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  1. [Linee guida italiane per il trattamento dell'alcolismo].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceccanti, Mauro; Iannitelli, Angela; Fiore, Marco

    2018-01-01

    RIASSUNTO. L'Europa è la regione con il più forte consumo di alcol al mondo, con la più elevata percentuale di malattie totali e morti premature alcol-correlate. In Italia, questo fenomeno coinvolge circa il 13% della popolazione oltre i 18 anni e oltre il 25% dei pazienti ospedalizzati. Sfortunatamente, solo il 5% di questi pazienti vengono riconosciuti come persone affette da disturbo da uso di alcol (DUA). Una scarsa conoscenza della malattia, la mancanza di accesso alle cure e le poche risorse messe a disposizione nella gestione del problema sono tra le principali cause di ritardo nella diagnosi, alla fine con conseguenze cliniche molto più importanti e costose da gestire. Alla luce di ciò, abbiamo deciso di dedicare questo numero speciale della Rivista di psichiatria a una serie di articoli riguardanti le linee guida italiane per il trattamento della dipendenza da alcol. Realizzate in collaborazione con numerosi esperti e importanti società scientifiche italiane come il Centro di Riferimento Alcologico della Regione Lazio (CRARL), la Società Italiana Tossicodipendenze (SITD), la Società italiana per il Trattamento dell'Alcolismo e le sue Complicanze (SITAC), la Società Italiana Psichiatria delle Dipendenze (SIPDip), la Società Italiana Patologie da Dipendenza (SIPaD) e l'Istituto di Biologia Cellulare e Neurobiologia (IBCN-CNR), queste linee guida forniscono agli operatori una serie di raccomandazioni basate su prove di efficacia volte ad aumentare la conoscenza e un uso appropriato dei farmaci per le persone affette da DUA. Con la possibilità di un continuo aggiornamento, l'obiettivo principale di queste linee guida sarà quello di garantire l'omogeneità dei trattamenti e un incremento qualitativo nell'assistenza dei pazienti affetti da DUA, così da ridurre le conseguenze psicosociali e sulla salute pubblica di questa importante malattia psichiatrica.

  2. Il piradellismo di Buzzati (Prima parte) | Zangrilli | Italian Studies in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Italian Studies in Southern Africa/Studi d'Italianistica nell'Africa Australe. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 17, No 1 (2004) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  3. Il piradellismo di Buzzati (Prima parte) | Zangrilli | Italian Studies in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pirandello's influence on contemporary writers is impossible to measure. Pirandellismo is evident in Buzzati's short stories, novels and plays. Buzzati operates with a pirandellian humour which underlines the tragic aspects of life. Many characters in Buzzati's works, including the image of the mother depicted in Il deserto dei ...

  4. Saranno Rispettati Come Per il Passato. Italian Colonial Policy towards Libyan Religious Endowments

    OpenAIRE

    GAZZINI, Claudia

    2010-01-01

    This paper offers a survey of Italian colonial policy towards Muslim religious endowments (waqf, pl. awqaf) in Libya from 1911 to 1943. Through an analysis of 41 lawsuits presented to the colonial Court of Appeals and a detailed survey of the laws promulgated to reform the administration of the awqaf in Libya, this study reveals the legal mechanisms adopted by Italian jurists to regulate awqaf matters in their only North African colony. It demonstrates that, unlike other colonial powers in th...

  5. IL23R in the Swedish, Finnish, Hungarian and Italian populations: association with IBD and psoriasis, and linkage to celiac disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vatta Serena

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Association of the interleukin-23 receptor (IL23R with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD has been confirmed in several populations. IL23R also associates with psoriasis, suggesting that the gene may be an important candidate for many chronic inflammatory diseases. Methods We studied association of single-nucleotide variants in IL23R with IBD in Swedish patients, in both Crohn's disease (CD and ulcerative colitis (UC subsets. The same genetic variants were also studied in Finnish patients with psoriasis or celiac disease, and in Hungarian and Italian patients with celiac disease. Results Association of IL23R with IBD was replicated in our Swedish patients, and linkage and association of the IL23R region with psoriasis was found in the Finnish population. The IL23R region was also linked to celiac disease in Finnish families, but no association of IL23R variants with celiac disease was found in the Finnish, Hungarian or Italian samples. Conclusion Our study is the first to demonstrate association of IL23R with CD and UC in Swedish patients with IBD. It is also the first study to report linkage and association of the IL23R region with psoriasis in the Finnish population. Importantly, this is the first report of linkage of the IL23R region to celiac disease, a chronic inflammatory condition in which IL23R has not been previously implicated.

  6. A reading of Antonio Tabucchi's Il filo dell'orizzonte | Wilson | Italian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Questa lettura de Il filo dell'orizzonte (1986) di Antonio Tabucchi esamina il percorso del protagonista, Spino, attraverso gli spazi di una città. La sua è una ricerca ossessiva delle “segrete ragioni” che guidano una vita. Nel tentativo di restituire l'esistenza ad un morto, Spino percepisce che la reciprocità del legame fra vita e ...

  7. All’origine dei differenziali salariali di genere nel settore non profit. il caso delle cooperative sociali italiane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica D’Isanto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available L’elevata quota di lavoratrici nelle organizzazioni non profit potrebbe indurre a rite-nere le cooperative sociali un luogo ideale per la manodopera femminile, proprio perché in questo tipo di istituzioni le donne avrebbero maggiori possibilità di impiego e mag-giori opportunità di accedere a posizioni di potere organizzativo (data la peculiare natu-ra democratica che caratterizzerebbe tali istituzioni. Sebbene l’aumento della parteci-pazione femminile nel mercato del lavoro sociale abbia un impatto positivo sul tasso di crescita dell’economia, è stato dimostrato che la predominanza delle donne nel settore nonprofit non solo non riesce sempre a tradursi in un’attenuazione delle discriminazioni di genere in termini di carriera, retribuzione e accesso a ruoli di comando, ma rischia anche di implicare, tramite la mancata valorizzazione del loro apporto, la svalutazione economica dell’intero settore. I dati, infatti, confermano la presenza di potenti meccani-smi discriminatori rispetto al genere, tanto più sorprendenti quanto più si consideri l’elevata presenza di donne tra i lavoratori di queste organizzazioni.In Italia nel 2007 è emerso che il 74% della forza lavoro nel settore nonprofit era co-stituito da donne.Questo lavoro ha due obiettivi. In primo luogo (e per la prima volta nel contesto ita-liano, si propone di studiare le caratteristiche di questa composizione femminile della forza lavoro, utilizzando la banca dati ICSI 2007 (Indagine Cooperative Sociali Italia-ne; in secondo luogo, di analizzare il rapporto esistente tra differenziali salariale di ge-nere e segregazione.I principali risultati sono che anche nel settore non profit esiste un differenziale sala-riale di genere di circa il 16% in favore degli uomini (dato conforme alla media degli altri paesi europei; che esiste la segregazione femminile (orizzontale e verticale e che questa spiega quasi interamente l’esistenza di questo differenziale salariale.

  8. Il Fuoco or the fatal portrait : the XIXth century in the Italian silent cinema

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, I.L.

    1992-01-01

    Dans les années dix de notre siècle, un genre nouveau de film s'installe en Italie aux côtés des grandes productions historiques : le cinéma des divas dont l'histoire-type tourne autour des drames d'un "ménage à trois". Il Fuoco (Giovanni Pastrone, 1915) serait, selon l'auteur, un film moderne qui,

  9. Economies of scale in the Italian waste collection sector; Analisi dei rendimenti di scala per il servizio di igiene urbana in Italia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonioli, B. [Ferrara Univ., Ferrara (Italy). Facolta' di Economia; Universita' della Svizzera Italiana, Facolta' di Economia, Lugano (Switzerland); Fazioli, R. [Ferrara Univ., Ferrara (Italy). Facolta' di Economia; Filippini, M. [Universita' della Svizzera Italiana, Facolta' di Economia, Lugano (Switzerland); Politecnico Federale, Zurich(Switzerland)

    2000-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyse the cost structure of a sample of Italian waste collection firms in order to assess economies of scale and density so to estimate economic rationality of competition in the waste collection sector. A trans log cost function was estimated using panel data for a sample of 30 firms of waste collection and disposal operating at provincial level over the period 1991-1995. The results indicate the existence of economies of density and scale for most output levels. The empirical evidence suggests that franchised monopolies, rather than side-by-side competition, is the most efficient form of production organisation in the waste collection sector. [Italian] L'obiettivo del presente studio e' l'analisi della struttura dei costi di un campione di imprese pubbliche italiane operanti nel settore dell'igiene urbana, allo scopo di valutare la presenza di economie di scala e di densita' e, conseguentemente, l'opportunita' di introdurre concorrenza nel settore. A tal fine, e' stata stimata una funzione di costo translogaritmica per un campione di 30 imprese pubbliche di raccolta e smaltimento dei rifiuti, operanti a livello provinciale, per il periodo 1991-1995. I risultati indicano la presenza di economie di scala e di monopolies, piuttosto che la side-by-side competition, costituiscono la forma gestionale maggiormente efficiente per il settore.

  10. 'I have a picture of the Monster!': Il mostro di Frankenstein and the search for Italian horror cinema

    OpenAIRE

    Hunter, Russ

    2017-01-01

    Typically accounts of Italian horror cinema have highlighted the production and release of Riccardo Freda's 'I vampiri' (Lust of the Vampire) in the late 1950s as marking the beginning of Italian engagement with the horror genre. The logic that follows is often that the nature of fascist censorship impeded any explorations of the genre in the 1920s and 1930s and that in the post war period it was only the commercial success of Hammer Horror that tempted Italian producers to venture into horro...

  11. Present and future association between obesity and hypogonadism in Italian male

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Boddi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Obesity prevalence is increasing worldwide and it is nowadays considered a real public health problem. Obesity is associated with co-morbidities like cardiovascular diseases (CVD and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM, furthermore visceral obesity can be related to low testosterone (T plasma levels. The link between obesity and hypogonadism (HG is complex and not completely clarified. Current guidelines suggest that screening for HG should be done in subjects with obesity and T2DM. The aim of this evaluation is to assess the estimated actual and future prevalence of obesity and related co-morbidities, in particular HG, in the Italian general population. Materials and Methods: The Strategyst Consulting Inc. recently completed an epidemiology forecast model for several countries, looking at HG and CV/Metabolic Disease, based on National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES data collected between 1999-2010. Data from NHANES survey were used to evaluate the Italian estimated prevalence of obesity and HG. Results: Results show that obesity estimated prevalence will increase in 2030 also in Italy. In addition, also the prevalence of obese CVD and T2DM subjects will increase too. Even Italian HG prevalence is estimated to increase in the next two decades, irrespective of T threshold considered (< 8, 10 and 12 nmol/L. In obese CVD subjects the relative risk (RR of developing HG (T < 8 nmol/L is four times greater than in not-CVD obese subjects (RR = 4.1, 3.1 and 1.9 accordingly to the aforementioned T thresholds for defining HG. Accordingly, the estimated percentage of hypogonadal obese CVD and T2DM subjects will rise in 2030. Conclusions: The Strategyst epidemiology forecast model has allowed to assess the current and future prevalence of obesity and its relative co-morbidities like HG in Italy. Data emerged from this evaluation suggest that obesity and HG prevalence will increase in Italian population and confirm the complex link

  12. Can we help in changing the future of Italian health care?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Di Napoli

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available [The abstract of this article is not available. Here are the first sentences of the article. The full text is freely available upon registration]The retirement age of the baby boom generation is almost out-door. The proportion of ageing people will grow rapidly in the near future [1-3]. There will be fewer people to pay for the health and social care of the quickly aging population; furthermore, advancements in medical science will raise a new bar for quality in terms of the outcomes achieved in the treatment of illness [3]. An ageing population and the rising public expectations will produce an increase in costs and will impede timely access to care, thus jeopardising sustainability.The Italian National Health system is an example of a collapsing system: the ageing Italian workforce affects not only patient demographics but also the availability of clinicians. The upcoming wave of retiring health care professionals will occur in the exact moment when they will be more necessary. To overcome these challenges, our health care system will have to use its resources more effectively. Access and equity remain essential characteristics of our health care system, but are insufficient goals in terms of improving quality and achieving financial sustainability.

  13. Italian National Forest Inventory: methods, state of the project, and future developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovanni Tabacchi; Flora De Natale; Antonio Floris; Caterina Gagliano; Patrizia Gasparini; Gianfranco Scrinzi; Vittorio Tosi

    2007-01-01

    A primary objective of the Italian National Forest Inventory (NFI) is to provide information required by the Kyoto Protocol and the Ministerial Conference on the Protection of Forests in Europe in relation to sustainable forest management practices. For this reason, the second Italian NFI was aimed at providing data in a way that is consistent with the international...

  14. Optimal strategies for VOC emission abatement produced by solvent evaporation. The Italian case study; Strategie ottimali per la riduzione delle emissioni di composti organici volatili da uso di solventi: il caso italiano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vetrella, G.; Cirillo, M.C. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy). Dipt. Ambiente

    1998-07-01

    This work analyses technologies and costs of VOC (volatile organic compounds) abatement in the activities which belong to the solvent evaporation sector, and then it singles out the most successful strategies from the costs point of view to reduce the sector emissions on the base of fixed abatement objectives. The Italian case is discussed. [Italian] Il lavoro analizza tecnologie e costi di abbattimento dei COV (composti organici volatili) nel settore evaporazione solventi, e individua la strategia piu' efficace dal punto di vista dei costi per ridurre le emissioni del settore sulla base di prefissati obiettivi di abbattimento. Analizza la situazione italiana.

  15. The Italian Geographers' Document on the University Education of Future Primary School Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giorda, Cristiano; Di Palma, Maria Teresa

    2011-01-01

    This article describes an important document compiled by a group of Italian geographers who teach in the Teaching Sciences faculty. Twenty-two university professors in an online community debated concepts and compared ideas in order to establish content, methods and didactic approaches to be applied when training Primary School teachers (pupils…

  16. Projecting Pyongyang: The Future of North Korea's Kim Jong IL Regime

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Scobell, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    .... In this monograph, the focus is on the fate of the regime dominated by the Kim Dynasty, initially ruled by Kim Il Sung and then led by his son, Kim Jong Il, following the former's death in 1994...

  17. Italian nuclear power industry after nuclear power moratorium: Current state and future prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adinolfi, R.; Previti, G.

    1992-01-01

    Following Italy's nuclear power referendum results and their interpretation, all construction and operation activities in the field of nuclear power were suspended by a political decision with consequent heavy impacts on Italian industry. Nevertheless, a 'nuclear presidium' has been maintained, thanks to the fundamental contribution of activities abroad, succeeding in retaining national know-how and developing the new technologies called for the new generation of nuclear power plants equipped with intrinsic and/or passive reactor safety systems

  18. The Italian Lightning Detection System of CESI and its applications; Il sistema italiano di rilevamento fulmini del CESI e le sue applicazioni

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iorio, R. [CESI Centro Elettrotecnico Sperimentale Italiano, Milan (Italy)

    1998-03-01

    Aim of the paper is to give a description of the CESI lightning detection system SIRF. The system allows the real time localization (latitude, longitude) of the striking point of a cloud-to-ground lightning flash. Electrical parameters of the impulsive currents related to the flash strokes are calculated as well. Based on sensors covering the whole Italian territory, SIRF configuration and of the basic calculation criteria for passing from the sensor raw data to the final flash data is given together with the evaluation of the system expected performance parameters (accuracy, detection efficiently, signal/noise ratio). Main uses of lightning data in several fields are then reported, with special reference to electrical applications. Mention is done about the different modalities adopted for data distribution, according to that either real time or passed time applications have to be carried out. In this latter case (e.g. statistics), a huge amount of data archived within the Lightning Data Base of SIRF is available. [Italiano] Oggetto della memoria e` la descrizione del Sistema Italiano Rilevamento Fulmini del CESI, denominato SIRF, unico sistema attualmente esistente in Itallia in grado di localizzare in tempo reale e su tutto il territorio nazionale i punti di impatto di fulmini di tipo nube-suolo e le caratteristiche principali delle correnti impulsive ad essi associate. Vengono quindi riportati una descrizione della rete nella sua configurazione attuale ed i suoi collegamenti con le reti di Paesi confinanti (Francia, Svizzera, Austria). Si accenna ai criteri alla base dei calcoli dei dati finali di fulmine, a partire dai dati rilevati dai sensori, e si riportano i valori stimati dei tipici parametri di valutazione delle prestazioni di un sistema di rilevamento fulmini (precisione, efficacia di rilevamento, rapporto segnale/disturbo). Sono successivamente descritte le principali applicazioni dei dati di fulmine nei vari settori, con particolare riferimento al

  19. Future scenarios and conservation strategies for a rear-edge marginal population of Pinus nigra Arnold in Italian central Apennines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Marchi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: To forecast the effects of climate change on the spatial distribution of Black pine of Villetta Barrea in its natural range and to define a possible conservation strategy for the species Area of study: A rear-edge marginal population of Pinus nigra spp. nigra in Abruzzo region, central Italian Apennines Matherials and Methods: For its adaptive and genetic traits this population is considered endemic of the Italian peninsula and represents a rear-edge marginal population of nigra subspecies. The spatial distribution of the tree in the administrative Region (Abruzzo was used to define the ecological traits while three modelling techniques (GLM, GAM, Random Forest were used to build a Species distribution model according to two climatic scenarios. Main results: The marginal population's range was predicted to shift at higher elevations as consequence of climatic adaptation. Many zones, represented by the higher part of the mountains surrounding the study area (currently bare and inhospitable for trees, were identified as suitable in future for the species. However, in the case of a rapid climate change, this marginal population may not be able to move as fast as necessary. An in-situ adaptive management integrated with an assisted migration protocol might be considered to enforce the natural regeneration and improve the richness and variability of the genetic pool. Research highlights: Most of the genetic richness is held in small populations at the borders of natural distribution of forest species. Monitoring this MAP could be useful to understand the adaptive processes of the species and could support the future management of many other within-core populations. Keywords: Species Distribution Models; Mediterranean forests; Abruzzo; climate change; altitudinal shift.

  20. Future scenarios and conservation strategies for a rear-edge marginal population of Pinus nigra Arnold in Italian central Apennines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchi, M.; Nocentini, S.; Ducci, F.

    2016-07-01

    Aim of the study: To forecast the effects of climate change on the spatial distribution of Black pine of Villetta Barrea in its natural range and to define a possible conservation strategy for the species. Area of study: A rear-edge marginal population of Pinus nigra spp. nigra in Abruzzo region, central Italian Apennines. Matherials and Methods: For its adaptive and genetic traits this population is considered endemic of the Italian peninsula and represents a rear-edge marginal population of nigra subspecies. The spatial distribution of the tree in the administrative Region (Abruzzo) was used to define the ecological traits while three modelling techniques (GLM, GAM, Random Forest) were used to build a Species distribution model according to two climatic scenarios. Main results: The marginal population's range was predicted to shift at higher elevations as consequence of climatic adaptation. Many zones, represented by the higher part of the mountains surrounding the study area (currently bare and inhospitable for trees), were identified as suitable in future for the species. However, in the case of a rapid climate change, this marginal population may not be able to move as fast as necessary. An in-situ adaptive management integrated with an assisted migration protocol might be considered to enforce the natural regeneration and improve the richness and variability of the genetic pool. Research highlights: Most of the genetic richness is held in small populations at the borders of natural distribution of forest species. Monitoring this MAP could be useful to understand the adaptive processes of the species and could support the future management of many other within-core populations. (Author)

  1. Marketing; Il marketing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muscigna, M [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, S. Maria di Galeria, RM (Italy). Dipt. Innovazione

    1999-07-01

    The report discusses marketing strategies oriented to the organizations and analyzes its critical factors, which determine the success of the organization activity. [Italian] Il rapporto analizza i caratteri delle strategie del marketing orientato all'impresa. Vengono infine analizzati i fattori critici che determinano il successo o l'insuccesso delle scelte aziendali.

  2. Marketing; Il marketing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muscigna, M. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, S. Maria di Galeria, RM (Italy). Dipt. Innovazione

    1999-07-01

    The report discusses marketing strategies oriented to the organizations and analyzes its critical factors, which determine the success of the organization activity. [Italian] Il rapporto analizza i caratteri delle strategie del marketing orientato all'impresa. Vengono infine analizzati i fattori critici che determinano il successo o l'insuccesso delle scelte aziendali.

  3. From O Paiz do Carnaval to Il Paese del Carnevale And Le Pays du Carnaval: the paratexts of the italian and French Translations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Bagno

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The year 2017 makes us remember the 90 years of the “Ata de Incineração” (Burning Act which destroyed more than 1600 books of Jorge Amado, and among them 214 copies of O Paiz do Carnval, a novel whose first translation, which was made into the Italian language, according to the desire of Amado himself, appeared only in 1984, with a “note” by Luciana Stegagno Picchio. Presupposing that, before the publication of the first edition of the novel (1931, the Italian lexicographer Panzini had already rejected, for Italy, the old English nicknames carnival land and land of carnival; this article wants to highlight which interpretations were vehicled, both by the paratext of the Italian translation and by the one of the French translation (1990, written by Alice Raillard. A translator who, however, took advantage of her famous interview Conversando com Jorge Amado, 1990 (Talking with Jorge Amado, which would open new paths to international criticism

  4. Polymorphisms in STAT-4, IL-10, PSORS1C1, PTPN2 and MIR146A genes are associated differently with prognostic factors in Italian patients affected by rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciccacci, C; Conigliaro, P; Perricone, C; Rufini, S; Triggianese, P; Politi, C; Novelli, G; Perricone, R; Borgiani, P

    2016-11-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systemic autoimmune disease resulting in chronic inflammation of the synovium and consequent cartilage and bone erosion. RA is associated strongly with the presence of rheumatoid factor (RF), and consists of clinical subsets of anti-citrullinated protein antibody (ACPA)-positive and -negative patients. This study was designed to evaluate whether relevant single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with RA and other autoimmune disorders are related to RF, ACPA and clinical phenotype in a cohort of biologic drugs naive Italian RA patients; 192 RA patients and 278 age-matched healthy controls were included. Clinical and laboratory data were registered. We analysed a total of 12 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in signal transducer and activator of transcription-4 (STAT-4), interleukin (IL)-10, psoriasis susceptibility 1 candidate 1 (PSORS1C1), protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 2 (PTPN2), endoplasmic reticulum aminopeptidase 1 (ERAP1), tumour necrosis factor receptor-associated 3 interacting protein 2 (TRAF3IP2) and microRNA 146a (MIR146A) genes by allelic discrimination assays. Case-control association studies and genotype/phenotype correlation analyses were performed. A higher risk to develop RA was observed for rs7574865 in the STAT-4 gene, while the rs1800872 in the IL-10 gene showed a protective effect. The presence of RF was associated significantly with rs1800872 variant in IL-10, while rs2910164 in MIR146A was protective. ACPA were associated significantly with rs7574865 in STAT-4. The SNP rs2233945 in the PSORS1C1 gene was protective regarding the presence of bone erosions, while rs2542151 in PTPN2 gene was associated with joint damage. Our results confirm that polymorphisms in STAT-4 and IL-10 genes confer susceptibility to RA. For the first time, we described that SNPs in PSORS1C1, PTPN2 and MIR146A genes were associated differently with a severe disease phenotype in terms of autoantibody status and

  5. Experience for plant monitoring design in Italian BWR NPP and future trends in man-machine interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maestri, F.; Sepielli, M.

    1987-01-01

    TMI accidental sequence and daily-gained operating experience on italian and abroad NPPs have affected in depth the approach to the design of information presentation to the Control Room staff. It has been cleared that most problems in plant operation arise from a poor and inadequate information system. The main lacks have been identified in the Control Room lay-out and information organization. This has pushed designers both to improve the Control Room environment and to better exploit the computer data processing and data presentation capabilities. The paper deals with the basic criteria for the design and the design review of a computerized system to be inserted in a hybrid Control Room in Italian 981 Mwe BWR-6 NPP, where the concepts outlined above were taken-up from the very beginning. The Control Room keeps conventional instrumentation arranged in a human-factor lay-out, according to post-TMI requirements, and adds a powerful computer-based information system for advanced alarm presentation and plant supervision during both normal and emergency conditions with high data reliability. Colour videounits and operating panels are functionally integrated to create powerful operator work-stations. Emphasis is mostly given on the revision work for video-unit displays and Man-System Communication carried out in cooperation with Halden Reactor Project human factor and plant operation experts. The work peculiarity has been a strong care on the integration between conventional and computerized information presentation, with particular regard to common information and code consistency. (author)

  6. Italian Modernities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Bjørn; Forlenza, Rosario

    assumptions that have substituted for thought and that have perpetuated prejudices both within and outside Italy’s borders. Grounded in meticulous historical and ethnological research, Italian Modernities deserves as wide an audience as its scholarship is deep.” (Michael Herzfeld, Ernest E. Monrad Professor...

  7. Social media marketing in Italian luxury fashion

    OpenAIRE

    Ananda, Artha Sejati; Hernández García, Ángel; Lamberti, Lucio

    2015-01-01

    Industries nowadays have been comfortable with the incorporation of social media to their marketing strategy. Italy has been known as a major center of the European fashion industry, a sector that is also following the social media marketing trends. This paper provides empirical findings on Italian luxury fashion brands? social media marketing activities. We present and analyze two case studies of Italian luxury fashion brands: Gucci and The Bridge (Il Ponte Pelletteria). Gucci is one of worl...

  8. Il laser

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, William V

    1974-01-01

    Verso il 1960, il laser era ancora "una soluzione alla ricerca di un problema", ma fin dagli anni immediatamente successivi si è rivelato uno strumento insostituibile per le applicazioni più svariate.

  9. Role of IL-38 and Its Related Cytokines in Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianli Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Interleukin- (IL- 38 is a recently discovered cytokine and is the tenth member of the IL-1 cytokine family. IL-38 shares structural features with IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra and IL-36Ra. IL-36R is the specific receptor of IL-38, a partial receptor antagonist of IL-36. IL-38 inhibits the production of T-cell cytokines IL-17 and IL-22. IL-38 also inhibits the production of IL-8 induced by IL-36γ, thus inhibiting inflammatory responses. IL-38-related cytokines, including IL-1Ra and IL-36Ra, are involved in the regulation of inflammation and immune responses. The study of IL-38 and IL-38-related cytokines might provide new insights for developing anti-inflammatory treatments in the near future.

  10. Il futurismo polacco nella critica letteraria dell’epoca [Polish Futurism in Literary Criticism of the Early Twentieth Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea F. De Carlo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the critical voices raised against the young poets and artists who promoted Futurism in Poland during the first half of the Twentieth century. Futurist manifestos influenced the new Polish poetry, stimulating a lively debate among intellectuals of the calibre of Stefan Żeromski and Karol Irzykowski. In general, the coeval criticism of Polish Futurism focused on three main points: the lack of originality and servile imitation of foreign literary models; the repudiation of the past and national traditions; Futurism as an expression of ideologies such as Fascism in Italy and Bolshevism in Russia. In this article, specific attention is devoted to an analysis of the essay Snobizm i postęp (Snobbery and Progress, 1923 by Żeromski. The writer, criticising Polish imitators of Russian Futurism, affirmed that Polish literature and culture, in the context of national reconstruction after three partitions of Poland, needed to maintain its natural connection with the past and at the same time, without losing its national nature, to weave some universal suggestions into the plot of purely Polish themes. The goal of this article is to reveal that Żeromski and Irzykowski’s critical stance towards the Polish Futurists, which influenced the critics of the next generation, was dictated by a shallow analysis of Futuristic works and by their inability to understand Futuristic efforts to modernise Polish art and literature.

  11. L’audizione di Paolo Sylos Labini dinanzi alla Commissione parlamentare sui problemi del monopolio: quali insegnamenti per il presente. (Paolo Sylos Labini's Testimony at the Italian Parliamentary Inquiry Commission on Competition: Lessons for the Present

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierluigi Sabbatini

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The author underlines the contributions of Sylos Labini's testimony at the Italian Parliamentary Inquiry Commission on Competition, held in 1962. He focuses on issues of antitrust enforcement, in terms of: accountability, prioritization of Antitrust interventions and checks on market power. Text of the speech given at the conference "Paolo Sylos Labini e la politica delle riforme", held at Sapienza University of Rome on 04 December 2015, organized by the Accademia dei Lincei and Economia civile.

  12. The future of telemedicine for the management of heart failure patients: a Consensus Document of the Italian Association of Hospital Cardiologists (A.N.M.C.O), the Italian Society of Cardiology (S.I.C.) and the Italian Society for Telemedicine and eHealth (Digital S.I.T.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Lenarda, Andrea; Casolo, Giancarlo; Gulizia, Michele Massimo; Aspromonte, Nadia; Scalvini, Simonetta; Mortara, Andrea; Alunni, Gianfranco; Ricci, Renato Pietro; Mantovan, Roberto; Russo, Giancarmine; Gensini, Gian Franco; Romeo, Francesco

    2017-05-01

    Telemedicine applied to heart failure patients is a tool for recording and providing remote transmission, storage and interpretation of cardiovascular parameters and/or useful diagnostic images to allow for intensive home monitoring of patients with advanced heart failure, or during the vulnerable post-acute phase, to improve patient's prognosis and quality of life. Recently, several meta-analyses have shown that telemedicine-supported care pathways are not only effective but also economically advantageous. Benefits seem to be substantial, with a 30-35% reduction in mortality and 15-20% decrease in hospitalizations. Patients implanted with cardiac devices can also benefit from an integrated remote clinical management since all modern devices can transmit technical and diagnostic data. However, telemedicine may provide benefits to heart failure patients only as part of a shared and integrated multi-disciplinary and multi-professional 'chronic care model'. Moreover, the future development of remote telemonitoring programs in Italy will require the primary use of products certified as medical devices, validated organizational solutions as well as legislative and administrative adoption of new care methods and the widespread growth of clinical care competence to remotely manage the complexity of chronicity. Through this consensus document, Italian Cardiology reaffirms its willingness to contribute promoting a new phase of qualitative assessment, standardization of processes and testing of telemedicine-based care models in heart failure. By recognizing the relevance of telemedicine for the care of non-hospitalized patients with heart failure, its strategic importance for the design of innovative models of care, and the many challenges and opportunities it raises, ANMCO and SIC through this document report a consensus on the main directions for its widespread and sustainable clinical implementation.

  13. Il Processo a Gesù di Diego Fabbri e i commenti della stampa cattolica italiana / The trial of Jesus by Diego Fabbri: the comments of the Italian Catholic Press

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazzini, Elena

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This article intends to examine Diego Fabbri's play, 'The Trial of Jesus', and its reception by the Italian Catholic press in the mid Fifties. The play and the comments generated by the press demonstrated how the circulation of Anti-Semitic prejudices is reflected through the mise en scène of Jesus' death provoked, according to theological catholic stereotype, by the Jews. The guilt felt by the Jewish people for having killed the Messiah -the deicide's guilt- had a leading role both in the play and in the Catholic press that have linked this supposed Jewish culpability to the massacres suffered by the Jews over the centuries.

  14. [Italian Thesaurus of Bioethics, TIB].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarini, Claudia; Poltronieri, Elisabetta

    2004-01-01

    The article aims at illustrating the characteristics and functions of a monolingual thesaurus, focusing on the Italian Thesaurus of Bioethics (Thesaurus Italiano di Bioetica, TIB) the controlled vocabulary used to index and retrieve documents within SIBIL (Italian Online Bioethics Information System). TIB includes controlled terms (descriptors) translated from the Bioethics Thesaurus adopted by the Kennedy Institute of Ethics of the Georgetown University of Washington and revised according to the Italian context of study and scientific debate in the field of bioethics. The overall amount of TIB terms consists in over 1600 headings. Methods to link thesaurus terms hierarchically, by association and by showing synonyms as recommended in ISO standards are applied with reference to descriptors drawn from TIB. Future plans to make the English version of TIB available online within European networks are also illustrated, aiming at spreading information relating to bioethics at an international level.

  15. Ensuring an Italian Renaissance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallock, Ann H.

    1978-01-01

    Factors contributing to the renaissance of Italian and the goals of students who study the language are discussed. Alternatives to rote learning in the classroom and ways to generate interest in Italian in the community are suggested. (SW)

  16. Italian: Area Background Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

    This booklet has been assembled in order to provide students of Italian with a compact source of cultural information on their target area. Chapters include discussion of: (1) introduction to Italian; (2) origins of the Italian population; (3) geography; (4) history including the Roman Era, the Middle Ages, the Renaissance, the "Risorgimento," and…

  17. l'impatto della politica fiscale e dell'inflazione sul risparmio nazionale: il caso italiano.(The impact of fiscal policy and inflation on national saving: the Italian case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. MODIGLIANI

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Oltre al reddito ci sono altri due influenze principali sul risparmio nazionale : la politica fiscale e l'inflazione . Gli autori costruiscono un modello dell'economia italiana per analizzare l'impatto di queste due variabili correlate. Si è concluso che i disavanzi pubblici del passato hanno prodotto una riduzione proporzionale del risparmio nazionale . A partire dai primi anni 1960 risparmi nazionali sono diminuiti di quasi 9 punti percentuali , di cui 3,6 punti percentuali possono essere contabilizzati da un aumento del 4 per cento nel deficit del governo . I risultati per quanto riguarda l'impatto dell'inflazione non sono definiti , e non è possibile stabilirli .Apart from income there are two other main influences on national savings: fiscal policy and inflation. The authors construct a model of the Italian economy to analyse the impact of these two related variables. It is concluded that past government deficits have produced a proportional reduction in national saving. Since the early 1960s national savings have declined by nearly 9 percentage points, of which 3.6 percentage points can be accounted for by a 4 per cent increase in the government's deficit. The results regarding the impact of inflation are not definite, and no conclusion is drawn.JEL: E21, E31, E62,

  18. Il Gioco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Beronio

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Chi si occupa di teatro incontra il gioco innanzitutto come una categoria estetica insita nei processi che caratterizzano l’atto teatrale. Ma dall’approfondimento di tali meccanismi emerge anche la potenzialità conoscitiva del gioco, come condizione umana di profonda consapevolezza di sé. Attraverso un percorso che passa attraverso Breton, Platone, Huizinga, e Alessandro Fersen, viene qui proposta una lettura del gioco come carattere fondamentale dell’arte e della conoscenza.

  19. Italian information geographies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Paradiso

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction A range of papers focusing on Italian cases of ICTs use and changes in society are presented here in this NETCOM issue. A national research group on Geography of Information Society was founded in 2007 and hosted by the Italian Geographical Society later evolved in a specialty group within AgeI, the Association of Italian Geographers. This issue brings together papers from members of the Italian specialty group along the general theme of Internet mediation in everyday life. A pre...

  20. Future-oriented or present-focused? The role of social support and identity styles on ‘futuring’ in Italian late adolescents and emerging adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sica, Luigia Simona; Crocetti, Elisabetta; Ragozini, Giancarlo; Aleni Sestito, Laura; Serafini, Toni

    2016-01-01

    Late adolescence and emerging adulthood are periods in the life cycle when individuals are involved in anticipating and planning for the future (futuring). However, in the last five or six years, as the effects of the recession have made themselves felt in Southern Europe, the situation that young

  1. Genetic characterization of interleukins (IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12A, IL-12B, IL-15 and IL-18) with relevant biological roles in lagomorphs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, Fabiana; Abrantes, Joana; Almeida, Tereza; de Matos, Ana Lemos; Costa, Paulo P

    2015-01-01

    ILs, as essential innate immune modulators, are involved in an array of biological processes. In the European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12A, IL-12B, IL-15 and IL-18 have been implicated in inflammatory processes and in the immune response against rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus and myxoma virus infections. In this study we characterized these ILs in six Lagomorpha species (European rabbit, pygmy rabbit, two cottontail rabbit species, European brown hare and American pika). Overall, these ILs are conserved between lagomorphs, including in their exon/intron structure. Most differences were observed between leporids and American pika. Indeed, when comparing both, some relevant differences were observed in American pika, such as the location of the stop codon in IL-1α and IL-2, the existence of a different transcript in IL8 and the number of cysteine residues in IL-1β. Changes at N-glycosylation motifs were also detected in IL-1, IL-10, IL-12B and IL-15. IL-1α is the protein that presents the highest evolutionary distances, which is in contrast to IL-12A where the distances between lagomorphs are the lowest. For all these ILs, sequences of human and European rabbit are more closely related than between human and mouse or European rabbit and mouse. PMID:26395994

  2. The Italian energy sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-01-01

    The energy sector in Italy, as in Europe and in many other areas of the world, is undergoing rapid and profound changes. The 1986 ratification of the European Single Act was intended to create a European internal market, where circulation of people, capital, goods, and services would reach the highest possible liberalization. In 1988, in the document The Energy Internal Market, the European Union (EU) commission stressed the need for creation of an internal energy market--free of obstacles--to increase security of supply, to reduce costs, and to strengthen the competitiveness of the European economic system. In 1990, the Community Council adopted directives to implement the EU energy sector. This article describes Italy's role as part of the EU energy sector. It covers the following topics: the Italian energy sector; electricity vs gas transportation; project finance; recent developments advance Italian power industry; specifying powerplant components -- Italian stype; buyers' guide to Italian equipment, services

  3. Il mondo dentro il mondo

    CERN Document Server

    Barrow, John D

    1991-01-01

    Davvero esistono “lì fuori” leggi di natura, che stanno in attesa di essere scoperte, indipendenti dal nostro modo di pensare, o esse rappresentano soltanto la descrizione più conveniente di ciò che abbiamo visto? Come è nata l’idea stessa di “leggi di natura”? Queste costituiscono la realtà profonda o sono soltanto pezzi di un regolamento che ci siamo dati per organizzare meglio la nostra conoscenza del mondo? o semplici paletti che piantiamo e ci lasciamo alle spalle come segnali via via che procediamo nella giungla dell’esperienza? È possibile che non esistano affatto leggi di natura? Forse esse, e anche l’universo che da esse sembra regolato, sono del tutto creazioni della nostra mente: un’illusione che scompare appena cessiamo di pensarvi. Ma allora, che cosa accadrebbe, se non ci fossero osservatori dell’universo?». Interrogativi di questo genere, che incontriamo sulla soglia del Mondo dentro il mondo, sarebbero suonati eccentrici fino a qualche anno fa. Oggi, al contrario, circ...

  4. LA LINGUA ITALIANA E LE SCUOLE ITALIANE NEL TERRITORIO ISTRIANO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara De Battisti

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available L’articolo ricostruisce brevemente, dal punto di vista storico, le vicende della comunità italiana in Istria per contestualizzarne i mutamenti di carattere linguistico e socioculturale che essa ha vissuto, in particolare dal secondo dopoguerra ad oggi. Sulla base di studi e indagini  recenti, vengono prese in esame le lingue e i dialetti parlati dalla comunità italiana, la realtà multilingue e multiculturale dell’Istria attuale,  le istituzioni italiane presenti nel territorio istriano e la loro attività finalizzata alla permanenza della lingua e cultura italiana nella regione. In particolare si ricostruisce la storia della scuola di lingua italiana, le sue origini, il suo declino dopo la cessione dell’Istria alla Yugolaslavia e durante i difficili e drammatici anni dell’esodo di molti italiano dalla regione, la sua rinascita ed evoluzione dal 1980 ad oggi. Delle scuole di lingua italiana, che attualmente operano sia nel territorio istriano che fa parte della Slovenia sia in quello che fa parte della Croazia, si analizza la loro distribuzione nella regione, la loro organizzazione, il ruolo della lingua italiana come materia, come lingua di scolarizzazione e come lingua straniera, i problemi, ancora aperti, della formazione degli insegnanti e dei libri di testo, e si valuta la loro possibilità di evoluzione e di sviluppo.     Italian language and Italian schools in the territory if Istria   This article briefly discusses, from the historical point of view, the Italian community in Istria to contextualize the linguistic and socio cultural changes that have taken place in the region, especially after WWII. Based on recent surveys and studies, languages and dialects spoken in the Italian community, the multilungual and multicultural reality of Istria are examined, as well as the Italian institutions in the Istrian territory and their efforts to conserve Italian language and culture in the area.  In particular, the history of

  5. Il contrasto alla pedopornografia online: esperienze italiane e francesi a confronto / La lutte contre la pédopornographie en ligne : expériences italiennes et françaises comparées / Fighting against online child pornography: a comparison between Italian and French experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macilotti Giorgia

    2011-04-01

    exploitation sexuelle des mineurs liée à la dimension virtuelle. Una delle realtà criminali che ha maggiormente fruito delle innovazioni introdotte dalla “società dell’Informazione” è, senza dubbio, quella dell’abuso sessuale sui minori. Tra le differenti forme di abuso sessuale sui minori, si è scelto di affrontare il fenomeno della pedopornografia online in ragione del preoccupante diffondersi di questa forma di criminalità che, grazie all’implementazione delle tecnologie dell’informazione, ha assunto caratteri nuovi, per alcuni versi difformi dai “tradizionali” profili della pedofilia, che sollevano interrogativi e nuove sfide sia sul versante della repressione di queste condotte illecite, sia sul piano della prevenzione. Nell'ambito di questo contributo, saranno esaminate in particolare le politiche penali elaborate in due diverse realtà nazionali, l'Italia e la Francia, a partire da differenti punti di vista e ponendo particolare attenzione agli strumenti, normativi ed operativi, introdotti per reprimere lo sfruttamento sessuale dei minori legato alla dimensione virtuale.

  6. Identification and Characterization of a Novel IL-4 Receptor α Chain (IL-4Rα Antagonist to Inhibit IL-4 Signalling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayyar Ahmed

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: In recent times, allergy has become a financial, physical and psychological burden to the society as a whole. In allergic cascades, cytokine IL-4 binds to IL-4 receptor (IL-4R, consequently producing allergen-specific IgE antibodies by B cells. In addition, among other functions, IL-4 is also responsible for B and T cell proliferation and differentiation. Hence, characterization of novel antagonists that inhibit IL-4 signalling forms the overall aim of this study. Methods: Phage display was used to screen a random 12-mer synthetic peptide library with a human IL-4Rα to identify peptide candidates. Once identified, the peptides were commercially synthesized and used for in vitro immunoassays. Results: We have successfully used phage display to identify M13 phage clones that demonstrated specific binding to IL-4Rα. The peptide N1 was synthesized for use in ELISA, demonstrating significant binding to IL-4Rα and inhibiting interaction with cytokine IL-4. Furthermore, the peptide was tested in a transfected HEK-Blue IL-4 reporter cell line model, which produces alkaline phosphatase (AP. QUANTI-Blue, a substrate, breaks down in the presence of AP producing a blue coloration. Using this colorimetric analysis, >50% inhibition of IL-4 signalling was achieved. Conclusion: We have successfully identified and characterised a synthetic peptide antagonist against IL-4Rα, which effectively inhibits IL-4 interaction with the IL-4Rα in vitro. Since IL-4 interaction with IL-4Rα is a common pathway for many allergies, a prophylactic treatment can be devised by inhibiting this interaction for future treatment of allergies.

  7. Italian and Italian American Identity: A Visual Approach | Krase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This essay is a brief exploration of the related concepts of Italian Ethnicity and Italian Ethnic Identity via a Visual Sociological study of two geographically different venues — Italian American neighbourhoods in the United States and neighbourhoods in Rome, Italy. By studying the Vernacular Landscape (Jackson, 1984) via ...

  8. Le futur prix de l'énergie : faut-il orienter les prix du pétrole vers la hausse? The Future Price of Energy. Should Oil Prices Be Allowed to Driff Upwards?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desprairies P.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available II est à peu près universellement admis que les prix du pétrole vont augmenter d'ici la fin du siècle, du fait de l'épuisement des ressources de pétrole conventionnel à bon marché. L'évolution souhaitable des prix et leur niveau futur font par contre l'objet d'opinions variées. L'analyse du problème ne fait pas apparaître de raisons d'une hausse immédiate des prix au pétrole brut, ni de leur alignement à échéance rapide sur le prix des pétroles non-conventionnels les plus chers. Dans les prochaines années c'est l'offre et la demande de pétrole conventionnel qui commanderont les prix du pétrole, c'est-à-dire, le rythme d'investissements dans le pétrole conventionnel, le charbon, et l'électricité nucléaire. La hausse en prix constants peut difficilement reprendre avant qu'aient disparu les surplus de capacité de production, c'est-à-dire guère avant 1983/1985 si la croissance économique et l'offre de pétrole continuent d'évoluer aux allures actuellement prévisibles. Si l'on est tenté d'évaluer aux alentours du prix de vente actuel majoré de 50 %, soit une vingtaine de dollars (1978 le prix à long terme du pétrole, c'est beaucoup plus par référence aux souhaits supposés des pays producteurs et au pouvoir d'achat des pays acheteurs qu'au coct de production du pétrole non-conventionnel. Il est aujourd'hui peu probable que le dialogue entre pays exportateurs et acheteurs de pétrole, point de départ d'une hausse programmée des prix, se noue avant qu'une crise d'approvisionnements plus ou moins sévère n'ait rendu manifeste la nécessité d'un tel dialogue. It is almost universolly accepted that oil prices will rise between now and the end of the century on account of the depletion of cheop conventional oil resources. The evolution to be desired for prices and their future level, on the other hand, is the subiect of differing opinions. An onalysis of the problem does not reveal any raasons for an immediate

  9. The Italian LPG market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1998-01-01

    As happened in other European countries, the Italian LPG consumption market narrowed in 1997 for climatic reasons. Still, with some 3,5 million tones it is the first LPG market in Europe thanks to automotive LPG which represents some 1,2 million tones, for 1,4 million tones for the bulk and 760, 000 tonnes for bottled products. Another characteristic of the Italian market: demand is slightly lowering in the North while increasing in the South and in the large islands. (author)

  10. Apologizing in Italian and English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipson, Maxine

    1994-01-01

    Compared apology exchanges in Italy and the United States by having 10 Italian university students view American situation comedy television programs and rewrite particular conflict and apology exchanges in an Italian context. The status and role of the programs' participants affected the Italian students' choice of apology strategies more so than…

  11. Italian in the Modern World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adorno, Elvira, Ed.

    This booklet of 15 reprinted letters sent in response to a query concerning the actual use of Italian in the United States designates various areas of professional application. Some reference to current Italian publications is included. It is hoped that these letters will help promote the study of Italian in American schools. (RL)

  12. The Italian gas market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrari, A.

    2004-01-01

    The first meeting of the French gas association (AFG) of the year 2004 was devoted to the Italian gas market. Two experts of this market were invited: A. Ferrari, general director of the Italian gas and electricity regulation authority, and D. Dispenza, vice-general director of Eni Division Gas and Power. This conference was the occasion to compare the French and Italian gas industries. France and Italy have a border in common and also a series of common structural characteristics: the dependence with respect to foreign supplies, the position of the public company, the sensitiveness with respect to the security of supplies, to the role of storage and to the public utility. The French and Italian decisions are inter-dependent. The liberalization taking place with an unpredictable rate, it is necessary for the gas industry to anticipate its effects. When the political, legal and regulatory decisions are enforced, the initiative comes back to the hands of the industry. In this context, the trend of the transfrontier industries becomes particularly important for the regulatory authority. (J.S.)

  13. Italian energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    This document discusses problems associated with Italian energy policy; economic and industrial development as it relates to that policy is covered. Specific areas covered are: (1) the basis of Italy's new energy policy; (2) energy demand; (3) five objectives; (4) the electrical power system; (5) proposed action; and (6) energy resources

  14. Italian Society of Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    The abstracts of most of the papers read at the 53 National Congress of the Italian Society of Physics are presented. The Congress developed in ten sessions: high energy and elementary particle physics, physics of nuclei, condensed matter, quantum electronics, cosmic physics, geophysics, general physics, electronics and applied physics, health physics and hystory of physics. An author index is also included

  15. Società sicure e mutamento sociale: possibili sfide per il futuro/Secure societies and social changes: possible challenges in the future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sette Raffaella

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available L’obiettivo di questo articolo è quello di focalizzare l’attenzione su possibili strategie di intervento nell'ambito del settore correlato alla sicurezza urbana. Il punto di partenza riguarda l’impatto del mutamento sociale sullo spazio urbano relativamente alla sicurezza, uno degli argomenti al centro delle politiche e della ricerca dell’Unione Europea fino al 2020. L’autrice intende, in particolare, analizzare alcuni dei fattori che attualmente giocano un ruolo di primaria importanza nelle dinamiche di sicurezza/insicurezza, tra i quali: la crisi economica globale, che sta producendo una vasta serie di cambiamenti sulle strutture non solo economiche, ma anche politiche, sociali e culturali delle società contemporanee; l'infiltrazione della criminalità organizzata mafiosa nel tessuto socio-economico di svariati territori; i fenomeni dell'immigrazione e dell'invecchiamento della popolazione; la questione giustizia con particolare riferimento al reinserimento sociale dei detenuti. Infine, vengono proposti interventi e progettualità concreti per lo sviluppo di forme di interazione e di solidarietà sul territorio che mirino al riconoscimento della pluralità delle identità culturali e personali. Cet article a pour but d'indiquer des stratégies d’intervention possibles dans le domaine de la sécurité urbaine. Le point de départ est celui de l’impact du changement social sur l’espace urbain en matière de sécurité. Il s’agit de l’un des thèmes clés des politiques et de la recherche de l’Union Européenne jusqu’en 2020. L’auteur analyse certains facteurs qui jouent un rôle majeur dans les dynamiques de la sécurité/insécurité, parmi lesquels : la crise économique mondiale qui produit actuellement de profonds changements non seulement dans le domaine politique mais aussi dans les domaines économiques et sociaux ; l’infiltration du crime organisé mafieux dans la structure socio-économique de diff

  16. Futures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Michael Haldrup

    2017-01-01

    Currently both design thinking and critical social science experience an increased interest in speculating in alternative future scenarios. This interest is not least related to the challenges issues of global sustainability present for politics, ethics and design. This paper explores the potenti......Currently both design thinking and critical social science experience an increased interest in speculating in alternative future scenarios. This interest is not least related to the challenges issues of global sustainability present for politics, ethics and design. This paper explores...... the potentials of speculative thinking in relation to design and social and cultural studies, arguing that both offer valuable insights for creating a speculative space for new emergent criticalities challenging current assumptions of the relations between power and design. It does so by tracing out discussions...... of ‘futurity’ and ‘futuring’ in design as well as social and cultural studies. Firstly, by discussing futurist and speculative approaches in design thinking; secondly by engaging with ideas of scenario thinking and utopianism in current social and cultural studies; and thirdly by showing how the articulation...

  17. IL-21: an executor of B cell fate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konforte, Danijela; Simard, Nathalie; Paige, Christopher J

    2009-02-15

    IL-21 is a type I cytokine that shares the common receptor gamma-chain with IL-2, IL-4, IL-7, IL-9, and IL-15. B cells are one of the lymphoid cell types whose development and function are regulated by IL-21. Depending on the interplay with costimulatory signals and on the developmental stage of a B cell, IL-21 can induce proliferation, differentiation into Ig-producing plasma cells, or apoptosis in both mice and humans. Alone and in combination with Th cell-derived cytokines IL-21 can regulate class switch recombination to IgG, IgA, or IgE isotypes, indicating its important role in shaping the effector function of B cells. This review highlights the role of IL-21 in B cell development, function, and disease and provides some perspectives on the future studies in this area.

  18. Electricity : Italian style

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, L.

    2007-01-01

    Italy's electricity system was described. Italy relies on outside sources for between 10 and 15 per cent of its electricity supply. Most Italians use gas, wood stoves and fossil fuels, and are conservative about lighting. Electricity costs more in Italy than in any other European country. Italy made the decision to decommission its nuclear power stations after Chernobyl. In 2005, Italy's largest utility group signed a memorandum of understanding ensuring that they would contract energy from France's nuclear reactors. Italy is now financing and managing projects in Russia and eastern Europe, and has strengthened its ties in Spain and the Netherlands. Although Italy is intent on producing its own power, the perceptions of health hazards from electricity towers cause citizens to strongly protest new installations. It was concluded that rising energy prices may force Italians to reconsider the use of alternative energy sources. 3 figs

  19. Il secondo principio

    CERN Document Server

    Atkins, Peter W

    1988-01-01

    L'asimmetria della Natura ; l'indicatore di una trasformazione ; scivolando verso il caos ; la quantificazione del caos ; la potenzialità del caos ; le trasformazioni del caos ; il dominio della temperatura ; caos costtrutivo ; le strutture del caos.

  20. Italian renewable energy sources improvement; Decollo su larga scala delle fonti rinnovabili

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silvestrini, G. [Ministero dell' Ambiente, Rome (Italy)

    1999-08-01

    The paper reports Italian and international guidelines for renewable energy sources improvement. [Italian] Si assiste ad una ripresa di attenzione a livello internazionale ed italiano nei confronti delle energie rinnovabili, il cui panoramam e' oggi cambiato. In Italia sono pero' inadeguate le realta' produttive in questo settore ed anche i grandi attori energetici hanno finora affrontato la tematica con eccessiva timidezza. Il Ministero dell'Ambiente sollecita un maggiore impegno da parte delle societa' energetiche nei confronti delle energie rinnovabili.

  1. Cytokine vaccination: neutralising IL-1alpha autoantibodies induced by immunisation with homologous IL-1alpha

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svenson, M; Hansen, M B; Thomsen, Allan Randrup

    2000-01-01

    with IL-1alpha coupled to purified protein derivative of tuberculin (PPD). Both unprimed and primed animals developed IgG aAb to IL-1alpha. These aAb persisted at high levels more than 100 days after vaccination and did not cross-react with murine IL-1beta. The induced anti-IL-1alpha aAb inhibited binding...... in mice by vaccination with recombinant murine IL-1alpha conjugated to PPD. Studies of the effects of IL-1alpha aAb in such animals may help clarify the importance of naturally occurring IL-1alpha aAb in humans and permit the evaluation of future therapies with cytokine aAb in patients...

  2. Literary translation between Italian and English. Publishing trends in Italy, the UK and the USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Elisa Fina

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract - This study aims to investigate publishing trends in literary translation from English into Italian in Italy and from Italian into English in the UK and the USA over the 2000-2008 time span. The data were retrieved from the Index Translationum, an international bibliography of translations managed by UNESCO, and were then stored in three Microsoft Access databases, one for each country. The databases were analysed according to specific criteria, in order to determine trends concerning the amount of translated literature in the three countries, the main publishing houses dealing with translated works, and the most translated genres and authors. This paper is meant to provide a mainly descriptive, but necessary basis for future investigation of socio-cultural as well as market-led processes underlying publishers’ choices and gate-keeping in literary translation. Riassunto - Il presente studio si propone di ricavare e analizzare tendenze caratterizzanti il mercato della letteratura tradotta dall’inglese all’italiano in Italia e dall’italiano all’inglese in Regno Unito e negli Stati Uniti. I dati sono stati estratti da Index Translationum, una database bibliografico internazionale di traduzioni gestito dall’UNESCO, e sono stati inseriti in tre database Microsoft Acess, uno per ciascun Paese. I database sono stati analizzati secondo criteri specifici al fine di ricavare trend relativi alla quantità di letteratura tradotta nei tre Paesi, le maggiori case editrici che si interessano di letteratura tradotta, i generi e gli autori più tradotti. Questo studio intende fornire una base essenzialmente descrittiva ma necessaria per studi futuri sui processi socio-culturali e sulle dinamiche di mercato che influenzano le scelte degli editori, determinando così forme di controllo sul mercato della traduzione letteraria.

  3. The Italian decommissioning industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adinolfi, R.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Italy's step out from nuclear activities in 1987 deeply affected an industry that, in the previous years, had managed to grow up in quality and technology levels to meet the nuclear standards. Only a few companies were able to partially retain their skills through activities abroad. The decommissioning program represents a new challenge for the Italian industry at large and will require a consistent effort to properly qualify the potential suppliers. On the other side, a program with such implications in terms of investments and so depending from social aspects cannot be effectively implemented without a significant involvement of the local industry. Essential conditions for the success are a reliable program, as well as a careful supply management scheme, which must facilitate aggregation of skills spread among different subjects. 'Human Resources: Maintaining a Nuclear Culture in Italy' Bruno Panella Politecnico di Torino, Giuseppe Forasassi, Universita di Pisa, Inter-University Consortium for the Nuclear Technological Research (CIRTEN). After a brief history of the nuclear engineering education in Italy within the international and national nuclear energy scenario, the present situation, with reference to the Italian universities, is shown. In order to maintain a nuclear culture in Italy the solution, exploited with different peculiarities in each University, is to carry out high quality research activities in reciprocal collaboration (mostly within the CIRTEN inter university Consortium) as well as with the Industry and research Organisations and to collaborate actively in establishing a stable network and a synergy of teaching activities in Europe in the field of Nuclear Engineering Education. The aim is to maintain at a high level and as updated as possible the Italian educational offer in nuclear engineering and also to attract the best students for the enrolment. (author)

  4. Italian bioclimatic architecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Errico, E

    1987-04-01

    This paper deals with the results of solar space heating research developed within the Finalized Energy Project of the National Research Council of Italy. Energy and cost/benefit parameters were compared for a certain number of Italian buildings incorporating solar architecture. The technical and economic analysis was performed on 31 buildings, of which 24 are residential, and 7 are schools, with different solar devices (direct gain, Trombe walls, sunspaces, hybrid systems). The buildings were constructed between 1976 and 1982. The results emphasize that simple technologies with lower costs and good design usually have a higher performance/cost ratio.

  5. ALLA SCOPERTA DEL PACKAGING DESIGN CON IL WEBQUEST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonietta Gobbis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Il seguente saggio tratta le possibilità di presentazione in Università straniere, dove si insegna l’ItalianoL2, di un aspetto culturale italiano di forte impatto all’estero come il design, attraverso l’innovativa metodologia del webquest. L’iniziale parte teorica descrive il webquest come metodo didattico costruttivista, con particolare riferimento alle sue caratteristiche, parti costituenti e tipologie. Nella seconda parte vengono dati esempi concreti di webquest di breve e lunga durata su due prodotti italiani molto famosi di packaging design, che hanno festeggiato il loro anniversario nel 2012: il Bacio Perugina e il Campari Soda. I risultati positivi di entrambi i progetti intendono mostrare i vantaggi di una didattica centrata sull’alunno basata su attività di problem-solving e strategie di cooperative learning.  Discovering packaging design through webquest The following essay deals about the possibilities to introduce a very successful cultural topic like Italian Design in Universities abroad, where Italian is taught as second foreign language, through the innovative methodology of WebQuests. The theoretical part describes WebQuests as constructivist didactic method with reference to its characteristics, main constituent parts  and typologies. In the second part we give concrete examples of short and long term WebQuests about two very famous packaging design Italian products which celebrated in 2012 their anniversary: BacioPerugina and Campari Soda. The positive results of both projects aim to show the advantages of learner-centered teaching methods based on problem-solving activities and cooperative learning strategies.

  6. Funding fears spark Italian protests

    CERN Multimedia

    Abbott, A

    2001-01-01

    150 Italian scientists took part in a symbolic funeral in Milan for Italian research. Scientists are worried that the new government will reduce support for basic research. Rumours that budgets will be cut are being confirmed and last week the government rejected the 3-year plan of the National Research Council, which had proposed an expansion of staff (1/2 page).

  7. Visit of the Italian President

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    "CERN stands as the demonstration of the great results that science can achieve [...] when it succeeds in getting all the main players in international scientific cooperation involved," stated the President of the Italian Republic, Carlo Azeglio Ciampi, in front of an overcrowded and enthusiastic Main Auditorium. The President visited CERN on 2nd December, and met the CERN directorate as well as the Italians at CERN. With about 1500 Italians working at CERN, which is one sixth of the total personnel, they are the second largest nationality at CERN. The Italian President visited the CMS assembly hall and the LHC superconducting magnet test hall before meeting the CERN community, in particular Italian personnel, in the main auditorium. There he emphasised the role of CERN as a transnational model for research which not only achieved great results in science but is also a powerful vehicle for progress in other fields. President Ciampi visits the LHC superconducting test hall together with Luciano Maiani and Lu...

  8. Speech of italian ambassador

    CERN Multimedia

    Rubbia,C

    1990-01-01

    L'ambassadeur italien (nom?)fait un discours sur l'aspect de la recherche au Cern, une organisation internationale qui a comme but la connaissance dans sa forme la plus pure et libre d'un intérêt planétaire. Il remet un prix au DG C.Rubbia qui lui remercie en français

  9. Italians and Foreign Immigration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corrado Bonifazi

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Opinion surveys on attitudes towards immigration are becoming more and more important, owing to the increasing role of political debate on migration issues in Western European countries. CNR has conducted four surveys on this topic, collecting data on the evolution of Italians attitudes towards migration issues. In fact, the ? rst survey was conducted in the second half of the eighties, when foreign immigration was in its early stages. The last survey took place in 2002, when immigration was already well established in Italy. The article focuses on three main issues: the global impact of immigration on Italian society, the immigrants role in the labour market, and immigration policy. In general, the results of the last survey con? rm a trend that appeared already in 1997, of more balanced and realistic opinion that were less of a response to circumstances perceived as special emergencies. Highly educated people, teachers and students continue to be the most open and receptive groups, whereas the less favourably inclined and more worried continue to be old people, those with less education, the unemployed, housewives, and retirees.

  10. Viva il GIS Day!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redazione Redazione

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Il GIS Day è sponsorizzato oltre che da ESRI, dalla National Geographic Society, dalla Association of American Geographers, dalla UCGIS (University Consortium for Geographic Information Science, dalla United States Geological Survey e dalla Library of Congress. Il tutto nasce nel corso della Geography Awareness Week, terza settimana di novembre che nel 1987 il Presidente degli Stati Uniti Ronald Reagan stabilì dovesse essere dedicata alla diffusione della cultura geografica.

  11. Il muro come galleria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duccio Dogheria

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Il muro, nel suo grigio rigore formale, nella sua fredda geometria, nel suo intento divisorio, nasconde spesso il cielo. Sovente il linguaggio dell’arte, ma non di meno quello della comunicazione, hanno interferito con le sue algide barriere. In molti casi, beninteso, non è che il potere in altre forme, che interferisce con se stesso: pensiamo ai bandi affissi agli angoli delle città, o le lettere d’indulgenza papali -spesso impreziosite da miniature al punto da poterle considerare antenate dal manifesto- che nel corso del medioevo venivano affisse sulle porte delle chiese.

  12. The Italian Way to Carsharing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Laurino

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Carsharing (CS is increasing its role worldwide as an alternative transport mode, often more sustainable than private transport with self-owned vehicles. We first focus on the main characteristics of those services and on the impacts they generated, starting from the analysis of  the literature on this topic. CS initiatives are growing everywhere, however numbers are still minor and impacts are still far from a level that can deliver significant aggregate benefits. This paper studies the existing Italian carsharing experiences, trying to understand its strengths, that have allowed its development, but also possible limits and weaknesses. The presence of a national coordination structure (Iniziativa Carsharing - ICS, unique in Europe and created to boost local initiatives providing standardisation and interoperability, surely helped the development of the system. Some initiatives have been successful in terms of membership (in particular Milan, Venice and Turin, but others have been discontinued. Italian users’ characteristics are similar to the ones of users abroad: the majority of users are well educated male, living in small households having one or no cars and using public transport every day. At present, Italian drivers generally still show a scarce propensity to share their cars, considered more as “goods” than as “services”. A case study in Milan, the first and most successful initiative in Italy, shows a significant increase in CS membership after the implementation of a city charging scheme (“Ecopass” at first, then “Area C”. Moving shared cars from garages to “on the street parking” has proved successful too. The usage of the service has changed in time: users have increased (+151% more than runs (+137% – 2006 to 2009, while average length and duration of each run have decreased (-30% and -43% respectively, 2006 to 2010. Milan’s initiative also put s into practice many incentives for users that likely

  13. Raised IL-6 Levels

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Cardiovascular Associated Complications in HIV. Positive Zambians before ... compare plasma levels of IL-6 in HIV positive and. HIV negative .... cancer. Results from this study showed that IL-6 levels in. HIV positive ART naive individuals were significantly higher than in the HIV positive individuals on ART. Our findings ...

