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Sample records for isothermal brownian-type molecular

  1. Total Correlation Function Integrals and Isothermal Compressibilities from Molecular Simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wedberg, Rasmus; Peters, Günther H.j.; Abildskov, Jens

    2008-01-01

    Generation of thermodynamic data, here compressed liquid density and isothermal compressibility data, using molecular dynamics simulations is investigated. Five normal alkane systems are simulated at three different state points. We compare two main approaches to isothermal compressibilities: (1...... in approximately the same amount of time. This suggests that computation of total correlation function integrals is a route to isothermal compressibility, as accurate and fast as well-established benchmark techniques. A crucial step is the integration of the radial distribution function. To obtain sensible results...

  2. Reliable prediction of adsorption isotherms via genetic algorithm molecular simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LoftiKatooli, L; Shahsavand, A

    2017-01-01

    Conventional molecular simulation techniques such as grand canonical Monte Carlo (GCMC) strictly rely on purely random search inside the simulation box for predicting the adsorption isotherms. This blind search is usually extremely time demanding for providing a faithful approximation of the real isotherm and in some cases may lead to non-optimal solutions. A novel approach is presented in this article which does not use any of the classical steps of the standard GCMC method, such as displacement, insertation, and removal. The new approach is based on the well-known genetic algorithm to find the optimal configuration for adsorption of any adsorbate on a structured adsorbent under prevailing pressure and temperature. The proposed approach considers the molecular simulation problem as a global optimization challenge. A detailed flow chart of our so-called genetic algorithm molecular simulation (GAMS) method is presented, which is entirely different from traditions molecular simulation approaches. Three real case studies (for adsorption of CO 2 and H 2 over various zeolites) are borrowed from literature to clearly illustrate the superior performances of the proposed method over the standard GCMC technique. For the present method, the average absolute values of percentage errors are around 11% (RHO-H 2 ), 5% (CHA-CO 2 ), and 16% (BEA-CO 2 ), while they were about 70%, 15%, and 40% for the standard GCMC technique, respectively.

  3. Pressure-area isotherm of a lipid monolayer from molecular dynamics simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baoukina, Svetlana; Monticelli, Luca; Marrink, Siewert J.; Tieleman, D. Peter

    2007-01-01

    We calculated the pressure-area isotherm of a dipalmitoyl-phosphatidylcholine (DPPC) lipid monolayer from molecular dynamics simulations using a coarse-grained molecular model. We characterized the monolayer structure, geometry, and phases directly from the simulations and compared the calculated

  4. Isothermal multiple displacement amplification: a methodical approach enhancing molecular routine diagnostics of microcarcinomas and small biopsies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mairinger FD

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Fabian D Mairinger,1 Robert FH Walter,2 Claudia Vollbrecht,3 Thomas Hager,1 Karl Worm,1 Saskia Ting,1 Jeremias Wohlschläger,1 Paul Zarogoulidis,4 Konstantinos Zarogoulidis,4 Kurt W Schmid1 1Institute of Pathology, 2Ruhrlandklinik, West German Lung Center, University Hospital Essen, Essen, 3Institute of Pathology, University Hospital Cologne, Cologne, Germany; 4Pulmonary Department, Oncology Unit, G Papanikolaou General Hospital, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece Background and methods: Isothermal multiple displacement amplification (IMDA can be a powerful tool in molecular routine diagnostics for homogeneous and sequence-independent whole-genome amplification of notably small tumor samples, eg, microcarcinomas and biopsies containing a small amount of tumor. Currently, this method is not well established in pathology laboratories. We designed a study to confirm the feasibility and convenience of this method for routine diagnostics with formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded samples prepared by laser-capture microdissection. Results: A total of 250 µg DNA (concentration 5 µg/µL was generated by amplification over a period of 8 hours with a material input of approximately 25 cells, approximately equivalent to 175 pg of genomic DNA. In the generated DNA, a representation of all chromosomes could be shown and the presence of elected genes relevant for diagnosis in clinical samples could be proven. Mutational analysis of clinical samples could be performed without any difficulty and showed concordance with earlier diagnostic findings. Conclusion: We established the feasibility and convenience of IMDA for routine diagnostics. We also showed that small amounts of DNA, which were not analyzable with current molecular methods, could be sufficient for a wide field of applications in molecular routine diagnostics when they are preamplified with IMDA. Keywords: isothermal multiple displacement amplification, isothermal, whole

  5. Ultrasmall volume molecular isothermal amplification in microfluidic chip with advanced surface processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Guoliang; Yang Xiaoyong; Ma Li; Yang Xu

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we developed a metal micro-fluidic chip with advanced surface processing for ultra-small volume molecular isothermal amplification. This method takes advantages of the nucleic acid amplification with good stability and consistency, high sensitivity about 31 genomic DNA copies and bacteria specific gene identification. Based on the advanced surface processing, the bioreaction assays of nucleic acid amplification was dropped about 392nl in volume. A high numerical aperture confocal optical detection system was advanced to sensitively monitor the DNA amplification with low noise and high power collecting fluorescence near to the optical diffraction limit. A speedy nucleic acid isothermal amplification was performed in the ultra-small volume microfluidic chip, where the time at the inflexions of second derivative to DNA exponential amplified curves was brought forward and the sensitivity was improved about 65 folds to that of in current 25μl Ep-tube amplified reaction, which indicates a promising clinic molecular diagnostics in the droplet amplification.

  6. Molecular simulation of excess isotherm and excess enthalpy change in gas-phase adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, D D; Do, H D; Nicholson, D

    2009-01-29

    We present a new approach to calculating excess isotherm and differential enthalpy of adsorption on surfaces or in confined spaces by the Monte Carlo molecular simulation method. The approach is very general and, most importantly, is unambiguous in its application to any configuration of solid structure (crystalline, graphite layer or disordered porous glass), to any type of fluid (simple or complex molecule), and to any operating conditions (subcritical or supercritical). The behavior of the adsorbed phase is studied using the partial molar energy of the simulation box. However, to characterize adsorption for comparison with experimental data, the isotherm is best described by the excess amount, and the enthalpy of adsorption is defined as the change in the total enthalpy of the simulation box with the change in the excess amount, keeping the total number (gas + adsorbed phases) constant. The excess quantities (capacity and energy) require a choice of a reference gaseous phase, which is defined as the adsorptive gas phase occupying the accessible volume and having a density equal to the bulk gas density. The accessible volume is defined as the mean volume space accessible to the center of mass of the adsorbate under consideration. With this choice, the excess isotherm passes through a maximum but always remains positive. This is in stark contrast to the literature where helium void volume is used (which is always greater than the accessible volume) and the resulting excess can be negative. Our definition of enthalpy change is equivalent to the difference between the partial molar enthalpy of the gas phase and the partial molar enthalpy of the adsorbed phase. There is no need to assume ideal gas or negligible molar volume of the adsorbed phase as is traditionally done in the literature. We illustrate this new approach with adsorption of argon, nitrogen, and carbon dioxide under subcritical and supercritical conditions.

  7. Helicase Dependent Isothermal Amplification of DNA and RNA using Self-Avoiding Molecular Recognition Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zunyi; McLendon, Chris; Hutter, Daniel; Bradley, Kevin M.; Hoshika, Shuichi; Frye, Carole; Benner, Steven A.

    2015-01-01

    Assays that target DNA or RNA (xNA) are highly sensitive, as small amounts of xNA can be amplified by PCR. Unfortunately, PCR is inconvenient in low resource environments, requiring equipment and power that may not be available in these environments. However, isothermal procedures that avoid thermal cycling are often confounded by primer dimers, off-target priming, and other artifacts. Here, we show how a “self avoiding molecular recognition system” (SAMRS) eliminates these artifacts to give clean amplicons in a helicase-dependent isothermal amplification (SAMRS-HDA). We also show that incorporating SAMRS into the 3′-ends of primers facilitates the design and screening of primers for HDA assays. Finally, we show that SAMRS-HDA can be twofold multiplexed, something difficult to achieve with HDA using standard primers. This shows that SAMRS-HDA is a more versatile approach than standard HDA with a broader applicability for xNA-targeted diagnostics and research. PMID:25953623

  8. Isothermal multiple displacement amplification: a methodical approach enhancing molecular routine diagnostics of microcarcinomas and small biopsies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mairinger, Fabian D; Walter, Robert Fh; Vollbrecht, Claudia; Hager, Thomas; Worm, Karl; Ting, Saskia; Wohlschläger, Jeremias; Zarogoulidis, Paul; Zarogoulidis, Konstantinos; Schmid, Kurt W

    2014-01-01

    Isothermal multiple displacement amplification (IMDA) can be a powerful tool in molecular routine diagnostics for homogeneous and sequence-independent whole-genome amplification of notably small tumor samples, eg, microcarcinomas and biopsies containing a small amount of tumor. Currently, this method is not well established in pathology laboratories. We designed a study to confirm the feasibility and convenience of this method for routine diagnostics with formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded samples prepared by laser-capture microdissection. A total of 250 μg DNA (concentration 5 μg/μL) was generated by amplification over a period of 8 hours with a material input of approximately 25 cells, approximately equivalent to 175 pg of genomic DNA. In the generated DNA, a representation of all chromosomes could be shown and the presence of elected genes relevant for diagnosis in clinical samples could be proven. Mutational analysis of clinical samples could be performed without any difficulty and showed concordance with earlier diagnostic findings. We established the feasibility and convenience of IMDA for routine diagnostics. We also showed that small amounts of DNA, which were not analyzable with current molecular methods, could be sufficient for a wide field of applications in molecular routine diagnostics when they are preamplified with IMDA.

  9. Investigation of the Behavior of Ethylene Molecular Films Using High Resolution Adsorption Isotherms and Neutron Scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbour, Andi M.; Telling, Mark T.; Larese, John Z.

    2010-01-01

    The wetting behavior of ethylene adsorbed on MgO(100) was investigated from 83-135 K using high resolution volumetric adsorption isotherms. The results are compared to ethylene adsorption on graphite, a prototype adsorption system, in an effort to gain further insight into the forces that drive the observed film growth. Layering transitions for ethylene on MgO(100) are observed below the bulk triple point of ethylene (T = 104.0 K). The formation of three discrete adlayers is observed on the MgO(100) surface; onset of the second and third layers occurs at 79.2 ± 1.3 K and 98.3 ± 0.9 K, respectively. Thermodynamic quantities such as differential enthalpy and entropy, heat of adsorption, and isosteric heat of adsorption are determined and compared to the previously published values for ethylene on graphite. The average area occupied by a ethylene molecule on MgO(100) is 22.6 ± 1.1 (angstrom) 2 molecule -1 . The locations of two phase transitions are identified (i.e., layer critical temperatures at T c2 (n=1) at 108.6 ± 1.7 K and T c2 (n=2) at 116.5 ± 1.2 K) and a phase diagram is proposed. Preliminary neutron diffraction measurements reveal evidence of a monolayer solid with a lattice constant of ∼4.2 (angstrom). High resolution INS measurements show that the onset to dynamical motion and monolayer melting take place at 35 K and 65 K, respectively. The data reported here exhibit a striking similarity to ethylene on graphite which suggests that molecule-molecule interactions play an important role in determining the physical properties and growth of molecularly thin ethylene films.

  10. Application of a molecular beacon based real-time isothermal amplification (MBRTIA) technology for simultaneous detection of Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandappa, I M; Joglekar, Prasanna; Manonmani, H K

    2015-07-01

    A multiplex real-time isothermal amplification assay was developed using molecular beacons for the detection of Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus by targeting four important virulence genes. A correlation between targeting highly accessible DNA sequences and isothermal amplification based molecular beacon efficiency and sensitivity was demonstrated using phi(Φ)29 DNA polymerase at a constant isothermal temperature of 30 °C. It was very selective and consistently detected down to 10(1) copies of DNA. The specificity and sensitivity of this assay, when tested with pure culture were high, surpassing those of currently used PCR assays for the detection of these organisms. The molecular beacon based real-time isothermal amplification (MBRTIA) assay could be carried out entirely in 96 well plates or well strips, enabling a rapid and high-throughput detection of food borne pathogens.

  11. A Sweet Spot for Molecular Diagnostics: Coupling Isothermal Amplification and Strand Exchange Circuits to Glucometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yan; Hughes, Randall A.; Bhadra, Sanchita; Jiang, Yu Sherry; Ellington, Andrew D.; Li, Bingling

    2015-06-01

    Strand exchange nucleic acid circuitry can be used to transduce isothermal nucleic acid amplification products into signals that can be readable on an off-the-shelf glucometer. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) is limited by the accumulation of non-specific products, but nucleic acid circuitry can be used to probe and distinguish specific amplicons. By combining this high temperature isothermal amplification method with a thermostable invertase, we can directly transduce Middle-East respiratory syndrome coronavirus and Zaire Ebolavirus templates into glucose signals, with a sensitivity as low as 20-100 copies/μl, equating to atto-molar (or low zepto-mole). Virus from cell lysates and synthetic templates could be readily amplified and detected even in sputum or saliva. An OR gate that coordinately triggered on viral amplicons further guaranteed fail-safe virus detection. The method describes has potential for accelerating point-of-care applications, in that biological samples could be applied to a transducer that would then directly interface with an off-the-shelf, approved medical device.

  12. Molecular relaxation behavior and isothermal crystallization above glass transition temperature of amorphous hesperetin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shete, Ganesh; Khomane, Kailas S; Bansal, Arvind Kumar

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to investigate the relaxation behavior of amorphous hesperetin (HRN), using dielectric spectroscopy, and assessment of its crystallization kinetics above glass transition temperature (Tg ). Amorphous HRN exhibited both local (β-) and global (α-) relaxations. β-Relaxation was observed below Tg , whereas α-relaxation prominently emerged above Tg . β-Relaxation was found to be of Johari-Goldstein type and was correlated with α-process by coupling model. Secondly, isothermal crystallization experiments were performed at 363 K (Tg + 16.5 K), 373 K (Tg + 26.5 K), and 383 K (Tg + 36.5 K). The kinetics of crystallization, obtained from the normalized dielectric strength, was modeled using the Avrami model. Havriliak-Negami (HN) shape parameters, αHN and αHN .βHN , were analyzed during the course of crystallization to understand the dynamics of amorphous phase during the emergence of crystallites. HN shape parameters indicated that long range (α-like) were motions affected to a greater extent than short range (β-like) motions during isothermal crystallization studies at all temperature conditions. The variable behavior of α-like motions at different isothermal crystallization temperatures was attributed to evolving crystallites with time and increase in electrical conductivity with temperature. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  13. Analysis of three-phase equilibrium conditions for methane hydrate by isometric-isothermal molecular dynamics simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuhara, Daisuke; Brumby, Paul E.; Wu, David T.; Sum, Amadeu K.; Yasuoka, Kenji

    2018-05-01

    To develop prediction methods of three-phase equilibrium (coexistence) conditions of methane hydrate by molecular simulations, we examined the use of NVT (isometric-isothermal) molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. NVT MD simulations of coexisting solid hydrate, liquid water, and vapor methane phases were performed at four different temperatures, namely, 285, 290, 295, and 300 K. NVT simulations do not require complex pressure control schemes in multi-phase systems, and the growth or dissociation of the hydrate phase can lead to significant pressure changes in the approach toward equilibrium conditions. We found that the calculated equilibrium pressures tended to be higher than those reported by previous NPT (isobaric-isothermal) simulation studies using the same water model. The deviations of equilibrium conditions from previous simulation studies are mainly attributable to the employed calculation methods of pressure and Lennard-Jones interactions. We monitored the pressure in the methane phase, far from the interfaces with other phases, and confirmed that it was higher than the total pressure of the system calculated by previous studies. This fact clearly highlights the difficulties associated with the pressure calculation and control for multi-phase systems. The treatment of Lennard-Jones interactions without tail corrections in MD simulations also contributes to the overestimation of equilibrium pressure. Although improvements are still required to obtain accurate equilibrium conditions, NVT MD simulations exhibit potential for the prediction of equilibrium conditions of multi-phase systems.

  14. Analysis of three-phase equilibrium conditions for methane hydrate by isometric-isothermal molecular dynamics simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuhara, Daisuke; Brumby, Paul E; Wu, David T; Sum, Amadeu K; Yasuoka, Kenji

    2018-05-14

    To develop prediction methods of three-phase equilibrium (coexistence) conditions of methane hydrate by molecular simulations, we examined the use of NVT (isometric-isothermal) molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. NVT MD simulations of coexisting solid hydrate, liquid water, and vapor methane phases were performed at four different temperatures, namely, 285, 290, 295, and 300 K. NVT simulations do not require complex pressure control schemes in multi-phase systems, and the growth or dissociation of the hydrate phase can lead to significant pressure changes in the approach toward equilibrium conditions. We found that the calculated equilibrium pressures tended to be higher than those reported by previous NPT (isobaric-isothermal) simulation studies using the same water model. The deviations of equilibrium conditions from previous simulation studies are mainly attributable to the employed calculation methods of pressure and Lennard-Jones interactions. We monitored the pressure in the methane phase, far from the interfaces with other phases, and confirmed that it was higher than the total pressure of the system calculated by previous studies. This fact clearly highlights the difficulties associated with the pressure calculation and control for multi-phase systems. The treatment of Lennard-Jones interactions without tail corrections in MD simulations also contributes to the overestimation of equilibrium pressure. Although improvements are still required to obtain accurate equilibrium conditions, NVT MD simulations exhibit potential for the prediction of equilibrium conditions of multi-phase systems.

  15. Helicase-Dependent Isothermal Amplification of DNA and RNA by Using Self-Avoiding Molecular Recognition Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zunyi; McLendon, Chris; Hutter, Daniel; Bradley, Kevin M; Hoshika, Shuichi; Frye, Carole B; Benner, Steven A

    2015-06-15

    Assays that detect DNA or RNA (xNA) are highly sensitive, as small amounts of xNA can be amplified by PCR. Unfortunately, PCR is inconvenient in low-resource environments, and requires equipment and power that might not be available in these environments. Isothermal procedures, which avoid thermal cycling, are often confounded by primer dimers, off-target priming, and other artifacts. Here, we show how a "self avoiding molecular recognition system" (SAMRS) eliminates these artifacts and gives clean amplicons in a helicase-dependent isothermal amplification (SAMRS-HDA). We also show that incorporating SAMRS into the 3'-ends of primers facilitates the design and screening of primers for HDA assays. Finally, we show that SAMRS-HDA can be twofold multiplexed, difficult to achieve with HDA using standard primers. Thus, SAMRS-HDA is a more versatile approach than standard HDA, with a broader applicability for xNA-targeted diagnostics and research. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Monte Carlo Molecular Simulation with Isobaric-Isothermal and Gibbs-NPT Ensembles

    KAUST Repository

    Du, Shouhong

    2012-01-01

    This thesis presents Monte Carlo methods for simulations of phase behaviors of Lennard-Jones fluids. The isobaric-isothermal (NPT) ensemble and Gibbs-NPT ensemble are introduced in detail. NPT ensemble is employed to determine the phase diagram of pure component. The reduced simulation results are verified by comparison with the equation of state by by Johnson et al. and results with L-J parameters of methane agree considerably with the experiment measurements. We adopt the blocking method for variance estimation and error analysis of the simulation results. The relationship between variance and number of Monte Carlo cycles, error propagation and Random Number Generator performance are also investigated. We review the Gibbs-NPT ensemble employed for phase equilibrium of binary mixture. The phase equilibrium is achieved by performing three types of trial move: particle displacement, volume rearrangement and particle transfer. The simulation models and the simulation details are introduced. The simulation results of phase coexistence for methane and ethane are reported with comparison of the experimental data. Good agreement is found for a wide range of pressures. The contribution of this thesis work lies in the study of the error analysis with respect to the Monte Carlo cycles and number of particles in some interesting aspects.

  17. Monte Carlo Molecular Simulation with Isobaric-Isothermal and Gibbs-NPT Ensembles

    KAUST Repository

    Du, Shouhong

    2012-05-01

    This thesis presents Monte Carlo methods for simulations of phase behaviors of Lennard-Jones fluids. The isobaric-isothermal (NPT) ensemble and Gibbs-NPT ensemble are introduced in detail. NPT ensemble is employed to determine the phase diagram of pure component. The reduced simulation results are verified by comparison with the equation of state by by Johnson et al. and results with L-J parameters of methane agree considerably with the experiment measurements. We adopt the blocking method for variance estimation and error analysis of the simulation results. The relationship between variance and number of Monte Carlo cycles, error propagation and Random Number Generator performance are also investigated. We review the Gibbs-NPT ensemble employed for phase equilibrium of binary mixture. The phase equilibrium is achieved by performing three types of trial move: particle displacement, volume rearrangement and particle transfer. The simulation models and the simulation details are introduced. The simulation results of phase coexistence for methane and ethane are reported with comparison of the experimental data. Good agreement is found for a wide range of pressures. The contribution of this thesis work lies in the study of the error analysis with respect to the Monte Carlo cycles and number of particles in some interesting aspects.

  18. Understanding binding affinity : A combined isothermal titration calorimetry/molecular dynamics study of the binding of a series of hydrophobically modified benzamidinium chloride inhibitors to trypsin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Talhout, Reinskje; Villa, Alessandra; Mark, AE; Engberts, JBFN

    2003-01-01

    The binding of a series of p-alkylbenzamidinium chloride inhibitors to the serine proteinase trypsin over a range of temperatures has been studied using isothermal titration (micro)calorimetry and molecular dynamics simulation techniques. The inhibitors have small structural variations at the para

  19. Molecular characterization and volatility evolution of α-pinene ozonolysis SOA during isothermal evaporations

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Ambro, E.; Schobesberger, S.; Lopez-Hilfiker, F.; Shilling, J. E.; Lee, B. H.; Thornton, J. A.

    2017-12-01

    α-Pinene (C10H16), the most abundantly emitted monoterpene, is a large contributor to global biogenic secondary organic aerosol (SOA) budgets due to its high SOA yields upon oxidation. We probe the volatility and evaporation behavior upon dilution of α-pinene SOA to further our understanding of the nascent volatility distribution, viscosity, and how these evolve in time absent photochemical oxidation. We present molecular composition measurements of the gas and particle phases of α-pinene ozonolysis SOA formed at 0% and 50% relative humidity (RH), followed by room-temperature evaporation in ultra-high purity N2 humidified to 20-90% RH. Experiments were performed in the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory 10.6 m3 and the University of Washington 0.7 m3 environmental chambers utilizing a Filter Inlet for Gases and AEROsols (FIGAERO) coupled to a high-resolution time of flight chemical ionization mass spectrometer utilizing iodide adduct ionization. We present novel insights into the total mass that evaporates as a function of time from 10 min to 24 hours without heating, the molecular speciation of the evaporate, as well as the effective volatility and composition of the SOA mass remaining. Consistent with previous studies, we find two stages of evaporation: a rapid loss of a large portion of the total signal over the course of ≤3 hours, followed by a stage of much slower evaporation over the proceeding 21 hours. Varying the RH of formation effects evaporation rate on timescales ≤3 hours, however the mass fraction remaining after 24 hours converges to 30-50% under all formation and evaporation RHs. We simulate the evaporation behavior and remaining fractions desorbed via temperature programmed thermal desorption to derive effective saturation vapor concentrations, mass accommodation coefficients, and rates of chemical evolution producing both higher and lower volatility components during the evaporation time period.

  20. Molecular Weight and Crystallization Temperature Effects on Poly(ethylene terephthalate (PET Homopolymers, an Isothermal Crystallization Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo A. Baldenegro-Perez

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The isothermal crystallization of poly(ethylene terephthalate (PET homopolymers with different molecular weight was studied in a wide temperature range (140–230 °C using different experimental techniques. Three different morphological regions, labeled r1, r2 and r3, were distinguished as a function of crystallization temperature (Tc. In r1 (low Tc crystallized samples were characterized by a low crystalline degree with a small spherulite texture containing thin crystals. In r2 (intermediate Tc samples showed medium size spherulites composed of two distinct crystalline families (thin and thick crystals. In this temperature range, the crystallization exhibited a maximum value and it was associated with a high content of secondary crystals. In r3 (high Tc, samples presented considerable amorphous zones and regions consisting of oversized spherulites containing only thick crystals. Time-resolved wide-angle X-ray diffraction measurements, using synchrotron radiation, indicated a rapid evolution of the crystalline degree within the second region, in contrast with the quite slow evolution observed in the third region. On the other hand, by small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS and time-resolved SAXS experiment, it was found that the long period (L as well as the lamellar thickness (lc increase as a function of Tc, corroborating the formation of the thickest crystals in the third region. From all these observations, a morphological model was proposed for each region.

  1. Density distribution function of a self-gravitating isothermal compressible turbulent fluid in the context of molecular clouds ensembles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donkov, Sava; Stefanov, Ivan Z.

    2018-03-01

    We have set ourselves the task of obtaining the probability distribution function of the mass density of a self-gravitating isothermal compressible turbulent fluid from its physics. We have done this in the context of a new notion: the molecular clouds ensemble. We have applied a new approach that takes into account the fractal nature of the fluid. Using the medium equations, under the assumption of steady state, we show that the total energy per unit mass is an invariant with respect to the fractal scales. As a next step we obtain a non-linear integral equation for the dimensionless scale Q which is the third root of the integral of the probability distribution function. It is solved approximately up to the leading-order term in the series expansion. We obtain two solutions. They are power-law distributions with different slopes: the first one is -1.5 at low densities, corresponding to an equilibrium between all energies at a given scale, and the second one is -2 at high densities, corresponding to a free fall at small scales.

  2. Melting behaviour of gold-platinum nanoalloy clusters by molecular dynamics simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ong, Yee Pin; Yoon, Tiem Leong [School of Physics, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 USM, Penang (Malaysia); Lim, Thong Leng [Faculty of Engineering and Technology, Multimedia University, Melaka Campus, 75450 Melaka (Malaysia)

    2015-04-24

    The melting behavior of bimetallic gold-platinum nanoclusters is studied by applying Brownian-type isothermal molecular dynamics (MD) simulation, a program modified from the cubic coupling scheme (CCS). The process begins with the ground-state structures obtained from global minimum search algorithm and proceeds with the investigation of the effect of temperature on the thermal properties of gold-platinum nanoalloy clusters. N-body Gupta potential has been employed in order to account for the interactions between gold and platinum atoms. The ground states of the nanoalloy clusters, which are core-shell segregated, are heated until they become thermally segregated. The detailed melting mechanism of the nanoalloy clusters is studied via this approach to provide insight into the thermal stability of the nanoalloy clusters.

  3. Molecular interaction studies of acetylcholinesterase with potential acetylcholinesterase inhibitors from the root of Rhodiola crenulata using molecular docking and isothermal titration calorimetry methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fa-Jie; Liu, Yuan; Yuan, Yuan; Yang, Bin; Liu, Zhen-Ming; Huang, Lu-Qi

    2017-11-01

    (-)-Epicatechin gallate ((-)-ECG), 1,2,3,4,6-O-pentagalloylglucose (PGG), rhodionin, herbacetin and rhodiosin isolated from the root of Rhodiola crenulata exhibited potent, dose-dependent inhibitory effects on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) with IC 50 ranged from 57.50±5.83 to 2.43±0.34μg/mL. With the aim of explaining the differences in activity of these active ingredients and clarifying how they inhibit AChE, the AChE-inhibitor interactions were further explored using molecular docking and isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) methods in the present study. Molecular docking studies revealed that all compounds except PGG showed binding energy values ranging from -10.30 to -8.00kcal/mol while the binding energy of galantamine, a known AChE inhibitor, was -9.53kcal/mol; they inhibited the AChE by binding into the ligand pocket with the similar binding pattern to that of galantamine by interacting with Glu199 of AChE. Inhibition constant of these active ingredients had a positive correlation with binding energy. The interaction between AChE and PGG was further evaluated with the ITC method and the results indicated that the PGG-AChE interaction was relevant to AChE concentration. The results revealed a possible mechanism for the AChE inhibition activity of these bioactive ingredients, which may provide some help in lead compounds optimization in the future. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Helicase-dependent isothermal amplification: a novel tool in the development of molecular-based analytical systems for rapid pathogen detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreda-García, Susana; Miranda-Castro, Rebeca; de-Los-Santos-Álvarez, Noemí; Miranda-Ordieres, Arturo J; Lobo-Castañón, María Jesús

    2018-01-01

    Highly sensitive testing of nucleic acids is essential to improve the detection of pathogens, which pose a major threat for public health worldwide. Currently available molecular assays, mainly based on PCR, have a limited utility in point-of-need control or resource-limited settings. Consequently, there is a strong interest in developing cost-effective, robust, and portable platforms for early detection of these harmful microorganisms. Since its description in 2004, isothermal helicase-dependent amplification (HDA) has been successfully applied in the development of novel molecular-based technologies for rapid, sensitive, and selective detection of viruses and bacteria. In this review, we highlight relevant analytical systems using this simple nucleic acid amplification methodology that takes place at a constant temperature and that is readily compatible with microfluidic technologies. Different strategies for monitoring HDA amplification products are described. In addition, we present technological advances for integrating sample preparation, HDA amplification, and detection. Future perspectives and challenges toward point-of-need use not only for clinical diagnosis but also in food safety testing and environmental monitoring are also discussed. Graphical Abstract Expanding the analytical toolbox for the detection of DNA sequences specific of pathogens with isothermal helicase dependent amplification (HDA).

  5. Explicit symplectic integrators of molecular dynamics algorithms for rigid-body molecules in the canonical, isobaric-isothermal, and related ensembles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okumura, Hisashi; Itoh, Satoru G; Okamoto, Yuko

    2007-02-28

    The authors propose explicit symplectic integrators of molecular dynamics (MD) algorithms for rigid-body molecules in the canonical and isobaric-isothermal ensembles. They also present a symplectic algorithm in the constant normal pressure and lateral surface area ensemble and that combined with the Parrinello-Rahman algorithm. Employing the symplectic integrators for MD algorithms, there is a conserved quantity which is close to Hamiltonian. Therefore, they can perform a MD simulation more stably than by conventional nonsymplectic algorithms. They applied this algorithm to a TIP3P pure water system at 300 K and compared the time evolution of the Hamiltonian with those by the nonsymplectic algorithms. They found that the Hamiltonian was conserved well by the symplectic algorithm even for a time step of 4 fs. This time step is longer than typical values of 0.5-2 fs which are used by the conventional nonsymplectic algorithms.

  6. Solvation and Ion Pair Association in Aqueous Metal Sulfates: Interpretation of NDIS raw data by isobaric-isothermal molecular dynamics simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chialvo, Ariel A.; Simonson, J. Michael

    2010-01-01

    We analyzed the solvation behavior of aqueous lithium, nickel, and ytterbium sulfates at ambient conditions in terms of the relevant radial distributions functions and the corresponding first-order difference of the sulfur-site neutron weighted distribution functions generated by isothermal-isobaric molecular dynamics simulation. We determined of the partial contributions to the neutron weighted distribution functions, to identify the main peaks, and the effect of the contact ion-pair configuration on the resulting H-S coordination number. Finally, we assessed the extent of the ion-pair formation according to Poirier-DeLap formalism and highlighted the significant increase of the ion-pair association exhibited by these salts with cation charge.

  7. Molecular dynamics simulations of diffusion and clustering along critical isotherms of medium-chain n-alkanes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutoru, J W; Smith, W; O'Hern, C S; Firoozabadi, A

    2013-01-14

    Understanding the transport properties of molecular fluids in the critical region is important for a number of industrial and natural systems. In the literature, there are conflicting reports on the behavior of the self diffusion coefficient D(s) in the critical region of single-component molecular systems. For example, D(s) could decrease to zero, reach a maximum, or remain unchanged and finite at the critical point. Moreover, there is no molecular-scale understanding of the behavior of diffusion coefficients in molecular fluids in the critical regime. We perform extensive molecular dynamics simulations in the critical region of single-component fluids composed of medium-chain n-alkanes-n-pentane, n-decane, and n-dodecane-that interact via anisotropic united-atom potentials. For each system, we calculate D(s), and average molecular cluster sizes κ(cl) and numbers N(cl) at various cluster lifetimes τ, as a function of density ρ in the range 0.2ρ(c) ≤ ρ ≤ 2.0ρ(c) at the critical temperature T(c). We find that D(s) decreases with increasing ρ but remains finite at the critical point. Moreover, for any given τ critical point.

  8. Visual detection of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor based on a molecular translator and isothermal strand-displacement polymerization reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li-Yong; Xing, Tao; Du, Li-Xin; Li, Qing-Min; Liu, Wei-Dong; Wang, Ji-Yue; Cai, Jing

    2015-01-01

    Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) is a small protein that potently promotes the survival of many types of neurons. Detection of GDNF is vital to monitoring the survival of sympathetic and sensory neurons. However, the specific method for GDNF detection is also un-discovered. The purpose of this study is to explore the method for protein detection of GDNF. A novel visual detection method based on a molecular translator and isothermal strand-displacement polymerization reaction (ISDPR) has been proposed for the detection of GDNF. In this study, a molecular translator was employed to convert the input protein to output deoxyribonucleic acid signal, which was further amplified by ISDPR. The product of ISDPR was detected by a lateral flow biosensor within 30 minutes. This novel visual detection method based on a molecular translator and ISDPR has very high sensitivity and selectivity, with a dynamic response ranging from 1 pg/mL to 10 ng/mL, and the detection limit was 1 pg/mL of GDNF. This novel visual detection method exhibits high sensitivity and selectivity, which is very simple and universal for GDNF detection to help disease therapy in clinical practice.

  9. A Liouville-operator derived measure-preserving integrator for molecular dynamics simulations in the isothermal-isobaric ensemble

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuckerman, Mark E; Alejandre, Jose; Lopez-Rendon, Roberto; Jochim, Andrea L; Martyna, Glenn J

    2006-01-01

    The constant-pressure, constant-temperature (NPT) molecular dynamics approach is re-examined from the viewpoint of deriving a new measure-preserving reversible geometric integrator for the equations of motion. The underlying concepts of non-Hamiltonian phase-space analysis, measure-preserving integrators and the symplectic property for Hamiltonian systems are briefly reviewed. In addition, current measure-preserving schemes for the constant-volume, constant-temperature ensemble are also reviewed. A new geometric integrator for the NPT method is presented, is shown to preserve the correct phase-space volume element and is demonstrated to perform well in realistic examples. Finally, a multiple time-step version of the integrator is presented for treating systems with motion on several time scales

  10. The atomic-scale nucleation mechanism of NiTi metallic glasses upon isothermal annealing studied via molecular dynamics simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang; Li, JiaHao; Liu, BaiXin

    2015-10-28

    Nucleation is one of the most essential transformation paths in phase transition and exerts a significant influence on the crystallization process. Molecular dynamics simulations were performed to investigate the atomic-scale nucleation mechanisms of NiTi metallic glasses upon devitrification at various temperatures (700 K, 750 K, 800 K, and 850 K). Our simulations reveal that at 700 K and 750 K, nucleation is polynuclear with high nucleation density, while at 800 K it is mononuclear. The underlying nucleation mechanisms have been clarified, manifesting that nucleation can be induced either by the initial ordered clusters (IOCs) or by the other precursors of nuclei evolved directly from the supercooled liquid. IOCs and other precursors stem from the thermal fluctuations of bond orientational order in supercooled liquids during the quenching process and during the annealing process, respectively. The simulation results not only elucidate the underlying nucleation mechanisms varied with temperature, but also unveil the origin of nucleation. These discoveries offer new insights into the devitrification mechanism of metallic glasses.

  11. Combination of computational methods, adsorption isotherms and selectivity tests for the conception of a mixed non-covalent-semi-covalent molecularly imprinted polymer of vanillin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puzio, Kinga; Delépée, Raphaël; Vidal, Richard; Agrofoglio, Luigi A

    2013-08-06

    A novel molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) for vanillin was prepared by photo initiated polymerization in dichloromethane using a mixed semi-covalent and non-covalent imprinting strategy. Taking polymerisable syringaldehyde as "dummy" template, acrylamide was chosen as functional monomer on B3LYP/6-31+G(d,p) density functional theory computational method basis with counterpoise. The binding parameters for the recognition of vanillin on imprinted polymers were studied with three different isotherm models (Langmuir, bi-Langmuir and Langmuir-Freundlich) and compared. The results indicate an heterogeneity of binding sites. It was found and proved by DFT calculations that the specific binding of vanillin in the cavities is due to non-covalent interactions of the template with the hydroxyphenyl- and the amide-moieties. The binding geometry of vanillin in the MIP cavity was also modelled. The obtained MIP is highly specific for vanillin (with an imprinting factor of 7.4) and was successfully applied to the extraction of vanillin from vanilla pods, red wine spike with vanillin, natural and artificial vanilla sugar with a recovery of 80%. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Molecular dynamics study of combustion reactions in supercritical environment. Part 1: Carbon dioxide and water force field parameters refitting and critical isotherms of binary mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masunov, Artem E.; Atlanov, Arseniy Alekseyevich; Vasu, Subith S.

    2016-01-01

    Oxy-fuel combustion process is expected to drastically increase the energy efficiency and enable easy carbon sequestration. In this technology the combustion products (carbon dioxide and water) are used to control the temperature and nitrogen is excluded from the combustion chamber, so that nitrogen oxide pollutants do not form. Therefore, in oxycombustion the carbon dioxide and water are present in large concentrations in their transcritical state, and may play an important role in kinetics. The computational chemistry methods may assist in understanding these effects, and Molecular Dynamics with ReaxFF force field seem to be a suitable tool for such a study. Here we investigate applicability of the ReaxFF to describe the critical phenomena in carbon dioxide and water and find that several nonbonding parameters need adjustment. We report the new parameter set, capable to reproduce the critical temperatures and pressures. Furthermore, the critical isotherms of CO 2 /H 2 O binary mixtures are computationally studied here for the first time and their critical parameters are reported.

  13. Antihypertensive Effects, Molecular Docking Study, and Isothermal Titration Calorimetry Assay of Angiotensin I-Converting Enzyme Inhibitory Peptides from Chlorella vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jingli; Chen, Xujun; Wu, Junjie; Zhang, Yanyan; Zhou, Yan; Zhang, Lujia; Tang, Ya-Jie; Wei, Dongzhi

    2018-02-14

    The aim of this work is to explore angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory peptides from Chlorella vulgaris (C. vulgaris) and discover the inhibitory mechanism of the peptides. After C. vulgaris proteins were gastrointestinal digested in silico, several ACE inhibitory peptides with C-terminal tryptophan were screened. Among them, two novel noncompetitive ACE inhibitors, Thr-Thr-Trp (TTW) and Val-His-Trp (VHW), exhibited the highest inhibitory activity indicated by IC 50 values 0.61 ± 0.12 and 0.91 ± 0.31 μM, respectively. Both the peptides were demonstrated stable against gastrointestinal digestion and ACE hydrolysis. The peptides were administrated to spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) in the dose 5 mg/kg body weight, and VHW could decrease 50 mmHg systolic blood pressure of SHRs (p < 0.05). Molecular docking displayed that both TTW and VHW formed six hydrogen bonds with active site pockets of ACE. Besides, isothermal titration calorimetry assay discovered that VHW could form more stable complex with ACE than TTW. Therefore, VHW was an excellent ACE inhibitor.

  14. Probing the binding of Cu(2+) ions to a fragment of the Aβ(1-42) polypeptide using fluorescence spectroscopy, isothermal titration calorimetry and molecular dynamics simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makowska, Joanna; Żamojć, Krzysztof; Wyrzykowski, Dariusz; Żmudzińska, Wioletta; Uber, Dorota; Wierzbicka, Małgorzata; Wiczk, Wiesław; Chmurzyński, Lech

    2016-09-01

    Steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence quenching measurements supported by isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) and molecular dynamics simulations (MD), with the NMR-derived restraints, were used to investigate the interactions of Cu(2+) ions with a fragment of the Aβ(1-42) polypeptide, Aβ(5-16) with the following sequence: Ac-Arg-His-Asp-Ser-Gly-Tyr-Glu-Val-His-His-Gln-Lys-NH2, denoted as HZ1. The studies presented in this paper, when compared with our previous results (Makowska et al., Spectrochim. Acta A 153: 451-456), show that the affinity of the peptide to metal ions is conformation-dependent. All the measurements were carried out in 20mM 2-(N-morpholino)ethanesulfonic acid (MES) buffer solution, pH6.0. The Stern-Volmer equations, along with spectroscopic observations, were used to determine the quenching and binding parameters. The obtained results unequivocally suggest that Cu(2+) ions quench the fluorescence of HZ1 only through a static quenching mechanism, in contrast to the fragment from the N-terminal part of the FPB28 protein, with sequence Ac-Tyr-Lys-Thr-Ala-Asp-Gly-Lys-Thr-Tyr- NH2 (D9) and its derivative with a single point mutation: Ac-Tyr-Lys-Thr-Ala-Asn-Gly-Lys-Thr-Tyr- NH2 (D9_M), where dynamic quenching occurred. The thermodynamic parameters (ΔITCH, ΔITCS) for the interactions between Cu(2+) ions and the HZ1 peptide were determined from the calorimetric data. The conditional thermodynamic parameters suggest that, under the experimental conditions, the formation of the Cu(2+)-HZ1 complex is both an enthalpy and entropy driven process. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Isothermal transitions of a thermosetting system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillham, J. K.; Benci, J. A.; Noshay, A.

    1974-01-01

    A study of the curing reactions of a cycloaliphatic epoxy resin/anhydride system by torsional braid analysis showed the existence of two critical isothermal temperatures - namely, the maximum glass transition temperature of the thermoset system and the glass transition temperature of the material at its gel point. Two rheologically active kinetic transitions occur during isothermal cure which correspond to gelation and vitrification. Three types of isothermal behavior occur. Methods for determining the time to gel and the time to vitrify, and also the two above-mentioned critical isothermal temperatures, have been developed. The time to gel obeyed the Arrhenius relationship, whereas the time to vitrify passed through a minimum. Application of these results to thermosetting systems in general is discussed in terms of the influence of molecular structure on the values of the critical isothermal temperatures.

  16. Development of isothermal-isobaric replica-permutation method for molecular dynamics and Monte Carlo simulations and its application to reveal temperature and pressure dependence of folded, misfolded, and unfolded states of chignolin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamauchi, Masataka; Okumura, Hisashi

    2017-11-01

    We developed a two-dimensional replica-permutation molecular dynamics method in the isothermal-isobaric ensemble. The replica-permutation method is a better alternative to the replica-exchange method. It was originally developed in the canonical ensemble. This method employs the Suwa-Todo algorithm, instead of the Metropolis algorithm, to perform permutations of temperatures and pressures among more than two replicas so that the rejection ratio can be minimized. We showed that the isothermal-isobaric replica-permutation method performs better sampling efficiency than the isothermal-isobaric replica-exchange method and infinite swapping method. We applied this method to a β-hairpin mini protein, chignolin. In this simulation, we observed not only the folded state but also the misfolded state. We calculated the temperature and pressure dependence of the fractions on the folded, misfolded, and unfolded states. Differences in partial molar enthalpy, internal energy, entropy, partial molar volume, and heat capacity were also determined and agreed well with experimental data. We observed a new phenomenon that misfolded chignolin becomes more stable under high-pressure conditions. We also revealed this mechanism of the stability as follows: TYR2 and TRP9 side chains cover the hydrogen bonds that form a β-hairpin structure. The hydrogen bonds are protected from the water molecules that approach the protein as the pressure increases.

  17. Generalized isothermic lattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doliwa, Adam

    2007-01-01

    We study multi-dimensional quadrilateral lattices satisfying simultaneously two integrable constraints: a quadratic constraint and the projective Moutard constraint. When the lattice is two dimensional and the quadric under consideration is the Moebius sphere one obtains, after the stereographic projection, the discrete isothermic surfaces defined by Bobenko and Pinkall by an algebraic constraint imposed on the (complex) cross-ratio of the circular lattice. We derive the analogous condition for our generalized isothermic lattices using Steiner's projective structure of conics, and we present basic geometric constructions which encode integrability of the lattice. In particular, we introduce the Darboux transformation of the generalized isothermic lattice and we derive the corresponding Bianchi permutability principle. Finally, we study two-dimensional generalized isothermic lattices, in particular geometry of their initial boundary value problem

  18. A rapid molecular diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis bycolorimetric malachite green-loop-mediated isothermal amplification(LAMP) combined with an FTA card as a direct sampling tool

    OpenAIRE

    Nzelu, Chukwunonso O.; Cáceres, Abraham G.; Guerrero-Quincho, Silvia; Tineo-Villafuerte, Edwin; Rodriquez-Delfin, Luis; Mimori, Tatsuyuki; Uezato, Hiroshi; Katakura, Ken; Gomez, Eduardo A.; Guevara, Angel G.; Hashiguchi, Yoshihisa; Kato, Hirotomo

    2015-01-01

    Leishmaniasis remains one of the world's most neglected diseases, and early detection of the infectious agent, especially in developing countries, will require a simple and rapid test. In this study, we established a quick, one-step, single-tube, highly sensitive loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for rapid detection of Leishmania DNA from tissue materials spotted on an FTA card. An FTA-LAMP with pre-added malachite green was performed at 64 degrees C for 60 mm using a heatin...

  19. Isobaric-Isothermal Molecular Dynamics Utilizing Density Functional Theory: An Assessment of the Structure and Density of Water at Near-Ambient Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, J.; VandeVondele, J.; Kuo, I.W.; Sebastiani, D.; Siepmann, J.I.; Hutter, J.; Mundy, C.J.

    2009-01-01

    We present herein a comprehensive density functional theory study toward assessing the accuracy of two popular gradient-corrected exchange correlation functionals on the structure and density of liquid water at near ambient conditions in the isobaric-isothermal ensemble. Our results indicate that both PBE and BLYP functionals under predict the density and over structure the liquid. Adding the dispersion correction due to Grimme(1, 2) improves the predicted densities for both BLYP and PBE in a significant manner. Moreover, the addition of the dispersion correction for BLYP yields an oxygen-oxygen radial distribution function in excellent agreement with experiment. Thus, we conclude that one can obtain a very satisfactory model for water using BLYP and a correction for dispersion.

  20. Isothermal Martensite Formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villa, Matteo

    Isothermal (i.e. time dependent) martensite formation in steel was first observed in the 40ies of the XXth century and is still treated as an anomaly in the description of martensite formation which is considered as a-thermal (i.e. independent of time). Recently, the clarification of the mechanism...... of lattice strains provided fundamental information on the state of stress in the material and clarified the role of the strain energy on martensite formation. Electron backscatter diffraction revealed that the microstructure of the material and the morphology of martensite were independent on the cooling...... leading to isothermal kinetics acquired new practical relevance because of the identification of isothermal martensite formation as the most likely process responsible for enhanced performances of sub-zero Celsius treated high carbon steel products. In the present work, different iron based alloys...

  1. Adiabatic and isothermal resistivities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fishman, R.S.

    1989-01-01

    The force-balance method is used to calculate the isothermal resistivity to first order in the electric field. To lowest order in the impurity potential, the isothermal resistivity disagrees with the adiabatic results of the Kubo formula and the Boltzmann equation. However, an expansion of the isothermal resistivity in powers of the impurity potential is divergent, with two sets of divergent terms. The first set arises from the density matrix of the relative electron-phonon system. The second set arises from the explicit dependence of the density matrix on the electric field, which was ignored by force-balance calculations. These divergent contributions are calculated inductively, by applying a recursion relation for the Green's functions. Using the λ 2 t→∞ limit of van Hove, I show that the resummation of these divergent terms yields the same result for the resistivity as the adiabatic calculations, in direct analogy with the work of Argyres and Sigel, and Huberman and Chester

  2. A rapid molecular diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis by colorimetric malachite green-loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) combined with an FTA card as a direct sampling tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nzelu, Chukwunonso O; Cáceres, Abraham G; Guerrero-Quincho, Silvia; Tineo-Villafuerte, Edwin; Rodriquez-Delfin, Luis; Mimori, Tatsuyuki; Uezato, Hiroshi; Katakura, Ken; Gomez, Eduardo A; Guevara, Angel G; Hashiguchi, Yoshihisa; Kato, Hirotomo

    2016-01-01

    Leishmaniasis remains one of the world's most neglected diseases, and early detection of the infectious agent, especially in developing countries, will require a simple and rapid test. In this study, we established a quick, one-step, single-tube, highly sensitive loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for rapid detection of Leishmania DNA from tissue materials spotted on an FTA card. An FTA-LAMP with pre-added malachite green was performed at 64°C for 60min using a heating block and/or water bath and DNA amplification was detected immediately after incubation. The LAMP assay had high detection sensitivity down to a level of 0.01 parasites per μl. The field- and clinic-applicability of the colorimetric FTA-LAMP assay was demonstrated with 122 clinical samples collected from patients suspected of having cutaneous leishmaniasis in Peru, from which 71 positives were detected. The LAMP assay in combination with an FTA card described here is rapid and sensitive, as well as simple to perform, and has great potential usefulness for diagnosis and surveillance of leishmaniasis in endemic areas. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. The Stellar IMF from Isothermal MHD Turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haugbølle, Troels; Padoan, Paolo; Nordlund, Åke

    2018-02-01

    We address the turbulent fragmentation scenario for the origin of the stellar initial mass function (IMF), using a large set of numerical simulations of randomly driven supersonic MHD turbulence. The turbulent fragmentation model successfully predicts the main features of the observed stellar IMF assuming an isothermal equation of state without any stellar feedback. As a test of the model, we focus on the case of a magnetized isothermal gas, neglecting stellar feedback, while pursuing a large dynamic range in both space and timescales covering the full spectrum of stellar masses from brown dwarfs to massive stars. Our simulations represent a generic 4 pc region within a typical Galactic molecular cloud, with a mass of 3000 M ⊙ and an rms velocity 10 times the isothermal sound speed and 5 times the average Alfvén velocity, in agreement with observations. We achieve a maximum resolution of 50 au and a maximum duration of star formation of 4.0 Myr, forming up to a thousand sink particles whose mass distribution closely matches the observed stellar IMF. A large set of medium-size simulations is used to test the sink particle algorithm, while larger simulations are used to test the numerical convergence of the IMF and the dependence of the IMF turnover on physical parameters predicted by the turbulent fragmentation model. We find a clear trend toward numerical convergence and strong support for the model predictions, including the initial time evolution of the IMF. We conclude that the physics of isothermal MHD turbulence is sufficient to explain the origin of the IMF.

  4. Genetic variability and discrimination of low doses of Toxocara spp. from public areas soil inferred by loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay as a field-friendly molecular tool

    OpenAIRE

    Ozlati, Maryam; Spotin, Adel; Shahbazi, Abbas; Mahami-Oskouei, Mahmoud; Hazratian, Teimour; Adibpor, Mohammad; Ahmadpour, Ehsan; Dolatkhah, Afsaneh; Khoshakhlagh, Paria

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: Aim: One of the main diagnostic problems of conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is indiscrimination of low parasitic loads in soil samples. The aim of this study is to determine the genetic diversity and identification of Toxocara spp. from public areas soil inferred by loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay. Materials and Methods: A total of 180 soil samples were collected from various streets and public parks of northwest Iran. The DNA of recovered Toxocara e...

  5. Understand rotating isothermal collapses yet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tohline, J.E.

    1985-01-01

    A scalar virial equation is used to describe the dynamic properties of equilibrium gas clouds, taking into account the relative effects of surface pressure, rotation, self gravity and internal isothermal pressure. Details concerning the internal structure of the clouds are ignored in order to obtain a globalized analytical expression. The obtained solution to the equation is found to agree with the surface-pressure-dominated model of Stahler (1983), and the rotation-dominated model of Hayashi, Narita, and Miyama (1982). On the basis of the analytical expression of virial equilibrium in the clouds, some of the limiting properties of isothermal clouds are described, and a realistic starting model for cloud collapse is proposed. 18 references

  6. Room temperature isotherms for Mo and Ni

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masse, J.L.

    1986-11-01

    Isotherms at room temperature for Mo and Ni are proposed. They are of three types: BIRCH, KEANE and BORN-MIE. The adjustable constants appearing in these isotherms have been determined from experimental quantities at zero pressure. An evaluation of the limit of (δB T /δP) T as P #-> # ∞, where B T is the isothermal bulk modulus, has been also used. These three isotherms obtained for Mo and Ni are compared with isotherms derived from shock-wave data according to the PRIETO's model. There is a good agreement between these and these derived from shock-wave data. The three isotherms proposed for Mo and Ni can be considered as valid until pressures of several B To , where B To is the bulk modulus B T at P = o [fr

  7. Lunar ash flows - Isothermal approximation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, S. I.; Hsieh, T.; O'Keefe, J. A.

    1972-01-01

    Suggestion of the ash flow mechanism as one of the major processes required to account for some features of lunar soil. First the observational background and the gardening hypothesis are reviewed, and the shortcomings of the gardening hypothesis are shown. Then a general description of the lunar ash flow is given, and a simple mathematical model of the isothermal lunar ash flow is worked out with numerical examples to show the differences between the lunar and the terrestrial ash flow. The important parameters of the ash flow process are isolated and analyzed. It appears that the lunar surface layer in the maria is not a residual mantle rock (regolith) but a series of ash flows due, at least in part, to great meteorite impacts. The possibility of a volcanic contribution is not excluded. Some further analytic research on lunar ash flows is recommended.

  8. Instabilities of isothermal liquid films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solesio, J.N.

    1977-04-01

    The integral forms of the mass and linear momentum balances are given for a two-phase flow system with surface tension and without material surface properties. The instantaneous local laws for each phase and the jump conditions for the interface are derived from these balance laws. Then, these laws are systematically simplified by means of dimensional analysis for an isothermal liquid film flowing down a plane. The stability studies of films are critically reviewed. The different methods are divided into two groups: the first one deals with the global approach, the second one with the perturbation theory. This group includes a new technique based upon the method of quadrature by differentiation. Finally, the different methods are compared [fr

  9. Relation between Tolman length and isothermal compressibility for simple liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xiao-Song; Zhu Ru-Zeng

    2013-01-01

    The Tolman length δ 0 of a liquid with a plane surface has attracted increasing theoretical attention in recent years, but the expression of Tolman length in terms of observable quantities is still not very clear. In 2001, Bartell gave a simple expression of Tolman length δ 0 in terms of isothermal compressibility. However, this expression predicts that Tolman length is always negative, which is contrary to the results of molecular dynamics simulations (MDS) for simple liquids. In this paper, this contradiction is analyzed and the reason for the discrepancy in the sign is found. In addition, we introduce a new expression of Tolman length in terms of isothermal compressibility for simple fluids not near the critical points under some weak restrictions. The Tolman length of simple liquids calculated by using this formula is consistent with that obtained using MDS regarding the sign

  10. THERMODYNAMICS AND ADSORPTION ISOTHERMS FOR THE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BAFFA

    data were tested using Freundlich and Langmuir adsorption isotherms. The values of the numeric constants ... Keywords: Adsorbate, Adsorbent, Adsorption isotherms, Maize cob, Thermodynamics. INTRODUCTION. Maize (Zea mays) ... several times with water, air – dried and ground to. 850μm particle size and finally kept ...

  11. ISOTHERMAL AIR INGRESS VALIDATION EXPERIMENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang H Oh; Eung S Kim

    2011-09-01

    Idaho National Laboratory carried out air ingress experiments as part of validating computational fluid dynamics (CFD) calculations. An isothermal test loop was designed and set to understand the stratified-flow phenomenon, which is important as the initial air flow into the lower plenum of the very high temperature gas cooled reactor (VHTR) when a large break loss-of-coolant accident occurs. The unique flow characteristics were focused on the VHTR air-ingress accident, in particular, the flow visualization of the stratified flow in the inlet pipe to the vessel lower plenum of the General Atomic’s Gas Turbine-Modular Helium Reactor (GT-MHR). Brine and sucrose were used as heavy fluids, and water was used to represent a light fluid, which mimics a counter current flow due to the density difference between the stimulant fluids. The density ratios were changed between 0.87 and 0.98. This experiment clearly showed that a stratified flow between simulant fluids was established even for very small density differences. The CFD calculations were compared with experimental data. A grid sensitivity study on CFD models was also performed using the Richardson extrapolation and the grid convergence index method for the numerical accuracy of CFD calculations . As a result, the calculated current speed showed very good agreement with the experimental data, indicating that the current CFD methods are suitable for predicting density gradient stratified flow phenomena in the air-ingress accident.

  12. Genetic variability and discrimination of low doses of Toxocara spp. from public areas soil inferred by loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay as a field-friendly molecular tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Ozlati

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: One of the main diagnostic problems of conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR is indiscrimination of low parasitic loads in soil samples. The aim of this study is to determine the genetic diversity and identification of Toxocara spp. from public areas soil inferred by loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP assay. Materials and Methods: A total of 180 soil samples were collected from various streets and public parks of northwest Iran. The DNA of recovered Toxocara eggs were extracted and amplified by PCR and LAMP following ZnSO4 flotation technique. The amplicons of internal transcribed spacer-2 gene were sequenced to reveal the heterogeneity traits of Toxocara spp. In addition, Toxocara canis sequences of southwest Iran were directly retrieved to compare gene flow between two distinct populations. Results: Toxocara spp. eggs were found in 57, 14 and 77 of soil samples using the microscopy, PCR and LAMP (detection limit 1-3 eggs/200 g soil, respectively. 7.7% of isolates were identified as T. canis by PCR method, while LAMP was able to detect 27.2%, 15.5% and 12.2% as Toxocara cati, T. canis and mixed infections, respectively. The kappa coefficient between LAMP and microscopy indicated a strong agreement (0.765 but indicated a faint agreement among LAMP-PCR (0.203 and PCR-microscopy (0.308 methods. A pairwise fixation index (Fst as a degree of gene flow was generally low (0.02156 among Toxocara populations of northwest and southwest Iran. Conclusions: The statistically significant Fst value indicates that the T. canis populations are not genetically well differentiated between northwest and southwest Iran. This shows that here is possibly an epidemiological drift due to the transfer of alleles. The LAMP assay because of its shorter reaction time, more sensitivity, and simultaneous detection of environmental contamination to be appears as valuable field diagnosis compared to PCR. Therefore, the detection of low Toxocara spp. loads

  13. Genetic variability and discrimination of low doses of Toxocara spp. from public areas soil inferred by loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay as a field-friendly molecular tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozlati, Maryam; Spotin, Adel; Shahbazi, Abbas; Mahami-Oskouei, Mahmoud; Hazratian, Teimour; Adibpor, Mohammad; Ahmadpour, Ehsan; Dolatkhah, Afsaneh; Khoshakhlagh, Paria

    2016-12-01

    Aim: One of the main diagnostic problems of conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is indiscrimination of low parasitic loads in soil samples. The aim of this study is to determine the genetic diversity and identification of Toxocara spp. from public areas soil inferred by loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay. A total of 180 soil samples were collected from various streets and public parks of northwest Iran. The DNA of recovered Toxocara eggs were extracted and amplified by PCR and LAMP following ZnSO 4 flotation technique. The amplicons of internal transcribed spacer-2 gene were sequenced to reveal the heterogeneity traits of Toxocara spp. In addition, Toxocara canis sequences of southwest Iran were directly retrieved to compare gene flow between two distinct populations. Toxocara spp. eggs were found in 57, 14 and 77 of soil samples using the microscopy, PCR and LAMP (detection limit 1-3 eggs/200 g soil), respectively. 7.7% of isolates were identified as T. canis by PCR method, while LAMP was able to detect 27.2%, 15.5% and 12.2% as Toxocara cati , T. canis and mixed infections, respectively. The kappa coefficient between LAMP and microscopy indicated a strong agreement (0.765) but indicated a faint agreement among LAMP-PCR (0.203) and PCR-microscopy (0.308) methods. A pairwise fixation index ( F st) as a degree of gene flow was generally low (0.02156) among Toxocara populations of northwest and southwest Iran. The statistically significant F st value indicates that the T. canis populations are not genetically well differentiated between northwest and southwest Iran. This shows that here is possibly an epidemiological drift due to the transfer of alleles. The LAMP assay because of its shorter reaction time, more sensitivity, and simultaneous detection of environmental contamination to be appears as valuable field diagnosis compared to PCR. Therefore, the detection of low Toxocara spp. loads from public area soils will help to expand

  14. Diagnostic Devices for Isothermal Nucleic Acid Amplification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Chen Chang

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Since the development of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR technique, genomic information has been retrievable from lesser amounts of DNA than previously possible. PCR-based amplifications require high-precision instruments to perform temperature cycling reactions; further, they are cumbersome for routine clinical use. However, the use of isothermal approaches can eliminate many complications associated with thermocycling. The application of diagnostic devices for isothermal DNA amplification has recently been studied extensively. In this paper, we describe the basic concepts of several isothermal amplification approaches and review recent progress in diagnostic device development.

  15. Diagnostic devices for isothermal nucleic acid amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chia-Chen; Chen, Chien-Cheng; Wei, Shih-Chung; Lu, Hui-Hsin; Liang, Yang-Hung; Lin, Chii-Wann

    2012-01-01

    Since the development of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique, genomic information has been retrievable from lesser amounts of DNA than previously possible. PCR-based amplifications require high-precision instruments to perform temperature cycling reactions; further, they are cumbersome for routine clinical use. However, the use of isothermal approaches can eliminate many complications associated with thermocycling. The application of diagnostic devices for isothermal DNA amplification has recently been studied extensively. In this paper, we describe the basic concepts of several isothermal amplification approaches and review recent progress in diagnostic device development.

  16. Model-free method for isothermal and non-isothermal decomposition kinetics analysis of PET sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saha, B.; Maiti, A.K.; Ghoshal, A.K.

