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Sample records for isoprostanes tested induced

  1. Leukotrienes and 8-isoprostane in exhaled breath condensate in bronchoprovocation tests with occupational allergens

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klusáčková, P.; Lebedová, J.; Kačer, P.; Kuzma, Marek; Brabec, Marek; Pelclová, D.; Fenclová, Z.; Navrátil, Tomáš

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 78, 4-5 (2008), s. 281-292 ISSN 0952-3278 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510; CEZ:AV0Z10300504; CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : occupational allergens * leukotrienes * 8-isoprostane Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.366, year: 2008

  2. Serum 8-isoprostane increased in pre-eclampsia

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    Besari Adi Pramono

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background The main causes of maternal mortality in Indonesia are pre-eclampsia, hemorrhage, and infection. Oxidative stress has a primary role in pre-eclampsia and one of its parameters is 8-isoprostane serum level. The objective of this study is to measure 8-isoprostane and to analyze the relationship between 8-isoprostane level and birth weight in pre-eclampsia. Methods A cross-sectional study involving 23 pre-eclampsia and 29 normotensive pregnant women with normal or cesarean delivery at Dr. Kariadi Hospital Semarang from January to May 2011. Collected maternal blood samples were assessed for 8-Isoprostane levels by means of a specific ELISA kit. Neonatal birth weight was measured immediately after delivery by means of calibrated baby scales. Differences in 8-isoprostane levels between pre-eclampsia and normotensive women were assessed using independent t-test for normal distributed data, and the Mann-Whitney test for non-normally distributed data. Results Mean 8-isoprostane level was significantly higher in women with pre-eclampsia than in normotensive women (62.52 ± 12.19 pg/mL vs 28.64 ± 8.81 pg/mL (p<0.05. Low birth weight was twice as frequent in pre-eclampsia than in normotensives. There was no correlation between 8-isoprostane serum level and neonatal birth weight in pre-eclampsia. Conclusion The level of 8-isoprostane was higher in pre-eclampsia than in normotensives. It is recommended to conduct further studies to determine whether 8-isoprostane may be used as a predictive marker of pre-eclampsia.

  3. HO-1 Upregulation Attenuates Adipocyte Dysfunction, Obesity, and Isoprostane Levels in Mice Fed High Fructose Diets

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    Zeid Khitan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Fructose metabolism is an unregulated metabolic pathway and excessive fructose consumption is known to activate ROS. HO-1 is a potent antioxidant gene that plays a key role in decreasing ROS and isoprostanes. We examined whether the fructose-mediated increase in adipocyte dysfunction involves an increase in isoprostanes and that pharmacological induction of HO-1 would decrease both isoprostane levels and adipogenesis. Methods and Results. We examined the effect of fructose, on adipogenesis in human MSCs in the presence and absence of CoPP, an inducer of HO-1. Fructose increased adipogenesis and the number of large lipid droplets while decreasing the number of small lipid droplets (P<0.05. Levels of heme and isoprostane in fructose treated MSC-derived adipocytes were increased. CoPP reversed these effects and markedly increased HO-1 and the Wnt signaling pathway. The high fructose diet increased heme levels in adipose tissue and increased circulating isoprostane levels (P<0.05 versus control. Fructose diets decreased HO-1 and adiponectin levels in adipose tissue. Induction of HO-1 by CoPP decreased isoprostane synthesis (P<0.05 versus fructose. Conclusion. Fructose treatment resulted in increased isoprostane production and adipocyte dysfunction, which was reversed by the increased expression of HO-1.

  4. Isoprostanes--markers of ischaemia reperfusion injury.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Sakamoto, H

    2012-02-03

    Ischaemia reperfusion injury is a common and important phenomenon that occurs predictably in patients undergoing such procedures as cardiopulmonary bypass, thrombolysis, surgery under tourniquet, organ transplantation or embolectomy. Oxidative stress and the resulting lipid peroxidation play a major role in reperfusion injury. Membrane and cellular dysfunction result and, subsequently, organ injury or failure may ensue. Traditional methods of quantifying ischaemia reperfusion injury, including measurement of malondialdehyde, lack specificity and sensitivity. It was reported in 1990 that isoprostanes, a series of prostaglandin-like compounds, are produced by the free radical-catalyzed peroxidation of arachidonic acid. Measurement of the isoprostane concentration in urine or plasma provides the most reliable, non-invasive method currently available to assess oxidative stress in vivo. Serial measurement of isoprostanes in biological fluids has enhanced our understanding of the mechanisms underlying ischaemia reperfusion injury itself and its role in certain diseases. Furthermore, measurement of the isoprostane concentration provides a means to assess the effects of prophylactic and therapeutic interventions. In the future, the development of rapid, simple assays for isoprostanes offers the potential to assess prognosis during and after ischaemia reperfusion events.

  5. Breath condensate levels of 8-isoprostane and leukotriene B4 after ozone inhalation are greater in sensitive versus nonsensitive subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfaro, Mario F; Walby, William F; Adams, William C; Schelegle, Edward S

    2007-01-01

    Ozone (O3) inhalation induces pulmonary function decrements and inflammation. The present study was designed to determine if a relationship exists between O3 induced pulmonary function changes and the presence of inflammatory markers as measured in exhaled breath condensates (EBCs) obtained from O3-sensitive and nonsensitive human subjects. Eight healthy adult volunteers (4 males/4 females, age 18 to 30 years) were studied, characterized as to their ozone sensitivity and placed into 2 groups (sensitive and nonsensitive) with each group having 2 males and 2 females. Subjects completed a 20-minute EBC collection and pulmonary function test (PFT) prior to a single 60-minute bout of cycle ergometer exercise (V(E) = 50-55 L/min) while breathing filtered air (FA) or 0.35 ppm O3. Subjective symptom scores (SSSs) were collected at 6, 20, 40, and 60 minutes during exposure. An immediate postexposure PFT was performed followed by an EBC collection. Subjective symptom scores, EBCs, and PFTs were collected at 1, 4 and 8 hours post exposure. EBCs were analyzed for prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), leukotriene B4 (LTB4), 8-isoprostane, and total nitric oxide (NO) metabolites (nitrate + nitrite content). Sensitive subjects, breathing O3, had significantly greater functional decrements in PFTs, increased SSSs, and increased rapid shallow breathing as well as elevated levels of 8-isoprostane and LTB4 in EBCs compared to those breathing FA. In addition, there were significant increases in nitrate + nitrite content in both sensitive and nonsensitive subjects breathing O3 compared to FA. These results indicate that sensitive subjects have elevated arachidonic acid metabolites in EBCs compared to nonsensitive subjects after O3 inhalation.

  6. Urinary F2-Isoprostanes and Metabolic Markers of Fat Oxidation

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    Dora Il’yasova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Metabolomic studies of increased fat oxidation showed increase in circulating acylcarnitines C2, C8, C10, and C12 and decrease in C3, C4, and C5. We hypothesize that urinary F2-isoprostanes reflect intensity of fatty acid oxidation and are associated with circulating C2, C8, C10, and C12 directly and with C3, C4, and C5 inversely. Four urinary F2-isoprostane isomers and serum acylcarnitines are quantified using LC-MS/MS within the Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Study nondiabetic cohort (n = 682. Cross-sectional associations between fasting urinary F2-isoprostanes (summarized as a composite index and the selected acylcarnitines are examined using generalized linear models. F2-isoprostane index is associated with C2 and C12 directly and with C5 inversely: the adjusted beta coefficients are 0.109, 0.072, and −0.094, respectively (P < 0.05. For these acylcarnitines and for F2-isoprostanes, the adjusted odds ratios (ORs of incident diabetes are calculated from logistic regression models: the ORs (95% CI are 0.77 (0.60–0.97, 0.79 (0.62–1.01, 1.18 (0.92–1.53, and 0.51 (0.35–0.76 for C2, C12, C5, and F2-isoprostanes, respectively. The direction of the associations between urinary F2-isoprostanes and three acylcarnitines (C2, C5, and C12 supports our hypothesis. The inverse associations of C2 and C12 and with incident diabetes are consistent with the suggested protective role of efficient fat oxidation.

  7. Serum 8,12-iso-iPF2α-VI isoprostane marker of oxidative damage and cognition deficits in children with konzo.

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    Bumoko G Makila-Mabe

    Full Text Available We sought to determine whether motor and cognitive deficits associated with cassava (food cyanogenic poisoning were associated with high concentrations of F2-isoprostanes, well-established indicators of oxidative damage. Concentrations of serum F2-isoprostanes were quantified by LC-MS/MS and anchored to measures of motor proficiency and cognitive performance, which were respectively assessed through BOT-2 (Bruininks/Oseretsky Test, 2nd Edition and KABC-II (Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children, 2nd edition testing of 40 Congolese children (21 with konzo and 19 presumably healthy controls, overall mean age (SD: 9.3 (3.2 years. Exposure to cyanide was ascertained by concentrations of its main metabolite thiocyanate (SCN in plasma and urine. Overall, SCN concentrations ranged from 91 to 325 and 172 to 1032 µmol/l in plasma and urine, respectively. Serum isoprostanes ranged from 0.1 to 0.8 (Isoprostane-III, 0.8 to 8.3 (total Isoprostane-III, 0.1 to 1.5 (Isoprostane-VI, 2.0 to 9.0 (total Isoprostane-VI, or 0.2 to 1.3 ng/ml (8,12-iso-iPF2α-VI isoprostane. Children with konzo poorly performed at the BOT-2 and KABC-II testing relative to presumably healthy children (p<0.01. Within regression models adjusting for age, gender, motor proficiency, and other biochemical variables, 8,12-iso-iPF2α-VI isoprostane was significantly associated with the overall cognitive performance (β = -32.36 (95% CI: -51.59 to -13.03; P<0.001. This model explained over 85% of variation of the KABC-II score in children with konzo, but was not significant in explaining the motor proficiency impairment. These findings suggest that cognitive deficits and, possibly, brain injury associated with cassava poisoning is mediated in part by oxidative damage in children with konzo. 8,12-iso-iPF2α-VI isoprostane appears to be a good marker of the neuropathogenic mechanisms of konzo and may be used to monitor the impact of interventional trials to prevent the neurotoxic effects of

  8. Pengaruh Pemberian Susu Coklat Terhadap Kadar F2Isoprostan pada Siswa di Pusat Pendidikan dan Latihan Olahraga Pelajar (PPLP Sumatera Barat

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    Dezi Ilham

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Latihan fisik yang berlebihan dapat meningkatkan produksi radikal bebas di dalam tubuh. Peningkatan radikalbebas ini kalau tidak dinetralisasi oleh antioksidan di dalam tubuh, maka terjadilah stres oksidatif yang dapatmenyebabkan terjadinya peroksidasi lipid, sehingga menghasilkan produk senyawa F2-isoprostan yang dapatberdampak terhadap berbagai masalah kesehatan. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk menentukan pengaruhpemberian susu coklat terhadap kadar F2-isoprostan. Penelitian ini merupakan eksperimental pre and post test controlgrup design terhadap 36 siswa atlet, yang memenuhi kriteria inklusi dan ekslusi. Subjek dibagi dua kelompok yaituyang diberikan perlakuan susu coklat dan kontrol susu putih. Susu diminum setelah latihan fisik rutin atlet sebanyaksatu kali sehari selama 15 hari. Kadar F2-isoprostan dinilai sebelum dan sesudah secara ELISA. Data dianalisisdengan paired sample t-Test, bermakna bila p<0,05. Hasil penelitian didapatkan rerata kadar F2-isoprostan sebelumperlakuan pada kelompok susu coklat adalah 65,98±14,61 pg/ml dan sesudah perlakuan adalah 45,55±13,74 pg/ml.Rerata kadar F2-isoprostan sebelum perlakuan pada kelompok kontrol susu putih adalah 54,24±20,44 pg/ml dansesudah perlakuan adalah 48,80±20,23 pg/ml. Kesimpulan yang diperoleh ada pengaruh yang bermakna dari reratakadar F2-isoprostan sebelum dan sesudah perlakuan baik pada kelompok perlakuan susu coklat dan kelompok kontrolsusu putih.Kata kunci: latihan fisik, radikal bebas, F2-isoprostan, susu coklatAbstract Excessive physical exercise can increase the production of free radicals in the body. The increase in freeradicals if not neutralized by antioxidants in the body and it caused oxidative stress which can cause lipid peroxidation,resulting in F2-isoprostane product compounds that can affect a variety of health problems. The objective of this studywas to determine the influence of milk chocolate on F2-isoprostane levels. This study was an experimental pre

  9. Elevation of isoprostanes in polycystic ovary syndrome and its relationship with cardiovascular risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calzada, M; López, N; Noguera, J A; Mendiola, J; Torres, A M

    2018-04-23

    To evaluate the plasma level of 8-isoprostanes in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. To also investigate whether there is a relationship between 8-isoprostanes and several cardiovascular risk factors. A total of 125 women with polycystic ovary syndrome and 169 healthy women were enrolled in this case-control study. 8-Isoprostanes and different parameters were measured in all subjects. Patients were evaluated for the presence of polycystic ovary syndrome according to the Rotterdam Consensus Conference criteria. 8-Isoprostanes levels were significantly higher in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (138.4 ± 104.1 pg/mL) compared with control group (68.6 ± 34.3 pg/mL) (p polycystic ovary syndrome patients with high 8-isoprostanes than those with normal 8-isoprostanes (p polycystic ovary syndrome group had a positive correlation with waist circumference, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, apolipoprotein B, homocysteine, insulin, homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance. Patients with polycystic ovary syndrome have higher 8-isoprostanes levels and it is associated with several cardiovascular risk factors.

  10. EIA and GC/MS analysis of 8-isoprostane in EBC of children with problematic asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carraro, S; Cogo, P E; Isak, I; Simonato, M; Corradi, M; Carnielli, V P; Baraldi, E

    2010-06-01

    Asthmatic airways are characterised by enhanced oxidative stress, which can be studied by measuring biomarkers, such as 8-isoprostane. The aims of the present study were: 1) to measure the concentrations of 8-isoprostane in exhaled breath condensate (EBC) and urine of children with problematic and well-controlled asthma; 2) to compare the concentrations of 8-isoprostane measured by gas chromatographic/negative ion chemical ionisation mass spectrometry (GC/NICI-MS) and by an enzymatic immunoassay (EIA). We recruited 20 asthmatic allergic children, 13 with well-controlled asthma and seven with problematic asthma. They underwent exhaled nitric oxide measurements and spirometry, and both EBC and urine samples were collected. 8-isoprostane was measured in EBC by GC/NICI-MS and EIA. 8-isoprostane concentrations in EBC were significantly higher in children with problematic asthma than in children with well-controlled asthma (p = 0.01). An acceptable reproducibility emerged between GC/NICI-MS and EIA (coefficient of reproducibility 11.5 pg x mL(-1)). 8-isoprostane levels measured in urine did not correlate with those measured in EBC. We showed that 8-isoprostane in EBC was significantly increased in children with problematic asthma, suggesting a role for oxidative stress in this asthma phenotype. In addition we found an acceptable reproducibility of EIA compared to GC/NICI-MS, even if the latter method had higher accuracy.

  11. Increased F3-Isoprostanes in the Canadian Inuit Population Could Be Cardioprotective by Limiting F2-Isoprostane Production.

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    Alkazemi, Dalal; Jackson, Robert L; Chan, Hing Man; Kubow, Stan

    2016-09-01

    F3-isoprostanes (F3-IsoPs), derived from peroxidation of eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5n-3), could be cardioprotective by limiting production of F2-isoprostanes (F2-IsoPs), a cardiovascular disease risk factor. The objective of the study was to determine whether the n-3-polyunsaturated (PUFA)-rich Inuit diet is associated with a lower plasma ratio of F2-IsoPs to F3-IsoPs. This was a cross-sectional observational study. The study was conducted in 36 Canadian Arctic Inuit communities. Participants included a random subset (n = 233) of Inuit adults taken from a population-based survey. Plasma F2-IsoPs and F3-IsoPs, cardiometabolic risk factors (blood lipids, C-reactive protein, blood pressure, fasting glucose) and markers of dietary exposure (erythrocyte n-3 and n-6 PUFA, blood levels of Se, mercury, polychlorinated biphenyls) were measured. Inuit aged 40 years old and older vs younger Inuit showed higher concentrations of plasma F3-IsoPs and erythrocyte n-3 PUFA and lower plasma F2-IsoPs concentrations despite having higher blood lipids, fasting glucose, systolic blood pressure, and percentage body fat. Plasma F3-IsoPs were not associated with any cardiometabolic measures. When subjects were categorized into tertiles according to total n-3 PUFA erythrocyte concentrations, F3-IsoPs increased with increasing tertiles, whereas the F2-IsoP to F3-IsoP ratio was lowest at the highest n-3 tertile. The F2-IsoP to F3-IsoP ratio was significantly predicted by C20:5n-3 (β= -.365, P = .002); C20:4n-6:C20:5n-3 (β = .056, P = .006), blood mercury (β = -.812, P =.015), blood Se (β = -1.95, P = .015), and smoking (β = .745, P = .025). Plasma F3-IsoPs were not associated with cardiometabolic risk factors previously seen with F2-IsoPs. Higher n-3 fatty acid status was associated with lower plasma F2-IsoPs and higher plasma F3-IsoPs, which provides partial explanation to the cardioprotective effects of the n-3 PUFA-rich Inuit diet.

  12. Prenatal phthalate exposure and 8-isoprostane among Mexican-American children with high prevalence of obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, V; Tindula, G; Huen, K; Bradman, A; Harley, K; Kogut, K; Calafat, A M; Nguyen, B; Parra, K; Ye, X; Eskenazi, B; Holland, N

    2017-04-01

    Oxidative stress has been linked to many obesity-related conditions among children including cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus and hypertension. Exposure to environmental chemicals such as phthalates, ubiquitously found in humans, may also generate reactive oxygen species and subsequent oxidative stress. We examined longitudinal changes of 8-isoprostane urinary concentrations, a validated biomarker of oxidative stress, and associations with maternal prenatal urinary concentrations of phthalate metabolites for 258 children at 5, 9 and 14 years of age participating in a birth cohort residing in an agricultural area in California. Phthalates are endocrine disruptors, and in utero exposure has been also linked to altered lipid metabolism, as well as adverse birth and neurodevelopmental outcomes. We found that median creatinine-corrected 8-isoprostane concentrations remained constant across all age groups and did not differ by sex. Total cholesterol, systolic and diastolic blood pressure were positively associated with 8-isoprostane in 14-year-old children. No associations were observed between 8-isoprostane and body mass index (BMI), BMI Z-score or waist circumference at any age. Concentrations of three metabolites of high molecular weight phthalates measured at 13 weeks of gestation (monobenzyl, monocarboxyoctyl and monocarboxynonyl phthalates) were negatively associated with 8-isoprostane concentrations among 9-year olds. However, at 14 years of age, isoprostane concentrations were positively associated with two other metabolites (mono(2-ethylhexyl) and mono(2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl) phthalates) measured in early pregnancy. Longitudinal data on 8-isoprostane in this pediatric population with a high prevalence of obesity provides new insight on certain potential cardiometabolic risks of prenatal exposure to phthalates.

  13. Areca nut components stimulate ADAM17, IL-1α, PGE2 and 8-isoprostane production in oral keratinocyte: role of reactive oxygen species, EGF and JAK signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Mei-Chi; Chan, Chiu-Po; Chen, Yi-Jane; Hsien, Hsiang-Chi; Chang, Ya-Ching; Yeung, Sin-Yuet; Jeng, Po-Yuan; Cheng, Ru-Hsiu; Hahn, Liang-Jiunn; Jeng, Jiiang-Huei

    2016-03-29

    Betel quid (BQ) chewing is an etiologic factor of oral submucous fibrosis (OSF) and oral cancer. There are 600 million BQ chewers worldwide. The mechanisms for the toxic and inflammatory responses of BQ are unclear. In this study, both areca nut (AN) extract (ANE) and arecoline stimulated epidermal growth factor (EGF) and interleukin-1α (IL-1α) production of gingival keratinocytes (GKs), whereas only ANE can stimulate a disintegrin and metalloproteinase 17 (ADAM17), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and 8-isoprostane production. ANE-induced EGF production was inhibited by catalase. Addition of anti-EGF neutralizing antibody attenuated ANE-induced cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), mature ADAM9 expression and PGE2 and 8-isoprostane production. ANE-induced IL-1α production was inhibited by catalase, anti-EGF antibody, PD153035 (EGF receptor antagonist) and U0126 (MEK inhibitor) but not by α-naphthoflavone (cytochrome p450-1A1 inhibitor). ANE-induced ADAM17 production was inhibited by pp2 (Src inhibitor), U0126, α-naphthoflavone and aspirin. AG490 (JAK inhibitor) prevented ANE-stimulated ADAM17, IL-1α, PGE2 production, COX-2 expression, ADAM9 maturation, and the ANE-induced decline in keratin 5 and 14, but showed little effect on cdc2 expression and EGF production. Moreover, ANE-induced 8-isoprostane production by GKs was inhibited by catalase, anti-EGF antibody, AG490, pp2, U0126, α-naphthoflavone, Zinc protoporphyrin (ZnPP) and aspirin. These results indicate that AN components may involve in BQ-induced oral cancer by induction of reactive oxygen species, EGF/EGFR, IL-1α, ADAMs, JAK, Src, MEK/ERK, CYP1A1, and COX signaling pathways, and the aberration of cell cycle and differentiation. Various blockers against ROS, EGF, IL-1α, ADAM, JAK, Src, MEK, CYP1A1, and COX can be used for prevention or treatment of BQ chewing-related diseases.

  14. Evaluation of oxidative status with exhaled breath 8-isoprostane levels in patients with hyperthyroidism.

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    Bastug, Emrah; Tasliyurt, Turker; Kutluturk, Faruk; Sahin, Safak; Yilmaz, Ayse; Sivgin, Hakan; Yelken, Berna Murat; Ozturk, Banu; Yilmaz, Abdulkerim; Sahin, Semsettin

    2013-12-01

    Studies conducted so far on the effect of hyperthyroidism on oxidative stress (OS) have employed blood and urine samples. Exhaled Breath Condensate (EBC) is a non-invasive technique used to take sample from lungs to determine many biological indications. The aim of the present study was determine the possibility of using 8- isoprostane levels in EBC as an indicator of OS in hyperthyroid patients. The present study was performed on 42 patients with hyperthyroidism and 42 healthy control subjects. Hyperthyroid patients included patients with newly diagnosed Graves' disease, toxic multinodular goiter and toxic adenoma. Exhaled breath condensates were collected from patients in each group using a condensing device. 8- isoprostane levels as an indicator of OS in EBC were detected via immunoassay method. Hyperthyroid patients and control groups had 8-isoprostane levels of 6.08±6.31 and 1.56±0.88 pg/ml, respectively. The difference between patient and control groups was statistically significant (phyperthyroid patients, eleven had Graves', 21 multinodular goiter, and 10 toxic adenoma diagnosis. There were no significant differences among patients of different diagnoses for 8-isoprostane levels (p=0.541). No significant correlations were found between 8-isoprostane and free thyroxine (fT4) or thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels. In the present study, 8-isoprostane levels in EBC of hyperthyroid patients were found to be significantly higher than that in healthy control group. This study is important in that it is the first to evaluate the effects on respiratory system of elevated OS of hyperthyroidism in EBC.

  15. F2α-isoprostane, Na+-K+ ATPase and membrane fluidity of placental syncytiotrophoblast cell in preeclamptic women with vitamin E supplementation

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    Franciscus D. Suyatna

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of our study was to analyze F2α-isoprostane level, Na+-K+ ATPase activity and placental syncytiotrophoblast cell membrane fluidity in preeclamptic women who received vitamin E supplementation.Methods: The study was conducted between September 2003 and February 2005 at Budi Kemuliaan Maternity Hospital, Central Jakarta. Samples were 6 preeclamptic women with vitamin E supplementation, 6 preeclamptic women without vitamin E supplementation and 6 normal pregnant women. The dose of vitamin E was 200 mg daily. F2α-isoprostane was measured with ELISA reader at λ of 450 nm. Cell membrane fluidity was measured by comparing the molar ratio of total cholesterol and cell membrane phospholipid concentration. The cholesterol was measured by Modular C800 using Roche reagent. Phospholipid was measured by Shimadzu RF5301PC spectrofluorometer (excitation 267 nm, emission 307 nm. Na+-K+ ATPase activity was inhibited by ouabain. Pi production was measured with Fiske and Subbarow method using spectrophotometer at λ of 660 nm. Data was analyzed using F test with one-way ANOVA.Results: Vitamin E supplementation in preeclamptic women decreased the oxidative stress, indicated by significantly lower level of F2α-isoprostane compared to those without vitamin E (26.72 ± 11.21 vs 41.85 ± 7.09 ng/mL, respectively, p = 0.017. Membrane fluidity in syncytiotrophoblast cell of preeclampsia with vitamin E group was maintained at 0.39 ± 0.08 while in those without vitamin E was 0.53 ± 0.14 (p = 0.04. Na+-K+ ATPase activity in syncytiotrophoblast cell membrane was not affected by vitamin E (p = 0.915.Conclusion: Vitamin E supplementation in preeclamptic women decreases F2α-isoprostane level and maintains cell membrane fluidity of syncytiotrophoblast cells; however, it does not increase Na+-K+ ATPase enzyme activity. (Med J Indones. 2012;21:225-9Keywords: F2α-isoprostane, membrane fluidity, Na+-K+ ATPase, preeclampsia, vitamin E

  16. 8-Isoprostane and leukotrienes in exhaled breath condensate in czech subjects with silicosis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pelclová, D.; Fenclová, Z.; Kačer, P.; Navrátil, Tomáš; Kuzma, Marek; Lebedová, J.; Klusáčková, P.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 6 (2007), s. 766-774 ISSN 0019-8366 Grant - others:GA MZd NR8107 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503; CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : silica * silicosis * 8-isoprostane * leukotrienes Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 0.792, year: 2007

  17. Evaluation of oxidative stress using exhaled breath 8‑isoprostane ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-08-05

    Aug 5, 2013 ... progress, plasma 8‑isoprostane levels significantly increase. A significant .... Horvath I, Hunt J, Barnes PJ, Alving K, Antczak A, Baraldi E, et al. ATS/ERS ... Lenaz G. Role of mitochondria in oxidative stress and ageing. Biochim ...

  18. Impaired renal function and increased urinary isoprostane excretion in Ghanaian women with pre-eclampsia

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    Tetteh PW

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Paul Winston Tetteh,1,4 Charles Antwi-Boasiako,1 Ben Gyan,3 Daniel Antwi,1 Festus Adzaku,1 Kwame Adu-Bonsaffoh,1,2 Samuel Obed21Department of Physiology, 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Ghana Medical School, Accra, Ghana; 3Department of Immunology, Noguchi Memorial Institute for Medical Research, University of Ghana, Legon, Ghana; 4Hubrecht Institute for Developmental Biology and Stem Cell Research, Uppsalalaan 8, Utrecht, The NetherlandsBackground: The cause of pre-eclampsia remains largely unknown, but oxidative stress (an imbalance favoring oxidant over antioxidant forces has been implicated in contributing to the clinical symptoms of hypertension and proteinuria. Assessment of oxidative stress in pre-eclampsia using urinary isoprostane has produced conflicting results, and it is likely that renal function may affect isoprostane excretion. The aim of this study was to determine the role of oxidative stress in the pathophysiology of pre-eclampsia and to assess the effect of renal function on isoprostane excretion in pre-eclampsia in the Ghanaian population.Methods: This was a case-controlled study, comprising 103 pre-eclamptic women and 107 normal pregnant controls and conducted at the Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital between December 2006 and May 2007. The study participants were enrolled in the study after meeting the inclusion criteria and signing their written informed consent. Oxidative stress was determined by measuring urinary excretion of isoprostane and total antioxidant capacity using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay technique. Renal function was assessed by calculating the estimated glomerular filtration rate using the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease formula.Results: The pre-eclampsia group had significantly (P = 0.0006 higher urinary isoprostane excretion (2.81 ± 0.14 ng/mg creatinine than the control group (2.01 ± 0.18 ng/mg creatinine and a significantly (P = 0.0008 lower total antioxidant power (1

  19. F2-isoprostanes and F4-neuroprostanes as markers of intracranial aneurysm development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syta-Krzyżanowska, Anna; Jarocka-Karpowicz, Iwona; Kochanowicz, Jan; Turek, Grzegorz; Rutkowski, Robert; Gorbacz, Krzysztof; Mariak, Zenon; Skrzydlewska, Elżbieta

    2018-04-24

    Intracranial aneurysms are common, occurring in about 1-2% of the population. Saccular aneurysm is a pouch-like pathological dilatation of an intracranial artery that develops when the cerebral artery wall becomes too weak to resist hemodynamic pressure and distends. The aim of this study was to determine whether the development of intracranial aneurysms and subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) affects neuronal phospholipid metabolism, and what influence different invasive treatments have on brain free radical phospholipid metabolism. The level of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) cyclization products - F2-isoprostanes and F4-neuroprostanes - was examined using liquid chromatography - mass spectrometry (LC-MS) in the plasma of patients with brain aneurysm and resulting subarachnoid hemorrhage. It was revealed that an aneurysm leads to the enhancement of lipid peroxidation with a significant increase in plasma F2-isoprostanes and F4-neuroprostanes (more than 3-fold and 11-fold, respectively) in comparison to healthy subjects. The rupture of an aneurysm results in hemorrhage and an additional increase in examined prostaglandin derivatives. The embolization and clipping of aneurysms contribute to a gradual restoration of metabolic homeostasis in brain cells, which is visible in the decrease in PUFA cyclization products. The results indicate that aneurysm development is associated with enhanced inflammation and oxidative stress, factors which favor lipid peroxidation, particularly in neurons, whose membranes are rich in docosahexaenoic acid, a precursor of F4-neuroprostanes.