  14. IL-32 promotes angiogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nold-Petry, C.A.; Rudloff, I.; Baumer, Y.; Ruvo, M.; Marasco, D.; Botti, P.; Farkas, L.; Cho, S.X.; Zepp, J.A.; Azam, T.; Dinkel, H.; Palmer, B.E.; Boisvert, W.A.; Cool, C.D.; Taraseviciene-Stewart, L.; Heinhuis, B.; Joosten, L.A.; Dinarello, C.A.; Voelkel, N.F.; Nold, M.F.

    2014-01-01

    IL-32 is a multifaceted cytokine with a role in infections, autoimmune diseases, and cancer, and it exerts diverse functions, including aggravation of inflammation and inhibition of virus propagation. We previously identified IL-32 as a critical regulator of endothelial cell (EC) functions, and we

  15. An Xrootd Italian Federation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boccali, T; Mazzoni, E; Donvito, G; Diacono, D; Marzulli, G; Pompili, A; Ricca, G Della; Argiro, S; Gregori, D; Grandi, C; Bonacorsi, D; Lista, L; Fabozzi, F; Barone, L M; Santocchia, A; Riahi, H; Tricomi, A; Sgaravatto, M; Maron, G

    2014-01-01

    The Italian community in CMS has built a geographically distributed network in which all the data stored in the Italian region are available to all the users for their everyday work. This activity involves at different level all the CMS centers: the Tier1 at CNAF, all the four Tier2s (Bari, Rome, Legnaro and Pisa), and few Tier3s (Trieste, Perugia, Torino, Catania, Napoli, ...). The federation uses the new network connections as provided by GARR, our NREN (National Research and Education Network), which provides a minimum of 10 Gbit/s to all the sites via the GARR-X[2] project. The federation is currently based on Xrootd[1] technology, and on a Redirector aimed to seamlessly connect all the sites, giving the logical view of a single entity. A special configuration has been put in place for the Tier1, CNAF, where ad-hoc Xrootd changes have been implemented in order to protect the tape system from excessive stress, by not allowing WAN connections to access tape only files, on a file-by-file basis. In order to improve the overall performance while reading files, both in terms of bandwidth and latency, a hierarchy of xrootd redirectors has been implemented. The solution implemented provides a dedicated Redirector where all the INFN sites are registered, without considering their status (T1, T2, or T3 sites). An interesting use case were able to cover via the federation are disk-less Tier3s. The caching solution allows to operate a local storage with minimal human intervention: transfers are automatically done on a single file basis, and the cache is maintained operational by automatic removal of old files.

  16. An Xrootd Italian Federation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boccali, T.; Donvito, G.; Diacono, D.; Marzulli, G.; Pompili, A.; Della Ricca, G.; Mazzoni, E.; Argiro, S.; Gregori, D.; Grandi, C.; Bonacorsi, D.; Lista, L.; Fabozzi, F.; Barone, L. M.; Santocchia, A.; Riahi, H.; Tricomi, A.; Sgaravatto, M.; Maron, G.

    2014-06-01

    The Italian community in CMS has built a geographically distributed network in which all the data stored in the Italian region are available to all the users for their everyday work. This activity involves at different level all the CMS centers: the Tier1 at CNAF, all the four Tier2s (Bari, Rome, Legnaro and Pisa), and few Tier3s (Trieste, Perugia, Torino, Catania, Napoli, ...). The federation uses the new network connections as provided by GARR, our NREN (National Research and Education Network), which provides a minimum of 10 Gbit/s to all the sites via the GARR-X[2] project. The federation is currently based on Xrootd[1] technology, and on a Redirector aimed to seamlessly connect all the sites, giving the logical view of a single entity. A special configuration has been put in place for the Tier1, CNAF, where ad-hoc Xrootd changes have been implemented in order to protect the tape system from excessive stress, by not allowing WAN connections to access tape only files, on a file-by-file basis. In order to improve the overall performance while reading files, both in terms of bandwidth and latency, a hierarchy of xrootd redirectors has been implemented. The solution implemented provides a dedicated Redirector where all the INFN sites are registered, without considering their status (T1, T2, or T3 sites). An interesting use case were able to cover via the federation are disk-less Tier3s. The caching solution allows to operate a local storage with minimal human intervention: transfers are automatically done on a single file basis, and the cache is maintained operational by automatic removal of old files.

  17. Il Bosone di Higgs

    CERN Multimedia

    Hemmer, Sabine

    2018-01-01

    Poster di ATLAS sul bosone di Higgs indirizzato al pubblico generico, che spiega il meccanismo di Brout-Englert-Higgs e la sua importanza. Spiega anche il ruolo del Bosone di Higgs, come viene cercato, il percorso della sua scoperta e cosa viene dopo la scoperta. Disponibile anche in Francese (http://cds.cern.ch/record/1697501) e Inglese (http://cds.cern.ch/record/1697389). Non esitate a utilizzarlo nelle sedi dei vostri Istituti e negli eventi divulgativi! Il poster è in formato A0. Cliccate sull'immagine per scaricare il .pdf ad alta qualità e stamparlo dove preferite. Per qualisasi domanda o commento potete contattare atlas-outreach-coordination@cern.ch

  18. Italian research on the Antarctic atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Rafanelli

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work after a short introduction on the structure of Programma Nazionale di Ricerche in Antartide, the different researches on atmospheric physics developed by Italian scientists are presented. The international activities are described, with particular attention both to APE experiment and the setting up of the new base in Dome-C. The results obtained are also discussed and the new projects proposed by SCAR or other international bodies are recalled. The reduction of funds and fall in young people interested in scientifi c studies represent the main problems for the future work.

  19. The Italian contribution to the CSES satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti, Livio

    2016-04-01

    We present the Italian contribution to the CSES (China Seismo-Electromagnetic Satellite) mission. The CSES satellite aims at investigating electromagnetic field, plasma and particles in the near-Earth environment in order to study in particular seismic precursors, particles fluxes (from Van Allen belts, cosmic rays, solar wind, etc.), anthropogenic electromagnetic pollution and more in general the atmosphere-ionosphere-magnetosphere coupling mechanisms that can affect the climate changes. The launch of CSES - the first of a series of several satellite missions - is scheduled by the end of 2016. The CSES satellite has been financed by the CNSA (China National Space Agency) and developed by CEA (China Earthquake Administration) together with several Chinese research institutes and private companies such as the DFH (that has developed the CAST2000 satellite platform). Italy participates to the CSES satellite mission with the LIMADOU project funded by ASI (Italian Space Agency) in collaboration with the Universities of Roma Tor Vergata, Uninettuno, Trento, Bologna and Perugia, as well as the INFN (Italian National Institute of Nuclear Physics), INGV (Italian National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology) and INAF-IAPS (Italian National Institute of Astrophysics and Planetology). Many analyses have shown that satellite observations of electromagnetic fields, plasma parameters and particle fluxes in low Earth orbit may be useful in order to study the existence of electromagnetic emissions associated with the occurrence of earthquakes of medium and high magnitude. Although the earthquakes forecasting is not possible today, it is certainly a major challenge - and perhaps even a duty - for science in the near future. The claims that the reported anomalies (of electromagnetic, plasma and particle parameters) are seismic precursors are still intensely debated and analyses for confirming claimed correlations are still lacking. In fact, ionospheric currents, plasma

  20. Advice of the Italian CCTN on the toxicity of Cannabis sativa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camoni, I [ed.; Istituto Superiore di Sanita` , Rome (Italy). Lab. di Tossicologia Applicata; Mucci, N [ed.; ISPESL, Monteporzio Catone, Roma (Italy). Dip. di Medicina del Lavoro; Paroli, E [ed.; Rome, Univ. ` La Sapienza` (Italy). Fac. di Medicina, Ist. di Farmacologia

    1998-06-01

    This recommendation of the Italian National Toxicological Committee (CCTN) regards the possible toxic effects of some products derived from Cannabis sativa, indica variety. The CCTN has especially evaluated genotoxic, immunological and toxic to reproduction effects of these substances, on the basis of the results from both experimental studies and observations on humans. [Italiano] Il documento contiene il parere della CCTN sui potenziali effetti tossici di alcuni derivati della Cannabis sativa, varieta` indica. Il parere e` stato elaborato sulla base dei risultati sia di studi sperimentali sia dei limitati studi sull`uomo, prendendo in particolare considerazione gli effetti genotossici, tossico-riproduttivi ed immunologici.

  1. The energy costs of crisis for Italian economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomasini, S.

    2008-01-01

    The dramatic fluctuations recorded by oil price over the last two years have refreshes the debate on the costs for economies, as the Italian one, that are net oil importer. With some econometric models such costs are estimated. Future perspectives are discussed. [it

  2. Il colore delle cose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Vitiello

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Tema di questo saggio è l’operare della riflessione. Vitiello, dopo essersi soffermato sulla «frattura» tra la riflessione (il «vedersi» e il suo operare in Valéry, si concentra sul processo, descritto da Hegel nella Fenomenologia dello spirito, dell’esperienza della coscienza che s’eleva a coscienza dell’esperienza. La conclusione è fortemente critica: Hegel fallisce la mèta nel punto stesso in cui la raggiunge. Infatti nel sapere assoluto, nella visione compiuta, perfetta di sé, della luce che vede luce, viene meno proprio l’esperienza della coscienza, il suo divenire, la sua «imperfezione». La critica a Hegel, passando attraverso Nietzsche, si amplia a critica del linguaggio, in particolare del linguaggio dell’«essere» e  dell’«è», e delle tautologie heideggeriane quali «das Ereignis ereignet», «das Ding dingt», «die Welt weltet». Un importante passaggio del testo è quello sul linguaggio teatrale in cui la parola sembra riacquistare il legame originale tra la voce e il gesto, che tuttavia restano divisi, perché proprio il medio che li lega, il «colore» della parola, è «fuori» della parola e del gesto. Resta la parola dell’agire, dei pragmata, in cui il fare si espone nella sua modalità più propria: nell’immediatezza del patire: il grido di dolore; o nella mediatezza riflessiva dell’imperativo morale: Handle! I due opposti «colori» delle cose.

  3. Il corpo narratore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivano Gamelli

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Sapere cosa provo attraverso il mio corpo di fronte all’altro mi permette non solo di capire cosa l'altro prova, soprattutto di generare naturalmente un’effettiva sintonizzazione, di evidenziare e nominare emozioni e sentimenti che in-formano la relazione con quel particolare bambino, adolescente o adulto che sia. Il rapporto con il linguaggio del corpo, prima ancora di divenire pratica psicopedagogica, è una 'pedagogia dell'esistenza'. Una pratica della nostra quotidianità che possiamo affinare oltre e prima che essa diventi pratica psicopedagogica.

  4. Giordano Bruno e il Problema della Modernita

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Ulliana

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Il testo viene pubblicato per gentile concessione della casa editrice ESI ed e’ tratto dal libro di Stefano Ulliana “Il concetto creativo e dialettico dello Spirito nei Dialoghi Italiani di Giordano Bruno. Il confronto con la tradizione neoplatonico-aristotelica: il testo bruniano De l’Infinito, Universo e mondi”, Edizioni Scientifiche Italiane, Napoli, 2003. Le argomentazioni presentate ne Il concetto creativo e dialettico dello Spirito nei Dialoghi Italiani di Giordano Bruno (Il confronto con la tradizione neoplatonico-aristotelica: il testo bruniano De l’Infinito, Universo e mondi costituiscono le conclusioni ultime e definitive di un lavoro di ricerca che ha investito l’insieme dei Dialoghi Italiani, riuscendo a reperire ed a far emergere quello che pare il nucleo più profondo ed importante—il vero e proprio elevato fondamento—della speculazione bruniana: la presenza attiva di un concetto triadico teologico-politico—il Padre, il Figlio e lo Spirito della tradizione trinitaria cristiana—però riformulato attraverso il capovolgimento rivoluzionario di questa stessa tradizione, attuato attraverso il concetto creativo e dialettico dell’infinito. In questo modo la stessa tradizione platonica pare subire una trasformazione essenziale, abbandonando qualunque forma di alienazione e negazione, per riaprirsi invece verso soluzioni che paiono riprendere moniti ed osservazioni suscitati dalle prime, grandi e maestose, speculazioni dei filosofi presocratici. Parmenide, Eraclito ed Empedocle sembrano rivivere nei testi bruniani, riproponendo una soluzione ben diversa a quei nodi e problemi teoretico-pratici—fondamentale il rapporto Uno-molti e tutto ciò che da esso consegue, sia sul piano naturale che politico—apparentemente risolti e codificati dal pensiero postsocratico, prima platonico e poi aristotelico. L’inscindibilit� del principio di libert� (la figura teologica del Padre ed eguaglianza (il Figlio, attraverso

  5. Il dono del racconto

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Polito, Paola

    1998-01-01

    L'articolo indaga a vari livelli strutturali del romanzo "Il coraggio del pettirosso" (rete metaforica, dialogismo diegetico, dialogismo come fenomeno di voce, strategie discorsive messe in atto dalla voce narrante, stile colloquiale) la complessa realizzazione testuale del genere narrativo...

  6. Il Primo Dizionario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minne G. de Boer

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Recensione e commento a: Il Primo Dizionario italiano-olandese/Het Eerste Woordenboek Nederlands-Italiaans, Amsterdam 1672/2014, a cura di Vincenzo Lo Cascio. Amstelveen: Fondazione

  7. Il caso Rolando Rivi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluigi Briguglio

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to analyze the role and the pattern of the militant lawyering of Leonida Casali, one of the leading members of Bologna section of the Italian Communist Party and of the Democratic Solidarity Committee during the postwar period. By construing some specifical cases, as the trials against partisans and political activists, the focus has been pointed on demonstrating the intrinsic political nature of Casali’s behavior, showing on the one hand his mastership and the operational independence, on the other the strict relationship he had with the Communist Party and the Democratic Solidarity Committee. These issues allow to trace Casali’s role as a unique in the panorama of Italian justice immediately after the Second World War.

  8. Il teatro degli spiriti.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Pussetti

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Questo saggio è dedicato a un culto di possessione, in cui tutte ledonne, investite dagli spiriti degli uomini morti prima dell’iniziazione, compiono un percorso iniziatico parallelo a quello maschile, consentendo a queste anime, potenzialmente pericolose, di completare il cammino che non hanno potuto percorrere da vivi e quindi di raggiungere serenamente il mondo dei morti, come antenati protettori del villaggio

  9. LIPSI. IL LESSICO DI FREQUENZA DELL’ITALIANO PARLATO IN SVIZZERA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Prada

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available L'articolo illustra le caratteristiche del LIPSI, il lessico di frequenza dell'italiano parlato in Svizzera.  Il LIPSI, elaborato con metodi di linguistica computazionale sulla base di  materiali linguistici raccolti sul campo, è il risultato di una ricerca durata quattro anni realizzata nell'ambito dei progetti dell' OLSI (Osservatorio linguistico della Svizzera italiana, istituito per la promozione della lingua e della cultura del Cantone Ticino.  Il LIPSI non solo fornisce la lista di frequenza di circa 13.000 parole dell'italiano parlato nel Cantone Ticino e nelle Valli Grigioni italiane, ma la confronta con quella del LIP e di altri strumenti di statistica linguistica  apparsi in Italia, e approfondisce alcuni aspetti che chiariscono meglio i contorni dell'italiano "statale" svizzero. Tale denominazione  si fonda su ragioni di natura sia geografica-politica-amministrativa sia interne alla varietà e propone una considerazione dell'italiano come una lingua pluricentrica, una lingua cioè che presenta accanto al tradizionale centro metropolitano italiano, imperniato sul modello fiorentino assorbito nella lingua letteraria con apporti di altre varietà, un altro centro almeno parzialmente autonomo di irradiazione e di sviluppo, quello della Svizzera italiana. Il LIPSI si configura inoltre come strumento metodologico importante per la ricerca e la didattica nell'ambito dell'italiano L1/L2.   This article illustrates the characteristics of LIPSI, the frequency lexicon of Italian spoken in Switzerland. LIPSI was compiled using computational linguistics methods based on materials collected in the field. It is the result of a four-year study carried out as part of OLSI (Osservatorio linguistico della Svizzera italiana, an institution which promotes the language and culture of Canton Ticino. LIPSI not only supplies a frequency list of about 13,000 Italian words spoken in Canton Ticino and the Italian Grigioni Valley, but it also compares this

  10. Cytokines (interleukin-9, IL-17, IL-22, IL-25 and IL-33 and asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahim Farahani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Asthma is a reversible airway obstruction that is characterized by constriction of airway smooth muscle, hyper secretion of mucus, edema and airway hyper responsiveness (AHR, mucus secretion and thickening of the basement membrane underlying the airway epithelium. During the process of airway inflammation, complex interactions of innate and adaptive immune cells as well as structural cells and their cytokines have many important roles. It was believed that airway inflammation is orchestrated by allergen specific T helper (Th 2 cells, which recruit and accumulate in the lungs and produce a range of different effector cytokines. However, more recent studies have revealed the potential collaboration of other helper T cells and their cytokines in this process. Th17 cell may have a role in severe asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Interleukin (IL-9-producing subset called Th9 cell, Th22 cells which primarily secrete IL-22, IL-13 and tumor necrosis factor-α and Th25 cells via producing IL-25 are believed to be important for initiating allergic reactions and developing airway inflammation. Cytokines are important in asthma and play a critical role in orchestrating the allergic inflammatory response, although the precise role of each cytokine remains to be determined. The aim of this review is to summarize the current knowledge about the possible roles of newly identified helper T cells derived cytokines (IL-9, 17, 22, 25 and IL-33 in asthma. The potential therapeutic applications emerging from the roles of these cytokines will be discussed as well.

  11. Allergic Rhinitis and Its Relationship with IL-10, IL-17, TGF-β, IFN-γ, IL 22, and IL-35

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Bayrak Degirmenci

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. We aimed in our study to research the role of new cytokines such as IL-35, IL-22, and IL-17 that may form a target for novel treatment approaches. Methods. IL-10, IL-17, TGF-β, IFN-γ, IL-22, and IL-35 serum levels of allergic rhinitis (AR patients were measured using ELISA method. Allergic sensitization was demonstrated by the skin prick test. Patients only with olive tree sensitivity were evaluated for seasonal AR (SAR. Patients only with mite sensitivity were included in the study for perennial AR (PAR. AR clinic severity was demonstrated by the nasal symptom scores (NSS. Results. In total, 65 AR patients (patient group, having 31 PAR and 34 SAR patients, and 31 healthy individuals (control group participated in the study. Cytokine levels between the patient group and the control group were compared; IL-17 (p=0.038, IL-22 (p=0.001, and TGF-β (p=0.031 were detected as high in the patient group, and IFN-γ (p<0.001 was detected as low in the patient group. When correlation analysis was made between age, gender, prick test result, NSS, AR duration, and cytokine levels in the patient group, a negative correlation was detected only between IFN-γ (p=0.032/r=−0.266 level and NSS. Conclusions. Accompanied by the literature information, these results made us think that T cell subgroups and cytokines have an important role in AR immunopathogenesis. It is thought that future studies to be conducted relating to this subject will form new targets in treatment.

  12. time and space in the composition of il libro del cortegiano

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    Il libro del cortegiano was written, revised and augmented over a period of at least fifteen years, during which time many changes occurred in the author's life, in the situation on the Italian peninsula, and in the wider context of the European arena. The story of his life and the history of events in the early sixteenth century are ...

  13. The Caspian Sea question. Perspectives for the new millennium; Il gioco del Mar Caspio: prospettive per il nuovo millennio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahgat, G. [Indiana Univ., Pennsylvania (United States). Dept. of Political Science

    1999-12-01

    The break-up of the Soviet Union in the early 1990s opened the door for the international oil companies to explore and develop the Caspian Sea's hydrocarbons resources. The full utilisation of this wealth, however, has been hindered by disagreement over the ownership of the basin and the choice of export routes. Another important obstacle is the troubled relationship between the United States and Iran. [Italian] Il crollo dell'Unione Sovietica nei primi anni '90 ha consentito alle compagnie petrolifere internazionali di esplorare e sviluppare le risorse di idrocarburi del Mar Caspio. Il disaccordo sulla proprieta del bacino e sulla scelta delle rotte di esportazione ha tuttavia impedito il pieno sfruttamento di questa ricchezza. Un altro importante ostacolo e dato dalle difficili relazioni tra Stati Uniti e Iran.

  14. Goethe's Italian Journey and the geological landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coratza, Paola; Panizza, Mario

    2015-04-01

    Over 220 years ago Johann Wolfgang von Goethe undertook a nearly two-years long and fascinating journey to Italy, a destination dreamed for a long time by the great German writer. During his journey from Alps to Sicily Goethe reflects on landscape, geology, morphology of "Il Bel Paese", sometimes providing detailed descriptions and acute observations concerning the great and enduring laws by which the earth and all within it are governed. He was an observer, with the eye of the geologist and landscape painter, as he himself stated, and therefore he had a 360 degree focus on all parts of the territory. From the Brenner Pass to Sicily, Goethe reflects on landscape, contrasting morphologies, the genesis of territories, providing detailed descriptions useful for reconstructing the conditions of the territory and crops of the late 18th century. His diary is a description of the impressions he received from the country and its people, mingled with reflections upon art, science and literature. Goethe studied mineralogical and geological phenomena and drew up notes on the life of the people, the climate and the plants. On various scientific occasions and, in particular, within the framework of the Italian Association "Geologia & Turismo", of the Working Group "Geomorphosites" of the International Association of Geomorphologists and the International Year of Planet Earth, the opportunity to re-examine Goethe's travels in Italy from a geological viewpoint was recognised. In the present paper an attempt was made to reproduce the geotourism itinerary ante litteram of the writer to Italy, one of the most important tourist destination worldwide, thanks to its rich cultural and natural heritage and the outstanding aesthetic qualities of the complex natural landscape. This project was essentially conceived with a twofold purpose. First of all, an attempt was made to reproduce the journey of a great writer, as an example of description of landscape perceived and described as

  15. Relations Between Serum Essential Fatty Acids, Cytokines (IL-6 & IL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relations between free radical generation, interleukins (IL-6 & IL-8), apoptotic marker soluble Fas (sFas), and the level of ... IL-6, IL-8 and sFas whereas serum fatty acid revealed that Linoleicacid (LA) and alpha linolenic acid (ALA) were significantly decreased in the studied cases .

  16. Innovation and competitivity. The case of the districts of Faenza and Prato; Innovazione e competitivita'. Il caso dei distretti di Faenza e di Prato

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Traverso, A. [ENEA, Funzione Centrale Studi, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy)

    2001-07-01

    Market's globalization is quickly producing the review of the traditional and international competition orders. For this reason the industrial districts, which are the highest expression of an economic and productive tissue based on the small and medium enterprises, are forced to begin a new formulation of their own structural, organizational, technological and productive distinctive features. The object of this work is, at first, to explain the peculiarities of the distrectual events, and, consequently, to analyse the competitive situation and the future prospects of two italian highly specialized productive areas: the textile district of Prato and the ceramic territory of Faenza. A particular attention will be especially reserved on the role assumed by the innovative aspects (technological and organizational) which it can be noted in that transformation process of the main distrectual competitive paradigms. [Italian] La globalizzazione dei mercati sta velocemente imponendo una revisione delle tradizionali regole della competizione internazionale. Per questo motivo i distretti industriali, che sono la massima espressione di un tessuto economico e produttivo fondato sulla piccola e media impresa, sono stati costretti ad intraprendere un percorso di riformulazione delle proprie caratteristiche strutturali, organizzative, tecnologiche e produttive. Lo scopo di questo lavoro e' di illustrare, in un primo momento, i contorni del fenomeno distrettuale e, conseguentemente, di analizzare la situazione competitiva e le prospettive di sviluppo di due aree italiane fortemente specializzate dal punto di vista produttivo: il distretto tessile di Prato ed il comprensorio della ceramica di Faenza. Una particolare attenzione verra' riservata, nel corso dell'analisi, al ruolo assunto dagli aspetti innovativi (technologici ed innovativi) in questo processo di trasformazione dei principali paradigmi competitivi distrettuali.

  17. Innovation and competitivity. The case of the districts of Faenza and Prato; Innovazione e competitivita'. Il caso dei distretti di Faenza e di Prato

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Traverso, A [ENEA, Funzione Centrale Studi, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy)

    2001-07-01

    Market's globalization is quickly producing the review of the traditional and international competition orders. For this reason the industrial districts, which are the highest expression of an economic and productive tissue based on the small and medium enterprises, are forced to begin a new formulation of their own structural, organizational, technological and productive distinctive features. The object of this work is, at first, to explain the peculiarities of the distrectual events, and, consequently, to analyse the competitive situation and the future prospects of two italian highly specialized productive areas: the textile district of Prato and the ceramic territory of Faenza. A particular attention will be especially reserved on the role assumed by the innovative aspects (technological and organizational) which it can be noted in that transformation process of the main distrectual competitive paradigms. [Italian] La globalizzazione dei mercati sta velocemente imponendo una revisione delle tradizionali regole della competizione internazionale. Per questo motivo i distretti industriali, che sono la massima espressione di un tessuto economico e produttivo fondato sulla piccola e media impresa, sono stati costretti ad intraprendere un percorso di riformulazione delle proprie caratteristiche strutturali, organizzative, tecnologiche e produttive. Lo scopo di questo lavoro e' di illustrare, in un primo momento, i contorni del fenomeno distrettuale e, conseguentemente, di analizzare la situazione competitiva e le prospettive di sviluppo di due aree italiane fortemente specializzate dal punto di vista produttivo: il distretto tessile di Prato ed il comprensorio della ceramica di Faenza. Una particolare attenzione verra' riservata, nel corso dell'analisi, al ruolo assunto dagli aspetti innovativi (technologici ed innovativi) in questo processo di trasformazione dei principali paradigmi competitivi distrettuali.

  18. Il corpo della strega

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georges Bertin

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Come già evidenziato a proposito di altre pratiche, il sabba, attività ludica profana, religiosa, conferiva a ciascuno la possibilità di giocare efficacemente con la dinamica di un mondo da cui emergeva una figura archetipica, la strega, principale attore di questa danza in tondo. Il sabba era, dunque, uno dei luoghi ove si cristallizzavano le figure del proibito, questo per il suo carattere sacro, per la violenza istituzionale che presiedeva alla formazione dei rapporti sociali, e conferiva anche, per le caratteristiche di protesta che rivela, un'immagine sempre esaltante della capacità delle società a resistere. Il problema della nostra epoca ove rifioriscono le streghe nelle più svariate forme è, forse, quello di riallacciarsi con la dimensione gruppale dei nostri svaghi, nelle loro differenti forme e, contemporaneamente, con perdita di energia, a quanto presiedeva ai sabba e alla loro risoluzione sacrificale. In contro-corrente ai modelli meccanici che assegnano dei limiti precisi e funzionali ai corpi asserviti ad un ideale di controllo, il corpo sabbatico con la sua enfasi sulle posizioni limite (ciò che si rimproverava d'altronde alle streghe, era veramente corpo mistico.

  19. IL-17 for therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurschus, Florian C; Moos, Sonja

    2017-09-01

    The cytokine IL-17 is now a target for an array of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies supposed to treat a variety of inflammatory diseases. The forerunner Secukinumab, an IL-17A neutralizing antibody, is meanwhile approved as first-line treatments for moderate-to-severe plaque psoriasis, and as second-line treatment for psoriatic arthritis and ankylosing spondylitis. Ixekizumab and Brodalumab, both also targeting the IL-17 pathway, were also recently approved by the FDA for plaque psoriasis. Using mice overexpressing IL-17A in a tissue of choice, we showed that the ectopic expression of this cytokine in keratinocytes resulted in a spontaneous and very strong form of psoriasis-like dermatitis. Interestingly, this model showed some typical comorbidities found in humans with psoriasis. In this review, we will discuss why IL-17 is a good target especially in psoriasis and what we learned from mouse models about its functions in pathological situations. Copyright © 2017 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. IL web tutorials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldegård, Jette; Lund, Haakon

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents the results from a study on information literacy in a higher education (HE) context based on a larger research project evaluating 3 Norwegian IL web tutorials at 6 universities and colleges in Norway. The aim was to evaluate how the 3 web tutorials served students’ information...... seeking and writing process in an study context and to identify barriers to the employment and use of the IL web tutorials, hence to the underlying information literacy intentions by the developer. Both qualitative and quantitative methods were employed. A clear mismatch was found between intention...... and use of the web tutorials. In addition, usability only played a minor role compared to relevance. It is concluded that the positive expectations of the IL web tutorials tend to be overrated by the developers. Suggestions for further research are presented....

  1. Il Dolore, il Lutto, la Gloria. Rappresentazioni Fotografiche della Grande Guerra fra Pubblico e Privato, 1914-1940” a Conference on the First World War and its Representations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluigi Di Giangirolamo

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available On the occasion of the First World War Centenary, the Department for Cultural Heritage of the University of Bologna in Ravenna together with the SISF Italian Society for the Study on photography, promoted the conference Il dolore, il lutto, la gloria. Rappresentazioni fotografiche della grande guerra fra pubblico e privato, 1914-1940 between 26-28 May, 2016. The conference was organised in collaboration with the University of Padova, the Fundation of Historical Studies Filippo Turati of Florence and the Institute of the History of Italian Risorgimento of Rome.

  2. Is there a future for Krakovo gardens in Ljubljana? Y a-t-il un avenir pour les jardins de Krakovo à Ljubljana ? ¿Existe un Futuro para los Jardines de Krakovo en Liubliana?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Vadnal

    2010-11-01

    la situation : il est prévu de créer des jardins permanents et temporaires dans l’ensemble de la ville mais il n’y a pas de place pour ces jardins en centre ville, dans les lieux visuellement exposés, ou à proximité des sites faisant partie du patrimoine culturel. Pourtant, dans le centre de Ljubljana, 1,8 ha de jardins ouvriers sont protégés car considérés comme faisant partie du patrimoine culturel. Le cas de ces jardins, connus sous le nom de jardins de Krakovo, a servi de base à une discussion sur les perspectives de l’agriculture urbaine à Ljubljana. Les jardins sont actuellement mal entretenus et la situation ne fait qu’empirer. Pour qu’ils continuent à être cultivés et pour préserver ainsi les avantages de ces espaces verts historiques, un modèle d’agriculture urbaine fonctionnelle a été élaboré et étudié avec les parties prenantes concernées : les propriétaires des terrains, la municipalité de Ljubljana, les fournisseurs/utilisateurs des activités dans les jardins et les habitants. Une analyse SWOT a montré que la stratégie visant à faire revivre les jardins de Krakovo en se basant sur le modèle de l’agriculture urbaine multifonctionnelle représente un bon point de départ pour leur futur développement. Les tests d’acceptabilité du modèle ont révélé que les parties prenantes clés, la municipalité de Ljubljana et les propriétaires terriens, se montrent plutôt réservées vis-à-vis de ce projet. Cela implique que les conditions institutionnelles nécessaires à sa mise en œuvre soient créées selon deux scénarios possibles : 1 par le biais d’un partenariat public-privé ; 2 sur la base du modèle de location et achat par la municipalité, du terrain sur lequel se trouvent les jardins de Krakovo.La agricultura urbana está más o menos marginada en la teoría, así como en la conceptualización del desarrollo sostenible de los pueblos eslovenos. El plan de desarrollo espacial de Liubliana refleja la

  3. Dostoevskij e il sillogismo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Peace

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Si presenta di seguito la prima traduzione italiana del saggio di Richard Peace Dostoevsky and the Syllogism, pubblicato in lingua originale nel volume IX (2005 della collana Dostoevsky Studies, New Series. Il saggio è dedicato alla rielaborazione del sillogismo aristotelico da parte dei personaggi dostoevskiani nell’ambito del dibattito fra le due principali correnti filosofiche della Russia ottocentesca: l’ «occidentalismo» e lo «slavofilismo». Peace evidenzia come Dostoevskij miri a dimostrare che il ragionamento sillogistico sia estraneo alla forma mentis russa attraverso i fallimenti argomentativi dei suoi «ideofori»

  4. Nutritional interventions and the IL-6 response to exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennigar, Stephen R; McClung, James P; Pasiakos, Stefan M

    2017-09-01

    IL-6 is a pleiotropic cytokine with a wide range of biologic effects. In response to prolonged exercise, IL-6 is synthesized by contracting skeletal muscle and released into circulation. Circulating IL-6 is thought to maintain energy status during exercise by acting as an energy sensor for contracting muscle and stimulating glucose production. If tissue damage occurs, immune cells infiltrate and secrete cytokines, including IL-6, to repair skeletal muscle damage. With adequate rest and nutrition, the IL-6 response to exercise is attenuated as skeletal muscle adapts to training. However, sustained elevations in IL-6 due to repeated bouts of unaccustomed activities or prolonged exercise with limited rest may result in untoward physiologic effects, such as accelerated muscle proteolysis and diminished nutrient absorption, and may impair normal adaptive responses to training. Recent intervention studies have explored the role of mixed meals or carbohydrate, protein, ω-3 fatty acid, or antioxidant supplementation in mitigating exercise-induced increases in IL-6. Emerging evidence suggests that sufficient energy intake before exercise is an important factor in attenuating exercise-induced IL-6 by maintaining muscle glycogen. We detail various nutritional interventions that may affect the IL-6 response to exercise in healthy human adults and provide recommendations for future research exploring the role of IL-6 in the adaptive response to exercise.-Hennigar, S. R., McClung, J. P., Pasiakos, S. M. Nutritional interventions and the IL-6 response to exercise. © FASEB.

  5. Mediterranean Diet Effect: an Italian picture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azzini Elena

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to evaluate the overall diet quality effects, mainly on antioxidant nutritional status and some cytokines related to the cellular immune response as well as oxidative stress in a healthy Italian population group. Methods An observational study was conducted on 131 healthy free-living subjects. Dietary intake was assessed by dietary diary. Standardised procedures were used to make anthropometric measurements. On blood samples (serum, plasma and whole blood were evaluated: antioxidant status by vitamin A, vitamin E, carotenoids, vitamin C, uric acid, SH groups, SOD and GPx activities; lipid blood profile by total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, triglycerides; total antioxidant capacity by FRAP and TRAP; the immune status by TNF-α, and IL-10 cytokines; the levels of malondialdehyde in the erythrocytes as marker of lipid peroxidation. Results The daily macronutrients intake (g/day have shown a high lipids consumption and significant differences between the sexes with regard to daily micronutrients intake. On total sample mean Mediterranean Diet Score (MDS was 4.5 ± 1.6 and no significant differences between the sexes were present. A greater adherence to a Mediterranean dietary pattern increases the circulating plasma levels of carotenoids (lutein plus zeaxanthin, cryptoxanthin, α and β-carotene, vitamin A and vitamin E. The levels of endogenous antioxidants were also improved. We observed higher levels in anti-inflammatory effect cytokines (IL-10 in subjects with MDS ≥ 6, by contrast, subjects with MDS ≤ 3 show higher levels in sense of proinflammatory (TNF α P 4. Our data suggest a protective role of vitamin A against chronic inflammatory conditions especially in subjects with the highest adherence to the Mediterranean-type dietary pattern. Conclusions Mediterranean dietary pattern is associated with significant amelioration of multiple risk factors, including a better

  6. Pathological Gambling among Italian Nursing Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicolini, Giancarlo; Della Pelle, Carlo; Simonetti, Valentina; Comparcini, Dania; Sepede, Gianna; Cipollone, Francesco

    2018-04-01

    To investigate the role of psychiatric dimensions, behavioral or substance addictions and demographical variables as determinants of pathological gambling among nursing students. Multicenter cross-sectional study. From June to October 2015 a survey was carried out among Italian Nursing students. Data were collected using a six-section tool. Nursing students who completed the survey numbered 1083, 902 (83.3%) had some problems with gambling and 29 (2.7%) showed pathological gambling. Percentage of pathological gambling was significantly associate with illicit drug/alcohol use (65.5%; p=0.001) and with male gender (58.6%) comparing to student nurse with non-pathological gambling (20%) and those with some problem (24.2%). Significant main effect was observed for IAT score (Beta=0.119, t=3.28, p=0.001): higher IAT scores were associated with higher SOGS scores. Italian nursing students have some problems with gambling and pathological gambling problem, and males are those who have more problems. Results might be useful for faculties of health professionals to identify students at risk in an early stage, to direct prevention tailored interventions. Nursing faculties should be aware of the prevalence of Gambling among students. Prevention interventions should be planned to minimize the risk of gambling behavior in the future nurses' health care workers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. ITALIAN AND ITALIAN AMERICAN IDENTITY: A VISUAL APPROACH

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    It is flexible without overall plan and contains spaces .... of Symbolic Capital, defined by Bourdieu as “The collection of luxury goods attesting to the taste and distinction of the owner” (1977: 188), ... Since “the most successful ideological effects are those which have no words ..... a market dominated by non-Italian proprietors.

  8. Abitare il transito. Il pensiero delle pratiche di Carlo Sini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Berretta

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the original Italian philosophical adventure of the last fifty years, the figure of Carlo Sini is certainly one of the most profound and fascinating. His education, begun following the Milanese teaching of Giovanni Emanuele Barié and then of Enzo Paci, therefore between Kant, Hegel and Husserl, opens furthermore to various influences, from American Pragmatism to Nietzsche’s Genealogy, up to contemporary Hermeneutics. Starting from that, Sini has developed the perspective of the thought of the practices that, in the light of the difference between event and meaning, contemplated in an ethical sense, leads to a result that doesn’t exclude the truth, in a relativistic direction. This instead opens up to difference and to the relationship of the future of the «errant planet» (the earth, accepting its Copernican fate. This perspective, provided by great theoretical sharpness, identifies Sini as one of the most interesting contemporary philosophers, and not only at a national level.

  9. Veterinarians in environmental protection; Il veterinario nella protezione ambientale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ioppolo, A; Achene, L; Cappella, M G [eds.; Istituto Superiore di Sanita' , Rome (Italy). Lab. di Medicina Veterinaria

    1999-07-01

    The main contributions of the Fifth and Sixth Courses: Veterinary medicine and environmental contamination, held at the Italian National Institute of Health on October 27-31 1997, and September 28-October 2 1998, are presented. The volume is divided into three sections: general concepts (evolution of environmental protection in the European community, veterinary drugs in Europe, drugs and environmental contamination, aquaculture and environmental contamination); problematic aspects and methodologies applied to the environmental pollution (animal pathologies and environmental quality, toxic algae and aquaculture, aquatic organisms as indicators of environmental contamination, use of arthropods to assess environmental quality); field experiences (monitoring of chemical contaminants by an experimental institute of veterinary services, quality of compost in the light of aspects of management and market). [Italian] Sono riportati alcuni interventi presentati al quinto e al sesto corso di medicina veterinaria ed inquinamento ambientale che si sono svolti rispettivamente il 27-31 ottobre 1997 e il 28 settembre-2 ottobre 1998 presso l'Istituto Superiore di Sanita'. Il volume e' diviso in tre sezioni: contributi generali (evoluzione della tutela ambientale nella Comunita' Europea, i farmaci veterinari in Europa), utilizzo di farmaci e inquinamento (patologie degli animali e inquinamento, alghe tossiche e acquacultura, metodi per la valutazione della qualita' ambientale con organismi acquatici, artropodi terrestri come bioindicatori); esperienze sul campo (compostaggio di qualita'); problematiche gestionali e di mercato, esperienze di un monitoraggio di contaminanti chimici in un istituto zooprofilattico sperimentale.

  10. Veterinarians in environmental protection; Il veterinario nella protezione ambientale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ioppolo, A.; Achene, L.; Cappella, M.G. [eds.] [Istituto Superiore di Sanita' , Rome (Italy). Lab. di Medicina Veterinaria

    1999-07-01

    The main contributions of the Fifth and Sixth Courses: Veterinary medicine and environmental contamination, held at the Italian National Institute of Health on October 27-31 1997, and September 28-October 2 1998, are presented. The volume is divided into three sections: general concepts (evolution of environmental protection in the European community, veterinary drugs in Europe, drugs and environmental contamination, aquaculture and environmental contamination); problematic aspects and methodologies applied to the environmental pollution (animal pathologies and environmental quality, toxic algae and aquaculture, aquatic organisms as indicators of environmental contamination, use of arthropods to assess environmental quality); field experiences (monitoring of chemical contaminants by an experimental institute of veterinary services, quality of compost in the light of aspects of management and market). [Italian] Sono riportati alcuni interventi presentati al quinto e al sesto corso di medicina veterinaria ed inquinamento ambientale che si sono svolti rispettivamente il 27-31 ottobre 1997 e il 28 settembre-2 ottobre 1998 presso l'Istituto Superiore di Sanita'. Il volume e' diviso in tre sezioni: contributi generali (evoluzione della tutela ambientale nella Comunita' Europea, i farmaci veterinari in Europa), utilizzo di farmaci e inquinamento (patologie degli animali e inquinamento, alghe tossiche e acquacultura, metodi per la valutazione della qualita' ambientale con organismi acquatici, artropodi terrestri come bioindicatori); esperienze sul campo (compostaggio di qualita'); problematiche gestionali e di mercato, esperienze di un monitoraggio di contaminanti chimici in un istituto zooprofilattico sperimentale.

  11. Th-17 regulatory cytokines IL-21, IL-23, and IL-6 enhance neutrophil production of IL-17 cytokines during asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halwani, Rabih; Sultana, Asma; Vazquez-Tello, Alejandro; Jamhawi, Amer; Al-Masri, Abeer A; Al-Muhsen, Saleh

    2017-11-01

    In a subset of severe asthma patients, chronic airway inflammation is associated with infiltration of neutrophils, Th-17 cells and elevated expression of Th-17-derived cytokines (e.g., interleukin [IL]-17, IL-21, IL-22). Peripheral neutrophils from allergic asthmatics are known to express higher IL-17 cytokine levels than those from healthy subjects, but the regulatory mechanisms involved are not well understood. We hypothesize that Th-17 regulatory cytokines could modulate IL-17 expression in neutrophils. Peripheral blood neutrophils isolated from asthmatics were stimulated with IL-21, IL-23, and IL-6 cytokines and their ability to produce IL-17A and IL-17F was determined relative to healthy controls. Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) phosphorylation levels were measured in stimulated neutrophil using flow cytometry. The requirement for STAT3 phosphorylation was determined by blocking its activation using a specific chemical inhibitor. Stimulating asthmatic neutrophils with IL-21, 23, and 6 enhanced the production of IL-17A and IL-17F at significantly higher levels comparatively to healthy controls. Stimulating neutrophils with IL-21, IL-23, and IL-6 cytokines enhanced STAT3 phosphorylation, in all cases. Interestingly, inhibiting STAT3 phosphorylation using a specific chemical inhibitor dramatically blocked the ability of neutrophils to produce IL-17, demonstrating that STAT3 activation is the major factor mediating IL-17 gene expression. These findings suggest that neutrophil infiltration in lungs of severe asthmatics may represent an important source of pro-inflammatory IL-17A and -F cytokines, a production enhanced by Th-17 regulatory cytokines, and thus providing a feedback mechanism that sustains inflammation. Our results suggest that STAT3 pathway could be a potential target for regulating neutrophilic inflammation during severe asthma.

  12. Causes and effects of the migratory Italian waves in the 19th – 20th centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. L. BULIGA

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The phenomenon of the Italian migration proved to be intense and diverse as regards the territorial origins, but also social diversity. Migration is the process involving people of different social status and economic, cultural, religious changes in the society accepting it. The abandonment of the original area by people in order to settle in other areas depended on political, economic or natural factors. The Italian migratory process became a great migration to America, Australia and mainly in Europe. Searching for a safer or better future, Italians came to Romania as well, establishing steady communities.

  13. Il Raffrescamento per Ventilazione

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perino, Marco; Heiselberg, Per Kvols

    2016-01-01

    termicamente e sempre più a tenuta d'aria. Tali misure hanno consentito indubbiamente di ridurre la domanda energetica per il riscaldamento invernale, ma hanno determinato delle crescenti problematiche di surriscaldamento dell'ambiente interno. Molti degli edifici ad alta efficienza energeti-ca di nuova...

  14. Helping You Buy ILS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibbarelli, Pamela R.

    2010-01-01

    This article is the fourth in a series of articles published annually by "Computers in Libraries" surveying integrated library systems and services (ILSs). The purpose of the annual survey is to enable comparison of the ILSs that are available. ILS vendors are in constant pursuit of an ever-changing, consistently vague definition of what the…

  15. Il pericolo degli ebook

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Chiara Pievatolo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available I libri stampati: si possono acquistare anonimamente in contanti; quindi se ne è proprietari: non dobbiamo firmare una licenza che ne restringe l’uso: il loro formato è noto e per leggerli non occorrono tecnologie proprietarie; si possono dare, prestare o...

  16. Il Simposio di Platone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Chiara Pievatolo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pensate che i testi antichi siano semplicemente vecchi? Che l’amore platonico non vada mai  al sodo? Leggere il Simposio di Platone confrontandosi direttamente col testo, com’è possibile fare grazie al Perseus Project, vi farà cambiare idea.

  17. Type I IL-1 Receptor (IL-1RI as Potential New Therapeutic Target for Bronchial Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyh-Hong Lee

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The IL-1R/TLR family has been receiving considerable attention as potential regulators of inflammation through their ability to act as either activators or suppressors of inflammation. Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by airway hyperresponsiveness, allergic inflammation, elevated serum total, allergen-specific IgE levels, and increased Th2 cytokine production. The discovery that the IL-1RI–IL-1 and ST2–IL-33 pathways are crucial for allergic inflammation has raised interest in these receptors as potential targets for developing new therapeutic strategies for bronchial asthma. This paper discusses the current use of neutralizing mAb or soluble receptor constructs to deplete cytokines, the use of neutralizing mAb or recombinant receptor antagonists to block cytokine receptors, and gene therapy from experimental studies in asthma. Targeting IL-1RI–IL-1 as well as ST2–IL-33 pathways may promise a disease-modifying approach in the future.

  18. IL-6/IL-12 Cytokine Receptor Shuffling of Extra- and Intracellular Domains Reveals Canonical STAT Activation via Synthetic IL-35 and IL-39 Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floss, D M; Schönberg, M; Franke, M; Horstmeier, F C; Engelowski, E; Schneider, A; Rosenfeldt, E M; Scheller, J

    2017-11-09

    IL-35 and IL-39 are recently discovered shared members of the IL-6- and IL-12-type cytokine family with immune-suppressive capacity. IL-35 has been reported to induce the formation of four different receptor complexes: gp130:IL-12β2, gp130:gp130, IL-12β2:IL-12β2, and IL-12β2:WSX-1. IL-39 was proposed to form a gp130:IL-23R receptor complex. IL-35, but not IL-39, has been reported to activate non-conventional STAT signaling, depending on the receptor complex and target cell. Analyses of IL-35 and IL-39 are, however, hampered by the lack of biologically active recombinant IL-35 and IL-39 proteins. Therefore, we engineered chimeric cytokine receptors to accomplish synthetic IL-35 and IL- 39 signaling by shuffling the extra- and intracellular domains of IL-6/IL-12-type cytokine receptors, resulting in biological activity for all previously described IL-35 receptor complexes. Moreover, we found that the proposed IL-39 receptor complex is biologically active and discovered two additional biologically active synthetic receptor combinations, gp130/IL-12Rβ1 and IL-23R/IL-12Rβ2. Surprisingly, synthetic IL-35 activation led to more canonical STAT signaling of all receptor complexes. In summary, our receptor shuffling approach highlights an interchangeable, modular domain structure among IL-6- and IL-12-type cytokine receptors and enabled synthetic IL-35 and IL-39 signaling.

  19. Accumulation chamber as monitoring system for biogas emission from solid waste land filling: preliminary experimental results and elaborations on italian provincial scale; Camera di accumulo portatile per il monitoraggio di emissioni di biogas da discarica: risultati sperimentali ed elaborazioni preliminari a scala provinciale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capaccioni, B.; Pirillo, L. [Urbino Univ. Carlo Bo, Urbino (Italy). Istituto di Vulcanologia e Geochimica; Didero, M. [Urbino Univ. Carlo Bo, Urbino (Italy). Istituto di Geologia Applicata; Lucci, P.; Scartoni, P. [Area Territorio e Ambiente Provincia di Arezzo, Arezzo (Italy). Servizio Ecologia; Tatano, F. [Urbino Univ. Carlo Bo, Urbino (Italy). Facolta' di Scienze Ambientali

    2005-04-01

    On site CO{sub 2} flux measurements with the static, not stationary accumulation chamber system were experimentally carried out in no. 5 MSW (active and closed) landfills located in the territory of the Province of Arezzo (Tuscany Region). Corresponding CO{sub 2} emission flux maps were contoured and analysed, revealing a possible, preliminary geometrical classification of biogas dispersion: diffuse dispersion (internal), lateral/angular dispersion (internal), and external dispersion. Also specific (volume and surface) biogas emission parameters were calculated and graphically compared for the monitored inactive facilities. [Italian] La metodologia strumentale portatile della camera di accumulo, statica non stazionaria, e' stata adoperata sperimentalmente per la misura on site di flussi puntuali di emissione di CO{sub 2} in cinque discariche (attive e non) per RSU ed assimilabili localizzate nel territorio della Provincia di Arezzo. Si sono elaborate, ed analizzate criticamente, le corrispondenti mappe areali di flusso, che hanno consentito di delineare una possibile classificazione geometrica - ancorche' preliminare - di dispersioni di biogas generabili da discarica: diffuse interne, laterali/angolari interne, esterne. Con riferimento alle discariche inattive d'indagine, si sono altresi' determinati, e rappresentati graficamente, i valori di possibili parametri specifici (volumetrico, superficiale) di dispersione di biogas.

  20. Education and Italian Regional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Liberto, Adriana

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we study the connection between growth and human capital in a convergence regression for the panel of Italian regions. We include measures of average primary, secondary and tertiary education. We find that increased education seems to contribute to growth only in the South. Decomposing total schooling into its three constituent…

  1. Lymphogranuloma venereum: the Italian experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cusini, M.; Boneschi, V.; Arancio, L.; Ramoni, S.; Venegoni, L.; Gaiani, F.; de Vries, H.J.C.

    2009-01-01

    An epidemic of lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) has been described in men who have sex with men (MSM) in the western world, particularly in western Europe. The first Italian case was reported by the authors in 2006, and up to March 2008 there have been 13 symptomatic cases, all in MSM. Ten cases had

  2. IL-22R Ligands IL-20, IL-22, and IL-24 Promote Wound Healing in Diabetic db/db Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolumam, Ganesh; Wu, Xiumin; Lee, Wyne P; Hackney, Jason A; Zavala-Solorio, Jose; Gandham, Vineela; Danilenko, Dimitry M; Arora, Puneet; Wang, Xiaoting; Ouyang, Wenjun

    2017-01-01

    Diabetic foot ulcers (DFU) are one of the major complications in type II diabetes patients and can result in amputation and morbidity. Although multiple approaches are used clinically to help wound closure, many patients still lack adequate treatment. Here we show that IL-20 subfamily cytokines are upregulated during normal wound healing. While there is a redundant role for each individual cytokine in this subfamily in wound healing, mice deficient in IL-22R, the common receptor chain for IL-20, IL-22, and IL-24, display a significant delay in wound healing. Furthermore, IL-20, IL-22 and IL-24 are all able to promote wound healing in type II diabetic db/db mice. Mechanistically, when compared to other growth factors such as VEGF and PDGF that accelerate wound healing in this model, IL-22 uniquely induced genes involved in reepithelialization, tissue remodeling and innate host defense mechanisms from wounded skin. Interestingly, IL-22 treatment showed superior efficacy compared to PDGF or VEGF in an infectious diabetic wound model. Taken together, our data suggest that IL-20 subfamily cytokines, particularly IL-20, IL-22, and IL-24, might provide therapeutic benefit for patients with DFU.

  3. Energy efficiency indicators. Case study, Liguria; Indicatori di efficienza energetica. Il caso Liguria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciarallo, M A [ENEA, Divisione Promozione degli Usi Efficienti e Diversificazione dell' Energia, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, S. Maria Galeria, RM (Italy)

    2001-07-01

    The report examines the trend in the Liguria Region's energy requirements over the period 1988-1996. The trend was analysed using the regional energy balances and energy efficiency indicators, both in aggregate form and on a single sector basis. The residential sector, in particular, was singled out for an in-depth analysis using publishing and processed data. [Italian] Il presente rapporto esamina l'evoluzione delle caratteristiche energetiche della Regione Liguria attraverso l'analisi degli indicatori di efficienza energetica. Tale analisi e' stata svolta sia a livello aggregato che con riferimento ai singoli settori di attivita'. Particolare attenzione e' stata dedicata al settore residenziale, per il quale e' stato svolto un esame piu' approfondito attraverso un lavoro di raccolta e di elaborazione dati. Il periodo di riferimento va dal 1988 al 1966 dal momento che questo e' l'ultimo anno per il quale sono disponibili i dati economici Istat utilizzati per il calcolo degli indicatori.

  4. Amaldi e Auger, il manager e il poeta

    CERN Document Server

    Amaldi, Ugo

    2004-01-01

    The story of the two scientists, founder fathers of CERN, created 50 years ago; the italian physicist and the colleague from Unesco prevailed in the choice regarding the concurrent idea to upgrade the existing centers

  5. Operating experience and TPA: the Italian perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimaldi, G.

    1990-01-01

    Collection and analysis of operating experience from the Italian plants and utilization of abroad data both to plants in operation and in construction are presented. Some results are also referred, aimed to evidence the role of the international cooperation to safe operation of nuclear plants. The approach to the Trend and Pattern analyses is described as well, and the use of computerized techniques of analysis on personal computer. Finally on going activities are introduced, specifically application of operating experience of plants in operation to small sized reactors and to ones with more intrinsic safety characteristics; review of the reporting system for future application and comparative analysis of the different realization of selected safety systems

  6. Il nucleo terrestre: il cuore magnetico della Terra

    OpenAIRE

    De Santis, A.

    2006-01-01

    Il campo magnetico terrestre è una proprietà intrinseca del nostro pianeta e di altri oggetti del sistema solare. Il Sole stesso possiede un forte campo magnetico che si inverte quasi ciclicamente ogni 10-11 anni; tale comportamento è visibile attraverso la medesima ciclicità delle macchie solari che denotano sulla superficie l’intensa attività magnetica della nostra stella. Il campo magnetico terrestre è importantissimo per la vita sulla Terra. Esso protegge il pianeta dalle p...

  7. Il Dolore, il Lutto, la Gloria. Rappresentazioni Fotografiche della Grande Guerra fra Pubblico e Privato, 1914-1940” a Conference on the First World War and its Representations

    OpenAIRE

    Gianluigi Di Giangirolamo

    2016-01-01

    On the occasion of the First World War Centenary, the Department for Cultural Heritage of the University of Bologna in Ravenna together with the SISF Italian Society for the Study on photography, promoted the conference Il dolore, il lutto, la gloria. Rappresentazioni fotografiche della grande guerra fra pubblico e privato, 1914-1940 between 26-28 May, 2016. The conference was organised in collaboration with the University of Padova, the Fundation of Historical Studies Filippo Turati of Flore...

  8. Il libro di fisica

    CERN Document Server

    Asimov, Isaac

    1986-01-01

    Isaac Asimov, illustre studioso e brillante divulgatore scientifico, ma anche grandissimo scrittore di science fiction, ha costruito questa volta una vera e propria «biografia delle scienze fisiche». Il presente volume, che nel mondo anglosassone è diventato una «bibbia della fisica», ci introduce, in forma semplice ma rigorosa, ai segreti dei quasar e dei buchi neri, dei quark e degli acceleratori di particelle, dell'intelligenza artificiale e delle fonti di energia, sia essa quella «sporca» sia quella «pulita». Un vero, completo manuale, ma anche un «romanzo» affascinante sia per il profano sia per l'uomo di scienza.

  9. Il mare per comunicare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Elena Carnemolla

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In 1885 the Italian government entered into contract with Pirelli for the construction and maintenance of twelve cables to connect various islands with the mainland. For the execution of the contract, Pirelli built a cable-sheathing factory at San Bartolomeo, near La Spezia, ordering to Thompson yard the cable-ship Città di Milano, which worked also beyond national borders. It wrecked at Filicudi in 1919. In 1944 Ernesto Del Grande, a Pirelli cableman, wrote a story on this, also organizing a portfolio with seventy-two images. The two sources, belonging respectively to the Archivio Storico Pirelli and the Biblioteca Sormani, are published for the first time, with a selection of thirty-six images of the last one.

  10. Il Geoportale della Lombardia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donata Del Puppo

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Lombardy Geoportal Region Lombardy is setting up the regional SDI in the INSPIRE perspective, involving both local Public Administrations and the private sector in the process of disseminating and sharing the geographic data and services available in Lombardy. The access point of the regional SDI is the Lombardy Geoportal, a Web place where users can publish or search for geographic data, applications and services, view maps, download data and share their geographic knowledge. The Lombardy Geoportal has been implemented by customizing the ESRI GIS Portal Toolkit, in order to be compliant with the Italian and the INSPIRE needs; The Geoportal is built on top of REGIS, the Regional Enterprise platform for Geographic Information Services, which consists of an technological infrastructure (based on ESRI Enterprise components and basic services to build up geographic solutions.

  11. IL-6 enhances plasma IL-1ra, IL-10, and cortisol in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steensberg, Adam; Fischer, Christian Philip; Keller, Charlotte

    2003-01-01

    compared with saline infusion. In addition, C-reactive protein increased 3 h post-rhIL-6 infusion and was further elevated 16 h later compared with saline infusion. rhIL-6 induced increased levels of plasma cortisol and, consequently, an increase in circulating neutrophils and a decrease in the lymphocyte......-alpha, enhances the levels not only of IL-1ra but also of IL-10. Furthermore, IL-6 induces an increase in cortisol and, consequently, in neutrocytosis and late lymphopenia to the same magnitude and with the same kinetics as during exercise, suggesting that muscle-derived IL-6 has a central role in exercise...

  12. Study on the aqueous humor contents of IL-1β and IL-6 in rabbits after extracapsular extraction of lens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Jun

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To explore the relationship between the development of posterior capsular opacification and the aqueous humor contents of IL-1β and IL-6 after extracapsular extraction of lens in rabbits. Methods: Extracapsular extraction of lens was performed in 30 New Zealand rabbits. Aqueous humor contents of IL-1β and IL-6 were repeatedly determined with RIA and ophthal-moscopic as well as slit-lamp examination were repeatedly performed to detect any posterior capsular opacification developed on dl, d3, 1w, 2w, 1 month, 3 month posteperatively. Results: The aqueous humor contents of IL-1β and IL-6 increased gradually after operation, reached the peak on d7-d14, then gradually returned to within normal range by 2nd or 3rd month. Beginning from one month post-operatively, posterior capsular opacification was observed in some rabbits. By the end of 3rd month, Grade I opacification was developed in 5 rabbits, Grade H in 9 rabbits with Grade III (fundus view obliterated) in 14 rabbits. Peak IL-1β and IL- 6 content values were positively correlated with grading of future opacification. Conclusion: IL-1β and IL-6 might play important roles in the development of posterior capsular opacification after lens extraction in rabbits. (authors)

  13. IL-33 Enhanced the Proliferation and Constitutive Production of IL-13 and IL-5 by Fibrocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hisako Hayashi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Interleukin-33 appears to play important roles in the induction of allergic airway inflammation. However, whether IL-33 is involved in airway remodeling remains unclear. Because fibrocytes contribute to tissue remodeling in the setting of chronic inflammation, we examined the effects of IL-33 on fibrocyte functions. Fibrocytes were generated in vitro from peripheral blood mononuclear cells by culturing in the presence of platelet derived growth factors and the cells were stimulated with IL-33. IL-33 enhanced cell proliferation, α-SMA expression, and pro-MMP-9 activity by the fibrocytes without increasing endogenous transforming growth factor-β1 production. Fibrocytes constitutively expressed IL-13 and IL-5, and their production was augmented by stimulation with IL-33. Dexamethasone inhibited the functions of fibrocytes, but IL-33 made fibrocytes slightly refractory to the inhibitory effect of dexamethasone in terms of IL-13 production. Montelukast suppressed IL-13 production by nonstimulated fibrocytes but not those stimulated by IL-33. These findings suggest that IL-33 is involved in the airway remodeling process through its modulation of fibrocyte function independent of antigen stimulation. IL-33 might partially reduce the therapeutic effects of glucocorticoid and cysteinyl leukotriene receptor antagonist on fibrocyte-mediated Th2 responses.