    2006-01-01

    Pyrolysis, one possible alternative to recover valuable products from waste plastics, has recently been the subject of renewed interest. In the present study, the isoconversion methods, i.e., Vyazovkin model-free approach is applied to study non-isothermal decomposition kinetics of waste PET samples using various temperature integral approximations such as Coats and Redfern, Gorbachev, and Agrawal and Sivasubramanian approximation and direct integration (recursive adaptive Simpson quadrature scheme) to analyze the decomposition kinetics. The results show that activation energy (E α ) is a weak but increasing function of conversion (α) in case of non-isothermal decomposition and strong and decreasing function of conversion in case of isothermal decomposition. This indicates possible existence of nucleation, nuclei growth and gas diffusion mechanism during non-isothermal pyrolysis and nucleation and gas diffusion mechanism during isothermal pyrolysis. Optimum E α dependencies on α obtained for non-isothermal data showed similar nature for all the types of temperature integral approximations

  17. Isothermal calorimeter for reactor radiation dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radak, B; Markovic, V [Institute of Nuclear Sciences Boris Kidric, Odeljenje za radijacionu hemiju, Vinca, Beograd (Serbia and Montenegro)

    1961-12-15

    An isothermal calorimeter with thermistors for measuring absorbed dose rates from 10{sup 4}-5-6.10{sup 5} rad/h in reactor experimental holes has been designed. A kinetics method for determining the equilibrium temperature difference has been developed, and its application in isothermal calorimetry proved. The expected accuracy in measurements within {+-} 2-5% has been proved by measurements carried out in the reactor. Some data obtained by measurements in the reactor RA are presented (author)

  18. Isotherms clustering in cosmic microwave background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bershadskii, A.

    2006-01-01

    Isotherms clustering in cosmic microwave background (CMB) has been studied using the 3-year WMAP data on cosmic microwave background radiation. It is shown that the isotherms clustering could be produced by the baryon-photon fluid turbulence in the last scattering surface. The Taylor-microscale Reynolds number of the turbulence is estimated directly from the CMB data as Re λ ∼10 2

  19. Miniaturized isothermal nucleic acid amplification, a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asiello, Peter J; Baeumner, Antje J

    2011-04-21

    Micro-Total Analysis Systems (µTAS) for use in on-site rapid detection of DNA or RNA are increasingly being developed. Here, amplification of the target sequence is key to increasing sensitivity, enabling single-cell and few-copy nucleic acid detection. The several advantages to miniaturizing amplification reactions and coupling them with sample preparation and detection on the same chip are well known and include fewer manual steps, preventing contamination, and significantly reducing the volume of expensive reagents. To-date, the majority of miniaturized systems for nucleic acid analysis have used the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for amplification and those systems are covered in previous reviews. This review provides a thorough overview of miniaturized analysis systems using alternatives to PCR, specifically isothermal amplification reactions. With no need for thermal cycling, isothermal microsystems can be designed to be simple and low-energy consuming and therefore may outperform PCR in portable, battery-operated detection systems in the future. The main isothermal methods as miniaturized systems reviewed here include nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (NASBA), loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP), helicase-dependent amplification (HDA), rolling circle amplification (RCA), and strand displacement amplification (SDA). Also, important design criteria for the miniaturized devices are discussed. Finally, the potential of miniaturization of some new isothermal methods such as the exponential amplification reaction (EXPAR), isothermal and chimeric primer-initiated amplification of nucleic acids (ICANs), signal-mediated amplification of RNA technology (SMART) and others is presented.

  20. Nonequilibrium steady state of biochemical cycle kinetics under non-isothermal conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xiao; Ge, Hao

    2018-04-01

    The nonequilibrium steady state of isothermal biochemical cycle kinetics has been extensively studied, but that under non-isothermal conditions has been much less extensively investigated. When the heat exchange between subsystems is slow, the isothermal assumption of the whole system breaks down, as is true for many types of living organisms. Here, starting with a four-state model of molecular transporter across the cell membrane, we generalize the nonequilibrium steady-state theory of isothermal biochemical cycle kinetics to the circumstances with non-uniform temperatures of subsystems in terms of general master equation models. We obtain a new thermodynamic relationship between the chemical reaction rates and thermodynamic potentials in non-isothermal circumstances, based on the overdamped dynamics along the continuous reaction coordinate. We show that the entropy production can vary up to 3% in real cells, even when the temperature difference across the cell membrane is only approximately 1 K. We then decompose the total thermodynamic driving force into its thermal and chemical components and predict that the net flux of molecules transported by the molecular transporter can potentially go against the temperature gradient in the absence of a chemical driving force. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the simple application of the isothermal transition-state rate formula for each chemical reaction in terms of only the reactant’ temperature is not thermodynamically consistent. Therefore, we mathematically derive several revised reaction rate formulas that are not only consistent with the new thermodynamic relationship but also approximate the exact reaction rate better than Kramers’ rate formula under isothermal conditions.

  1. Modeling of Experimental Adsorption Isotherm Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xunjun Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Adsorption is considered to be one of the most effective technologies widely used in global environmental protection areas. Modeling of experimental adsorption isotherm data is an essential way for predicting the mechanisms of adsorption, which will lead to an improvement in the area of adsorption science. In this paper, we employed three isotherm models, namely: Langmuir, Freundlich, and Dubinin-Radushkevich to correlate four sets of experimental adsorption isotherm data, which were obtained by batch tests in lab. The linearized and non-linearized isotherm models were compared and discussed. In order to determine the best fit isotherm model, the correlation coefficient (r2 and standard errors (S.E. for each parameter were used to evaluate the data. The modeling results showed that non-linear Langmuir model could fit the data better than others, with relatively higher r2 values and smaller S.E. The linear Langmuir model had the highest value of r2, however, the maximum adsorption capacities estimated from linear Langmuir model were deviated from the experimental data.

  2. Adsorption isotherms of pear at several temperatures

    OpenAIRE

    Mitrevski Vangelče; Lutovska Monika; Mijakovski Vladimir; Pavkov Ivan S.; Babić Mirko M.; Radojčin Milivoje T.

    2015-01-01

    The moisture adsorption isotherms of pear were determined at 15ºC, 30ºC and 45ºC using the standard static gravimetric method over a range of water activity from 0.112 to 0.920. The experimental data were fitted with isotherm equations recommended in ASAE Standard D245.5. In order to find which equation gives the best results, large number of numerical experiments were performed. After that, several statistical criteria proposed in scientific literature for...

  3. Thermodynamics of Surfactants, Block Copolymers and Their Mixtures in Water: The Role of the Isothermal Calorimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lisi, Rosario; Milioto, Stefania; Muratore, Nicola

    2009-01-01

    The thermodynamics of conventional surfactants, block copolymers and their mixtures in water was described to the light of the enthalpy function. The two methodologies, i.e. the van’t Hoff approach and the isothermal calorimetry, used to determine the enthalpy of micellization of pure surfactants and block copolymers were described. The van’t Hoff method was critically discussed. The aqueous copolymer+surfactant mixtures were analyzed by means of the isothermal titration calorimetry and the enthalpy of transfer of the copolymer from the water to the aqueous surfactant solutions. Thermodynamic models were presented to show the procedure to extract straightforward molecular insights from the bulk properties. PMID:19742173

  4. Sequence crystallization during isotherm evaporation of southern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Southern Algerian's natural brine sampled from chott Baghdad may be a source of mineral salts with a high economic value. These salts are recoverable by simple solar evaporation. Indeed, during isothermal solar evaporation, it is possible to recover mineral salts and to determine the precipitation sequences of different ...

  5. THERMODYNAMICS AND ADSORPTION ISOTHERMS FOR THE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BAFFA

    The use of maize (Zea mays) cob for the biosorption of Cr(VI), Ni(II) and Cd(II) is ... Variations in the concentration of the different adsorbates during the adsorption process .... Langmuir isotherm is the dimensionless separation .... The use of Sago waste for the sorption of lead and copper. Water S. Afr., 24 (3), p251-256.

  6. Isothermal Titration Calorimetry in the Student Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadso, Lars; Li, Yujing; Li, Xi

    2011-01-01

    Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) is the measurement of the heat produced by the stepwise addition of one substance to another. It is a common experimental technique, for example, in pharmaceutical science, to measure equilibrium constants and reaction enthalpies. We describe a stirring device and an injection pump that can be used with a…

  7. Isothermal Gravitational Segregation: Algorithms and Specifications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halldórsson, Snorri; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    2000-01-01

    New algorithms for calculating the isothermal equilibrium state of reservoir fluids under the influence of gravity are presented. Two types of specifications are considered: the specification of pressure and composition at a reference depth; and the specification of the total overall content of t...

  8. Isothermal amplification detection of nucleic acids by a double-nicked beacon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Chao; Zhou, Meiling; Pan, Mei; Zhong, Guilin; Ma, Cuiping

    2016-03-01

    Isothermal and rapid amplification detection of nucleic acids is an important technology in environmental monitoring, foodborne pathogen detection, and point-of-care clinical diagnostics. Here we have developed a novel method of isothermal signal amplification for single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) detection. The ssDNA target could be used as an initiator, coupled with a double-nicked molecular beacon, to originate amplification cycles, achieving cascade signal amplification. In addition, the method showed good specificity and strong anti-jamming capability. Overall, it is a one-pot and isothermal strand displacement amplification method without the requirement of a stepwise procedure, which greatly simplifies the experimental procedure and decreases the probability of contamination of samples. With its advantages, the method would be very useful to detect nucleic acids in point-of-care or field use. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Coronal Loops: Evolving Beyond the Isothermal Approximation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmelz, J. T.; Cirtain, J. W.; Allen, J. D.

    2002-05-01

    Are coronal loops isothermal? A controversy over this question has arisen recently because different investigators using different techniques have obtained very different answers. Analysis of SOHO-EIT and TRACE data using narrowband filter ratios to obtain temperature maps has produced several key publications that suggest that coronal loops may be isothermal. We have constructed a multi-thermal distribution for several pixels along a relatively isolated coronal loop on the southwest limb of the solar disk using spectral line data from SOHO-CDS taken on 1998 Apr 20. These distributions are clearly inconsistent with isothermal plasma along either the line of sight or the length of the loop, and suggested rather that the temperature increases from the footpoints to the loop top. We speculated originally that these differences could be attributed to pixel size -- CDS pixels are larger, and more `contaminating' material would be expected along the line of sight. To test this idea, we used CDS iron line ratios from our data set to mimic the isothermal results from the narrowband filter instruments. These ratios indicated that the temperature gradient along the loop was flat, despite the fact that a more complete analysis of the same data showed this result to be false! The CDS pixel size was not the cause of the discrepancy; rather, the problem lies with the isothermal approximation used in EIT and TRACE analysis. These results should serve as a strong warning to anyone using this simplistic method to obtain temperature. This warning is echoed on the EIT web page: ``Danger! Enter at your own risk!'' In other words, values for temperature may be found, but they may have nothing to do with physical reality. Solar physics research at the University of Memphis is supported by NASA grant NAG5-9783. This research was funded in part by the NASA/TRACE MODA grant for Montana State University.

  10. Isotopically exchangeable phosphorus as a correction value to adsorption isotherms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, S.C.; Barbaro, N.O.; Rojas de Tramontini, S.L.; Martini, O.

    1984-01-01

    Adsorption isotherms in evaluation and characterization of soils are studied. The quantity of phosphorus present at first in soil, evaluated by radioisotopic techniques and used in correction of Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms, is discussed. (M.A.C.) [pt

  11. Isothermal calorimetry on enzymatic biodiesel production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjerbæk, Lene

    2008-01-01

    information about effects taking place when using lipases immobilized on an inert carrier for transesterification of a triglyceride and an alcohol as for biodiesel production. The biodiesel is produced by rapeseed oil and methanol as well as ethanol and a commercial biocatalyst Novozym 435 from Novozymes...... containing a Candida Antarctica B lipase immobilized on an acrylic resin. The reaction investigated is characterized by immiscible liquids (oil, methanol, glycerol and biodiesel) and enzymes imm. on an inert carrier during reaction, which allows several effects to take place that during normal reaction...... conditions can not be elucidated. These effects have been observed with isothermal calorimetry bringing forth new information about the reaction of enzymes catalyzing transesterification. Enzymatic biodiesel production has until now not been investigated with isothermal microcalorimetry, but the results...

  12. Moisture sorption isotherms of dehydrated whey proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Suzana Rimac Brnčić; Vesna Lelas; Zoran Herceg; Marija Badanjak

    2010-01-01

    Moisture sorption isotherms describe the relation between the moisture content of the dry material (food) and relative humidity of the surrounding environment. The data obtained are important in modelling of drying process conditions, packaging and shelf-life stability of food that will provide maximum retaining of aroma, colour and texture as well as nutritive and biological value. The objective of this research was to establish the equilibrium moisture content and water activity, as well as...

  13. Fragmentation in rotating isothermal protostellar clouds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodenheimer, P.; Black, D.C.

    1980-01-01

    In this paper we report briefly the results of an extensive set of 3-D hydrodynamic calculations that have been performed during the past two and one-half years to investigate the susceptibility of rotating clouds to gravitational fragmentation. Because of the immensity of parameter space and the expense of computations, we have chosen to restrict this investigation to strictly isothermal collapse sequences. (orig./WL)

  14. Local galactic kinematics: an isothermal model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunez, J.

    1983-01-01

    The kinematical parameters of galactic rotation in the solar neighborhood and the corrections to the precession have been calculated. For this purpose, an isothermal model for the solar neighborhood has been used together with the high order momenta of the local stellar velocity distribution and the Ogorodnikov-Milne model. Both have been calculated using some samples of the ''512 Distant FK4/FK4 Sup. Stars'' of Fricke (1977) and of Gliese's Gatalogue. (author)

  15. Adsorption isotherms of pear at several temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitrevski Vangelče

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The moisture adsorption isotherms of pear were determined at 15ºC, 30ºC and 45ºC using the standard static gravimetric method over a range of water activity from 0.112 to 0.920. The experimental data were fitted with isotherm equations recommended in ASAE Standard D245.5. In order to find which equation gives the best results, large number of numerical experiments were performed. After that, several statistical criteria proposed in scientific literature for estimation and selection of the best sorption isotherm equations were used. For each equation and experimental data set, the average performance index was calculated and models were ranked afterwards. After that, some statistical rejection criteria were checked (D’Agostino-Pearson test of normality, single-sample run test and significance and precision of the model parameters. The performed statistical analysis shows that the Guggenheim-Anderson-de Boer (GAB equation has the highest value of average performance index, but higher correlation between pair of parameters leads to lower precision of estimated parameters.[Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31058

  16. Isothermal-isobaric Nose-Hoover method application: correlation length and disclinations per particle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales, J.J.; Nuevo, J.M.; Rull, L.F.

    1987-01-01

    The new isothermic-isobaric MD(T,p,N) method of Nose and Hoover is applied in Molecular Dynamics simulations to both liquid and solid near the phase transition. We tested for an appropriate value of the isobaric friction coefficient before calculating the correlation length in the liquid and the disclinations per particle in solid on a big system of 2304 particles. The results are compared with those obtained by traditional MD simulation (E,V,N). (author)

  17. Facile Site-Directed Mutagenesis of Large Constructs Using Gibson Isothermal DNA Assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonemoto, Isaac T; Weyman, Philip D

    2017-01-01

    Site-directed mutagenesis is a commonly used molecular biology technique to manipulate biological sequences, and is especially useful for studying sequence determinants of enzyme function or designing proteins with improved activity. We describe a strategy using Gibson Isothermal DNA Assembly to perform site-directed mutagenesis on large (>~20 kbp) constructs that are outside the effective range of standard techniques such as QuikChange II (Agilent Technologies), but more reliable than traditional cloning using restriction enzymes and ligation.

  18. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP): Early detection of Toxoplasma gondii infection in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Kong, Qing-Ming; Lu, Shao-Hong; Tong, Qun-Bo; Lou, Di; Chen, Rui; Zheng, Bin; Kumagai, Takashi; Wen, Li-Yong; Ohta, Nobuo; Zhou, Xiao-Nong

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Toxoplasmosis is a widespread zoonotic parasitic disease that occurs in both animals and humans. Traditional molecular assays are often difficult to perform, especially for the early diagnosis of Toxoplasma gondii infections. Here, we established a novel loop-mediated isothermal amplification targeting the 529 bp repeat element (529 bp-LAMP) to detect T. gondii DNA in blood samples of experimental mice infected with tachyzoites of the RH strain. Findings The assay was perf...

  19. A novel approach for evaluating the performance of real time quantitative loop-mediated isothermal amplification-based methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, Gavin J; Svenstrup, Helle F; Donald, Carol E; Carder, Caroline; Stephenson, Judith M; Morris-Jones, Stephen; Huggett, Jim F; Foy, Carole A

    2014-12-01

    Molecular diagnostic measurements are currently underpinned by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). There are also a number of alternative nucleic acid amplification technologies, which unlike PCR, work at a single temperature. These 'isothermal' methods, reportedly offer potential advantages over PCR such as simplicity, speed and resistance to inhibitors and could also be used for quantitative molecular analysis. However there are currently limited mechanisms to evaluate their quantitative performance, which would assist assay development and study comparisons. This study uses a sexually transmitted infection diagnostic model in combination with an adapted metric termed isothermal doubling time (IDT), akin to PCR efficiency, to compare quantitative PCR and quantitative loop-mediated isothermal amplification (qLAMP) assays, and to quantify the impact of matrix interference. The performance metric described here facilitates the comparison of qLAMP assays that could assist assay development and validation activities.

  20. Isothermal deformation of gamma titanium aluminide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivasan, R.; Singh, J.P.; Tuval, E.; Weiss, I.

    1996-01-01

    Gamma titanium aluminide has received considerable attention in recent years from the automotive industry as a potential material for making rotating and reciprocating components to produce a quieter and more efficient engine. The objectives of this study were to identify processing routes for the manufacture of automobile valves from gamma titanium aluminide. The issues considered were microstructure and composition of the material, and processing parameters such as deformation rates, temperatures, and total deformation. This paper examines isothermal deformation of gamma titanium aluminide in order to develop a processing window for this type of material

  1. Isothermal calorimetry of enzymatic biodiesel reaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjerbæk Søtoft, Lene; Westh, Peter; Christensen, Knud Villy

    2010-01-01

      Isothermal calorimetry ITC has been used to investigate enzymatic biodiesel production. The transesterification of rapeseed oil with methanol and ethanol was catalyzed by the immobilized lipase Novozym 435 at 40°C. The ITC-experiments clearly demonstrate the possibilities of investigating complex...... and composition change in the system, the heat of reaction at 40°C for the two systems has been determined to -9.8 ± 0.9 kJ/mole biodiesel formed from rapeseed oil and methanol, and - 9.3 ± 0.7 kJ/mole when rapeseed oil and ethanol is used....

  2. Isothermal Amplification and Lateral-Flow Assay for Detecting Crown-Gall-Causing Agrobacterium spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Skylar L; Savory, Elizabeth A; Weisberg, Alexandra J; Buser, Jessica Z; Gordon, Michael I; Putnam, Melodie L; Chang, Jeff H

    2017-09-01

    Agrobacterium is a genus of soilborne gram-negative bacteria. Members carrying oncogenic plasmids can cause crown gall disease, which has significant economic costs, especially for the orchard and nursery industries. Early and rapid detection of pathogenic Agrobacterium spp. is key to the management of crown gall disease. To this end, we designed oligonucleotide primers and probes to target virD2 for use in a molecular diagnostic tool that relies on isothermal amplification and lateral-flow-based detection. The oligonucleotide tools were tested in the assay and evaluated for detection limit and specificity in detecting alleles of virD2. One set of primers that successfully amplified virD2 when used with an isothermal recombinase was selected. Both tested probes had detection limits in picogram amounts of DNA. Probe 1 could detect all tested pathogenic isolates that represented most of the diversity of virD2. Finally, the coupling of lateral-flow detection to the use of these oligonucleotide primers in isothermal amplification helped to reduce the onerousness of the process, and alleviated reliance on specialized tools necessary for molecular diagnostics. The assay is an advancement for the rapid molecular detection of pathogenic Agrobacterium spp.

  3. Isothermal and non-isothermal conditions of isotope separation by chemical exchange method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khoroshilov, A.V.; Andreev, B.M.; Katalnikov, S.G.

    1992-01-01

    The published data about the effect of temperature on thermodynamic and mass transfer parameters of isotope separation by the chemical exchange method were used to examine the influence of iso- and non-isothermal conditions on the effectiveness of the separation process. It has been shown that simultaneous fulfillment of several optimization criteria is impossible in optimization of the isothermal process. If the limitation that temperature must be constant in the whole range of concentrational changes for an isolated isotope is removed, then it is possible to solve the problem of optimization with simultaneous fulfillment of several optimization criteria. When the separation process is carried out with non-isothermal conditions, that is, in temperature cascade, then the maximum concentration change takes place at every theoretical separation plate, and whole cascade is characterised by maximum throughput, minimum height and volume, and minimum cost for the stream reflux. From the results of our study, it was concluded that in the optimum temperature cascade, the cost of production of unity quantity of isotope can be decreased at least by a factor of two as compared with the optimal isothermal version of the separation process. (author)

  4. Isothermal martensite formation at sub-zero temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stojko, Allan; Hansen, Mikkel Fougt; Slycke, Jan

    2010-01-01

    austenitized and quenched in oil and thereafter investigated with vibrating sample agnetometry, which allows a quantitative assessment of the fraction of retained austenite as a function of the subzero temperature and time. Isothermal martensite formation was observed on interrupting the continuous cooling (5...... with a continuation of the martensitic transformation. On prolonged isothermal holding a volume reduction was observed for AISI 52100, but not for AISI 1070. A mechanism is proposed that explains the occurrence of isothermal martensite formation....

  5. Modeling and Prediction of Soil Water Vapor Sorption Isotherms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arthur, Emmanuel; Tuller, Markus; Moldrup, Per

    2015-01-01

    Soil water vapor sorption isotherms describe the relationship between water activity (aw) and moisture content along adsorption and desorption paths. The isotherms are important for modeling numerous soil processes and are also used to estimate several soil (specific surface area, clay content.......93) for a wide range of soils; and (ii) develop and test regression models for estimating the isotherms from clay content. Preliminary results show reasonable fits of the majority of the investigated empirical and theoretical models to the measured data although some models were not capable to fit both sorption...... directions accurately. Evaluation of the developed prediction equations showed good estimation of the sorption/desorption isotherms for tested soils....

  6. Isothermal and non-isothermal cure of a tri-functional epoxy resin (TGAP): a stochastic TMDSC study

    OpenAIRE

    Hutchinson, John M.; Shiravand, Fatemeh; Calventus Solé, Yolanda; Fraga Rivas, Iria

    2012-01-01

    The isothermal cure of a highly reactive tri-functional epoxy resin, tri-glycidyl para-amino phenol (TGAP), with diamino diphenyl sulphone (DDS), at two different cure temperatures Tc has been studied by both conventional differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and by a stochastic temperature modulated DSC technique, TOPEM. From a series of isothermal cure experiments for increasing cure times, the glass transition temperature Tg as a function of isothermal cure time is determined by co...

  7. Tunneling in cosmology and isothermal inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brout, R.; Spindel, P.

    1991-01-01

    The wave function for the universe, as proposed by Hartle and Hawking, experiences tunneling for small values of the radius of the universe. This induces thermal effects and so a hot big bang. We first give a detailed analysis of the observer accelerating in Minkowski space in terms of the tunneling of his wave function beyond his turning point. Applied to cosmology one finds a temperature at the big bang equal to the Gibbons-Hawking value. The residual thermal effects which result in an isothermal inflationary expansion give rise to a renormalized self-consistently determined Hubble constant (and hence Gibbons-Hawking temperature) through the trace anomaly. A thermodynamic interpretation is given. These results militate against phase transitions as a motor for inflation. (orig.)

  8. Moisture sorption isotherms of dehydrated whey proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana Rimac Brnčić

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Moisture sorption isotherms describe the relation between the moisture content of the dry material (food and relative humidity of the surrounding environment. The data obtained are important in modelling of drying process conditions, packaging and shelf-life stability of food that will provide maximum retaining of aroma, colour and texture as well as nutritive and biological value. The objective of this research was to establish the equilibrium moisture content and water activity, as well as monolayer value of two commercial powdered whey protein isolates before and after tribomechanical micronisation and enzymatic hydrolysis, respectively. At the same time it was necessary to evaluate the best moisture sorption isotherm equation to fit the experimental data. The equilibrium moisture contents in investigated samples were determined using standard gravimetric method at 20 °C. The range of water activities was 0.11 to 0.75. The monolayer moisture content was estimated from sorption data using Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET and Guggenheim-Anderson-de Boer (GAB models. The results have shown that tribomechanically treated whey protein isolates as well as protein hydrolizates had lower monolayer moisture content values as well as higher corresponding water activity. Therefore, in spite of the fact that they have lower moisture content, they can be storage at higher relative humidity compared to untreated samples. BET model gave better fit to experimental sorption data for a water activity range from 0.11-0.54, while GAB model gave the closest fit for a water activity to 0.75.

  9. ANALYTICAL SOLUTIONS OF SINGULAR ISOTHERMAL QUADRUPOLE LENS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu Zhe; Lin, W. P.; Yang Xiaofeng

    2013-01-01

    Using an analytical method, we study the singular isothermal quadrupole (SIQ) lens system, which is the simplest lens model that can produce four images. In this case, the radial mass distribution is in accord with the profile of the singular isothermal sphere lens, and the tangential distribution is given by adding a quadrupole on the monopole component. The basic properties of the SIQ lens have been studied in this Letter, including the deflection potential, deflection angle, magnification, critical curve, caustic, pseudo-caustic, and transition locus. Analytical solutions of the image positions and magnifications for the source on axes are derived. We find that naked cusps will appear when the relative intensity k of quadrupole to monopole is larger than 0.6. According to the magnification invariant theory of the SIQ lens, the sum of the signed magnifications of the four images should be equal to unity, as found by Dalal. However, if a source lies in the naked cusp, the summed magnification of the left three images is smaller than the invariant 1. With this simple lens system, we study the situations where a point source infinitely approaches a cusp or a fold. The sum of the magnifications of the cusp image triplet is usually not equal to 0, and it is usually positive for major cusps while negative for minor cusps. Similarly, the sum of magnifications of the fold image pair is usually not equal to 0 either. Nevertheless, the cusp and fold relations are still equal to 0 in that the sum values are divided by infinite absolute magnifications by definition.

  10. Financial Statement Audit Report of Isothermal Community College.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Ralph

    This report presents the results of the Isothermal Community College financial statement audit for the fiscal year ending on June 30, 1998. Isothermal Community College is a component of the State of North Carolina, thus the authority to audit is granted by Article 5A of G.S. 147. The accounts and operations of the institution were subject to…

  11. Adsorption isotherms and kinetics for dibenzothiophene on activated

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Adsorption isotherms were obtained and desulphurization kinetics were carried out on solutions of dibenzothiophene (DBT) and thiophene in a model fuel. The efficiencies of DBT and thiophene removal were reported. The adsorption isotherms fitted the Langmuir and Freundlich models. The highest adsorption capacity for ...

  12. Interpretation of Quasi-Isothermal Thermogravimetric Weight Curves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Ole Toft

    1979-01-01

    Quasi-isothermal analysis (QIA) is a very useful technique. Compared to conventional non-isothermal thermogravimetry, close-lying reactions can easily be separated by use of this method and kinetic data can be obtained for each intermediate reaction in a single run. This paper discusses the shape...

  13. New Theoretical Expressions for the Five Adsorption Type Isotherms ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    New Theoretical Expressions for the Five Adsorption Type Isotherms Classified by Bet Basing on Statistical Physics Treatment. ... that we have proposed, basing on statistical physics treatment, are rather powerful to better understand and interpret the various five physical adsorption Type isotherms at a microscopic level.

  14. Adsorption isotherm special study. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-05-01

    The study was designed to identify methods to determine adsorption applicable to Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project sites, and to determine how changes in aquifer conditions affect metal adsorption, resulting retardation factors, and estimated contaminant migration rates. EPA and ASTM procedures were used to estimate sediment sorption of U, As, and Mo under varying groundwater geochemical conditions. Aquifer matrix materials from three distinct locations at the DOE UMTRA Project site in Rifle, CO, were used as the adsorbents under different pH conditions; these conditions stimulated geochemical environments under the tailings, near the tailings, and downgradient from the tailings. Grain size, total surface area, bulk and clay mineralogy, and petrography of the sediments were characterized. U and Mo yielded linear isotherms, while As had nonlinear ones. U and Mo were adsorbed strongly on sediments acidified to levels similar to tailings leachate. Changes in pH had much less effect on As adsorption. Mo was adsorbed very little at pH 7-7.3, U was weakly sorbed, and As was moderately sorbed. Velocities were estimated for metal transport at different pHs. Results show that the aquifer materials must be characterized to estimate metal transport velocities in aquifers and to develop groundwater restoration strategies for the UMTRA project

  15. Isothermal thermogravimetric data acquisition analysis system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Kenneth, Jr.

    1991-01-01

    The description of an Isothermal Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA) Data Acquisition System is presented. The system consists of software and hardware to perform a wide variety of TGA experiments. The software is written in ANSI C using Borland's Turbo C++. The hardware consists of a 486/25 MHz machine with a Capital Equipment Corp. IEEE488 interface card. The interface is to a Hewlett Packard 3497A data acquisition system using two analog input cards and a digital actuator card. The system provides for 16 TGA rigs with weight and temperature measurements from each rig. Data collection is conducted in three phases. Acquisition is done at a rapid rate during initial startup, at a slower rate during extended data collection periods, and finally at a fast rate during shutdown. Parameters controlling the rate and duration of each phase are user programmable. Furnace control (raising and lowering) is also programmable. Provision is made for automatic restart in the event of power failure or other abnormal terminations. Initial trial runs were conducted to show system stability.

  16. Isothermal recovery rates in shape memory polyurethanes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azra, Charly; Plummer, Christopher J G; Månson, Jan-Anders E

    2011-01-01

    This work compares the time dependence of isothermal shape recovery in thermoset and thermoplastic shape memory polyurethanes (SMPUs) with comparable glass transition temperatures. In each case, tensile tests have been used to quantify the influence of various thermo-mechanical programming parameters (deformation temperature, recovery temperature, and stress and storage times following the deformation step) on strain recovery under zero load (free recovery) and stress recovery under fixed strain (constrained recovery). It is shown that the duration of the recovery event may be tuned over several decades of time with an appropriate choice of programming parameters, but that there is a trade-off between the rate of shape recovery and the recoverable stress level. The results are discussed in terms of the thermal characteristics of the SMPUs in the corresponding temperature range as characterized by modulated differential scanning calorimetry and dynamic mechanical analysis, with the emphasis on the role of the effective width of the glass transition temperature and the stability of the network that gives rise to the shape memory effect. (fast track communication)

  17. Phase field modeling of dendritic coarsening during isothermal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Yutuo

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Dendritic coarsening in Al-2mol%Si alloy during isothermal solidification at 880K was investigated by phase field modeling. Three coarsening mechanisms operate in the alloy: (a melting of small dendrite arms; (b coalescence of dendrites near the tips leading to the entrapment of liquid droplets; (c smoothing of dendrites. Dendrite melting is found to be dominant in the stage of dendritic growth, whereas coalescence of dendrites and smoothing of dendrites are dominant during isothermal holding. The simulated results provide a better understanding of dendrite coarsening during isothermal solidification.

  18. Isothermal curing of polymer layered silicate nanocomposites based upon epoxy resin by means of anionic homopolymerisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Román, Frida; Calventus, Yolanda; Colomer, Pere; Hutchinson, John M.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • The nanocomposite with low content of clay displayed improved thermal properties. • The vitrification was observed in the isothermal curing. • Dielectric relaxations outside and inside of the clay galleries were detected. - Abstract: The use of an initiator, 4-(dimethylamino) pyridine (DMAP), to promote an anionic homopolymerisation reaction for the isothermal cure of polymer layered silicate (PLS) nanocomposites based on an epoxy resin, as well as the effect of the nanoclay content, have been studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), dielectric relaxation spectroscopy (DRS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The vitrification phenomenon was observed during the isothermal cure process, and it was found that the nanocomposite with a low clay content (2 wt%), denoted EDM2, shows improved thermal properties with respect to the unreinforced resin (denoted ED), while the nanocomposite with a higher clay content (5 wt%), denoted EDM5, displayed inferior properties. The cure kinetics were analysed by different methods, and it was observed that the activation energy and kinetic parameters of EDM2 were lower compared to the other two systems. Examination of the nanostructure of the cured EDM2 nanocomposite showed partial exfoliation, while the EDM5 system retains an intercalated nanostructure. In the DRS studies of the curing process of the EDM2 system, two dielectric relaxations were detected, which are associated with the molecular mobility in the curing reaction which takes place both outside and inside the clay galleries

  19. 300 K Isothermal Equations of State of DADNE, DNAN, and LX-17

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaug, Joseph; Stavrou, Elissaios; Grivickas, Paulius; Pagoria, Phil; Hansen, Donald; Gagliardi, Franco; Sain, John; Bastea, Sorin

    2017-06-01

    Using a direct optical-based measurement approach, we report 10 GPa scale, 300 K isothermal equations of state (EOS) of single crystal 1,1-Diamino-2,2-dinitroethylene (DADNE, FOX-7), single crystal 2,4, Dintrosoanisole (DNAN) and a polymer blended explosive (PBX) composite LX-17 (92.5% triamino trinitro benzene (TATB), and 7.5% KEL-F 800). Results from quasi-statically compressed LX-17 represent the first-ever isothermal EOS measurements of a PBX. Recently, we published a paper outlining the utility of using in-house optical microscopy and interferometry (OMI) diagnostics to directly measure pressure dependent sample volumes of single crystals TATB and alpha-NTO compressed within diamond-anvil cell sample chambers. (Our TATB OMI results agree remarkably well with two independent powder x-ray diffraction EOS studies.) In addition, here we report single crystal pressure dependent indices of refraction from DADNE that clearly signal the onset of electronic and/or molecular (structural) transitions that are otherwise indistinguishable in 300 K plotted pressure-volume EOS isotherms. EOS model parameters are reported from weighted and unweighted fits to the OMI experimental data. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract No. DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  20. (PCR) and loop-mediated isothermal amplification

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-03-26

    Mar 26, 2014 ... Einsele H, Herbart H, Roller G (1997). Detection and identification of fungal pathogens in blood by using molecular probes. J. Clin. Microbiol. 35:1353-60. PMid:9163443 PMCid:PMC229748. Eljaschewitsch J, Sandfort J, Tintelnot K, Horbach I, Ruf B (1996).Port- a-cath-related Fusariumoxysporum infection ...

  1. Isothermal, kinetic and thermodynamic studies on basic dye sorption ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Isothermal, kinetic and thermodynamic studies on basic dye sorption onto tartaric acid esterified wheat straw. ... African Journal of Biotechnology ... esterified wheat straw (EWS), was originally prepared by solid phase thermochemistry method.

  2. Isothermal, kinetic and thermodynamic studies on basic dye sorption ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2009-12-15

    Dec 15, 2009 ... The isothermal data correlated with the Langmuir model better than the. Freundlich model. ... there were two intra-particle diffusion steps in the dye sorption processes. .... rated monolayer of sorbate molecule on the sorbent.

  3. Improved Isotherm Data for Adsorption of Methane on Activated Carbons

    KAUST Repository

    Loh, Wai Soong

    2010-08-12

    This article presents the adsorption isotherms of methane onto two different types of activated carbons, namely, Maxsorb III and ACF (A-20) at temperatures from (5 to 75) °C and pressures up to 2.5 MPa. The volumetric technique has been employed to measure the adsorption isotherms. The experimental results presented herein demonstrate the improved accuracy of the uptake values compared with previous measurement techniques for similar adsorbate-adsorbent combinations. The results are analyzed with various adsorption isotherm models. The heat of adsorption, which is concentration and temperature dependent, has been calculated from the measured isotherm data. Henry\\'s law coefficients for these adsorbent-methane pairs are also evaluated at various temperatures. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  4. Universality of isothermal fluid spheres in Lovelock gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadhich, Naresh; Hansraj, Sudan; Maharaj, Sunil D.

    2016-02-01

    We show universality of isothermal fluid spheres in pure Lovelock gravity where the equation of motion has only one N th order term coming from the corresponding Lovelock polynomial action of degree N . Isothermality is characterized by the equation of state, p =α ρ and the property, ρ ˜1 /r2 N . Then the solution describing isothermal spheres, which exist only for the pure Lovelock equation, is of the same form for the general Lovelock degree N in all dimensions d ≥2 N +2 . We further prove that the necessary and sufficient condition for the isothermal sphere is that its metric is conformal to the massless global monopole or the solid angle deficit metric, and this feature is also universal.

  5. Isothermal martensite formation at sub-zero temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stojko, Allan; Hansen, Mikkel Fougt; Slycke, Jan

    2012-01-01

    , quenched in oil, and thereafter investigated with vibrating sample magnetometry, which allows a quantitative assessment of the fraction of retained austenite as a function of the sub-zero temperature and time. Isothermal martensite formation was observed on interrupting the continuous cooling (5 K...... with a continuation of the martensitic transformation. On prolonged isothermal holding, a volume reduction was observed for AISI 52100, but not for AISI 1070. Copyright © 2011 by ASTM International....

  6. Integrated Microfluidic Nucleic Acid Isolation, Isothermal Amplification, and Amplicon Quantification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael G. Mauk

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Microfluidic components and systems for rapid (<60 min, low-cost, convenient, field-deployable sequence-specific nucleic acid-based amplification tests (NAATs are described. A microfluidic point-of-care (POC diagnostics test to quantify HIV viral load from blood samples serves as a representative and instructive example to discuss the technical issues and capabilities of “lab on a chip” NAAT devices. A portable, miniaturized POC NAAT with performance comparable to conventional PCR (polymerase-chain reaction-based tests in clinical laboratories can be realized with a disposable, palm-sized, plastic microfluidic chip in which: (1 nucleic acids (NAs are extracted from relatively large (~mL volume sample lysates using an embedded porous silica glass fiber or cellulose binding phase (“membrane” to capture sample NAs in a flow-through, filtration mode; (2 NAs captured on the membrane are isothermally (~65 °C amplified; (3 amplicon production is monitored by real-time fluorescence detection, such as with a smartphone CCD camera serving as a low-cost detector; and (4 paraffin-encapsulated, lyophilized reagents for temperature-activated release are pre-stored in the chip. Limits of Detection (LOD better than 103 virons/sample can be achieved. A modified chip with conduits hosting a diffusion-mode amplification process provides a simple visual indicator to readily quantify sample NA template. In addition, a companion microfluidic device for extracting plasma from whole blood without a centrifuge, generating cell-free plasma for chip-based molecular diagnostics, is described. Extensions to a myriad of related applications including, for example, food testing, cancer screening, and insect genotyping are briefly surveyed.

  7. Column Chromatography To Obtain Organic Cation Sorption Isotherms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolin, William C; Sullivan, James; Vasudevan, Dharni; MacKay, Allison A

    2016-08-02

    Column chromatography was evaluated as a method to obtain organic cation sorption isotherms for environmental solids while using the peak skewness to identify the linear range of the sorption isotherm. Custom packed HPLC columns and standard batch sorption techniques were used to intercompare sorption isotherms and solid-water sorption coefficients (Kd) for four organic cations (benzylamine, 2,4-dichlorobenzylamine, phenyltrimethylammonium, oxytetracycline) with two aluminosilicate clay minerals and one soil. A comparison of Freundlich isotherm parameters revealed isotherm linearity or nonlinearity was not significantly different between column chromatography and traditional batch experiments. Importantly, skewness (a metric of eluting peak symmetry) analysis of eluting peaks can establish isotherm linearity, thereby enabling a less labor intensive means to generate the extensive data sets of linear Kd values required for the development of predictive sorption models. Our findings clearly show that column chromatography can reproduce sorption measures from conventional batch experiments with the benefit of lower labor-intensity, faster analysis times, and allow for consistent sorption measures across laboratories with distinct chromatography instrumentation.

  8. An Isothermal Steam Expander for an Industrial Steam Supplying System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Kuang Lin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Steam is an essential medium used in the industrial process. To ensure steam quality, small and middle scale boilers are often adopted. However, because a higher steam pressure (compared to the necessary steam pressure is generated, the boiler’s steam pressure will be reduced via a pressure regulator before the steam is directed through the process. Unfortunately, pressure is somewhat wasted during the reducing process. Therefore, in order to promote energy efficiency, a pressure regulator is replaced by a steam expander. With this steam expander, the pressure will be transformed into mechanical energy and extracted during the expansion process. A new type of isothermal steam expander for an industrial steam supplying system will be presented in the paper. The isothermal steam expander will improve the energy efficiency of a traditional steam expander by replacing the isentropic process with an isothermal expansion process. With this, steam condensation will decrease, energy will increase, and steam quality will be improved. Moreover, the mathematical model of the isothermal steam expander will be established by using the Schmidt theory, the same principle used to analyze Stirling engines. Consequently, by verifying the correctness of the theoretical model for the isothermal steam expander using experimental data, a prototype of 100 c.c. isothermal steam expander is constructed.

  9. A novel approach for evaluating the performance of real time quantitative loop-mediated isothermal amplification-based methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavin J. Nixon

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Molecular diagnostic measurements are currently underpinned by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR. There are also a number of alternative nucleic acid amplification technologies, which unlike PCR, work at a single temperature. These ‘isothermal’ methods, reportedly offer potential advantages over PCR such as simplicity, speed and resistance to inhibitors and could also be used for quantitative molecular analysis. However there are currently limited mechanisms to evaluate their quantitative performance, which would assist assay development and study comparisons. This study uses a sexually transmitted infection diagnostic model in combination with an adapted metric termed isothermal doubling time (IDT, akin to PCR efficiency, to compare quantitative PCR and quantitative loop-mediated isothermal amplification (qLAMP assays, and to quantify the impact of matrix interference. The performance metric described here facilitates the comparison of qLAMP assays that could assist assay development and validation activities.

  10. Numerical studies of pulsating buoyant plume in isothermal and non isothermal situations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Pavan K.; Singh, R.K.; Mohanty, Ananya; Das, D.

    2014-01-01

    A computational study has been carried out for predicting the behaviour of buoyant plume in isothermal and non isothermal configuration. General simulation objectives of any buoyant flow simulation are macroscopic in nature and deals with the grass data in respect of buoyancy induced scalar transport. However, the accuracy of predicting such macroscopic parameters is a strong function of several other microscopic parameters which govern the overall macroscopic behaviour. Some of the microscopic parameters for analysis could be buoyancy induced stable/unstable flows, relative plume behaviour, baroclinic velocity distribution etc. Only the CFD based flow modelling approach is capable of calculating several of these aspects. LES based modelling scores over the conventional RANS based computational modelling. The primary objective of the present study was to model buoyant plume simulation of different types in order to explore the details regarding plume and flow structure, instabilities and puffing behaviour. One of the influencing parameters on the overall plume behaviour is the buoyancy resolution index i.e. fineness of chosen grid in relation to the buoyancy intensity and other hydrodynamic parameters. The grid sensitivity studies have been carried out to find out the optimum value grid size by way of buoyant pool fire simulations. Comparative simulation has also been made for a square and round pool fire and it was found that for engineering simulations equivalent area square pool modeling is sufficient. Using the optimum value of grid size and square pool shape simulations have been carried out for different value of fire intensity. The flame puffing frequency as calculated by the reported correlation was compared against the computationally observed puffing frequency and the agreement was generally found to be excellent. Besides these results the comparisons of predicted peak flames temperatures data for various case studies with the available experimental data

  11. Isothermal and non-isothermal infiltration and deuterium transport: a case study in a soil column from a headwater catchment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sobotková, M.; Sněhota, M.; Budínová, E.; Tesař, Miroslav

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 65, č. 3 (2017), s. 234-243 ISSN 0042-790X Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GA14-03691S Institutional support: RVO:67985874 Keywords : isothermal infiltration * non-isothermal infiltration * column leaching * breakthrough curve * deuterium * viscosity * capillary trapping * entrapped air * permeability Subject RIV: DA - Hydrology ; Limnology OBOR OECD: Environmental sciences (social aspects to be 5.7) Impact factor: 1.654, year: 2016

  12. Isothermal and non-isothermal cure of a tri-functional epoxy resin (TGAP): A stochastic TMDSC study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutchinson, John M.; Shiravand, Fatemeh; Calventus, Yolanda; Fraga, Iria

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► First evaluation of T g of tri-functional epoxy resin TGAP by DSC. ► Clearly shows advantages of TOPEM for isothermal and non-isothermal cure analysis. ► Evidence of highly non-linear enthalpy relaxation in partially cured TGAP system. - Abstract: The isothermal cure of a highly reactive tri-functional epoxy resin, tri-glycidyl para-amino phenol (TGAP), with diamino diphenyl sulphone (DDS), at two different cure temperatures T c has been studied by both conventional differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and by a stochastic temperature modulated DSC technique, TOPEM. From a series of isothermal cure experiments for increasing cure times, the glass transition temperature T g as a function of isothermal cure time is determined by conventional DSC from a second (non-isothermal) scan, and the vitrification time t v is obtained as the time at which T g = T c . In parallel, TOPEM experiments at the same T c lead directly to the determination of t v from the sigmoidal change in the quasi-static heat capacity. It is not possible to identify the glass transition temperature of the fully cured system, T g∞ , in a third scan by conventional DSC. In contrast, with TOPEM a second (non-isothermal) scan at 2 K/min after the isothermal cure gives rise to three separate transitions: devitrification of the partially cured and vitrified material; almost immediate vitrification as the T g of the system again rises; finally another devitrification, at a temperature approximating closely to T g∞ . Thus with TOPEM it is possible to obtain a calorimetric measure of the glass transition temperature of this fully cured system.

  13. Real-Time Fluorescence Loop Mediated Isothermal Amplification for the Detection of Acinetobacter baumannii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qinqin; Zhou, Yanbin; Li, Shaoli; Zhuo, Chao; Xu, Siqi; Huang, Lixia; Yang, Ling; Liao, Kang

    2013-01-01

    Background Detection of Acinetobacter baumannii has been relying primarily on bacterial culture that often fails to return useful results in time. Although DNA-based assays are more sensitive than bacterial culture in detecting the pathogen, the molecular results are often inconsistent and challenged by doubts on false positives, such as those due to system- and environment-derived contaminations. In addition, these molecular tools require expensive laboratory instruments. Therefore, establishing molecular tools for field use require simpler molecular platforms. The loop-mediated isothermal amplification method is relatively simple and can be improved for better use in a routine clinical bacteriology laboratory. A simple and portable device capable of performing both the amplification and detection (by fluorescence) of LAMP in the same platform has been developed in recent years. This method is referred to as real-time loop-mediated isothermal amplification. In this study, we attempted to utilize this method for rapid detection of A. baumannii. Methodology and Significant Findings Species-specific primers were designed to test the utility of this method. Clinical samples of A. baumannii were used to determine the sensitivity and specificity of this system compared to bacterial culture and a polymerase chain reaction method. All positive samples isolated from sputum were confirmed to be the species of Acinetobacter by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The RealAmp method was found to be simpler and allowed real-time detection of DNA amplification, and could distinguish A. baumannii from Acinetobacter calcoaceticus and Acinetobacter genomic species 3. DNA was extracted by simple boiling method. Compared to bacterial culture, the sensitivity and specificity of RealAmp in detecting A. baumannii was 98.9% and 75.0%, respectively. Conclusion The RealAmp assay only requires a single unit, and the assay positivity can be verified by visual inspection. Therefore, this assay has

  14. Production of valuable pyrolytic oils from mixed Municipal Solid Waste (MSW in Indonesia using non-isothermal and isothermal experimental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indra Mamad Gandidi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Municipal solid waste (MSW, disposed of at open dumping sites, poses health risks, contaminates surface water, and releases greenhouse gasses such as methane. However, pyrolysis offers the opportunity to convert MSW into Bio-Oil (BO for clean energy resource. In this paper, an MSW sample consisting of plastic, paper and cardboard, rubber and textiles, and vegetable waste is pyrolysed on a laboratory scale in a fixed-bed vacuum reactor. In the non-isothermal process, the sample was fed into the reactor and then heated. In the isothermal process, the reactor is first heated and then the sample is added. The non-isothermal process created greater BO in both quality and quantity. The BO had a larger amount of gasoline species than diesel-48 fuel, with at 33.44%the BO produced by isothermal pyrolysis and 36.42% in non-isothermal pyrolysis. However the product of isothermal pyrolysis had a higher acid content that reduced its heating value.

  15. Modeling of adsorption isotherms of phenol and chlorophenols onto granular activated carbon. Part I. Two-parameter models and equations allowing determination of thermodynamic parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdaoui, Oualid; Naffrechoux, Emmanuel

    2007-08-17

    The adsorption equilibrium isotherms of five phenolic compounds from aqueous solutions onto granular activated carbon (GAC) were studied and modeled. Phenol (Ph), 2-chlorophenol (2-CP), 4-chlorophenol (4-CP), 2,4-dichlorophenol (DCP), and 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (TCP) were chosen for the adsorption tests. To predict the adsorption isotherms and to determine the characteristic parameters for process design, seven isotherm models: Langmuir (five linear forms), Freundlich, Elovich, Temkin, Fowler-Guggenheim, Kiselev, and Hill-de Boer models were applied to experimental data. The results reveal that the adsorption isotherm models fitted the data in the order: Fowler-Guggenheim>Hill-de Boer>Temkin>Freundlich>Kiselev>Langmuir isotherms. Adsorption isotherms modeling shows that the interaction of phenolic compounds with activated carbon surface is localized monolayer adsorption, that is adsorbed molecules are adsorbed at definite, localized sites. Each site can accommodate only one molecule. The interaction among adsorbed molecules is repulsive and there is no association between them, adsorption is carried out on energetically different sites and is an exothermic process. Uptake of phenols increases in the order Ph<2-CP<4-CPmolecular weight, cross-sectional area, and hydrophobicity and decrease in solubility and pKa. Additionally, for the four tested chlorophenols, it seems that the magnitude of adsorption is directly proportional to their degree of chlorination.

  16. Applications of isothermal titration calorimetry - the research and technical developments from 2011 to 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falconer, Robert J

    2016-10-01

    Isothermal titration calorimetry is a widely used biophysical technique for studying the formation or dissociation of molecular complexes. Over the last 5 years, much work has been published on the interpretation of isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) data for single binding and multiple binding sites. As over 80% of ITC papers are on macromolecules of biological origin, this interpretation is challenging. Some researchers have attempted to link the thermodynamics constants to events at the molecular level. This review highlights work carried out using binding sites characterized using x-ray crystallography techniques that allow speculation about individual bond formation and the displacement of individual water molecules during ligand binding and link these events to the thermodynamic constants for binding. The review also considers research conducted with synthetic binding partners where specific binding events like anion-π and π-π interactions were studied. The revival of assays that enable both thermodynamic and kinetic information to be collected from ITC data is highlighted. Lastly, published criticism of ITC research from a physical chemistry perspective is appraised and practical advice provided for researchers unfamiliar with thermodynamics and its interpretation. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Development of a rapid diagnostic assay for the detection of tomato chlorotic dwarf viroid based on isothermal reverse-transcription-recombinase polymerase amplification

    Science.gov (United States)

    A molecular diagnostic assay utilizing reverse transcription-recombinase polymerase amplification (RT-RPA) at an isothermal constant temperature of 39 °C and target-specific primers and probe were developed for the rapid, sensitive, and specific detection of tomato chlorotic dwarf viroid (TCDVd) in ...

  18. Analysis of form deviation in non-isothermal glass molding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreilkamp, H.; Grunwald, T.; Dambon, O.; Klocke, F.

    2018-02-01

    Especially in the market of sensors, LED lighting and medical technologies, there is a growing demand for precise yet low-cost glass optics. This demand poses a major challenge for glass manufacturers who are confronted with the challenge arising from the trend towards ever-higher levels of precision combined with immense pressure on market prices. Since current manufacturing technologies especially grinding and polishing as well as Precision Glass Molding (PGM) are not able to achieve the desired production costs, glass manufacturers are looking for alternative technologies. Non-isothermal Glass Molding (NGM) has been shown to have a big potential for low-cost mass manufacturing of complex glass optics. However, the biggest drawback of this technology at the moment is the limited accuracy of the manufactured glass optics. This research is addressing the specific challenges of non-isothermal glass molding with respect to form deviation of molded glass optics. Based on empirical models, the influencing factors on form deviation in particular form accuracy, waviness and surface roughness will be discussed. A comparison with traditional isothermal glass molding processes (PGM) will point out the specific challenges of non-isothermal process conditions. Furthermore, the underlying physical principle leading to the formation of form deviations will be analyzed in detail with the help of numerical simulation. In this way, this research contributes to a better understanding of form deviations in non-isothermal glass molding and is an important step towards new applications demanding precise yet low-cost glass optics.

  19. Binding Isotherms and Time Courses Readily from Magnetic Resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jia; Van Doren, Steven R

    2016-08-16

    Evidence is presented that binding isotherms, simple or biphasic, can be extracted directly from noninterpreted, complex 2D NMR spectra using principal component analysis (PCA) to reveal the largest trend(s) across the series. This approach renders peak picking unnecessary for tracking population changes. In 1:1 binding, the first principal component captures the binding isotherm from NMR-detected titrations in fast, slow, and even intermediate and mixed exchange regimes, as illustrated for phospholigand associations with proteins. Although the sigmoidal shifts and line broadening of intermediate exchange distorts binding isotherms constructed conventionally, applying PCA directly to these spectra along with Pareto scaling overcomes the distortion. Applying PCA to time-domain NMR data also yields binding isotherms from titrations in fast or slow exchange. The algorithm readily extracts from magnetic resonance imaging movie time courses such as breathing and heart rate in chest imaging. Similarly, two-step binding processes detected by NMR are easily captured by principal components 1 and 2. PCA obviates the customary focus on specific peaks or regions of images. Applying it directly to a series of complex data will easily delineate binding isotherms, equilibrium shifts, and time courses of reactions or fluctuations.

  20. Multiple strategies to improve sensitivity, speed and robustness of isothermal nucleic acid amplification for rapid pathogen detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lemieux Bertrand

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the past decades the rapid growth of molecular diagnostics (based on either traditional PCR or isothermal amplification technologies meet the demand for fast and accurate testing. Although isothermal amplification technologies have the advantages of low cost requirements for instruments, the further improvement on sensitivity, speed and robustness is a prerequisite for the applications in rapid pathogen detection, especially at point-of-care diagnostics. Here, we describe and explore several strategies to improve one of the isothermal technologies, helicase-dependent amplification (HDA. Results Multiple strategies were approached to improve the overall performance of the isothermal amplification: the restriction endonuclease-mediated DNA helicase homing, macromolecular crowding agents, and the optimization of reaction enzyme mix. The effect of combing all strategies was compared with that of the individual strategy. With all of above methods, we are able to detect 50 copies of Neisseria gonorrhoeae DNA in just 20 minutes of amplification using a nearly instrument-free detection platform (BESt™ cassette. Conclusions The strategies addressed in this proof-of-concept study are independent of expensive equipments, and are not limited to particular primers, targets or detection format. However, they make a large difference in assay performance. Some of them can be adjusted and applied to other formats of nucleic acid amplification. Furthermore, the strategies to improve the in vitro assays by maximally simulating the nature conditions may be useful in the general field of developing molecular assays. A new fast molecular assay for Neisseria gonorrhoeae has also been developed which has great potential to be used at point-of-care diagnostics.

  1. Determination of the friction coefficient via the force autocorrelation function. A molecular dynamics investigation for a dense Lennard-Jones fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogelsang, R.; Hoheisel, C.

    1987-01-01

    For a large region of dense fluid states of a Lennard-Jones system, they have calculated the friction coefficient by the force autocorrelation function of a Brownian-type particle by molecular dynamics (MD). The time integral over the force autocorrelation function showed an interesting behavior and the expected plateau value when the mass of the Brownian particle was chosen to be about a factor of 100 larger than the mass of the fluid particle. Sufficient agreement was found for the friction coefficient calculated by this way and that obtained by calculations of the self-diffusion coefficient using the common relation between these coefficients. Furthermore, a modified friction coefficient was determined by integration of the force autocorrelation function up to the first maximum. This coefficient can successfully be used to derive a reasonable soft part of the friction coefficient necessary for the Rice-Allnatt approximation for the shear velocity and simple liquids

  2. Determination of Differential Enthalpy and Isotherm by Adsorption Calorimetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Garcia-Cuello

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available An adsorption microcalorimeter for the simultaneous determination of the differential heat of adsorption and the adsorption isotherm for gas-solid systems are designed, built, and tested. For this purpose, a Calvet heat-conducting microcalorimeter is developed and is connected to a gas volumetric unit built in stainless steel to record adsorption isotherms. The microcalorimeter is electrically calibrated to establish its sensitivity and reproducibility, obtaining K=154.34±0.23 WV−1. The adsorption microcalorimeter is used to obtain adsorption isotherms and the corresponding differential heats for the adsorption of CO2 on a reference solid, such as a NaZSM-5 type zeolite. Results for the behavior of this system are compared with those obtained with commercial equipment and with other studies in the literature.

  3. Mathematical modelling of the sorption isotherms of quince

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitrevski Vangelce

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The moisture adsorption isotherms of quince were determined at four temperatures 15, 30, 45, and 60°C over a range of water activity from 0.110 to 0.920 using the standard static gravimetric method. The experimental data were fitted with generated three parameter sorption isotherm models on Mitrevski et al., and the referent Anderson model known in the scientific and engineering literature as Guggenheim- Anderson-de Boer model. In order to find which models give the best results, large number of numerical experiments was performed. After that, several statistical criteria for estimation and selection of the best sorption isotherm model was used. The performed statistical analysis shows that the generated three parameter model M11 gave the best fit to the sorption data of quince than the referent three parameter Anderson model.

  4. Sorption isotherms: A review on physical bases, modeling and measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Limousin, G. [Atomic Energy Commission, Tracers Technology Laboratory, 38054 Grenoble Cedex (France) and Laboratoire d' etude des Transferts en Hydrologie et Environnement (CNRS-INPG-IRD-UJF), BP 53, 38041 Grenoble Cedex (France)]. E-mail: guillaumelimousin@yahoo.fr; Gaudet, J.-P. [Laboratoire d' etude des Transferts en Hydrologie et Environnement (CNRS-INPG-IRD-UJF), BP 53, 38041 Grenoble Cedex (France); Charlet, L. [Laboratoire de Geophysique Interne et Techtonophysique - CNRS-IRD-LCPC-UJF-Universite de Savoie, BP 53, 38041 Grenoble Cedex (France); Szenknect, S. [Atomic Energy Commission, Tracers Technology Laboratory, 38054 Grenoble Cedex (France); Barthes, V. [Atomic Energy Commission, Tracers Technology Laboratory, 38054 Grenoble Cedex (France); Krimissa, M. [Electricite de France, Division Recherche et Developpement, Laboratoire National d' Hydraulique et d' Environnement - P78, 6 quai Watier, 78401 Chatou (France)

    2007-02-15

    The retention (or release) of a liquid compound on a solid controls the mobility of many substances in the environment and has been quantified in terms of the 'sorption isotherm'. This paper does not review the different sorption mechanisms. It presents the physical bases underlying the definition of a sorption isotherm, different empirical or mechanistic models, and details several experimental methods to acquire a sorption isotherm. For appropriate measurements and interpretations of isotherm data, this review emphasizes 4 main points: (i) the adsorption (or desorption) isotherm does not provide automatically any information about the reactions involved in the sorption phenomenon. So, mechanistic interpretations must be carefully verified. (ii) Among studies, the range of reaction times is extremely wide and this can lead to misinterpretations regarding the irreversibility of the reaction: a pseudo-hysteresis of the release compared with the retention is often observed. The comparison between the mean characteristic time of the reaction and the mean residence time of the mobile phase in the natural system allows knowing if the studied retention/release phenomenon should be considered as an instantaneous reversible, almost irreversible phenomenon, or if reaction kinetics must be taken into account. (iii) When the concentration of the retained substance is low enough, the composition of the bulk solution remains constant and a single-species isotherm is often sufficient, although it remains strongly dependent on the background medium. At higher concentrations, sorption may be driven by the competition between several species that affect the composition of the bulk solution. (iv) The measurement method has a great influence. Particularly, the background ionic medium, the solid/solution ratio and the use of flow-through or closed reactor are of major importance. The chosen method should balance easy-to-use features and representativity of the studied

  5. Detection and Characterization of Viral Species/Subspecies Using Isothermal Recombinase Polymerase Amplification (RPA) Assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glais, Laurent; Jacquot, Emmanuel

    2015-01-01

    Numerous molecular-based detection protocols include an amplification step of the targeted nucleic acids. This step is important to reach the expected sensitive detection of pathogens in diagnostic procedures. Amplifications of nucleic acid sequences are generally performed, in the presence of appropriate primers, using thermocyclers. However, the time requested to amplify molecular targets and the cost of the thermocycler machines could impair the use of these methods in routine diagnostics. Recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) technique allows rapid (short-term incubation of sample and primers in an enzymatic mixture) and simple (isothermal) amplification of molecular targets. RPA protocol requires only basic molecular steps such as extraction procedures and agarose gel electrophoresis. Thus, RPA can be considered as an interesting alternative to standard molecular-based diagnostic tools. In this paper, the complete procedures to set up an RPA assay, applied to detection of RNA (Potato virus Y, Potyvirus) and DNA (Wheat dwarf virus, Mastrevirus) viruses, are described. The proposed procedure allows developing species- or subspecies-specific detection assay.

  6. Isothermality of the gas in the Coma cluster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, J.P.; Yamashita, K.; Okumura, Y.; Tsunemi, H.; Matsuoka, M.