  20. Urinary phthalate and phthalate alternative metabolites and isoprostane among couples undergoing fertility treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Haotian; Olmsted, Alexandra; Cantonwine, David E; Shahsavari, Shahin; Rahil, Tayyab; Sites, Cynthia; Pilsner, J Richard

    2017-02-01

    Epidemiological data suggest associations between phthalate exposures to a variety of adverse reproductive outcomes including reduced sperm quality and reproductive success. While mechanisms of these associations are not fully elucidated, oxidative stress has been implicated as a potential mediator. We examined associations of urinary metabolites of phthalates and phthalate alternative plasticizers with oxidative stress among couples seeking fertility treatment. Seventeen urinary plasticizer metabolites and 15-F2t isoprostane, a biomarker of oxidative stress, were quantified in spot samples from 50 couples seeking fertility treatment who enrolled in the Sperm Environmental Epigenetics and Development Study during 2014-2015. In multivariable analyses, percent change in isoprostane was positively associated with interquartile range increases for the oxidative metabolites of di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate, [mono-2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl phthalate (MEHHP; 20.0%, p=0.02), mono-2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl phthalate (MEOHP; 24.1%, p=0.01), and mono-2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl phthalate (MECPP; 24.1%, p=0.004)], mono-isobutyl phthalate (MiBP; 17.8%, p=0.02), mono-hydroxyisobutyl phthalate (MHiBP; 27.5%, p=0.003), and cyclohexane-1,2-dicarboxylic acid mono-hydroxy-isononyl ester (MHINCH; 32.3%, p=0.002). Stratification of participants by sex revealed that isoprostane was positively associated with MHiBP (41.4%, p=0.01) and monocarboxy-isononyl phthalate (MCNP; 26.0%, p=0.02) among females and MEOHP (35.8%, p=0.03), MiBP (29.2%, p=0.01), MHiBP (34.7%, p=0.007) and MHINCH (49.0%, p=0.002) among males. Our results suggest that exposure to phthalates and phthalate replacements are associated with higher levels of oxidative stress in a sex-specific manner. Additional studies are needed to replicate our findings and to examine the potential health implications of the use of phthalates and alternative phthalates in consumer end products. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Quantitative Analysis of Free 15-F2t-Isoprostane from Plasma of Obstructive Sleep Apnea Patients Using Enzyme Linked Immunosorbe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertha Rusdi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available 15-F2t-isoprostane is a biomarker in assessment of oxidative stress status that due to its relatively low concentration in biological fluid and also has many isomers, the 15-F2t-isoprostane sample need to be extracted prior to the quantifying processes. Extraction techniques commonly used to extract 15-F2t-isoprostane are solid phase extraction (SPE and immunoaffinity extraction. Improvements to the SPE and immunoaffinity extraction techniques had been conducted, and the recovery results was then compared. The quantification of 15-F2t-isoprostane then was conducted using Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA method. Then followed by the examination of the plasma recovery results. Extraction technique which had the highest recovery then was used to quantify 15-F2t-isoprostane from plasma of Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA patients. Immunoaffinity extraction technique has a good recovery result. OSA patients have the tendency to have high 15-F2t-isoprostane concentrations in the plasma, therefore have a potential risk to get diseases related to the biological activities of 15-F2t-isoprostane, such as arteriosclerosis.

  2. Recent approaches to the total synthesis of phytoprostanes, isoprostanes and neuroprostanes as important products of lipid oxidative stress and biomarkers of disease

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jahn, Emanuela; Durand, T.; Galano, J. M.; Jahn, Ullrich

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 108, č. 4 (2014), s. 301-319 ISSN 0009-2770 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : lipids * oxidative stress * phytoprostanes * isoprostanes * neuroprostanes * total synthesis Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 0.272, year: 2014

  3. Isoprostanes and Neuroprostanes as Biomarkers of Oxidative Stress in Neurodegenerative Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Miller

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Accumulating data shows that oxidative stress plays a crucial role in neurodegenerative disorders. The literature data indicate that in vivo or postmortem cerebrospinal fluid and brain tissue levels of F2-isoprostanes (F2-IsoPs especially F4-neuroprotanes (F4-NPs are significantly increased in some neurodegenerative diseases: multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer's disease, Huntington's disease, and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Central nervous system is the most metabolically active organ of the body characterized by high requirement for oxygen and relatively low antioxidative activity, what makes neurons and glia highly susceptible to destruction by reactive oxygen/nitrogen species and neurodegeneration. The discovery of F2-IsoPs and F4-NPs as markers of lipid peroxidation caused by the free radicals has opened up new areas of investigation regarding the role of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of human neurodegenerative diseases. This review focuses on the relationship between F2-IsoPs and F4-NPs as biomarkers of oxidative stress and neurodegenerative diseases. We summarize the knowledge of these novel biomarkers of oxidative stress and the advantages of monitoring their formation to better define the involvement of oxidative stress in neurological diseases.

  4. Classifying oxidative stress by F2-isoprostane levels across human diseases: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van 't Erve, Thomas J; Kadiiska, Maria B; London, Stephanie J; Mason, Ronald P

    2017-08-01

    The notion that oxidative stress plays a role in virtually every human disease and environmental exposure has become ingrained in everyday knowledge. However, mounting evidence regarding the lack of specificity of biomarkers traditionally used as indicators of oxidative stress in human disease and exposures now necessitates re-evaluation. To prioritize these re-evaluations, published literature was comprehensively analyzed in a meta-analysis to quantitatively classify the levels of systemic oxidative damage across human disease and in response to environmental exposures. In this meta-analysis, the F 2 -isoprostane, 8-iso-PGF 2α , was specifically chosen as the representative marker of oxidative damage. To combine published values across measurement methods and specimens, the standardized mean differences (Hedges' g) in 8-iso-PGF 2α levels between affected and control populations were calculated. The meta-analysis resulted in a classification of oxidative damage levels as measured by 8-iso-PGF 2α across 50 human health outcomes and exposures from 242 distinct publications. Relatively small increases in 8-iso-PGF 2α levels (ganalysis of published data. This analysis provides knowledge on the true involvement of oxidative damage across human health outcomes as well as utilizes past research to prioritize those conditions requiring further scrutiny on the mechanisms of biomarker generation. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Novel Eicosapentaenoic Acid-derived F3-isoprostanes as Biomarkers of Lipid Peroxidation*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Wen-Liang; Paschos, Georgios; Fries, Susanne; Reilly, Muredach P.; Yu, Ying; Rokach, Joshua; Chang, Chih-Tsung; Patel, Pranav; Lawson, John A.; FitzGerald, Garret A.

    2009-01-01

    Isoprostanes (iPs) are prostaglandin (PG) isomers generated by free radical-catalyzed peroxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). Urinary F2-iPs, PGF2α isomers derived from arachidonic acid (AA) are used as indices of lipid peroxidation in vivo. We now report the characterization of two major F3-iPs, 5-epi-8,12-iso-iPF3α-VI and 8,12-iso-iPF3α-VI, derived from the ω-3 fatty acid, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). Although the potential therapeutic benefits of EPA receive much attention, a shift toward a diet rich in ω-3 PUFAs may also predispose to enhanced lipid peroxidation. Urinary 5-epi-8,12-iso-iPF3α-VI and 8,12-iso-iPF3α-VI are highly correlated and unaltered by cyclooxygenase inhibition in humans. Fish oil dose-dependently elevates urinary F3-iPs in mice and a shift in dietary ω-3/ω-6 PUFAs is reflected by an increasing slope [m] of the line relating urinary 8, 12-iso-iPF3α-VI and 8,12-iso-iPF2α-VI. Administration of bacterial lipopolysaccharide evokes a reversible increase in both urinary 8,12-iso-iPF3α-VI and 8,12-iso-iPF2α-VI in humans on an ad lib diet. However, while excretion of the iPs is highly correlated (R2 median = 0.8), [m] varies by an order of magnitude, reflecting marked inter-individual variability in the relative peroxidation of ω-3 versus ω-6 substrates. Clustered analysis of F2- and F3-iPs refines assessment of the oxidant stress response to an inflammatory stimulus in vivo by integrating variability in dietary intake of ω-3/ω-6 PUFAs. PMID:19520854

  6. Does Refactoring of Test Smells Induce Fixing Flaky Tests?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palomba, F.; Zaidman, A.E.

    2017-01-01

    Regression testing is a core activity that allows developers to ensure that source code changes do not introduce bugs. An important prerequisite then is that test cases are deterministic. However, this is not always the case as some tests suffer from socalled flakiness. Flaky tests have serious

  7. Outdoor air pollution, exhaled 8-isoprostane and current asthma in adults: the EGEA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havet, Anaïs; Zerimech, Farid; Sanchez, Margaux; Siroux, Valérie; Le Moual, Nicole; Brunekreef, Bert; Stempfelet, Morgane; Künzli, Nino; Jacquemin, Bénédicte; Matran, Régis; Nadif, Rachel

    2018-04-01

    Associations between outdoor air pollution and asthma in adults are still scarce, and the underlying biological mechanisms are poorly understood. Our aim was to study the associations between 1) long-term exposure to outdoor air pollution and current asthma, 2) exhaled 8-isoprostane (8-iso; a biomarker related to oxidative stress) and current asthma, and 3) outdoor air pollution and exhaled 8-iso.Cross-sectional analyses were conducted in 608 adults (39% with current asthma) from the first follow-up of the French case-control and family study on asthma (EGEA; the Epidemiological study of the Genetic and Environmental factors of Asthma). Data on nitrogen dioxide, nitrogen oxides, particulate matter with a diameter ≤10 and ≤2.5 µm (PM 10 and PM 2.5 ), road traffic, and ozone (O 3 ) were from ESCAPE (European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects) and IFEN (French Institute for the Environment) assessments. Models took account of city and familial dependence.The risk of current asthma increased with traffic intensity (adjusted (a)OR 1.09 (95% CI 1.00-1.18) per 5000 vehicles per day), with O 3 exposure (aOR 2.04 (95% CI 1.27-3.29) per 10 µg·m -3 ) and with exhaled 8-iso concentration (aOR 1.50 (95% CI 1.06-2.12) per 1 pg·mL -1 ). Among participants without asthma, exhaled 8-iso concentration increased with PM 2.5 exposure (adjusted (a)β 0.23 (95% CI 0.005-0.46) per 5 µg·m -3 ), and decreased with O 3 and O 3-summer exposures (aβ -0.20 (95% CI -0.39- -0.01) and aβ -0.52 (95% CI -0.77- -0.26) per 10 µg·m -3 , respectively).Our results add new insights into a potential role of oxidative stress in the associations between outdoor air pollution and asthma in adults. Copyright ©ERS 2018.

  8. Testing for Exercise-Induced Bronchoconstriction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brannan, John D; Porsbjerg, Celeste

    2018-01-01

    of an individual who may be at risk during a recreational sporting activity or when exercising as an occupational duty. EIB can be identified with laboratory exercise testing or surrogate tests for EIB. These include eucapnic voluntary hyperpnea and osmotic stimuli (eg, inhaled mannitol) and offer improved...

  9. Oxidative Stress in Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS): No Systemically Elevated Levels of Malondialdehyde, F2-Isoprostanes and 8OHdG in a Selected Sample of Patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischer, S.G.L.; Perez, R.S.G.M.; Nouta, J.; Zuurmond, W.W.A.; Scheffer, P.G.

    2013-01-01

    Exaggerated inflammation and oxidative stress are involved in the pathogenesis of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS). However, studies assessing markers for oxidative stress in CRPS patients are limited. In this study, markers for lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde and F2-isoprostanes) and DNA

  10. Toward the Elucidation of the Metabolism of 15-E2-Isoprostane: The Total Synthesis of the Methyl Ester of a Potential Central Metabolite

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jahn, Ullrich; Dinca, E.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 75, č. 13 (2010), s. 4480-4491 ISSN 0022-3263 Grant - others:DFG(DE) Ja896/3-1 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : isoprostane * total synthesis * radical anion cyclization Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 4.002, year: 2010

  11. Space shuttle pilot-induced-oscillation research testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, B. G.

    1984-01-01

    The simulation requirements for investigation of pilot-induced-oscillation (PIO) characteristics during the landing phase are discussed. Orbiters simulations and F-8 digital fly-by-wire aircraft tests are addressed.

  12. Sleep duration, nightshift work, and the timing of meals and urinary levels of 8-isoprostane and 6-sulfatoxymelatonin in Japanese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagata, Chisato; Tamura, Takashi; Wada, Keiko; Konishi, Kie; Goto, Yuko; Nagao, Yasuko; Ishihara, Kazuhiro; Yamamoto, Satoru

    2017-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that disruption of circadian rhythms affects human health. Shift work and sleep deprivation are thought to disrupt the normal light-dark cycle, although the disruption due to shiftwork may be dependent on sleep deprivation. Both conditions have been suggested to be associated with an increased risk of cardiometabolic disorders. Non-photic environmental factors, such as the timing of eating, are also thought to regulate circadian rhythm and thus, may have effects on health, but the evidence from human studies is scarce. Oxidative stress is a risk factor of cardiometabolic disorders. Some laboratory studies suggest an involvement of circadian clock genes in the regulation of the redox system. The present study aimed to examine the association of sleeping habits, nightshift work, and the timing of meals with urinary levels of 8-isoprostane, a marker of oxidative stress, and 6-sulfatoxymelatonin, the principal metabolite of melatonin. Study subjects were 542 women who had previously attended a breast cancer mass screening in a community in Japan. Information on bedtimes and wake-up times, history of nightshift work, and the timing of meals was obtained by a self-administered questionnaire. The 8-isoprostane and 6-sulfatoxymelatonin were measured using the first morning void of urine and expressed per mg of creatinine. The geometric mean of 8-isoprostane levels was 12.1% higher in women with ≤6 hours of sleep than that in those with >8 hours of sleep on weekdays, and longer sleep duration on weekdays was significantly associated with lower urinary levels of 8-isoprostane after controlling for covariates (p for trend = 0.04). Women who were currently working the nightshift had a 33.3% higher geometric mean of 8-isoprostane levels than those who were not working nightshift (p = 0.03). Urinary 6-sulfatoxymelatonin levels were unrelated to sleep habits or nightshift work. Women who ate breakfast at irregular times had a 19.8% higher

  13. Development of turbopump cavitation performance test facility and the test of inducer performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohn, Dong Kee; Kim, Chun Tak; Yoon, Min Soo; Cha, Bong Jun; Kim, Jin Han; Yang, Soo Seok

    2001-01-01

    A performance test facility for turbopump inducer cavitation was developed and the inducer cavitation performance tests were performed. Major components of the performance test facility are driving unit, test section, piping, water tank, and data acquisition and control system. The maximum of testing capability of this facility are as follows: flow rate - 30kg/s; pressure - 13 bar, rotational speed - 10,000rpm. This cavitation test facility is characterized by the booster pump installed at the outlet of the pump that extends the flow rate range, and by the pressure control system that makes the line pressure down to vapor pressure. The vacuum pump is used for removing the dissolved air in the water as well as the line pressure. Performance tests were carried out and preliminary data of test model inducer were obtained. The cavitation performance test and cavitation bubble flow visualization were also made. This facility is originally designed for turbopump inducer performance test and cavitation test. However it can be applied to the pump impeller performance test in the future with little modification

  14. Implications of Isoprostanes and Matrix Metalloproteinase-7 Having Potential Role in the Development of Colorectal Cancer in Males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmood Rasool

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundColorectal cancer (CRC is the third most common type of cancer and leading cause of death worldwide. Major risk factors involved in the development of CRC are increased dietary sources, genetics, and increasing age. Purpose of the study was to find the role of different variables in the progression of CRC.Methodology50 blood samples from CRC patients and 20 samples from control were collected. Serum was separated from the blood by centrifugation. This serum was assessed for several antioxidants like superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, catalase, vitamin A, C, and E, and pro-oxidants such as malondialdehyde, advanced oxidation protein products (AOPPs, and AGEs according to their respective protocols. Matrix metalloproteinase-7 (MMP-7 and isoprostanes were assessed by ELISA kits.ResultsLower levels of GSH (4.86 ± 0.78 vs 9.65 ± 1.13 μg/dl, SOD (0.08 ± 0.012 vs 0.46 ± 0.017 μg/dl, CAT (2.45 ± 0.03 vs 4.22 ± 0.19 μmol/mol of protein, and GRx (5.16 ± 0.06 vs 7.23 ± 0.36 μmol/ml in the diseased group were recorded as compared with control. Higher levels of GPx (6.64 ± 0.19 mmol/dl were observed in the subjects in comparison with control group (1.58 ± 0.30 mmol/dl. Highly significant decreased levels of vitamin A (0.81 ± 0.07 vs 2.37 ± 0.15 mg/ml, vitamin E (15.42 ± 1.26 vs 25.96 ± 2.19 mg/ml, and vitamin C (47.67 ± 7.69 vs 80.37 ± 10.21 mg/ml were observed in the patients in contrast to control group. The reversal of antioxidants in later stages of CRC may be due to compensatory mechanisms in cancerous cells. The levels of MDA (nmol/ml were also assessed, which shows significantly increased level in CRC patients as compared with control groups (3.67 ± 0.19 vs 1.31 ± 0.27. The levels of protein oxidation products [AGEs (2.74 ± 0.16 vs 0.84 ± 0.05 IU and AOPPs (1.32

  15. Estimation of γ irradiation induced genetic damage by Ames test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosoda, Eiko

    1999-01-01

    Mutation by 60 Co γ irradiation was studied in five different histidine-requiring auxotrophs of Salmonella typhimurium. The strains TA98 (sensitive to frameshift) and TA100 (sensitive to base-pair substitution) were irradiated (10-84 Gy and 45-317 Gy, respectively) and revertants were counted. TA98 exhibited radiation-induced revertants, 2.8 fold of spontaneous revertants, although no significant increase was detected in TA100. Then, three other frameshift-sensitive strains TA1537, TA1538 and TA94 were irradiated in a dose of 61-167 Gy. Only in TA94, revertants increased 3.5 fold. Since spontaneous revertants are known to be independent of cell density, a decrease of bacterial number by γ irradiation was confirmed not to affect the induced revertants by dilution test. Thus the standard Ames Salmonella assay identified γ irradiation was confirmed not to affect the induced revertants by dilution test. Thus the standard Ames Salmonella assay identified γ irradiation as a mutagenetic agent. The mutagenicity of dinitropyrene, a mutagen widely existing in food, and dismutagenicity of boiling water insoluble fraction of Hizikia fusiforme, edible marine alga, were tested on γ induced revertant formation in TA98 and TA94. Dinitropyrene synergistically increased γ induced revertants and Hizikia insoluble fraction reduced the synergistic effect of dinitropyrene dependently on the concentration. (author)

  16. Disturbance induced by surface preparation on instrumented indentation test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yugang; Kanouté, Pascale; François, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Surface preparation, which may induce considerable sample disturbance, plays an important role in instrumented indentation test (IIT). In this study, the sample disturbance (mainly divided into residual stresses and plastic strain) induced by the surface preparation process of instrumented indentation test specimens were investigated with both experimental tests and numerical simulations. Grazing incidence X-ray diffractions (GIXRD) and uniaxial tensile tests were conducted for characterizing the residual stresses and high plastic strain in the top surface layers of a carefully mechanically polished indentation sample, which, in the present work, is made of commercially pure titanium. Instrumented indentation tests and the corresponding finite element simulations were performed as well. For comparison, a reference sample (carefully mechanically polished & electrolytically polished) which represents the raw material was prepared and tested. Results showed that a careful mechanical polishing procedure can effectively reduce the level of residual stresses induced by this process. However, the high plastic strain in the surface region imposed by the polishing process is significant. The induced plastic strain can affect a depth up to 5 µm, which is deeper than the maximum penetration depth h max (3 µm) used for the instrumented indentation tests. In the near surface layer (in the range of depth about 350 nm), the plastic strain levels are fairly high. In the very top layer, the plastic strain was even estimated to reach more than 60%. The simultaneous use of indentation tests and numerical simulations showed that the existence of high plastic strain in the surface region will make the load vs depth (P–h) curve shift upwards, the contact hardness (H) increase and the contact stiffness (S) decrease

  17. Disturbance induced by surface preparation on instrumented indentation test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yugang, E-mail: yugang.li@utt.fr [Université de Technologie de Troyes (UTT), ICD-LASMIS, UMR CNRS 6281, 12, rue Marie Curie-CS 42060, 10010 Troyes Cedex (France); Kanouté, Pascale, E-mail: pascale.kanoute@onera.fr [Université de Technologie de Troyes (UTT), ICD-LASMIS, UMR CNRS 6281, 12, rue Marie Curie-CS 42060, 10010 Troyes Cedex (France); The French Aerospace Lab (ONERA), DMSM/MCE, 29 avenue de la Division Leclerc-BP 72, F-92322 Chatillon Cedex (France); François, Manuel, E-mail: manuel.francois@utt.fr [Université de Technologie de Troyes (UTT), ICD-LASMIS, UMR CNRS 6281, 12, rue Marie Curie-CS 42060, 10010 Troyes Cedex (France)

    2015-08-26

    Surface preparation, which may induce considerable sample disturbance, plays an important role in instrumented indentation test (IIT). In this study, the sample disturbance (mainly divided into residual stresses and plastic strain) induced by the surface preparation process of instrumented indentation test specimens were investigated with both experimental tests and numerical simulations. Grazing incidence X-ray diffractions (GIXRD) and uniaxial tensile tests were conducted for characterizing the residual stresses and high plastic strain in the top surface layers of a carefully mechanically polished indentation sample, which, in the present work, is made of commercially pure titanium. Instrumented indentation tests and the corresponding finite element simulations were performed as well. For comparison, a reference sample (carefully mechanically polished & electrolytically polished) which represents the raw material was prepared and tested. Results showed that a careful mechanical polishing procedure can effectively reduce the level of residual stresses induced by this process. However, the high plastic strain in the surface region imposed by the polishing process is significant. The induced plastic strain can affect a depth up to 5 µm, which is deeper than the maximum penetration depth h{sub max} (3 µm) used for the instrumented indentation tests. In the near surface layer (in the range of depth about 350 nm), the plastic strain levels are fairly high. In the very top layer, the plastic strain was even estimated to reach more than 60%. The simultaneous use of indentation tests and numerical simulations showed that the existence of high plastic strain in the surface region will make the load vs depth (P–h) curve shift upwards, the contact hardness (H) increase and the contact stiffness (S) decrease.

  18. Are Serum Levels of F2-Isoprostane and Oxidized-LDL Related to Vitamin D Status in Type 2 Diabetic Patients? A Case-Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hassan Javanbakht

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Considerable evidence suggests that oxidative stress affects diabetes mellitus (DM and contributes to its complications. Vitamin D has been shown to possess antioxidant properties. The aim of this study was to determine the association between serum levels of calcifediol (25-OH-D, an indicator of vitamin D status, and lipid profiles with oxidative stress in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. Methods: In this case-control study, 57 T2DM patients with low vitamin D status ( 30 ng/mL were enrolled. Fasting concentrations of 25-OH-D, calcium, phosphorus, parathyroid hormone (PTH, lipid profiles, fasting blood sugar (FBS, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c, F2-isoprostane, and oxidized-low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL were measured. Results: The mean fasting serum concentrations of 25-OH-D, calcium, and phosphorus in patients with low vitamin D status were significantly lower than in controls (p < 0.001. The mean concentrations of ox-LDL, F2-isoprostane, total cholesterol, and LDL were significantly higher in patients with low vitamin D status than in controls. There was a negative correlation between vitamin D levels and F2-isoprostane (r = 0.647and P = 0.0001, LDL (r = -0.218 and P = 0.030, and ox-LDL (r = -0.637 and P = 0.0001. Conclusions: The results of present study indicated that serum concentrations of 25-OH-D were inversely correlated with F2-isoprostane, LDL, and ox-LDL. Therefore, vitamin D may have a beneficial effect on the control of lipid profiles and oxidative stress in T2DM patients.

  19. Maternal plasma levels of interleukin-6, C-reactive protein, vitamins C, E and A, 8-isoprostane and oxidative status in women with preterm premature rupture of membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilhan, Nevin; Celik, Ebru; Kumbak, Banu

    2015-02-01

    Preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM) is associated with significant maternal and perinatal morbidity. This study examined maternal oxidative stress in PPROM. This was a prospective cross-sectional study conducted in a university hospital. A total of 72 pregnant women were recruited into two groups, those with PPROM (38 cases) and those without PPROM (34 controls) matched for gestational age. Plasma interleukin-6, C-reactive protein, vitamins C, E and A, 8-isoprostane, total oxidant status (TOS) and antioxidant status (TAS) were determined for all study participants and the data were compared between the PPROM and control groups. Both case and control groups were comparably matched in age, parity, gestational age and smoking status. There was a significant association between low 8-isoprostane, low vitamin C and high total oxidant status and the occurrence of PPROM (p vitamin C and 8-isoprostane levels were lower and TOS higher in women with PPROM. Further research is needed to identify robust biological markers for the prevention and also prognosis of PPROM.

  20. Novel liquid chromatography method based on linear weighted regression for the fast determination of isoprostane isomers in plasma samples using sensitive tandem mass spectrometry detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aszyk, Justyna; Kot, Jacek; Tkachenko, Yurii; Woźniak, Michał; Bogucka-Kocka, Anna; Kot-Wasik, Agata

    2017-04-15

    A simple, fast, sensitive and accurate methodology based on a LLE followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for simultaneous determination of four regioisomers (8-iso prostaglandin F 2α , 8-iso-15(R)-prostaglandin F 2α , 11β-prostaglandin F 2α , 15(R)-prostaglandin F 2α ) in routine analysis of human plasma samples was developed. Isoprostanes are stable products of arachidonic acid peroxidation and are regarded as the most reliable markers of oxidative stress in vivo. Validation of method was performed by evaluation of the key analytical parameters such as: matrix effect, analytical curve, trueness, precision, limits of detection and limits of quantification. As a homoscedasticity was not met for analytical data, weighted linear regression was applied in order to improve the accuracy at the lower end points of calibration curve. The detection limits (LODs) ranged from 1.0 to 2.1pg/mL. For plasma samples spiked with the isoprostanes at the level of 50pg/mL, intra-and interday repeatability ranged from 2.1 to 3.5% and 0.1 to 5.1%, respectively. The applicability of the proposed approach has been verified by monitoring of isoprostane isomers level in plasma samples collected from young patients (n=8) subjected to hyperbaric hyperoxia (100% oxygen at 280kPa(a) for 30min) in a multiplace hyperbaric chamber. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. High 15-F2t-Isoprostane Levels in Patients with a Previous History of Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer: The Effects of Supplementary Antioxidant Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betânia de Jesus e Silva de Almendra Freitas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Phase I of this study was aimed at comparing the profiles of oxidative stress biomarkers in patients with history of nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC, previously treated with surgery, to the healthy subjects. Phase II aimed to evaluate the effects of supplementary antioxidant therapy on the levels of biomarkers in the case group. Materials and Methods. In Phase I, oxidative stress biomarkers were measured in blood samples obtained from 24 healthy subjects and 60 patients with history of NMSC previously treated with surgery. In Phase II, the 60 patients with history of NMSC were randomized into two subgroups, one receiving placebo (n=34 and the other (n=26 receiving vitamin C, vitamin E, and zinc supplementation for 8 weeks, followed by reevaluation of biomarkers. Results. In Phase I, patients with history of NMSC showed increased plasma concentrations of all biomarkers, but only 15-F2t-isoprostane was significantly higher than in the healthy subjects. Risk of NMSC increased by 4% for each additional 1 pg/mL increase in 15-F2t-isoprostane. In Phase II, supplementation did not significantly reduce levels of oxidative stress biomarkers. Conclusion. Patients with history of NMSC had significantly high 15-F2t-isoprostane plasma levels; supplementation did not result in significant reduction of oxidative stress biomarkers. This trial was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (ID NCT02248584.

  2. Unresolved issues in the analysis of F2-isoprostanes, F4-neuroprostanes, isofurans, neurofurans, and F2-dihomo-isoprostanes in body fluids and tissue using gas chromatography/negative-ion chemical-ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, H-C; Wei, H-J; Lin, C-L

    2015-01-01

    F2-isoprostanes (F2-IsoPs) generated from arachidonic acid (AA) have been recognized as the most reliable marker of nonenzymatic lipid peroxidation in vivo. F2-IsoPs are initially produced in esterified form on phospholipids, and then released into body fluids in free form. The same mechanism can lead to generation of F4-neuroprostanes (F4-NPs) and F2-dihomo-IsoPs from docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and adrenic acid, respectively. In addition, isofurans (IsoFs) and neurofurans (NFs) may be preferentially produced from AA and DHA, respectively, under high oxygen tension. The detection of F2-IsoPs using gas chromatography/negative-ion chemical-ionization mass spectrometry (GC/NICI-MS) has been widely employed, which is important for human body fluids containing low quantity of free-form F2-IsoPs. F4-NPs have also been detected using GC/NICI-MS, but multiple peaks need to be quantified. In this paper, we summarize the basic workflow of the GC/NICI-MS method for analyzing F2-IsoPs and F4-NPs, and various formats of assays conducted by different groups. We then discuss the feasibility of simultaneous analysis of IsoFs, NFs, and F2-dihomo-IsoPs with F2-IsoPs or F4-NPs. Representative GC chromatograms for analyzing these markers in human body fluids and rat brain tissue are demonstrated. Furthermore, we discuss several factors that may affect the performance of the analysis, such as those related to the sample processing steps, interference from specimens, types of GC liners used, and the addition of electron multiplier voltage in the method setting for the MS detector. Finally, we question the appropriateness of measuring total (free plus esterified) levels of these markers in body fluids.

  3. A Mediterranean Diet Reduces F2-Isoprostanes and Triglycerides among Older Australian Men and Women after 6 Months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Courtney Rose; Bryan, Janet; Hodgson, Jonathan M; Woodman, Richard; Murphy, Karen J

    2017-07-01

    Background: Health benefits of a Mediterranean dietary pattern have been shown. However, there are few data on the effects of increased adherence to a Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) in non-Mediterranean countries. Objective: We aimed to determine whether adherence to a MedDiet would result in changes in plasma lipids, glucose and insulin, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), and F 2 -isoprostanes (F 2 -IsoPs) in an Australian population. Methods: The study was a 6-mo parallel, randomized, controlled dietary intervention trial. We recruited 166 participants aged ≥65 y. Participants were stratified on body mass index, sex, and age and assigned to receive either a MedDiet or a habitual diet (HabDiet). The primary outcome was cognitive function, reported elsewhere. As secondary outcomes, assessment of fasting total, LDL, and HDL cholesterol; triglycerides (TGs); glucose; insulin; hs-CRP; and F 2 -IsoPs was completed at baseline and at 3 and 6 mo. The MedDiet group followed a prescribed diet containing 15-45 mL extra-virgin olive oil/d, abundant vegetables, fruit, nuts, legumes, and whole grains, as well as moderate fish, poultry, and dairy foods. Dietary intake was measured by 3-d weighed food records at baseline and at 2 and 4 mo. Results were analyzed by using linear mixed-effects models. Results: Compared with the HabDiet, the MedDiet resulted in lower TGs at 3 mo (mean difference: -0.15 mmol/L; 95% CI: -0.23, -0.07 mmol/L; P glucose and insulin, and hs-CRP concentrations were not significantly different between groups. Conclusion: A high adherence to a MedDiet for 6 mo resulted in a significant reduction in TGs and F 2 -IsoPs among older Australians. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as ACTRN12613000602729. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  4. Test particle modeling of wave-induced energetic electron precipitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, H.C.; Inan, U.S.