  14. Lower C-reactive protein and IL-6 associated with vegetarian diets are mediated by BMI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaceldo-Siegl, K; Haddad, E; Knutsen, S; Fan, J; Lloren, J; Bellinger, D; Fraser, G E

    2018-03-13

    The mechanism by which vegetarian diets are associated with less inflammation is not clear. We investigated the role of BMI as a mediator in the relationship between vegetarian diet and concentrations of C-reactive protein (CRP), and the cytokines IL-6, IL-10 and TNF-α. We used data from participants of the Adventist Health Study 2 (AHS-2) Calibration (n = 893) and Biological Manifestations of Religion (n = 478) sub-studies. Vegetarian diet variations were determined based on reported intake of animal products assessed by FFQ. Combining all participants, the proportion of non-vegetarians (NVs), partial vegetarians (PVs), lacto-ovo vegetarians (LOVs), and strict vegetarians (SVs) was 44%, 16%, 31%, and 9%, respectively. NV and PV participants were older than other dietary groups, and non-vegetarians had the highest BMI. Mediation analyses supported the mediating effect of BMI in associations of vegetarian diet with CRP (p vegetarian diet and the biomarkers IL-10 and TNF-α. A direct pathway was significant only in the association between strict vegetarians and CRP (p = 0.017). The lower CRP and IL-6 concentrations among vegetarians may be mediated by BMI. Copyright © 2018 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition, and the Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. La camorra e il caso Cirillo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A cura di Sarah Mazzenzana

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available La sezione “Storia e Memoria” offre una selezione di brani tratti dal “Rapporto sulla Camorra” redatto dalla Commissione Parlamentare Antimafia nel 1993. Per la prima volta nella storia la Commissione rivolge la sua attenzione specificamente alla Camorra, fenomeno criminale fino a quel momento sottovalutato. Pubblichiamo qui la terza parte del rapporto, la quale offre uno spaccato degli eventi che hanno permesso la crescita imprenditoriale della Camorra: la ricostruzione delle aree colpite dal terremoto dell’Irpinia del 1980, l’ascesa della Nuova Camorra Organizzata di Raffaele Cutolo e infine il sequestro dell’allora assessore regionale ai lavori pubblici, Ciro Cirillo, episodio che sconvolse la politica e le istituzioni mettendone a nudo le complicità. Parole chiave: camorra; Commissione Parlamentare Antimafia; terremoto; sequestro Cirillo; imprenditoria The section “History and Memory” reports a selection of excerpts from the “Rapporto sulla Camorra”, issued by the Italian Parliamentary Anti-Mafia Commission in 1993. For the first time in its history, the Parliamentary Anti-Mafia Commission drew its attention specifically on a phenomenon which until that moment had been understimated. This document offers a significant  and thorough  understanding of the Camorra by dealing with the historical events that allowed the Campania criminal organisation’s entrepreneurial development, including the building reconstruction of the areas hit by the 1980 Irpinia earthquake , the growth of the Nuova Camorra Organizzata and the kidnapping of politician Ciro Cirillo.  Keywords: camorra; Italian Parliamentary Anti-mafia Commission; earthquake; Cirillo kidnapping; enterprise

  16. Premi letterari e traduzioni (1990-2012: il caso Spagna-Italia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Cattaneo

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In un contesto globalizzato, in cui l’industria culturale iberica e l’editoria italiana sono state al centro di cambi epocali che le hanno convertite in vasi comunicanti soggetti alle leggi dell’economia mondiale e della società dello spettacolo, può essere utile analizzare come le case editrici della nostra penisola abbiano accolto, negli ultimi vent’anni (dal 1990 al 2012, gli autori e i libri vincitori e finalisti di cinque storici premi letterari spagnoli (il Nadal, il Planeta, il Premio Herralde de Novela, il Nacional de Narrativa e il Nacional de la Crítica poiché, a partire da un quadro d’insieme delle opere tradotte, è possibile, basandosi sulle trame dei volumi e sulle pubblicazioni in lingua italiana che hanno preceduto o seguito la loro stampa, elaborare congetture in merito alle linee guida recentemente adottate da un buon numero di editori nostrani e, al contempo, stilare bilanci riguardo all’impatto della narrativa spagnola nell’attuale mercato librario italiano. In a globalized world, both Spanish and Italian publishing industries have been subjected to radical changes that transformed them into communicating vessels prone to economic laws and dependant on the mechanisms of the society of the spectacle. In such a context, it would be useful to analyse the interest showed in the last twenty years (from 1990 to 2012 by Italian publishing houses towards writers and books distinguished with some of the most notorious Spanish literary awards (Nadal, Planeta, Herralde de Novela, Nacional de Narrativa, Nacional de la Crítica. In this way, starting from a brief abstract of the awarded plots and from an overview of the existing Italian translations of their authors, it would be possible to conjecture some of the recent guidelines followed by Italian publishers and, at the same time, thus would allow us to evaluate the impact of Spanish narrative in our book market.

  17. The Italian hydrogen programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raffaele Vellone

    2001-01-01

    Hydrogen could become an important option in the new millennium. It provides the potential for a sustainable energy system as it can be used to meet most energy needs without harming the environment. In fact, hydrogen has the potential for contributing to the reduction of climate-changing emissions and other air pollutants as it exhibits clean combustion with no carbon or sulphur oxide emissions and very low nitrogen oxide emissions. Furthermore, it is capable of direct conversion to electricity in systems such as fuel cells without generating pollution. However, widespread use of hydrogen is not feasible today because of economic and technological barriers. In Italy, there is an ongoing national programme to facilitate the introduction of hydrogen as an energy carrier. This programme aims to promote, in an organic frame, a series of actions regarding the whole hydrogen cycle. It foresees the development of technologies in the areas of production, storage, transport and utilisation. Research addresses the development of technologies for separation and sequestration of CO 2 , The programme is shared by public organisations (research institutions and universities) and national industry (oil companies, electric and gas utilities and research institutions). Hydrogen can be used as a fuel, with significant advantages, both for electric energy generation/ co-generation (thermo-dynamic cycles and fuel cells) and transportation (internal combustion engine and fuel cells). One focus of research will be the development of fuel cell technologies. Fuel cells possess all necessary characteristics to be a key technology in a future economy based on hydrogen. During the initial phase of the project, hydrogen will be derived from fossil sources (natural gas), and in the second phase it will be generated from renewable electricity or nuclear energy. The presentation will provide a review of the hydrogen programme and highlight future goals. (author)

  18. Healthy migrants but unhealthy offspring? A retrospective cohort study among Italians in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarnutzer, Silvan; Bopp, Matthias

    2012-12-22

    In many countries, migrants from Italy form a substantial, well-defined group with distinct lifestyle and dietary habits. There is, however, hardly any information about all-cause mortality patterns among Italian migrants and their offspring. In this paper, we compare Italian migrants, their offspring and Swiss nationals. We compared age-specific and age-standardized mortality rates and hazard ratios (adjusted for education, marital status, language region and period) for Swiss and Italian nationals registered in the Swiss National Cohort (SNC), living in the German- or French-speaking part of Switzerland and falling into the age range 40-89 during the observation period 1990-2008. Overall, 3,175,288 native Swiss (48% male) and 224,372 individuals with an Italian migration background (57% male) accumulated 698,779 deaths and 44,836,189 person-years. Individuals with Italian background were categorized by nationality, country of birth and language. First-generation Italians had lower mortality risks than native Swiss (reference group), but second-generation Italians demonstrated higher mortality risks. Among first-generation Italians, predominantly Italian-speaking men and women had hazard ratios (HRs) of 0.89 (95% CI: 0.88-0.91) and 0.90 (0.87-0.92), respectively, while men and women having adopted the regional language had HRs of 0.93 (0.88-0.98) and 0.96 (0.88-1.04), respectively. Among second-generation Italians, the respective HRs were 1.16 (1.03-1.31), 1.06 (0.89-1.26), 1.10 (1.05-1.16) and 0.97 (0.89-1.05). The mortality advantage of first-generation Italians decreased with age. The mortality risks of first- and second-generation Italians vary substantially. The healthy migrant effect and health disadvantage among second-generation Italians show characteristic age/sex patterns. Future investigation of health behavior and cause-specific mortality is needed to better understand different mortality risks. Such insights will facilitate adequate prevention and

  19. Healthy migrants but unhealthy offspring? A retrospective cohort study among Italians in Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarnutzer Silvan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In many countries, migrants from Italy form a substantial, well-defined group with distinct lifestyle and dietary habits. There is, however, hardly any information about all-cause mortality patterns among Italian migrants and their offspring. In this paper, we compare Italian migrants, their offspring and Swiss nationals. Methods We compared age-specific and age-standardized mortality rates and hazard ratios (adjusted for education, marital status, language region and period for Swiss and Italian nationals registered in the Swiss National Cohort (SNC, living in the German- or French-speaking part of Switzerland and falling into the age range 40–89 during the observation period 1990–2008. Overall, 3,175,288 native Swiss (48% male and 224,372 individuals with an Italian migration background (57% male accumulated 698,779 deaths and 44,836,189 person-years. Individuals with Italian background were categorized by nationality, country of birth and language. Results First-generation Italians had lower mortality risks than native Swiss (reference group, but second-generation Italians demonstrated higher mortality risks. Among first-generation Italians, predominantly Italian-speaking men and women had hazard ratios (HRs of 0.89 (95% CI: 0.88-0.91 and 0.90 (0.87-0.92, respectively, while men and women having adopted the regional language had HRs of 0.93 (0.88-0.98 and 0.96 (0.88-1.04, respectively. Among second-generation Italians, the respective HRs were 1.16 (1.03-1.31, 1.06 (0.89-1.26, 1.10 (1.05-1.16 and 0.97 (0.89-1.05. The mortality advantage of first-generation Italians decreased with age. Conclusions The mortality risks of first- and second-generation Italians vary substantially. The healthy migrant effect and health disadvantage among second-generation Italians show characteristic age/sex patterns. Future investigation of health behavior and cause-specific mortality is needed to better understand different mortality risks

  20. The Italian Dementia National Plan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Di Fiandra

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Italian Dementia National Plan was formulated in October 2014 by the Italian Ministry of Health in close cooperation with the regions, the National Institute of Health and the three major national associations of patients and carers. The main purpose of this strategy was to provide directive indications for promoting and improving interventions in the dementia field, not limiting to specialist and therapeutic actions, but particularly focusing on the support of patients and families throughout the pathways of care. Four main objectives are indicated: 1 promote health- and social-care interventions and policies; 2 create/strengthen the integrated network of services for dementia based on an integrated approach; 3 implement strategies for promoting appropriateness and quality of care; and 4 improve the quality of life of persons with dementia and their families by supporting empowerment and stigma reduction. These objectives and the pertaining actions are described in the present paper.

  1. Italian energy scenarios comparative evaluations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contaldi, Mario

    2005-01-01

    This paper reviews some representative scenarios of the evolution of the Italian primary energy consumption, updated recently. After an overview of the main macroeconomics assumptions the scenario results are cross checked at sectorial level, with a brief discussion of the underlining data and energy intensity trends. The emissions of CO 2 , SO 2 and NO x resulting from the considered scenarios are also reported and discussed [it

  2. Plutonium contamination in italian population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cave-Bondi, G.; Merli, S.; Rogo, M.; Sgarbazzini, M.; Clemente, G.F.; Mancini, L.; Santori, G.; Tardella, Q.

    1983-01-01

    The literature data concerning the biological and the chemical physical characteristics of plutonium are summarized in the first part of the paper. The experimental results of the plutonium concentration in complete diets, single food items and some human autopsy tissues, regarding the Italian situation, are then presented and discussed. Our experimental data are in good agreement with similar data reported in several studies carried out in some countries of the north emisphere

  3. The new Italian IVF legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benagiano, Giuseppe; Gianaroli, Luca

    2004-08-01

    Last February, the Italian Parliament gave final approval to a new Law regulating assisted reproduction technology. The new legislation fell short of the expectations of infertile couples and of all specialists in the field. There are three problems with the new Italian law; they involve social issues, human rights and the application of technology. The present paper focuses on the fact that the new rules infringe upon basic human rights and the proper application of IVF technology, because they mandate procedures that are against the best interest of the woman seeking pregnancy. The main point of controversy is the combination of a mandatory limit of three embryos for transfer, and an obligation to reimplant all produced embryos; cryopreservation of excess embryos is prohibited. Obviously, this decreases the chances of most women to achieve pregnancy, while at the same time it increases the number and complexity of procedures they need to undergo and may expose some to an unacceptable increase in the risk of multiple pregnancy. The new law is inspired by the desire to protect every newly produced embryo; this is a commendable aim, although it is in total opposition to a law passed over 25 years ago that liberalized voluntary termination of first trimester pregnancies. This means that today Italy has a law that protects every early, pre-implantation embryo, and another that allows the 'suppression' of every post-implantation one. From a technical point of view, given the low level of human fecundity, the only way to prevent the 'loss' of even one preimplantation embryo is to simply ban IVF altogether, an option that Italian legislators obviously did not have the courage to opt for. The tragedy is that Italian infertile couples are now confronted with new rules that not only severely limit the ability of physicians to correctly apply IVF technology, but are so confused that, depending on the interpretation, anyone may try to nullify the main ideological premise upon

  4. Neoliberty & co. The Architectural Review against 1950s Italian historicism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel López Segura

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available AbstractBuilding upon the Neoliberty polemics (second half of the 1950s, this article offers a revision of the debate on the historicity of architecture that opposed distinguished Italian and British intellectual circles. While the Italian contribution has been extensively analyzed, the existing literature has not dwelt on the reasons why the British refused any operative recovery of history; a gap this article intends to fi ll. From a methodological point of view, given the media nature of the debate, our analysis has been mainly textual, and has focused on the two journals that channelled the exchanges: the Milanese Casabella and the London based Architectural Review. The article is equally of interest as it explores an early episode which already announced two of the paths the architecture of the following decades would follow: postmodern historicism and high-tech.The reasons for the misunderstanding were of diverse nature. First, the different urban cultures present in one country and the other would explain the diverging esteem for the paradoxically Cosmopolitan provincialism of Milan and Turin, admirer of XIXth century bourgeois urbanity. Moreover, Reyner Banham from the English magazine was determined to promote contemporary architecture that would follow the postulates of his beloved Futurism: rejection of tradition and technological assimilation. However, a calm reading of his writings reveals that his antihistoricist stance was not as extreme as is usually believed.The role played by J. M. Richards, editor of Architectural Review, is more problematic. Though he shared many concerns with his Italian counterparts, he did not appease the virulence of the campaign his journal headed. Finally, Nikolaus Pevsner's historiographical project differed from the one the Italians fostered, regarding interpretative keys and methods. The Italian research followed the steps of Benedetto Croce, a position hardly attuned to the Anglo-German historian

  5. Language Policy and Planning: The Case of Italian Sign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geraci, Carlo

    2012-01-01

    Italian Sign Language (LIS) is the name of the language used by the Italian Deaf community. The acronym LIS derives from Lingua italiana dei segni ("Italian language of signs"), although nowadays Italians refers to LIS as Lingua dei segni italiana, reflecting the more appropriate phrasing "Italian sign language." Historically,…

  6. Il GEOatleta moderno

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Bartoli

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Nell'ultimo decennio gli straordinari sforzi tecnologici hanno evoluto il settore geomatico e portato enormi vantaggi nell'ambito dei cosiddetti servizi a valore aggiunto. Tuttavia la svalutazione commerciale del sistema di navigazione satellitare ha fatto del navigatore un oggetto di uso comune, quasi alla pari del più quotato telefono cellulare. Scemata la corsa al cellulare più modaiolo è subentrata quella al navigatore satellitare più tecnologico con cartografia e punti di interesse più aggiornati. E' assai frequente trovare commercializzazioni degli operatori di telefonia che unisconoal dispositivo mobile il sistema di navigazione, grazie anche apolitiche di businness agreement tra le varie major. L'utilizzo dei dispositivi GPS è davvero ancora arenato alla semplice ricerca di un percorso o di un indirizzo da raggiungere? L'usodi tali apparecchiature può inserirsi all'interno di target quali l'intrattenimento e le attività ricreative? Negli ultimi anni stiamo riscoprendo la bellezza della natura e il piacere di dedicarci ad una serie di attività sportive outdoor che ci conciliano con essa, unendo ai benefici della mente quelli del corpo derivanti da una corretta sollecitazione della propria frequenza cardiaca. Questa mia relazione vuole essere un diario di viaggio nelle quotidiane attività all'aria aperta di un atleta non professionista, praticate durante le quattro stagioni sfruttando le tecnologie legate alla triangolazione satellitare.

  7. Italian translation and cross-cultural comparison with the Childhood Attachment and Relational Trauma Screen (CARTS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonelli, A; Sacchi, C; Cantoni, L; Brown, M; Frewen, P

    2017-01-01

    students in both attachment and abuse scales. Future studies to investigate cross-cultural variations in the relational context of childhood abuse and in order to boost Italian CARTS psychometric features are warranted.

  8. Il muro nella mente:

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Concilio

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A 78 anni, Nadine Gordimer, premio Nobel per la letteratura nel 1991, è infaticabile: il suo ultimo romanzo The Pick up è stato pubblicato negli Stati Uniti e in Inghilterra, dove ha ricevuto però tiepida accoglienza,e ora anche in Italia1. Alcuni mesi fa, tuttavia, Nadine Gordimer veniva ricordata dai giornali per un’impresa non letteraria: si tratta di un film-documentario dal titolo Johannesburg-Berlin, The Wall in the Mind, che Gordimer ha scritto e che ha girato con suo figlio, Hugo Cassirer, nel 1995-1996.

  9. Il bilinguismo disegnato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graziella Favaro

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Il tema della diversità linguistica e del riconoscimento e della valorizzazione delle forme di bilinguismo dei bambini e dei ragazzi è cruciale nella scuola multiculturale e plurilingue. Ma quale rappresentazione della “mente bilingue” hanno i parlanti una o più lingue? Come immaginano la testa di chi e bilingue e dove collocano le diverse parole? Abbiamo chiesto agli alunni, piccoli e grandi, di alcune scuole di “disegnare il bilinguismo”: emergono in maniera vivida i “posti” diversi in cui le lingue si installano, i dubbi e le spiegazioni dei bambini, la necessità del controllo e la coloritura affettiva dell’uno e dell’altro idioma.  Drawing bilingualism The theme of linguistic diversity and the recognition and appreciation of forms of bilingualism in children and young people is crucial in a multilingual, multicultural school environment. But how do speakers of one or more languages imagine a “bilingual mind”? How do they imagine a bilingual person’s head and where are the different words located? We asked school children to “draw bilingualism”. The “placement” of the different languages, the children’s doubts and explanations and their need to check and the affective coloring of one and the other language emerged.

  10. Il Geoportale della Lombardia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donata Del Puppo

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Lombardy GeoportalRegion Lombardy is setting up the regional SDI in the INSPIRE perspective, involving both local Public Administrations and the private sector in the process of disseminating and sharing the geographic data and services available in Lombardy. The access point of the regional SDI is the Lombardy Geoportal, a Web place where users can publish or search for geographic data, applications and services, view maps, download data and share their geographic knowledge. The Lombardy Geoportal has been implemented by customizing the ESRI GIS Portal Toolkit, in order to be compliant with the Italian and the INSPIRE needs; The Geoportal is built on top of REGIS, the Regional Enterprise platform for Geographic Information Services, which consists of an technological infrastructure (based on ESRI Enterprise components and basic services to build up geographic solutions. 

  11. Radon risk in the house; Il rischio radon nelle abitazioni

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bressa, G. [Padua Univ., Padua (Italy). Dipt. di Farmacologia e Anestesiologia, Lab. di Tossicologia

    2001-04-01

    Radon was discovered in 1900, but its potential dangerousness for man was fully understood only in 1950. Being a radioactive natural gas - and therefore particularly dangerous - radon results from the long decay chain of radionuclides, such as thorium and radium. Some igneous rocks (granite, tufa and lava) as well as coal are considered to be the main sources of this radionuclide. A number of epidemiologic studies have shown the carcinogenicity of this element, particularly among miners and workers subjected to high level exposure in confined spaces such as basements, garages, cellars, etc. There are, however, some techniques to remove radon in order to reduce exposure to minimum values. [Italian] Il radon fu scoperto nel 1900, ma solo nel 1950 si comprese la sua potenziale pericolosita' per l'uomo. Il radon e' particolarmente pericoloso essendo un gas naturale radioattivo. Esso proviene dalla lunga catena di decadimento di radionuclidi come il torio e di radio. Sorgenti di tale radionuclide sono da considerarsi principalmente alcune rocce ignee (graniti, tufi e lave) e il carbone. Diversi studi epidemiologici hanno evidenziato la cancerogenicita' di tale elemento, specie tra i minatori e soggetti esposti ad alti livelli in ambienti confinati quali scantinati, garage sotterranei, ecc.. Esistono comunque tecniche di intervento per la rimozione del gas radon in modo tale da ridurre l'esposizione a valori minimi.

  12. Clinical significance of determination of changes of serum IL-6, IL-8, IL-10 and IL-18 levels after treatment in patients with chronic renal diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Congjiang; Li Fen; Zhang Lei; Liu Jianhua

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To explore the changes of serum IL-6, IL-8, IL-10 and IL-18 levels after treatment in patients with chronic renal diseases. Methods: Serum IL-6, IL-8, IL-10 levels were determined with RIA and IL-18 levels with ELISA in 32 patients with chronic renal diseases both before and after treatment as well as in 35 controls. Results: Before treatment the serum IL -6, IL-8, IL-10 and IL-18 levels were significantly higher in the patients than those in controls (P<0.01). After 6 months of treatment, the levels though dropped markedly remained significantly higher (P<0.05). Conclusion: Levels of serum IL-6, IL- 8, IL-10 and IL-18 increased significantly in patients with chronic renal diseases, especially in those advanced cases. (authors)

  13. Il volgare e il principe. Politica culturale e questione della lingua alla corte di Cosimo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margherita Quaglino

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Il principato di Cosimo I rappresenta un periodo di snodo fondamentale per la questione della lingua italiana. Il contributo ripercorre la bibliografia degli ultimi vent’anni con l’intento di definirne le principali traiettorie e individuarne l’originalità e le prospettive future rispetto agli studi precedenti. Sono esaminati in particolare gli studi relativi all’opera di Benedetto Varchi e Vincenzio Borghini; ai volgarizzamenti di Giovan Battista Gelli e Cosimo Bartoli; alla redazione e all’edizione delle Vite di Vasari e al rapporto tra letterati e artisti nella celebrazione del potere.

  14. Autonomy, responsibility and the Italian Code of Deontology for Nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barazzetti, Gaia; Radaelli, Stefania; Sala, Roberta

    2007-01-01

    This article is a first assessment of the Italian Code of deontology for nurses (revised in 1999) on the basis of data collected from focus groups with nurses taking part in the Ethical Codes in Nursing (ECN) project. We illustrate the professional context in which the Code was introduced and explain why the 1999 revision was necessary in the light of changes affecting the Italian nursing profession. The most remarkable findings concern professional autonomy and responsibility, and how the Code is thought of as a set of guidelines for nursing practice. We discuss these issues, underlining that the 1999 Code represents a valuable instrument for ethical reflection and examination, a stimulus for putting the moral sense of the nursing profession into action, and that it represents a new era for professional nursing practice in Italy. The results of the analysis also deserve further qualitative study and future consideration.

  15. Internalization of interleukin 1 (IL 1) correlates with IL 1-induced IL 2 receptor expression and IL 2 secretion of EL4 thymoma cells

    OpenAIRE

    Von Hoegen, I.; Falk, Werner; Kojouharoff, G.; Krammer, P. H.

    1989-01-01

    The cytokine interleukin 1 (IL 1) plays an important role in the induction of IL 2 secretion and high-affinity IL 2 receptor (IL 2R) expression by T cells. The events that follow binding of IL 1 to IL 1R, however, are still unknown. In this study we describe two variants of the murine thymoma EL4 (5D3 and D6/76) that express comparable numbers of cell surface IL 1 receptors and bind IL 1 with the same affinity, but show distinct IL 1-dependent IL 2 secretion and IL 2R expression. In the prese...

  16. Il danno alla persona del lavoratore: il mobbing orizzontale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Gentile

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Sommario:1. Il mobbing tra diritto civile e diritto del lavoro – 2. Il fenomeno mobbing: gli studi iniziali e la definizione – 3. Le concrete condotte integranti fattispecie di mobbing – 4. Onere della prova – 5. Il mobbing orizzontale – 6. L’elemento soggettivo di colpevolezza del da­tore di lavoro nella responsabilità ex art. 2087 c.c. per mobbing orizzontale

  17. Environmental impact of heavy metals. Vanadium; Impatto ambientale da metalli pesanti. Il vanadio (V)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bressa, G. (comp.)

    2001-09-01

    In this paper is presented the environmental impact of vanadium production, environmental distribution biological accumulation are reported. [Italian] Il vanadio (V) e' un metallo scarsamente presente in natura, classificandosi al 21mo posto dopo l'arsenico per abbondanza nella crosta terrestre. Tuttavia e' rinvenibile nell'atmosfera di aree industrializzate dove si utilizzano il carbone fossile e l'olio combustibile. Infatti fonti principali di inquinamento ambientale sono costituiti dai greggi petroliferi che contengono in soluzione una serie di metalli tra cui il vanadio. Per inalazione di polveri contenenti V si hanno generalmente effetti sull'apparato respiratorio con irritazione nasale ed epistassi, bronchiti ed enfisema polmonare, mentre a livello nervoso si manifestano effetti neurotossici sul centro vasomotori e sul controllo nervoso della contrazione cardiaca, con riduzione complessiva della funzionalita' cardica. Recentemente e' stato osservato che il V esercita effetti allergici ed infiammatori.

  18. More efficient services with the new EMAS; Piu' possibilita' per i servizi con il nuovo EMAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luciani, R; Andriola, L [ENEA, Casaccia, RM (Italy). Dipt. Ambiente

    1999-12-01

    The article discusses the new EMAS regulations, which are also applicable in the service sector. It has been described the pilot projects launched by ENEA (National Agency for New Technology, Energy and the Environment) in collaboration with the Ministry of Industry, Federturismo, Ministry of Environmental and the municipality of Modena, in the hotel sector and in public administration. [Italian] L'articolo discute il nuovo regolamanto EMAS che estende l'applicazione della certificazione ambientale anche all'area dei servizi. Si descrivono i progetti che l'ENEA ha condotto in collaborazione con il Ministero dell'Industria, il Ministero dell'Ambiente, Federturismo e il comune di Modena nel settore alberghiero e nella pubblica amministrazione.

  19. Il bizzarro mondo dei quanti

    CERN Document Server

    Camejo, Silvia Arroyo

    2008-01-01

    Scritto prima dell'esame di maturità da una giovane di eccezionale talento, questo libro colma il vuoto esistente tra la letteratura divulgativa sulla fisica quantistica, che normalmente evita ogni formula matematica, e la letteratura specialistica, ben farcita, invece, di matematica avanzata. L'autrice, appena diciannovenne, con l'ausilio della sola matematica della scuola superiore, introduce il lettore ai principi della fisica dei quanti. Se ne ricava uno sguardo profondo sul microcosmo, il regno affascinante delle particelle elementari: oggetti il cui comportamento si distingue in modo drastico e fondamentale da tutto ciò a cui è avvezzo il nostro umano buonsenso. "Un libro... che avrei desiderato avere a 17 anni". Silvia Arroyo Camejo "In modo assolutamente preciso dal punto di vista fisico, l'autrice spiega con grande passione e divertimento i fondamenti della moderna fisica quantistica ... " Prof. Reinhold A. Bertlmann "Un libro stupefacente di un'autrice straordinaria! Si avverte il suo entusiasmo ...

  20. Il paesaggio dell’architettura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Zermani

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available l saggio si articola come un’itinerario tra alcuni progetti italiani proposti come “occasioni di applicazione di un modo d’intendere l’architettura nel rapporto con il paesaggio smarrito, che cambia, ma potrebbe custodire ancora i valori di ciò che Heidegger definiva il “soggiorno”: la riconoscibilità intesa come misura”. Le architetture, come strumenti di conoscenza dello spazio, entrano nel paesaggio per diventarne speciali “misuratori”.Partendo dai luoghi del paesaggio padano, Noceto, con il Nuovo Municipio, con la minimale Cappella della Madonna, con il Padiglione privato, e Varano, con la Casa dal grande occhio spalancato sul bosco, alle terre umbre, con la Chiesa ed il Centro Parrocchiale di Perugia ed il Cimitero di Sansepolcro, si propone un percorso di ricerca di una identità dell’architettura italiana contemporanea nella dimensione paesaggistica. 

  1. Mimesis e il giallo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minne de Boer

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Recensione di: Ilaria Marzia Orsini, Donne in giallo: la detective story tra genere e gender, Milano/Udine, Mimesis/DeGenere – USB Ultra Slim Books, 2014, 128 p., ISBN: 97888575245680, € 11,00. Bruna Durante, Specchio delle mie trame: la vita secondo dieci scrittori italiani. Con interviste a Eraldo Baldini, Gianni Biondillo, Giancarlo De Cataldo, Giorgio Faletti, Marcello Fois, Carlo Lucarelli, Raul Montanari, Santo Piazzese, Andrea G. Pinketts, Gaetano Savatteri, Milano/Udine, Mimesis/DeGenere, 2014, 180 p., ISBN: 9788857518176, € 13,60.Carlo Oliva, Giallo popolare: il poliziesco alla radio, a cura di Nicoletta Di Ciolla e Nicoletta Vallorani, Milano/Udine, Mimesis/DeGenere, 2013, 150 p., ISBN: 9788857518183, € 12,00.

  2. Il GEOatleta moderno

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Bartoli

    2006-12-01

    di tali apparecchiature può inserirsi all'interno di target quali l'intrattenimento e le attività ricreative? Negli ultimi anni stiamo riscoprendo la bellezza della natura e il piacere di dedicarci ad una serie di attività sportive outdoor che ci conciliano con essa, unendo ai benefici della mente quelli del corpo derivanti da una corretta sollecitazione della propria frequenza cardiaca. Questa mia relazione vuole essere un diario di viaggio nelle quotidiane attività all'aria aperta di un atleta non professionista, praticate durante le quattro stagioni sfruttando le tecnologie legate alla triangolazione satellitare.

  3. Il cumulo dei redditi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. BARATTIERI

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available L’imposizione dei redditi familiari è diffusa nella maggior parte dei paesi sviluppati, seppure con varianti profondamente diverse per mitigare l’onere. La tassazione separata è in vigore solo in Canada, Grecia e Nuova Zelanda, on chè , tra i paesi latini, in Argentina. Non sempre però la tassazione separata risulta più favorevole, in quanto alcune forme peculiari del cumulo, quali “splitting” ed il quoziente familiare, consentono un trattamento preferenziale per le famiglie rispetto ai nn coniugati. I vantaggi del quoziente familiare sono ancora maggiori , specie per le famiglie numerose, e questo sembra anacronistico in un momento in cui vi è larga convergenza d’opinioni sull’opportunità di non incoraggiare l’espansione demografica.

  4. The carrying out process of Kyoto Protocol in Italy. Methods, scenarios and policy evaluation; Il processo di attuazione del Protocollo di Kyoto in Italia. Metodi, scenari e valutazione di politiche e misure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menna, P.; Tosato, G.C.; Parenti, A.; Santi, F.; Simbolotti, G.; Presutto, M.; Dalla Costa, M.; Colosimo, A. [ENEA, Rome (Italy); Bonanni, P.; Contaldi, M.; De Lauretis, R. [Agenzia Nazionale per la Protezione dell' Ambiente, Rome (Italy)

    2000-07-01

    This paper reports some technical contributes related to the Kyoto Protocol and its application in Italian decision making policy. [Italian] Il presente volume raccoglie una decina di contributi tecnici originariamente preparati o commissionati dall'ENEA, Ente Nazionale per le Nuove Tecnologie, l'Energia e l'Ambiente, in vista della Conferenza Nazionale Energia e Ambiente. Questa fotografia di una situazione in rapida evoluzione e' stata preparata da esperti del settore che contribuiscono a redigere il materiale tecnico di base utilizzato dai negoziatori nazionali durante le trattative internazionali e dai responsabili nazionali per avviare il processo di presa di decisioni in materia.

  5. Händel- Italian Cantatas

    OpenAIRE

    Larjamo, Suvi

    2010-01-01

    Työni tarkoituksena oli esitellä kaksi Händelin hyvin erilaista ja harvoin esitettyä kantaatti hänen Italian-ajaltaan, sekä tulkita erilaisia affekteja, joita kantaateista löytyi. Valitsemani kantaatit olivat: Tra le fiamme, sekä Dietro l’ormi fugaci (Armida abbandonata). Tutkimuksessa selvitin säveltäjän elämää kantaattien sävellysvuosina ja perehdyin asioihin, jotka mielestäni ovat vaikuttaneet teosten syntyyn, sekä asioihin, jotka auttoivat minua tulkitsemaan hänen musiikkiaan paremmin. ...

  6. Competition Advocacy: the Italian Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Rebecchini

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Competition advocacy is considered, together with enforcement, the core business of an antitrust authority. Broadly speaking there are at least three main tasks regularly performed by most, if not all, antitrust agencies that are amenable to the advocacy function: addressing laws and regulations in order to remove unnecessary impediments to competition; engaging in sector enquiries to understand markets behavior and identify critical issues; explaining the benefits of open competitive markets to the public opinion. This article examines these three main tasks and outlines the challenges for competition agencies, with references to the experience of the Italian Competition Authority (ICA and the initiatives undertaken at international level.

  7. Status report on Italian activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavoni, R.

    1999-01-01

    The main features of the Italian energy supply situation is shown. Primary energy demand increased by 2.7% while the total final consumption was mainly attributed to industry, transport, household and services. Nuclear activities of ENEL were related mostly to nuclear fuel cycle, i.e. processing and disposal of nuclear waste from phased out nuclear power plants. The following nine research programs were foreseen: proton source; low and medium energy accelerator section; high energy accelerator section; neutron production for material characterization; general safety criteria and classification; neutronics and transmutation efficiency; thermal-hydraulic analysis; beam window technology; materials technology

  8. Il fiore e la pietra

    OpenAIRE

    Hirsch, Debora

    2012-01-01

    Il fiore e la pietra è un progetto di scultura urbana per una piazza della città di Torino. Il tema trae la sua prima ispirazione dal fumetto B.C. di Johnny Hart: un fragile fiore dialoga con una pietra. Lʼambiguità tra solidità e fragilità è simbolicamente accostata alla situazione avversa in cui si trova lʼindustria torinese per eccellenza, FIAT, e al problema dei quartieri dormitori. Il contesto nel quale venne realizzato il progetto è tuttora sintomatico di una situazione ...

  9. Role of periostin, FENO, IL-13, lebrikzumab, other IL-13 antagonist and dual IL-4/IL-13 antagonist in asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Swati; Townley, Robert G

    2014-02-01

    Asthma markedly diminishes quality of life due to limited activity, absences from work or school and hospitalizations. Patients with severe asthma which are not controlled despite taking effective therapy are most in need of new treatment approaches. IL-13 was demonstrated as 'central mediator of allergic asthma'. IL-13 has been implicated in the pathogenesis of asthma, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and COPD. IL-13 levels in the sputum and bronchial biopsy samples remain elevated in severe asthma despite the use of inhaled and systemic corticosteroids. Thus, IL-13 is a mediator involved in corticosteroid resistance. Periostin enhances profibrotic TGF-β signaling in subepithelial fibrosis associated with asthma. IL-13 induces bronchial epithelial cells to secrete periostin. Periostin may be a biomarker for Th2 induced airway inflammation. Lebrikizumab is a monoclonal antibody against IL-13. Lebrikizumab improved lung function in asthmatics who were symptomatic despite treatment with long acting beta agonist and inhaled corticosteroids and provided benefit in the treatment of severe uncontrolled asthma. Lebrikizumab block IL-13 signaling through the IL-13Rα1/IL-4Rα receptor. There was a larger reduction in FENO in the high periostin subgroup than in the low periostin subgroup (34.4 vs 4.3%). Serum CCL17, CCL13 and total IgE levels decreased in the lebrikizumab group.

  10. Physicochemical and microbiological characteristics of Italian salami ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the inclusion of different levels of pequi (Caryocar Brasiliense, Cambess) pulp in the processing of Italian salami made of lamb for the evaluation of their physicochemical and microbiological characteristics. Six formulations of Italian salamis were processed: no pequi ...

  11. European energy policy and Italian industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardinale, A.; Verdelli, A.

    2008-01-01

    The competitiveness of the Italian industry is very sensitive to the rising costs of energy. The European energy policy, if intended as an additional constraint, could deteriorate the situation. It could be, however, a good opportunity for the Italian industry to become more independent from fossil fuels, through an innovatory project at country level [it

  12. Cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the Italian Psychosocial Impact of Dental Aesthetics Questionnaire (PIDAQ).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucci, Rosaria; Rongo, Roberto; Zito, Eugenio; Galeotti, Angela; Valletta, Rosa; D'Antò, Vincenzo

    2015-03-01

    To validate and cross-culturally adapt the Italian version of the Psychological Impact of Dental Aesthetics Questionnaire (PIDAQ) among Italian young adults. After translation, back translation, and cross-cultural adaptation of the English PIDAQ, a first version of the Italian questionnaire was pretested. The final Italian PIDAQ was administered to 598 subjects aged 18-30 years, along with two other instruments: the aesthetic component of the index of orthodontic treatment need (IOTN-AC) and the perception of occlusion scale (POS), which identified the self-reporting grade of malocclusion. Structural validity was assessed by means of factorial analysis, internal consistency was measured with Cronbach's alpha coefficient (α), convergent validity was assessed by means of Spearman correlation, and test-retest reliability was calculated with intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) and standard measurement error. Criterion validity was evaluated by multivariate and univariate analysis of variance with Bonferroni post hoc tests. The α of the Italian PIDAQ domains ranged between 0.79 and 0.92. The ICC was between 0.81 and 0.90. The mean scores of each PIDAQ domain showed a statistically significant difference when analysed according to the IOTN-AC and POS scores. The satisfactory psychometric properties make PIDAQ a usable tool for future studies on oral health-related quality of life among Italian young adults.

  13. Epilepsy and vaccinations: Italian guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruna, Dario; Balestri, Paolo; Zamponi, Nelia; Grosso, Salvatore; Gobbi, Giuseppe; Romeo, Antonino; Franzoni, Emilio; Osti, Maria; Capovilla, Giuseppe; Longhi, Riccardo; Verrotti, Alberto

    2013-10-01

    Reports of childhood epilepsies in temporal association with vaccination have had a great impact on the acceptance of vaccination programs by health care providers, but little is known about this possible temporal association and about the types of seizures following vaccinations. For these reasons the Italian League Against Epilepsy (LICE), in collaboration with other Italian scientific societies, has decided to generate Guidelines on Vaccinations and Epilepsy. The aim of Guidelines on Vaccinations and Epilepsy is to present recent unequivocal evidence from published reports on the possible relationship between vaccines and epilepsy in order to provide information about contraindications and risks of vaccinations in patients with epilepsy. The following main issues have been addressed: (1) whether contraindications to vaccinations exist in patients with febrile convulsions, epilepsy, and/or epileptic encephalopathies; and (2) whether any vaccinations can cause febrile seizures, epilepsy, and/or epileptic encephalopathies. Diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) vaccination and measles, mumps, and rubella vaccination (MMR) increase significantly the risk of febrile seizures. Recent observations and data about the relationships between vaccination and epileptic encephalopathy show that some cases of apparent vaccine-induced encephalopathy could in fact be caused by an inherent genetic defect with no causal relationship with vaccination. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2013 International League Against Epilepsy.

  14. Italian experience in gasification plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rinaldi, N.U.

    1991-01-01

    After tracing the historical highlights representing the development of the Fauser (Montecatini) technology based gasification processes for the production of ammonia and methanol, this paper outlines the key design, operation and performance characteristics of the Montecatini (Italy) process plant for heavy liquid hydrocarbons gasification by means of partial auto-thermal combustion with oxygen. The outline makes evident the technical-economical validity of the Montecatini design solutions which include energy recovery (even the heat dispersed through the gasifier walls is recovered and utilized to produce low pressure steam to preheat the fuel oil); reduced oxygen consumption by the high temperature preheating of all reagents; the ecologically compatible elimination of gas black; as well as, desulfurization with materials recovery. The plant process descriptions come complete with flowsheets. While demonstrating that the Italian developed technology is historically well rooted, the Author stresses that the current design versions of Montecatini gasification plants are up to date with innovative solutions, especially, with regard to pollution abatement, and cites the need for a more concerted marketing effort on the part of local industry to help improve the competitiveness of the Italian made product

  15. IL-5 and IL-5 receptor in asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ATC Kotsimbos

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophils, along with mast cells are key cells involved in the innate immune response against parasitic infection whereas the adaptive immune response is largely dependent on lymphocytes. In chronic parasitic disease and in chronic allergic disease, IL-5 is predominantly a T cell derived cytokine which is particularly important for the terminal differentiation, activation and survival of committed eosinophil precursors. The human IL-5 gene is located on chromosome 5 in a gene cluster that contains the evolutionary related IL-4 family of cytokine genes. The human IL-5 receptor complex is a heterodimer consisting of a unique a subunit (predominantly expressed on eosinophils and a beta subunit which is shared between the receptors for IL-3 & GM-CSF (more widely expressed. The a subunit is required for ligand-specific binding whereas association with the beta subunit results in increased binding affinity. The alternative splicing of the alphaIL-5R gene which contains 14 exons can yield several alphaIL-5R isoforms including a membrane-anchored isoform (alphaIL-5Rm and a soluble isoform (alphaIL-5Rs. Cytokines such as IL-5 produce specific and non-specific cellular responses through specific cell membrane receptor mediated activation of intracellular signal transduction pathways which, to a large part, regulate gene expression. The major intracellular signal transduction mechanism is activation of non-receptor associated tyrosine kinases including JAK and MAP kinases which can then transduce signals via a novel family of transcriptional factors named signal transducers and activators of transcription (STATS. JAK2, STAT1 and STAT 5 appear to be particularly important in IL-5 mediated eosinophil responses. Asthma is characterized by episodic airways obstruction, increased bronchial responsiveness, and airway inflammation. Several studies have shown an association between the number of activated T cells and eosinophils in the airways and abnormalities

  16. Italian decommissioning in the post-referendum era

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrazzano, Vincenzo; Scarabotti, Serena

    2012-01-01

    The accident at the TEPCO Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant materially reverberated, with its emotional impact, on the preparation of a new nuclear policy in Italy. Italians, wishing to decide directly on the electric power source for their country, applied for a referendum procedure aimed at abrogating the newly enacted legal framework which would have paved the way for an Italian nuclear renaissance. The referendum on the repeal of nuclear power passed on 12-13 June 2011. In addition to the recent termination of the nuclear programme in Italy, effective by law for five years as a result of this referendum, this aborted renaissance of nuclear energy in Italy requires leaders to make many important decisions including how to set up decommissioning programmes and activities and how to establish a national repository for nuclear waste as envisaged by general European policy on the management of such waste. Leaders must also reach consensus regarding the future of the Italian nuclear safety authority. The purpose of this paper is to explore how the Italian Parliament has reacted to this recent referendum on the future of nuclear energy in Italy by strengthening its focus on the safe management of nuclear waste as part of the decommissioning process. More significantly, this paper will analyse the newly enacted Law No. 27 of 24 March 2012 concerning urgent measures for infrastructure development to enhance the competitiveness of the country. This law derives from a political measure taken by Prime Minister Mario Monti in the context of an economic stimulus programme aimed at improving market competition. Article 24 of this so-called 'Liberalisation Decree' focuses on the need for accelerating the deactivation and decommissioning process of Italian nuclear power plants and research reactors. In light of the newly enacted legal provisions, this paper sets forth a general comment on the legal provisions included in Article 24 of Law No. 27/2012 by indicating their

  17. Italian as lingua franca, the law of connected vessels and the improvement of the results into the multilingual class. About a teaching experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessia Terrusi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This contribution takes cue from a teaching experience of Italian L2 to A1-level immigrant students within the SPRAR project in Lucca from November 2015 to May 2016. During lessons, the class has been enriched with students from different places in the world and who talked very different languages. Multilingualism had only one underlying theme: the Italian language used during the lessons. It was the same Italian language which they got accustomed to by living in Italy since about a year. The experience started from the hard fact that the only common knowledge was this basic-level Italian language. So a new strategy was tested: to create couples or small groups made up with students linguistically different (like anglophones with francophones. They were forced to use Italian language and let other students understand through their previous knowledges due to the daily contact with the Italian reality. This brought very positive results such as the creation of discussions about the activities, the mutual correction of mistakes, the increase of communication skills through alternative strategies (like mime or drawing. Despite the different individual and initial levels, Italian language as lingua franca let them understand Italian language more efficiently.L’italiano come lingua franca, il principio dei vasi comunicanti e il miglioramento dei risultati nella classe plurilingue. Un’esperienza didatticaIl presente contributo trae spunto da un’esperienza di insegnamento di italiano L2, livello A1, a immigrati adulti all’interno del progetto SPRAR (Sistema di Protezione per Richiedenti Asilo e Rifugiati di Lucca svoltasi tra novembre 2015 e maggio 2016. Il gruppo di corsisti era formato da adulti provenienti da diverse zone del mondo e parlanti lingue distanti tra loro. Tutti vivevano in Italia da circa un anno e poiché l’unica conoscenza comune e di eguale livello era proprio quella – basilare – dell’italiano, si è sperimentata la

  18. The changes of IL-8, IL-10, IL-12 and IgE in serum of patients with asthma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Chao; Liu Deyi; Hou Guihua; Wang Haodan

    2002-01-01

    To evaluate the relationship and the clinical significance between the serum IL-8, IL-10, IL-12 and IgE in patients with asthma, the serum IL-8, IL-10 are measured by radioimmunoassay method and the serum IL-12, IgE by ELISA in 55 patients with asthma. The level of serum IL-8, IgE at stage of episode are significantly higher than that at stage of remission (P<0.01); the level of serum IL-10, IL-12 at stage of episode are significantly lower than that at stage of remission (P<0.01). Linear regression shows that the decrease of IL-12 relate to the increase of IgE. The results suggests that the change of the level of serum IL-8, IL-10, IL-12 and IgE could be a maker for the aggravation of asthma

  19. Study on the changes of serum IL-2, IL-6, IL-8 and TNF levels in patients with diabetic nephrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin Wenjing

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the changes of serum IL-2, IL-6, IL-8 and TNF levels in patients with diabetic nephrosis. Methods: Serum IL-2, IL-6, IL-8 and TNF levels were measured with RIA in 38 patients with diabetic nephrosis and 36 controls. Results: Serum levels of IL-6, IL-8 and TNF were significantly higher in patients with diabetic nephrosis than those in controls (P<0.01), but serum IL-2 levels were significantly lower in the patients (P<0.01). Conclusion: These cytokines participated in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephrosis. Monitoring the changes of their serum levels was helpful for the management of the disease. (authors)

  20. What Should Teachers' Unions Do in a Time of Educational Crisis? An Essay Review of Lois Weiner's "The Future of Our Schools: Teachers Unions and Social Justice" (Chicago, IL: Haymarket Books, 2012, 220 pp.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apple, Michael W.

    2013-01-01

    What roles can and should teachers' unions play in the deliberations, debates, and conflicts over school reform in a time when education sits at the center of so much of our economic, political, ideological, and cultural tensions? Lois Weiner's new book, "The Future of Our Schools: Teachers Unions and Social Justice," speaks…

  1. Markers of Deception in Italian Speech

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katelyn eSpence

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Lying is a universal activity and the detection of lying a universal concern. Presently, there is great interest in determining objective measures of deception. The examination of speech, in particular, holds promise in this regard; yet, most of what we know about the relationship between speech and lying is based on the assessment of English-speaking participants. Few studies have examined indicators of deception in languages other than English. The world’s languages differ in significant ways, and cross-linguistic studies of deceptive communications are a research imperative. Here we review some of these differences amongst the world’s languages, and provide an overview of a number of recent studies demonstrating that cross-linguistic research is a worthwhile endeavour. In addition, we report the results of an empirical investigation of pitch, response latency, and speech rate as cues to deception in Italian speech. True and false opinions were elicited in an audio-taped interview. A within subjects analysis revealed no significant difference between the average pitch of the two conditions; however, speech rate was significantly slower, while response latency was longer, during deception compared with truth-telling. We explore the implications of these findings and propose directions for future research, with the aim of expanding the cross-linguistic branch of research on markers of deception.

  2. IL-6 signaling in diabetic nephropathy: From pathophysiology to therapeutic perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feigerlová, Eva; Battaglia-Hsu, Shyue-Fang

    2017-10-01

    Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a leading cause of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Interleukin-6 (IL-6) signaling participates in inflammation responses central to the progression of DN. Current evidence suggests that these IL-6 responses are mediated via gp130-STAT3 dependent mechanisms which, on one hand, trigger globally the transition from innate to adaptive immune response, and on the other hand act locally for tissue remodeling and immune cell infiltration. In diabetic conditions the role of IL-6 is not well elucidated. Both IL-6 classical signaling pathway via receptor IL-6R (IL-6R) and IL-6 trans-signaling pathway via soluble IL-6R (sIL-6R) were shown to participate in the pathogenesis and progression of DN, and IL-6 appears to influence renal cells also in an autocrine manner. To date, evidence is limited. The goal of this review is to provide an overview of our current understanding on the role of IL-6 signaling in DN and to delineate challenges for future research. Putative sequential events related to IL-6 secretion by different cell populations in diabetic conditions are outlined. Further, we discuss potential applications of anti-IL-6 therapy in the context of DN. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Impact of Immunogenetic IL28B Polymorphism on Natural Outcome of HCV Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valli De Re

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With the aim of investigating whether interleukin 28B gene (IL28B rs1297860 polymorphism is associated with different hepatitis C (HCV infection statuses, we compared IL28B allelic distribution in an Italian case series of 1050 patients with chronic infection and different outcomes, 47 individuals who spontaneously cleared HCV, and 178 blood donors. Furthermore, we compared IL28B variants among 3882 Caucasian patients with chronic infection, 397 with spontaneous clearance, and 1366 blood donors reported in PubMed. Overall data confirmed a relation between IL28B C allele and HCV spontaneous clearance. Furthermore, we found that IL28B T allele had a weak relation with chronic HCV progression to hepatocellular carcinoma. Study findings are in accordance with the hepatocellular carcinogenic model where IL28B TT genotype, by promoting a persistent chronic hepatitis which leads to both hepatocyte injury and chronic inflammation, could facilitate HCC development. Conversely, patients with lymphoproliferative disorders had not any significantly different IL28B rs1297860 allelic distribution than those with chronic HCV, but, like all chronic HCV-related diseases, they showed a lower CC frequency than patients who spontaneously cleared HCV. Study results confirmed the model of persistent HCV infection as a risk factor for the pathogenesis of both liver and lymphoproliferative disorders.

  4. Authentic Italian food as Mamma used to make it!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jan Halberg; d'Ambrosio, Luigi

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation is to explore how Italian restaurants define authentic Italian culinary experiences and how these experiences are designed and rendered to the restaurants’ guests.......The purpose of this investigation is to explore how Italian restaurants define authentic Italian culinary experiences and how these experiences are designed and rendered to the restaurants’ guests....

  5. IL CAMPO GEOMAGNETICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. MOLINA

    1972-06-01

    Full Text Available Questo lavoro non è un trattato sul campo geomagnetico e nemmeno
    una rassegna sull'argomento, almeno nel significato che normalmente
    si attribuisce al termine « rassegna »; esso è semplicemente
    un tentativo di condensare in termini comprensibili agli studiosi non
    specializzati ciò che oggi si sa o si ipotizza sul magnetismo terrestre
    e sulle sue cause. Chi scrive si è sempre trovato a disagio di fronte
    alle richieste di una spiegazione sull'origine del campo magnetico
    terrestre: o si cerca di cavarsela con poche parole (« si tratta di correnti
    elettriche indotte nell'interno della Terra » che possono forse accontentare
    chi non si occupa in modo particolare di problemi scientifici
    ma non possono soddisfare un fisico, oppure ci si sente obbligati a
    tentare faticosamente di approfondire, sia per capirli personalmente
    che per poterli poi spiegare agli altri, argomenti e ragionamenti che
    sono in realtà accessibili solo a un fisico teorico ben preparato. Apparentemente
    non esiste una via di mezzo, come del resto in molti altri
    campi della fisica contemporanea.
    La presente monografia rappresenta appunto il tentativo di trovare
    questa via di mezzo: nel terzo capitolo, dedicato alle teorie sull'origine
    del campo geomagnetico, si cerca di descrivere qualitativamente
    i principali processi fisici proposti come sorgenti del campo,
    dopo un accenno ai fondamenti fisici e matematici sui quali sono state
    elaborate le varie teorie. Senza farmi soverchie illusioni di essere riuscito
    nell'intento, mi dichiarerei tuttavia soddisfatto se questo lavoro
    destasse sull'argomento l'interesse di qualche giovane ricercatore, incoraggiandolo
    ad un approfondimento.

  6. ALICE honours two Italian suppliers

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    During the ALICE week held in Bologna from 19 to 23 June, the Collaboration recognized two of its top suppliers. From left to right: Robert Terpin (MIPOT), Pier Luigi Bellutti (ITC), Andrea Zanotti, President of ITC, Luciano Bosisio (Trieste University), Gennady Zinovjev (Kiev), Catherine Decosse (CERN), Lodovico Riccati, ALICE Collaboration Board Chair (INFN Torino), Paolo Giubellino (INFN Torino), Mario Zen, Director of ITC, Maurizio Boscardin (ITC), Paolo Tonella (ITC), Jurgen Schukraft, ALICE Spokesperson (CERN), Giacomo Vito Margagliotti (Trieste University), Nevio Grion (INFN Trieste), Marco Bregant (INFN Trieste). Front row from left to right: Paolo Traverso (ITC), Federico Carminati, ALICE Computing Project Leader (CERN), and Jean-Robert Lutz, ITS-SSD Project leader (IPHC Strasbourg). It is in the picturesque city of Bologna that the ALICE Collaboration has rewarded two Italian suppliers, Istituto Trentino di Cultura ITC-irst (Trento) and MIPOT (Cormons), both involved in the construction of the Sili...

  7. Cogeneration in Italian agricultural industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonfitto, E.; Jacoboni, S.

    1991-01-01

    This paper examines the technical, environmental and economical feasibility of an industrial cogeneration system which incorporates combined gas-steam cycles and a biomass/agricultural waste sludge fired fluidized bed combustion system. It cites the suitability of the use of fluidized bed combustion for the combustion of biomass and agricultural waste sludges - high combustion efficiency, uniform and relatively low combustion temperatures (850 C) within the combustion chamber to reduce scaling, reduced nitrogen oxide and micro-pollutant emissions, the possibility to control exhaust gas acidity through the injection of calcium carbonates, the possibility of the contemporaneous feeding of different fuels. Reference is made to test results obtained with an ENEL (Italian National Electricity Board) pilot plant fired by vineyard wastes. Attention is given to an analysis of the fuel's physical-chemical characteristics and the resulting flue gas chemical composition and ash characteristics. Comparisons are made with legal release limits

  8. Features of the Italian National Inventory of Chemical Substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binetti, R; Marcello, I

    1994-01-01

    The Italian National Inventory of Chemical Substances (Inventario nazionale delle sostanze chimiche, INSC), a factual data bank on chemical toxicology produced by the Istituto Superiore di Sanità (ISS), consists of a computerized system on existing chemicals developed for routinary and emergency needs. Historical background, current status and future direction of INSC are discussed. The structure and the feature of INSC are briefly examined. Aspects of retrieval of information and the criteria for the inclusion of data and priority selection are also considered.

  9. Energy efficiency: The Italian situation and opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clerici, Alessandro; Beccarello, Massimo; Gallanti, Massimo

    2010-09-15

    The paper reports the results of a study led by Confindustria (Italian Federation of Industrial Associations) on the Italian situation with respect to energy efficiency policies and their effective implementations. The study is being continuously updated with the contributions of ENEA (Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Sustainable Economic Development) and ERSE (previously CESI Ricerca) and highlights the obtainable savings through efficient technologies now already available for applications in the final uses of energy for both the industrial, commercial and domestic sectors.

  10. Il discreto e il continuo complementarita in matematica

    CERN Document Server

    Kuyk, Willem

    1982-01-01

    Nato dall'esperienza didattica dell'autore, il libro si presenta come un testo interdisciplinare di matematica e di filosofia, inteso a fornire un quadro complessivo dello stato attuale dei fondamenti della matematica.

  11. IFN-γ, IL-4 and IL-13 modulate responsiveness of human airway smooth muscle cells to IL-13

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michoud Marie-Claire

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background IL-13 is a critical mediator of allergic asthma and associated airway hyperresponsiveness. IL-13 acts through a receptor complex comprised of IL-13Rα1 and IL-4Rα subunits with subsequent activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 6 (STAT6. The IL-13Rα2 receptor may act as a decoy receptor. In human airway smooth muscle (HASM cells, IL-13 enhances cellular proliferation, calcium responses to agonists and induces eotaxin production. We investigated the effects of pre-treatment with IL-4, IL-13 and IFN-γ on the responses of HASM cells to IL-13. Methods Cultured HASM were examined for expression of IL-13 receptor subunits using polymerase chain reaction, immunofluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. Effects of cytokine pre-treatment on IL-13-induced cell responses were assessed by looking at STAT6 phosphorylation using Western blot, eotaxin secretion and calcium responses to histamine. Results IL-13Rα1, IL-4Rα and IL-13Rα2 subunits were expressed on HASM cells. IL-13 induced phosphorylation of STAT6 which reached a maximum by 30 minutes. Pre-treatment with IL-4, IL-13 and, to a lesser degree, IFN-γ reduced peak STAT6 phosphorylation in response to IL-13. IL-13, but not IFN-γ, pre-treatment abrogated IL-13-induced eotaxin secretion. Pre-treatment with IL-4 or IL-13 abrogated IL-13-induced augmentation of the calcium transient evoked by histamine. Cytokine pre-treatment did not affect expression of IL-13Rα1 and IL-4Rα but increased expression of IL-13Rα2. An anti-IL-13Rα2 neutralizing antibody did not prevent the cytokine pre-treatment effects on STAT6 phosphorylation. Cytokine pre-treatment increased SOCS-1, but not SOCS-3, mRNA expression which was not associated with significant increases in protein expression. Conclusion Pre-treatment with IL-4 and IL-13, but not IFN-γ, induced desensitization of the HASM cells to IL-13 as measured by eotaxin secretion and calcium transients to histamine

  12. Where the Italian Journal of Public Health is going? A tale of the last two years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe La Torre

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Extract:

    Two years ago, speaking about the future of the Italian Journal of Public Health, we told that the reason why the journal is also an international journal (almost 40% of published papers come from outside Italy is “mainly due to our membership to EUPHA and to several scientific network”.

  13. IL6 and IL10 are genetic susceptibility factors of periodontal disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Scapoli

    2012-01-01

    Conclusions: The present investigation indicated that polymorphisms of IL6 and IL10 constitute risk factors for chronic periodontitis, while there was no evidence implicating a specific IL1A or IL1B genotype.

  14. DEVOLUTION IN ITALIAN CULTURAL POLICIES MICRO VIEW AND ACTUAL IMPACTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Monti

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available

    Devolution has definitely become a ‘flagship’ in the Italian political debate. It has affected any aspect of public policy over the last 17 years and the cultural sector has not been spared. Its key aim is to decentralise legal and administration powers in a way that could reduce the burden of State offices work and set up a more efficient and effective administration able to meet citizens’ needs. After a long tradition of centralized policies and administration, long, costly and often in efficient procedures required a profound change. The reforms were so ledby the ideal to implement public policies closest to citizens’ needs, to provide direct responses and increase their participation to local governments’ actions (democratization and participative policy, to deliver more effective services (better performance and distribute more equally the burden of administrative work of State offices (decentralisation of day-to-day administration.

     

    La Devolution e la politica culturale italiana

    La Devolution riveste un punto centrale nel dibattito politico italiano: ha riguardato ogni aspetto della politica pubblica negli ultimi 17 anni, e il settore culturale non ne è stato risparmiato. L'obbiettivo principale è quello di decentralizzare i poteri giuridici e amministrativi in modo da ridurre il peso del lavoro degli uffici pubblici statali, e di organizzare un'amministrazione più efficiente ed efficace in grado di soddisfare le necessità dei cittadini. Dopo una lunga tradizione basata su politica e amministrazione centralizzate, procedure lunghe, costose e spesso inefficienti richiedevano un profondo cambiamento. Le riforme sono state quindi indirizzate all'implemento di politiche pubbliche più vicine ai cittadini, a incrementare la loro partecipazione nelle azioni di governo locali (politica di democratizzazione e partecipativa, a fornire servizi più efficienti (migliori prestazioni e a distribuire

  15. Smart grids: the future network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bassi, F.; Sabelli, C.

    2008-01-01

    The old structure of the Italian electric power system due to the changes in place for years will always be less suitable to the needs of the future, therefore, must change to become more intelligent, more reliable, sustainable and economically [it

  16. Online Italian fandoms of American TV shows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora Benecchi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Internet has changed media fandom in two main ways: it helps fans connect with each other despite physical distance, leading to the formation of international fan communities; and it helps fans connect with the creators of the TV show, deepening the relationship between TV producers and international fandoms. To assess whether Italian fan communities active online are indeed part of transnational online communities and whether the Internet has actually altered their relationship with the creators of the original text they are devoted to, qualitative analysis and narrative interviews of 26 Italian fans of American TV shows were conducted to explore the fan-producer relationship. Results indicated that the online Italian fans surveyed preferred to stay local, rather than using geography-leveling online tools. Further, the sampled Italian fans' relationships with the show runners were mediated or even absent.

  17. The history of Italian psychiatry during Fascism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piazzi, Andrea; Testa, Luana; Del Missier, Giovanni; Dario, Mariopaolo; Stocco, Ester

    2011-09-01

    Specific features characterized Italian psychiatry during Fascism (1922-45), distinguishing it from Nazi psychiatry and giving rise to different operational outcomes, so we have investigated the state of Italian psychiatry during this period. We review the historical situation that preceded it and describe the social and health policies that Fascism introduced following new legislative and regulatory acts. We examine the preventive and therapeutic role played by psychiatry (the electric shock was an Italian invention) and, thanks to the Enciclopedia Italiano published during those years, we are able to highlight psychiatry's relationship to psychology, psychoanalysis, philosophy and religion. The shortcomings of Italian psychiatric research and practice are also seen in terms of what the State failed to do rather than what it did.

  18. Semen quality of Italian local pig breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Gandini

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available From 1996 to 1999 a conservation programme was carried out within the framework of EC contract “European gene banking project for the pig genetic resources” (Ollivier et al., 2001 in the Italian local pig breeds. The aims of the program included the primary characterization of the breeds, i.e. information on the organization in charge of the breed, breeding population numbers, breed description and qualifications, and field trials on productive and reproductive performances. In this context the “Semen Bank of Italian local pig breeds” was built. A total of 30,835 straws of four Italian local pig breeds (Cinta Senese, Casertana, Mora Romagnola and Nero Siciliano, collected from 42 sires, have been stored. In this work semen quality traits, lipid composition and freezability of the four Italian local pig breeds are reported.

  19. Giordano Bruno e il Problema della Modernità

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Ulliana

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Il testo viene pubblicato per gentile concessione della casa editrice ESI ed e’ tratto dal libro di Stefano Ulliana “Il concetto creativo e dialettico dello Spirito nei Dialoghi Italiani di Giordano Bruno. Il confronto con la tradizione neoplatonico-aristotelica: il testo bruniano De l’Infinito, Universo e mondi”, Edizioni Scientifiche Italiane, Napoli, 2003. Le argomentazioni presentate ne Il concetto creativo e dialettico dello Spirito nei Dialoghi Italiani di Giordano Bruno (Il confronto con la tradizione neoplatonico-aristotelica: il testo bruniano De l’Infinito, Universo e mondi costituiscono le conclusioni ultime e definitive di un lavoro di ricerca che ha investito l’insieme dei Dialoghi Italiani, riuscendo a reperire ed a far emergere quello che pare il nucleo più profondo ed importante—il vero e proprio elevato fondamento—della speculazione bruniana: la presenza attiva di un concetto triadico teologico-politico—il Padre, il Figlio e lo Spirito della tradizione trinitaria cristiana—però riformulato attraverso il capovolgimento rivoluzionario di questa stessa tradizione, attuato attraverso il concetto creativo e dialettico dell’infinito. In questo modo la stessa tradizione platonica pare subire una trasformazione essenziale, abbandonando qualunque forma di alienazione e negazione, per riaprirsi invece verso soluzioni che paiono riprendere moniti ed osservazioni suscitati dalle prime, grandi e maestose, speculazioni dei filosofi presocratici. Parmenide, Eraclito ed Empedocle sembrano rivivere nei testi bruniani, riproponendo una soluzione ben diversa a quei nodi e problemi teoretico-pratici—fondamentale il rapporto Uno-molti e tutto ciò che da esso consegue, sia sul piano naturale che politico—apparentemente risolti e codificati dal pensiero postsocratico, prima platonico e poi aristotelico. L’inscindibilità del principio di libertà (la figura teologica del Padre ed eguaglianza (il Figlio, attraverso il

  20. Il degrado abusivo e il "degrado legale" del territorio: gli ecomostri

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    Anna Cicchetti

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Il fenomeno di una urbanizzazione senza criteri né misure, collegata a ragioni turistiche, molto spesso opportunistiche, è affrontato dalla giurisprudenza nella sua azione di controllo del territorio: ne sono un caso esemplare gli “ecomostri”, ormai comunemente e tristemente sono conosciuti dalla società civile. Queste costruzioni di grande impatto territoriale, ambientale e paesaggistico, in alcuni casi sono legittimati da interventi normativi non bene soppesati e in altri avvengono in maniera c.d. abusiva, con l’unica conseguenza, in entrambe le ipotesi, di deturpare l’ambiente circostante sotto molteplici profili, non ultimo quello incidente su località turistiche. Il contributo si pone l’obiettivo di contribuire ad una politica turistica attenta al profilo ambientale: occorre individuare una maggiore cogenza e conoscenza normativa a favore di una pianificazione urbanistica e politica del paesaggio, in grado di sostenere il recupero, la riqualificazione e valorizzazione delle bellezze naturali presenti sul territorio. Solo il coinvolgimento e la necessaria collaborazione di tutti i soggetti del territorio per una programmazione orientata a realizzare uno «sviluppo capace di rispondere ai bisogni delle generazioni attuali, senza compromettere la capacità delle generazioni future di rispondere ai propri».