    1988-01-01

    The high-quality X-ray spectrum of the Coma cluster observed by the Japanese satelite Tenma in conjunction with imaging data from the Einstein Observatory was used to explore the temperature distribution of the cluster gas. It is found that pure polytropic models are inadequate to describe this temperature distribution. Instead, a hybrid model is proposed consisting of a central isothermal region surrounded by a polytropic distribution. It is shown that as much as 75 percent of the global emission may come from the isothermal component. 30 references

  7. Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification Using a Lab-on-a-Disc Device with Thin-film Phase Change Material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Junguk; Yoo, Jae-Chern

    2018-03-05

    The design and fabrication of temperature measurement systems that facilitate successful realization of DNA amplification using a lab-on-a-disc (LOD) device are a highly challenging task. The major challenge lies in the fact that such a system must be directly attached to a heating chamber in a way that enables the accurate measurement of temperature of the chamber while allowing the LOD to rotate. This paper presents a temperature control system for implementing isothermal amplification of DNA samples using an LOD device. The proposed system utilizes a thin-film phase change material and non-contact heating system to remotely measure the actual temperature of the chamber and, if required, rapidly heat it to the desired temperature. The results of the experiments performed in this study demonstrate that the proposed system provides an automated platform for molecular amplification and exhibits an operational performance comparable to that of traditional microcentrifuge tube-based isothermal amplification systems.

  8. Wave propagation in a non-isothermal atmosphere and the solar five-minute oscillations. [Acoustic waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiuderi, C; Giovanardi, C [Florence Univ. (Italy). Istituto di Astronomia

    1979-11-01

    This paper presents a detailed discussion of the properties of linear, periodic acoustic waves that propagate vertically in a non-isothermal atmosphere. In order to retain the basic feature of the solar atmosphere we have chosen a temperature profile presenting a minimum. An analytical solution of the problem is possible if T/..mu.., ..mu.. being the mean molecular weight, varies parabolically with height. The purpose of this study is to point out the qualitative differences existing between the case treated here and the customary analysis based on a locally isothermal treatment. The computed velocity amplitude and the temperature-perturbation as functions of the wave period exhibit a sharp peak in the region between 180 and 300 s, thus showing the possibility of interpreting the five-minute oscillations as a resonant phenomenon. The propagating or stationary nature of the waves is investigated by a study of the phase of the proposed analytical solution.

  9. Influence of pre-treatments on the desorption isotherm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Influence of pre-treatments on the desorption isotherm characteristics of plaintain. P-N T Johnson. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/gjs.v39i1.15851 · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for ...

  10. Isotherm, kinetic, and thermodynamic study of ciprofloxacin sorption on sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutavdžić Pavlović, Dragana; Ćurković, Lidija; Grčić, Ivana; Šimić, Iva; Župan, Josip

    2017-04-01

    In this study, equilibrium isotherms, kinetics and thermodynamics of ciprofloxacin on seven sediments in a batch sorption process were examined. The effects of contact time, initial ciprofloxacin concentration, temperature and ionic strength on the sorption process were studied. The K d parameter from linear sorption model was determined by linear regression analysis, while the Freundlich and Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) sorption models were applied to describe the equilibrium isotherms by linear and nonlinear methods. The estimated K d values varied from 171 to 37,347 mL/g. The obtained values of E (free energy estimated from D-R isotherm model) were between 3.51 and 8.64 kJ/mol, which indicated a physical nature of ciprofloxacin sorption on studied sediments. According to obtained n values as measure of intensity of sorption estimate from Freundlich isotherm model (from 0.69 to 1.442), ciprofloxacin sorption on sediments can be categorized from poor to moderately difficult sorption characteristics. Kinetics data were best fitted by the pseudo-second-order model (R 2  > 0.999). Thermodynamic parameters including the Gibbs free energy (ΔG°), enthalpy (ΔH°) and entropy (ΔS°) were calculated to estimate the nature of ciprofloxacin sorption. Results suggested that sorption on sediments was a spontaneous exothermic process.

  11. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) based detection of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-05-07

    May 7, 2014 ... 2 months for growing in a culture. Therefore, to control .... The LAMP reaction is carried out in a 25 µL reaction mixture containing ..... J. Fish Dis. 32(6):491-497. Goto M, Honda E, Ogura A, Nomoto A, Hanaki K (2009). Colorimetric detection of loop-mediated isothermal amplification reaction by using hydroxy ...

  12. RAND-Based Formulations for Isothermal Multiphase Flash

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paterson, Duncan; Michelsen, Michael L.; Stenby, Erling H.

    2018-01-01

    Two algorithms are proposed for isothermal multiphase flash. These are referred to as modified RAND and vol-RAND. The former uses the chemical potentials and molar-phase amounts as the iteration variables, while the latter uses chemical potentials and phase volumes to cosolve a pressure...

  13. Isothermal Titration Calorimetry Can Provide Critical Thinking Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Dale E.; Goode, David R.; Seney, Caryn S.; Boatwright, Jennifer M.

    2016-01-01

    College chemistry faculties might not have considered including isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) in their majors' curriculum because experimental data from this instrumental method are often analyzed via automation (software). However, the software-based data analysis can be replaced with a spreadsheet-based analysis that is readily…

  14. Water adsorption isotherms and thermodynamic properties of cassava bagasse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polachini, Tiago Carregari; Betiol, Lilian Fachin Leonardo; Lopes-Filho, José Francisco; Telis-Romero, Javier

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Adsorption isotherms and composition of cassava bagasse were determined. • GAB equation was the best-fitted model to sorption data of type II isotherm. • Isosteric heat of sorption was calculated in a range of equilibrium moisture content. • Differential enthalpy and entropy confirmed the isokinetic compensation theory. • Water adsorption by cassava bagasse is considered an enthalpy driven process. - Abstract: Losses of food industry are generally wet products that must be dried to posterior use and storage. In order to optimize drying processes, the study of isotherms and thermodynamic properties become essential to understand the water sorption mechanisms of cassava bagasse. For this, cassava bagasse was chemically analyzed and had its adsorption isotherms determined in the range of 293.15–353.15 K through the static gravimetric method. The models of GAB, Halsey, Henderson, Oswin and Peleg were fitted, and best adjustments were found for GAB model with R"2 > 0.998 and no pattern distribution of residual plots. Isosteric heat of adsorption and thermodynamic parameters could be determined as a function of moisture content. Compensation theory was confirmed, with linear relationship between enthalpy and entropy and higher values of isokinetic temperature (T_B = 395.62 K) than harmonic temperature. Water adsorption was considered driven by enthalpy, clarifying the mechanisms of water vapor sorption in cassava bagasse.

  15. Improved Isotherm Data for Adsorption of Methane on Activated Carbons

    KAUST Repository

    Loh, Wai Soong; Rahman, Kazi Afzalur; Chakraborty, Anutosh; Saha, Bidyut Baran; Choo, Yoo Sang; Khoo, Boo Cheong; Ng, Kim Choon

    2010-01-01

    This article presents the adsorption isotherms of methane onto two different types of activated carbons, namely, Maxsorb III and ACF (A-20) at temperatures from (5 to 75) °C and pressures up to 2.5 MPa. The volumetric technique has been employed

  16. ISOTHERMAL AND THERMOMECHANICAL FATIGUE OF A NICKEL-BASE SUPERALLOY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Carvalho Engler-Pinto Júnior

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Thermal gradients arising during transient regimes of start-up and shutdown operations produce a complex thermal and mechanical fatigue loading which limits the life of turbine blades and other engine components operating at high temperatures. More accurate and reliable assessment under non-isothermal fatigue becomes therefore mandatory. This paper investigates the nickel base superalloy CM 247LC-DS under isothermal low cycle fatigue (LCF and thermomechanical fatigue (TMF. Test temperatures range from 600°C to 1,000°C. The behavior of the alloy is strongly affected by the temperature variation, especially in the 800°C-1,000°C range. The Ramberg-Osgood equation fits very well the observed isothermal behavior for the whole temperature range. The simplified non-isothermal stress-strain model based on linear plasticity proposed to represent the thermo-mechanical fatigue behavior was able to reproduce the observed behavior for both in-phase and out-of-phase TMF cycling.

  17. Development and application of a loop-mediated isothermal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Haemophilus parasuis is the causative agent of Glässer's disease that has received much attention recently, due to the increasing economic losses this disease inflicts upon the pig industry worldwide. In this study, loop-mediated isothermal amplification method (LAMP) methodology was designed for diagnosing H.

  18. Development of loop-mediated isothermal amplification method for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A novel assay method to detect the highly virulent Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) termed reverse transcriptase loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP), was reported by using hydroxynaphthol blue (HNB) as the LAMP product colorimetric judgment. By the set of special primers, ...

  19. Detection of feline Coronavirus in effusions of cats with and without feline infectious peritonitis using loop-mediated isothermal amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günther, Sonja; Felten, Sandra; Wess, Gerhard; Hartmann, Katrin; Weber, Karin

    2018-06-01

    Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) is a fatal disease in cats worldwide. The aim of this study was to test two commercially available reaction mixtures in a reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assay to detect feline Coronavirus (FCoV) in body cavity effusions of cats with and without FIP, in order to minimize the time from sampling to obtaining results. RNA was extracted from body cavity effusion samples of 71 cats, including 34 samples from cats with a definitive diagnosis of FIP, and 37 samples of control cats with similar clinical signs but other confirmed diseases. Two reaction mixtures (Isothermal Mastermix, OptiGene Ltd.and PCRun™ Molecular Detection Mix, Biogal) were tested using the same primers, which were designed to bind to a conserved region of the FCoV membrane protein gene. Both assays were conducted under isothermal conditions (61 °C-62 °C). Using the Isothermal Mastermix of OptiGene Ltd., amplification times ranged from 4 and 39 min with a sensitivity of 35.3% and a specificity of 94.6% for the reported sample group. Using the PCRun™ Molecular Detection Mix of Biogal, amplification times ranged from 18 to 77 min with a sensitivity of 58.8% and a specificity of 97.3%. Although the RT-LAMP assay is less sensitive than real time reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR), it can be performed without the need of expensive equipment and with less hands-on time. Further modifications of primers might lead to a suitable in-house test and accelerate the diagnosis of FIP. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Microfluidic method for rapid turbidimetric detection of the DNA of Mycobacterium tuberculosis using loop-mediated isothermal amplification in capillary tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rafati, Adele; Gill, Pooria

    2015-01-01

    We describe a microfluidic method for rapid isothermal turbidimetric detection of the DNA of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification is accomplished in capillary tubes for amplifying DNA in less than 15 min, and sensitivity and specificity were compared to conventional loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP). The method can detect as little as 1 pg mL −1 DNA in a sample. Results obtained with clinical specimens indicated 90 % sensitivity and 95 % specificity for microfluidic LAMP in comparison to culture methods. No interference occurred due to the presence of nonspecific DNAs. The findings demonstrate the power of the new microfluidic LAMP test for rapid molecular detection of microorganisms even when using bare eyes. (author)

  1. Limitations of sorption isotherms on modeling groundwater contaminant transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Eduardo Figueira da

    2007-01-01

    Design and safety assessment of radioactive waste repositories, as well as remediation of radionuclide contaminated groundwater require the development of models capable of accurately predicting trace element fate and transport. Adsorption of trace radionuclides onto soils and groundwater is an important mechanism controlling near- and far- field transport. Although surface complexation models (SCMs) can better describe the adsorption mechanisms of most radionuclides onto mineral surfaces by directly accounting for variability of system properties and mineral surface properties, isotherms are still used to model contaminant transport in groundwater, despite the much higher system dependence. The present work investigates differences between transport model results based on these two approaches for adsorption modeling. A finite element transport model is used for the isotherm model, whereas the computer program PHREEQC is used for the SCM approach. Both models are calibrated for a batch experiment, and one-dimensional transport is simulated using the calibrated parameters. At the lower injected concentrations there are large discrepancies between SCM and isotherm transport predictions, with the SCM presenting much longer tails on the breakthrough curves. Isotherms may also provide non-conservative results for time to breakthrough and for maximum concentration in a contamination plume. Isotherm models are shown not to be robust enough to predict transport behavior of some trace elements, thus discouraging their use. The results also illustrate the promise of the SCM modeling approach in safety assessment and environmental remediation applications, also suggesting that independent batch sorption measurements can be used, within the framework of the SCM, to produce a more versatile and realistic groundwater transport model for radionuclides which is capable of accounting more accurately for temporal and spatial variations in geochemical conditions. (author)

  2. Isothermal crystallization and melting behavior of polypropylene/layered double hydroxide nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lonkar, Sunil P.; Singh, R.P.

    2009-01-01

    The effect of layered double hydroxide (LDH) nanolayers on the crystallization behavior of polypropylene (PP) was studied based on the preparation of nanocomposites by a melt intercalation method. The isothermal crystallization kinetics and subsequent melting behavior of PP/LDH hybrids were studied with differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), polarized optical microscopy (POM), and wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD). Studies revealed that the LDH promoted heterogeneous nucleation, accelerating the crystallization of PP. The Avrami equation successfully describes the isothermal crystallization kinetics of PP/LDH hybrids and signifies heterogeneous nucleation in crystal growth of PP. The varying values of Avrami exponent (n) and half crystallization time (t 1/2 ) of PP and PP/LDH hybrids describes overall crystallization behavior. The crystallite size (D hkl ) and distribution of different crystallites in PP varied in presence of LDH. A significant increase in melting temperature is observed for PP/LDH hybrids. The POM showed that smaller and less perfect crystals were formed in nanocomposites because of molecular interaction between PP chains and LDH. The value of fold surface free energy (σ e ) of PP chains decreased with increasing LDH content. Finally, the overall results signify that LDH at nanometer level acted as nucleating agent and accelerate the overall crystallization process of PP.

  3. Endpoint visual detection of three genetically modified rice events by loop-mediated isothermal amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaoyun; Wang, Xiaofu; Jin, Nuo; Zhou, Yu; Huang, Sainan; Miao, Qingmei; Zhu, Qing; Xu, Junfeng

    2012-11-07

    Genetically modified (GM) rice KMD1, TT51-1, and KF6 are three of the most well known transgenic Bt rice lines in China. A rapid and sensitive molecular assay for risk assessment of GM rice is needed. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR), currently the most common method for detecting genetically modified organisms, requires temperature cycling and relatively complex procedures. Here we developed a visual and rapid loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) method to amplify three GM rice event-specific junction sequences. Target DNA was amplified and visualized by two indicators (SYBR green or hydroxy naphthol blue [HNB]) within 60 min at an isothermal temperature of 63 °C. Different kinds of plants were selected to ensure the specificity of detection and the results of the non-target samples were negative, indicating that the primer sets for the three GM rice varieties had good levels of specificity. The sensitivity of LAMP, with detection limits at low concentration levels (0.01%−0.005% GM), was 10- to 100-fold greater than that of conventional PCR. Additionally, the LAMP assay coupled with an indicator (SYBR green or HNB) facilitated analysis. These findings revealed that the rapid detection method was suitable as a simple field-based test to determine the status of GM crops.

  4. Endpoint Visual Detection of Three Genetically Modified Rice Events by Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Zhu

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Genetically modified (GM rice KMD1, TT51-1, and KF6 are three of the most well known transgenic Bt rice lines in China. A rapid and sensitive molecular assay for risk assessment of GM rice is needed. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR, currently the most common method for detecting genetically modified organisms, requires temperature cycling and relatively complex procedures. Here we developed a visual and rapid loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP method to amplify three GM rice event-specific junction sequences. Target DNA was amplified and visualized by two indicators (SYBR green or hydroxy naphthol blue [HNB] within 60 min at an isothermal temperature of 63 °C. Different kinds of plants were selected to ensure the specificity of detection and the results of the non-target samples were negative, indicating that the primer sets for the three GM rice varieties had good levels of specificity. The sensitivity of LAMP, with detection limits at low concentration levels (0.01%–0.005% GM, was 10- to 100-fold greater than that of conventional PCR. Additionally, the LAMP assay coupled with an indicator (SYBR green or HNB facilitated analysis. These findings revealed that the rapid detection method was suitable as a simple field-based test to determine the status of GM crops.

  5. Experimental and Numerical Studies on Isothermal and Non-isothermal Deep Drawing of IS 513 CR3 Steel Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayavan, T.; Karthikeyan, L.; Senthilkumar, V. S.

    2016-11-01

    The present work aims to investigate the effects of the temperature gradient developed within the tool profiles on the formability of IS 513 CR3-grade steel sheets using the cup drawing test. The deformation characteristics of steel sheets were analyzed by comparing the thicknesses in various regions of the formed cup and also the limiting drawing ratios (LDR). Finite element simulations were carried out to predict the behavior of the steel sheets in isothermal and non-isothermal forming using Abaqus/Standard 6.12-1. An analytical model created by Kim was used to validate the experimental and finite element analysis (FEA) results on identical process parameters. Both the FEA and analytical modeling results showed that formability improvement is possible in warm forming; the findings are in good agreement with the experimental results in determining the locations and values of excessive thinning. The results also indicated that formability improvement cannot be achieved by keeping the tooling temperature at the same level. The LDR increased by around 9.5% in isothermal forming and by 19% in non-isothermal forming (with the punch maintained at a lower temperature compared with the die and blank holder). In addition, the fractured surfaces of unsuccessfully formed samples were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy. Metallographic investigations confirmed that the fracture mechanism during the forming of IS 513 CR3-grade steel sheets depends on the brittleness, strain hardening value, forming temperature, and magnitude of stresses developed.

  6. Kinetic details of crystallization in supercooled liquid Pb during the isothermal relaxation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Lili; Liu Rangsu; Tian Zean; Liu Hairong; Hou Zhaoyang; Peng Ping; Zhu Xuanmin; Liu Quanhui

    2012-01-01

    The kinetic details of crystallization in supercooled liquid Pb during the isothermal relaxation process have been investigated by molecular dynamics simulations, and the microstructure evolution analyzed by the cluster-type index method (CTIM) and the tracing method. It has been found that, the dynamic features are consistently correlated with the microstructure evolution and the crystallization characteristics in the mean square displacement (MSD) and the non-Gaussian parameter (NGP): the β relaxation regime corresponds to the minor structural rearrangement because of the “cage effect”, and the atoms attempt to escape from the “cages”; the α relaxation regime is related to a more diffusive movement of atoms, and the appearance of the second plateau in MSD and the non-zero plateau in NGP corresponds to the completion of crystallization. In addition, three distinct stages of nucleation, growth of nuclei and coarsening of crystallites in the crystallization process have been clearly revealed.

  7. Low cost extraction and isothermal amplification of DNA for infectious diarrhea diagnosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shichu Huang

    Full Text Available In order to counter the common perception that molecular diagnostics are too complicated to work in low resource settings, we have performed a difficult sample preparation and DNA amplification protocol using instrumentation designed to be operated without wall or battery power. In this work we have combined a nearly electricity-free nucleic acid extraction process with an electricity-free isothermal amplification assay to detect the presence of Clostridium difficile (C. difficile DNA in the stool of infected patients. We used helicase-dependent isothermal amplification (HDA to amplify the DNA in a low-cost, thermoplastic reaction chip heated with a pair of commercially available toe warmers, while using a simple Styrofoam insulator. DNA was extracted from known positive and negative stool samples. The DNA extraction protocol utilized an air pressure driven solid phase extraction device run using a standard bicycle pump. The simple heater setup required no electricity or battery and was capable of maintaining the temperature at 65°C±2°C for 55 min, suitable for repeatable HDA amplification. Experiments were performed to explore the adaptability of the system for use in a range of ambient conditions. When compared to a traditional centrifuge extraction protocol and a laboratory thermocycler, this disposable, no power platform achieved approximately the same lower limit of detection (1.25×10(-2 pg of C. difficile DNA while requiring much less raw material and a fraction of the lab infrastructure and cost. This proof of concept study could greatly impact the accessibility of molecular assays for applications in global health.

  8. Low Cost Extraction and Isothermal Amplification of DNA for Infectious Diarrhea Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shichu; Do, Jaephil; Mahalanabis, Madhumita; Fan, Andy; Zhao, Lei; Jepeal, Lisa; Singh, Satish K.; Klapperich, Catherine M.

    2013-01-01

    In order to counter the common perception that molecular diagnostics are too complicated to work in low resource settings, we have performed a difficult sample preparation and DNA amplification protocol using instrumentation designed to be operated without wall or battery power. In this work we have combined a nearly electricity-free nucleic acid extraction process with an electricity-free isothermal amplification assay to detect the presence of Clostridium difficile (C. difficile) DNA in the stool of infected patients. We used helicase-dependent isothermal amplification (HDA) to amplify the DNA in a low-cost, thermoplastic reaction chip heated with a pair of commercially available toe warmers, while using a simple Styrofoam insulator. DNA was extracted from known positive and negative stool samples. The DNA extraction protocol utilized an air pressure driven solid phase extraction device run using a standard bicycle pump. The simple heater setup required no electricity or battery and was capable of maintaining the temperature at 65°C±2°C for 55 min, suitable for repeatable HDA amplification. Experiments were performed to explore the adaptability of the system for use in a range of ambient conditions. When compared to a traditional centrifuge extraction protocol and a laboratory thermocycler, this disposable, no power platform achieved approximately the same lower limit of detection (1.25×10−2 pg of C. difficile DNA) while requiring much less raw material and a fraction of the lab infrastructure and cost. This proof of concept study could greatly impact the accessibility of molecular assays for applications in global health. PMID:23555883

  9. Adsorption of cationic surfactants on silica surface: 1. Adsorption isotherms and surface charge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goloub, T.P.; Koopal, L.K.; Sidorova, M.P.

    2004-01-01

    Adsorption isotherms of cationic surfactant, dodecylpyridinium chloride, on an Aerosil OX50 and isotherms of surface charge against the background of 0.001- and 0.1-M KCl solutions at pH 7 and 9 were measured and analyzed. Different forms of adsorption isotherms of surfactants at low and high

  10. Determination of field-based sorption isotherms for Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn in Dutch soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otte JG; Grinsven JJM van; Peijnenburg WJGM; Tiktak A; LBG; ECO

    1999-01-01

    Sorption isotherms for metals in soil obtained in the laboratory generally underpredict the observed metal content in the solid phase in the field. Isotherms based on in-situ data are therefore required. The aim of this study is to obtain field-based sorption isotherms for Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn as input

  11. Non-isothermal spreading of liquid drops on horizontal plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehrhard, P.; Davis, S.H.

    1990-05-01

    A viscous-liquid drop spreads on a smooth horizontal surface, which is uniformly heated or cooled. Lubrication theory is used to study thin drops subject to capillary, thermocapillary and gravity forces, and a variety of contact-angle-versus-speed conditions. It is found for isothermal drops that gravity is very important at large times and determines the power law for unlimited spreading. Predictions compare well with the experimental data on isothermal spreading for both two-dimensional and axisymmetric configurations. It is found that heating (cooling) retards (augments) the spreading process. When the advancing contact angle is zero, heating will cause the drop to spread only finitely far. For positive advancing contact angles, sufficient cooling will cause unlimited spreading. Thus, the heat transfer serves as a sentitive control on the spreading. (orig.) [de

  12. Isothermal dehydration of thin films of water and sugar solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heyd, R. [Centre de Recherche sur la Matière Divisée, University of Orleans and CNRS, rue de la Férollerie 1B, 45071 Orléans Cedex 2 (France); Rampino, A. [Centre de Recherche sur la Matière Divisée, University of Orleans and CNRS, rue de la Férollerie 1B, 45071 Orléans Cedex 2 (France); Laboratory of Physical and Macromolecular Chemistry, University of Trieste, Via Giorgieri 1, 34127 Trieste (Italy); Bellich, B.; Elisei, E. [Laboratory of Physical and Macromolecular Chemistry, University of Trieste, Via Giorgieri 1, 34127 Trieste (Italy); Cesàro, A. [Laboratory of Physical and Macromolecular Chemistry, University of Trieste, Via Giorgieri 1, 34127 Trieste (Italy); Elettra Sincrotrone Trieste, Area Science Park, I-34149 Trieste (Italy); Saboungi, M.-L. [Centre de Recherche sur la Matière Divisée, University of Orleans and CNRS, rue de la Férollerie 1B, 45071 Orléans Cedex 2 (France); Institut de Minéralogie, de Physique des Matériaux, et de Cosmochimie (IMPMC), Sorbonne Univ-UPMC, Univ Paris 06, UMR CNRS 7590, Museum National d’Histoire Naturelle, IRD UMR 206, 4 Place Jussieu, F-75005 Paris (France)

    2014-03-28

    The process of quasi-isothermal dehydration of thin films of pure water and aqueous sugar solutions is investigated with a dual experimental and theoretical approach. A nanoporous paper disk with a homogeneous internal structure was used as a substrate. This experimental set-up makes it possible to gather thermodynamic data under well-defined conditions, develop a numerical model, and extract needed information about the dehydration process, in particular the water activity. It is found that the temperature evolution of the pure water film is not strictly isothermal during the drying process, possibly due to the influence of water diffusion through the cellulose web of the substrate. The role of sugar is clearly detectable and its influence on the dehydration process can be identified. At the end of the drying process, trehalose molecules slow down the diffusion of water molecules through the substrate in a more pronounced way than do the glucose molecules.

  13. Non-isothermal Moisture Transport Through Insulation Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peuhkuri, Ruut Hannele; Rode, Carsten; Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard

    2008-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted in order to draw some conclusions on the magnitude of moisture transport due to temperature gradient on a range of porous light-weight building materials. A special constructed non-isothermal set-up allowed the creation of a temperature gradient of 10K...... and given humidity gradient over the sample. The resulting moisture ux as well as the hygrothermal states around and within the material were monitored. The hypothesis of relative humidity being a driving force for non-isothermal moisture transport already in the hygroscopic range could not be confirmed....... On the contrary, indications exist that the temperature gradient itself is driving the moisture from the warm side towards the cold side. An attempt to identify and quantify the single contributions of the different transport forms involved is also presented. The diferent results gave, however, diverging...

  14. Isothermal temperature reactivity coefficient measurement in TRIGA reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zagar, T.; Ravnik, M.; Trkov, A.

    2002-01-01

    Direct measurement of an isothermal temperature reactivity coefficient at room temperatures in TRIGA Mark II research reactor at Jozef Stefan Institute in Ljubljana is presented. Temperature reactivity coefficient was measured in the temperature range between 15 o C and 25 o C. All reactivity measurements were performed at almost zero reactor power to reduce or completely eliminate nuclear heating. Slow and steady temperature decrease was controlled using the reactor tank cooling system. In this way the temperatures of fuel, of moderator and of coolant were kept in equilibrium throughout the measurements. It was found out that TRIGA reactor core loaded with standard fuel elements with stainless steel cladding has small positive isothermal temperature reactivity coefficient in this temperature range.(author)

  15. Construction of isotherms in solvent extraction of copper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvetkovski Vladimir B.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is construction of equilibrium isotherms in solvent extraction. Technological parameters have been predicted for treatment of mine water by solvent extraction and electrowining. Two stages of extractions and one stage of stripping have been predicted for copper recovery by analyzing the equilibrium isotherms. The process was performed on mine water with 2,5 g/dm3 Cu2+, 3 g/dm Fe2+, pH 1,8, using 9 vol% LIX 984N in kerosene (organic solvent, with 95 and 98% stages efficiencies, respectively. This course produced an advanced electrolyte solution, suitable for electrowining and cathodic copper recovery, containing 51 g/dm3 Cu2+ and 160g/dm3 H2SO4 from a 30 g/dm3 Cu and 190 g/dm3 H2SO4.

  16. Isotherms of ion exchange on titanates of alkaline metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fillina, L.P.; Belinskaya, F.A.

    1986-01-01

    Present article is devoted to isotherms of ion exchange on titanates of alkaline metals. Therefore, finely dispersed hydrated titanates of alkaline metals (lithium, sodium, potassium) with ion exchange properties are obtained by means of alkaline hydrolysis of titanium chloride at high ph rates. Sorption of cations from salts solution of Li 2 SO 4 , NaNO 3 , Ca(NO 3 ) 2 , AgNO 3 by titanates is studied.

  17. High Nitrogen Austenitic Stainless Steel Precipitation During Isothermal Annealing

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Domankova; Katarína Bártová; Ivan Slatkovský; Peter Pinke

    2016-01-01

    The time-temperature-precipitation in high-nitrogen austenitic stainless steel was investigated using light optical microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, selected area diffraction and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The isothermal precipitation kinetics curves and the corresponding precipitation activation energy were obtained. The diffusion activation energy of M2N precipitation is 129 kJ/mol. The results show that critical temperature for M2N precipitation is about 825°C with ...

  18. A new apparatus for the determination of adsorption isotherms and adsorption enthalpies on microporous and meso-porous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mouahid, A.

    2010-01-01

    A specific thermostated experimental device comprising a differential heat flow calorimeter coupled with a home built manometric system has been built for the simultaneous determination of adsorption isotherms and adsorption enthalpies. The differential heat flow calorimeter is a Tian Calvet Setaram C80 model which measures the heat flux of a gas and can be operated isothermally, the manometric system is a stainless steel homemade apparatus. This coupled apparatus allows measurements for pressure up to 2.5 MPa and temperature up to 423.15 K. On the one hand, the apparatus and the experimental procedures are described. On the second hand the reliability and reproducibility were established by measuring adsorption isotherms on a benchmark (Filtrasorb F400) at 318.15 K. The gravimetric method has been used at higher pressure at various temperatures. These devices allowed us to study the adsorption of supercritical fluid (nitrogen N 2 , methane CH 4 , carbon dioxide CO 2 ) in activated carbons and microporous or meso-porous silica. The adsorption of methane on a rock of type (TGR) was also studied. These experimental results are used for the study of the interactions fluid / solid that must be taken into account in molecular simulations or DFT theory. (author)

  19. Isothermal α″ formation in β metastable titanium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aeby-Gautier, E.; Settefrati, A.; Bruneseaux, F.; Appolaire, B.; Denand, B.; Dehmas, M.; Geandier, G.; Boulet, P.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Isothermal kinetics of orthorhombic α″ formation is characterized by HEXRD. ► Cell parameters of parent and product phases are obtained. ► Partitioning of solutes during the transformation and the ageing is discussed. -- Abstract: Thanks to time resolved high energy X-ray diffraction, isothermal decomposition of β metastable phase was studied, directly after solution treatment in the β temperature range, for temperatures ranging from 300 to 450 °C for two beta metastable alloys (Ti 17 and Ti 5553). The formation of an orthorhombic α″ phase is clearly identified at the beginning of the transformation whatever the alloy studied. If transformation occurs at the higher temperature an evolution of α″ is observed toward the hexagonal α phase. The phase amounts and the mean cell parameters of each phase were quantified by the Rietveld refinement method. The obtained cell parameters evolutions and the orthorhombicity of α″ are discussed. Moreover, the orthorhombicity of α″ compared to that obtained for stress induced martensite may indicate a slight partitioning of solutes in isothermal α″

  20. Isothermal α″ formation in β metastable titanium alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aeby-Gautier, E., E-mail: Elisabeth.Gautier@mines.inpl-nancy.fr [Institut Jean Lamour, UMR CNRS Nancy Université, UPVM 7198, Nancy (France); Settefrati, A. [Institut Jean Lamour, UMR CNRS Nancy Université, UPVM 7198, Nancy (France); Airbus Operations, Materials and Processes, Toulouse (France); Bruneseaux, F. [Institut Jean Lamour, UMR CNRS Nancy Université, UPVM 7198, Nancy (France); Appolaire, B. [Laboratoire d’Etudes des Microstructures ONERA – CNRS Chatillon (France); Denand, B.; Dehmas, M.; Geandier, G.; Boulet, P. [Institut Jean Lamour, UMR CNRS Nancy Université, UPVM 7198, Nancy (France)

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: ► Isothermal kinetics of orthorhombic α″ formation is characterized by HEXRD. ► Cell parameters of parent and product phases are obtained. ► Partitioning of solutes during the transformation and the ageing is discussed. -- Abstract: Thanks to time resolved high energy X-ray diffraction, isothermal decomposition of β metastable phase was studied, directly after solution treatment in the β temperature range, for temperatures ranging from 300 to 450 °C for two beta metastable alloys (Ti 17 and Ti 5553). The formation of an orthorhombic α″ phase is clearly identified at the beginning of the transformation whatever the alloy studied. If transformation occurs at the higher temperature an evolution of α″ is observed toward the hexagonal α phase. The phase amounts and the mean cell parameters of each phase were quantified by the Rietveld refinement method. The obtained cell parameters evolutions and the orthorhombicity of α″ are discussed. Moreover, the orthorhombicity of α″ compared to that obtained for stress induced martensite may indicate a slight partitioning of solutes in isothermal α″.

  1. DuPont IsoTherming clean fuel technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levinski, E. [E.I. DuPont Co., Wilmington, DE (United States)

    2009-07-01

    This poster described a hydroprocessing technology that DuPont has acquired from Process Dynamics, Inc. The IsoTherming clean fuel technology significantly reduces sulphur in motor fuels. The technology provides petroleum refiners the solution for meeting ultra low sulphur diesel requirements, at much lower costs than conventional technologies. IsoTherming hydroprocessing operates in a kinetically limited mode, with no mass transfer limitation. Hydrogen is delivered to the reactor in the liquid phase as soluble hydrogen, allowing for much higher space velocities than conventional hydrotreating reactors. Treated diesel is recycled back to the inlet of the reactor, generating less heat and more hydrogen into the reactor. The process results in a more isothermal reactor operation that allows for better yields, fewer light ends and greater catalyst life. The technology reduces coking, because the process provides enough hydrogen in the solution when cracking reactions take place. As a result, the process yields longer catalyst life. Other advantages for refiners include lower total investment; reduced equipment delivery lead times; reduced maintenance and operating costs; and configuration flexibility. tabs., figs.

  2. Isotherms of Capillary Condensation Influenced by Formation of Adsorption Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churaev; Starke; Adolphs

    2000-01-15

    Isotherms of capillary condensation are often used to determine the vapor sorption capacity of porous adsorbents as well as the pore size distribution by radii. In this paper, for calculating the volume of capillary condensate and of adsorption films in a porous body, an approach based on the theory of surface forces is used. Adsorption isotherms and disjoining pressure isotherms of wetting films are presented here in an exponential form discussed earlier. The calculations were made for straight cylindrical capillaries of different radii and slit pores of different width. The mechanisms of capillary condensation differ in cylindrical and slit pores. In cylindrical pores capillary condensation occurs due to capillary instability of curved wetting films on a capillary surface, when film thickness grows. In the case of slit pores, coalescence of wetting films formed on opposite slit surfaces proceeds under the action of attractive dispersion forces. Partial volumes of liquid in the state of both capillary condensate and adsorbed films are calculated dependent on the relative vapor pressure in a surrounding media. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  3. Nonlinear chemical sorption isotherms in the assessment of nuclear fuel waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, J.R.; LeNeveu, D.M.

    1987-01-01

    Radionuclides emplaced in an underground disposal vault can possibly migrate from the vault, and through the geosphere, to enter Man's environment. Chemical sorption is a primary mechanism for retarding this migration. The effects of nonlinear chemical sorption isotherms on radionuclide transport are discussed. A method is given by which nonlinear isotherms can be approximated by the linear sorption isotherm used in the vault submodel. The relevance of nonlinear isotherms to transport in the geosphere is discussed, and it is shown that the linear isotherm model is conservative for deep geologic disposal. 22 refs

  4. A study of the water vapor sorption isotherms of hardened cement pastes: Possible pore structure changes at low relative humidity and the impact of temperature on isotherms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Min; Johannesson, Björn; Geiker, Mette Rica

    2014-01-01

    cement paste samples and a model material MCM-41. The pronounced impact of temperature on desorption isotherms of cement based materials as reported in literature was not found in this investigation. The results suggest that the differences between the sorption isotherms measured at different...

  5. Modeling Cavitation in ICE Pistons Made with Isothermal Forging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.V. Astanin

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Possible causes for cavitations in parts made with an Al-Si eutectic alloy AK12D (AlSi12 were explored with mathematical and physical modeling with involved acoustic emission. Pores were formed from micro-cracks, which appear during the early stages of a deformation process, with the help of micro-stresses appearing at phase boundaries (Al/Si interface due to thermal expansion. At the design stage of isothermal forgings of such products it is recommended to provide a scheme of the deformed shape, which is under uniform compression, to compensate for the inter-phase stresses.

  6. Lattice Boltzmann method for weakly ionized isothermal plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Huayu; Ki, Hyungson

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, a lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) for weakly ionized isothermal plasmas is presented by introducing a rescaling scheme for the Boltzmann transport equation. Without using this rescaling, we found that the nondimensional relaxation time used in the LBM is too large and the LBM does not produce physically realistic results. The developed model was applied to the electrostatic wave problem and the diffusion process of singly ionized helium plasmas with a 1-3% degree of ionization under an electric field. The obtained results agree well with theoretical values

  7. The oxidation kinetics of zircaloy - 4 under isothermal conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, A.M.M. dos; Cardoso, P.E.

    1982-01-01

    The oxidation kinetics of zircaloy-4 tubes was studied by means of isothermal tests in the temperature interval 500 0 C to 900 0 C. Dry oxygen and water steam, were used as oxidant agents. The results show that the oxidation kinetics law exhibits a behaviour from cubic to parabolic in the range of the time and temperatures of the experiment. Dry oxygen shows a stronger oxidation effect than water steam. A special mechanical test to study the embrittlement effect in the small samples of zircaloy tubes was used. (Author) [pt

  8. High Nitrogen Austenitic Stainless Steel Precipitation During Isothermal Annealing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Domankova

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The time-temperature-precipitation in high-nitrogen austenitic stainless steel was investigated using light optical microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, selected area diffraction and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The isothermal precipitation kinetics curves and the corresponding precipitation activation energy were obtained. The diffusion activation energy of M2N precipitation is 129 kJ/mol. The results show that critical temperature for M2N precipitation is about 825°C with the corresponding incubation period 2.5 min.

  9. Isothermal solidification based packaging of biosensors at low temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, R.P.; Khanna, P.K.; Kumar, D.

    2010-01-01

    Thick film Au printed square contact pads are interconnected to Cu substrates at constant pressure and temperature using the isothermal solidification of Bi-In alloy on the joining surfaces. The effect of reaction time on the mechanical strength of the package has been analyzed. Thermal stability of the fabricated specimens have been measured and discussed. The delaminated surfaces examined optically reveal the morphology of the metallization zones on the joining substrates. The scanning electron microscopy of these surfaces is reported in this paper. Tests for thermal shock, pH resistivity and shelf life have been carried out to predict the reliability of the packaging for long term applications.

  10. A self-consistent model of an isothermal tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Steven; Lilley, Matthew

    2014-10-01

    Continued progress in liquid lithium coating technologies have made the development of a beam driven tokamak with minimal edge recycling a feasibly possibility. Such devices are characterised by improved confinement due to their inherent stability and the suppression of thermal conduction. Particle and energy confinement become intrinsically linked and the plasma thermal energy content is governed by the injected beam. A self-consistent model of a purely beam fuelled isothermal tokamak is presented, including calculations of the density profile, bulk species temperature ratios and the fusion output. Stability considerations constrain the operating parameters and regions of stable operation are identified and their suitability to potential reactor applications discussed.

  11. Moisture ingress into electronics enclosures under isothermal conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staliulionis, Zygimantas; Jabbaribehnam, Mirmasoud; Hattel, Jesper Henri

    2016-01-01

    loads are still not understood well by design engineers, therefore this field has become one of the bottlenecks in the electronics system design. The objective of this paper is to model moisture ingress into an electronics enclosure under isothermal conditions. The moisture diffusion model is based......The number of electronics used in outdoor environment is constantly growing. The humidity causes about 19 % of all electronics failures and, especially, moisture increases these problems due to the ongoing process of miniaturization and lower power consumption of electronic components. Moisture...

  12. Isothermal martensitic transformation as an internal-stress-increasing process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Y.; Xie, Z.L.; Haenninen, H.; Humbeeck, J. van; Pietikaeinen, J.

    1995-01-01

    Based on the results that the magnitude of the stabilization of retained austenite increases with increasing the amount of martensite transformed, it has been assumed that the martensitic transformation is accompanied with an increase in internal resisting stress which subsequently results in the stabilization of retained austenite. By simplifying this internal resisting stress to be a type of hydrostatic compressive stress acting on retained austenite due to surrounding martensite plates, a thermodynamical analysis for an isothermal martensitic transformation under applied hydrostatic pressure has been performed. The calculated results, to some extent, show a good agreement with the experimental data. (orig.)

  13. Rheology via nonequilibrium molecular dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoover, W.G.

    1982-10-01

    The equilibrium molecular dynamics formulated by Newton, Lagrange, and Hamilton has been modified in order to simulate rheologial molecular flows with fast computers. This modified Nonequilibrium Molecular Dynamics (NEMD) has been applied to fluid and solid deformations, under both homogeneous and shock conditions, as well as to the transport of heat. The irreversible heating associated with dissipation could be controlled by carrying out isothermal NEMD calculations. The new isothermal NEMD equations of motion are consistent with Gauss' 1829 Least-Constraint principle as well as certain microscopic equilibrium and nonequilibrium statistical formulations due to Gibbs and Boltzmann. Application of isothermal NEMD revealed high-frequency and high-strain-rate behavior for simple fluids which resembled the behavior of polymer solutions and melts at lower frequencies and strain rates. For solids NEMD produces plastic flows consistent with experimental observations at much lower strain rates. The new nonequilibrium methods also suggest novel formulations of thermodynamics in nonequilibrium systems and shed light on the failure of the Principle of Material Frame Indifference

  14. Efficient Isothermal Titration Calorimetry Technique Identifies Direct Interaction of Small Molecule Inhibitors with the Target Protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gal, Maayan; Bloch, Itai; Shechter, Nelia; Romanenko, Olga; Shir, Ofer M

    2016-01-01

    Protein-protein interactions (PPI) play a critical role in regulating many cellular processes. Finding novel PPI inhibitors that interfere with specific binding of two proteins is considered a great challenge, mainly due to the complexity involved in characterizing multi-molecular systems and limited understanding of the physical principles governing PPIs. Here we show that the combination of virtual screening techniques, which are capable of filtering a large library of potential small molecule inhibitors, and a unique secondary screening by isothermal titration calorimetry, a label-free method capable of observing direct interactions, is an efficient tool for finding such an inhibitor. In this study we applied this strategy in a search for a small molecule capable of interfering with the interaction of the tumor-suppressor p53 and the E3-ligase MDM2. We virtually screened a library of 15 million small molecules that were filtered to a final set of 80 virtual hits. Our in vitro experimental assay, designed to validate the activity of mixtures of compounds by isothermal titration calorimetry, was used to identify an active molecule against MDM2. At the end of the process the small molecule (4S,7R)-4-(4-chlorophenyl)-5-hydroxy-2,7-dimethyl-N-(6-methylpyridin-2-yl)-4,6,7,8 tetrahydrIoquinoline-3-carboxamide was found to bind MDM2 with a dissociation constant of ~2 µM. Following the identification of this single bioactive compound, spectroscopic measurements were used to further characterize the interaction of the small molecule with the target protein. 2D NMR spectroscopy was used to map the binding region of the small molecule, and fluorescence polarization measurement confirmed that it indeed competes with p53.

  15. Use of Malachite Green-Loop Mediated Isothermal Amplification for Detection of Plasmodium spp. Parasites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucchi, Naomi W.; Ljolje, Dragan; Silva-Flannery, Luciana; Udhayakumar, Venkatachalam

    2016-01-01

    Malaria elimination efforts are hampered by the lack of sensitive tools to detect infections with low-level parasitemia, usually below the threshold of standard diagnostic methods, microscopy and rapid diagnostic tests. Isothermal nucleic acid amplification assays such as the loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP), are well suited for field use as they do not require thermal cyclers to run the test. However, the use of specialized equipment, as described by many groups, reduces the versatility of the LAMP technique as a simple tool for use in endemic countries. In this study, the use of the malachite green (MG) dye, as a visual endpoint readout, together with a simple mini heat block was evaluated for the detection of malaria parasites. The assay was performed for 1 hour at 63°C and the results scored by 3 independent human readers. The limit of detection of the assay was determined using well-quantified Plasmodium spp. infected reference samples and its utility in testing clinical samples was determined using 190 pre-treatment specimens submitted for reference diagnosis of imported malaria in the United States. Use of a simplified boil and spin methods of DNA extraction from whole blood and filter paper was also investigated. We demonstrate the accurate and sensitive detection of malaria parasites using this assay with a detection limit ranging between 1–8 parasites/μL, supporting its applicability for the detection of infections with low parasite burden. This assay is compatible with the use of a simple boil and spin sample preparation method from both whole blood and filter papers without a loss of sensitivity. The MG-LAMP assay described here has great potential to extend the reach of molecular tools to settings where they are needed. PMID:26967908

  16. Use of Malachite Green-Loop Mediated Isothermal Amplification for Detection of Plasmodium spp. Parasites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naomi W Lucchi

    Full Text Available Malaria elimination efforts are hampered by the lack of sensitive tools to detect infections with low-level parasitemia, usually below the threshold of standard diagnostic methods, microscopy and rapid diagnostic tests. Isothermal nucleic acid amplification assays such as the loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP, are well suited for field use as they do not require thermal cyclers to run the test. However, the use of specialized equipment, as described by many groups, reduces the versatility of the LAMP technique as a simple tool for use in endemic countries. In this study, the use of the malachite green (MG dye, as a visual endpoint readout, together with a simple mini heat block was evaluated for the detection of malaria parasites. The assay was performed for 1 hour at 63°C and the results scored by 3 independent human readers. The limit of detection of the assay was determined using well-quantified Plasmodium spp. infected reference samples and its utility in testing clinical samples was determined using 190 pre-treatment specimens submitted for reference diagnosis of imported malaria in the United States. Use of a simplified boil and spin methods of DNA extraction from whole blood and filter paper was also investigated. We demonstrate the accurate and sensitive detection of malaria parasites using this assay with a detection limit ranging between 1-8 parasites/μL, supporting its applicability for the detection of infections with low parasite burden. This assay is compatible with the use of a simple boil and spin sample preparation method from both whole blood and filter papers without a loss of sensitivity. The MG-LAMP assay described here has great potential to extend the reach of molecular tools to settings where they are needed.

  17. Isothermal circular-strand-displacement polymerization of DNA and microRNA in digital microfluidic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuffrida, Maria Chiara; Zanoli, Laura Maria; D'Agata, Roberta; Finotti, Alessia; Gambari, Roberto; Spoto, Giuseppe

    2015-02-01

    Nucleic-acid amplification is a crucial step in nucleic-acid-sequence-detection assays. The use of digital microfluidic devices to miniaturize amplification techniques reduces the required sample volume and the analysis time and offers new possibilities for process automation and integration in a single device. The recently introduced droplet polymerase-chain-reaction (PCR) amplification methods require repeated cycles of two or three temperature-dependent steps during the amplification of the nucleic-acid target sequence. In contrast, low-temperature isothermal-amplification methods have no need for thermal cycling, thus requiring simplified microfluidic-device features. Here, the combined use of digital microfluidics and molecular-beacon (MB)-assisted isothermal circular-strand-displacement polymerization (ICSDP) to detect microRNA-210 sequences is described. MicroRNA-210 has been described as the most consistently and predominantly upregulated hypoxia-inducible factor. The nmol L(-1)-pmol L(-1) detection capabilities of the method were first tested by targeting single-stranded DNA sequences from the genetically modified Roundup Ready soybean. The ability of the droplet-ICSDP method to discriminate between full-matched, single-mismatched, and unrelated sequences was also investigated. The detection of a range of nmol L(-1)-pmol L(-1) microRNA-210 solutions compartmentalized in nanoliter-sized droplets was performed, establishing the ability of the method to detect as little as 10(-18) mol of microRNA target sequences compartmentalized in 20 nL droplets. The suitability of the method for biological samples was tested by detecting microRNA-210 from transfected K562 cells.

  18. Moisture sorption isotherms and thermodynamic properties of bovine leather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakhfakh, Rihab; Mihoubi, Daoued; Kechaou, Nabil

    2018-04-01

    This study was aimed at the determination of bovine leather moisture sorption characteristics using a static gravimetric method at 30, 40, 50, 60 and 70 °C. The curves exhibit type II behaviour according to the BET classification. The sorption isotherms fitting by seven equations shows that GAB model is able to reproduce the equilibrium moisture content evolution with water activity for moisture range varying from 0.02 to 0.83 kg/kg d.b (0.9898 thermodynamic properties such as isosteric heat of sorption, sorption entropy, spreading pressure, net integral enthalpy and entropy. Net isosteric heat of sorption and differential entropy were evaluated through direct use of moisture isotherms by applying the Clausius-Clapeyron equation and used to investigate the enthalpy-entropy compensation theory. Both sorption enthalpy and entropy for desorption increase to a maximum with increasing moisture content, and then decrease sharply with rising moisture content. Adsorption enthalpy decreases with increasing moisture content. Whereas, adsorption entropy increases smoothly with increasing moisture content to a maximum of 6.29 J/K.mol. Spreading pressure increases with rising water activity. The net integral enthalpy seemed to decrease and then increase to become asymptotic. The net integral entropy decreased with moisture content increase.

  19. Thermal-mechanical and isothermal fatigue of IN 792 CC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, T.; Pitz, G.; Lang, K.-H.; Loehe, D.

    1997-01-01

    The cyclic deformation and lifetime behaviour of the cast Ni-base superalloy IN 792 CC was investigated both under thermal-mechanical fatigue (TMF) and isothermal fatigue (IF) conditions. During TMF the phase relations between temperature and mechanical strain were in-phase and out-of-phase, respectively. For both phase relations a similar cyclic deformation behaviour is observed. In all cases out-of-phase TMF causes tensile mean stresses, whereas in-phase TMF leads to compressive mean stresses. At T max below 800 C out-of-phase cycling results in smaller lifetimes than in-phase loading. In spite of the rather high compressive mean stresses developing at T max above 800 C, at these temperatures in-phase loading causes shorter lifetimes than out-of-phase TMF. This effect is due to the different damage mechanisms caused by in-phase and out-of-phase loadings: at higher T max considerable intergranular damage caused by in-phase loading reduces the lifetime below the respective values measured during out-of-phase TMF, after which no intergranular damage could be detected. A comparison of the TMF data with the cyclic deformation and lifetime behaviour under IF conditions shows that the material's reactions under TMF cannot be assessed satisfactorily by the results obtained from isothermal fatigue tests. (orig.)

  20. Thermistor based, low velocity isothermal, air flow sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabrita, Admésio A C M; Mendes, Ricardo; Quintela, Divo A

    2016-01-01

    The semiconductor thermistor technology is applied as a flow sensor to measure low isothermal air velocities (<2 ms −1 ). The sensor is subjected to heating and cooling cycles controlled by a multifunctional timer. In the heating stage, the alternating current of a main AC power supply source guarantees a uniform thermistor temperature distribution. The conditioning circuit assures an adequate increase of the sensors temperature and avoids the thermal disturbance of the flow. The power supply interruption reduces the consumption from the source and extends the sensors life time. In the cooling stage, the resistance variation of the flow sensor is recorded by the measuring chain. The resistive sensor parameters proposed vary significantly and feature a high sensitivity to the flow velocity. With the aid of a computer, the data transfer, storage and analysis provides a great advantage over the traditional local anemometer readings. The data acquisition chain has a good repeatability and low standard uncertainties. The proposed method measures isothermal air mean velocities from 0.1 ms −1 to 2 ms −1 with a standard uncertainty error less than 4%. (paper)

  1. Isothermal Kinetics of Catalyzed Air Oxidation of Diesel Soot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Prasad

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available To comply with the stringent emission regulations on soot, diesel vehicles manufacturers more and more commonly use diesel particulate filters (DPF. These systems need to be regenerated periodically by burning soot that has been accumulated during the loading of the DPF. Design of the DPF requires rate of soot oxidation. This paper describes the kinetics of catalytic oxidation of diesel soot with air under isothermal conditions. Kinetics data were collected in a specially designed mini-semi-batch reactor. Under the high air flow rate assuming pseudo first order reaction the activation energy of soot oxidation was found to be, Ea = 160 kJ/ mol. ©2010 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reserved(Received: 14th June 2010, Revised: 18th July 2010, Accepted: 9th August 2010[How to Cite: R. Prasad, V.R. Bella. (2010. Isothermal Kinetics of Catalyzed Air Oxidation of Diesel Soot. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering and Catalysis, 5(2: 95-101. doi:10.9767/bcrec.5.2.796.95-101][DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.5.2.796.95-101 || or local:  http://ejournal.undip.ac.id/index.php/bcrec/article/view/796]Cited by in: ACS 1 |

  2. Isothermal reaction calorimetry as a tool for kinetic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zogg, Andreas; Stoessel, Francis; Fischer, Ulrich; Hungerbuehler, Konrad

    2004-01-01

    Reaction calorimetry has found widespread application for thermal and kinetic analysis of chemical reactions in the context of thermal process safety as well as process development. This paper reviews the most important reaction calorimetric principles (heat-flow, heat-balance, power-compensation, and Peltier principle) and their applications in commercial or scientific devices. The discussion focuses on the different dynamic behavior of the main calorimetric principles during an isothermal reaction measurement. Examples of available reaction calorimeters are further compared considering their detection limit, time constant as well as temperature range. In a second part, different evaluation methods for the isothermally measured calorimetric data are reviewed and discussed. The methods will be compared, focusing especially on the fact that reaction calorimetric data always contains additional informations not directly related to the actual chemical reaction such as heat of mixing, heat of phase-transfer/change processes or simple measurement errors. Depending on the evaluation method applied such disturbances have a significant influence on the calculated reaction enthalpies or rate constants

  3. Mathematical modelling of non-isothermal venturi scrubbers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahimi, A. [Isfahan Univ., Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Taheri, M.; Fathikakajahi, J. [Shiraz Univ., Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2005-06-01

    Venturi scrubbers collect gaseous pollutants and particulate matter from industrial exhaust. This air pollution control device is highly efficient, easy to maintain and has a low initial cost. However, the high pressure drop through the device results in a high running cost. The main mechanism for collecting particulates is the inertial impaction of the particles on the droplets, which occurs due to high velocity between the gas stream and droplets. Droplet acceleration and irreversible drag-force which results from this high relative velocity are responsible for the high pressure drop in this type of scrubber. While several attempts have been made to mathematically model particulate removal in Venturi scrubbers, most models do not consider simultaneous heat and mass transfer. This factor is important because most Venturi scrubbers operate under non-isothermal conditions where the inlet gas is humidified in order to cool it before entering the scrubber. For that reason, the authors developed a more realistic model to determine the effects of heat and mass transfer on the particulate removal efficiency of a non-isothermal Venturi type scrubber. The model considers the effect of droplet size distribution and liquid film flow on the walls. It consists of differential equations for energy, momentum and material exchange. Model results were compared with data from experimental studies and industrial facilities. It was concluded that the removal efficiency of the scrubber is influenced by the inlet humidity temperature of the inlet gas. 26 refs., 1 tab., 10 figs.

  4. Estimating Uranium Partition Coefficients from Laboratory Adsorption Isotherms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hull, L.C.; Grossman, C.; Fjeld, R.A.; Coates, J.T.; Elzerman, A.W.

    2002-01-01

    An estimated 330 metric tons of uranium have been buried in the radioactive waste Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). An assessment of uranium transport parameters is being performed to decrease the uncertainty in risk and dose predictions derived from computer simulations of uranium fate and transport to the underlying Snake River Plain Aquifer. Uranium adsorption isotherms have been measured in the laboratory and fit with a Freundlich isotherm. The Freundlich n parameter was statistically identical for 14 sediment samples. The Freundlich Kf for seven samples, where material properties have been measured, is correlated to sediment surface area. Based on these empirical observations, a model has been derived for adsorption of uranium on INEEL sedimentary materials using surface complexation theory. The model was then used to predict the range of adsorption conditions to be expected at the SDA. Adsorption in the deep vadose zone is predicted to be stronger than in near-surface sediments because the total dissolved carbonate decreases with depth

  5. Morphology, melting behavior, and non-isothermal crystallization of poly(butylene terephthalate)/poly(ethylene-co-methacrylic acid) blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, J.-W.; Wen, Y.-L.; Kang, C.-C.; Yeh, M.-Y.; Wen, S.-B.

    2007-01-01

    The morphology, melting behavior, and non-isothermal crystallization of poly(butylene terephthalate) (PBT) and poly(ethylene-co-methacrylic acid) (PEMA) blends were studied with scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). PEMA forms immiscible, yet compatible, blends with PBT. Subsequent DSC scans on melt-crystallized samples exhibited two melting endotherms (T mI and T mII ). The presence of PEMA would facilitate the recrystallization during heating scan and retard PBT molecular chains to form a perfect crystal in cooling crystallization. The dispersion phases of molten PEMA acts as nucleating agents to enhance the crystallization rate of PBT. The solidified PBT could act as nucleating agents to enhance the crystallization of PEMA, but also retard the molecular mobility to reduce crystallization rate. The U* and K g of Hoffman-Lauritzen theory were also determined by Vyazovkin's methods to support the interpretation

  6. Hardness of H13 Tool Steel After Non-isothermal Tempering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, E.; Kohli, A.; Poirier, D. R.

    2018-04-01

    A direct method to calculate the tempering response of a tool steel (H13) that exhibits secondary hardening is presented. Based on the traditional method of presenting tempering response in terms of isothermal tempering, we show that the tempering response for a steel undergoing a non-isothermal tempering schedule can be predicted. Experiments comprised (1) isothermal tempering, (2) non-isothermal tempering pertaining to a relatively slow heating to process-temperature and (3) fast-heating cycles that are relevant to tempering by induction heating. After establishing the tempering response of the steel under simple isothermal conditions, the tempering response can be applied to non-isothermal tempering by using a numerical method to calculate the tempering parameter. Calculated results are verified by the experiments.

  7. Microstructural evolution during isothermal aging and strain-induced transformation followed by isothermal aging in Co-Cr-Mo-C alloy: A comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lashgari, H.R.; Zangeneh, Sh.; Hasanabadi, F.; Saghafi, M.

    2010-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate the effects of isothermal aging (at 850 deg. C for 4, 8, 16 and 24 h) and strain-induced transformation (engineering strains of 10% and 20%) followed by isothermal aging (at 850 deg. C for 4, 8 and 16 h) on the microstructural evolution of a Co-28Cr-5Mo-0.3C alloy. The obtained results showed that isothermal aging at 850 deg. C resulted in the formation of lamellar-type carbides at the grain boundaries. Moreover, X-ray diffraction analysis indicated that isothermal aging of solution treated specimens at 850 deg. C for 24 h did not lead to complete fcc phase transformation to hcp one. In contrast with the isothermally aged specimens, applying plastic deformation to the solutionized samples accelerated the completion and saturation of fcc(metastable) → hcp transformation after 8 h aging at 850 deg. C. In addition, the X-ray diffraction results indicated that implementing isothermal aging of the strain-induced specimens at the higher aging time (16 h) caused the formation of (1 1 1) fcc and (2 0 0) fcc diffraction peaks again. Also, the strain-induced specimens followed by isothermal aging showed higher amount of microhardness as compared with the other specimens aged solely.

  8. Microstructural Evolution and the Precipitation Behavior in X90 Linepipe Steel During Isothermal Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Y.; Wang, H. T.; Wang, Z. D.; Misra, R. D. K.; Wang, G. D.

    2018-03-01

    Thermomechanical controlled processing of 560-MPa (X90) linepipe steel was simulated in the laboratory using a thermomechanical simulator to study the microstructural evolution and precipitation behavior during isothermal holding. The results indicated that martensite was obtained when the steels were isothermally held for 5 s at 700 °C. Subsequently, granular bainite and acicular ferrite transformation occurred with increased holding time. Different amount of polygonal ferrite formed after isothermally holding for 600-3600 s. Pearlite nucleated after isothermally holding for 3600 s. Precipitation occurred after isothermal holding for 5 s and continuous precipitation occurred at grain boundaries after isothermally holding for 600 s. After isothermally holding for 3600 s, large Nb/Ti carbide precipitated. The presence of MX-type precipitates was confirmed by diffraction pattern. The interphase precipitation (IP) occurred between 5 and 30 s. Maximum hardness was obtained after isothermally holding for 600 s when IP occurred and rapidly decreased to a low value, mainly because polygonal ferrite dominated the microstructure after isothermally holding for 3600 s.

  9. Moisture ingress into electronics enclosures under isothermal conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staliulionis, Ž.; Jabbari, M.; Hattel, J. H.

    2016-01-01

    The number of electronics used in outdoor environment is constantly growing. The humidity causes about 19 % of all electronics failures and, especially, moisture increases these problems due to the ongoing process of miniaturization and lower power consumption of electronic components. Moisture loads are still not understood well by design engineers, therefore this field has become one of the bottlenecks in the electronics system design. The objective of this paper is to model moisture ingress into an electronics enclosure under isothermal conditions. The moisture diffusion model is based on a 1D quasi-steady state (QSS) approximation for Fick’s second law. This QSS approach is also described with an electrical analogy which gives a fast tool in modelling of the moisture response. The same QSS method is applied to ambient water vapour variations. The obtained results are compared to an analytical solution and very good agreement is found.

  10. Temperature stability limits for an isothermal demagnetization refrigerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittel, P.

    1984-01-01

    It is pointed out that magnetic refrigeration can provide additional cooling for infrared detectors on space missions, taking into account the Shuttle Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) and the Large Deployable Reflector (LDR). From a temperature of 2 K provided by the primary cryogens, magnetic refrigerators could cool bolometers or pumped photoconductors to 0.1 K or below. Such a reduction in operating temperature would increase the sensitivity for bolometers, while the response at longer wavelengths for pumped photoconductors would be improved. Two types of magnetic refrigeration cycles have been proposed. One type uses a complete demagnetization. The present investigation is concerned with the second type, which uses a feedback-controlled isothermal demagnetization, taking into account the temperature stability limits. Attention is given to control system resolution, thermometer noise, reaction time, and thermal time constants.

  11. Novel investigation of enzymatic biodiesel reaction by isothermal calorimetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søtoft, Lene Fjerbaek; Westh, Peter; Christensen, Knud V.

    2010-01-01

    Isothermal calorimetry (ITC) was used to investigate solvent-free enzymatic biodiesel production. The transesterification of rapeseed oil with methanol and ethanol was catalyzed by immobilized lipase Novozym 435 at 40 °C. The aim of the study was to determine reaction enthalpy for the enzymatic...... transesterification and to elucidate the mass transfer and energetic processes taking place. Based on the measured enthalpy and composition change in the system, the heat of reaction at 40 °C for the two systems was determined as −9.8 ± 0.9 kJ/mole biodiesel formed from rapeseed oil and methanol, and −9.3 ± 0.7 k...