    1985-01-01

    A test particle computer model of the precipitation of radiation belt electrons is extended to compute the dynamic energy spectrum of transient electron fluxes induced by short-duration VLF wave packets traveling along the geomagnetic field lines. The model is adapted to estimate the count rate and associated spectrum of precipitated electrons that would be observed by satellite-based particle detectors with given geometric factor and orientation with respect to the magnetic field. A constant-frequency wave pulse and a lightning-induced whistler wave packet are used as examples of the stimulating wave signals. The effects of asymmetry of particle mirror heights in the two hemispheres and the atmospheric backscatter of loss cone particles on the computed precipitated fluxes are discussed

  5. [TCD functional test for vertigo induced by ischemic cerebrovascular disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Q; Zhong, N; Xue, X

    1999-04-01

    To diagnose differentially the vetigo induced by some ischemic cerebrovascular disorder. Patients with vertebrobasilar artery transient ischemic vertigo (group A), migraine (group B), hyperventilation syndrome (group C), hypertension (group D) are measured by using TCD functional examination which included blood peak velocity of systolic (Vs) and diastolic (Vd) end-period of vertibrobasilar artery of routine TCD (TCD-R), one minute hyperventilation TCD (TCD-HV) and one minute voluntary apnea TCD (TCD-B) respectively. It showed that the Vs, Vd are decreased under the three conditions in A, B and D groups. The most apparent decrease are obversed in D group. The values of the decrease are similar between group A and B. No changes are found in C group. The abnormal Vs incidences of TCD-B measurement in group A are higher than those in group B and C, but significant lower than those in group D; and in TCD-HV test lower than group D and C, higher than group B; in TCD-R test, lower than group D, and no difference with group B and C. The abnormal incidences of Vd in group A are lower than group D and higher than group B in TCD-B test. In TCD-HV test, the group A abnormol incidences are lower than group D but higher than group B and C. In TCD-R test, the abnormal incidences are lower than group D and no difference between group B and C. The TCD measuremen is useful for differential diagnosis of vertigo induced by ischemic cerebrovascular disorders.

  6. Experimental tests of induced spatial incoherence using short laser wavelength

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obenschain, S.P.; Grun, J.; Herbst, M.J.

    1986-01-01

    The authors have developed a laser beam smoothing technique called induced spatial incoherence (ISI), which can produce the highly uniform focal profiles required for direct-drive laser fusion. Uniform well-controlled focal profiles are required to obtain the highly symmetric pellet implosions needed for high-energy gain. In recent experiments, the authors' tested the effects of ISI on high-power laser-target interaction. With short laser wavelength, the coupling physics dramatically improved over that obtained with an ordinary laser beam

  7. Seismically induced accident sequence analysis of the advanced test reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khericha, S.T.; Henry, D.M.; Ravindra, M.K.; Hashimoto, P.S.; Griffin, M.J.; Tong, W.H.; Nafday, A.M.

    1991-01-01

    A seismic probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) was performed for the Department of Energy (DOE) Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) as part of the external events analysis. The risk from seismic events to the fuel in the core and in the fuel storage canal was evaluated. The key elements of this paper are the integration of seismically induced internal flood and internal fire, and the modeling of human error rates as a function of the magnitude of earthquake. The systems analysis was performed by EG ampersand G Idaho, Inc. and the fragility analysis and quantification were performed by EQE International, Inc. (EQE)

  8. Oxidative stress in Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS): no systemically elevated levels of malondialdehyde, F2-isoprostanes and 8OHdG in a selected sample of patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Sigrid G L; Perez, Roberto S G M; Nouta, Jan; Zuurmond, Wouter W A; Scheffer, Peter G

    2013-04-10

    Exaggerated inflammation and oxidative stress are involved in the pathogenesis of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS). However, studies assessing markers for oxidative stress in CRPS patients are limited. In this study, markers for lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde and F2-isoprostanes) and DNA damage (8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine) were measured in nine patients (mean age 50.1 ± 17.1 years) with short term CRPS-1 (median 3 months) and nine age and sex matched healthy volunteers (mean age 49.3 ± 16.8 years) to assess and compare the level of oxidative stress. No differences were found in plasma between CRPS patients and healthy volunteers for malondialdehyde (5.2 ± 0.9 µmol/L vs. 5.4 ± 0.5 µmol/L) F2-isoprostanes (83.9 ± 18.7 pg/mL vs. 80.5 ± 12.3 pg/mL) and 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (92.6 ± 25.5 pmol/L vs. 86.9 ± 19.0 pmol/L). Likewise, in urine, no differences were observed between CRPS patients and healthy volunteers for F2-isoprostanes (117 ng/mmol, IQR 54.5-124.3 vs. 85 ng/mmol, IQR 55.5-110) and 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (1.4 ± 0.7 nmol/mmol vs. 1.4 ± 0.5 nmol/mmol). Our data show no elevation of systemic markers of oxidative stress in CRPS patients compared to matched healthy volunteers. Future research should focus on local sampling methods of oxidative stress with adequate patient selection based on CRPS phenotype and lifestyle.

  9. Plasma interleukin-6 levels, glutathione peroxidase and isoprostane in obese women before and after weight loss. Association with cardiovascular risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bougoulia, Maria; Triantos, Athanassios; Koliakos, George

    2006-01-01

    To evaluate the levels of Interleukin-6 (IL-6), glutathione peroxidase and isoprostane in obese women and their association with markers of cardiovascular risk factors before and after weight loss. 36 healthy obese women of reproductive age (group A: age (mean+/-SD) 35.4+/-9.2 years, Body Mass Index (BMI) 38.5+/-7 kg/m2) and 30 healthy, normal weight women (group B: age mean+/-SD 34.9+/-7.4 y., BMI 24+/-1.1 kg/m2) were included in the study. Glucose tolerance was normal in all participating women. Il-6, glutathione peroxidase and isoprostane, C-Reactive Protein (CRP), insulin, fasting plasma glucose, HOMA-IR as well as the lipid profile were evaluated. Body weight, BMI, Waist to Hip ratio (W/H) ratio, Waist Circumference (WC), %free fat mass and the %fat mass were also measured. A hypo-caloric diet was prescribed for the obese women and all participants were re-examined after six months. In obese women after weight loss, anthropometric obesity markers (BMI, W/H ratio), %fat, lipid profile, insulin levels and inflammation indices such as IL-6 and CRP, the oxidative stress index isoprostane, as well as glutathione peroxidase were significantly ameliorated. The levels of serum glutathione peroxidase activity were negatively correlated with IL-6 levels and were significantly increased after weight reduction. In obese women there was an association between IL-6 levels and the values of %fat, %free fat mass, insulin and HOMA-IR before and after weight loss. Weight loss is related to reduction of oxidative stress and inflammation; this beneficial effect could possibly be translated into reduction of cardiovascular risk in obese individuals.

  10. Evaluation of induced seismicity forecast models in the Induced Seismicity Test Bench

    Science.gov (United States)

    Király, Eszter; Gischig, Valentin; Zechar, Jeremy; Doetsch, Joseph; Karvounis, Dimitrios; Wiemer, Stefan

    2016-04-01

    Induced earthquakes often accompany fluid injection, and the seismic hazard they pose threatens various underground engineering projects. Models to monitor and control induced seismic hazard with traffic light systems should be probabilistic, forward-looking, and updated as new data arrive. Here, we propose an Induced Seismicity Test Bench to test and rank such models. We apply the test bench to data from the Basel 2006 and Soultz-sous-Forêts 2004 geothermal stimulation projects, and we assess forecasts from two models that incorporate a different mix of physical understanding and stochastic representation of the induced sequences: Shapiro in Space (SiS) and Hydraulics and Seismics (HySei). SiS is based on three pillars: the seismicity rate is computed with help of the seismogenic index and a simple exponential decay of the seismicity; the magnitude distribution follows the Gutenberg-Richter relation; and seismicity is distributed in space based on smoothing seismicity during the learning period with 3D Gaussian kernels. The HySei model describes seismicity triggered by pressure diffusion with irreversible permeability enhancement. Our results show that neither model is fully superior to the other. HySei forecasts the seismicity rate well, but is only mediocre at forecasting the spatial distribution. On the other hand, SiS forecasts the spatial distribution well but not the seismicity rate. The shut-in phase is a difficult moment for both models in both reservoirs: the models tend to underpredict the seismicity rate around, and shortly after, shut-in. Ensemble models that combine HySei's rate forecast with SiS's spatial forecast outperform each individual model.

  11. Testing beam-induced quench levels of LHC superconducting magnets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Auchmann

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In the years 2009–2013 the Large Hadron Collider (LHC has been operated with the top beam energies of 3.5 and 4 TeV per proton (from 2012 instead of the nominal 7 TeV. The currents in the superconducting magnets were reduced accordingly. To date only seventeen beam-induced quenches have occurred; eight of them during specially designed quench tests, the others during injection. There has not been a single beam-induced quench during normal collider operation with stored beam. The conditions, however, are expected to become much more challenging after the long LHC shutdown. The magnets will be operating at near nominal currents, and in the presence of high energy and high intensity beams with a stored energy of up to 362 MJ per beam. In this paper we summarize our efforts to understand the quench levels of LHC superconducting magnets. We describe beam-loss events and dedicated experiments with beam, as well as the simulation methods used to reproduce the observable signals. The simulated energy deposition in the coils is compared to the quench levels predicted by electrothermal models, thus allowing one to validate and improve the models which are used to set beam-dump thresholds on beam-loss monitors for run 2.

  12. Testing beam-induced quench levels of LHC superconducting magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auchmann, B.; Baer, T.; Bednarek, M.; Bellodi, G.; Bracco, C.; Bruce, R.; Cerutti, F.; Chetvertkova, V.; Dehning, B.; Granieri, P. P.; Hofle, W.; Holzer, E. B.; Lechner, A.; Nebot Del Busto, E.; Priebe, A.; Redaelli, S.; Salvachua, B.; Sapinski, M.; Schmidt, R.; Shetty, N.; Skordis, E.; Solfaroli, M.; Steckert, J.; Valuch, D.; Verweij, A.; Wenninger, J.; Wollmann, D.; Zerlauth, M.

    2015-06-01

    In the years 2009-2013 the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) has been operated with the top beam energies of 3.5 and 4 TeV per proton (from 2012) instead of the nominal 7 TeV. The currents in the superconducting magnets were reduced accordingly. To date only seventeen beam-induced quenches have occurred; eight of them during specially designed quench tests, the others during injection. There has not been a single beam-induced quench during normal collider operation with stored beam. The conditions, however, are expected to become much more challenging after the long LHC shutdown. The magnets will be operating at near nominal currents, and in the presence of high energy and high intensity beams with a stored energy of up to 362 MJ per beam. In this paper we summarize our efforts to understand the quench levels of LHC superconducting magnets. We describe beam-loss events and dedicated experiments with beam, as well as the simulation methods used to reproduce the observable signals. The simulated energy deposition in the coils is compared to the quench levels predicted by electrothermal models, thus allowing one to validate and improve the models which are used to set beam-dump thresholds on beam-loss monitors for run 2.

  13. Testing beam-induced quench levels of LHC superconducting magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Auchmann, B.; Bednarek, M.; Bellodi, G.; Bracco, C.; Bruce, R.; Cerutti, F.; Chetvertkova, V.; Dehning, B.; Granieri, P.P.; Hofle, W.; Holzer, E.B.; Lechner, A.; Del Busto, E. Nebot; Priebe, A.; Redaelli, S.; Salvachua, B.; Sapinski, M.; Schmidt, R.; Shetty, N.; Skordis, E.; Solfaroli, M.; Steckert, J.; Valuch, D.; Verweij, A.; Wenninger, J.; Wollmann, D.; Zerlauth, M.

    2015-06-25

    In the years 2009-2013 the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) has been operated with the top beam energies of 3.5 TeV and 4 TeV per proton (from 2012) instead of the nominal 7 TeV. The currents in the superconducting magnets were reduced accordingly. To date only seventeen beam-induced quenches have occurred; eight of them during specially designed quench tests, the others during injection. There has not been a single beam- induced quench during normal collider operation with stored beam. The conditions, however, are expected to become much more challenging after the long LHC shutdown. The magnets will be operating at near nominal currents, and in the presence of high energy and high intensity beams with a stored energy of up to 362 MJ per beam. In this paper we summarize our efforts to understand the quench levels of LHC superconducting magnets. We describe beam-loss events and dedicated experiments with beam, as well as the simulation methods used to reproduce the observable signals. The simulated energy depositio...

  14. Beam-induced quench test of LHC main quadrupole

    CERN Document Server

    Priebe, A; Dehning, B; Effinger, E; Emery, J; Holzer, E B; Kurfuerst, C; Nebot Del Busto, E; Nordt, A; Sapinski, M; Steckert, J; Verweij, A; Zamantzas, C

    2011-01-01

    Unexpected beam loss might lead to a transition of the accelerator superconducting magnet to a normal conducting state. The LHC beam loss monitoring (BLM) system is designed to abort the beam before the energy deposited in the magnet coils reach a quench-provoking level. In order to verify the threshold settings generated by simulation, a series of beam-induced quench tests at various beam energies has been performed. The beam losses are generated by means of an orbital bump peaked in one of main quadrupole magnets (MQ). The analysis includes not only BLM data but also the quench protection system (QPS) and cryogenics data. The measurements are compared to Geant4 simulations of energy deposition inside the coils and corresponding BLM signal outside the cryostat.

  15. Papain-induced asthma: diagnosis by skin test, RAST and bronchial provocation test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baur, X.; Fruhmann, G.

    1979-01-01

    Seven out of eleven workers occupationally exposed to airborne papain developed immediate hypersensitive reactions, predominantly asthma and rhinitis. Skin tests and RAST with papain were positive in all symptomatic workers, but not in the four asymptomatic workers. Furthermore, out of forty non-exposed asthmatics, thirty-eight had negative RAST results and all had negative skin test results. Bronchial provocation tests with 0.15-0.5 mg papain performed in five patients with a positive case history showed in each case an immediate asthmatic reaction; in addition to that, one patient developed signs of a dual asthmatic reaction. These results suggest that airborne papain is a highly immunogenic agent in humans, which induces type I allergic reactions in a large percentage of the exposed subjects. (author)

  16. Electrocardiographic characteristics of atrioventricular block induced by tilt testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zyśko, Dorota; Gajek, Jacek; Koźluk, Edward; Mazurek, Walentyna

    2009-02-01

    The electrocardiographic (ECG) characteristics of atrioventricular (AV) block during reflex syncope may be unique due to the presence of hypervagotonia. The aim of the present study was to define the ECG characteristics of the AV block induced by neurocardiogenic reflex provoked by tilt testing (TT). A series of 31 patients with presumed vasovagal syncope and AV block provoked by TT was studied. The duration of PP and PR interval, AV block grade and type, concomitant arrhythmias, and timing of the AV block occurrence were assessed. The AV block occurred at TT termination in 26 patients, in the recovery in 4 patients, and in both periods in 1 patient. Atrioventricular block was preceded by sinus slowing, and sinus rhythm during AV block was slow and instable. Mobitz I, 2:1 second-degree AV block, and advanced second-degree AV block were recognized in 35.5, 48.4, and 67.8% of patients, respectively. Third-degree AV block was diagnosed in 41.9% of patients. Twenty-one patients had at least two AV block forms. The most prevalent concomitant arrhythmia was junctional escape rhythm (61.3%). (i) The occurrence of the AV block during neurocardiogenic reaction induced by TT is always preceded by sinus rhythm slowing and usually by PR interval prolongation. (ii) The AV block provoked by TT usually occurs at TT termination, but may occur even in the recovery period in a supine position. Sometimes the AV block may be present both at TT termination and during the recovery period.

  17. Clinical relevance of syncope and presyncope induced by tilt testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zyśko, Dorota; Gajek, Jacek; Koźluk, Edward; Agrawal, Anil Kumar; Smereka, Jacek; Checiński, Igor

    2009-08-01

    The authors investigated the relation between presyncope and syncope induced by tilt testing (HUTT) and demographics, medical history and HUTT data.The demographics, syncopal burden, data regarding the spontaneous syncope and reproduction of symptoms during HUTT were compared among patients with induced syncope and presyncope. The study group consisted of 574 patients (371 women, 203 men), aged 43.7 +/- 18.5 years. Patients with syncope induced by HUTT (418 patients, 63.9% women) had a higher number of syncopal episodes in their medical history. Stepwise logistic regression revealed that syncope provocation was independently related to the cardiodepressive type of neurocardiogenic reaction (OR 7.8, CI 4.2-14.4, P < 0.001), NTG use (OR 1.7, CI: 1.0-2.7, P < 0.05), the reproduction of the symptoms during HUTT (OR 2.0, CI: 1.3-3.1, P < 0.01) and the higher number of syncopal episodes (OR 2.0, CI: 1.3-3.0, P < 0.01). In patients with positive HUTT during a passive phase it was related to the cardiodepressive type of reaction (OR 26.5, CI: 5.9-118.5, P < 0.001). In the group with positive HUTT after NTG syncope was related to the cardiodepressive type (OR 5.7, CI: 2.9-11.2, P < 0.001), vasovagal history (OR 2.0, CI: 1.2-3.3, P < 0.01), reproduction of the spontaneous symptoms (OR 1.9, CI: 1.1-3.1, P < 0.05) and higher number of syncopal episodes (OR 2.1, CI: 1.3-3.3, P < 0.01). Syncope is more frequently a HUTT outcome than presyncope. The provocation of syncope in the passive phase of HUTT depends only on the cardiodepressive type of neurocardiogenic reaction. The induction of presyncope after nitroglycerin provocation is related to the possibility of a false positive reaction.

  18. Exertional-induced bronchoconstriction: Comparison between cardiopulmonary exercise test and methacholine challenging test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Ghanei

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Exertional-induced bronchoconstriction is a condition in which the physical activity causes constriction of airways in patients with airway hyper- responsiveness. In this study, we tried to study and evaluate any relationship between the findings of cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET and the response to methacholine challenge test (MCT in patients with dyspnea after activity. Materials and Methods: Thirty patients with complaints of dyspnea following activity referred to "Lung Clinic" of Baqiyatallah Hospital but not suffering from asthma were entered into the study. The subjects were excluded from the study if: Suffering from any other pulmonary diseases, smoking more than 1 cigarette a week in the last year, having a history of smoking more than 10 packets of cigarettes/year, having respiratory infection in the past 4 weeks, having abnormal chest X-ray or electrocardiogram, and cannot discontinue the use of medicines interfering with bronchial provocation. Baseline spirometry was performed for all the patients, and the values of forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1, forced vital capacity (FVC, and FEV/FVC were recorded. The MCT and then the CPET were performed on all patients. Results: The mean VO 2 (volume oxygen in patients with positive methacholine test (20.45 mL/kg/min was significantly lower than patients with negative MCT (28.69 mL/kg/min (P = 0.000. Respiratory rates per minute (RR and minute ventilation in the group with positive MCT (38.85 and 1.636 L were significantly lower than the group with negative methacholine test (46.78 and 2.114 L (P < 0.05. Also, the O 2 pulse rate in the group with negative methacholine test (116.27 mL/beat was significantly higher than the group with positive methacholine test (84.26 mL/beat (P < 0.001. Conclusion: Pulmonary response to exercise in patients with positive methacholine test is insufficient. The dead space ventilation in these patients has increased. Also, dynamic

  19. Induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neuron as a human model for testing environmentally induced developmental neurotoxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neurons as a human model for testing environmentally induced developmental neurotoxicity Ingrid L. Druwe1, Timothy J. Shafer2, Kathleen Wallace2, Pablo Valdivia3 ,and William R. Mundy2. 1University of North Carolina, Curriculum in Toxicology...

  20. [Hydroxyurea (hydroxycarbamide)-induced hepatic dysfunction confirmed by drug-induced lymphocyte stimulation test].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Takayuki; Mori, Takehiko; Karigane, Daiki; Kikuchi, Taku; Koda, Yuya; Toyama, Takaaki; Nakajima, Hideaki; Okamoto, Shinichiro

    2014-01-01

    A 62-year-old man with refractory leukemia transformed from myelodysplastic syndrome was placed on hydroxyurea (hydroxycarbamide) at a daily dose of 500 mg. Because of insufficient cytoreductive efficacy, the dose was increased to 1,500 mg five days later. Eight days after the initiation of hydroxyurea, the patient started complaining of chills, fever, and vomiting. Serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were markedly elevated to 5,098 and 3,880 IU/l from 44 and 59 IU/l in one day, respectively. Tests for hepatitis viruses were all negative. With the discontinuation of hydroxyurea, AST and ALT returned to their former levels within two weeks. A drug-induced lymphocyte stimulation test for hydroxyurea was positive with a stimulating index of 2.0. Hepatic dysfunction has been recognized as one of the side effects of hydroxyurea. However, there have been only a limited number of reports demonstrating drug allergy to have a role in hepatic dysfunction accompanied by fever and gastrointestinal symptoms. The findings of our case strongly suggest that all presentations could be explained by drug allergy. Physicians should be mindful of the potential for acute and severe hepatic dysfunction due to allergic reaction against hydroxyurea.

  1. Acoustically Induced Vibration of Structures: Reverberant Vs. Direct Acoustic Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolaini, Ali R.; O'Connell, Michael R.; Tsoi, Wan B.

    2009-01-01

    Large reverberant chambers have been used for several decades in the aerospace industry to test larger structures such as solar arrays and reflectors to qualify and to detect faults in the design and fabrication of spacecraft and satellites. In the past decade some companies have begun using direct near field acoustic testing, employing speakers, for qualifying larger structures. A limited test data set obtained from recent acoustic tests of the same hardware exposed to both direct and reverberant acoustic field testing has indicated some differences in the resulting structural responses. In reverberant acoustic testing, higher vibration responses were observed at lower frequencies when compared with the direct acoustic testing. In the case of direct near field acoustic testing higher vibration responses appeared to occur at higher frequencies as well. In reverberant chamber testing and direct acoustic testing, standing acoustic modes of the reverberant chamber or the speakers and spacecraft parallel surfaces can strongly couple with the fundamental structural modes of the test hardware. In this paper data from recent acoustic testing of flight hardware, that yielded evidence of acoustic standing wave coupling with structural responses, are discussed in some detail. Convincing evidence of the acoustic standing wave/structural coupling phenomenon will be discussed, citing observations from acoustic testing of a simple aluminum plate. The implications of such acoustic coupling to testing of sensitive flight hardware will be discussed. The results discussed in this paper reveal issues with over or under testing of flight hardware that could pose unanticipated structural and flight qualification issues. Therefore, it is of paramount importance to understand the structural modal coupling with standing acoustic waves that has been observed in both methods of acoustic testing. This study will assist the community to choose an appropriate testing method and test setup in

  2. When Does Retrieval Induce Forgetting and when Does It Induce Facilitation? Implications for Retrieval Inhibition, Testing Effect, and Text Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Jason C. K.

    2009-01-01

    Retrieval practice can enhance long-term retention of the tested material (the testing effect), but it can also impair later recall of the nontested material--a phenomenon known as retrieval-induced forgetting (Anderson, M. C., Bjork, R. A., & Bjork, E. L. (1994). "Remembering can cause forgetting: retrieval dynamics in long-term memory." "Journal…

  3. Effect of preterm formula with and without long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids on the urinary excretion of F2-isoprostanes and 8-epi-prostaglandin F2alpha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stier, C; Schweer, H; Jelinek, J; Watzer, B; Seyberth, H W; Leonhardt, A

    2001-02-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of conventional and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCP)-enriched preterm formula on the endogenous formation of F2-isoprostanes and 8-epi-prostaglandin (PG) F2alpha as possible markers of lipid peroxidation in preterm infants during their first weeks of life. In a prospective, randomized, double-blind study, infants received either formula enriched with LCP (n = 8), standard preterm formula (n = 7), or (expressed) breast milk (n = 8). Urine was sampled at study entry and after the study period of 3 weeks. The formation of F2-isoprostanes and 8-epi-PGF2alpha was evaluated by measuring the urinary excretion by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. No differences in the urinary excretion of F2-isoprostanes and 8-epi-PGF2alpha were observed at the end of the study period. This result suggests that supplementation of a preterm formula with LCP for a period of 3 weeks does not stimulate lipid peroxidation in preterm infants.

  4. Analytical variables affecting analysis of F2-isoprostanes and F4-neuroprostanes in human cerebrospinal fluid by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Hsiu-Chuan; Wei, Hsing-Ju; Chen, Ting-Wei

    2013-01-01

    F2-isoprostanes (F2-IsoPs) are a gold marker of lipid peroxidation in vivo, whereas F4-neuroprostanes (F4-NPs) measured in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) or brain tissue selectively indicate neuronal oxidative damage. Gas chromatography/negative-ion chemical-ionization mass spectrometry (GC/NICI-MS) is the most sensitive and robust method for quantifying these compounds, which is essential for CSF samples because abundance of these compounds in CSF is very low. The present study revealed potential interferences on the analysis of F2-IsoPs and F4-NPs in CSF by GC/NICI-MS due to the use of improper analytical methods that have been employed in the literature. First, simultaneous quantification of F2-IsoPs and F4-NPs in CSF samples processed for F4-NPs analysis could cause poor chromatographic separation and falsely higher F2-IsoPs values for CSF samples with high levels of F2-IsoPs and F4-NPs. Second, retention of unknown substances in GC columns from CSF samples during F4-NPs analysis and from plasma samples during F2-IsoPs analysis might interfere with F4-NPs analysis of subsequent runs, which could be solved by holding columns at a high temperature for a period of time after data acquisition. Therefore, these special issues should be taken into consideration when performing analysis of F2-IsoPs and F4-NPs in CSF to avoid misleading results.

  5. Acceptance Rate of HIV Testing among Women Seeking Induced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A l\\'aide d\\'un questionnaire semi-structuré et auto-administré, nous avons interviewé 1051 femmes qui recherchaient l\\'avortement provoqué dans quatre cliniques selectionnées au hazard à Benin City entre janvier et septembre 2002. Les échantillons sanguins de celles qui ont accepté le test du VIH ont été collectés et ont ...

  6. Hydroxychloroquine-induced acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis with positive patch-testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charfi, Ons; Kastalli, Sarrah; Sahnoun, Rym; Lakhoua, Ghozlane

    2015-01-01

    Acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP) is a severe cutaneous adverse reaction, mostly induced by drugs. Hydroxychloroquine have been rarely reported in literature as a causative drug of this reaction. We report a case of AGEP induced by hydroxychloroquine with systemic involvement and confirmed by positive patch testing.

  7. Low Density Supersonic Decelerator (LDSD) Supersonic Flight Dynamics Test (SFDT) Plume Induced Environment Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobley, B. L.; Smith, S. D.; Van Norman, J. W.; Muppidi, S.; Clark, I

    2016-01-01

    Provide plume induced heating (radiation & convection) predictions in support of the LDSD thermal design (pre-flight SFDT-1) Predict plume induced aerodynamics in support of flight dynamics, to achieve targeted freestream conditions to test supersonic deceleration technologies (post-flight SFDT-1, pre-flight SFDT-2)

  8. Water Flow Testing and Unsteady Pressure Analysis of a Two-Bladed Liquid Oxidizer Pump Inducer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Jordan B.; Mulder, Andrew; Zoladz, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    The unsteady fluid dynamic performance of a cavitating two-bladed oxidizer turbopump inducer was characterized through sub-scale water flow testing. While testing a novel inlet duct design that included a cavitation suppression groove, unusual high-frequency pressure oscillations were observed. With potential implications for inducer blade loads, these high-frequency components were analyzed extensively in order to understand their origins and impacts to blade loading. Water flow testing provides a technique to determine pump performance without the costs and hazards associated with handling cryogenic propellants. Water has a similar density and Reynolds number to liquid oxygen. In a 70%-scale water flow test, the inducer-only pump performance was evaluated. Over a range of flow rates, the pump inlet pressure was gradually reduced, causing the flow to cavitate near the pump inducer. A nominal, smooth inducer inlet was tested, followed by an inlet duct with a circumferential groove designed to suppress cavitation. A subsequent 52%-scale water flow test in another facility evaluated the combined inducer-impeller pump performance. With the nominal inlet design, the inducer showed traditional cavitation and surge characteristics. Significant bearing loads were created by large side loads on the inducer during synchronous cavitation. The grooved inlet successfully mitigated these loads by greatly reducing synchronous cavitation, however high-frequency pressure oscillations were observed over a range of frequencies. Analytical signal processing techniques showed these oscillations to be created by a rotating, multi-celled train of pressure pulses, and subsequent CFD analysis suggested that such pulses could be created by the interaction of rotating inducer blades with fluid trapped in a cavitation suppression groove. Despite their relatively low amplitude, these high-frequency pressure oscillations posed a design concern due to their sensitivity to flow conditions and

  9. Miniaturized test system for soil respiration induced by volatile pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaufmann, Karin; Chapman, Stephen J.; Campbell, Colin D.; Harms, Hauke; Hoehener, Patrick

    2006-01-01

    A miniaturized method based on 96-well microtitre plates was developed and used to study respiration in pristine and contaminated soils following addition of volatile substrates. Small soil samples were exposed to fuel components, which were volatilized from spatially separate reservoirs of 2,2,4,4,6,8,8-heptamethylnonane (HMN) as an organic carrier. Respiration was determined as CO 2 production by means of a pH-indicator and bicarbonate-containing agar, or as 14 CO 2 evolution from 14 C-labelled substrates. Substrate concentrations inducing maximum microbial activity or inhibition were determined and CO 2 production profiles examined by multivariate analysis. When high concentrations of fuel components were applied, distinction of hydrocarbon exposed soils from unexposed soil was achieved within 6 h of incubation. With low concentrations, adequate distinction was achieved after 24 h, probably as a result of community adaptation. Nutrient limitation was identified with the 14 C method for toluene, and the optimal N and P amendment determined. Further potential applications of this rapid and inexpensive method are outlined. - A new method to study soil respiration is used when volatile organic contaminants are added

  10. LH2 pump component development testing in the electric pump room at test cell C inducer no. 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, F. X.; Brunner, J. J.; Kirk, K. G.; Mathews, J. P.; Nishioka, T.

