4、IL-10、IL-18表达的意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡凯; 程方雄; 陈蓓; 韩林; 马鸣

    2012-01-01

    目的:探讨尖锐湿疣(CA)患者治疗前、后血清中白细胞介素(IL)-2、IL-4、IL-10和IL-18的水平变化在CA免疫发病机制中的作用.方法:用酶联免疫吸附法(ELISA)分别检测30例CA患者在治疗前和治疗后3个月未复发时血清IL-2、IL-4 、ID-10和IL-18的水平,并与20例正常人作比较.结果:结果CA患者治疗前血清中IL-2水平明显低于正常对照组(P<0.01),IL-4、IL-10和IL-18水平明显高于正常对照组(P<0.05);治疗后3个月末血清IL-2、IL-4、IL-10、IL-18的水平同正常对照组相比,差异无统计学意义(均P>0.05).结论:人乳头瘤病毒(HPV)感染可造成患者细胞免疫功能异常,IL-2、IL-4、IL-10和IL 18在CA免疫发病机制中可能起重要作用.

  7. Il problema morale nei "Pensieri" di Montesquieu

    OpenAIRE

    Lucia Dileo

    2010-01-01

    The paper examines two recent italian anthologies of Montesquieu's "Mes Pensées":- Montesquieu, Riflessioni e pensieri inediti (1716-1755), ed. by Domenico Felice, Bologna, Clueb, 2010;- Montesquieu, Pensieri diversi, ed. by Domenico Felice, Napoli, Liguori, 2010.

  8. IL-8、IL-17以及IL-18与胃癌的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林丹; 杜苗苗; 杜季梅

    2012-01-01

    胃癌是危害人类健康最常见的恶性肿瘤之一,其病死率仅次于肺癌,位居癌症死亡第2位。多项研究表明白细胞介素(interleukin,IL)IL-8、IL-17及IL-18,与胃癌的发生发展有着密切的联系。该文对IL-8、IL-17和IL-18与肿瘤和胃癌关系作一简要概述。

  9. CT-guided plexus and splanchnic nerve neurolytic block. Experience in 150 cases and techniques optimization; Il blocco neurolitico del plesso celiaco e dei nervi splancnici con tomografia computerizzata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marra, V.; Frigerio, A.; Menna, S.; Di Virgilio, M.R. [Ospedale San Giovanni, Turin (Italy). Serv. di Radiologia; Debernardi, F.; Musso, L. [Ospedale San Giovanni, Turin (Italy). Serv. di Anestesia, Rianimazione e Terapia Antalgica

    1999-09-01

    The paper reports the personal experience in computerized tomography guided celiac plexus and splanchnic nerve neurolytic block blocks. [Italian] Scopo del lavoro e' illustrare l'esperienza personale nell'uso della tomografia computerizzata nel trattamento del dolore da neoplasie addominali superiori, rivoluzionando le tecniche di esecuzione, aumentandone la precisione e riducendone notevolmente il rischio di complicanze.

  10. IL-13 working through IL-13Ra1 mediates critical functional responses to nematode infection in the gastrointestinal tract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nematode infection up-regulates IL-4 and IL-13 and induces STAT6-dependent changes in epithelial function and smooth muscle contractility that promote worm clearance. IL-4 and IL-13 share the same type II IL-4R that contains the IL-13R'1 and the IL-4R' chain linked to STAT6. The role of IL-13 workin...

  11. Analysis Regarding the Growing Presence of Italian Firms in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Valdemarin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available At the end of 2014, the number of firms with an Italian presence in Romania was 39,556, representing 19.33% out of total registered firms and this number is still growing. This article focuses on answering the following question: what kind of Italian firms are investing in Romania and why? Starting from the empirical observation that the number of Italian firms in Romania grew by 6.82% last year, we have used a PESTEL analysis to find the key points characterizing the country, paying attention also to the concept of country brand. From the point of view of Italian firms, we have also analyzed the shifting paradigm of internationalization from a Vertical Foreign Direct Investment model to a Horizontal Foreign Direct Investment model. This paper can be useful for managers and entrepreneurs who are oriented towards investing in Romania following the path of Italian firms.

  12. 热化疗治疗非小细胞肺癌对IL-2、IL-6、IL-8、IL-10及TNF的影响%Effect of thermochemotherapy on levels of IL-2 ,IL-6 ,IL-8 ,IL-10 and TNF in non-small cell lung cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李新民; 尉继伟; 刘治邦; 刘建国

    2014-01-01

    目的 探讨热化疗治疗非小细胞肺癌(NSCLC)对白细胞介素-2(IL-2)、白细胞介素-6(IL-6)、白细胞介素-8(IL-8)、白细胞介素-10(IL-10)及肿瘤坏死因子(TNF)的影响.方法 回顾性分析大同大学附属医院2004年10月至2013年1月收治的134例NSCLC患者,进行热疗联合NP方案化疗(NVB+ DDP),并分别在治疗前、治疗3个周期后、治疗6个周期后、治疗结束后3个月对患者血清中IL-2、IL-6、IL-8、IL-10及TNF的变化进行监测.结果 热化疗3个周期后,IL-2、TNF水平逐渐增高,明显高于治疗前;IL-6、IL-8和IL-10水平明显低于化疗前.热化疗6个周期后,血IL-6、IL-8、IL-10、IL-2和TNF都有所下降,其中IL-2、TNF浓度显著低于化疗3个周期后的水平.热化疗结束后3个月,血IL-6、IL-8、IL-10水平继续下降;而IL-2、TNF浓度逐渐增高,低于化疗3个周期后的水平,但高于治疗前水平.结论 热化疗治疗NSCLC对IL-2、TNF水平有明显的增高作用,而对IL-6、IL-8、IL-10有降低作用.%Objective To investigate the effect of hot therapy on interleukin-2 (IL-2),interleukin-6 (IL-6),interlerukin-8 (IL-8),interleukin-10 (IL-10) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) in nonsmall cell lung cancer(NSCLC).Methods One hundred and thirty-four patients with NSCLC,admitted to our hospital from October 2004 to January 2013,received hot therapy and vinorelbine plus cisplatin (NP) chemotherapy.The IL-6,IL-8,IL-10 and TNF level before therapy,after 3 cycles,after 6 cycles and 3 months after chemotherapy were observed.Results IL-2 and TNF levels increased gradually after 3 cycles of hot therapy,and were significant higher than those before therapy.Compared to before therapy,IL-6,IL-8 and IL-10 levels significantly decreased.IL-6,IL-8,IL-10,IL-2 and TNF levels all decreased at 6 months after hot therapy.IL-2 and TNF levels were significant lowered than those of 3 cycles after chemotherapy.IL-6,IL-8 and IL-10 continued to decrease 3 months after the end of

  13. Advice of the Italian CCTN on the health risk assessment relative to exposure to automobile emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camoni, I. [ed.] [Istituto Superiore di Sanita`, Rome (Italy). Lab. di Tossicologia Applicata; Mucci, N. [ed.] [ISPESL, Monteporzio Catone, Roma (Italy). Dip. di Medicina del Lavoro; Foa`, V. [ed.] [Milan Univ. (Italy). Clinica del lavoro Luigi Devoto

    1998-06-01

    The period 1990-1995 are reported, they concern the health impact of exposure to benzene and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), resulting from automobile exhaust products, for Italian general and occupationally exposed populations. The first recommendation takes into consideration the possible long-term effects of the unleaded gasoline, recently introduced in Italy. The latter two recommendations concern the quantitative evaluation of the risk of leukaemia and of the risk of lung cancer from exposure to benzene and PAHs, resulting from automobile exhaust. [Italiano] Sono riportati i pareri espressi dalla Commissione Consultiva Tossicologica Nazionale (CCTN) nel periodo 1990-1995 riguardanti la valutazione del rischio cancerogeno per esposizione a sostanze contenute nelle emissioni autoveicolari. In particolare, viene stimato il rischio aggiuntivo di leucemia per esposizione a benzene e di cancro polmonare per esposizione a idrocarburi policiclici aromatici (IPA), sia per la popolazione generale che per quella professionalmente esposta.

  14. Fantasy and Censorship: Dino Buzzati’s correspondence from Italian colonies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Schiavon

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of my contribution is to study the role and influence of Fascist censorship in the journalistic articles that Dino Buzzati wrote from tha Italian colonies for the Corriere della Sera between 1933 and 1940. The articles are collected in the volume L’Africa di Buzzati.By placing Buzzati’s work in a precise historical framework and discussing the problem of his ‘orientalism’, the article demonstrates that Buzzati’s work from Africa can be read as a document of Italian colonialism and that it confirmed, in terms of stereotypes and prejudices, not only the attitude of ‘the West’ towards North African peoples, but also his bias against cultural and social realities which were distant from the ones he was familiar with.In terms of politics and ideology, the texts of Il Buttafuoco are difficult to decipher, especially with reference to the problem of racism. Buzzati’s narrative was determined not only by the influence of Fascist censorship but also by his aesthetic choices. In particular, the role of space played by the desert, the preference for anti-heroic figures and the diffuse use of imagination show the complexity of the relationship between Buzzati and political power, but also the originality in the way Buzzati used these figures to build a symbolism around the represented reality. 

  15. Life gain in Italian smokers who quit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrozzi, Laura; Falcone, Franco; Carreras, Giulia; Pistelli, Francesco; Gorini, Giuseppe; Martini, Andrea; Viegi, Giovanni

    2014-02-26

    This study aims to estimate the number of life years gained with quitting smoking in Italian smokers of both sexes, by number of cigarettes smoked per day (cig/day) and age at cessation. All-cause mortality tables by age, sex and smoking status were computed, based on Italian smoking data, and the survival curves of former and current smokers were compared. The more cig/day a man/woman smokes, and the younger his/her age of quitting smoking, the more years of life he/she gains with cessation. In fact, cessation at age 30, 40, 50, or 60 years gained, respectively, about 7, 7, 6, or 5, and 5, 5, 4, or 3 years of life, respectively, for men and women that smoked 10-19 cig/day. The gain in life years was higher for heavy smokers (9 years for >20 cig/day) and lower for light smokers (4 years for 1-9 cig/day). Consistently with prospective studies conducted worldwide, quitting smoking increases life expectancy regardless of age, gender and number of cig/day. The estimates of the number of years of life that could be gained by quitting smoking, when computed specifically for a single smoker, could be used by physicians and health professionals to promote a quit attempt.

  16. Nowcasting of convective cells over Italian Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. M. Medaglia

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is the individuation of convective cells over the Italian peninsula with the conjunction use of geostationary satellite data (METEOSAT, MSG satellite in the IR and WV channels and lightning data. We will use GCD (Global Convective Diagnostic algorithm developed at Aviation Weather Centre (AWC of NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. This algorithm is based on the idea that a deep convective cloud will not have any significant moisture above it. This technique works quite well at identifying active deep convection and can be applied to all the world's geostationary satellites. However it does not always agree with lightning sensors. Low topped convection with lightning will be missed. We will extend the capabilities of GCD using lightning data. The new product will be validate over different cases in the central Italy using the C-band polarimetric radar of ISAC-CNR (Institute of Atmospheric Sciences and Climate-of the Italian National Research Council Rome.

  17. Education in Soil Science: the Italian approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedetti, Anna; Canfora, Loredana; Dazzi, Carmelo; Lo Papa, Giuseppe

    2017-04-01

    The Italian Society of Soil Science (SISS) was founded in Florence on February 18th, 1952. It is an association legally acknowledged by Decree of the President of the Italian Republic in February 1957. The Society is member of the International Union of Soil Sciences (IUSS) of the European Confederation of Soil Science Societies (ECSSS) and collaborates with several companies, institutions and organizations having similar objectives or policy aspects. SISS promotes progress, coordination and dissemination of soil science and its applications encouraging relationships and collaborations among soil lovers. Within the SISS there are Working Groups and Technical Committees for specific issues of interest. In particular: • the Working Group on Pedotechniques; • the Working Group on Hydromorphic and Subaqueous Soils and • the Technical Committee for Soil Education and Public Awareness. In this communication we wish to stress the activities developed since its foundation by SISS to spread soil awareness and education in Italy through this last Technical Committee, focusing also the aspect concerning grants for young graduates and PhD graduates to stimulate the involvement of young people in the field of soil science. Keywords: SISS, soil education and awareness.

  18. The Italian Tau/charm project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biagini Maria Enrica

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A τ/charm Factory, an e + e- collider with very high luminosity at the 2–4.6 GeV center of mass energy, to be built on the Rome University at Tor Vergata campus, was studied by the Consortium Nicola Cabibbo Laboratory and the INFN Frascati Laboratories. This project is the natural evolution of the flagship Italian project SuperB Factory, funded by the Italian Government in 2010 with a budget that turned out to be insufficient to cover the total costs of the project. The study of rare events at the τ/charm energy was already planned as a Phase-II of SuperB [1]. This design keeps all the unique features of SuperB, including the polarization of the electron beam, with the possibility to take data in a larger energy range, with reduced accelerator dimensions and construction and operation costs. A Report on the accelerator design has been published in September 2013 [2].

  19. Italian Registry of Congenital Bleeding Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giampaolo, Adele; Abbonizio, Francesca; Arcieri, Romano; Hassan, Hamisa Jane

    2017-01-01

    In Italy, the surveillance of people with bleeding disorders is based on the National Registry of Congenital Coagulopathies (NRCC) managed by the Italian National Institute of Health (Istituto Superiore di Sanità). The NRCC collects epidemiological and therapeutic data from the 54 Hemophilia Treatment Centers, members of the Italian Association of Hemophilia Centres (AICE). The number of people identified with bleeding disorders has increased over the years, with the number rising from approx. 7000 in 2000 to over 11,000 in 2015. The NRCC includes 4020 patients with hemophilia A and 859 patients with hemophilia B. The prevalence of the rare type 3 vWD is 0.20/100,000 inhabitants. Less common congenital bleeding disorders include the following deficiencies: Factor I (fibrinogen), Factor II (prothrombin), Factor V, Factor VII, Factor X, Factor XI and Factor XIII, which affect 1953 patients. Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) infection affects 1561 patients, more than 200 of whom have two infections (HCV + HIV). Estimated hemophilia-related drug consumption in 2015 was approx. 550 million IU of FVIII for hemophilia A patients and approx. 70 million IU of FIX for hemophilia B patients. The NRCC, with its bleeding disorder data set, is a tool that can provide answers to fundamental questions in public health, monitoring care provision and drug treatment, as well as facilitating clinical and epidemiological research. PMID:28335488

  20. Application of classification rules to Italian ports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marino Lupi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the existing rules commonly used for port traffic comparison are described. These rules provide weighting factors for each freight category in order to make them comparable and exploitable for port ranking. These rules are based on the value added concept related to port activities. Two new rules are proposed. The first is again based on the value added concept. The second rule is based on the assumption that ports not only create labour directly, through activities related to port operations, but they also play the role of “gates” for the existing economic activities of a region or a country, as a consistent quota of the overall international trade takes place by sea. This rule is based on the relationship among the trend of traffic volume of each freight category and the trend of the national GDP. The rules existing in the literature and the proposed new rules have been applied in ranking Italian ports; the results are discussed. The sensitivity of the ranking of Italian ports, to the different weighting rules, has been analysed.

  1. Determinants of health disparities between Italian regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giannoni Margherita

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Among European countries, Italy is one of the countries where regional health disparities contribute substantially to socioeconomic health disparities. In this paper, we report on regional differences in self-reported poor health and explore possible determinants at the individual and regional levels in Italy. Methods We use data from the "Indagine Multiscopo sulle Famiglie", a survey of aspects of everyday life in the Italian population, to estimate multilevel logistic regressions that model poor self-reported health as a function of individual and regional socioeconomic factors. Next we use the causal step approach to test if living conditions, healthcare characteristics, social isolation, and health behaviors at the regional level mediate the relationship between regional socioeconomic factors and self-rated health. Results We find that residents living in regions with more poverty, more unemployment, and more income inequality are more likely to report poor health and that poor living conditions and private share of healthcare expenditures at the regional level mediate socioeconomic disparities in self-rated health among Italian regions. Conclusion The implications are that regional contexts matter and that regional policies in Italy have the potential to reduce health disparities by implementing interventions aimed at improving living conditions and access to quality healthcare.

  2. Italian research on Antarctic atmosphere: 1st workshop. Ricerche italiane sull'atmosfera antartica: 1o workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colacino, M. (ed.); Giovannelli, G. (ed.); Stefanutti, L. (ed.)

    1989-01-01

    The papers and reports, presented at this 1st workshop on 'Italian research on antarctic atmosphere', deal with several main topics: meteorology and climatology, aerosol and tropospheric clouds, planetary boundary layer, chemical-physic stratospheric property, aeronomy. They define the stage of development of Italian research in this area after 3 years of activity in Antarctica.