  1. Personal monitoring services available at Institute for Radiation Protection of ENEA; Il servizo di dosimetria personale dell'Istituto per la Radioprotezione dell'ENEA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fantuzzi, E.; Bonarelli, T. [ENEA Centro Ricerche Ezio Clementel, Bologna (Italy). Dipt. Ambiente

    1999-07-01

    Personnel monitoring provides the means to measure and record the radiation doses received by individual workers. The ionising radiation decree (230/95) set out the circumstances when the assessment and recording of person's exposure is legally required. Many employers issue dosemeters to staff even though there is no legal requirement to do so. This may be part of a quality assurance programme or as a reassurance measure. Dosemeter readings will serve to ensure compliance with legal dose limits and assure the employer that radiation exposure is as low as reasonably achievable. The ENEA (National Agency for New Technology, Energy and the Environment) IRP (Institute for Radiation Protection) individual monitoring service has been running for over 30 years. It offers personnel dosemeters which are based on its expertise and backed up by continual research and development. The report provides details of the dosemeters in use at IRP enable to decide which ones most suit the needs and shows IMS's organisation, customer and communications, dose reports form and administrative items. A short mention of future development will also be given. [Italian] La dosimetria individuale fornisce gli strumenti per misurare e registrare le dosi da radiazioni ionizzanti ricevute dai lavoratori esposti. Il decreto legislativo 230/95 stabilisce le circostanze in cui il monitoraggio individuale e' legalmente richiesto. Molti datori di lavoro forniscono dosimetri individuali anche quando non vi e' una richiesta legale spesso per seguire le regole di un programma di assicurazione di qualita' relativo alla radioprotezione o per ottenere una conferma che il principio ALARA sia soddisfatto. Il servzio di dosimetria personale dell'Istituto per la Radioprotezione dell'ENEA e' attivo da oltre 30 anni e offre dosimetri sviluppati sulla propria esperienza nelle tecniche dosimetriche che vengono continuamente aggiornati e adeguati rispecchiando lo stato dell

  2. Il marketing del nuovo millennio

    OpenAIRE

    M. Addis

    2007-01-01

    Con la consueta maestria, Kolter, supportato da Keller, mette a disposizione dei suoi numerosi lettori uno strumento di grande efficacia, dalla struttura estremamente agile, che potrà essere apprezzato da coloro che il marketing lo insegnano e dai professionisti che cercano un'opera di riferimento autorevole e aggiornata ma al contempo di facile consultazione, che possa accompagnarli nello svolgimento delle attività quotidiane. Il testo è una guida essenziale alla disciplina del marketing,...

  3. Italian Validation of Homophobia Scale (HS)

    OpenAIRE

    Ciocca, Giacomo; Capuano, Nicolina; Tuziak, Bogdan; Mollaioli, Daniele; Limoncin, Erika; Valsecchi, Diana; Carosa, Eleonora; Gravina, Giovanni L.; Gianfrilli, Daniele; Lenzi, Andrea; Jannini, Emmanuele A.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The Homophobia Scale (HS) is a valid tool to assess homophobia. This test is self‐reporting, composed of 25 items, which assesses a total score and three factors linked to homophobia: behavior/negative affect, affect/behavioral aggression, and negative cognition. Aim: The aim of this study was to validate the HS in the Italian context. Methods: An Italian translation of the HS was carried out by two bilingual people, after which an English native translated the test back i...

  4. IL-1 and IL-23 mediate early IL-17A production in pulmonary inflammation leading to late fibrosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paméla Gasse

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is a devastating as yet untreatable disease. We demonstrated recently the predominant role of the NLRP3 inflammasome activation and IL-1β expression in the establishment of pulmonary inflammation and fibrosis in mice. METHODS: The contribution of IL-23 or IL-17 in pulmonary inflammation and fibrosis was assessed using the bleomycin model in deficient mice. RESULTS: We show that bleomycin or IL-1β-induced lung injury leads to increased expression of early IL-23p19, and IL-17A or IL-17F expression. Early IL-23p19 and IL-17A, but not IL-17F, and IL-17RA signaling are required for inflammatory response to BLM as shown with gene deficient mice or mice treated with neutralizing antibodies. Using FACS analysis, we show a very early IL-17A and IL-17F expression by RORγt(+ γδ T cells and to a lesser extent by CD4αβ(+ T cells, but not by iNKT cells, 24 hrs after BLM administration. Moreover, IL-23p19 and IL-17A expressions or IL-17RA signaling are necessary to pulmonary TGF-β1 production, collagen deposition and evolution to fibrosis. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings demonstrate the existence of an early IL-1β-IL-23-IL-17A axis leading to pulmonary inflammation and fibrosis and identify innate IL-23 and IL-17A as interesting drug targets for IL-1β driven lung pathology.

  5. Harmonization and development of resources and tools for Italian natural language processing within the PARLI project

    CERN Document Server

    Bosco, Cristina; Delmonte, Rodolfo; Moschitti, Alessandro; Simi, Maria

    2015-01-01

    The papers collected in this volume are selected as a sample of the progress in Natural Language Processing (NLP) performed within the Italian NLP community and especially attested by the PARLI project. PARLI (Portale per l’Accesso alle Risorse in Lingua Italiana) is a project partially funded by the Ministero Italiano per l’Università e la Ricerca (PRIN 2008) from 2008 to 2012 for monitoring and fostering the harmonic growth and coordination of the activities of Italian NLP. It was proposed by various teams of researchers working in Italian universities and research institutions. According to the spirit of the PARLI project, most of the resources and tools created within the project and here described are freely distributed and they did not terminate their life at the end of the project itself, hoping they could be a key factor in future development of computational linguistics.

  6. A reading of Antonio Tabucchi's Il filo dell'orizzonte | Wilson | Italian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The PDF file you selected should load here if your Web browser has a PDF reader plug-in installed (for example, a recent version of Adobe Acrobat Reader). If you would like more information about how to print, save, and work with PDFs, Highwire Press provides a helpful Frequently Asked Questions about PDFs.

  7. Quantitative Contribution of IL2Rγ to the Dynamic Formation of IL2-IL2R Complexes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis F Ponce

    Full Text Available Interleukin-2 (IL2 is a growth factor for several immune cells and its function depends on its binding to IL2Rs in the cell membrane. The most accepted model for the assembling of IL2-IL2R complexes in the cell membrane is the Affinity Conversion Model (ACM. This model postulates that IL2R receptor association is sequential and dependent on ligand binding. Most likely free IL2 binds first to IL2Rα, and then this complex binds to IL2Rβ, and finally to IL2Rγ (γc. However, in previous mathematical models representing this process, the binding of γc has not been taken into account. In this work, the quantitative contribution of the number of IL2Rγ chain to the IL2-IL2R apparent binding affinity and signaling is studied. A mathematical model of the affinity conversion process including the γ chain in the dynamic, has been formulated. The model was calibrated by fitting it to experimental data, specifically, Scatchard plots obtained using human cell lines. This paper demonstrates how the model correctly explains available experimental observations. It was estimated, for the first time, the value of the kinetic coefficients of IL2-IL2R complexes interaction in the cell membrane. Moreover, the number of IL2R components in different cell lines was also estimated. It was obtained a variable distribution in the number of IL2R components depending on the cell type and the activation state. Of most significance, the study predicts that not only the number of IL2Rα and IL2Rβ, but also the number of γc determine the capacity of the cell to capture and retain IL2 in signalling complexes. Moreover, it is also showed that different cells might use different pathways to bind IL2 as consequence of its IL2R components distribution in the membrane.

  8. A scale for assessing Italian schools and classes inclusiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucio Cottini

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents in detail the procedures for developing and validating a tool for assessing the inclusive process pertaining to school contexts called “Inclusive Process Assessment Scale”. The Scale, which is the outcome of the joined work of the authors, sets itself both as an assessing and self-assessing tool, useful for allowing on one hand specific types of evaluation and, on the other, promoting thoughts on inclusive education’s quality indicators, thus contributing to the planning and ongoing adjustment of the educational project of the school and the class. The tool, in its computer version as well, allows for the planning of researches that can collect evidences supporting the full inclusion organization of Italian schools.Una scala per valutare l’inclusività delle scuole e delle classi italianeIl contributo presenta in dettaglio le procedure di costruzione e validazione di uno strumento per valutare i processi inclusivi riferiti ai contesti scolastici, chiamato “Scala di Valutazione dei Processi Inclusivi”. Frutto del lavoro congiunto svolto dagli autori, la Scala si pone come uno strumento valutativo e autovalutativo utile a consentire da un lato, la realizzazione di specifiche forme di misurazione e, dall’altro, la promozione di processi di riflessione sugli indicatori di qualità dell’educazione inclusiva, per contribuire alla progettazione e alla regolazione in itinere del progetto educativo della scuola e della classe. Lo strumento, anche nella sua versione digitale, consente di pianificare ricerche, che possono raccogliere evidenze in grado di avvalorare l’organizzazione scolastica italiana di full inclusion.

  9. Informative management system for administrative management; Il sistema informativo per il reporting e il controllo di gestione di un ente complesso. Realizzazione di un prototipo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Onofrio, M.G.; Minelle, F. [Rome Univ. La Sapienza, Rome (Italy). Fac. di Scienze Matematiche, Fisiche e Naturali; Di Marco, R.A. [ENEA, Sede Centrale, Rome (Italy). Funzione Centrale Informatica

    1999-07-01

    The need to optimate the total functionality of the firm, introducing suitable Control System of inherit and merit evaluation concerning the administrative-management results, strengthens the assumption of responsibility from the managerial staff and promotes the operative and management decentralization. In this context assumes a remarkable importance the function of the Informative Management System which has got to assure, in a realistic, qualified and effectual way, a good support to all activities it can make easy, not only the standard working but also the achievement of the programmatic targets. In the present context, where the development of technology often exceeds that one of the organization structures, it is right to redesign the Informative Management System, considering that often the management informatics procedures are obsolete. The statement of the carried out work bases itself on the observation of the business management process: in order to achieve its targets, the firm transform some resources, each one with its own cycle of life, through stages of management classifiable in merit evaluation, decision, execution and control. These stages are carried out by treatment of the Information that represent the link among them, the main resource of the whole organization and the basis of the Informative Management System. Considering the information as an element characterizing the firm, in that it comes from a complicated system which permits to assert that the fulfilment of on effective and efficient management depends largely from its capacity to use the Information. [Italian] La necessita' di ottimizzare la funzionalita' complessiva dell'azienda, introducendo adeguati sistemi di controllo di merito e di valutazione dei risultati a livello amministrativo-gestionale rafforza l'assunzione di responsabilita' da parte della struttura dirigenziale e favorisce il decentramento gestionale e operativo. In questo contesto assume

  10. Informative management system for administrative management; Il sistema informativo per il reporting e il controllo di gestione di un ente complesso. Realizzazione di un prototipo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Onofrio, M G; Minelle, F [Rome Univ. La Sapienza, Rome (Italy). Fac. di Scienze Matematiche, Fisiche e Naturali; Di Marco, R A [ENEA, Sede Centrale, Rome (Italy). Funzione Centrale Informatica

    1999-07-01

    The need to optimate the total functionality of the firm, introducing suitable Control System of inherit and merit evaluation concerning the administrative-management results, strengthens the assumption of responsibility from the managerial staff and promotes the operative and management decentralization. In this context assumes a remarkable importance the function of the Informative Management System which has got to assure, in a realistic, qualified and effectual way, a good support to all activities it can make easy, not only the standard working but also the achievement of the programmatic targets. In the present context, where the development of technology often exceeds that one of the organization structures, it is right to redesign the Informative Management System, considering that often the management informatics procedures are obsolete. The statement of the carried out work bases itself on the observation of the business management process: in order to achieve its targets, the firm transform some resources, each one with its own cycle of life, through stages of management classifiable in merit evaluation, decision, execution and control. These stages are carried out by treatment of the Information that represent the link among them, the main resource of the whole organization and the basis of the Informative Management System. Considering the information as an element characterizing the firm, in that it comes from a complicated system which permits to assert that the fulfilment of on effective and efficient management depends largely from its capacity to use the Information. [Italian] La necessita' di ottimizzare la funzionalita' complessiva dell'azienda, introducendo adeguati sistemi di controllo di merito e di valutazione dei risultati a livello amministrativo-gestionale rafforza l'assunzione di responsabilita' da parte della struttura dirigenziale e favorisce il decentramento gestionale e operativo. In questo contesto assume notevole importanza la

  11. IL-10 Induction from Implants Delivering Pancreatic Islets and Hyaluronan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul L. Bollyky

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Local induction of pro-tolerogenic cytokines, such as IL-10, is an appealing strategy to help facilitate transplantation of islets and other tissues. Here, we describe a pair of implantable devices that capitalize on our recent finding that hyaluronan (HA promotes IL-10 production by activated T cells. The first device is an injectable hydrogel made of crosslinked HA and heparan sulfate loaded with anti-CD3/anti-CD28 antibodies and IL-2. T cells embedded within this hydrogel prior to polymerization go on to produce IL-10 in vivo. The second device is a bioengineered implant consisting of a polyvinyl alcohol sponge scaffold, supportive collagen hydrogel, and alginate spheres mediating sustained release of HA in fluid form. Pancreatic islets that expressed ovalbumin (OVA antigen were implanted within this device for 14 days into immunodeficient mice that received OVA-specific DO.11.10 T cells and a subsequent immunization with OVA peptide. Splenocytes harvested from these mice produced IL-10 upon re-challenge with OVA or anti-CD3 antibodies. Both of these devices represent model systems that will be used, in future studies, to further evaluate IL-10 induction by HA, with the objective of improving the survival and function of transplanted islets in the setting of autoimmune (type 1 diabetes.

  12. Direct regulation of IL-2 by curcumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Jin-Gyo; Hwang, Da-Jeong; Heo, Tae-Hwe

    2018-01-01

    Interleukin-2 (IL-2) is a crucial growth factor for both regulatory and effector T cells. Thus, IL-2 plays a critical role in the stimulation and suppression of immune responses. Recently, anti-IL-2 antibodies (Abs) have been shown to possess strong IL-2 modulatory activities by affecting the interaction between IL-2 and IL-2 receptors. In this study, we screened an herbal library to identify a compound that regulates IL-2, which resulted in the identification of curcumin as a direct binder and inhibitor of IL-2. Curcumin is a phytochemical with well-known anti-cancer properties. In this study, curcumin mimicked or altered the binding pattern of anti-IL-2 Abs against IL-2 and remarkably inhibited the interaction of recombinant IL-2 with the IL-2 receptor α, CD25. Interestingly, curcumin neutralized the biological activities of IL-2 both in vitro and in vivo. In this report, we elucidated the unsolved mechanism of the anti-cancer effect of curcumin by identifying IL-2 as a direct molecular target. Curcumin, as a small molecule IL-2 modulator, has the potential to be used to treat IL-2 related pathologic conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Il libro agente della socializzazione

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Sideri

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Il saggio indaga il ruolo del libro come agente di socializzazione, con particolare riferimento al pubblico dei lettori ragazzi e bambini e alle specifiche funzioni formative della “lettura della letteratura” in età pre-scolare e scolare fino ai 14 anni. La ricerca di matrice socio-culturale si è occupata per lo più del libro in qualità di prodotto eminentemente sociale (sociologia della letteratura, contenitore di testi significanti (semiotica, e bene di consumo dell’industria culturale (cultural studies: lo studio proposto richiama le conclusioni fondamentali di decenni di studi intorno al libro, con l’intento di rintracciare i criteri adeguati (tema, target, identità visiva, funzione pratica e utopica a guidare una classificazione dei generi 0-14 che evidenzi il valore socializzante di ciascuno, proponendo così una originale tipologia, che giustifica l’inserimento del libro tra quelle definite “agenzie testuali” della socializzazione.

  14. The Future of Futures. The Time of Money in Financing and Society

    OpenAIRE

    Moe, Sverre

    2012-01-01

    The original online version of this article can be found at: http://asj.sagepub.com/content/55/3/301.citation Elena Esposito is an Italian sociologist working mainly from the perspective of Luhmannian systems theory, particularly with themes related to the temporal dynamics of modern society and notably the problem of linking present activities with a future unknown. Most of her publications (mainly in Italian and German) are about the form and ordering of time (as in fashion, remembrance,...

  15. Association between IL-1β polymorphisms and gastritis risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaoming; Cai, Hongxing; Li, Zhouru; Li, Shanshan; Yin, Wenjiang; Dong, Guokai; Kuai, Jinxia; He, Yihui; Jia, Jing

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection of the human stomach regularly leads to chronic gastric inflammation. The cytokine gene interleukin (IL)-1β has been implicated in influencing the pathology of inflammation induced by H. pylori infection. Currently, several studies have been carried out to investigate the association of IL-1β-511 (rs16944) and IL-1β-31 (rs1143627) polymorphisms with gastritis risk; however, the results are inconsistent and inconclusive. To assess the effect of IL-1β polymorphisms on gastritis susceptibility, we conducted a meta-analysis. Methods: Up to March 15, 2016, 2205 cases and 2289 controls were collected from 12 published case–control studies. Summarized odds ratios and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for IL-1β-511 and IL-1β-31 polymorphisms and gastritis risk were estimated using fixed- or random-effects models when appropriate. Heterogeneity was assessed by chi-squared-based Q-statistic test, and the sources of heterogeneity were explored by subgroup analyses and logistic meta-regression analyses. Publication bias was evaluated by Begg funnel plot and Egger test. Sensitivity analyses were also performed. Results: The results provided evidences that the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in IL-1β-31 might be associated with the gastritis risk, especially in the Caucasian population, while SNPs in the IL-1β-511 might not be. Conclusion: Our studies may be helpful in supplementing the disease monitoring of gastritis in the future, and additional studies to determine the exact molecular mechanisms might inspire interventions to protect the susceptible subgroups. PMID:28151895

  16. Il potere di Prometeo e il dovere di Kant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Picchetti

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Kant ci suggerisce qualcosa che Prometeo e il mito greco avevano già accennato. L'imperativo che pone freno al fare, è già in sé nel soggetto ed è per questo che egli che egli è responsabile delle proprie azioni, indipendentemente dalla legge scritta.

  17. Il Sole, il genoma e Internet strumenti delle revoluzioni scientifiche

    CERN Document Server

    Dyson, Freeman J

    2000-01-01

    In queste appassionate conferenze «di soglia» Dyson si sporge sul domani con la visionarietà di un Verne o di un Wells, consapevole però di abbozzare «solo uno dei corsi possibili, tra i milioni di altri che il futuro potrà riservarci». Il nuovo trivio di forze rivoluzionarie che, secondo il modello di Dyson, muoverà lo sviluppo ha nomi noti a tutti, e disputati da molti: energia solare, ingegneria genetica, rete di comunicazione globale. Un loro utilizzo flessibile e sinergico arriverebbe a ridisegnare il paesaggio sociale del pianeta, facendo affluire verso aree depresse risorse ora concentrate in pochi paesi, e ridando vita ovunque all'economia di villaggio. La raccolta di energia da una fonte equidistribuita come la luce solare potrebbe infatti avvenire attraverso coltivazioni arboree manipolate genetica mente allo scopo, con costi sostenibili e senza pregiudizio della ecodiversità. Sia che guardi al prossimo futuro terrestre sia che contempli la prospettiva non troppo lontana di insediamenti uma...

  18. Il programma dell'universo

    CERN Document Server

    Lloyd, Seth

    2006-01-01

    Da quando l'universo ha avuto inizio, ha cominciato a calcolare il proprio comportamento. All'inizio il computer-universo produceva strutture semplici, particelle elementari e leggi elementari della fisica; col passare del tempo ha processato "informazioni" sempre più complesse, producendo strutture sempre più intricate (galassie, stelle, pianeti), ma sempre secondo leggi semplici. Ogni cosa deve quindi la propria esistenza alla capacità intrinseca della materia e dell'energia di processare informazione. Se si decifrasse fino in fondo si potrebbe, con un computer quantistico di dimensioni ridotte, comprendere l'universo nel suo insieme.

  19. International Travelers' Sociodemographic, Health, and Travel Characteristics: An Italian Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troiano, Gianmarco; Mercone, Astrid; Bagnoli, Alessandra; Nante, Nicola

    Approximately the 8% of travelers requires medical care, with the diagnosis of a vaccine-preventable disease. The aim of our study was to analyze the socio-demographic, health and travel characteristics of the Italian international travelers. We conducted a cross sectional study from January 2015 to June 2016, at the Travel Medicine Clinic of Siena, asking the doctor to interview patients who attended the Clinic, recording socio-demographic and travel information, malaria prophylaxis, vaccinations. The data were organized in a database and processed by software Stata®. We collected 419 questionnaires. Patients chose 71 countries for their travels; the favorite destinations were: India (6.31%), Thailand (6.31%), and Brazil (5.10%). The mean length of stay was 36.17 days. Italians, students, and freelancers tended to stay abroad for a longer time (mean: 36.4 days, 59.87 days and 64.16 days respectively). 33.17% of our sample used drugs for malaria chemoprophylaxis: 71.9% of them used Atovaquone/Proguanil (Malarone®), 26.6% used Mefloquine (Lariam®), 1.5% other drugs. The vaccinations that travelers mostly got in our study were to prevent hepatitis A (n = 264), the typhoid fever (n = 187), the Tetanus + Diphtheria + Pertussis (n = 165), the Yellow fever (n = 118) and the cholera (n = 78). Twenty-eight (6.68%) refused some recommended vaccinations. The vaccines mostly refused were for Typhoid fever (n = 20), hepatitis a (n = 9), and cholera (n = 9). Our results demonstrated that Italian international travelers are at-risk because of their poor vaccinations adherence. This implies that pre-travel counseling is fundamental to increase the knowledge of the risks and the compliance of future travelers. Copyright © 2016 Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Psoriasis is not associated with IL-12p70/IL-12p40 production and IL12B promoter polymorphism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Litjens, Nicolle H R; van der Plas, Mariena J A; Ravensbergen, Bep

    2004-01-01

    Psoriasis is a type-1 T cell-mediated, chronic inflammatory disease. Since interleukin (IL)-12p70 promotes the development of type-1 T cells, we investigated whether psoriasis is associated with an increased production of this cyctokine by blood cells. Results revealed that the production of IL-12p....... The frequencies of the various genotypes for the promoter region of the gene encoding IL-12p40 (IL12B) did not differ between psoriasis patients and controls. No association was observed between the various IL12B promoter genotypes and the LPS-stimulated production of IL-12p70 or IL-12p40 by blood cells. Together......, psoriasis is not associated with a promoter polymorphism in the IL12B gene nor with the production of IL-12p70 by LPS-stimulated blood cells....

  1. Exploring American and Italian consumer preferences for Californian and Italian red wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torri, Luisa; Noble, Ann Curtis; Heymann, Hildegarde

    2013-06-01

    To increase the market share of Californian wines in other countries, wine preferences need to be explored in potential markets. This work studied the preferences of American and Italian consumers for red wines produced in California and Italy, focusing on wines made from the same varieties in each location. Descriptive analysis and consumer preference tests were performed. Americans scored each of the Californian wines significantly higher in preference than the Italian wines. In contrast, the Italian consumer preference scores for many Italian and Californian wines overlapped. By external preference mapping of the American consumer segments, the ideal flavour of one cluster was closest to the Californian Zinfandel, Merlot and Syrah, which had the 'most balanced' flavour profiles. Another cluster of Italians also preferred the Californian wines. In addition, one Italian cluster was driven by a dislike of the leather, band-aid and medicinal aromas of the Italian Merlot and Refosco. The results provided information that can contribute to wine marketing research necessary for successfully exporting Californian red wines to Italy and vice versa. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. European energy policy and Italian national rights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gentile, G.G.

    1991-01-01

    In light of energy market upheavals expected as a result of the up-coming European free trade market, impacts on existing Italian energy legislation, currently hinging on the monopolistic activities of ENEL, (Italian National Electricity Board) are examined. The various aspects dealt with include: legal implications of the integration, under monopolistic and deregulated national energy market scenarios, of new legislation, on the production and distribution of renewable energy sources, with existing energy legislation; the combined effects of strong competition in a new international energy market and energy supply vulnerability due strong dependence on OPEC supplied petroleum; Italian regional economic unbalance due to the possible introduction, in a deregulated European electric power market, of a common carrier system of electric power distribution, that due to Italy's particular geography is expected to be controlled by a firm locatednear the northern border; power pooling legislation and rate structure transparency in a deregulated energy market

  3. Catholic Modernity and the Italian Constitution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Bjørn; Forlenza, Rosario

    2016-01-01

    and give direction to the very idea of political modernity, bridging a positive encounter between Catholicism, democracy, and freedom. The specific argument is embedded within a larger aim to recognize attempts within Catholic philosophy and political thought to articulate a trajectory that moved away from......This article analyzes the Catholic contribution to the Italian republican and democratic Constitution of 1948. The focus is on the specific way in which the Italian citizen became symbolically coded as a ‘person’ and not as an ‘individual’, inspired by Catholic social philosophy. The Catholic...... project for the new Constitution had a considerable impact on modern Italian culture and politics and on the building of a modern mass democracy and welfare state. During the crucial historical juncture that followed the collapse of Fascism, Catholic politicians and intellectuals sought to interpret...

  4. Il grande Gatsby: note a margine di una traduzione

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tommaso Pincio

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In questa breve nota lo scrittore e traduttore Tommaso Pincio riflette sul fascino esercitato da Il Grande Gatsby – libro e personaggio, il narratore e la lingua – su generazioni diverse di americani: quelle degli anni Venti, degli anni Cinquanta e di oggi. Commenti, aneddoti e citazioni guidano quell’esplorazione dello spirito del libro che ha permesso a Pincio di riprodurne lo stile per i lettori italiani. Questo contributo è originariamente apparso sul blog personale dell’autore, all’indirizzo http://tommasopincio.net.In this brief note, writer and translator Tommaso Pincio reflects on the haunting fascination exerted by The Great Gatsby – the book, the character, its narrator and language – on a range of American generations: those of the Twenties, of the Fifties, and the present one. Comments, anecdotes and quotations guide Pincio’s exploration into the spirit of the book, one that enabled him to reproduce its style for the Italian readership. This contribution first appeared on Pincio’s own blog, whose address is http://tommasopincio.net. 

  5. Italian singer Annalisa at CERN for a week of filming

    CERN Multimedia

    Stefania Pandolfi

    2015-01-01

    CERN welcomed Italian singer-songwriter Annalisa for a week-long visit to the Laboratory to shoot an Italian television production about the Laboratory.   Annalisa in the CERN Control Centre.   The Italian artist has a degree in physics from the University of Turin, Italy. She is a singer and songwriter, famous for her successful participation in the Italian talent show, Amici di Maria De Filippi. She has recorded four albums as solo artist and has participated twice in the Sanremo Music Festival, the most important Italian song contest. She has also received numerous Italian music awards, and has earned international recognition. Thanks to her knowledge of physics and her great influence with the Italian youth, Annalisa was selected to host an Italian television production about CERN aimed at young people. 

  6. PHRASEOLOGY IN PARČIĆ'S CROATIAN – ITALIAN DICTIONARY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Pavletić

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes and classifies the types of phraseological groups in Parčić's Croatian – Italian Dictionary comparing them with Italian equivalents and the contemporary Croatian phraseology.

  7. exiles/nomads: journeys through language and gender in italian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    how Italian women's (and men's) pulp fiction is written through gender specific ... by Santacroce's heroines to travel beyond the Italian boundaries, is not limited to the ..... The character's perception of his physical environment as silent and.

  8. ‹‹IN AIUTO ALL’UNITÀ DELLA LINGUA E CONTRO GLI ERRORI PROVENIENTI DAL DIALETTO››. IL SILLABARIO E IL VOCABOLARIETTO DI ANTONINO TRAINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michela Dota

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Il titolo del presente contributo condensa da una parte le coordinate operative della legislazione scolastica elementare post-unitaria, in particolare riguardo all’ortoepia, e d’altra parte la ricezione di quelle coordinate nella pubblicistica scolastica elementare coeva. Il saggio considera entrambi i cardini della questione: dopo aver esposto brevemente le linee guida della legislazione circa il rapporto tra lingua e dialetti e sulla corretta pronuncia, si analizzano due strumenti didattici, concepiti per la duplice utenza dei maestri e degli alunni, nei quali si concretano due atteggiamenti sensibilmente diversi sulla questione ortoepica. Infine, dall’analisi di questi due sussidi si dedurrà il rapporto, raccomandato più o meno esplicitamente, che doveva intercorrere tra dialetto e lingua nelle aule scolastiche. «In help to the unit of language and against the mistakes coming from dialects». Spelling book and little vocabulary by Antonino TrainaThe title of this contribution epitomizes the praxis of the post-unification legislation concerning primary school, particularly about orthoepy, and the reception of that legislation by the authors of textbooksfor primary school. After having exposed the guidelines of the legislation about the relation between Italian and dialects and about correct pronunciation, this article analyzes two teaching tools (a spelling book and a vocabulary, that can be used by both teachers and students. It’s notable that the spelling book and the vocabulary have a different perspective on orthoepy. Finally, from their analysis it is deduced the model proposed for the relation between Italian and dialects in classrooms.

  9. he ‘Fabulous Dragon’s Teeth’: Censorship and Self-Censorship in the Italian Translation of Paradise Lost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Borgogni

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Il presente contributo discute le molteplici prassi che, sotto forma di espurgazioni religiose, adattamenti neoclassici, mutilazioni stilistiche, hanno caratterizzato le traduzioni italiane del Paradise Lost di John Milton. La difficoltà nell’accettare  l’eterodossia stilistica e religiosa del grande poeta inglese ha tradizionalmente favorito una serie di versioni infarcite di “migliorie” che hanno  offuscato o travisato il testo miltoniano anche in tempi recenti. Il contributo discute in dettaglio l’atteggiamento idiosincratico nei confronti di Milton e del suo capolavoro, nonché i pregiudizi, le pratiche di autocensura e le strategie più o meno vincenti adottate dai traduttori. La traduzione viene dunque utilizzata  come indice culturale ampio, strumento di indagine privilegiato in quanto fisiologicamente legata a pratiche di censura, ri-creazione e ri-mediazione dell’oggetto letterario nel suo passaggio tra sistemi culturali diversi.

  10. Italian Validation of Homophobia Scale (HS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomo Ciocca, PsyD, PhD

    2015-09-01

    Conclusions: The Italian validation of the HS revealed the use of this self‐report test to have good psychometric properties. This study offers a new tool to assess homophobia. In this regard, the HS can be introduced into the clinical praxis and into programs for the prevention of homophobic behavior. Ciocca G, Capuano N, Tuziak B, Mollaioli D, Limoncin E, Valsecchi D, Carosa E, Gravina GL, Gianfrilli D, Lenzi A, and Jannini EA. Italian validation of Homophobia Scale (HS. Sex Med 2015;3:213–218.

  11. Social networking addiction, attachment style, and validation of the Italian version of the Bergen Social Media Addiction Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monacis, Lucia; de Palo, Valeria; Griffiths, Mark D; Sinatra, Maria

    2017-06-01

    Aim Research into social networking addiction has greatly increased over the last decade. However, the number of validated instruments assessing addiction to social networking sites (SNSs) remains few, and none have been validated in the Italian language. Consequently, this study tested the psychometric properties of the Italian version of the Bergen Social Media Addiction Scale (BSMAS), as well as providing empirical data concerning the relationship between attachment styles and SNS addiction. Methods A total of 769 participants were recruited to this study. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and multigroup analyses were applied to assess construct validity of the Italian version of the BSMAS. Reliability analyses comprised the average variance extracted, the standard error of measurement, and the factor determinacy coefficient. Results Indices obtained from the CFA showed the Italian version of the BSMAS to have an excellent fit of the model to the data, thus confirming the single-factor structure of the instrument. Measurement invariance was established at configural, metric, and strict invariances across age groups, and at configural and metric levels across gender groups. Internal consistency was supported by several indicators. In addition, the theoretical associations between SNS addiction and attachment styles were generally supported. Conclusion This study provides evidence that the Italian version of the BSMAS is a psychometrically robust tool that can be used in future Italian research into social networking addiction.

  12. Noi siamo quello che ricordiamo - Le frazze di Crucoli: il teatro, il rito, il riscatto sociale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tonia Mingrone

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract - IT Questo lavoro nasce da una ricerca di campo sulle frazze, termine dialettale che indica le farse di Carnevale che si rappresentavano fino a cinquant’anni fa in molti paesi calabresi, tra cui il mio, Crucoli, in provincia di Crotone. Lo scopo di questo lavoro non è fare un resoconto esaustivo di tutto ciò che accadeva a Crucoli durante la celebrazione del Carnevale, impresa assai difficile dal momento che non ci sono documenti scritti e quindi bisogna affidarsi ai racconti orali delle persone intervistate, spesso non fedeli alla realtà, perché modificati dal tempo e dalla memoria. L’approccio con cui ho intrapreso questa ricerca è sicuramente legato all’aspetto teatrale e performativo dell’evento, senza trascurarne la rilevanza antropologica. Il materiale raccolto è frutto di interviste e colloqui con la gente del posto unito ad un grande lavoro di ricerca bibliografica di autori che avevano trattato di questo argomento in relazione ai loro paesi di origine.Lo scopo è quello di delineare l’organizzazione e lo svolgimento delle frazze, cercando di ricostruire la sua durata e le ripercussioni sulla comunità, nonché dimostrare ancora una volta come il teatro, messo a disposizione di alcuni eventi, diventi un mezzo forte di liberazione e di contestazione. Abstract - FR Cet article prend sa naissance par une recherche sur champ concernant les frazze, terme dialectal qui dénote les farces du Carnaval mises en scène jusqu'à il y a cinquante ans dans plusieurs villages en Calabria, entre eux le mien, Crucoli, dans la province de Crotone. La raison de ce travail n'est pas d'accomplir un compte rendu exhaustif de tout ce qui avait lieu à Crucoli pendant la célébration du Carnaval, l'exploit étant très difficile, du moment qu'aucun document écrit a été parvenu et par conséquence il est nécessaire de se remettre aux contes des témoins interviewés, souvent pas fidèles au réel, parce-que détournés par les

  13. Networking and cooperation practices in the Italian tourism business

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Valeri

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to study the factors influencing the development of networked collaboration between small and medium-sized businesses in the Italian tourist industry. These businesses are obliged to choose networking when faced with difficulties of growth and the need to improve their offer for increasingly discerning customers. The paper aims to add to the recent studies on the management and governance of small and medium-sized tourism businesses, and to pinpoint new development processes to deal with the notable difficulties that the sector is subjected to. A survey was carried out by administering a questionnaire to a sample of Italian travel agencies and tour operators, specialising in incoming and outgoing activities. The sample consisted of 2,200 enterprises (or 70% of the total operating in Italy and was addressed only to small or medium-sized businesses (with less than 250 employees and a turnover less than 40 million euros a year. The narrowness of the sample analysed constitutes a limit to the work, and eventual future studies should try to analyse all tourism companies with a view to discovering new business opportunities, relieve critical situations and above all, call attention to appropriate issues of governance.

  14. Application of minimally invasive pancreatic surgery: an Italian survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capretti, Giovanni; Boggi, Ugo; Salvia, Roberto; Belli, Giulio; Coppola, Roberto; Falconi, Massimo; Valeri, Andrea; Zerbi, Alessandro

    2018-05-16

    The value of minimally invasive pancreatic surgery (MIPS) is still debated. To assess the diffusion of MIPS in Italy and identify the barriers preventing wider implementation, a questionnaire was developed under the auspices of three Scientific Societies (AISP, It-IHPBA, SICE) and was sent to the largest possible number of Italian surgeons also using the mailing list of the two main Italian Surgical Societies (SIC and ACOI). The questionnaire consisted of 25 questions assessing: centre characteristics, facilities and technologies, type of MIPS performed, surgical techniques employed and opinions on the present and future value of MIPS. Only one reply per unit was considered. Fifty-five units answered the questionnaire. While 54 units (98.2%) declared to perform MIPS, the majority of responders were not dedicated to pancreatic surgery. Twenty-five units (45.5%) performed MIPS per year. Forty-nine units (89.1%) performed at least one minimally invasive (MI) distal pancreatectomy (DP), and 10 (18.2%) at least one MI pancreatoduodenectomy (PD). Robotic assistance was used in 18 units (31.7%) (14 DP, 7 PD). The major constraints limiting the diffusion of MIPS were the intrinsic difficulty of the technique and the lack of specific training. The overall value of MIPS was highly rated. Our survey illustrates the current diffusion of MIPS in Italy and underlines the great interest for this approach. Further diffusion of MIPS requires the implementation of standardized protocols of training. Creation of a prospective National Registry should also be considered.

  15. Girolamo Murari Dalla Corte e il suo poema Pietro il Grande, Imperadore I ed autocrata di tutte le Russie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marialuisa Ferrazzi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Marialuisa FerrazziGirolamo Murari Dalla Corte and his poem Pietro il Grande, Imperadore I ed autocrata di tutte le RussieThis study focuses on Pietro il Grande, Imperadore I ed autocrata di tutte le Russie. Canti XII in ottava rima, a poem by the Mantuan Count, Girolamo Murari Dalla Corte. The work, which examines the conflict between Peter the Great and Charles XII of Sweden, was first published in Verona in 1803. 1814 saw the issue of a second edition, in which the author – who dedicated his work to the then reigning tsar, Alexander I – attempted to match the ideological perspective of the account to the changes occurring in the international political situation after the demise of Napoleon’s power. While presenting the historical and stylistic-structural aspects of the poem, the article also considers the relationship established with the Russian world by certain sectors of the Italian intelligencija, in particular by Venetian publishing houses, in the last decades of the 18th century. On the basis of Murari Dalla Corte’s papers, the last part of the article pieces together the sadly unsuccessful attempts made by the writer over a period of 20 years to obtain official recognition of the dedication of his poem from the Russian Court.

  16. Parametri pedologici e applicazioni per modelli in ambito ambientale: il quadro europeo ed italiano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavio Lupia

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Soil parameters as a key point for environmental modeling: the European and Italian situationSoil parameters are key information for environmental modelling and simulation activities. Soil data demand grows contemporary to the need of supporting the decision processes at the different administrative levels. Models application requires collection, harmonization and integration of soil database at the various geographic levels as well as the assessment of the characteristics of data accuracy and quality. The contribution explores the European and Italian situation concerning soil databases by stressing their features, issues and future perspectives.

  17. Parametri pedologici e applicazioni per modelli in ambito ambientale: il quadro europeo ed italiano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavio Lupia

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Soil parameters as a key point for environmental modeling: the European and Italian situation Soil parameters are key information for environmental modelling and simulation activities. Soil data demand grows contemporary to the need of supporting the decision processes at the different administrative levels. Models application requires collection, harmonization and integration of soil database at the various geographic levels as well as the assessment of the characteristics of data accuracy and quality. The contribution explores the European and Italian situation concerning soil databases by stressing their features, issues and future perspectives.

  18. Clinical significance of measurement of changes of serum IL-6, IL-18 and IL-1β levels after treatment in patients with endometriosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Chunyan; Zhang Shumin; Zhou Dongxia; Wang Enbo

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To explore the clinical significance of changes of serum IL-6, IL-18 and IL-1β levels after treatment in patients with endometriosis. Methods: Serum IL-6 (with RIA) and IL-18, IL-1β (with ELISA) levels were determined in 38 patients with endometriosis both before and after treatment as well as 35 controls. Results: Before treatment, the serum IL-6, IL- 18 and IL-1β levels were significantly higher in the patients than those in controls (P 0.05). Conclusion: Detection of serum IL-6, IL-18 and IL- 1β levels might reflect the progress of diseases in patients with endometriosis. (authors)

  19. 75 FR 64611 - Italian American Heritage and Culture Month, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-19

    .... As we honor the long history and vast contributions of Italian Americans, let us recommit to... society and steer the course of our history. During Italian American Heritage and Culture Month, we... Culture Month. I call upon all Americans to learn more about the history of Italian Americans, and to...

  20. Determinati e direttrici della politica finanziaria italiana. (Determinants and trends of Italian financial policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. SARCINELLI

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available La politica finanziaria italiana negli anni Ottanta è stata finalizzato principalmente al miglioramento dei segmenti rilevanti e il raggiungimento di un migliore mix di tutta la gamma di strumenti e intermediari. Altri due tendenze - privatizzazione e deregolamentazione - sono stati molto meno in primo piano rispetto al resto del mondo . L'autore fornisce un'ampia panoramica dello stato della politica finanziaria italiana , guardando le circostanze economiche e le politiche macroeconomiche , l'innovazione finanziaria , il processo di liberalizzazione e privatizzazione di regolamentazione .Italian financial policy in the eighties has been aimed mainly at improving the relevant segments and achieving a better mix of the whole range of instruments and intermediaries. Two other trends - privatisation and deregulation - have been much less to the fore than the rest of the world. The author provides a broad overview of the state of Italian financial policy, looking at economic circumstances and macro-economic policies, financial innovation, the deregulation-regulation process and privatisation.JEL: G18

  1. Translating Jane Austen’s Mansfield Park for contemporary Italian readers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Sangiorgi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract - My Italian translation of the novel Mansfield Park by Jane Austen was published by Rusconi Libri in 2012. The present contribution aims to describe and discuss some aspects of my practical experience in translating this novel. A particular focus will be on the issue of what it means, from both the cultural and the literary point of view, to translate this book into Italian in the 21st century, and on the strategies I adopted in order to translate certain aspects of the author’s language and style. Riassunto - Nel 2012 è stata pubblicata la mia traduzione in lingua italiana del romanzo Mansfield Park di Jane Austen. Il presente contributo intende osservare e discutere alcuni elementi culturali e linguistici legati al processo traduttivo di questo testo, con particolare riferimento a due principali questioni. La prima riguarda il significato stesso del tradurre in lingua italiana l’opera di Jane Austen nel ventunesimo secolo, sia dal punto di vista culturale che letterario. La seconda questione entra nel merito delle strategie traduttive che ho scelto per rendere specifici aspetti del linguaggio e dello stile propri dell’autrice inglese.

  2. E-books for Italian school, between Law Requirements and Publishers' Choices L'ebook per le scuole italiane fra requisiti normativi e scelte editoriali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Vincelli

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Il saggio presenta un'analisi del quadro legislativo italiano sulla transizione dei libri di testo dal formato cartaceo a quello digitale, oltre a una panoramica sull'offerta dei maggiori editori a riguardo, prendendo come esempio i libri di testo di Latino per le scuole superiori. Il concetto di libro digitale viene declinato oggi principalmente in due forme: il libro "on-line", digitale (generalmente in PDF o Epub, equivalente ai testi tradizionali a stampa per struttura e tipo di utilizzo; il libro che integra le caratteristiche del libro sia digitale che a stampa con una serie di materiali digitali supplementari. L'opinione dell'autrice è che l'offerta di pubblicazioni scolastiche in formato digitale si attiene a un'interpretazione limitata della legge italiana, e che dunque si prospettano nuove ipotesi che possano unire in modo efficace l'autorevolezza e il valore culturale dei libri di testo con le soluzioni più avanzate del digitale.

    This paper offers an analysis of the Italian legislation about the transition from printed school-books to digital ones and, in turn, it presents an overview of the digital publishing offer of major media groups, by taking as case study the Latin textbooks for high-schools. The concept of digital book has been declined nowadays in two main forms: the first one is the so-called "on-line book", which are digital books (typically in PDF or ePub format equivalent in structure and in the mode of use to classical printed books; the latter form integrates printed or digital books with a set of varied, and often incoherent, supplementary digital materials. The conclusion is that the current offer of digital publishing about school-books is a narrow interpretation of the Italian legislation, and thus it foresees the design of new paradigms that efficaciously merge the authoritativeness and cultural value of school-books with the advanced features and the new way of uses of digital media.

  3. Pauropolis. Pianificare il controllo attraverso il progetto della sicurezza.

    OpenAIRE

    Ragonese, Marco

    2008-01-01

    2006/2007 “Il grado di sicurezza misura la democrazia di un paese”, con questa frase un esponente della destra salutava l’approvazione nel parlamento italiano del nuovo pacchetto di norme in tema, appunto, di sicurezza. L’affermazione indica sintomaticamente come la questione, seppur non nuova, abbia acquisito un ruolo centrale nel dibattito contemporaneo, facilitata da una perfusione mediatica che ha trasformato l’evento dei primi giorni del settembre 2001 nel simbolo controverso della cr...

  4. Energy efficiency indicators. Case study, Liguria; Indicatori di efficienza energetica. Il caso Liguria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciarallo, M.A. [ENEA, Divisione Promozione degli Usi Efficienti e Diversificazione dell' Energia, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, S. Maria Galeria, RM (Italy)

    2001-07-01

    The report examines the trend in the Liguria Region's energy requirements over the period 1988-1996. The trend was analysed using the regional energy balances and energy efficiency indicators, both in aggregate form and on a single sector basis. The residential sector, in particular, was singled out for an in-depth analysis using publishing and processed data. [Italian] Il presente rapporto esamina l'evoluzione delle caratteristiche energetiche della Regione Liguria attraverso l'analisi degli indicatori di efficienza energetica. Tale analisi e' stata svolta sia a livello aggregato che con riferimento ai singoli settori di attivita'. Particolare attenzione e' stata dedicata al settore residenziale, per il quale e' stato svolto un esame piu' approfondito attraverso un lavoro di raccolta e di elaborazione dati. Il periodo di riferimento va dal 1988 al 1966 dal momento che questo e' l'ultimo anno per il quale sono disponibili i dati economici Istat utilizzati per il calcolo degli indicatori.

  5. The moderating role of job resources in the relationship between job demands and interleukin-6 in an Italian healthcare organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falco, Alessandra; Dal Corso, Laura; Girardi, Damiano; De Carlo, Alessandro; Comar, Manola

    2018-02-01

    In this study we examined the association between job demands (JD), job resources (JR), and serum levels of a possible biomarker of stress, the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6). According to the buffer hypothesis of the Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) model, we expected that job resources-defined as job autonomy and social support from supervisor-might buffer the relationship between job demands, defined as emotional demands and interpersonal conflict with colleagues, and IL-6. Data from 119 employees in an Italian public healthcare organization (acute care hospital) were analyzed using multiple regression. In predicting IL-6, the interactions between emotional demands and JR and between interpersonal conflict with colleagues and job autonomy (but not social support) were significant, after controlling for the effect of age and gender. The association between JD and IL-6 was stronger for individuals with low levels of JR, so that levels of IL-6 were highest when JD were high and JR were low. Overall, these results are consistent with the buffer hypothesis of the JD-R model and also extend previous research, showing that the exposure to stressful situations at work, measured as high JD and low JR, is associated with higher levels of IL-6 in hospital employees. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. La “grande bellezza” del paesaggio italiano nel cinema contemporaneo: tra falsificazione e finanziamento locale / The “great beauty” of Italian landscape in contemporary movies: between falsification and local funding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora Mastropietro

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available I film hanno rappresentato l’evoluzione del paesaggio italiano per gran parte del novecento. Negli ultimi due decenni i film italiani hanno però smesso di esplorare le trasformazioni del territorio. La debolezza dell’industria cinematografica spiega in parte l’assenza del contemporaneo dagli schermi. Inoltre il diffuso ricorso al supporto economico degli enti pubblici, che spesso vedono i film come strumenti di promozione turistica, sembra influenzare le modalità di rappresentazione del paesaggio. Il contributo presenta una ricerca condotta sui film di maggior successo tra il 1990 e il 2014 alla ricerca dell’immagine del paesaggio italiano in essi prevalente e evidenzia alcune cause alla base di questa rappresentazione omogenea. Films have portrayed the evolution of the Italian urban landscape in the last 100 years. Nevertheless, contemporary movies partially ignore the recent transformations and represent instead a stereotyped image of Italian landscapes. The structure of the local movie industry could provide a first explanation of this phenomenon. Moreover, the financial support of productions provided by local government influences the choice of including or excluding elements of the landscape in the movies screen. The paper explores the new representations of landscape in Italian movies, in order to show which features of the changing contemporary Italian landscapes are visible and which are hidden.

  7. Expression of TNF, IL-17A, IL-4 and IL-10 cytokines in irradiated peripheral blood mononuclear cells 'In vitro'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amaral, Ademir de Jesus; Leite, Lidía Lúcia Bezerra; Nascimento, Ayala Gomes do; Diniz, Ewerton Clementino; Silva, Gicielne Freitas da; Fernandes, Thiago de Salazar e; Silva, Edvane Borges da; Cavalcanti, Mariana Brayner; Veras, Robson Cavalcante; Medeiros, Isac Almeida de

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine and to compare the profile of cytokines produced by non-irradiated and irradiated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and the possible application of this analysis as a biomarker of individual radiosensitivity. For this, peripheral blood (PB) samples were collected from seven healthy volunteers, and each sample divided in two aliquots: one aliquot was irradiated with a dose of 2 Gy (from a 6MV Linear Accelerator) and while the other one was kept non irradiated. All PBMCs were cultured in RPMI 1640 supplemented with 10% Bovine Fetal Serum for 48 hours at 37°C and 5% CO2. The cytokines TNF, IL-17A, IL-4 and IL-10 were measured by flow cytometry. Wilcoxon test was performed with the level of significance of 95%. In the irradiated samples it was observed a slight increase of the median of the level of cytokines TNF, IL-4 and IL-10 (from 1040.9 to 1196.1 pg/mL, from 127.3 to 138 pg/mL, and from 99.9 to 120.8 pg/mL, respectively) and a slight decrease in median of cytokines IL- 17A (from 841.1 to 799.4 pg/mL). In addition to this evidence, there was a high inter-individual variability of cytokine concentrations in response to irradiation. It was observed that some individuals are more responsive to the expression of some inflammatory proteins after exposure to X-rays. Although further studies are necessary, the hypothesis that raises is that these biomarkers could be predictor of future individual responses to ionizing radiation exposure. (author)

  8. Aloin Inhibits Interleukin (IL)-1β-Stimulated IL-8 Production in KB Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Hee Sam; Song, Yu Ri; Kim, Seyeon; Heo, Jun-Young; Chung, Hae-Young; Chung, Jin

    2016-06-01

    Interleukin (IL)-1β, which is elevated in oral diseases including gingivitis, stimulates epithelial cells to produce IL-8 and perpetuate inflammatory responses. This study investigates stimulatory effects of salivary IL-1β in IL-8 production and determines if aloin inhibits IL-1β-stimulated IL-8 production in epithelial cells. Saliva was collected from volunteers to determine IL-1β and IL-8 levels. Samples from volunteers were divided into two groups: those with low and those with high IL-1β levels. KB cells were stimulated with IL-1β or saliva with or without IL-1 receptor agonist or specific mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) inhibitors. IL-8 production was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). MAPK protein expression involved in IL-1β-induced IL-8 secretion was detected by Western blot. KB cells were pretreated with aloin, and its effect on IL-1β-induced IL-8 production was examined by ELISA and Western blot analysis. Saliva with high IL-1β strongly stimulated IL-8 production in KB cells, and IL-1 receptor agonist significantly inhibited IL-8 production. Low IL-1β-containing saliva did not increase IL-8 production. IL-1β treatment of KB cells induced activation of MAPK signaling molecules as well as nuclear factor-kappa B. IL-1β-induced IL-8 production was decreased by p38 and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) inhibitor treatment. Aloin pretreatment inhibited IL-1β-induced IL-8 production in a dose-dependent manner and inhibited activation of the p38 and ERK signaling pathway. Finally, aloin pretreatment also inhibited saliva-induced IL-8 production. Results indicated that IL-1β in saliva stimulates epithelial cells to produce IL-8 and that aloin effectively inhibits salivary IL-1β-induced IL-8 production by mitigating the p38 and ERK pathway. Therefore, aloin may be a good candidate for modulating oral inflammatory diseases.

  9. Self-Employment among Italian Female Graduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosti, Luisa; Chelli, Francesco

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the gender impact of tertiary education on the probability of entering and remaining in self-employment. Design/methodology/approach: A data set on labour market flows produced by the Italian National Statistical Office is exploited by interviewing about 62,000 graduate and non-graduate…

  10. Stress Assignment in Reading Italian Polysyllabic Pseudowords

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulpizio, Simone; Arduino, Lisa S.; Paizi, Despina; Burani, Cristina

    2013-01-01

    In 4 naming experiments we investigated how Italian readers assign stress to pseudowords. We assessed whether participants assign stress following distributional information such as stress neighborhood (the proportion and number of existent words sharing orthographic ending and stress pattern) and whether such distributional information affects…

  11. Italian retail gasoline activities: inadequate distribution network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verde, Stefano

    2005-01-01

    It is common belief that competition in the Italian retail gasoline activities is hindered by oil companies' collusive behaviour. However, when developing a broader analysis of the sector, low efficiency and scarce competition could results as the consequences coming from an inadequate distribution network and from the recognition of international markets and focal point [it

  12. Introduzione / Introduction | Guzzetta | Italian Studies in Southern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Introduzione / Introduction. G Guzzetta. Abstract. Identità Italiane In Movimento. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/issa.v21i1-2.43947 · AJOL African Journals Online.

  13. The Italian Footwear Industry: an Empirical Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Pirolo, Luca; Giustiniano, Luca; Nenni, Maria Elena

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims to provide readers with a deep empirical analysis on the Italian footwear industry in order to investigate the evolution of its structure (trends in sales and production, number of firms and employees, main markets, etc.), together with the identification of the main drivers of competitiveness in order to explain the strategies implemented by local actors.

  14. Energy and competition in italian industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zanetti, G.

    2000-01-01

    The analysis of competition of the Italian production is based on the analysis of the prices. The most important period is between the first petroliferol crisis and these days. The production is concentrated on sector of old tradition and executed from an enterprise of small dimension [it

  15. Descriptive characteristics of the large Italian dams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dello Vicario, E.; Petaccia, A.; Savanella, V.

    1999-01-01

    In the present note the characteristics of the Italian dams are examined, underlining, in a statistical view, story, geographical location, types and use of the most important works. Such a review can be useful for a more detailed analysis, both for the dams characterization and for further studies relevant to water resources utilization [it

  16. The role of IL-17 in psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malakouti, Mona; Brown, Gabrielle Elena; Wang, Eva; Koo, John; Levin, Ethan C

    2015-02-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic skin condition traditionally believed to involve the Th1 pathway. Recently, the IL-23/Th17/IL-17 pathway has been highlighted in the pathogenesis of psoriasis and other autoimmune inflammatory conditions. From a clinician's perspective, we sought to review the basic science data relevant to IL-17's role in psoriasis pathogenesis. We performed a Pubmed and Web of Knowledge search for English articles starting from 1990 that discussed the Th17 pathway. Search terms such as "IL-17" and "psoriasis" were utilized. The IL-17 pathway is regulated by IL-23, a cytokine that is vital for the expansion and maintenance of the Th17 cell population. Th17 derived cytokines (IL-17A, IL-17F, IL-17A/F and IL-22) were elevated in both psoriasis-like murine models and human psoriatic lesional biopsies. Ixekizumab (anti-IL-17A) treatment of psoriasis was found to normalize levels of IL-17 downstream gene products. Both preclinical and clinical studies support the central role of IL-17 in the pathogenesis of psoriasis.

  17. Italian and Russian Verse: Two Cultures and Two Mentalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Garzonio

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Italian and Russian Verse: Two Cultures and Two Mentalities The present text was given as a talk at Stanford University in 2003. Here the author presents a comparative analysis of Russian and Italian versification and pays attention to the cultural contacts between these two poetical traditions in an effort to define the role played by Italian patterns in Russian verse. In this perspective the author offers a history of Russian poetical translation of Italian texts pointing out the different opinions of Russian poets about the “musicality” of Italian verse. The combined influence of language and culture in modelling different Russian poetical forms in a chronological perspective is underlined.

  18. Il problema morale nei "Pensieri" di Montesquieu

    OpenAIRE

    Lucia Dileo

    2010-01-01

    The paper examines two recent italian anthologies of Montesquieu's "Mes Pensées":- Montesquieu, Riflessioni e pensieri inediti (1716-1755), ed. by Domenico Felice, Bologna, Clueb, 2010;- Montesquieu, Pensieri diversi, ed. by Domenico Felice, Napoli, Liguori, 2010.

  19. Italian developments in the ultrasonic examination of pressure vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regis, V.

    1987-01-01

    A review of developments being pursued in Italy in ultrasonics for application to pressure vessels is presented. Although nuclear construction in Italy has suffered heavy delays, R and D activities promoted by the Italian Electricity Board in the mid 1970s on advanced UT for non-destructive inspection of thick welded sections made it possible to obtain significant results scored by CISE Laboratories, mainly through the design, construction and qualification of the manual UT spectroscopy and signal processing computerized ARICE system and of the mechanized multifrequency acoustic holography HADIS system. Meanwhile theoretical ultrasonic modelling is actively studied in order to implement software applications and the overall reliability of UT inspections with regard to flaw detection, location and sizing. Selected contributions from manufacturers and service companies with a view to improving UT practice are acknowledged, and still wider technology transfers may be expected in the future, also under ENEA industrial promotion programmes. (author)

  20. Medical use of cannabis: Italian and European legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaami, S; Di Luca, A; Di Luca, N M; Montanari Vergallo, G

    2018-02-01

    This review illustrates some brief considerations of the medical use of cannabis recently issued in Italy. History and uses of cannabis throughout centuries and different countries are illustrated together with a description of botany and active phytocannabinoids. Then, medical use of cannabis anti-pain treatment for patients resistant to conventional therapies is described in case of chronic neuropathic pain, spasticity, for anticinetosic and antiemetic effect in nausea and vomiting caused by chemotherapy, for appetite stimulating effect in cachexia, anorexia, loss of appetite in cancer patients or patients with AIDS and in anorexia nervosa, hypotensive effect in glaucoma resistant to conventional therapies and for reduction of involuntary body and facial movements in Gilles de la Tourette syndrome. Italian most recent legislation on medical cannabis is detailed with some law proposals, also showing the inconsistent legislation within European Union. Some final considerations of future studies are also reported.

  1. Il sapore dell’ italia: i nomi delle marche alimentari pseudoitaliane in Germania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie A. Rieger

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available La cucina italiana è famosa e apprezzata in tutto il mondo. Per molti, la sua varietà e leggerezza sono l’espressione tangibile della proverbiale gioia di vivere degli italiani, per altri evoca il sole, il mare e le vacanze. Sicuramente tutti concordano sul fatto che la cucina italiana sia sinonimo di bontà e qualità. In Germania, in particolare, la gastronomia italiana può vantare quasi sessant’anni di storia e un fatturato annuale che supera i tre miliardi di Euro. Il successo del mangiare all’italiana si rispecchia anche sugli scaffali dei supermercati che sono pieni di prodotti alimentari tipici della cucina italiana. Ma accanto alle marche BARILLA, BUITONI e LAVAZZA si possono trovare anche gli spaghetti COMBINO, la pizza RIGGANO e il caffè BELLAROM. A differenza dei primi tre nomi, tutte marche tradizionali italiane, gli ultimi tre sono marche commerciali tedesche che hanno l’evidente obiettivo di suggerire l’origine italiana dei rispettivi prodotti. Poiché l’origine italiana è garante di bontà e qualità, anche aziende tedesche cercano di sfruttare il cosiddetto country-of-origin effect. L’analisi linguistica di un corpus di 41 nomi di marche tedesche italianizzanti dimostra che le naming strategies possono essere ricondotte a pochi modelli formativi, il che sembrerebbe violare l’imperativo dell’innovazione e della diversità imposto dalle strategie del marketing. Eppure, i nomi sono perfettamente funzionali: dal momento che corrispondono all’idea che i tedeschi hanno della lingua italiana, come dimostrano degli studi empirici condotti da me, tali nomi sono percepiti come italiani e ai rispettivi prodotti viene attribuita un’origine italiana che funge, a sua volta, da marchio di qualità.

  2. The dichotomous pattern of IL-12r and IL-23R expression elucidates the role of IL-12 and IL-23 in inflammation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaëlle Chognard

    Full Text Available IL-12 and IL-23 cytokines respectively drive Th1 and Th17 type responses. Yet, little is known regarding the biology of these receptors. As the IL-12 and IL-23 receptors share a common subunit, it has been assumed that these receptors are co-expressed. Surprisingly, we find that the expression of each of these receptors is restricted to specific cell types, in both mouse and human. Indeed, although IL-12Rβ2 is expressed by NK cells and a subset of γδ T cells, the expression of IL-23R is restricted to specific T cell subsets, a small number of B cells and innate lymphoid cells. By exploiting an IL-12- and IL-23-dependent mouse model of innate inflammation, we demonstrate an intricate interplay between IL-12Rβ2 NK cells and IL-23R innate lymphoid cells with respectively dominant roles in the regulation of systemic versus local inflammatory responses. Together, these findings support an unforeseen lineage-specific dichotomy in the in vivo role of both the IL-12 and IL-23 pathways in pathological inflammatory states, which may allow more accurate dissection of the roles of these receptors in chronic inflammatory diseases in humans.

  3. IL26 gene inactivation in Equidae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakhsi-Niaei, M; Drögemüller, M; Jagannathan, V; Gerber, V; Leeb, T

    2013-12-01

    Interleukin-26 (IL26) is a member of the IL10 cytokine family. The IL26 gene is located between two other well-known cytokines genes of this family encoding interferon-gamma (IFNG) and IL22 in an evolutionary conserved gene cluster. In contrast to humans and most other mammals, mice lack a functional Il26 gene. We analyzed the genome sequences of other vertebrates for the presence or absence of functional IL26 orthologs and found that the IL26 gene has also become inactivated in several equid species. We detected a one-base pair frameshift deletion in exon 2 of the IL26 gene in the domestic horse (Equus caballus), Przewalski horse (Equus przewalskii) and donkey (Equus asinus). The remnant IL26 gene in the horse is still transcribed and gives rise to at least five alternative transcripts. None of these transcripts share a conserved open reading frame with the human IL26 gene. A comparative analysis across diverse vertebrates revealed that the IL26 gene has also independently been inactivated in a few other mammals, including the African elephant and the European hedgehog. The IL26 gene thus appears to be highly variable, and the conserved open reading frame has been lost several times during mammalian evolution. © 2013 The Authors, Animal Genetics © 2013 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  4. Some aspects of Italian energy systems and the effects on the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morici, Alessandro

    1998-01-01

    The priority goals of the Italian energy system in 1998 were; energy savings, protection of the environment and human health, development of domestic resource, diversification of energy sources and suppliers, international competitiveness of the energy system. Current and future actions include: energy conservation measures, energy developments, national plan for sustainable development implementing national program for limiting carbon related emissions to 1990 level by year 2000, and periodic reports to comply with the requirements of convention on climatic change

  5. IL-25 or IL-17E protects against high-fat diet-induced hepatic steatosis in mice dependent upon IL-13 activation of STAT6

    Science.gov (United States)

    IL-25 is a member of IL-17 cytokine family and has immune-modulating activities. The role of IL-25 in maintaining lipid metabolic homeostasis remains unknown. Here, we investigated the effects of exogenous IL-25 or deficiency of IL-25 on lipid accumulation in the liver. Mice were injected with IL-25...