    1972-01-01

    The characteristics of a turbine pump for use with the nuclear engine for rocket vehicles are discussed. It was determined that the pump will be a two stage centrifugal pump with both stages having backswept impellers and an inducer upstream of the first stage impeller. The test program provided demonstration of the ability of the selected design to meet the imposed requirements.

  11. Testing Quantum Gravity Induced Nonlocality via Optomechanical Quantum Oscillators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belenchia, Alessio; Benincasa, Dionigi M T; Liberati, Stefano; Marin, Francesco; Marino, Francesco; Ortolan, Antonello

    2016-04-22

    Several quantum gravity scenarios lead to physics below the Planck scale characterized by nonlocal, Lorentz invariant equations of motion. We show that such nonlocal effective field theories lead to a modified Schrödinger evolution in the nonrelativistic limit. In particular, the nonlocal evolution of optomechanical quantum oscillators is characterized by a spontaneous periodic squeezing that cannot be generated by environmental effects. We discuss constraints on the nonlocality obtained by past experiments, and show how future experiments (already under construction) will either see such effects or otherwise cast severe bounds on the nonlocality scale (well beyond the current limits set by the Large Hadron Collider). This paves the way for table top, high precision experiments on massive quantum objects as a promising new avenue for testing some quantum gravity phenomenology.

  12. Effects of earthquake induced rock shear on containment system integrity. Laboratory testing plan development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Read, Rodney S.

    2011-07-01

    This report describes a laboratory-scale testing program plan to address the issue of earthquake induced rock shear effects on containment system integrity. The document contains a review of relevant literature from SKB covering laboratory testing of bentonite clay buffer material, scaled analogue tests, and the development of related material models to simulate rock shear effects. The proposed testing program includes standard single component tests, new two-component constant volume tests, and new scaled analogue tests. Conceptual drawings of equipment required to undertake these tests are presented along with a schedule of tests. The information in this document is considered sufficient to engage qualified testing facilities, and to guide implementation of laboratory testing of rock shear effects. This document was completed as part of a collaborative agreement between SKB and Nuclear Waste Management Organization (NWMO) in Canada

  13. Effects of earthquake induced rock shear on containment system integrity. Laboratory testing plan development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Read, Rodney S. (RSRead Consulting Inc. (Canada))

    2011-07-15

    This report describes a laboratory-scale testing program plan to address the issue of earthquake induced rock shear effects on containment system integrity. The document contains a review of relevant literature from SKB covering laboratory testing of bentonite clay buffer material, scaled analogue tests, and the development of related material models to simulate rock shear effects. The proposed testing program includes standard single component tests, new two-component constant volume tests, and new scaled analogue tests. Conceptual drawings of equipment required to undertake these tests are presented along with a schedule of tests. The information in this document is considered sufficient to engage qualified testing facilities, and to guide implementation of laboratory testing of rock shear effects. This document was completed as part of a collaborative agreement between SKB and Nuclear Waste Management Organization (NWMO) in Canada

  14. Application of reactors for testing neutron-induced upsets in commercial SRAMs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffin, P.J.; Luera, T.F.; Sexton, F.W.; Cooper, P.J.; Karr, S.G.; Hash, G.L.; Fuller, E.

    1997-01-01

    Reactor neutron environments can be used to test/screen the sensitivity of unhardened commercial SRAMs to low-LET neutron-induced upset. Tests indicate both thermal/epithermal (< 1 keV) and fast neutrons can cause upsets in unhardened parts. Measured upset rates in reactor environments can be used to model the upset rate for arbitrary neutron spectra

  15. Bronchial provocation testing does not detect exercise-induced laryngeal obstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walsted, Emil Schwarz; Hull, James H; Sverrild, Asger

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Exercise-induced laryngeal obstruction (EILO) is a key differential diagnosis for asthma in the presence of exertional respiratory symptoms. Continuous laryngoscopy during exercise (CLE), the current gold standard diagnostic test for EILO, has practical limitations. We aimed...... to establish if inspiratory flow data obtained during standard bronchoprovocation testing, to establish the presence of extra-thoracic hyper-responsiveness, may prove diagnostic for EILO and thus preclude requirement for CLE testing. METHODS: We consecutively evaluated 37 adult subjects with exertional dyspnea...

  16. Flow-induced vibration test of an advanced water reactor model. Pt. 1. Turbulence-induced forcing function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Au-Yang, M.K.; Brenneman, B.; Raj, D.

    1995-01-01

    A 1:9 scale model of a proposed advanced water reactor was tested for flow-induced vibration. The main objectives of this test were: (1) to derive an empirical equation for the turbulence forcing function which can be applied to the full-sized prototype; (2) to study the effect of viscosity on the turbulence; (3) to verify the ''superposition'' assumption widely used in dynamic analysis of weakly coupled fluid-shell systems; and (4) to measure the shell responses to verify methods and computer programs used in the flow-induced vibration analysis of the prototype. This paper describes objectives (1), (2), and (3); objective (4) will be discussed in a companion paper.The turbulence-induced fluctuating pressure was measured at 49 locations over the surface of a thick-walled, non-responsive scale model of the reactor vessel/core support cylinders. An empirical equation relating the fluctuating pressure, the frequency, and the distance from the inlet nozzle center line was derived to fit the test data. This equation involves only non-dimensional, fluid mechanical parameters that are postulated to represent the full-sized, geometrically similar prototype. While this postulate cannot be verified until similar measurements are taken on the full-sized unit, a similar approach using a 1:6 scale model of a commercial pressurized water reactor was verified in the mid-1970s by field measurements on the full-sized reactor. (orig.)

  17. Structural and numerical chromosome aberration inducers in liver micronucleus test in rats with partial hepatectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Satoru; Hattori, Chiharu; Nagata, Mayumi; Sanbuissho, Atsushi

    2012-08-30

    The liver micronucleus test is an important method to detect pro-mutagens such as active metabolites not reaching bone marrow due to their short lifespan. We have already reported that dosing of the test compound after partial hepatectomy (PH) is essential to detect genotoxicity of numerical chromosome aberration inducers in mice [Mutat. Res. 632 (2007) 89-98]. In naive animals, the proportion of binucleated cells in rats is less than half of that in mice, which suggests a species difference in the response to chromosome aberration inducers. In the present study, we investigated the responses to structural and numerical chromosome aberration inducers in the rat liver micronucleus test. Two structural chromosome aberretion inducers (diethylnitrosamine and 1,2-dimethylhydrazine) and two numerical chromosome aberration inducers (colchicine and carbendazim) were used in the present study. PH was performed a day before or after the dosing of the test compound in 8-week old male F344 rats and hepatocytes were isolated 4 days after the PH. As a result, diethylnitrosamine and 1,2-dimethylhydrazine, structural chromosome aberration inducers, exhibited significant increase in the incidence of micronucleated hepatocyte (MNH) when given either before and after PH. Colchicine and carbendazim, numerical chromosome aberration inducers, did not result in any toxicologically significant increase in MNH frequency when given before PH, while they exhibited MNH induction when given after PH. It is confirmed that dosing after PH is essential in order to detect genotoxicity of numerical chromosome aberration inducers in rats as well as in mice. Regarding the species difference, a different temporal response to colchicine was identified. Colchicine increased the incidence of MNH 4 days after PH in rats, although such induction in mice was observed 8-10 days after PH. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. The Cross-Correlation and Reshuffling Tests in Discerning Induced Seismicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Ryan; Telesca, Luciano

    2018-05-01

    In recent years, cases of newly emergent induced clusters have increased seismic hazard and risk in locations with social, environmental, and economic consequence. Thus, the need for a quantitative and robust means to discern induced seismicity has become a critical concern. This paper reviews a Matlab-based algorithm designed to quantify the statistical confidence between two time-series datasets. Similar to prior approaches, our method utilizes the cross-correlation to delineate the strength and lag of correlated signals. In addition, use of surrogate reshuffling tests allows for the dynamic testing against statistical confidence intervals of anticipated spurious correlations. We demonstrate the robust nature of our algorithm in a suite of synthetic tests to determine the limits of accurate signal detection in the presence of noise and sub-sampling. Overall, this routine has considerable merit in terms of delineating the strength of correlated signals, one of which includes the discernment of induced seismicity from natural.

  19. Is a positive intracutaneous test induced by penicillin mediated by histamine?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tannert, Line K; Falkencrone, Sidsel; Mortz, Charlotte G

    2017-01-01

    Background: Diagnostic workup of penicillin allergy comprises skin testing with penicillins, and patients are deemed allergic if skin test is positive. However, the literature suggests that skin test-positive patients may be challenge-negative, indicating that the skin test may be falsely positive....... Objective: To investigate real-time histamine release from a positive intracutaneous test induced by penicillin in patients with positive and negative challenges to penicillin. Methods: Skin microdialysis was performed in 21 penicillin-allergic patients with positive skin test, 13 non-allergic volunteers...... serving as negative controls, and 7 grass pollen-allergic patients serving as positive controls. Histamine was measured by microdialysis after skin test with penicillin/grass/NaCl. Penicillin challenge was subsequently performed in 12 of the patients. Results: Only 10/21 patients (47.6%) were skin test...

  20. Cadmium-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in the testes of frog Rana limnocharis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Hangjun; Cai Chenchen; Shi Cailei; Cao Hui; Han Ziliu; Jia Xiuying

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Cd can cause vacuoles and deformity of the spermatogenic cells in the frog testes. ► Cd can result in oxidative stress in the frog testes. ► Cd can induce significantly increase of ROS contents triggered DNA damages in the frog testes. ► Cd can cause apoptosis in the testes of male R. limnocharis. ► Apoptosis by Cd in the frog testes is related to Caspase-3, Bax and Bcl-2 genes. - Abstract: This study explored the genetic damage induced by cadmium exposure in the testes of Rana limnocharis. Healthy adult frogs were exposed to 2.5, 5, 7.5, or 10 mg/L of cadmium solution for 14 days. The results showed that exposure to these concentrations increased the levels of reactive oxygen species and malondialdehyde content in the testes, clearly indicating a dose–effect relationship. Moreover, the same dosages of Cd 2+ solution increased glutathione (reduced) content, with the values being significantly different from those observed in the control group (P < 0.01). The comet assay results demonstrated that the DNA damage rate, tail length, and tail moment of samples obtained from frogs exposed to 2.5–7.5 mg/L of cadmium solution significantly increased compared with those of samples obtained from the control group (P < 0.01). These findings suggest that cadmium can induce free radical generation, followed by lipid peroxidation and DNA damage. Ultrastructural observation revealed vacuoles in the spermatogenic cells, cell dispersion, incomplete cell structures, and deformed nucleoli. Moreover, cadmium exposure induced significant down-regulation of Bcl-2 expression and up-regulation of Bax and caspase-3 expressions. Taken together, these data indicate that cadmium can induce testicular cell apoptosis in R. limnocharis. Exploring the effects of cadmium on the mechanism of reproductive toxicity in amphibians will help provide a scientific basis accounting for the global population decline in amphibian species.

  1. Assessment of oxidative stress biomarkers - neuroprostanes and dihomo-isoprostanes - in the urine of elite triathletes after two weeks of moderate-altitude training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Flores, Libia Alejandra; Medina, Sonia; Cejuela, Roberto; Martínez-Sanz, José Miguel; Oger, Camille; Galano, Jean-Marie; Durand, Thierry; Casas-Pina, Teresa; Martínez-Hernández, Pedro; Ferreres, Federico; Gil-Izquierdo, Ángel

    2016-01-01

    This randomized and controlled trial investigated whether the increase in elite training at different altitudes altered the oxidative stress biomarkers of the nervous system. This is the first study to investigate four F4-neuroprostanes (F4-NeuroPs) and four F2-dihomo-isoprostanes (F2-dihomo-IsoPs) quantified in 24-h urine. The quantification was carried out by ultra high pressure liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QqQ-MS/MS). Sixteen elite triathletes agreed to participate in the project. They were randomized in two groups, a group submitted to altitude training (AT, n = 8) and a group submitted to sea level training (SLT) (n = 8), with a control group (Cg) of non-athletes (n = 8). After the experimental period, the AT group triathletes gave significant data: 17-epi-17-F2t-dihomo-IsoP (from 5.2 ± 1.4 μg/mL 24 h(-1) to 6.6 ± 0.6 μg/mL 24 h(-1)), ent-7(RS)-7-F2t-dihomo-IsoP (from 6.6 ± 1.7 μg/mL 24 h(-1) to 8.6 ± 0.9 μg/mL 24 h(-1)), and ent-7-epi-7-F2t-dihomo-IsoP (from 8.4 ± 2.2 μg/mL 24 h(-1) to 11.3 ± 1.8 μg/mL 24 h(-1)) increased, while, of the neuronal degeneration-related compounds, only 10-epi-10-F4t-NeuroP (8.4 ± 1.7 μg/mL 24 h(-1)) and 10-F4t-NeuroP (5.2 ± 2.9 μg/mL 24 h(-1)) were detected in this group. For the Cg and SLT groups, no significant changes had occurred at the end of the two-week experimental period. Therefore, and as the main conclusion, the training at moderate altitude increased the F4-NeuroPs- and F2-dihomo-isoPs-related oxidative damage of the central nervous system compared to similar training at sea level.

  2. Dietary B Vitamin Intake Is Associated with Lower Urinary Monomethyl Arsenic and Oxidative Stress Marker 15-F2t-Isoprostane among New Hampshire Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Caitlin G; Li, Zhigang; Zens, Michael S; Palys, Thomas; Chen, Yu; Channon, Jacqueline Y; Karagas, Margaret R; Farzan, Shohreh F

    2017-12-01

    Background: Arsenic exposure has been associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Growing evidence suggests that B vitamins facilitate arsenic metabolism and may protect against arsenic toxicity. However, to our knowledge, few studies have evaluated this in US populations. Objective: Our objective was to examine whether higher B vitamin intake is associated with enhanced arsenic metabolism and lower concentrations of preclinical markers of CVD among New Hampshire adults. Methods: We used weighted quantile sum (WQS) regression to evaluate the collective impact of 6 dietary B vitamins (thiamin, riboflavin, folate, niacin, and vitamins B-6 and B-12) on 1 ) the proportion of arsenic metabolites in urine and 2 ) 6 CVD-related markers [including urinary 15-F 2t -isoprostane (15-F 2t -IsoP)] among 418 participants (26-75 y of age) from the New Hampshire Health Study. Contributions of arsenic metabolites to B vitamin-CVD marker associations were also explored in structural equation models. Results: In WQS models, the weighted sum of B vitamin intakes from food sources was inversely associated with the proportion of monomethyl arsenic species in urine (uMMA) (β: -1.03; 95% CI: -1.91, -0.15; P = 0.02). Thiamin and vitamins B-6 and B-12 contributed the most to this association, whereas riboflavin had a negligible effect. Higher overall B vitamin intake was also inversely associated with 15-F 2t -IsoP (β: -0.21; 95% CI: -0.32, -0.11; P B vitamins, which was partially explained by differences in the proportion of uMMA (indirect effect β: -0.01; 95% CI: -0.04, -0.00). Conclusions: Among New Hampshire adults, higher intakes of certain B vitamins (particularly thiamin and vitamins B-6 and B-12 from food sources) may reduce the proportion of uMMA, an intermediate of arsenic metabolism that has been associated with an increased risk of CVD. Higher overall B vitamin intake may also reduce urinary 15-F 2t -IsoP, a marker of oxidative stress and potential risk

  3. Test-Induced Priming Impairs Source Monitoring Accuracy in the DRM Procedure

    OpenAIRE

    Dewhurst, S.; Knott, L.; Howe, M. L.

    2011-01-01

    Three experiments investigated the effects of test-induced priming (TIP) on false recognition in the Deese/Roediger-McDermott procedure. In Experiment 1, TIP significantly increased false recognition for participants who made old/new decisions at test but not for participants who made remember/know judgements or were given diagnostic information to help them avoid false recognition. In Experiment 2, a TIP effect was observed with old/new recognition but not when participants were required to ...

  4. Assessment of liquefaction-induced hazards using Bayesian networks based on standard penetration test data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xiao-Wei; Bai, Xu; Hu, Ji-Lei; Qiu, Jiang-Nan

    2018-05-01

    Liquefaction-induced hazards such as sand boils, ground cracks, settlement, and lateral spreading are responsible for considerable damage to engineering structures during major earthquakes. Presently, there is no effective empirical approach that can assess different liquefaction-induced hazards in one model. This is because of the uncertainties and complexity of the factors related to seismic liquefaction and liquefaction-induced hazards. In this study, Bayesian networks (BNs) are used to integrate multiple factors related to seismic liquefaction, sand boils, ground cracks, settlement, and lateral spreading into a model based on standard penetration test data. The constructed BN model can assess four different liquefaction-induced hazards together. In a case study, the BN method outperforms an artificial neural network and Ishihara and Yoshimine's simplified method in terms of accuracy, Brier score, recall, precision, and area under the curve (AUC) of the receiver operating characteristic (ROC). This demonstrates that the BN method is a good alternative tool for the risk assessment of liquefaction-induced hazards. Furthermore, the performance of the BN model in estimating liquefaction-induced hazards in Japan's 2011 Tōhoku earthquake confirms its correctness and reliability compared with the liquefaction potential index approach. The proposed BN model can also predict whether the soil becomes liquefied after an earthquake and can deduce the chain reaction process of liquefaction-induced hazards and perform backward reasoning. The assessment results from the proposed model provide informative guidelines for decision-makers to detect the damage state of a field following liquefaction.

  5. Metformin and phenformin block the peripheral antinociception induced by diclofenac and indomethacin on the formalin test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Mario I

    2012-01-02

    Recent evidence has shown that systemic administration of sulfonylureas and biguanides block the diclofenac-induced antinociception, but not the effect produced by indomethacin. However, there are no reports about the peripheral interaction between analgesics and the biguanides metformin and phenformin. Therefore, this work was undertaken to determine whether glibenclamide and glipizide and the biguanides metformin and phenformin have any effect on the peripheral antinociception induced by diclofenac and indomethacin. Diclofenac and indomethacin were administered locally in the formalin-injured rat paw, and the antinociceptive effect was evaluated using the 1% formalin test. To determine whether peripheral antinociception induced by diclofenac or indomethacin was mediated by either the ATP-sensitive K(+) channels or biguanides-induced mechanisms, the effect of pretreatment with the appropriates vehicles or glibenclamide, glipizide, metformin and phenformin on the antinociceptive effect induced by local peripheral diclofenac and indomethacin was assessed. Local peripheral injections of diclofenac (50-200 μg/paw) and indomethacin (200-800 μg/paw) produced a dose-dependent antinociception during the second phase of the test. Local pretreatment with glibenclamide, glipizide, metformin and phenformin blocked the diclofenac-induced antinociception. On the other hand, the pretreatment with glibenclamide and glipizide did not prevent the local antinociception produced by indomethacin. Nonetheless, metformin and phenformin reversed the local antinociception induced by indomethacin. Data suggest that diclofenac could activate the K(+) channels and biguanides-dependent mechanisms to produce its peripheral antinociceptive effects in the formalin test. Likewise, a biguanides-dependent mechanism could be activated by indomethacin consecutively to generate its peripheral antinociceptive effect. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Test-retest reliabilty of exercise-induced hypoalgesia after aerobic exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaegter, Henrik Bjarke; Dørge, Daniel Bandholtz; Schmidt, Kristian Sonne

    2018-01-01

    Objective: Exercise increases pressure pain thresholds (PPTs) in exercising and nonexercising muscles, known as exercise-induced hypoalgesia (EIH). No studies have investigated the test-retest reliability of change in PPTs after aerobic exercise. Primary objectives were to compare the effect...

  7. On the limits of toxicant-induced tolerance testing: cotolerance and response variation of antibiotic effects.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmitt, Heike; Martinali, Bennie; Beelen, Patrick van; Seinen, Willem

    2006-01-01

    Pollution-induced community tolerance (PICT) as an ecotoxicological test system has been claimed to detect pollutant effects highly specifically and sensitively. However, the specificity might be limited by the occurrence of cotolerance. Another limitation of the application of any ecotoxicological

  8. Induced over voltage test on transformers using enhanced Z-source inverter based circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Geno; Sherine, Anli

    2017-09-01

    The normal life of a transformer is well above 25 years. The economical operation of the distribution system has its roots in the equipments being used. The economy being such, that it is financially advantageous to replace transformers with more than 15 years of service in the second perennial market. Testing of transformer is required, as its an indication of the extent to which a transformer can comply with the customers specified requirements and the respective standards (IEC 60076-3). In this paper, induced over voltage testing on transformers using enhanced Z source inverter is discussed. Power electronic circuits are now essential for a whole array of industrial electronic products. The bulky motor generator set, which is used to generate the required frequency to conduct the induced over voltage testing of transformers is nowadays replaced by static frequency converter. First conventional Z-source inverter, and second an enhanced Z source inverter is being used to generate the required voltage and frequency to test the transformer for induced over voltage test, and its characteristics is analysed.

  9. Large scale vibration tests on pile-group effects using blast-induced ground motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katsuichirou Hijikata; Hideo Tanaka; Takayuki Hashimoto; Kazushige Fujiwara; Yuji Miyamoto; Osamu Kontani

    2005-01-01

    Extensive vibration tests have been performed on pile-supported structures at a large-scale mining site. Ground motions induced by large-scale blasting operations were used as excitation forces for vibration tests. The main objective of this research is to investigate the dynamic behavior of pile-supported structures, in particular, pile-group effects. Two test structures were constructed in an excavated 4 m deep pit. Their test-structures were exactly the same. One structure had 25 steel piles and the other had 4 piles. The test pit was backfilled with sand of appropriate grain size distributions to obtain good compaction, especially between the 25 piles. Accelerations were measured at the structures, in the test pit and in the adjacent free field, and pile strains were measured. Dynamic modal tests of the pile-supported structures and PS measurements of the test pit were performed before and after the vibration tests to detect changes in the natural frequencies of the soil-pile-structure systems and the soil stiffness. The vibration tests were performed six times with different levels of input motions. The maximum horizontal acceleration recorded at the adjacent ground surface varied from 57 cm/s 2 to 1,683 cm/s 2 according to the distances between the test site and the blast areas. (authors)

  10. FIVPET Flow-Induced Vibration Test Report (1) - Candidate Spacer Grid Type I (Optimized H Type)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kang Hee; Kang, Heung Seok; Yoon, Kyung Ho; Song, Kee Nam; Kim, Jae Yong

    2006-03-15

    The flow-induced vibration (FIV) test using a 5x5 partial fuel assembly was performed to evaluate mechanical/structural performance of the candidate spacer grid type I (Optimized H shape). From the measured vibration response of the test bundle and the flow parameters, design features of the spacer strap can be analyzed in the point of vibration and hydraulic aspect, and also compared with other spacer strap in simple comparative manner. Furthermore, the FIV test will contributes to understand behaviors of nuclear fuel in operating reactor. The FIV test results will be used to verify the theoretical model of fuel rod and assembly vibration. The aim of this report is to present the results of the FIV test of partial fuel assembly and to introduce the detailed test methodology and analysis procedure. In chapter 2, the overall configuration of test bundle and instrumented tube is remarked and chapter 3 will introduce the test facility (FIVPET) and test section. Chapter 4 deals with overall test condition and procedure, measurement and data acquisition devices, instrumentation equipment and calibration, and error analysis. Finally, test result of vibration and pressure fluctuation is presented and discussed in chapter 5.

  11. Development and Application of a Test for Food-Induced Emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geier, Uwe; Büssing, Arndt; Kruse, Pamela; Greiner, Ramona; Buchecker, Kirsten

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to develop a test to measure food-induced emotions suitable for stable food and beverages. All of the experiments were conducted under the conditions of a consumer sensory evaluation according to German standard DIN 10974. Test development included descriptors' derivation and factor analysis as well as a comparison between the new test (empathic food test, EFT) and a hedonic sensory test and an unspecific psychological test, known as a multidimensional mood questionnaire (MDMQ). Nineteen sensory experts derived twelve items using free-choice profiling. After an exploratory factor analyses, ten of the intended twelve items were integrated into two scales. To compare the new questionnaire (EFT) to the MDMQ and a hedonic test, panels of 59 (EFT), 64 (MDMQ) and 63 (hedonic sensory test) untrained individuals described their perceptions after consuming sensorially similar pairs of milk, water, bread and sugar. The benchmark of comparison was the power to discriminate between the food pairs. Test-retest replicability was demonstrated. All three tests presented slight differences in sample preference and effect size depending on the offered products. These findings underscore the need to test new methods with a wide range of products. Further research is needed to investigate the relationship between sensorial perception and emotional response.

  12. Development and Application of a Test for Food-Induced Emotions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uwe Geier

    Full Text Available This study aimed to develop a test to measure food-induced emotions suitable for stable food and beverages. All of the experiments were conducted under the conditions of a consumer sensory evaluation according to German standard DIN 10974. Test development included descriptors' derivation and factor analysis as well as a comparison between the new test (empathic food test, EFT and a hedonic sensory test and an unspecific psychological test, known as a multidimensional mood questionnaire (MDMQ. Nineteen sensory experts derived twelve items using free-choice profiling. After an exploratory factor analyses, ten of the intended twelve items were integrated into two scales. To compare the new questionnaire (EFT to the MDMQ and a hedonic test, panels of 59 (EFT, 64 (MDMQ and 63 (hedonic sensory test untrained individuals described their perceptions after consuming sensorially similar pairs of milk, water, bread and sugar. The benchmark of comparison was the power to discriminate between the food pairs. Test-retest replicability was demonstrated. All three tests presented slight differences in sample preference and effect size depending on the offered products. These findings underscore the need to test new methods with a wide range of products. Further research is needed to investigate the relationship between sensorial perception and emotional response.

  13. Standard Practice for Ensuring Test Consistency in Neutron-Induced Displacement Damage of Electronic Parts

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2007-01-01

    1.1 This practice sets forth requirements to ensure consistency in neutron-induced displacement damage testing of silicon and gallium arsenide electronic piece parts. This requires controls on facility, dosimetry, tester, and communications processes that affect the accuracy and reproducibility of these tests. It provides background information on the technical basis for the requirements and additional recommendations on neutron testing. In addition to neutrons, reactors are used to provide gamma-ray pulses of intensities and durations that are not achievable elsewhere. This practice also provides background information and recommendations on gamma-ray testing of electronics using nuclear reactors. 1.2 Methods are presented for ensuring and validating consistency in neutron displacement damage testing of electronic parts such as integrated circuits, transistors, and diodes. The issues identified and the controls set forth in this practice address the characterization and suitability of the radiation environm...

  14. Proof-testing strategies induced by dangerous detected failures of safety-instrumented systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yiliu; Rausand, Marvin

    2016-01-01

    Some dangerous failures of safety-instrumented systems (SISs) are detected almost immediately by diagnostic self-testing as dangerous detected (DD) failures, whereas other dangerous failures can only be detected by proof-testing, and are therefore called dangerous undetected (DU) failures. Some items may have a DU- and a DD-failure at the same time. After the repair of a DD-failure is completed, the maintenance team has two options: to perform an insert proof test for DU-failure or not. If an insert proof test is performed, it is necessary to decide whether the next scheduled proof test should be postponed or performed at the scheduled time. This paper analyzes the effects of different testing strategies on the safety performance of a single channel of a SIS. The safety performance is analyzed by Petri nets and by approximation formulas and the results obtained by the two approaches are compared. It is shown that insert testing improves the safety performance of the channel, but the feasibility and cost of the strategy may be a hindrance to recommend insert testing. - Highlights: • Identify the tests induced by detected failures. • Model the testing strategies following DD-failures. • Propose analytical formulas for effects of strategies. • Simulate and verify the proposed models.

  15. Usefulness of Basophil Activation Tests for Diagnosis of Sugammadex-Induced Anaphylaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horiuchi, Tatsuo; Yokohama, Akihiko; Orihara, Masaki; Tomita, Yukinari; Tomioka, Akihiro; Yoshida, Nagahide; Takahashi, Kenichiro; Saito, Shigeru; Takazawa, Tomonori

    2018-05-01

    Sugammadex is used to reverse the effects of neuromuscular blocking agents in many cases of general anesthesia. However, there are several reports of anaphylaxis after its use. Skin testing is the gold standard for detecting the causative agent of anaphylaxis. However, due to the lack of validated protocols for skin testing with sugammadex, the diagnostic accuracy might be inadequate. Recently, the basophil activation test (BAT) has been established as a tool to detect the causative agent of anaphylaxis with high sensitivity and specificity. However, few studies have investigated the utility of the BAT for sugammadex-induced anaphylaxis. Eight patients who presented with immediate hypersensitivity to sugammadex during general anesthesia were included in this study. We conducted skin tests to confirm the diagnosis of sugammadex-induced anaphylaxis. Twenty-one sugammadex-naive individuals who had a negative skin test for allergy to this drug were enrolled as controls. Basophils were selected on a CD3/CRTH2 gate and labeled with CD63 and CD203c. The ratios of activated basophils in the patients were much higher than those in controls: the median values of areas under the curves in the patients and controls for CD203c were 1,265,985 (95% confidence interval [CI], 77,580-5,040,270) and 116,325 (95% CI, -268,605 to 232,690), respectively (Mann-Whitney U test, P sugammadex was 88% (95% CI, 47%-100%), and specificity was 100% (95% CI, 84%-100%), while sensitivity and specificity for CD63 were 75% (95% CI, 35%-97%) and 100% (95% CI, 84%-100%), respectively. The BAT seems to have comparable accuracy to skin tests for the diagnosis of sugammadex-induced anaphylaxis. For this purpose, both CD203c and CD63 can be used to detect activated basophils.