  3. Specific and Generic Subjects in the Italian of German-Italian Simultaneous Bilinguals and L2 Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupisch, Tanja

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates definite articles in specific and generic subject nominals in Italian spoken by adult simultaneous bilinguals (2L1ers) and second language learners (L2ers). The study focuses on plural and mass DPs, in which German and Italian differ. The aims are to (i) compare acquisition outcomes between the weaker and the stronger…

  4. 哮喘患儿血清中sIL-2R,IL-2,IL-4,IL-13的测定与临床意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张国祥; 许文龙

    2007-01-01

    目的 探讨哮喘患儿血清中sIL-2R,IL-2,IL-4,IL-13的水平变化及其与哮喘发病机制的关系.方法 每例患儿及正常对照组均取空腹静脉血并即时分离血清1 ml,用ELISA法检测血清中sIL-2R,IL-2,IL-4,IL-13的水平,并对检测结果 进行医学统计学分析处理.结果 哮喘急性发作组、哮喘缓解组的患儿血清中sIL-2R,IL-2,IL-4,IL-13的测定结果与正常对照组相比较经统计学分析均存在极其显著的差异(P<0.05).其中患儿哮喘急性发作组、哮喘缓解组血清中sIL-2R,IL-4,IL-13的测定结果 要明显高于正常对照组,而IL-2则明显低于正常对照组.此外,哮喘急性发作组与哮喘缓解组血清中IL-2,IL-4,IL-13的测定结果 相比较经统计学分析均存在显著的差异(P<0.05),而sIL-2R则无显著差异.结论 哮喘患儿血清中sIL-2R,IL-2,IL-4,IL-13的水平均存在显著的变化,说明它们在哮喘的发病机制中起着重要的作用.

  5. IL RAY-TRACING NELLA IONOSFERA

    OpenAIRE

    Azzarone, A.; Bianchi, C.; Settimi, A

    2010-01-01

    Il pacchetto applicativo “IONORT” per il calcolo del ray-tracing può essere utilizzato dagli utenti che impiegano il sistema operativo Windows. È un programma la cui interfaccia grafica con l’utente è realizzata in MATLAB. In realtà, il programma lancia un eseguibile che integra il sistema d’equazioni differenziali scritto in linguaggio Fortran e ne importa l’output nel programma MATLAB, il quale genera i grafici e altre informazioni sul raggio. A completamento di questa premessa va detto che...

  6. IL-2 and IL-15 Exhibit Opposing Effects on Fas Mediated Apoptosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gulcin Demirci; Xian Chang Li

    2004-01-01

    It has been shown that IL-2 and IL-15 can have opposing effects on life and death of T cells. However, the role of IL-2 and IL-15 in regulating the fate of other cell types is less clear. In the present study, we examined the impact of IL-2 and IL-15 on life and death of pre-B cells using the BAF-B03 line. We showed that BAF-B03 cells constitutively expressed the private IL-2Rα chain and IL-15Rα chain, and the shared IL-2Rβ chain and γc chain. Stimulation of BAF-B03 cells in vitro with IL-2 and IL-15 induced vigorous cell proliferation in a dose-dependent fashion. Titration of IL-2 and IL-15 in the assay showed that the mitotic effects of IL-2 and IL-15 were remarkably similar, Howerer, the sensitivities of BAF-B03 cells to Fas mediated apoptosis after IL-2 and IL-15 stimulation were strikingly different. Cells cultured in IL-2 readily underwent apoptotic cell deathupon cross-linking of the Fas receptor whereas cells cultured in IL-15 were extremely resistant to Fas triggered cell death. The anti-apoptotic effect of IL-15 in this model was associated with increased expression of Bcl-xL. FLIP expression, however, was comparable between IL-2 and IL-15 stimulated cells. We conclude that IL-2 and IL-15 have diametrically opposite effect on the fate of BAF-B03 cells, although both cytokines share similar receptor structure and exhibitsimilarmitoticactivities.

  7. IL-2 and IL-15 Exhibit Opposing Effects on Fas Mediated Apoptosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GulcinDemirci; XianChangLi

    2004-01-01

    It has been shown that IL-2 and IL-15 can have opposing effects on life and death of T cells. However, the roie of IL-2 and IL-15 in regulating the fate of other cell types is less clear. In the present study, we examined the impact of IL-2 and IL-15 on life and death of pre-B cells using the BAF-B03 line. We showed that BAF-B03 cells constitutively expressed the private IL-2Rα chain and IL-15Rα chain, and the shared IL-2Rβ chain and γc hain. Stimulation of BAF-B03 cells in vitro with IL-2 and IL-15 induced vigorous cell proliferation in a dose-dependent fashion. Titration of IL-2 and IL-15 in the assay showed that the mitotic effects of IL-2 and IL-15 were remarkably similar. However, the sensitivities of BAF-B03 cells to Fas mediated apoptosis after IL-2 and IL-15 stimulation were strikingly different. Cells cultured in IL-2 readily underwent apoptotic cell death upon cross-linking of the Fas receptor whereas cells cultured in IL-15 were extremely resistant to Fas triggered cell death. The anti-apoptotic effect of IL-15 in this model was associated with increased expression of Bcl-xL. FLIP expression, however, was comparable between IL-2 and IL-15 stimulated cells. We conclude that IL-2 and IL-15 have diametrically opposite effect on the fate of BAF-B03 cells, although both cytokines share similar receptor structure and exhibit similar mitotic activities. Cellular & Molecular Immunology. 2004;1(2):123-128.

  8. Elevated levels of circulating IL-7 and IL-15 in patients with early stage prostate cancer

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    Bachmann Alexander

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic inflammation has been suggested to favour prostate cancer (PCA development. Interleukins (IL represent essential inflammation mediators. IL-2, IL-7, IL-15 and IL-21, sharing a common receptor γ chain (c-γ, control T lymphocyte homeostasis and proliferation and play major roles in regulating cancer-immune system interactions. We evaluated local IL-2, IL-7, IL-15 and IL-21 gene expression in prostate tissues from patients with early stage PCA or benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH. As control, we used IL-6 gene, encoding an IL involved in PCA progression. IL-6, IL-7 and IL-15 titres were also measured in patients' sera. Methods Eighty patients with BPH and 79 with early (1 to 2c stage PCA were enrolled. Gene expression in prostate tissues was analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR. Serum IL concentrations and acute phase protein titres were evaluated by ELISA. Mann-Whitney, Wilcoxon and χ2 tests were used to compare IL gene expression and serum titers in the two groups of patients. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC curves were constructed to evaluate the possibility to distinguish sera from different groups of patients based on IL titers. Results IL-2 and IL-21 gene expression was comparably detectable, with low frequency and at low extents, in PCA and BPH tissues. In contrast, IL-6, IL-7 and IL-15 genes were expressed more frequently (p Conclusions Expression IL-7 and IL-15 genes in prostate tissues and corresponding serum titres are significantly increased in patients with early stage PCA as compared with patients with BPH.

  9. “We have botched them and patched them”: Modernity and Restoration in Henry James’s Italian Hours

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    Monica MANOLESCU-OANCEA

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Cet article porte sur la question de la rénovation de l’architecture italienne dans les écrits de voyage de Henry James en Italie, Italian Hours. Plus généralement, cet article se penche sur les rapports entre paysage urbain et modernité. Au 19e siècle, la rénovation était au centre des débats intellectuels et artistiques, avec des perspectives variées. Henry James, à l’instar de John Ruskin, condamnait les résultats de la rénovation des monuments italiens. Les raisons de cette réaction sont diverses : tout d’abord, sa vision de l’architecture en tant qu’art organique, sa position discrète de voyageur qui refuse de s’immiscer dans la vie des objets contemplés, sa critique de la rénovation comme preuve de mauvais goût. Même s’il rejette la rénovation en tant qu’intervention brutale du présent dans le passé, il accepte, à contrecœur, le fait que l’Italie se dirige inéluctablement vers la modernité. La réaction nuancée de James aux opinions de Ruskin s’inscrit dans son attitude ambivalente concernant l’évolution des villes italiennes vers la modernité.This article focuses on Henry James’s Italian Hours from the perspective of the author’s response to the restoration of Italian architecture and more generally to the place of modernity in the Italian cityscape. A central issue in the intellectual and artistic debates of the 19th century, the process of restoration triggered various responses. Henry James, just like John Ruskin, was horrified by the results of restoration in Italy, for reasons having to do with his vision of the organic growth of buildings, with his stance as a discreet and “uninvestigating” traveller and with his criticism of “improvement” as bad taste. Although he rejects renovation as interference of the present in the past, he accepts, albeit reluctantly, the necessity of “young Italy” to become a modern state. James’s nuanced response to Ruskin is part of his

  10. IL-17A/F-signaling does not contribute to the initial phase of mucosal inflammation triggered by S. Typhimurium.

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    Pascal Songhet

    Full Text Available Salmonella enterica subspecies 1 serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium causes diarrhea and acute inflammation of the intestinal mucosa. The pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-17A and IL-17F are strongly induced in the infected mucosa but their contribution in driving the tissue inflammation is not understood. We have used the streptomycin mouse model to analyze the role of IL-17A and IL-17F and their cognate receptor IL-17RA in S. Typhimurium enterocolitis. Neutralization of IL-17A and IL-17F did not affect mucosal inflammation triggered by infection or spread of S. Typhimurium to systemic sites by 48 h p.i. Similarly, Il17ra(-/- mice did not display any reduction in infection or inflammation by 12 h p.i. The same results were obtained using S. Typhimurium variants infecting via the TTSS1 type III secretion system, the TTSS1 effector SipA or the TTSS1 effector SopE. Moreover, the expression pattern of 45 genes encoding chemokines/cytokines (including CXCL1, CXCL2, IL-17A, IL-17F, IL-1α, IL-1β, IFNγ, CXCL-10, CXCL-9, IL-6, CCL3, CCL4 and antibacterial molecules was not affected by Il17ra deficiency by 12 h p.i. Thus, in spite of the strong increase in Il17a/Il17f mRNA in the infected mucosa, IL-17RA signaling seems to be dispensable for eliciting the acute disease. Future work will have to address whether this is attributable to redundancy in the cytokine signaling network.

  11. The role of IL-4 and IL-13 in cutaneous Leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurdayal, Ramona; Brombacher, Frank

    2014-10-01

    Murine models of Leishmania major infection in the 1980s revealed two distinct, counter-regulatory populations of CD4(+) T helper (Th) cells, delineated Th1 and Th2, and their archetypal cytokines, interferon gamma (IFN-γ) and interleukin (IL)-4/IL-13, which promoted resistance/susceptibility to infection, respectively. However, the introduction of global cytokine-deficient mice in the 1990s revealed pleiotropic immune-regulatory mechanisms of IL-4 and IL-13 that either controlled or exacerbated disease. This undermined the basic premise that IL-4/IL-13 played paramount roles in facilitating a non-healing Th2 response to Leishmania infection and instead suggested that both IL-4 and IL-13-dependent and IL-4/IL-13-independent factors orchestrate disease outcome. The recent characterization of cell-type specific IL-4Rα deficient mice was initiated to help reconcile these observations and dissect the cell-specific effects of IL-4/IL-13 during infection. In this review, we summarize original and recent findings with regard to the role of IL-4 and IL-13 in cutaneous Leishmaniasis. Using the information discerned from various studies and our conditional IL-4Rα gene-deficient mice, we particularly discuss the double-edged sword IL-4 (and in some Leishmania disease models IL-13) in driving a susceptible Th2 response, their immune cell targets that support healing or non-healing responses and their novel role in mediating a Th1 response during disease.

  12. 126Gln is the residue of human IL-2 binding to IL-2R γ subunit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王志勇; 郑仲承; 孙兰英; 刘新垣

    1997-01-01

    The 126Gln of human interleukin-2 (IL-2) is a conserved amino acid residue. After substitution of 126Gln with Asp, the binding abilities of this mutant to different composites of IL-2 receptor (R) subunits have been determined. Results show that 126Asp-IL-2 has higher affinity to IL-2R α βγ complex and normal affinity to IL-2R α β complex, but loses its binding ability to IL-2R β γ complex, demonstrating that the 126Gln is the residue of human IL-2 which binds to IL-2R 7 subunit.

  13. Recombinant p35 from bacteria can form Interleukin (IL-)12, but Not IL-35.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aparicio-Siegmund, Samadhi; Moll, Jens M; Lokau, Juliane; Grusdat, Melanie; Schröder, Jutta; Plöhn, Svenja; Rose-John, Stefan; Grötzinger, Joachim; Lang, Philipp A; Scheller, Jürgen; Garbers, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    The Interleukin (IL)-12 family contains several heterodimeric composite cytokines which share subunits among each other. IL-12 consists of the subunits p40 (shared with IL-23) and p35. p35 is shared with the composite cytokine IL-35 which comprises of the p35/EBI3 heterodimer (EBI3 shared with IL-27). IL-35 signals via homo- or heterodimers of IL-12Rβ2, gp130 and WSX-1, which are shared with IL-12 and IL-27 receptor complexes, respectively. p35 was efficiently secreted in complex with p40 as IL-12 but not with EBI3 as IL-35 in several transfected cell lines tested which complicates the analysis of IL-35 signal transduction. p35 and p40 but not p35 and EBI3 form an inter-chain disulfide bridge. Mutation of the responsible cysteine residue (p40C197A) reduced IL-12 formation and activity only slightly. Importantly, the p40C197A mutation prevented the formation of antagonistic p40 homodimers which enabled the in vitro reconstitution of biologically active IL-12 with p35 produced in bacteria (p35bac). Reconstitution of IL-35 with p35bac and EBI3 did, however, fail to induce signal transduction in Ba/F3 cells expressing IL-12Rβ2 and gp130. In summary, we describe the in vitro reconstitution of IL-12, but fail to produce recombinant IL-35 by this novel approach.

  14. Recombinant p35 from bacteria can form Interleukin (IL-12, but Not IL-35.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samadhi Aparicio-Siegmund

    Full Text Available The Interleukin (IL-12 family contains several heterodimeric composite cytokines which share subunits among each other. IL-12 consists of the subunits p40 (shared with IL-23 and p35. p35 is shared with the composite cytokine IL-35 which comprises of the p35/EBI3 heterodimer (EBI3 shared with IL-27. IL-35 signals via homo- or heterodimers of IL-12Rβ2, gp130 and WSX-1, which are shared with IL-12 and IL-27 receptor complexes, respectively. p35 was efficiently secreted in complex with p40 as IL-12 but not with EBI3 as IL-35 in several transfected cell lines tested which complicates the analysis of IL-35 signal transduction. p35 and p40 but not p35 and EBI3 form an inter-chain disulfide bridge. Mutation of the responsible cysteine residue (p40C197A reduced IL-12 formation and activity only slightly. Importantly, the p40C197A mutation prevented the formation of antagonistic p40 homodimers which enabled the in vitro reconstitution of biologically active IL-12 with p35 produced in bacteria (p35bac. Reconstitution of IL-35 with p35bac and EBI3 did, however, fail to induce signal transduction in Ba/F3 cells expressing IL-12Rβ2 and gp130. In summary, we describe the in vitro reconstitution of IL-12, but fail to produce recombinant IL-35 by this novel approach.

  15. Decreased expression of IL-27 in moderate-to-severe psoriasis and its anti-inflammation role in imiquimod-induced psoriasis-like mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wenjuan; Gong, Yu; Zhang, Xilin; Tong, Yunlei; Wang, Xiuxiu; Fei, Chengwen; Xu, Hui; Yu, Qian; Wang, Yao; Shi, Yuling

    2017-02-01

    level in serum and psoriasis-like lesion in the IMQ-treated mice. Our results suggest that IL-27 might predominantly play a protective role in the pathogenesis of psoriasis through abrogating Th17 differentiation. The potential therapeutic benefit of harnessing IL-27 in treating psoriasis awaits future investigation. Copyright © 2016 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Il delitto di onore e l'aggravante dei “futili motivi” culturalmente (e religiosamente motivata

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    Germana Carobene

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Contributo sottoposto a valutazione. Il contributo è destinato alla pubblicazione nel volume degli Atti del Corso di formazione giuridica in materia di pari opportunità e violazione del divieto di discriminazione di genere, organizzato dal Comitato Pari Opportunità presso il Consiglio dell'Ordine degli Avvocati di Napoli, ottobre 2013- giugno 2014SOMMARIO:1. I reati culturalmente motivati e il tentato omicidio per causa di “onore” - 2. Il concetto di onore nella cultura e nella tradizione giuridica dei Paesi mussulmani - 3. L'aggravante dei futili motivi nel nostro sistema penale - 4. Considerazioni conclusive. ABSTRACT The crime of honor and the aggravating factor of the trivial reasons' culturally (and religiously motivated A recent case law of the Italian Court of Cassation, on 2013, ruled that, in the case of the attempted murder of a daughter, trivial reasons cannot be considered based on the honor of the family and the violation of a fundamental religious precept. The evaluation of these cases then relates to that, of a much broader scope, linked to the concept of 'cultural crimes' or cultural defence. It is necessary, however, to perform a careful balancing between guilt and offensiveness proportion on the one hand and, on the other hand, to consider the extent to which the author of a culturally motivated crime can enjoy a punitive treatment, though attenuated compared to those who commit the same crime without a cultural motivation. A judgment intrinsically linked to a cultural and ethical relativism, cannot be accepted that though respecting the multiculturalism of the western society in general, and of the Italian one in particular, must always find its legitimacy by submitting to the principles and values on which the Italian Constitution is founded.