  6. Cord Blood Cells Responses to IL2, IL7 and IL15 Cytokines for mTOR Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anahita Mohammadian

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTORis important in hematopoiesis and affect cell growth,differentiation and survival. Although previous studies were identified the effect of cytokines on the mononuclear cells development however the cytokines effect on mTOR in cord blood mononuclear cells was unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate mTOR expression in cord blood mononuclear and cord blood stem cells (CD34+ cells in culture conditions for lymphoid cell development. Methods: Isolation of The mononuclear cells (MNCs from umbilical cord blood were done with use of Ficollpaque density gradient. We evaluated cultured cord blood mononuclear and CD34+ cells in presece of IL2, IL7 and IL15 at distinct time points during 21 days by using flow cytometry. In this study, we presented the role of IL2, IL7 and IL15 on the expression of mTOR in cord blood cells. Results: mTOR expression were increased in peresence of IL2, IL7 and IL15 in day 14 and afterword reduced. However in persence of IL2 and IL15 expression of mTOR significantly reduced. mTOR expression in CD34+ cells decreased significantly from day7 to day 21 in culture. Conclusion: cytokines play important role in mTOR expression during hematopoiesis and development of cord blood mononuclear cells.

  7. Metropolitan City: the Italian experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Franco Ferrari

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to the fact that the definitions of territorial organization are no longer adequate, the concept of “metropolitan areas” arises as a solution to resolve such deficit. This study shows the beginnings of this figure in Italy and the problems of identification and delimitation caused by the abstraction of the norms, therefore entailing a difficult implementation of the concept of metropolitan cities. By identifying these obstacles, this paper presents an analysis where it is possible to ensure compliance with this new reality in the near future.

  8. Serum IL-10, IL-17 and IL-23 levels as "bioumoral bridges" between dyslipidemia and atopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manti, S; Leonardi, S; Panasiti, I; Arrigo, T; Salpietro, C; Cuppari, C

    2017-11-01

    Although several studies suggest a possible link between dyslipidemia and atopy, literature findings are still unclear. The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between dyslipidemia and atopy in a pediatric population affected by dyslipidemia or dyslipidemia/atopic predisposition. Children with dyslipidemia, dyslipidemia and atopy as well as healthy children were recruited. Serum total IgE, IL-10, IL-17, and IL-23 levels as well as fasting lipid values (total cholesterol, LDL, HDL and triglycerides) were performed on all enrolled children. The present study evaluated 23 patients affected by dyslipidemia, 26 patients affected by atopy and dyslipidemia and, 22healthy children. Serum total IgE levels significantly related also with serum cholesterol levels: positively with total cholesterol (pdyslipidemia than patients with dyslipidemia (pdyslipidemia than patients with dyslipidemia (pdyslipidemia and atopic predisposition share the same immune pathways as well as they offer new insights in the complex crosstalk between hyperlipidemia and atopy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Structure of IL-22 Bound to Its High-Affinity IL-22R1 Chain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, B.C.; Logsdon, N.J.; Walter, M.R. (UAB)

    2008-09-29

    IL-22 is an IL-10 family cytokine that initiates innate immune responses against bacterial pathogens and contributes to immune disease. IL-22 biological activity is initiated by binding to a cell-surface complex composed of IL-22R1 and IL-10R2 receptor chains and further regulated by interactions with a soluble binding protein, IL-22BP, which shares sequence similarity with an extracellular region of IL-22R1 (sIL-22R1). IL-22R1 also pairs with the IL-20R2 chain to induce IL-20 and IL-24 signaling. To define the molecular basis of these diverse interactions, we have determined the structure of the IL-22/sIL-22R1 complex. The structure, combined with homology modeling and surface plasmon resonance studies, defines the molecular basis for the distinct affinities and specificities of IL-22 and IL-10 receptor chains that regulate cellular targeting and signal transduction to elicit effective immune responses.

  10. Biological significance of soluble IL-2 receptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calogero Caruso

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available A NUMBER of receptors for growth factors and differentiation antigens have been found to be secreted or released by cells. Following mononuclear cell (MNC activation and interleukin-2 receptor (IL-2R expression, a soluble form of the Alpha;-chain of IL-2R (sIL-2R is released. The sIL-2R has been shown to be present in the culture supernatants of activated MNCs as well as in normal sera and, in higher amounts, in sera from subjects affected by several diseases including neoplastic, infectious and autoimmune ones, and in sera from transplanted patients suffering allograft rejection. The blood sIL-2R levels depend on the number of producing cells and the number of molecules per cell, so that sIL-2R blood values may represent an index of the number and the functional state of producing cells, both normal and neoplastic. Thus, monitoring of the immune system, mostly T-cells and haematological malignancies might be targets for the measurement of sIL-2R. Since many conditions may influence sIL-2R production, little diagnostic use may result from these measurements. However, since blood sIL-2R levels may correlate with disease progression and/or response to therapy, their measurement may be a useful index of activity and extent of disease. The precise biological role of the soluble form of the IL-2R is still a matter of debate. However, we know that increased sIL-2R levels may be observed in association with several immunological abnormalities and that sIL-2R is able to bind IL-2. It is conceivable then that in these conditions the excess sIL-2R released in vivo by activated lymphoid cells or by neoplastic cells may somehow regulate IL-2-dependent processes. On the other hand, it cannot exclude that sIL-2R is a by-product without biological significance. Finally, it is puzzling that in many conditions in which an increase of blood sIL-2R values has been observed, MNCs display a decreased in vitro capacity to produce sIL-2R. These seemingly contrasting

  11. Il gioco le leggi naturali governano il caso

    CERN Document Server

    Eigen, Manfred

    1986-01-01

    Manfred Eigen, Premio Nobel per la chimica nel 1967, e la sua collaboratrice Ruthild Winkler hanno voluto con questo libro uscire allo scoperto, esponendo in una trattazione complessa ma comprensibile per ogni lettore veramente interessato una teoria molto audace, basata su ricerche e scoperte di Eigen stesso e di altri (come per esempio Thom e Prigogine) che in questi ultimi anni sono al centro dell’attenzione degli scienziati, anche se non sempre sono filtrate al di fuori della loro cerchia. Questa teoria ha come perno la nozione di gioco: e non già in una o più delle innumerevoli accezioni della parola, ma in tutte, con l’aggiunta di una ulteriore accezione che sottende tutte le altre: il gioco come struttura intelligibile emergente dal divenire caotico, quindi come fenomeno «che ha guidato fin dall’inizio il corso dell’Universo». Gioco, in questo libro, è dunque un «fenomeno naturale», non specificamente umano. I giochi che noi tutti giochiamo sono soltanto la schiuma variegata di un flutto...

  12. IL-17A, IL-17RC polymorphisms and IL17 plasma levels in Tunisian patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chahbi, Mayssa; Haouami, Youssra; Sfar, Imen; Abdelmoula, Leila; Ben Abdallah, Taieb; Gorgi, Yousr

    2018-01-01

    Background Interleukin-17 (IL-17), a cytokine mainly secreted by Th17 cells, seems to play a significant role in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Functional genetic polymorphisms in IL-17 and its receptor genes can influence either qualitatively or quantitatively their functions. Therefore, we aimed to study the impact of IL17-A and IL17RC polymorphisms on plasma level of IL-17 and RA susceptibility and severity. Methods In this context, IL-17A*rs2275913 and IL-17RC*rs708567 polymorphisms were investigated together with the quantification of IL17 plasma level in 115 RA patients and 91 healthy control subjects matched in age, sex and ethnic origin. Results There were no statistically significant associations between IL-17A and IL-17RC studied polymorphisms and RA susceptibility. In contrast, IL-17A plasma levels were significantly higher in patients (55.07 pg/ml) comparatively to controls (4.75 pg/ml), p<10E-12. A ROC curve was used to evaluate the performance of plasma IL-17 in detecting RA. Given 100% specificity, the highest sensitivity of plasma IL-17A was 61.7% at a cut-off value of 18.25 pg/ml; p < 10E-21, CI = [0.849–0.939]. Analytic results showed that the IgM-rheumatoid factor and anti-CCP antibodies were significantly less frequent in patients with the IL-17RC*A/A genotype than those carrying *G/G and *G/A genotypes; p = 0.013 and p = 0.015, respectively. Otherwise, IL-17 plasma levels’ analysis showed a significant association with the activity of RA (DAS28≥5.1 = 74.71 pg/ml vs. DAS28<5.1 = 11.96 pg/ml), p<10E-6. Conclusion IL-17A*rs2275913 (G/A) and IL-17RC*rs708567 (G/A) polymorphisms did not seem to influence RA susceptibility in Tunisian population. This result agrees with those reported previously. Plasma IL-17A level seems to be predictive of severe RA occurrence. PMID:29584788

  13. Clinical value of determination of changes of serum Gas, IL-2, IL-10 and IL-18 levels after transfusion of Red blood cells in patients with peptic ulcer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Tingting; Li Xinghua

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigation the changes of serum Gas, IL-2, IL-10 and IL-18 contents after transfusion of red blood cells in patients with peptic ulcer. Methods: Serum Gas, IL-2, IL-10 (with RIA), serum IL-18 (with ELISA) levels were measured in 31 patients with peptic ulcer and 35 controls. Results: Before transfusion,the serum IL-2 level in the patients was significantly lower than that in controls (P 0.05). Conclusion: Detection of serum Gas, IL-2, IL-10 and IL-18 levels is clinically useful for monitoring progress and favourable prognosis of patients with peptic ulcer possess important clinical value. (authors)

  14. 22nd Italian Workshop on Neural Nets

    CERN Document Server

    Bassis, Simone; Esposito, Anna; Morabito, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    This volume collects a selection of contributions which has been presented at the 22nd Italian Workshop on Neural Networks, the yearly meeting of the Italian Society for Neural Networks (SIREN). The conference was held in Italy, Vietri sul Mare (Salerno), during May 17-19, 2012. The annual meeting of SIREN is sponsored by International Neural Network Society (INNS), European Neural Network Society (ENNS) and IEEE Computational Intelligence Society (CIS). The book – as well as the workshop-  is organized in three main components, two special sessions and a group of regular sessions featuring different aspects and point of views of artificial neural networks and natural intelligence, also including applications of present compelling interest.

  15. Great landslide events in Italian artificial reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Panizzo

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The empirical formulations to forecast landslide generated water waves, recently defined in the framework of a research program funded by the Italian National Dam Office RID (Registro Italiano Dighe, are here used to study three real cases of subaerial landslides which fell down italian artificial reservoirs. It is well known that impulse water waves generated by landslides constitute a very dangerous menace for human communities living in the shoreline of the artificial basin or downstream the dam. In 1963, the menace became tragedy, when a 270 millions m3 landslide fell down the Vajont reservoir (Italy, generated an impulse wave which destroyed the city of Longarone, and killed 2000 people. The paper is aimed at presenting the very satisfactorily reproduction of the events at hand by using forecasting formulations.  

  16. Great landslide events in Italian artificial reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panizzo, A.; de Girolamo, P.; di Risio, M.; Maistri, A.; Petaccia, A.

    2005-09-01

    The empirical formulations to forecast landslide generated water waves, recently defined in the framework of a research program funded by the Italian National Dam Office RID (Registro Italiano Dighe), are here used to study three real cases of subaerial landslides which fell down italian artificial reservoirs. It is well known that impulse water waves generated by landslides constitute a very dangerous menace for human communities living in the shoreline of the artificial basin or downstream the dam. In 1963, the menace became tragedy, when a 270 millions m3 landslide fell down the Vajont reservoir (Italy), generated an impulse wave which destroyed the city of Longarone, and killed 2000 people. The paper is aimed at presenting the very satisfactorily reproduction of the events at hand by using forecasting formulations.

  17. Italian students win a trip to CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    The six winners of the Progetto Lauree Scientifiche came to CERN to discover the LHC experiments. Six Italian high-school students visited CERN last week as part of a biennial project sponsored by the Italian Research ministry, the University of Ferrara and INFN. A total of 160 enthusiastic students took part in the project, which aims to introduce and foster interest in higher levels of science and technology. The Progetto Lauree Scientifiche prize was awarded to these students for their excellent grades in an examination covering various areas of physics, including laser, solid and particle physics. The winners spent six days at CERN touring the Laboratory and seeing first-hand the various aspects of research in one of the leading European centres, as well as the excitement of the particle physics adventure.

  18. A healthy lesson, Italian-style?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Ricciardi

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available According to the conclusions of the World Health Organisation’s 2000 report Italy had the second best health system in the world [1] with Italians having one of the highest rates of life expectancy... However, since 2001 the 19 Italian Regions and 2 Autonomous Provinces have exercised their autonomy very differently, with Northern regions being more successful in establishing effective structures of health care delivery, management and monitoring, as compared to regions in the South. This regional variation in health care reflects (and exacerbates differences of contextual, political, economic and cultural, factors as well as differences between regional health systems. A recent survey [2] showed that in 14 of the 21 Regions and Autonomous Provinces, the system is performing fairly well and is well perceived by citizens.

  19. Genetic variability of Italian Heavy Draught Horse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Maretto

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze the genetic variability of the Italian Heavy Draught Horse (IHDH breed using a panel of 23 microsatellite markers. We also compared the population structure of the IHDH to other two unrelated breeds (Italian Haflinger, IH and Quarter Horse, QH. The IHDH showed a genetic variability comparable with other European heavy draught horse breeds and with the IH and QH breeds analyzed. Clustering analyses using a posterior Bayesian approach clearly differentiated the three breeds; it also showed a fragmentation of the IHDH in three subpopulations that need to be further investigated. These findings are an indicator of the present situation of the IHDH and will contribute to the conservation and implementation of the selection programme for this breed.

  20. F4+ ETEC infection and oral immunization with F4 fimbriae elicits an IL-17-dominated immune response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yu; Van Nguyen, Ut; de la Fe Rodriguez, Pedro Y; Devriendt, Bert; Cox, Eric

    2015-10-21

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) are an important cause of post-weaning diarrhea (PWD) in piglets. Porcine-specific ETEC strains possess different fimbrial subtypes of which F4 fimbriae are the most frequently associated with ETEC-induced diarrhea in piglets. These F4 fimbriae are potent oral immunogens that induce protective F4-specific IgA antibody secreting cells at intestinal tissues. Recently, T-helper 17 (Th17) cells have been implicated in the protection of the host against extracellular pathogens. However, it remains unknown if Th17 effector responses are needed to clear ETEC infections. In the present study, we aimed to elucidate if ETEC elicits a Th17 response in piglets and if F4 fimbriae trigger a similar response. F4(+) ETEC infection upregulated IL-17A, IL-17F, IL-21 and IL-23p19, but not IL-12 and IFN-γ mRNA expression in the systemic and mucosal immune system. Similarly, oral immunization with F4 fimbriae triggered a Th17 signature evidenced by an upregulated mRNA expression of IL-17F, RORγt, IL-23p19 and IL-21 in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Intriguingly, IL-17A mRNA levels were unaltered. To further evaluate this difference between systemic and mucosal immune responses, we assayed the cytokine mRNA profile of F4 fimbriae stimulated PBMCs. F4 fimbriae induced IL-17A, IL-17F, IL-22 and IL-23p19, but downregulated IL-17B mRNA expression. Altogether, these data indicate a Th17 dominated response upon oral immunization with F4 fimbriae and F4(+) ETEC infection. Our work also highlights that IL-17B and IL-17F participate in the immune response to protect the host against F4(+) ETEC infection and could aid in the design of future ETEC vaccines.

  1. Mercury levels in defined Italian population groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ingrao, G.; Belloni, P.

    1991-01-01

    Our group conducts its research activity in the Department AMB-BIO (Biological and Sanitary Effect of Toxic Agents) of ENEA (National Committee for Research and Development of Nuclear and Alternative Energy) at the research centre of Casaccia. The food chain is the main pathway leading to humans for most of the trace elements. The research, therefore, has been directed mainly towards the study of the variability of the trace element content in the Italian diet. This programme aims at assessing the adequacy of the essential trace elements ingestion, and to verify that the ingestion of toxic trace elements is below the recommended values. Part of this research was conducted in the frame of the IAEA CRP on ''Human daily Intakes of Nutritionally Important Trace Elements as Measured by Nuclear and Other Techniques''. Studies carried out by the National Institute of Nutrition and FAO have shown that there are some population groups having a fish consumption significantly higher than the average value for the Italian population. These groups are usually found in coastal towns were fishing is one of the main occupation and generally includes fishermen, fish dealers, restaurant workers and their families. A pilot study was conducted in one of these towns, Bagnara Calabra in the South of Italy, where the average fish consumption is 27.1 kg per year, which is more than twice the national average. The results have shown that the mercury concentration in the diet is significantly higher than in other Italian locations, the mercury levels in blood and hair sample in these subjects are also significantly higher than the values reported for subjects of the general Italian population. 6 refs

  2. Italian Microhistory, anthropology and judicial archives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eulalia Hernández Ciro

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available From the interceptions between the Italian microhistory and anthropology, this article aims to provide a central debate of contemporary historiography account of popular culture and subaltern classes from the intensive and exhaustive judicial proceedings. To do this, some of the impacts of anthropology will be addressed in the historical work, as the appearance and questioning notion of popular culture, the ethnographic value of court files and finally, some possibilities in the case of Judicial Historical Archive of Medellin.

  3. Nuclear engineering education in italian universities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dulla, S.; Panella, B.; Ravetto, P.

    2011-01-01

    The paper illustrates the evolution and the present situation of the university-level nuclear engineering education in Italy. The problems connected with the need of qualified faculty in view of a dramatic increase of students is pointed out. A short description of the programs at present available at Italian universities is also presented, together with some statistics referred to Politecnico di Torino. The mathematical and computation content of each programs is also analyzed. (author)

  4. Italian asset management companies: products and governance

    OpenAIRE

    Arcuri, Maria Cristina

    2013-01-01

    The importance of the asset management sector has prompted many studies to highlight the need to promote its growth and development. This is even more so following the recent financial crisis, considered by many authors the most severe recession after World War II. Contributions existing in literature have emphasized the importance of investigating the corporate governance system of the Asset Management Companies (AMCs), considering that the Italian financial system is characterized by a "...

  5. Il delitto di onore e l'aggravante dei “futili motivi” culturalmente (e religiosamente motivata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germana Carobene

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Contributo sottoposto a valutazione. Il contributo è destinato alla pubblicazione nel volume degli Atti del Corso di formazione giuridica in materia di pari opportunità e violazione del divieto di discriminazione di genere, organizzato dal Comitato Pari Opportunità presso il Consiglio dell'Ordine degli Avvocati di Napoli, ottobre 2013- giugno 2014SOMMARIO:1. I reati culturalmente motivati e il tentato omicidio per causa di “onore” - 2. Il concetto di onore nella cultura e nella tradizione giuridica dei Paesi mussulmani - 3. L'aggravante dei futili motivi nel nostro sistema penale - 4. Considerazioni conclusive. ABSTRACT The crime of honor and the aggravating factor of the trivial reasons' culturally (and religiously motivated A recent case law of the Italian Court of Cassation, on 2013, ruled that, in the case of the attempted murder of a daughter, trivial reasons cannot be considered based on the honor of the family and the violation of a fundamental religious precept. The evaluation of these cases then relates to that, of a much broader scope, linked to the concept of 'cultural crimes' or cultural defence. It is necessary, however, to perform a careful balancing between guilt and offensiveness proportion on the one hand and, on the other hand, to consider the extent to which the author of a culturally motivated crime can enjoy a punitive treatment, though attenuated compared to those who commit the same crime without a cultural motivation. A judgment intrinsically linked to a cultural and ethical relativism, cannot be accepted that though respecting the multiculturalism of the western society in general, and of the Italian one in particular, must always find its legitimacy by submitting to the principles and values on which the Italian Constitution is founded.

  6. Sex Differences in the Relationship of IL-6 Signaling to Cancer Cachexia Progression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetzler, Kimbell L.; Hardee, Justin P.; Puppa, Melissa J.; Narsale, Aditi A.; Sato, Shuichi; Davis, J. Mark; Carson, James A.

    2015-01-01

    A devastating aspect of cancer cachexia is severe loss of muscle and fat mass. Though cachexia occurs in both sexes, it is not well-defined in the female. The Apc Min/+ mouse is genetically predisposed to develop intestinal tumors; circulating IL-6 is a critical regulator of cancer cachexia in the male Apc Min/+ mouse. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between IL-6 signaling and cachexia progression in the female Apc Min/+ mouse. Male and female Apc Min/+ mice were examined during the initiation and progression of cachexia. Another group of females had IL-6 overexpressed between 12-14 weeks or 15-18 weeks of age to determine whether IL-6 could induce cachexia. Cachectic female Apc Min/+ mice lost body weight, muscle mass, and fat mass; increased muscle IL-6 mRNA expression was associated with these changes, but circulating IL-6 levels were not. Circulating IL-6 levels did not correlate with downstream signaling in muscle in the female. Muscle IL-6r mRNA expression and SOCS3 mRNA expression as well as muscle IL-6r protein and STAT3 phosphorylation increased with severe cachexia in both sexes. Muscle SOCS3 protein increased in cachectic females but decreased in cachectic males. IL-6 overexpression did not affect cachexia progression in female Apc Min/+ mice. Our results indicate that female Apc Min/+ mice undergo cachexia progression that is at least initially IL-6-independent. Future studies in the female will need to determine mechanisms underlying regulation of IL-6 response and cachexia induction. PMID:25555992

  7. Italian version of Dyspnoea-12: cultural-linguistic validation, quantitative and qualitative content validity study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, Rosario; Arrigoni, Cristina; Groppelli, Katia; Magon, Arianna; Dellafiore, Federica; Pittella, Francesco; Grugnetti, Anna Maria; Chessa, Massimo; Yorke, Janelle

    2018-01-16

    Dyspnoea-12 is a valid and reliable scale to assess dyspneic symptom, considering its severity, physical and emotional components. However, it is not available in Italian version due to it was not yet translated and validated. For this reason, the aim of this study was to develop an Italian version Dyspnoea-12, providing a cultural and linguistic validation, supported by the quantitative and qualitative content validity. This was a methodological study, divided into two phases: phase one is related to the cultural and linguistic validation, phase two is related to test the quantitative and qualitative content validity. Linguistic validation followed a standardized translation process. Quantitative content validity was assessed computing content validity ratio (CVR) and index (I-CVIs and S-CVI) from expert panellists response. Qualitative content validity was assessed by the narrative analysis on the answers of three open-ended questions to the expert panellists, aimed to investigate the clarity and the pertinence of the Italian items. The translation process found a good agreement in considering clear the items in both the six involved bilingual expert translators and among the ten voluntary involved patients. CVR, I-CVIs and S-CVI were satisfactory for all the translated items. This study has represented a pivotal step to use Dyspnoea-12 amongst Italian patients. Future researches are needed to deeply investigate the Italian version of  Dyspnoea-12 construct validity and its reliability, and to describe how dyspnoea components (i.e. physical and emotional) impact the life of patients with cardiorespiratory diseases.

  8. Ramsey prices in the Italian electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bigerna, Simona; Bollino, Carlo Andrea

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we derive optimal zonal prices in the Italian day-ahead electricity market using estimation of a complete system of hourly demand in 2010–2011. In Italy, the hourly equilibrium price for all buyers is computed as a uniform average of supply zonal prices, resulting from market splitting due to line congestion. We model ex-ante individual bids expressed by heterogeneous consumers, which are distinguished by geographical zones. Using empirical estimations, we compute demand elasticity values and new zonal prices, according to a Ramsey optimal scheme. This is a new approach in the wholesale electricity market literature, as previous studies have discussed the relative merit of zonal prices, considering only the issue of line congestion. Our results show that the optimal pricing scheme can improve welfare in the day-ahead Italian electricity market, with respect to both the existing uniform price scheme and the proposal to charge the existing supply zonal prices to the demand side. - Highlights: • We model and estimate the demand of heterogeneous buyers in the electricity market. • Transmission line congestion creates welfare distortions in the market. • We derive optimal Ramsey prices in the Italian day-ahead electricity market. • We compare optimal prices with historical ones showing how to improve welfare.

  9. Ionizing radiations in Italian health care structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fizzano, M.R.; Frusteri, L.

    2006-01-01

    The Council of the European Union has completely renewed the framework regarding radiation protection by adopting some directives: Directive 97/43 EURATOM lays down the general principles of the radiation protection of individuals undergoing exposure to ionising radiations related to medical exposures, as a supplement of Directive 96/29 EURATOM laying down the basic safety standards for the protection of the health of workers and the general public against the dangers arising from ionising radiations.The incorporation into Italian legislation of the European Community directives on the improvement of health and safety at work has promoted a vast effort in order to revise the surveillance approach in many facilities, including hospitals. In Italy, safety law is referred to every workplace; anyway the use of ionising radiations is ruled by specific laws. So in the health care structures it is necessary integrating both the laws and this process is often difficult to carry on. The Italian Legislative Decree 230/95, one the main laws that aim to protect workers against ionising radiations, introduced Directive 96/29/EURATOM. This Decree asks that a doctor and a technical expert analyse the workplace and classify area and workers in according to dose of ionising radiation established by law. The Italian Legislative Decree 626/94 asks that risk analysis in general is made by doctor and specialist in risk. So, in case of risk from ionising radiation, all these figures have to cooperate in order to make an evaluation risk document. (N.C.)

  10. Residential construction cost: An Italian survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canesi, Rubina; Marella, Giuliano

    2017-04-01

    This paper reports data describing development projects for new buildings according to construction costs in North-East Italy. A survey was carried out on local companies undertaking new residential development projects in two Italian regions (Veneto and Lombardy). The aim of this survey was to record new real estate construction projects, collecting both technical and socio-economic cost features. It is extremely difficult to collect such data for the Italian real estate construction sector, due to its lack of transparency, so that the novelty for the Italian scenario is the dataset itself. Another interest perspective of this survey is that socio-economic characteristics were also recorded; they are often studied in urban economics, but are usually related to property purchase prices and values, not to construction costs. The data come from an analysis of Canesi and Marella regarding the relationship between the trend of construction costs and the socio-economic conditions of the reference setting, such as the mean years of schooling of the workforce, housing market trends, and average per capita income.

  11. Residential construction cost: An Italian survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubina Canesi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports data describing development projects for new buildings according to construction costs in North-East Italy. A survey was carried out on local companies undertaking new residential development projects in two Italian regions (Veneto and Lombardy. The aim of this survey was to record new real estate construction projects, collecting both technical and socio-economic cost features. It is extremely difficult to collect such data for the Italian real estate construction sector, due to its lack of transparency, so that the novelty for the Italian scenario is the dataset itself. Another interest perspective of this survey is that socio-economic characteristics were also recorded; they are often studied in urban economics, but are usually related to property purchase prices and values, not to construction costs. The data come from an analysis of Canesi and Marella regarding the relationship between the trend of construction costs and the socio-economic conditions of the reference setting, such as the mean years of schooling of the workforce, housing market trends, and average per capita income.

  12. Ionizing radiations in Italian health care structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fizzano, M.R.; Frusteri, L. [Technical Advisory Dept. for Risk Assessment and Prevention, Italian Workers Compensation Authority, Rome (Italy)

    2006-07-01

    The Council of the European Union has completely renewed the framework regarding radiation protection by adopting some directives: Directive 97/43 EURATOM lays down the general principles of the radiation protection of individuals undergoing exposure to ionising radiations related to medical exposures, as a supplement of Directive 96/29 EURATOM laying down the basic safety standards for the protection of the health of workers and the general public against the dangers arising from ionising radiations.The incorporation into Italian legislation of the European Community directives on the improvement of health and safety at work has promoted a vast effort in order to revise the surveillance approach in many facilities, including hospitals. In Italy, safety law is referred to every workplace; anyway the use of ionising radiations is ruled by specific laws. So in the health care structures it is necessary integrating both the laws and this process is often difficult to carry on. The Italian Legislative Decree 230/95, one the main laws that aim to protect workers against ionising radiations, introduced Directive 96/29/EURATOM. This Decree asks that a doctor and a technical expert analyse the workplace and classify area and workers in according to dose of ionising radiation established by law. The Italian Legislative Decree 626/94 asks that risk analysis in general is made by doctor and specialist in risk. So, in case of risk from ionising radiation, all these figures have to cooperate in order to make an evaluation risk document. (N.C.)

  13. Into the 21st Century with the Istituto Geografico Polare "Silvio Zavatti" and its journal "Il Polo"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casarini, M.

    2013-12-01

    By Maria Pia Casarini We are now nearing the 70th anniversary of the foundation of this unique institution, established in the city of Fermo in the Marche region of Italy by the late Prof. Silvio Zavatti (d. 1985), a true polar enthusiast working before the time when Italy had any official interest in the polar regions. The Institute has the largest and most comprehensive polar library in Italy; a polar museum with Inuit artifacts and relics of expeditions by the Duke of Abruzzi and Umberto Nobile; and it has published a quarterly journal, "Il Polo", since 1945. Given the increasing official role of Italy in both Arctic and Antarctic research, and the increasing interest of Italian institutions and individuals in the rapidly developing problems of Arctic development, governance and environmental protection, the Institute aims to play an increased role in assisting Italian polar efforts through its resources and scholarship. For instance, the Institute is a member of the Arctic Table at the Italian Foreign Ministry by which Italy's role as an observer in the Arctic Council is mapped. The journal "Il Polo" has become bilingual and is becoming a global polar journal with survey papers by distinguished polar leaders. We are linked with PEI (Polar Educators International), which spreads knowledge of the polar regions in schools.

  14. La sfida del trasferimento tecnologico Le Università italiane si raccontano

    CERN Document Server

    Piccaluga, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    L’opera presenta e descrive il fenomeno del trasferimento tecnologico da università a industria attraverso una prospettiva originale, da “insider”, cioè la prospettiva delle università. Il volume racconta, attraverso la penna degli stessi protagonisti, la nascita, la crescita e le esperienze degli Uffici di Trasferimento Tecnologico (TTO) delle principali università italiane, facendo emergere l’eterogeneità delle loro ambizioni, dei traguardi raggiunti e delle risorse a loro disposizione per la valorizzazione della ricerca scientifica. L’idea di fondo dell’opera è che i “numeri” danno una visione importante ma solo parziale di quello che è un TTO universitario. Il nostro lavoro a stretto contatto con i professionisti del trasferimento tecnologico ci ha dimostrato che l’attività di tali uffici è ricca di storie significative e ad alto contenuto formativo, dove l’elemento umano, e le modalità con cui esso è gestito, giocano un ruolo centrale nel trasferimento di conoscenza dal mon...

  15. IL22/IL-22R pathway induces cell survival in human glioblastoma cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein Akil

    Full Text Available Interleukin-22 (IL-22 is a member of the IL-10 cytokine family that binds to a heterodimeric receptor consisting of IL-22 receptor 1 (IL-22R1 and IL-10R2. IL-22R expression was initially characterized on epithelial cells, and plays an essential role in a number of inflammatory diseases. Recently, a functional receptor was detected on cancer cells such as hepatocarcinoma and lung carcinoma, but its presence was not reported in glioblastoma (GBM. Two GBM cell lines and 10 primary cell lines established from patients undergoing surgery for malignant GBM were used to investigate the expression of IL-22 and IL-22R by using quantitative RT-PCR, western blotting and confocal microscopy studies. The role of IL-22 in proliferation and survival of GBM cell lines was investigated in vitro by BrdU and ELISA cell death assays. We report herein that the two subunits of the IL-22R complex are expressed on human GBM cells. Their activation, depending on exogenous IL-22, induced antiapoptotic effect and cell proliferation. IL-22 treatment of GBM cells resulted in increased levels of phosphorylated Akt, STAT3 signaling protein and its downstream antiapoptotic protein Bcl-xL and decreased level of phosphorylated ERK1/2. In addition, IL-22R subunits were expressed in all the 10 tested primary cell lines established from GBM tumors. Our results showed that IL-22R is expressed on GBM established and primary cell lines. Depending on STAT3, ERK1/2 and PI3K/Akt pathways, IL-22 induced GBM cell survival. These data are consistent with a potential role of IL-22R in tumorigenesis of GBM. Since endogenous IL-22 was not detected in all studied GBM cells, we hypothesize that IL-22R could be activated by immune microenvironmental IL-22 producing cells.

  16. I lectores medioevali tra il libro e il testo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Riviello

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available L’intento del lavoro è di problematizzare alcuni aspetti, generalmente ritenuti emblematici, della relazione tra i litterati medievali e il libro – nelle sue declinazioni di Testo sacro, Libro della natura e auctoritates. L’impiego, come strumenti di lavoro, di concetti di recente elaborazione e di osservazioni di pensatori contemporanei sull’argomento, non è finalizzato ad attualizzare tale relazione, quanto piuttosto ad ampliare i punti di vista su di essa e a metterne alla prova la capacità di offrire originali spunti di riflessione. Le proposte teoriche di Jacques Derrida, Michel Foucault e Roland Barthes sono qui adoperate come esemplificazioni di un’interpretazione che ha storicamente reso quasi paradigmatico il modo di leggere dei docti, specialmente altomedievali. Tuttavia, alcune definizioni della Scrittura – il libro per eccellenza – proposte da questi ultimi, nonché la teorizzazione del suo quadruplice senso sembrano smussare la radicalità di queste osservazioni. Concetti quali “funzione-autore” di Foucault e “testo” di Barthes sono invece adottati per considerare all’interno di una diversa cornice teorica il confronto dei doctores, in particolare bassomedievali, con le cosiddette auctoritates. Nella visione ordinaria la reverenza nei confronti dell’autore, divino o umano, la ricerca e la riproposizione fedele di un significato univoco dell’opera aldilà dei segni, naturali o culturali, che lo veicolano costituiscono tratti tipici dell’atteggiamento dei lettori medievali. A fronte di questi aspetti, tuttavia, è possibile sottolinearne altri eterodossi e perlopiù trascurati, quali la rilevanza attribuita all’interpretazione, prassi ineludibile e da disciplinare, al ruolo del lettore e alla sua fruizione attiva e produttiva dei testi. The aim of the work is to problematize some aspects generally considered representative of the relationship between medieval savants and the book - in its variations

  17. Cerebrospinal fluid IL-12p40, CXCL13 and IL-8 as a combinatorial biomarker of active intrathecal inflammation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bibiana Bielekova

    Full Text Available Diagnosis and management of the neuroinflammatory diseases of the central nervous system (CNS are hindered by the lack of reliable biomarkers of active intrathecal inflammation. We hypothesized that measuring several putative inflammatory biomarkers simultaneously will augment specificity and sensitivity of the biomarker to the clinically useful range. Based on our pilot experiment in which we measured 18 inflammatory biomarkers in 10-fold concentrated cerebrospinal fluid (CSF derived from 16 untreated patients with highly active multiple sclerosis (MS we selected a combination of three CSF biomarkers, IL-12p40, CXCL13 and IL-8, for further validation.Concentrations of IL-12p40, CXCL13 and IL-8 were determined in a blinded fashion in CSF samples from an initial cohort (n = 72 and a confirmatory cohort (n = 167 of prospectively collected, untreated subjects presenting for a diagnostic work-up of possible neuroimmunological disorder. Diagnostic conclusion was based on a thorough clinical workup, which included laboratory assessment of the blood and CSF, neuroimaging and longitudinal follow-up. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve analysis in conjunction with principal component analysis (PCA, which was used to combine information from all three biomarkers, assessed the diagnostic value of measured biomarkers.Each of the three biomarkers was significantly increased in MS and other inflammatory neurological disease (OIND in comparison to non-inflammatory neurological disorder patients (NIND at least in one cohort. However, considering all three biomarkers together improved accuracy of predicting the presence of intrathecal inflammation to the consistently good to excellent range (area under the ROC curve = 0.868-0.924.Future clinical studies will determine if a combinatorial biomarker consisting of CSF IL-12p40, CXCL13 and IL-8 provides utility in determining the presence of active intrathecal inflammation in diagnostically

  18. Italianization Accomplished. Forms and Structures of Albanian Television’s Dependency on Italian Media and Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Carelli

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available After the fall of the Berlin Wall and the end of communist regimes in 1989, national media systems of the Eastern European countries belonging to the Soviet bloc began a process of transformation along the way of liberalization and commercialization. In Albania, this process occurred in different phases, but with a common trend, that is the Italian television as a structural, economic and cultural model to inspire. In this article, I try to outline the deep influences and legacies between Italian and Albanian television systems (dating back to the last years of the regime showing how, despite a progressive sliding towards americanization, they remain a typical landmark of Albanian media. From the formats of the first programmes after the regime to the recent appearances of Italian Tv presenters (in particular, from Berlusconi's channels on Albanian private channels, we can observe a subtle but rooted and continuous dependency from the country on the other side of the Adriatic Sea.  

  19. IL-21 Receptor Expression in Human Tendinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abigail L. Campbell

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The pathogenetic mechanisms underlying tendinopathy remain unclear, with much debate as to whether inflammation or degradation has the prominent role. Increasing evidence points toward an early inflammatory infiltrate and associated inflammatory cytokine production in human and animal models of tendon disease. The IL-21/IL-21R axis is a proinflammatory cytokine complex that has been associated with chronic inflammatory diseases including rheumatoid arthritis and inflammatory bowel disease. This project aimed to investigate the role and expression of the cytokine/receptor pair IL-21/IL-21R in human tendinopathy. We found significantly elevated expression of IL-21 receptor message and protein in human tendon samples but found no convincing evidence of the presence of IL-21 at message or protein level. The level of expression of IL-21R message/protein in human tenocytes was significantly upregulated by proinflammatory cytokines (TNFα/IL-1β in vitro. These findings demonstrate that IL-21R is present in early human tendinopathy mainly expressed by tenocytes and macrophages. Despite a lack of IL-21 expression, these data again suggest that early tendinopathy has an inflammatory/cytokine phenotype, which may provide novel translational targets in the treatment of tendinopathy.

  20. Genetic polymorphism of interleukin-1A (IL-1A), IL-1B, and IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RN) and prostate cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hua; Ding, Qiang; Jiang, Hao-Wen

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to investigate the associations between polymorphisms of interleukin-1A (IL-1A), IL-1B, and IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RN) and prostate cancer (PCa) risk. A comprehensive search for articles of MEDLINE and EMBASE databases and bibliographies of retrieved articles published up to August 3, 2014 was performed. Methodological quality assessment of the trials was based on a standard quality scoring system. The meta-analysis was performed using STATA 12.0. We included 9 studies (1 study for IL-1A, 5 studies for IL-1B, and 3 studies for IL-1RN), and significant association was found between polymorphisms of IL-1B-511 (rs16944) as well as IL-1B-31 (rs1143627) and PCa risk. IL-1B-511 (rs16944) polymorphism was significantly associated with PCa risk in homozygote and recessive models, as well as allele contrast (TT vs CC: OR, 0.74; 95%CI, 0.58-0.94; P=0.012; TT vs TC+CC; OR, 0.79; 95%CI, 0.63-0.98; P=0.033; T vs C: OR, 0.86; 95%CI, 0.77-0.96; P=0.008). The association between IL-1B-31 (rs1143627) polymorphism and PCa risk was weakly significant under a heterozygote model (OR, 1.35; 95%CI, 1.00-1.80; P=0.047). Sequence variants in IL-1B-511 (rs16944) and IL-1B-31 (rs1143627) are significantly associated with PCa risk, which provides additional novel evidence that proinflammatory cytokines and inflammation play an important role in the etiology of PCa.

  1. Italian Mediterranean Index and risk of colorectal cancer in the Italian section of the EPIC cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnoli, Claudia; Grioni, Sara; Sieri, Sabina; Palli, Domenico; Masala, Giovanna; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Vineis, Paolo; Tumino, Rosario; Giurdanella, Maria Concetta; Pala, Valeria; Berrino, Franco; Mattiello, Amalia; Panico, Salvatore; Krogh, Vittorio

    2013-03-15

    Colorectal cancer is among the commonest cancers worldwide. Dietary factors have been linked to colorectal cancer risk, however, few studies have evaluated the relationship between a priori dietary patterns and colorectal cancer risk. We evaluated the effect of adherence to a Mediterranean dietary pattern, as measured by the Italian Mediterranean Index, on the risk of colorectal cancer in the 45,275 participants of the Italian section of the EPIC study who completed a dietary questionnaire. Hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for colorectal cancer in relation to categories of Italian Mediterranean Index score were estimated by multivariate Cox models adjusted for known risk factors, on the whole cohort, on men and women and according to cancer subsite. During a mean follow-up of 11.28 years, 435 colorectal cancer cases were identified. The Italian Mediterranean Index was inversely associated with colorectal cancer risk (HR: 0.50; 95% CI: 0.35-0.71 for the highest category compared to the lowest, P-trend: 0.043). Results did not differ by sex. Highest Italian Mediterranean Index score was also significantly associated with reduced risks of any colon cancer (HR: 0.54, 95% CI: 0.36-0.81), distal colon cancer (HR: 0.44, 95% CI: 0.26-0.75) and rectal cancer (HR: 0.41, 95% CI: 0.20-0.81), but not of proximal colon cancer. These findings suggest that adherence to a Mediterranean diet (as measured by the Italian Mediterranean Index) protects against colorectal cancer in general but not against cancer developing in the proximal colon. Copyright © 2012 UICC.

  2. Psychological and social correlates of doping attitudes among Italian athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucchetti, Giulia; Candela, Filippo; Villosio, Carlo

    2015-02-01

    This study aims to identify the main psychological and social correlates of doping attitudes among Italian athletes. It is well recognized that athlete disposition and attitude towards doping is one of the factors responsible for doping behavior. Less is known, however, about the factors that sustain the level of athletes' attitudes towards doping. The main psychological (i.e., perfectionism, sport motivation, self-confidence and life satisfaction) and social correlates (i.e., social network and contact with people who use sports drugs) of attitudes towards doping among Italian athletes are examined in this paper. Differences are hypothesized regarding the type of sport (resistance sport vs. non-resistance sport) and athlete participation in competitive sport (i.e., agonistics) or in non-competitive sport (i.e., amateurs) on the level of attitude towards doping. The research hypothesis is that each of these constructs affects the level of athletes' attitudes toward doping. Data were collected from a sample of athletes (N=109), aged from 15 to 45 (M=31.5; SD=13.78) recruited in a Sports Medicine Center. Socio-demographic information, attitude towards doping, psychological and social variables were assessed through self-report questionnaire. Hierarchical multiple regression showed that both psychological (i.e., extrinsic motivation, perfectionism) and social variables (i.e., athletes' contact with doping users) were associated with athletes' attitudes towards doping. The results highlighted that athletes with excessive perfectionism, extrinsically motivated and who have contact with doping users have a positive attitude toward doping. Athletes who exhibit these characteristics should be considered at risk and monitored to prevent possible future sports drug use. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Socioeconomic factors influencing childhood vaccination in two northern Italian regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anello, Paola; Cestari, Laura; Baldovin, Tatjana; Simonato, Lorenzo; Frasca, Gabriella; Caranci, Nicola; Grazia Pascucci, Maria; Valent, Francesca; Canova, Cristina

    2017-08-24

    Infant vaccination rates have been declining in Italy over the past 5-7years. The aims of this study were to assess the trend in the proportions of children unvaccinated at 24months old, to identify sociodemographic factors associated with non-vaccination; and to examine changes in parental attitudes to vaccination over time. We conducted a population-based birth cohort study by combining existing electronic data sets. The study population consisted of children born from 1995 to 2010 in the Friuli-Venezia Giulia (FVG) region, and from 2007 to 2011 in part of the Emilia Romagna (ER) region, in north-eastern Italy. The immunization registers were linked with the medical birth registers, which contain sociodemographic data on both parents and the newborn. Unconditional logistic regressions were used to identify associations between vaccine uptake at 24months and maternal sociodemographic variables. Of 145,571 babies born in FVG and 75,308 in ER, there were 4222 (1.9%) who had not been vaccinated at all, and 23,948 (11.0%) without the optional measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccination. The number of unvaccinated infants increased over time. Mothers who were over 35 or under 25years old, unmarried, with a higher formal education, and citizens of highly-developed countries were less compliant with vaccination recommendations in both the regions. A cohort effect was observed in FVG, for both educational level and citizenship: babies born between 1995 and 2000 to mothers without an Italian citizenship and with a lower formal education were more likely to refuse vaccination for their offspring, while this association was reversed between 2006 and 2010. Mothers who are Italian citizens and have a good formal education have begun to refuse vaccination for their children in recent years. Future public health action in this setting should target highly educated parents. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. The RITMARE Ocean Observing System for the Italian Seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crise, A.

    2016-02-01

    Among its objectives, the Italian RITMARE Flagship Programme has the aim to produce a prototype of the RITMARE Ocean observing system explicitelly designed to provide a powerful infrastructure to the Italian marine science community, to help implement national and Europen environmental regulations and to contribute to the future European Ocean Observing System. The projects takes advantage of the existing platforms (fixed-point moorings, HF and X-band radars, gliders, satellite products), that constitute the basic components of the system. The structure of the RITMARE Ocean observing system is composed by a permanent component (mooring network, satellite images, HF radars) and relocatable component (gliders, drifters, relocatable infrastructures). The increasing number of available relocatable/expandable platforms allow a much larger flexibility in term of allocation of observations but requires an sampling strategy the can be modified according the scientific and socio-economic priorities. As an example, RITMARE focus is set on an experiment on the South Adriatic Pit convective area and its dynamic interactions with the adjacent Bari Canyon cascading site. (Central Mediterranean Sea). Additional effort is paid to support innovation for sensors (e.g. ship-borne LIDAR, stereo-optic directional wave detection, X-band radar innovative products), operational employment of gliders (e.g. Wave Glider) and new class of operational models. The integration can be obtained at different level: the is expected to be achieved at ICT level by defining standard interfaces (NedCDF, SOS) and catalogs in order to facilitate the discovery, viewing and downloading services of data and products. The implementation of a distributed platform-oriented RT repositories adopt a number of THREDDS web servers that act as endpoints for the RITMARE portal. The final aim is to decouple the platforms from the observations, moving from a set of observation to a suite of Essential Ocean Variables by

  5. Production in Italian industry: Electric power demand indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajello, V.

    1993-01-01

    The effects of the recession in Italy were first evidenced during the period spanning 1990-1992 with a sharp drop in the international competitiveness of Italian products. This phase was then followed by a significant drop in internal demand, the devaluation of the Italian Lira and subsequent market uncertainty. This paper presents graphs of national and regional electric power production and consumption figures which reflect the downturn in the viability of the Italian economy, especially in the industrial sector

  6. Representation of the serial killer on the Italian Internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villano, P; Bastianoni, P; Melotti, G

    2001-10-01

    The representation of serial killers was examined from the analysis of 317 Web pages in the Italian language to study how the psychological profiles of serial killers are described on the Italian Internet. The correspondence analysis of the content of these Web pages shows that in Italy the serial killer is associated with words such as "monster" and "horror," which suggest and imply psychological perversion and aberrant acts. These traits are peculiar for the Italian scenario.

  7. Italian Entrepreneurship: Conjectures and Evidence from a Historical Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Pier Angelo Toninelli; Michelangelo Vasta

    2009-01-01

    This paper is the first product of an ongoing research on the determinants and the role of entrepreneurship in Italian economic development. Its primary aim is the creation of a data-set of Italian entrepreneurs for the period encompassed between the Unification of the Kingdom (1861) and the end of the XXth century. The main source of the research is a collection of 390 entrepreneurial biographies, prepared for an ongoing Dictionary of Italian Entrepreneurs. The first part of the paper presen...

  8. Food group consumption in an Italian population using the updated food classification system FoodEx2: Results from the Italian Nutrition & HEalth Survey (INHES) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pounis, G; Bonanni, A; Ruggiero, E; Di Castelnuovo, A; Costanzo, S; Persichillo, M; Bonaccio, M; Cerletti, C; Riccardi, G; Donati, M B; de Gaetano, G; Iacoviello, L

    2017-04-01

    Dietary habits evolve over time, being influenced by many factors and complex interactions. This work aimed at evaluating the updated information on food group consumption in Italy. A total of 8944 (4768 women and 4176 men) participants aged >18 years from all over Italy recruited in 2010-13 (Italian Nutrition & HEalth Survey, INHES) was analyzed. The recruitment was performed using computer-assisted-telephone-interviewing and one-day 24-h dietary recall retrieved from all participants. The updated, second version, of FoodEx2 food classification system was applied to extract data on food group consumption. The participation rate was 53%; 6.2% of the participants declared to follow a special diet, the most prevalent being hypo-caloric diets (55.7% of special diets). Men compared to women presented significantly higher intakes of "grains and grain-based products", "meat and meat products", "animal and vegetable fats and oils and primary derivatives" and "alcoholic beverages" (P for alldiets, food imitates and food supplements" (P for all<0.001). Differences in food group intake among age groups, geographical regions and educational level groups were also identified (P for all<0.05). Data on the consumption of more than 70 food groups and sub-groups were illustrated in different strata. The present analysis could be considered as an updated source of information for future nutrition research in Italy and in the EU. Copyright © 2017 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition, and the Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. IL-15 deficient tax mice reveal a role for IL-1α in tumor immunity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel A Rauch

    Full Text Available IL-15 is recognized as a promising candidate for tumor immunotherapy and has been described as both a promoter of cancer and a promoter of anti-cancer immunity. IL-15 was discovered in cells transformed by HTLV-1, the etiologic agent of adult T cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL and the human retrovirus that carries the Tax oncogene. We have developed the TAX-LUC mouse model of ATL in which Tax expression drives both malignant transformation and luciferase expression, enabling non-invasive imaging of tumorigenesis in real time. To identify the role of IL-15 in spontaneous development of lymphoma in vivo, an IL-15(-/- TAX-LUC strain was developed and examined. The absence of IL-15 resulted in aggressive tumor growth and accelerated mortality and demonstrated that IL-15 was not required for Tax-mediated lymphoma but was essential for anti-tumor immunity. Further analysis revealed a unique transcriptional profile in tumor cells that arise in the absence of IL-15 that included a significant increase in the expression of IL-1α and IL-1α-regulated cytokines. Moreover, anti-IL-1α antibodies and an IL-1 receptor antagonist (Anakinra were used to interrogate the potential of IL-1α targeted therapies in this model. Taken together, these findings identify IL-15 and IL-1α as therapeutic targets in lymphoma.

  10. The IL-17F/IL-17RC Axis Promotes Respiratory Allergy in the Proximal Airways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonella De Luca

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The interleukin 17 (IL-17 cytokine and receptor family is central to antimicrobial resistance and inflammation in the lung. Mice lacking IL-17A, IL-17F, or the IL-17RA subunit were compared with wild-type mice for susceptibility to airway inflammation in models of infection and allergy. Signaling through IL-17RA was required for efficient microbial clearance and prevention of allergy; in the absence of IL-17RA, signaling through IL-17RC on epithelial cells, predominantly by IL-17F, significantly exacerbated lower airway Aspergillus or Pseudomonas infection and allergic airway inflammation. In contrast, following infection with the upper respiratory pathogen Staphylococcus aureus, the IL-17F/IL-17RC axis mediated protection. Thus, IL-17A and IL-17F exert distinct biological effects during pulmonary infection; the IL-17F/IL-17RC signaling axis has the potential to significantly worsen pathogen-associated inflammation of the lower respiratory tract in particular, and should be investigated further as a therapeutic target for treating pathological inflammation in the lung.

  11. IL-17 mediates immunopathology in the absence of IL-10 following Leishmania major infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Gonzalez-Lombana

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Leishmaniasis, resulting from infection with the protozoan parasite Leishmania, consists of a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations, from healing cutaneous lesions to fatal visceral infections. A particularly severe form of cutaneous leishmaniasis, termed mucosal leishmaniasis, exhibits decreased IL-10 levels and an exaggerated inflammatory response that perpetuates the disease. Using a mouse model of leishmaniasis, we investigated what cytokines contribute to increased pathology when IL-10-mediated regulation is absent. Leishmania major infected C57BL/6 mice lacking IL-10 regulation developed larger lesions than controls, but fewer parasites. Both IFN-γ and IL-17 levels were substantially elevated in mice lacking the capacity to respond to IL-10. IFN-γ promoted an increased infiltration of monocytes, while IL-17 contributed to an increase in neutrophils. Surprisingly, however, we found that IFN-γ did not contribute to increased pathology, but instead regulated the IL-17 response. Thus, blocking IFN-γ led to a significant increase in IL-17, neutrophils and disease. Similarly, the production of IL-17 by cells from leishmaniasis patients was also regulated by IL-10 and IFN-γ. Additional studies found that the IL-1 receptor was required for both the IL-17 response and increased pathology. Therefore, we propose that regulating IL-17, possibly by downregulating IL-1β, may be a useful approach for controlling immunopathology in leishmaniasis.

  12. IL-28 and IL-29 as protective markers in subject with dengue fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Chih-Hsing; Huang, Chung-Hao; Wang, Lin; Huang, Chun-Chi; Wu, Meng-Chieh; Chin, Yi-Ying; Lin, Chun-Yu; Chang, Ko; Wu, Deng-Chyang; Chen, Yen-Hsu

    2017-06-01

    About 400 million people every year are estimated to contract dengue virus infection, which causes prolonged morbidity and sometimes mortality. Interleukin (IL)-28 and IL-29 are relatively newly discovered cytokines and play an important role in our immune defense against pathogens, especially for viral infection. In the present study, we investigated serum IL-28 and IL-29 expression and the relationship to clinical and laboratory parameters in patients with dengue virus infection. Adult patients with dengue (n = 45) and control group (n = 24) were included prospectively. Clinical symptoms and laboratory data were collected from every patient. We investigated IL-28 and IL-29 levels in serum by ELISA. The concentrations of serum IL-28 and IL-29 were significantly higher in subjects with dengue when compared to those of control group. The patients with higher serum IL-28 and IL-29 levels had significantly lower ALAT and peripheral blood neutrophil percentage, but higher peripheral platelet, total white blood cell (WBC), monocyte, and lymphocyte counts. Patients with higher serum IL-28 and IL-29 levels also had more flu-like symptoms, but less vomiting. Increased level of IL-28 and IL-29 was associated with better liver function, platelet and WBC numbers and clinical symptom in subjects with dengue and could potentially serve as a protective marker.

  13. 25-Hydroxyvitamin D, IL-31, and IL-33 in Children with Allergic Disease of the Airways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Bonanno

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Low vitamin D is involved in allergic asthma and rhinitis. IL-31 and IL-33 correlate with Th2-associated cytokines in allergic disease. We investigated whether low vitamin D is linked with circulating IL-31 and IL-33 in children with allergic disease of the airways. 25-Hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH Vit D], IL-31, and IL-33 plasma levels were measured in 28 controls (HC, 11 allergic rhinitis (AR patients, and 35 allergic asthma with rhinitis (AAR patients. We found significant lower levels of 25(OH Vit D in AR and in AAR than in HC. IL-31 and IL-33 plasma levels significantly increased in AAR than HC. IL-31 and IL-33 positively correlated in AR and AAR. 25(OH Vit D deficient AAR had higher levels of blood eosinophils, exacerbations, disease duration, and total IgE than patients with insufficient or sufficient 25(OH Vit D. In AAR 25(OH Vit D levels inversely correlated with total allergen sIgE score and total atopy index. IL-31 and IL-33 did not correlate with 25(OH Vit D in AR and AAR. In conclusion, low levels of 25(OH Vit D might represent a risk factor for the development of concomitant asthma and rhinitis in children with allergic disease of the airways independently of IL-31/IL-33 Th2 activity.

  14. IL-36γ Is a Strong Inducer of IL-23 in Psoriatic Cells and Activates Angiogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlie Bridgewood

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The IL-1 family member cytokine IL-36γ is recognised as key mediator in the immunopathology of psoriasis, hallmarks of which involve the activation of both resident and infiltrating inflammatory myeloid cells and aberrant angiogenesis. This research demonstrates a role for IL-36γ in both myeloid activation and angiogenesis. We show that IL-36γ induces the production of psoriasis-associated cytokines from macrophages (IL-23 and TNFα and that this response is enhanced in macrophages from psoriasis patients. This effect is specific for IL-36γ and could not be mimicked by other IL-1 family cytokines such as IL-1α. IL-36γ was also demonstrated to induce endothelial tube formation and branching, in a VEGF-A-dependent manner. Furthermore, IL-36γ-stimulated macrophages potently activated endothelial cells and led to increased adherence of monocytes, effects that were markedly more pronounced for psoriatic macrophages. Interestingly, regardless of stimulus, psoriasis monocytes showed increased adherence to both the stimulated and unstimulated endothelium when compared with monocytes from healthy individuals. Collectively, these findings show that IL-36γ has the potential to enhance endothelium directed leucocyte infiltration into the skin and strengthen the IL-23/IL-17 pathway adding to the growing evidence of pathogenetic roles for IL-36γ in psoriatic responses. Our findings also point to a cellular response, which could potentially explain cardiovascular comorbidities in psoriasis in the form of endothelial activation and increased monocyte adherence.

  15. IL-36γ Is a Strong Inducer of IL-23 in Psoriatic Cells and Activates Angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridgewood, Charlie; Fearnley, Gareth W; Berekmeri, Anna; Laws, Philip; Macleod, Tom; Ponnambalam, Sreenivasan; Stacey, Martin; Graham, Anne; Wittmann, Miriam

    2018-01-01

    The IL-1 family member cytokine IL-36γ is recognised as key mediator in the immunopathology of psoriasis, hallmarks of which involve the activation of both resident and infiltrating inflammatory myeloid cells and aberrant angiogenesis. This research demonstrates a role for IL-36γ in both myeloid activation and angiogenesis. We show that IL-36γ induces the production of psoriasis-associated cytokines from macrophages (IL-23 and TNFα) and that this response is enhanced in macrophages from psoriasis patients. This effect is specific for IL-36γ and could not be mimicked by other IL-1 family cytokines such as IL-1α. IL-36γ was also demonstrated to induce endothelial tube formation and branching, in a VEGF-A-dependent manner. Furthermore, IL-36γ-stimulated macrophages potently activated endothelial cells and led to increased adherence of monocytes, effects that were markedly more pronounced for psoriatic macrophages. Interestingly, regardless of stimulus, psoriasis monocytes showed increased adherence to both the stimulated and unstimulated endothelium when compared with monocytes from healthy individuals. Collectively, these findings show that IL-36γ has the potential to enhance endothelium directed leucocyte infiltration into the skin and strengthen the IL-23/IL-17 pathway adding to the growing evidence of pathogenetic roles for IL-36γ in psoriatic responses. Our findings also point to a cellular response, which could potentially explain cardiovascular comorbidities in psoriasis in the form of endothelial activation and increased monocyte adherence.

  16. Il Gambling Compulsivo: rilevanza epidemiologica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Coacci

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available

    Introduzione: il gioco d’azzardo ha profonde radici nella storia e nella cultura di ogni popolo. Si stima che circa l’80% della popolazione adulta nel nostro Paese giochi d’azzardo. Esso, pur rappresentando per la maggior parte di queste persone solo un innocuo passatempo, si trasforma talora in una vera e propria malattia (gambling compulsivo, con comportamenti che denotano forme estreme di rischio, sino a forme che portano alla distruzione della famiglia e persino della propria vita.

    Si tratta un disturbo poco conosciuto e spesso non diagnosticato. Infatti, benché sia largamente diffuso e comporti rilevanti costi umani e sociali, il gambling compulsivo solo di recente è stato incluso nelle classificazioni diagnostiche internazionali.

    Obiettivi: valutare l’impatto epidemiologico del gambling compulsivo (gioco d’azzardo patologico in una ASL/provincia.

    Materiali e metodi: è stato inviato un questionario ai 190 Medici di Medicina Generale della provincia di Grosseto (ASL 8, per raccogliere informazioni su: sistema di cura, numero di soggetti che si sono rivolti al proprio medico di famiglia per tale problema, eventuale coesistenza di problemi e comportamenti di dipendenza e di abuso (alcool, psicofarmaci, droghe illegali, ecc.

    Risultati: sono pervenuti 127 (pari al 66,8% questionari compilati. L’elaborazione dei dati è tuttora in corso.

    Conclusioni: dai risultati preliminari sembra emergere che il numero di persone che chiede aiuto al medico e al SSN, differentemente da quanto accade per i tossicodipendenti, è molto limitato e, quindi, intuitivamente poco indicativo della massa di soggetti realmente coinvolti dalla problematica studiata. Si discute del ruolo nella promozione della salute potenzialmente svolto dai Medici di Medicina Generale. Per quanto la tecnica di rilevazione appaia relativamente poco sensibile

  17. Expression of TNF, IL-17A, IL-4 and IL-10 cytokines in irradiated peripheral blood mononuclear cells 'In vitro'; Expressão das citocinas TNF, IL-17A, IL-4 e IL-10 em células mononucleares do sangue periférico irradiadas 'in vitro'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amaral, Ademir de Jesus; Leite, Lidía Lúcia Bezerra; Nascimento, Ayala Gomes do; Diniz, Ewerton Clementino; Silva, Gicielne Freitas da; Fernandes, Thiago de Salazar e; Silva, Edvane Borges da; Cavalcanti, Mariana Brayner, E-mail: maribrayner@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (GERAR/DEN/UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Grupo de Estudos em Radioproteção e Radioecologia; Dantas, Samuel César [Instituto de Medicina Integrada Prof. Antônio Figueira (IMIP), PE (Brazil); Veras, Robson Cavalcante; Medeiros, Isac Almeida de [Universidade Federal da Paraiba (DCF/UFPB), PB (Brazil). Departamento de Ciências Farmacêuticas

    2017-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine and to compare the profile of cytokines produced by non-irradiated and irradiated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and the possible application of this analysis as a biomarker of individual radiosensitivity. For this, peripheral blood (PB) samples were collected from seven healthy volunteers, and each sample divided in two aliquots: one aliquot was irradiated with a dose of 2 Gy (from a 6MV Linear Accelerator) and while the other one was kept non irradiated. All PBMCs were cultured in RPMI 1640 supplemented with 10% Bovine Fetal Serum for 48 hours at 37°C and 5% CO2. The cytokines TNF, IL-17A, IL-4 and IL-10 were measured by flow cytometry. Wilcoxon test was performed with the level of significance of 95%. In the irradiated samples it was observed a slight increase of the median of the level of cytokines TNF, IL-4 and IL-10 (from 1040.9 to 1196.1 pg/mL, from 127.3 to 138 pg/mL, and from 99.9 to 120.8 pg/mL, respectively) and a slight decrease in median of cytokines IL- 17A (from 841.1 to 799.4 pg/mL). In addition to this evidence, there was a high inter-individual variability of cytokine concentrations in response to irradiation. It was observed that some individuals are more responsive to the expression of some inflammatory proteins after exposure to X-rays. Although further studies are necessary, the hypothesis that raises is that these biomarkers could be predictor of future individual responses to ionizing radiation exposure. (author)

  18. Two distinct populations of bovine IL-17⁺ T-cells can be induced and WC1⁺IL-17⁺γδ T-cells are effective killers of protozoan parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peckham, R K; Brill, R; Foster, D S; Bowen, A L; Leigh, J A; Coffey, T J; Flynn, R J

    2014-06-25

    IL-17 has emerged as a key player in the immune system, exhibiting roles in protection from infectious diseases and promoting inflammation in autoimmunity. Initially thought to be CD4 T-cell-derived, the sources of IL-17 are now known to be varied and belong to both the innate and adaptive arms of the immune system. Mechanisms for inducing IL-17 production in lymphoid cells are thought to rely on appropriate antigenic stimulation in the context of TGF-β1, IL-6 and/or IL-1β. Using culture protocols adapted from human studies, we have effectively induced both bovine CD4(+) and WC1(+) γδ T-cells to produce IL-17 termed Th17 and γδ17 cells, respectively. The negative regulatory effect of IFN-γ on mouse and human IL-17 production can be extended to the bovine model, as addition of IFN-γ decreases IL-17 production in both cell types. Furthermore we show that infection with the protozoan Neospora caninum will induce fibroblasts to secrete pro-IL-17 factors thereby inducing a γδ17 phenotype that preferentially kills infected target cells. Our study identifies two T-cell sources of IL-17, and is the first to demonstrate a protective effect of IL-17(+) T-cells in ruminants. Our findings offer further opportunities for future adjuvants or vaccines which could benefit from inducing these responses.