  12. Simulation of non-isothermal transient flow in gas pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira Junior, Luis Carlos; Soares, Matheus; Lima, Enrique Luis; Pinto, Jose Carlos [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Quimica; Muniz, Cyro; Pires, Clarissa Cortes; Rochocz, Geraldo [ChemTech, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Modeling of gas pipeline usually considers that the gas flow is isothermal (or adiabatic) and that pressure changes occur instantaneously (quasi steady state approach). However, these assumptions are not valid in many important transient applications (changes of inlet and outlet flows/pressures, starting and stopping of compressors, changes of controller set points, among others). Besides, the gas properties are likely to depend simultaneously on the pipe position and on the operation time. For this reason, a mathematical model is presented and implemented in this paper in order to describe the gas flow in pipeline when pressure and temperature transients cannot be neglected. The model is used afterwards as a tool for reconciliation of available measured data. (author)

  13. Relativistic sonic geometry for isothermal accretion in the Kerr metric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arif Shaikh, Md

    2018-03-01

    We linearly perturb advective isothermal transonic accretion onto rotating astrophysical black holes to study the emergence of the relativistic acoustic spacetime and to investigate how the salient features of this spacetime is influenced by the spin angular momentum of the black hole. We have perturbed three different quantities—the velocity potential, the mass accretion rate and the relativistic Bernoulli’s constant to show that the acoustic metric obtained for these three cases are the same up to a conformal factor. By constructing the required causal structures, it has been demonstrated that the acoustic black holes are formed at the transonic points of the flow and the acoustic white holes are formed at the shock location. The corresponding acoustic surface gravity has been computed in terms of the relevant accretion variables and the background metric elements. We have performed a linear stability analysis of the background stationary flow.

  14. Water Adsorption Isotherms on Fly Ash from Several Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navea, Juan G; Richmond, Emily; Stortini, Talia; Greenspan, Jillian

    2017-10-03

    In this study, horizontal attenuated total reflection (HATR) Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy was combined with quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) gravimetry to investigate the adsorption isotherms of water on fly ash, a byproduct of coal combustion in power plants. Because of composition variability with the source region, water uptake was studied at room temperature as a function of relative humidity (RH) on fly ash from several regions: United States, India, The Netherlands, and Germany. The FT-IR spectra show water features growth as a function of RH, with water absorbing on the particle surface in both an ordered (ice-like) and a disordered (liquid-like) structure. The QCM data was modeled using the Brunauer, Emmett, and Teller (BET) adsorption isotherm model. The BET model was found to describe the data well over the entire range of RH, showing that water uptake on fly ash takes place mostly on the surface of the particle, even for poorly combusted samples. In addition, the source region and power-plant efficiency play important roles in the water uptake and ice nucleation (IN) ability of fly ash. The difference in the observed water uptake and IN behavior between the four samples and mullite (3Al 2 O 3 ·2SiO 2 ), the aluminosilicate main component of fly ash, is attributed to differences in composition and the density of OH binding sites on the surface of each sample. A discussion is presented on the RH required to reach monolayer coverage on each sample as well as a comparison between surface sites of fly ash samples and enthalpies of adsorption of water between the samples and mullite.

  15. Isothermal equation of state of a lithium fluoride single crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, K.Y.

    1975-01-01

    An isothermal equation of state of a LiF single crystal was determined from length change measurements of the specimen as a function of hydrostatic pressure up to approximately 7 kbars at 28 to 41/sup 0/C. The length change was measured with an accuracy of approximately 500 A by using a Fabry Perot type He--Ne laser interferometer for a 1-m long specimen at temperatures constant to less than 0.002/sup 0/C. Several two- and three-parameter equations of state were used in analyzing the measured pressure-volume data. The computer fit for each equation of state determines not only the value of its parameters but also the standard deviations associated with them and one dependent variable, either pressure or volume. With the parameters determined, the equations of state are extrapolated to approximately 5 megabars in order to see discrepancies. Using the Born model of ionic solids, two equations of state were derived both from a power law potential and from an exponential form for the repulsive energy of alkali metal halides and used to fit the pressure-volume data of a LiF single crystal. They are also extrapolated to approximately 5 megabars. The Birch's two-parameter equation and the Grover, Getting, and Kennedy equation are indistinguishable from the two equations of state derived from the Born model for pressures approximately equal to or less than 800 kbars within +-20 kbars. The above four equations of state also fit closely the Pagannone and Drickamer static compression data, the Christian shock wave data, and the Kormer et al. shock wave data. The isothermal bulk modulus and its first pressure derivative at atmospheric pressure and 28.83/sup 0/C are 664.5 +- 0.5 kbars and 5.40 +- 0.18, respectively, in close agreement with those values ultrasonically measured by R. A. Miller and C. S. Smith. (auth)

  16. Liouvillian integrability of gravitating static isothermal fluid spheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iacono, Roberto; Llibre, Jaume

    2014-01-01

    We examine the integrability properties of the Einstein field equations for static, spherically symmetric fluid spheres, complemented with an isothermal equation of state, ρ = np. In this case, Einstein's equations can be reduced to a nonlinear, autonomous second order ordinary differential equation (ODE) for m/R (m is the mass inside the radius R) that has been solved analytically only for n = −1 and n = −3, yielding the cosmological solutions by De Sitter and Einstein, respectively, and for n = −5, case for which the solution can be derived from the De Sitter's one using a symmetry of Einstein's equations. The solutions for these three cases are of Liouvillian type, since they can be expressed in terms of elementary functions. Here, we address the question of whether Liouvillian solutions can be obtained for other values of n. To do so, we transform the second order equation into an equivalent autonomous Lotka–Volterra quadratic polynomial differential system in R 2 , and characterize the Liouvillian integrability of this system using Darboux theory. We find that the Lotka–Volterra system possesses Liouvillian first integrals for n = −1, −3, −5, which descend from the existence of invariant algebraic curves of degree one, and for n = −6, a new solvable case, associated to an invariant algebraic curve of higher degree (second). For any other value of n, eventual first integrals of the Lotka–Volterra system, and consequently of the second order ODE for the mass function must be non-Liouvillian. This makes the existence of other solutions of the isothermal fluid sphere problem with a Liouvillian metric quite unlikely

  17. Liouvillian integrability of gravitating static isothermal fluid spheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iacono, Roberto, E-mail: roberto.iacono@enea.it [ENEA-C. R. Casaccia, Via Anguillarese 301, 00123 Roma (Italy); Llibre, Jaume, E-mail: jllibre@mat.uab.cat [Departament de Matemàtiques, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain)

    2014-10-01

    We examine the integrability properties of the Einstein field equations for static, spherically symmetric fluid spheres, complemented with an isothermal equation of state, ρ = np. In this case, Einstein's equations can be reduced to a nonlinear, autonomous second order ordinary differential equation (ODE) for m/R (m is the mass inside the radius R) that has been solved analytically only for n = -1 and n = -3, yielding the cosmological solutions by De Sitter and Einstein, respectively, and for n = -5, case for which the solution can be derived from the De Sitter's one using a symmetry of Einstein's equations. The solutions for these three cases are of Liouvillian type, since they can be expressed in terms of elementary functions. Here, we address the question of whether Liouvillian solutions can be obtained for other values of n. To do so, we transform the second order equation into an equivalent autonomous Lotka–Volterra quadratic polynomial differential system in R² and characterize the Liouvillian integrability of this system using Darboux theory. We find that the Lotka–Volterra system possesses Liouvillian first integrals for n = -1, -3, -5, which descend from the existence of invariant algebraic curves of degree one, and for n = -6, a new solvable case, associated to an invariant algebraic curve of higher degree (second). For any other value of n, eventual first integrals of the Lotka–Volterra system, and consequently of the second order ODE for the mass function must be non-Liouvillian. This makes the existence of other solutions of the isothermal fluid sphere problem with a Liouvillian metric quite unlikely.

  18. Synergy of molecular dynamics and isothermal titration calorimetry in studies of Allostery

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Strawn, R.; Stockner, T.; Melicherčík, Milan; Jin, L.; Xue,, W. F.; Carey, J.; Ettrich, Rüdiger

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 492, - (2011), s. 151-188 ISSN 0076-6879 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06010; GA ČR GAP207/10/1934 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : hexameric arginine repressor * DNA-binding domain * escherichia-coli * ligand-binding * bacillus-stearothhermophilus * proteins * systems * model * simulations * operator Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.042, year: 2011

  19. A hygroscopic method to measure the adsorption isotherm of porous construction materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taher, A.; Zanden, van der A.J.J.; Brouwers, H.J.H.; Stephan, D.; Daake, von H.; Markl, V.; Land, G.

    2013-01-01

    A sorption isotherm is the relationship between the moisture content in a material and the relative humidity of the surrounding atmosphere in an equilibrium situation. Most often, the sorption isotherm is measured with a gravitational method. This work presents a method to measure the adsorption

  20. Characterization of bainitic/martensitic structures formed in isothermal treatments below the M

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Navarro Lopez, A.; Hidalgo Garcia, J.; Sietsma, J.; Santofimia Navarro, M.J.

    2017-01-01

    Advanced Multiphase High Strength Steels are generally obtained by applying isothermal treatments around the martensite start temperature (Ms). Previous investigations have shown that bainitic ferrite can form from austenite in isothermal treatments below Ms, where its

  1. Evaluation of theoretical and empirical water vapor sorption isotherm models for soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arthur, Emmanuel; Tuller, Markus; Moldrup, Per

    2016-01-01

    sorption isotherms of building materials, food, and other industrial products, knowledge about the 24 applicability of these functions for soils is noticeably lacking. We present validation of nine models for characterizing adsorption/desorption isotherms for a water activity range from 0.03 to 0...

  2. (AJST) ADSORPTION ISOTHERME DE L'ACIDE ACÉTIQUE PAR ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    opiyo

    ont été étudiées à partir des isothermes d'adsorption de l'acide acétique à 30° et ... has resulted in the determination of the two types of adsorption isotherms : the Freundlich and .... zinc 60 % pendant 6 heures n'améliore pas suffisamment le.

  3. Determination of adsorption isotherms of chlorinated hydrocarbons on halloysite adsorbent by inverse gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czech, K; Słomkiewicz, P M

    2013-05-03

    Inverse gas chromatographic methods of isotherm determination peak maximum (PM) and peak division (PD) were compared. These methods were applied to determine adsorption isotherms of dichloroethylene, trichloroethylene and tetrachloroethylene on acid-activated halloysite and adsorption enthalpy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Negative Saturation Approach for Non-Isothermal Compositional Two-Phase Flow Simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salimi, H.; Wolf, K.H.; Bruining, J.

    2011-01-01

    This article deals with developing a solution approach, called the non-isothermal negative saturation (NegSat) solution approach. The NegSat solution approach solves efficiently any non-isothermal compositional flow problem that involves phase disappearance, phase appearance, and phase transition.

  5. Prediction of Pure Component Adsorption Equilibria Using an Adsorption Isotherm Equation Based on Vacancy Solution Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marcussen, Lis; Aasberg-Petersen, K.; Krøll, Annette Elisabeth

    2000-01-01

    An adsorption isotherm equation for nonideal pure component adsorption based on vacancy solution theory and the Non-Random-Two-Liquid (NRTL) equation is found to be useful for predicting pure component adsorption equilibria at a variety of conditions. The isotherm equation is evaluated successfully...... adsorption systems, spreading pressure and isosteric heat of adsorption are also calculated....

  6. Ion-molecular equilibria and activity determination in the RbF-ZrF4 system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skokan, E.V.; Nikitin, M.I.; Sorokin, I.D.; Korenev, Yu.M.; Sidorov, L.N.

    1983-01-01

    Activity of zirconium tetrofluoride in 100-33.3 mol % ZrF 4 concentration range was determined during isothermal evaporation of samples of different initial composition of RbF-ZrF 4 system, using ion-molecular equilibrium method. It became possible, using the exchange ion-molecular reactions to determine ZrF 4 activity approximately 10 -10 in the region of state diagram of RbF-ZrF 4 system, adjoining to rubidium fluoride. The comparative analysis of results, obtained by the methods of isothermal evaporation, ion-molecular equilibria is given; the advantages and restrictions of ion-molecular equilibrium method are presented

  7. Dynamics of gas bubble growth in oil-refrigerant mixtures under isothermal decompression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dias, Joao Paulo; Barbosa Junior, Jader R.; Prata, Alvaro T. [Federal University of Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering], Emails: jpdias@polo.ufsc.br, jrb@polo.ufsc.br, prata@polo.ufsc.br

    2010-07-01

    This paper proposes a numerical model to predict the growth of gaseous refrigerant bubbles in oil-refrigerant mixtures with high contents of oil subjected to isothermal decompression. The model considers an Elementary Cell (EC) in which a spherical bubble is surrounded by a concentric and spherical liquid layer containing a limited amount of dissolved liquid refrigerant. The pressure reduction in the EC generates a concentration gradient at the bubble interface and the refrigerant is transported to the bubble by molecular diffusion. After a sufficiently long period of time, the concentration gradient in the liquid layer and the bubble internal pressure reach equilibrium and the bubble stops growing, having attained its stable radius. The equations of momentum and chemical species conservation for the liquid layer, and the mass balance at the bubble interface are solved via a coupled finite difference procedure to determine the bubble internal pressure, the refrigerant radial concentration distribution and the bubble growth rate. Numerical results obtained for a mixture of ISO VG10 ester oil and refrigerant HFC-134a showed that bubble growth dynamics depends on model parameters like the initial bubble radius, initial refrigerant concentration in the liquid layer, decompression rate and EC temperature. Despite its simplicity, the model showed to be a potential tool to predict bubble growth and foaming which may result from important phenomena occurring inside refrigeration compressors such as lubrication of sliding parts and refrigerant degassing from the oil stored in oil sump during compressor start-up. (author)

  8. Isothermal Recombinase Polymerase amplification (RPA) of Schistosoma haematobium DNA and oligochromatographic lateral flow detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosser, A; Rollinson, D; Forrest, M; Webster, B L

    2015-09-04

    Accurate diagnosis of urogenital schistosomiasis is vital for surveillance/control programs. Amplification of schistosome DNA in urine by PCR is sensitive and specific but requires infrastructure, financial resources and skilled personnel, often not available in endemic areas. Recombinase Polymerase Amplification (RPA) is an isothermal DNA amplification/detection technology that is simple, rapid, portable and needs few resources. Here a Schistosoma haematobium RPA assay was developed and adapted so that DNA amplicons could be detected using oligochromatographic Lateral Flow (LF) strips. The assay successfully amplified S. haematobium DNA at 30-45 °C in 10 mins and was sensitive to a lower limit of 100 fg of DNA. The assay was also successful with the addition of crude urine, up to 5% of the total reaction volume. Cross amplification occurred with other schistosome species but not with other common urine microorganisms. The LF-RPA assay developed here can amplify and detect low levels of S. haematobium DNA. Reactions are rapid, require low temperatures and positive reactions are interpreted using lateral flow strips, reducing the need for infrastructure and resources. This together with an ability to withstand inhibitors within urine makes RPA a promising technology for further development as a molecular diagnostic tool for urogenital schistosomiasis.

  9. Isothermal relaxation current and microstructure changes of thermally aged polyester films impregnated by epoxy resin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xiongwei; Sun, Potao; Peng, Qingjun; Sima, Wenxia

    2018-01-01

    In this study, to understand the effect of thermal aging on polymer films degradation, specimens of polyester films impregnated by epoxy resin with different thermal aging temperatures (80 and 130 °C) and aging times (500, 1600, 2400 and 3000 h) are prepared, then charge de-trapping properties of specimens are investigated via the isothermal relaxation current (IRC) measurement, the distributions of trap level and its corresponding density are obtained based on the modified IRC model. It is found that the deep trap density increases remarkably at the beginning of thermal aging (before 1600 h), but it decreases obviously as the aging degree increases. At elevated aging temperature and, in particular considering the presence of air gap between two-layer insulation, the peak densities of deep traps decrease more significant in the late period of aging. It can be concluded that it is the released energy from de-trapping process leads to the fast degradation of insulation. Moreover, after thermal aging, the microstructure changes of crystallinity and molecular structures are analyzed via the x-ray diffraction experiment and Fourier transform infrared spectrometer. The results indicate that the variation of the deep trap density is closely linked with the changes of microstructure, a larger interface of crystalline/amorphous phase, more defects and broken chains caused by thermal aging form higher deep trap density stored in the samples.

  10. Self-similar dynamic converging shocks - I. An isothermal gas sphere with self-gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Yu-Qing; Shi, Chun-Hui

    2014-07-01

    We explore novel self-similar dynamic evolution of converging spherical shocks in a self-gravitating isothermal gas under conceivable astrophysical situations. The construction of such converging shocks involves a time-reversal operation on feasible flow profiles in self-similar expansion with a proper care for the increasing direction of the specific entropy. Pioneered by Guderley since 1942 but without self-gravity so far, self-similar converging shocks are important for implosion processes in aerodynamics, combustion, and inertial fusion. Self-gravity necessarily plays a key role for grossly spherical structures in very broad contexts of astrophysics and cosmology, such as planets, stars, molecular clouds (cores), compact objects, planetary nebulae, supernovae, gamma-ray bursts, supernova remnants, globular clusters, galactic bulges, elliptical galaxies, clusters of galaxies as well as relatively hollow cavity or bubble structures on diverse spatial and temporal scales. Large-scale dynamic flows associated with such quasi-spherical systems (including collapses, accretions, fall-backs, winds and outflows, explosions, etc.) in their initiation, formation, and evolution are likely encounter converging spherical shocks at times. Our formalism lays an important theoretical basis for pertinent astrophysical and cosmological applications of various converging shock solutions and for developing and calibrating numerical codes. As examples, we describe converging shock triggered star formation, supernova explosions, and void collapses.

  11. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification: rapid detection of Angiostrongylus cantonensis infection in Pomacea canaliculata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuo MingMing

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Angiostrongylus cantonensis is a zoonotic parasite that causes eosinophilic meningitis in humans. The most common source of infection with A. cantonensis is the consumption of raw or undercooked mollusks (e.g., snails and slugs harbouring infectious third-stage larvae (L3. However, the parasite is difficult to identify in snails. The purpose of this study was to develop a quick, simple molecular method to survey for A. cantonensis in intermediate host snails. Findings We used a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP assay, which was performed using Bst DNA polymerase. Reactions amplified the A. cantonensis 18S rRNA gene and demonstrated high sensitivity; as little as 1 fg of DNA was detected in the samples. Furthermore, no cross-reactivity was found with other parasites such as Toxoplasma gondii, Plasmodium falciparum, Schistosoma japonicum, Clonorchis sinensis, Paragonimus westermani and Anisakis. Pomacea canaliculata snails were exposed to A. cantonensis first-stage larvae (L1 in the laboratory, and L3 were observed in the snails thirty-five days after infection. All nine samples were positive as determined by the LAMP assay for A. cantonensis, which was identified as positive by using PCR and microscopy, this demonstrates that LAMP is sensitive and effective for diagnosis. Conclusions LAMP is an appropriate diagnostic method for the routine identification of A. cantonensis within its intermediate host snail P. canaliculata because of its simplicity, sensitivity, and specificity. It holds great promise as a useful monitoring tool for A. cantonensis in endemic regions.

  12. Immunocapture loop-mediated isothermal amplification assays for the detection of canine parvovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yu-Ling; Yen, Chon-Ho; Tu, Ching-Fu

    2017-11-01

    A loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay was used for rapid canine parvovirus (CPV) diagnosis. To reduce the time required and increase the sensitivity of the assay, an immunocapture (IC) technique was developed in this study to exclude the DNA extraction step in molecular diagnostic procedures for CPV. A polyclonal rabbit anti-CPV serum was produced against VP2-EpC that was cloned via DNA recombination. The polyclonal anti-VP2-EpC serum was used for virus capture to prepare microtubes. IC-LAMP was performed to amplify a specific CPV target gene sequence from the CPV viral particles that were captured on the microtubes, and the amplicons were analyzed using agarose electrophoresis or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (IC-LAMP-ELISA) and lateral-flow dipstick (IC-LAMP-LFD). The detection sensitivities of IC-LAMP, IC-LAMP-ELISA, and IC-LAMP-LFD were 10 -1 , 10 -1 , and 10 -1 TCID 50 /mL, respectively. Using the IC-LAMP-ELISA and IC-LAMP-LFD assays, the complete CPV diagnostic process can be achieved within 1.5h. Both of the developed IC-LAMP-based assays are simple, direct visual and efficient techniques that are applicable to the detection of CPV. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification (LAMP): Emergence As an Alternative Technology for Herbal Medicine Identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing-Jian; Xiong, Chao; Liu, Yue; Liang, Jun-Song; Zhou, Xing-Wen

    2016-01-01

    Correct identification of medicinal plant ingredients is essential for their safe use and for the regulation of herbal drug supply chain. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) is a recently developed approach to identify herbal medicine species. This novel molecular biology technique enables timely and accurate testing, especially in settings where infrastructures to support polymerase chain reaction facilities are lacking. Studies that used this method have altered our view on the extent and complexity of herbal medicine identification. In this review, we give an introduction into LAMP analysis, covers the basic principles and important aspects in the development of LAMP analysis method. Then we presented a critical review of the application of LAMP-based methods in detecting and identifying raw medicinal plant materials and their processed products. We also provide a practical standard operating procedure (SOP) for the utilization of the LAMP protocol in herbal authentication, and consider the prospects of LAMP technology in the future developments of herbal medicine identification and the challenges associated with its application.

  14. Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification Targeting Actin DNA of Trichomonas vaginalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goo, Youn-Kyoung; Shin, Won-Sik; Yang, Hye-Won; Joo, So-Young; Song, Su-Min; Ryu, Jae-Sook; Kong, Hyun-Hee; Lee, Won-Ki; Chung, Dong-Il; Hong, Yeonchul

    2016-06-01

    Trichomoniasis caused by Trichomonas vaginalis is a common sexually transmitted disease. Its association with several health problems, including preterm birth, pelvic inflammatory disease, cervical cancer, and transmission of human immunodeficiency virus, emphasizes the importance of improved access to early and accurate detection of T. vaginalis. In this study, a rapid and efficient loop-mediated isothermal amplification-based method for the detection of T. vaginalis was developed and validated, using vaginal swab specimens from subjects suspected to have trichomoniasis. The LAMP assay targeting the actin gene was highly sensitive with detection limits of 1 trichomonad and 1 pg of T. vaginalis DNA per reaction, and specifically amplified the target gene only from T. vaginalis. Validation of this assay showed that it had the highest sensitivity and better agreement with PCR (used as the gold standard) compared to microscopy and multiplex PCR. This study showed that the LAMP assay, targeting the actin gene, could be used to diagnose early infections of T. vaginalis. Thus, we have provided an alternative molecular diagnostic tool and a point-of-care test that may help to prevent trichomoniasis transmission and associated complications.

  15. Thermodynamic analysis of Bacillus subtilis endospore protonation using isothermal titration calorimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrold, Zoë R.; Gorman-Lewis, Drew

    2013-05-01

    Bacterial proton and metal adsorption reactions have the capacity to affect metal speciation and transport in aqueous environments. We coupled potentiometric titration and isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) analyses to study Bacillus subtilis spore-proton adsorption. We modeled the potentiometric data using a four and five-site non-electrostatic surface complexation model (NE-SCM). Heats of spore surface protonation from coupled ITC analyses were used to determine site specific enthalpies of protonation based on NE-SCMs. The five-site model resulted in a substantially better model fit for the heats of protonation but did not significantly improve the potentiometric titration model fit. The improvement observed in the five-site protonation heat model suggests the presence of a highly exothermic protonation reaction circa pH 7 that cannot be resolved in the less sensitive potentiometric data. From the log Ks and enthalpies we calculated corresponding site specific entropies. Log Ks and site concentrations describing spore surface protonation are statistically equivalent to B. subtilis cell surface protonation constants. Spore surface protonation enthalpies, however, are more exothermic relative to cell based adsorption suggesting a different bonding environment. The thermodynamic parameters defined in this study provide insight on molecular scale spore-surface protonation reactions. Coupled ITC and potentiometric titrations can reveal highly exothermic, and possibly endothermic, adsorption reactions that are overshadowed in potentiometric models alone. Spore-proton adsorption NE-SCMs derived in this study provide a framework for future metal adsorption studies.

  16. Interaction of chloroquine and its analogues with heme: An isothermal titration calorimetric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachhawat, K; Thomas, C J; Surolia, N; Surolia, A

    2000-10-05

    Quinoline-containing drugs such as chloroquine and quinine have had a long and successful history in antimalarial chemotherapy. Identification of ferriprotoporphyrin IX ([Fe(III)PPIX], haematin) as the drug receptors for these antimalarials called for investigations of the binding affinity, mode of interaction, and the conditions affecting the interaction. The parameters obtained are significant in recent times with the emergence of chloroquine resistant strains of the malaria parasites. This has underlined the need to unravel the molecular mechanism of their action so as to meet the requirement of an alternative to the existing antimalarial drugs. The isothermal titration calorimetric studies on the interaction of chloroquine with haematin lead us to propose an altered mode of binding. The initial recognition is ionic in nature mediated by the propionyl group of haematin with the quaternary nitrogen on CQ. This ionic interaction induces a conformational change, such as to favour binding of subsequent CQ molecules. On the contrary, conditions emulating the cytosolic environment (pH 7.4 and 150 mM salt) reveal the hydrophobic force to be the sole contributor driving the interaction. Interaction of a carefully selected panel of quinoline antimalarial drugs with monomeric ferriprotoporphyrin IX has also been investigated at pH 5.6 mimicking the acidic environment prevalent in the food vacuoles of parasite, the center of drug activity, which are consistent with their antimalarial activity. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  17. Development and Assessment of Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification (LAMP) Assay for the Diagnosis of Human Visceral Leishmaniasis in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemian, Mehrdad; Gharavi, Mohammad Javad; Akhlaghi, Lame; Mohebali, Mehdi; Meamar, Ahmad Reza; Aryan, Ehsan; Oormazdi, Hormozd

    2014-03-01

    Parasitological methods for the diagnosis of Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) require invasive procedures, so serological and molecular approaches have been developed but are not generally applicable in the field. We evaluated a loop mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay using blood from VL patients and compared it to nested PCR. Forty-seven subjects with clinical features (fever, hepatosplenomegaly and anemia) were confirmed positive for VL by the direct agglutination test (DAT) at titers >3200. Forty DAT negative individuals from non-endemic areas with no clinical signs or symptoms of VL served as controls. A LAMP assay was performed using a set of six primers targeting Leishmania infantum kinetoplast DNA (kDNA) minicircle gene under isothermal (64 °C) conditions. For nested PCR we used primers targeting the kDNA minicircle gene. The LAMP assay provided a detection limit of 1 parasite in 1 ml of peripheral blood and detected L. infantum DNA in 44 of 47 DAT-confirmed VL cases, with diagnostic sensitivity of 93.6% (95% CI). No L. infantum DNA was amplified in controls, indicating a specificity of 100%. The nested PCR yielded sensitivity of 96% (95% CI) and a specificity of 100% (95% CI). The LAMP assay gave results similar to those of nested PCR but in a shorter time. The LAMP method is simple; requires no sophisticated equipment; has a short reaction time; and results, indicated by turbidity of the reaction mixture, are observable with the naked eye.

  18. Development and Assessment of Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification (LAMP Assay for the Diagnosis of Human Visceral Leishmaniasis in Iran.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Ghasemian

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Parasitological methods for the diagnosis of Visceral leishmaniasis (VL require invasive procedures, so serological and molecular approaches have been developed but are not generally applicable in the field. We evaluated a loop mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP assay using blood from VL patients and compared it to nested PCR.Forty-seven subjects with clinical features (fever, hepatosplenomegaly and anemia were confirmed positive for VL by the direct agglutination test (DAT at titers >3200. Forty DAT negative individuals from non-endemic areas with no clinical signs or symptoms of VL served as controls. A LAMP assay was performed using a set of six primers targeting Leishmania infantum kinetoplast DNA (kDNA minicircle gene under isothermal (64 °C conditions. For nested PCR we used primers targeting the kDNA minicircle gene.The LAMP assay provided a detection limit of 1 parasite in 1 ml of peripheral blood and detected L. infantum DNA in 44 of 47 DAT-confirmed VL cases, with diagnostic sensitivity of 93.6% (95% CI. No L. infantum DNA was amplified in controls, indicating a specificity of 100%. The nested PCR yielded sensitivity of 96% (95% CI and a specificity of 100% (95% CI.The LAMP assay gave results similar to those of nested PCR but in a shorter time. The LAMP method is simple; requires no sophisticated equipment; has a short reaction time; and results, indicated by turbidity of the reaction mixture, are observable with the naked eye.

  19. Strategies for assessing proton linkage to bimolecular interactions by global analysis of isothermal titration calorimetry data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coussens, Nathan P.; Schuck, Peter; Zhao, Huaying

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We demonstrate the usefulness of global analysis of ITC data for proton-linked binding study. ► Various experimental strategies are evaluated for their information content. ► Data at multiple temperatures might improve the precision of binding parameters. ► Methods for detailed error analysis of parameter uncertainties are discussed. ► By global modeling, an uncertainty in molecular concentrations can be accounted for. - Abstract: Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) is a traditional and powerful method for studying the linkage of ligand binding to proton uptake or release. The theoretical framework has been developed for more than two decades and numerous applications have appeared. In the current work, we explored strategic aspects of experimental design. To this end, we simulated families of ITC data sets that embed different strategies with regard to the number of experiments, range of experimental pH, buffer ionization enthalpy, and temperature. We then re-analyzed the families of data sets in the context of global analysis, employing a proton linkage binding model implemented in the global data analysis platform SEDPHAT, and examined the information content of all data sets by a detailed statistical error analysis of the parameter estimates. In particular, we studied the impact of different assumptions about the knowledge of the exact concentrations of the components, which in practice presents an experimental limitation for many systems. For example, the uncertainty in concentration may reflect imperfectly known extinction coefficients and stock concentrations or may account for different extents of partial inactivation when working with proteins at different pH values. Our results show that the global analysis can yield reliable estimates of the thermodynamic parameters for intrinsic binding and protonation, and that in the context of the global analysis the exact molecular component concentrations may not be required. Additionally

  20. How soil organic matter composition controls hexachlorobenzene-soil-interactions: adsorption isotherms and quantum chemical modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Ashour A; Kühn, Oliver; Aziz, Saadullah G; Hilal, Rifaat H; Leinweber, Peter

    2014-04-01

    Hazardous persistent organic pollutants (POPs) interact in soil with the soil organic matter (SOM) but this interaction is insufficiently understood at the molecular level. We investigated the adsorption of hexachlorobenzene (HCB) on soil samples with systematically modified SOM. These samples included the original soil, the soil modified by adding a hot water extract (HWE) fraction (soil+3 HWE and soil+6 HWE), and the pyrolyzed soil. The SOM contents increased in the order pyrolyzed soilsoilsoil+3 HWEsoil+6 HWE. For the latter three samples this order was also valid for the HCB adsorption. The pyrolyzed soil adsorbed more HCB than the other samples at low initial concentrations, but at higher concentrations the HCB adsorption became weaker than in the samples with HWE addition. This adsorption combined with the differences in the chemical composition between the soil samples suggested that alkylated aromatic, phenol, and lignin monomer compounds contributed most to the HCB adsorption. To obtain a molecular level understanding, a test set has been developed on the basis of elemental analysis which comprises 32 representative soil constituents. The calculated binding energy for HCB with each representative system shows that HCB binds to SOM stronger than to soil minerals. For SOM, HCB binds to alkylated aromatic, phenols, lignin monomers, and hydrophobic aliphatic compounds stronger than to polar aliphatic compounds confirming the above adsorption isotherms. Moreover, quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) of the binding energy with independent physical properties of the test set systems for the first time indicated that the polarizability, the partial charge on the carbon atoms, and the molar volume are the most important properties controlling HCB-SOM interactions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Construction and optimization of an efficient breathing-based isothermal emulsion amplification method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Yanting, E-mail: shenyanting798@126.com [Research Center for Learning Science, Southeast University, Sipailou Road no. 2, Nanjing, Jiangsu Province 210096 (China); State Key Laboratory of Bioelectronics, Southeast University, Sipailou Road no. 2, Nanjing, Jiangsu Province 210096 (China); Tian, Fei, E-mail: 642807827@qq.com [Research Center for Learning Science, Southeast University, Sipailou Road no. 2, Nanjing, Jiangsu Province 210096 (China); Tu, Jing, E-mail: jtu@seu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Bioelectronics, Southeast University, Sipailou Road no. 2, Nanjing, Jiangsu Province 210096 (China); Li, Rui, E-mail: lirui901113@163.com [Research Center for Learning Science, Southeast University, Sipailou Road no. 2, Nanjing, Jiangsu Province 210096 (China); Chen, Zhenzhu, E-mail: zzchen_seu@163.com [Research Center for Learning Science, Southeast University, Sipailou Road no. 2, Nanjing, Jiangsu Province 210096 (China); Bai, Yunfei, E-mail: whitecf@seu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Bioelectronics, Southeast University, Sipailou Road no. 2, Nanjing, Jiangsu Province 210096 (China); Ge, Qinyu, E-mail: geqinyu@seu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Bioelectronics, Southeast University, Sipailou Road no. 2, Nanjing, Jiangsu Province 210096 (China); Lu, Zuhong, E-mail: zhlu@seu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Bioelectronics, Southeast University, Sipailou Road no. 2, Nanjing, Jiangsu Province 210096 (China)

    2017-06-22

    The reaction temperature is one of the main factors that affect the stability of emulsion PCR (emPCR). Focusing on this point, we applied the “DNA breathing” mechanism in BEAMing (Bead, Emulsion, Amplification, and Magnetic) and proposed a more stable emulsion amplification method. Compared to the conventional emPCR, this method provided excellent results. Firstly, more stable emulsion system resulted in higher percentage of single-molecular amplifications (73.17%). Secondly, an ordinary temperature-controlling device was enough. Our outcome showed that the reaction temperature of this method was not strict so that the ordinary temperature-controlling device was enough for it (the heat block sets vs. the PCR instrument: 13.140 ± 0.110 vs. 13.008 ± 0.039, P = 0.120). Thirdly, the single-biotinylated emP{sub 1} coated streptavidin beads were stable enough to be used for this method (the control temperature vs. the reaction temperature: 2967.91 ± 409.045 vs. 3026.22 ± 442.129, P = 0.334), which could replace the double-biotinylated emP{sub 1} coated beads and was benefit for saving cost. In conclusion, the method presented here with stable emulsion system, simplified temperature-controlling device, and decreased investment would be a highly streamlined and inexpensive option for future single-molecular amplification based researches. - Highlights: • A breathing-based isothermal emulsion amplification (BIEA) method was developed. • BIEA showed excellent properties compared with conventional amplification method. • Terminal breathing of DNA duplex was firstly used in emulsion amplification.

  2. Multiple stable isotope fronts during non-isothermal fluid flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fekete, Szandra; Weis, Philipp; Scott, Samuel; Driesner, Thomas

    2018-02-01

    Stable isotope signatures of oxygen, hydrogen and other elements in minerals from hydrothermal veins and metasomatized host rocks are widely used to investigate fluid sources and paths. Previous theoretical studies mostly focused on analyzing stable isotope fronts developing during single-phase, isothermal fluid flow. In this study, numerical simulations were performed to assess how temperature changes, transport phenomena, kinetic vs. equilibrium isotope exchange, and isotopic source signals determine mineral oxygen isotopic compositions during fluid-rock interaction. The simulations focus on one-dimensional scenarios, with non-isothermal single- and two-phase fluid flow, and include the effects of quartz precipitation and dissolution. If isotope exchange between fluid and mineral is fast, a previously unrecognized, significant enrichment in heavy oxygen isotopes of fluids and minerals occurs at the thermal front. The maximum enrichment depends on the initial isotopic composition of fluid and mineral, the fluid-rock ratio and the maximum change in temperature, but is independent of the isotopic composition of the incoming fluid. This thermally induced isotope front propagates faster than the signal related to the initial isotopic composition of the incoming fluid, which forms a trailing front behind the zone of transient heavy oxygen isotope enrichment. Temperature-dependent kinetic rates of isotope exchange between fluid and rock strongly influence the degree of enrichment at the thermal front. In systems where initial isotope values of fluids and rocks are far from equilibrium and isotope fractionation is controlled by kinetics, the temperature increase accelerates the approach of the fluid to equilibrium conditions with the host rock. Consequently, the increase at the thermal front can be less dominant and can even generate fluid values below the initial isotopic composition of the input fluid. As kinetics limit the degree of isotope exchange, a third front may

  3. A numerical study of non-isothermal turbulent coaxial jets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kriaa, Wassim; Abderrazak, Kamel; Mhiri, Hatem [Ecole Nationale d' Ingenieurs de Monastir, Laboratoire de Mecanique des Fluides et Thermique, Monastir (Tunisia); Palec, Georges le; Bournot, Philippe [Institut de Mecanique de Marseille, Marseille (France)

    2008-07-15

    In this work, we propose to study non isothermal air-air coaxial jets with two different approaches: parabolic and elliptic approaches. The standard k-{epsilon} model and the RSM model were applied in this study. The numerical resolution of the equations governing this flow type was carried out for: the parabolic approach, by a ''home-made'' CFD code based on a finite difference method, and the elliptic approach by an industrial code (FLUENT) based on a finite volume method. In forced convection mode (Fr={infinity}), the two turbulence models are valid for the prediction of the mean flow. But for turbulent sizes, k-{epsilon} model gives results closer to those achieved in experiments compared to RSM Model. Concerning the limit of validity of the parabolic and elliptic approaches, we showed that for velocities ratio r lower than 1, the results of the two approaches were satisfactory. On the other hand, for r>1, the difference between the results became increasingly significant. In mixed convection mode (Fr{approx_equal}20), the results obtained by the two turbulence models for the mean axial velocity were very different even in the plume region. For the temperature and the turbulent sizes the two models give satisfactory results which agree well with the correlations suggested by the experimenters for X{>=}20. Thus, the second order model with {sigma}{sub t}=0.85 is more effective for a coaxial jet study in a mixed convection mode. (orig.)

  4. On the membrane approximation in isothermal film casting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, Thomas

    2014-08-01

    In this work, a one-dimensional model for isothermal film casting is studied. Film casting is an important engineering process to manufacture thin films and sheets from a highly viscous polymer melt. The model equations account for variations in film width and film thickness, and arise from thinness and kinematic assumptions for the free liquid film. The first aspect of our study is a rigorous discussion of the existence and uniqueness of stationary solutions. This objective is approached via the argument principle, exploiting the homotopy invariance of a family of analytic functions. As our second objective, we analyze the linearization of the governing equations about stationary solutions. It is shown that solutions for the associated boundary-initial value problem are given by a strongly continuous semigroup of bounded linear operators. To reach this result, we cast the relevant Cauchy problem in a more accessible form. These transformed equations allow us insight into the regularity of the semigroup, thus yielding the validity of the spectral mapping theorem for the semigroup and the spectrally determined growth property.

  5. Numerical modeling of isothermal compositional grading by convex splitting methods

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Yiteng

    2017-04-09

    In this paper, an isothermal compositional grading process is simulated based on convex splitting methods with the Peng-Robinson equation of state. We first present a new form of gravity/chemical equilibrium condition by minimizing the total energy which consists of Helmholtz free energy and gravitational potential energy, and incorporating Lagrange multipliers for mass conservation. The time-independent equilibrium equations are transformed into a system of transient equations as our solution strategy. It is proved our time-marching scheme is unconditionally energy stable by the semi-implicit convex splitting method in which the convex part of Helmholtz free energy and its derivative are treated implicitly and the concave parts are treated explicitly. With relaxation factor controlling Newton iteration, our method is able to converge to a solution with satisfactory accuracy if a good initial estimate of mole compositions is provided. More importantly, it helps us automatically split the unstable single phase into two phases, determine the existence of gas-oil contact (GOC) and locate its position if GOC does exist. A number of numerical examples are presented to show the performance of our method.

  6. Extended forward sensitivity analysis of one-dimensional isothermal flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, M.; Zhao, H.

    2013-01-01

    Sensitivity analysis and uncertainty quantification is an important part of nuclear safety analysis. In this work, forward sensitivity analysis is used to compute solution sensitivities on 1-D fluid flow equations typical of those found in system level codes. Time step sensitivity analysis is included as a method for determining the accumulated error from time discretization. The ability to quantify numerical error arising from the time discretization is a unique and important feature of this method. By knowing the relative sensitivity of time step with other physical parameters, the simulation is allowed to run at optimized time steps without affecting the confidence of the physical parameter sensitivity results. The time step forward sensitivity analysis method can also replace the traditional time step convergence studies that are a key part of code verification with much less computational cost. One well-defined benchmark problem with manufactured solutions is utilized to verify the method; another test isothermal flow problem is used to demonstrate the extended forward sensitivity analysis process. Through these sample problems, the paper shows the feasibility and potential of using the forward sensitivity analysis method to quantify uncertainty in input parameters and time step size for a 1-D system-level thermal-hydraulic safety code. (authors)

  7. Sorption isotherms for oat flakes (Avena sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Edgar Zapata M.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Moisture sorption isotherms of oat flakes were determined at temperatures of 5, 25 and 37°C, using a gravimetric technique in an a w range of between 0.107 and 0.855. These curves were modeled using six equations commonly applied in food. The quality of the fit was assessed with the regression coefficient (r² and the mean relative percentage error (MRPE. The best fit were obtained with the Caurie model with r² of 0.996, 0.901 and 0.870, and MRPE of 7.190, 17.878 and 16.206, at 5, 25 and 37°C, respectively. The equilibrium moisture presented a dependence on temperature in the studied a w range, as did the security moisture (X S. These results suggest that the recommended storage conditions of oat flakes include: a relative air humidity of 50% between 5 and 25°C and of 38% up to 37°C.

  8. The mechanical features of isothermally annealed duplex stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sustarsic, B.; Godec, M.; Jenko, M.; Tuma, J.V.; Marini, B.; Toffolon Masclet, C.; Forget, P.

    2011-01-01

    Cast duplex stainless steels are frequently used for structural parts of nuclear power plants and other thermo-energetic objects. The ageing behaviour of the cast 258 type stainless steel has been studied in the frame of IMT Slovenia and CEA bilateral cooperation. The results of testing of French and Sloven partners are compared and analysed. The steel samples have been isothermally annealed for 10.000 and 30.000 hours at 300 and 350 C. ICP-AES bulk chemical analysis of samples, microstructure investigations with light (LM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM), micro-chemical analysis with SEM/EDS, as well as SEM/EBSD phase analyses have been performed. Tensile test specimens have been made from the aged samples and standard tensile test at room temperature was performed. The SEM fractography of fractured surfaces was also performed. Microhardness measurements of ferrite and austenite phase were determined on polished metallographic samples. The results of mechanical testing and fractographic examinations are reported and discussed in this paper. Microhardness of ferrite is drastically increased with time and temperature of ageing due to spinodal decomposition. But, hardness of austenite remains practically unchanged. Tensile properties changed, similarly. Yield point and tensile strength increased but ductility significantly decreased. In accordance with ductility decrease the nature of fractured surface changed from typical ductile to brittle and dimpled to cleavage, respectively. (authors)

  9. Isothermal sinusoidal analysis of balanced compound Vuilleumier heat pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finkelstein, T.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports on Vuilleumier heat pumps with balanced compounding which have been under investigation for about fifteen years but have not yet reached the stage of commercial utilization. Previously published analytical treatment based upon isothermal treatment of the variable-volume spaces resulted in closed form solution of considerable complexity of the coupled differential equations but applied only to free piston machines. In contrast, the procedure presented here is based on previously demonstrated sinusoidal excursions of the reciprocators. It is of the same order of accuracy, but much more simple and usable. It was found that there is only negligible difference between the results of the present and the previous approach. Additionally, the treatment presented here is applicable to kinematic machines, as well as to free piston machines. For the latter design, an equation for the natural frequency is also derived. Ideal proportions and practical expressions for the energy streams are derived. Gas forces are plotted versus displacement and it is shown that they are equivalent to a linear spring, which is of importance for the concept of a free-piston design

  10. Modeling of Non-isothermal Austenite Formation in Spring Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, He; Wang, Baoyu; Tang, Xuefeng; Li, Junling

    2017-12-01

    The austenitization kinetics description of spring steel 60Si2CrA plays an important role in providing guidelines for industrial production. The dilatometric curves of 60Si2CrA steel were measured using a dilatometer DIL805A at heating rates of 0.3 K to 50 K/s (0.3 °C/s to 50 °C/s). Based on the dilatometric curves, a unified kinetics model using the internal state variable (ISV) method was derived to describe the non-isothermal austenitization kinetics of 60Si2CrA, and the abovementioned model models the incubation and transition periods. The material constants in the model were determined using a genetic algorithm-based optimization technique. Additionally, good agreement between predicted and experimental volume fractions of transformed austenite was obtained, indicating that the model is effective for describing the austenitization kinetics of 60Si2CrA steel. Compared with other modeling methods of austenitization kinetics, this model, which uses the ISV method, has some advantages, such as a simple formula and explicit physics meaning, and can be probably used in engineering practice.

  11. Isothermal and isochronal annealing experiments on irradiated commercial power VDMOSFETs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaksic, A.B.; Pejovic, M.M.; Ristic, G.S.

    1999-01-01

    The paper presents results of isothermal and isochronal annealing experiments on several types of gamma-ray irradiated commercial N- and P-channel power VDMOSFETs. Transistors were characterized for their threshold voltage shift and densities of radiation-induced oxide-trap charge and interface traps. The results show that the temperature enhances interface trap formation and oxide-trap charge decay rates, but also contributes to the passivation of interface traps. The study demonstrates that formation and passivation of interface traps are simultaneous processes. At certain conditions (lower temperature and/or positive bias) interface-trap formation dominates. Oppositely, at other conditions (higher temperature and/or negative bias) passivation is predominant. However at some conditions there is a complex interplay between formation and passivation of interface traps, resulting in interface traps increase followed by decrease at later annealing times. No model for interface trap post-irradiation behavior can explain this effect better than the recently proposed H-W model

  12. Differential Binding Models for Direct and Reverse Isothermal Titration Calorimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Isaac; Winnik, Mitchell A

    2016-03-10

    Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) is a technique to measure the stoichiometry and thermodynamics from binding experiments. Identifying an appropriate mathematical model to evaluate titration curves of receptors with multiple sites is challenging, particularly when the stoichiometry or binding mechanism is not available. In a recent theoretical study, we presented a differential binding model (DBM) to study calorimetry titrations independently of the interaction among the binding sites (Herrera, I.; Winnik, M. A. J. Phys. Chem. B 2013, 117, 8659-8672). Here, we build upon our DBM and show its practical application to evaluate calorimetry titrations of receptors with multiple sites independently of the titration direction. Specifically, we present a set of ordinary differential equations (ODEs) with the general form d[S]/dV that can be integrated numerically to calculate the equilibrium concentrations of free and bound species S at every injection step and, subsequently, to evaluate the volume-normalized heat signal (δQ(V) = δq/dV) of direct and reverse calorimetry titrations. Additionally, we identify factors that influence the shape of the titration curve and can be used to optimize the initial concentrations of titrant and analyte. We demonstrate the flexibility of our updated DBM by applying these differentials and a global regression analysis to direct and reverse calorimetric titrations of gadolinium ions with multidentate ligands of increasing denticity, namely, diglycolic acid (DGA), citric acid (CIT), and nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA), and use statistical tests to validate the stoichiometries for the metal-ligand pairs studied.

  13. Isothermal pumping analysis for high-altitude tethered balloons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Kirsty A; Hunt, Hugh E M

    2015-06-01

    High-altitude tethered balloons have potential applications in communications, surveillance, meteorological observations and climate engineering. To maintain balloon buoyancy, power fuel cells and perturb atmospheric conditions, fluids could be pumped from ground level to altitude using the tether as a hose. This paper examines the pumping requirements of such a delivery system. Cases considered include delivery of hydrogen, sulfur dioxide (SO2) and powders as fluid-based slurries. Isothermal analysis is used to determine the variation of pressures and velocities along the pipe length. Results show that transport of small quantities of hydrogen to power fuel cells and maintain balloon buoyancy can be achieved at pressures and temperatures that are tolerable in terms of both the pipe strength and the current state of pumping technologies. To avoid solidification, transport of SO2 would require elevated temperatures that cannot be tolerated by the strength fibres in the pipe. While the use of particle-based slurries rather than SO2 for climate engineering can reduce the pipe size significantly, the pumping pressures are close to the maximum bursting pressure of the pipe.

  14. Diagnosis of brugian filariasis by loop-mediated isothermal amplification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine B Poole

    Full Text Available In this study we developed and evaluated a Brugia Hha I repeat loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP assay for the rapid detection of Brugia genomic DNA. Amplification was detected using turbidity or fluorescence as readouts. Reactions generated a turbidity threshold value or a clear visual positive within 30 minutes using purified genomic DNA equivalent to one microfilaria. Similar results were obtained using DNA isolated from blood samples containing B. malayi microfilariae. Amplification was specific to B. malayi and B. timori, as no turbidity was observed using DNA from the related filarial parasites Wuchereria bancrofti, Onchocerca volvulus or Dirofilaria immitis, or from human or mosquito. Furthermore, the assay was most robust using a new strand-displacing DNA polymerase termed Bst 2.0 compared to wild-type Bst DNA polymerase, large fragment. The results indicate that the Brugia Hha I repeat LAMP assay is rapid, sensitive and Brugia-specific with the potential to be developed further as a field tool for diagnosis and mapping of brugian filariasis.

  15. Isothermal anisotropic magnetoresistance in antiferromagnetic metallic IrMn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galceran, R; Fina, I; Cisneros-Fernández, J; Bozzo, B; Frontera, C; López-Mir, L; Deniz, H; Park, K-W; Park, B-G; Balcells, Ll; Martí, X; Jungwirth, T; Martínez, B

    2016-10-20

    Antiferromagnetic spintronics is an emerging field; antiferromagnets can improve the functionalities of ferromagnets with higher response times, and having the information shielded against external magnetic field. Moreover, a large list of aniferromagnetic semiconductors and metals with Néel temperatures above room temperature exists. In the present manuscript, we persevere in the quest for the limits of how large can anisotropic magnetoresistance be in antiferromagnetic materials with very large spin-orbit coupling. We selected IrMn as a prime example of first-class moment (Mn) and spin-orbit (Ir) combination. Isothermal magnetotransport measurements in an antiferromagnetic-metal(IrMn)/ferromagnetic-insulator thin film bilayer have been performed. The metal/insulator structure with magnetic coupling between both layers allows the measurement of the modulation of the transport properties exclusively in the antiferromagnetic layer. Anisotropic magnetoresistance as large as 0.15% has been found, which is much larger than that for a bare IrMn layer. Interestingly, it has been observed that anisotropic magnetoresistance is strongly influenced by the field cooling conditions, signaling the dependence of the found response on the formation of domains at the magnetic ordering temperature.

  16. Isothermal and Reactive Turbulent Jets in Cross-Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutmark, Ephraim; Bush, Scott; Ibrahim, Irene

    2004-11-01

    Jets in cross flow have numerous applications including vertical/short takeoff/landing (V/STOL) aircraft, cooling jets for gas turbine blades and combustion air supply inlets in gas turbine engine. The properties exhibited by these jets are dictated by complex three dimensional turbulence structures which form due to the interaction of the jet with the freestream. The isothermal tests are conducted in a wind tunnel measuring the characteristics of air jets injected perpendicular into an otherwise undisturbed air stream. Different nozzle exit geometries of the air jets were tested including circular, triangular and elongated configurations. Jets are injected in single and paired combinations with other jets to measure the effect of mutual interaction on the parameters mentioned. Quantitative velocity fields are obtained using PIV. The data obtained allows the extraction of flow parameters such as jet structure, penetration and mixing. The reacting tests include separate and combined jets of fuel/air mixture utilized to explore the stabilization of combustion at various operating conditions. Different geometrical configurations of transverse jets are tested to determine the shape and combination of jets that will optimize the jets ability to successfully stabilize a flame.

  17. Non-isothermal crystallization of PET/PLA blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Huipeng; Pyda, Marek; Cebe, Peggy

    2009-01-01

    Binary blends of poly(ethylene terephthalate) with poly(lactic acid), PET/PLA, were studied by differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray scattering. The PET/PLA blends, prepared by solution casting, were found to be miscible in the melt over the entire composition range. Both quenched amorphous and semicrystalline blends exhibit a single, composition dependent glass transition temperature. We report the non-isothermal crystallization of (a) PET, with and without the presence of PLA crystals and (b) PLA, with and without the presence of PET crystals. PET can crystallize in all blends, regardless of whether PLA is amorphous or crystalline, and degree of crystallinity of PET decreases as PLA content increases. In contrast, PLA crystallization is strongly affected by the mobility of the PET fraction. When PET is wholly amorphous, PLA can crystallize even in 70/30 blends, albeit weakly. But when PET is crystalline, PLA cannot crystallize when its own content drops below 0.90. These different behaviors may possibly be related to the tendency of each polymer to form constrained chains, i.e., to form the rigid amorphous fraction, or RAF. PET is capable of forming a large amount of RAF, whereas relatively smaller amount of RAF forms in PLA. Like the crystals, the rigid amorphous fraction of one polymer component may inhibit the growth of crystals of the other blend partner.

  18. Mise au point d'un nouvel appareil de "distillation isotherme" Disterm Development of Distherm, a New Isothermal Distillation Apparatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mouton M.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Les études analytiques de distillats pétroliers d'intervalles d'ébullition élevés doivent être réalisées sur des produits préparés dans des conditions de distillation extrêmement douces, de manière à conserver intactes toutes les espèces chimiques initialement contenues dans le pétrole brut en l'état. Pour répondre à cet objectif, le Comité de Distillation du GEC (Groupe d'Études Concertées sur l'analyse des fractions lourdes du pétrole, réunissant Compagnie Francaise de Raffinage (CFR, Société Nationale Elf Aquitaine (SNEA et Institut Français du Pétrole (IFP a mis au point un schéma de préparation spécial de ces distillats, faisant appel à des techniques de distillation continue, de type « isotherme» et « moléculaire ». Dans ce cadre, le Comité de Distillation du GEC a été amené à développer un nouvel appareillage de distillation x isotherme », permettant de réduire, sans craquage, tout pétrole brut jusqu'à une température maximale comprise entre 350 et 380 °C. On décrit dans cet article ce nouvel ensemble de distillation, ainsi que ses conditions opératoires de fonctionnement. On y donne aussi un aperçu de la précision de la méthode de distillation réalisable avec cet appareil, ainsi que de la qualité de fractionnement obtenu.Enfin, à l'aide de quelques exemples particuliers, on montre que le domaine d'application de l'appareil peut être étendu à des produits autres que des pétroles bruts. Analytical examinations of high-boiling-range petroleum distillates must be made with products prepared under extremely mild distillation conditions so as ta maintain intact all the chemical species initially present in the original crude oil.

  19. Evaluation of theoretical and empirical water vapor sorption isotherm models for soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur, Emmanuel; Tuller, Markus; Moldrup, Per; de Jonge, Lis W.

    2016-01-01

    The mathematical characterization of water vapor sorption isotherms of soils is crucial for modeling processes such as volatilization of pesticides and diffusive and convective water vapor transport. Although numerous physically based and empirical models were previously proposed to describe sorption isotherms of building materials, food, and other industrial products, knowledge about the applicability of these functions for soils is noticeably lacking. We present an evaluation of nine models for characterizing adsorption/desorption isotherms for a water activity range from 0.03 to 0.93 based on measured data of 207 soils with widely varying textures, organic carbon contents, and clay mineralogy. In addition, the potential applicability of the models for prediction of sorption isotherms from known clay content was investigated. While in general, all investigated models described measured adsorption and desorption isotherms reasonably well, distinct differences were observed between physical and empirical models and due to the different degrees of freedom of the model equations. There were also considerable differences in model performance for adsorption and desorption data. While regression analysis relating model parameters and clay content and subsequent model application for prediction of measured isotherms showed promise for the majority of investigated soils, for soils with distinct kaolinitic and smectitic clay mineralogy predicted isotherms did not closely match the measurements.

  20. Measurement and analysis of adsorption isotherms of CO_2 on activated carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Vinod Kumar; Anil Kumar, E.

    2016-01-01

    In the present work CO_2 adsorption isotherms of a commercially available activated carbon, Norit Darco type obtained from lignite granular material, were measured. Adsorption isotherms were measured at different temperatures 298 K, 308 K, 318 K and 338 K and over a pressure range of 0–45 bar using Sievert's type experimental setup. Experimental data of CO_2 adsorption isotherms were modelled using Langmuir and Dubinin–Astakhov (D–A) isotherm models. Based on coefficient of correlation and normalized standard deviation it was found that D–A isotherm model was well suited with the experimental data of CO_2 adsorption isotherms. The important thermodynamic properties viz., limiting heat of adsorption at zero coverage, entropy, Gibbs free energy and isosteric heat of adsorption as a function of surface coverage were evaluated using van't Hoff and Clausius–Clapeyron equations. These thermodynamic properties were indicating that CO_2 uptake by activated carbon is a physisorption phenomenon. The adsorption isotherms data and the thermodynamic parameters estimated in the present study are useful for designing of an adsorption based gas storage systems.

  1. GMO detection using a bioluminescent real time reporter (BART of loop mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP suitable for field use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiddle Guy

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is an increasing need for quantitative technologies suitable for molecular detection in a variety of settings for applications including food traceability and monitoring of genetically modified (GM crops and their products through the food processing chain. Conventional molecular diagnostics utilising real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR and fluorescence-based determination of amplification require temperature cycling and relatively complex optics. In contrast, isothermal amplification coupled to a bioluminescent output produced in real-time (BART occurs at a constant temperature and only requires a simple light detection and integration device. Results Loop mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP shows robustness to sample-derived inhibitors. Here we show the applicability of coupled LAMP and BART reactions (LAMP-BART for determination of genetically modified (GM maize target DNA at low levels of contamination (0.1-5.0% GM using certified reference material, and compare this to RT-PCR. Results show that conventional DNA extraction methods developed for PCR may not be optimal for LAMP-BART quantification. Additionally, we demonstrate that LAMP is more tolerant to plant sample-derived inhibitors, and show this can be exploited to develop rapid extraction techniques suitable for simple field-based qualitative tests for GM status determination. We also assess the effect of total DNA assay load on LAMP-BART quantitation. Conclusions LAMP-BART is an effective and sensitive technique for GM detection with significant potential for quantification even at low levels of contamination and in samples derived from crops such as maize with a large genome size. The resilience of LAMP-BART to acidic polysaccharides makes it well suited to rapid sample preparation techniques and hence to both high throughput laboratory settings and to portable GM detection applications. The impact of the plant sample matrix and genome loading

  2. Isothermal heat measurements of TBP-nitric acid solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, J.R.; Cavin, W.S.

    1994-01-01

    Net heats of reaction were measured in an isothermal calorimeter for both single phase (organic) and two phase (organic and aqueous) TBP/HNO 3 reacting solutions at temperatures above 100 C. The oxidation rate constant was determined to be 5.4E-4 min -1 at 110 C for an open ''vented'' system as compared to 1.33 E-3 min -1 in the closed system. The heat released per unit material oxidized was also reduced. The oxidation in both phases was found to be first order in nitric acid and pseudo-zero order in butylnitrate and water. The hydrolysis (esterification) rate constant determined by Nichols' (1.33E-3 min -1 ) fit the experimental data from this work well. Forced evaporation of the volatile components by the product gases from oxidation resulted in a cooling mechanism which more than balanced the heat from the oxidation reaction in the two-phased systems. Rate expressions were derived and rate constants determined for both the single and two phase systems. An approximating mathematical model was developed to fit the experimental data and to extrapolate beyond the experimental conditions. This model shows that one foot of ''reacting'' 14.3M HNO 3 aqueous phase solution at 121 C will transport sufficient water to the organic phase to replace evaporative losses, maintaining endothermicity, for organic layers up to 12.2 + 6.0 feet deep. If the pressure in a reacting system is allowed to increase due to insufficient venting the temperature of the organic phase would increase in temperature to reach a new equilibrium. The rate of oxidation would increase not only due to the increase in temperature but also from the increased concentration of dissolved HNO 3 reduction products. Another important factor is that the cooling system described in this work becomes less effective as the total pressure increases. These factors probably contributed to the explosion at Tomsk

  3. Reynolds number and geometry effects in laminar axisymmetric isothermal counterflows

    KAUST Repository

    Scribano, Gianfranco

    2016-12-29

    The counterflow configuration is a canonical stagnation flow, featuring two opposed impinging round jets and a mixing layer across the stagnation plane. Although counterflows are used extensively in the study of reactive mixtures and other applications where mixing of two streams is required, quantitative data on the scaling properties of the flow field are lacking. The aim of this work is to characterize the velocity and mixing fields in isothermal counterflows over a wide range of conditions. The study features both experimental data from particle image velocimetry and results from detailed axisymmetric simulations. The scaling laws for the nondimensional velocity and mixture fraction are obtained as a function of an appropriate Reynolds number and the ratio of the separation distance of the nozzles to their diameter. In the range of flow configurations investigated, the nondimensional fields are found to depend primarily on the separation ratio and, to a lesser extent, the Reynolds number. The marked dependence of the velocity field with respect to the separation ratio is linked to a high pressure region at the stagnation point. On the other hand, Reynolds number effects highlight the role played by the wall boundary layer on the interior of the nozzles, which becomes less important as the separation ratio decreases. The normalized strain rate and scalar dissipation rate at the stagnation plane are found to attain limiting values only for high values of the Reynolds number. These asymptotic values depend markedly on the separation ratio and differ significantly from the values produced by analytical models. The scaling of the mixing field does not show a limiting behavior as the separation ratio decreases to the smallest practical value considered.