  17. Detection capability of the Italian network for teleseismic events

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    A. Marchetti

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available The future GSE experiment is based on a global seismic monitoring system, that should be designed for monitoring compliance with a nuclear test ban treaty. Every country participating in the test will transmit data to the International Data Center. Because of the high quality of data required, we decided to conduct this study in order to determine the set of stations to be used in the experiment. The Italian telemetered seismological network can detect all events of at least magnitude 2.5 whose epicenters are inside the network itself. For external events the situation is different: the capabilíty of detection is conditioned not only by the noise condition of the station, but also by the relative position of epicenter and station. The ING bulletin (January 1991-June 1992 was the data set for the present work. Comparing these data with the National Earthquake Information Center (NEIC bulletin, we established which stations are most reliable in detecting teleseismic events and, moreover, how distance and back-azimuth can influence event detection. Furthermore, we investigated the reliability of the automatic acquisition system in relation to teleseismic event detection.

  18. Into the 21st Century with the Istituto Geografico Polare "Silvio Zavatti" and its journal "Il Polo"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casarini, M.

    2013-12-01

    By Maria Pia Casarini We are now nearing the 70th anniversary of the foundation of this unique institution, established in the city of Fermo in the Marche region of Italy by the late Prof. Silvio Zavatti (d. 1985), a true polar enthusiast working before the time when Italy had any official interest in the polar regions. The Institute has the largest and most comprehensive polar library in Italy; a polar museum with Inuit artifacts and relics of expeditions by the Duke of Abruzzi and Umberto Nobile; and it has published a quarterly journal, "Il Polo", since 1945. Given the increasing official role of Italy in both Arctic and Antarctic research, and the increasing interest of Italian institutions and individuals in the rapidly developing problems of Arctic development, governance and environmental protection, the Institute aims to play an increased role in assisting Italian polar efforts through its resources and scholarship. For instance, the Institute is a member of the Arctic Table at the Italian Foreign Ministry by which Italy's role as an observer in the Arctic Council is mapped. The journal "Il Polo" has become bilingual and is becoming a global polar journal with survey papers by distinguished polar leaders. We are linked with PEI (Polar Educators International), which spreads knowledge of the polar regions in schools.

  19. Tumorigenicity of IL-1α– and IL-1β–Deficient Fibrosarcoma Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Nazarenko

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Analyzing the growth of fibrosarcoma lines derived from IL-1α–, IL-1β–, or IL-1αβ–knockout (−/− mice in the immunocompetent host revealed that tumor-derived IL-1α and IL-1β exert strong and opposing effects on immune response induction, which prohibited the evaluation of a potential impact on tumorigenicity. Therefore, in vivo growth of IL-1–deficient tumor lines was evaluated in nu/nu mice and was compared with in vitro growth characteristics. All IL-1–deficient fibrosarcoma lines grow in immunocompromised mice. However, IL-1α−/−β–competent (comp lines grow more aggressively, efficiently induce angiogenesis, and recruit inflammatory cells. Despite stronger tumorigenicity of IL-1βcomp lines, IL-1α strengthens anchorage-independent growth, but both IL-1α and IL-1β support drug resistance. Corresponding to the aggressive growth, IL-1βcomp cells display increased matrix adhesion, motility, and cable formation on matrigel, likely supported by elevated αv/β3 and matrix metalloproteinase expression. Recruitment of myeloid cells requires IL-1β but is regulated by IL-1α, because inflammatory chemokine and cytokine expression is stronger in IL-1α−/−βcomp than in IL-1wt lines. This regulatory effect of tumorderived IL-1α is restricted to the tumor environment and does not affect systemic inflammatory response induction by tumor-derived IL-1β. Both sarcoma cell–derived IL-1α and IL-1β promote tumor growth. However, IL-1α exerts regulatory activity on the tumor cell–matrix cross-talk, and only IL-1β initiates systemic inflammation.

  20. [The representation of Italian psychiatry in Italian Treccani Encyclopedia in 1930's].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piazzi, Andrea; Piazzi, Gioia; Testa, Luana; Coccanari dè Fornari, Maria Antonietta

    2013-01-01

    The article reconstruct the situation of Italian psychiatry around 1930, using as unusual sources the pages of the Enciclopedia Italiana di Scienze, Lettere e Arti. This important work, conceived in 1925 and finished in 1937, is due - as well known - to the strong interest of Giovanni Gentile and to his capacity to involve in the project a great part of Italian intellectual world, without any ideological preclusion. The section devoted to Medical Sciences, including Psychiatry, was directed by Nicola Pende (1880-1970) and Giacinto Viola (1870-1943). A prevalent positivistic approach to science is well testified by their specific attention to preventive and social medicine, researches in Genetics and in biotypological constitutions. Psycopathological and psycological lemmas are very limited, underlying the medical disinterest towards contemporary philosophy and psycology.

  1. EQUAL OPPORTUNITIES IN THE ITALIAN LABOUR MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balazs-Foldi Emese

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The integration of persons with disabilities and with reduced work capacity in the labour market represents one of the biggest challenges for labour market policies. The non-integration of disabled people in the labour market causes huge costs for the countries’ economy. The European Union’s aim is to transform passive social support into active support by means of labor market policy measures, to help people to obtain gainful employment and to raise employment levels of people with disabilities and with reduced work capacities. Earlier this target group has to work in the sheltered employment. But it changed from the 90’s years because of the social model of disability definition. Nowadays the main goal to help this target group integrates in the open employment. The members of European Union imagine this aim on other way. The Scandinavian countries or England prefer the equal opportunities and the personalised mainstreaming programmes and services. Other European countries, as Germany, Austria or Italy prefer the rehabilitation quota system. Thus, the labor force participation and employment rates for people with disabilities and with reduced working capacities are strong differences between the European countries. But lot of other options also influence the member of countries’ policy and employment system. Since the Amsterdam Treaty the European Union has devoted exceptional attention to the equal opportunities of disabled people, the enforcement of equal treatment, and the reduction of the dangers of discrimination, as it is, a significant part of persons with disabilities and reduced work capacity do not have a full-time job, they become unemployed two or three times more frequently than their abled-counterparts, and dispose of lower salary, therefore they need the help of their family and the community. This study examines the Italian situation. It bases on statistics on the Italian target group and provides comparisons with

  2. Involvement of IL17A, IL17F and IL23R Polymorphisms in Colorectal Cancer Therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inés Omrane

    Full Text Available IL23/IL17 pathway plays an important role in the development of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD. In general, the genes encoding the cytokines are genetically polymorphic and polymorphisms in genes IL23R and IL17 have been proved to be associated with its susceptibility to inflammatory diseases as well as cancer including colorectal cancer. Moreover, it has been shown that these interleukins are involved in anti-tumor or pro-tumor effects of various cancers. Previously, we showed that there is a significant association between IL17A, IL17F and IL23R polymorphisms as well as the occurrence of colorectal cancer and the clinical features of the disease. The purpose of the present work is to investigate an association between IL17A, IL17F and IL23R polymorphisms in 102 Tunisian patients with colorectal cancer treatment. The association was analyzed by statistical tools. We found that patients with mutated genotypes of IL17A G197A SNP could be a risk factor for the inefficiency of chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Unlike IL17F variant, patients with wild type genotypes require surgery and adjuvant chemotherapy. On the one hand, we found no evidence that supports a significant association between IL23R polymorphism and the combined genotypes of these three genes and the colorectal cancer treatment. On the other hand, we showed that there is an important interaction between IL17A/IL17F polymorphisms and the stage of the disease as well as its treatment. Finally, patients with IL17F wild type genotype highlighted that there is a valid longer OS without all treatments and with radiotherapy and a neoadjuvant chemotherapy. In contrast, we observed that there are no relationships between IL17A, IL23R and the survival of these patients neither with nor without the treatment. Our results suggest that polymorphisms in IL17A and IL17F genes may be a predictive source of colorectal cancer therapy type. Therefore, IL17F may serve as an independent prognostic factor

  3. hIL-15 gene-modified human natural killer cells (NKL-IL15) augments the anti-human hepatocellular carcinoma effect in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wen; Zhang, Cai; Tian, Zhigang; Zhang, Jian

    2014-07-01

    Genetic modification of NK cells may provide new possibilities for developing effective cancer immunotherapy by improving NK cell function and specificity. We previously established human interleukin-15 (hIL-15) gene-modified NKL cells (NKL-IL15) and demonstrated their therapeutic efficiency against human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in vitro. To further assess the applicability of NKL-IL15 cells in adoptive cellular immunotherapy, we further investigated their natural cytotoxicity against HCC in vivo in the present study. NKL-IL15 cells exhibited strong inhibition on the growth of transplanted human HCC tumors in xenograft nude mouse models. Further investigation showed that NKL-IL15 cells expressed much higher levels of cytolysis-related molecules, including NKp80, TRAIL, granzyme B, IFN-γ, and TNF-α, than parental NKL cells in response to HCC stimulation. Moreover, soluble mediators secreted by NKL-IL15 cells decreased HCC cell proliferation; in particular, NKL-IL15-derived TNF-α and IFN-γ induced higher NKG2D ligand expression on target cells and resulted in the increased susceptibility of HCCs to NKL-mediated cytolysis. These results show that hIL-15 gene-modified human NK cells can augment the anti-tumor effect of NK cells on human HCC in vivo and suggest their promising applicability as a new candidate for adoptive immunotherapy against HCCs in the future. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  4. Strategy of the Italian Republic in the Arctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria L. Lagutina

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to analysis of the interests of the Italian Republic in the Arctic. Despite the geographical distance Italy from the Arctic, the interest of Italians to the Arctic cooperation is due to historical reasons: Italians participated in the study of the Arctic since the end of the XIX century. That's scientific achievements in the field of Arctic studies have provided Italy's place in the "Arctic Club of non-Arctic countries". In 2013, Italy became an observer in the Arctic Council, and in 2016 the Italian Ministry of Foreign Affairs presented the document "Towards the Italian strategy for the Arctic", which shows the country's interests in the region to address climate change, the development of scientific co-operation and economic development of the region the participation of leading Italian companies. Thus, Italy marked the importance of the Arctic in the direction of its policy. Russia is one of the most important Italian partners in Arctic affairs. As economic interests are a priority for both sides, the main bilateral cooperation projects are focused on energy and transport.

  5. Italian validation of the Amsterdam Preoperative Anxiety and Information Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buonanno, Pasquale; Laiola, Anna; Palumbo, Chiara; Spinelli, Gianmario; Terminiello, Virginia; Servillo, Giuseppe

    2017-07-01

    Preoperative anxiety is usually experienced by patients awaiting surgical procedures and it can negatively impact patient's outcome. The Amsterdam Preoperative Anxiety and Information Scale (APAIS) is a questionnaire created to identify anxious patients and their need for information: it has been translated and validated in many languages because of its reliability and ease of completion. To date, no Italian version of the APAIS has been produced; our aim was to translate and validate the APAIS in Italian. We produced an Italian version of the APAIS and we administered it to 110 patients undergoing elective surgery; we explored its structure by factor analysis and its reliability by Cronbach's alpha. We analyzed its external validity by confronting it to the Spielberg's State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). Sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of the Italian version of the APAIS were determined. The Italian version of the APAIS confirmed the original structure of the questionnaire and its internal consistency; it well correlated with the STAI-Y1, the subscale of the STAI which explore the anxiety "state." An APAIS score of 14 was found as best cutoff to distinguish anxious and non-anxious patients. The Italian translation of the APAIS showed psychometric properties similar to the original version. Its reliability and its efficiency make it a powerful tool even in Italian population to detect anxiety and need for information.

  6. IL4 — EDRN Public Portal

    Science.gov (United States)

    From NCBI Gene: The protein encoded by this gene is a pleiotropic cytokine produced by activated T cells. This cytokine is a ligand for interleukin 4 receptor. The interleukin 4 receptor also binds to IL13, which may contribute to many overlapping functions of this cytokine and IL13. STAT6, a signal transducer and activator of transcription, has been shown to play a central role in mediating the immune regulatory signal of this cytokine. This gene, IL3, IL5, IL13, and CSF2 form a cytokine gene cluster on chromosome 5q, with this gene particularly close to IL13. This gene, IL13 and IL5 are found to be regulated coordinately by several long-range regulatory elements in an over 120 kilobase range on the chromosome. Two alternatively spliced transcript variants of this gene encoding distinct isoforms have been reported. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008

  7. Mast cell production and response to IL-4 and IL-13.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Jamie J A; Baker, Bianca; Ryan, John J

    2015-09-01

    IL-4 was identified as the first cytokine to be produced by mast cells and is responsible for promoting mast cell IL-13 production. IL-4 and IL-13 play a prominent role in stimulating and maintaining the allergic response. As closely related genes, IL-4 and IL-13 share a common receptor subunit, IL-4Rα, necessary for signaling. Here we summarize the literature on mast cell activation associated with IL-4 and IL-13 production, including downstream signaling. We also describe the positive and negative roles each cytokine plays in mast cell immunity and detail the differences that exist between mouse and human mast cell responses to IL-4 and IL-13.

  8. Il monitoraggio dell'esposizione al rischio sismico dei centri storici italiani

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donatella Benetti

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Il Sistema WEB CSRS - Centri Storici e Rischio Sismico è uno strumento condiviso di indagine per il monitoraggio dell’esposizione al  rischio sismico dei centri storici italiani, attraverso una rete nazionale di scambio di informazioni tra diversi livelli di governo territoriale.AbstractThe monitoring of exposure to seismic risk of the Italian historical centersThe Italian territory is densely populated and anthropized; on it there are heritage buildings built mostly in not recent age. The historic  centers  are  the  most  important  example  of    cultural heritage in the anthropic landscape.  For the Civil Protection Department is pressing the necessity of a survey aimed at assessing the “cultural interest” of the historic centers and the risk of losses to which they are exposed, for the application of policies prevention and planning for risk reduction.In accordance with Ministry of Cultural Heritage and Activities, was implemented the Web system CSRS, shared with all levels of land government, for the monitoring of seismic risk with the collection, in interoperability via standard network services, of information (including maps about exposure and vulnerability of historical centers.

  9. Il cambiamento in psicoterapia psicoanalitica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Tramis

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Quali sono i criteri in riferimento ai quali è possibile parlare di cambiamento in psicoterapia psicoanalitica? Cosa lo determina? Quali sono i meccanismi coinvolti nel processo? Per rispondere a queste domande occorre accordarsi su cosa si intenda per cambiamento. Si parla di cambiamento, infatti, sia in riferimento all'esito finale del percorso psicoterapico che relativamente alle modificazioni e agli obiettivi che caratterizzano il processo in itinere. Intendendolo l'esito di una serie di modificazioni strutturali, durature nel tempo, esso si produce attraverso il contributo di numerose variabili tecniche e teoriche, tutte inserite in una logica bi-personale: dalla lettura della modalità relazionale del paziente quale derivato dei Modelli Operativi Interni, all'interiorizzazione di una nuova esperienza relazionale, dal ruolo giocato dall'alleanza terapeutica quale premessa ed esito del lavoro psicoterapico, all'interpretazione e agli interventi del continuum supportivo-espressivo etc. In questa direzione il concetto di cambiamento, nel promuovere una presa di coscienza circa le modalità relazionali che avrebbero determinato la richiesta di intervento psicologico, starebbe per l'acquisizione, da parte della persona, degli strumenti necessari a massimizzare l'espressione di sé e la valorizzazione della propria autonomia e risorse, ai fini del raggiungimento di un più funzionale adattamento all'ambiente, proprio di una condizione di benessere e di un atteggiamento ad essa orientato.