  19. Increased IL-20 and IL-24 target osteoblasts and synovial monocytes in spondyloarthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragstrup, Tue Wenzel; Andersen, Morten Nørgaard; Schiøttz-Christensen, Berit

    2017-01-01

    The pathogenesis of spondyloarthritis (SpA) involves activation of the innate immune system, inflammation and new bone formation. The two cytokines interleukin (IL)-20 and IL-24 have been shown to link innate immune activation and tissue homeostasis. We hypothesized that these two cytokines...... are secreted as part of activation of the innate immune system and affect bone homeostasis in SpA. IL-20 and IL-24 were measured in plasma from axial SpA patients (n = 83). Peripheral SpA patients (n = 16) were included for in-vitro cell culture studies. The plasma IL-20 and IL-24 levels were increased in Sp...

  20. The role of CD40L, IL-10 and IL-17 in radioprotection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Ting

    2003-01-01

    CD40L/CD40 interaction is central to the control of thymus-dependent humoral immunity and cell mediated immune responses. IL-17 has been shown to induce the production of IL-6 and G-CSF, which can induce proliferation and differentiation of CD34 + hematopoietic progenitors. IL-10 can interfere with up-regulation of costimulatory molecules, thus suppressing the production of costimulatory cytokines, such as IL-12. IL-10 has been implicated as an essential mediator in the induction of systemic immune suppression following ultraviolet (UV) exposure. Treating UV-irradiated mice with anti-IL-10 blocks the induction of immune suppression

  1. Evolution of Italian national electric power system: Relationship between ENEL and local operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossi, G.P.

    1993-01-01

    With the aim of facilitating the option to privatize the Italian national electricity system known as ENEL (Italian National Electricity Board), new laws have been passed which have modified the legal framework pertaining to the management of ENEL's activities and have given ENEL a new status of state concessionaire. The modifications to the existing laws, however, were made in such a way as not to jeopardize the present integral nature of ENEL's activities relative to power generation and distribution. This paper discusses the impact of the new laws on the management of municipal and industrial power plants run by public administrations and private industrial firms licensed to operate under existing and future agreements made with ENEL

  2. Il fuoco della fusione termonucleare controllata

    CERN Document Server

    Caldirola, Piero; Sindoni, Elio

    1984-01-01

    Per realizzare la fusione termonucleare controllata, cioè catturare e dominare il fuoco che accende gli astri, e ottenere così una nuova fonte di energia praticamente illimitata e a basso costo, si richiede uno sforzo collettivo e unitario globale: non esiste infatti nazione al mondo che sia in grado, singolarmente presa, di affrontare il problema, sia per le risorse finanziarie necessarie all'impresa sia per il numero dei ricercatori che dovranno dedicarvisi.

  3. IL-6 Receptor Isoforms and Ovarian Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    grown these cells in culture and have generated stable cell clones which express Tomato Red so that these cells can be followed through fluorescent...occurring in ovarian cell lines, we examined the effect of IL6 and IL6Ra expression on cell migration in vitro . Migration through uncoated cell culture ...or IL6R were plated on tissue culture plates and scratch wounds were made. Over the course of the experiment, photographs of the cultures were

  4. Il viaggio gastronomico di Paolo Monelli.

    OpenAIRE

    Salarelli, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    Il ghiottone errante di Paolo Monelli, pubblicato nel 1935, rappresenta uno dei primi esempi di narrativa di viaggio in tema di enogastronomia, un genere destinato a grande successo nel secondo dopoguerra. In questo articolo, oltre a ripercorrere la vicenda biografica di Monelli, si sottolineano le relazioni tra Il ghiottone e la cultura gastronomica del regime fascista, e si evidenziano alcuni tratti caratteristici del suo stile di scrittura. Paolo Monelli‟s Il ghiottone errante (The Wand...

  5. IL-1 family members IL-18 and IL-33 upregulate the inflammatory potential of differentiated human Th1 and Th2 cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blom, Lars; Poulsen, Lars K.

    2012-01-01

    The IL-1 family members IL-1ß, IL-18, and IL-33 are potent cytokines in relationship to amplifying the CD4(+) T cell cytokine production. To evaluate their impact on in vitro-differentiated human Th1 and Th2 cultures, such cultures were established from naive T cells, purified from healthy blood...... donors, and reactivated in the presence of IL-1ß, IL-18, or IL-33. Interestingly, we observe modifying responses in Th1 and Th2 cultures induced by IL-18 or IL-33 but not by IL-1ß, both contributing to amplify production of IL-5, IL-13, and IFN-¿. IL-18 or IL-33 stimulation of Th1 cultures resulted...... in increased IFN-¿ and IL-13 production concurrent with reduced IL-10 gene transcription and secretion even though Th1 cultures, in contrast to IL-18Ra, had low ST2L expression. Furthermore, adding IL-18 to Th1 cultures promoted Tbet mRNA expression and production. Th2 cultures stimulated with IL-18 or IL-33...

  6. Musica (popular) e tecnologie di networking:pratiche e strategie degli artisti indipendenti Un case study:Il campo delle Posse degli anni '90

    OpenAIRE

    Di Florio, Grazia Rita

    2014-01-01

    Questa tesi di dottorato pone l'attenzione sulle trasformazioni indotte dalla tecnologia digitale e più di recente dalla diffusione delle tecnologie di rete nel settore della musica indipendente.Il lavoro si focalizza sul caso di studio delle Posse italiane, un movimento musicale esploso negli anni '90 nell'ambito del movimento studentesco della Pantera ad opera di gruppi reggae e hip hop fortemente influenzati dalle culture afro-americana e giamaicana. Attraverso i concetti di campo,habitus ...

  7. Sinergetica il segreto del successo della natura

    CERN Document Server

    Haken, Hermann

    1983-01-01

    Introduzione e sommario ; il disordine cresce sempre? la morte termica dell'universo ; i cristalli : strutture ordinate, ma morte ; strutture ordinate nei liquidi e nelle nubi e formazioni geologiche ; fiat lux! la luce del laser ; configurazioni chimiche ; l'evoluzione biologica e la sopravvivenza del migliore ; sopravvivi anche senza essere il migliore : specializzati, scavati una nicchia ecologica ; come si formano gli organismi biologici ; talvolta i conflitti sono ineluttabili ; il caos, il caso e la concezione meccanicistica del mondo ; gli effetti sinergetici nell'economia ; si possono prevedere le rivoluzioni ? ; le allucinazioni comprovano le teorie sul cervello.

  8. Il caso Lautsi contro l’Italia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grégor Puppinck

    2012-02-01

    SOMMARIO: 1. Premesse – 2. Il ragionamento della Seconda Sezione - 2.1. La ridefinizione dalla finalità del sistema educativo pubblico - 2.2. Il pluralismo educativo come finalità – 2.3. Sintesi del ragionamento della Sezione – 2.4.  Una sentenza contestata - 3.  Il ragionamento sviluppato dalla Grande Camera - 3.1. La sussidiarietà e il margine di apprezzamento – 3.2.  Il laicismo è una convinzione filosofica non neutra – 3.3. La neutralità si applica all’ “agire” e non all' "essere” dello  Stato – 3.4.  Democrazia, neutralità confessionale e laicità – 3.5.  L’educazione pubblica  nel senso della Grande Camera – 3.6.  Il crocefisso: un simbolo passivo – 3.7.  L’assenza d’ingerenza dello Stato - 4.  Gli sviluppi supplementari alla sentenza della Grande Camera – 4.1.  Il crocefisso e il velo islamico – 4.2.  La libertà negativa di religione dei non credenti – 4.3. La falsa soluzione bavarese – 4.4.  La tradizione – 4.5. La religione maggioritaria – 4.6.  Il dibattito religioso e politico – 4.7. Le conseguenze del caso Lautsi.

  9. Counterbalancing of TH2-driven allergic airway inflammation by IL-12 does not require IL-10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tournoy, K G; Kips, J C; Pauwels, R A

    2001-03-01

    Asthma is characterized by allergen-induced airway inflammation orchestrated by TH2 cells. The TH1-promoting cytokine IL-12 is capable of inhibiting the TH2-driven allergen-induced airway changes in mice and is therefore regarded as an interesting strategy for treating asthma. The antiallergic effects of IL-12 are only partially dependent of IFN-gamma. Because IL-12 is a potent inducer of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10, the aim of the present study was to investigate in vivo whether the antiallergic effects of IL-12 are mediated through IL-10. C57BL/6J-IL-10 knock-out (IL-10(-/-)) mice were sensitized intraperitoneally to ovalbumin (OVA) and subsequently exposed from day 14 to day 21 to aerosolized OVA (1%). IL-12 was administered intraperitoneally during sensitization, subsequent OVA exposure, or both. IL-12 inhibited the OVA-induced airway eosinophilia, despite the absence of IL-10. Moreover, a shift from a TH2 inflammatory pattern toward a TH1 reaction was observed, with concomitant pronounced mononuclear peribronchial inflammation after IL-12 treatment. Allergen-specific IgE synthesis was completely suppressed only when IL-12 was administered along with the allergen sensitization. Furthermore, treating the animals with IL-12 at the time of the secondary allergen challenge resulted not only in a significant suppression of the airway responsiveness but also in an important IFN-gamma-associated toxicity. These results indicate that IL-12 is able to inhibit allergen-induced airway changes, even in the absence of IL-10. In addition, our results raise concerns regarding the redirection of TH2 inflammation by TH1-inducing therapies because treatment with IL-12 resulted not only in a disappearance of the TH2 inflammation but also in a TH1-driven inflammatory pulmonary pathology.

  10. Plasma IL-17A levels in patients with late-life depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraykar, Smita; Cao, Bo; Barroso, Lucelia S; Pereira, Kelly S; Bertola, Laiss; Nicolau, Mariana; Ferreira, Jessica D; Dias, Natalia S; Vieira, Erica L; Teixeira, Antonio L; Silva, Ana Paula M; Diniz, Breno S

    2018-01-01

    A consistent body of research has confirmed that patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) have increased concentrations of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including IL-6, TNF-α, IL-1β, the soluble IL-2 receptor, and C-reactive protein, compared to controls; however, there is limited information on IL-17A in MDD. Moreover, information about IL-17A in older populations, i.e., patients with late-life depression (LLD), is conspicuously missing from the literature. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of IL-17A in LLD. A convenience sample of 129 individuals, 74 with LLD and 55 non-depressed controls, were enrolled in this study. The Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare plasma IL-17A levels between LLD and controls subjects, and Spearman's rank order correlation was used to investigate correlation of these levels with clinical, neuropsychological, and cognitive assessments. Plasma IL-17A levels were not statistically different between LLD patients and controls (p = 0.94). Among all subjects (LLD + control), plasma IL-17A did not correlate significantly with depressive symptoms (rho = -0.009, p = 0.92) but a significant correlation was observed with cognitive assessments (rho = 0.22, p = 0.01). Our findings do not support an association between plasma IL-17A levels and LLD. Nevertheless, IL-17A may be associated with cognitive impairment in LLD patients. If this finding is confirmed in future longitudinal studies, modulation of the T-helper 17 cell (Th17) immune response may be a treatment target for cognitive impairment in this population.

  11. Pro-inflammatory signaling by IL-10 and IL-22: bad habit stirred up by interferons ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heiko eMühl

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Interleukin (IL-10 and IL-22 are key members of the IL-10 cytokine family that share characteristic properties such as defined structural features, usage of IL-10R2 as one receptor chain, and activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT-3 as dominant signaling mode. IL-10, formerly known as cytokine synthesis inhibitory factor, is key to deactivation of monocytes/macrophages and dendritic cells. Accordingly, pre-clinical studies document its anti-inflammatory capacity. However, the outcome of clinical trials assessing the therapeutic potential of IL-10 in prototypic inflammatory disorders has been disappointing. In contrast to IL-10, IL-22 acts primarily on non-leukocytic cells, in particular epithelial cells of intestine, skin, liver, and lung. STAT3-driven proliferation, anti-apoptosis, and anti-microbial tissue protection is regarded a principal function of IL-22 at host/environment interfaces. In this hypothesis article, hidden/underappreciated pro-inflammatory characteristics of IL-10 and IL-22 are outlined and related to cellular priming by type I interferon. It is tempting to speculate that an inherent inflammatory potential of IL-10 and IL-22 confines their usage in tissue protective therapy and beyond that determines in some patients efficacy of type I interferon treatment.

  12. Role of the IL-12/IL-35 balance in patients with Sjögren syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogel, Olivier; Rivière, Elodie; Seror, Raphaèle; Nocturne, Gaetane; Boudaoud, Saida; Ly, Bineta; Gottenberg, Jacques-Eric; Le Guern, Véronique; Dubost, Jean-Jacques; Nititham, Joanne; Taylor, Kimberly E; Chanson, Philippe; Dieudé, Philippe; Criswell, Lindsey A; Jagla, Bernd; Thai, Alice; Mingueneau, Michael; Mariette, Xavier; Miceli-Richard, Corinne

    2017-09-12

    An interferon signature is involved in the pathogenesis of primary Sjögren syndrome (pSS), but whether the signature is type 1 or type 2 remains controversial. Mouse models and genetic studies suggest the involvement of T H 1 and type 2 interferon pathways. Likewise, polymorphisms of the IL-12A gene (IL12A), which encodes for IL-12p35, have been associated with pSS. The IL-12p35 subunit is shared by 2 heterodimers: IL-12 and IL-35. We sought to confirm genetic association of the IL12A polymorphism and pSS and elucidate involvement of the IL-12/IL-35 balance in patients with pSS by using functional studies. The genetic study involved 673 patients with pSS from 2 French pSS cohorts and 585 healthy French control subjects. Functional studies were performed on sorted monocytes, irrespective of whether they were stimulated. IL12A mRNA expression and IL-12 and IL-35 protein levels were assessed by using quantitative RT-PCR and ELISA and a multiplex kit for IL-35 and IL-12, respectively. We confirmed association of the IL12A rs485497 polymorphism and pSS and found an increased serum protein level of IL-12p70 in patients with pSS carrying the risk allele (P = .016). Serum levels of IL-12p70 were greater in patients than control subjects (P = .0001), especially in patients with more active disease (P = .05); conversely, IL-35 levels were decreased in patients (P = .0001), especially in patients with more active disease (P = .05). In blood cellular subsets both IL12p35 and EBV-induced gene protein 3 (EBI3) mRNAs were detected only in B cells, with a trend toward a lower level among patients with pSS. Our findings emphasize involvement of the IL-12/IL-35 balance in the pathogenesis of pSS. Serum IL-35 levels were associated with low disease activity, in contrast with serum IL-12p70 levels, which were associated with more active disease. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Non-infectious cholecystopathy secondary to high-dose IL-2 cancer immunotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuppler, Kevin; Jeong, Daniel; Choi, Jung W

    2015-01-01

    Interleukin-2 (IL-2) associated cholecystopathy is a rare manifestation of IL-2 drug toxicity in the setting of cancer immunotherapy. While the imaging data and clinical presentation can easily mimic acute cholecystitis, the correct diagnosis can be made with the particular clinical history, thus avoiding inappropriate surgical management. As more cancer immunotherapies become standard oncologic treatments, specific immunotherapy-associated side effects are also expected to be encountered more frequently in the future and should be recognized as such. We present a case of IL-2-associated cholecystopathy in the setting of renal cell carcinoma immunotherapy

  14. Italian Studies, Italian Theory and the politics of trans-lation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Minca, C.

    2016-01-01

    Italian Theory has emerged as the result of the search for new conceptual frameworks in the face of a series of international political events concerning not only the proliferation of states of exception but also of new forms of politicization of life related to biomedical science and the

  15. On the Paleobiogeography of Pleistocenic Italian Mammals / Osservazioni sulla paleobiogeografia dei mammiferi del Pleistocene italiano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Caloi

    1986-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this paper the main Italian Pleistocene mammalofaunas are examined and a chronological sequence of the main deposits is proposed. Centers of spreading, times of first appearence in Italy and ranges through the peninsula of the more representative species are indicated, as far as possible. The insular faunas and the different degrees of endemism they show, are particularly discussed. Riassunto Vengono esaminate sinteticamente le principali faune a mammiferi del Pleistocene d'Italia e viene proposta una successione cronologica per i principali giacimenti. Per le specie più rappresentative vengono indicati, per quanto possibile, le aree di provenienza, il momento della comparsa e la loro diffusione nella penisola. Particolare attenzione viene posta alle forme insulari ed al loro carattere endemico.

  16. Advice of the Italian CCTN on the health risk assessment relative to exposure to automobile emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camoni, I [ed.; Istituto Superiore di Sanita` , Rome (Italy). Lab. di Tossicologia Applicata; Mucci, N [ed.; ISPESL, Monteporzio Catone, Roma (Italy). Dip. di Medicina del Lavoro; Foa` , V [ed.; Milan Univ. (Italy). Clinica del lavoro Luigi Devoto

    1998-06-01

    The period 1990-1995 are reported, they concern the health impact of exposure to benzene and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), resulting from automobile exhaust products, for Italian general and occupationally exposed populations. The first recommendation takes into consideration the possible long-term effects of the unleaded gasoline, recently introduced in Italy. The latter two recommendations concern the quantitative evaluation of the risk of leukaemia and of the risk of lung cancer from exposure to benzene and PAHs, resulting from automobile exhaust. [Italiano] Sono riportati i pareri espressi dalla Commissione Consultiva Tossicologica Nazionale (CCTN) nel periodo 1990-1995 riguardanti la valutazione del rischio cancerogeno per esposizione a sostanze contenute nelle emissioni autoveicolari. In particolare, viene stimato il rischio aggiuntivo di leucemia per esposizione a benzene e di cancro polmonare per esposizione a idrocarburi policiclici aromatici (IPA), sia per la popolazione generale che per quella professionalmente esposta.

  17. Nurses' Job satisfaction: an Italian study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansoni, J; De Caro, W; Marucci, A R; Sorrentino, M; Mayner, L; Lancia, L

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the work presented was to assess job satisfaction of a number of nurses from different departments working in public hospitals in Italy. The assessment was carried out through the combined use of questionnaires, which measured different aspects of job satisfaction, such as coping abilities, stress level and optimism/pessimism. The literature supports the fact that nurses' job dissatisfaction is closely connected with high levels of stress, burnout and physical and mental exhaustion, together with high workload levels and the complexity of care. The growing interest in measuring the levels of nurses' job satisfaction is attributable to a number of problems that have been raised worldwide, two of which are becoming ever so important: turnover and shortage of nurses. The research question is: Which are the main motivating factors of Italian nurses' job satisfaction/dissatisfaction? The study used a convenience (non probability) sample of 1,304 nurses from 15 different wards working in Italian public hospitals from a number of cities in northern, central and southern Italy. The survey instrument was a questionnaire consisting of 205 items which included 5 different questionnaires combined together. The results show a low level of job satisfaction (IWS= 11.5, JSS=126.4). However, the participants were overall happy about their job and considered autonomy and salary important factors for job satisfaction. Research has shown that the nurses' level of satisfaction in Italian hospitals is low. The results revealed dissatisfaction with task requirements, organizational policies and advance in career. Nurses interviewed did not feel stressed and showed to be optimistic overall. New research on the subject should be conducted by focusing on ward differences, North and South of Italy and on gender differences.

  18. Italian Validation of Homophobia Scale (HS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciocca, Giacomo; Capuano, Nicolina; Tuziak, Bogdan; Mollaioli, Daniele; Limoncin, Erika; Valsecchi, Diana; Carosa, Eleonora; Gravina, Giovanni L; Gianfrilli, Daniele; Lenzi, Andrea; Jannini, Emmanuele A

    2015-09-01

    The Homophobia Scale (HS) is a valid tool to assess homophobia. This test is self-reporting, composed of 25 items, which assesses a total score and three factors linked to homophobia: behavior/negative affect, affect/behavioral aggression, and negative cognition. The aim of this study was to validate the HS in the Italian context. An Italian translation of the HS was carried out by two bilingual people, after which an English native translated the test back into the English language. A psychologist and sexologist checked the translated items from a clinical point of view. We recruited 100 subjects aged18-65 for the Italian validation of the HS. The Pearson coefficient and Cronbach's α coefficient were performed to test the test-retest reliability and internal consistency. A sociodemographic questionnaire including the main information as age, geographic distribution, partnership status, education, religious orientation, and sex orientation was administrated together with the translated version of HS. The analysis of the internal consistency showed an overall Cronbach's α coefficient of 0.92. In the four domains, the Cronbach's α coefficient was 0.90 in behavior/negative affect, 0.94 in affect/behavioral aggression, and 0.92 in negative cognition, whereas in the total score was 0.86. The test-retest reliability showed the following results: the HS total score was r = 0.93 (P cognition was r = 0.75 (P validation of the HS revealed the use of this self-report test to have good psychometric properties. This study offers a new tool to assess homophobia. In this regard, the HS can be introduced into the clinical praxis and into programs for the prevention of homophobic behavior.

  19. Ex post damage assessment: an Italian experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinari, D.; Menoni, S.; Aronica, G. T.; Ballio, F.; Berni, N.; Pandolfo, C.; Stelluti, M.; Minucci, G.

    2014-04-01

    In recent years, awareness of a need for more effective disaster data collection, storage, and sharing of analyses has developed in many parts of the world. In line with this advance, Italian local authorities have expressed the need for enhanced methods and procedures for post-event damage assessment in order to obtain data that can serve numerous purposes: to create a reliable and consistent database on the basis of which damage models can be defined or validated; and to supply a comprehensive scenario of flooding impacts according to which priorities can be identified during the emergency and recovery phase, and the compensation due to citizens from insurers or local authorities can be established. This paper studies this context, and describes ongoing activities in the Umbria and Sicily regions of Italy intended to identifying new tools and procedures for flood damage data surveys and storage in the aftermath of floods. In the first part of the paper, the current procedures for data gathering in Italy are analysed. The analysis shows that the available knowledge does not enable the definition or validation of damage curves, as information is poor, fragmented, and inconsistent. A new procedure for data collection and storage is therefore proposed. The entire analysis was carried out at a local level for the residential and commercial sectors only. The objective of the next steps for the research in the short term will be (i) to extend the procedure to other types of damage, and (ii) to make the procedure operational with the Italian Civil Protection system. The long-term aim is to develop specific depth-damage curves for Italian contexts.

  20. Italian energy conservation laws: Implementation problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    Italian energy conservation Law No. 9 was designed to reduce Italy's worrisome 82% dependency on foreign energy supplies by encouraging the development and use of renewable energy sources, fuel diversification and auto-production/cogeneration by private industry. Law No. 10 was intended to promote energy conservation initiatives especially with regard to the efficient use of energy for space heating in public buildings. Both of these legal incentives have encountered great difficulties in implementation due to the inability of the Government to provide the necessary timely and sufficient start-up funds, as well as, due to the excessive bureaucratism that was built into the administrative procedures

  1. Energy agreements in Italian foreign policy making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puri Purini, A.

    1992-01-01

    The growing complexity of international relations, involving nations with vastly diverse political and socio-economic frameworks, levels of technology, geography, and environmental policies, are necessitating new Italian government policies which favour multilateral as opposed to conventional bilateral cooperation, especially in that which regards energy agreements. This paper makes this point in examining Italy's vulnerable energy supply and demand situation, the current directions being taken in this nation's foreign policies, and in assessing the key political and socio-economic factors now influencing this nation's world competitiveness in light of pending European unification and the opening up, on a wide scale, of Russian markets to Western nations and Japan

  2. The Italian programme in photovoltaic solar energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farinelli, U.

    Italian programs and goals for developing a photovoltaic (PV) industry and market are outlined. It is suggested that only a few megawatts of PVs will be produced for domestic consumption in the next few years, while the largest market is for developing nations where costly diesel-fueled generators are used. The installation of PV systems in developing areas will permit testing and scaling up of production capacities from several MW to several hundred MW and then to GW annual production. Approximately 55,000,000 was devoted to government research in PV in 1982 and a PV research laboratory is being built near Naples.

  3. Deterioration trends of asphalt pavement friction and roughness from medium-term surveys on major Italian roads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberti Susanna

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Deterioration models are the key factor for effective Pavement Management Systems, helping out road agencies to assess the actual pavement condition and forecast future performance of the asset. Among pavement condition characteristics, friction should be taken into account due to its important effect on user safety, while roughness could be used to express user comfort. The purpose of this study was to provide a reasonable case study for future improvements of Italian road management, even if the length of the analyzed highways was not intended to be representative of the overall Italian network.This research studied the friction trend (Side Force Coefficient depending on traffic levels (ESALs and pavement aging for Italian highways, combining the data with roughness and macrotexture. Surface characteristics were monitored during a seven-year time span. A selection of different road sections with homogeneous traffic levels, similar environmental conditions and surface material was performed and high-speed/high-quality road surveys were used for distress data collection. Pavement deterioration models for Italian road sectors were developed at project level, as starting point to advance pavement management practices in Italy. Degradation curves showed the same trends for similar pavement structures, materials and traffic levels; on the other hand, differences in pavement characteristics, increased ESALs and various maintenance treatments significantly altered those trends. Keywords: Pavement Management System, Deterioration models, Friction, Roughness, MPD, High-speed monitoring

  4. IL-8 dictates glycosaminoglycan binding and stability of IL-18 in cystic fibrosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Reeves, Emer P

    2010-02-01

    Dysregulation of airway inflammation contributes to lung disease in cystic fibrosis (CF). Inflammation is mediated by inflammatory cytokines, including IL-8, which illustrates an increase in biological half-life and proinflammatory activity when bound to glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). The aim of this project was to compare IL-8 and IL-18 for their relative stability, activity, and interaction with GAGs, including chondroitin sulfate, hyaluronic acid, and heparan sulfate, present in high quantities in the lungs of patients with CF. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid was collected from patients with CF (n = 28), non-CF controls (n = 14), and patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (n = 12). Increased levels of IL-8 and reduced concentrations of IL-18 were detected in bronchial samples obtained from CF individuals. The low level of IL-18 was not a defect in IL-18 production, as the pro- and mature forms of the molecule were expressed and produced by CF epithelial cells and monocytes. There was, however, a marked competition between IL-8 and IL-18 for binding to GAGs. A pronounced loss of IL-18 binding capacity occurred in the presence of IL-8, which displaced IL-18 from these anionic-matrices, rendering the cytokine susceptible to proteolytic degradation by neutrophil elastase. As a biological consequence of IL-18 degradation, reduced levels of IL-2 were secreted by Jurkat T lymphocytes. In conclusion, a novel mechanism has been identified highlighting the potential of IL-8 to determine the fate of other inflammatory molecules, such as IL-18, within the inflammatory milieu of the CF lung.

  5. Clinical significance of determination of changes in serum hs-CRP, IL-6, IL-10, and IL-18 levels after treatment in patients with acute conjunctivitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jun

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To study the clinical significance of changes of serum hs-CRP, IL-6, IL-10 and IL-18 levels in patients with acute conjunctivitis after treatment. Methods: Serum IL-6, IL-10 (with RIA) hs-CRP (with Immuno-turbidity) and IL-18 (with ELISA) levels were measured in 38 patients with acute conjunctivitis both before and after treatment as well as in 35 controls. Results: The serum hs-CRP, IL-6, IL-10 and IL-18 levels in the patients before treatment were significantly higher than those in the controls (P 0.05). Conclusion: Measurement of the changes of serum hs-CRP, IL-6, IL-10 and IL-18 levels after treatment might be inportant for outcome prediction in patients with acute conjunctivitis. (authors)

  6. Clinical significance of determination of some serum cytokines (IL-8, IL-10, IL-18, M-CSF) levels in patients with periodontitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Dong; Zhang Xiaolei; Yang Chunxiu; Chen Guanghua

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To explore the significance of changes of serum IL-8, IL-10, IL-18 and M-CSF levels in patients with periodontitis. Methods: Serum levels of IL-8, IL-10, M-CSF (with RIA) and IL-18 (with ELISA) were measured in 55 patients with periodontitis both before and after treatment as well as in 35 controls. Results: Before treatment, serum levels of IL-8, IL-10, IL-18 and M-CSF were significantly higher in the patients than those in the controls (P<0.01). After one month of treatment, the serum IL-8, IL-10, IL-18 and M-CSF levels decreased somewhat, but were still significantly higher than those in controls (P<0.05). Conclusion: There was disturbance of immunomodulation in patients with periodontitis as expressed by the changes of several cytokines levels in the eourse of the diseases. (authors)

  7. Variable number of tandem repeat polymorphisms of the interleukin-1 receptor antagonist gene IL-1RN: a novel association with the athlete status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryckman Kelli K

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The interleukin-1 (IL-1 family of cytokines is involved in the inflammatory and repair reactions of skeletal muscle during and after exercise. Specifically, plasma levels of the IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra increase dramatically after intense exercise, and accumulating evidence points to an effect of genetic polymorphisms on athletic phenotypes. Therefore, the IL-1 family cytokine genes are plausible candidate genes for athleticism. We explored whether IL-1 polymorphisms are associated with athlete status in European subjects. Methods Genomic DNA was obtained from 205 (53 professional and 152 competitive non-professional Italian athletes and 458 non-athlete controls. Two diallelic polymorphisms in the IL-1β gene (IL-1B at -511 and +3954 positions, and a variable number tandem repeats (VNTR in intron 2 of the IL-1ra gene (IL-1RN were assessed. Results We found a 2-fold higher frequency of the IL-1RN 1/2 genotype in athletes compared to non-athlete controls (OR = 1.93, 95% CI = 1.37-2.74, 41.0% vs. 26.4%, and a lower frequency of the 1/1 genotype (OR = 0.55, 95% CI = 0.40-0.77, 43.9% vs. 58.5%. Frequency of the IL-1RN 2/2 genotype did not differ between groups. No significant differences between athletes and controls were found for either -511 or +3954 IL-1B polymorphisms. However, the haplotype (-511C-(+3954T-(VNTR2 was 3-fold more frequent in athletes than in non-athletes (OR = 3.02, 95% CI = 1.16-7.87. Interestingly, the IL-1RN 1/2 genotype was more frequent in professional than in non-professional athletes (OR = 1.92, 95% CI = 1.02-3.61, 52.8% vs. 36.8%. Conclusions Our study found that variants at the IL-1ra gene associate with athletic status. This confirms the crucial role that cytokine IL-1ra plays in human physical exercise. The VNTR IL-1RN polymorphism may have implications for muscle health, performance, and/or recovery capacities. Further studies are needed to assess these specific issues. As VNTR IL-1RN

  8. [Correlation of serum IL-16, IL-18 levels and immunoglobulins in children with asthma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Yi-Nan; Zou, Xian-De; Wu, Jia-Ling

    2006-02-01

    This study examined the changes of serum levels of interleukin (IL)-16, IL-18 and immunoglobulins and the correlation of serum IL-16, IL-18 levels and immunoglobulins in children with asthma and aimed to explore the role of IL-16, IL-18 and immunoglobulins in the pathogenesis of asthma. Thirty-four children with asthma and 21 age and gender-matched healthy children were enrolled in this study. The levels of IL-16, IL-18 and immunoglobulin E (IgE) were determined using ELISA. Immunoglobulin G (IgG), immunoglobulin M (IgM) and immunoglobulin A (IgA) were detected by immunoturbidimetry. The levels of IL-16, IL-18 and IgE in patients with asthma at both acute attack and convalescence stages were significantly higher than those in healthy controls. An increased IgG and a decreased IgA levels were found in asthmatic patients at the acute attack stage. There was a positive correlation between the IL-16 and IL-18 levels at both acute attack and convalescence stages of asthma (r=0.70, P attack stage of asthma (r=0.624, P asthma. The immunologic imbalance exists in children with asthma at both acute attack and convalescence stages. Anti-allergic therapy should be administered through the acute attack to the convalescence stages of asthma.

  9. Vaccination with IL-6 analogues induces autoantibodies to IL-6 and influences experimentally induced inflammation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galle, Pia; Jensen, Lene; Andersson, Christina

    2007-01-01

    ; yet they appear healthy and do not exhibit overt clinical or laboratory abnormalities. We induced comparable levels of aAb-IL-6 in different mouse strains by vaccination with immunogenic IL-6 analogues. We observed that the induced aAb-IL-6 protected against collagen-induced arthritis and experimental...

  10. Functional Implications of the IL-23/IL-17 Immune Axis in Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debnath, Monojit; Berk, Michael

    2017-12-01

    The aetiology of schizophrenia seems to stem from complex interactions amongst environmental, genetic, metabolic, immunologic and oxidative components. Chronic low-grade inflammation has been persistently linked to schizophrenia, and this has primarily been based on the findings derived from Th1/Th2 cytokine balance. While the IL-23/IL-17 axis plays crucial role in the pathogenesis of several immune-mediated disorders, it has remained relatively unexplored in neuropsychiatric disorders. Altered levels of cytokines related to IL-23/IL-17 axis have been observed in schizophrenia patients in a few studies. In addition, other indirect factors known to confer schizophrenia risk like complement activation and altered gut microbiota are shown to modulate the IL-23/IL-17 axis. These preliminary observations provide crucial clues about the functional implications of IL-23/IL-17 axis in schizophrenia. In this review, an attempt has been made to highlight the biology of IL-23/IL-17 axis and its relevance to schizophrenia risk and pathogenesis. Given the pathogenic potential of the IL-23/IL-17 axis, therapeutic targeting of this axis may be a promising approach to benefit patients suffering from this devastating disorder.

  11. Interleukin (IL)-17A and IL-17F and asthma in Saudi Arabia: mRNA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Win-07

    IL17A and IL17F were significantly higher in asthma patients compared to controls [IL17A: 1.112 (2.088) vs 0.938 ... Asthma is a frequently encountered chronic airway in- ... transcription was performed, in 20 μl reaction volume using the.

  12. Practicing Reflexivity in the Study of Italian Migrants in London

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seganti, Francesca Romana

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses the centrality of reflexivity in qualitative research through examples from my study on the role new media play in the lives of Italians in London. My hypothesis was that Italians were "in transit" in London and they were using new media to build "temporary" communities. I conducted in-depth interviews…

  13. Unpublished texts - Poesie | Cro | Italian Studies in Southern Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tra i suoi ultimi titoli The Noble Savage. Allegory of Freedom, Pirandello and the Baroque, The American Foundations of the Hispanic Utopia. I suoi testi poetici sono apparsi su VIA (Voices in Italian Americana), Gradiva e Canadian Journal of ItalianStudies. Ha pubblicato diversi articoli di critica teatrale e cinematografica su ...

  14. Notulae to the Italian alien vascular flora: 4

    OpenAIRE

    Galasso,Gabriele; Domina,Gianniantonio; Bonari,Gianmaria; Buono,Sergio; Chianese,Giuseppina; Cortesi,Gloria; Cortesi,Gloria; Iamonico,Duilio; Olivieri,Nicola; Peruzzi,Lorenzo; Pierini,Brunello; Roma-Marzio,Francesco; Scoppola,Anna; Soldano,Adriano; Stinca,Adriano

    2017-01-01

    In this contribution, new data concerning the Italian distribution of alien vascular flora are presented. It includes new records and exclusions for Italy or for Italian administrative regions of taxa in the genera Cedrus, Cenchrus, Citrus, Cyrtomium, Diospyros, Elaeagnus, Erigeron, Iris, Oenothera, Pavonia, Phytolacca, Styphnolobium, and Verbena. Furthermore, a new combination in the genus Amaranthus is proposed.

  15. Strategic Management Accounting in Universities: The Italian Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agasisti, Tommaso; Arnaboldi, Michela; Azzone, Giovanni

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents an investigation of management accounting in four major Italian universities, which have been struggling to build their strategy in a context of significant change. Following many OECD countries the Italian government has been changing its higher education system by giving more autonomy to universities. These changes pose a…

  16. Attitudes toward Suicide: Italian and United States Physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domino, George; Perrone, Luisa

    1993-01-01

    Administered Suicide Opinion Questionnaire to 100 Italian and 100 U.S. physicians, comparable in age, gender, and medical field. Found significant difference on seven of eight scales, with Italian physicians showing greater agreement on mental illness, right to die, religion, impulsivity, normality, aggression, and moral evil scales. Found gender…

  17. Gesture and Identity in the Teaching and Learning of Italian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltier, Ilaria Nardotto; McCafferty, Steven G.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the use of mimetic gestures of identity by foreign language teachers of Italian and their students in college classes as a form of meaning-making. All four of the teachers were found to use a variety of Italian gestures as a regular aspect of their teaching and presentation of self. Students and teachers also were found to…

  18. Occupational Gender Stereotypes and Problem-Solving in Italian Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginevra, Maria Cristina; Nota, Laura

    2017-01-01

    The first purpose of the study was to establish how Italian adolescents perceive jobs in the newly emerging economy sectors as well as more traditional jobs from gender-stereotyped and gender-segregated perspectives. The second purpose was to verify the role of problem-solving and gender in gender-role stereotyping. A total of 217 Italian high…

  19. Collective Training & Thinking in JAMD : The Italian JPOWX Experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, L.R.M.A.; Schavemaker-Piva, O.; Meijer, Y.G.S.; Nuvoloni, P.; Cioli, C.; Manca, R.; Argiolas, G.

    2009-01-01

    Mission Training through Distributed Simulation (MTDS) has established itself as a powerful tool for collective training in the military domain. This potential has been recognized by the Italian Joint Forces Command and has led to the Italian participation in the 10th edition of Exercise Joint

  20. Cost Efficiency and Returns to Scope in Italian Investment Firms

    OpenAIRE

    Marcello Basili; Fulvio Fontini

    2005-01-01

    This paper estimates cost efficiency and returns to scope of Italian investment firms during the period 1998-2002, following the stochastic frontier function approach. Results indicate a large inefficiency for Italian investment firms (with a high standard deviation across sample) and the absence of significant returns to scope

  1. Titulus Scuola: the new file classification schema for Italian schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianni Penzo Doria

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the new file classification schema national for Italian schools, produced by the Italian Directorate General of Archives of the Ministry for Cultural Heritage, within the project Titulus Scuola. This classification schema represents the starting point for a standard documental system, aimed at the digital administration.

  2. Autocrine IL-6 mediates pituitary tumor senescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuertes, Mariana; Ajler, Pablo; Carrizo, Guillermo; Cervio, Andrés; Sevlever, Gustavo; Stalla, Günter K.; Arzt, Eduardo

    2017-01-01

    Cellular senescence is a stable proliferative arrest state. Pituitary adenomas are frequent and mostly benign, but the mechanism for this remains unknown. IL-6 is involved in pituitary tumor progression and is produced by the tumoral cells. In a cell autonomous fashion, IL-6 participates in oncogene-induced senescence in transduced human melanocytes. Here we prove that autocrine IL-6 participates in pituitary tumor senescence. Endogenous IL-6 inhibition in somatotroph MtT/S shRNA stable clones results in decreased SA-β-gal activity and p16INK4a but increased pRb, proliferation and invasion. Nude mice injected with IL-6 silenced clones develop tumors contrary to MtT/S wild type that do not, demonstrating that clones that escape senescence are capable of becoming tumorigenic. When endogenous IL-6 is silenced, cell cultures derived from positive SA-β-gal human tumor samples decrease the expression of the senescence marker. Our results establish that IL-6 contributes to maintain senescence by its autocrine action, providing a natural model of IL-6 mediated benign adenoma senescence. PMID:27902467

  3. Knocking out IL-6 by vaccination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galle, Pia; Hougs, Lotte; Barington, Torben

    2004-01-01

    Inappropriate expression of IL-6 plays a role in various inflammatory conditions, degenerative diseases, and cancers. Several model systems have been developed that can specifically block IL-6-receptor interactions. Here we present a simple and highly effective approach based on vaccination with ...

  4. IL-6 and mouse oocyte spindle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jashoman Banerjee

    Full Text Available Interleukin 6 (IL-6 is considered a major indicator of the acute-phase inflammatory response. Endometriosis and pelvic inflammation, diseases that manifest elevated levels of IL-6, are commonly associated with higher infertility. However, the mechanistic link between elevated levels of IL-6 and poor oocyte quality is still unclear. In this work, we explored the direct role of this cytokine as a possible mediator for impaired oocyte spindle and chromosomal structure, which is a critical hurdle in the management of infertility. Metaphase-II mouse oocytes were exposed to recombinant mouse IL-6 (50, 100 and 200 ng/mL for 30 minutes and subjected to indirect immunofluorescent staining to identify alterations in the microtubule and chromosomal alignment compared to untreated controls. The deterioration in microtubule and chromosomal alignment were evaluated utilizing both fluorescence and confocal microscopy, and were quantitated with a previously reported scoring system. Our results showed that IL-6 caused a dose-dependent deterioration in microtubule and chromosomal alignment in the treated oocytes as compared to the untreated group. Indeed, IL-6 at a concentration as low as 50 ng/mL caused deterioration in the spindle structure in 60% of the oocytes, which increased significantly (P<0.0001 as IL-6 concentration was increased. In conclusion, elevated levels of IL-6 associated with endometriosis and pelvic inflammation may reduce the fertilizing capacity of human oocyte through a mechanism that involves impairment of the microtubule and chromosomal structure.

  5. Gennarino il pizzaiolo (Gennarino the Pizza Maker).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardone, Romolo

    This Italian children's reader for grades K-1 is about a Neopolitan boy who worked in his father's bakery and invented the pizza. Generations later a descendant followed in his footsteps and opened New York City's first pizzeria. Pen-and-ink drawings illustrate the text. A glossary is included. (NCR)

  6. In vitro secretion profiles of interleukin (IL-1beta, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, and TNF alpha after selective infection with Escherichia coli in human fetal membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maida-Claros Rolando

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chorioamniotic membranes infection is a pathologic condition in which an abnormal secretion of proinflammatory cytokines halts fetal immune tolerance. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the functional response of human chorioamniotic membranes, as well as the individual contribution of the amnion and choriodecidua after stimulation with Escherichia coli, a pathogen associated with preterm labor. Methods Explants of chorioamniotic membranes from 10 women (37–40 weeks of gestation were mounted and cultured in a Transwell system, which allowed us to test the amnion and choriodecidua compartments independently. Escherichia coli (1 × 10 6 CFU/mL was added to either the amniotic or the choriodecidual regions or both; after a 24-h incubation, the secretion of IL-1beta, IL-6, TNFalpha, IL-8, and IL-10 in both compartments was measured using a specific ELISA. Data were analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis one-way analysis of variance. Results After stimulation with Escherichia coli, the choriodecidua compartment showed an increase in the secretion of IL-1beta (21-fold, IL-6 (2-fold, IL-8 (6-fold, and IL-10 (37-fold, regardless of which side of the membrane was stimulated; TNFalpha secretion augmented (22-fold also but only when the stimulus was applied simultaneously to both sides. When the amnion was stimulated directly, the level of IL-1beta (13-fold rose significantly; however, the increase in IL-8 secretion was larger (20-fold, regardless of the primary site of infection. TNFalpha secretion in the amnion compartment rose markedly only when Escherichia coli was simultaneously applied to both sides. Conclusion Selective stimulation of fetal membranes with Escherichia coli results in a differential production of IL-1beta, IL-6, TNFalpha, IL-8, and IL-10. These tissues were less responsive when the amnion side was stimulated. This is in agreement with the hypothesis that the choriodecidua may play a primary role during an ascending

  7. Italian R and D in field of environmental biotechnologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertiello, A.; Levi, G.

    1995-01-01

    The analysis carried out on the Italian R and D allows to draw the following conclusions: 1) There are about 1,000 'inside workers' totalling an outlay of 2,700 billion Italian Liras per year. 2) In the five years from 1987 to 1992, state financing to R and D on environmental biotechnologies was around 80 billion Italian Liras, averaging 16 billion Italian Liras a year. 3) Although these are rough estimates, it can be seen that, given the gap between resources made available and actual expense, there must be other incentive mechanism justifying the commitment of Italian R and D and the quality of the work so far carried out in this specific field. 4) These mechanisms could possibly be of two kinds; the realization that a large part of the market is dissatisfied; the pervasiveness of biotechnologies, especially in the field of environmental conservation

  8. Analysis Regarding the Growing Presence of Italian Firms in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Valdemarin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available At the end of 2014, the number of firms with an Italian presence in Romania was 39,556, representing 19.33% out of total registered firms and this number is still growing. This article focuses on answering the following question: what kind of Italian firms are investing in Romania and why? Starting from the empirical observation that the number of Italian firms in Romania grew by 6.82% last year, we have used a PESTEL analysis to find the key points characterizing the country, paying attention also to the concept of country brand. From the point of view of Italian firms, we have also analyzed the shifting paradigm of internationalization from a Vertical Foreign Direct Investment model to a Horizontal Foreign Direct Investment model. This paper can be useful for managers and entrepreneurs who are oriented towards investing in Romania following the path of Italian firms.

  9. Computerized Italian criticality guide, description and validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carotenuto, M.; Landeyro, P.A.

    1988-10-01

    Our group is developing an 'expert system' for collecting engineering know-how on back-end nuclear plant design. An expert system is the most suitable software tool for our problem. During the analysis, the design process was divided into different branches. At each branch of the design process the Expert System relates a computerized design procedure. Any design procedure is composed of a set of design methods, together with their condition of application and reliability limits. In the framework of this expert system, the nuclear criticality safety analysis procedure was developed, in the form of a computerized criticality guide, attempting to reproduce the designer's normal 'reasoning' process. The criticality guide is composed of two parts: A computerized text, including theory, a description of the accidents occurred in the past and a description of the italian design experience; An interactive computer aided calculation module, containing a graphical facility for critical parameter curves. In the present report are presented the criticality guide (computerized Italian Criticality Guide) and its validation test. (author)

  10. Education in Soil Science: the Italian approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedetti, Anna; Canfora, Loredana; Dazzi, Carmelo; Lo Papa, Giuseppe

    2017-04-01

    The Italian Society of Soil Science (SISS) was founded in Florence on February 18th, 1952. It is an association legally acknowledged by Decree of the President of the Italian Republic in February 1957. The Society is member of the International Union of Soil Sciences (IUSS) of the European Confederation of Soil Science Societies (ECSSS) and collaborates with several companies, institutions and organizations having similar objectives or policy aspects. SISS promotes progress, coordination and dissemination of soil science and its applications encouraging relationships and collaborations among soil lovers. Within the SISS there are Working Groups and Technical Committees for specific issues of interest. In particular: • the Working Group on Pedotechniques; • the Working Group on Hydromorphic and Subaqueous Soils and • the Technical Committee for Soil Education and Public Awareness. In this communication we wish to stress the activities developed since its foundation by SISS to spread soil awareness and education in Italy through this last Technical Committee, focusing also the aspect concerning grants for young graduates and PhD graduates to stimulate the involvement of young people in the field of soil science. Keywords: SISS, soil education and awareness.

  11. Determinants of health disparities between Italian regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giannoni Margherita

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Among European countries, Italy is one of the countries where regional health disparities contribute substantially to socioeconomic health disparities. In this paper, we report on regional differences in self-reported poor health and explore possible determinants at the individual and regional levels in Italy. Methods We use data from the "Indagine Multiscopo sulle Famiglie", a survey of aspects of everyday life in the Italian population, to estimate multilevel logistic regressions that model poor self-reported health as a function of individual and regional socioeconomic factors. Next we use the causal step approach to test if living conditions, healthcare characteristics, social isolation, and health behaviors at the regional level mediate the relationship between regional socioeconomic factors and self-rated health. Results We find that residents living in regions with more poverty, more unemployment, and more income inequality are more likely to report poor health and that poor living conditions and private share of healthcare expenditures at the regional level mediate socioeconomic disparities in self-rated health among Italian regions. Conclusion The implications are that regional contexts matter and that regional policies in Italy have the potential to reduce health disparities by implementing interventions aimed at improving living conditions and access to quality healthcare.

  12. Computerized Italian criticality guide, description and validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carotenuto, M; Landeyro, P A [ENEA - Dipartimento Ciclo del Combustibile, Centro Ricerche Energia, Casaccia (Italy)

    1988-10-15

    Our group is developing an 'expert system' for collecting engineering know-how on back-end nuclear plant design. An expert system is the most suitable software tool for our problem. During the analysis, the design process was divided into different branches. At each branch of the design process the Expert System relates a computerized design procedure. Any design procedure is composed of a set of design methods, together with their condition of application and reliability limits. In the framework of this expert system, the nuclear criticality safety analysis procedure was developed, in the form of a computerized criticality guide, attempting to reproduce the designer's normal 'reasoning' process. The criticality guide is composed of two parts: A computerized text, including theory, a description of the accidents occurred in the past and a description of the italian design experience; An interactive computer aided calculation module, containing a graphical facility for critical parameter curves. In the present report are presented the criticality guide (computerized Italian Criticality Guide) and its validation test. (author)

  13. The Italian Tau/charm project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biagini Maria Enrica

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A τ/charm Factory, an e + e- collider with very high luminosity at the 2–4.6 GeV center of mass energy, to be built on the Rome University at Tor Vergata campus, was studied by the Consortium Nicola Cabibbo Laboratory and the INFN Frascati Laboratories. This project is the natural evolution of the flagship Italian project SuperB Factory, funded by the Italian Government in 2010 with a budget that turned out to be insufficient to cover the total costs of the project. The study of rare events at the τ/charm energy was already planned as a Phase-II of SuperB [1]. This design keeps all the unique features of SuperB, including the polarization of the electron beam, with the possibility to take data in a larger energy range, with reduced accelerator dimensions and construction and operation costs. A Report on the accelerator design has been published in September 2013 [2].

  14. Avian Metapneumovirus circulation in Italian broiler farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucciarone, Claudia Maria; Franzo, Giovanni; Lupini, Caterina; Alejo, Carolina Torres; Listorti, Valeria; Mescolini, Giulia; Brandão, Paulo Eduardo; Martini, Marco; Catelli, Elena; Cecchinato, Mattia

    2018-02-01

    With increasing frequency, avian Metapneumovirus (aMPV) is reported to induce respiratory signs in chickens. An adequate knowledge of current aMPV prevalence among Italian broilers is lacking, with little information available on its economical and health impact on the poultry industry. In order to collect preliminary data on the epidemiological context of aMPV in broiler flocks, a survey was performed in areas of Northern Italy with high poultry density from 2014 to 2016. Upper respiratory tract swabs were collected and processed by A and B subtype-specific multiplex real-time reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR). Samples were also screened for infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) by generic RT-PCR and sequencing. Productive data and respiratory signs were detailed where possible. The high prevalence of aMPV was confirmed in broilers older than 26 d and also attested in IBV-negative farms. All aMPV detections belonged to subtype B. Italian strain genetic variability was evaluated by the partial attachment (G) gene sequencing of selected strains and compared with contemporary turkey strains and previously published aMPV references, revealing no host specificity and the progressive evolution of this virus in Italy. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  15. Pregnancy, but not the allergic status, influences spontaneous and induced interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), IL-6, IL-10 and IL-12 responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoudruz, Petra; Minang, Jacob Taku; Sundström, Yvonne; Nilsson, Caroline; Lilja, Gunnar; Troye-Blomberg, Marita; Sverremark-Ekström, Eva

    2006-09-01

    In this study, we investigated how pregnancy influences cytokine production in response to stimulation of the innate and the adaptive immune system, respectively. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from allergic (n = 44) and non-allergic (n = 36) women were collected at three time-points: during the third trimester, at delivery and at a non-pregnant state 2 years after delivery. The production of interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), IL-6, IL-10 and IL-12 was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) or enzyme-linked immunospot assay (ELISPOT). The spontaneous cytokine production, and the response following stimulation with agents that primarily activate the adaptive part of the immune system [phytohaemagglutinin (PHA), allergen extracts from cat and birch], or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) that activate innate immunity was measured in vitro. There was a significantly higher spontaneous in vitro production of IL-1beta, IL-6 and IL-10 by PBMCs during pregnancy than 2 years after pregnancy, and this was not affected by the allergic status of the women. Conversely, in PHA-stimulated cell cultures there was a lower production of IL-10 and IL-12 during pregnancy than 2 years after pregnancy. LPS-induced IL-6 levels were significantly lower in PBMCs obtained during pregnancy than at 2 years after pregnancy. In addition, we made the interesting observation that in allergic women total immunoglobulin E (IgE) levels were significantly lower 2 years after pregnancy compared to the levels during pregnancy. Taken together, our results indicate that while atopic allergy in women does not have a substantial effect on cytokine production, pregnancy has an obvious effect on the immune system in terms of cytokine production as well as on the total IgE levels.

  16. Transit Oriented Development: una soluzione per il governo delle aree di stazione

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrica Papa

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available I processi di diffusione e dispersione insediativa, la crescente crisi da congestione, la disponibilità di aree libere a seguito di dismissione di impianti industriali in aree strategiche della città, i consistenti investimenti in infrastrutture di trasporto su ferro in ambito urbano e regionale sono elementi chiave che hanno contribuito alla diffusione di teorie e pratiche per uno “sviluppo urbano orientato al sistema di trasporto pubblico su ferro”: il Transit Oriented Development- TOD. Questo termine, introdotto per la prima volta da Calthorpe nel 1993, sintetizza teorie e metodi volti a favorire uno sviluppo metropolitano policentrico i cui poli sono i Transit Villages ovvero comunità urbane ad alta densità e mixitè funzionale che si sviluppano intorno alle stazioni della rete su ferro. Nelle aree in espansione o in trasformazione il TOD propone la costruzione di nuovi centri urbani di elevata qualità urbana in aree della città consolidata il TOD prevede il riempimento dei vuoti esistenti ed interventi di riqualificazione urbana. Da molti anni si stanno mettendo in pratica questi principi prevalentemente negli Stati Uniti, dove la disponibilità di suoli e la necessità di limitare fenomeni di sprawl urbano hanno favorito la diffusione delle pratiche TOD in molte città. In Europa questo tipo di interventi non è ancora molto diffuso, a meno di alcuni casi specifici. L’articolo, partendo da queste premesse, vuole contribuire ad affrontare alcune questioni centrali: in quali modo è possibile “esportare” i metodi e le tecniche del TOD nelle città Europee e in particolare in Italia? Quali sono gli strumenti e le procedure per la definizione degli interventi? A partire da uno studio della letteratura scientifica e dall’analisi di casi di studio internazionali il paper propone alcune prime risposte attraverso una proposta di metodo per l’applicazione delle pratiche TOD nelle aree metropolitane italiane.

  17. Italian research on Antarctic atmosphere: 1st workshop. Ricerche italiane sull'atmosfera antartica: 1o workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colacino, M. (ed.); Giovannelli, G. (ed.); Stefanutti, L. (ed.)

    1989-01-01

    The papers and reports, presented at this 1st workshop on 'Italian research on antarctic atmosphere', deal with several main topics: meteorology and climatology, aerosol and tropospheric clouds, planetary boundary layer, chemical-physic stratospheric property, aeronomy. They define the stage of development of Italian research in this area after 3 years of activity in Antarctica.

  18. Structural Characterisation Reveals Mechanism of IL-13-Neutralising Monoclonal Antibody Tralokinumab as Inhibition of Binding to IL-13Rα1 and IL-13Rα2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popovic, B; Breed, J; Rees, D G; Gardener, M J; Vinall, L M K; Kemp, B; Spooner, J; Keen, J; Minter, R; Uddin, F; Colice, G; Wilkinson, T; Vaughan, T; May, R D

    2017-01-20

    Interleukin (IL)-13 is a pleiotropic T helper type 2 cytokine frequently associated with asthma and atopic dermatitis. IL-13-mediated signalling is initiated by binding to IL-13Rα1, which then recruits IL-4Rα to form a heterodimeric receptor complex. IL-13 also binds to IL-13Rα2, considered as either a decoy or a key mediator of fibrosis. IL-13-neutralising antibodies act by preventing IL-13 binding to IL-13Rα1, IL-4Rα and/or IL-13Rα2. Tralokinumab (CAT-354) is an IL-13-neutralising human IgG4 monoclonal antibody that has shown clinical benefit in patients with asthma. To decipher how tralokinumab inhibits the effects of IL-13, we determined the structure of tralokinumab Fab in complex with human IL-13 to 2 Å resolution. The structure analysis reveals that tralokinumab prevents IL-13 from binding to both IL-13Rα1 and IL-13Rα2. This is supported by biochemical ligand-receptor interaction assay data. The tralokinumab epitope is mainly composed of residues in helices D and A of IL-13. It is mostly light chain complementarity-determining regions that are driving paratope interactions; the variable light complementarity-determining region 2 plays a key role by providing residue contacts for a network of hydrogen bonds and a salt bridge in the core of binding. The key residues within the paratope contributing to binding were identified as Asp50, Asp51, Ser30 and Lys31. This study demonstrates that tralokinumab prevents the IL-13 pharmacodynamic effect by binding to IL-13 helices A and D, thus preventing IL-13 from interacting with IL-13Rα1 and IL-13Rα2. Copyright © 2016 AstraZeneca. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. La traduzione e la nuova letteratura. Il modernismo novecentista (tra nazionalismo e interculturalità

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosario Gennaro

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available «Gli scrittori italiani siano all’interno e soprattutto all’estero i portatori del nuovo tipo di civiltà italiana. Spetta agli scrittori di fare quello che si può chiamare ‘imperialismo spirituale’». Questo afferma Mussolini nel 1925, ricollegandosi a un vasto dibattito sull’“espansione culturale”. L’articolo, affrontando il dibattito sulla traduzione sviluppatisi intorno al novecentismo di Bontempelli, esamina: a il progetto di nuova letteratura messo in campo dal novecentismo; b il ruolo cruciale che vi svolgono la traduzione e il commercio letterario internazionale; c il senso del nesso asserito da Bontempelli fra traducibilità e valore letterario; c le obiezioni opposte dagli avversari; d la vera posta di tali contrasti (l’egemonia nel canone letterario; e l’uso strumentale della cultura da parte del fascismo per fini di politica estera; f lo strumentale ricorso degli scrittori alla politica per fini di lotta letteraria; g la compatibilità tra apertura internazionale, traduzione, nazionalismo, imperialismo nel modernismo culturale di metà anni Venti. «Italian writers should be the mouthpieces, both in Italy and abroad, of the new brand of Italian civilization. It is the writers’ task to promote what we may call ‘spiritual imperialism’.» Thus spoke Mussolini in 1925, joining a widespread debate on “cultural expansion.” By addressing the discussion on translation that developed around Bontempelli’s “Novecentismo”, the article examines the following issues: a the project of a new literature promoted by “Novecentismo”; b the crucial role played by translation and international literary trade in this project; c the meaning of the nexus that Bontempelli posited between translatability and literary value; c the opponents’ objections; d the actual implications of such contrasts (i.e. the issue of hegemony within the establishment of a literary canon; e Fascism’s deceptively instrumental use

  20. Evaluation of several priority pollutants in zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) in the largest Italian subalpine lakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riva, Consuelo; Binelli, Andrea; Provini, Alfredo

    2008-01-01

    Zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) has been used for the biomonitoring of several POPs (PCBs, DDTs, HCB and HCHs) in the largest Italian subalpine great lakes (Lake Maggiore, Garda, Como, Iseo and Lugano). Samplings were carried out in April 2003 at 15 locations selected according to industrial and anthropic levels of lakes. Results have pointed out high DDT levels in D. polymorpha specimens from Lake Maggiore (700-1400 ng/g lipids, 5-9 times higher than those measured in mussels of other Italian lakes), due to a contamination from a chemical plant located on one of the main lake inlet that occurred in 1996. On the contrary, PCB levels (400-2509 ng/g lipids) highlighted an overall pollution, with some sporadic peaks of contamination. Data showed a moderate increase trend compared to those found in a previous monitoring campaign carried out in 1996. Future monitoring is needed in order to confirm this tendency. - Significant levels of DDTs and PCBs are still present in the Italian subalpine great lakes

  1. Evaluation of several priority pollutants in zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) in the largest Italian subalpine lakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riva, Consuelo [Department of Biology, Ecology Section, University of Milan, Via Celoria 26, 20133 Milan (Italy)], E-mail: consuelo.riva@unimi.it; Binelli, Andrea; Provini, Alfredo [Department of Biology, Ecology Section, University of Milan, Via Celoria 26, 20133 Milan (Italy)

    2008-02-15

    Zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) has been used for the biomonitoring of several POPs (PCBs, DDTs, HCB and HCHs) in the largest Italian subalpine great lakes (Lake Maggiore, Garda, Como, Iseo and Lugano). Samplings were carried out in April 2003 at 15 locations selected according to industrial and anthropic levels of lakes. Results have pointed out high DDT levels in D. polymorpha specimens from Lake Maggiore (700-1400 ng/g lipids, 5-9 times higher than those measured in mussels of other Italian lakes), due to a contamination from a chemical plant located on one of the main lake inlet that occurred in 1996. On the contrary, PCB levels (400-2509 ng/g lipids) highlighted an overall pollution, with some sporadic peaks of contamination. Data showed a moderate increase trend compared to those found in a previous monitoring campaign carried out in 1996. Future monitoring is needed in order to confirm this tendency. - Significant levels of DDTs and PCBs are still present in the Italian subalpine great lakes.

  2. Managing Environmental Interests: Decision Patterns within the Italian Legal System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fracchia, F.

    2008-01-01

    politicians can intervene only afterwards and in case of inertia or conflict. The main thesis suggested by the article is that the most appropriate body entitled to take the final decision in the environmental field should be the political one. Emphasizing the principle of integration, the article assumes that the environment is an interest that must be taken into account by the decision makers, but adds that it must be balanced with other interests, in a perspective of relativism: it is a specific task of the political system to guarantee a final synthesis among different values. The article also underlines the relevance of the sustainable development principle, aimed at guaranteeing that the satisfaction of the current generation doesn't affect the quality of life and the chances of the future generations. The sustainable development is the true root of the whole environmental law buildings and basis of the other environmental principles, within the Italian context (Legislative Decree n. 152/2006). It seems to have left behind the limits, disciplinary also, of the environmental law, being now a general principle of the administrative activity tout court. It shows that the environmental decisions might usually affect the interests of the future generation, hence confirming that those choices must be made by the politicians, since they represent the whole community. [it

  3. The ENEA calibration service for ionising radiations; Il centro di taratura per le radiazioni ionizzanti di Bologna. Parte 1: Fotoni

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monteventi, F.; Sermenghi, I. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Ezio Clementel, Bologna (Italy). Dipt. Ambiente

    1999-07-01

    The report describes all the facilities available at the the service of the ENEA Calibration Service for Ionising Radiations at Bologna (Italy). It gives a detailed description of all equipment qualified for photon fields metrology including the secondary standards and the calibration procedures performed for radiation monitoring devices and dosemeters. [Italian] Il presente lavoro descrive i servizi e le attivita' del Centro di Taratura dell'ENEA di Bologna, in particolare delle attrezzature qualificate per la metrologia fotonica, dei campioni di misura e delle procedure adottate per la taratura degli strumenti e dei dosimetri.