  16. Cadmium-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in the testes of frog Rana limnocharis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Hangjun; Cai Chenchen; Shi Cailei; Cao Hui; Han Ziliu [Department of Environmental Sciences, Hangzhou Normal University, Xuelin Road 16, Xiasha Gaojiao Dongqu, Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province, 310036 (China); Jia Xiuying, E-mail: hznujiaxiuying@126.com [Department of Environmental Sciences, Hangzhou Normal University, Xuelin Road 16, Xiasha Gaojiao Dongqu, Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province, 310036 (China)

    2012-10-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cd can cause vacuoles and deformity of the spermatogenic cells in the frog testes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cd can result in oxidative stress in the frog testes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cd can induce significantly increase of ROS contents triggered DNA damages in the frog testes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cd can cause apoptosis in the testes of male R. limnocharis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Apoptosis by Cd in the frog testes is related to Caspase-3, Bax and Bcl-2 genes. - Abstract: This study explored the genetic damage induced by cadmium exposure in the testes of Rana limnocharis. Healthy adult frogs were exposed to 2.5, 5, 7.5, or 10 mg/L of cadmium solution for 14 days. The results showed that exposure to these concentrations increased the levels of reactive oxygen species and malondialdehyde content in the testes, clearly indicating a dose-effect relationship. Moreover, the same dosages of Cd{sup 2+} solution increased glutathione (reduced) content, with the values being significantly different from those observed in the control group (P < 0.01). The comet assay results demonstrated that the DNA damage rate, tail length, and tail moment of samples obtained from frogs exposed to 2.5-7.5 mg/L of cadmium solution significantly increased compared with those of samples obtained from the control group (P < 0.01). These findings suggest that cadmium can induce free radical generation, followed by lipid peroxidation and DNA damage. Ultrastructural observation revealed vacuoles in the spermatogenic cells, cell dispersion, incomplete cell structures, and deformed nucleoli. Moreover, cadmium exposure induced significant down-regulation of Bcl-2 expression and up-regulation of Bax and caspase-3 expressions. Taken together, these data indicate that cadmium can induce testicular cell apoptosis in R. limnocharis. Exploring the effects of cadmium on the mechanism of reproductive toxicity in amphibians will help provide a

  17. Edible Bird’s Nest Prevents High Fat Diet-Induced Insulin Resistance in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Yida

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Edible bird’s nest (EBN is used traditionally in many parts of Asia to improve wellbeing, but there are limited studies on its efficacy. We explored the potential use of EBN for prevention of high fat diet- (HFD- induced insulin resistance in rats. HFD was given to rats with or without simvastatin or EBN for 12 weeks. During the intervention period, weight measurements were recorded weekly. Blood samples were collected at the end of the intervention and oral glucose tolerance test conducted, after which the rats were sacrificed and their liver and adipose tissues collected for further studies. Serum adiponectin, leptin, F2-isoprostane, insulin, and lipid profile were estimated, and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance computed. Effects of the different interventions on transcriptional regulation of insulin signaling genes were also evaluated. The results showed that HFD worsened metabolic indices and induced insulin resistance partly through transcriptional regulation of the insulin signaling genes. Additionally, simvastatin was able to prevent hypercholesterolemia but promoted insulin resistance similar to HFD. EBN, on the other hand, prevented the worsening of metabolic indices and transcriptional changes in insulin signaling genes due to HFD. The results suggest that EBN may be used as functional food to prevent insulin resistance.

  18. Dynamic strain aging of twinning-induced plasticity (TWIP) steel in tensile testing and deep drawing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J.G.; Hong, S.; Anjabin, N.; Park, B.H.; Kim, S.K.; Chin, K.-G.; Lee, S.; Kim, H.S.

    2015-01-01

    The dynamic strain aging (DSA) of metallic materials due to solute atom diffusion to mobile dislocations induce deformation instability with load fluctuations and deformation localizations, hence reducing their sheet formability. In this paper, DSA behaviors of twinning induced plasticity (TWIP) steel with and without Al during tensile testing and deep drawing are investigated in terms of strain localization and the Portevin-Le Chatelier (PLC) band. A theoretical DSA model with internal variables of dislocation density and twin volume fraction is presented for an estimation of strain localization and strain hardening behavior of TWIP steels. The simulation results of the load history and PLC bands during tensile testing and deep drawing are in good agreement with the experimental values. A serration behavior is observed in high-Mn TWIP steels and its tensile residual stress is higher than that in the Al-added TWIP steels, which results in a deformation crack or delayed fracture of deep drawn specimens

  19. Modification of γ-induced mutagenesis in Ames test-strains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basha, S.G.; Krasavin, E.A.; Kozubek, S.; Amirtaev, K.G.

    1990-01-01

    Glycerine and cysteamine protective effect on mutagenesis was studied in 3 strains of Salmonella typhimurium under γ-radiation. Glycerine modifying effect was shown to be not similar for various test-strains and depended on DNA injury nature. DNA complex injuries were shown to play significant role in mutagenesis of TA100 and TA102 strains. Absence of cysteamine modifying effect on γ-induced mutagenesis testified to cysteamine effect on enzyme balance. 20 refs.; 2 figs.; 1 tab

  20. Topographic analysis of the skull vibration-induced nystagmus test with piezoelectric accelerometers and force sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas, Georges; Lion, Alexis; Perrin, Philippe; Ouedraogo, Evariste; Schmerber, Sébastien

    2016-03-23

    Vibration-induced nystagmus is elicited by skull or posterior cervical muscle stimulations in patients with vestibular diseases. Skull vibrations delivered by the skull vibration-induced nystagmus test are known to stimulate the inner ear structures directly. This study aimed to measure the vibration transfer at different cranium locations and posterior cervical regions to contribute toward stimulus topographic optimization (experiment 1) and to determine the force applied on the skull with a hand-held vibrator to study the test reproducibility and provide recommendations for good clinical practices (experiment 2). In experiment 1, a 100 Hz hand-held vibrator was applied on the skull (vertex, mastoids) and posterior cervical muscles in 11 healthy participants. Vibration transfer was measured by piezoelectric sensors. In experiment 2, the vibrator was applied 30 times by two experimenters with dominant and nondominant hands on a mannequin equipped to measure the force. Experiment 1 showed that after unilateral mastoid vibratory stimulation, the signal transfer was higher when recorded on the contralateral mastoid than on the vertex or posterior cervical muscles (Pskull vibration-induced nystagmus test in patients with unilateral vestibular lesions and enables a stronger stimulation of the healthy side. In clinical practice, the vibrator should be placed on the mastoid and should be held by the clinician's dominant hand.

  1. Bronchial provocation testing does not detect exercise-induced laryngeal obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsted, Emil Schwarz; Hull, James H; Sverrild, Asger; Porsbjerg, Celeste; Backer, Vibeke

    2017-01-02

    Exercise-induced laryngeal obstruction (EILO) is a key differential diagnosis for asthma in the presence of exertional respiratory symptoms. Continuous laryngoscopy during exercise (CLE), the current gold standard diagnostic test for EILO, has practical limitations. We aimed to establish if inspiratory flow data obtained during standard bronchoprovocation testing, to establish the presence of extra-thoracic hyper-responsiveness, may prove diagnostic for EILO and thus preclude requirement for CLE testing. We consecutively evaluated 37 adult subjects with exertional dyspnea and possible asthma referred over 6 months. All subjects received comprehensive assessment including a detailed clinical evaluation; pulmonary function testing, indirect and direct bronchial provocation testing, and CLE testing. Out of 37 subjects, moderate or severe EILO was diagnosed in 8 subjects (22%, all female) while 5 (14%) had both asthma and EILO. There was no correlation between degree of EILO during CLE and mean decrease in forced inspiratory flow (%FIF 50 ) obtained during neither the Methacholine (r = -0.15; p = 0.38) nor Mannitol (r = 0.04; p = 0.84) provocation tests. Inspiratory flow parameters obtained during bronchoprovocation tests did not reliably detect EILO. It remains that CLE is an important and key investigation modality in establishing a secure diagnosis of EILO.

  2. Dynamic testing for radiation induced failures in a standard CMOS submicron technology pixel front-end

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venuto, D. de; Corsi, F.; Ohletz, M.J.

    1999-01-01

    A testing method for the detection of performance degradation induced by high-dose irradiation in high-energy experiments has been developed. The method used is based on a fault signature generation defined on the basis of the state-space analysis for linear circuits. By sampling the response of the circuit under test (CUT) to a single rectangular pulse, a set of parameters α are evaluated which are functions of the circuit singularities and constitute a signature for the CUT. Amplitude perturbations of these parameters engendered by element drift failure indicate a possible faulty condition. The effects of radiation induced faults in the analogue CMOS front-end of a silicon pixel detector employed in high energy physics experiments has been investigated. The results show that, even for the 800 krad dose, the test devised is able to detect the degradation of the amplifier performances. The results show also that hardened devices do not necessarily produce high circuit immunity to radiation and the proposed test method provides a mean to detect these performance deviations and to monitor them during the operating life of the chip. (A.C.)

  3. Fission gas induced deformation model for FRAP-T6 and NSRR irradiated fuel test simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, Takehiko; Sasajima, Hideo; Fuketa, Toyoshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Hosoyamada, Ryuji; Mori, Yukihide

    1996-11-01

    Pulse irradiation tests of irradiated fuels under simulated reactivity initiated accidents (RIAs) have been carried out at the Nuclear Safety Research Reactor (NSRR). Larger cladding diameter increase was observed in the irradiated fuel tests than in the previous fresh fuel tests. A fission gas induced cladding deformation model was developed and installed in a fuel behavior analysis code, FRAP-T6. The irradiated fuel tests were analyzed with the model in combination with modified material properties and fuel cracking models. In Test JM-4, where the cladding temperature rose to higher temperatures and grain boundary separation by the pulse irradiation was significant, the fission gas model described the cladding deformation reasonably well. The fuel had relatively flat radial power distribution and the grain boundary gas from the whole radius was calculated to contribute to the deformation. On the other hand, the power density in the irradiated LWR fuel rods in the pulse irradiation tests was remarkably higher at the fuel periphery than the center. A fuel thermal expansion model, GAPCON, which took account of the effect of fuel cracking by the temperature profile, was found to reproduce well the LWR fuel behavior with the fission gas deformation model. This report present details of the models and their NSRR test simulations. (author)

  4. Homologous recombination induced by doxazosin mesylate and saw palmetto in the Drosophila wing-spot test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, Katiane Cella; Dihl, Rafael Rodrigues; Lehmann, Mauricio; Reguly, Maria Luiza; Richter, Marc François; Andrade, Heloisa Helena Rodrigues de

    2013-03-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is the most common tumor in men over 40 years of age. Acute urinary retention (AUR) is regarded as the most serious hazard of untreated BPH. α-Blockers, such as doxazosin mesylate, and 5-α reductase inhibitors, such as finasteride, are frequently used because they decrease both AUR and the need for BPH-related surgery. An extract of the fruit from American saw palmetto plant has also been used as an alternative treatment for BPH. The paucity of information available concerning the genotoxic action of these compounds led us to assess their activity as inducers of different types of DNA lesions using the somatic mutation and recombination test in Drosophila melanogaster. Finasteride did not induce gene mutation, chromosomal mutation or mitotic recombination, which means it was nongenotoxic in our experimental conditions. On the other hand, doxazosin mesylate and saw palmetto induced significant increases in spot frequencies in trans-heterozygous flies. In order to establish the actual role played by mitotic recombination and by mutation in the genotoxicity observed, the balancer-heterozygous flies were also analyzed, showing no increment in the total spot frequencies in relation to the negative control, for both drugs. Doxazosin mesylate and saw palmetto were classified as specific inducers of homologous recombination in Drosophila proliferative cells, an event linked to the loss of heterozygosity. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Test and Simulation Results for Quenches Induced by Fast Losses on a LHC Quadrupole

    CERN Document Server

    Bracco, Ch; Bartmann, W; Bednarek, M; Lechner, A; Sapinski, M; Vittal Shetty, N; Schmidt, R; Solfaroli Camillocci, M; Verweij, A

    2014-01-01

    A test program for beam induced quenches was started in the LHC in 2011 in order to reduce as much as possible BLM-triggered beam dumps, without jeopardising the safety of the superconducting magnets. A first measurement was performed to asses the quench level of a quadrupole located in the LHC injection region in case of fast (ns) losses. It consisted in dumping single bunches onto an injection protection collimator located right upstream of the quadrupole, varying the bunch intensity up to 3×1010 protons and ramping the quadrupole current up to 2200 A. No quench was recorded at that time. The test was repeated in 2013 with increased bunch intensity (6.5×1010 protons); a quench occurred when powering the magnet at 2500 A. The comparison between measurements during beam induced and quench heaters induced quenches is shown. Results of FLUKA simulations on energy deposition, calculations on quench behaviour using the QP3 code and the respective estimates of quench levels are also presented.

  6. Supplemental dietary phytosterin protects against 4-nitrophenol-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in rat testes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonghui Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available 4-Nitrophenol (PNP, is generally regarded as an environmental endocrine disruptor (EED. Phytosterin (PS, a new feed additive, possesses highly efficient antioxidant activities. The transcription factor, nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2, is an important regulator of cellular oxidative stress. Using rats, this study examined PNP-induced testicular oxidative damage and PS-mediated protection against that damage. The generation of MDA and H2O2 upon PNP and PS treatment was milder than that upon treatment with PNP alone. This mitigation was accompanied by partially reversed changes in SOD, CAT, GSH and GSH-Px. Moreover, PNP significantly reduced the caudal epididymal sperm counts and serum testosterone levels. Typical morphological changes were also observed in the testes of PNP-treated animals. PNP reduced the transcriptional level of Nrf2, as evaluated by RT-PCR, but it promoted the dissociation from the Nrf2 complex, stabilization and translocation into the nucleus, as evaluated by immunohistochemistry and Western blotting. In addition, PNP enhanced the Nrf2-dependent gene expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1 and glutamate–cysteine ligase catalytic subunit (GCLC. These results suggest that the Nrf2 pathway plays an important role in PNP-induced oxidative damage and that PS possesses modulatory effects on PNP-induced oxidative damage in rat testes.

  7. DNA vaccination protects mice against Zika virus-induced damage to the testes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Bryan D.; Muthumani, Kar; Warner, Bryce M.; Majer, Anna; Hagan, Mable; Audet, Jonathan; Stein, Derek R.; Ranadheera, Charlene; Racine, Trina; De La Vega, Marc-Antoine; Piret, Jocelyne; Kucas, Stephanie; Tran, Kaylie N.; Frost, Kathy L.; De Graff, Christine; Soule, Geoff; Scharikow, Leanne; Scott, Jennifer; McTavish, Gordon; Smid, Valerie; Park, Young K.; Maslow, Joel N.; Sardesai, Niranjan Y.; Kim, J. Joseph; Yao, Xiao-jian; Bello, Alexander; Lindsay, Robbin; Boivin, Guy; Booth, Stephanie A.; Kobasa, Darwyn; Embury-Hyatt, Carissa; Safronetz, David; Weiner, David B.; Kobinger, Gary P.

    2017-01-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging pathogen causally associated with serious sequelae in fetuses, inducing fetal microcephaly and other neurodevelopment defects. ZIKV is primarily transmitted by mosquitoes, but can persist in human semen and sperm, and sexual transmission has been documented. Moreover, exposure of type-I interferon knockout mice to ZIKV results in severe damage to the testes, epididymis and sperm. Candidate ZIKV vaccines have shown protective efficacy in preclinical studies carried out in animal models, and several vaccines have entered clinical trials. Here, we report that administration of a synthetic DNA vaccine encoding ZIKV pre-membrane and envelope (prME) completely protects mice against ZIKV-associated damage to the testes and sperm and prevents viral persistence in the testes following challenge with a contemporary strain of ZIKV. These data suggest that DNA vaccination merits further investigation as a potential means to reduce ZIKV persistence in the male reproductive tract. PMID:28589934

  8. Drilling induced damage of core samples. Evidences from laboratory testing and numerical modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanaro, Flavio

    2008-01-01

    Extensive sample testing in uniaxial and Brazilian test conditions were carried out for the Shobasama and MIU Research Laboratory Site (Gifu Pref., Japan). The compressive and tensile strength of the samples was observed to be negatively correlated to the in-situ stress components. Such correlation was interpreted as stress-release induced sample damage. Similar stress conditions were then numerically simulated by means of the BEM-DDM code FRACOD 2D in plane strain conditions. This method allows for explicitly consider the influence of newly initiated or propagating fractures on the stress field and deformation of the core during drilling process. The models show that already at moderate stress levels some fracturing of the core during drilling might occur leading to reduced laboratory strength of the samples. Sample damage maps were produced independently from the laboratory test results and from the numerical models and show good agreement with each other. (author)

  9. Isoprostane 8-epi-PGF2alpha is frequently increased in patients with muscle pain and/or CK-elevation after HMG-Co-enzyme-A-reductase inhibitor therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinzinger, H; Lupattelli, G; Chehne, F; Oguogho, A; Furberg, C D

    2001-08-01

    Muscle pains with or without CK-elevation are among the most frequently observed side-effects in patients with hyperlipoproteinemia on various statins. The pathophysiological background, however, remains obscure. We examined isoprostane 8-epi-PGF2alpha, a marker of in-vivo oxidation injury, in plasma, serum and urine in these patients at baseline, when muscle problems manifested and different time intervals after withdrawing the respective statin. A healthy control group and a group of untreated patients with hyperlipoproteinemia were run as controls. The majority of patients with muscular side-effects show elevated 8-epi-PGF2alpha in plasma and urine, whereas serum values were elevated only to a lesser extent. Stopping statin therapy or successfully changing to another member of this family of compounds resulted in a normalization of the values in all patients. These findings indicate a significant involvement of oxidative injury in the muscular side-effects of statins in patients suffering from hyperlipoproteinemia.

  10. Simulation analyses of vibration tests on pile-group effects using blast-induced ground motions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takayuki Hashimoto; Kazushige Fujiwara; Katsuichirou Hijikata; Hideo Tanaka; Kohji Koyamada; Atsushi Suzuki; Osamu Kontani

    2005-01-01

    Extensive vibration tests have been performed on pile-supported structures at a large-scale mining site to promote better understanding of the dynamic behavior of pile-supported structures, especially pile-group effects. Two test structures were constructed in an excavated pit. One structure was supported on 25 tubular steel piles and the other on 4. The test pit was backfilled with sand of an appropriate grain size distribution to ensure good compaction. Ground motions induced by large-scale blasting operations were used as excitation forces for the tests. The 3D Finite Element Method (3D FEM)and a Genetic Algorithm (GA) were employed to identify the shear wave velocities and damping factors of the compacted sand, especially of the surface layer. A beam-interaction spring model was employed to simulate the test results of the piles and the pile-supported structures. The superstructure and pile foundation were modeled by a one-stick model comprising lumped masses and beam elements. The pile foundations were modeled just as they were, with lumped masses and beam elements to simulate the test results showing that, for the 25-pile structure, piles at different locations showed different responses. It was confirmed that the analysis methods employed were very useful for evaluating the nonlinear behavior of the soil-pile-structure system, even under severe ground motions. (authors)

  11. Investigation of flashing-induced instabilities at Circus test facility with the code ATHLET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schafer, F.; Manera, A. [Forschungzentrum Rossendorf e.V., Institute of Safety Research, P.O. Box 510119, D-01314 Dresden (Germany)]. E-mail: F.Schaefer@fz-rossendorf.de; A.Manera@fz-rossendorf.de

    2006-07-01

    The test facility CIRCUS (CIRculation Under Start-up) was built to study the start-up phase of a natural-circulation BWR. During the start-up,so-called flashing-induced instabilities can arise. These instabilities are induced by flashing (i.e., steam production in adiabatic conditions) of the coolant in the long riser section, which is placed above the core to enhance the flow rate. The flashing that occurs in the riser causes an imbalance between driving force and pressure losses in the natural-circulation loop, giving rise to flow oscillations. Within the European-Union 5th Framework Programme, a project, NACUSP (Natural circulation and stability performance of BWRs), has been started in December 2000, having as one of its main aims the understanding of the physics of the phenomena involved during the start-up phase of natural-circulation-cooled BWRs, providing a large experimental database and validating state-of-the-art thermo-hydraulic codes in the low-pressure, low-power operational region of these reactors. One part of this project deals with the modelling of selected CIRCUS tests using the thermo-hydraulic code ATHLET (Analysis of THermal-hydraulics of LEaks and Transients). This paper gives an overview about experiments and simulations. The code ATHLET is used to investigate the dynamic behaviour of the CIRCUS test facility and the results of the calculations are compared with the experimental data. (author)

  12. Erdosteine reduces the exercise-induced oxidative stress in patients with severe COPD: Results of a placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dal Negro, Roberto W; Visconti, Maria

    2016-12-01

    Erdosteine (ER), a multimechanism, mucoactive agent with anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, has been shown to improve lung function, decrease plasma reactive oxygen species (ROS), and 8-isoprostane levels in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). To assess vs. placebo the effect of ER on the exercise-induced oxidative stress by measuring and comparing the release of pro-inflammatory mediators in severe COPD patients. The double blind, placebo controlled study was carried out in 24 severe (GOLD Class III) COPD patients, aged >40 yr, randomized to receive either oral ER (600 mg/day, 8 males, mean age 70.5 yr) or placebo (9 males, mean age 70.8 yr) for 10 days. All patients performed a 6-min walking test (6MWT) before and after both treatments. Mean ROS plasma levels increased significantly, but equally, in each group following the baseline 6MWT (p = ns). At the end of both treatments, a significant difference in mean plasma ROS increase from baseline became clear between the ER (+14.6% ± 2.7) and the placebo group (+24.4% ± 3.8) after the second 6MWT (p release of inflammatory mediators due to the exercise-induced oxidative stress in severe COPD patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Failure modes induced by natural radiation environments on DRAM memories: study, test methodology and mitigation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bougerol, A.

    2011-05-01

    DRAMs are frequently used in space and aeronautic systems. Their sensitivity to cosmic radiations have to be known in order to satisfy reliability requirements for critical applications. These evaluations are traditionally done with particle accelerators. However, devices become more complex with technology integration. Therefore new effects appear, inducing longer and more expensive tests. There is a complementary solution: the pulsed laser, which triggers similar effects as particles. Thanks to these two test tools, main DRAM radiation failure modes were studied: SEUs (Single Event Upset) in memory blocks, and SEFIs (Single Event Functional Interrupt) in peripheral circuits. This work demonstrates the influence of test patterns on SEU and SEFI sensitivities depending on technology used. In addition, this study identifies the origin of the most frequent type of SEFIs. Moreover, laser techniques were developed to quantify sensitive surfaces of the different effects. This work led to a new test methodology for industry, in order to optimize test cost and efficiency using both pulsed laser beams and particle accelerators. Finally, a new fault tolerant technique is proposed: based on DRAM cell radiation immunity when discharged, this technique allows to correct all bits of a logic word. (author)

  14. Tests of the linearity assumption in the dose-effect relationship for radiation-induced cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, A.F.; Cohen, B.L.

    1978-01-01

    The validity of the BEIR linear extrapolation to low doses of the dose-effect relationship for radiation induced cancer is tested by use of natural radiation making use of selectivity on type of cancer, sex, age group, geographic area, and time period. For lung cancer, a linear interpolation between zero dose-zero effect and the data from radon-induced cancers in miners over-estimates the total number of observed lung cancers in many countries in the early years of this century; the discrepancy is substantially increased if the 30-44 year age range and/or if only females are considered, and by the fact that many other causes of lung cancer are shown to have been important at that time. The degree to which changes of diagnostic efficiency with time can influence the analysis is considered at some length. It is concluded that the linear relationship substantially over-estimates effects of low radiation doses. A similar analysis is applied to leukemia induced by natural radiation, applying selectivity by age, sex, natural background level, and date, and considering other causes. It is concluded that effects substantially larger than those obtained from linear extrapolation are excluded. The use of the selectivities mentioned above is justified by the fact that the incidence of cancer or leukemia is an upper limit on the rate at which it is caused by radiation effects; in determining upper limits it is justifiable to select situations which minimize it. (author)

  15. Correlation between induced embryo toxicity and absorption dose of enriched uranium in testes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Shoupeng; Lun Mingyue

    1996-01-01

    Doses of enriched uranium in testes inducing dominant lethality and skeletal abnormalities in offsprings are estimated. When intra-testicular injection dose is 0.4∼60 μg enriched uranium; from intake to insemination, testes could receive 9.14 x 10 -5 ∼1.38 x 10 -2 Gy radiation dose. Experimental results show that with the increase in the absorption dose, the number of living fetuses in a litter decreases, dominant lethality and skeletal abnormalities rise. It should be noted that relationship between the injected dose (I in μg) and the incidence of dominant skeletal abnormalities (S in %) in the offsprings can be represented by equation: S = 28.84 + 0.84I

  16. Correlation between induced embryo toxicity and absorption dose of enriched uranium in testes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shoupeng, Zhu; Mingyue, Lun [Suzhou Medical Coll., JS (China)

    1996-08-01

    Doses of enriched uranium in testes inducing dominant lethality and skeletal abnormalities in offsprings are estimated. When intra-testicular injection dose is 0.4{approx}60 {mu}g enriched uranium; from intake to insemination, testes could receive 9.14 x 10{sup -5}{approx}1.38 x 10{sup -2} Gy radiation dose. Experimental results show that with the increase in the absorption dose, the number of living fetuses in a litter decreases, dominant lethality and skeletal abnormalities rise. It should be noted that relationship between the injected dose (I in {mu}g) and the incidence of dominant skeletal abnormalities (S in %) in the offsprings can be represented by equation: S = 28.84 + 0.84I.

  17. Aerobic exercise and cold pressor test induce hypoalgesia in active and inactive men and women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vægter, Henrik Bjarke; Handberg, Gitte; Jørgensen, Maria N.

    2015-01-01

    ). Conditioned pain modulation (CPM) was assessed by cold pressor testing. Exercise-induced hypoalgesia (EIH) was assessed after 15 minutes bicycling at a heart rate corresponding to 75% VO2max. A control session of 15 minutes quiet rest was also included. Pressure pain thresholds (PPTs) were recorded...... and after exercise, PPTs increased to the same degree in active and inactive subjects, and the CPM and EIH responses were correlated (P CPM response immediately after cold pressor test was maintained in women but not in men. CONCLUSIONS: Cold pressor stimulation and aerobic exercise caused...... comparable multisegmental increases in PPT in active and inactive men and women. The CPM and EIH responses were correlated, but they have different temporal manifestation of hypoalgesia....

  18. N-acetylcysteine protects against cadmium-induced germ cell apoptosis by inhibiting endoplasmic reticulum stress in testes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Yan-Li; Wang, Hua; Zhang, Cheng; Zhang, Ying; Zhao, Mei; Chen, Yuan-Hua; Xu, De-Xiang

    2013-03-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a reproductive toxicant that induces germ cell apoptosis in the testes. Previous studies have demonstrated that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is involved in Cd-induced germ cell apoptosis. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of N-acetylcysteine (NAC), an antioxidant, on Cd-induced ER stress and germ cell apoptosis in the testes. Male CD-1 mice were intraperitoneally injected with CdCl2 (2.0 mg kg(-1)). As expected, acute Cd exposure induced germ cell apoptosis in the testes, as determined by terminal dUTP nick-end labelling (TUNEL). However, the administration of NAC alleviated Cd-induced germ cell apoptosis in the testes. Further analysis showed that NAC attenuated the Cd-induced upregulation of testicular glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78), an important ER molecular chaperone. Moreover, NAC inhibited the Cd-induced phosphorylation of testicular eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2α (eIF2α), a downstream target of the double-stranded RNA-activated kinase-like ER kinase (PERK) pathway. In addition, NAC blocked the Cd-induced activation of testicular X binding protein (XBP)-1, indicating that NAC attenuates the Cd-induced ER stress and the unfolded protein response (UPR). Interestingly, NAC almost completely prevented the Cd-induced elevation of C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) and phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), two components of the ER stress-mediated apoptotic pathway. In conclusion, NAC protects against Cd-induced germ cell apoptosis by inhibiting endoplasmic reticulum stress in the testes.