  10. Le développement durable : est-il possible? est-il mesurable?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belmokaddem MOSTEFA

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A la première question, nous répondrons bien sûr, par l’affirmative puisque tous les pays sont engagés dans une nouvelle approche du développement qui ne consiste pas seulement à produire le plus de biens et au moindre coût, afin de vendre beaucoup et réaliser de grands profits. C’était la vision en vigueur dans toutes les techniques de gestion mais on s’est rendu compte que cette production, supposée au moindre coût, était en fait, souvent d’un coût exorbitant, relativement aux dégâts occasionnés dans l’environnement et dans les nuisances occasionnées à la santé de l’homme et à sa tranquillité. Il est temps d’inclure d’autres variables dans le calcul du prix de revient tout en revoyant certaines techniques de production trop salissantes, dangereuses ou grosses consommatrices d’énergie. Nous répondrons aussi par la négative quand on pense qu’au niveau micro économique, les comportements sont édictés par les satisfactions immédiates et les maximisations des profits. Ces comportements qui ne s’intéressent qu’aux résultats à court terme, ne s’intègrent pas facilement dans les plans de développement visant les équilibres macro économiques à long terme.A la deuxième question, nous dirons qu’il y a effectivement des indicateurs pour tester les niveaux de qualité dans l’éducation, la santé, les ressources naturelles... et les gains tirés au niveau social mais les calculs économiques qui déterminent la rentabilité des projets, les profits espérés, les risques financiers encourus ne sont pas toujours en rapport avec les efforts pour réaliser le développement durable qui, eux dépassent la simple notion d’efficacité et de satisfaction. Quand on pense aux générations futures, ce n’est pas seulement en termes de durée dans le temps mais aussi dans la manière d’apprécier les gains espérés.Notre recherche repose sur ces questions qui minent bien des efforts alors qu’il

  11. Interleukin-12 (IL-12), but not IL-23, deficiency ameliorates viral encephalitis without affecting viral control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapil, Parul; Atkinson, Roscoe; Ramakrishna, Chandran; Cua, Daniel J; Bergmann, Cornelia C; Stohlman, Stephen A

    2009-06-01

    The relative contributions of interleukin-12 (IL-12) and IL-23 to viral pathogenesis have not been extensively studied. IL-12p40 mRNA rapidly increases after neurotropic coronavirus infection. Infection of mice defective in both IL-12 and IL-23 (p40(-/-)), in IL-12 alone (p35(-/-)), and in IL-23 alone (p19(-/-)) revealed that the symptoms of coronavirus-induced encephalitis are regulated by IL-12. IL-17-producing cells never exceeded background levels, supporting a redundant role of IL-23 in pathogenesis. Viral control, tropism, and demyelination were all similar in p35(-/-), p19(-/-), and wild-type mice. Reduced morbidity in infected IL-12 deficient mice was also not associated with altered recruitment or composition of inflammatory cells. However, gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) levels and virus-specific IFN-gamma-secreting CD4 and CD8 T cells were all reduced in the central nervous systems (CNS) of infected p35(-/-) mice. Transcription of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-1beta and IL-6, but not tumor necrosis factor, were initially reduced in infected p35(-/-) mice but increased to wild-type levels during peak inflammation. Furthermore, although transforming growth factor beta mRNA was not affected, IL-10 was increased in the CNS in the absence of IL-12. These data suggest that IL-12 does not contribute to antiviral function within the CNS but enhances morbidity associated with viral encephalitis by increasing the ratio of IFN-gamma to protective IL-10.

  12. IL-27 Regulates IL-18 binding protein in skin resident cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Wittmann

    Full Text Available IL-18 is an important mediator involved in chronic inflammatory conditions such as cutaneous lupus erythematosus, psoriasis and chronic eczema. An imbalance between IL-18 and its endogenous antagonist IL-18 binding protein (BP may account for increased IL-18 activity. IL-27 is a cytokine with dual function displaying pro- and anti-inflammatory properties. Here we provide evidence for a yet not described anti-inflammatory mode of action on skin resident cells. Human keratinocytes and surprisingly also fibroblasts (which do not produce any IL-18 show a robust, dose-dependent and highly inducible mRNA expression and secretion of IL-18BP upon IL-27 stimulation. Other IL-12 family members failed to induce IL-18BP. The production of IL-18BP peaked between 48-72 h after stimulation and was sustained for up to 96 h. Investigation of the signalling pathway showed that IL-27 activates STAT1 in human keratinocytes and that a proximal GAS site at the IL-18BP promoter is of importance for the functional activity of IL-27. The data are in support of a significant anti-inflammatory effect of IL-27 on skin resident cells. An important novel property of IL-27 in skin pathobiology may be to counter-regulate IL-18 activities by acting on keratinocytes and importantly also on dermal fibroblasts.

  13. Chromosome 5q candidate genes in coeliac disease: genetic variation at IL4, IL5, IL9, IL13, IL17B and NR3C1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, A W; Thornton, J M; Brophy, K; Daly, J S; McLoughlin, R M; O'Morain, C; Abuzakouk, M; Kennedy, N P; Stevens, F M; Feighery, C; Kelleher, D; McManus, R

    2005-02-01

    Genetic predisposition to coeliac disease (CD) is determined primarily by alleles at the HLA-DQB locus, and evidence exists implicating other major histocompatibility complex-linked genes (6p21) and the CTLA4 locus on chromosome 2q33. In addition, extensive family studies have provided strong, reproducible evidence for a susceptibility locus on chromosome 5q (CELIAC2). However, the gene responsible has not been identified. We have assayed genetic variation at the IL4, IL5, IL9, IL13, IL17B and NR3C1 (GR) loci, all of which are present on chromosome 5q and have potential or demonstrated involvement in autoimmune and/or inflammatory disease, in a sample of 409 CD cases and 355 controls. Thirteen single nucleotide polymorphisms were chosen on the basis of functional relevance, prior disease association and, where possible, prior knowledge of the haplotype variation present in European populations. There were no statistically significant allele or haplotype frequency differences between cases and controls. Therefore, these results provide no evidence that these loci are associated with CD in this sample population.

  14. Consumer acceptance of Italian or New Zealander lamb meat: an Italian case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Giangrande

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A Central location test was performed to compare heavy Apennine lamb meat to New Zealander lamb meat in order to create a Protected Geographical Indication for lamb meat. Roasted New-Zealander and heavy Apennine lamb legs were tested by 106 consumers according to the following experimental plan: blind phase (B without any possibility to recognize the meat type tasted, expected phase (E in which were described the characteristics of the two types of meat without tasting, informed phase (I in which the tasted meat was recognized in provenience. Results showed in a nine point scale of appreciation for flavour, juiciness and overall pleasure, the highest values in Apennine lamb meat. B test showed the highest value for overall pleasure (P<0.01. Interaction, Italian lamb x Informed test showed the highest values for all the parameters except for overall liking for which Italian lamb x E test showed the highest values. About foreign lamb meat B test showed higher values than I and E test. Information about lamb meat origin showed disconfirmation for tenderness in Italian lamb meat. Foreign lamb meat showed a positive disconfirmation for flavour and overall pleasure, that confirm the better perception by consumers in blind consumption than in the informed one.

  15. IL-17 Contributes to Autoimmune Hepatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余海静; 黄加权; 刘阳; 艾国; 严伟明; 王晓晶; 宁琴

    2010-01-01

    The role of interleukin-17 (IL-17) in autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) was investigated. A mouse model of experimental autoimmune hepatitis was established, and the syngeneic S-100 antigen emulsified in complete Freud's adjuvant was injected intraperitoneally into adult male C57BL/6 mice. The IL-17 expression in serum and the livers of the mice models was detected by using ELISA and immunohistochemistry, respectively. IL-17 neutralizing antibody was used to study the biological effect of IL-17 in the experimental...

  16. Effects of IL-10 and IL-4 on LPS-induced transcription factors (AP-1, NF-IL6 and NF-kappa B) which are involved in IL-6 regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dokter, Willem; Koopmans, S.B.; Vellenga, E

    1996-01-01

    Interleukin-10 (IL-10), like IL-4, is known to inhibit cytokine expression in activated human monocytes. We showed that both IL-10 and IL-4 inhibit LPS-induced IL-6 mRNA and protein expression by inhibiting the transcription rate of the IL-6 gene. The strong inhibition of the IL-6 transcription rate

  17. Dynamic changes of IL-2, sIL-2R, IL-6 and IL-8 in children with mycoplasma pneumonia and their clinical significance%肺炎支原体肺炎IL-2、sIL-2R、IL-6、IL-8检测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘文彬; 赵文利; 汤雪琴; 袁丽

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨肺炎支原体肺炎(MPP)急性期和恢复期免疫功能动态变化及临床意义.方法 检测IL-2、sIL-2R、IL-6、IL-8均采用ELISA双抗体夹心法.结果 与对照组比较,MPP患儿急性期sIL-2R、IL-6,IL-8值均明显升高(P<0.01),IL-2值均明显下降(P<0.01),与急性期比较,MPP患儿恢复期IL-2值均明显升高(P<0.01),而sIL-2R、IL-6、IL-8值均明显下降(P<0.01);与对照组比较,MPP患儿恢复期IL-2、sIL-2R、IL-6、IL-8均无明显改变(P>0.05).结论 MPP患儿存在细胞免疫功能低下及紊乱,IL-2、sIL-2R、IL-6及IL-8值恢复较快,检测MPP患儿免疫功能,特别是IL-2、sIL-2R、IL-6和IL-8水平对疗效及预后的判定有重要价值.%Objective To observe the dynamic changes of IL-2, sIL-2R, IL-6 and IL-8 in children with mycoplasma pneumonia( MPP) and to study their clinical significance. Methods The serum levels of IL-2, sIL-2R, IL-6 and IL-8 in 40 children with MPP during the acute stage and convalescent stage were examined with double-antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immu-nosobent assay, and the results were compared with those in 30 normal children. Results The levels of slL-2R, IL-6 and IL-8 were higher and IL-2 was lower during acute stage than those in the normal subjects (P <0. 01). Compared those during the convalescent stage, the level of IL-2 was higher and sIL-2R, IL-6 and IL-8 were lower (P <0. 01) during the acute stage. There were not any significant differences of the levels of these four substances between the normal children and MPP children during the convalescent stage. Conclusion The cellular immune function of children with MPP is impaired and the changes of IL-2, sIL-2R, IL-6 and IL-8 can be used to evaluate the curative effects and prognosis of MPP in children.

  18. Lessons from the Italian NHS retrenchment policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, Francesco

    2016-03-01

    In policymaking, implementation is often more critical than design. A variety of policy implementation frameworks can be used to explain implementation gaps and shifts. Each research stream suggests some solutions to prevent shortfalls. We have assessed two of these implementation strategies in the recent INHS (Italian National Health Service) retrenchment policies: (1) centralizing to rapidly cut expenditures, (2) effective management as an output- and not input-based system. The implementation of the INHS retrenchment policy has been very difficult though effective in a short period of time. A multi-level governance structure was put in place that assigned different but clear roles, powers and responsibilities to central and regional governments and public health care organizations. The entire policy was based on an exclusive input-based approach to introduce opacity in the system's prioritization processes. We most likely need to reconsider the identification of crucial implementation drivers in the public realm.

  19. Heavy metals occurrence in Italian food supplements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brizio P.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In recent years a significant increase in food supplements consumption has been observed, maybe in the belief that they couldn’t be dangerous for consumers health, even if they don’t achieved medical effects. However, environmental pollution can cause heavy metals contamination that could exceed maximum levels established by European legislation. Aim of this work was to evaluate arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead and mercury content in 12 food supplements seized in a Piedmont shop by the Italian authority against food adulteration. All metals were analysed after mineralization and dilution steps by ICP-MS, with the exception of mercury, detected by the direct analyser TDA-AAS. Only one sample exceed the European maximum limits for lead (3,00 mg/kg but warning levels of chromium (over 3,00 mg/Kg has been detected in three of them.

  20. Ambient Assisted Living : Italian forum 2013

    CERN Document Server

    Siciliano, Pietro; Germani, Michele; Monteriù, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    This book presents the refereed proceedings of the Fourth Italian Forum on Ambient Assisted Living (AAL), held in Ancona, Italy, in October 2013. A wide range of issues are covered, and new technological developments are described which will support the autonomy and independence of individuals with special needs through an innovative and integrated approach, designed to respond to the socio-economic challenges of an aging population. Topics addressed include: health and well-being, prevention and rehabilitation, and support for care providers; active aging and its social implications; services for the frail elderly with health problems and their families; nutrition; ICT platforms/technologies for the benefit of the elderly; home automation and control technologies (autonomy, safety, and energy saving); smart cities and smart communities; telemedicine, telerehabilitation, and telecare; mobility, participation, and social inclusion; games and fun for the elderly; building design; social housing; interface desig...

  1. XVth Italian Society of Archaeoastronomy Congress

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This book addresses a variety of topics within the growing discipline of Archaeoastronomy, focusing especially on Archaeoastronomy in Sicily and the Mediterranean and Cultural Astronomy. A further priority is discussion of the astronomical and statistical methods used today to ascertain the degree of reliability of the chronological and cultural definition of sites and artifacts of archaeoastronomical interest. The contributions were all delivered at the XVth Congress of the Italian Society of Archaeoastronomy (SIA), held under the rubric "The Light, the Stones and the Sacred" – a theme inspired by the International Year of Light 2015, organized by UNESCO. The full meaning of many ancient monuments can only be understood by examining their relation to light, given the effects that light radiation produces in “interacting” with lithic structures. Moreover, in addition to manifestations of the sacred through the medium of light (hierophanies), there are many ties between temples, tombs, megalithic structu...

  2. The Italian registry of soft tissue tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemente, C; Orazi, A; Rilke, F

    1988-01-01

    After a review of the incidence data on malignant soft-tissue tumors in Italy (Registro dei Tumori della Regione Lombardia, provincia di Varese), Europe (nine European Cancer Registries considered representative of various geographical areas) and extra-European countries (data of ten World Cancer Registries), the aim and the organization of the Italian Malignant Soft-Tissue Tumor Registry are described. The collection system is based on dedicated forms prepared for the computerization of all data. From 1.1.1985 to 31.3.1987, 207 cases of malignant and potentially malignant soft-tissue tumors entered the Registry, with exclusion of those sarcomas arising in viscera. The distribution, categorized by histologic type, sex and site, and the preliminary results on relapses and metastases are reported.

  3. The Italian health-care system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    France, George; Taroni, Francesco; Donatini, Andrea

    2005-09-01

    Italy's national health service is statutorily required to guarantee the uniform provision of comprehensive care throughout the country. However, this is complicated by the fact that, constitutionally, responsibility for health care is shared between the central government and the 20 regions. There are large and growing differences in regional health service organisation and provision. Public health-care expenditure has absorbed a relatively low share of gross domestic product, although in the last 25 years it has consistently exceeded central government forecasts. Changes in payment systems, particularly for hospital care, have helped to encourage organisational appropriateness and may have contributed to containing expenditure. Tax sources used to finance the Servizio Sanitario Nazionale (SSN) have become somewhat more regressive. The limited evidence on vertical equity suggests that the SSN ensures equal access to primary care but lower income groups face barriers to specialist care. The health status of Italians has improved and compares favourably with that in other countries, although regional disparities persist.

  4. Critical load of acid precipitations. Mapping of Italian regions; Mappa dei carichi critici di acidita' totale riferita al territorio italiano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonanni, P.; Brini, S.; Delmonaco, G.; Liburdi, R.; Trocciola, A.; Vetrella, G. [ENEA Centro Ricerche Casaccia, S. Maria di Galeria, RM (Italy). Dipt. Ambiente

    1999-07-01

    In this report the mapping of critical loads of acidity for the Italian terrestrial ecosystems is presented. The level O method (Stockholm Environment Institute) has been used to determine sensitivity to acid deposition; this semi-quantitative method has been modified to address some Italian characteristics. The results show that the sensitivity of the Italian soils to acidification is not particularly elevated: there are really only few small areas with poor tolerance to acid depositions. These areas are in the north-east of Italy, in Alpine and Prealpine region. [Italian] Nel rapporto vengono riportati i risultati della mappatura, riferita agli ecosistemi terrestri del territorio italiano, dei carichi critici per l'acidita' totale. Il calcolo dei carichi critici e' stato eseguito sulla base della metodologia messa a punto dallo Stokholm Environment Institute; a questo metodo semi-quantitativo sono state apportate alcune modifiche per meglio adattarlo alle caratteristiche del territorio italiano. Dall'analisi dei risultati ottenuti, si evince come la sensibilita' dei suoli italiani all'acidificazione non sia particolarmente elevata: sono state riscontrate infatti solo alcune aree, peraltro con superficie limitata, con una scarsa tolleranza alle deposizioni acide. Tali aree sono localizzate nell'Italia nord-orientale, in zona alpina e prealpina.