  4. IL-17-producing NKT cells depend exclusively on IL-7 for homeostasis and survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, K E; Kim, H-O; Kyparissoudis, K; Corpuz, T M; Pinget, G V; Uldrich, A P; Brink, R; Belz, G T; Cho, J-H; Godfrey, D I; Sprent, J

    2014-09-01

    Natural killer T (NKT) cells are innate-like T cells that rapidly recognize pathogens and produce cytokines that shape the ensuing immune response. IL-17-producing NKT cells are enriched in barrier tissues, such as the lung, skin, and peripheral lymph nodes, and the factors that maintain this population in the periphery have not been elucidated. Here we show that NKT17 cells deviate from other NKT cells in their survival requirements. In contrast to conventional NKT cells that are maintained by IL-15, RORγt(+) NKT cells are IL-15 independent and instead rely completely on IL-7. IL-7 initiates a T-cell receptor-independent (TCR-independent) expansion of NKT17 cells, thus supporting their homeostasis. Without IL-7, survival is dramatically impaired, yet residual cells remain lineage committed with no downregulation of RORγt evident. Their preferential response to IL-7 does not reflect enhanced signaling through STAT proteins, but instead is modulated via the PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway. The ability to compete for IL-7 is dependent on high-density IL-7 receptor expression, which would promote uptake of low levels of IL-7 produced in the non-lymphoid sites of lung and skin. This dependence on IL-7 is also reported for RORγt(+) innate lymphoid cells and CD4(+) Th17 cells, and suggests common survival requirements for functionally similar cells.

  5. ‘The political deadlock is life’: Boris and the satire of contemporary Italian media and cultural industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomo Boitani

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available ‘Il pareggio elettorale è la vita’: Boris e la satira dei mass media italiani e dell’industria culturale odierni  Nel 2007 il network satellitare Fox Italia ha cominciato la produzione di Boris, una serie comica del genere mockumentary messa in onda sui canali Sky Italia dal 2007 al 2010. La trama di Boris narra le peripezie di una troupe televisiva alle prese con la produzione di una soap-opera per la RAI. In Italia la serie è presto diventata un prodotto ‘cult’. Nella serie Boris i pigri e opportunisti membri della troupe televisiva fittizia sono rappresentati come succubi delle ripercussioni che gli sviluppi politici nel Paese hanno sul servile network per il quale lavorano. Gli attori nella soap-opera fittizia vengono rimpiazzati e la trama stessa della soap-opera viene riscritta a seconda delle nuove coalizioni che vengono formate in Parlamento e i membri della troupe sono costantemente alla ricerca di raccomandazioni e protezione politica. Per quanto satirizza lo stato del Paese, Boris mette anche in discussione il fatto stesso che l’industria culturale Italiana corrente possa produrre un discorso significativo. Con riferimento alla teorizzazione della ‘parodia’ da parte di Linda Hutcheon, questo articolo discute la rappresentazione che Boris ha tratteggiato dell’industria culturale, analizza il rapporto esistente tra la serie e tradizioni comiche Italiane che l’hanno preceduta (la ‘commedia all’italiana’ e il modo in cui l’ironia implementata dalla serie ricalca e/o diverge da quella tipica delle serie mockumentary estere che l’hanno ispirata (Arrested Development e The Larry Sanders Show.

  6. Clinical significance of changes of levels of serum IL-2, IL-8, IL-10 and gastrin in patients with chronic eczema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Haifeng; Bi Mingye; Shi Hejian

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To study the significance of changes of serum IL-2, IL-8, IL-10 and Gastrin levels in patients with chronic eczema. Methods: Serum levels of IL-2, IL-8, IL-10 and Gastrin were determined with RIA in 30 patients with chronic eczema and 30 controls. Results: The levels of serum IL-2 were significantly lower in the eczema patients than those in controls (P 0.05). Both serum IL-10 and Gastrin levels were significantly higher in the patients than those in controls (P<0.01). Conclusion: Determination of serum IL-2, IL-8, IL-10 and Gastrin levels in patients with chronic eczema would be of help in monitoring the disease process and outcome prediction. (authors)

  7. IL-36 cytokines in autoimmunity and inflammatory disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Liping; Wang, Xiaohui; Hong, Xiaoping; Lu, Liwei; Liu, Dongzhou

    2018-01-05

    The inteleukin-36 (IL-36) cytokines include IL-36α, IL-36β, IL-36γ and IL-36Ra, which belong to the IL-1 family and exert pro-inflammatory effects on various target cells such as keratinocytes, synoviocytes, dendritic cells and T cells. Emerging evidence has suggested a role of IL-36 in the pathogenesis of many inflammatory diseases. Here, we provide a brief review on the activation of IL-36 family cytokines and their involvement in autoimmunity and inflammatory diseases, which will provide further insights in understanding the functions of IL-36 family cytokines in the pathophysiology of autoimmunity and inflammatory diseases.

  8. IL-13 and the IL-13 receptor as therapeutic targets for asthma and allergic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Jesse; Dimov, Vesselin; Townley, Robert G

    2010-05-01

    It is widely accepted that T-helper 2 cell (Th2) cytokines play an important role in the maintenance of asthma and allergy. Emerging evidence has highlighted the role of IL-13 in the pathogenesis of these diseases. In particular, IL-13 is involved in the regulation of IgE synthesis, mucus hypersecretion, subepithelial fibrosis and eosinophil infiltration, and has been associated with the regulation of certain chemokine receptors, notably CCR5. Thus, targeting IL-13 and its associated receptors may be a therapeutic approach to the treatment of asthma and/or allergy. Pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies are researching various strategies, based on this approach, aimed at binding IL-13, increasing the level of the IL-13 decoy receptor, IL-13Ralpha2, or blocking the effect of the chemokine receptor CCR5. This review focuses on the therapeutic potential of anti-IL-13 agents and their role in the treatment of asthma and allergy.

  9. Dati aperti della pubblica amministrazione. Appunti per uno stato dell’arte nel 2016 e focus sui dati relativi al patrimonio immobiliare delle PA italiane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Morando

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Le Pubbliche Amministrazioni (PA accumulano dati. Lo fanno per poter funzionare e per dimostrare di aver ben funzionato. La rivoluzione digitale rende trascurabile il costo di mettere a disposizione tali dati per il riutilizzo ed aumenta il costo opportunità di limitarne l'uso alla finalità per cui sono stati raccolti. La normativa incentiva tale riutilizzo, ed esistono numerosi standard tecnici e buone pratiche utili a renderlo anche praticamente fattibile e sostenibile. In sintesi, la pubblicazione di dati aperti è oggi una buona pratica, ma anche un dovere per le PA. Il presente articolo amplia ed organizza i concetti di cui sopra, nell'ottica di fornire gli elementi per comprendere lo stato dell'arte dei dati aperti (intesi come approccio all'amministrazione pubblica, campo di ricerca e movimento. Dal punto di vista normativo, ci si sofferma sul contesto europeo ed italiano. Dal punto di vista tecnico, si offrono alcuni approfondimenti relativi al formalismo “linked data”. Il lavoro prosegue esemplificando più in dettaglio il caso dei dati pubblici relativi al patrimonio immobiliare delle PA italiane. Tale esempio è significativo in quanto al confine tra il mondo dei dati aperti per il riutilizzo tradizionalmente intesi e quello della trasparenza amministrativa; inoltre, la presenza di riferimenti territoriali nei dati (come minimo, il numero civico fornisce una chiave per l'incrocio con altri dataset. Un’analisi delle pratiche di apertura di tali dati offre anche ottimi spunti per illustrare i limiti di una pubblicazione priva del necessario coordinamento e delle indispensabili linee guida tecniche.

  10. IL-4 function can be transferred to the IL-2 receptor by tyrosine containing sequences found in the IL-4 receptor alpha chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H Y; Paul, W E; Keegan, A D

    1996-02-01

    IL-4 binds to a cell surface receptor complex that consists of the IL-4 binding protein (IL-4R alpha) and the gamma chain of the IL-2 receptor complex (gamma c). The receptors for IL-4 and IL-2 have several features in common; both use the gamma c as a receptor component, and both activate the Janus kinases JAK-1 and JAK-3. In spite of these similarities, IL-4 evokes specific responses, including the tyrosine phosphorylation of 4PS/IRS-2 and the induction of CD23. To determine whether sequences within the cytoplasmic domain of the IL-4R alpha specify these IL-4-specific responses, we transplanted the insulin IL-4 receptor motif (I4R motif) of the huIL-4R alpha to the cytoplasmic domain of a truncated IL-2R beta. In addition, we transplanted a region that contains peptide sequences shown to block Stat6 binding to DNA. We analyzed the ability of cells expressing these IL-2R-IL-4R chimeric constructs to respond to IL-2. We found that IL-4 function could be transplanted to the IL-2 receptor by these regions and that proliferative and differentiative functions can be induced by different receptor sequences.

  11. Study on the changes of serum TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-8 levels in patients with coronary cardiac heart diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Xiaozhuo; Yu Xian

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To study the role TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-8 played in the pathogenesis of coronary cardiac heart diseases. Methods: Serum levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-8 levels were determined by chemiluminescence immunoassay in 32 patients with stable angina, 39 patients with acute myocardial infarction and 36 controls. Results: Serum TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-8 levels in all patients were higher than those in controls. Remarkably increased level were seen in acute myocardial infarction group. Difference between control and patient groups were: stable angina group TNF-α, p<0.05, IL-6, p<0.01 and IL-8, p<0.05; acute myocardial infarction group TNF-α, p<0.01, IL-1β, p<0.05, IL-6, p<0.001 and IL-8, p<0.001. Conclusion: There is close relationship between serum TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8 levels and development of coronary cardiac heart disease. They play an important role in the pathogenesis through mutual induction and synergistic actions

  12. Diagnostic value of combined determination of serum and chest fluid adenosine deaminase (ADA), IL-2, IL-6, IL-10 contents for differentiation of tuberculous from malignant pleural effusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Jiaming; Wang Limin

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the possible diagnostic value of combined determination of serum and chest fluid contents of ADA, IL-2, IL-6, IL-10 in patients with tuberculous and malignant pleural effusion. Methods: Serum and chest fluid ADA (with biochemical method), IL-2, IL-6, IL-10 (with ELISA) contents were measured in 56 patients with tuberculosis pleural effusion, 53 patients with malignant effusion and 30 controls (in serum only). The receiving operative characteristic (ROC) curve for each parameter was analyzed for study of respective area under curse (Auc). Results: The serum IL-6 levels in both groups of patients were significantly higher than those in the controls (P<0.05). The chest fluid contents of ADA, IL-2, IL-6 and IL-10 in patients with tuberculous effusion were all significantly higher than those in patients with malignancies (P<0.05). The Auc in the ROC was largest in the case of ADA, followed by IL-10, IL-6 with IL-2 the least. Conclusion: Determination of chest fluid ADA, IL-2, IL-6, IL-10 contents was helpful in the differentiation of tuberculous from malignant pleural effusion. Combined determination of chest fluid ADA and IL-10 provided the highest accuracy rate for differentional diagnosis. (authors)

  13. Expression of IL-18, IL-18 Binding Protein, and IL-18 Receptor by Normal and Cancerous Human Ovarian Tissues: Possible Implication of IL-18 in the Pathogenesis of Ovarian Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liat Medina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Proinflammatory cytokine IL-18 has been shown to be elevated in the sera of ovarian carcinoma patients. The aim of the study was to examine the levels and cellular origin of IL-18, IL-18 binding protein, and IL-18 receptor in normal and cancerous ovarian tissues. Ovarian tissue samples were examined by immunohistochemical staining for IL-18, IL-18BP, and IL-18R and mRNA of these cytokines was analyzed with semiquantitative PT-PCR. IL-18 levels were significantly higher in cancerous ovarian tissues (P=0.0007, IL-18BP levels were significantly higher in normal ovarian tissues (P=0.04, and the ratio of IL-18/IL-18BP was significantly higher in cancerous ovarian tissues (P=0.036. Cancerous ovarian tissues expressed significantly higher IL-18 mRNA levels (P=0.025, while there was no difference in the expression of IL-18BP mRNA and IL-18R mRNA between cancerous and normal ovarian tissues. IL-18 and IL-18BP were expressed dominantly in the epithelial cells of both cancerous and normal ovarian tissues, while IL-18R was expressed dominantly in the epithelial cells of cancerous ovarian tissues but expressed similarly in the epithelial and stromal cells of normal cancerous tissues. This study indicates a possible role of IL-18, IL-18BP, and IL-18R in the pathogenesis of epithelial ovarian carcinoma.

  14. IL-4 and IL-13 Compromise the Sinonasal Epithelial Barrier and Perturb Intercellular Junction Protein Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Sarah K.; Laury, Adrienne M.; Katz, Elizabeth H.; Den Beste, Kyle A.; Parkos, Charles A.; Nusrat, Asma

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Altered expression of epithelial intercellular junction proteins has been observed in sinonasal biopsies from nasal polyps and epithelial layers cultured from nasal polyp patients. These alterations comprise a “leaky” epithelial barrier phenotype. We hypothesize that Th2 cytokines IL-4 and IL-13 modulate epithelial junction proteins thereby contributing to the leaky epithelial barrier. Methods Differentiated primary sinonasal epithelial layers cultured at the air-liquid interface were exposed to IL-4, IL-13, and controls for 24 hours at 37°C. Epithelial resistance measurements were taken every 4 hours during cytokine exposure. Western blot and immunofluorescence staining/confocal microscopy were used to assess changes in a panel of tight and adherens junction proteins. Western blot densitometry was quantified with image analysis. Results IL-4 and IL-13 exposure resulted in a mean decrease in transepithelial resistance at 24 hours to 51.6% (n=6) and 68.6% (n=8) of baseline, respectively. Tight junction protein JAM-A expression decreased 42.2% with IL-4 exposure (n=9) and 37.5% with IL-13 exposure (n=9). Adherens junction protein E-cadherin expression decreased 35.3% with IL-4 exposure (n=9) and 32.9% with IL-13 exposure (n=9). Tight junction protein claudin-2 showed more variability but had a trend toward higher expression with Th2 cytokine exposure. There were no appreciable changes in claudin-1, occludin, or ZO-1 with IL-4 or IL-13 exposure. Conclusion Sinonasal epithelial exposure to Th2 cytokines IL-4 and IL-13 results in alterations in intercellular junction proteins, reflecting increased epithelial permeability. Such changes may explain some of the phenotypic manifestations of Th2-mediated sinonasal disease, such as edema, nasal discharge, and environmental reactivity. PMID:24510479

  15. Highlights from 2013 Consociazione Nazionale Associazioni Infermieri (CNAI) Conference: reflections and addresses for Italian nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, Rosario; Arrigoni, Cristina; Fiorini, Tiziana; Dellafiore, Federica; Pittella, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    This conference intends to boost the reflection on the state of nursing in Italy, which began with the XV National Congress of National Consociation of Nurses Associations and Other Health Social Workers (CNAIOSS) held in Naples in 1996. Today the name of the association is National Consociation of Italian Nurses (CNAI) (Desimio et al, 1998). After 17 years, it seems urgent to re-read the stretch of progress made in nursing science and identify future directions for the Italian nursing, in this period of rationalization of resources and economic crisis. The congress activities intend to deepen Italian debate within the profession on the state of the art and discipline, starting from the changing of many elements such as: healthcare setting, diffusion information technology, contents of education and especially the care needs of the population. The conference is designed to answer to some stated aims: - to set the nursing science within the wide context of the health sciences with particular reference to Italy; - to reflect on the state of the art and culture of nursing in Italy; - to acquire theoretical and methodological elements useful to strengthen and redefine their identity as nurse practitioners; - to identify the reasons why it is urgent to choose and use a common language in nursing clinical education, training and organization; - to learn from the sharing of the care planning experience and from the knowledge of different languages acquired by Italian realities. The conference follows the tradition of CNAI and intends to continue its contribution to the evolution of the theoretical and methodological aspects that found nursing practice in Italy.

  16. Caravaggio e il Maccheronico di Teofilo Folengo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Piciché

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Il presente studio ipotizza un’affinità tra Caravaggio e Teofilo Folengo, argomentando che la pittura del primo presenta analogie estetiche e etiche con la produzione in latino maccheronico del secondo. Il Baldus costituisce un tipico esempio di quella che Genette definirà come «parodia seria»: attraverso il rovesciamento e la irrisione beffarda Folengo ingaggia tenzone contro l’arte paludata e il travisamento dei valori cristiani. Non si tratta qui di stabilire un’influenza di Folengo su Caravaggio, bensì un’analogia, in virtù di un filo di congiunzione ideale, la cui presumibilità viene corroborata anche dal substrato biografico-culturale e da comune spirito religioso. Sia in Folengo che in Caravaggio sono stati individuati i caratteri di un certo modo della cultura lombarda di essere “contro” al punto che il duo Folengo-Caravaggio sembra epitomizzare l’antitesi al decorum curialcortigianesimo di Castiglione e Raffaello. Il Cristo-paradosso costituisce la vera fonte ispiratrice per entrambi. La comparazione tra due arti deve tenere conto dei diversi strumenti espressivi, e questo costituirà uno dei soggetti di riflessione nel testo. Se l’ipotesi della consentaneità viene ragionevolmente difesa, perché non individuare una componente maccheronica anche nell’arte di Caravaggio? Agli storici d’arte, tuttavia, decidere se si possa considerare il maccheronico come categoria pittorica

  17. EQUAL OPPORTUNITIES IN THE ITALIAN LABOUR MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balazs-Foldi Emese

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The integration of persons with disabilities and with reduced work capacity in the labour market represents one of the biggest challenges for labour market policies. The non-integration of disabled people in the labour market causes huge costs for the countries’ economy. The European Union’s aim is to transform passive social support into active support by means of labor market policy measures, to help people to obtain gainful employment and to raise employment levels of people with disabilities and with reduced work capacities. Earlier this target group has to work in the sheltered employment. But it changed from the 90’s years because of the social model of disability definition. Nowadays the main goal to help this target group integrates in the open employment. The members of European Union imagine this aim on other way. The Scandinavian countries or England prefer the equal opportunities and the personalised mainstreaming programmes and services. Other European countries, as Germany, Austria or Italy prefer the rehabilitation quota system. Thus, the labor force participation and employment rates for people with disabilities and with reduced working capacities are strong differences between the European countries. But lot of other options also influence the member of countries’ policy and employment system. Since the Amsterdam Treaty the European Union has devoted exceptional attention to the equal opportunities of disabled people, the enforcement of equal treatment, and the reduction of the dangers of discrimination, as it is, a significant part of persons with disabilities and reduced work capacity do not have a full-time job, they become unemployed two or three times more frequently than their abled-counterparts, and dispose of lower salary, therefore they need the help of their family and the community. This study examines the Italian situation. It bases on statistics on the Italian target group and provides comparisons with

  18. Critical load of acid precipitations. Mapping of Italian regions; Mappa dei carichi critici di acidita' totale riferita al territorio italiano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonanni, P.; Brini, S.; Delmonaco, G.; Liburdi, R.; Trocciola, A.; Vetrella, G. [ENEA Centro Ricerche Casaccia, S. Maria di Galeria, RM (Italy). Dipt. Ambiente

    1999-07-01

    In this report the mapping of critical loads of acidity for the Italian terrestrial ecosystems is presented. The level O method (Stockholm Environment Institute) has been used to determine sensitivity to acid deposition; this semi-quantitative method has been modified to address some Italian characteristics. The results show that the sensitivity of the Italian soils to acidification is not particularly elevated: there are really only few small areas with poor tolerance to acid depositions. These areas are in the north-east of Italy, in Alpine and Prealpine region. [Italian] Nel rapporto vengono riportati i risultati della mappatura, riferita agli ecosistemi terrestri del territorio italiano, dei carichi critici per l'acidita' totale. Il calcolo dei carichi critici e' stato eseguito sulla base della metodologia messa a punto dallo Stokholm Environment Institute; a questo metodo semi-quantitativo sono state apportate alcune modifiche per meglio adattarlo alle caratteristiche del territorio italiano. Dall'analisi dei risultati ottenuti, si evince come la sensibilita' dei suoli italiani all'acidificazione non sia particolarmente elevata: sono state riscontrate infatti solo alcune aree, peraltro con superficie limitata, con una scarsa tolleranza alle deposizioni acide. Tali aree sono localizzate nell'Italia nord-orientale, in zona alpina e prealpina.

  19. Mapping of critical loads of acidity for the Italian terrestrial ecosystems; Mappa dei carichi critici di acidita' totale riferita al territorio italiano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonanni, P.; Brini, S.; Delmonaco, G.; Liburdi, C.; Trocciola, A.; Vetrella, G. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy). Dipt. Ambiente

    1999-07-01

    In this report the mapping of critical loads of acidity for the Italian terrestrial ecosystems is presented. The level 0 method (Stockholm Environment Institute) has been used to determine sensitivity to acid deposition; this semi-quantitative method has been modified to address some Italian characteristics. The sensitivity of the Italian soils to acidification is not particularly elevated: there are really only few small areas with poor tolerance to acid depositions in the north-east Italy, Alpine and Prealpine region. [Italian] Nel presente relazione vengono riportati i risultati della mappatura riferita ad ecosistemi terrestri del territorio italiano, dei carichi critici per l'acidita' totale. Il calcolo dei carichi e' stato eseguito sulla base della metodologia messa a punto dallo Stockholm Environment Institute con alcune modifiche per adattarlo meglio alle caratteristiche del territorio italiano. Si dimostra che la sensibilita' dei suoli italiani all'acidificazione non sia particolarmente elevata: sono state riscontrate infatti solo alcune aree, peraltro con superficie limitata, con una scarsa tolleranza alle deposizioni acide nelle zone del Nord Est, in zona alpina e prealpina.

  20. IL-2/anti-IL-2 mAb immunocomplexes: A renascence of IL-2 in cancer immunotherapy?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tomala, Jakub; Kovář, Marek

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 3 (2016), e1102829 ISSN 2162-402X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-12885S; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Anti-IL-2 mAb * cancer immunotherapy * IL-2 Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 7.719, year: 2016

  1. Fra la cattedrale e il bazar, punti di vista sull'informazione Geografica libera fra il 2007 e il 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Giacomelli

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Geographic information: between a Cathedral and a bazar The article gives a high-level overview of three years of awareness raising on geographic free/Open Source software and information, conducted by the Italian OSGEO Chapter (GFOSS.it, and provides some outlook on the development of this sector in Italy.

  2. Fra la cattedrale e il bazar, punti di vista sull'informazione Geografica libera fra il 2007 e il 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Giacomelli

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Geographic information: between a Cathedral and a bazarThe article gives a high-level overview of three years of awareness raising on geographic free/Open Source software and information, conducted by the Italian OSGEO Chapter (GFOSS.it, and provides some outlook on the development of this sector in Italy.

  3. Italian validation of the Amsterdam Preoperative Anxiety and Information Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buonanno, Pasquale; Laiola, Anna; Palumbo, Chiara; Spinelli, Gianmario; Terminiello, Virginia; Servillo, Giuseppe

    2017-07-01

    Preoperative anxiety is usually experienced by patients awaiting surgical procedures and it can negatively impact patient's outcome. The Amsterdam Preoperative Anxiety and Information Scale (APAIS) is a questionnaire created to identify anxious patients and their need for information: it has been translated and validated in many languages because of its reliability and ease of completion. To date, no Italian version of the APAIS has been produced; our aim was to translate and validate the APAIS in Italian. We produced an Italian version of the APAIS and we administered it to 110 patients undergoing elective surgery; we explored its structure by factor analysis and its reliability by Cronbach's alpha. We analyzed its external validity by confronting it to the Spielberg's State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). Sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of the Italian version of the APAIS were determined. The Italian version of the APAIS confirmed the original structure of the questionnaire and its internal consistency; it well correlated with the STAI-Y1, the subscale of the STAI which explore the anxiety "state." An APAIS score of 14 was found as best cutoff to distinguish anxious and non-anxious patients. The Italian translation of the APAIS showed psychometric properties similar to the original version. Its reliability and its efficiency make it a powerful tool even in Italian population to detect anxiety and need for information.

  4. The Tragedy of Work: Working Class Heroes in the Italian 21st-century Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Panella

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims at exploring how the literary representation of the worker has changed between the end of 20th-century and the beginning of the 21st-century. With the fall of the 20th-century ideologies and raising the fragmentation of labour, texts have emerged in Italian literature which illustrated the tragic social and existential condition of the working class. Among these texts we can find some récits de filiation written by sons and daughters of workers whose health and ideals have been undermined even down to death. These typology of texts let emerged two equally tragic characters: fathers, ill and defeated but still working class heroes and sons, tragically conscious of their roles witnesses-superstites of those ‘denied heroes’. Among the texts being tackled in the paper Il nemico (2009 by Emanuele Tonon, Amianto (2012 by Alberto Prunetti, Il fuoco a mare (2015 by Andrea Bottalico, Ilva Football Club (2016 by Fulvio Colucci and Lorenzo d’Alò

  5. Hydrogen fuelled buses: Italian ENEA research program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambrosini, G.; Ciancia, A.; Pede, G.

    1993-01-01

    Current hydrogen automotive fuels research studies being conducted by ENEA (Italian Agency for New Technology, Energy and the Environment) are being targeted towards the development of hydrogen fueled vans and buses for use in highly polluted urban environments where the innovative vehicles' air pollution abatement characteristics would justify their high operating costs as compared with those of conventional automotive alternatives. The demonstration vehicle being used in the experimental studies and performance tests is a two liter minibus with a spark ignition engine power rated at 55 kW with gasoline operation and 45 kW with hydrogen. Detailed design notes are given regarding the retrofitting of the minibus chassis to house the aluminium gas storage tanks and the adaptation of the engine to operate with compressed hydrogen. Attention is given to efforts being made to resolve combustion control and fueling problems. Focus is on the progress being made in the development of an efficient and safe electronically controlled fuel injection system

  6. XVth Italian Society of Archaeoastronomy Congress

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This book addresses a variety of topics within the growing discipline of Archaeoastronomy, focusing especially on Archaeoastronomy in Sicily and the Mediterranean and Cultural Astronomy. A further priority is discussion of the astronomical and statistical methods used today to ascertain the degree of reliability of the chronological and cultural definition of sites and artifacts of archaeoastronomical interest. The contributions were all delivered at the XVth Congress of the Italian Society of Archaeoastronomy (SIA), held under the rubric "The Light, the Stones and the Sacred" – a theme inspired by the International Year of Light 2015, organized by UNESCO. The full meaning of many ancient monuments can only be understood by examining their relation to light, given the effects that light radiation produces in “interacting” with lithic structures. Moreover, in addition to manifestations of the sacred through the medium of light (hierophanies), there are many ties between temples, tombs, megalithic structu...

  7. Ambient Assisted Living : Italian forum 2013

    CERN Document Server

    Siciliano, Pietro; Germani, Michele; Monteriù, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    This book presents the refereed proceedings of the Fourth Italian Forum on Ambient Assisted Living (AAL), held in Ancona, Italy, in October 2013. A wide range of issues are covered, and new technological developments are described which will support the autonomy and independence of individuals with special needs through an innovative and integrated approach, designed to respond to the socio-economic challenges of an aging population. Topics addressed include: health and well-being, prevention and rehabilitation, and support for care providers; active aging and its social implications; services for the frail elderly with health problems and their families; nutrition; ICT platforms/technologies for the benefit of the elderly; home automation and control technologies (autonomy, safety, and energy saving); smart cities and smart communities; telemedicine, telerehabilitation, and telecare; mobility, participation, and social inclusion; games and fun for the elderly; building design; social housing; interface desig...

  8. Co-creation in Italian Transmedia Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Morreale

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This essay analyzes the forms of co-creation which have involved the operators in broadcast communication, the new creators of non-institutional content and the users in the context of transmedia production, with a particular focus on the Italian situation. The first part of the essay analyzes and compares the definitions of transmedia in literature, aiming to identify the specific characteristics of communication strategies which identify it and to clarify the differences with the concept of cross-media, which is often used wrongly as a synonym. In the second part of the essay, the main study models of transmedia structures in literature are used in order to analyze some emblematic cases of transmedia co-creation which have experimented some collaborative solutions over the last decade in Italy, leading to the production of contents designed for a distribution on multiple platforms, used in a coordinated and complementary manner.

  9. Multiple tooth resorption in an Italian Greyhound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roux, P.; Schawalder, P.; Stich, H.

    2011-01-01

    An Italian greyhound was presented three times during a two-year period for dental prophylaxis due to periodontal disease. Clinical examination revealed lesions on several teeth. Radiographs revealed extensive resorptive root lesions. On histological examination, the presence of odontoclasts and signs of boney remodeling of the roots confirmed the resorptive nature of the lesions. Given the extent of the lesions, and poor prognosis with conservative treatment alone, teeth affected by the most severe resorption were extracted at each visit using a flap technique combined with alveolar vestibular osteotomy. Dental resorptive lesions are rarely detected in the dog but may be more frequent than previously thought. The routine use of dental radiographs can be used to reveal these lesions in the dog

  10. The role of interleukin-5 (IL-5 in vivo: studies with IL-5 deficient mice

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    Klaus I Matthaei

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophil recruitment is a characteristic feature of a number of pathological conditions and was the topic of the recent International Symposium on allergic inflammation, asthma, parasitic and infectious diseases (Rio de Janeiro, June 3-5, 1996. Since interleukin5 (IL5 is believed to regulate the growth, differentiation and activation of eosinophils (Coffman et al. 1989, Sanderson 1992, the role of eosinophils and IL5 are closely linked. Although IL5 specifically regulates eosinophilia in vivo and this is its most well established activity, it is becoming clear that IL5 also has other biological effects. The recent derivation of an IL5 deficient mouse (Kopf et al. 1996, provides a model for exploring not only the role of IL5 and eosinophils but also other novel activities of IL5. Of note is that although the IL5 deficient mice cannot elicit a pronounced eosinophilia in response to inflammatory stimulation following aeroallergen challenge or parasite infection they still produce basal levels of eosinophils that appear to be morphologically and functionally normal. However, the basal levels of eosinophils appear insufficient for normal host defence as IL5 deficiency has now been shown to compromise defence against several helminth infections. In addition, IL5 deficient mice appear to have functional deficiencies in B-1 B lymphocytes and in IgA production.

  11. Interleukin-33 (IL-33): A nuclear cytokine from the IL-1 family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cayrol, Corinne; Girard, Jean-Philippe

    2018-01-01

    Interleukin-33 (IL-33) is a tissue-derived nuclear cytokine from the IL-1 family abundantly expressed in endothelial cells, epithelial cells and fibroblast-like cells, both during homeostasis and inflammation. It functions as an alarm signal (alarmin) released upon cell injury or tissue damage to alert immune cells expressing the ST2 receptor (IL-1RL1). The major targets of IL-33 in vivo are tissue-resident immune cells such as mast cells, group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) and regulatory T cells (Tregs). Other cellular targets include T helper 2 (Th2) cells, eosinophils, basophils, dendritic cells, Th1 cells, CD8 + T cells, NK cells, iNKT cells, B cells, neutrophils and macrophages. IL-33 is thus emerging as a crucial immune modulator with pleiotropic activities in type-2, type-1 and regulatory immune responses, and important roles in allergic, fibrotic, infectious, and chronic inflammatory diseases. The critical function of IL-33/ST2 signaling in allergic inflammation is illustrated by the fact that IL33 and IL1RL1 are among the most highly replicated susceptibility loci for asthma. In this review, we highlight 15 years of discoveries on IL-33 protein, including its molecular characteristics, nuclear localization, bioactive forms, cellular sources, mechanisms of release and regulation by proteases. Importantly, we emphasize data that have been validated using IL-33-deficient cells. © 2017 The Authors. Immunological Reviews Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Italian survey on benign paroxysmal positional vertigo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messina, A; Casani, A P; Manfrin, M; Guidetti, G

    2017-08-01

    Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) is the most common type of peripheral vertigo. BPPV often relapses after the first episode, with a recurrence rate between 15% and 50%. To date both the aetiopathogenetic processes that lead to otoconia detachment and the factors that make BPPV a relapsing disease are still unclear, but recent epidemiological studies have shown a possible association with cardiovascular risk factors. The aim of the present study (Sesto Senso Survey) was to evaluate in the Italian population through an observational survey, the main demographic and clinical characteristics of patients with BPPV (first episode or recurrent) with particular focus on the potential cardiovascular risk factors. The survey was conducted in 158 vestibology centres across Italy on 2,682 patients (mean age 59.3 ± 15.0 years; 39.1% males and 60.9% females) suffering from BPPV, from January 2013 to December 2014. The results showed a high prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors such as high blood pressure (55.8%), hypercholesterolaemia (38.6%) and diabetes (17.7%), as well as a family history of cardiovascular disease (49.4%). A high percentage of patients also had hearing loss (42.9%), tinnitus (41.2%), or both (26.8%). The presence of hypertension, dyslipidaemia and pre-existing cardiovascular comorbidities were significantly related to recurrent BPPV episodes (OR range between 1.84 and 2.31). In addition, the association with diabetes and thyroid/autoimmune disease (OR range between 1.73 and 1.89) was relevant. The survey results confirm the significant association between cardiovascular comorbidities and recurrent BPPV and identify them as a potential important risk factor for recurrence of BPPV in the Italian population, paving the way for the evaluation of new therapeutic strategies in the treatment of this disease. © Copyright by Società Italiana di Otorinolaringologia e Chirurgia Cervico-Facciale, Rome, Italy.

  13. The Italian Registry of Antiphospholipid Antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finazzi, G

    1997-01-01

    The clinical importance of antiphospholipid antibodies (APA) derives from their association with a syndrome of venous and arterial thrombosis, recurrent fetal loss and thrombocytopenia known as the antiphospholipid syndrome (APS). The Italian Registry of Antiphospholipid Antibodies was set up in 1989 for the purpose of collecting a large number of patients with lupus anticoagulant (LA) or anticardiolipin antibodies (ACA) for clinical studies in order to obtain more information on the clinical features of APS. The Italian Registry has completed two clinical studies and proposed an international trial on the treatment of APS patients. These activities of the Registry are reviewed herein. Additional information has been obtained from pertinent articles and abstracts published in journals covered by the Science Citation Index and Medline. The first study of the Registry was a retrospective analysis of enrolled patients which showed that: a) the prevalence of thrombosis and thrombocytopenia was similar in cases with idiopathic APA or APA secondary to systemic lupus erythematosus, and b) the rate of thrombosis was significantly reduced in patients with severe thrombocytopenia but not in those with only a mild reduction of the platelet count. The second study was a prospective survey of the natural history of the disease, showing that a) previous thrombosis and ACA titer > 40 units were independent predictors of subsequent vascular complications; b) a history of miscarriage or thrombosis is significantly associated with adverse pregnancy outcome; c) hematological malignancies can develop during follow-up and patients with APA should be considered at increased risk of developing NHL. Thus the possibility of a hematologic neoplastic disease should be borne in mind in the initial evaluation and during the follow-up of these patients. The latest initiative of the Registry was the proposal of an international, randomized clinical trial (WAPS study) aimed at assessing the

  14. Birth of a science centre. Italian phenomenology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Rodari

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available In May 2004 the Balì Museum, Planetarium and interactive science museum, was opened to the public in Italy: 35 hands-on exhibits designed according to the interactive tradition of the Exploratorium in San Francisco, an astronomic observatory for educational activities, a Planetarium with 70 places. With a total investment of about three million euros, about two thirds of which were spent on restructuring the splendid eighteenth-century villa in which it is housed, the undertaking may be considered a small one in comparison with other European science centres. Three million euros: perhaps enough to cover the cost of only the splendid circular access ramp to the brand-new Cosmocaixa in Barcelona, an investment of one hundred million euros. But the interesting aspect of the story of the Balì Museum (but also of other Italian stories, as we shall see lies in the fact that this lively and advanced science centre stands in the bucolic region of the Marches, next to a small town of only 800 inhabitants (Saltara, in the Province of Pesaro and Urbino, in a municipal territory that has a total of 5000. Whereas in Italy the projects for science centres comparable with the Catalan one, for example projects for Rome and Turin, never get off the ground, smaller ones are opening in small and medium-sized towns: why is this? And what does the unusual location of the centres entail for science communication in Italy? This Focus does not claim to tell the whole truth about Italian interactive museums, but it does offer some phenomenological cues to open a debate on the cultural, economic and political premises that favour their lives.

  15. Elevated levels of circulating IL-18BP and perturbed regulation of IL-18 in schizophrenia

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    Palladino Ilaria

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The pleiotropic pro-inflammatory cytokine Interleukin (IL-18 has been proposed to play a role in schizophrenia, since elevated circulating levels of its protein and altered frequencies of genetic variants in its molecular system are reported in schizophrenic patients. Methods We analyzed 77 patients with schizophrenia diagnosis (SCZ and 77 healthy control subjects (HC for serum concentration of both IL-18 and its natural inhibitor, the IL-18 binding protein (IL-18BP. Results We confirmed that serum levels of total IL-18 are significantly increased in SCZ, as compared to HC. However, due to a highly significant increase in levels of circulating IL-18BP in SCZ, as compared to HC, the levels of free, bioactive IL-18 are not significantly different between the two groups. In addition, the relationships between the levels of IL-18 and its inhibitor, as well as between the two molecules and age appear dissimilar for SCZ and HC. In particular, the elevated levels of IL-18BP, likely a consequence of the body’s attempt to counteract the early prominent inflammation which characterizes schizophrenia, are maintained in earlier and later stages of the disease. However, the IL-18BP elevation appears ineffective to balance the IL-18 system in younger SCZ patients, while in older patients the levels of circulating bioactive IL-18 are comparable to those of HC, if not lower. Conclusions In conclusion, these findings indicate that the IL-18 system is perturbed in schizophrenia, supporting the idea that this pro-inflammatory cytokine might be part of a pathway of genetic and environmental components for vulnerability to the disease.

  16. European and Italian experience of Smart Cities: A model for the smart planning of city built

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Starlight Vattano

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The construction of the city through smart measures is now a frontier reached from many cities in the world. The built environment requires smart planning able to relate urban realities that are relegated to a marginal change. But how does the smart cities can create a relationship between sustainable cities of the future and their heritage? The article highlights the way of smart urban transformation of reality European and Italian proposing critical comparisons from which to infer smart parameters most used and easy to apply for the sustainable construction of these smart cities focusing on the urban sources of intelligent retrieval for quality their historical and cultural heritage.

  17. Scenario e ruoli sociali delle Associazioni teatrali non professionistiche italiane

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    Cinzia Toscano

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the present scenario of the non-professional theater associations in Italy so as to understand their current form of organization. The study focuses on the changes that have characterized in time the non-professional associations (due also to the improvement of the legislation regulating the no profit sector and the social role in contemporary local communities. The survey was conducted within the two most relevant Italian associations of non-professional theater: the Italian Federation of non-professional Theatre (Federazione Italiana Teatro Amatori and the Italian Union of Free Theatre (Unione Italiana Libero Teatro.

  18. Bayesian Analysis of Demand Elasticity in the Italian Electricity Market

    OpenAIRE

    D'Errico, Maria; Bollino, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    The liberalization of the Italian electricity market is a decade old. Within these last ten years, the supply side has been extensively analyzed, but not the demand side. The aim of this paper is to provide a new method for estimation of the demand elasticity, based on Bayesian methods applied to the Italian electricity market. We used individual demand bids data in the day-ahead market in the Italian Power Exchange (IPEX), for 2011, in order to construct an aggregate demand function at the h...

  19. Renewable resource power production: Italian decree CIP No. 34

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Macco, C.

    1991-01-01

    As part of an overall energy conservation campaign, a concrete step, in the form of a more favourable electricity rate structure for auto-producers, is being taken by the Italian Government to encourage medium sized industries to adopt cogeneration systems to meet their heat and power requirements. Within this context, this paper gives a look at the incentives for renewable energy source use which are incorporated in the CIP (Italian Inter-ministerial Commission on Prices) Provision No. 34/90, regulating industrial plant cogeneration systems, and which governs ENEL's (Italian National Electricity Board) rate structure in the case of independent on-site producers ceding power to the national utility's grid

  20. Wind power: Italian auto-production legislation (ISES convention)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mari, G.

    1991-01-01

    With reference to what was discussed at the Bologna (Italy) June 1991 ISES (International Solar Energy Society) convention on wind energy, this paper summarizes the Italian legislative framework relative to on-site power generation and outlines the National Energy Plan objectives regarding the promotion of the use, by industry, of renewable energy sources. Brief notes are also provided on wind energy promotional activities being carried out by ENEL (the Italian National Energy Board), ENEA (Italian Agency for New Technologies, Energy and the Environment), and EWEA (the European Wind Energy Association)

  1. The English translation of Umberto Eco’s Il Cimitero di Praga

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    Richard Dixon

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract - The translation of Umberto Eco’s latest novel raised various practical considerations. First, historical context: all of the main characters, except the protagonist, actually exist; most of the events around which the story is told actually happened; this means that the story must not only sound right, but it has to be right. Second, the action in the novel moves between Piedmont, Sicily and Paris, and involves negotiating between three languages: the cultural context suggests that certain words should be left in Italian, while others were better translated into French. Third, the story is told mainly through diaries written in the last years of the 19th century: the vocabulary in the target language therefore had to be appropriate for that period. Fourth, to place the English reader in the same position as the Italian reader, particularly in understanding Latin expressions, a little help could occasionally be given. Fifth, it was important to render the diversity of the three different voices of the Narrator, Simone Simonini and Abbé Della Piccola, as well as changes in pace and style. The task of the translator, in the end, is to try to produce the same effect for an English reader as the author has tried to produce for an Italian reader. It involves working on sound and rhythm – it involves trying to find the voice of the author. Riassunto -La traduzione dell’ultimo romanzo di Umberto Eco ha posto varie considerazioni di natura pratica. In primo luogo, il contesto storico: tutti i personaggi principali, eccetto il protagonista, esistono realmente; la maggior parte degli eventi attorno ai quali si evolve la storia sono realmente avvenuti; ciò significa che la storia non solo deve sembrare veritiera, ma deve essere veritiera. In secondo luogo, l’azione del romanzo si svolge tra Piemonte, Sicilia e Parigi, e ciò implica una negoziazione tra tre lingue: il contesto culturale suggerisce che certe parole dovrebbero essere

  2. Tecnologia italiana per il vuoto spinto

    CERN Document Server

    2002-01-01

    "Ancora una volta ad aggiudicarsi un ambito riconoscimento internazionale e' un fisico italiano: Cristoforo Benvenuti ritirera' tra pochi giorni a Denver il premio Gaede-Langmuir che viene assegnato dalla American vacuum society" (1/2 page).

  3. Michel Foucault e il problema della genealogia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Abeni

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available "Si j'étais prétentieux, je donnerais comme titre général à ce que je fais : généalogie de la morale." Dietro questa affermazione, rilasciata nel contesto colloquiale di un'intervista, è possibile scorgere il segno di una confessione intellettuale e il compendio di un pensiero. In primo luogo, allusivamente, rinvia alla figura di Nietzsche e alla traccia indelebile che il suo pensiero ha lasciato nella filosofia e nella ricerca di Foucault. In secondo luogo, autorizza a osservare nella riflessione foucaultiana la filigrana di quella genealogia che il presente lavoro si propone di affrontare come stile d'interrogazione filosofica.

  4. PER ALDO NOSEDA: IL CRITICO MUSICALE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Fiaccadori

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Il presente articolo è un tentativo di fornire la lista completa degli scritti di Aldo Noseda (Milano, 1853-Stresa, 1916 come critico musicale. Fu un erudito conoscitore d’arte e appassionato collezionista, ma la quasi totalità dei suoi scritti sono dedicati alla scena musicale italiana. Prese parte all’infiammato dibattito a proposito della musica strumentale divenendo membro della Società del Quartetto e fondando la Società orchestrale della Scala a Milano. Dal 1876 al 1894, sotto lo pseudonimo de Il Misovulgo fu tra gli editorialisti militanti di importanti periodici come «La Gazzetta musicale di Milano», il «Corriere della Sera» e «Il Caffè», contribuendovi con una serie di appassionate recensioni dei contemporanei eventi musicali milanesi.

  5. Seasonal influenza A/H3N2 virus infection and IL-1Β, IL-10, IL-17, and IL-28 polymorphisms in Iranian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogo, Lawal Dahiru; Rezaei, Farhad; Marashi, Seyed Mahdi; Yekaninejad, Mir Saeed; Naseri, Maryam; Ghavami, Nastaran; Mokhtari-Azad, Talat

    2016-12-01

    Increased blood cytokines is the main immunopathological process that were attributed to severe clinical outcomes in cases of influenza A/H3N2 virus infection. The study was aimed to investigate the polymorphisms of IL-1β, IL-10, IL-17, and IL-28 genes to find the possibility of their association with the clinical outcome of influenza A/H3N2 virus infection among the infected patients in Iran. This is a Case-Control study in which influenza A/H3N2 virus positive confirmed with real-time PCR were the cases. DNA samples from groups were genotyped for polymorphisms in rs16944 (IL-1β), rs1800872 (IL-10), rs2275913 (IL-17), and rs8099917 (IL-28). Confidence interval (95%CI) and Odds ratio (OR) were calculated. IL-17 rs2275913 (GG and AG) were associated with risk of infection with that were statistically significant (P rs16944) (GG) was associated with reduced risk of infection (P < 0.01, OR = 0.46). Genotype GG and GT of IL-10 (rs1800872) were associated with increased risk of infection with influenza A/H3N2 virus (P < 0.05, OR = 2.04-2.58). In addition, IL-28 (rs8099917) genotypes GG (P < 0.05, OR = 0.49) and TG (P < 0.05, OR = 0.59) were associated with reduced risk of ILI symptom while genotype TT (P < 0.01, OR = 4.31) was associated with increased risk of ILI symptom. The results of this study demonstrated that polymorphisms of genes involved in the inflammatory and anti-inflammatory process affect the outcome of disease caused by influenza A/H3N2 virus. Thorough insight on host immune response at the time of influenza A virus infection is required to ensure adequate patient care in the case of feature outbreaks. J. Med. Virol. 88:2078-2084, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Il viaggio gastronomico di Paolo Monelli

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    Alberto Salarelli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Il ghiottone errante di Paolo Monelli, pubblicato nel 1935, rappresenta uno dei primi esempi di narrativa di viaggio in tema di enogastronomia, un genere destinato a grande successo nel secondo dopoguerra. In questo articolo, oltre a ripercorrere la vicenda biografica di Monelli, si sottolineano le relazioni tra Il ghiottone e la cultura gastronomica del regime fascista, e si evidenziano alcuni tratti caratteristici del suo stile di scrittura.

  7. Increasing the biological activity of IL-2 and IL-15 through complexing with anti-IL-2 mAbs and Il-15Ralfa-Fc chimera

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Votavová, Petra; Tomala, Jakub; Kovář, Marek

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 195, č. 1 (2014), s. 1-10 ISSN 0165-2478 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP301/11/0325; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109; GA ČR GA13-12885S Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : IL-2 * IL-15 * chimera Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 2.512, year: 2014

  8. Commensal bacteria and MAMPs are necessary for stress-induced increases in IL-1β and IL-18 but not IL-6, IL-10 or MCP-1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Maslanik

    Full Text Available Regular interactions between commensal bacteria and the enteric mucosal immune environment are necessary for normal immunity. Alterations of the commensal bacterial communities or mucosal barrier can disrupt immune function. Chronic stress interferes with bacterial community structure (specifically, α-diversity and the integrity of the intestinal barrier. These interferences can contribute to chronic stress-induced increases in systemic IL-6 and TNF-α. Chronic stress, however, produces many physiological changes that could indirectly influence immune activity. In addition to IL-6 and TNF-α, exposure to acute stressors upregulates a plethora of inflammatory proteins, each having unique synthesis and release mechanisms. We therefore tested the hypothesis that acute stress-induced inflammatory protein responses are dependent on the commensal bacteria, and more specifically, lipopolysaccharide (LPS shed from Gram-negative intestinal commensal bacteria. We present evidence that both reducing commensal bacteria using antibiotics and neutralizing LPS using endotoxin inhibitor (EI attenuates increases in some (inflammasome dependent, IL-1 and IL-18, but not all (inflammasome independent, IL-6, IL-10, and MCP-1 inflammatory proteins in the blood of male F344 rats exposed to an acute tail shock stressor. Acute stress did not impact α- or β- diversity measured using 16S rRNA diversity analyses, but selectively reduced the relative abundance of Prevotella. These findings indicate that commensal bacteria contribute to acute stress-induced inflammatory protein responses, and support the presence of LPS-mediated signaling in stress-evoked cytokine and chemokine production. The selectivity of the commensal bacteria in stress-evoked IL-1β and IL-18 responses may implicate the inflammasome in this response.

  9. “Frate sole” e il fotovoltaico. Il ruolo della parrocchia e la tutela dell’ambiente tra normativa statale e Magistero della Chiesa cattolica

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    Angela Patrizia Tavani

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available SOMMARIO: 1. Premessa – 2. L’ente religioso imprenditore – 3. Rinnovata centralità di “frate sole” nel III millennio: le parrocchie e il fotovoltaico – 4. Il Magistero della Chiesa cattolica in tema di salvaguardia dell’ambiente – 5. Considerazioni conclusive. ABSTRACT: The establishment of a social enterprise for the production and sale of electricity through the creation of a photovoltaic system by imposing some parishes of Mantua shows that there is no conflict between the specific nature of ecclesiastical entity and the exercise by this socially useful economic activity, because the economic activity in order to provide the capital resources required to achieve the purpose of religion or belief, does not change the nature of ecclesiastical entity, because it does not absorb or blur the religious or of worship but rather reinforces the essence, as related and instrumental to this The invitation to promote renewable energy to protect the environment, has been the subject of interventions at various levels by both the Italian state and by the European Community, also Magisterium of the Catholic Church has often called for a real ecological conversion and an ecumenical commitment to that effect Associated Parishes are an example of civil economy, characterized by human sociality and reciprocity, as opposed to a utilitarian vision of the market based on the logic of exchange of equivalents.

  10. Il criterio del costo nella stima immobiliare

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    Giovanni Battista Cipolotti

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Object of the present analysis is the use of the cost method in estimating real estate as a method of determining the market value, solution proposed by the guidelines for estimating real estate published by the Italian Banking and the International Valuation Standards. In particular, we examined the setting where the real estate evaluation has the production costs as a solution.

  11. Il canone linguistico boccacciano, non senza dissenso

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    Cecilia Casini

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Author of prose’s greatest masterpiece of medieval literature in the vernacular, Giovanni Boccaccio was crucial to defining the Italian language canon, especially since Pietro Bembo proposed its coding in the sixteenth century. Not without controversy, however, since shortly after the publication of Prose Della Volgar Language, Bembo presents the first contrasting theories that support the linguistic model presented by Machiavelli

  12. Interleukin (IL)-8 and IL-36γ but not IL-36Ra are related to acrosyringia in pustule formation associated with palmoplantar pustulosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiaoling, Y; Chao, W; Wenming, W; Feng, L; Hongzhong, J

    2018-06-12

    Palmoplantar pustulosis (PPP) is a refractory, nonbacterial impetigo confined to the palms and soles. Its pathogenesis is still obscure, but it may be associated with the large eccrine sweat glands and pores of palmoplantar skin. PPP is considered to be a localized pustular psoriasis. Interleukin (IL)-8, IL-36γ and IL-36Ra play important roles in the pathogenesis of pustular psoriasis, but their role in PPP is unclear. To evaluate IL-8, IL-36γ and IL-36Ra expression in PPP, and their relationship with acrosyringia and pustule formation. mRNA expression was quantified in skin samples from patients with PPP (n = 7), patients with psoriasis vulgaris (PSV; n = 8) and healthy controls (HCs) (n = 6) by reverse-transcription-real-time PCR. Protein expression was characterized by immunohistochemistry (PPP, n = 17; PSV, n = 14; HCs, n = 12). Sweat ducts, including acrosyringia, were stained for epithelial membrane antigen (EMA). IL-8 mRNA and protein were markedly increased in PPP lesions compared with PSV lesions or HC skin. IL-36γ mRNA and protein were significantly more abundant in PPP lesions than in HC skin. IL-36Ra mRNA was significantly overexpressed in PPP lesions compared with HC skin, but there was no difference in IL-36Ra protein between PPP, PSV and HCs. IL-8 was abundantly expressed by neutrophils in PPP pustules, while IL36Ra was localized in the keratinocytes of PPP, PSV and HC skin. IL-36γ and EMA were colocalized in cells surrounding PPP pustules, and IL-36γ was also expressed in sweat duct cells in the dermis. IL-8, IL-36γ and IL-36Ra are overexpressed in PPP lesions. IL-8, IL-36γ and acrosyringia, rather than IL-36Ra, are associated with pustule formation in PPP. © 2018 British Association of Dermatologists.

  13. Targeting the IL-17/IL-6 axis can alter growth of Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia in vivo/in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Fang; McCaw, Lindsay; Spaner, David E; Gorczynski, Reginald M

    2018-03-01

    The tumor microenvironment (TME) is critical to the longevity of tumor B cells in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs) and the cytokines they produce including IL-6 are important components of the TME in CLL. We found BMMSCs supported the survival of CLL cells in vitro through an IL-6 dependent mechanism. IL-17 which induces IL-6 generation in a variety of cells increased production of IL-6 both in CLL cells and BMMSCs in vitro. In a xenograft CLL mouse model, BMMSCs and the culture supernatant of BMMSCs increased engraftment of CLL cells through an IL-6 mediated mechanism with human recombinant IL-6 showing similar effects in vivo. Human recombinant IL-17 treatment also increased CLL engraftment in mice through an IL-6 mediated mechanism. Plasma of CLL patients showed elevated levels of both IL-6 and IL-17 by ELISA compared with healthy controls, with levels of IL-6 linearly correlated with IL-17 levels. CLL patients requiring fludarabine based chemotherapy expressed higher levels of IL-6 and IL-17, while CLL patients with the lowest levels of IgA/IgM had higher levels of IL-6, but not IL-17. These data imply an important role for the IL-17/IL-6 axis in CLL which could be therapeutic targets. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. IL PARLATO DELL’INSEGNANTE NELLA CLASSE DI LINGUA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Corradi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In questo contributo si analizzano, in un contesto di insegnamento/apprendimento dell’italiano L2, esempi di parlato del docente, a cui è affidata la gestione della comunicazione didattica, ed esempi di parlato degli apprendenti, osservando, in particolare, in quale modo la loro produzione orale e il loro coinvolgimento nell’interazione verbale in classe sia previsto e guidato dalla forma della lezione e dalle strutture dialogiche a cui è correlato l’apprendimento della lingua. Nell’analisi di parlato e di interazioni verbali in classe si sono riscontrati due modelli fondamentali: la lingua della conversazione, macro-obiettivo comunicativo di lezioni svolte nell’ambito del progetto “Marco Polo” presso l’Università degli Studi di Milano, e la lingua dell’esposizione, perseguito nelle lezioni dei corsi sull’italiano disciplinare L2, sempre promossi dall’UniMi, e denominati “CALP” (Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency. La scelta metodologica di riportare la trascrizione e l’analisi di un’intera lezione del progetto “Marco Polo” è motivata dalla convinzione che la lezione è l’unità che riassume tutti gli elementi costitutivi del discorso didattico. A questa analisi segue l’esame di campioni audio-video registrati durante le lezioni dei corsi CALP, per mostrare come l’insegnamento/apprendimento dell’italiano L2/LS possa richiedere diverse tipologie di materiali e strumenti che supportano il parlato dell’insegnante e facilitano la comunicazione di contenuti didattici tra insegnante e apprendenti, se usati coerentemente con i micro-obiettivi e macro-obiettivi della lezione.  Language teacher in-class speech In this paper we analyze examples of in-class teacher speech, responsible for managing the teaching communication, and examples of learners' speech in an Italian L2 teaching/learning context. In particular we observe how the student’s speech and involvement in verbal interaction in the

  15. Energy Policies of IEA Countries: Italy [Italian Version, Executive Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    This review analyses the energy challenges facing Italy and provides sectoral critiques and recommendations for further policy improvements. It is intended to help guide Italy towards a more sustainable energy future. The Italian government has made substantial progress in a number of sectors since the last IEA in-depth energy policy review in 2003. The success of the green certificate and white certificate schemes and continued reform of the electricity and natural gas supply markets are just a few examples and build on the recommendations contained in the previous review. Nonetheless, many challenges remain. Italy recognises the need to diversify its energy supply portfolio to reduce its heavy dependence on fossil fuels and electricity imports, and to decrease its growing greenhouse gas emissions. In 2008, the government announced its intention to recommence the countrys nuclear power program and start building a new nuclear power plant by 2013. To do so, Italy must first develop an efficient process for identifying critical energy infrastructure, including nuclear power, and subjecting it to an effective, streamlined siting and permitting process. Italy will face another major challenge in complying with Europe’s new climate and energy package, particularly in relation to renewable energy and emissions targets. Italy must step up efforts to comply with its new responsibilities, specifically by developing and putting in place a comprehensive climate change strategy for the years until 2020. In mid-2009, the legislature enacted a comprehensive new law that will facilitate the emergence of a robust long-term energy policy. The government must respond to this opportunity and elaborate, with industry, a comprehensive long-term strategy for the development of the energy sector. This review analyses the energy challenges facing Italy and provides sectoral critiques and recommendations for further policy improvements. It is intended to help guide Italy towards a more

  16. Il nuovo reato di false comunicazioni sociali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Maria Corvucci

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The author examines the new offence of false social communication introduced by the Italian law dated 27 may 2015 n.69 in force from 14 June 2015. Considering the modifications added to the new offence of false accounting- basically explained to highlight the novum - the attention is paid on a specific major issue, previously discussed by the fifth section of the Italian Supreme Court competent in this matter after a few months from the moment the new law came in force. The questions applies to the fact whether the fraudulent evidence should remain to be punishable as the new discipline has limited the object of the criminal conduct only to “material relevant facts which are untrue” or to the omission of material relevant facts whose communication is imposed by the law regulating the economic situation, the assets and financial position of the company or of the group to which the company belongs. In this way any reference to the evaluations contained in the text previously in force is eliminated. Omissive conduct is the new definition recalling the two previous rules (art. 2621 and 2622 of the Italian civil code.

  17. IL-6, TNF-α, IL-10, and nutritional status in pediatric patients with biliary atresia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilasco, Maria Ines de Albuquerque; Uribe-Cruz, Carolina; Santetti, Daniele; Fries, Gabriel Rodrigo; Dornelles, Cristina Toscani Leal; Silveira, Themis Reverbel da

    The objective of the present study is to evaluate whether IL-6, TNF-α, IL-10 are associated with nutritional status in patients with cirrhosis secondary to biliary atresia and compare to healthy controls. The parameters used for nutritional assessment were the standard deviation scores of height-for-age and of triceps skinfold thickness-for-age. The severity of cirrhosis was evaluated using the Child-Pugh score and PELD/MELD. Serum cytokines were measured using Cytometric Bead Array flow cytometry. IL-6, TNF-α, and IL-10 were significantly higher in the cirrhosis group when compared with the control group (2.4 vs. 0.24 (patresia, IL-6 could be used as a possible supporting biomarker of deficient nutritional status and elevated IL-10 levels could be used as a possible early-stage supporting biomarker of deteriorating nutritional status. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  18. Water quality control of combined sewer overflows. The <> procedure; Il controllo qualitativo delle immissioni fognarie nei corpi idrici. La procedura <>

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Artina, S.; Maglionico, M. [Bologna Univ., Bologna (Italy). Dipt. di Ingegneria delle Strutture, dei Trasporti, delle Acque, del Rilevamento, del Territorio; Lo Greco, P. [HR Wallingford, Wallingford Oxfordshire (United Kingdom)

    2000-05-01

    The EEC Directive 91/271 endorse has brought to attention the pollution problem caused in the receiving waters by Combined Sewer Overflows (CSOs). This paper describes a procedure, set up in England, called UPM (Urban Pollution Management), meant to environmentally protect receiving waters. The UPM Procedure is merely a methodology to evaluate the impact of pollutants discharged from sewer overflows during rainfall events. [Italian] Il recepimento della direttiva CEE 91/271 ha portato ancora una volta in primo piano il problema dell'inquinamento dei corpi idrici causato dalle immissioni fognarie. Il presente articolo descrive una procedura messa a punto in Inghilterra, denominata UPM (Urban Pollution Management), destinata al controllo qualitativo dei corsi d'acqua ricettori di scarichi fognari. L'UPM non costituisce una normativa bensi una metodologia intesa a valutare l'impatto degli scarichi fognari sui ricettori durante gli eenti meteorici.

  19. Il processo Andreotti. Il confine labile fra la partecipazione e il concorso esterno nei reati associativi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Intoccia

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Prendendo in esame un procedimento penale d’eccezione nel presente elaborato ci si propone di condurre uno studio sul diritto penale ‘in azione’ allo scopo di verificare i meccanismi di applicazione dei reati di associazione per delinquere ‘semplice’ (a. 416 c.p. e di tipo mafioso (a. 416 bis c.p.. La seguente analisi ricostruisce, infatti, l’intensa trafila giudiziaria che ha visto protagonista Giulio Andreotti – dal 4 marzo 1993 chiamato a rispondere, prima a titolo di concorrente esterno e successivamente in qualità di partecipe, dei due reati associativi sopra richiamati a fronte di un apparato accusatorio qualitativamente complesso e temporalmente imponente. Sarà in tal modo possibile verificare quanto possa essere labile, specie ove si discuta della condotta di fiancheggiamento di un soggetto politico ad un sodalizio di tipo mafioso (qui Cosa Nostra, il confine tra la fenomenologia partecipativa (nel ruolo di intraneus all’associazione e quella concorsuale eventuale (nel ruolo di cd. concorrente esterno nei delitti associativi di cui agli artt. 416 e 416 bis c.p. Parole chiave: Andreotti, Cosa Nostra, zona grigia, reati associativi, mala informazione   By examining an exceptional criminal proceeding in this paper we propose to conduct a study on criminal law ‘in action’ in order to verify the mechanisms of application of two associative offenses (‘simple’ criminal conspiracy and mafia-type criminal conspiracy. As a matter of fact the analysis reconstructs the intense trial about Giulio Andreotti’s working with Cosa Nostra – Andreotti, starting from March 4 1993, is accused of being at first an external competitor and subsequently a participant of Cosa Nostra in connection with a qualitatively complex accusatory apparatus. As a result of this analysis we come to ascertain how fleeting the boundary between the role of partecipant and external competitor in a criminal conspiracy can be, especially in case of

  20. Lo stereotipo del Sud fra Otto e Novecento. Il caso della Sardegna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Bonaria Urban

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The Southern Stereotype in the 19th and 20th Centuries. The Case of Sardinia   Following Italian unification, the North-South dichotomy which had for centuries been part of European tradition was reformulated in Italian culture, resulting in the definition of a homogeneous concept of the South and with it what is probably the most significant and persistent stereotype in the national collective imagination. This perspective stands as a constant in every text on Sardinia, since the national debate on the Southern Question placed the island firmly among the country's other Southern regions. In the early 20th century the traditional stock of images and stereotypes characterising literary discourse became an essential reservoir of characters, situations and places for film-makers. Following the method of imagology, this paper focuses on the strategies used in representing the stereotype of the South in the cinema, specifically in the film Cainà. L’isola e il continente (Righelli 1922. The working hypothesis is that films confirmed the centrality of the North-South dichotomy as the creative engine in the Italian cinematic imagination and the identification of Sardinian society with the South perceived as a model of archaic and primitive civilisation. Depicting Sardinia in accordance with an interpretative scheme considered absolute and unchanging, the new art form followed a route already laid down in literature. In addition, in a cultural phase dominated by the need to develop and disseminate a national consciousness, it contributed to the production of images and symbols standing in open contradiction to the ideal of a united Italy, revealing the contradictions that the Risorgimento had created rather than resolve.