  4. Isothermal CFD-model of Peirce-Smith converting process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaarno, J.; Pitkaelae, J.; Ahokainen, T.; Jokilaakso, A.

    1997-12-31

    The Peirce-Smith converter has been a dominating copper and nickel matte refining process since 1905. Due to extremely difficult process conditions, very little measured data has been available for studying interactions of the gas injection and molten sulphide matte. Detailed information on fluid dynamics of the gas injection is needed in solving gas injection related problems like refractory wear, accretion growth and tuyere blockage as well as optimising the efficiency of momentum and mass transfer created by the gas jets. A commercial CFD-code PHOENICS was used to solve isothermal flow field of gas and liquid in a Peirce-Smith converter. An Euler-Euler based algorithm was chosen for modelling fluid dynamics and evaluating controlling forces of a submerged gas injection generally. Predictions were made with a {kappa}-{epsilon} turbulence model in the body fitted co-ordinate system. The model has been verified with a 1/4 scale water model, and a parametric study with the mathematical model of submerged gas injection was made for the PS-process and the ladle injection processes. Limits of the modelling technique used were recognised, but calculated results indicates that the present model predicts the general flow field with reasonable accuracy and it can be used as input for more detailed mathematical models of gas plumes. Predicted bubble distribution, pattern of the flow field and magnitude of flow velocities were also used to evaluate scaling factors of physical models and general flow conditions of an industrial PS-converter. (orig.) 28 refs.

  5. The kinetic of mass loss of grades A and B of melted TNT by isothermal and non-isothermal gravimetric methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Reza Pouretedal

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The kinetic and activation energy of mass loss of two grades of melted TNT explosive, grade A and grade B, with freezing points of 80.57 and 78.15 °C, respectively, were studied by isothermal and non-isothermal gravimetric methods. In isothermal method, the mass loss of samples in containers of glass and aluminum was followed in temperatures of 80, 90 and 100 °C. The kinetic of the mass loss of the samples in the aluminum container was higher than the kinetic of it in the glass container that can be related to the effects of heat transfer and catalytic of aluminum metal. Also, the presence of impurities in grade B was due to increasing of kinetic of mass loss of it versus grade A. The non-isothermal curves were obtained in range of 30–330 °C at heating rates of 10, 15 and 20 °C⋅min−1. The TG/DTG data were used for determination of activation energy (Ea of mass loss of TNT samples upon degradation by using Ozawa, Kissinger, Ozawa-Flynn-Wall (OFW and Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose (KAS methods as model free methods. The activation energies of grades of A and B of TNT was obtained 99–120 and 66–70 kJ mol−1, respectively. The lower values of activation energy of the degradation reaction of grade B confirm the effect of impurities in the kinetics of mass loss of this grade. Keywords: TNT, Isothermal, Non-isothermal, Kinetic, Mass loss

  6. Assessment of Salmonella spp. and Escherichia coli O157:H7 growth on lettuce exposed to isothermal and non-isothermal conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira Elias, Susana; Noronha, Tiago Baptista; Tondo, Eduardo Cesar

    2018-06-01

    This study aimed to assess the growth of Salmonella and Escherichia coli O157:H7 on lettuce exposed to isothermal and non-isothermal conditions. Pathogens were inoculated on lettuce separately and stored under isothermal condition at 5 °C, 10 °C, 25 °C, 37 °C for both bacteria, at 40 °C for Salmonella and 42 °C for E. coli O157:H7. Growth curves were built by fitting the data to the Baranyi's DMFit, generating R 2 values greater than 0.92 for primary models. Secondary models were fitted with Ratkowsky equations, generating R 2 values higher than 0.91 and RMSE lower than 0.1. Experimental data showed that both bacteria could grow at all temperatures. Also, the growth of both pathogens under non-isothermal conditions was studied simulating temperatures found from harvest to supermarkets in Brazil. Models were analysed by R 2 , RMSE, bias factor (Bf) and accuracy factor (Af). Salmonella and E. coli O157:H7 were able to grow in this temperature profile and the models could predict the behavior of these microorganisms on lettuce under isothermal and non-isothermal conditions. Based on the results, a negligible growth time (ς) was proposed to provide the time which lettuce could be exposed to a specific temperature and do not present an expressive growth of bacteria. The ς was developed based on Baranyi's primary model equation and on growth potential concept. ς is the value of lag phase added of the time necessary to population grow 0.5 log CFU/g. The ς of lettuce exposed to 37 °C was 1.3 h, while at 5 °C was 3.3 days. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A Complementary Isothermal Amplification Method to the U.S. EPA Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction Approach for the Detection of Enterococci in Environmental Waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolm, Claudia; Martzy, Roland; Brunner, Kurt; Mach, Robert L; Krska, Rudolf; Heinze, Georg; Sommer, Regina; Reischer, Georg H; Farnleitner, Andreas H

    2017-06-20

    We report a novel molecular assay, based on helicase-dependent amplification (HDA), for the detection of enterococci as markers for fecal pollution in water. This isothermal assay targets the same Enterococcus 23S rRNA gene region as the existing quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assays of U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Methods 1611 and 1609 but can be entirely performed on a simple heating block. The developed Enterococcus HDA assay successfully discriminated 15 enterococcal from 15 non-enterococcal reference strains and reliably detected 48 environmental isolates of enterococci. The limit of detection was 25 target copies per reaction, only 3 times higher than that of qPCR. The applicability of the assay was tested on 30 environmental water sample DNA extracts, simulating a gradient of fecal pollution. Despite the isothermal nature of the reaction, the HDA results were consistent with those of the qPCR reference. Given this performance, we conclude that the developed Enterococcus HDA assay has great potential as a qualitative molecular screening method for resource-limited settings when combined with compatible up- and downstream processes. This amplification strategy can pave the way for developing a new generation of rapid, low-cost, and field-deployable molecular diagnostic tools for water quality monitoring.

  8. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) based detection of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Various diseases are caused by pathogenic bacteria and their diagnosis depends on accurate detection of pathogen from clinical samples. Several molecular methods have been developed including PCR, Real Time PCR or multiplex PCR which detects the pathogen accurately. However, every method has some ...

  9. Nonequilibrium Contribution to the Rate of Reaction. III. Isothermal Multicomponent Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shizgal, B.; Karplus, M.

    1970-10-01

    The nonequilibrium contribution to the reaction rate of an isothermal multicomponent system is obtained by solution of the appropriate Chapman-Enskog equation; the system is composed of reactive species in contact with a heat bath of inert atoms M.

  10. Heat transfer corrected isothermal model for devolatilization of thermally-thick biomass particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luo, Hao; Wu, Hao; Lin, Weigang

    Isothermal model used in current computational fluid dynamic (CFD) model neglect the internal heat transfer during biomass devolatilization. This assumption is not reasonable for thermally-thick particles. To solve this issue, a heat transfer corrected isothermal model is introduced. In this model......, two heat transfer corrected coefficients: HT-correction of heat transfer and HR-correction of reaction, are defined to cover the effects of internal heat transfer. A series of single biomass devitalization case have been modeled to validate this model, the results show that devolatilization behaviors...... of both thermally-thick and thermally-thin particles are predicted reasonable by using heat transfer corrected model, while, isothermal model overestimate devolatilization rate and heating rate for thermlly-thick particle.This model probably has better performance than isothermal model when it is coupled...

  11. Adsorption Isotherms of CH 4 on Activated Carbon from Indonesian Low Grade Coal

    KAUST Repository

    Martin, Awaludin; Loh, Wai Soong; Rahman, Kazi Afzalur; Thu, Kyaw; Surayawan, Bambang; Alhamid, M. Idrus; Nasruddin,; Ng, Kim Choon

    2011-01-01

    ) apparatus, and two types of activated carbon have been investigated, namely, activated carbon derived from the low rank coal of the East of Kalimantan, Indonesia, and a Carbotech activated carbon. The isotherm results which cover temperatures from (300

  12. Adsorption Isotherms of CH 4 on Activated Carbon from Indonesian Low Grade Coal

    KAUST Repository

    Martin, Awaludin

    2011-03-10

    This article presents an experimental approach for the determination of the adsorption isotherms of methane on activated carbon that is essential for methane storage purposes. The experiments incorporated a constant-volume- variable-pressure (CVVP) apparatus, and two types of activated carbon have been investigated, namely, activated carbon derived from the low rank coal of the East of Kalimantan, Indonesia, and a Carbotech activated carbon. The isotherm results which cover temperatures from (300 to 318) K and pressures up to 3.5 MPa are analyzed using the Langmuir, Tóth, and Dubinin-Astakhov (D-A) isotherm models. The heat of adsorption for the single component methane-activated carbon system, which is concentration- and temperature-dependent, is determined from the measured isotherm data. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  13. Review of low-temperature vapour power cycle engines with quasi-isothermal expansion

    OpenAIRE

    Igobo, Opubo N.; Davies, Philip A.

    2014-01-01

    External combustion heat cycle engines convert thermal energy into useful work. Thermal energy resources include solar, geothermal, bioenergy, and waste heat. To harness these and maximize work output, there has been a renaissance of interest in the investigation of vapour power cycles for quasi-isothermal (near constant temperature) instead of adiabatic expansion. Quasi-isothermal expansion has the advantage of bringing the cycle efficiency closer to the ideal Carnot efficiency, but it requi...

  14. Method to Predict Tempering of Steels Under Non-isothermal Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poirier, D. R.; Kohli, A.

    2017-05-01

    A common way of representing the tempering responses of steels is with a "tempering parameter" that includes the effect of temperature and time on hardness after hardening. Such functions, usually in graphical form, are available for many steels and have been applied for isothermal tempering. In this article, we demonstrate that the method can be extended to non-isothermal conditions. Controlled heating experiments were done on three grades in order to verify the method.

  15. Magnetohydrodynamic Models of Molecular Tornadoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Au, Kelvin; Fiege, Jason D.

    2017-07-01

    Recent observations near the Galactic Center (GC) have found several molecular filaments displaying striking helically wound morphology that are collectively known as molecular tornadoes. We investigate the equilibrium structure of these molecular tornadoes by formulating a magnetohydrodynamic model of a rotating, helically magnetized filament. A special analytical solution is derived where centrifugal forces balance exactly with toroidal magnetic stress. From the physics of torsional Alfvén waves we derive a constraint that links the toroidal flux-to-mass ratio and the pitch angle of the helical field to the rotation laws, which we find to be an important component in describing the molecular tornado structure. The models are compared to the Ostriker solution for isothermal, nonmagnetic, nonrotating filaments. We find that neither the analytic model nor the Alfvén wave model suffer from the unphysical density inversions noted by other authors. A Monte Carlo exploration of our parameter space is constrained by observational measurements of the Pigtail Molecular Cloud, the Double Helix Nebula, and the GC Molecular Tornado. Observable properties such as the velocity dispersion, filament radius, linear mass, and surface pressure can be used to derive three dimensionless constraints for our dimensionless models of these three objects. A virial analysis of these constrained models is studied for these three molecular tornadoes. We find that self-gravity is relatively unimportant, whereas magnetic fields and external pressure play a dominant role in the confinement and equilibrium radial structure of these objects.

  16. Magnetohydrodynamic Models of Molecular Tornadoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Au, Kelvin; Fiege, Jason D., E-mail: fiege@physics.umanitoba.ca [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manitoba Winnipeg, MB R3T 2N2 (Canada)

    2017-07-10

    Recent observations near the Galactic Center (GC) have found several molecular filaments displaying striking helically wound morphology that are collectively known as molecular tornadoes. We investigate the equilibrium structure of these molecular tornadoes by formulating a magnetohydrodynamic model of a rotating, helically magnetized filament. A special analytical solution is derived where centrifugal forces balance exactly with toroidal magnetic stress. From the physics of torsional Alfvén waves we derive a constraint that links the toroidal flux-to-mass ratio and the pitch angle of the helical field to the rotation laws, which we find to be an important component in describing the molecular tornado structure. The models are compared to the Ostriker solution for isothermal, nonmagnetic, nonrotating filaments. We find that neither the analytic model nor the Alfvén wave model suffer from the unphysical density inversions noted by other authors. A Monte Carlo exploration of our parameter space is constrained by observational measurements of the Pigtail Molecular Cloud, the Double Helix Nebula, and the GC Molecular Tornado. Observable properties such as the velocity dispersion, filament radius, linear mass, and surface pressure can be used to derive three dimensionless constraints for our dimensionless models of these three objects. A virial analysis of these constrained models is studied for these three molecular tornadoes. We find that self-gravity is relatively unimportant, whereas magnetic fields and external pressure play a dominant role in the confinement and equilibrium radial structure of these objects.

  17. Multicenter Clinical Evaluation of the Alere i Respiratory Syncytial Virus Isothermal Nucleic Acid Amplification Assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Ferdaus; Hays, Lindsay M; Bonner, Aleta; Bradford, Bradley J; Franklin, Ruffin; Hendry, Phyllis; Kaminetsky, Jed; Vaughn, Michael; Cieslak, Kristin; Moffatt, Mary E; Selvarangan, Rangaraj

    2018-03-01

    The Alere i respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) assay is an isothermal nucleic acid amplification test capable of detecting RSV directly from respiratory specimens, with results being available in ≤13 min after test initiation. The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance characteristics of the Alere i RSV assay in a point-of-care setting by using direct nasopharyngeal (NP) swab specimens (direct NP) and nasopharyngeal swab specimens eluted and transported in viral transport medium (VTM NP). The study was a prospective, multicenter, clinical trial conducted at 9 sites across the United States to evaluate the clinical performance of the Alere i RSV assay with respiratory specimens obtained from both children (age, 60 years). The performance of the Alere i RSV assay was compared with that of the reference method, the Prodesse ProFlu+ real-time reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) assay. All specimens with discrepant test results were tested further by a second FDA-cleared PCR assay (the Verigene respiratory virus plus nucleic acid test; Luminex Inc., TX). A total of 554 subjects with signs and symptoms of respiratory infections were enrolled, and respiratory samples were collected in this study. In comparison with the ProFlu+ real-time RT-PCR, the overall sensitivity and specificity of Alere i RSV assay for the detection of RSV were 98.6% (95% confidence interval [CI], 94.4 to 99.7%) and 98.0% (95% CI, 95.8 to 99.1%), respectively, for direct NP and 98.6% (95% CI, 94.4 to 99.7%) and 97.8% (95% CI, 95.5 to 98.9%), respectively, for VTM NP. The Alere i RSV is a highly sensitive and specific molecular assay ideal for rapid RSV detection in patients in the point-of-care setting due to its minimal hands-on time and rapid result availability. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Microbiology.

  18. Detection of phytoplasma by loop-mediated isothermal amplification of DNA (LAMP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obura, E; Masiga, D; Wachira, F; Gurja, B; Khan, Z R

    2011-02-01

    Napier stunt phytoplasma (16SrXI and 16SrIII) in eastern Africa is a serious threat to the expansion of Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum) farming in the region, where it is widely cultivated as fodder in zero grazing livestock systems. The grass has high potential for bio-fuel production, and has been adopted by farmers as a countermeasure to cereal stem borer Lepidoptera, since it attracts and traps the insect. Diagnosis of stunt phytoplasma have been largely by nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR) targeting the 16S rRNA gene. However, the method is laborious, costly and technically demanding. This investigation has developed a simpler but effective phytoplasma diagnostic tool, called; loop-mediated isothermal amplification of DNA (LAMP). The assay was tested on 8 symptomatic and 8 asymptomatic plants, while its detection limit was compared to nested PCR using samples serially diluted from 3 ng/μl to 0.38 pg/μl. Molecular typing of LAMP products was determined by BsrI restriction digestion and Southern blot analysis. The assay sensitivity, positive and negative predictive values were estimated, while the specificity was tested on 11 phytoplasma groups. LAMP was specific to 5 phytoplasma groups: 16SrVI, X, XI and XVI. BsrI restriction digestion produced two predicted fragments, and there was specific binding of probe DNA to the LAMP amplicons in Southern blot analysis. The assay sensitivity was 100%, while the positive and negative predictive values were 63 and 100% respectively. LAMP was 20-fold more sensitive than nested PCR. This study validates LAMP for routine diagnosis of Napier stunt and other closely related phytoplasmas. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Specific detection of Pectobacterium carotovorum by loop-mediated isothermal amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuhara-Bell, Jarred; Marrero, Glorimar; De Silva, Asoka; Alvarez, Anne M

    2016-12-01

    Potatoes are an important agroeconomic crop worldwide and maceration diseases caused by pectolytic bacterial pathogens result in significant pre- and post-harvest losses. Pectobacterium carotovorum shares a common host range with other Pectobacterium spp. and other members of the Enterobacteriaceae, such as Dickeya spp. As these pathogens cannot be clearly differentiated on the basis of the symptoms they cause, improved methods of identification are critical for the determination of sources of contamination. Current standardized methods for the differentiation of pectolytic species are time consuming and require trained personnel, as they rely on traditional bacteriological practices that do not always produce conclusive results. In this growing world market, there is a need for rapid diagnostic tests that can differentiate between pectolytic pathogens, as well as separate them from non-pectolytic enteric bacteria associated with soft rots of potato. An assay has been designed previously to detect the temperate pathogen Pectobacterium atrosepticum, but there is currently no recognized rapid assay for the detection of the tropical/subtropical counterpart, Pectobacterium carotovorum. This report describes the development of a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay that detects P. carotovorum with high specificity. The assay was evaluated using all known species of Pectobacterium and only showed positive reactions for P. carotovorum. This assay was also tested against 15 non-target genera of plant-associated bacteria and did not produce any false positives. The LAMP assay described here can be used as a rapid test for the differentiation of P. carotovorum from other pectolytic pathogens, and its gene target can be the basis for the development of other molecular-based detection assays. © 2016 BSPP and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP): early detection of Toxoplasma gondii infection in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Qing-Ming; Lu, Shao-Hong; Tong, Qun-Bo; Lou, Di; Chen, Rui; Zheng, Bin; Kumagai, Takashi; Wen, Li-Yong; Ohta, Nobuo; Zhou, Xiao-Nong

    2012-01-03

    Toxoplasmosis is a widespread zoonotic parasitic disease that occurs in both animals and humans. Traditional molecular assays are often difficult to perform, especially for the early diagnosis of Toxoplasma gondii infections. Here, we established a novel loop-mediated isothermal amplification targeting the 529 bp repeat element (529 bp-LAMP) to detect T. gondii DNA in blood samples of experimental mice infected with tachyzoites of the RH strain. The assay was performed with Bst DNA polymerase at 65°C for 1 h. The detection limit of the 529 bp-LAMP assay was as low as 0.6 fg of T. gondii DNA. The sensitivity of this assay was 100 and 1000 fold higher than that of the LAMP targeting B1 gene (B1-LAMP) and nested PCR targeting 529 bp repeat element (529 bp-nested PCR), respectively. The specificity of the 529 bp-LAMP assay was determined using the DNA samples of Trypanosoma evansi, Plasmodium falciparum, Paragonimus westermani, Schistosoma japonicum, Fasciola hepatica and Angiostrongylus cantonensis. No cross-reactivity with the DNA of any parasites was found. The assay was able to detect T. gondii DNA in all mouse blood samples at one day post infection (dpi). We report the following findings: (i) The detection limit of the 529 bp-LAMP assay is 0.6 fg of T. gondii DNA; (ii) The assay does not involve any cross-reactivity with the DNA of other parasites; (iii) This is the first report on the application of the LAMP assay for early diagnosis of toxoplasmosis in blood samples from experimentally infected mice. Due to its simplicity, sensitivity and cost-effectiveness for common use, we suggest that this assay should be used as an early diagnostic tool for health control of toxoplasmosis.

  1. Sorption of Pb2+ from Aqueous Solution unto Modified Rice Husk: Isotherms Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. O. Dada

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigation of the sorption potential of rice husk, an agricultural waste, as an adsorbent was carried out. The rice husk was modified with orthophosphoric acid and was used for adsorption of lead (II ions (Pb2+ from aqueous solution. Physicochemical properties of the modified rice husk were determined. Equilibrium sorption data were confirmed with Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin adsorption isotherms. On the basis of adsorption isotherm graphs, R2 values were determined to be 0.995, 0.916, and 0.797 for Langmuir, Temkin, and Freundlich isotherms, respectively, indicating that the data fitted well into the adsorption isotherms, but Langmuir isotherm is a better model. The maximum monolayer coverage from Langmuir studies, Qmax=138.89 mg/g, Langmuir isotherm constant, KL=0.699 L/mg, and the separation factor, RL=1.41×10−2 at 100 mg/L of lead(II ions indicating that the sorption process, was favourable. The suitability of modified rice husk as an adsorbent for the removal of lead ions from aqueous solution and its potential for pollution control is established.

  2. Real-time electrochemical monitoring of isothermal helicase-dependent amplification of nucleic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivlehan, Francine; Mavré, François; Talini, Luc; Limoges, Benoît; Marchal, Damien

    2011-09-21

    We described an electrochemical method to monitor in real-time the isothermal helicase-dependent amplification of nucleic acids. The principle of detection is simple and well-adapted to the development of portable, easy-to-use and inexpensive nucleic acids detection technologies. It consists of monitoring a decrease in the electrochemical current response of a reporter DNA intercalating redox probe during the isothermal DNA amplification. The method offers the possibility to quantitatively analyze target nucleic acids in less than one hour at a single constant temperature, and to perform at the end of the isothermal amplification a DNA melt curve analysis for differentiating between specific and non-specific amplifications. To illustrate the potentialities of this approach for the development of a simple, robust and low-cost instrument with high throughput capability, the method was validated with an electrochemical system capable of monitoring up to 48 real-time isothermal HDA reactions simultaneously in a disposable microplate consisting of 48-electrochemical microwells. Results obtained with this approach are comparable to that obtained with a well-established but more sophisticated and expensive fluorescence-based method. This makes for a promising alternative detection method not only for real-time isothermal helicase-dependent amplification of nucleic acid, but also for other isothermal DNA amplification strategies.

  3. A Universal Isotherm Model to Capture Adsorption Uptake and Energy Distribution of Porous Heterogeneous Surface

    KAUST Repository

    Ng, Kim Choon; Burhan, Muhammad; Shahzad, Muhammad Wakil; Ismail, Azahar Bin

    2017-01-01

    The adsorbate-adsorbent thermodynamics are complex as it is influenced by the pore size distributions, surface heterogeneity and site energy distribution, as well as the adsorbate properties. Together, these parameters defined the adsorbate uptake forming the state diagrams, known as the adsorption isotherms, when the sorption site energy on the pore surfaces are favorable. The available adsorption models for describing the vapor uptake or isotherms, hitherto, are individually defined to correlate to a certain type of isotherm patterns. There is yet a universal approach in developing these isotherm models. In this paper, we demonstrate that the characteristics of all sorption isotherm types can be succinctly unified by a revised Langmuir model when merged with the concepts of Homotattic Patch Approximation (HPA) and the availability of multiple sets of site energy accompanied by their respective fractional probability factors. The total uptake (q/q*) at assorted pressure ratios (P/P s ) are inextricably traced to the manner the site energies are spread, either naturally or engineered by scientists, over and across the heterogeneous surfaces. An insight to the porous heterogeneous surface characteristics, in terms of adsorption site availability has been presented, describing the unique behavior of each isotherm type.

  4. A Universal Isotherm Model to Capture Adsorption Uptake and Energy Distribution of Porous Heterogeneous Surface

    KAUST Repository

    Ng, Kim Choon

    2017-08-31

    The adsorbate-adsorbent thermodynamics are complex as it is influenced by the pore size distributions, surface heterogeneity and site energy distribution, as well as the adsorbate properties. Together, these parameters defined the adsorbate uptake forming the state diagrams, known as the adsorption isotherms, when the sorption site energy on the pore surfaces are favorable. The available adsorption models for describing the vapor uptake or isotherms, hitherto, are individually defined to correlate to a certain type of isotherm patterns. There is yet a universal approach in developing these isotherm models. In this paper, we demonstrate that the characteristics of all sorption isotherm types can be succinctly unified by a revised Langmuir model when merged with the concepts of Homotattic Patch Approximation (HPA) and the availability of multiple sets of site energy accompanied by their respective fractional probability factors. The total uptake (q/q*) at assorted pressure ratios (P/P s ) are inextricably traced to the manner the site energies are spread, either naturally or engineered by scientists, over and across the heterogeneous surfaces. An insight to the porous heterogeneous surface characteristics, in terms of adsorption site availability has been presented, describing the unique behavior of each isotherm type.

  5. An NPT Monte Carlo Molecular Simulation-Based Approach to Investigate Solid-Vapor Equilibrium: Application to Elemental Sulfur-H2S System

    KAUST Repository

    Kadoura, Ahmad Salim; Salama, Amgad; Sun, Shuyu; Sherik, Abdelmounam

    2013-01-01

    In this work, a method to estimate solid elemental sulfur solubility in pure and gas mixtures using Monte Carlo (MC) molecular simulation is proposed. This method is based on Isobaric-Isothermal (NPT) ensemble and the Widom insertion technique

  6. Mixed 2D molecular systems: Mechanic, thermodynamic and dielectric properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beno, Juraj [Department of Physics, Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Information Technology, Slovak University of Technology, Ilkovicova 3, 812 19-SK Bratislava (Slovakia); Weis, Martin [Department of Physics, Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Information Technology, Slovak University of Technology, Ilkovicova 3, 812 19-SK Bratislava (Slovakia)], E-mail: Martin.Weis@stuba.sk; Dobrocka, Edmund [Department of Physics, Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Information Technology, Slovak University of Technology, Ilkovicova 3, 812 19-SK Bratislava (Slovakia); Institute of Electrical Engineering, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dubravska cesta 9, 841 04-SK Bratislava (Slovakia); Hasko, Daniel [International Laser Centre, Ilkovicova 3, 812 19-SK Bratislava (Slovakia)

    2008-08-15

    Study of Langmuir monolayers consisting of stearic acid (SA) and dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) molecules was done by surface pressure-area isotherms ({pi}-A), the Maxwell displacement current (MDC) measurement, X-ray reflectivity (XRR) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) to investigate the selected mechanic, thermodynamic and dielectric properties based on orientational structure of monolayers. On the base of {pi}-A isotherms analysis we explain the creation of stable structures and found optimal monolayer composition. The dielectric properties represented by MDC generated monolayers were analyzed in terms of excess dipole moment, proposing the effect of dipole-dipole interaction. XRR and AFM results illustrate deposited film structure and molecular ordering.

  7. Crystallization kinetics of the Cu50Zr50 metallic glass under isothermal conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Qian; Jian, Zengyun; Xu, Junfeng; Zhu, Man; Chang, Fange; Han, Amin

    2016-01-01

    Amorphous structure of the melt-spun Cu 50 Zr 50 amorphous alloy ribbons were confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM). Isothermal crystallization kinetics of these alloy ribbons were investigated using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Besides, Arrhenius and Johnson-Mehl-Avrami (JMA) equations were utilized to obtain the isothermal crystallization kinetic parameters. As shown in the results, the local activation energy E α decreases by a large margin at the crystallized volume fraction α<0.1, which proves that crystallization process is increasingly easy. In addition, the local activation energy E α is basically constant at 0.1<α<0.9. Therefore, it turns out that the unchanged barrier is overcome in the crystallization process. Finally, E α rapidly decreases at 0.9<α<1, implying that crystallization becomes easier and easier to proceed. Nucleation activation energy E nucleation is greater than growth activation energy E growth , so nucleation is harder than growth in isothermal process. In terms of the local Avrami exponent n(α), it ranges 1.1–7.4, revealing that isothermal crystallization mechanism is interface-controlled one- two- or three-dimensional growth with different nucleation rates. - Graphical abstract: The local Avrami exponent n(α), it ranges 1.1–7.4, revealing that isothermal crystallization mechanism is interface-controlled one- two- or three-dimensional growth with different nucleation rates. - Highlights: • Isothermal crystallization kinetics of Cu 50 Zr 50 metallic glass was investigated. • The relationship between the local activation energy E α and the crystallized volume fraction α were determined. • The nucleation activation energy E nucleation and grain growth activation energy E growth were obtained. • The local Avrami exponent n(α) was calculated in isothermal model.

  8. Water-Column Stratification Observed along an AUV-Tracked Isotherm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y.; Messié, M.; Ryan, J. P.; Kieft, B.; Stanway, M. J.; Hobson, B.; O'Reilly, T. C.; Raanan, B. Y.; Smith, J. M.; Chavez, F.

    2016-02-01

    Studies of marine physical, chemical and microbiological processes benefit from observing in a Lagrangian frame of reference, i.e. drifting with ambient water. Because these processes can be organized relative to specific density or temperature ranges, maintaining observing platforms within targeted environmental ranges is an important observing strategy. We have developed a novel method to enable a Tethys-class long-range autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) (which has a propeller and a buoyancy engine) to track a target isotherm in buoyancy-controlled drift mode. In this mode, the vehicle shuts off its propeller and autonomously detects the isotherm and stays with it by actively controlling the vehicle's buoyancy. In the June 2015 CANON (Controlled, Agile, and Novel Observing Network) Experiment in Monterey Bay, California, AUV Makai tracked a target isotherm for 13 hours to study the coastal upwelling system. The tracked isotherm started from 33 m depth, shoaled to 10 m, and then deepened to 29 m. The thickness of the tracked isotherm layer (within 0.3°C error from the target temperature) increased over this duration, reflecting weakened stratification around the isotherm. During Makai's isotherm tracking, another long-range AUV, Daphne, acoustically tracked Makai on a circular yo-yo trajectory, measuring water-column profiles in Makai's vicinity. A wave glider also acoustically tracked Makai, providing sea surface measurements on the track. The presented method is a new approach for studying water-column stratification, but requires careful analysis of the temporal and spatial variations mingled in the vehicles' measurements. We will present a synthesis of the water column's stratification in relation to the upwelling conditions, based on the in situ measurements by the mobile platforms, as well as remote sensing and mooring data.

  9. Isothermal titration calorimetric and computational studies on the binding of chitooligosaccharides to pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima) phloem exudate lectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narahari, Akkaladevi; Singla, Hitesh; Nareddy, Pavan Kumar; Bulusu, Gopalakrishnan; Surolia, Avadhesha; Swamy, Musti J

    2011-04-14

    The interaction of chitooligosaccharides [(GlcNAc)(2-6)] with pumpkin phloem exudate lectin (PPL) was investigated by isothermal titration calorimetry and computational methods. The dimeric PPL binds to (GlcNAc)(3-5) with binding constants of 1.26-1.53 × 10(5) M(-1) at 25 °C, whereas chitobiose exhibits approximately 66-fold lower affinity. Interestingly, chitohexaose shows nearly 40-fold higher affinity than chitopentaose with a binding constant of 6.16 × 10(6) M(-1). The binding stoichiometry decreases with an increase in the oligosaccharide size from 2.26 for chitobiose to 1.08 for chitohexaose. The binding reaction was essentially enthalpy driven with negative entropic contribution, suggesting that hydrogen bonds and van der Waals' interactions are the main factors that stabilize PPL-saccharide association. The three-dimensional structure of PPL was predicted by homology modeling, and binding of chitooligosaccharides was investigated by molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulations, which showed that the protein binding pocket can accommodate up to three GlcNAc residues, whereas additional residues in chitotetraose and chitopentaose did not exhibit any interactions with the binding pocket. Docking studies with chitohexaose indicated that the two triose units of the molecule could interact with different protein binding sites, suggesting formation of higher order complexes by the higher oligomers of GlcNAc by their simultaneous interaction with two protein molecules.

  10. Magnetohydrodynamic shocks in molecular clouds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chernoff, D.F.

    1985-01-01

    Part one develops the mathematical and physical theory of one-dimensional, time-independent subalfvenic flow in partially ionized gas with magnetic fields, for application to shocks in molecular clouds. Unlike normal gas-dynamic shocks, the neutral flow may be continuous and cool if the gas radiates efficiently and does not self-ionize. Analytic solutions are given in the limit that the neutral gas is either adiabatic or isothermal (cold). Numerical techniques are developed and applied to find the neutral flow under general circumstances. Part two extends the theory and results of part one in three ways: (1) to faster, superalfvenic flow, (2) to complex gases containing heavy charged particles (grains) in addition to ions, containing heavy charged particles (grains) in addition to ions, electrons and neutrals, and (3) to the entire range in (Omega tau), the ratio of charged particle damping time to gyroperiod, expected in gas flows in molecular clouds

  11. Thermodynamic investigations of protein's behaviour with ionic liquids in aqueous medium studied by isothermal titration calorimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharmoria, Pankaj; Kumar, Arvind

    2016-05-01

    While a number of reports appear on ionic liquids-proteins interactions, their thermodynamic behaviour using suitable technique like isothermal titration calorimetry is not systematically presented. Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) is a key technique which can directly measure the thermodynamic contribution of IL binding to protein, particularly the enthalpy, heat capacities and binding stoichiometry. Ionic liquids (ILs), owing to their unique and tunable physicochemical properties have been the central area of scientific research besides graphene in the last decade, and growing unabated. Their encounter with proteins in the biological system is inevitable considering their environmental discharge though most of them are recyclable for a number of cycles. In this article we will cover the thermodynamics of proteins upon interaction with ILs as osmolyte and surfactant. The up to date literature survey of IL-protein interactions using isothermal titration calorimetry will be discussed and parallel comparison with the results obtained for such studies with other techniques will be highlighted to demonstrate the accuracy of ITC technique. Net stability of proteins can be obtained from the difference in the free energy (ΔG) of the native (folded) and denatured (unfolded) state using the Gibbs-Helmholtz equation (ΔG=ΔH-TΔS). Isothermal titration calorimetry can directly measure the heat changes upon IL-protein interactions. Calculation of other thermodynamic parameters such as entropy, binding constant and free energy depends upon the proper fitting of the binding isotherms using various fitting models. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. TWO-PARAMETER ISOTHERMS OF METHYL ORANGE SORPTION BY PINECONE DERIVED ACTIVATED CARBON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Samarghandi ، M. Hadi ، S. Moayedi ، F. Barjasteh Askari

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The adsorption of a mono azo dye methyl-orange (MeO onto granular pinecone derived activated carbon (GPAC, from aqueous solutions, was studied in a batch system. Seven two-parameter isotherm models Langmuir, Freundlich, Dubinin-Radushkevic, Temkin, Halsey, Jovanovic and Hurkins-Jura were used to fit the experimental data. The results revealed that the adsorption isotherm models fitted the data in the order of Jovanovic (X2=1.374 > Langmuir > Dubinin-Radushkevic > Temkin > Freundlich > Halsey > Hurkins-Jura isotherms. Adsorption isotherms modeling showed that the interaction of dye with activated carbon surface is localized monolayer adsorption. A comparison of kinetic models was evaluated for the pseudo-second order, Elovich and Lagergren kinetic models. Lagergren first order model was found to agree well with the experimental data (X2=9.231. In order to determine the best-fit isotherm and kinetic models, two error analysis methods of Residual Mean Square Error and Chi-square statistic (X2 were used to evaluate the data.

  13. Evolution of the Cerro Prieto geothermal system as interpreted from vitrinite reflectance under isothermal conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barker, C.E. (US Geological Survey, Denver, CO); Pawlewicz, M.J.; Bostick, N.H.; Elders, W.A.

    1981-01-01

    Temperature estimates from reflectance data in the Cerro Prieto system correlate with modern temperature logs and temperature estimates from fluid inclusion and oxygen isotope geothermometry indicating that the temperature in the central portion of the Cerro Prieto System is now at its historical maximum. Isoreflectance lines formed by contouring vitrinite reflectance data for a given isothermal surface define an imaginary surface that indicates an apparent duration of heating in the system. The 250/sup 0/C isothermal surface has a complex dome-like form suggesting a localized heat source that has caused shallow heating in the central portion of this system. Isoreflectance lines relative to this 250/sup 0/C isothermal surface define a zone of low reflectance roughly corresponding to the crest of the isothermal surface. Comparison of these two surfaces suggest that the shallow heating in the central portion of Cerro Prieto is young relative to the heating (to 250/sup 0/C) on the system margins. Laboratory and theoretical models of hydrothermal convection cells suggest that the form of the observed 250/sup 0/C isothermal surface and the reflectance surface derived relative to it results from the convective rise of thermal fluids under the influence of a regional hydrodynamic gradient that induces a shift of the hydrothermal heating effects to the southwest.

  14. [Application of classical isothermal adsorption models in heavy metal ions/ diatomite system and related problems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jian; Wu, Qing-Ding; Wang, Ping; Li, Ke-Lin; Lei, Ming-Jing; Zhang, Wei-Li

    2013-11-01

    In order to fully understand adsorption nature of Cu2+, Zn2+, Pb2+, Cd2+, Mn2+, Fe3+ onto natural diatomite, and to find problems of classical isothermal adsorption models' application in liquid/solid system, a series of isothermal adsorption tests were conducted. As results indicate, the most suitable isotherm models for describing adsorption of Pb2+, Cd2+, Cu2+, Zn2+, Mn2+, Fe3+ onto natural diatomite are Tenkin, Tenkin, Langmuir, Tenkin, Freundlich and Freundlich, respectively, the adsorption of each ion onto natural diatomite is mainly a physical process, and the adsorption reaction is favorable. It also can be found that, when using classical isothermal adsorption models to fit the experimental data in liquid/solid system, the equilibrium adsorption amount q(e) is not a single function of ion equilibrium concentration c(e), while is a function of two variables, namely c(e) and the adsorbent concentration W0, q(e) only depends on c(e)/W(0). Results also show that the classical isothermal adsorption models have a significant adsorbent effect, and their parameter values are unstable, the simulation values of parameter differ greatly from the measured values, which is unhelpful for practical use. The tests prove that four-adsorption-components model can be used for describing adsorption behavior of single ion in nature diatomite-liquid system, its parameters k and q(m) have constant values, which is favorable for practical quantitative calculation in a given system.

  15. Summary report on the evaluation of a 1977--1985 edited sorption data base for isotherm modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polzer, W.L.; Beckman, R.J.; Fuentes, H.R.; Yong, C.; Chan, P.; Rao, M.G.

    1993-01-01

    Sorption data bases collected by Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) from 1977 to 1985 for the Yucca Mountain Project.(YMP) have been inventoried and fitted with isotherm expressions. Effects of variables (e.g., particle size) on the isotherm were also evaluated. The sorption data are from laboratory batch measurements which were not designed specifically for isotherm modeling. However a limited number of data sets permitted such modeling. The analysis of those isotherm data can aid in the design of future sorption experiments and can provide expressions to be used in radionuclide transport modeling. Over 1200 experimental observations were inventoried for their adequacy to be modeled b isotherms and to evaluate the effects of variables on isotherms. About 15% of the observations provided suitable data sets for modeling. The data sets were obtained under conditions that include ambient temperature and two atmospheres, air and CO 2

  16. Experiences of fitting isotherms to data from batch sorption experiments for radionuclides on tuffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polzer, W.L.; Fuentes, H.R.

    1989-11-01

    Laboratory experiments have been performed on the sorption of radionuclides on tuff as site characterization information for the Yucca Mountain Project. This paper presents general observations on the results of curve-fitting of sorption data by isotherm equations and the effects of experimental variables on their regressional analysis. Observations are specific to the effectiveness and problems associated with fitting isotherms, the calculation and value of isotherm parameters, and the significance of experimental variables such as replication, particle size, mode of sorption, and mineralogy. These observations are important in the design of laboratory experiments to ensure that collected data are adequate for effectively characterizing sorption of radionuclides on tuffs or other materials. 13 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs

  17. Isochronal and isothermal crystallization kinetics of amorphous Fe-based alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, J.T.; Wang, W.M.; Ma, H.J.; Li, G.H.; Li, R.; Zhang, Z.H.

    2010-01-01

    Using the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), the isochronal and isothermal crystallization kinetics of amorphous Fe 61 Co 9-x Zr 8 Mo 5 W x B 17 (x = 0 and 2) ribbons was investigated by the Kissinger equation and by the Kolmogorov-Johnson-Mehl-Avrami and Ranganathan-Heimendahl equations, respectively. The results show that tungsten can improve the activation energy E 1 K for the first crystallization in the isochronal annealing process and activation energy E n for the nucleation in the isothermal annealing process, which can be ascribed to the dissolution of tungsten in the amorphous phase. Meanwhile, tungsten can decrease the activation energy E 2 K for the second crystallization in the isochronal annealing process and growth activation energy E g in the isothermal annealing process, which is possibly associated with the formation of W-rich compound after the early nucleation process.

  18. Isothermal annealing of silicon implanted with 50 keV 10B ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weidner, B.; Zaschke, G.

    1974-01-01

    Isothermal annealing characteristics of silicon implanted with boron were measured and compared with calculated results. Implantation was performed with 50 keV 10 B ions in the dose range of 7.5 x 10 12 cm -2 to 2.0 x 10 15 cm -2 . Annealing temperatures ranged from 700 to 900 0 C. Maximum annealing time was 10 4 minutes. Annealing time strongly increases with increasing dose and decreasing temperature. Assuming that there is only one activation energy the isothermal annealing curves of constant dose and different temperatures were combined to a reduced annealing curve and the reduced isothermal annealing curve calculated. Starting from first order kinetics, considering the doping profile of boron in silicon and assuming a depth-dependent decay constant the experimentally determined annealing curves could be easily described over the total dose and time range

  19. Molar volume and adsorption isotherm dependence of capillary forces in nanoasperity contacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asay, David B; Kim, Seong H

    2007-11-20

    The magnitude of the capillary force at any given temperature and adsorbate partial pressure depends primarily on four factors: the surface tension of the adsorbate, its liquid molar volume, its isothermal behavior, and the contact geometry. At large contacting radii, the adsorbate surface tension and the contact geometry are dominating. This is the case of surface force apparatus measurements and atomic force microscopy (AFM) experiments with micrometer-size spheres. However, as the size of contacting asperities decreases to the nanoscale as in AFM experiments with sharp tips, the molar volume and isotherm of the adsorbate become very important to capillary formation as well as capillary adhesion. This effect is experimentally and theoretically explored with simple alcohol molecules (ethanol, 1-butanol, and 1-pentanol) which have comparable surface tensions but differing liquid molar volumes. Adsorption isotherms for these alcohols on silicon oxide are also reported.

  20. Rapid Newcastle Disease Virus Detection Based on Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification and Optomagnetic Readout

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tian, Bo; Ma, Jing; Zardán Gómez de la Torre, Teresa

    2016-01-01

    Rapid and sensitive diagnostic methods based on isothermal amplification are ideal substitutes for PCR in out-of-lab settings. However, there are bottlenecks in terms of establishing low-cost and user-friendly readout methods for isothermal amplification schemes. Combining the high amplification...... efficiency of loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) with an optomagnetic nanoparticle-based readout system, we demonstrate ultrasensitive and rapid detection of Newcastle disease virus RNA. Biotinylated amplicons of LAMP and reverse transcription LAMP (RT-LAMP) bind to streptavidin-coated magnetic...... nanoparticles (MNPs) resulting in a dramatical increase in the hydrodynamic size of the MNPs. This increase was measured by an optomagnetic readout system and provided quantitative information on the amount of LAMP target sequence. Our assay resulted in a limit of detection of 10 aM of target sequence...

  1. WATER ADSORPTION AND DESORPTION ISOTHERMS ON MILK POWDER: II. WHOLE MILK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar M. Soteras

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was the determination of adsorption and desorption isotherms of cow whole milk powder. The experiments have been carried out at 15, 25 and 40 ºC, in ranges of moisture and water activity characteristic of normal conditions in which the processes of drying, packaging and storage are developed. By studying the influence of the temperature on the experimental plots, the isosteric adsorption heat was determined. Experimental data were correlated to the referential model of Guggenheim, Anderson and Boer (GAB. For both, adsorption and desorption, a good model fit was observed. The isotherms showed very similar shapes between them and, by comparing adsorption and desorption isotherms, the phenomenon of hysteresis was confirmed.

  2. Kinetics of coal liquefaction during heating-up and isothermal stages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xian Li; Haoquan Hu; Shengwei Zhu; Shuxun Hu; Bo Wu; Meng Meng [Dalian University of Technology, Dalian (China). Institute of Coal Chemical Engineering

    2008-04-15

    Direct liquefaction of Shenhua bituminous coal was carried out in a 500 ml autoclave with iron catalyst and coal liquefaction cycle-oil as solvent at initial hydrogen of 8.0 MPa, residence time of 0-90 min. To investigate the liquefaction kinetics, a model for heating-up and isothermal stages was developed to estimate the rate constants of both stages. In the model, the coal was divided into three parts, easy reactive part, hard reactive part and unreactive part, and four kinetic constants were used to describe the reaction mechanism. The results showed that the model is valid for both heating-up and isothermal stages of liquefaction perfectly. The rate-controlled process for coal liquefaction is the reaction of preasphaltene plus asphaltene (PAA) to oil plus gas (O + G). The upper-limiting conversion of isothermal stage was estimated by the kinetic calculation. 21 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  3. Kinetic and isotherm studies of Cu(II) biosorption onto valonia tannin resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sengil, I. Ayhan [Department of Environmental Engineering, Engineering Faculty, Sakarya University, 54100 Sakarya (Turkey)], E-mail: asengil@sakarya.edu.tr; Ozacar, Mahmut [Department of Chemistry, Science and Arts Faculty, Sakarya University, 54100 Sakarya (Turkey); Tuerkmenler, Harun [Institute of Sciences and Technology, Sakarya University, 54040 Sakarya (Turkey)

    2009-03-15

    The biosorption of Cu(II) from aqueous solutions by valonia tannin resin was investigated as a function of particle size, initial pH, contact time and initial metal ion concentration. The aim of this study was to understand the mechanisms that govern copper removal and find a suitable equilibrium isotherm and kinetic model for the copper removal in a batch reactor. The experimental isotherm data were analysed using the Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin equations. The equilibrium data fit well in the Langmuir isotherm. The experimental data were analysed using four sorption kinetic models - the pseudo-first- and second-order equations, the Elovich and the intraparticle diffusion model equation - to determine the best fit equation for the biosorption of copper ions onto valonia tannin resin. Results show that the pseudo-second-order equation provides the best correlation for the biosorption process, whereas the Elovich equation also fits the experimental data well.

  4. β → α isothermal transformation in pure and weakly alloyed uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aubert, H.; Lelong, C.

    1966-01-01

    The TTT diagrams describing the β → α isothermal transformation have been made by isothermal dilatometry for pure uranium and 21 alloys based on chromium, silicon, molybdenum, iron, aluminium, zirconium. The thermal cycle preceding the isothermal step influences the decomposition kinetics at temperature corresponding to the eutectoid and martensitic mechanisms, but not in the range where the bainitic transformation occurs. The stability of the β phase decreases with the chromium, molybdenum and silicon concentration: it is affected differently for each of the three transformation mechanisms. The ternary additions, even at very low concentration have a considerable effect on the stability. When the concentration decreases the martensitic mechanism is active at progressively higher temperature, diminishing to the point of disappearance the temperature range where the transformation is considered as being of the bainitic mode. (author) [fr

  5. Isobaric expansion coefficient and isothermal compressibility for a finite-size ideal Fermi gas system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, Guozhen; Chen, Liwei; Chen, Jincan

    2014-01-01

    Due to quantum size effects (QSEs), the isobaric thermal expansion coefficient and isothermal compressibility well defined for macroscopic systems are invalid for finite-size systems. The two parameters are redefined and calculated for a finite-size ideal Fermi gas confined in a rectangular container. It is found that the isobaric thermal expansion coefficient and isothermal compressibility are generally anisotropic, i.e., they are generally different in different directions. Moreover, it is found the thermal expansion coefficient may be negative in some directions under the condition that the pressures in all directions are kept constant. - Highlights: • Isobaric thermal expansion coefficient and isothermal compressibility are redefined. • The two parameters are calculated for a finite-size ideal Fermi gas. • The two parameters are generally anisotropic for a finite-size system. • Isobaric thermal expansion coefficient may be negative in some directions

  6. Experimental study of a laboratory concrete material representative of containment buildings: desorption isotherms and permeability determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semete, P.; Fevrier, B.; Delorme, J.; Sanahuja, J.; Desgree, P.; Le Pape, Y.

    2015-01-01

    The isotherm sorption curve is a first order parameter for the calculations of concrete drying and/or creep using Finite Element Analysis. An experimental campaign was undertaken by EDF MMC in order to characterize the first desorption isotherm at room temperature of a laboratory material representative of concrete containment buildings. Long term drying tests were carried out on cement paste and on three samples geometries on concrete (with radial and axial one-dimensional drying on thin disks and multi-dimensional drying on Representative Elementary Volumes). The measurements results (porosity, densities and mass loss curves) are provided and the isotherms obtained for the four different configurations are compared. Several analyses of the results are proposed including the assessment of a criterion for the determination of the moisture content final balance (estimation of the asymptotic mass loss) and the back-analysis of equivalent permeability. (authors)

  7. Simulation and scaling for natural convection flow in a cavity with isothermal boundaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiracheewanun, S.; Armfield, S.W.; McBain, G.D.; Behnia, M.

    2005-01-01

    A numerical study of the transient two-dimensional natural convection flow within a differentially heated square cavity with iso-flux side walls and adiabatic top and bottom boundaries is presented. The governing equations are discretized using a non-staggered mesh and solved using a non-iterative fractional-step pressure correction method which provides second-order accuracy in both time and space. Results are obtained with the iso-flux boundary condition for Ra = 5.8 x 10 9 and Pr = 7.5. The results show that the transient flow features obtained for the iso-flux cavity are similar to the flow features for the isothermal case. However, the fully developed flow features of the iso-flux cavity are very different from the isothermal case. The scalings for the fully developed iso-flux boundary condition flow have been found to be different to those of the isothermal boundary condition flow. (authors)

  8. Molar volume, thermal expansivity and isothermal compressibility of trans-decahydronaphthalene up to 200MPa and 446K

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu Hu-Gang; Liu Zhi-Hua; Tian Yi-Ling; Xue Yuan; Yin Liang

    2005-01-01

    The molar volume isotherms of trans-decahydronaphthalene (C10H18) between 293 and 446 K and at pressures from 10 to 200 MPa have been determined. A modified Tait equation of state is used to fit each experimental molar volume isotherm with a maximum average deviation of 0.029%. The thermal expansivity (cubic expansion coefficient) α and isothermal compressibility κ were determined by fitting the slopes of the isobaric curves and isotherms, respectively.The coefficients in the equation Vm = C1 + C2T + C3T2 - C4p - C5pT have been fitted with an average deviation of 1.03%.

  9. Study on the isothermal forging process of MB26 magnesium alloy adaptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Wenchen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The isothermal forging process is an effective method to manufacture complex-shaped components of hard-to-work materials, such as magnesium alloys. This study investigates the isothermal forging process of an MB26 magnesium alloy adaptor with three branches. The results show that two-step forging process is appropriate to form the adaptor forging, which not only improves the filling quality but also reduces the forging load compared with one-step forging process. Moreover, the flow line is distributed along the contour of the complex-shaped adaptor forging.

  10. Kinetics and adsorption isotherm of lactic acid from fermentation broth onto activated charcoal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seankham Soraya

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Activated charcoal was applied for the recovery of lactic acid in undissociated form from fermentation broth. Lactic acid was obtained from the fermentation of Lactobacillus casei TISTR 1340 using acid hydrolyzed Jerusalem artichoke as a carbon source. The equilibrium adsorption isotherm and kinetics for the lactic acid separation were investigated. The experimental data for lactic acid adsorption from fermentation broth were best described by the Freundlich isotherm and the pseudo-second order kinetics with R2 values of 0.99. The initial adsorption rate was 41.32 mg/g⋅min at the initial lactic acid concentration of 40 g/L.

  11. Kinetics of the isothermal decomposition of zirconium hydride: terminal solid solubility for precipitation and dissolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denisov, E. A.; Kompaniets, T. N.; Voyt, A. P.

    2018-05-01

    The hydrogen permeation technique in the surface-limited regime (SLR) was first used to study the isothermal decomposition of zirconium hydride. It is shown that under isothermal conditions, the hydrogen terminal solid solubility in the α-phase for hydride precipitation (TSSp) and dissolution (TSSd) differ only by 6%, in contrast to the 20-30% indicated in the available literature. It is demonstrated that even the minimum heating/cooling rate (1 C/min) used in the traditional methods of studying TSSp and TSSd is too high to exclude the effect of kinetics on the results obtained.

  12. A design method to isothermalize the core of high-temperature gas-cooled reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takano, M.; Sawa, K.

    1987-01-01

    A practical design method is developed to isothermalize the core of block-type high-temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGRs). Isothermalization plays an important role in increasing the design margin on fuel temperature. In this method, the fuel enrichment and the size and boron content of the burnable poison rod are determined over the core blockwise so that the axially exponential and radially flat power distribution are kept from the beginning to the end of core life. The method enables conventional HTGRs to raise the outlet gas temperature without increasing the maximum fuel temperature

  13. Model-fitting approach to kinetic analysis of non-isothermal oxidation of molybdenite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebrahimi Kahrizsangi, R.; Abbasi, M. H.; Saidi, A.

    2007-01-01

    The kinetics of molybdenite oxidation was studied by non-isothermal TGA-DTA with heating rate 5 d eg C .min -1 . The model-fitting kinetic approach applied to TGA data. The Coats-Redfern method used of model fitting. The popular model-fitting gives excellent fit non-isothermal data in chemically controlled regime. The apparent activation energy was determined to be about 34.2 kcalmol -1 With pre-exponential factor about 10 8 sec -1 for extent of reaction less than 0.5

  14. Isothermal and hygrothermal agings of hybrid glass fiber/carbon fiber composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barjasteh, Ehsan

    anhydride/epoxy network used in composite-reinforced conductor cables was investigated to determine the extent of thermal oxidative (surface effect) and non-oxidative (bulk effect) degradation. Thermal oxidation tests were performed in air-circulating and vacuum ovens at 180°C and 200ºC (the maximum emergency temperature for ACCC conductors). The extent of oxidation during aging was determined by monitoring the thickness of the oxidized layer. Results showed that the oxidized layer thickness did not increase monotonically as a function of exposure time, and even decreased for a limited period of time. A phenomenological reaction-diffusion model was implemented to predict the thickness of oxidized layer, and the calculated results were compared with measurements for aging times up to 10,000 hours. The accuracy of the reaction-diffusion-based thickness values for the isothermally aged epoxy specimen was affected by the permeability properties of the oxidized material, and to a lesser extent by the degree of oxidation. The diffusivity varied because of changes in the density of the oxidized layer, the macro-void content, crack formation, and the molecular structures. To investigate the effects on diffusivity, the morphology of the oxidized layer and the void content was monitored over time. In addition, the density of the oxidized specimens was calculated by direct measurements of volume and weight during exposure. An empirically based volume-loss model was developed to predict the changes in volume of the specimen as a function of aging times and hence to predict the effects on the oxidized layer thickness. Volume-loss measurements provide an indication of material degradation by demonstrating a direct measurement of shrinkage rates and insight into crack initiation, as opposed to typical weight-loss measurements that provide no insight into material failure. Thermal oxidation of a unidirectional carbon-fiber/glass-fiber hybrid composite was also investigated in this study

  15. State conditions transferability of vapor-liquid equilibria via fluctuation solution theory with correlation function integrals from molecular dynamics simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Steen; Peters, Günther H.J.; Hansen, Flemming Yssing

    2007-01-01

    on isobaric–isothermal molecular dynamics (NPT-MD) simulations, using force field parameters published in the literature and fitted CHARMM force field parameters. Systems studied previously [S. Christensen, G.H. Peters, F.Y. Hansen, J.P. O’Connell, J. Abildskov, Molecular Simulation 33 (2007) 449...

  16. Multi-gas interaction modeling on decorated semiconductor interfaces: A novel Fermi distribution-based response isotherm and the inverse hard/soft acid/base concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laminack, William [Department of Physics, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332 (United States); Gole, James, E-mail: James.Gole@physics.gatech.edu [Department of Physics, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332 (United States); Department of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Tech, Atlanta, GA 30332 (United States)

    2015-12-30

    Graphical abstract: Visual representation of the PS interface interacting with mixed gas configurations. The red dots correspond to nanostructured metal oxides. Each combination of distinct molecules are labeled below the pores, which are oversized in the figure. - Highlights: • First study of mixed gas analytes interacting with a micro-porous silicon substrate. • Responses are represented by a newly developed response absorption isotherm. • This isotherm is modeled on the basis of the Fermi distribution function. • The developing IHSAB concept explains multi-gas analyte–analyte interactions. - Abstract: A unique MEMS/NEMS approach is presented for the modeling of a detection platform for mixed gas interactions. Mixed gas analytes interact with nanostructured decorating metal oxide island sites supported on a microporous silicon substrate. The Inverse Hard/Soft acid/base (IHSAB) concept is used to assess a diversity of conductometric responses for mixed gas interactions as a function of these nanostructured metal oxides. The analyte conductometric responses are well represented using a combination diffusion/absorption-based model for multi-gas interactions where a newly developed response absorption isotherm, based on the Fermi distribution function is applied. A further coupling of this model with the IHSAB concept describes the considerations in modeling of multi-gas mixed analyte–interface, and analyte–analyte interactions. Taking into account the molecular electronic interaction of both the analytes with each other and an extrinsic semiconductor interface we demonstrate how the presence of one gas can enhance or diminish the reversible interaction of a second gas with the extrinsic semiconductor interface. These concepts demonstrate important considerations in the array-based formats for multi-gas sensing and its applications.

  17. Magnetismo Molecular (Molecular Magentism)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reis, Mario S [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Brasil; Moreira Dos Santos, Antonio F [ORNL

    2010-07-01

    The new synthesis processes in chemistry open a new world of research, new and surprising materials never before found in nature can now be synthesized and, as a wonderful result, observed a series of physical phenomena never before imagined. Among these are many new materials the molecular magnets, the subject of this book and magnetic properties that are often reflections of the quantum behavior of these materials. Aside from the wonderful experience of exploring something new, the theoretical models that describe the behavior these magnetic materials are, in most cases, soluble analytically, which allows us to know in detail the physical mechanisms governing these materials. Still, the academic interest in parallel this subject, these materials have a number of properties that are promising to be used in technological devices, such as in computers quantum magnetic recording, magnetocaloric effect, spintronics and many other devices. This volume will journey through the world of molecular magnets, from the structural description of these materials to state of the art research.

  18. Resistivity behavior in isothermal annealing of Pd-H(D) alloys around 50 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamakawa, Kohji; Maeta, Hiroshi

    2004-01-01

    The behavior of electrical resistivity during hydrogen (deuterium) ordering is investigated for Pd-H(D) alloys of various hydrogen concentrations around 50 K. The disordered hydrogen (deuterium) atoms are introduced by quenching from 100 K into liquid helium immediately before isothermal annealings. The disordered atoms order by migration of the atoms during the heating-up of the specimens. On the isothermal curves of the resistivity in the high temperature range, the resistivity increases at first and then adopts a constant value dependent on the annealing temperature. On the other hand, the resistivity increases and then decreases during isothermal annealing in the low temperature range, nevertheless the ordering is progressing. The annealing time, at which the resistivity maximum appears, and the resistivity value of the maximum increase with decreasing annealing temperature. Furthermore, the decreasing resistivity after the maximum saturates to a value dependent on each annealing temperature. Therefore, it becomes clear that an equilibrium amount of ordering depends on the temperature and the resistivity increases in the early stage of hydrogen (deuterium) ordering and decreases in the later stage. The resistivity maximum in the isothermal annealing curve is caused by the nucleation and growth of ordered domains of hydrogen (deuterium) atoms

  19. Modelling of the isothermal replication of surface microstructures in polymer melts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Henrik Koblitz; Eriksson, Torbjörn Gerhard

    2005-01-01

    boundary condition. This allows an investigation of the effect of the rheological properties of the polymer melt on the ability of the material to fill small structures in a mould surface. Series of isothermal compression moulding experiments were performed with a polycarbonate (PC) and a polystyrene (PS...

  20. Study on isothermal precision forging process of rare earth intensifying magnesium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shan, Debin; Xu, Wenchen; Han, Xiuzhu; Huang, Xiaolei

    2012-01-01

    A three dimensional rigid-plastic finite element model is established to simulate the isothermal precision forging process of the magnesium alloy bracket based on DEFORM 3D in order to analyze the material flow rule and determine the forging process scheme. Some problems such as underfilling and too large forging pressure are predicted and resolved through optimizing the shapes of the billet successfully. Compared to the initial microstructure, the isothermal-forged microstructure of the alloy refines obviously and amounts of secondary phases precipitate on the matrix during isothermal forging process. In subsequent ageing process, large quantities of secondary phases precipitate from α-Mg matrix with increasing ageing time. The optimal comprehensive mechanical properties of the alloy have been obtained after aged at 473 K, 63 h with the ultimate tensile strength, tensile yield strength and elongation 380 MPa, 243 MPa and 4.07% respectively, which shows good potential for application of isothermal forging process of rare earth intensifying magnesium alloy.

  1. A sample holder for the study of isothermal heat of hydration of cement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Per Freiesleben; Jensen, Ole Mejlhede

    1998-01-01

    Different techniques for measuring heat of hydration of cement are discussed, and a sample holder designed specially for measuring isothermal heat of hydration is described. A particular characteristic of the sample holder is the vacuum mixing technique which ensures a momentary and homogeneous...

  2. Determination of Kinetic and Thermodynamic Parameters that Describe Isothermal Seed Germination: A Student Research Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hageseth, Gaylord T.

    1982-01-01

    Describes a project for students to collect and fit data to a theoretical mathematical model that describes the rate of isothermal seed germination, including activation energy for substrate and produce and the autocatalytic reaction, and changes in enthalpy, entropy, and the Gibb's free energy. (Author/SK)

  3. Adsorption isotherme de l'acide acétique par des charbons d'origine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The adsorption properties of six samples of carbons of which two are obtained from AYOUS (Triplochiton Scléroxylon), two from AKOM (Terminalia Superba) and two obtained commercially were studied from their adsorption isotherms of acetic acid at 30° and 45°C. This study has resulted in the determination of the two ...