  5. Mapping of critical loads of acidity for the Italian terrestrial ecosystems; Mappa dei carichi critici di acidita' totale riferita al territorio italiano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonanni, P.; Brini, S.; Delmonaco, G.; Liburdi, C.; Trocciola, A.; Vetrella, G. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy). Dipt. Ambiente

    1999-07-01

    In this report the mapping of critical loads of acidity for the Italian terrestrial ecosystems is presented. The level 0 method (Stockholm Environment Institute) has been used to determine sensitivity to acid deposition; this semi-quantitative method has been modified to address some Italian characteristics. The sensitivity of the Italian soils to acidification is not particularly elevated: there are really only few small areas with poor tolerance to acid depositions in the north-east Italy, Alpine and Prealpine region. [Italian] Nel presente relazione vengono riportati i risultati della mappatura riferita ad ecosistemi terrestri del territorio italiano, dei carichi critici per l'acidita' totale. Il calcolo dei carichi e' stato eseguito sulla base della metodologia messa a punto dallo Stockholm Environment Institute con alcune modifiche per adattarlo meglio alle caratteristiche del territorio italiano. Si dimostra che la sensibilita' dei suoli italiani all'acidificazione non sia particolarmente elevata: sono state riscontrate infatti solo alcune aree, peraltro con superficie limitata, con una scarsa tolleranza alle deposizioni acide nelle zone del Nord Est, in zona alpina e prealpina.

  6. Energy Policies of IEA Countries: Italy [Italian Version, Executive Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    This review analyses the energy challenges facing Italy and provides sectoral critiques and recommendations for further policy improvements. It is intended to help guide Italy towards a more sustainable energy future. The Italian government has made substantial progress in a number of sectors since the last IEA in-depth energy policy review in 2003. The success of the green certificate and white certificate schemes and continued reform of the electricity and natural gas supply markets are just a few examples and build on the recommendations contained in the previous review. Nonetheless, many challenges remain. Italy recognises the need to diversify its energy supply portfolio to reduce its heavy dependence on fossil fuels and electricity imports, and to decrease its growing greenhouse gas emissions. In 2008, the government announced its intention to recommence the countrys nuclear power program and start building a new nuclear power plant by 2013. To do so, Italy must first develop an efficient process for identifying critical energy infrastructure, including nuclear power, and subjecting it to an effective, streamlined siting and permitting process. Italy will face another major challenge in complying with Europe’s new climate and energy package, particularly in relation to renewable energy and emissions targets. Italy must step up efforts to comply with its new responsibilities, specifically by developing and putting in place a comprehensive climate change strategy for the years until 2020. In mid-2009, the legislature enacted a comprehensive new law that will facilitate the emergence of a robust long-term energy policy. The government must respond to this opportunity and elaborate, with industry, a comprehensive long-term strategy for the development of the energy sector. This review analyses the energy challenges facing Italy and provides sectoral critiques and recommendations for further policy improvements. It is intended to help guide Italy towards a more

  7. Diffusion and applications of musculoskeletal ultrasound in Italian Rheumatology Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iagnocco, A; Ceccarelli, F; Cuomo, G; Delle Sedie, A; Filippou, G; Filippucci, E; Grassi, W; Porta, F; Sakellariou, Garifallia

    2013-03-28

    The Musculoskeletal Ultrasound Study Group of the Italian Society of Rheumatology (SIR) was founded during the 68th SIR Congress, on November 2011. The request of activation of this group was based on the increasing interest and the widespread diffusion of ultrasound in the scientific rheumatology community and on the solid experience of some Italian rheumatologists in the field. The aims of the Study Group are to stimulate the applications and use of ultrasound in the clinical practice at the level of the Italian rheumatology units and, in addition, to develop research projects at a national level...

  8. Random Notes on the Italian Sonnet and the English Sonnet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄修齐

    1984-01-01

    @@ Sonnet-a complete poem consisting fo fourteen iambic pentametre lines with a rigid rime-scheme-was firste mployed byt he Italian poets. During the Renaissance Period Francesco Petrarch(1304-1374), an Italian poet, who was crowned poet laureate and enjoyed all the honors that his contemporaries could give him, wrote'more than 300 sonnets in admiration of a beautiful girl and applied sonnet form in a more perfect way than his predecessors. Therefore the Italian sonnet is also called Petrarchan sonnet.

  9. Roberto Del Favero completes the description of Italian forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paci M

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The description of Italian woods by Roberto Del Favero is now completed: after the book dedicated to the “woods of the Alpine regions” and the one concerning the “woods of the southern Italy and Italian islands”, a third book completes the arrangement, aimed to the forest management, of the Italian woods. In the treatise, the strict connection between ecology and silviculture must be underlined: the silvicultural choices are proposed in accordance with ecological requirements of the tree species, as well as to the natural dynamic of stands.

  10. The cytokines (IFN-gamma, IL-2, IL-4, IL-10, IL-17) and Treg cytokine (TGF-beta1) levels in adults with immune thrombocytopenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Liangliang; Liang, Yan; Fang, Meiyun; Guan, Yanchun; Si, Yang; Jiang, Feng; Wang, Fangting

    2014-09-01

    Previous studies have indicated that autoimmune diseases might be caused by an imbalance of T helper cells (Th), cytokines, and regulatory T cells (Treg) cytokines. We measured the plasma concentrations of Th1-associated cytokines (IFN-gamma, IL-2), Th2 -associated cytokines (IL-4, IL-10), Th17-associated cytokine (IL-17) and Treg -associated cytokine (TGF-beta1) in adult patients with immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) and evaluated their clinical relevance. Plasma IFN-gamma, IL-2, IL-4, IL-10, IL-17 and TGF-beta1 concentrations of 52 ITP patients and 30 age- and sex-matched healthy controls were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method (ELISA). Concentration of Th2 cytokines (IL-4 and IL-10) were significantly higher in ITP patients compared to controls (P cytokines (IFN-gamma, IL-2), Th17 cytokine (IL-17) and Treg cytokine (TGF-beta1) were lower in ITP patients (P cytokine concentration among the other subgroups in ITP patients was found. Among the ITP patients, concentration of IFN-gamma correlated positively and significantly with PAIgG (r = 0.48, P = 0.02). A significant correlation was neither found between other cytokine levels and platelet count, nor between cytokine levels and megakaryocytes number, nor between cytokines levels and PAIgG or GPIIb/IIIa and/or GPIb/IX autoantibodies. The present study demonstrates that an imbalance of Th and Treg cytokines may mediate the pathogenesis of ITP.

  11. Does Toxoplasma gondii Infection Affect the Levels of IgE and Cytokines (IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12, and TNF-alpha?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Matowicka-Karna

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In the study performed in a group of patients infected with T. gondii, we evaluated Th2 humoral response (IL-5, IL-6, IL-10 and Th1 cell response (IL-12, TNF-α. The study objective was to assess the effect of T. gondii on chosen indices of the immune response. The study involved 52 women infected with T. gondii (aged 18–42 years prior to antiparasitic treatment. In all the patients, we found IgM (index >0.7 and IgG which exceeded 300 IU/ml. The control group (C consisted of 40 healthy women aged 18–46 years. In the study group (T and in the control group (C, the levels of IgE, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12, and TNF-α were determined. In our study, T. gondii patients had twofold higher levels of IL-5 and IL-6 as compared to healthy subjects, which seems to confirm the presence of an inflammatory state. We found the level of IL-10 to be fivefold higher in the course of toxoplasmosis than in healthy controls. The levels of IL-12 and TNF-α were comparable to those observed in healthy controls. The study has revealed that that patients infected with T. gondii show increased production of the humoral response cytokines, whereas the generation of the cell response cytokines remains unchanged.

  12. Birth of a science centre. Italian phenomenology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Rodari

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available In May 2004 the Balì Museum, Planetarium and interactive science museum, was opened to the public in Italy: 35 hands-on exhibits designed according to the interactive tradition of the Exploratorium in San Francisco, an astronomic observatory for educational activities, a Planetarium with 70 places. With a total investment of about three million euros, about two thirds of which were spent on restructuring the splendid eighteenth-century villa in which it is housed, the undertaking may be considered a small one in comparison with other European science centres. Three million euros: perhaps enough to cover the cost of only the splendid circular access ramp to the brand-new Cosmocaixa in Barcelona, an investment of one hundred million euros. But the interesting aspect of the story of the Balì Museum (but also of other Italian stories, as we shall see lies in the fact that this lively and advanced science centre stands in the bucolic region of the Marches, next to a small town of only 800 inhabitants (Saltara, in the Province of Pesaro and Urbino, in a municipal territory that has a total of 5000. Whereas in Italy the projects for science centres comparable with the Catalan one, for example projects for Rome and Turin, never get off the ground, smaller ones are opening in small and medium-sized towns: why is this? And what does the unusual location of the centres entail for science communication in Italy? This Focus does not claim to tell the whole truth about Italian interactive museums, but it does offer some phenomenological cues to open a debate on the cultural, economic and political premises that favour their lives.

  13. Role of IL-10 in Urinary Bladder Carcinoma and Bacillus Calmette-Guerin Immunotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Luo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Bladder cancer is a common urologic cancer and intravesical Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG is the mainstay in the treatment of superficial bladder cancer. However, the current BCG therapy is not desirable with respect to its efficacy and side effects. Interleukin (IL-10, a T helper type (Th 2 cytokine, plays an important regulatory role in bladder cancer immunosurveillance and BCG immunotherapy. Therefore, blocking IL-10 activity could be beneficial for bladder cancer patients undergoing BCG therapy. Approach: Treatment with intravesical BCG in combination with systemic IL-10 monoclonal antibody (mAb specific for IL-10 neutralization or IL-10 receptor (IL-10R blockage has been evaluated in preclinical bladder cancer models. Results: Addition of anti-IL-10 neutralizing mAb or anti-IL-10R1 mAb enhances BCG induction of Th1 immune responses and anti-bladder cancer immunity. Conclusion/Recommendations: BCG immunotherapy of bladder cancer can be enhanced by addition of IL-10 blocking mAb. Future studies should aim to explore the mechanisms underlying the induction of enhanced antitumor immunity by BCG combination therapy and develop therapeutic regimens for clinical evaluation of the safety and efficacy of BCG combination therapy.

  14. IL-9 signaling affects central nervous system resident cells during inflammatory stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Xiaoli; Cao, Fang; Cui, Langjun; Ciric, Bogoljub; Zhang, Guang-Xian; Rostami, Abdolmohamad

    2015-12-01

    Interleukin (IL) 9, a dominant cytokine in Th9 cells, has been proven to play a pathogenic role in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of multiple sclerosis (MS), by augmenting T cell activation and differentiation; however, whether IL-9 signaling affects central nervous system (CNS)-resident cells during CNS autoimmunity remains unknown. In the present study, we found that the IL-9 receptor (IL-9R) was highly expressed in astrocytes, oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs), oligodendrocytes and microglia cells, and that its expression was significantly upregulated in brain and spinal cord during EAE. In addition, IL-9 increased chemokine expression, including CXCL9, CCL20 and MMP3, in primary astrocytes. Although IL-9 had no effect on the proliferation of microglia cells, it decreased OPC proliferation and differentiation when in combination with other pro-inflammatory cytokines, but not with IFN-γ. IL-9 plus IFN-γ promoted OPC proliferation and differentiation. These findings indicate that CNS-restricted IL-9 signaling may be involved in the pathogenesis of MS/EAE, thus providing a potential therapeutic target for future MS/EAE treatment through disruption of CNS cell-specific IL-9 signaling.

  15. Liposome-mediated IL-28 and IL-29 expression in A549 cells and antiviral effect of IL-28 and IL-29 on WISH cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming-cai LI; Hao-yang WANG; Hai-yan WANG; Tao LI; Shao-heng HE

    2006-01-01

    Aim:To construct the recombinant vectors carrying interleukin (IL) -28A,IL-28B and IL-29 cDNAs and express them in human A549 cells,and analyze their antiviral activity in vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV)-infected human immortalized amnion epithelial cell line (WISH cells).Methods:Total cell RNA was extracted from human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) activated with poly I:C.The cDNAs encoding human IL-28A.IL-28B.and IL-29 were amplified by reversetranscription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and inserted into pcDNA3.1/V5-His-TOPO vectors.These recombinant vectors were transfected into human A549 cells by a liposome-mediated gene transfer method.Semiquantitative RT-PCR and Westem blotting were used to detect the mRNA and protein expression of IL-28A,IL-28B,and IL-29.The antiviral activity of IL-28A,IL.28B,and IL-29 was determined by a cytopathic eflfect reduction assay on WISH cells using VSV as a challenge virus.Results:The DNA sequences of the inserts were identical to the published sequences encoding IL-28A,IL-28B,and IL-29 in GenBank.It was transfected cells.Expression of all 3 interleukins in A549 cells was confirmed by Wlestem blot analysis.IL-28 and IL-29 expressed by A549 cells.1ike interferon (IFN)α-2b,were able to protect WISH cells against VSV infection.Conclusion:IL-28 and IL-29 cDNAs were successfully cloned and expressed in eukaryotic cells via transfection with pcDNA3.1/V5-His-TOPO-IL-28/IL-29.Transfection with this vector produced a specific antiviral activity similar to that of IFN-α.which will provide a new tool for the functional study of these cytokines in humans.

  16. Cord Blood Cells Responses to IL2, IL7 and IL15 Cytokines for mTOR Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anahita Mohammadian

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTORis important in hematopoiesis and affect cell growth,differentiation and survival. Although previous studies were identified the effect of cytokines on the mononuclear cells development however the cytokines effect on mTOR in cord blood mononuclear cells was unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate mTOR expression in cord blood mononuclear and cord blood stem cells (CD34+ cells in culture conditions for lymphoid cell development. Methods: Isolation of The mononuclear cells (MNCs from umbilical cord blood were done with use of Ficollpaque density gradient. We evaluated cultured cord blood mononuclear and CD34+ cells in presece of IL2, IL7 and IL15 at distinct time points during 21 days by using flow cytometry. In this study, we presented the role of IL2, IL7 and IL15 on the expression of mTOR in cord blood cells. Results: mTOR expression were increased in peresence of IL2, IL7 and IL15 in day 14 and afterword reduced. However in persence of IL2 and IL15 expression of mTOR significantly reduced. mTOR expression in CD34+ cells decreased significantly from day7 to day 21 in culture. Conclusion: cytokines play important role in mTOR expression during hematopoiesis and development of cord blood mononuclear cells.