  1. Injection schemes for the TOP Linac; Schemi di iniezione per il TOP Linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Picardi, L.; Ronsivalle, C. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Frascati, Frascati, RM (Italy). Dipt. Innovazione; Bartolini, R. [Istituto Superiore di Sanita' , Rome (Italy)

    1999-07-01

    In this report two schemes are studied for the injection in the SCDTL section of the TOP Linac of the proton beam produced by a 7 MeV linear accelerator. The project derives by an agreement between ENEA (National Agency for New Technology, Energy and Environment) and ISS. In these new versions of the design the constraint of a synchronization of the radio frequencies of the two accelerators is suppressed. [Italian] In questo rapporto sono studiati due schemi di iniezione nella sezione accelerante SCDTL a 3 GHz del TOP (terapia oncologica con protoni) linac del fascio di protoni generato da un acceleratore lineare di 7 MeV. L'acceleratore e' frutto di una convenzione tra L'ENEA e l'Istituto Superiore di Sanita'. Rispetto a versioni precedenti del progetto, viene eliminato il vincolo della sincronizzazione delle radiofrequenze dei due acceleratori.

  2. Aleksander Wat. Mój wiek (1977 - Il mio secolo (2013. Premessa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Marinelli

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available At the beginning of the 1960s Czesław Miłosz recorded Aleksander Wat’s memories on tape. The recordings were then published with the title Moj Wiek (1977 and translated into many languages. A real “Odyssey of a Polish intellectual”, as the subtitle of the American version (1988 suggested, Wat’s memoir is regarded as one of the most important testimonies of the atrocities of the last century. Finally, after many years, it has been translated into Italian, and will be published in the Spring of 2013. An excerpt from Il mio secolo is published in this article with permission from the Sellerio publishing house. It is taken from the eighteenth chapter, where Wat describes the first Soviet jail in which he was detained.

  3. Tra il mediterraneo e il fonte battesimale: Musulmani a Napoli nel XVI secolo

    OpenAIRE

    Varriale, Gennaro

    2013-01-01

    Il saggio analizza la presenza di musulmani a Napoli durante il Cinquecento, quando la capitale vive una profonda trasformazione urbanistica, che è vincolata alla immigrazione di comunità esogene e al conflitto contro il Turco. Le ostilità tra la Casa d’Austria e la Sublime Porta condizionano inevitabilmente la vita dei maomettani, che appartengono a tre grandi categorie: schiavi, franchi o esuli. Secondo la propria condizione gli islamici occupano diversi spazi cittadini. I musulmani di Napo...

  4. Aspirin induces IL-4 production: augmented IL-4 production in aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Su-Kang; Soo Kim, Byung; Gi Uhm, Tae; Soo Chang, Hun; Sook Park, Jong; Woo Park, Sung; Park, Choon-Sik; Chung, Il Yup

    2016-01-01

    Aspirin hypersensitivity is a hallmark of aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD), a clinical syndrome characterized by the severe inflammation of the respiratory tract after ingestion of cyclooxygenase-1 inhibitors. We investigated the capacity of aspirin to induce interleukin-4 (IL-4) production in inflammatory cells relevant to AERD pathogenesis and examined the associated biochemical and molecular pathways. We also compared IL-4 production in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from patients with AERD vs aspirin-tolerant asthma (ATA) upon exposure to aspirin. Aspirin induced IL-4 expression and activated the IL-4 promoter in a report assay. The capacity of aspirin to induce IL-4 expression correlated with its activity to activate mitogen-activated protein kinases, to form DNA–protein complexes on P elements in the IL-4 promoter and to synthesize nuclear factor of activated T cells, critical transcription factors for IL-4 transcription. Of clinical importance, aspirin upregulated IL-4 production twice as much in PBMCs from patients with AERD compared with PBMCs from patients with ATA. Our results suggest that IL-4 is an inflammatory component mediating intolerance reactions to aspirin, and thus is crucial for AERD pathogenesis. PMID:27534531

  5. IL-15/IL-15 receptor biology: a guided tour through an expanding universe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budagian, Vadim; Bulanova, Elena; Paus, Ralf; Bulfone-Paus, Silvia

    2006-08-01

    The cytokine interleukin-15 (IL-15) has a key role in promoting survival, proliferation and activation of natural killer (NK) and CD8+ T cells. Despite its functional similarities to IL-2, IL-15 affects a wider range of target cell populations and utilizes different mechanisms of signaling. Here, we review recent advances in the IL-15-mediated signaling, and in the functional properties on cells besides T lymphocytes and NK cells. These are discussed in the context of their potential clinical and therapeutic relevance.

  6. Thyroid swellings in the art of the Italian Renaissance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterpetti, Antonio V; De Toma, Giorgio; De Cesare, Alessandro

    2015-09-01

    Thyroid swellings in the art of the Italian Renaissance are sporadically reported in the medical literature. Six hundred paintings and sculptures from the Italian Renaissance, randomly selected, were analyzed to determine the prevalence of personages with thyroid swellings and its meaning. The prevalence of personages with thyroid swellings in the art of Italian Renaissance is much higher than previously thought. This phenomenon was probably secondary to iodine deficiency. The presence of personages with thyroid swelling was related to specific meanings the artists wanted to show in their works. Even if the function and the role of the thyroid were discovered only after thyroidectomy was started to be performed, at the beginning of the 19th century, artists of the Italian Renaissance had the intuition that thyroid swellings were related to specific psychological conditions. Artistic intuition and sensibility often comes before scientific demonstration, and it should be a guide for science development. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Alpine detector fails to confirm Italian sighting of dark matter

    CERN Multimedia

    Abbott, A

    2002-01-01

    French researchers working on the Edelweiss detector under the Alps, have been unable to detect a single particle of dark matter with the characteristics claimed to have been found by an Italian team two years ago (1 page).

  8. Western Italian Alps Monthly Snowfall and Snow Cover Duration

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set consists of snow observations for 18 stations in the western Italian Alps. Two types of data are included: monthly snowfall amounts and monthly snow...

  9. Profile of IL-2, IL-4, IL-10, IFN- ? , TNF- ? and KC-like cytokines in pregnant bitches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A.R. Feliciano

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the profile of IL-2, IL-4, IL-10, IFN-γ, and TNF-α cytokines and KC-like cells (natural killer in pregnant bitches, unpublished values for the species. A total of 27 females of the Shi Tzu, Pug, English Bulldog and French breeds, weighing 4-20kg and aged 4-6 years were used. Blood samples were collected from bitches during the anestrous and on the 2nd, 5th, 6th, 7th and 8th week of pregnancy. Serum levels of cytokines were measured by panel MILLIPLEX MAP (CCYTO-90K, MILLIPORE, Billerica, Massachusetts, USA validated for dogs. Twenty four females showed physiological pregnancy and three bitches showed pathological pregnancy. There was no difference between cytokine values during anestrous and gestational weeks of bitches (P>0.05. However, it was possible to verify the physiological behavior of serum levels during modulation of immune response in the gestational process of animals. In animals with gestational disorders, abnormal values for IL-2, IL-4 and INF-y were noted. It was concluded that serum levels of cytokines evaluated in pregnant bitches can help the better understanding of physiological and pathological gestational processes and correlated immunology in this species.

  10. Streaming Italian horror cinema in the United Kingdom: Lovefilm Instant

    OpenAIRE

    Baschiera, Stefano

    2017-01-01

    This article investigates the distribution of Italian horror cinema in the age of video streaming, analyzing its presence and categorization on the platform Lovefilm Instant UK, in order to investigate the importance of ‘niche’ in what is known as the long tail of online distribution and the online availability of exploitation films. I argue that looking at the streaming presence of Italian horror and comparing it to its prior distribution on home video formats (in particular VHS and DVD) we ...

  11. Tuning Nursing Educational in an Italian academic context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchetti, Anna; Venturini, Giulia; Virgolesi, Michele; Gobbi, Mary; Rocco, Gennaro; Pulimeno, Ausilia Maria Lucia; Stievano, Alessandro; Piredda, Michela; De Marinis, Maria Grazia

    2015-09-01

    The European Union Bologna Process has laid the foundation for a common European competence-based educational framework. In many countries, nursing education is in transition from vocational to higher education, with many diverse systems. The competence-based approach provided by the project Tuning Educational Structures offers a common and coherent framework able to facilitate the implementation of the principles underpinning the Bologna Process reform. This study aimed to ascertain the relevance that Italian nursing university lecturers attributed to the 40 competences of the Italian version of the nursing Bachelor's and Master's Degrees. These competences were developed through adoption of the Tuning Methodology in the nursing context. The study was conducted in the 4 universities of one region of Italy which offer nursing Bachelor's and Master's Degrees. A total of 164 Italian university nursing lecturers. Using a four point scale, a cross sectional survey was conducted from March 2011 to April 2012. Participants evaluated each competence according to its relevance for Bachelor's or Master's Education. Frequency analysis was conducted. The significance for each competence of Tuning was rated very high by Italian lecturers and appeared to overlap partially with the original European study. In Italy, the most relevant competences for Bachelor's Degree were the skills associated with the use of appropriate interventions, activities and skills in nursing and the skills associated with nursing practice and clinical decision-making. For Master's Degree, leadership, management and team competences were the most important. The Tuning Nursing Project was accepted by the Italian lecturers. The competence-based approach was considered by Italian lectures as a support enabling to reflect on the current Italian nursing education cycles of study and to ensure shared visions and common approaches between Italian and European lecturers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All

  12. The Italian productivity slowdown in a Real Business Cycle perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Francesca Marino

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the structural relation between the italian weak macroeco- nomic performances and the productivity decline experienced over the last Öfteen years, estimating a Dynamic Stochastic General Equilibrium (DSGE) model. Modifying Ire- land and SchuhiÌ s (2008) two-sector RBC model in order to account for cointegration between consumption and investment, we interpret the unsatisfactory italian economic dynamics in light of a permanent negative shock to the component of produ...

  13. Calculation of CO2 emissions from the italian energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contaldi, M.; La Motta, S.

    2001-01-01

    The calculation of CO2 emissions from the Italian energy system is the object of this work. The inventory method used is the Reference Approach from the Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change (IPCC, 1996 revised Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories) and the energy consumption data are taken from the Italian Energy Balance edited by the Ministry of Industry. The years analysed are those from 1990 to 2000 [it

  14. [The decoration of Italian Renaissance drug jars after engravings].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drey, R E

    1994-01-01

    Although Italian drug jar painters generally devised original compositions for the ornamentation of their products, on occasion they derived their subjects from printed sources. Printed sources used by drug jar artists of the Renaissance include wood-engraved Italian tarot cards and wood-engraved illustrations by Hans Sebald Beham and Bernard Salomon in miniature bibles published in the sixteenth century in Frankfurt and in Lyons respectively.

  15. Thoughts on the Italian National University Council (CUN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borghetti M

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The Italian National University Council (CUN is an elected body that represents the Italian academic system and formulates proposal and gives advice to the Minister of University. The opinion is expressed that the professors who are appointed to CUN should go on sabbatical leave from their universities over the period they are part of CUN, as an important condition for carrying out better their institutional job and preventing any potential conflict of interest.

  16. The sustainability of the Italian public finances: an overview

    OpenAIRE

    Salustri, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    The Italian international reputation in mainly related to the high level of its public debt. During the Great Recession, this fact, associated to the stagnation of productivity, raised serious doubts on its economic and financial sustainability. The doubts are legitimated also by the fact that Italy is a net borrower of capitals from abroad, as its Net International Investment Position (NIIP) is negative. The statistical analysis of the Italian public finances suggests how the deep causes of ...

  17. Clinical significance of changes of serum gas, IL-6 and IL-10 levels after treatment in patients with peptic ulcer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye Yuexian

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To explore the clinical significance of changes of serum Gas, Interleukin-6(IL-6) and Interleukin-10(IL-10) levels in patients with peptic ulcer. Methods: Serum Gas, IL-6 and IL-10 (with RIA) levels were determined in 61 patients with peptic ulcer both before and after treatment as well as in 35 controls. Results: Before treatment the serum Gas, IL-6 and IL-10 levels were significantly higher in the patients with peptic ulcer than those in controls (P 0.05). Conclusion: Serum Gas, IL-6 and IL-10 levels were closely related to the diseases process of peptic ulcer and were of prognostic values. (authors)

  18. Modulation of pulmonary fibrosis by IL-13Rα2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumsden, Robert V; Worrell, Julie C; Boylan, Denise; Walsh, Sinead M; Cramton, Jennifer; Counihan, Ian; O'Beirne, Sarah; Medina, Maria Fe; Gauldie, Jack; Fabre, Aurelie; Donnelly, Seamas C; Kane, Rosemary; Keane, Michael P

    2015-04-01

    Pulmonary fibrosis is a progressive and fatal disease that involves the remodeling of the distal airspace and the lung parenchyma, which results in compromised gas exchange. The median survival time once diagnosed is less than three years. Interleukin (IL)-13 has been shown to play a role in a number of inflammatory and fibrotic diseases. IL-13 modulates its effector functions via a complex receptor system that includes the IL-4 receptor (R) α, IL-13Rα1, and the IL-13Rα2. IL-13Rα1 binds IL-13 with low affinity, yet, when it forms a complex with IL-4α, it binds with much higher affinity, inducing the effector functions of IL-13. IL-13Rα2 binds IL-13 with high affinity but has a short cytoplasmic tail and has been shown to act as a nonsignaling decoy receptor. Transfection of fibroblasts and epithelial cells with IL-13Rα2 inhibited the IL-13 induction of soluble collagen, TGF-β, and CCL17. Adenoviral overexpression of IL-13Rα2 in the lung reduced bleomycin-induced fibrosis. Our work shows that overexpression of IL-13Rα2 inhibits the IL-13 induction of fibrotic markers in vitro and inhibits bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis. In summary our study highlights the antifibrotic nature of IL-13Ra2. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  19. Questione Meridionale And Global South: If The Italian South Meets ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Il saggio prova ad affrontare la vexata questio meridionale alla luce di quello che è stato il dibattito italiano negli ultimi anni a partire dai benevoli influssi degli studi postcoloniali e del cosiddetto “pensiero meridiano”. Partendo dall'imagery africana dominante (orientalista e non) con cui spesso il sud d'Italia è stato descritto ...

  20. Negotiating The Italian Self: Catholicism And The Demise Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Si interessa al modo in cui durante il periodo 1935-1949 questioni di colonialismo, razzismo e antisemitismo vennero inserite nel discorso tradizionalmente nazionalista e religioso della rivista. In questo modo, il presente studio illustra come sotto il fascismo nozioni di identità vennero trattate in un contesto religioso, e come ...

  1. Full circle? Renato Amato's literary antipodes 1 | Hill | Italian Studies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Il titolo stesso dell'opera di Amato The Full Circle of the Travelling Cuckoo (1967) rivela il senso di dislocazione dello scrittore migrante ma, al contempo, ne indica la capacità di riconciliarsi con il proprio difficile passato e di adattarsi alla sua patria adottiva, la Nuova Zelanda. Amato (1928-1964) ha dato un contribuito ...

  2. The microzooplankton and its distribution in different aquatic environment; Il microzooplancton e la sua distribuzione nei diversi ambienti

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Creo, C [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy). Dipt. Ambiente; Grenni, P

    1999-07-01

    In this work some examples of studies performed with the use of microzooplankton as biological indicator are reported. [Italian] Scopo del lavoro e' quello di dimostrare come lo studio della distribuzione del microzooplancton in ambienti aquatici, possa permettere la caratterizzazione trofica dell'ambiente oggetto di studio. Il microzooplancton, infatti, essendo un componente fondamentale della catena trofica di differenti ambienti acquatici, puo' essere considerato un buon {sup i}ndicatore biologico{sup .} E' quindi riportata un'ampia ed approfondita analisi sistematica, necessaria al fine di individuarne le diverse specie dalla cui presenza (oltreche' dal numero degli esemplari) e' possibile desumere lo stato chimico-fisico e trofico di un determinato ambiente acquatico. Sono poi indicati i diversi metodi per il campionamento, la conservazione, la concentrazione ed il conteggio del microzooplancton; in particolare per la concentrazione ed il conteggio sono indicate e sperimentate nuove tecniche effettuate rispettivamente con l'ausilio della concentrazione dei campioni a flusso tangenziale e con l'utilizzo di coloranti fluorescenti.

  3. The microzooplankton and its distribution in different aquatic environment; Il microzooplancton e la sua distribuzione nei diversi ambienti

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Creo, C. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy). Dipt. Ambiente; Grenni, P.

    1999-07-01

    In this work some examples of studies performed with the use of microzooplankton as biological indicator are reported. [Italian] Scopo del lavoro e' quello di dimostrare come lo studio della distribuzione del microzooplancton in ambienti aquatici, possa permettere la caratterizzazione trofica dell'ambiente oggetto di studio. Il microzooplancton, infatti, essendo un componente fondamentale della catena trofica di differenti ambienti acquatici, puo' essere considerato un buon {sup i}ndicatore biologico{sup .} E' quindi riportata un'ampia ed approfondita analisi sistematica, necessaria al fine di individuarne le diverse specie dalla cui presenza (oltreche' dal numero degli esemplari) e' possibile desumere lo stato chimico-fisico e trofico di un determinato ambiente acquatico. Sono poi indicati i diversi metodi per il campionamento, la conservazione, la concentrazione ed il conteggio del microzooplancton; in particolare per la concentrazione ed il conteggio sono indicate e sperimentate nuove tecniche effettuate rispettivamente con l'ausilio della concentrazione dei campioni a flusso tangenziale e con l'utilizzo di coloranti fluorescenti.

  4. Three-Dimensional Conformal Radiotherapy in Prostate Cancer Patients: Rise in Interleukin 6 (IL-6) but not IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, Tumor Necrosis Factor-{alpha}, MIP-1-{alpha}, and LIF Levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira Lopes, Carlos [Universidade do Vale do Paraiba, Centro de Oncologia Radioterapica do Vale do Paraiba, Universidade do Vale do Paraiba Instituto de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento, Universidade do Vale do Paraiba, Sao Jose dos Campos, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Callera, Fernando, E-mail: fcallera@gmail.com [Centro de Hematologia Onco-hematologia e Transplantes de Medula Ossea do Vale do Paraiba, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2012-03-15

    Purpose: To investigate the effect of radiotherapy (RT) on serum levels of interleukin-2 (IL-2), IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-{alpha}), macrophage inflammatory protein-1-alpha (MIP-1-{alpha}) and leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) in patients with prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: Forty eight patients with prostate cancer received three-dimensional conformal blocking radiation therapy with a linear accelerator. IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, TNF-{alpha}, MIP-1-{alpha}, and LIF levels were measured by the related immunoassay kit 1 day before the beginning of RT and during RT at days 15 and 30. Results: The mean IL-2 values were elevated before and during the RT in contrast with those of IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, TNF-{alpha}, MIP-1-{alpha}, and LIF, which were within the normal range under the same conditions. Regarding markers IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, TNF-{alpha}, MIP-1-{alpha}, and LIF, comparisons among the three groups (before treatment and 15 and 30 days during RT) did not show significant differences. Although values were within the normal range, there was a significant rise in IL-6 levels at day 15 of RT (p = 0.0049) and a decline at day 30 to levels that were similar to those observed before RT. Conclusions: IL-6 appeared to peak after 15 days of RT before returning to pre-RT levels. In contrast, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, TNF-{alpha}, MIP-1-{alpha}, and LIF levels were not sensitive to irradiation. The increased levels of IL-6 following RT without the concurrent elevation of other cytokines involved in the acute phase reaction did not suggest a classical inflammatory response to radiation exposure. Further studies should be designed to elucidate the role of IL-6 levels in patients with prostate cancer treated with RT.

  5. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of the IL-20-IL-20R1-IL-20R2 complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Logsdon, Naomi J.; Allen, Christopher E.; Rajashankar, Kanagalaghatta R.; Walter, Mark R. (Cornell); (UAB)

    2012-02-08

    Interleukin-20 (IL-20) is an IL-10-family cytokine that regulates innate and adaptive immunity in skin and other tissues. In addition to protecting the host from various external pathogens, dysregulated IL-20 signaling has been shown to contribute to the pathogenesis of human psoriasis. IL-20 signals through two cell-surface receptor heterodimers, IL-20R1-IL-20R2 and IL-22R1-IL-20R2. In this report, crystals of the IL-20-IL-20R1-IL-20R2 ternary complex have been grown from polyethylene glycol solutions. The crystals belonged to space group P4{sub 1}2{sub 1}2 or P4{sub 3}2{sub 1}2, with unit-cell parameters a = 111, c = 135 {angstrom}, and diffracted X-rays to 3 {angstrom} resolution. The crystallographic asymmetric unit contains one IL-20-IL-20R1-IL-20R2 complex, corresponding to a solvent content of approximately 54%.

  6. A survey of Italian compost dairy barns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Leso

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Compost-bedded pack barns (CBPB, generally known as compost dairy barns, are alternative housing systems for dairy cows. In these barns, the whole surface of the resting area is covered with a deepbedded pack that is frequently stirred in order to incorporate fresh manure into the pack and to enhance the evaporation of water. Experiences with CBPB for dairy cows are reported in literature from the US, Israel, the Netherlands and Austria. Potential advantages of these housing systems regard animal welfare and manure management. Since 2006, this housing system has been widely applied in Italy. However, there is still little scientific knowledge available about Italian CBPB. This study aims to describe the housing system, assess producers’ satisfaction and measure performance of dairy cows housed in CBPB. Ten commercial dairy farms in northern Italy were involved in the study. All pens in each farm were surveyed to determine the total available surface area, bedded area and pack depth. A questionnaire was submitted to each farm manager in order to investigate management practices, labour requirement, amount of bedding materials used and producers’ satisfaction. The temperature of the bedded pack was measured in summer and in winter. Data from the Italian Dairy Association were collected for each herd over a period of one year (from September 2011 to September 2012. In the barns involved in the study, the average total available area was 10.9 m2/cow and the average pack area was 6.7 m2/cow. The bedded pack was aerated 1.4 times per day.The most commonly used bedding material in these farms was dry sawdust. The consumption of bedding materials was 8.1 m3/cow per year. A tendency towards inverse correlation was found between the space per cow and the amount of bedding needed per cow (R2=0.395; P=0.051. Operations related to pack management required 4.1 hours of labour per cow per year. A direct relationship was found between the bedded area space

  7. TRANSPARENCY IN ITALIAN NON PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrizia Gazzola

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to evaluate the accountability and transparency of Italian non profits organizations. The main goal is to understand if a general accountability or transparency problem, or a systematic publicity deficit, exist in the third sector in Italy. Non profit organizations have an ethical obligation to their stakeholder and to the public to conduct their activities with accountability and transparency. Non profit organizations should regularly and openly convey information to the stakeholder about their vision, mission, objectives, activities, accomplishments, decision-making processes and organizational structure. Information from a non profit organization should be easily accessible to the stakeholder and should create external visibility, public understanding and trust in the organization, conditions necessary to find donors. Non profit organizations work with communities and community donors need to know how their money is used. In the first part the analysis of the definition of transparency and accountability is made and the sustainability report like an important instrument of communication is considered. In the second part an empirical research is presented. The Italian law allows taxpayers to devote 5 per thousand of their income tax to non profit organizations, choosing between charities, social promotion associations, recognized associations, entities dedicated to scientific research and health care, universities, municipal social services and other non profit organizations. The present study present a quantitative research and it’s based on an empirical analysis of non-profit organizations that receive this donation in Italy in the year 2010 and 2011. In the paper we analyze the transparency and the accountability of the top 100 non profit organizations that have received the contribution of 5 per thousand, checking whether they prepare their Sustainability Report or any other kind of report for communicate the use

  8. Endogenous IL-1 in cognitive function and anxiety: a study in IL-1RI-/- mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol L Murray

    Full Text Available Interleukin-1 (IL-1 is a key pro-inflammatory cytokine, produced predominantly by peripheral immune cells but also by glia and some neuronal populations within the brain. Its signalling is mediated via the binding of IL-1α or IL-1β to the interleukin-1 type one receptor (IL-1RI. IL-1 plays a key role in inflammation-induced sickness behaviour, resulting in depressed locomotor activity, decreased exploration, reduced food and water intake and acute cognitive deficits. Conversely, IL-1 has also been suggested to facilitate hippocampal-dependent learning and memory: IL-1RI(-/- mice have been reported to show deficits on tasks of visuospatial learning and memory. We sought to investigate whether there is a generalised hippocampal deficit in IL-1RI(-/- animals. Therefore, in the current study we compared wildtype (WT mice to IL-1RI(-/- mice using a variety of hippocampal-dependent learning and memory tasks, as well as tests of anxiety and locomotor activity. We found no difference in performance of the IL-1RI(-/- mice compared to WT mice in a T-maze working memory task. In addition, the IL-1RI(-/- mice showed normal learning in various spatial reference memory tasks including the Y-maze and Morris mater maze, although there was a subtle deficit in choice behaviour in a spatial discrimination, beacon watermaze task. IL-1RI(-/- mice also showed normal memory for visuospatial context in the contextual fear conditioning paradigm. In the open field, IL-1RI(-/- mice showed a significant increase in distance travelled and rearing behaviour compared to the WT mice and in the elevated plus-maze spent more time in the open arms than did the WT animals. The data suggest that, contrary to prior studies, IL-1RI(-/- mice are not robustly impaired on hippocampal-dependent memory and learning but do display open field hyperactivity and decreased anxiety compared to WT mice. The results argue for a careful evaluation of the roles of endogenous IL-1 in hippocampal

  9. Andrographolide presents therapeutic effect on ulcerative colitis through the inhibition of IL-23/IL-17 axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Qin; Zheng, Peifen; Chen, Xinyu; Zhou, Feng; He, Qiaona; Yang, Yuefeng

    2018-01-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic and nonspecific intestinal inflammatory disease, which may increase the risk of colon cancer. Andrographolide is a main active component of Andrographis paniculata . The anti-inflammatory ability of andrographolide suggested its potential therapeutic effect against UC. In the present study, elevated serum concentrations of proinflammatory factors, including (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6 and IL-23, as well as increased percentages of Th17 cells (IL-17+CD4+ cells) in CD4+ cells were detected in UC patients compared to that in healthy donors. These data suggested that Th17 immune responses may involve in the pathogenesis of UC. Experimental colitis mouse model was then established. The results of hematoxylin and eosin staining demonstrated the therapeutic effect of andrographolide on colitis. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), flow cytometry and western blotting analyses showed that andrographolide could decreased the levels of proinflammatory factors TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-17A in the serum and in the colon tissues, reduced the percentages of Th17 cells in CD4+ cells, and suppressed the levels of IL-23, IL-17A, ROR-γt (key transcription factor of Th17 cells) and p-STAT3 in the colon tissues. Further, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were isolated from UC patients and treated with various concentrations of andrographolide (0, 10, 20 and 30 μg/ml). Andrographolide also showed inhibitory effects on the levels of proinflammatory factors, the percentages of Th17 cells and the expression of relative proteins. Similar results were obtained in lipopolysaccharide-treated normal PBMCs. These data suggested that andrographolide may inhibit Th17 immune response via STAT3 signaling. In conclusion, we demonstrated that andrographolide inhibited the activity of IL-23/IL-17 axis and down-stream pro-inflammatory factors so as to suppress inflammation response, resulting in the relieving of UC.

  10. A Brief History of IL-1 and IL-1 Ra in Rheumatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Michel Dayer

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The history of what, in 1979, was called interleukin-1 (IL-1, orchestrator of leukocyte inter-communication, began many years before then, initially by the observation of fever induction via the endogenous pyrogen (EP (1974 and then in rheumatology on the role in tissue destruction in rheumatoid diseases via the induction of collagenase and PGE2 in human synovial cells by a mononuclear cell factor (MCF (1977. Since then, the family has exploded to presently 11 members as well as many membrane-bound and soluble receptor forms. The discovery of a natural Interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra in human biological fluids has highlighted the importance of IL-1 and IL-1Ra in human diseases. Evidence delineating its role in autoinflammatory syndromes and the elucidation of the macromolecular complex referred to as “inflammasome” have been instrumental to our understanding of the link with IL-1. At present, the IL-1blockade as therapeutic approach is crucial for many hereditary autoinflammatory diseases, as well as for adult-onset Still’s disease, crystal-induced arthropathies, certain skin diseases including neutrophil-triggered skin diseases, Behçet’s disease and deficiency of IL-1Ra and other rare fever syndromes. Its role is only marginally important in rheumatoid arthritis and is still under debate with regard to osteoarthritis, type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular diseases and cancer. This brief historical review focuses on some aspects of IL-1, mainly IL-1β and IL-Ra, in rheumatology. There are many excellent reviews focusing on the IL-1 family in general or with regard to specific diseases or biological discoveries.

  11. Increased Circulating Th17 Cells, Serum IL-17A, and IL-23 in Takayasu Arteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Durga Prasanna; Chaurasia, Smriti; Misra, Ramnath

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Th17, γδT, NK, and NKT cells in peripheral blood and serum IL-17 and IL-23 in Takayasu arteritis (TA) were measured and correlated with disease activity. Methods. Th17 (anti-CD3APC, CD4PECy7, and IL-17PE), NKT, NK (anti-CD3APC, CD56FITC), and γδT (anti-CD3FITC and γδTCRAPC) cells were enumerated by flow cytometry in peripheral blood of 30 patients with TA (ACR1990 criteria) and 20 healthy controls, serum IL-17 and IL-23 measured by ELISA. Relation with disease activity (NIH criteria, ITAS2010) was analyzed (using nonparametric tests, median with interquartile range). Results. Mean age of patients was 33.47 ± 11.78 years (25 females); mean symptom duration was 7.1 ± 5.3 years. 13 were not on immunosuppressants; 12 were active (ITAS2010 ≥ 4). The percentage of Th17 cells was significantly expanded in TA (patients 2.1 (1.5-3.2) versus controls 0.75 (0.32-1.2); p < 0.0001) with no differences in other cell populations. Serum IL-17 and IL-23 (pg/mL) in patients (6.2 (4.6-8.5) and 15 (14.9-26.5), resp.) were significantly higher (p < 0.001) than controls (3.9 (3.9-7.3) and undetectable median value, resp.). Subgroup analysis revealed no correlation of Th17 cells, serum IL-17, and IL-23 with disease activity or medications, nor any significant difference before and after medication. Conclusions. There is significant expansion of Th17 cells and elevated serum IL-17 and IL-23 levels in TA patients compared to healthy controls.

  12. [Neonatological emergencies in delivery room] [Article in Italian] • Il neonatologo ed alcune emergenze in sala parto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Boldrini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In the delivery room the neonatologist may deal with emergencies, not always predictable by pre-natal diagnosis. Among these dangerous situations, we include: i extremely preterm birth of a newborn very/extremely low birth weight and ii shoulder dystocia in term newborns. We will discuss in details these two clinical scenarios. Methods: We reviewed the main recent papers about resuscitation of very/extremely low birth weight preterm newborns and about dystocia of shoulder reported in PubMed database. After that, we compared reported results with practice in our Unit and discussed the topics considering strategies to optimize the results and minimizing possible errors. Discussion and conclusions: In our opinion the optimization of clinical practice in Neonatology should be based on: i national or international recommendations drawn up by commissions or study groups of experts, on the basis of scientific evidence, ii local department protocols, in order to standardize staff interventions within the same unit; iii ongoing training of doctors, nurses and midwives, through simulation sessions and CRM (Crisis Resources Management. As regards shoulder dystocia, The Tuscan Group for Clinical Risk Management drawn a poster to be showed in every delivery room, in order to allow the staff to rapidly remember the correct clinical interventions. On the other hand, as regards ventilatory preterm newborns strategies, the Centro di Formazione e Simulazione NINA is working on a project of a mechatronich simulator for staff training (MERESSINA. Articoli Selezionati del “3° Convegno Pediatrico del Medio Campidano” · Guspini · 25 Maggio 2013 Guest Editor: Roberto Antonucci

  13. [Neonatological emergencies in delivery room] [Article in Italian] • Il neonatologo ed alcune emergenze in sala parto

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio Boldrini; Rosa Teresa Scaramuzzo

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: In the delivery room the neonatologist may deal with emergencies, not always predictable by pre-natal diagnosis. Among these dangerous situations, we include: i) extremely preterm birth of a newborn very/extremely low birth weight and ii) shoulder dystocia in term newborns. We will discuss in details these two clinical scenarios. Methods: We reviewed the main recent papers about resuscitation of very/extremely low birth weight preterm newborns and about dystocia of shoulder repo...

  14. On the determinants of industrial competitiveness: The European Union emission trading scheme and the Italian paper industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meleo, Linda

    2014-01-01

    The European Union Emission Trading Scheme (EU-ETS) represents the masterpiece that the EU adopted to achieve the Kyoto Protocol and “Europe 2020” strategy goals of reducing greenhouse gas (GHG). Although the EU-ETS is designed “in order to promote reductions of greenhouse gas emissions in a cost-effective and economically efficient manner” and “without prejudice for the Treaty”, the system has become a concern issue for firms and industries over competitiveness in European and international markets in addition to carbon leakage. This paper analyses whether and to what extent the EU-ETS may harm competitiveness, by following a qualitative approach, and presenting the case of the Italian paper industry, included in the system as an energy-intensive sector. More specifically, first the paper identifies those key factors that provide a qualitative measure of the “competitiveness risk” related to the EU-ETS; then, those factors are used to examine the Italian paper industry and to assess the actual and potential risks affecting the sector. This analysis is of interest given the lack of similar studies on the Italian paper industry and represents a starting point to serve further studies and future policymaking in Italy and Europe. - Highlights: • The European Emission Trading Scheme (EU-ETS) and the effects on the Italian paper industry competitiveness. • Key factors that provide a measure of the “competitiveness risk” for the Italian paper industry. • Those risks are limited at the moment, but some factors need to be carefully managed, such as electricity uses and prices. • Industrial policies and new firms strategies are required to manage the “competitiveness risk” in the coming years

  15. ’The Italian Color’: Race, Crime Iconography and Dubbing Conventions in the Italian-language Versions of Scarface (1932)

    OpenAIRE

    Mereu Keating, Carla

    2016-01-01

    In the early 1930s the crime film Scarface: The Shame of a Nation (1932, USA, dir. Howard Hawks) stirred censorship controversies in the United States because of its gritty portrayal of criminality and violence. Debates over crime, race and immigration proliferated in the North-American press and finally led to Italian-American pressure groups to call out for the film’s boycott because it ‘offended the Italian nation and people’ and vilified immigrant communities. Archival historical ...

  16. Le emissioni delle banche italiane sull’euromercato (The Eurobond Issues of Italian Banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Emilio Mistrulli

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available After the launch of the single European currency banks of the main euro-area countries have increasingly issued bonds on the Euromarket. In this paper, I investigate the determinants of Italian banks' recourse to international capital markets. I find that, other things being equal, domestic market conditions affect the choice whether to issue Eurobonds. In particular, the econometric analysis highlights that those banks, which are more prone to issue bonds on the Euromarket, are more exposed to liquidity risks and are less specialized in raising deposits on specific domestic submarkets.

  17. Construction of an expression system for bioactive IL-18 and generation of recombinant canine distemper virus expressing IL-18.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuxiu; Sato, Hiroki; Hamana, Masahiro; Moonan, Navita Anisia; Yoneda, Misako; Xia, Xianzhu; Kai, Chieko

    2014-09-01

    Interleukin 18 (IL-18) plays an important role in the T-helper-cell type 1 immune response against intracellular parasites, bacteria and viral infections. It has been widely used as an adjuvant for vaccines and as an anticancer agent. However, IL-18 protein lacks a typical signal sequence and requires cleavage into its mature active form by caspase 1. In this study, we constructed mammalian expression vectors carrying cDNA encoding mature canine IL-18 (cIL-18) or mouse IL-18 (mIL-18) fused to the human IL-2 (hIL-2) signal sequence. The expressed proIL-18 proteins were processed to their mature forms in the cells. The supernatants of cells transfected with these plasmids induced high interferon-γ production in canine peripheral blood mononuclear cells or mouse splenocytes, respectively, indicating the secretion of bioactive IL-18. Using reverse genetics, we also generated a recombinant canine distemper virus that expresses cIL-18 or mIL-18 fused to the hIL-2 signal sequence. As expected, both recombinant viruses produced mature IL-18 in the infected cells, which secreted bioactive IL-18. These results indicate that the signal sequence from hIL-2 is suitable for the secretion of mature IL-18. These recombinant viruses can also potentially be used as immunoadjuvants and agents for anticancer therapies in vivo.

  18. IL-7 Induces an Epitope Masking of γc Protein in IL-7 Receptor Signaling Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae Sik Goh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available IL-7 signaling via IL-7Rα and common γ-chain (γc is necessary for the development and homeostasis of T cells. Although the delicate mechanism in which IL-7Rα downregulation allows the homeostasis of T cell with limited IL-7 has been well known, the exact mechanism behind the interaction between IL-7Rα and γc in the absence or presence of IL-7 remains unclear. Additionally, we are still uncertain as to how only IL-7Rα is separately downregulated by the binding of IL-7 from the IL-7Rα/γc complex. We demonstrate here that 4G3, TUGm2, and 3E12 epitope masking of γc protein are induced in the presence of IL-7, indicating that the epitope alteration is induced by IL-7 binding to the preassembled receptor core. Moreover, the epitope masking of γc protein is inversely correlated with the expression of IL-7Rα upon IL-7 binding, implying that the structural alteration of γc might be involved in the regulation of IL-7Rα expression. The conformational change in γc upon IL-7 binding may contribute not only to forming the functional IL-7 signaling complex but also to optimally regulating the expression of IL-7Rα.

  19. IL-7 Induces an Epitope Masking of γc Protein in IL-7 Receptor Signaling Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Tae Sik; Jo, Yuna; Lee, Byunghyuk; Kim, Geona; Hwang, Hyunju; Ko, Eunhee; Kang, Seung Wan; Oh, Sae-Ock; Baek, Sun-Yong; Yoon, Sik; Lee, Jung Sub

    2017-01-01

    IL-7 signaling via IL-7Rα and common γ-chain (γc) is necessary for the development and homeostasis of T cells. Although the delicate mechanism in which IL-7Rα downregulation allows the homeostasis of T cell with limited IL-7 has been well known, the exact mechanism behind the interaction between IL-7Rα and γc in the absence or presence of IL-7 remains unclear. Additionally, we are still uncertain as to how only IL-7Rα is separately downregulated by the binding of IL-7 from the IL-7Rα/γc complex. We demonstrate here that 4G3, TUGm2, and 3E12 epitope masking of γc protein are induced in the presence of IL-7, indicating that the epitope alteration is induced by IL-7 binding to the preassembled receptor core. Moreover, the epitope masking of γc protein is inversely correlated with the expression of IL-7Rα upon IL-7 binding, implying that the structural alteration of γc might be involved in the regulation of IL-7Rα expression. The conformational change in γc upon IL-7 binding may contribute not only to forming the functional IL-7 signaling complex but also to optimally regulating the expression of IL-7Rα. PMID:28127156

  20. Lacrimal gland-derived IL-22 regulates IL-17-mediated ocular mucosal inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Yong Woo; Mittal, Sharad K.; Hwang, Ho Sik; Chang, Eun-Ju; Lee, Joon H.; Seo, Yuri; Yeo, Areum; Noh, Hyemi; Lee, Hye Sun; Chauhan, Sunil K.; Lee, Hyung Keun

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory damage of mucosal surface of the eye is a hallmark of dry eye disease (DED), and in severe cases can lead to significant discomfort, visual impairment, and blindness. DED is a multifactorial autoimmune disorder with a largely unknown pathogenesis. Using a cross-sectional patient study and a well-characterized murine model of DED, herein we investigated the immunoregulatory function of interleukin-22 (IL-22) in the pathogenesis of DED. We found that IL-22 levels were elevated in lacrimal fluids of DED patients and inversely correlated with severity of disease. Acinar cells of the lacrimal glands, not inflammatory immune cells, are the primary source of IL-22, which suppresses inflammation in ocular surface epithelial cells upon desiccating stress. Moreover, loss of function analyses using IL-22 knock-out mice demonstrated that IL-22 is essential for suppression of ocular surface infiltration of Th17 cells and inhibition of DED induction. Our novel findings elucidate immunoregulatory function of lacrimal gland-derived IL-22 in inhibiting IL-17-mediated ocular surface epitheliopathy in DED thus making IL-22 a new relevant therapeutic target. PMID:28051088

  1. Genetic variants in the region harbouring IL2/IL21 associated with ulcerative colitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Festen, E. A. M.; Goyette, P.; Scott, R.; Annese, V.; Zhernakova, A.; Lian, J.; Lefebvre, C.; Brant, S. R.; Cho, J. H.; Silverberg, M. S.; Taylor, K. D.; de Jong, D. J.; Stokkers, P. C.; Mcgovern, D.; Palmieri, O.; Achkar, J-P; Xavier, R. J.; Daly, M. J.; Duerr, R. H.; Wijmenga, C.; Weersma, R. K.; Rioux, J. D.

    Objectives: Genetic susceptibility is known to play a large part in the predisposition to the inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) known as Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). The IL2/IL21 locus on 4q27 is known to be a common risk locus for inflammatory disease (shown in coeliac

  2. Genetic variants in the region harbouring IL2/IL21 associated with ulcerative colitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Festen, E.A.M.; Goyette, P.; Scott, R.; Annese, V.; Zhernakova, A.; Lian, J.; Lefèbvre, C.; Brant, S.R.; Cho, J.H.; Silverberg, M.S.; Taylor, K.D.; de Jong, D.J.; Stokkers, P.C.; Mcgovern, D.; Palmieri, O.; Achkar, J.P.; Xavier, R.J.; Daly, M.J.; Duerr, R.H.; Wijmenga, C.; Weersma, R.K.; Rioux, J.D.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: Genetic susceptibility is known to play a large part in the predisposition to the inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) known as Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). The IL2/IL21 locus on 4q27 is known to be a common risk locus for inflammatory disease (shown in coeliac

  3. Genetic variants in the region harbouring IL2/IL21 associated with ulcerative colitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Festen, E. A. M.; Goyette, P.; Scott, R.; Annese, V.; Zhernakova, A.; Lian, J.; Lefèbvre, C.; Brant, S. R.; Cho, J. H.; Silverberg, M. S.; Taylor, K. D.; de Jong, D. J.; Stokkers, P. C.; Mcgovern, D.; Palmieri, O.; Achkar, J.-P.; Xavier, R. J.; Daly, M. J.; Duerr, R. H.; Wijmenga, C.; Weersma, R. K.; Rioux, J. D.

    2009-01-01

    Genetic susceptibility is known to play a large part in the predisposition to the inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) known as Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). The IL2/IL21 locus on 4q27 is known to be a common risk locus for inflammatory disease (shown in coeliac disease, type 1

  4. Genetic variants in the region harbouring IL2/IL21 associated with ulcerative colitis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Festen, E.A.; Goyette, P.; Scott, R.; Annese, V.; Zhernakova, A.; Lian, J.; Lefebvre, C.; Brant, S.R.; Cho, J.H.; Silverberg, M.S.; Taylor, K.D.; Jong, D.J. de; Stokkers, P.C.; Mcgovern, D.; Palmieri, O.; Achkar, J.P.; Xavier, R.J.; Daly, M.J.; Duerr, R.H.; Wijmenga, C.; Weersma, R.K.; Rioux, J.D.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Genetic susceptibility is known to play a large part in the predisposition to the inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) known as Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). The IL2/IL21 locus on 4q27 is known to be a common risk locus for inflammatory disease (shown in coeliac

  5. [Plasma IL-18 levels are related to insulin and are modulated by IL-18 gene polymorphisms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Hervas, Sergio; Martínez-Barquero, Vanesa; Nuñez Savall, Ester; Lendínez, Verónica; Olivares, Laura; Benito, Esther; Real, Jose T; Chaves, F Javier; Ascaso, Juan F

    2015-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is an inflammatory chronic disease influenced by multiple factors. Different prospective studies have shown that plasmatic levels of inflammatory markers were related to atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. To evaluate whether plasmatic levels of interleukin 18 (IL-18) are modulated by SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphisms) of the IL 18 gene and its possible association with insulin levels and other cardiovascular risk factors. 746 individuals were studied for a period of two years by opportunistic selection in the metropolitan area of Valencia. Parameters of lipid and glucose metabolism were analyzed by standard methodology. IL-18 was measured by ELISA. Individuals with insulin resistance showed significant higher levels of IL-18. IL 18 was significantly correlated with insulin levels and other cardiovascular risk factors. The CC genotype of the rs1834481 SNP was significantly associated with lower levels of IL-18. However, the GG genotype of the rs7559479 was associated with significant higher levels of IL-18. IL-18 is associated with insulin resistance and other cardiovascular risk factors, being those levels genetically regulated. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Arteriosclerosis. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  6. Signaling through IL-17C/IL-17RE is dispensable for immunity to systemic, oral and cutaneous candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti, Heather R; Whibley, Natasha; Coleman, Bianca M; Garg, Abhishek V; Jaycox, Jillian R; Gaffen, Sarah L

    2015-01-01

    Candida albicans is a commensal fungal microbe of the human orogastrointestinal tract and skin. C. albicans causes multiple forms of disease in immunocompromised patients, including oral, vaginal, dermal and disseminated candidiasis. The cytokine IL-17 (IL-17A) and its receptor subunits, IL-17RA and IL-17RC, are required for protection to most forms of candidiasis. The importance of the IL-17R pathway has been observed not only in knockout mouse models, but also in humans with rare genetic mutations that impact generation of Th17 cells or the IL-17 signaling pathway, including Hyper-IgE Syndrome (STAT3 or TYK2 mutations) or IL17RA or ACT1 gene deficiency. The IL-17 family of cytokines is a distinct subclass of cytokines with unique structural and signaling properties. IL-17A is the best-characterized member of the IL-17 family to date, but far less is known about other IL-17-related cytokines. In this study, we sought to determine the role of a related IL-17 cytokine, IL-17C, in protection against oral, dermal and disseminated forms of C. albicans infection. IL-17C signals through a heterodimeric receptor composed of the IL-17RA and IL-17RE subunits. We observed that IL-17C mRNA was induced following oral C. albicans infection. However, mice lacking IL-17C or IL-17RE cleared C. albicans infections in the oral mucosa, skin and bloodstream at rates similar to WT littermate controls. Moreover, these mice demonstrated similar gene transcription profiles and recovery kinetics as WT animals. These findings indicate that IL-17C and IL-17RE are dispensable for immunity to the forms of candidiasis evaluated, and illustrate a surprisingly limited specificity of the IL-17 family of cytokines with respect to systemic, oral and cutaneous Candida infections.

  7. Signaling through IL-17C/IL-17RE is dispensable for immunity to systemic, oral and cutaneous candidiasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather R Conti

    Full Text Available Candida albicans is a commensal fungal microbe of the human orogastrointestinal tract and skin. C. albicans causes multiple forms of disease in immunocompromised patients, including oral, vaginal, dermal and disseminated candidiasis. The cytokine IL-17 (IL-17A and its receptor subunits, IL-17RA and IL-17RC, are required for protection to most forms of candidiasis. The importance of the IL-17R pathway has been observed not only in knockout mouse models, but also in humans with rare genetic mutations that impact generation of Th17 cells or the IL-17 signaling pathway, including Hyper-IgE Syndrome (STAT3 or TYK2 mutations or IL17RA or ACT1 gene deficiency. The IL-17 family of cytokines is a distinct subclass of cytokines with unique structural and signaling properties. IL-17A is the best-characterized member of the IL-17 family to date, but far less is known about other IL-17-related cytokines. In this study, we sought to determine the role of a related IL-17 cytokine, IL-17C, in protection against oral, dermal and disseminated forms of C. albicans infection. IL-17C signals through a heterodimeric receptor composed of the IL-17RA and IL-17RE subunits. We observed that IL-17C mRNA was induced following oral C. albicans infection. However, mice lacking IL-17C or IL-17RE cleared C. albicans infections in the oral mucosa, skin and bloodstream at rates similar to WT littermate controls. Moreover, these mice demonstrated similar gene transcription profiles and recovery kinetics as WT animals. These findings indicate that IL-17C and IL-17RE are dispensable for immunity to the forms of candidiasis evaluated, and illustrate a surprisingly limited specificity of the IL-17 family of cytokines with respect to systemic, oral and cutaneous Candida infections.

  8. Signaling through IL-17C/IL-17RE Is Dispensable for Immunity to Systemic, Oral and Cutaneous Candidiasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti, Heather R.; Whibley, Natasha; Coleman, Bianca M.; Garg, Abhishek V.; Jaycox, Jillian R.; Gaffen, Sarah L.

    2015-01-01

    Candida albicans is a commensal fungal microbe of the human orogastrointestinal tract and skin. C. albicans causes multiple forms of disease in immunocompromised patients, including oral, vaginal, dermal and disseminated candidiasis. The cytokine IL-17 (IL-17A) and its receptor subunits, IL-17RA and IL-17RC, are required for protection to most forms of candidiasis. The importance of the IL-17R pathway has been observed not only in knockout mouse models, but also in humans with rare genetic mutations that impact generation of Th17 cells or the IL-17 signaling pathway, including Hyper-IgE Syndrome (STAT3 or TYK2 mutations) or IL17RA or ACT1 gene deficiency. The IL-17 family of cytokines is a distinct subclass of cytokines with unique structural and signaling properties. IL-17A is the best-characterized member of the IL-17 family to date, but far less is known about other IL-17-related cytokines. In this study, we sought to determine the role of a related IL-17 cytokine, IL-17C, in protection against oral, dermal and disseminated forms of C. albicans infection. IL-17C signals through a heterodimeric receptor composed of the IL-17RA and IL-17RE subunits. We observed that IL-17C mRNA was induced following oral C. albicans infection. However, mice lacking IL-17C or IL-17RE cleared C. albicans infections in the oral mucosa, skin and bloodstream at rates similar to WT littermate controls. Moreover, these mice demonstrated similar gene transcription profiles and recovery kinetics as WT animals. These findings indicate that IL-17C and IL-17RE are dispensable for immunity to the forms of candidiasis evaluated, and illustrate a surprisingly limited specificity of the IL-17 family of cytokines with respect to systemic, oral and cutaneous Candida infections. PMID:25849644

  9. [Italian Cystic Fibrosis Register - Report 2010].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amato, Annalisa; Ferrigno, Luigina; Salvatore, Marco; Toccaceli, Virgilia

    2016-01-01

    The Italian National CF Registry (INCFR) is based on the official agreement between the clinicians of the Italian National Referral Centers for Cystic Fibrosis and the researchers of the Istituto Superiore di Sanità (National Center for Rare Diseases; National Center for Epidemiology, Surveillance and Health Care Promotion). OBJECTIVES The main aim of INCFR is to contribute to the improvement in CF patients health care and clinical management through: i. the estimates of CF prevalence and incidence in Italy; ii. the analyses of medium and long term clinical and epidemiological trends of the disesase; iii. the identification of the main health care needs at regional and national level to contribute to the Health Care programmes and to the distribution of resources. MATERIALS AND METHODS Analyses and results described in the present Report are referred to patients in charge to the Italian National Referral Centers for Cystic Fibrosis in 2010. Data were sent by Centers by means of a specific software (Camilla, Ibis Informatica). The Italian National Referral Centers for Cystic Fibrosis sent a total of 5,271 individual records; 1,112 records were excluded from the analyses due to restricted inclusion criteria. The total number of patients included in INCFR for analyses is 4,159. RESULTS INCFR database includes all prevalent cases at 1th January 2010 as well as all new diagnoses done in 2010. The present Report has been organized into 9 sections. 1. Demography: estimated 2010 CF prevalence was 7/100,000 residents in Italy; 52% of the patients were male, CF distribution showed higher frequency in patients aged 7 to 35 years. In 2010, 48.9% of the patients were more than 18 years old. 2. Diagnoses: most of the CF patients were diagnosed before two years of age (66.7%); a significant percentage of patients (11.4%) was diagnosed in adult-age. 3. New diagnoses (2010): new diagnoses were 168. Sixty-five percent of them was diagnosed before the second year of age and 17%in

  10. Smartness and Italian Cities. A Cluster Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavio Boscacci

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Smart cities have been recently recognized as the most pleasing and attractive places to live in; due to this, both scholars and policy-makers pay close attention to this topic. Specifically, urban “smartness” has been identified by plenty of characteristics that can be grouped into six dimensions (Giffinger et al. 2007: smart Economy (competitiveness, smart People (social and human capital, smart Governance (participation, smart Mobility (both ICTs and transport, smart Environment (natural resources, and smart Living (quality of life. According to this analytical framework, in the present paper the relation between urban attractiveness and the “smart” characteristics has been investigated in the 103 Italian NUTS3 province capitals in the year 2011. To this aim, a descriptive statistics has been followed by a regression analysis (OLS, where the dependent variable measuring the urban attractiveness has been proxied by housing market prices. Besides, a Cluster Analysis (CA has been developed in order to find differences and commonalities among the province capitals.The OLS results indicate that living, people and economy are the key drivers for achieving a better urban attractiveness. Environment, instead, keeps on playing a minor role. Besides, the CA groups the province capitals a

  11. Mercury levels in defined Italian population groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ingrao, G.; Belloni, P.

    1992-01-01

    The consumption of fish and seafood usually is the main source of intake of methylmercury for members of the general population. Therefore subjects having a diet rich in these food items present a high risk of exceeding the tolerable recommended weekly intake of mercury set by FAO and WHO. The average consumption of fish at a national level is rather small in Italy, 12.5 kg per year, consequently the risk of exposure to elevated levels of mercury through the diet for members of the Italian general population is rather negligible. However, fish is one of the main components of the diet of some population groups. These groups are usually found in coastal towns close fishing ports and include subjects working as fishermen, fish dealers, restaurant workers and their families. The purpose of this research programme, carried our with the collaboration of the National Institute of Nutrition is to determine the levels of mercury and methylmercury in hair samples of subjects having a higher than average fish consumption and to evaluate the effects of elevated intakes of mercury. 1 ref., 13 figs

  12. [The gender gap in Italian medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Simone, Silvia; Podda, Daiana; Lampis, Jessica

    2015-01-28

    This study is collocated in the debate about the gender gap in Medicine giving voice to female physicians who have damaged the "glass ceiling". Our research offers a contribute to the exploration about the motivations of persistence of gender gap in Medicine despite current changes. This study is based on 21 biographical interviews to female physicians who are managers in Italian hospitals. The themes emerged by data analysis concerned the participants 'discrimination experiences in their hierarchical advancement, the evidences of a persistence of horizontal segregation in some medical specializations, the difficult to find a work-life balance and the effects of this difficult on the female physicians' health. Our research confirmed a persistence of gender gap in the medical world, which disadvantages women in their career choices and in their hierarchical advancement and which appears in the form of invisible barriers impregnated of stereotypes and prejudices that are taken for granted by many men and women, especially those who have the power; these barriers make the female doctors 'health more vulnerable to the event of work-related stress. By the dates emerged the necessity of cultural and institutional interventions, actions for deconstruction of gender stereotypes, and the necessity of intervention for a more flexible and functioning work organization that satisfies the female physicians' needs.

  13. Italian energy economics in an integrated Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zorzoli, G.B.

    1992-01-01

    Whereas the comparison of 1973-1990 statistical data representing national dependency on foreign energy supplies reflects the overall successful effort by the major Common Market countries to reduce their dependencies, it also evidences that Italy has in fact increased its dependency on foreign energy supplies by 1% to a worrisome 83% European high. Further analysis of the Italian energy situation reveals that, although in recent years energy strategies have been implemented to diversify the mix of energy sources and suppliers, the only diversification Italy has made is the substitution of a portion of its petroleum imports, used predominantly to meet rapidly rising power demand, with natural gas imports. Thus, the degree of vulnerability of this nation's energy supply base has not been altered significantly. It is now hoped that greater cooperation between Italy and its more energy self-sufficient European neighbours, as called for in the new European free trade marketing strategies, as well as, attempts to create and enforce new European environmental standards, will help and induce Italy to lessen its energy supply vulnerability

  14. Bible translations into Italian (20th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryszard Wróbel

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Discussing twentieth-century translations of the Bible into Italian we have to make a crucial distinction: there are different translations and different editions; the latter are more numerous, as the same translation may appear in different forms. For many of them it is difficult to determine to whom they are addressed: some of the features show a broad willingness to promote the content of the Bible, while others make them a tool only for a group of specialists. The article discusses the issue of the Bibles, which were printed in Italy in the twentieth century; there were 27. It deliberately does not include translations and elaborations less prevalent or partial studies for professionals. The information is presented in a tangible and transparent scheme, which facilitates their mutual compatibility. Each description contains the name or title of work, author’s name, place and date of publication, publisher’s name, names of translators, editors, source of translation, editing characteristics, and other observations.

  15. Body composition of italian female hockey players

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    P Pavan

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In this work the anthropometric features and the body composition of Italian hockey players, members of the Female National team, were analysed. The purpose of the research was to verify if morphological features could influence the performance of different positional groups. Materials and Methods: Each player was measured for her total and sitting height, weight, 9 skinfolds thickness and bioelectrical impedance analysis. Different equations were used to calculate the Fat% from skinfolds thickness. Results: Average height is not a crucial advantage for this sport. On the contrary the proportion trunk-limb seems to play an important role for the performance of the midfield players. Percentage of body fat of the hockey players was lower than the Fat% of the non-athletes women of the same age. Significant differences were found between Fat% determined by skinfolds thickness and Fat% obtained by bioelectrical impedance analysis. Conclusions: The results of this study indicate that there are significant differences in anthropometric features and in body composition between positional groups, stressing the importance of a specific training program. Keywords: field hockey, bioelectrical impedance, skinfolds thickness, anthropometry.

  16. Workplace disability in migraine: an Italian experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amico, D; Genco, S; Perini, F

    2004-10-01

    Workplace disability due to migraine has not been extensively researched in non-English speaking countries. We assessed the repercussions of headache, and particularly of migraine, on work in a sample of employees from an Italian company (Bulgari). Information was obtained through a self-answering questionnaire in "all headaches" sufferers, and through direct interview in migraine sufferers (diagnosis according to IHS criteria). Headache frequency, pain intensity and headache-related disability were higher in migraineurs than in "all headaches" sufferers. About a quarter of migraineurs missed at least one day in the three months prior to the interview due to headache, and around 10% lost two or more days over the same period. Moore than 50% of migraineurs reported 1-7 days per month at work with headache, with reduction in productivity level by 50% or more in 15% of respondents. Our data confirmed that headaches, and particularly migraine, cause a considerable reduction in workplace productivity. Workplace interventions to effectively manage migraine are needed.

  17. The new Italian code of medical ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fineschi, V; Turillazzi, E; Cateni, C

    1997-01-01

    In June 1995, the Italian code of medical ethics was revised in order that its principles should reflect the ever-changing relationship between the medical profession and society and between physicians and patients. The updated code is also a response to new ethical problems created by scientific progress; the discussion of such problems often shows up a need for better understanding on the part of the medical profession itself. Medical deontology is defined as the discipline for the study of norms of conduct for the health care professions, including moral and legal norms as well as those pertaining more strictly to professional performance. The aim of deontology is therefore, the in-depth investigation and revision of the code of medical ethics. It is in the light of this conceptual definition that one should interpret a review of the different codes which have attempted, throughout the various periods of Italy's recent history, to adapt ethical norms to particular social and health care climates. PMID:9279746

  18. The Italian Labour Market and the Crisis

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    Tindara Addabo

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The Italian labour market is characterized by deep gender differences and regional variability. The data show that the crisis lead to an increase in the gap of female employment rates and women's inactivity rates with respect to Europe. The North of Italy experienced a higher increase in unemployment than the South, where many people withdrew from the labour market because of poor employment prospects. Moreover, in Italy, the increase in unemployment has been mitigated by the increase in the number of workers having access to the wage supplementation fund who are not computed within the unemployed. Using a micro simulation technique, we estimate the effect of the crisis on income distribution and poverty and find that at the national level, the population showed a reduction in equivalized household income by about 1 percent. The use of wage supplementation fund, together with a higher involvement of youth living in their birth family, brought about the observed limited increase in the poverty rates. The heterogeneity in the system of unemployment benefits increased inequalities amongst the unemployed. This calls for a reform of the system of unemployment benefit and safety net in Italy that has been long postponed.

  19. Marine Ecological Footprint of Italian Mediterranean Fisheries

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    Federica de Leo

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The capacity of marine and coastal ecosystems to sustain seafood production and consumption is seldom accounted for and is not included in the signals that guide economic development. In this article, we review estimates of marine and coastal areas aimed at sustaining catches for seafood consumption. The aim of this paper is the assessment of the interactions between the environment, intended as a set of ecological subsystems in natural equilibrium, including the marine ecosystem, and the process of fisheries systems. In particular we analyze fisheries in Italy, which is the third biggest economy and the greatest consumer of seafood in the Eurozone, conducting an in-depth analysis of the Marine Ecological Footprint (MEF that evaluates the marine ecosystem area exploited by human populations to supply seafood and other marine products and services. The positioning of Italian fisheries shows a level of sustainability next to the threshold value. The analysis in the present study highlights the importance of absolute indicators in providing rough estimates about human dependence on ecological systems and recognizes the importance of those indicators, such as the Marine Footprint (expressed in % of Primary Production Required/Primary Production, in ensuring a high level of precision and accuracy in quantifying human activity impact on the environment.

  20. [Significance of mobbing in Italian law].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollani, A

    2008-01-01

    The author analyzes the juridical profile that the phenomenon of mobbing assumes within the Italian legal system, emphasizing that the English term of current usage does not designate any specific legal entity as such but simply refers, in summary fashion, to deeds and behaviours that need to be qualified according to the law in vigour. The normative frame of reference for mobbing is found in article 2087 of the Civil code, which states, as an open, teleologically oriented norm, the employer's obligation to safeguard the moral person of the employee; hence the onus is on the interpreter, essentially, to evaluate if there has been, in actual fact, a contravention of this safeguarded legal right. The author then discusses profiles that intersect with mobbing (or behaviours perceived as such) drawing on other cases regulated by the law such as the safeguarding of professionality (art. 2103 of the Civil code), and underlines that often mobbing ends by being construed as a mere accompaniment to, if not duplication of, other typical cases. Finally, the author discusses aspects of the judicial process related to the allegation and proof of the facts constituting the offence, and to the damage, in its various non patrimonial components.