  4. Desorption isotherms of heavy (AZOBE, EBONY) and light heavyweight tropical woods (IROKO, SAPELLI) of Cameroon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nsouandélé, J. L.; Tamba, J. G.; Bonoma, B.

    2018-04-01

    This work is centered on the study of the desorption isotherms of heavy (Azobe, Ebony) and heavyweight (Iroko, Sapelli) tropical woods, which contribute in the determination of drying and storage of tropical plank woods. Desorption isotherms of tropical woods were experimentally determined under different temperatures in this study using the gravimetric method. The determination of Henderson's model isotherms parameters of desorption were obtained for temperatures of 20 °C, 30 °C, 40 °C, and 50 °C. The mean relative deviation between theoretical and experimental moisture contents was calculated and fitted well with the desorption models of tropical woods. We noticed that Henderson models fitted much better with experimental ones for 95% of relative humidity. The sigmoid shapes of results are satisfactory. Hysteresis phenomenon was observed for desorption isotherms of heavy (Azobe, Ebony) and heavyweight (Iroko, Sapelli) tropical woods. Results showed the difference between the stability and use of heavy and heavyweight tropical wood. These results help in the estimation of water content at equilibrium of tropical woods in relative humidity from experimented ones. Hygroscopic equilibrium humidity of heavy tropical woods varied between 0% and 50% while those of heavyweight varied between 0% and 25%. Therefore, these woods can be used in an opened environment; woodwork and decoration.

  5. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, Daily, 1977-present, 20C Isotherm Depth

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has daily 20C Isotherm Depth data (the depth at which the ocean temperature is 20C) from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, https://www.pmel.noaa.gov/gtmba/...

  6. Survival of encapsulated Lactobacillus plantarum during isothermal heating and bread baking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, L.; Chen, Xiao Dong; Boom, R.M.; Schutyser, M.A.I.

    2018-01-01

    The effect of encapsulation on the survival of Lactobacillus plantarum during isothermal heating and bread baking was investigated. Four encapsulating materials were evaluated, i.e., reconstituted skim milk (RSM), gum arabic (GA), maltodextrin (MD) and inulin. Freeze dried bacteria survived better

  7. Non-isothermal effects on multi-phase flow in porous medium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Ashok; Wang, W; Park, C. H.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper a ppT -formulation for non-isothermal multi-phase flow is given including diffusion and latent heat effects. Temperature and pressure dependencies of governing parameters are considered, in particular surface tension variation on phase interfaces along with temperature changes. A we...

  8. Determination of storage conditions for new biscuits using their sorption isotherms

    OpenAIRE

    G. Diukareva; A. Pak; A. Gasanova

    2015-01-01

    Introduction For the formation of biscuits quality natural carrier of iodine and sweetener from stevia leaves were used. Desorption of moisture is the dominant process, which will determine the guaranteed shelf life of biscuits. The conditions for the developed biscuits storage was determined by investigating of sorption isotherms and kinetics of reaching the equilibrium moisture content. Materials and Methods. The objects of stud...

  9. Adsorption of 4-chlorophenol from aqueous solutions by xad-4 resin: Isotherm, kinetic, and thermodynamic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilgili, M. Sinan

    2006-01-01

    Removal of 4-chlorophenol (4-CP) from synthetic aqueous solutions through adsorption on Amberlite XAD-4 resin, a non-ionic macroreticular resins, under batch equilibrium experimental conditions at 298, 308 and 318 K was investigated. It is necessary to propose a suitable model to a better understanding on the mechanism of 4-CP adsorption. For this purpose, Langmiur, Freundlich, Toth, and Redlich-Peterson (RP) isotherm models were compared. The two and three parameters in the adopted adsorption isotherm models were determined by the help of MATLAB package program. It was determined that best fitted adsorption isotherm models were obtained to be in the order: Redlich-Peterson > Langmuir > Toth > Freundlich isotherms. The pseudo-second-order kinetic model provided the best correlation to the experimental results. Results of the intra-particle diffusion model show that the pore diffusion is not the only rate limiting step. The lower correlation of the data to the Bangham's equation also represents that the diffusion of the adsorbate into pores of the sorbent is not the only rate-controlling step. The thermodynamic constants of adsorption phenomena; ΔG o , ΔH o , and ΔS o were found as -4.17 (at 298 K) kJ/mol, -42.01 kJ/mol, and -0.127 kJ/(mol K), respectively. The results showed that adsorption of 4-CP on Amberlite XAD-4, a nonionic polymeric resin was exothermic and spontaneous

  10. Analysis of the isotherms of ion exchange with using the Mathcad program package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ochkov, V.F.; Pil'shchikov, A.P.; Solodov, A.P.; Chudova, Yu.V.

    2003-01-01

    The use of the Mathcad software physical and mathematical package for calculations in thermal power engineering is considered. Propagation of concentration waves in ionite filters was analyzed by the method of characteristics. Formation of the break front of concentrations appearing at different adsorption isotherms is shown [ru

  11. Error analysis for 1-1/2-loop semiscale system isothermal test data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldman, E.M.; Naff, S.A.

    1975-05-01

    An error analysis was performed on the measurements made during the isothermal portion of the Semiscale Blowdown and Emergency Core Cooling (ECC) Project. A brief description of the measurement techniques employed, identification of potential sources of errors, and quantification of the errors associated with data is presented. (U.S.)

  12. Computation of two-dimensional isothermal flow in shell-and-tube heat exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlucci, L.N.; Galpin, P.F.; Brown, J.D.; Frisina, V.

    1983-07-01

    A computational procedure is outlined whereby two-dimensional isothermal shell-side flow distributions can be calculated for tube bundles having arbitrary boundaries and flow blocking devices, such as sealing strips, defined in arbitrary locations. The procedure is described in some detail and several computed results are presented to illustrate the robustness and generality of the method

  13. Isothermal Titration Calorimetry and Macromolecular Visualization for the Interaction of Lysozyme and Its Inhibitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Chin-Chuan; Jensen, Drake; Boyle, Tiffany; O'Brien, Leah C.; De Meo, Cristina; Shabestary, Nahid; Eder, Douglas J.

    2015-01-01

    To provide a research-like experience to upper-division undergraduate students in a biochemistry teaching laboratory, isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) is employed to determine the binding constants of lysozyme and its inhibitors, N-acetyl glucosamine trimer (NAG[subscript 3]) and monomer (NAG). The extremely weak binding of lysozyme/NAG is…

  14. Subsite binding energies of an exo-polygalacturonase using isothermal titration calorimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thermodynamic parameters for binding of a series of galacturonic acid oligomers to an exo-polygalacturonase, RPG16 from Rhizopus oryzae, were determined by isothermal titration calorimetry. Binding of oligomers varying in chain length from two to five galacturonic acid residues is an exothermic proc...

  15. Experimental Adsorption Isotherm of Methane onto Activated Carbon at Sub- and Supercritical Temperatures

    KAUST Repository

    Rahman, Kazi Afzalur; Loh, Wai Soong; Yanagi, Hideharu; Chakraborty, Anutosh; Saha, Bidyut Baran; Chun, Won Gee; Ng, Kim Choon

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the experimentally measured adsorption isotherm data for methane onto the pitch-based activated carbon type Maxsorb III for temperatures ranging from (120 to 220) K and pressures up to 1.4 MPa. These data are useful to study

  16. High and Low Reynolds number Measurements in a Room with an Impinging Isothermal Jet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, M.; Hyldgaard, C. E.; Nielsen, Peter V.

    The present paper, which is within the work of the lEA - annex 20, presents a series of full-scale velocity measurements in a room with isothermal mixing ventilation. The measurements are in the Reynolds number range 1000 - 7000 based on inlet dimensions. This means that a transition from laminar...

  17. A simple method of evaluating non-isothermal crystallization kinetics in multicomponent polymer systems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kratochvíl, Jaroslav; Kelnar, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 47, October (2015), s. 79-86 ISSN 0142-9418 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-15255S Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : non-isothermal crystallization kinetics * cumulative curves * inflection point Subject RIV: JI - Composite Materials Impact factor: 2.350, year: 2015

  18. Rapid detection of Streptococcus uberis in raw milk by loop-mediated isothermal amplification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornelissen, J.B.W.J.; Greeff, De A.; Heuvelink, A.E.; Swarts, M.; Smith, H.E.; Wal, Van der F.J.

    2016-01-01

    A loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) method to detect Streptococcus uberis in raw milk was developed and evaluated. Three genes (sodA, pauA, cpn60) were assessed for their suitability as targets in LAMP. The analytical sensitivity was 120, 120, and 12 fg per assay for the sodA, pauA,

  19. Proton and Copper Binding to Humic Acids Analyzed by XAFS Spectroscopy and Isothermal Titration Calorimetry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xu, Jinling; Koopal, Luuk K.; Fang, Linchuan; Xiong, Juan; Tan, Wenfeng

    2018-01-01

    Proton and copper (Cu) binding to soil and lignite-based humic acid (HA) was investigated by combining X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy, isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), and nonideal-competitive-adsorption (NICA) modeling. NICA model calculations and XAFS results showed

  20. Isothermal microcalorimetry for antifungal susceptibility testing of Mucorales, Fusarium spp., and Scedosporium spp.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Furustrand Tafin, U.; Meis, J.F.G.M.; Trampuz, A.

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated isothermal microcalorimetry for real-time susceptibility testing of non-Aspergillus molds. MIC and minimal effective concentration (MEC) values of Mucorales (n = 4), Fusarium spp. (n = 4), and Scedosporium spp. (n = 4) were determined by microbroth dilution according to the Clinical

  1. Multi-model attribution of upper-ocean temperature changes using an isothermal approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weller, Evan; Min, Seung-Ki; Palmer, Matthew D.; Lee, Donghyun; Yim, Bo Young; Yeh, Sang-Wook

    2016-06-01

    Both air-sea heat exchanges and changes in ocean advection have contributed to observed upper-ocean warming most evident in the late-twentieth century. However, it is predominantly via changes in air-sea heat fluxes that human-induced climate forcings, such as increasing greenhouse gases, and other natural factors such as volcanic aerosols, have influenced global ocean heat content. The present study builds on previous work using two different indicators of upper-ocean temperature changes for the detection of both anthropogenic and natural external climate forcings. Using simulations from phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project, we compare mean temperatures above a fixed isotherm with the more widely adopted approach of using a fixed depth. We present the first multi-model ensemble detection and attribution analysis using the fixed isotherm approach to robustly detect both anthropogenic and natural external influences on upper-ocean temperatures. Although contributions from multidecadal natural variability cannot be fully removed, both the large multi-model ensemble size and properties of the isotherm analysis reduce internal variability of the ocean, resulting in better observation-model comparison of temperature changes since the 1950s. We further show that the high temporal resolution afforded by the isotherm analysis is required to detect natural external influences such as volcanic cooling events in the upper-ocean because the radiative effect of volcanic forcings is short-lived.

  2. Experimental aspects of buoyancy correction in measuring reliable highpressure excess adsorption isotherms using the gravimetric method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Huong Giang T; Horn, Jarod C; Thommes, Matthias; van Zee, Roger D; Espinal, Laura

    2017-12-01

    Addressing reproducibility issues in adsorption measurements is critical to accelerating the path to discovery of new industrial adsorbents and to understanding adsorption processes. A National Institute of Standards and Technology Reference Material, RM 8852 (ammonium ZSM-5 zeolite), and two gravimetric instruments with asymmetric two-beam balances were used to measure high-pressure adsorption isotherms. This work demonstrates how common approaches to buoyancy correction, a key factor in obtaining the mass change due to surface excess gas uptake from the apparent mass change, can impact the adsorption isotherm data. Three different approaches to buoyancy correction were investigated and applied to the subcritical CO 2 and supercritical N 2 adsorption isotherms at 293 K. It was observed that measuring a collective volume for all balance components for the buoyancy correction (helium method) introduces an inherent bias in temperature partition when there is a temperature gradient (i.e. analysis temperature is not equal to instrument air bath temperature). We demonstrate that a blank subtraction is effective in mitigating the biases associated with temperature partitioning, instrument calibration, and the determined volumes of the balance components. In general, the manual and subtraction methods allow for better treatment of the temperature gradient during buoyancy correction. From the study, best practices specific to asymmetric two-beam balances and more general recommendations for measuring isotherms far from critical temperatures using gravimetric instruments are offered.

  3. Integrated nozzle - flapper valve with piezoelectric actuator and isothermal chamber: a feedback linearization multi control device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamali, Mohammadreza; Jazayeri, Seyed Ali [K. N.Toosi University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Najafi, Farid [University of Guilan, Rasht (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Kawashima, Kenji [Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo (Japan); Kagawa, Toshiharu [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan)

    2016-05-15

    This paper introduces a new nozzle-flapper valve with isothermal chamber using piezoelectric actuator. It controls the pressure and flow rate simply, effectively and separately. The proposed valve uses isothermal chamber presenting practical isothermal condition due to its large heat transfer interfaces filled by metal wool. The valve uses stacked type piezoelectric actuator with unique advantages. By using this valve, a simple method has been fulfilled to control flow rate or pressure of ideal gases in a pneumatic actuators. Experimental results demonstrated applications of the proposed valve to control either pressure or flow rate in pneumatic circuits. This valve can be also used in the pilot stage valve to actuate the main stage of a much bigger pneumatic valve. Designated structure contains only one pressure sensor installed on the isothermal control chamber, capable of controlling both pressure and flow rate. The desired output mass flow rate of the valve is controlled by the pressure changes during positioning of piezoelectric actuator at proper position. The proposed valve can control steady and unsteady oscillatory flow rate and pressure effectively, using nonlinear control method such as feedback linearization approach. Its effectiveness is demonstrated and validated through simulation and experiments.

  4. Evaluation of the quasi-isothermal method of modulated DSC for heat capacity measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkata Krishnan, R.; Nagarajan, K.

    2004-01-01

    Heat capacity measurements were carried out on ThO 2 by Modulated Differential Scanning Calorimetry (MDSC) using quasi-isothermal method in the temperature range 323-723 K. The highest accuracy of the heat capacity data obtained by this method was ± 2-3% which is much lower than that reported in the literature. (author)

  5. Typical parameters of the plasma chemical similarity in non-isothermal reactive plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gundermann, S.; Jacobs, H.; Miethke, F.; Rutsher, A.; Wagner, H.E.

    1996-01-01

    The substance of physical similarity principles is contained in parameters which govern the comparison of different realizations of a model device. Because similarity parameters for non-isothermal plasma chemical reactors are unknown to a great extent, an analysis of relevant equations is given together with some experimental results. Modelling of the reactor and experimental results for the ozone synthesis are presented

  6. Desorption isotherms of cementitious materials: study of an accelerated protocol and estimation of RVE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Qier

    2014-01-01

    In the framework of French radioactive waste management and storage, the durability evaluation and prediction of concrete structures requires the knowledge of desorption isotherm of concrete. The aim of the present study is to develop an accelerated experimental method to obtain desorption isotherm of cementitious materials more quickly and to estimate the Representative Volume Element (RVE) size related to the desorption isotherm of concrete. In order to ensure that experimental results can be statistically considered representative, a great amount of sliced samples of cementitious materials with three different thicknesses (1 mm, 2 mm and 3 mm) have been de-saturated. The effect of slice thickness and the saturation condition on the mass variation kinetics and the desorption isotherms is analyzed. The influence of the aggregate distribution on the water content and the water saturation degree is also analyzed. A method based on statistical analysis of water content and water saturation degree is proposed to estimate the RVE for water desorption experiment of concrete. The evolution of shrinkage with relative humidity is also followed for each material during the water desorption experiment. A protocol of cycle of rapid desaturation-re-saturation is applied and shows the existence of hysteresis between desorption and adsorption. (author)

  7. Thermodynamic profiling of Peptide membrane interactions by isothermal titration calorimetry: a search for pores and micelles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jonas Rosager; Andresen, Thomas Lars

    2011-01-01

    in mixed peptide-lipid micelles. We have investigated the mode of action of the antimicrobial peptide mastoparan-X using isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) and cryo-transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM). The results show that mastoparan-X induces a range of structural transitions of POPC/POPG (3...

  8. Spectral and directional radiation characteristics of thin-film coated isothermal semitransparent plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, R P; Viskanta, R

    1975-01-01

    An analysis is presented for predicting the effective spectral directional radiation characteristics of an isothermal, semitransparent sheet surrounded on both sides by massive dielectrics. The sheet can be coated with an optically thin film and used as selective cover plates for solar collectors. Directional and polarization effects and the spectral transmittance and reflectance are considered. Sample results for candidate materials are presented.

  9. Chromatographic and traditional albumin isotherms on cellulose: a model for wound protein adsorption on modified cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albumin is the most abundant protein found in healing wounds. Traditional and chromatogrpahic protein isotherms of albumin binding on modified cotton fibers are useful in understanding albumin binding to cellulose wound dressings. An important consideration in the design of cellulosic wound dressin...

  10. Fifth-order amplitude equation for traveling waves in isothermal double diffusive convection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendoza, S.; Becerril, R.

    2009-01-01

    Third-order amplitude equations for isothermal double diffusive convection are known to hold the tricritical condition all along the oscillatory branch, predicting that stable traveling waves exist Only at the onset of the instability. In order to properly describe stable traveling waves, we perform a fifth-order calculation and present explicitly the corresponding amplitude equation.

  11. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) shield for Arduino DNA detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velders, Aldrik H.; Schoen, Cor; Saggiomo, Vittorio

    2018-01-01

    Objective: Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) of DNA is gaining relevance as a method to detect nucleic acids, as it is easier, faster, and more powerful than conventional Polymerase Chain Reaction. However, LAMP is still mostly used in laboratory settings, because of the lack of a cheap

  12. Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats/Cas9 Triggered Isothermal Amplification for Site-Specific Nucleic Acid Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Mengqi; Zhou, Xiaoming; Wang, Huiying; Xing, Da

    2018-02-06

    A novel CRISPR/Cas9 triggered isothermal exponential amplification reaction (CAS-EXPAR) strategy based on CRISPR/Cas9 cleavage and nicking endonuclease (NEase) mediated nucleic acids amplification was developed for rapid and site-specific nucleic acid detection. CAS-EXPAR was primed by the target DNA fragment produced by cleavage of CRISPR/Cas9, and the amplification reaction performed cyclically to generate a large number of DNA replicates which were detected using a real-time fluorescence monitoring method. This strategy that combines the advantages of CRISPR/Cas9 and exponential amplification showed high specificity as well as rapid amplification kinetics. Unlike conventional nucleic acids amplification reactions, CAS-EXPAR does not require exogenous primers, which often cause target-independent amplification. Instead, primers are first generated by Cas9/sgRNA directed site-specific cleavage of target and accumulated during the reaction. It was demonstrated this strategy gave a detection limit of 0.82 amol and showed excellent specificity in discriminating single-base mismatch. Moreover, the applicability of this method to detect DNA methylation and L. monocytogenes total RNA was also verified. Therefore, CAS-EXPAR may provide a new paradigm for efficient nucleic acid amplification and hold the potential for molecular diagnostic applications.

  13. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assays for the species-specific detection of Eimeria that infect chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkway, Christopher P; Pocock, Rebecca L; Vrba, Vladimir; Blake, Damer P

    2015-02-20

    Eimeria species parasites, protozoa which cause the enteric disease coccidiosis, pose a serious threat to the production and welfare of chickens. In the absence of effective control clinical coccidiosis can be devastating. Resistance to the chemoprophylactics frequently used to control Eimeria is common and sub-clinical infection is widespread, influencing feed conversion ratios and susceptibility to other pathogens such as Clostridium perfringens. Despite the availability of polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based tools, diagnosis of Eimeria infection still relies almost entirely on traditional approaches such as lesion scoring and oocyst morphology, but neither is straightforward. Limitations of the existing molecular tools include the requirement for specialist equipment and difficulties accessing DNA as template. In response a simple field DNA preparation protocol and a panel of species-specific loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assays have been developed for the seven Eimeria recognised to infect the chicken. We now provide a detailed protocol describing the preparation of genomic DNA from intestinal tissue collected post-mortem, followed by setup and readout of the LAMP assays. Eimeria species-specific LAMP can be used to monitor parasite occurrence, assessing the efficacy of a farm's anticoccidial strategy, and to diagnose sub-clinical infection or clinical disease with particular value when expert surveillance is unavailable.

  14. Real-time isothermal RNA amplification of toxic marine microalgae using preserved reagents on an integrated microfluidic platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsaloglou, Maria-Nefeli; Laouenan, Florian; Loukas, Christos-Moritz; Monsalve, Lisandro Gabriel; Thanner, Christine; Morgan, Hywel; Ruano-López, Jesus M; Mowlem, Matthew C

    2013-01-21

    Quantitation of specific RNA sequences is a useful technique in marine biology that can elucidate cell abundance, speciation and viability, especially for early detection of harmful algal blooms. We are thus developing an integrated microfluidic system for cell concentration and lysis, RNA extraction/purification and quantitative RNA detection for environmental applications. The portable system is based on a microfluidic cartridge, or "lab-card", using a low-cost injection moulded device, with a laminated lid. Here we present real-time isothermal RNA amplification using reagent master-mixes preserved on-chip in a gel at 4 °C for up to eight months. We demonstrate quantitation by reference to an internal control in a competitive assay with 500 cell equivalents of the toxic microalga Karenia brevis. Annealing of primers, amplification at 41 °C and real-time fluorescence detection of the internal control and target using sequence-specific molecular beacons were all performed on-chip.

  15. Development of a loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for the detection of Streptococcus agalactiae in bovine milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosward, Katrina L; House, John K; Deveridge, Amber; Mathews, Karen; Sheehy, Paul A

    2016-03-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae is a well-characterized bovine mastitis pathogen that is known to be highly contagious and capable of spreading rapidly in affected dairy herds. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) is a novel molecular diagnostic method that has the capability to provide rapid, cost-effective screening for pathogens to support on-farm disease control and eradication programs. In the current study, a LAMP test was developed to detect S. agalactiae in milk. The assay was validated on a bank of existing clinical mastitis milk samples that had previously been identified as S. agalactiae positive via traditional microbiological culture techniques and PCR. The LAMP assay was conducted on bacterial colonies and DNA extracted from milk in tube- and plate-based formats using multiple detection platforms. The 1-h assay conducted at 64 °C exhibited repeatability (coefficient of variation) of 2.07% (tube) and 8.3% (plate), sensitivity to ~20 pg of extracted DNA/reaction, and specificity against a panel of known bacterial mastitis pathogens. Of the 109 known S. agalactiae isolates assessed by LAMP directly from bacterial cells in culture, 108 were identified as positive, in accordance with PCR analysis. The LAMP analysis from the corresponding milk samples indicated that 104 of these milks exhibited a positive amplification curve. Although exhibiting some limitations, this assay provides an opportunity for rapid screening of milk samples to facilitate on-farm management of this pathogen. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Graphene oxide based fluorescence resonance energy transfer and loop-mediated isothermal amplification for white spot syndrome virus detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waiwijit, U; Phokaratkul, D; Kampeera, J; Lomas, T; Wisitsoraat, A; Kiatpathomchai, W; Tuantranont, A

    2015-10-20

    Graphene oxide (GO) is attractived for biological or medical applications due to its unique electrical, physical, optical and biological properties. In particular, GO can adsorb DNA via π-π stacking or non-covalent interactions, leading to fluorescence quenching phenomenon applicable for bio-molecular detection. In this work, a new method for white spot syndrome virus (WSSV)-DNA detection is developed based on loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) combined with fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) between GO and fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled probe (FITC-probe). The fluorescence quenching efficiency of FITC-probe was found to increase with increasing GO concentration and reached 98.7% at a GO concentration of 50 μg/ml. The fluorescence intensity of FITC-probe was recovered after hybridization with WSSV LAMP product with an optimal hybridization time of 10 min and increased accordingly with increasing amount of LAMP products. The detection limit was estimated to be as low as 10 copies of WSSV plasmid DNA or 0.6 fg of the total DNA extracted from shrimp infected with WSSV. In addition, no cross reaction was observed with other common shrimp viral pathogens. Therefore, the GO-FRET-LAMP technique is promising for fast, sensitive and specific detection of DNAs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. TRANSFORMATION ISOTHERME D'UN ACIER A HAUTE RESISTANCE 40 CDV 13

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A BOUTEFNOUCHET

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available L'étude dilatométrique du comportement de l'austénite en condition isotherme d'un acier ternaire, à haute résistance mécanique de nuance 40 CDV 13, nous a permis de tracer son diagramme TTT. L'austénitisation a été réalisée pendant 10 minutes à  qg = 950°C (utilisée dans  l'industrie. Les températures de maintien sont comprises entre Ac1 = 810°C et Ms  = 310°C. Dans ce diagramme TTT, on distingue deux domaines de transformation isotherme de l'austénite. Le domaine I (625°C £  qiso < Ac1 = 810°C dans lequel l'austénite se transforme en ferrite et en perlite, et le domaine II (325°C  £  qiso £ 475°C où l'austénite se transforme en bainite ou en ferrite probainitique. Ces transformations sont précédées pour toutes les températures de maintien isotherme d'une précipitation de carbures. En outre, ces deux domaines de transformation de l'austénite sont séparés par une large zone de stabilité de l'austénite comprise entre 500°C et 600°C. L'analyse approfondie des courbes dilatométriques enregistrées durant le maintien isotherme et le refroidissement final jusqu'à l'ambiante, nous a permis de déterminer qualitativement et quantitativement les phase mises en jeu par ces transformations isothermes de l'austénite.

  18. Direct measurement of the lethal isotherm for radiofrequency ablation of myocardial tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Mark; Goldberg, Scott; Lau, Melissa; Goel, Aneesh; Alexander, Daniel; Han, Frederick; Feinstein, Shawn

    2011-06-01

    The lethal isotherm for radiofrequency catheter ablation of cardiac myocardium is widely accepted to be 50°C, but this has not been directly measured. The purpose of this study was to directly measure the tissue temperature at the edge of radiofrequency lesions in real time using infrared thermal imaging. Fifteen radiofrequency lesions of 6 to 240 seconds in duration were applied to the left ventricular surface of isolated perfused pig hearts. At the end of radiofrequency delivery, a thermal image of the tissue surface was acquired with an infrared camera. The lesion was then stained and an optical image of the lesion was obtained. The thermal and optical images were electronically merged to allow determination of the tissue temperature at the edge of the lesion at the end of radiofrequency delivery. By adjusting the temperature overlay display to conform with the edge of the radiofrequency lesion, the lethal isotherm was measured to be 60.6°C (interquartile ranges, 59.7° to 62.4°C; range, 58.1° to 64.2°C). The areas encompassed by the lesion border in the optical image and the lethal isotherm in the thermal image were statistically similar and highly correlated (Spearman ρ=0.99, Pradiofrequency delivery or to lesion size (both P>0.64). The areas circumscribed by 50°C isotherms were significantly larger than the areas of the lesions on optical imaging (P=0.002). By direct measurement, the lethal isotherm for cardiac myocardium is near 61°C for radiofrequency energy deliveries radiofrequency ablation is important to clinical practice as well as mathematical modeling of radiofrequency lesions.

  19. Force Field Benchmark of the TraPPE_UA for Polar Liquids: Density, Heat of Vaporization, Dielectric Constant, Surface Tension, Volumetric Expansion Coefficient, and Isothermal Compressibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez-Rojas, Edgar; Aguilar-Pineda, Jorge Alberto; Pérez de la Luz, Alexander; de Jesús González, Edith Nadir; Alejandre, José

    2018-02-08

    The transferable potential for a phase equilibria force field in its united-atom version, TraPPE_UA, is evaluated for 41 polar liquids that include alcohols, thiols, ethers, sulfides, aldehydes, ketones, and esters to determine its ability to reproduce experimental properties that were not included in the parametrization procedure. The intermolecular force field parameters for pure components were fit to reproduce experimental boiling temperature, vapor-liquid coexisting densities, and critical point (temperature, density, and pressure) using Monte Carlo simulations in different ensembles. The properties calculated in this work are liquid density, heat of vaporization, dielectric constant, surface tension, volumetric expansion coefficient, and isothermal compressibility. Molecular dynamics simulations were performed in the gas and liquid phases, and also at the liquid-vapor interface. We found that relative error between calculated and experimental data is 1.2% for density, 6% for heat of vaporization, and 6.2% for surface tension, in good agreement with the experimental data. The dielectric constant is systematically underestimated, and the relative error is 37%. Evaluating the performance of the force field to reproduce the volumetric expansion coefficient and isothermal compressibility requires more experimental data.

  20. One simple DNA extraction device and its combination with modified visual loop-mediated isothermal amplification for rapid on-field detection of genetically modified organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Miao; Liu, Yinan; Chen, Lili; Quan, Sheng; Jiang, Shimeng; Zhang, Dabing; Yang, Litao

    2013-01-02

    Quickness, simplicity, and effectiveness are the three major criteria for establishing a good molecular diagnosis method in many fields. Herein we report a novel detection system for genetically modified organisms (GMOs), which can be utilized to perform both on-field quick screening and routine laboratory diagnosis. In this system, a newly designed inexpensive DNA extraction device was used in combination with a modified visual loop-mediated isothermal amplification (vLAMP) assay. The main parts of the DNA extraction device included a silica gel membrane filtration column and a modified syringe. The DNA extraction device could be easily operated without using other laboratory instruments, making it applicable to an on-field GMO test. High-quality genomic DNA (gDNA) suitable for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and isothermal amplification could be quickly isolated from plant tissues using this device within 15 min. In the modified vLAMP assay, a microcrystalline wax encapsulated detection bead containing SYBR green fluorescent dye was introduced to avoid dye inhibition and cross-contaminations from post-LAMP operation. The system was successfully applied and validated in screening and identification of GM rice, soybean, and maize samples collected from both field testing and the Grain Inspection, Packers, and Stockyards Administration (GIPSA) proficiency test program, which demonstrated that it was well-adapted to both on-field testing and/or routine laboratory analysis of GMOs.

  1. Molecular hematology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Provan, Drew; Gribben, John

    2010-01-01

    ... The molecular basis of hemophilia, 219 Paul LF Giangrande 4 The genetics of acute myeloid leukemias, 42 Carolyn J Owen & Jude Fitzgibbon 19 The molecular basis of von Willebrand disease, 233 Luciano Baronc...

  2. Effect of Prior Athermal Martensite on the Isothermal Transformation Kinetics Below M s in a Low-C High-Si Steel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Navarro-Lopez, A.; Sietsma, J.; Santofimia, M.J.

    2015-01-01

    Thermomechanical processing of Advanced Multiphase High Strength Steels often includes isothermal treatments around the martensite start temperature (M s). It has been reported that the presence of martensite formed prior to these isothermal treatments accelerates the kinetics of the subsequent

  3. Wall modeling for the simulation of highly non-isothermal unsteady flows; Modelisation de paroi pour la simulation d'ecoulements instationnaires non-isothermes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devesa, A

    2006-12-15

    Nuclear industry flows are most of the time characterized by their high Reynolds number, density variations (at low Mach numbers) and a highly unsteady behaviour (low to moderate frequencies). High Reynolds numbers are un-affordable by direct simulation (DNS), and simulations must either be performed by solving averaged equations (RANS), or by solving only the large eddies (LES), both using a wall model. A first investigation of this thesis dealt with the derivation and test of two variable density wall models: an algebraic law (CWM) and a zonal approach dedicated to LES (TBLE-{rho}). These models were validated in quasi-isothermal cases, before being used in academic and industrial non-isothermal flows with satisfactory results. Then, a numerical experiment of pulsed passive scalars was performed by DNS, were two forcing conditions were considered: oscillations are imposed in the outer flow; oscillations come from the wall. Several frequencies and amplitudes of oscillations were taken into account in order to gain insights in unsteady effects in the boundary layer, and to create a database for validating wall models in such context. The temporal behaviour of two wall models (algebraic and zonal wall models) were studied and showed that a zonal model produced better results when used in the simulation of unsteady flows. (author)

  4. Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Tensile Behavior of Copper

    OpenAIRE

    Sainath, G.; Srinivasan, V. S.; Choudhary, B. K.; Mathew, M. D.; Jayakumar, T.

    2014-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations on tensile deformation of initially defect free single crystal copper nanowire oriented in {100} has been carried out at 10 K under adiabatic and isothermal loading conditions. The tensile behaviour was characterized by sharp rise in stress in elastic regime followed by sudden drop at the point of dislocation nucleation. The important finding is that the variation in dislocation density is correlated with the observed stress-strain response. Several interesting ...

  5. The adsorption of benzene from the gas phase on H-mordenite 1. A new model isotherm for adsorption on zeolites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drachsel, W; Becker, K A

    1977-10-01

    This model was derived from considerations of the heterogeneous energy distribution of zeolite surfaces. A homogeneity parameter (m) was introduced. The isotherms approach a constant value at high pressure, and at low pressure they approach the Freundlich isotherm for m < 1 and the Henry isotherm at m > 1. Graphs and 19 references.

  6. Isotherms and thermodynamics by linear and non-linear regression analysis for the sorption of methylene blue onto activated carbon: Comparison of various error functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, K. Vasanth; Porkodi, K.; Rocha, F.

    2008-01-01

    A comparison of linear and non-linear regression method in selecting the optimum isotherm was made to the experimental equilibrium data of methylene blue sorption by activated carbon. The r 2 was used to select the best fit linear theoretical isotherm. In the case of non-linear regression method, six error functions, namely coefficient of determination (r 2 ), hybrid fractional error function (HYBRID), Marquardt's percent standard deviation (MPSD), average relative error (ARE), sum of the errors squared (ERRSQ) and sum of the absolute errors (EABS) were used to predict the parameters involved in the two and three parameter isotherms and also to predict the optimum isotherm. For two parameter isotherm, MPSD was found to be the best error function in minimizing the error distribution between the experimental equilibrium data and predicted isotherms. In the case of three parameter isotherm, r 2 was found to be the best error function to minimize the error distribution structure between experimental equilibrium data and theoretical isotherms. The present study showed that the size of the error function alone is not a deciding factor to choose the optimum isotherm. In addition to the size of error function, the theory behind the predicted isotherm should be verified with the help of experimental data while selecting the optimum isotherm. A coefficient of non-determination, K 2 was explained and was found to be very useful in identifying the best error function while selecting the optimum isotherm

  7. Prediction of water vapour sorption isotherms and microstructure of hardened Portland cement pastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgh, James M. de; Foster, Stephen J.; Valipour, Hamid R.

    2016-01-01

    Water vapour sorption isotherms of cementitious materials reflect the multi-scale physical microstructure through its interaction with moisture. Our ability to understand and predict adsorption and desorption behaviour is essential in the application of modern performance-based approaches to durability analysis, along with many other areas of hygro-mechanical and hygro-chemo-mechanical behaviour. In this paper, a new physically based model for predicting water vapour sorption isotherms of arbitrary hardened Portland cement pastes is presented. Established thermodynamic principles, applied to a microstructure model that develops with hydration, provide a rational basis for predictions. Closed-form differentiable equations, along with a rational consideration of hysteresis and scanning phenomena, makes the model suitable for use in numerical moisture simulations. The microstructure model is reconciled with recently published 1 H NMR and mercury intrusion porosimetry results.

  8. Critical isothermal temperature and optimum mechanical behaviour of high Si-containing bainitic steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misra, A.; Sharma, S.; Sangal, S.; Upadhyaya, A.; Mondal, K.

    2012-01-01

    The redistribution of carbon during partitioning between retained austenite and bainitic ferrite decides the stability of the retained austenite. The martensitic start temperature (M S ) based on the carbon enriched retained austenite is observed to be the deciding factor for the volume fraction of the constituent phases obtained on isothermal bainitic transformation. The volume fraction of the phases is also calculated on the basis of metastable equi-free energy (T 0 ) curve. A good agreement is found between experimentally and theoretically calculated fractions of the phases. The isothermal holding temperature and time, the fraction of phases based on initial carbon content of the steel and M S temperatures have a close relation with the optimum mechanical properties of bainitic steels.

  9. In Situ Study of Phase Transformations during Non-Isothermal Tempering of Bainitic and Martensitic Microstructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Hesamodin Talebi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Phase transformations during non-isothermal tempering of bainitic or martensitic microstructures obtained after quenching of a medium-carbon low-alloy steel was studied. The microstructures correspond to different locations of an as-quenched large-sized forged ingot used as a die material in the automotive industry. High-resolution dilatometry experiments were conducted to simulate the heat treatment process, as well as to investigate different phenomena occurring during non-isothermal tempering. The microstructures were characterized using optical and scanning electron microscopy. Dilatometry analyses demonstrated that tempering behavior varied significantly from bainitic to martensitic microstructures. Retained austenite, which exists between bainitic ferrite sheaves, decomposes to lower bainite causing a remarkable volume increase. It was found that this decomposition finishes below 386 °C. By contrast, martensite tempering was accompanied with a volume decrease due to the decomposition of medium-carbon martensite to low carbon martensite and carbides.

  10. Influence of isothermal thermomechanical treatment on structure and properties of structural steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smirnov, M.A.; Kaletin, A.Yu.; Schastlivthev, V.M.; Kaletina, Yu.V.

    1997-01-01

    A study is made into the structure and mechanical properties of steel 35KhGSA and 37KhN3A after isothermal hardening resulting in bainitic structure formation as well as after low-temperature thermomechanical treatment (LTTMT) combining the plastic deformation at the temperature of bainitic transformation and subsequent isothermal hardening. It is shown that LTTMT permits and essential enhancement of strength properties in steel 35KhGSA, high plasticity and impact strength being reserved. This is associated with bainitic structure refinement. In steel 37KhN3A the process of carbide formation takes place along with bainitic transformation, and LTTMT results in lesser strengthening. LTTMT is fount to not practically affect the tendency of structural steels to bainitic brittleness. This treatment promotes some shift of brittleness manifestation to lower temperatures

  11. Critical isothermal temperature and optimum mechanical behaviour of high Si-containing bainitic steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Misra, A.; Sharma, S.; Sangal, S.; Upadhyaya, A. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur 208016 (India); Mondal, K., E-mail: kallol@iitk.ac.in [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur 208016 (India)

    2012-12-15

    The redistribution of carbon during partitioning between retained austenite and bainitic ferrite decides the stability of the retained austenite. The martensitic start temperature (M{sub S}) based on the carbon enriched retained austenite is observed to be the deciding factor for the volume fraction of the constituent phases obtained on isothermal bainitic transformation. The volume fraction of the phases is also calculated on the basis of metastable equi-free energy (T{sub 0}) curve. A good agreement is found between experimentally and theoretically calculated fractions of the phases. The isothermal holding temperature and time, the fraction of phases based on initial carbon content of the steel and M{sub S} temperatures have a close relation with the optimum mechanical properties of bainitic steels.

  12. Calculation of recovery plasticity in multistage hot forging under isothermal conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhbankov, Iaroslav G; Perig, Alexander V; Aliieva, Leila I

    2016-01-01

    A widely used method for hot forming steels and alloys, especially heavy forging, is the process of multistage forging with pauses between stages. The well-known effect which accompanies multistage hot forging is metal plasticity recovery in comparison with monotonic deformation. A method which takes into consideration the recovery of plasticity in pauses between hot deformations of a billet under isothermal conditions is proposed. This method allows the prediction of billet forming limits as a function of deformation during the forging stage and the duration of the pause between the stages. This method takes into account the duration of pauses between deformations and the magnitude of subdivided deformations. A hot isothermal upsetting process with pauses was calculated by the proposed method. Results of the calculations have been confirmed with experimental data.

  13. Application of isothermal calorimetry and uv spectroscopy for stability monitoring of pentaerythritol tetranitrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dosser, L.R.; Pickard, J.M.

    1992-01-01

    Thermal stabilities for a series of pentaerythritol-tetranitrate (PETN) samples with variable surf ace areas were monitored by isothermal calorimetry and UV spectroscopy over the temperature range of 363 to 408 K. Isothermal induction times measured with constant volume calorimetry under an air atmosphere and No evolution rates monitored by UV absorbance at 213 nm under vacuum correlated with the PETN surface area at temperatures equal to or exceeding 383 K. Rate data measured at 383 K are in accord with predictions based on detailed kinetic modeling. Below 383 K, NO evolution data suggested that additional geometric factors may be significant in controlling PETN stability. Mechanisms for influencing surface area upon the rate-determining step are addressed

  14. Loop mediated isothermal amplification: An innovative gene amplification technique for animal diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pravas Ranjan Sahoo

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available India being a developing country mainly depends on livestock sector for its economy. However, nowadays, there is emergence and reemergence of more transboundary animal diseases. The existing diagnostic techniques are not so quick and with less specificity. To reduce the economy loss, there should be a development of rapid, reliable, robust diagnostic technique, which can work with high degree of sensitivity and specificity. Loop mediated isothermal amplification assay is a rapid gene amplification technique that amplifies nucleic acid under an isothermal condition with a set of designed primers spanning eight distinct sequences of the target. This assay can be used as an emerging powerful, innovative gene amplification diagnostic tool against various pathogens of livestock diseases. This review is to highlight the basic concept and methodology of this assay in livestock disease.

  15. Loop mediated isothermal amplification: An innovative gene amplification technique for animal diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Pravas Ranjan; Sethy, Kamadev; Mohapatra, Swagat; Panda, Debasis

    2016-05-01

    India being a developing country mainly depends on livestock sector for its economy. However, nowadays, there is emergence and reemergence of more transboundary animal diseases. The existing diagnostic techniques are not so quick and with less specificity. To reduce the economy loss, there should be a development of rapid, reliable, robust diagnostic technique, which can work with high degree of sensitivity and specificity. Loop mediated isothermal amplification assay is a rapid gene amplification technique that amplifies nucleic acid under an isothermal condition with a set of designed primers spanning eight distinct sequences of the target. This assay can be used as an emerging powerful, innovative gene amplification diagnostic tool against various pathogens of livestock diseases. This review is to highlight the basic concept and methodology of this assay in livestock disease.

  16. Analysis of isothermal sintering of zinc-titanate doped with MgO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obradović N.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was analysis of isothermal sintering of zinc titanate ceramics doped with MgO obtained by mechanical activation. Mixtures of ZnO, TiO2 and MgO (0, 1.25 and 2.5% were mechanically activated 15 minutes in a planetary ball mill. The powders obtained were pressed under different pressures and the results were fitted with a phenomenological compacting equation. Isothermal sintering was performed in air for 120 minutes at four different temperatures. Structural characterization of ZnO-TiO2-MgO system after milling was performed at room temperature using XRPD measurements. DTA measurements showed different activation energies for pure and doped ZnO-TiO2 systems. Thus addition of MgO stabilizes the crystal structure of zinc titanate.

  17. Mathematical Modeling of Moisture Sorption Isotherms and Determination of Isosteric Heats of Sorption of Ziziphus Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amel Saad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Desorption and adsorption equilibrium moisture isotherms of Ziziphus spina-christi leaves were determined using the gravimetric-static method at 30, 40, and 50°C for water activity (aw ranging from 0.057 to 0.898. At a given aw, the results show that the moisture content decreases with increasing temperature. A hysteresis effect was observed. The experimental data of sorption were fitted by eight models (GAB, BET, Henderson-Thompson, modified-Chung Pfost, Halsey, Oswin, Peleg, and Adam and Shove. After evaluating the models according to several criteria, the Peleg and Oswin models were found to be the most suitable for describing the sorption curves. The net isosteric heats of desorption and adsorption of Ziziphus spina-christi leaves were calculated by applying the Clausius-Clapeyron equation to the sorption isotherms and an expression for predicting these thermodynamic properties was given.

  18. Monolayer and multilayer adsorption isotherm models for sorption from aqueous media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saadi, Reyhaneh; Saadi, Zahra; Fazaeli, Reza; Fard, Narges Elmi [Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Industrial wastewater polluted with various contaminants, including heavy metals, dyes, etc., endangers human health and the environment. Various separation techniques have been developed for the removal of pollutants from aqueous solutions. Adsorption process has drawn considerable attention due to its simplicity of design, high removal efficiency, even at dilute concentration, and economical aspect. We reviewed the most common two, three, four, and five parameter adsorption isotherm models corresponding to monolayer and multilayer adsorption on the basis of parameters that can be used for exploring novel adsorbents. Thermodynamic assumptions of the models give information about the surface properties, capacity of the adsorbent and adsorption mechanism. Seven error functions were investigated to evaluate the fitness quality of isotherm models with the experimental equilibrium data.

  19. Removal Rate of Organic Matter Using Natural Cellulose via Adsorption Isotherm and Kinetic Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Din, Mohd Fadhil Md; Ponraj, Mohanadoss; Low, Wen-Pei; Fulazzaky, Mohamad Ali; Iwao, Kenzo; Songip, Ahmad Rahman; Chelliapan, Shreeshivadasan; Ismail, Zulhilmi; Jamal, Mohamad Hidayat

    2016-02-01

    In this study, the removal of natural organic matter (NOM) using coconut fiber (CF) and palm oil fiber (POF) was investigated. Preliminary analysis was performed using a jar test for the selection of optimal medium before the fabricated column model experiment. The equilibrium studies on isotherms and kinetic models for NOM adsorption were analyzed using linearized correlation coefficient. Results showed that the equilibrium data were fitted to Langmuir isotherm model for both CF and POF. The most suitable adsorption model was the pseudo-first-order kinetic model for POF and pseudo-second-order kinetic model for CF. The adsorption capacities achieved by the CF and POF were 15.67 and 30.8 mg/g respectively. Based on this investigation, it can be concluded that the POF is the most suitable material for the removal of NOM in semi polluted river water.

  20. Calibrated expressions for welding and their application to isotherm width in a thick plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gentry Wood

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The present paper introduces a possible solution to the limitations of modern trial and error solutions to welding procedure development. The difficulties of finding generalized solutions to Rosenthal´s equation are discussed and the Minimal Representation and Calibration approach is introduced as a promising procedure for developing these solutions. Dominant factors are identified, with effects from secondary phenomena being taken into account by correction factors. These correction factors are then calibrated and presented in a form that can be easily computed, and therefore be amendable to industry. The approach is then demonstrated by determining the isotherm width from Rosenthal´s thick plate solution. Comparison of the calibrated scaling equations to Rosenthal´s exact solution showed a maximum error of less than 0.8% for any isotherm.

  1. Precipitation and mechanical properties of Nb-modified ferritic stainless steel during isothermal aging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Haitao; Bi Hongyun; Li Xin; Xu Zhou

    2009-01-01

    The influence of isothermal aging on precipitation behavior and mechanical properties of Nb-modified ferritic stainless steel was investigated using Thermo-calc software, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. It was observed that TiN, NbC and Fe 2 Nb formed in the investigated steel and the experimental results agreed well with the results calculated by Thermo-calc software. During isothermal aging at 800 deg. C, the coarsening rate of Fe 2 Nb is greater than that of NbC, and the calculated average sizes of NbC and Fe 2 Nb of the aged specimen agreed with the experimental results. In addition, the tensile strength and micro-hardness of the ferritic stainless steel increased with increased aging time from 24 h to 48 h. But aging at 800 deg. C for 96 h caused the coarsening of the precipitation, which led to a decrease of tensile strength and micro-hardness

  2. Estimation of the isothermal compressibility from event-by-event multiplicity fluctuation studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukherjee Maitreyee

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The first estimation of the isothermal compressibility (kT of matter is presented for a wide range of collision energies from √sNN = 7.7 GeV to 2.76 TeV. kT is estimated with the help of event-byevent charged particle multiplicity fluctuations from experiment. Dynamical fluctuations are extracted by removing the statistical fluctuations obtained from the participant model. kT is also estimated from event generators AMPT, UrQMD, EPOS and a hadron resonance gas model. The values of isothermal compressibility are estimated for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC energies with the help of the event generators.

  3. Integration and global analysis of isothermal titration calorimetry data for studying macromolecular interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brautigam, Chad A; Zhao, Huaying; Vargas, Carolyn; Keller, Sandro; Schuck, Peter

    2016-05-01

    Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) is a powerful and widely used method to measure the energetics of macromolecular interactions by recording a thermogram of differential heating power during a titration. However, traditional ITC analysis is limited by stochastic thermogram noise and by the limited information content of a single titration experiment. Here we present a protocol for bias-free thermogram integration based on automated shape analysis of the injection peaks, followed by combination of isotherms from different calorimetric titration experiments into a global analysis, statistical analysis of binding parameters and graphical presentation of the results. This is performed using the integrated public-domain software packages NITPIC, SEDPHAT and GUSSI. The recently developed low-noise thermogram integration approach and global analysis allow for more precise parameter estimates and more reliable quantification of multisite and multicomponent cooperative and competitive interactions. Titration experiments typically take 1-2.5 h each, and global analysis usually takes 10-20 min.

  4. Feasibility of Ericsson type isothermal expansion/compression gas turbine cycle for nuclear energy use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, Akihiko

    2007-01-01

    A gas turbine with potential demand for the next generation nuclear energy use such as HTGR power plants, a gas cooled FBR, a gas cooled nuclear fusion reactor uses helium as working gas and with a closed cycle. Materials constituting a cycle must be set lower than allowable temperature in terms of mechanical strength and radioactivity containment performance and so expansion inlet temperature is remarkably limited. For thermal efficiency improvement, isothermal expansion/isothermal compression Ericsson type gas turbine cycle should be developed using wet surface of an expansion/compressor casing and a duct between stators without depending on an outside heat exchanger performing multistage re-heat/multistage intermediate cooling. Feasibility of an Ericsson cycle in comparison with a Brayton cycle and multi-stage compression/expansion cycle was studied and technologies to be developed were clarified. (author)

  5. Non-isothermal irradiation creep of nickel alloys Inconel 706 and PE-16

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, E.R.; Chin, B.A.

    1984-06-01

    The results of in-reactor step temperature change experiments conducted on two nickel alloys, PE-16 and Inconel 706, were evaluated to determine the creep behavior under nonisothermal conditions. The effect of the temperature changes was found to be significantly different for the two alloys. Following a step temperature change, the creep rate of PE-16 adjusted to the rate found in isothermal tests at the new temperature. In contrast for Inconel 706, a reduction in temperature from 540 to 425 0 C produced a 300% increase in creep above that measured at 540 0 C in isothermal tests. The response of in-reactor creep in Inconel 706 to temperature changes was attributed to the dissolution of the gamma double-prime phase and subsequent loss of precipitation-strengthening at temperatures below 500 C

  6. Oscillations of non-isothermal N/S boundary with a high frequency and large amplitude

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bezuglyj, A.I.; Shklovskij, V.A.

    2016-01-01

    Within the framework of the phenomenological approach based on the heat balance equation and the dependence of the critical temperature of the superconductor on the current value theoretically investigated the impact of high-frequency current of high amplitude and arbitrary shape on the non-isothermal balance of the oscillating N/S interface in a long superconductor. We introduce a self-consistent average temperature field of rapidly oscillating non-isothermal N/S boundary (heat kink), which allows to go beyond the well-known concept of mean-square heating and consider the impact of current waveform. With regard to experiments on the effects of microwave high-power radiation on the current-voltage characteristics (CVC) of superconducting films, we give the classification of the families of the CVC for inhomogeneous superconductors which carry a current containing a high frequency component of large amplitude. Several characteristics have hysteresis of thermal nature.

  7. Detection of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) using isothermal amplification of target DNA sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, David; La Mura, Maurizio; Allnutt, Theo R; Powell, Wayne

    2009-02-02

    The most common method of GMO detection is based upon the amplification of GMO-specific DNA amplicons using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Here we have applied the loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) method to amplify GMO-related DNA sequences, 'internal' commonly-used motifs for controlling transgene expression and event-specific (plant-transgene) junctions. We have tested the specificity and sensitivity of the technique for use in GMO studies. Results show that detection of 0.01% GMO in equivalent background DNA was possible and dilutions of template suggest that detection from single copies of the template may be possible using LAMP. This work shows that GMO detection can be carried out using LAMP for routine screening as well as for specific events detection. Moreover, the sensitivity and ability to amplify targets, even with a high background of DNA, here demonstrated, highlights the advantages of this isothermal amplification when applied for GMO detection.

  8. Experimental Adsorption Isotherm of Methane onto Activated Carbon at Sub- and Supercritical Temperatures

    KAUST Repository

    Rahman, Kazi Afzalur

    2010-11-11

    This paper presents the experimentally measured adsorption isotherm data for methane onto the pitch-based activated carbon type Maxsorb III for temperatures ranging from (120 to 220) K and pressures up to 1.4 MPa. These data are useful to study adsorbed natural gas (ANG) storage systems when the low temperature natural gas regasified from the liquid phase is considered to charge in the storage chamber. Adsorption parameters were evaluated from the isotherm data using the Tóth and Dubinin-Astakhov models. The isosteric heat of adsorption, which is concentration- and temperature-dependent, is extracted from the data. The Henry\\'s law coefficients for the methane/Maxsorb III pairs are evaluated at various temperatures. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  9. Partial-Isothermally-Treated Low Alloy Ultrahigh Strength Steel with Martensitic/Bainitic Microstructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Quanshun; Kitchen, Matthew; Patel, Vinay; Filleul, Martin; Owens, Dave

    We introduce a new strengthening heat treatment of a Ni-Cr-Mo-V alloyed spring steel by partial isothermal salt-bath and subsequent air-cooling and tempering. Detailed isothermal treatments were made at temperatures below or above the Ms point (230°C). The salt bath time was controlled between 10 and 80 minutes. Through the new treatment, the candidate steel developed ultrahigh tensile strength 2,100 MPa, yield strength 1,800 MPa, elongation 8-10 %, hardness 580-710 HV, and V-notch Charpy toughness 10-12 J. Optical and electron microscopic observations and X-ray diffraction revealed multi-phase microstructures of bainitic/martensitic ferrites, fine carbide precipitates and retained austenite. Carbon partitioning during the bainitic/martensitic transformation was investigated for its remarkable influence on the strengthening mechanism.

  10. Solution of weakly compressible isothermal flow in landfill gas collection networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nec, Y [Thompson Rivers University, Kamloops, British Columbia (Canada); Huculak, G, E-mail: cranberryana@gmail.com, E-mail: greg@gnhconsulting.ca [GNH Consulting, Delta, British Columbia (Canada)

    2017-12-15

    Pipe networks collecting gas in sanitary landfills operate under the regime of a weakly compressible isothermal flow of ideal gas. The effect of compressibility has been traditionally neglected in this application in favour of simplicity, thereby creating a conceptual incongruity between the flow equations and thermodynamic equation of state. Here the flow is solved by generalisation of the classic Darcy–Weisbach equation for an incompressible steady flow in a pipe to an ordinary differential equation, permitting continuous variation of density, viscosity and related fluid parameters, as well as head loss or gain due to gravity, in isothermal flow. The differential equation is solved analytically in the case of ideal gas for a single edge in the network. Thereafter the solution is used in an algorithm developed to construct the flow equations automatically for a network characterised by an incidence matrix, and determine pressure distribution, flow rates and all associated parameters therein. (paper)

  11. Solution of weakly compressible isothermal flow in landfill gas collection networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nec, Y.; Huculak, G.

    2017-12-01

    Pipe networks collecting gas in sanitary landfills operate under the regime of a weakly compressible isothermal flow of ideal gas. The effect of compressibility has been traditionally neglected in this application in favour of simplicity, thereby creating a conceptual incongruity between the flow equations and thermodynamic equation of state. Here the flow is solved by generalisation of the classic Darcy-Weisbach equation for an incompressible steady flow in a pipe to an ordinary differential equation, permitting continuous variation of density, viscosity and related fluid parameters, as well as head loss or gain due to gravity, in isothermal flow. The differential equation is solved analytically in the case of ideal gas for a single edge in the network. Thereafter the solution is used in an algorithm developed to construct the flow equations automatically for a network characterised by an incidence matrix, and determine pressure distribution, flow rates and all associated parameters therein.

  12. Isothermal equilibrium pressures of Y-Th alloy-H2 system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanase, M.; Fisher, P.W.

    1985-01-01

    Isothermal equilibrium pressures of the Y 4 Th (3:2 by weight) alloy-H 2 system were measured as a function of atomic composition [H]/[Y + Th] in the temperature range 580-1160 K. The isotherms have two plateaux in the pressure range 10 -2 -10 3 Pa. The first plateau region is attributed to the formation of YH 2 , and the equilibrium pressure P in pascals was found to be log P = 12.36 - 11300/T where T is in kelvins. The second plateau is attributed to the formation of ThH 2 , and the equilibrium pressure was found to be log P = 10.66 - 6891/T. In low atomic composition region the system obeys Sieverts' law. (Auth.)

  13. Solution of weakly compressible isothermal flow in landfill gas collection networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nec, Y; Huculak, G

    2017-01-01

    Pipe networks collecting gas in sanitary landfills operate under the regime of a weakly compressible isothermal flow of ideal gas. The effect of compressibility has been traditionally neglected in this application in favour of simplicity, thereby creating a conceptual incongruity between the flow equations and thermodynamic equation of state. Here the flow is solved by generalisation of the classic Darcy–Weisbach equation for an incompressible steady flow in a pipe to an ordinary differential equation, permitting continuous variation of density, viscosity and related fluid parameters, as well as head loss or gain due to gravity, in isothermal flow. The differential equation is solved analytically in the case of ideal gas for a single edge in the network. Thereafter the solution is used in an algorithm developed to construct the flow equations automatically for a network characterised by an incidence matrix, and determine pressure distribution, flow rates and all associated parameters therein. (paper)

  14. Simplified molecular detection of Leishmania parasites in various clinical samples from patients with leishmaniasis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mugasa, Claire M.; Laurent, Thierry; Schoone, Gerard J.; Basiye, Frank L.; Saad, Alfarazdeg A.; El Safi, Sayda; Kager, Piet A.; Schallig, Henk Dfh

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Molecular methods to detect Leishmania parasites are considered specific and sensitive, but often not applied in endemic areas of developing countries due to technical complexity. In the present study isothermal, nucleic acid sequence based amplification (NASBA) was coupled to

  15. New closed tube loop mediated isothermal amplification assay for prevention of product cross-contamination

    OpenAIRE

    Karthik, K.; Rathore, Rajesh; Thomas, Prasad; Arun, T.R.; Viswas, K.N.; Dhama, Kuldeep; Agarwal, R.K.

    2014-01-01

    Loop mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay, a promising diagnostic test, has been developed for detection of different pathogens of human as well as animals. Various positive points support its use as a field level test but the major problem is product cross contamination leading to false positive results. Different methods were adopted by various researchers to control this false positive amplification due to cross contamination but all have their own advantages and disadvantages. A...

  16. Irreversibility analysis for gravity driven non-Newtonian liquid film along an inclined isothermal plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makinde, O.D.

    2005-10-01

    In this paper, the first and second law of thermodynamics are employed in order to study the inherent irreversibility for a gravity driven non-Newtonian Ostwald-de Waele power law liquid film along an inclined isothermal plate. Based on some simplified assumptions, the governing equations are obtained and solved analytically. Expressions for fluid velocity, temperature, volumetric entropy generation numbers, irreversibility distribution ratio and the Bejan number are also determined. (author)

  17. Estimation of the volatility distribution of organic aerosol combining thermodenuder and isothermal dilution measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louvaris, Evangelos E.; Karnezi, Eleni; Kostenidou, Evangelia; Kaltsonoudis, Christos; Pandis, Spyros N.

    2017-10-01

    A method is developed following the work of Grieshop et al. (2009) for the determination of the organic aerosol (OA) volatility distribution combining thermodenuder (TD) and isothermal dilution measurements. The approach was tested in experiments that were conducted in a smog chamber using organic aerosol (OA) produced during meat charbroiling. A TD was operated at temperatures ranging from 25 to 250 °C with a 14 s centerline residence time coupled to a high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) and a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS). In parallel, a dilution chamber filled with clean air was used to dilute isothermally the aerosol of the larger chamber by approximately a factor of 10. The OA mass fraction remaining was measured as a function of temperature in the TD and as a function of time in the isothermal dilution chamber. These two sets of measurements were used together to estimate the volatility distribution of the OA and its effective vaporization enthalpy and accommodation coefficient. In the isothermal dilution experiments approximately 20 % of the OA evaporated within 15 min. Almost all the OA evaporated in the TD at approximately 200 °C. The resulting volatility distributions suggested that around 60-75 % of the cooking OA (COA) at concentrations around 500 µg m-3 consisted of low-volatility organic compounds (LVOCs), 20-30 % of semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs), and around 10 % of intermediate-volatility organic compounds (IVOCs). The estimated effective vaporization enthalpy of COA was 100 ± 20 kJ mol-1 and the effective accommodation coefficient was 0.06-0.07. Addition of the dilution measurements to the TD data results in a lower uncertainty of the estimated vaporization enthalpy as well as the SVOC content of the OA.

  18. Solubility isotherms in ternary systems of samarium nitrate, water and nitrates of amidopyrine, benzotriazole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starikova, L.I.

    1991-01-01

    Solubility in the system of samarium nitrate-amidopyrine nitrate-water at 25 and 50 deg C was studied. Solubility isotherms consist of three branches, corresponding to crystallization of samarium nitrate tetrahydrate, amidopyrine nitrate and congruently soluble compounds of Sm(NO 3 ) 3 · 2C 13 H 17 ON 3 ·HNO 3 composition. Its thermal behaviour was studied. The system of samarium nitrate-benzotriazole nitrate-water is referred to eutonic type

  19. Kinetics of isothermal annealing of hypochlorite in γ-irradiated potassium chlorate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnikar, H.J.; Patil, S.F.; Patil, B.T.