  17. Fundamental period of Italian reinforced concrete buildings: comparison between numerical, experimental and Italian code simplified values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ditommaso, Rocco; Carlo Ponzo, Felice; Auletta, Gianluca; Iacovino, Chiara; Nigro, Antonella

    2015-04-01

    Aim of this study is a comparison among the fundamental period of reinforced concrete buildings evaluated using the simplified approach proposed by the Italian Seismic code (NTC 2008), numerical models and real values retrieved from an experimental campaign performed on several buildings located in Basilicata region (Italy). With the intention of proposing simplified relationships to evaluate the fundamental period of reinforced concrete buildings, scientists and engineers performed several numerical and experimental campaigns, on different structures all around the world, to calibrate different kind of formulas. Most of formulas retrieved from both numerical and experimental analyses provides vibration periods smaller than those suggested by the Italian seismic code. However, it is well known that the fundamental period of a structure play a key role in the correct evaluation of the spectral acceleration for seismic static analyses. Generally, simplified approaches impose the use of safety factors greater than those related to in depth nonlinear analyses with the aim to cover possible unexpected uncertainties. Using the simplified formula proposed by the Italian seismic code the fundamental period is quite higher than fundamental periods experimentally evaluated on real structures, with the consequence that the spectral acceleration adopted in the seismic static analysis may be significantly different than real spectral acceleration. This approach could produces a decreasing in safety factors obtained using linear and nonlinear seismic static analyses. Finally, the authors suggest a possible update of the Italian seismic code formula for the simplified estimation of the fundamental period of vibration of existing RC buildings, taking into account both elastic and inelastic structural behaviour and the interaction between structural and non-structural elements. Acknowledgements This study was partially funded by the Italian Civil Protection Department within the

  18. Role of IL-1ra/IL-1β and IL-10/IL-6 ratio in coronary artery disease%IL-1Ra/IL-1β及IL-10/IL-6比值在冠心病的作用及其意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘书院; 钟小理; 杨正林; 段克欣

    2012-01-01

    目的:探讨IL-1β、IL-1受体拮抗剂(IL-1 Ra)、IL-10、IL-6水平及IL-1 Ra/IL-1β、IL-10/IL-6比值在冠状动脉粥样硬化性心脏病(冠心痛)患者血清中的变化以及临床意义.方法:选择稳定型心绞痛(SAP)患者26例,不稳定型心绞痛(UAP)患者27例,AMI患者27例,健康体检者30名,分为SAP组、UAP组、AMI组及正常对照组,采用ELISA法检测四组患者血清IL-1β、IL-1 Ra、IL-10、IL-6水平,计算IL-1 Ra/IL-1β、IL-10/IL-6比值,并进行比较.结果:UAP组、AMI组患者的血清IL-1Ra水平均明显低于正常对照组(P<0.05),IL-1β高于对照组(P<0.05);三组冠心痛患者的IL-1 Ra/IL-1β比值均低于正常对照组(P<0.05).三组冠心病患者的血清IL-10、IL-6水平均高于正常对照组(P均<0.05),而IL-10/IL-6比值低于正常对照组(P均<0.05).结论:IL-1β、IL-1Ra、IL-10、IL-6可能参与了冠心病的炎症反应过程,IL-1Ra/IL-1β及IL-10/IL-6比值反映了冠心痛患者的免疫调节状况,其比值高低及动态变化对冠心痛患者的病情监测有重要参考价值.%Objective: To investigate the clinical significance of interleukin-1 β (IL-1β) , interleukin-1 recep- tor antagonist (IL-IRa) , interleukin 10 (IL-10) , interleukin-6 (IL-6) and the ratio of IL-1 Ra/IL-1 β, IL-10/IL-6 in coronary heart disease (CHD). Methods : Patients with stable angina pectoris (SAP group, n = 26), unstable angina pectoris ( UAP group, n = 26 ) , and acute myocardial infarction ( AMI group, n = 27) were involved. Thirty healthy people were selected as control group. Serum level of IL-1 β, IL-IRa, IL-10, IL-6 were detected by Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and the ratio of IL-1 Ra/IL-1 β and IL-10/IL-6 were calculated. Results : The serum level of IL-1 Ra in UAP group and AMI group were significantly lower , and IL-1β levels were significantly higher than that in control group (P <0. 05). IL-1 Ra/IL-1 p ratio in CHD patients was lower than in control group (P

  19. Evolutionary divergence and functions of the human interleukin (IL gene family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brocker Chad

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cytokines play a very important role in nearly all aspects of inflammation and immunity. The term 'interleukin' (IL has been used to describe a group of cytokines with complex immunomodulatory functions -- including cell proliferation, maturation, migration and adhesion. These cytokines also play an important role in immune cell differentiation and activation. Determining the exact function of a particular cytokine is complicated by the influence of the producing cell type, the responding cell type and the phase of the immune response. ILs can also have pro- and anti-inflammatory effects, further complicating their characterisation. These molecules are under constant pressure to evolve due to continual competition between the host's immune system and infecting organisms; as such, ILs have undergone significant evolution. This has resulted in little amino acid conservation between orthologous proteins, which further complicates the gene family organisation. Within the literature there are a number of overlapping nomenclature and classification systems derived from biological function, receptor-binding properties and originating cell type. Determining evolutionary relationships between ILs therefore can be confusing. More recently, crystallographic data and the identification of common structural motifs have led to a more accurate classification system. To date, the known ILs can be divided into four major groups based on distinguishing structural features. These groups include the genes encoding the IL1-like cytokines, the class I helical cytokines (IL4-like, γ-chain and IL6/12-like, the class II helical cytokines (IL10-like and IL28-like and the IL17-like cytokines. In addition, there are a number of ILs that do not fit into any of the above groups, due either to their unique structural features or lack of structural information. This suggests that the gene family organisation may be subject to further change in the near future.

  20. Sex differences in the relationship of IL-6 signaling to cancer cachexia progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetzler, Kimbell L; Hardee, Justin P; Puppa, Melissa J; Narsale, Aditi A; Sato, Shuichi; Davis, J Mark; Carson, James A

    2015-05-01

    A devastating aspect of cancer cachexia is severe loss of muscle and fat mass. Though cachexia occurs in both sexes, it is not well-defined in the female. The Apc(Min/+) mouse is genetically predisposed to develop intestinal tumors; circulating IL-6 is a critical regulator of cancer cachexia in the male Apc(Min/+) mouse. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between IL-6 signaling and cachexia progression in the female Apc(Min/+) mouse. Male and female Apc(Min/+) mice were examined during the initiation and progression of cachexia. Another group of females had IL-6 overexpressed between 12 and 14 weeks or 15-18 weeks of age to determine whether IL-6 could induce cachexia. Cachectic female Apc(Min/+) mice lost body weight, muscle mass, and fat mass; increased muscle IL-6 mRNA expression was associated with these changes, but circulating IL-6 levels were not. Circulating IL-6 levels did not correlate with downstream signaling in muscle in the female. Muscle IL-6r mRNA expression and SOCS3 mRNA expression as well as muscle IL-6r protein and STAT3 phosphorylation increased with severe cachexia in both sexes. Muscle SOCS3 protein increased in cachectic females but decreased in cachectic males. IL-6 overexpression did not affect cachexia progression in female Apc(Min/+) mice. Our results indicate that female Apc(Min/+) mice undergo cachexia progression that is at least initially IL-6-independent. Future studies in the female will need to determine mechanisms underlying regulation of IL-6 response and cachexia induction.

  1. The Inhibitory Effect of Quercetin on IL-6 Production by LPS-Stimulated Neutrophils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiajia Liu; Xin Li; Yang Yue; Juan Li; Tao He; Yanzheng He

    2005-01-01

    Quercetin is a herbal flavonoid derived from various foods of plant origin and plays a role in anti-inflammation. Although a number of researches in the field have been done, the mechanism of anti-inflammatory effect of quercetin should be further clarified. In the present study, we investigated the effects of quercetin on IL-6 production by LPS-stimulated neutrophils in human. Neutrophils were were pre-treated with quercetin at the final concentrations of ranging from 0-80 μM for 30 min, or not treated, and then incubated in the presence or absence of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) at a final concentration of 100 ng/ml for indicated time. The secretion level of IL-6 in the culture supernatants was assayed by ELISA, the intracellular level of IL-6 was detected by flow cytometry and the expression of IL-6 mRNA was analyzed by RT-PCR. The experiment results showed that neutrophils cultured with medium or quercetin alone did not express IL-6, but LPS (100 ng/ml) induced IL-6 expression of neutrophils. However, after pre-treatment of neutrophils with quercetin (40 μM) for 30 min, the inducible effects of LPS on the increase of IL-6 secretion, intracellular IL-6 level and IL-6 mRNA expression by neutrophils were abrogated. IL-6 is one of the important pro-inflammatory factors, especially in early phage of inflammation. Thus, our data suggested that quercetin might exert its anti-inflammatory effect through negatively modulating pro-inflammatory factors, such as IL-6. The inhibitory effects of quercetin on IL-6 production by neutrophils may provide a theoretical basis on future therapy of inflammation.

  2. Evolutionary divergence and functions of the human interleukin (IL) gene family

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Cytokines play a very important role in nearly all aspects of inflammation and immunity. The term 'interleukin' (IL) has been used to describe a group of cytokines with complex immunomodulatory functions -- including cell proliferation, maturation, migration and adhesion. These cytokines also play an important role in immune cell differentiation and activation. Determining the exact function of a particular cytokine is complicated by the influence of the producing cell type, the responding cell type and the phase of the immune response. ILs can also have pro- and anti-inflammatory effects, further complicating their characterisation. These molecules are under constant pressure to evolve due to continual competition between the host's immune system and infecting organisms; as such, ILs have undergone significant evolution. This has resulted in little amino acid conservation between orthologous proteins, which further complicates the gene family organisation. Within the literature there are a number of overlapping nomenclature and classification systems derived from biological function, receptor-binding properties and originating cell type. Determining evolutionary relationships between ILs therefore can be confusing. More recently, crystallographic data and the identification of common structural motifs have led to a more accurate classification system. To date, the known ILs can be divided into four major groups based on distinguishing structural features. These groups include the genes encoding the IL1-like cytokines, the class I helical cytokines (IL4-like, γ-chain and IL6/12-like), the class II helical cytokines (IL10-like and IL28-like) and the IL17-like cytokines. In addition, there are a number of ILs that do not fit into any of the above groups, due either to their unique structural features or lack of structural information. This suggests that the gene family organisation may be subject to further change in the near future. PMID:21106488

  3. Role of interleukin-23 (IL-23) receptor signaling for IL-17 responses in human Lyme disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosting, M.; Hofstede, H.J.M. ter; Veerdonk, F.L. van de; Sturm, P.D.J.; Kullberg, B.J.; Meer, J.W.M. van der; Netea, M.G.; Joosten, L.A.B.

    2011-01-01

    Interleukin-23 (IL-23) is known to play a crucial role in the development and maintenance of T helper 17 cells. It has been previously demonstrated that IL-17 is involved in experimental Lyme arthritis, caused by Borrelia burgdorferi bacteria. However, the precise role of the IL-23 receptor (IL-23R)

  4. Association Between IL-4 and IL-6 Expression Variants and Gastric Cancer Among Portuguese Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Sampaio

    2015-07-01

    Conclusion: IL-6 and IL-4 expression variants seem to have an important role in GC risk mechanisms. This study provides preliminary evidence that IL-4 and IL-6 polymorphisms, although not directly linked to the disease, may be useful tools in the study of this multifactorial disease.

  5. An activation-induced IL-15 isoform is a natural antagonist for IL-15 function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lei; Hu, Bo; Zhang, Yinsheng; Song, Yuan; Lin, Dandan; Liu, Yonghao; Mei, Yu; Sandikin, Dedy; Sun, Weiping; Zhuang, Min; Liu, Haiyan

    2016-01-01

    Interleukin 15 (IL-15) expression induces the secretion of inflammatory cytokines, inhibits the apoptosis of activated T cells and prolongs the survival of CD8+ memory T cells. Here we identified an IL-15 isoform lacking exon-6, IL-15ΔE6, generated by alternative splicing events of activated immune cells, including macrophages and B cells. In vitro study showed that IL-15ΔE6 could antagonize IL-15-mediated T cell proliferation. The receptor binding assay revealed that IL-15ΔE6 could bind to IL-15Rα and interfere with the binding between IL-15 and IL-15Rα. Over-expression of IL-15ΔE6 in the murine EAE model ameliorated the EAE symptoms of the mice. The clinical scores were significantly lower in the mice expressing IL-15ΔE6 than the control mice and the mice expressing IL-15. The inflammation and demyelination of the EAE mice expressing IL-15ΔE6 were less severe than the control group. Furthermore, flow cytometry analysis demonstrated that IL-15ΔE6 expression reduced the percentages of inflammatory T cells in the spleen and spinal cord, and inhibited the infiltration of macrophages to the CNS. Our results demonstrated that IL-15ΔE6 could be induced during immune activation and function as a negative feedback mechanism to dampen IL-15-mediated inflammatory events. PMID:27166125

  6. Structure of IL-22 Bound to Its High-Affinity IL-22R1 Chain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, B.C.; Logsdon, N.J.; Walter, M.R. (UAB)

    2008-09-29

    IL-22 is an IL-10 family cytokine that initiates innate immune responses against bacterial pathogens and contributes to immune disease. IL-22 biological activity is initiated by binding to a cell-surface complex composed of IL-22R1 and IL-10R2 receptor chains and further regulated by interactions with a soluble binding protein, IL-22BP, which shares sequence similarity with an extracellular region of IL-22R1 (sIL-22R1). IL-22R1 also pairs with the IL-20R2 chain to induce IL-20 and IL-24 signaling. To define the molecular basis of these diverse interactions, we have determined the structure of the IL-22/sIL-22R1 complex. The structure, combined with homology modeling and surface plasmon resonance studies, defines the molecular basis for the distinct affinities and specificities of IL-22 and IL-10 receptor chains that regulate cellular targeting and signal transduction to elicit effective immune responses.

  7. ‘The political deadlock is life’: Boris and the satire of contemporary Italian media and cultural industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomo Boitani

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available ‘Il pareggio elettorale è la vita’: Boris e la satira dei mass media italiani e dell’industria culturale odierni  Nel 2007 il network satellitare Fox Italia ha cominciato la produzione di Boris, una serie comica del genere mockumentary messa in onda sui canali Sky Italia dal 2007 al 2010. La trama di Boris narra le peripezie di una troupe televisiva alle prese con la produzione di una soap-opera per la RAI. In Italia la serie è presto diventata un prodotto ‘cult’. Nella serie Boris i pigri e opportunisti membri della troupe televisiva fittizia sono rappresentati come succubi delle ripercussioni che gli sviluppi politici nel Paese hanno sul servile network per il quale lavorano. Gli attori nella soap-opera fittizia vengono rimpiazzati e la trama stessa della soap-opera viene riscritta a seconda delle nuove coalizioni che vengono formate in Parlamento e i membri della troupe sono costantemente alla ricerca di raccomandazioni e protezione politica. Per quanto satirizza lo stato del Paese, Boris mette anche in discussione il fatto stesso che l’industria culturale Italiana corrente possa produrre un discorso significativo. Con riferimento alla teorizzazione della ‘parodia’ da parte di Linda Hutcheon, questo articolo discute la rappresentazione che Boris ha tratteggiato dell’industria culturale, analizza il rapporto esistente tra la serie e tradizioni comiche Italiane che l’hanno preceduta (la ‘commedia all’italiana’ e il modo in cui l’ironia implementata dalla serie ricalca e/o diverge da quella tipica delle serie mockumentary estere che l’hanno ispirata (Arrested Development e The Larry Sanders Show.

  8. Biological significance of soluble IL-2 receptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calogero Caruso

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available A NUMBER of receptors for growth factors and differentiation antigens have been found to be secreted or released by cells. Following mononuclear cell (MNC activation and interleukin-2 receptor (IL-2R expression, a soluble form of the Alpha;-chain of IL-2R (sIL-2R is released. The sIL-2R has been shown to be present in the culture supernatants of activated MNCs as well as in normal sera and, in higher amounts, in sera from subjects affected by several diseases including neoplastic, infectious and autoimmune ones, and in sera from transplanted patients suffering allograft rejection. The blood sIL-2R levels depend on the number of producing cells and the number of molecules per cell, so that sIL-2R blood values may represent an index of the number and the functional state of producing cells, both normal and neoplastic. Thus, monitoring of the immune system, mostly T-cells and haematological malignancies might be targets for the measurement of sIL-2R. Since many conditions may influence sIL-2R production, little diagnostic use may result from these measurements. However, since blood sIL-2R levels may correlate with disease progression and/or response to therapy, their measurement may be a useful index of activity and extent of disease. The precise biological role of the soluble form of the IL-2R is still a matter of debate. However, we know that increased sIL-2R levels may be observed in association with several immunological abnormalities and that sIL-2R is able to bind IL-2. It is conceivable then that in these conditions the excess sIL-2R released in vivo by activated lymphoid cells or by neoplastic cells may somehow regulate IL-2-dependent processes. On the other hand, it cannot exclude that sIL-2R is a by-product without biological significance. Finally, it is puzzling that in many conditions in which an increase of blood sIL-2R values has been observed, MNCs display a decreased in vitro capacity to produce sIL-2R. These seemingly contrasting

  9. Progress in the studies of IL-26%IL-26的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟予城; 赵春涛

    2007-01-01

    IL-26是T淋巴细胞对于疱疹病毒saimiri转染的应答产物之一,属于IL-10细胞因子超家族.它通过IL-26受体(IL-26R,IL-20R1/IL-10R2)的介导而激活STATl和STAT3,从而发挥生物学活性.从目前的研究现状来看,IL-26可能与多种疾病有关,但还有待于更多的实验研究证实.

  10. Italy the hydrogeological risk is growing; Belpaese, cresce il rischio idrogeologico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aligi Pasquare' , F. [ANPA, Dipt. Strategie Integrate, Promozione, Comunicazione, Rome (Italy)

    2000-12-01

    More and more urgent, especially of late, is the need to plan nationwide, integrated strategy to prevent and control hydrogeological crises. And great efforts have been made in this direction by the National Environmental Protection Agency (ANPA) which, starting in 1998 (year of the so-called Sarno law) tasked itself with reducing and preventing the hydrogeological risk by monitoring the structural works defending the soil. However, there are still too many dramatic events in Italy due, indeed, to exceptional rainfalls but at times also to problems in the hydraulic and zoning systems of the afflicted areas, to incorrect occupation of the land or to a lack of protective work. Making fundamental the technical and scientific support that the ANPA-ARPA system offers in this context to national, regional and local authorities. [Italian] Si fa sempre piu' pressante, soprattutto negli ultimi tempi, la necessita' di pianificare strategie integrate di intervento sul territorio per la prevenzione e il controllo delle crisi idrogeologiche. E grande e' l'impegno dimostrato in questo senso dall'Agenzia Nazionale per la Protezione dell'Ambiente che, a partire dal 1998, anno della cosidetta Legge Sarno, si e' assunta il compito di ridurre e prevenire il rischio idrogeologico attraverso il monitoraggio delle opere strutturali di difesa del suolo. Si contano purtroppo pero' ancora troppi eventi drammatici nel nostro Paese, dovuti si' alle eccezionali precipitazioni atmosferiche, ma talvolta anche a problemi di sistemazione idraulico-urbanistica nelle aree colpite, alla scorretta occupazione del territorio o alla mancanza di opere di salvaguardia. Risulta quindi fondamentale il supporto tecnico e scientifico che il sistema ANPA-ARPA offre, in questo contesto, alle Autorita' nazionali, regionali e locali.