  19. HIT or miss? A comprehensive contemporary investigation of laboratory tests for heparin induced thrombocytopenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favaloro, Emmanuel J; McCaughan, Georgia; Mohammed, Soma; Lau, Kun Kan Edwin; Gemmell, Rosalie; Cavanaugh, Lauren; Donikian, Dea; Kondo, Mayuko; Brighton, Timothy; Pasalic, Leonardo

    2018-04-17

    Heparin induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) is a rare but potentially fatal complication of heparin therapy, which in a proportion of patients causes platelet activation and thrombosis. Initial clinical assessment of the likelihood of HIT is facilitated by laboratory testing to confirm or exclude HIT. This prospective investigation was performed over an 18-month period, and has involved testing of over 300 test samples from over 100 consecutive patients. Clinical assessment by 4T score was supplemented by laboratory tests that comprised both immunological [lateral flow ('STiC'), chemiluminescence (AcuStar; HIT-IgG (PF4-H) ), ELISA (Asserachrom HPIA IgG)] and functional assays [SRA, platelet aggregation using whole blood ('Multiplate') and platelet rich plasma ('LTA')]. We observed both false positive and false negative test findings with most assays. Overall, the whole blood aggregation method provided a reasonable alternative to SRA for identifying functional HIT. STiC, AcuStar and ELISA procedures were fairly comparable in terms of screening for HIT, although STiC and AcuStar both yielded false negatives, albeit also resulting in fewer false positives than ELISA. The 4T score had less utility in our patient cohort than we were expecting, although there was an association with the likelihood of HIT. Nevertheless, we accept that our observations are based on limited test numbers. In conclusion, no single approach (clinical or laboratory) was associated with optimal sensitivity or specificity of HIT exclusion or identification, and thus, a combination of clinical evaluation and laboratory testing will best ensure the accuracy of diagnosis. Crown Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Injection-induced gluteus muscle contractures: diagnosis with the "reverse Ober test" and surgical management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scully, William F; White, Klane K; Song, Kit M; Mosca, Vincent S

    2015-03-01

    Adoption rates are increasing in the United States and other developed countries. A large proportion of adopted children have been found to have unsuspected medical diagnoses, including orthopedic problems. One condition, termed injection-induced gluteus maximus contracture, has been previously described in several case series and can be difficult to diagnose if unfamiliar with this condition. By reviewing the etiology and pathoanatomy of this problem, as well as the typical examination findings, including the near-pathognomonic-positive "reverse Ober test," treating providers will be better prepared to recognize and properly treat this condition. This is a retrospective review of 4 patients treated at our institution for injection-induced gluteus maximus contracture. Patient history, physical examination findings, and treatment outcomes were recorded. All had undergone surgical treatment through a longitudinal incision along the posterior margin of the iliotibial band, with division of thickened, contracted gluteus tissue down to the ischial tuberosity. All 4 of the patients were adopted from orphanages in developing countries. Chief complaints of the patients varied, but physical examination findings were very consistent. Three of the 4 patients had undergone rotational osteotomies for presumed femoral retroversion before their diagnosis and treatment for injection-induced gluteus maximus contracture. All patients had concave, atrophic buttock contours and numerous punctate buttock scars. All walked with an out-toed gait and had marked apparent femoral retroversion. Each patient was found to have full hip adduction when the hip was extended but a hip abduction contracture when the hip was flexed. This finding of increasing abduction as an extended/adducted hip is flexed to 90 degrees is described as a positive "reverse Ober test." After surgical treatment, all hips could adduct to neutral from full extension to full flexion. Although common in some countries

  1. Stability Test For Sorghum Mutant Lines Derived From Induced Mutations with Gamma-Ray Irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Human

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Sorghum breeding program had been conducted at the Center for the Application of Isotopes and Radiation Technology, BATAN. Plant genetic variability was increased through induced mutations using gamma-ray irradiation. Through selection process in successive generations, some promising mutant lines had been identified to have good agronomic characteristics with high grain yield. These breeding lines were tested in multi location trials and information of the genotypic stability was obtained to meet the requirements for officially varietal release by the Ministry of Agriculture. A total of 11 sorghum lines and varieties consisting of 8 mutant lines derived from induced mutations (B-100, B-95, B-92, B-83, B-76, B-75, B-69 and Zh-30 and 3 control varieties (Durra, UPCA-S1 and Mandau were included in the experiment. All materials were grown in 10 agro-ecologically different locations namely Gunungkidul, Bantul, Citayam, Garut, Lampung, Bogor, Anyer, Karawaci, Cianjur and Subang. In each location, the local adaptability test was conducted by randomized block design with 3 replications. Data of grain yield was used for evaluating genotypic stability using AMMI approach. Results revealed that sorghum mutation breeding had generated 3 mutant lines (B-100, B-76 and Zh-30 exhibiting grain yield significantly higher than the control varieties. These mutant lines were genetically stable in all locations so that they would be recommended for official release as new sorghum varieties to the Ministry of Agriculture

  2. Effects of Saccade Induced Retrieval Enhancement on conceptual and perceptual tests of explicit & implicit memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Andrew; Powell, Daniel; Dagnall, Neil

    2018-03-01

    The effects of saccadic horizontal (bilateral) eye movements upon tests of both conceptual and perceptual forms of explicit and implicit memory were investigated. Participants studied a list of words and were then assigned to one of four test conditions: conceptual explicit, conceptual implicit, perceptual explicit, or perceptual implicit. Conceptual tests comprised category labels with either explicit instructions to recall corresponding examples from the study phase (category-cued recall), or implicit instructions to generate any corresponding examples that spontaneously came to mind (category-exemplar generation). Perceptual tests comprised of word-fragments with either explicit instructions to complete these with study items (word-fragment-cued recall), or implicit instructions to complete each fragment with the first word that simply 'popped to mind' (word-fragment completion). Just prior to retrieval, participants were required to engage in 30 s of bilateral vs. no eye movements. Results revealed that saccadic horizontal eye movements enhanced performance in only the conceptual explicit condition, indicating that Saccade-Induced Retrieval Enhancement is a joint function of conceptual and explicit retrieval mechanisms. Findings are discussed from both a cognitive and neuropsychological perspective, in terms of their potential functional and neural underpinnings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. A patch test confirmed phenobarbital-induced fixed drug eruption in a child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadly, Zohra; Aouam, Karim; Chaabane, Amel; Belhadjali, Hichem; Abderrazzak Boughattas, Naceur; Zili, Jamel Eddine

    2014-06-01

    A-10-year-old girl was referred to our department for multiple hyperpigmented plaques. One week previously, she had been given one suppository of acetylsalicylic acid - phenobarbital for fever. Twelve hours after the drug intake the child developed pruritic red plaques on the left thigh. Six weeks after resolution of the acute reaction, patch tests were performed separately, with phenobarbital and acetylsalicylic acid. On 48-hour reading, only the phenobarbital patch test on residual pigmented lesion was positive. Because of possible cross-reactions between aromatic anticonvulsants, subsequent patch tests using carbamazepine and phenytoin on residual pigmented lesions were performed. They were all negative at 48-hour reading. To our knowledge, only two isolated pediatric cases of Phenobarbital-induced FDE have been reported in the literature. In this case report, as it was difficult to determine whether phenobarbital or acetylsalicylic acid was responsible for this reaction, subsequent patch tests allowed the identification of the culprit component since it was positive to phenobarbital.

  4. [The role of acoustic impedance test in the diagnosis for occupational noise induced deafness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, H; Xue, L J; Yang, A C; Liang, X Y; Chen, Z Q; Zheng, Q L

    2018-01-20

    Objective: To investigate the characteristics of acoustic impedance test and its diagnostic role for occupational noise induced deafness, in order to provide an objective basis for the differential diagnosis of occupational noise induced deafness. Methods: A retrospective study was conducted to investigate the cases on the diagnosis of occupational noise-induced deafness in Guangdong province hospital for occupational disease prevention and treatment from January 2016 to January 2017. A total of 198 cases (396 ears) were divided into occupation disease group and non occupation disease group based on the diagnostic criteria of occupational noise deafness in 2014 edition, acoustic conductivity test results of two groups were compared including tympanograms types, external auditory canal volume, tympanic pressure, static compliance and slope. Results: In the occupational disease group, 204 ears were found to have 187 ears (91.67%) of type A, which were significantly higher than those in the non occupational disease group 143/192 (74.48%) , the difference was statistically significant (χ(2)=21.038, P occupation disease group in other type were 16/204 (7.84%) , 3/204 (1.47%) , were lower than Ad or As type of occupation disease group (15.63%) , other type (9.38%) , the differences were statistically significant[ (χ(2)=5.834, P Occupation disease group canal volume average (1.68±0.39) ml higher than that of non occupation disease group (1.57 ± 0.47) ml, the difference was statistically significant ( t =2.756, P occupation disease group mean static compliance (1.06±0.82) ml higher than that of non occupation disease group (0.89±0.64) ml. The difference was statistically singificant ( t =2.59, P occupational noise induced deafness, More than 90% of the confirmed cases showed an A-form tympanograms, it is one of the objective examination methods which can be used in the differential diagnosis of pseudo deafness.

  5. Are fatigue-related EMG-parameters correlated to trunk extensor muscles fatigue induced by the Sörensen test?

    OpenAIRE

    Demoulin Christophe; George, Florian; Matheve, Thomas; Jidovtseff, Boris; Vanderthommen, Marc

    2016-01-01

    The Sorensen test has been extensively studied and is a rapid, simple, and reproducible evaluation of the trunk extensor muscles [1]. It is often considered as a fatigue test because fatigue-related electromyographic (EMG) parameters change throughout the test [2]; however, only recently it has been confirmed that this test induces a decrease of trunk extensor force during a maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) [3], which best characterises muscle fatigue. The main aim of this stud...

  6. Vortex-Induced Vibration Tests of a Marine Growth Wrapped Cylinder at Subcritical Reynolds Number

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurian V. J.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Vortex Induced Vibrations (VIV may cause great damage to deep water risers. Estimation of accurate hydrodynamic coefficients and response amplitudes for fouled tubular cylinders subjected to VIVs is a complex task. This paper presents the results of an extensive experimental investigation on in-line and cross-flow forces acting on cylinders wrapped with marine growth, subjected to current at Subcritical Reynolds Number. The drag and lift force coefficients have been determined through the use of the Fast Fourier Analysis methods. The different tests were conducted in the offshore engineering laboratory at Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS (UTP, Malaysia. In this study, a cylinder with outer diameter Do = 27 mm, fixed at top as cantilever beam was used. The in-line and cross-flow forces were measured using VIV Force Totaller (VIVFT. VIVFT is a two degree of freedom (2DOF forces sensor developed by UTP to measure the VIV forces. The tests were conducted for current velocity varied between 0.118 to 0.59 m/s. The test results suggest that the cylinder wrapped with marine growth has shown an overall increase in drag and inertia coefficients as well as on response amplitudes.

  7. γ-Oryzanol protects against acute cadmium-induced oxidative damage in mice testes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiazzi, Cristiano C; Manfredini, Vanusa; Barcellos da Silva, Fabiana E; Flores, Erico M M; Izaguirry, Aryele P; Vargas, Laura M; Soares, Melina B; Santos, Francielli W

    2013-05-01

    Cadmium is a non-essential heavy metal that is present at low levels mainly in food and water and also in cigar smoke. The present study evaluated the testicular damage caused by acute cadmium exposure and verified the protective role of γ-oryzanol (ORY). Mice were administrated with a single dose of 2.5mg/kg of CdCl2, and then treated with ORY (50mM in canola oil, 5mL/kg). Testes were removed after 24h and tested for lipid peroxidation (TBARS), protein carbonylation, DNA breakage, ascorbic acid, cadmium and non-proteic thiols contents, and for the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and δ-aminolevulic acid dehydratase (δ-ALA-D). Cadmium presented a significant alteration in all parameters, except GPx and CAT activities. Therapy reduced in a slight degree cadmium concentration in testes (around 23%). ORY restored SOD and GST activities as well as TBARS production to the control levels. Furthermore, ORY partially recovered δ-ALA-D activity inhibited by cadmium. This study provides the first evidence on the therapeutic properties of ORY in protecting against cadmium-induced testicular toxicity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Tests of the linearity assumption in the dose-effect relationship for radiation-induced cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, A.F.; Cohen, B.L.

    1980-01-01

    The validity of the BEIR linear extrapolation to low doses of the dose-effect relationship for radiation induced cancer is tested by use of natural radiation making use of selectivity on type of cancer, smoking habits, sex, age group, geographic area and/or time period. For lung cancer, a linear interpolation between zero dose-zero effect and the data from radon-induced cancers in miners implies that the majority of all lung cancers among non-smokers are due to radon; since lung cancers in miners are mostly small-cell undifferentiated (SCU), a rather rare type in general, linearity over predicts the frequency of SCU lung cancers among non smokers by a factor of 10, and among non-smoking females age 25-44 by a factor of 24. Similarly, linearity predicts that the majority of all lung cancers early in this century were due to radon even after due consideration is given to cases missed by poor diagnostic efficiency (this matter is considered in some detail). For the 30-40 age range, linearity over predicts the total lung cancer rate at that time by a factor of 3-6; for SCU lung cancer, the over-prediction is by at least a factor of 10. Other causes of lung cancer are considered which further enhance the degree to which the linearity assumption over-estimates the effects of low level radiation. A similar analysis is applied to leukemia induced by natural radiation. It is concluded that the upper limit for this is not higher than estimates from the linearity hypothesis. (author)

  9. Laboratory tests for identification or exclusion of heparin induced thrombocytopenia: HIT or miss?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favaloro, Emmanuel J

    2018-02-01

    Heparin induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) is a potentially fatal condition that arises subsequent to formation of antibodies against complexes containing heparin, usually platelet-factor 4-heparin ("anti-PF4-heparin"). Assessment for HIT involves both clinical evaluation and, if indicated, laboratory testing for confirmation or exclusion, typically using an initial immunological assay ("screening"), and only if positive, a secondary functional assay for confirmation. Many different immunological and functional assays have been developed. The most common contemporary immunological assays comprise enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay [ELISA], chemiluminescence, lateral flow, and particle gel techniques. The most common functional assays measure platelet aggregation or platelet activation events (e.g., serotonin release assay; heparin-induced platelet activation (HIPA); flow cytometry). All assays have some sensitivity and specificity to HIT antibodies, but differ in terms of relative sensitivity and specificity for pathological HIT, as well as false negative and false positive error rate. This brief article overviews the different available laboratory methods, as well as providing a suggested approach to diagnosis or exclusion of HIT. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Centrifuge model tests of rainfall-induced slope failures for the investigation of the initiation conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matziaris, Vasileios; Marshall, Alec; Yu, Hai-Sui

    2015-04-01

    Rainfall-induced landslides are very common natural disasters which cause damage to properties and infrastructure and may result in the loss of human lives. These phenomena often take place in unsaturated soil slopes and are triggered by the saturation of the soil profile, due to rain infiltration, which leads to a loss of shear strength. The aim of this study is to determine rainfall thresholds for the initiation of landslides under different initial conditions. Model tests of rainfall-induced landslides are conducted in the Nottingham Centre for Geomechanics 50g-T geotechnical centrifuge. Initially unsaturated plane-strain slope models made with fine silica sand are prepared at varying densities at 1g and accommodated within a climatic chamber which provides controlled environmental conditions. During the centrifuge flight at 60g, rainfall events of varying intensity and duration are applied to the slope models causing the initiation of slope failure. The impact of soil state properties and rainfall characteristics on the landslide initiation process are discussed. The variation of pore water pressures within the slope before, during and after simulated rainfall events is recorded using miniature pore pressure transducers buried in the soil model. Slope deformation is determined by using a high-speed camera and digital image analysis techniques.

  11. Studying the effect of CO2-induced acidification on sediment toxicity using acute amphipod toxicity test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basallote, M Dolores; De Orte, Manoela R; DelValls, T Ángel; Riba, Inmaculada

    2014-01-01

    Carbon capture and storage is increasingly being considered one of the most efficient approaches to mitigate the increase of CO2 in the atmosphere associated with anthropogenic emissions. However, the environmental effects of potential CO2 leaks remain largely unknown. The amphipod Ampelisca brevicornis was exposed to environmental sediments collected in different areas of the Gulf of Cádiz and subjected to several pH treatments to study the effects of CO2-induced acidification on sediment toxicity. After 10 days of exposure, the results obtained indicated that high lethal effects were associated with the lowest pH treatments, except for the Ría of Huelva sediment test. The mobility of metals from sediment to the overlying seawater was correlated to a pH decrease. The data obtained revealed that CO2-related acidification would lead to lethal effects on amphipods as well as the mobility of metals, which could increase sediment toxicity.

  12. Hydrogen Induced Crack and Phase Transformation in Hydrogen Pressured Tensile Test of 316L Stainless Steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baek, Un Bong; Nam, Sung Hoon [Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Choe, Byung Hak; Shim, Jong Hun [Gangneung-Wonju National University, Gangneung (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young Uk [Hanyang University, Ansan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young Suk; Kim, Sung Soo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Keyyong [Korea Research Institute of Ship and Ocean Engineering, Deajeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-02-15

    The aim of this investigation is to prove the mechanism of hydrogen induced crack (HIC) of 316L stainless steels in hydrogen pressured tensile test. Microstructures like twin, planar slip, and abnormal phase transformation around the HIC were analyzed by transmission electron microscopy. Deformation twin accompanied by planar slip could be related to the main cause of HIC in the hydrogen pressured tensile condition, because intragranular HICs were mainly observed along the boundaries of twins and planar slip lines. An abnormal forbidden diffraction was also accompanied by HIC in the hydrogen attacked area. Examination of the HIC mechanism in austenitic stainless steel can be applied to the fitness of use for alloys with the possibility of various susceptible cracks in a hydrogen and stress atmosphere.

  13. Sub-scale Waterflow Cavitation and Dynamic Transfer Function Testing of an Oxidizer Turbo-Pump Combined Inducer and Impeller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karon, D. M.; Patel, S. K.; Zoladz, T. F.

    2016-01-01

    In 2009 and 2010, Concepts NREC prepared for and performed a series of tests on a 52% scale of a version of the Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne J-2X Oxidizer Turbopump under a Phase III SBIR with NASA MSFC. The test article was a combined inducer and impeller, tested as a unit. This paper presents an overview of the test rig and facility, instrumentation, signal conditioning, data acquisition systems, testing approach, measurement developments, and lessons learned. Results from these tests were presented in the form of two papers at the previous JANNAF joint propulsion conference, in December of 2011.

  14. Taking the Easy Way Out: How the GED Testing Program Induces Students to Drop Out. NBER Working Paper No. 14044

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckman, James J.; LaFontaine, Paul A.; Rodriguez, Pedro L.

    2008-01-01

    We exploit an exogenous increase in General Educational Development (GED) testing requirements to determine whether raising the difficulty of the test causes students to finish high school rather than drop out and GED certify. We find that a six point decrease in GED pass rates induces a 1.3 point decline in overall dropout rates. The effect size…

  15. Comparative analysis of automotive paints by laser induced breakdown spectroscopy and nonparametric permutation tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McIntee, Erin; Viglino, Emilie; Rinke, Caitlin; Kumor, Stephanie; Ni Liqiang; Sigman, Michael E.

    2010-01-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) has been investigated for the discrimination of automobile paint samples. Paint samples from automobiles of different makes, models, and years were collected and separated into sets based on the color, presence or absence of effect pigments and the number of paint layers. Twelve LIBS spectra were obtained for each paint sample, each an average of a five single shot 'drill down' spectra from consecutive laser ablations in the same spot on the sample. Analyses by a nonparametric permutation test and a parametric Wald test were performed to determine the extent of discrimination within each set of paint samples. The discrimination power and Type I error were assessed for each data analysis method. Conversion of the spectral intensity to a log-scale (base 10) resulted in a higher overall discrimination power while observing the same significance level. Working on the log-scale, the nonparametric permutation tests gave an overall 89.83% discrimination power with a size of Type I error being 4.44% at the nominal significance level of 5%. White paint samples, as a group, were the most difficult to differentiate with the power being only 86.56% followed by 95.83% for black paint samples. Parametric analysis of the data set produced lower discrimination (85.17%) with 3.33% Type I errors, which is not recommended for both theoretical and practical considerations. The nonparametric testing method is applicable across many analytical comparisons, with the specific application described here being the pairwise comparison of automotive paint samples.

  16. Water spray-induced grooming is negatively correlated with depressive behavior in the forced swimming test in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiota, Noboru; Narikiyo, Kimiya; Masuda, Akira; Aou, Shuji

    2016-05-01

    Rodents show grooming, a typical self-care behavior, under stress and non-stress conditions. Previous studies revealed that grooming under stress conditions such as the open-field test (OFT) or the elevated plus-maze test (EPM) is associated with anxiety, but the roles of grooming under non-stress conditions are not well understood. Here, we examined spray-induced grooming as a model of grooming under a non-stress condition to investigate the relationship between this grooming and depression-like behavior in the forced swim test (FST) and tail suspension test, and we compared spray-induced grooming with OFT- and EPM-induced grooming. The main finding was that the duration of spray-induced grooming, but not that of OFT/EPM-induced grooming, was negatively correlated with the duration of immobility in the FST, an index of depression-like behavior. The results suggest that spray-induced grooming is functionally different from the grooming in the OFT and EPM and is related to reduction of depressive behavior.

  17. Laser-induced fluorescence detection platform for point-of-care testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berner, Marcel; Hilbig, Urs; Schubert, Markus B.; Gauglitz, Günter

    2017-08-01

    Point-of-care testing (POCT) devices for continuous low-cost monitoring of critical patient parameters require miniaturized and integrated setups for performing quick high-sensitivity analyses, away from central clinical laboratories. This work presents a novel and promising laser-induced fluorescence platform for measurements in direct optical test formats that leads towards such powerful POCT devices based on fluorescence-labeled immunoassays. Ultimate sensitivity of thin film photodetectors, integrated with microfluidics, and a comprehensive optimization of all system components aim at low-level signal detection in the targeted biosensor application. The setup acquires fluorescence signals from the volume of a microfluidic channel. An innovative sandwiching process forms a flow channel in the microfluidic chips by embedding laser-cut double-sided adhesive tapes. The custom fit of amorphous silicon based photodiode arrays to the geometry of the flow channel enables miniaturization, fully adequate for POCT devices. A free-beam laser excitation with line focus provides excellent alignment stability, allows for easy and reliable swapping of the disposable microfluidic chips, and therewith greatly improves the ease of use of the resulting integrated device. As a proof-of-concept of this novel in-volume measurement approach, the limit of detection for the dye DY636-COOH in pure water as a model fluorophore is examined and found to be 26 nmol l-1 .

  18. Do macroeconomic contractions induce or 'harvest' suicides? A test of competing hypotheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gemmill, Alison; Falconi, April; Karasek, Deborah; Hartig, Terry; Anderson, Elizabeth; Catalano, Ralph

    2015-11-01

    Researchers often invoke a mortality displacement or 'harvesting' mechanism to explain mortality patterns, such that those with underlying health vulnerabilities die sooner than expected in response to environmental phenomena, such as heat waves, cold spells and air pollution. It is unclear if this displacement mechanism might also explain observed increases in suicide following economic contraction, or if suicides are induced in persons otherwise unlikely to engage in self-destructive behaviour. Here, we test two competing hypotheses explaining an observed increase in suicides following unemployment-induction or displacement. We apply time series methods to monthly suicide and unemployment data from Sweden for the years 2000-2011. Tests are conducted separately for working age (20-64 years old) men and women as well as older (aged 65 years and older) men and women. Displacement appeared among older men and women; an unexpected rise in unemployment predicted an increase in suicides 6 months later, followed by a significant decrease 8 months later. Induction appeared among working age men, but not among working age women; an unexpected rise in unemployment predicted an increase in suicides 4-6 months later. Displacement and induction both appear to have operated following unexpected labour market contractions in Sweden, though with different population segments. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  19. Deformation mechanisms induced under high cycle fatigue tests in a metastable austenitic stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roa, J.J., E-mail: joan.josep.roa@upc.edu [CIEFMA-Departament de Ciència dels Materials i Enginyeria Metallúrgica, ETSEIB, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Avda. Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); CRnE, Campus Diagonal Sud, Edificio C’, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, C/ Pascual i Vila 15, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Fargas, G. [CIEFMA-Departament de Ciència dels Materials i Enginyeria Metallúrgica, ETSEIB, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Avda. Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Jiménez-Piqué, E. [CIEFMA-Departament de Ciència dels Materials i Enginyeria Metallúrgica, ETSEIB, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Avda. Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); CRnE, Campus Diagonal Sud, Edificio C’, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, C/ Pascual i Vila 15, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Mateo, A. [CIEFMA-Departament de Ciència dels Materials i Enginyeria Metallúrgica, ETSEIB, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Avda. Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2014-03-01

    Advanced techniques were used to study the deformation mechanisms induced by fatigue tests in a metastable austenitic stainless steel AISI 301LN. Observations by Atomic Force Microscopy were carried out to study the evolution of a pre-existing martensite platelet at increasing number of cycles. The sub-superficial deformation mechanisms of the austenitic grains were studied considering the cross-section microstructure obtained by Focused Ion Beam and analysed by Scanning Electron Microscopy and Transmission Electron Microscopy. The results revealed no deformation surrounding the pre-existing martensitic platelet during fatigue tests, only the growth on height was observed. Martensite formation was associated with shear bands on austenite, mainly in the {111} plane, and with the activation of the other intersecting austenite {111}〈110〉 slip system. Furthermore, transmission electron microscopy results showed that the nucleation of ε-martensite follows a two stages phase transformation (γ{sub fcc}→ε{sub hcp}→α'{sub bcc})

  20. FEV manoeuvre induced changes in breath VOC compositions: an unconventional view on lung function tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukul, Pritam; Schubert, Jochen K.; Oertel, Peter; Kamysek, Svend; Taunk, Khushman; Trefz, Phillip; Miekisch, Wolfram

    2016-06-01

    Breath volatile organic compound (VOC) analysis can open a non-invasive window onto pathological and metabolic processes in the body. Decades of clinical breath-gas analysis have revealed that changes in exhaled VOC concentrations are important rather than disease specific biomarkers. As physiological parameters, such as respiratory rate or cardiac output, have profound effects on exhaled VOCs, here we investigated VOC exhalation under respiratory manoeuvres. Breath VOCs were monitored by means of real-time mass-spectrometry during conventional FEV manoeuvres in 50 healthy humans. Simultaneously, we measured respiratory and hemodynamic parameters noninvasively. Tidal volume and minute ventilation increased by 292 and 171% during the manoeuvre. FEV manoeuvre induced substance specific changes in VOC concentrations. pET-CO2 and alveolar isoprene increased by 6 and 21% during maximum exhalation. Then they decreased by 18 and 37% at forced expiration mirroring cardiac output. Acetone concentrations rose by 4.5% despite increasing minute ventilation. Blood-borne furan and dimethyl-sulphide mimicked isoprene profile. Exogenous acetonitrile, sulphides, and most aliphatic and aromatic VOCs changed minimally. Reliable breath tests must avoid forced breathing. As isoprene exhalations mirrored FEV performances, endogenous VOCs might assure quality of lung function tests. Analysis of exhaled VOC concentrations can provide additional information on physiology of respiration and gas exchange.

  1. Test systems in drug discovery for hazard identification and risk assessment of human drug-induced liver injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Richard J; Betts, Catherine; Blomme, Eric A G; Gerets, Helga H J; Gjervig Jensen, Klaus; Hewitt, Philip G; Juhila, Satu; Labbe, Gilles; Liguori, Michael J; Mesens, Natalie; Ogese, Monday O; Persson, Mikael; Snoeys, Jan; Stevens, James L; Walker, Tracy; Park, B Kevin

    2017-07-01

    The liver is an important target for drug-induced toxicities. Early detection of hepatotoxic drugs requires use of well-characterized test systems, yet current knowledge, gaps and limitations of tests employed remains an important issue for drug development. Areas Covered: The current state of the science, understanding and application of test systems in use for the detection of drug-induced cytotoxicity, mitochondrial toxicity, cholestasis and inflammation is summarized. The test systems highlighted herein cover mostly in vitro and some in vivo models and endpoint measurements used in the assessment of small molecule toxic liabilities. Opportunities for research efforts in areas necessitating the development of specific tests and improved mechanistic understanding are highlighted. Expert Opinion: Use of in vitro test systems for safety optimization will remain a core activity in drug discovery. Substantial inroads have been made with a number of assays established for human Drug-induced Liver Injury. There nevertheless remain significant gaps with a need for improved in vitro tools and novel tests to address specific mechanisms of human Drug-Induced Liver Injury. Progress in these areas will necessitate not only models fit for application, but also mechanistic understanding of how chemical insult on the liver occurs in order to identify translational and quantifiable readouts for decision-making.

  2. The Antioxidant Effect of Rosmarinic Acid by Different Delivery Routes in the Animal Model of Noise-Induced Hearing Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetoni, Anna R; Eramo, Sara Letizia Maria; Di Pino, Antonella; Rolesi, Rolando; Paciello, Fabiola; Grassi, Claudio; Troiani, Diana; Paludetti, Gaetano

    2018-03-01

    Trans-tympanic Rosmarinic Acid (RA), as compared with the systemic administration, protects against noise-induced auditory hair cell and hearing losses in rats in vivo. ROS production, lipoperoxidative damage, and an imbalance of antioxidant defences play a significant role in noise-induced hearing loss. Several molecules with antioxidant properties have been tested to restore redox homeostasis; however, drug delivery system represents a challenge for their effectiveness. In our model, acute and intense noise exposure induces hearing loss, hair cell death, and oxidative stress, with an increase in superoxide production and over-expression of lipid peroxidation in cochlear structures. RA was administrated in male Wistar rats by trans-tympanic (20 μl) and systemic (10 mg/kg) modality. In systemic administration, RA was injected 1 hour before noise exposure and once daily for the following 3 days. ABRs were measured before and at days 1, 3, 7, and 30 after noise exposure. Rhodamine-phalloidin staining, dihydroethidium and 8-isoprostane immunostainings were performed to assess and quantify outer hair cells loss, superoxide production, and lipid peroxidation in the different experimental groups. Systemic RA administration significantly decreased noise-induced hearing loss and the improvement of auditory function was paralleled by a significant reduction in cochlear oxidative stress. The trans-tympanic modality of drug administration showed a similar degree of protection both at the functional and morphological levels. The effectiveness of RA given via trans-tympanic injection could be interesting for the future application of this minimally-invasive procedure in the treatment of ROS-induced hearing loss.

  3. Ribavirin exposure induces histopathological changes in the seminiferous tubules of testes in albino rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batool, A.