    1977-01-01

    The kinetics of isothermal annealing of hypochlorite formed in the gamma radiolysis of potassium chlorate crystals have been studied at different temperatures in the range of 100-160 deg C. The hypochlorite is found to anneal by a combination of first and second order processes, the former being fast, virtually reaching completion within a few hours. It is then followed by a slow second order process. (authors)

  20. CONSTRUCTION OF A DIFFERENTIAL ISOTHERMAL CALORIMETER OF HIGH SENSITIVITY AND LOW COST.

    OpenAIRE

    Trinca, RB; Perles, CE; Volpe, PLO

    2009-01-01

    CONSTRUCTION OF A DIFFERENTIAL ISOTHERMAL CALORIMETER OF HIGH SENSITIVITY AND LOW COST The high cost of sensitivity commercial calorimeters may represent an obstacle for many calorimetric research groups. This work describes (fie construction and calibration of a batch differential heat conduction calorimeter with sample cells volumes of about 400 mu L. The calorimeter was built using two small high sensibility square Peltier thermoelectric sensors and the total cost was estimated to be about...

  1. Determining the baking isotherm temperature of Söderberg electrodes and associated structural changes

    OpenAIRE

    Shoko, L.; Beukes, J.P.; Strydom, C.A.

    2013-01-01

    One of the most commonly employed electrode systems in industrial metal smelting applications is continuous self-baking electrodes, i.e. the Söderberg electrode system. In this system, the temperature at which transition from a liquid/soft paste to a solid carbonaceous electrode takes place is termed the baking isotherm temperature. This temperature is extremely important within the context of electrode management. In this paper, thermo mechanical analysis (TMA) was used to measure the dimens...

  2. The temperature dependence of the isothermal bulk modulus at 1 bar pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garai, J.; Laugier, A.

    2007-01-01

    It is well established that the product of the volume coefficient of thermal expansion and the bulk modulus is nearly constant at temperatures higher than the Debye temperature. Using this approximation allows predicting the values of the bulk modulus. The derived analytical solution for the temperature dependence of the isothermal bulk modulus has been applied to ten substances. The good correlations to the experiments indicate that the expression may be useful for substances for which bulk modulus data are lacking

  3. WATER ADSORPTION AND DESORPTION ISOTHERMS ON MILK POWDER: II. WHOLE MILK

    OpenAIRE

    Edgar M. Soteras; Julio Gil; Paola Yacanto; Silvana Muratona; Clidia Abaca; María G. Sustersic

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this research was the determination of adsorption and desorption isotherms of cow whole milk powder. The experiments have been carried out at 15, 25 and 40 ºC, in ranges of moisture and water activity characteristic of normal conditions in which the processes of drying, packaging and storage are developed. By studying the influence of the temperature on the experimental plots, the isosteric adsorption heat was determined. Experimental data were correlated to the referential model ...

  4. Determination and modeling of desorption isotherms of Maria biscuits from different brands

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, DFC; Correia, PMR; Guiné, Raquel

    2012-01-01

    Biscuits (sweet, strongly sweet, semi-sweet biscuits, crackers, wafers) are characterized by a low moisture content in the final product and high levels of fat and sugar [1]. Dehydrated foods, such as biscuits, are very sensitive to gain moisture from the surrounding atmosphere, resulting in a consequent deterioration. When, at constant temperature, the product's moisture increases from the atmosphere, is obtained the adsorption isotherm and when it loses moisture is obtained the desorption i...

  5. Monitoring of an RNA Multistep Folding Pathway by Isothermal Titration Calorimetry

    OpenAIRE

    Reymond, Cédric; Bisaillon, Martin; Perreault, Jean-Pierre

    2009-01-01

    Isothermal titration calorimetry was used to monitor the energetic landscape of a catalytic RNA, specifically that of the hepatitis delta virus ribozyme. Using mutants that isolated various tertiary interactions, the thermodynamic parameters of several ribozyme-substrate intermediates were determined. The results shed light on the impact of several tertiary interactions on the global structure of the ribozyme. In addition, the data indicate that the formation of the P1.1 pseudoknot is the lim...

  6. Estimation of the volatility distribution of organic aerosol combining thermodenuder and isothermal dilution measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. E. Louvaris

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A method is developed following the work of Grieshop et al. (2009 for the determination of the organic aerosol (OA volatility distribution combining thermodenuder (TD and isothermal dilution measurements. The approach was tested in experiments that were conducted in a smog chamber using organic aerosol (OA produced during meat charbroiling. A TD was operated at temperatures ranging from 25 to 250 °C with a 14 s centerline residence time coupled to a high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS and a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS. In parallel, a dilution chamber filled with clean air was used to dilute isothermally the aerosol of the larger chamber by approximately a factor of 10. The OA mass fraction remaining was measured as a function of temperature in the TD and as a function of time in the isothermal dilution chamber. These two sets of measurements were used together to estimate the volatility distribution of the OA and its effective vaporization enthalpy and accommodation coefficient. In the isothermal dilution experiments approximately 20 % of the OA evaporated within 15 min. Almost all the OA evaporated in the TD at approximately 200 °C. The resulting volatility distributions suggested that around 60–75 % of the cooking OA (COA at concentrations around 500 µg m−3 consisted of low-volatility organic compounds (LVOCs, 20–30 % of semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs, and around 10 % of intermediate-volatility organic compounds (IVOCs. The estimated effective vaporization enthalpy of COA was 100 ± 20 kJ mol−1 and the effective accommodation coefficient was 0.06–0.07. Addition of the dilution measurements to the TD data results in a lower uncertainty of the estimated vaporization enthalpy as well as the SVOC content of the OA.

  7. Modelling for Temperature Non-Isothermal Continuous Stirred Tank Reactor Using Fuzzy Logic

    OpenAIRE

    Nasser Mohamed Ramli; Mohamad Syafiq Mohamad

    2017-01-01

    Many types of controllers were applied on the continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) unit to control the temperature. In this research paper, Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID) controller are compared with Fuzzy Logic controller for temperature control of CSTR. The control system for temperature non-isothermal of a CSTR will produce a stable response curve to its set point temperature. A mathematical model of a CSTR using the most general operating condition was developed through a set of...

  8. A new approach to non-isothermal models for nematic liquid crystals

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Feireisl, Eduard; Frémond, M.; Rocca, E.; Schimperna, G.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 205, č. 2 (2012), s. 651-672 ISSN 0003-9527 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/09/0917 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : liquid crystals * non-isothermal model * flows Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 2.292, year: 2012 http://www.springerlink.com/content/cl205h73077jr810/

  9. Tuberculosis Biomarker Extraction and Isothermal Amplification in an Integrated Diagnostic Device.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Creecy

    Full Text Available In this study, we integrated magnetic bead-based sample preparation and isothermal loop mediated amplification (LAMP of TB in a single tube. Surrogate sputum samples produced by the Program for Appropriate Technology in Health containing inactivated TB bacteria were used to test the diagnostic. In order to test the sample preparation method, samples were lysed, and DNA was manually extracted and eluted into water in the tube. In a thermal cycler, LAMP amplified TB DNA from 103 TB cells/mL of sputum at 53.5 ± 3.3 minutes, 104 cells/mL at 46.3 ± 2.2 minutes, and 105 cells/mL at 41.6 ± 1.9 minutes. Negative control samples did not amplify. Next, sample preparation was combined with in-tubing isothermal LAMP amplification by replacing the water elution chamber with a LAMP reaction chamber. In this intermediate configuration, LAMP amplified 103 cells/mL at 74 ± 10 minutes, 104 cells/mL at 60 ± 9 minutes, and 105 TB cells/mL of sputum at 54 ± 9 minutes. Two of three negative controls did not amplify; one amplified at 100 minutes. In the semi-automated system, DNA was eluted directly into an isothermal reaction solution containing the faster OptiGene DNA polymerase. The low surrogate sputum concentration, 103 TB cells/mL, amplified at 52.8 ± 3.3 minutes, 104 cells/mL at 45.4 ± 11.3 minutes, and 105 cells/mL at 31.8 ± 2.9 minutes. TB negative samples amplified at 66.4 ± 7.4 minutes. This study demonstrated the feasibility of a single tube design for integrating sample preparation and isothermal amplification, which with further development could be useful for point-of-care applications, particularly in a low-resource setting.

  10. Rapid and Sensitive Isothermal Detection of Nucleic-acid Sequence by Multiple Cross Displacement Amplification

    OpenAIRE

    Yi Wang; Yan Wang; Ai-Jing Ma; Dong-Xun Li; Li-Juan Luo; Dong-Xin Liu; Dong Jin; Kai Liu; Chang-Yun Ye

    2015-01-01

    We have devised a novel amplification strategy based on isothermal strand-displacement polymerization reaction, which was termed multiple cross displacement amplification (MCDA). The approach employed a set of ten specially designed primers spanning ten distinct regions of target sequence and was preceded at a constant temperature (61?65??C). At the assay temperature, the double-stranded DNAs were at dynamic reaction environment of primer-template hybrid, thus the high concentration of primer...

  11. MODELING OF ISOTHERMAL PRECIPITATION KINETICS IN HSLA STEELS AND ITS APPLICATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    X.M. Zhao; D. Wu; L.Z. Zhang; Z.Y. Liu

    2004-01-01

    Microalloying elements in high-strength low-alloy steels, such as Nb, Ti and V, precipitate during hot-rolling processes. On the basis of classical theory of nucleation and growth, quantitative modeling of isothermal precipitation was developed, which was tested by the stress relaxation method, the calculated precipitation-time-temperature curve is in good agreements with the measured results, then the model was applied to predict the precipitation behavior during continuous cooling.

  12. A survey of the year 2007 literature on applications of isothermal titration calorimetry

    OpenAIRE

    Bjelic, S; Jelesarov, I

    2008-01-01

    Elucidation of the energetic principles of binding affinity and specificity is a central task in many branches of current sciences: biology, medicine, pharmacology, chemistry, material sciences, etc. In biomedical research, integral approaches combining structural information with in-solution biophysical data have proved to be a powerful way toward understanding the physical basis of vital cellular phenomena. Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) is a valuable experimental tool facilitating ...

  13. Densities, isobaric thermal expansion coefficients and isothermal compressibilities of linear alkylbenzene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, X; Zhang, Z Y; Zhang, Q M; Liu, Q; Ding, Y Y; Zhou, L; Cao, J

    2015-01-01

    We report the measurements of the densities of linear alkylbenzene at three temperatures over 4 to 23 °C with pressures up to 10 MPa. The measurements have been analysed to yield the isobaric thermal expansion coefficients and, so far for the first time, isothermal compressibilities of linear alkylbenzene. Relevance of results for current generation (i.e., Daya Bay) and next generation (i.e. JUNO) large liquid scintillator neutrino detectors are discussed. (paper)

  14. On symmetric equilibrium of an isothermal gas with a free boundary and a body force

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The equation of symmetric equilibrium of an isothermal gas with an unknown boundary in the field of a body force is considered. Conditions for solvability and insolvability of the problem as well as for uniqueness and nonuniqueness of solutions are presented. Examples of finite, countable, or continual sets of solutions are constructed including equipotential ones. Static stability of solutions is analyzed too.

  15. The Influence of Furniture on Air Velocity in a Room:an isothermal case

    OpenAIRE

    Nielsen, J. R.; Nielsen, Peter V.; Svidt, Kjeld

    1998-01-01

    Using isothermal full-scale experiments and 3-dimensional CFD simulations it is investigated how normal office furniture influences the air movements in a mixing ventilated room.Two different types of inlets are used in the experiments and a set-up with normal office furniture is made. The set-up is simulated with one of the inlets where a volume resistance represents the furniture.

  16. Panus tigrinus as a potential biomass source for Reactive Blue decolorization: Isotherm and kinetic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monawar Munjid Mustafa

    2017-03-01

    Conclusion: The biosorption process provided vital information on the process parameters required to obtain the optimum level of dye removal. The isotherm study indicated the homogeneous distribution of active sites on the biomass surface, and the kinetic study suggested that chemisorption is the rate-limiting step that controlled the biosorption process. According to the obtained results, P. tigrinus biomass can be used effectively to decolorize textile dyes and tackle the pollution problems in the environment.

  17. Determination of the aggregation number for micelles by isothermal titration calorimetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Niels Erik; Holm, Rene; Westh, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) has previously been applied to estimate the aggregation number (n), Gibbs free energy (ΔG), enthalpy (ΔH) and entropy (ΔS) of micellization. However, some difficulties of micelle characterization by ITC still remain; most micelles have aggregation numbers...... insight into optimal design of titration protocols for micelle characterization. By applying the new method, the aggregation number of sodium dodecyl sulphate and glycochenodeoxycholate was determined at concentrations around their critical micelle concentration (CMC)...

  18. Ion-sound oscillations in strongly non-isotherm weakly ionized nonuniform hydrogen plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leleko, Ya.F.; Stepanov, K.N.

    2010-01-01

    A stationary distribution of strongly non-isotherm weakly ionized hydrogen plasma parameters is obtained in the hydrodynamic approximation in a quasi neutrality region in the transient layer between the plasma and dielectric taking the ionization, charge exchange, diffusion, viscosity, and a self-consistent field potential distribution. The ion-sound oscillation frequency and the collisional damping decrement as functions of the wave vector in the plasma with the obtained parameters are found in the local approximation.

  19. The software package for solving problems of mathematical modeling of isothermal curing process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. G. Tikhomirov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. On the basis of the general laws of sulfur vulcanization diene rubbers the principles of the effective cross-linking using a multi-component agents was discussed. It is noted that the description of the mechanism of action of the complex cross-linking systems are complicated by the diversity of interactions of components and the influence of each of them on the curing kinetics, leading to a variety technological complications of real technology and affects on the quality and technical and economic indicators of the production of rubber goods. Based on the known theoretical approaches the system analysis of isothermal curing process was performed. It included the integration of different techniques and methods into a single set of. During the analysis of the kinetics of vulcanization it was found that the formation of the spatial grid parameters vulcanizates depend on many factors, to assess which requires special mathematical and algorithmic support. As a result of the stratification of the object were identified the following major subsystems. A software package for solving direct and inverse kinetic problems isothermal curing process was developed. Information support “Isothermal vulcanization” is a set of applications of mathematical modeling of isothermal curing. It is intended for direct and inverse kinetic problems. When solving the problem of clarifying the general scheme of chemical transformations used universal mechanism including secondary chemical reactions. Functional minimization algorithm with constraints on the unknown parameters was used for solving the inverse kinetic problem. Shows a flowchart of the program. An example of solving the inverse kinetic problem with the program was introduced. Dataware was implemented in the programming language C ++. Universal dependence to determine the initial concentration of the curing agent was applied . It allowing the use of a model with different properties of multicomponent

  20. Isochronal and isothermal crystallization kinetics of amorphous Fe-based alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, J.T. [Key Laboratory for Liquid-Solid Structural Evolution and Processing of Materials, Ministry of Education, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China); Wang, W.M., E-mail: weiminw@sdu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Liquid-Solid Structural Evolution and Processing of Materials, Ministry of Education, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China); Key Lab of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Ma, H.J.; Li, G.H.; Li, R.; Zhang, Z.H. [Key Laboratory for Liquid-Solid Structural Evolution and Processing of Materials, Ministry of Education, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China)

    2010-06-10

    Using the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), the isochronal and isothermal crystallization kinetics of amorphous Fe{sub 61}Co{sub 9-x}Zr{sub 8}Mo{sub 5}W{sub x}B{sub 17} (x = 0 and 2) ribbons was investigated by the Kissinger equation and by the Kolmogorov-Johnson-Mehl-Avrami and Ranganathan-Heimendahl equations, respectively. The results show that tungsten can improve the activation energy E{sub 1}{sup K} for the first crystallization in the isochronal annealing process and activation energy E{sub n} for the nucleation in the isothermal annealing process, which can be ascribed to the dissolution of tungsten in the amorphous phase. Meanwhile, tungsten can decrease the activation energy E{sub 2}{sup K} for the second crystallization in the isochronal annealing process and growth activation energy E{sub g} in the isothermal annealing process, which is possibly associated with the formation of W-rich compound after the early nucleation process.

  1. Effect of the isothermal transformation temperature on the fine structure of steel-12Kh1MF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mints, I.I.; Berezina, T.G.; Lanskaya, K.A.

    1976-01-01

    For detailed analysis of bainite and pearlite in steel 12Kh1MF, homogeneous structures were obtained by isothermal annealing at 350, 450, 500, and 650 0 for 1 h. Isothermal transformation of austenite leads to the formation of bainite at 350-500 0 and pearlite at 650 0 . The austenitizing temperature was 980 0 for both types of samples, with holding for 20 min. For comparison, the plates were quenched from 980 0 and 1050 0 in ice-cold brine. The investigation was conducted with use of light and electron microscopes and x-ray analysis. The long-term strength was also determined. Isothermal treatment of steel 12Kh1MF at 350-500 0 C leads to the formation of a structure consisting of upper and lower bainite. At 500 0 the structure consists primarily of upper bainite, and at 350 0 of lower bainite. With tempering of the steel with a structure of upper and lower bainite at 730 0 for 3 h the dislocations undergo redistribution of the polygonization type within ferrite needles, with development of a cellular substructure. The acicular structure of the matrix is retained in this case. The density and evenness of the distribution of carbides is higher in upper bainite than in lower bainite. Steel 12Kh1MF with a structure of upper bainite is more susceptible to recrystallization as compared with a structure of lower bainite, which is responsible for the higher heat resistance of the latter

  2. Parametric Study of an Air Charged Franchot Engine with Novel Hot and Cold Isothermalizers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jafar M. Daoud

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The Stirling engine is an external combustion engine that uses heat exchangers to enhance the addition and removal of energy. This makes the engine power-dense but expensive, less efficient and complicated. In this contribution, the Stirling engine based on the Franchot engine has novel cylindrical fins working as isothermalizers to improve heat transfer without the complications of heat exchangers. Enhancing the power density by isothermalizing work spaces is compared to the bare cylinder optimized by varying the phase angle. The theoretical analysis shows that both the adiabatic and isothermal fins increase the power and efficiency, achieving the Curzon and Ahlborn efficiency at the maximum power point. In comparison to the phase angle method, the finned engine resulted in much lower gas mass flow rate, which leads to a reduction in the regenerator pumping and enthalpy losses. Thus, the Stirling engine has the potential to be simple, cheap, efficient and power-dense, and thus can be used effectively for different applications.

  3. Desorption isotherms, drying characteristics and qualities of glace tropical fruits undergoing forced convection solar drying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamradloedluk, Jindaporn; Wiriyaumpaiwong, Songchai [Mahasarakham Univ. Khamriang, Kantarawichai, Mahasarakham (Thailand)

    2008-07-01

    Solar energy, a form of sustainable energy, has a great potential for a wide variety of applications because it is abundant and accessible, especially for countries located in the tropical region. Drying process is one of the prominent techniques for utilization of solar energy. This research work proposes a forced convection solar drying of osmotically pretreated fruits viz. mango, guava, and pineapple. The fruit cubes with a dimension of 1cm x 1cm x 1cm were immersed in 35% w./w. sucrose solution prior to the drying process. Drying kinetics, color and hardness of the final products obtained from solar drying were investigated and compared with those obtained from open air-sun drying. Desorption isotherms of the osmosed fruits were also examined and five mathematical models were used to fit the desorption curves. Experimental results revealed that solar drying provided higher drying rate than natural sun drying. Color of glace fruit processed by solar drying was more intense, indicated by lower value of lightness and higher value of yellowness, than that processed by sun drying. Hardness of the products dehydrated by both drying methods, however, was not significantly different (p>0.05). Validation of the mathematical models developed showed that the GAB model was most effective for describing desorption isotherms of osmotically pretreated mango and pineapple whereas Peleg's model was most effective for describing desorption isotherms of osmotically pretreated guava. (orig.)

  4. Morphology and crystallographic orientation relationship in isothermally transformed Fe–N austenite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiao, Dongling; Luo, Chengping; Liu, Jiangwen; Zhang, Guoqing

    2014-01-01

    The 225 °C isothermal transformation of a high-nitrogen austenite with Fe–2.71 wt.% N was investigated by means of electron microscopy. It was found that the transformation products were composed of ultrafine α-Fe and γ′-Fe 4 N plus retained austenite γ, which were in two types of morphologies, namely, (i) with the retained austenite patches dispersed among the (α-Fe + γ′-Fe 4 N) packets and (ii) with the ultrafine α-Fe and γ/γ′-Fe 4 N laths interwoven with each other within a single bainitic packet. A cube–cube orientation relationship between the γ (austenite) and γ′-Fe 4 N, and a near Greninger–Troiano (G–T) one between the γ (austenite) and the bainitic α-ferrite were detected. The morphology, orientation relationship and high hardness (> 1000 HV) of the transformation products indicated that the isothermal transformation of the high nitrogen austenite was analogous to a bainitic one. - Highlights: • Isothermal transformation products consisted of nano-sized α-Fe + γ′ + γ (retained). • The hardness of transformation product exceeded 1000 HV. • The α-Fe and γ/γ′-Fe 4 N kept a near G-T OR in the grain interior

  5. Use of phase change materials during compressed air expansion for isothermal CAES plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellani, B.; Presciutti, A.; Morini, E.; Filipponi, M.; Nicolini, A.; Rossi, F.

    2017-11-01

    Compressed air energy storage (CAES) plants are designed to store compressed air into a vessel or in an underground cavern and to expand it in an expansion turbine when energy demand is high. An innovative CAES configuration recently proposed is the isothermal process. Several methods to implement isothermal CAES configuration are under investigation. In this framework, the present paper deals with the experimental testing of phase change materials (PCM) during compressed air expansion phase. The experimental investigation was carried out by means of an apparatus constituted by a compression section, a steel pressure vessel, to which an expansion valve is connected. The initial internal absolute pressure was equal to 5 bar to avoid moisture condensation and the experimental tests were carried out with two paraffin-based PCM amounts (0.05 kg and 0.1 kg). Results show that the temperature change during air expansion decreases with increasing the PCM amount inside the vessel. With the use of PCM during expansions an increase of the expansion work occurs. The increase is included in the range from 9.3% to 18.2%. In every test there is an approach to the isothermal values, which represent the maximum theoretical value of the obtainable expansion work.

  6. Assessment of precipitates of isothermal aged austenitic stainless steel using measurement techniques of ultrasonic attenuation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hun Hee; Kim, Hak Joon; Song, Sung Jin; Lim, Byeong Soo; Kim, Kyung Cho

    2014-01-01

    AISI 316L stainless steel is widely used as a structural material of high temperature thermoelectric power plants, since austenitic stainless steel has excellent mechanical properties. However, creep damage is generated in these components, which are operated under a high temperature and high pressure environment. Several researches have been done on how microstructural changes of precipitates affect to the macroscopic mechanical properties. And they investigate the relation between ultrasonic parameters and metallurgical results. But, these studies are limited by experiment results only. In this paper, attenuations of ultrasonic with isothermal damaged AISI 316L stainless steel were measured. Also, simulation of ultrasonic attenuation with variation of area fraction and size of precipitates were performed. And, from the measured attenuations, metallographic data and simulation results, we investigate the relations between the ultrasonic attenuations and the material properties which is area fraction of precipitates for the isothermal damaged austenitic stainless steel specimens. And, we studied parametric study for investigation of the relation between ultrasonic parameters and metallurgical results of the isothermal damaged AISI 316L stainless steel specimens using numerical methods.

  7. Non-isothermal cure and exfoliation of tri-functional epoxy-clay nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Shiravand

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The non-isothermal cure kinetics of polymer silicate layered nanocomposites based on a tri-functional epoxy resin has been investigated by differential scanning calorimetry. From an analysis of the kinetics as a function of the clay content, it can be concluded that the non-isothermal cure reaction can be considered to consist of four different processes: the reaction of epoxy groups with the diamine curing agent; an intra-gallery homopolymerisation reaction which occurs concurrently with the epoxy-amine reaction; and two extra-gallery homopolymerisation reactions, catalysed by the onium ion of the organically modified clay and by the tertiary amines resulting from the epoxy-amine reaction. The final nanostructure displays a similar quality of exfoliation as that observed for the isothermal cure of the same nanocomposite system. This implies that the intra-gallery reaction, which is responsible for the exfoliation, is not significantly inhibited by the extra-gallery epoxy-amine cross-linking reaction.

  8. THREE-DIMENSIONAL DISK-PLANET TORQUES IN A LOCALLY ISOTHERMAL DISK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Angelo, Gennaro; Lubow, Stephen H.

    2010-01-01

    We determine an expression for the Type I planet migration torque involving a locally isothermal disk, with moderate turbulent viscosity (5 x 10 -4 ∼< α ∼< 0.05), based on three-dimensional nonlinear hydrodynamical simulations. The radial gradients (in a dimensionless logarithmic form) of density and temperature are assumed to be constant near the planet. We find that the torque is roughly equally sensitive to the surface density and temperature radial gradients. Both gradients contribute to inward migration when they are negative. Our results indicate that two-dimensional calculations with a smoothed planet potential, used to account for the effects of the third dimension, do not accurately determine the effects of density and temperature gradients on the three-dimensional torque. The results suggest that substantially slowing or stopping planet migration by means of changes in disk opacity or shadowing is difficult and appears unlikely for a disk that is locally isothermal. The scalings of the torque and torque density with planet mass and gas sound speed follow the expectations of linear theory. We also determine an improved formula for the torque density distribution that can be used in one-dimensional long-term evolution studies of planets embedded in locally isothermal disks. This formula can be also applied in the presence of mildly varying radial gradients and of planets that open gaps. We illustrate its use in the case of migrating super-Earths and determine some conditions sufficient for survival.

  9. Biosorption of Cd(II) and Zn(II) by nostoc commune: isotherm and kinetics studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morsy, Fatthy M. [Faculty of Science, Botany Department, Assiut University, Assiut (Egypt); Hassan, Sedky H.A. [Department of Biological Environment, Kangwon National University, Kangwon-do (Korea, Republic of); Koutb, Mostafa [Faculty of Science, Botany Department, Assiut University, Assiut (Egypt); Umm Al-Qura University, Faculty of Applied Science, Biology Department, Mecca (Saudi Arabia)

    2011-07-15

    In this study, Nostoc commune (cyanobacterium) was used as an inexpensive and efficient biosorbent for Cd(II) and Zn(II) removal from aqueous solutions. The effect of various physicochemical factors on Cd(II) and Zn(II) biosorption such as pH 2.0-7.0, initial metal concentration 0.0-300 mg/L and contact time 0-120 min were studied. Optimum pH for removal of Cd(II) and Zn(II) was 6.0, while the contact time was 30 min at room temperature. The nature of biosorbent and metal ion interaction was evaluated by infrared (IR) technique. IR analysis of bacterial biomass revealed the presence of amino, carboxyl, hydroxyl, and carbonyl groups, which are responsible for biosorption of Cd(II) and Zn (II). The maximum biosorption capacities for Cd(II) and Zn(II) biosorption by N. commune calculated from Langmuir biosorption isotherm were 126.32 and 115.41 mg/g, respectively. The biosorption isotherm for two biosorbents fitted well with Freundlich isotherm than Langmuir model with correlation coefficient (r{sup 2} < 0.99). The biosorption kinetic data were fitted well with the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. Thus, this study indicated that the N. commune is an efficient biosorbent for the removal of Cd(II) and Zn(II) from aqueous solutions. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  10. Sorption Isotherm of Southern Yellow Pine—High Density Polyethylene Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feihong Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Temperature and relative humidity (RH are two major external factors, which affect equilibrium moisture content (EMC of wood-plastic composites (WPCs. In this study, the effect of different durability treatments on sorption and desorption isotherms of southern yellow pine (SYP-high density polyethylene (HDPE composites was investigated. All samples were equilibriumed at 20 °C and various RHs including 16%, 33%, 45%, 66%, 75%, 85%, 93%, and100%. EMCs obtained from desorption and absorption for different WPC samples were compared with Nelson’s sorption isotherm model predictions using the same temperature and humidity conditions. The results indicated that the amount of moisture absorbed increased with the increases in RH at 20 °C. All samples showed sorption hysteresis at a fixed RH. Small difference between EMC data of WPC samples containing different amount of ultraviolet (UV stabilizers were observed. Similar results were observed among the samples containing different amount of zinc borate (ZB. The experimental data of EMCs at various RHs fit to the Nelson’s sorption isotherm model well. The Nelson’s model can be used to predicate EMCs of WPCs under different RH environmental conditions.

  11. Determination of the kinetic parameters of Be O using isothermal decay method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azorin N, J.; Torijano C, E. [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Unidad Iztapalapa, Av. San Rafael Atlixco 186, Col. Vicentina, 09340 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Azorin V, C.; Rivera M, T., E-mail: azorin@xanum.uam.mx [IPN, Centro de Investigacion en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada, Av. Legaria 694, Col. Irrigacion, 11500 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2015-10-15

    Full text: Most of the existing methods for obtaining the frequency factors make use of the trap depth (activation energy) making some assumptions about the order of the kinetics. This causes inconsistencies in the reported values of trapping parameters due that the values of the activation energy obtained by different methods differ appreciably among them. Then, it is necessary to use a method independent of the trap depth making use of the isothermal luminescence decay method. The trapping parameters associated with the prominent glow peak of Be O (280 degrees C) are reported using isothermal luminescence decay method. As a check, the trap parameters are also calculated by glow curve shape (Chen s) method after isolating the prominent glow peak by thermal cleaning technique. Our results show a very good agreement between the trapping parameters calculated by the two methods. Isothermal luminescence decay method was used for determining the trapping parameters of Be O. Results obtained applying this method are in good agreement with those obtained using other methods, except in the value of the frequency factor. (Author)

  12. Effects of isothermal heat treatment on nanostructured bainite morphology and microstructures in laser cladded coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Yanbing [Shanghai Key Lab of Materials Laser Processing and Modification, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Feng, Kai; Lu, Fenggui; Zhang, Ke [Shanghai Key Lab of Materials Laser Processing and Modification, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); State Key Laboratory of Metal Matrix Composite, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Li, Zhuguo, E-mail: lizg@sjtu.edu.cn [Shanghai Key Lab of Materials Laser Processing and Modification, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Hosseini, Seyed Reza Elmi [Shanghai Key Lab of Materials Laser Processing and Modification, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Wang, Min [Shanghai Key Lab of Materials Laser Processing and Modification, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); State Key Laboratory of Metal Matrix Composite, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China)

    2015-12-01

    Highlights: • Nanobainitic coatings under 200, 250 and 300 °C heat treatments are fabricated. • The size of bainite sheaves increased with the isothermal temperature increasing. • Textured and chaotic distributions are observed in 200 and 300 °C microstructures. • The evolution model of nanobainite morphology is established and analyzed. • The bainitic ferrite of 200 °C heat treatment has a true thickness of 45 nm. - Abstract: Laser cladding and subsequent isothermal heat treatments have been used to fabricate nanostructured bainitic coatings. XRD has been used to determine the kinetics of bainitic transformation process. OM, SEM and TEM have been used to characterize the morphology and microstructures at different stages of transformation. The results showed that at the initial stage of bainitic transformation, the bainite sheaves are short and thin at a relatively low transformation temperature. The fully transformed bainitic microstructure obtained at a relatively high temperature present a textured morphology. The chaotic growth orientations of the sheaves and the island like of the retained austenite have been observed at the low transformation temperature. A simple model has been established to describe the microstructures and the bainite sheaves growth evolutions during the isothermal holding at the different transformed temperatures. The morphology and distribution of the bainite in the coatings were analyzed by using the nucleation and growth rate of bainitic transformation theories, which is consisted with the experiment results.

  13. Studies of Dye Sensitisation Kinetics and Sorption Isotherms of Direct Red 23 on Titania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J. Holliman

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Sorption kinetics and isotherms have been measured for a commercial dye (Direct Red 23 on different samples of powdered Titania, and the data were analysed to better understand the dye sensitization process for dye sensitised solar cells (DSSCs. For the sorption kinetics, the data show rapid initial sorption (<1 hour followed by slower rate of increasing uptake between 1 and 24 hours. While higher initial concentrations of dye correspond to higher sorption overall, less dye is absorbed from higher initial dye concentrations when considered as percentage uptake. The correlation between the sorption data and model isotherms has been considered with time. The Langmuir model shows better correlations compared to the Freundlich isotherm. The dye uptake data has also been correlated with Titania characterization data (X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, BET and zero point charge analysis. Kinetic data show significantly better fits to second-order models compared to first order. This suggests that chemisorption is taking place and that the interaction between the dye sorbate and the Titania sorbent involves electron sharing to form an ester bond.

  14. Effects of isothermal heat treatment on nanostructured bainite morphology and microstructures in laser cladded coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Yanbing; Feng, Kai; Lu, Fenggui; Zhang, Ke; Li, Zhuguo; Hosseini, Seyed Reza Elmi; Wang, Min

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Nanobainitic coatings under 200, 250 and 300 °C heat treatments are fabricated. • The size of bainite sheaves increased with the isothermal temperature increasing. • Textured and chaotic distributions are observed in 200 and 300 °C microstructures. • The evolution model of nanobainite morphology is established and analyzed. • The bainitic ferrite of 200 °C heat treatment has a true thickness of 45 nm. - Abstract: Laser cladding and subsequent isothermal heat treatments have been used to fabricate nanostructured bainitic coatings. XRD has been used to determine the kinetics of bainitic transformation process. OM, SEM and TEM have been used to characterize the morphology and microstructures at different stages of transformation. The results showed that at the initial stage of bainitic transformation, the bainite sheaves are short and thin at a relatively low transformation temperature. The fully transformed bainitic microstructure obtained at a relatively high temperature present a textured morphology. The chaotic growth orientations of the sheaves and the island like of the retained austenite have been observed at the low transformation temperature. A simple model has been established to describe the microstructures and the bainite sheaves growth evolutions during the isothermal holding at the different transformed temperatures. The morphology and distribution of the bainite in the coatings were analyzed by using the nucleation and growth rate of bainitic transformation theories, which is consisted with the experiment results.

  15. Nitrate sorption on activated carbon modified with CaCl2: Equilibrium, isotherms and kinetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zanella Odivan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, nitrate (NO3- removal from aqueous solutions was investigated using granular activated carbon (GAC modified with CaCl2. Batch sorption studies were performed as a function of sorbent dose, initial nitrate concentration and pH. Sorption was maximized between pH 3 and 9. Studies on the effect of pH showed that the ion exchange mechanism might be involved in the sorption process. The percentage of nitrate removed increased with increasing sorbent concentration, and the ideal sorbent dose was found to be 20 g•L-1. Four isotherm models-Langmuir, Freundlich, Redlich-Peterson and Sips-were used to fit the experimental data. The Redlich-Peterson isotherm model explained the sorption process well and showed the best coefficient of determination (0.9979 and Chi-square test statistic (0.0079. Using the Sips isotherm model, the sorption capacity (qe was found to be 1.93 mg nitrate per g of sorbent. Kinetic experiments indicated that sorption was a fast process, reaching equilibrium within 120 min. The nitrate sorption kinetic data were successfully fitted to a pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The overall results demonstrated potential applications of modified GAC for nitrate removal from aqueous solutions.

  16. Joining of superalloy Inconel 600 by diffusion induced isothermal solidification of a liquated insert metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egbewande, A.T.; Chukwukaeme, C.; Ojo, O.A.

    2008-01-01

    The effect of process variables on the microstructure of transient liquid phase bonded IN 600 using a commercial filler alloy was studied. Microstructural examination of bonded specimens showed that isothermal solidification of the liquated insert occurred during holding at the joining temperatures. In cases where the holding time was insufficient for complete isothermal solidification, the residual liquid transformed on cooling into a centerline eutectic product. The width of the eutectic decreased with increased holding time and an increase in initial gap width resulted in thicker eutectic width in specimens bonded at the same temperature and for equivalent holding times. In addition to the centerline eutectic microconstituent, precipitation of boron-rich particles was observed within the base metal region adjacent to the substrate-joint interface. Formation of these particles appeared to have influenced the rate of solidification of the liquated interlayer during bonding. In contrast to the conventional expectation of an increase in the rate of isothermal solidification with an increase in temperature, a decrease in the rate was observed with an increase in temperatures above 1160 deg. C. This could be related to a decrease in solubility of boron in nickel above the Ni-B eutectic temperature

  17. Experimental study of natural convection heat transfer from an isothermal combined geometry (downward cone- cylinder)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mokhtari, A. [Yazd Univ., Yazd (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Goharkhah, M.; Ashjaee, M. [Tehran Univ., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2009-07-01

    Laminar free convection heat transfer from an isothermal combined geometry which consists of a downward cone attached to a vertical cylinder was studied. In particular, a Mach-Zehnder interferometer was used to determine the change in local and average heat transfer coefficients on the surface of an isothermal combined geometry for different vertex angles. The effect of the vertex angle on heat transfer was also investigated by keeping the height of the cylinder and slant length of the cone constant for all objects. The experimental data showed that the local heat transfer coefficient on the conical part increased in the vicinity of the cylinder and cone intersection. The distance between the point of minimum heat transfer coefficient on the cone and vertex of the cone decreased as the vertex angle increased. The maximum average Nusselt number for a constant Rayleigh number was obtained for the geometry with the smallest vertex angle. For all objects, the average Nusselt number increased with an increase in the Rayleigh number. An experiment was carried out on a vertical isothermal cylinder of circular cross section in order to validate the experimental approach. An analytical solution was found to be in good agreement with experimental results. 31 refs., 9 figs.

  18. Exponential isothermal amplification of nucleic acids and amplified assays for proteins, cells, and enzyme activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Michael S; Le, X Chris; Zhang, Hongquan

    2018-04-27

    Isothermal exponential amplification techniques, such as strand-displacement amplification (SDA), rolling circle amplification (RCA), loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP), nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (NASBA), helicase-dependent amplification (HDA), and recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA), have great potential for on-site, point-of-care, and in-situ assay applications. These amplification techniques eliminate the need for temperature cycling required for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) while achieving comparable amplification yield. We highlight here recent advances in exponential amplification reaction (EXPAR) for the detection of nucleic acids, proteins, enzyme activities, cells, and metal ions. We discuss design strategies, enzyme reactions, detection techniques, and key features. Incorporation of fluorescence, colorimetric, chemiluminescence, Raman, and electrochemical approaches enables highly sensitive detection of a variety of targets. Remaining issues, such as undesirable background amplification resulting from non-specific template interactions, must be addressed to further improve isothermal and exponential amplification techniques. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Demonstration of Isothermal Compressed Air Energy Storage to Support Renewable Energy Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bollinger, Benjamin [Sustainx, Incorporated, Seabrook, NH (United States)

    2015-01-02

    This project develops and demonstrates a megawatt (MW)-scale Energy Storage System that employs compressed air as the storage medium. An isothermal compressed air energy storage (ICAESTM) system rated for 1 MW or more will be demonstrated in a full-scale prototype unit. Breakthrough cost-effectiveness will be achieved through the use of proprietary methods for isothermal gas cycling and staged gas expansion implemented using industrially mature, readily-available components.The ICAES approach uses an electrically driven mechanical system to raise air to high pressure for storage in low-cost pressure vessels, pipeline, or lined-rock cavern (LRC). This air is later expanded through the same mechanical system to drive the electric motor as a generator. The approach incorporates two key efficiency-enhancing innovations: (1) isothermal (constant temperature) gas cycling, which is achieved by mixing liquid with air (via spray or foam) to exchange heat with air undergoing compression or expansion; and (2) a novel, staged gas-expansion scheme that allows the drivetrain to operate at constant power while still allowing the stored gas to work over its entire pressure range. The ICAES system will be scalable, non-toxic, and cost-effective, making it suitable for firming renewables and for other grid applications.

  20. Langmuir and Freundlich Isotherm Adsorption Equations for Chromium (VI) Waste Adsorption by Zeolite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murni Handayani; Eko Sulistiyono

    2009-01-01

    The research of chromium (VI) waste adsorption by zeolite has done. Wastes which are produced by Industries, both radioactive waste and heavy metal waste need done more processing so that they are not endanger environment and human health. Zeolite has very well-ordered crystal form with cavity each other to way entirely so that cause surface wide of zeolite become very big and very good as adsorbents. This research intends to know appropriate isotherm adsorption method to determine maximum capacity of zeolite to chromium (VI) waste. The equations which used in adsorption process are Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm Adsorption equations. The instrument was used in adsorption process by using Atomic Adsorption Spectroscopy (AAS). The experiment result showed that the biggest mass of chromium (VI) metal ion which was absorb by zeolite in 20 ppm concentration was 7.71 mg/gram zeolite. Adsorption process of Chromium (VI) waste by zeolite followed Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm equations with R 2 >0,9 . Appropriate equation to determine maximum adsorption capacity of zeolite for chromium (VI) waste adsorption is Langmuir equation. The maximum adsorption capacity of zeolite is 52.25 mg/gram. (author)

  1. Water adsorption isotherms of carboxymethyl cellulose, guar, locust bean, tragacanth and xanthan gums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, María D; Moreira, Ramón; Chenlo, Francisco; Vázquez, María J

    2012-06-20

    Water adsorption isotherms of carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), guar gum (GG), locust bean gum (LBG), tragacanth gum (TG) and xanthan gum (XG) were determined at different temperatures (20, 35, 50, and 65°C) using a gravimetric method. Several saturated salt solutions were selected to obtain different water activities in the range from 0.09 to 0.91. Water adsorption isotherms of tested hydrocolloids were classified like type II isotherms. In all cases, equilibrium moisture content decreased with increasing temperature at each water activity value. Three-parameter Guggenheim-Anderson-de Boer (GAB) model was employed to fit the experimental data in the water activity range and statistical analysis indicated that this model gave satisfactory results. CMC and GG were the most and the least hygroscopic gums, respectively. Sorption heats decreased with increasing moisture content. Monolayer moisture content evaluated with GAB model was consistent with equilibrium conditions of maximum stability calculated from thermodynamic analysis of net integral entropy. Values of equilibrium relative humidity at 20°C are proposed to storage adequately the tested gums. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Ice formation in PEM fuel cells operated isothermally at sub-freezing temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukundan, Rangachary [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Luhan, Roger W [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Davey, John R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Spendelow, Jacob S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Borup, Rodney L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hussey, Daniel S [NIST; Jacobson, David L [NIST; Arif, Muhammad [NIST

    2009-01-01

    The effect of MEA and GDL structure and composition on the performance of single-PEM fuel cells operated isothermally at subfreezing temperatures is presented. The cell performance and durability are not only dependent on the MEA/GDL materials used but also on their interfaces. When a cell is operated isothermally at sub-freezing temperatures in constant current mode, the water formation due to the current density initially hydrates the membrane/ionomer and then forms ice in the catalyst layer/GDL. An increase in high frequency resistance was also observed in certain MEAs where there is a possibility of ice formation between the catalyst layer and GDL leading to a loss in contact area. The total water/ice holding capacity for any MEA was lower at lower temperatures and higher current densities. The durability of MEAs subjected to multiple isothermal starts was better for LANL prepared MEAs as compared to commercial MEAs, and cloth GDLs when compared to paper GDLs. The ice formation was monitored using high-resolution neutron radiography and was found to be concentrated near the cathode catalyst layer. However, there was significant ice formation in the GDLs especially at the higher temperature ({approx} -10 C) and lower current density (0.02 A/cm{sup 2}) operations. These results are consistent with the longer-term durability observations that show more severe degradation at the lower temperatures.

  3. Amorphization induced by chemical disorder in crystalline NiZr2: A molecular-dynamics study based on an n-body potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massobrio, C.; Pontikis, V.; Martin, G.

    1989-01-01

    We present the first molecular-dynamics study of the amorphization of a crystalline alloy (NiZr 2 ) induced by chemical disorder. We used a n-body potential in conjunction with isobaric-isothermal molecular dynamics. The behavior of the pair distribution function suggests that the instability leading to the amorphous state is a first-order phase transformation

  4. On the decoupling of relaxation modes in a molecular liquid caused by isothermal introduction of 2 nm structural inhomogeneities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Kazuhide; Angell, C Austen

    2011-12-08

    To support a new interpretation of the origin of the dynamic heterogeneity observed pervasively in fragile liquids as they approach their glass transition temperatures T(g), we demonstrate that the introduction of ~2 nm structural inhomogeneities into a homogeneous glass former leads to a decoupling of diffusion from viscosity similar to that observed during the cooling of orthoterphenyl (OTP) below T(A,) where Arrhenius behavior is lost. Further, the decoupling effect grows stronger as temperature decreases (and viscosity increases). The liquid is cresol, and the ~2 nm inhomogeneities are cresol-soluble asymmetric derivatized tetrasiloxy-based (polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS)) molecules. The decoupling is the phenomenon predicted by Onsager in discussing the approach to a liquid-liquid phase separation with decreasing temperature. In the present case the observations support the notion of a polyamorphic transition in fragile liquids that is hidden below the glass transition. A similar decoupling can be expected as a globular protein is dissolved in dilute aqueous solutions or in protic ionic liquids. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  5. Molecular structure-adsorption study on current textile dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Örücü, E; Tugcu, G; Saçan, M T

    2014-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate the adsorption of a diverse set of textile dyes onto granulated activated carbon (GAC). The adsorption experiments were carried out in a batch system. The Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models were applied to experimental data and the isotherm constants were calculated for 33 anthraquinone and azo dyes. The adsorption equilibrium data fitted more adequately to the Langmuir isotherm model than the Freundlich isotherm model. Added to a qualitative analysis of experimental results, multiple linear regression (MLR), support vector regression (SVR) and back propagation neural network (BPNN) methods were used to develop quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR) models with the novel adsorption data. The data were divided randomly into training and test sets. The predictive ability of all models was evaluated using the test set. Descriptors were selected with a genetic algorithm (GA) using QSARINS software. Results related to QSPR models on the adsorption capacity of GAC showed that molecular structure of dyes was represented by ionization potential based on two-dimensional topological distances, chromophoric features and a property filter index. Comparison of the performance of the models demonstrated the superiority of the BPNN over GA-MLR and SVR models.

  6. Formation of Massive Molecular Cloud Cores by Cloud-cloud Collision

    OpenAIRE

    Inoue, Tsuyoshi; Fukui, Yasuo

    2013-01-01

    Recent observations of molecular clouds around rich massive star clusters including NGC3603, Westerlund 2, and M20 revealed that the formation of massive stars could be triggered by a cloud-cloud collision. By using three-dimensional, isothermal, magnetohydrodynamics simulations with the effect of self-gravity, we demonstrate that massive, gravitationally unstable, molecular cloud cores are formed behind the strong shock waves induced by the cloud-cloud collision. We find that the massive mol...

  7. Effect of buffer at nanoscale molecular recognition interfaces - electrostatic binding of biological polyanions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigo, Ana C; Laurini, Erik; Vieira, Vânia M P; Pricl, Sabrina; Smith, David K

    2017-10-19

    We investigate the impact of an over-looked component on molecular recognition in water-buffer. The binding of a cationic dye to biological polyanion heparin is shown by isothermal calorimetry to depend on buffer (Tris-HCl > HEPES > PBS). The heparin binding of self-assembled multivalent (SAMul) cationic micelles is even more buffer dependent. Multivalent electrostatic molecular recognition is buffer dependent as a result of competitive interactions between the cationic binding interface and anions present in the buffer.

  8. Evaluation of the Weibull and log normal distribution functions as survival models of Escherichia coli under isothermal and non isothermal conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragao, Glaucia M F; Corradini, Maria G; Normand, Mark D; Peleg, Micha

    2007-11-01

    Published survival curves of Escherichia coli in two growth media, with and without the presence of salt, at various temperatures and in a Greek eggplant salad having various levels of essential oil, all had a characteristic downward concavity when plotted on semi logarithmic coordinates. Some also exhibited what appeared as a 'shoulder' of considerable length. Regardless of whether a shoulder was noticed, the survival pattern could be considered as a manifestation of an underlying unimodal distribution of the cells' death times. Mathematically, the data could be described equally well by the Weibull and log normal distribution functions, which had similar modes, means, standard deviations and coefficients of skewness. When plotted in their probability density function (PDF) form, the curves also appeared very similar visually. This enabled us to quantify and compare the effect of temperature or essential oil concentration on the organism's survival in terms of these temporal distributions' characteristics. Increased lethality was generally expressed in a shorter mean and mode, a smaller standard deviation and increased overall symmetry as judged by the distributions' degree of skewness. The 'shoulder', as expected, simply indicated that the distribution's standard deviation was much smaller than its mode. Rate models based on the two distribution functions could be used to predict non isothermal survival patterns. They were derived on the assumption that the momentary inactivation rate is the isothermal rate at the momentary temperature at a time that corresponds to the momentary survival ratio. In this application, however, the Weibullian model with a fixed power was not only simpler and more convenient mathematically than the one based on the log normal distribution, but it also provided more accurate estimates of the dynamic inactivation patterns.

  9. Molecular Diagnostics

    OpenAIRE

    Choe, Hyonmin; Deirmengian, Carl A.; Hickok, Noreen J.; Morrison, Tiffany N.; Tuan, Rocky S.

    2015-01-01

    Orthopaedic infections are complex conditions that require immediate diagnosis and accurate identification of the causative organisms to facilitate appropriate management. Conventional methodologies for diagnosis of these infections sometimes lack accuracy or sufficient rapidity. Current molecular diagnostics are an emerging area of bench-to-bedside research in orthopaedic infections. Examples of promising molecular diagnostics include measurement of a specific biomarker in the synovial fluid...

  10. Molecular genetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parkinson, D.R.; Krontiris, T.G.

    1986-01-01

    In this chapter the authors review new findings concerning the molecular genetics of malignant melanoma in the context of other information obtained from clinical, epidemiologic, and cytogenetic studies in this malignancy. These new molecular approaches promise to provide a more complete understanding of the mechanisms involved in the development of melanoma, thereby suggesting new methods for its treatment and prevention

  11. Molecular Modeling

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 9; Issue 5. Molecular Modeling: A Powerful Tool for Drug Design and Molecular Docking. Rama Rao Nadendla. General Article Volume 9 Issue 5 May 2004 pp 51-60. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  12. Detection of Enterovirus 71 gene from clinical specimens by reverse-transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification

    OpenAIRE

    D Wang; X Wang; Y Geng; C An

    2014-01-01

    Purpose : The objective of this study was to develop a sensitive, specific and rapid approach to diagnose hand foot and mouth disease (HFMD) for an early treatment by using loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) technique. Materials and Methods : A reverse-transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) for detecting EV71 virus was developed, the specificity and sensitivity of RT-LAMP was tested, and the clinical specimens was assayed by the RT-LAMP comparing with conven...

  13. Coupling a nano-particle with isothermal fluctuating hydrodynamics: Coarse-graining from microscopic to mesoscopic dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Español, Pep [Dept. Física Fundamental, Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia, Aptdo. 60141, E-28080 Madrid (Spain); Donev, Aleksandar [Dept. Física Fundamental, Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia, Aptdo. 60141, E-28080 Madrid (Spain); Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences, New York University, 251 Mercer Street, New York, New York 10012 (United States)

    2015-12-21

    We derive a coarse-grained description of the dynamics of a nanoparticle immersed in an isothermal simple fluid by performing a systematic coarse graining of the underlying microscopic dynamics. As coarse-grained or relevant variables, we select the position of the nanoparticle and the total mass and momentum density field of the fluid, which are locally conserved slow variables because they are defined to include the contribution of the nanoparticle. The theory of coarse graining based on the Zwanzing projection operator leads us to a system of stochastic ordinary differential equations that are closed in the relevant variables. We demonstrate that our discrete coarse-grained equations are consistent with a Petrov-Galerkin finite-element discretization of a system of formal stochastic partial differential equations which resemble previously used phenomenological models based on fluctuating hydrodynamics. Key to this connection between our “bottom-up” and previous “top-down” approaches is the use of the same dual orthogonal set of linear basis functions familiar from finite element methods (FEMs), both as a way to coarse-grain the microscopic degrees of freedom and as a way to discretize the equations of fluctuating hydrodynamics. Another key ingredient is the use of a “linear for spiky” weak approximation which replaces microscopic “fields” with a linear FE interpolant inside expectation values. For the irreversible or dissipative dynamics, we approximate the constrained Green-Kubo expressions for the dissipation coefficients with their equilibrium averages. Under suitable approximations, we obtain closed approximations of the coarse-grained dynamics in a manner which gives them a clear physical interpretation and provides explicit microscopic expressions for all of the coefficients appearing in the closure. Our work leads to a model for dilute nanocolloidal suspensions that can be simulated effectively using feasibly short molecular dynamics

  14. A simple and rapid identification method for newly emerged porcine Deltacoronavirus with loop-mediated isothermal amplification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanfan Zhang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Porcine Deltacoronavirus (PDCoV is a newly emerged enteropathogenic coronavirus that causes diarrhea and mortality in neonatal piglets. PDCoV has spread to many countries around the world, leading to significant economic losses in the pork industry. Therefore, a rapid and sensitive method for detection of PDCoV in clinical samples is urgently needed. Results In this study, we developed a single-tube one-step reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP assay specific for nucleocapsid gene to diagnose and monitor PDCoV infections. The detection limit of RT-LAMP assay was 1 × 101 copies of PDCoV, which was approximately 100-fold more sensitive than gel-based one-step reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. This assay could specifically amplify PDCoV and had no cross amplification with porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV, transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV, porcine kobuvirus (PKoV, porcine astrovirus (PAstV, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV, classic swine fever virus (CSFV, and porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2. By screening a panel of clinical specimens (N = 192, this method presented a similar sensitivity with nested RT-PCR and was 1–2 log more sensitive than conventional RT-PCR in detection of PDCoV. Conclusions The RT-LAMP assay established in this study is a potentially valuable tool, especially in low-resource laboratories and filed settings, for a rapid diagnosis, surveillance, and molecular epidemiology investigation of PDCoV infections. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work for detection of newly emerged PDCoV with LAMP technology.

  15. Simplified Real-Time Multiplex Detection of Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification Using Novel Mediator Displacement Probes with Universal Reporters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becherer, Lisa; Bakheit, Mohammed; Frischmann, Sieghard; Stinco, Silvina; Borst, Nadine; Zengerle, Roland; von Stetten, Felix

    2018-04-03

    A variety of real-time detection techniques for loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) based on the change in fluorescence intensity during DNA amplification enable simultaneous detection of multiple targets. However, these techniques depend on fluorogenic probes containing target-specific sequences. That complicates the adaption to different targets leading to time-consuming assay optimization. Here, we present the first universal real-time detection technique for multiplex LAMP. The novel approach allows simple assay design and is easy to implement for various targets. The innovation features a mediator displacement probe and a universal reporter. During amplification of target DNA the mediator is displaced from the mediator displacement probe. Then it hybridizes to the reporter generating a fluorescence signal. The novel mediator displacement (MD) detection was validated against state-of-the-art molecular beacon (MB) detection by means of a HIV-1 RT-LAMP: MD surpassed MB detection by accelerated probe design (MD: 10 min, MB: 3-4 h), shorter times to positive (MD 4.1 ± 0.1 min shorter than MB, n = 36), improved signal-to-noise fluorescence ratio (MD: 5.9 ± 0.4, MB: 2.7 ± 0.4; n = 15), and showed equally good or better analytical performance parameters. The usability of one universal mediator-reporter set in different multiplex assays was successfully demonstrated for a biplex RT-LAMP of HIV-1 and HTLV-1 and a biplex LAMP of Haemophilus ducreyi and Treponema pallidum, both showing good correlation between target concentration and time to positive. Due to its simple implementation it is suggested to extend the use of the universal mediator-reporter sets to the detection of various other diagnostic panels.

  16. Development of a highly sensitive loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) method for the detection of Loa loa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Soto, Pedro; Mvoulouga, Prosper Obolo; Akue, Jean Paul; Abán, Julio López; Santiago, Belén Vicente; Sánchez, Miguel Cordero; Muro, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    The filarial parasite Loa loa, the causative agent of loiasis, is endemic in Central and Western Africa infecting 3-13 million people. L. loa has been associated with fatal encephalopathic reactions in high Loa-infected individuals receiving ivermectin during mass drug administration programs for the control of onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis. In endemic areas, the only diagnostic method routinely used is the microscopic examination of mid-day blood samples by thick blood film. Improved methods for detection of L. loa are needed in endemic regions with limited resources, where delayed diagnosis results in high mortality. We have investigated the use of a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay to facilitate rapid, inexpensive, molecular diagnosis of loiasis. Primers for LAMP were designed from a species-specific repetitive DNA sequence from L. loa retrieved from GenBank. Genomic DNA of a L. loa adult worm was used to optimize the LAMP conditions using a thermocycler or a conventional heating block. Amplification of DNA in the LAMP mixture was visually inspected for turbidity as well as addition of fluorescent dye. LAMP specificity was evaluated using DNA from other parasites; sensitivity was evaluated using DNA from L. loa 10-fold serially diluted. Simulated human blood samples spiked with DNA from L. loa were also tested for sensitivity. Upon addition of fluorescent dye, all positive reactions turned green while the negative controls remained orange under ambient light. After electrophoresis on agarose gels, a ladder of multiple bands of different sizes could be observed in positive samples. The detection limit of the assay was found to be as little as 0.5 ag of L. loa genomic DNA when using a heating block. We have designed, for the first time, a highly sensitive LAMP assay for the detection of L. loa which is potentially adaptable for field diagnosis and disease surveillance in loiasis-endemic areas.

  17. Suitability of adsorption isotherms for predicting the retention capacity of active slag filters removing phosphorus from wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, C; Shilton, A

    2009-01-01

    Active slag filters are an emerging technology for removing phosphorus (P) from wastewater. A number of researchers have suggested that adsorption isotherms are a useful tool for predicting P retention capacity. However, to date the appropriateness of using isotherms for slag filter design remains unverified due to the absence of benchmark data from a full-scale, field filter operated to exhaustion. This investigation compared the isotherm-predicted P retention capacity of a melter slag with the P adsorption capacity determined from a full-scale, melter slag filter which had reached exhaustion after five years of successfully removing P from waste stabilization pond effluent. Results from the standard laboratory batch test showed that P adsorption correlated more strongly with the Freundlich Isotherm (R(2)=0.97, Pretention capacity of 0.014 gP/kg slag; markedly lower than the 1.23 gP/kg slag adsorbed by the field filter. Clearly, the result generated by the isotherm bears no resemblance to actual field capacity. Scanning electron microscopy analysis revealed porous, reactive secondary minerals on the slag granule surfaces from the field filter which were likely created by weathering. This slow weathering effect, which generates substantial new adsorption sites, is not accounted for by adsorption isotherms rendering them ineffective in slag filter design.

  18. Gas-phase formaldehyde adsorption isotherm studies on activated carbon: correlations of adsorption capacity to surface functional group density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Ellison M; Katz, Lynn E; Speitel, Gerald E; Ramirez, David

    2011-08-01

    Formaldehyde (HCHO) adsorption isotherms were developed for the first time on three activated carbons representing one activated carbon fiber (ACF) cloth, one all-purpose granular activated carbon (GAC), and one GAC commercially promoted for gas-phase HCHO removal. The three activated carbons were evaluated for HCHO removal in the low-ppm(v) range and for water vapor adsorption from relative pressures of 0.1-0.9 at 26 °C where, according to the IUPAC isotherm classification system, the adsorption isotherms observed exhibited Type V behavior. A Type V adsorption isotherm model recently proposed by Qi and LeVan (Q-L) was selected to model the observed adsorption behavior because it reduces to a finite, nonzero limit at low partial pressures and it describes the entire range of adsorption considered in this study. The Q-L model was applied to a polar organic adsorbate to fit HCHO adsorption isotherms for the three activated carbons. The physical and chemical characteristics of the activated carbon surfaces were characterized using nitrogen adsorption isotherms, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and Boehm titrations. At low concentrations, HCHO adsorption capacity was most strongly related to the density of basic surface functional groups (SFGs), while water vapor adsorption was most strongly influenced by the density of acidic SFGs.

  19. Enzymatic Amplification of DNA/RNA Hybrid Molecular Beacon Signaling in Nucleic Acid Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Jacroux, Thomas; Rieck, Daniel C.; Cui, Rong; Ouyang, Yexin; Dong, Wen-Ji

    2012-01-01

    A rapid assay operable under isothermal or non-isothermal conditions is described wherein the sensitivity of a typical molecular beacon (MB) system is improved by utilizing thermostable RNase H to enzymatically cleave an MB comprised of a DNA stem and RNA loop (R/D-MB). Upon hybridization of the R/D-MB to target DNA, there was a modest increase in fluorescence intensity (~5.7x above background) due to an opening of the probe and concomitant reduction in the Förster resonance energy transfer e...

  20. Molecular geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Rodger, Alison

    1995-01-01

    Molecular Geometry discusses topics relevant to the arrangement of atoms. The book is comprised of seven chapters that tackle several areas of molecular geometry. Chapter 1 reviews the definition and determination of molecular geometry, while Chapter 2 discusses the unified view of stereochemistry and stereochemical changes. Chapter 3 covers the geometry of molecules of second row atoms, and Chapter 4 deals with the main group elements beyond the second row. The book also talks about the complexes of transition metals and f-block elements, and then covers the organometallic compounds and trans

  1. Kinetics Modeling and Isotherms for Adsorption of Phosphate from Aqueous Solution by Modified Clinoptilolit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Malakootian

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Phosphorous discharge into the surface water led to excessive growth of algae and eutrophication in lakes and rivers. Therefore the phosphorus removal is important due to negative effect on water resources. The aim of this study was to investigat the modification of clinoptilolite and application of modified clinoptilolite for phosphorous adsorption from aqueous solution and isotherms and kinetics modeling. Hexadecyl Trimethyl Ammonium bromide (HDTMA-Br, Hexadecyl trimethyl Ammonium Chloride (HDTMA-Cl, Sodium Decyl Sulphate (SDS and Cetrimide-C were used for modification of clinoptilolite. Experiments were conducted using jar apparatus and batch system. The effect of pH, adsorbent doses, contact time, phosphate initial concentration and particle size were studied surveyed on phosphate adsorption by modified clinoptilolite. The most common isotherms and the kinetics adsorption equations were used for determination of adsorption rate and dynamic reaction. The results showed that maximum phosphate adsorption was obtained in the pH of 7 and contact time 90min. Also it was found with the increasing of phosphate initial concentration, phosphate removal efficiency decreased significantly. Langmuir No 2 showed a good correlation compared to other isotherms (R2=0.997. Maximum adsorption capacity was obtained in 20g/L adsorbent dose (22.73mg/g. Also Interaparticle diffusion kinetics well fits with experimental data (R2=0.999 with constant rate of 3.84mg/g min0.5. The result showed that modified clinoptilolite can be used successfully as low cost and effective absorbent for phosphate removal.