  11. IL-4、IL-13蛋白表达及抗IL-4、IL-13人源单链抗体的筛选%Expression of IL-4 and IL-13 proteins and selection of scFvs against IL-4 and IL-13

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁青; 黄黎; 郭夕源; 叶迎春; 年四季

    2013-01-01

    Objective:Expression of IL-4 and IL-13 proteins and selection of human scFvs against IL-4 and IL-13 by phage display.Methods:The mRNA of PBMC from healthy volunteer was extracted and cDNA of IL-4 and IL-13 were synthesized by RT-PCR,and the proteins of IL-4 and IL-13 were expressed and identified.The scFvs against IL-4 and IL-13 were selected from a non-immune human scFvs library by phage display with biotinylation IL-4 and IL-13 protein.Results:The size of cDNA of amplified IL-4 was 280 bp,and that of expressed fusion protein was about 27 kD.The size of cDNA of amplified IL-13 was 252 bp,and that of expressed fusion protein was about 25 kD.The human scFvs library was screened for three rounds by ribosome display,and about 37% scFvs has binding activities with IL-4 and about 27% scFvs has binding activities with IL-13.Four scFvs with good binding activities with IL-4 or IL-13 were selected and identified by Western blot.Conclusion:The scFvs against IL-4 and against IL-13 were selected successfully.%目的:表达IL-4和IL-13蛋白,从人源单链抗体文库中分别筛选抗IL-4和抗IL-13单链抗体.方法:采用RT-PCR从健康志愿者外周血单核细胞(PBMC) mRNA中扩增IL-4和IL-13 cDNA;构建硫氧还蛋白融合表达载体,转化大肠杆菌BL21,IPTG诱导表达并对表达产物进行纯化鉴定.以生物素化的IL-4和IL-13为抗原从前期构建的人源抗体文库中采用噬菌体展示技术分别筛选抗IL-4和抗IL-13人源单链抗体(scFv).结果:扩增的IL-4 cDNA大小为280 bp,表达的融合蛋白大小为27 kD左右.扩增的IL-13 cDNA大小为252 bp,表达的融合蛋白大小为25 kD左右.分别以生物素化的IL-4和IL-13蛋白为抗原,采用噬菌体展示技术对人源抗体文库进行3轮富集后,分别有大约37%的scFvs与IL-4有结合特性,有约27%的scFvs与IL-13有结合特性.筛选了4株分别与IL-4和IL-13结合能力强的单链抗体进行了Westem blot鉴定和测序.结论:成功筛选到抗IL-4和抗IL

  12. IL-18 and IL-18 binding protein levels in patients with dengue virus infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chintana Chirathaworn; Yong Poovorawan; Viboonsak Vuthitanachot

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To determine the levels ofIL-18 andIL-18binding protein(BP) in patients with dengue virus infection.Methods: Acute and convalescent sera were collected from each patient. Control group was sera from blood donors. The levels of both IL-18 andIL-18BP were measured byELISA assays.Results: It was shown thatIL-18 andIL-18BPlevels were significantly higher in patients when compared with controls. In addition, the level ofIL-18BP was lower in convalescent than in acute sera.Conclusions: These data suggest that bothIL-18 andIL-18BP production was induced following dengue virus infection. Investigating the regulation of IL-18 by its natural regulator could lead to further understanding of the immune response or immunopathogenesis following dengue virus infection.

  13. Correlation of chronic periodontitis in tropical area and IFN-γ, IL-10, IL-17 levels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qi-Ya Fu; Li Zhang; Li Duan; Shi-Yun Qian; Hong-Xia Pang

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the correlation of chronic periodontitis in tropical area and IFN-γ, IL-10 and IL-17 levels. Methods: One hundred and forty-eight patients and one hundred and thirty-two healthy control subjects were included in the study. Clinical parameters (PI, GI and PD) and GCF levels of IFN-γ, IL-10 and IL-17 were measured at baseline, week 8, week 16 and week 24 after mechanical removal of dental plaque. IFN-γ and IL-10 were determined with ELISA methods and IL-17 was determined with the cytometric bead array. Results: Removal of dental plaque resulted in improvement in all clinical parameters. Meanwhile, GCF IL-17 declined to control levels, while GCF IFN-γ and IL-10 levels remained unchanged. Conclusions: The decline of GCF IL-17 levels in patients with resolution of periodontitis suggests that IL-17 is involved in the periodontal inflammatory process.

  14. Il gioco le leggi naturali governano il caso

    CERN Document Server

    Eigen, Manfred

    1986-01-01

    Manfred Eigen, Premio Nobel per la chimica nel 1967, e la sua collaboratrice Ruthild Winkler hanno voluto con questo libro uscire allo scoperto, esponendo in una trattazione complessa ma comprensibile per ogni lettore veramente interessato una teoria molto audace, basata su ricerche e scoperte di Eigen stesso e di altri (come per esempio Thom e Prigogine) che in questi ultimi anni sono al centro dell’attenzione degli scienziati, anche se non sempre sono filtrate al di fuori della loro cerchia. Questa teoria ha come perno la nozione di gioco: e non già in una o più delle innumerevoli accezioni della parola, ma in tutte, con l’aggiunta di una ulteriore accezione che sottende tutte le altre: il gioco come struttura intelligibile emergente dal divenire caotico, quindi come fenomeno «che ha guidato fin dall’inizio il corso dell’Universo». Gioco, in questo libro, è dunque un «fenomeno naturale», non specificamente umano. I giochi che noi tutti giochiamo sono soltanto la schiuma variegata di un flutto...

  15. Utopian Registers of the New Italian Epic. Wu Ming and the Socially-Symbolic Act

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Potter

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Registri utopistici della New Italian Epic. Wu Ming e l’atto socialmente simbolicoWu Ming, un collettivo di scrittori fondato nel 2000, cerca di promuovere l’impegno collettivo e la rivoluzione sociale attraverso una ‘mitopoiesi di base’. Costruendo miti che riflettono i problemi e le contraddizioni dell’attuale società italiana, Wu Ming crea una coscienza unificatrice attraverso un’esperienza e un’identità condivise. Creando nuovi eroi popolari, interrogando la storia e resistendo alle visioni dominanti del sistema sociale, Wu Ming si impegna dunque in una mitopoiesi della resistenza politica. L’opera di scrittura politica e di mitopoiesi del gruppo produce quella che Jameson definisce un ‘atto socialmente simbolico’. In The Political Unconscious Jameson suggerisce che tutta la letteratura debba essere letta come ‘una meditazione simbolica sul destino di una comunità’, e che la forma narrativa e simbolica inventa ‘soluzioni’ immaginarie a contraddizioni sociali. Basandosi sulla prospettiva marxista di Jameson, il presente contributo analizza un racconto di Wu Ming, ‘I trecento boscaioli dell’imperatore’. Attraverso questa storia, e con una più ampia analisi dell’operato di Wu Ming, si sostiene che questa culmini in un atto socialmente simbolico. Le storie create da Wu Ming riflettono sul destino dell’oppressa comunità italiana che il collettivo di scrittori rappresenta, rendendo possibile una ‘compensazione utopica’ all’interno dei confini narrativi.

  16. Il servizio idrico online Il portale SIT-SIRSI del Ministero delle Infrastrutture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ugo Morenzetti

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The online water management service: the SIT-SIRSI portal for The Italian Ministry of InfrastructureThe article introduces our readers to the SIT-SIRSI portal activated by the Italian Ministry of Infrastructure. The context is based onthe community directives dedicated to the european water resources protection and preservation. Specifically referred to the central and southern regions of Italy, which are considered at risk by the European Community, the portal alsogained an important aknowledgement during the tenth italian ESRI Users Conference.

  17. Thyroid swellings in the art of the Italian Renaissance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterpetti, Antonio V; De Toma, Giorgio; De Cesare, Alessandro

    2015-09-01

    Thyroid swellings in the art of the Italian Renaissance are sporadically reported in the medical literature. Six hundred paintings and sculptures from the Italian Renaissance, randomly selected, were analyzed to determine the prevalence of personages with thyroid swellings and its meaning. The prevalence of personages with thyroid swellings in the art of Italian Renaissance is much higher than previously thought. This phenomenon was probably secondary to iodine deficiency. The presence of personages with thyroid swelling was related to specific meanings the artists wanted to show in their works. Even if the function and the role of the thyroid were discovered only after thyroidectomy was started to be performed, at the beginning of the 19th century, artists of the Italian Renaissance had the intuition that thyroid swellings were related to specific psychological conditions. Artistic intuition and sensibility often comes before scientific demonstration, and it should be a guide for science development. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Western Italian Alps Monthly Snowfall and Snow Cover Duration

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set consists of snow observations for 18 stations in the western Italian Alps. Two types of data are included: monthly snowfall amounts and monthly snow...

  19. [Organizational models in the Italian nephrology, dialysis and transplantation network].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manno, Carlo; Zuccalà, Alessandro

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the Italian Society of Nephrology discusses the recent statement of the Italian National Government regarding the 'The definition of the structure and technological standards of hospital health care' and suggests a new model of organization of the Italian Nephrology, Dialysis and Transplantation Network. In particular, the Italian Society of Nephrology proposes the presence of a nephrologist as part of the Emergency Hospital Network, to oversee all extracorporeal replacement treatments taking place in Intensive Care Units. Finally, this article recommends the cooperation of the nephrologist with primary health care teams and general practitioners as a move to prevent the complications of chronic kidney disease, thus improving short-term and long-term survival outcomes and reducing the costs to the National Health System.

  20. Italian UNESCO World Heritage: Forms of Protection and Management Experiences

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Francesca Riccio

    2014-01-01

    ... of an effective system of protection and management. Safeguard and protection are by now issues entrenched in the Italian legislation and administrative practice while the theme of management as a system of synergy and coordination of actions...

  1. Cerebrospinal fluid IL-12p40, CXCL13 and IL-8 as a combinatorial biomarker of active intrathecal inflammation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bibiana Bielekova

    Full Text Available Diagnosis and management of the neuroinflammatory diseases of the central nervous system (CNS are hindered by the lack of reliable biomarkers of active intrathecal inflammation. We hypothesized that measuring several putative inflammatory biomarkers simultaneously will augment specificity and sensitivity of the biomarker to the clinically useful range. Based on our pilot experiment in which we measured 18 inflammatory biomarkers in 10-fold concentrated cerebrospinal fluid (CSF derived from 16 untreated patients with highly active multiple sclerosis (MS we selected a combination of three CSF biomarkers, IL-12p40, CXCL13 and IL-8, for further validation.Concentrations of IL-12p40, CXCL13 and IL-8 were determined in a blinded fashion in CSF samples from an initial cohort (n = 72 and a confirmatory cohort (n = 167 of prospectively collected, untreated subjects presenting for a diagnostic work-up of possible neuroimmunological disorder. Diagnostic conclusion was based on a thorough clinical workup, which included laboratory assessment of the blood and CSF, neuroimaging and longitudinal follow-up. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve analysis in conjunction with principal component analysis (PCA, which was used to combine information from all three biomarkers, assessed the diagnostic value of measured biomarkers.Each of the three biomarkers was significantly increased in MS and other inflammatory neurological disease (OIND in comparison to non-inflammatory neurological disorder patients (NIND at least in one cohort. However, considering all three biomarkers together improved accuracy of predicting the presence of intrathecal inflammation to the consistently good to excellent range (area under the ROC curve = 0.868-0.924.Future clinical studies will determine if a combinatorial biomarker consisting of CSF IL-12p40, CXCL13 and IL-8 provides utility in determining the presence of active intrathecal inflammation in diagnostically

  2. Nietzsche e il modello intuizionista in morale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Margoni

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available All’inizio del nuovo secolo lo psicologo Jonathan Haidt propone un modello del giudizio morale ch’entra in opposizione ad una duratura tradizione di pensiero, quella per cui il giudizio morale è causato dalla ragione. In psicologia, a sostenere il modello razionalista, sono stati, per lo più, Piaget e Kohlberg. Sul versante filosofico, possiamo affermare che buona parte degli addetti ai lavori si sono schierati a favore della concezione razionalistica. Razionalisti in morale erano Socrate, che introdusse l’intellettualismo etico, il cristianesimo, Cartesio, Kant. Haidt, invece, elaborando il suo modello descrittivo su dati sperimentali di natura empirica, arriva alla conclusione che il giudizio morale, nella maggior parte dei casi, non è causato dal ragionamento cosciente. Piuttosto, il ragionamento entrerebbe in gioco una volta formulato il giudizio morale, come forza di razionalizzazione a posteriori. Haidt chiama questo modello "intuizionista".

  3. IL-1β up-regulates expression of IL-8 in endometrial stromal cells in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Guiyu; Ren Shuwen; Zhang Youzhong; Yang Xingsheng

    2005-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the effects of interleukin-1beta (IL-1β) on expression of IL-8 in endometrial stromal cells (ESC) and evaluate the relationship between IL1 β and IL-8 ,and the significance of IL-1β in the development of endometriosis. Methods:The endometrial stromal cells obtained from patient with and without endometriosis cultured within 3 ~5 passage were exposed to various concentrations of IL-1β. The amount of IL-8 protein was assessed by ELISA. The expression of IL-8 mRNA was determined by RT-PCR. Results: 1. IL-8 protein was detected in culture supernatant of which the cells were not treated with IL-1β. The amount of IL-8 protein secretion increased obviously after stimulation with IL-1β at 1.0ng/ml for 4h and the peak of secretion was at 12h. 2. Expression of IL-8 mRNA was positive in unstimulated endometrial stromal cells. However, after stromal cells were incubated with IL-1β, the intensity of expression of IL-8 mRNA was obviously increased and demonstrated a dose-and timedependent manner. Increase of IL-8 mRNA was observed following stimulation with IL-1β for 4h ,and the peak at 12h. Conclusions:IL-1β induces endometrial stromal cell of endometriosis to express IL-8 not only at transcription level but also at post-transcription level. This up-regulation is dose-and time-dependent. IL-1β may play an important role in the onset of endometriosis.

  4. IL-15与自身免疫病%IL-15 and Autoimmune Disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李文新; 张学光

    2003-01-01

    IL-15的组织分布、表达调控及具体生物学功能等方面对IL-15与自身免疫病(autoimmune disease,AID)的关系进行分析和阐述,并列举了5种与IL-15相关的AID及4种以IL-15/IL-15R为靶向的AID治疗策略.

  5. Clinical significance of the Changes of Serum Levels of IL-2,IL-6,IL-10,IL-18 and T cell subset in patients with chronic nephritis%慢性肾炎治疗前后血清IL-2、IL-6、IL-10、IL-18和T淋巴细胞亚群检测意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘薇娜; 鲍培玉; 蒋全

    2010-01-01

    目的 探讨慢性肾炎患者治疗前后血清IL-2、IL-6、IL-10、IL-18和T淋巴细胞亚群的变化.方法 分别应用放免法、ELISA法和单克隆抗体法对30例慢性肾炎患者治疗前后进行了血清IL-2、IL-6、IL-10、IL-18和T淋巴细胞亚群水平的检测,并与35名正常健康人作比较.结果 慢性肾炎患者在治疗前血清IL-2和CD4/CD8比值明显低于正常人组(P<0.05),而IL-6、IL-10和IL-18水平高于正常人组(P<0.01);经半年治疗后血清IL-2、IL-6、IL-10、IL-18和CD4/CD8与治疗前组比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 检测慢性肾炎患者血清IL-2、IL-6、IL-10、IL-18和T淋巴细胞亚群水平对判断病情及其预后均具有一定的临床实用价值.