    2013-01-01

    Study objectives: The objectives of the study are to describe and compare histopathological changes in the seminiferous tubules of testes of rat, with different doses of Ribavirin at different time intervals. Introduction: The chemical disturbances may affect a vast number of potential sites in male reproductive system as well as its complex hormonal regulation. Testicular toxicity may reduce the fertility of the male. The current study was conducted to evaluate the effects of Ribavirin on the histological structure of seminiferous tubules in the testes of albino rats. Materials and Methods: Seventy two sexually mature adult male albino rats weighing 180-200gms were divided into four groups: A, B, C and D; each group having 18 rats. Ribavirin was administered intraperitoneally in different doses to these groups that were 20mg, 100mg and 200mg/kg body weight, while group A was control. Each group was further divided into three subgroups according to three time points which were selected for sacrifice that were 20th, 40th and 60th day from the last exposure to drug. Six randomly selected rats from each group were sacrificed on every sacrifice time. Results and Conclusion: The seminiferous tubules with degenerative changes like appearance of vacuole and necrotic material were observed in comparison to control groups, on 20th day of sacrifice in all groups. In rats sacrificed on day 40th and 60th, the sign of recovery in the form of regeneration of seminiferous epithelium was observed that was more marked in low dose groups than high dose groups which showed late recovery. We conclude that ribavirin being used as antiviral drug induces reversible degenerative changes in the seminiferous tubules of testes of albino rats. (author)

  4. The Skull Vibration-Induced Nystagmus Test of Vestibular Function—A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas, Georges; Curthoys, Ian S.; Lion, Alexis; Perrin, Philippe; Schmerber, Sébastien

    2017-01-01

    A 100-Hz bone-conducted vibration applied to either mastoid induces instantaneously a predominantly horizontal nystagmus, with quick phases beating away from the affected side in patients with a unilateral vestibular loss (UVL). The same stimulus in healthy asymptomatic subjects has little or no effect. This is skull vibration-induced nystagmus (SVIN), and it is a useful, simple, non-invasive, robust indicator of asymmetry of vestibular function and the side of the vestibular loss. The nystagmus is precisely stimulus-locked: it starts with stimulation onset and stops at stimulation offset, with no post-stimulation reversal. It is sustained during long stimulus durations; it is reproducible; it beats in the same direction irrespective of which mastoid is stimulated; it shows little or no habituation; and it is permanent—even well-compensated UVL patients show SVIN. A SVIN is observed under Frenzel goggles or videonystagmoscopy and recorded under videonystagmography in absence of visual-fixation and strong sedative drugs. Stimulus frequency, location, and intensity modify the results, and a large variability in skull morphology between people can modify the stimulus. SVIN to 100 Hz mastoid stimulation is a robust response. We describe the optimum method of stimulation on the basis of the literature data and testing more than 18,500 patients. Recent neural evidence clarifies which vestibular receptors are stimulated, how they cause the nystagmus, and why the same vibration in patients with semicircular canal dehiscence (SCD) causes a nystagmus beating toward the affected ear. This review focuses not only on the optimal parameters of the stimulus and response of UVL and SCD patients but also shows how other vestibular dysfunctions affect SVIN. We conclude that the presence of SVIN is a useful indicator of the asymmetry of vestibular function between the two ears, but in order to identify which is the affected ear, other information and careful clinical judgment are

  5. Ethanol induced antidepressant-like effect in the mouse forced swimming test: modulation by serotonergic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Nishant S; Kannamwar, Uday; Verma, Lokesh

    2017-02-01

    The present investigation explored the modulatory role of serotonergic transmission in the acute ethanol-induced effects on immobility time in the mouse forced swim test (FST). Acute i.p. administration of ethanol (20% w/v, 2 or 2.5 g/kg, i.p.) decreased the immobility time in FST of mice, indicating its antidepressant-like effect while lower doses of ethanol (1, 1.5 g/kg, i.p.) were devoid of any effect in the FST. The mice pre-treated with a sub-effective dose of 5-HT 2A agonist, DOI (10 μg/mouse, i.c.v.) or 5-HT 1A receptor antagonist, WAY 100635 (0.1 μg/mouse, i.c.v.) but not with the 5-HT 2A/2C antagonist, ketanserin (1.5 μg/mouse, i.c.v.) exhibited a synergistic reduction in the immobility time induced by sub-effective dose of ethanol (1.5 g/kg, i.p.). On the other hand, ethanol (2.5 g/kg, i.p.) failed to decrease the immobility time in mice, pre-treated with 5-HT 1A agonist, 8-OH-DPAT (0.1 μg/mouse, i.c.v.) or ketanserin (1.5 μg/mouse, i.c.v.). In addition, pre-treatment with a 5-HT neuronal synthesis inhibitor, p-CPA (300 mg/kg, i.p. × 3 days) attenuated the anti-immobility effect ethanol (2.5 g/kg, i.p.) in mouse FST. Thus, the results of the present study points towards the essentiality of the central 5-HT transmission at the synapse for the ethanol-induced antidepressant-like effect in the FST wherein the regulatory role of the 5-HT 1A receptor or contributory role of the 5-HT 2A/2C receptor-mediated mechanism is proposed in the anti-immobility effect of acute ethanol in mouse FST.

  6. Exercise-induced bronchospasm in high school athletes via a free running test: incidence and epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukafka, D S; Lang, D M; Porter, S; Rogers, J; Ciccolella, D; Polansky, M; D'Alonzo, G E

    1998-12-01

    Exercise-induced bronchospasm (EIB) affects up to 35% of athletes and up to 90% of asthmatics. Asthma morbidity and mortality have increased over the past several decades among residents of Philadelphia, PA. It is possible that a simple free running test for EIB may serve as a tool to study the factors contributing to recent trends in asthma, and to screen for asthma in athletes in the urban setting. The purposes of this study were to (1) assess a free running test to screen for EIB, and (2) examine prevalence of and epidemiologic factors associated with EIB in high school athletes. Cross-sectional observational study on the incidence and risk factors for EIB. To validate our method and criteria for the diagnosis of EIB, a repeat test was performed on a portion of the athletes. In a randomized single-blinded fashion, 15 athletes who had demonstrated EIB initially received albuterol or placebo prior to a repeat exercise test. Community high school athletic facilities. We studied 238 male high school varsity football players. All athletes underwent an acquaintance session with a questionnaire, followed by a 1-mile outdoor run (6 to 8 mins). Peak expiratory flow (PEF) measurements were determined prior to and 5, 15, and 30 min after exercise. Heart rates (HRs) and dyspnea scores were measured. EIB was defined as a decrease of 15% in PEF at any time point after exercise. Associations of EIB with demographic factors were assessed by univariate and multivariate analyses. Two hundred thirty-eight athletes participated: 92 European-Americans (EA), 140 African-Americans (AA), 5 Hispanics, and 1 Native American. Mean age was 16+/-1 years. Average HR postexercise was 156+/-24 beats/min. Twenty-four (10%) reported a history of treated asthma. The prevalence of EIB among the remaining 214 athletes was 19 of 214 (9%). The rate of EIB among AA athletes was higher than among EA athletes: (17/126 [13%] AA vs 2/82 [2%] EA, p = 0.01). During the validation portion of the study, the

  7. The role of some radionuclide tests in assessment of lithium-induced nephropathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrov, T.; Vretenarska, M.; Svrakova, E.; Stoyanova, V.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare some radionuclide tests as possibility for assessment of Li-induced nephropathy and to make recommendations for the routine clinical practice. Gamma-renogram (as assessment of nephron activity) as well as the clearance of 131 I-hippuran and 199 Yb-EDTA (as assessment of effective renal plasma flow (ERPF) and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) were used. A group of 110 patients (57 men and 53 women), aged 22-73 years (44.95 ± 12.87), treated for affective mental disease with Li-carbonate monotherapy for a period 1-20 years, was examined. Serum Li-levels were in the range 0.450-0.860 mmol/l. All patients had polyuria more than 2000 ml/24 h and decreased renal concentrating ability under 800 mOsm/kg. No other renal diseases were found. Radionuclide tests were done two or three times at an average interval 5.1 years at 69 of the patients. At 23.53% of them slightly disturbed secretory and excretory functions with gamma-renogram were established. The values of GRF were slightly diminished in 21% of the cases. A clear tendency to reducing of the values of ERPF was established. 5.1 years later 131 I-hippuran clearance was normal only at 34.37% of the patients. The rate of the disturbance of the tubular function depended on the duration of thr Li-therapy and the age. At 10.6% of the cases treated longer than 10 years ERPF decreasing was more significant. 131 I-hippuran clearance investigation was recommended as the most sensitive method for early renal disturbances assessment at patients on long-term Li-therapy

  8. Protective Effects of Quercetin against Dimethoate-Induced Cytotoxicity and Genotoxicity in Allium sativum Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Waseem; Shaikh, Sibhghatulla; Nazam, Nazia; Lone, Mohammad Iqbal

    2014-01-01

    The present investigation was directed to study the possible protective activity of quercetin-a natural antioxidant against dimethoate-induced cyto- and genotoxicity in meristematic cells of Allium sativum. So far there is no report on the biological properties of quercetin in plant test systems. Chromosome breaks, multipolar anaphase, stick chromosome, and mitotic activity were undertaken in the current study as markers of cyto- and genotoxicity. Untreated control, quercetin controls (@ 5, 10 and 20 μg/mL for 3 h), and dimethoate exposed groups (@ 100 and 200 μg/mL for 3 h) were maintained. For protection against cytogenotoxicity, the root tip cells treated with dimethoate at 100 and 200 μg/mL for 3 h and quercetin treatment at 5, 10, and 20 μg/mL for 16 h, prior to dimethoate treatment, were undertaken. Quercetin was found to be neither cytotoxic nor genotoxic in Allium sativum control at these doses. A significant increase (P Allium. Pretreatment of Allium sativum with quercetin significantly (P Allium sativum that resides, at least in part, on its antioxidant effects.

  9. Green Tea Protects Testes against Atrazine-induced Toxicity in Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Kheirandish

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Atrazine (ATZ is a common herbicide in agriculture for control of grass and broad-leaved weeds. It persists in the environment and causes reproductive problems in both human and animals. The present study was aimed at protective effect of green tea against ATZ toxicity in the reproductive system of male rats. Methods: The present study was performed in Veterinary School, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman in 2016. ATZ and treatment groups received ATZ daily 200 mg/kg BW orally for 14 d. In addition, 0.2% methanolic green tea extract was administrated in the treatment group. Results: In histopathologic investigation, number of germinal layers reduced in the most seminiferous tubules in the ATZ group and spermatids were absence. Necrotic spermatocytes, spermatids, and spermatozoa were evident in the testicular tubules. In the morphometric measurements, tubular diameter, germinal epithelium height, and meiosis index decreased significantly. Conclusion: Green tea extract had reduced testicular toxicity of atrazine significantly. ATZ induces toxicity through oxidative damage and green tea extract can protect the testes due to antioxidant activity of its polyphenols especially flavonoids.

  10. Randomized test of an implementation intention-based tool to reduce stress-induced eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Daryl B; Armitage, Christopher J; Ferguson, Eamonn

    2015-06-01

    Stress may indirectly contribute to disease (e.g. cardiovascular disease, cancer) by producing deleterious changes to diet. The purpose of this study was to test the effectiveness of a stress management support (SMS) tool to reduce stress-related unhealthy snacking and to promote stress-related healthy snacking. Participants were randomized to complete a SMS tool with instruction to link stressful situations with healthy snack alternatives (experimental) or a SMS tool without a linking instruction (control). On-line daily reports of stressors and snacking were completed for 7 days. Daily stressors were associated with unhealthy snack consumption in the control condition but not in the experimental condition. Participants highly motivated towards healthy eating consumed a greater number of healthy snacks in the experimental condition on stressful days compared to participants in the experimental condition with low and mean levels of motivation. This tool is an effective, theory driven, intervention that helps to protect against stress-induced high-calorie snack consumption.

  11. Effect of melatonin and time of administration on irradiation-induced damage to rat testes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Take

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The effect of ionizing irradiation on testes and the protective effects of melatonin were investigated by immunohistochemical and electron microscopic methods. Eighty-two adult male Wistar rats were divided into 10 groups. The rats in the irradiated groups were exposed to a sublethal irradiation dose of 8 Gy, either to the total body or abdominopelvic region using a 60Co source at a focus of 80 cm away from the skin in the morning or evening together with vehicle (20% ethanol or melatonin administered 24 h before (10 mg/kg, immediately before (20 mg/kg and 24 h after irradiation (10 mg/kg, all ip. Caspace-3 immunoreactivity was increased in the irradiated group compared to control (P < 0.05. Melatonin-treated groups showed less apoptosis as indicated by a considerable decrease in caspace-3 immunoreactivity (P < 0.05. Electron microscopic examination showed that all spermatogenic cells, especially primary spermatocytes, displayed prominent degeneration in the groups submitted to total body and abdominopelvic irradiation. However, melatonin administration considerably inhibited these degenerative changes, especially in rats who received abdominopelvic irradiation. Total body and abdominopelvic irradiation induced identical apoptosis and testicular damage. Chronobiological assessment revealed that biologic rhythm does not alter the inductive effect of irradiation. These data indicate that melatonin protects against total body and abdominopelvic irradiation. Melatonin was more effective in the evening abdominopelvic irradiation and melatonin-treated group than in the total body irradiation and melatonin-treated group.

  12. Manufacturing method for intragranular stress corrosion cracking-induced test specimen for stainless steel pipeline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Futagawa, Kiyoshi.

    1994-01-01

    In a manufacturing step for intragranular stress corrosion cracking-induced for stainless steel pipelines, pipe are abutted against with each other and welded, and a heat affected portion is applied with a sensitizing heat treatment. Further, a crevice jig is attached near the heat affected portion at the inner surface of the pipe and kept in a chlorine ion added water under high temperature and high pressure at a predetermined period of time. If tap water is used instead of purified water for C.P.T. test in a step of forming sample of IGSCC (intergranular stress corrosion cracking), since the chlorine ion concentration in the tap water is relatively high, TGSCC (intragranular stress corrosion crackings caused in all of the samples. A heat input and an interlayer temperature are determined for the material of stainless pipe having a carbon content of more than 0.05% so that the welding residual stress on the inner surface is applied as tension. The condition for the heat treatment is determined as, for example, 500degC x 24hr, and the samples are kept under water at high temperature and high pressure applied with chlorine ions for 500 to 200hours. As a result, since samples of TGSCC can be formed by utilizing the manufacturing step for IGSCC, there is no requirement for providing devices for applying environmental factors separately. (N.H.)

  13. Applicability of out-of-pile fretting wear tests to in-reactor fretting wear-induced failure time prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyu-Tae

    2013-02-01

    In order to investigate whether or not the grid-to-rod fretting wear-induced fuel failure will occur for newly developed spacer grid spring designs for the fuel lifetime, out-of-pile fretting wear tests with one or two fuel assemblies are to be performed. In this study, the out-of-pile fretting wear tests were performed in order to compare the potential for wear-induced fuel failure in two newly-developed, Korean PWR spacer grid designs. Lasting 20 days, the tests simulated maximum grid-to-rod gap conditions and the worst flow induced vibration effects that might take place over the fuel life time. The fuel rod perforation times calculated from the out-of-pile tests are greater than 1933 days for 2 μm oxidized fuel rods with a 100 μm grid-to-rod gap, whereas those estimated from in-reactor fretting wear failure database may be about in the range of between 60 and 100 days. This large discrepancy in fuel rod perforation may occur due to irradiation-induced cladding oxide microstructure changes on the one hand and a temperature gradient-induced hydrogen content profile across the cladding metal region on the other hand, which may accelerate brittleness in the grid-contacting cladding oxide and metal regions during the reactor operation. A three-phase grid-to-rod fretting wear model is proposed to simulate in-reactor fretting wear progress into the cladding, considering the microstructure changes of the cladding oxide and the hydrogen content profile across the cladding metal region combined with the temperature gradient. The out-of-pile tests cannot be directly applicable to the prediction of in-reactor fretting wear-induced cladding perforations but they can be used only for evaluating a relative wear resistance of one grid design against the other grid design.

  14. Effects of mecamylamine (a nicotinic receptor antagonist on harman induced-amnesia in an inhibitory avoidance test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Nasehi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: β-carbolines alkaloids suchv as harmane have been found in common plant-derived foodstuffs (wheat, rice, corn, barley, grape and mushrooms. These alkaloids have many cognitive effects including alteration short and long term memory. In the present study, the effect of intra-CA1 injection of the nicotinic receptor antagonist mecamylamine on amnesia induced by harmane was examined in mice. Materials and Methods: Mice were bilaterally implanted with chronic cannulae in the CA1 regions of the dorsal hippocampus. One week after cannulae implantation, mice were trained in a step-down type inhibitory avoidance task, and were tested 24 h after training to measure step-down latency as a scale of memory. Results: Pre-training or post-training systemic injection of harmane induced amnesia. Pre-testing intra-dorsal hippocampus administration of the high dose of nicotinic receptor antagonist, mecamylamine (4 µg/mice also induced amnesia. On the other hand, pre-test intra-CA1 injection of ineffective doses of mecamylamine (0.5, 1 and 2 µg/mice fully restored harmane induced amnesia. Conclusion: The present finding in this study indicated that a complex interaction exists between nicotinic receptor of dorsal hippocampus and amnesia induced by Harmane.

  15. Serological IgG Testing to Diagnose Alimentary Induced Diseases and Monitoring Efficacy of an Individual Defined Diet in Dogs

    OpenAIRE

    Anne-Margré C. Vink

    2014-01-01

    Background. Food-related allergies and intolerances are frequently occurring in dogs. Diagnosis and monitoring according ‘Golden Standard’ of elimination efficiency is, however, time consuming, expensive, and requires expert clinical setting. In order to facilitate rapid and robust, quantitative testing of intolerance, and determining the individual offending foods, a serological test is implicated for Alimentary Induced Diseases and manifestations. Method. As we developed Medisynx IgG Human ...

  16. HIV antiretroviral drug combination induces endothelial mitochondrial dysfunction and reactive oxygen species production, but not apoptosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Bo; Hebert, Valeria Y.; Li, Yuchi; Mathis, J. Michael; Alexander, J. Steven; Dugas, Tammy R.

    2007-01-01

    Numerous reports now indicate that HIV patients administered long-term antiretroviral therapy (ART) are at a greater risk for developing cardiovascular diseases. Endothelial dysfunction is an initiating event in atherogenesis and may contribute to HIV-associated atherosclerosis. We previously reported that ART induces direct endothelial dysfunction in rodents. In vitro treatment of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) with ART indicated endothelial mitochondrial dysfunction and a significant increase in the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In this study, we determined whether ART-induced endothelial dysfunction is mediated via mitochondria-derived ROS and whether this mitochondrial injury culminates in endothelial cell apoptosis. Two major components of ART combination therapy, a nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor and a protease inhibitor, were tested, using AZT and indinavir as representatives for each. Microscopy utilizing fluorescent indicators of ROS and mitochondria demonstrated the mitochondrial localization of ART-induced ROS. MnTBAP, a cell-permeable metalloporphyrin antioxidant, abolished ART-induced ROS production. As a final step in confirming the mitochondrial origin of the ART-induced ROS, HUVEC were transduced with a cytosolic- compared to a mitochondria-targeted catalase. Transduction with the mitochondria-targeted catalase was more effective than cytoplasmic catalase in inhibiting the ROS and 8-isoprostane (8-iso-PGF 2α ) produced after treatment with either AZT or indinavir. However, both mitochondrial and cytoplasmic catalase attenuated ROS and 8-iso-PGF 2α production induced by the combination treatment, suggesting that in this case, the formation of cytoplasmic ROS may also occur, and thus, that the mechanism of toxicity in the combination treatment group may be different compared to treatment with AZT or indinavir alone. Finally, to determine whether ART-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and ROS production

  17. Drug-induced hypotension SEP test and acetazolamide test using sup 133 Xe SPECT in patients with occlusive carotid disease; Selection of candidates for extracranial-intracranial bypass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuroda, Satoshi; Kamiyama, Hiroyasu; Abe, Hiroshi; Takigawa, Shugo [Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan). School of Medicine; Mitsumori, Kenji; Nomura, Mikio; Saitoh, Hisatoshi

    1991-01-01

    The correlation between the drug-induced hypotension somatosensory evoked potential (SEP) test and regional cerebral blood flow changes after acetazolamide administration was studied. Fourteen patients presenting with transient ischemic attack, reversible ischemic neurological deficits, or minor completed stroke were evaluated. All patients had no or only localized low-density areas on computed tomographic scans, and unilateral occlusion or severe stenosis of the internal carotid or middle cerebral artery on cerebral angiograms. The Diamox asymmetry enhancement (DAE) was studied to detect reduced cerebral perfusion reserve in the affected hemispheres. The DAE was 7.9+-5.8% in seven patients positive in the SEP test, significantly higher than -1.5+-2.9% in patients negative in the SEP test. Postoperative SEP tests were negative in all five patients who underwent extracranial-intracranial (EC-IC) bypass surgery, suggesting that the EC-IC bypass improved the cerebral perfusion reserve in the affected hemispheres. The DAE decreased significantly in four of these patients. This study disclosed a significant correlation between the drug-induced hypotension SEP test and DAE. These parameters are considered important for evaluating patients with hemodynamic compromise and/or suitable candidates for EC-IC bypass. (author).

  18. Is Galium-67 citrate a superior test to predict doxorubicin induced cardiomyopathy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galdhar, C.; Gaikwad, R.; Samad, A.; Krishna, B.A.

    2007-01-01

    after three cumulative doses of DXR, whereas the biochemical markers such as, C PK and LDH were found to be elevated after 5th and 7th dose, respectively. Elevation in these biochemical parameters at two cumulative doses over the baseline was merely 12% for CPK and around 21% for LDH, which is not diagnostically unequivocal. In contrast, at the 2nd cumulative dose gallium accumulation in heart tissues was more than 130 % over the baseline (heart-liver ratio). Mortality rates at various cumulative doses were 16.66% (20 mg), 33.33% (27.98 mg), 50% (32.60 mg), 83.33% (29.0 mg) and 100% (36.9 mg), respectively. These rabbits on necropsy and histopathology showed presence of severe with grade III cardiomyopathy, which was also confirmed on histopathology. Conclusion: The results of the study suggest that 67Ga scintigraphy is comparatively better test to predict early DXR-induced myocarditis in rabbits than LDH or CPK. However the test did not have good value to predict late stage DXR-induced myocarditis in rabbit animal model. Acknowledgements: The authors are thankful to Department of Atomic Energy, Government of India for supporting setting up of the Veterinary Nuclear Medicine Center and M/s Saxons Biotech Pvt. Ltd. New Delhi, for gratis supply of gallium. (author)

  19. Design And Ground Testing For The Expert PL4/PL5 'Natural And Roughness Induced Transition'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masutti, Davie; Chazot, Olivier; Donelli, Raffaele; de Rosa, Donato

    2011-05-01

    Unpredicted boundary layer transition can impact dramatically the stability of the vehicle, its aerodynamic coefficients and reduce the efficiency of the thermal protection system. In this frame, ESA started the EXPERT (European eXPErimental Reentry Testbed) program to pro- vide and perform in-flight experiments in order to obtain aerothermodynamic data for the validation of numerical models and of ground-to-flight extrapolation methodologies. Considering the boundary layer transition investigation, the EXPERT vehicle is equipped with two specific payloads, PL4 and PL5, concerning respectively the study of the natural and roughness induced transition. The paper is a survey on the design process of these two in-flight experiments and it covers the major analyses and findings encountered during the development of the payloads. A large amount of transition criteria have been investigated and used to estimate either the dangerousness of the height of the distributed roughness, arising due to nose erosion, or the effectiveness of height of the isolated roughness element forcing the boundary layer transition. Supporting the PL4 design, linear stability computations and CFD analyses have been performed by CIRA on the EXPERT flight vehicle to determine the amplification factor of the boundary layer instabilities at different point of the re-entry trajectory. Ground test experiments regarding the PL5 are carried on in the Mach 6 VKI H3 Hypersonic Wind Tunnel with a Reynolds numbers ranging from 18E6/m to 26E6/m. Infrared measurements (Stanton number) and flow visualization are used on a 1/16 scaled model of the EXPERT vehicle and a flat plate to validate the Potter and Whitfield criterion as a suitable methodology for ground-to-flight extrapolation and the payload design.

  20. Developing a dynamic virtual stimulation protocol to induce linear egomotion during orthostatic posture control test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo José Guimarães Da-Silva

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction In this work, the effect of a dynamic visual stimulation (DS protocol was used to induce egomotion, the center of pressure (COP displacement response. Methods DS was developed concerning the scenario structure (chessboard-pattern floor and furniture and luminance. To move the scenario in a discrete forward (or backward direction, the furniture is expanded (or reduced and the black and white background is reversed during floor translation while the luminance is increased (or reduced by steps of 2 cd/m2. This protocol was evaluated using COP signals from 29 healthy volunteers: standing on a force platform observing the virtual scene (1.72 × 1.16 m projected 1 m ahead (visual incidence angle: θl = 81.4° and θv = 60.2°, which moves with constant velocity (2 m/s during 250 ms. A set of 100 DS was applied in random order, interspersed by a 10 s of static scene. Results The Tukey post-hoc test (p < 0.001 indicated egomotion in the same direction of DS. COP displacement increased over stimulation (8.4 ± 1.7 to 22.6 ±5.3 mm, as well as time to recover stability (4.1 ± 0.4 to 7.2 ± 0.6 s. The peak of egomotion during DSF occurred 200 ms after DSB (Wilcoxon, p = 0.002. Conclusion The dynamic configuration of this protocol establishes virtual flow effects of linear egomotion dependent on the direction of the dynamic visual stimulation. This finding indicates the potential application of the proposed virtual dynamic stimulation protocol to investigate the cortical visual evoked response in postural control studies.

  1. Effects of Berberine on Amelioration of Hyperglycemia and Oxidative Stress in High Glucose and High Fat Diet-Induced Diabetic Hamsters In Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cong Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effects of berberine on amelioration of hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia and the mechanism involved in high glucose and high fat diet-induced diabetic hamsters. Golden hamsters fed with high glucose and high fat diet were medicated with metformin, simvastatin, and low or high dose of berberine (50 and 100 mg·kg−1 for 6 weeks. The results showed that the body weights were significantly lower in berberine-treated groups than control group. Histological analyses revealed that the treatment of berberine inhibited hepatic fat accumulation. Berberine significantly reduced plasma total cholesterol, triglyceride, free fatty acid, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, malondialdehyde, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance, and 8-isoprostane level but significantly increased plasma superoxide dismutase activity. Glucose and insulin levels were significantly reduced in metformin and berberine-treated groups. Glucose tolerance tests documented that berberine-treated mice were more glucose tolerant. Berberine treatment increased expression of skeletal muscle glucose transporter 4 mRNA and significantly decreased liver low density lipoprotein receptor mRNA expression. The study suggested that berberine was effective in lowering blood glucose and lipids levels, reducing the body weight, and alleviating the oxidative stress in diabetic hamsters, which might be beneficial in reducing the cardiovascular risk factors in diabetes.

  2. Antidiabetic Activity Test of Ethanolic Seri Leave’s (Muntingia Calabura L.) Extract in Male Rats Induced by Alloxan

    OpenAIRE

    Herlina Herlina; Annisa Amriani; Indah Solihah; Rizky Sintya

    2018-01-01

    Antidiabetic activity test of ethanol extract of seri leave (Muntingia calabura L.) rats induced by alloxan has been done. Male wistar albino rats are used as animal models which divided into 6 groups, normal group (aquadest), negative control group (Na CMC 0,5%), positive control group (glibenclamide 0,43 mg/200 gBB), and 1, 2, and 3 treatment groups (ethanol extract of seri leave 65, 130, dan 260 mg/kgBB). Rats blood glucose level after induced intraperitoneally by alloxan 130 mg/kgBB can b...

  3. Analysis of urinary 8-isoprostane as an oxidative stress biomarker by stable isotope dilution using automated online in-tube solid-phase microextraction coupled with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, Keisuke; Kataoka, Hiroyuki

    2015-08-10

    We have developed a simple and sensitive method for the determination of the oxidative stress biomarker 8-isoprostane (8-IP) in human urine by automated online in-tube solid-phase microextraction (SPME) coupled with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) using a Zorbax Eclipse XDB-8 column and 0.1% formic acid/methanol (25/75, v/v) as a mobile phase. Electrospray MS/MS for 8-IP was performed on an API 4000 triple quadruple mass spectrometer in negative ion mode. The optimum in-tube SPME conditions were 20 draw/eject cycles with a sample size of 40 μL using a Carboxen 1006 PLOT capillary column for the extraction. The extracted compounds were easily desorbed from the capillary by passage of the mobile phase, and no carryover was observed. Total analysis time of this method including online extraction and analysis was about 30 min for each sample. The in-tube SPME LC-MS/MS method showed good linearity in the concentration range of 20-1000 pg/mL with a correlation coefficient r = 0.9999 for 8-IP using a stable isotope-labeled internal standard, 8-IP-d4. The detection limit of 8-IP was 3.3 pg/mL and the proposed method showed 42-fold higher sensitivity than the direct injection method. The intra-day and inter-day precisions (relative standard deviations) were below 5.0% and 8.5% (n = 5), respectively. This method was applied successfully to the analysis of urine samples without pretreatment or interference peaks. The recovery rates of 8-IP spiked into urine samples were above 92%. This method is useful for assessing the effects of oxidative stress and antioxidant intake. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Use of moisture induced stress testing to evaluate stripping potential of hot mix asphalt (HMA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Stripping of hot mix asphalt (HMA) in the field is an ongoing issue for many Departments of Transportation : (DOTs). A leading cause of stripping is hydraulic scouring. The Moisture Induced Stress Tester (MIST) is a recently : developed technology th...

  5. Induced Seismicity at the UK "Hot Dry Rock" Test Site for Geothermal Energy Production

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Xun; Main, Ian; Jupe, Andrew

    2018-01-01

    In enhanced geothermal systems (EGS), fluid is injected at high pressure in order to stimulate fracturing and/or fluid flow through otherwise relatively impermeable underlying hot rocks to generate power and/or heat. The stimulation induces micro-earthquakes whose precise triggering mechanism and relationship to new and pre-existing fracture networks are still the subject of some debate. Here we analyse the dataset for induced micro-earthquakes at the UK “hot dry rock” experimental geothermal...

  6. Experimental Investigation Of Microbially Induced Corrosion Of Test Samples And Effect Of Self-assembled Hydrophobic Monolayers. Exposure Of Test Samples To Continuous Microbial Cultures, Chemical Analysis, And Biochemical Studies

    CERN Document Server

    Laurinavichius, K S

    1998-01-01

    Experimental Investigation Of Microbially Induced Corrosion Of Test Samples And Effect Of Self-assembled Hydrophobic Monolayers. Exposure Of Test Samples To Continuous Microbial Cultures, Chemical Analysis, And Biochemical Studies

  7. Nuclear fuels technologies: Thermally induced gallium removal system (TIGRS), fiscal year 1998 research and development test plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buksa, J.J.; Butt, D.P.; Chidester, K.; DeMuth, S.F.; Havrilla, G.J.; James, C.A.; Kolman, D.G.