  2. Dispersive kinetic model for the non-isothermal reduction of nickel oxide by hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adnadevic, Borivoj; Jankovic, Bojan

    2008-01-01

    The kinetics of the non-isothermal reduction process of powder nickel oxide samples using hydrogen was investigated by temperature-programmed experiments at the different constant heating rates. The new procedure for the determination of density distribution function of activation energies (ddfE a ), evaluated from the experimentally obtained non-isothermal conversion curves, was developed. The analytical relationships between the corresponding thermo-kinetic parameters for the investigated reduction process were established. From the influence of heating rate on the basic characteristics of ddfE a 's, it was concluded that the evaluated ddfE a 's are completely independent of the heating rate (v h ). It was found that the value of activation energy at the peak of the distribution curve (E a,max ), at all considered heating rates, is in good agreement with the value of E a,0 (96.6 kJ mol -1 ) calculated from the isoconversional dependence of activation energy, in the conversion range of 0.20≤α≤0.60. From the appearances of the true compensation effect, it was concluded that the factor that produces the changes of kinetic parameter values is a conversion fraction (α). Using the model prediction, the experimentally obtained conversion curves are completely described by the evaluated distribution curves (g(E a ) vhj ) at all considered heating rates. It was concluded that the assumption about the distribution of potential energies of oxygen vacancies presented in NiO samples leads to the distribution of activation energies, which determine the kinetics of non-isothermal reduction processes

  3. Kinetics of first order phase transformation in metals and alloys. Isothermal evolution in martensite transformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwasaki, Hiroshi; Ohshima, Ken-ichi

    2011-01-01

    The 11th lecture about microstructures and fluctuation in solids reports on the martensitic phase transformation of alkali metals and alloys. The martensitic transformation is a diffusionless first order phase transformation. Martensitic transformations are classified into two with respect to kinetics, one is isothermal transformation and the other is athermal transformation. The former transformation depends upon both temperature and time, but the latter solely depends on temperature. The former does not have a definite transformation start temperature but occurs after some finite incubation time during isothermal holding. The isothermal martensitic transformation is changed to the athermal one under high magnetic field, and also the reverse transformation occurs under the application of hydrostatic pressure. The former phenomena were observed in Fe-Ni-Mn alloys, Fe-Ni-Cr alloys and also the reverse transformation in Fe-3.1at%Ni-0.5at%Mn alloys. The athermal transformation was observed in Li and Na metals at 73 and 36 K, respectively. A neutron diffraction study has been performed on single crystals of metallic Na. On cooling the virgin sample, the incubation time to transform from the bcc structure to the low-temperature structure (9R structure) is formed to be more than 2h at 38 K, 2 K higher than the transformation temperature of 36 K. The full width of half maximum of the Bragg reflection suddenly increased, due to some deformation introduced by the nucleation of the low-temperature structure. In relation to the deformation, strong extra-diffuse scattering (Huang scattering) was observed around the Bragg reflection in addition to thermal diffuse scattering. The kinetics of the martensitic transformation in In-Tl alloys has been studied by x-ray and neutron diffraction methods. A characteristic incubation time appeared at fixed temperature above Ms, the normal martensitic transformation start temperature. (author)

  4. On the effect of optical and isothermal treatments on luminescence signals from feldspars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pagonis, Vasilis; Polymeris, George; Kitis, George

    2015-01-01

    During luminescence dosimetry and luminescence dating applications it is often necessary to precondition the geological samples by applying a thermal or optical treatment before measuring the luminescence signal. In luminescence applications using apatites or feldspars, measurement of continuous-wave infrared or optically stimulated signals (CW-IRSL and CW-OSL) are customarily preceded by either an isothermal heating of the samples at a fixed temperature for a short time interval, or alternatively by optically bleaching the samples using light from LEDs with the appropriate wavelength. This paper presents new analytical equations which can be used to describe these commonly employed double experimental procedures. The equations are based on a recently published model which assumes that tunneling processes are taking place in random distributions of donor–acceptor pairs. The concentration of charge carriers during the CW-IRSL or CW-OSL experiment is expressed in terms of the parameters of the preceding thermal or optical bleaching procedure, and depends also on the distribution of distances between electron and hole pairs. The analytical equations in this paper are compared with experimental data from a feldspar sample which undergoes an isothermal procedure followed by measurement of the CW-IRSL signal. Additional comparisons with experiment are provided using a feldspar sample which undergoes an infrared bleaching process, followed by measurement of the CW-OSL signal. These results and conditions under which the equations can be used are discussed within the framework of the model. - Highlights: • CW-IRSL and CW-OSL measurements are preceded by heating or optical bleaching. • New analytical equations are derived to describe these double experimental procedures. • Equations are compared with data from a feldspar sample following isothermal procedure. • Equations are compared with data from a feldspar sample following optical bleaching.

  5. 600 °C isothermal section of the Al–Cr–Zn ternary phase diagram

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Zuxin [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Changzhou University, 213164 Jiangsu (China); Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Material Surface Science and Technology, Changzhou University, 213164 Jiangsu (China); Jiangsu Collaborative Innovation Center of Photovolatic Science and Engineering, Changzhou University, 213164 Jiangsu (China); Su, Xuping, E-mail: sxping@cczu.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Changzhou University, 213164 Jiangsu (China); Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Material Surface Science and Technology, Changzhou University, 213164 Jiangsu (China); Jiangsu Collaborative Innovation Center of Photovolatic Science and Engineering, Changzhou University, 213164 Jiangsu (China); Peng, Haoping; Liu, Ya; Wu, Changjun; Wang, Jianhua [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Changzhou University, 213164 Jiangsu (China); Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Material Surface Science and Technology, Changzhou University, 213164 Jiangsu (China)

    2015-11-15

    600 °C isothermal section of the Al–Cr–Zn system has been determined by Scanning Electron Microscopy-Energy Dispersive X-ray spectrometry (SEM-EDS), and X-ray Diffraction (XRD). Eleven three-phase regions have been identified experimentally at 600 °C. The τ{sub 3} and τ{sub 4} ternary compounds were identified in this isothermal section and the crystal structures of both phases are cubic. The lattice parameters of τ{sub 3} and τ{sub 4} are a = 2.1536 nm and a = 1.8323 nm, respectively. The formerly reported τ{sub 1} phase was not found. The formerly reported τ{sub 2} phase is an extension of Al{sub 7}Cr. The highest Zn content in γ{sub 2} and ν phases is 7.1 at at.% and 6.7 at.%, respectively. The Zn solubility in Al{sub 7}Cr phase can be up to 10.4 at.%, while that in Al{sub 4}Cr phase is less than 4 at.%. The clearly phase relation of the Al–Cr–Zn system can lead us to better understand the effect of Cr on the corrosion behavior of metals in the Zn–Al bath and the Hot-dip galvanizing process. - Highlights: • Isothermal section of the Al–Cr–Zn system at 600 °C was determined. • Eleven three-phase regions were identified experimentally at 600 °C. • Existence of the γ{sub 2} and ν phases was confirmed at 600 °C. • X-ray diffraction patterns of the ternary phases τ{sub 3} and τ{sub 4} were proposed for the first time.

  6. The impact of non-isothermal soil moisture transport on evaporation fluxes in a maize cropland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Wei; Coenders-Gerrits, Miriam; Judge, Jasmeet; Zeng, Yijian; Su, Ye

    2018-06-01

    The process of evaporation interacts with the soil, which has various comprehensive mechanisms. Multiphase flow models solve air, vapour, water, and heat transport equations to simulate non-isothermal soil moisture transport of both liquid water and vapor flow, but are only applied in non-vegetated soils. For (sparsely) vegetated soils often energy balance models are used, however these lack the detailed information on non-isothermal soil moisture transport. In this study we coupled a multiphase flow model with a two-layer energy balance model to study the impact of non-isothermal soil moisture transport on evaporation fluxes (i.e., interception, transpiration, and soil evaporation) for vegetated soils. The proposed model was implemented at an experimental agricultural site in Florida, US, covering an entire maize-growing season (67 days). As the crops grew, transpiration and interception became gradually dominated, while the fraction of soil evaporation dropped from 100% to less than 20%. The mechanisms of soil evaporation vary depending on the soil moisture content. After precipitation the soil moisture content increased, exfiltration of the liquid water flow could transport sufficient water to sustain evaporation from soil, and the soil vapor transport was not significant. However, after a sufficient dry-down period, the soil moisture content significantly reduced, and the soil vapour flow significantly contributed to the upward moisture transport in topmost soil. A sensitivity analysis found that the simulations of moisture content and temperature at the soil surface varied substantially when including the advective (i.e., advection and mechanical dispersion) vapour transport in simulation, including the mechanism of advective vapour transport decreased soil evaporation rate under wet condition, while vice versa under dry condition. The results showed that the formulation of advective soil vapor transport in a soil-vegetation-atmosphere transfer continuum can

  7. Molecular Electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jennum, Karsten Stein

    This thesis includes the synthesis and characterisation of organic compounds designed for molecular electronics. The synthesised organic molecules are mainly based on two motifs, the obigo(phenyleneethynylenes) (OPE)s and tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) as shown below. These two scaffolds (OPE and TTF......) are chemically merged together to form cruciform-like structures that are an essential part of the thesis. The cruciform molecules were subjected to molecular conductance measurements to explore their capability towards single-crystal field-effect transistors (Part 1), molecular wires, and single electron......, however, was obtained by a study of a single molecular transistor. The investigated OPE5-TTF compound was captured in a three-terminal experiment, whereby manipulation of the molecule’s electronic spin was possible in different charge states. Thus, we demonstrated how the cruciform molecules could...

  8. Molecular sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1975-01-01

    The research in molecular sciences summarized includes photochemistry, radiation chemistry, geophysics, electromechanics, heavy-element oxidizers , heavy element chemistry collisions, atoms, organic solids. A list of publications is included

  9. Isothermal and isochronal annealing methodology to study post-irradiation temperature activated phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chabrerie, C.; Autran, J.L.; Paillet, P.; Flament, O.; Leray, J.L.; Boudenot, J.C.

    1997-01-01

    In this work, the evolution of the oxide trapped charge has been modeled, to predict post-irradiation behavior for arbitrary anneal conditions (i.e., arbitrary temperature-time profiles). Using experimental data obtained from a single isochronal anneal, the method consists of calculating the evolution of the energy distribution of the oxide trapped charge, in the framework of a thermally activated charge detrapping model. This methodology is illustrated in this paper by the prediction of experimental isothermal data from isochronal measurements. The implications of these results to hardness assurance test methods are discussed

  10. Volatilisation of ruthenium in vitrification. Isothermal calcination studies of 'Magnox' and thermal oxide simulates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cains, P.W.; Hay, D.A.

    1982-12-01

    Ru volatilities have been measured for the static, isothermal calcination of ''Magnox'' and Thermal Oxide HAL's (Highly Active Liquors) at temperatures up to 600 0 C. Model solutions containing Ru, HNO 3 , and nitrates of important individual cations have also been investigated. Experimental design was primarily based on the requirements of rotary calcination process development. The results have been interpreted in terms of a reaction model involving competition between the simple degradation of Ru(NO) complexes to RuO 2 and oxidative decomposition to volatile species (e.g. RuO 4 ). (author)

  11. Loop-mediated Isothermal Amplification Assay to Rapidly Detect Wheat Streak Mosaic Virus in Quarantined Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siwon Lee

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We developed a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP method to rapidly diagnose Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV during quarantine inspections of imported wheat, corn, oats, and millet. The LAMP method was developed as a plant quarantine inspection method for the first time, and its simplicity, quickness, specificity and sensitivity were verified compared to current reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR and nested PCR quarantine methods. We were able to quickly screen for WSMV at quarantine sites with many test samples; thus, this method is expected to contribute to plant quarantine inspections.

  12. pytc: Open-Source Python Software for Global Analyses of Isothermal Titration Calorimetry Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duvvuri, Hiranmayi; Wheeler, Lucas C; Harms, Michael J

    2018-05-08

    Here we describe pytc, an open-source Python package for global fits of thermodynamic models to multiple isothermal titration calorimetry experiments. Key features include simplicity, the ability to implement new thermodynamic models, a robust maximum likelihood fitter, a fast Bayesian Markov-Chain Monte Carlo sampler, rigorous implementation, extensive documentation, and full cross-platform compatibility. pytc fitting can be done using an application program interface or via a graphical user interface. It is available for download at https://github.com/harmslab/pytc .

  13. A comparison of three turbulence models for axisymmetric isothermal swirling flows in the near burner zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahlstedt, H [Tampere Univ. of Technology (Finland). Energy and Process Engineering

    1998-12-31

    In this work three different turbulence models, the k - {epsilon}, RNG k - {epsilon} and Reynolds stress model, have been compared in the case of confined swirling flow. The flow geometries are the isothermal swirling flows measured by International Flame Research Foundation (IFRF). The inlet boundary profiles have been taken from the measurements. At the outlet the effect of furnace end contraction has been studied. The k - {epsilon} model falls to predict the correct flow field. The RNG k - {epsilon} model can provide improvements, although it has problems near the symmetry axis. The Reynolds stress model produces the best agreement with measured data. (author) 13 refs.

  14. Study of flow past an exponentially accelerated isothermal vertical plate in the presence of chemical reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muthucumaraswamy R.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical study of unsteady flow past an exponentially accelerated infinite isothermal vertical plate with variable mass diffusion has been presented in the presence of homogeneous chemical reaction of first order. The plate temperature is raised to Tw and species concentration level near the plate is made to rise linearly with time. The dimensionless governing equations are solved using Laplace-transform technique. The velocity profiles are studied for different physical parameters like chemical reaction parameter, thermal Grashof number, mass Grashof number, a and time. It is observed that the velocity increases with increasing values of a or t. But the trend is just reversed with respect to K.

  15. Effects of chemical reaction on moving isothermal vertical plate with variable mass diffusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muthucumaraswamy R.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available An exact solution to the problem of flow past an impulsively started infinite vertical isothermal plate with variable mass diffusion is presented here, taking into account of the homogeneous chemical reaction of first-order. The dimensionless governing equations are solved by using the Laplace - transform technique. The velocity and skin-friction are studied for different parameters like chemical reaction parameter, Schmidt number and buoyancy ratio parameter. It is observed that the veloc­ity increases with decreasing chemical reaction parameter and increases with increasing buoyancy ratio parameter.

  16. Metallographic Study of the Isothermal Transformation of Beta Phase in Zircaloy-2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oestberg, G

    1960-06-15

    Observations of the structure of commercial zircaloy-2 have been made in the microscope showing that the high temperature beta phase is transformed isothermally at lower temperatures into alpha plus secondary precipitate. The alpha occurs mainly as Widmanstaetten plates developed by a shear mechanism. The secondary precipitate is formed from the beta - alpha structure at the phase boundary between these phases. This precipitation of particles of secondary phase occurs on account of a eutectoid reaction, alpha also being formed. A time-temperature transformation diagram has been constructed from the observations.

  17. Wafer level hermetic packaging based on Cu-Sn isothermal solidification technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Yuhan; Luo Le

    2009-01-01

    A novel wafer level bonding method based on Cu-Sn isothermal solidification technology is established. A multi-layer sealing ring and the bonding processing are designed, and the amount of solder and the bonding parameters are optimized based on both theoretical and experimental results. Verification shows that oxidation of the solder layer, voids and the scalloped-edge appearance of the Cu 6 Sn 5 phase are successfully avoided. An average shear strength of 19.5 MPa and an excellent leak rate of around 1.9 x 10 -9 atm cc/s are possible, meeting the demands of MIL-STD-883E. (semiconductor technology)

  18. The non-isothermal kinetics of decomposition of manganese carbonate ore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenan Yıldız

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The non-isothermal kinetics of decomposition of manganese carbonate ore from Denizli – Tavas region was studied. The ore decomposed according to a serie of reaction, MnCO3 ;#8594;(400-600°C MnO2 ;#8594;(;600 Mn2O3. By using of Kissenger equation, the activation energies for the decomposition of MnCO3 to MnO2 and the transformation of MnO2 to Mn2O3 were calculated as 185,7 kJ/mol and 217,3 kJ/mol, respectively.

  19. Development of Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification Assay for Detection of Entamoeba histolytica▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Shih-Yu; Chan, Yun-Hsien; Hsia, Kan-Tai; Lee, Jing-Lun; Kuo, Ming-Chu; Hwa, Kuo-Yuan; Chan, Chi-Wen; Chiang, Ting-Yi; Chen, Jung-Sheng; Wu, Fang-Tzy; Ji, Dar-Der

    2009-01-01

    A novel one-step, closed-tube, loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for detecting Entamoeba histolytica, one of the leading causes of morbidity in developing countries, was developed. The sensitivity of the LAMP assay is 1 parasite per reaction. A total of 130 clinical samples were analyzed, and the results compared with those of conventional nested PCR to validate the practicability of this assay. No DNA was amplified from other diarrheal pathogens, such as other Entamoeba species, bacteria, and viruses. These results indicate that LAMP is a rapid, simple, and valuable diagnostic tool for epidemiological studies of amebiasis. PMID:19321720

  20. Computational multiple steady states for enzymatic esterification of ethanol and oleic acid in an isothermal CSTR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Pang-Yen; Chuang, Guo-Syong; Chao, An-Chong; Li, Hsing-Ya

    2005-05-01

    The capacity of complex biochemical reaction networks (consisting of 11 coupled non-linear ordinary differential equations) to show multiple steady states, was investigated. The system involved esterification of ethanol and oleic acid by lipase in an isothermal continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR). The Deficiency One Algorithm and the Subnetwork Analysis were applied to determine the steady state multiplicity. A set of rate constants and two corresponding steady states are computed. The phenomena of bistability, hysteresis and bifurcation are discussed. Moreover, the capacity of steady state multiplicity is extended to the family of the studied reaction networks.

  1. Non-isothermal compositional gas flow during carbon dioxide storage and enhanced gas recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Ashok; Böettcher, N.; Wang, W.

    2011-01-01

    In this work we present the conceptual modeling and the numerical scheme for carbon dioxide storage into nearly depleted gas reservoirs for enhanced gas recovery reasons. For this we develop non-isothermal compositional gas flow model. We used a combined monolithic / staggered coupling scheme...... to solve mass balance equation for the gaseous mixture with heat and fractional mass transport equations. Temperature change resulting from fluid expansion and viscous heat dissipation is included in heat transport in addition to advection and conduction. We have used a modified version of the Peng...

  2. Deposition of magnetite particles from high velocity water onto isothermal tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burrill, K.A.

    1977-02-01

    The deposition rate of magnetite particles from a high velocity water slurry onto isothermal metal tubes was measured. The effects of velocity (5 to 100 m/s), slurry concentration (200 to 1000 mg Fe/kg H 2 O), temperature (25 0 to 90 0 C), pH (4 to 10 at 25 0 C), and tube material (nickel, Zircaloy-4) on deposition rate were studied. The data are interpreted in terms of two steps in series for deposition: a mass transfer step followed by a deposition or inertial coasting step. Mass transfer of particles through the bulk water phase apparently limits the deposition of particles at high Reynolds number

  3. The Application of Simulation Method in Isothermal Elastic Natural Gas Pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Chunlei; Guan, Shiming; Zhao, Yue; Cao, Jinggang; Chu, Yanji

    2018-02-01

    This Elastic pipeline mathematic model is of crucial importance in natural gas pipeline simulation because of its compliance with the practical industrial cases. The numerical model of elastic pipeline will bring non-linear complexity to the discretized equations. Hence the Newton-Raphson method cannot achieve fast convergence in this kind of problems. Therefore A new Newton Based method with Powell-Wolfe Condition to simulate the Isothermal elastic pipeline flow is presented. The results obtained by the new method aregiven based on the defined boundary conditions. It is shown that the method converges in all cases and reduces significant computational cost.

  4. A comparison of three turbulence models for axisymmetric isothermal swirling flows in the near burner zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahlstedt, H. [Tampere Univ. of Technology (Finland). Energy and Process Engineering

    1997-12-31

    In this work three different turbulence models, the k - {epsilon}, RNG k - {epsilon} and Reynolds stress model, have been compared in the case of confined swirling flow. The flow geometries are the isothermal swirling flows measured by International Flame Research Foundation (IFRF). The inlet boundary profiles have been taken from the measurements. At the outlet the effect of furnace end contraction has been studied. The k - {epsilon} model falls to predict the correct flow field. The RNG k - {epsilon} model can provide improvements, although it has problems near the symmetry axis. The Reynolds stress model produces the best agreement with measured data. (author) 13 refs.

  5. Asymptotic solution of the non-isothermal Cahn-Hilliard system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omel'yanov, G.A.

    1995-05-01

    The non-isothermal Cahn-Hillard questions with a small parameter in the n-dimensional case (n = 2.3) are considered. The small parameter is proportional both to the relaxation time and to the linear scale of transition zone, so the large time process is examined. The asymptotic solution describing the free interface dynamics is constructed. As the small parameter tends to zero, the limiting solution satisfies the modified Stefan problem with corrected Gibbs-Thomson law. The justification of the asymptotic solution is proved. (author). 26 refs

  6. Nonlinear Ion-Acoustic Waves in a Plasma Consisting of Warm Ions and Isothermal Distributed Electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abourabia, A.M.; Hassan, K.M.; Shahein, R.A.

    2008-01-01

    The formation of (1+1) dimensional ion-acoustic waves (IAWs) in an unmagnetized collisionless plasma consisting of warm ions and isothermal distributed electrons is investigated. The electrodynamics system of equations are solved analytically in terms of a new variable ξκ χ -φ τ, where k=k(ω) is a complex function, at a fixed position. The analytical calculations gives that the critical value σ = τ/τ ∼ 0.25 distinguishes between the linear and nonlinear characters of IAW within the nanosecond time scale. The flow velocity, pressure, number density, electric potential, electric field, mobility and the total energy in the system are estimated and illustrated

  7. Thermal degradation and isothermal crystalline behavior of poly(trimethylene terephthalate)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian Liu; Shu Guang Bian; Min Xiao; Shuan Jin Wang; Yue Zhong Meng

    2009-01-01

    Poly(trimethylene terephthalate)(PTT)is an excellent fiber material.Its thermal degradation and isothermal crystalline behaviors were in this study investigated using thermogravimetric analysis(TGA),thermogravimetric analysis-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy(TGA-FTIR)analysis,differential scanning calorimetry(DSC)and X-ray diffraction(XRD).The thermal degradation mechanism of PTT follows Mclafferty rearrangement principle.The PTT with intrinsicviscosity(IV)of 0.74 dL/g has a maximum crystallinity of about 55%at 190℃,as demonstrated by DSC and XRD measurements consistently.

  8. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) shield for Arduino DNA detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velders, Aldrik H; Schoen, Cor; Saggiomo, Vittorio

    2018-02-01

    Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) of DNA is gaining relevance as a method to detect nucleic acids, as it is easier, faster, and more powerful than conventional Polymerase Chain Reaction. However, LAMP is still mostly used in laboratory settings, because of the lack of a cheap and easy, one-button device that can perform LAMP experiments. Here we show how to build and program an Arduino shield for a LAMP and detection of DNA. The here described Arduino Shield is cheap, easy to assemble, to program and use, it is battery operated and the detection of DNA is done by naked-eye so that it can be used in field.

  9. Experimental study of natural convection adjacent to an isothermal vertical ice cylinder in cold pure water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riu, Kap Jong; Yea, Yong Taeg; Park, Sang Hee

    1991-01-01

    A natural convection adjacent to an isothermal vertical ice cylinder is studied experimentally in cold pure water. The experiments are carried out as changing the temperature of the ambient water and then the flow and heat transfer characteristics is visualized and observed. It is shown that flow patterns are steady state upflow, unsteady state flow, steady state dual flow, and steady state downflow. There is also obtained a heat transfer coefficient and mean Nusselt number at various ambient temperature. These results are in good agreement with the theoretical ones. (Author)

  10. Determination of kinetic and thermodynamic parameters that describe isothermal seed germination: A student research project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hageseth, Gaylord T.

    1982-02-01

    Students under the supervision of a faculty member can collect data and fit the data to the theoretical mathematical model that describes the rate of isothermal seed germination. The best-fit parameters are interpreted as an initial substrate concentration, product concentration, and the autocatalytic reaction rate. The thermodynamic model enables one to calculate the activation energy for the substrate and product, the activation energy for the autocatalytic reaction, and changes in enthalpy, entropy, and the Gibb's free energy. Turnip, lettuce, soybean, and radish seeds have been investigated. All data fit the proposed model.

  11. Magnetic vinylphenyl boronic acid microparticles for Cr(VI) adsorption: Kinetic, isotherm and thermodynamic studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kara, Ali; Demirbel, Emel; Tekin, Nalan; Osman, Bilgen; Beşirli, Necati

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Cr(VI) can oxidize biological molecules and be one of the most harmful substance. • Magnetic seperation techniques are used on different applications in many fields. • Magnetic systems can be used for rapid and selective removal as a magnetic processor. • We investigate properties of both new material and other magnetic adsorbents reported in the literatures on the adsorption of Cr(VI) ions. • No researchments were reported on adsorption of Cr(VI) with magnetic vinylphenyl boronic acid microparticles. - Abstract: Magnetic vinylphenyl boronic acid microparticles, poly(ethylene glycol dimethacrylate(EG)–vinylphenyl boronic acid(VPBA)) [m-poly(EG–VPBA)], produced by suspension polymerization and characterized, was found to be an efficient solid polymer for Cr(VI) adsorption. The m-poly(EG–VPBA) microparticles were prepared by copolymerizing of ethylene glycol dimethylacrylate (EG) with 4-vinyl phenyl boronic acid (VPBA). The m-poly(EG–VPBA) microparticles were characterized by N 2 adsorption/desorption isotherms, electron spin resonance (ESR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), elemental analysis, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and swelling studies. The m-poly(EG–VPBA) microparticles were used at adsorbent/Cr(VI) ion ratios. The influence of pH, Cr(VI) initial concentration, temperature of the removal process was investigated. The maximum removal of Cr(VI) was observed at pH 2. Langmuir isotherm and Dubinin–Radushkvich isotherm were found to better fit the experiment data rather than Fruendlich isotherm. The kinetics of the adsorption process of Cr(VI) on the m-poly(EG–VPBA) microparticles were investigated using the pseudo first-order, pseudo-second-order, Ritch-second-order and intraparticle diffusion models, results showed that the pseudo-second order equation model provided the best correlation with the experimental results. The thermodynamic

  12. Fission track retention in minerals as a function of heating time during isothermal experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burchart, J.; Butkiewicz, T.; Dakowski, M.; Galazka-Friedman, J.

    1979-01-01

    The linear dependence of track retention on logarithm of heating time (at constant temperature) has been verified by statistical analysis of data on isothermal annealing of apatite. The other functions proposed (rho/rho 0 as a linearly decreasing function of exp t or t) fit the experimental data only within a limited range of heating times, where the shapes of all three are experimentally hard to resolve. The logarithmic relationship implies a memory of tracks for thermal events and creates a basis for methods of age corrections. (author)

  13. Radiative mixed convection over an isothermal cone embedded in a porous medium with variable permeability

    KAUST Repository

    El-Amin, Mohamed; Ebrahiem, N.A.; Salama, Amgad; Sun, S.

    2011-01-01

    The interaction of mixed convection with thermal radiation of an optical dense viscous fluid adjacent to an isothermal cone imbedded in a porous medium with Rosseland diffusion approximation incorporating the variation of permeability and thermal conductivity is numerically investigated. The transformed conservation laws are solved numerically for the case of variable surface temperature conditions. Numerical results are given for the dimensionless temperature profiles and the local Nusselt number for various values of the mixed convection parameter , the cone angle parameter ?, the radiation-conduction parameter R d, and the surface temperature parameter H. Copyright 2011 M. F. El-Amin et al.

  14. Isothermal crystallization kinetics in simulated high-level nuclear waste glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vienna, J.D.; Hrma, P.; Smith, D.E.

    1997-01-01

    Crystallization kinetics of a simulated high-level waste (HLW) glass were measured and modelled. Kinetics of acmite growth in the standard HW39-4 glass were measured using the isothermal method. A time-temperature-transformation (TTT) diagram was generated from these data. Classical glass-crystal transformation kinetic models were empirically applied to the crystallization data. These models adequately describe the kinetics of crystallization in complex HLW glasses (i.e., RSquared = 0.908). An approach to measurement, fitting, and use of TTT diagrams for prediction of crystallinity in a HLW glass canister is proposed

  15. RELAP5 progress summary: simulation of semiscale isothermal blowdown (Test S-01-4A)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuo, H.H.; Wagner, R.J.; Carlson, K.E.; Kiser, D.M.; Trapp, J.A.; Ransom, V.H.

    1978-07-01

    The RELAP5/MOD''O'' LOCA analysis code has been applied to Simulation of the Semiscale Isothermal Blowdown Test (S-01-4A) from initiation to 60 seconds. Subcooled ECC injection was simulated from 23 seconds until accumulator emptying. The calculated results are in very good agreement with the experimental data. This is the first full system application of the RELAP5 code and only the pressurizer surge line resistance was modified to achieve the results reported. An analysis of the code execution time using a time-step statistical edit is included

  16. Differences in the adsorption behaviour of poly(ethylene oxide) copolymers onto model polystyrene nanoparticles assessed by isothermal titration microcalorimetry correspond to the biological differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolnik, S; Heald, C R; Garnett, M G; Illum, L; Davis, S S

    2005-01-01

    The adsorption behaviour of a tetrafunctional copolymer of poly (ethylene oxide)-poly (propylene oxide) ethylene diamine (commercially available as Poloxamine 908) and a diblock copolymer of poly (lactic acid)-poly (ethylene oxide) (PLA/PEG 2:5) onto a model colloidal drug carrier (156 nm sized polystyrene latex) is described. The adsorption isotherm, hydrodynamic thickness of the adsorbed layers and enthalpy of the adsorption were assessed. The close similarity in the conformation of the poly (ethylene oxide) (PEO) chains (molecular weight 5,000 Da) in the adsorbed layers of these two copolymers was demonstrated by combining the adsorption data with the adsorbed layer thickness data. In contrast, the results from isothermal titration microcalorimetry indicated a distinct difference in the interaction of the copolymers with the polystyrene colloid surface. Poloxamine 908 adsorption to polystyrene nanoparticles is dominated by an endothermic heat effect, whereas, PLA/PEG 2:5 adsorption is entirely an exothermic process. This difference in adsorption behaviour could provide an explanation for differences in the biodistribution of Poloxamine 908 and PLA/PEG 2:5 coated polystyrene nanoparticles observed in previous studies. A comparison with the interaction enthalpy for several other PEO-containing copolymers onto the same polystyrene colloid was made. The results demonstrate the importance of the nature of the anchoring moiety on the interaction of the adsorbing copolymer with the colloid surface. An endothermic contribution is found when an adsorbing molecule contains a poly (propylene oxide) (PPO) moiety (e.g. Poloxamine 908), whilst the adsorption is exothermic (i.e. enthalpy driven) for PEO copolymers with polylactide (PLA/PEG 2:5) or alkyl moieties.

  17. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification as an emerging technology for detection of Yersinia ruckeri the causative agent of enteric red mouth disease in fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soliman Hatem

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Enteric Redmouth (ERM disease also known as Yersiniosis is a contagious disease affecting salmonids, mainly rainbow trout. The causative agent is the gram-negative bacterium Yersinia ruckeri. The disease can be diagnosed by isolation and identification of the causative agent, or detection of the Pathogen using fluorescent antibody tests, ELISA and PCR assays. These diagnostic methods are laborious, time consuming and need well trained personnel. Results A loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP assay was developed and evaluated for detection of Y. ruckeri the etiological agent of enteric red mouth (ERM disease in salmonids. The assay was optimised to amplify the yruI/yruR gene, which encodes Y. ruckeri quorum sensing system, in the presence of a specific primer set and Bst DNA polymerase at an isothermal temperature of 63°C for one hour. Amplification products were detected by visual inspection, agarose gel electrophoresis and by real-time monitoring of turbidity resulted by formation of LAMP amplicons. Digestion with HphI restriction enzyme demonstrated that the amplified product was unique. The specificity of the assay was verified by the absence of amplification products when tested against related bacteria. The assay had 10-fold higher sensitivity compared with conventional PCR and successfully detected Y. ruckeri not only in pure bacterial culture but also in tissue homogenates of infected fish. Conclusion The ERM-LAMP assay represents a practical alternative to the microbiological approach for rapid, sensitive and specific detection of Y. ruckeri in fish farms. The assay is carried out in one hour and needs only a heating block or water bath as laboratory furniture. The advantages of the ERM-LAMP assay make it a promising tool for molecular detection of enteric red mouth disease in fish farms.

  18. An exploration of the effect and interaction mechanism of bisphenol A on waste sludge hydrolysis with multi-spectra, isothermal titration microcalorimetry and molecule docking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Guangying; Zhang, Rui; Hao, Xiaoyan; Liu, Chunguang

    2017-07-05

    An increasing amount of bisphenol A (BPA) is being produced and used, then discharged into sewage treatment plants and accumulated in sludge or soil, when the sludge is used as fertilizer. Accumulation of BPA in sludge or soil causes poisoning to the enzyme, which affects the biological treatment of sludge and the circulation and conversion of materials in soil. In this research, effect of BPA on sludge hydrolysis is studied from the respect of concentration and components of soluble organic matter in sludge, using three-dimensional fluorescence spectra. In order to illuminate the interaction mechanism, toxic effect of BPA on α-Amylase (a model of hydrolase in sludge) is investigated with multi-spectra, isothermal titration microcalorimetry and molecule docking at the molecular level. Results show that the secondary structure of α-Amylase and the microenvironment of amino acid residue in α-Amylase are changed. The molecular docking study and ITC results show that hydrophobic bond and hydrogen bond exist in the interaction between BPA and α-Amylase. Based on the above analysis and enzyme activity assay, sludge hydrolysis is inhibited due to the denaturation of α-Amylase with BPA exposure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Molecular fountain.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strecker, Kevin E.; Chandler, David W.

    2009-09-01

    A molecular fountain directs slowly moving molecules against gravity to further slow them to translational energies that they can be trapped and studied. If the molecules are initially slow enough they will return some time later to the position from which they were launched. Because this round trip time can be on the order of a second a single molecule can be observed for times sufficient to perform Hz level spectroscopy. The goal of this LDRD proposal was to construct a novel Molecular Fountain apparatus capable of producing dilute samples of molecules at near zero temperatures in well-defined user-selectable, quantum states. The slowly moving molecules used in this research are produced by the previously developed Kinematic Cooling technique, which uses a crossed atomic and molecular beam apparatus to generate single rotational level molecular samples moving slowly in the laboratory reference frame. The Kinematic Cooling technique produces cold molecules from a supersonic molecular beam via single collisions with a supersonic atomic beam. A single collision of an atom with a molecule occurring at the correct energy and relative velocity can cause a small fraction of the molecules to move very slowly vertically against gravity in the laboratory. These slowly moving molecules are captured by an electrostatic hexapole guiding field that both orients and focuses the molecules. The molecules are focused into the ionization region of a time-of-flight mass spectrometer and are ionized by laser radiation. The new molecular fountain apparatus was built utilizing a new design for molecular beam apparatus that has allowed us to miniaturize the apparatus. This new design minimizes the volumes and surface area of the machine allowing smaller pumps to maintain the necessary background pressures needed for these experiments.

  20. Effect of prolonged isothermal heat treatment on the mechanical behavior of advanced NANOBAIN steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avishan, Behzad

    2017-09-01

    The microstructural evolution and consequent changes in strength and ductility of advanced NANOBAIN steel during prolonged isothermal heat-treatment stages were investigated. The microstructure and mechanical properties of nanostructured bainite were not expected to be influenced by extending the heat-treatment time beyond the optimum value because of the autotempering phenomenon and high tempering resistance. However, experimental results indicated that the microstructure was thermodynamically unstable and that prolonged austempering resulted in carbon depletion from high-carbon retained austenite and carbide precipitations. Therefore, austenite became thermally less stable and partially transformed into martensite during cooling to room temperature. Prolonged austempering did not lead to the typical tempering sequence of bainite, and the sizes of the microstructural constituents were independent of the extended heat-treatment times. This independence, in turn, resulted in almost constant ultimate tensile strength values. However, microstructural variations enhanced the yield strength and the hardness of the material at extended isothermal heat-treatment stages. Finally, although microstructural changes decreased the total elongation and impact toughness, considerable combinations of mechanical properties could still be achieved.

  1. [Colorimetric detection of HPV6 and HPV16 by loop mediated isothermal amplification].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Chun-bin; Luo, Le; Yang, Meng-jie; Nie, Kai; Wang, Miao; Ma, Xue-Jun

    2011-01-01

    A simple, rapid and sensitive colorimetric loop mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) method was established to detect HPV6 and HPV 16 respectively. The method employed a set of four specially designed primers that recognized six distinct sequences of HPV6-E6 or HPV16-E7 for amplification of nucleic acid under isothermal conditions at 63 degrees C for one hour. The amplification process of LAMP was monitored by the addition of HNB (hydroxy naphthol blue) dye prior to amplification. A positive reaction was indicated by a color change from violet to sky blue and confirmed by real-time turbidimeter and agarose electrophoresis. Thirteen cervical swab samples having single infection with 13 different HPV genotypes were examined to evaluate the specificity. A serial dilution of a cloned plasmid containing HPV-E6 or HPV-E7 gene was examined to evaluate the sensitivity. The results showed that no cross-reaction with other HPV genotypes was observed. The colorimetric LAMP assay could achieve a sensitivity of 1000 copies, 10-20 times lower than that of real-time PCR. The assay was further evaluated with 62 clinical specimens and consistent results were obtained compared with the detection using Kai Pu HPV Genotyping Kit. We concluded that this colorimetric LAMP assay had potential usefulness for the rapid screening of the HPV6 or HPV16 infection in the laboratories and hospitals of provincial and municipal region in China.

  2. The 500 deg. C isothermal section of the Gd-Tb-Co ternary system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, K.W.; Zhuang, Y.H.; Li, J.Q.; Zhu, Q.M.; Deng, J.Q.

    2006-01-01

    The isothermal section of the phase diagram of the Gd-Tb-Co ternary system at 500 deg. C was investigated by X-ray powder diffraction, differential thermal analysis and metallographic analysis techniques. In this isothermal section, there are nine single-phase regions, eight two-phase regions and none three-phase region. No ternary compound was found. The compounds Gd 2 Co 17 and Tb 2 Co 17 , Gd 2 Co 7 and Tb 2 Co 7 , GdCo 3 and TbCo 3 , GdCo 2 and TbCo 2 , Gd 4 Co 3 and Tb 4 Co 3 , Gd 12 Co 7 and Tb 12 Co 7 , Gd 3 Co and Tb 3 Co, Gd and Tb form a continuous series of solid solutions. In addition, we experimentally determined the vertical section of pseudobinary system and the Curie temperature of Gd 1-x Tb x Co 2 (x from 0 to 1) series alloys

  3. Desorption isotherms and mathematical modeling of thin layer drying kinetics of tomato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belghith, Amira; Azzouz, Soufien; ElCafsi, Afif

    2016-03-01

    In recent years, there is an increased demand on the international market of dried fruits and vegetables with significant added value. Due to its important production, consumption and nutrient intake, drying of tomato has become a subject of extended and varied research works. The present work is focused on the drying behavior of thin-layer tomato and its mathematical modeling in order to optimize the drying processes. The moisture desorption isotherms of raw tomato were determined at four temperature levels namely 45, 50, 60 and 65 °C using the static gravimetric method. The experimental data obtained were modeled by five equations and the (GAB) model was found to be the best-describing these isotherms. The drying kinetics were experimentally investigated at 45, 55 and 65 °C and performed at air velocities of 0.5 and 2 m/s. In order to investigate the effect of the exchange surface on drying time, samples were dried into two different shapes: tomato halves and tomato quarters. The impact of various drying parameters was also studied (temperature, air velocity and air humidity). The drying curves showed only the preheating period and the falling drying rate period. In this study, attention was paid to the modeling of experimental thin-layer drying kinetics. The experimental results were fitted with four different models.

  4. Desorption isotherms and isosteric heat of 'cajuzinho-do-cerrado' achenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karine F. Barbosa

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to determine the desorption isotherms of 'cajuzinho-do-cerrado' achenes (Anacardium humile St. Hil. in various conditions of temperature and water activity, as well as to select the one that best represents the phenomenon and to determine the isosteric heat of desorption. The fruits were collected at the Emas National Park, in the municipality of Mineiros-GO, Brazil, pulped and then subjected to drying in silica gel at temperature of 25 ± 2 °C until the moisture contents of 17.6, 13.6, 11.1, 8.7 and 5.3 (d.b.%. After drying, the desorption isotherms were determined by the indirect static method. The water activity (Aw was determined at different temperatures, and the achenes were placed in a B.O.D. chamber, regulated at 10, 20, 30 and 40 °C. Data of hygroscopic equilibrium moisture content were fitted to different mathematical models through non-linear regression analysis, using the Gauss-Newton method. The Copace model was the one that best represented the hygroscopicity of 'cajuzinho-do-cerrado' achenes, while the integral isosteric heat of desorption of 'cajuzinho-do-cerrado' achenes for the moisture content range of 4.51 to 13.40 (% d.b. varied from 2,734.82 to 2,548.49 kJ kg-1.

  5. Use of liquid scintillation counting for quantitative analysis of volatile organic compounds in batch isotherm analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wickman, D.C.

    1987-01-01

    An estimate of how rapidly hazardous wastes move through subsurface soils via ground water is important to predict the location and concentration of the contaminant plume vs. time. The contaminated ground water system may be viewed as an HPLC column with the organic components of the waste in adsorption/desorption equilibrium with the subsurface soil. The batch isotherm method was chosen to determine the equilibrium constant between trichloroethylene, o-dichlorobenzene, 1-methyl naphthalene and aquifer materials obtained from various locations around the country. Liquid Scintillation counting has been found to be an excellent technique for batch isotherm analysis; using 14C labeled compounds, it affords unattended analysis, accuracy at very low concentrations and rapid data reduction. Ten ml serum containing about 5 ml water and a known weight of soil (approximately 2 grams) were spiked with the labeled solution to yield organic solute concentrations in the range of 0.02-1.0 mg/1. Six different concentrations were used. After spiking, the bottles were filled to the top with water and crimp sealed with teflon coated septa. All soil containing bottles were then rotated at 50 rpm and 22 degrees Celsius. Twenty-four hours later the bottles were uncapped and a 1.4 ml aliquot was removed and placed in scintillation cocktail and counted

  6. High Pressure Adsorption Isotherm of CO2 on Activated Carbon using Volumetric Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awaludin Martin

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Adsorption system is ones of the most effective methods for CO2 separating with other substances that produced from the burning of fossil fuels. In the design for that application, beside of characteristics of porous material (adsorbent data, CO2 adsorption data on the adsorbent (kinetic and thermodynamic are also needed. The aim of this research is resulting isothermal adsorption data at pressures up to 3.5 MPa by indirect methods (volumetric method at isothermal temperature of 300, 308, 318 and 338 K. Adsorbent that used in this research is activated carbon made from East of Kalimantan coals by physical activation method (CO2 which is the surface area of activated carbon is 668 m2/g and pore volume is 0.47 mL/g. Carbon dioxide (CO2 that used in this research is high purity carbon dioxide with a purity of 99.9%. Data from the experiment results then correlated using the Langmuir and Toth equations model. The results showed that the maximum adsorption capacity is 0.314 kg/kg at 300 K and 3384.69 kPa. The results of regression of experiment data using Langmuir and Toth models were 3.4% and 1.7%.

  7. Isobaric-isothermal Monte Carlo simulations from first principles: Application to liquid water at ambient conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGrath, M; Siepmann, J I; Kuo, I W; Mundy, C J; VandeVondele, J; Hutter, J; Mohamed, F; Krack, M

    2004-12-02

    A series of first principles Monte Carlo simulations in the isobaric-isothermal ensemble were carried out for liquid water at ambient conditions (T = 298 K and p = 1 atm). The Becke-Lee-Yang-Parr (BLYP) exchange and correlation energy functionals and norm-conserving Goedecker-Teter-Hutter (GTH) pseudopotentials were employed with the CP2K simulation package to examine systems consisting of 64 water molecules. The fluctuations in the system volume encountered in simulations in the isobaric-isothermal ensemble requires a reconsideration of the suitability of the typical charge density cutoff and the regular grid generation method previously used for the computation of the electrostatic energy in first principles simulations in the microcanonical or canonical ensembles. In particular, it is noted that a much higher cutoff is needed and that the most computationally efficient method of creating grids can result in poor simulations. Analysis of the simulation trajectories using a very large charge density cutoff at 1200 Ry and four different grid generation methods point to a substantially underestimated liquid density of about 0.85 g/cm{sup 3} resulting in a somewhat understructured liquid (with a value of about 2.7 for the height of the first peak in the oxygen/oxygen radial distribution function) for BLYP-GTH water at ambient conditions.

  8. A NON-ISOTHERMAL THEORY FOR INTERPRETING SODIUM LINES IN TRANSMISSION SPECTRA OF EXOPLANETS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heng, Kevin; Lavie, Baptiste [University of Bern, Physics Institute, Center for Space and Habitability, Sidlerstrasse 5, CH-3012 Bern (Switzerland); Wyttenbach, Aurélien; Ehrenreich, David; Lovis, Christophe [Observatoire de l’Université de Genève, 51 chemin des Maillettes, CH-1290 Sauverny (Switzerland); Sing, David K., E-mail: kevin.heng@csh.unibe.ch [Astrophysics Group, School of Physics, University of Exeter, Stocker Road, Exeter EX4 4QL (United Kingdom)

    2015-04-10

    We present a theory for interpreting the sodium lines detected in transmission spectra of exoplanetary atmospheres. Previous analyses employed the isothermal approximation and dealt only with the transit radius. By recognizing the absorption depth and the transit radius as being independent observables, we develop a theory for jointly interpreting both quantities, which allows us to infer the temperatures and number densities associated with the sodium lines. We are able to treat a non-isothermal situation with a constant temperature gradient. Our novel diagnostics take the form of simple-to-use algebraic formulae and require measurements of the transit radii (and their corresponding absorption depths) at line center and in the line wing for both sodium lines. We apply our diagnostics to the HARPS data of HD 189733b, confirm the upper atmospheric heating reported by Huitson et al., derive a temperature gradient of 0.4376 ± 0.0154 K km{sup −1}, and find densities ∼1–10{sup 4} cm{sup −3}.

  9. Manufacturing of Nanostructured Rings from Previously ECAE-Processed AA5083 Alloy by Isothermal Forging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. J. Luis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The manufacturing of a functional hollow mechanical element or ring of the AA5083 alloy previously equal channel angular extrusion (ECAE processed, which presents a submicrometric microstructure, is dealt with. For this purpose, the design of two isothermal forging dies (preform and final shape is carried out using the design of experiments (DOE methodology. Moreover, after manufacturing the dies and carrying out tests so as to achieve real rings, the mechanical properties of these rings are analysed as well as their microstructure. Furthermore, a comparison between the different forged rings is made from ECAE-processed material subjected to different heat treatments, previous to the forging stage. On the other hand, the ring forging process is modelled through the use of finite element simulation in order to improve the die design and to study the force required for the isothermal forging, the damage value, and the strain the material predeformed by ECAE has undergone. With this present research work, it is intended to improve the knowledge about the mechanical properties of nanostructured material and the applicability of this material to industrial processes that allow the manufacturing of functional parts.

  10. Determination of drying kinetics and sorption isotherm of black pepper (Piper Nigrum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vera, Flordeliza C.; Atienza, Vanessa Bernadette B.; Capili, Jomicah B.; Sauli, Zaliman

    2017-11-01

    In the present study of food products, determination of the drying characteristics of black pepper using an oven is not yet completely established. This study aimed to determine the drying kinetics and sorption isotherm of black pepper using a convective oven at 30°C, 40°C and 50°C. The data gathered in this study were used to fit in selected mathematical models for drying kinetics and sorption isotherm. Among these models, the Midilli model (MR=0.5338exp(0.7273t-0.0551)+-0.0005t for 30°C, MR=0.5814exp(0.6293t-0.0764)+ -0.0008t for 40°C and MR=0.3187exp(1.1777t-0.0466)+ -0.0011t for 50°C) was the best fit to explain the moisture transfer in black pepper, while the GAB Model (m/0.1302=((0.1906)(0.7811)aw)/(1-(0.7811)aw)[1-(0.7811)aw+(0.1906)(0.7811)aw])) was for the equilibrium moisture content and water activity relationship. After evaluating the data, the drying characteristics of black pepper at 40°C yielded better results than 30°C and 50°C. XLSTAT and ANOVA Add-in of Microsoft Excel was the software used to compute for the necessary values in the assessment of the mathematical models for this study.

  11. Maps of Fe-Al phases formation kinetics parameters during isothermal sintering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pochec, Ewelina, E-mail: epochec@wat.edu.pl [Department of Advanced Materials and Technology, Military University of Technology (Poland); Jozwiak, Stanislaw; Karczewski, Krzysztof; Bojar, Zbigniew [Department of Advanced Materials and Technology, Military University of Technology (Poland)

    2012-10-10

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The sintering temperature and compaction pressure have a strong influence on the sinters structure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The measurements confirmed the presence of the high-aluminium phases from Fe-Al equilibrium system in tested sinters. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The kinetics of Fe-Al phase formation can be described by Johnson-Mehl-Avrami modelling. - Abstract: The influence of technological parameters (compaction pressure and sintering temperature) on Fe-Al phase formation was investigated. The kinetics of phase transformation preceding and during an SHS reaction was studied in isothermal conditions by DSC using the JMA (Johnson-Mehl-Avrami) model. This model allowed us to determine basic kinetic parameters, including the Avrami exponent, which characterises the rate and manner of particular phase nucleation. The activation energy (E{sub a}) of particular phase formation was determined by the Kissinger method. XRD analysis and SEM observations of sintered material showed that not only Fe{sub 2}Al{sub 5} phase and low-aluminium solid solution in iron but also aluminium-rich FeAl{sub 2} and FeAl{sub 3} phases are formed during the sintering of an FeAl50 elementary powder mixture in isothermal conditions with an SHS reaction. The above conclusions were confirmed by iron-based solid solution lattice parameter studies and microhardness measurements.

  12. Adsorptive removal of malachite green from aqueous solutions by almond gum: Kinetic study and equilibrium isotherms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouaziz, Fatma; Koubaa, Mohamed; Kallel, Fatma; Ghorbel, Rhoudha Ellouz; Chaabouni, Semia Ellouz

    2017-12-01

    This work aimed at investigating the potential of almond gum as low cost adsorbent for the removal of the cationic dye; malachite green from aqueous solutions. Almond gum was first analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and then the adsorption behavior was studied in batch system. The effects of the adsorption parameters (adsorbent dose, pH, contact time, particle size, initial dye concentration, temperature and agitation) on the dye removal have been studied. Adsorption equilibrium and isotherms were evaluated depending on temperature using the isotherms of Freundlich, Langmuir, and Tempkin. The obtained result showed that both Langmuir and Freundlich models were adapted to study the dye sorption. The maximum adsorption capacities were equal to 172.41mg/g, 181.81mg/g, and 196.07mg/g at 303.16K, 313.16K, and 323.16K, respectively. The kinetics of sorption were following the pseudo-second order model. The thermodynamic changes in enthalpy (ΔH), entropy (ΔS), and free energy (ΔG) indicated that the adsorption of malachite green at the surface of almond gum is endothermic and occurs spontaneously. Desorption experiments were conducted to regenerate almond gum, showing great desorption capacity when using HCl at pH 2. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Large eddy simulations of isothermal confined swirling flow in an industrial gas-turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulat, G.; Jones, W.P.; Navarro-Martinez, S.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We conduct a large eddy simulation of an industrial gas turbine. • The results are compared with measurements obtained under isothermal conditions. • The method reproduces the observed precessing vortex and central vortex cores. • The profiles of mean and rms velocities are found to be captured to a good accuracy. - Abstract: The paper describes the results of a computational study of the strongly swirling isothermal flow in the combustion chamber of an industrial gas turbine. The flow field characteristics are computed using large eddy simulation in conjunction with a dynamic version of the Smagorinsky model for the sub-grid-scale stresses. Grid refinement studies demonstrate that the results are essentially grid independent. The LES results are compared with an extensive set of measurements and the agreement with these is overall good. The method is shown to be capable of reproducing the observed precessing vortex and central vortex cores and the profiles of mean and rms velocities are found to be captured to a good accuracy. The overall flow structure is shown to be virtually independent of Reynolds number

  14. Proximity hybridization-mediated isothermal exponential amplification for ultrasensitive electrochemical protein detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Y

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Yanyan Yu, Gaoxing Su, Hongyan Zhu, Qing Zhu, Yong Chen, Bohui Xu, Yuqin Li, Wei Zhang School of Pharmacy, Nantong University, Nantong, People’s Republic of China Abstract: In this study, we fabricated a novel electrochemical biosensing platform on the basis of target-triggered proximity hybridization-mediated isothermal exponential amplification reaction (EXPAR for ultrasensitive protein analysis. Through rational design, the aptamers for protein recognition were integrated within two DNA probes. Via proximity hybridization principle, the affinity protein-binding event was converted into DNA assembly process. The recognition of protein by aptamers can trigger the strand displacement through the increase of the local concentrations of the involved probes. As a consequence, the output DNA was displaced, which can hybridize with the duplex probes immobilized on the electrode surface subsequently, leading to the initiation of the EXPAR as well as the cleavage of duplex probes. Each cleavage will release the gold nanoparticles (AuNPs binding sequence. With the modification of G-quadruplex sequence, electrochemical signals were yielded by the AuNPs through oxidizing 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine in the presence of H2O2. The study we proposed exhibited high sensitivity toward platelet-derived growth factor BB (PDGF-BB with the detection limit of 52 fM. And, this method also showed great selectivity among the PDGF isoforms and performed well in spiked human serum samples. Keywords: electrochemical biosensor, proximity hybridization, PDGF-BB, isothermal exponential amplification, G-quadruplex 

  15. Rapid and Sensitive Isothermal Detection of Nucleic-acid Sequence by Multiple Cross Displacement Amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi; Wang, Yan; Ma, Ai-Jing; Li, Dong-Xun; Luo, Li-Juan; Liu, Dong-Xin; Jin, Dong; Liu, Kai; Ye, Chang-Yun

    2015-07-08

    We have devised a novel amplification strategy based on isothermal strand-displacement polymerization reaction, which was termed multiple cross displacement amplification (MCDA). The approach employed a set of ten specially designed primers spanning ten distinct regions of target sequence and was preceded at a constant temperature (61-65 °C). At the assay temperature, the double-stranded DNAs were at dynamic reaction environment of primer-template hybrid, thus the high concentration of primers annealed to the template strands without a denaturing step to initiate the synthesis. For the subsequent isothermal amplification step, a series of primer binding and extension events yielded several single-stranded DNAs and single-stranded single stem-loop DNA structures. Then, these DNA products enabled the strand-displacement reaction to enter into the exponential amplification. Three mainstream methods, including colorimetric indicators, agarose gel electrophoresis and real-time turbidity, were selected for monitoring the MCDA reaction. Moreover, the practical application of the MCDA assay was successfully evaluated by detecting the target pathogen nucleic acid in pork samples, which offered advantages on quick results, modest equipment requirements, easiness in operation, and high specificity and sensitivity. Here we expounded the basic MCDA mechanism and also provided details on an alternative (Single-MCDA assay, S-MCDA) to MCDA technique.

  16. The isothermal section at 500 deg. C of the Gd-Tb-Ga ternary system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, J.Q.; Jian, Y.X.; Ao, W.Q.; Zhuang, Y.H.; He, W.

    2006-01-01

    Phase equilibria in the Gd-Tb-Ga ternary system at 500 deg. C were investigated by X-ray powder diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry. The binary compounds, Gd 5 Ga 3 , Gd 3 Ga 2 , GdGa, GdGa 2 , Tb 5 Ga 3 , TbGa, TbGa 2 and TbGa 3 have been confirmed at 500 deg. C. No ternary compound was found in this system. The isothermal section of this system at 500 deg. C was constructed. It is composed of 7 single-phase regions, 8 two-phase regions and 2 three-phase regions. Four ternary continuous solid solutions (Gd, Tb), (Gd, Tb) 5 Ga 3 , (Gd, Tb)Ga, (Gd, Tb)Ga 2 were formed in this isothermal section. The maximum solid solubilities of Ga in (Gd, Tb) at 500 deg. C is 5.0 at.%. The homogeneity range of (Gd, Tb)Ga 2 is from 20 to 33.3 at.% Ga in Gd-Ga side but limited in Tb-Ga side. The solid solubilities of Ga in the other phases cannot be detected. The Curie temperatures of the Gd 0.6 Tb 0.4-x Ga x alloys increase from 270 to 298 K as x increases from 0 to 0.03

  17. Phosphate sorption by three potential filter materials as assessed by isothermal titration calorimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyngsie, Gry; Penn, Chad J; Hansen, Hans C B; Borggaard, Ole K

    2014-10-01

    Phosphorus eutrophication of lakes and streams, coming from drained farmlands, is a serious problem in areas with intensive agriculture. Installation of phosphate (P) sorbing filters at drain outlets may be a solution. The aim of this study was to improve the understanding of reactions involved in P sorption by three commercial P sorbing materials, i.e. Ca/Mg oxide-based Filtralite-P, Fe oxide-based CFH-12 and Limestone in two particle sizes (2-1 mm and 1-0.5 mm), by means of isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), sorption isotherms, sequential extractions and SEM-EDS. The results indicate that P retention by CFH is due to surface complexation by rapid formation of strong Fe-P bonds. In contrast, retention of P by Filtralite-P and Limestone strongly depends on pH and time and is interpreted due to formation of calcium phosphate precipitate(s). Consequently, CFH can unambiguously be recommended as P retention filter material in drain outlets, whereas the use of Filtralite-P and Limestone has certain (serious) limitations. Thus, Filtralite-P has high capacity to retain P but only at alkaline pH (pH ≥ 10) and P retention by Limestone requires long-time contact and a high ratio between sorbent and sorbate. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Single-experiment displacement assay for quantifying high-affinity binding by isothermal titration calorimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krainer, Georg; Keller, Sandro

    2015-04-01

    Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) is the gold standard for dissecting the thermodynamics of a biomolecular binding process within a single experiment. However, reliable determination of the dissociation constant (KD) from a single titration is typically limited to the range 100 μM>KD>1 nM. Interactions characterized by a lower KD can be assessed indirectly by so-called competition or displacement assays, provided that a suitable competitive ligand is available whose KD falls within the directly accessible window. However, this protocol is limited by the fact that it necessitates at least two titrations to characterize one high-affinity inhibitor, resulting in considerable consumption of both sample material and time. Here, we introduce a fast and efficient ITC displacement assay that allows for the simultaneous characterization of both a high-affinity ligand and a moderate-affinity ligand competing for the same binding site on a receptor within a single experiment. The protocol is based on a titration of the high-affinity ligand into a solution containing the moderate-affinity ligand bound to the receptor present in excess. The resulting biphasic binding isotherm enables accurate and precise determination of KD values and binding enthalpies (ΔH) of both ligands. We discuss the theoretical background underlying the approach, demonstrate its practical application to metal ion chelation, explore its potential and limitations with the aid of simulations and statistical analyses, and elaborate on potential applications to protein-inhibitor interactions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Asymptotic Approximations to the Non-Isothermal Distributed Activation Energy Model for Bio-Mass Pyrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhaundiyal Alok

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the influence of some parameters significant to biomass pyrolysis on the numerical solutions of the non-isothermal nth order distributed activation energy model (DAEM using the Gamma distribution and discusses the special case for the positive integer value of the scale parameter (λ, i.e. the Erlang distribution. Investigated parameters are the integral upper limit, the frequency factor, the heating rate, the reaction order, and the shape and rate parameters of the Gamma distribution. Influence of these parameters has been considered for the determination of the kinetic parameters of the non-isothermal nth order Gamma distribution from the experimentally derived thermoanalytical data of biomass pyrolysis. Mathematically, the effect of parameters on numerical solution is also used for predicting the behaviour of the unpyrolysized fraction of biomass with respect to temperature. Analysis of the mathematical model is based upon asymptotic expansions, which leads to the systematic methods for efficient way to determine the accurate approximations. The proposed method, therefore, provides a rapid and highly effective way for estimating the kinetic parameters and the distribution of activation energies.

  20. Martensitic transformation behaviour in sensitized SUS304 austenitic stainless steel during isothermal holding at low temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jae-hwa; Fukuda, Takashi; Kakeshita, Tomoyuki

    2009-01-01

    We investigated martensitic transformation behaviour in sensitized SUS304 austenitic stainless steel to determine the stability of the austenitic phase at low temperatures. We found that a specimen that was sensitized at 973 K for 100 h exhibits an isothermal martensitic transformation when the specimen is held in the temperature range between 60 and 260 K. We constructed a time-temperature-transformation (TTT) diagram corresponding to the formation of 0.5 vol. % α'-martensite. A magnetization measurement was used to evaluate the volume fraction of a'-martensite. The TTT diagram shows a double-C curve with two noses located at about 100 and 200 K. In-situ optical microscope observations reveal that the double C-curve is due to two different transformation sequences. That is, the upper part of the C-curve is due to a direct γ → α' martensitic transformation and the lower part of the C-curve is due to a successive γ → ψ → α' martensitic transformation. The direct γ → α' transformation occurs in the vicinity of grain boundaries while the successive γ → ψ' → α' transformation occurs near the centre of grains. A scanning electron microscope observation reveals that carbide particles of M 23 C 6 are formed in the grain boundaries. The concentration difference between the centre of the grains and regions near grain boundaries is the reason for the difference in the isothermal transformation sequence for the sensitized SUS304 stainless steel.