  6. Dall'italo-austrliano all'italiano: apprendmento linguistico fra gli scolari della seconda generazione (From Italian-Australian to Italian: Language Acquisition among the Students of the Second Generation).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubino, Antonia

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the results of research to determine the success of the efforts currently being made in schools to teach pure Italian to the second generation of Italians in Australia in order to replace Italian Australian, a mixture of Italian dialects, Italian, and English. 33 references. (CFM)

  7. Dall'italo-austrliano all'italiano: apprendmento linguistico fra gli scolari della seconda generazione (From Italian-Australian to Italian: Language Acquisition among the Students of the Second Generation).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubino, Antonia

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the results of research to determine the success of the efforts currently being made in schools to teach pure Italian to the second generation of Italians in Australia in order to replace Italian Australian, a mixture of Italian dialects, Italian, and English. 33 references. (CFM)

  8. The sustainability of the Italian public finances: an overview

    OpenAIRE

    Salustri, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    The Italian international reputation in mainly related to the high level of its public debt. During the Great Recession, this fact, associated to the stagnation of productivity, raised serious doubts on its economic and financial sustainability. The doubts are legitimated also by the fact that Italy is a net borrower of capitals from abroad, as its Net International Investment Position (NIIP) is negative. The statistical analysis of the Italian public finances suggests how the deep causes of ...

  9. Thoughts on the Italian National University Council (CUN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borghetti M

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The Italian National University Council (CUN is an elected body that represents the Italian academic system and formulates proposal and gives advice to the Minister of University. The opinion is expressed that the professors who are appointed to CUN should go on sabbatical leave from their universities over the period they are part of CUN, as an important condition for carrying out better their institutional job and preventing any potential conflict of interest.

  10. Italian contributions to Turkish paediatrics during the Ottoman Empire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurdakok, Murat; Cataldi, Luigi

    2013-01-01

    The Ottoman Empire maintained close relations with the neighbouring Italian city states in the 16th and 17th century. Yacub Pasha (1425-1481), personal physician of Mehmed II the Conqueror, was an Italian Jew who advanced to the title of pasha and vizier. Domenico Hierosolimitano (ca. 1552-1622), the third physician to Sultan Murad III, was a Jerusalemite rabbi. His book is an important source about everyday life and medical practice in Istanbul at the time. Nuh bin Abd al-Mennab (1627-1707), also of Italian stock, was the Chief Physician of the Ottoman Empire, who translated a pharmacopoeia into Turkish. In the same century, two Italians, Israel Conegliano (Conian) and Tobia Cohen became private physicians to leading Ottoman pashas and the Grand Vizier. A. Vuccino (1829-1893) and Antoine Calleja Pasha (1806-1893) taught at the Istanbul Medical School. Italy was a favoured country for medical education during the early period of Ottoman westernisation. Sanizade Mehmet Ataullah Efendi (1771-1826) translated the first medical book printed in the Ottoman Empire from Italian into Turkish. Mustafa Behcet Efendi (1774-1833), chief physician to the Sultan and the founder of the first western medical school in Turkey, translated several medical books from Italian into Turkish. The first printed pharmacopeia in the Ottoman Empire was also originally Italian In the 19th century, Edouard Ottoni and his son Giuseppe Ottoni were well-known military pharmacists, both under the name of Faik Pasha. Probably the most influential physician of Italian origin was Giovanni Battista Violi (1849-1928), who had practiced paediatrics in Turkey for more than fifty years. Violi was the founder of the first children's hospital, the first vaccine institute, and the first paediatric journal in the Ottoman Empire.

  11. Italian law on assisted conception: clinical and research implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manna, Claudio; Nardo, Luciano G

    2005-11-01

    The Italian law 40/2004 regulating the use of assisted conception will remain on the statutes after the failure of the referendum in June 2005. Italy is now one of the most restrictive countries in the world in the field of assisted conception. It is thought that the new regulations, which have already increased 'reproductive tourism' in Italian subfertile couples, will also have clinical and research implications.

  12. Interleukin (IL)1beta, IL-1alpha, and IL-1 receptor antagonist gene polymorphisms in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanemoto, K; Kawasaki, J; Miyamoto, T; Obayashi, H; Nishimura, M

    2000-05-01

    Proinflammatory cytokines, including interleukin (IL)-1beta, are known to modulate effects of neurotoxic neurotransmitters discharged during excitation or inflammation in the central nervous system (CNS). They also regulate development of glial scars at sites of CNS injury. To elucidate a genetic predisposition of temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis (TLE-HS+), we studied polymorphisms in the IL-1beta, IL-1alpha, and IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RA) genes in 50 patients with TLE-HS+ and in 112 controls. Fifty-three patients who had TLE without HS were also examined (TLE-HS-) as disease controls. The distribution of the biallelic polymorphism in the promoter region at position -511 of the IL-1beta gene (IL-1B-511) was significantly different both between TLE-HS+ patients and controls and between TLE-HS+ and TLE-HS- patients. The differences were due to overrepresentation of the homozygotes for IL-1B-511*2, which is suggested to be a high producer of IL-1beta, in TLE-HS+ patients compared with both controls and TLE-HS- patients. In contrast, there was no difference between TLE-HS- patients and controls. Our data suggest that, in the homozygotes for IL-IB-511*2, minor events in development such as febrile convulsions could set up a cascade leading to HS.

  13. Interleukin-10 (IL-10) inhibits Borrelia burgdorferi-induced IL-17 production and attenuates IL-17-mediated Lyme arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Emily S; Medić, Velinka; Kuo, Joseph; Warner, Thomas F; Schell, Ronald F; Nardelli, Dean T

    2013-12-01

    Previous studies have shown that cells and cytokines associated with interleukin-17 (IL-17)-driven inflammation are involved in the arthritic response to Borrelia burgdorferi infection. Here, we report that IL-17 is a contributing factor in the development of Lyme arthritis and show that its production and histopathological effects are regulated by interleukin-10 (IL-10). Spleen cells obtained from B. burgdorferi-infected, "arthritis-resistant" wild-type C57BL/6 mice produced low levels of IL-17 following stimulation with the spirochete. In contrast, spleen cells obtained from infected, IL-10-deficient C57BL/6 mice produced a significant amount of IL-17 following stimulation with B. burgdorferi. These mice developed significant arthritis, including erosion of the bones in the ankle joints. We further show that treatment with antibody to IL-17 partially inhibited the significant hind paw swelling and histopathological changes observed in B. burgdorferi-infected, IL-10-deficient mice. Taken together, these findings provide additional evidence of a role for IL-17 in Lyme arthritis and reveal an additional regulatory target of IL-10 following borrelial infection.

  14. Two distinct populations of bovine IL-17⁺ T-cells can be induced and WC1⁺IL-17⁺γδ T-cells are effective killers of protozoan parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peckham, R K; Brill, R; Foster, D S; Bowen, A L; Leigh, J A; Coffey, T J; Flynn, R J

    2014-06-25

    IL-17 has emerged as a key player in the immune system, exhibiting roles in protection from infectious diseases and promoting inflammation in autoimmunity. Initially thought to be CD4 T-cell-derived, the sources of IL-17 are now known to be varied and belong to both the innate and adaptive arms of the immune system. Mechanisms for inducing IL-17 production in lymphoid cells are thought to rely on appropriate antigenic stimulation in the context of TGF-β1, IL-6 and/or IL-1β. Using culture protocols adapted from human studies, we have effectively induced both bovine CD4(+) and WC1(+) γδ T-cells to produce IL-17 termed Th17 and γδ17 cells, respectively. The negative regulatory effect of IFN-γ on mouse and human IL-17 production can be extended to the bovine model, as addition of IFN-γ decreases IL-17 production in both cell types. Furthermore we show that infection with the protozoan Neospora caninum will induce fibroblasts to secrete pro-IL-17 factors thereby inducing a γδ17 phenotype that preferentially kills infected target cells. Our study identifies two T-cell sources of IL-17, and is the first to demonstrate a protective effect of IL-17(+) T-cells in ruminants. Our findings offer further opportunities for future adjuvants or vaccines which could benefit from inducing these responses.

  15. Scientific research of Italian neurologists from 2008 to 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinazzi, Michele; Toni, Danilo; Veronese, Marco; Ajena, Domenico; Cruccu, Giorgio; Calabresi, Paolo

    2014-03-01

    Quantifying the number of publications is the easiest way to estimate the scientific production of a country in any scientific field. The aim of this article is to provide information about the scientific production from 2008 to 2011 of Italian neurologists and to compare it with scientific production data of other countries. The analysis regarded the research in Web of Science, in the Subject Category Clinical Neurology, of the publications published from 2008 to 2011, with at least one Italian author belonging to a scientific Italian institution. The overall data, their quality and scientific impact were compared with those of the first 15 world countries for scientific production. We observed that even if the Gross National Product of Italy registered a slight and gradual reduction from 2008 to 2011, the neurological scientific production of Italian neurologists showed an increase in the number of papers, maintaining the fifth position in these four years after USA, Germany, England and Japan. Moreover, dividing the neurological journals in quartiles according to the impact factor, we observed constant increase of the numbers of Italian publications in the highest quartile journals during the considered period. These data suggest that from 2008 to 2011 Italian neurologists have increased the number of publications, also improving the quality of works.

  16. [World Kidney Day 2013 and the Italian experience since 2006].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galassi, Andrea; Battaglia, Yuri; Andreucci, Vittorio; Brancaccio, Diego; Balducci, Alessandro

    2013-01-01

    Renal disease is common, insidious and treatable. The prevalence of chronic kidney disease and its cumulative global costs are rapidly increasing. Since 2006 the World Kidney Day (WKD) has worked to raise awareness of the disease and the importance of its prevention within communities and institutions. Italian Nephrology, through the joint action of the Italian Society of Nephrology (SIN) and the Italian Kidney Foundation (FIR) has worked to convey the message during WKD celebrations,meeting the community directly in Italian town squares and high schools, where informative material was provided together with blood pressure and urine dip-stick testing. This year, the WKD was held on March 14th, and was preceded by an extensive program of information broadcast on TV and radio and published in newspapers and magazines. More than 100 nephrology units in 118 cities were either involved in at least one of the programs organized in Italian town squares, high schools and renal clinics, or provided other spontaneous initiatives. This paper describes the history of the Italian experience in the WKD from its beginning in 2006 until the present day.

  17. First Italian Consensus Conference on VATS lobectomy for NSCLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosotti, Mario; Droghetti, Andrea; Luzzi, Luca; Solli, Piergiorgio; Crisci, Roberto

    2017-03-24

    Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) lobectomy has become an accepted procedure for the treatment of selected cases of lung cancer. The aim of this project was to establish national practical recommendations for the management of patients suitable for VATS lobectomy. The Scientific Committee of the VATS Lobectomy Group (a branch of the Italian Society of Thoracic Surgery) identified the consensus conference as an appropriate tool for a national debate. The consensus conference was organized following indications of the Italian Department of Health: a panel of experts reviewed the literature, the jury board revised the experts' reports, and the national conference discussed and voted on statements. The strength of recommendation for a statement was classified as weak, fair, or high when the total score ranged between 51% and 67%, 68% and 84%, or 85% and 100%, respectively. Eighty-six Italian thoracic surgeons attended the 1st Italian Consensus Conference on VATS lobectomy in Giulianova, Italy, on October 29-30, 2015. Thirty-three topics were discussed: indications, surgical strategy, perioperative management, and training were the main topics. Consensus was reached on 24 statements that were consequently recommended. The Italian Consensus Conference is the first attempt to discuss VATS lobectomy-related issues in a national scientific community. Such experience determined an improvement in epistemic knowledge among the Italian thoracic surgeons and could be a suggestion for other national communities.

  18. [Generations of Italian nurses compared: an exploratory study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevanin, Simone; Gregori, Dario; Poletti, Piera

    2015-01-01

    The influence that generations have on complex nursing work environment have not been investigated yet in Italy. The majority of studies realized on this topic up to now has a small sample size and is monocentric. None Italian study has directly investigated nursing multigenerational workforce. The study aimed to investigate the existence of generational differences in Italian nurses professional within the italian context and describe their characteristics. A 33 items questionnaire devised for the purpose was administred to a sample of 317 nurses of two major Italian North-East hospital. Five dimensions were analyzed: professional space, professional role, professional culture, orientation to care, relationships among generations. Data showed statistically significant differences among nurses generations in 9 items. The dimensions with the greatest number of significant items were found to be relationship among generations (6 items), followed by orientation to care, professional space and professional role (1 item each). Results highlighted the existence of generational differences and give some information on perceptions and relationships between italian nurses generations. Being the first exploratory study on Italian nurses, it is currently impossible to compare these results with those of previous studies. Further investigation is needed to make more comparisons with international literature.

  19. 手足口病患儿血清中IL-6 IL-10 IL-13及IL-17的变化及临床意义%Changes and clinical significance of serum IL-6,IL-10,IL-13 and IL-17 levels in children with hand-foot-mouth disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈笑辉; 樊冰

    2013-01-01

    Objective To study the changes and clinical significance of serum IL-6,IL-10,IL-13,IL-17 levels in the children with hand-foot-mouth disease (HFMD).Methods The serum concentration of IL-6,IL-10,IL-13,IL-17 in 46 case of HFMD children with acute stage and recovery stage and 40 cases of healthy controls were measured by ELISA.The data was analyzed by statistical SPSS software.Results In acute stage,the levels of IL-6,IL-10,IL-13,IL-17 in children of severe HFMD were higher than those in general children (P<0.01),showing significant difference from those in healthy controls (P<0.01).In recovery stage,the levels of IL-6 and IL-17 of HFMD were significantly lower than those in acute stage,and also no significant difference showed from those in general children and in healthy controls (P>0.05).Conclusion The levels of IL-6 and IL-17 were significantly increased in acute stage of HFMD children.The persistent elevation of serum IL-10 and IL-13 levels were found in HFMD patients after convalescence.%目的 探讨手足口病患儿血清中IL-6 IL-10 IL-13及IL-17的变化及临床意义.方法 采用酶联免疫吸附实验(ELISA)抗体夹心法测定46例手足口病患儿急性期、恢复期及40例健康体检儿童血清IL-6、IL-10、IL-13、IL-17的含量,对手足口病患儿急性期、恢复期进行比较,同时对其中重症患儿、普通患儿进行比较,用统计软件进行统计学分析.结果 急性期重症组与普通组IL-6、IL-10、IL-13及IL-17水平均明显升高,与对照组比较有统计学意义(P<0.01),重症组与普通组比较有统计学意义(P<0.01).恢复期重症组与普通组IL-6、IL-17较急性期下降,普通组与对照组比较无统计学意义(P>0.05),而重症组与对照组比较有统计学意义(P<0.01),但是IL-10、IL-13重症组和普通组均较急性期下降,但仍高于对照组,两组与对照组比较有统计学意义(P<0.01).结论 炎症因子IL-6、IL-17在急性期水平显著升高,而抑制性细胞因子IL

  20. ICH 患者血清和血肿液中 IL-4、IL-6、IL-8、IL-10的变化研究%Hematoma fluid and serum of patients with acute cerebral hemorrhage about IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, and IL-10 Changes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵金安; 白西民

    2016-01-01

    目的:观察急性脑出血(ICH)患者血清和血肿液中 IL-4、IL-6、IL-8、IL-10的变化。方法:选取80例在我院治疗的基底节区脑出血患者,按照发病时间将患者分为5组(发病时间≤6h、6h <发病时间≤12h、12h <发病时间≤24h、24h <发病时间≤72h、3d <发病时间≤7d),检测各组血清和血肿液中 IL-4、IL-6、IL-8、IL-10的含量以及出血量和水肿量;另选取21例健康体检者,检测其血清 IL-4、IL-6、IL-8、IL-10的含量作对照。结果:IL-4、IL-6、IL-8、IL-10在患者静脉血、血肿液中的浓度均显著高于正常对照组,而患者静脉血与血肿液中 IL-4、IL-6、IL-8、IL-10浓度比较,差异无统计学意义。基底节区脑出血患者发病时间≤6h 与正常对照组比较,除 IL-10浓度升高不明显外,IL-4、IL-6、IL-8浓度均明显升高;24h <发病时间≤72h 时,IL-4、IL-6、IL-8浓度与其他各时段比较,以及3d <发病时间≤7d时,IL-10浓度与其他各时段比较,差异均具有统计学意义。各时段出血量和水肿量比较,差异均无统计学意义,出血量和水肿量均在发病时间≤6h至12h <发病时间≤24h 逐渐增大,12h <发病时间≤24h 达到峰值。结论:ICH 患者静脉血、血肿液中 IL-4、IL-6、IL-8浓度可以作为早期检测(≤6h)ICH 的指标,并可通过不同炎症因子的含量变化判断 ICH 患者发病时间,且患者发病一周内周围脑组织出血量和水肿量变化不大。%Objective To observe the changes of IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10 in serum and hematoma of ICH. Methods 80 cases ICH patients were divided into five groups(<6h, 6-12h, 12-24h, 24-72h, 3-7d). The control group were 21 healthy persons serum. The content of IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10 in different time were compared and the amount of bleeding and edema. Results IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10 in patients with venous hematoma fluid concentrations were