    1997-01-01

    This document details the research and development (R and D) activities that will be conducted in Fiscal Year 1998 (FY98) by the Thermally Induced Gallium Removal System (TIGRS) team for the Department of Energy Office of Fissile Materials Disposition. This work is a continuation and extension of experimental activities that have been conducted in support of using weapons-derived plutonium in the fabrication of mixed-oxide (MOX) nuclear fuel for reactor-based plutonium disposition. The ultimate purpose of this work is to demonstrate adequate Thermally Induced Gallium Removal with a prototypic system. This Test Plan presents more than the FY98 R and D efforts in order to frame the Task in its entirety. To achieve the TIGRS Program objectives, R and D activities during the next two years will be focused on (1) process development leading to a prototypic TIGRS design, and (2) prototypic TIGRS design and testing leading to and including a prototypic demonstration of TIGRS operation. Both the process development and system testing efforts will consist of a series of surrogate-based cold tests and plutonium-based hot tests. Some of this testing has already occurred and will continue into FY99

  8. Leukotriene E4 induces airflow obstruction and mast cell activation through the cysteinyl leukotriene type 1 receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarinis, Nikolaos; Bood, Johan; Gomez, Cristina; Kolmert, Johan; Lantz, Ann-Sofie; Gyllfors, Pär; Davis, Andy; Wheelock, Craig E; Dahlén, Sven-Erik; Dahlén, Barbro

    2018-03-05

    Leukotriene (LT) E 4 is the final active metabolite among the cysteinyl leukotrienes (CysLTs). Animal studies have identified a distinct LTE 4 receptor, suggesting that current cysteinyl leukotriene type 1 (CysLT 1 ) receptor antagonists can provide incomplete inhibition of CysLT responses. We tested this hypothesis by assessing the influence of the CysLT 1 antagonist montelukast on responses induced by means of inhalation of LTE 4 in asthmatic patients. Fourteen patients with mild intermittent asthma and 2 patients with aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease received 20 mg of montelukast twice daily and placebo for 5 to 7 days in a randomized, double-blind, crossover study (NCT01841164). The PD 20 value was determined at the end of each treatment period based on an increasing dose challenge. Measurements included lipid mediators in urine and sputum cells 4 hours after LTE 4 challenge. Montelukast completely blocked LTE 4 -induced bronchoconstriction. Despite tolerating an at least 10 times higher dose of LTE 4 after montelukast, there was no difference in the percentage of eosinophils in sputum. Urinary excretion of all major lipid mediators increased after LTE 4 inhalation. Montelukast blocked release of the mast cell product prostaglandin (PG) D 2 , as well as release of PGF 2α and thromboxane (Tx) A 2 , but not increased excretion of PGE 2 and its metabolites or isoprostanes. LTE 4 induces airflow obstruction and mast cell activation through the CysLT 1 receptor. Copyright © 2018 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. More Relaxation by Deep Breath on Methacholine- Than on Exercise-Induced bronchoconstriction during the Routine Testing of Asthmatic Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulia Ioan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Deep inspiration (DI dilates normal airway precontracted with methacholine. The fact that this effect is diminished or absent in asthma could be explained by the presence of bronchial inflammation. The hypothesis was tested that DI induces more relaxation in methacholine induced bronchoconstriction—solely determined by the smooth muscle contraction—than in exercise induced bronchoconstriction, which is contributed to by both smooth muscle contraction and airway wall inflammation. The respiratory conductance (Grs response to DI was monitored in asthmatic children presenting a moderately positive airway response to challenge by methacholine (n = 36 or exercise (n = 37, and expressed as the post- to pre-DI Grs ratio (GrsDI. Both groups showed similar change in FEV1 after challenge and performed a DI of similar amplitude. GrsDI however was significantly larger in methacholine than in exercise induced bronchoconstriction (p < 0.02. The bronchodilatory effect of DI is thus less during exercise- than methacholine-induced bronchoconstriction. The observation is consistent with airway wall inflammation—that characterizes exercise induced bronchoconstriction—rendering the airways less responsive to DI. More generally, it is surmised that less relief of bronchoconstriction by DI is to be expected during indirect than direct airway challenge. The current suggestion that airway smooth muscle constriction and airway wall inflammation may result in opposing effects on the bronchomotor action of DI opens important perspective to the routine testing of asthmatic children. New crossover research protocols comparing the mechanical consequences of the DI maneuver are warranted during direct and indirect bronchial challenges.

  10. Combined comparative and chemical proteomics on the mechanisms of levo-tetrahydropalmatine-induced antinociception in the formalin test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chen; Zhou, Jiangrui; Wang, Shuowen; Ye, Mingliang; Jiang, Chunlei; Fan, Guorong; Zou, Hanfa

    2010-06-04

    This study investigated the mechanisms involved in the antinociceptive action induced by levo-tetrahydropalmatine (l-THP) in the formalin test by combined comparative and chemical proteomics. Rats were pretreated with l-THP by the oral route (40 mg/kg) 1 h before formalin injection. The antinociceptive effect of l-THP was shown in the first and second phases of the formalin test. To address the mechanisms by which l-THP inhibits formalin-induced nociception in rats, the combined comparative and chemical proteomics were applied. A novel high-throughput comparative proteomic approach based on 2D-nano-LC-MS/MS was applied to simultaneously evaluate the deregulated proteins involved in the response of l-THP treatment in formalin-induced pain rats. Thousands of proteins were identified, among which 17 proteins survived the stringent filter criteria and were further included for functional discussion. Two proteins (Neurabin-1 and Calcium-dependent secretion activator 1) were randomly selected, and their expression levels were further confirmed by Western Blots. The results matched well with those of proteomics. In the present study, we also described the development and application of l-THP immobilized beads to bind the targets. Following incubation with cellular lysates, the proteome interacting with the fixed l-THP was identified. The results of comparative and chemical proteomics were quite complementary. Although the precise roles of these identified moleculars in l-THP-induced antinociception need further study, the combined results indicated that proteins associated with signal transduction, vesicular trafficking and neurotransmitter release, energy metabolism, and ion transport play important roles in l-THP-induced antinociception in the formalin test.

  11. Repeated patch testing to nickel during childhood do not induce nickel sensitization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard Christiansen, Elisabeth

    2014-01-01

    Background: Previously, patch test reactivity to nickel sulphate in a cohort of unselected infants tested repeatedly at 3-72 months of age has been reported. A reproducible positive reaction at 12 and 18 months was selected as a sign of nickel sensitivity, provided a patch test with an empty Finn...

  12. Comparison of Nerve Excitability Testing, Nerve Conduction Velocity, and Behavioral Observations for Acrylamide Induced Peripheral Neuropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nerve excitability (NE) testing is a sensitive method to test for peripheral neurotoxicity in humans,and may be more sensitive than compound nerve action potential (CNAP) or nerve conduction velocity (NCV).We used acrylamide to compare the NE and CNAP/NCV methods. Behavioral test...

  13. Test of the wire ageing induced by radiation for the CMS barrel muon chamber

    CERN Document Server

    Conti, Enrico

    2000-01-01

    We have carried out laboratory test to measure the ageing of a wire tube due to pollutant outgassed by various materials. The tested materials are those used in the muon barrel drift tubes. An X-ray gun irradiated the test tube to accelerate the ageing process. No ageing effect has been measured for a period equivalent to 10 years of operation at LHC.

  14. Test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendixen, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    Bidrag med en kortfattet, introducerende, perspektiverende og begrebsafklarende fremstilling af begrebet test i det pædagogiske univers.......Bidrag med en kortfattet, introducerende, perspektiverende og begrebsafklarende fremstilling af begrebet test i det pædagogiske univers....

  15. Virulence test using nematodes to prescreen Nocardia species capable of inducing neurodegeneration and behavioral disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Bernardin Souibgui

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Parkinson’s disease (PD is a disorder characterized by dopaminergic neuron programmed cell death. The etiology of PD remains uncertain—some cases are due to selected genes associated with familial heredity, others are due to environmental exposure to toxic components, but over 90% of cases have a sporadic origin. Nocardia are Actinobacteria that can cause human diseases like nocardiosis. This illness can lead to lung infection or central nervous system (CNS invasion in both immunocompromised and immunocompetent individuals. The main species involved in CNS are N. farcinica, N. nova, N. brasiliensis and N. cyriacigeorgica. Some studies have highlighted the ability of N. cyriacigeorgica to induce Parkinson’s disease-like symptoms in animals. Actinobacteria are known to produce a large variety of secondary metabolites, some of which can be neurotoxic. We hypothesized that neurotoxic secondary metabolite production and the onset of PD-like symptoms in animals could be linked. Methods Here we used a method to screen bacteria that could induce dopaminergic neurodegeneration before performing mouse experiments. Results The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans allowed us to demonstrate that Nocardia strains belonging to N. cyriacigeorgica and N. farcinica species can induce dopaminergic neurodegeneration. Strains of interest involved with the nematodes in neurodegenerative disorders were then injected in mice. Infected mice had behavioral disorders that may be related to neuronal damage, thus confirming the ability of Nocardia strains to induce neurodegeneration. These behavioral disorders were induced by N. cyriacigeorgica species (N. cyriacigeorgica GUH-2 and N. cyriacigeorgica 44484 and N. farcinica 10152. Discussion We conclude that C. elegans is a good model for detecting Nocardia strains involved in neurodegeneration. This model allowed us to detect bacteria with high neurodegenerative effects and which should be studied in mice to

  16. Thermally Induced Vibrations of the Hubble Space Telescope's Solar Array 3 in a Test Simulated Space Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Early, Derrick A.; Haile, William B.; Turczyn, Mark T.; Griffin, Thomas J. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    NASA Goddard Space Flight Center and the European Space Agency (ESA) conducted a disturbance verification test on a flight Solar Array 3 (SA3) for the Hubble Space Telescope using the ESA Large Space Simulator (LSS) in Noordwijk, the Netherlands. The LSS cyclically illuminated the SA3 to simulate orbital temperature changes in a vacuum environment. Data acquisition systems measured signals from force transducers and accelerometers resulting from thermally induced vibrations of the SAI The LSS with its seismic mass boundary provided an excellent background environment for this test. This paper discusses the analysis performed on the measured transient SA3 responses and provides a summary of the results.

  17. Does bisphenol A induce superfeminization in Marisa cornuarietis? Part I: intra- and inter-laboratory variability in test endpoints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Valery E; Selck, Henriette; Palmqvist, Annemette; Aufderheide, John; Warbritton, Ryan; Pounds, Nadine; Thompson, Roy; van der Hoeven, Nelly; Caspers, Norbert

    2007-03-01

    It has been claimed that bisphenol A (BPA) induces superfeminization in the freshwater gastropod, Marisa cornuarietis. To explore the reproducibility of prior work, here we present results from a three-laboratory study, the objectives of which were to determine the mean and variability in test endpoints (i.e., adult fecundity, egg hatchability, and juvenile growth) under baseline conditions and to identify the sources of variability. A major source of variability for all of the measured endpoints was due to differences within and among individuals. With few exceptions, variability among laboratories and among replicate tanks within laboratories contributed little to the observed variability in endpoints. The results highlight the importance of obtaining basic knowledge of husbandry requirements and baseline information on life-history traits of potential test species prior to designing toxicity test protocols. Understanding of the levels and sources of endpoint variability is essential so that statistically robust and ecologically relevant tests of chemicals can be conducted.

  18. Gravitational perturbation of the BTZ black hole induced by test particles and weak cosmic censorship in AdS spacetime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocha, Jorge V.; Cardoso, Vitor

    2011-01-01

    We analyze the gravitational perturbations induced by particles falling into a three dimensional, asymptotically AdS black hole geometry. More specifically, we solve the linearized perturbation equations obtained from the geodesic motion of a ringlike distribution of test particles in the BTZ background. This setup ensures that the U(1) symmetry of the background is preserved. The nonasymptotic flatness of the background raises difficulties in attributing the significance of energy and angular momentum to the conserved quantities of the test particles. This issue is well known but, to the best of our knowledge, has never been addressed in the literature. We confirm that the naive expressions for energy and angular momentum are the correct definitions. Finally, we put an asymptotically AdS version of the weak cosmic censorship to a test: by attempting to overspin the BTZ black hole with test particles it is found that the black hole cannot be spun-up past its extremal limit.

  19. Novel Use of Pharmacogenetic Testing in the Identification of CYP2C9 Polymorphisms Related to NSAID-Induced Gastropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Anita; Zheng, Lu; Ramanujam, Vendhan; Gallagher, John

    2015-05-01

    To illustrate the potential value of pharmacogenetic testing to identify patients at risk for nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug-induced gastropathy. Case report. We report a case encountered in an outpatient setting for pain management. We present a case of a patient treated with celecoxib who developed severe nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug-induced gastropathy. Suspecting a relation between this adverse event and altered drug metabolism, pharmacogenetic testing was performed to assess the role of the cytochrome P450 (CP450) enzyme profile. Pharmacogenetic testing revealed a relation between this adverse event and an allelic variant of cytochrome P450, CYP2C9, subsequently leading to discontinuation of the drug along with counseling to caution the patient to avoid the use of celecoxib and other drugs metabolized by the same enzyme. Although pharmacogenetic testing is not routinely used in clinical decision making, pain physicians must be aware of the potential benefits of this testing for managing patients with pain, and to improve drug efficacy and safety profile. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Testing of 99mTc labelled sucralfate in induced gastric and duodenal ulcers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pallagi, Katalin; Janoki, Gyoezoe

    1988-01-01

    The conditions of in vitro labelling of sucralfate available in medical practice were established according to literature data including some modifications. Labelling efficiency proved to be 98.1%. The radiopharmaceutical is stable over 6 hours in vitro. 99m Tc-sucralfate accumulates in experimentally induced gastric and duodenal ulcers thus tracing the site of the ulcerous lesion. (author) 14 refs.; 3 tabs

  1. Noise induced hearing loss: Screening with pure-tone audiometry and speech-in-noise testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leensen, M.C.J.

    2013-01-01

    Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) is a highly prevalent public health problem, caused by exposure to loud noises both during leisure time, e.g. by listening to loud music, and during work. In the past years NIHL was the most commonly reported occupational disease in the Netherlands. Hearing damage

  2. A note on Poisson goodness-of-fit tests for ionizing radiation induced chromosomal aberration samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higueras, Manuel; González, J E; Di Giorgio, Marina; Barquinero, J F

    2018-05-18

    To present Poisson exact goodness-of-fit tests as alternatives and complements to the asymptotic u-test, which is the most widely used in cytogenetic biodosimetry, to decide whether a sample of chromosomal aberrations in blood cells comes from an homogeneous or inhomogeneous exposure. Three Poisson exact goodness-of-fit test from the literature are introduced and implemented in the R environment. A Shiny R Studio application, named GOF Poisson, has been updated for the purpose of giving support to this work. The three exact tests and the u-test are applied in chromosomal aberration data from clinical and accidental radiation exposure patients. It is observed how the u-test is not an appropriate approximation in small samples with small yield of chromosomal aberrations. Tools are provided to compute the three exact tests, which is not as trivial as the implementation of the u-test. Poisson exact goodness-of-fit tests should be considered jointly to the u-test for detecting inhomogeneous exposures in the cytogenetic biodosimetry practice.

  3. Test of the wire ageing induced by radiation for the CMS barrel muon chambers

    CERN Document Server

    Conti, E

    2001-01-01

    We have carried out laboratory tests to measure the ageing of a wire tube due to pollutants outgassed by various materials. The tested materials are those used in the barrel muon drift tubes of the CMS experiment at LHC. An X-ray gun irradiated the test tube to accelerate the ageing process. No ageing effect has been measured for a period equivalent to 10 years of operation at LHC. (15 refs).

  4. [The relationship between ischemic preconditioning-induced infarction size limitation and duration of test myocardial ischemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blokhin, I O; Galagudza, M M; Vlasov, T D; Nifontov, E M; Petrishchev, N N

    2008-07-01

    Traditionally infarction size reduction by ischemic preconditioning is estimated in duration of test ischemia. This approach limits the understanding of real antiischemic efficacy of ischemic preconditioning. Present study was performed in the in vivo rat model of regional myocardial ischemia-reperfusion and showed that protective effect afforded by ischemic preconditioning progressively decreased with prolongation of test ischemia. There were no statistically significant differences in infarction size between control and preconditioned animals when the duration of test ischemia was increased up to 1 hour. Preconditioning ensured maximal infarction-limiting effect in duration of test ischemia varying from 20 to 40 minutes.

  5. Comparison of Vestibular Evoked Myogenic Potential and Caloric Tests Findings in Noise Induced Hearing Loss-Affected and Healthy Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farinoosh Fakharnia

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Balance disturbance is one of the non-auditory effects of noisy industrial environments that is usually neglected. The aim of the current study was to investigate the effect of occupational noise on vestibular system among workers with noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL, based on both vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (VEMP and caloric tests.Methods: Thirty male workers with noise-induced hearing loss and thirty male matched controls were examined by VEMP and caloric tests. Study parameters included unilateral weakness, p13 and n23 latencies, and p13-n23 amplitude. Caloric test was performed only for 20 patients.Results: No significant difference was observed in unilateral weakness between the two groups. On the other hand, the difference in mean latencies of p13 in the right ear (p=0.003 and left ear (p=0.01 was significant between the two groups. However, the difference in n23 latency was significant only in the right ear (p=0.03. There was no significant difference between groups in p13-n23 amplitude.Conclusion: It seems that pars inferior of vestibule is the susceptible part in individuals with NIHL. In general, abnormal findings in both VEMP and caloric tests were more common compared to functional symptoms such as vertigo, which may be due to central compensation and the symmetry of the disorder.

  6. Model testing on rainfall-induced landslide of loose soil in Wenchuan earthquake region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Fang

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the formation process of rainfall-induced landslide for slopes composed of loose soil in the Wenchuan earthquake region. Experimental investigations have been performed on the landslide's formation and the variation of the controlling soil parameters under various artificial rainfall conditions. The landslide triggering mechanisms can be described in the following way. Firstly, the large porosity of the loose soil facilitated the infiltration of water, which increased the pore water pressure and reduced the shear strength of the soil significantly. In addition, the rainfalls probably caused the concentration of finer particles at a certain depth of the valley slopes. This concentration within the soil increased the pore water pressure significantly, and consequently reduced both the porosity ratio and permeability. Therefore, when the pore water pressure reached a critical state, the effective shear strength of the soil diminished, inducing the landslide's formation.

  7. The sensitivity of tests to detect in vivo platelet activation induced by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    No influence on the results of the platelet function tests was found. Tile only test capable of detecting limited injury to the endothelium was the measurement of plasma PF4: The mean platelet life-span (MPLS) shortened, mean platelet density decreased, the circulating platelet aggregate ratio decreased, and plasma levels ...

  8. Induced Seismicity at the UK "Hot Dry Rock" Test Site for Geothermal Energy Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xun; Main, Ian; Jupe, Andrew

    2018-03-01

    In enhanced geothermal systems (EGS), fluid is injected at high pressure in order to stimulate fracturing and/or fluid flow through otherwise relatively impermeable underlying hot rocks to generate power and/or heat. The stimulation induces micro-earthquakes whose precise triggering mechanism and relationship to new and pre-existing fracture networks are still the subject of some debate. Here we analyse the dataset for induced micro-earthquakes at the UK "hot dry rock" experimental geothermal site (Rosemanowes, Cornwall). We quantify the evolution of several metrics used to characterise induced seismicity, including the seismic strain partition factor and the "seismogenic index". The results show a low strain partition factor of 0.01% and a low seismogenenic index indicating that aseismic processes dominate. We also analyse the spatio-temporal distribution of hypocentres, using simple models for the evolution of hydraulic diffusivity by (a) isotropic and (b) anisotropic pore-pressure relaxation. The principal axes of the diffusivity or permeability tensor inferred from the spatial distribution of earthquake foci are aligned parallel to the present-day stress field, although the maximum permeability is vertical, whereas the maximum principal stress is horizontal. Our results are consistent with a triggering mechanism that involves (a) seismic shear slip along optimally-oriented pre-existing fractures, (b) a large component of aseismic slip with creep (c) activation of tensile fractures as hydraulic conduits created by both the present-day stress field and by the induced shear slip, both exploiting pre-existing joint sets exposed in borehole data.

  9. Transient left ventricular apical ballooning and exercise induced hypertension during treadmill exercise testing: is there a common hypersympathetic mechanism?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oh Jae K

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To describe two cases of Takotsubo like myocardial contractile pattern during exercise stress test secondary to hypertensive response. Background Treadmill exercise testing is known to cause sympathetic stimulation, leading to increased levels of catecholamine, resulting in alteration in vascular tone. Hypertensive response during exercise testing can cause abnormal consequences, resulting in false positive results. Cases We present the cases of two patients experiencing apical and basal akinesis during exercise stress echocardiography, in whom normal wall motion response was observed on subsequent pharmacologic stress testing. The first patient developed transient left ventricular (LV apical akinesis during exercise stress echocardiography. Due to high suspicion that this abnormality might be secondary to hypertensive response, pharmacologic stress testing was performed after three days, which was completely normal and showed no such wall motion abnormality. Qualitative assessment of myocardial perfusion using contrast was also performed, which showed good myocardial blood flow, indicating low probability for significant obstructive coronary artery disease. The second patient developed LV basal akinesis as a result of hypertensive response during exercise testing. Coronary angiogram was not performed in either patient due to low suspicion for coronary artery disease, and subsequently negative stress studies. Results Transient stress induced cardiomyopathy can develop secondary to hypertensive response during exercise stress testing. Conclusion These cases provide supporting evidence to the hyper-sympathetic theory of left ventricular ballooning syndrome.

  10. Poisson goodness-of-fit tests for radiation-induced chromosome aberrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merkle, W.

    1981-01-01

    Asymptotic and exact Poisson goodness-to-fit tests have been reviewed with regard to their applicability in analysing distributional properties of data on chromosome aberrations. It has been demonstrated that for typical cytogenetic samples, i.e. when the average number of aberrations per cell is smaller than one, results of asymptotic tests, especially of the most commonly used u-test, differ greatly from results of corresponding exact tests. While the u-statistic can serve as a qualitative index to indicate a tendency towards under- or over-dispersion, exact tests should be used if the assumption of a Poisson distribution is crucial, e.g. in investigating induction mechanisms. If the main interest is to detect a difference between the mean and the variance of a sample it is furthermore important to realize that a much larger sample size is required to detect underdispersion than it is to detect overdispersion. (author)

  11. Test for Jet Flow Induced by Steam Jet Condensation Using the GIRLS Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yeon Sik; Yoon, Y. J.; Song, C. H.

    2007-03-01

    To investigate the characteristics of the turbulent jet induced by steam jet condensation in a water tank through a single-hole sparger an experimental investigation was performed using the GIRLS facility. The experiments were conducted with respect to two cases, e.g. horizontal and vertical upward injections. For the measurements, pitot tube and thermocouples were used for turbulent flow velocity and temperatures, respectively. Overall flow shapes of the turbulent jet by the steam jet condensation are similar to those of axially symmetric turbulent jet flows. The angular coefficients of turbulent rays are quantitatively comparable between the traditional turbulent jet flows and the turbulent jet flows induced by the steam jet condensation in this work. Although the turbulent flows were induced by the horizontally injected steam jet condensation, general theory of turbulent jets was found to be applicable to the turbulent flows of this work. But for the vertically upward injection case, experimental data were quite deviated from the theoretical ones, which is considered due to the buoyancy effect

  12. A leukocyte activation test identifies food items which induce release of DNA by innate immune peripheral blood leucocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Martinez, Irma; Weiss, Theresa R; Yousaf, Muhammad N; Ali, Ather; Mehal, Wajahat Z

    2018-01-01

    Leukocyte activation (LA) testing identifies food items that induce a patient specific cellular response in the immune system, and has recently been shown in a randomized double blinded prospective study to reduce symptoms in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). We hypothesized that test reactivity to particular food items, and the systemic immune response initiated by these food items, is due to the release of cellular DNA from blood immune cells. We tested this by quantifying total DNA concentration in the cellular supernatant of immune cells exposed to positive and negative foods from 20 healthy volunteers. To establish if the DNA release by positive samples is a specific phenomenon, we quantified myeloperoxidase (MPO) in cellular supernatants. We further assessed if a particular immune cell population (neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils) was activated by the positive food items by flow cytometry analysis. To identify the signaling pathways that are required for DNA release we tested if specific inhibitors of key signaling pathways could block DNA release. Foods with a positive LA test result gave a higher supernatant DNA content when compared to foods with a negative result. This was specific as MPO levels were not increased by foods with a positive LA test. Protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitors resulted in inhibition of positive food stimulated DNA release. Positive foods resulted in CD63 levels greater than negative foods in eosinophils in 76.5% of tests. LA test identifies food items that result in release of DNA and activation of peripheral blood innate immune cells in a PKC dependent manner, suggesting that this LA test identifies food items that result in release of inflammatory markers and activation of innate immune cells. This may be the basis for the improvement in symptoms in IBS patients who followed an LA test guided diet.

  13. Antibiotic-induced immediate type hypersensitivity is a risk factor for positive allergy skin tests for neuromuscular blocking agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagau, Natalia; Gherman, Nadia; Cocis, Mihaela; Petrisor, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Skin tests for neuromuscular blocking agents (NMBAs) are not currently recommended for the general population undergoing general anaesthesia. In a previous study we have reported a high incidence of positive allergy tests for NMBAs in patients with a positive history of non-anaesthetic drug allergy, a larger prospective study being needed to confirm those preliminary results. The objective of this study was to compare the skin tests results for patients with a positive history of antibiotic-induced immediate type hypersensitivity reactions to those of controls without drug allergies. Ninety eight patients with previous antibiotic hypersensitivity and 72 controls were prospectively included. Skin tests were performed for atracurium, pancuronium, rocuronium, and suxamethonium. We found 65 positive skin tests from the 392 tests performed in patients with a positive history of antibiotic hypersensitivity (1 6.58%) and 23 positive skin tests from the 288 performed in controls (7.98%), the two incidences showing significant statistical difference (p = 0.0011). The relative risk for having a positive skin test for NMBAs for patients versus controls was 1.77 (1.15-2.76). For atracurium, skin tests were more often positive in patients with a positive history of antibiotic hypersensitivity versus controls (p = 0.02). For pancuronium, rocuronium and suxamethonium the statistical difference was not attained (p-values 0.08 for pancuronium, 0.23 for rocuronium, and 0.26 for suxamethonium). Patients with a positive history of antibiotic hypersensitivity seem to have a higher incidence of positive skin tests for NMBAs. They might represent a group at higher risk for developing intraoperative anaphylaxis compared to the general population. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Behaviour of male cats after γ-irradiation of the heat: the induced pleasure test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davydov, B.I.; Ushakov, I.B.; Razgovorov, B.L.

    1985-01-01

    A decrease in the degree of manifestation of the induced pleasure response of male cats to the administration of valerian tincture was observed duUing the first 1-2 h following γ-irradiation of the head with a dose of 1.29 C/kg. It is suggested that the absence of the reaction during the first 10-15 min after exposure is indicative of the presence of the phase of a pronounced excitation in the C. N. S. of the exposed animals

  15. Assessment of pheromone production and response in fission yeast by a halo test of induced sporulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egel, R; Willer, M; Kjaerulff, S

    1994-01-01

    We describe a rapid, sensitive and semi-quantitative plate assay for monitoring pheromone activity in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. It is based on the observation that meiosis requires stimulation by pheromone and exploits diploid strains that will only sporulate after addition...... of exogenous pheromone. The tester strains are heterozygous for mating type, are non-switching, and are mutated in one of the early subfunctions (either mat1-Mc or mat1-Pc), so that meiosis is only induced after exposure to exogenous pheromone (M-factor or P-factor, respectively). Pheromone activity...

  16. Taking the Easy Way Out: How the GED Testing Program Induces Students to Drop Out

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckman, James J.; Humphries, John Eric; LaFontaine, Paul A.; Rodríguez, Pedro L.

    2011-01-01

    The option to obtain a General Education Development (GED) certificate changes the incentives facing high school students. This paper evaluates the effect of three different GED policy innovations on high school graduation rates. A six point decrease in the GED pass rate due to an increase in passing standards produced a 1.3 point decline in overall dropout rates. The introduction of a GED certification program in high schools in Oregon produced a four percent decrease in graduation rates. Introduction of GED certificates in California increased dropout rates by 3 points. The GED program induces high school students to drop out. PMID:24634564

  17. Detection of exercise-induced myocardial ischemia from symptomatology experienced during testing in men and women

    Science.gov (United States)

    D’Antono, Bianca; Dupuis, Gilles; Fortin, Christophe; Arsenault, André; Burelle, Denis

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES To examine the capacity of angina and related symptoms experienced during exercise-stress testing to detect the presence of ischemia, controlling for other clinical factors. METHOD The authors undertook a prospective study of 482 women and 425 men (mean age 58 years) undergoing exercise stress testing with myocardial perfusion imaging. One hundred forty-six women and 127 men reported chest pain, and of these, 25% of women and 66% of men had myocardial perfusion imaging evidence of ischemia during testing. The present article focuses on patients with chest pain during testing. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Outcome measures included chest pain localization, extension, intensity and quality, as well as the presence of various nonpain-related symptoms. Backward logistical regression analyses were performed separately on men and women who had experienced chest pain during testing. RESULTS Men who described their chest pain as ‘heavy’ were 4.6 times more likely to experience ischemia during testing (P=0.039) compared with other men, but this pain descriptor only slightly improved accuracy of prediction beyond that provided by control variables. In women, several symptoms added to the sensitivity of the prediction, such as a numb feeling in the face or neck region (OR 4.5; P=0.048), a numb feeling in the chest area (OR 14.6; P=0.003), muscle tension (OR 5.2; P=0.013), and chest pain that was described as hot or burning (OR 4.3; P=0.014). CONCLUSIONS A more refined evaluation of symptoms experienced during testing was particularly helpful in improving detection of ischemia in women, but not in men. Attention to these symptoms may favour timely diagnosis of myocardial perfusion defects in women. PMID:16639477

  18. Utility of the ceftazidime-imipenem antagonism test (CIAT to detect and confirm the presence of inducible AmpC beta-lactamases among enterobacteriaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlademir Vicente Cantarelli

    Full Text Available Detection of AmpC beta-lactamase production by enterobacteria has been problematic. Contrary to ESBLs, no specific guidelines are available for detection and confirmation of AmpC production by clinical relevant microorganisms. Moreover, some bacterial species may produce inducible AmpC beta-lactamases that can be easily overlooked by routine susceptibility tests. We reported here a new test based on the strong inducible effect of imipenem on AmpC genes and the consequent antagonism with ceftazidime. This test is very simple and proved to be helpful in detecting AmpC-inducible enzymes among several species of clinical isolates.

  19. Testing of CFC replacement fluids for arc-induced toxic by-products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cravey, W.R.; Goerz, D.A.; Hawley-Fedder, R.A.

    1993-06-01

    The authors have developed a unique test-stand for quantifying the generation of perfluoroisobutylene (PFIB) in chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) replacement fluids when they are subjected to high electrical stress/breakdown environments. PFIB is an extremely toxic gas with a threshold limit value of 10 ppbv as set by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists. They have tested several new fluids from various manufacturers for their potential to generate PFIB. Their goal is to determine breakdown characteristics and quantify toxic by-products of these replacement fluids to determine a safe, usable alternative for present CFC`s.

  20. Simulation of buoyancy induced gas mixing tests performed in a large scale containment facility using GOTHIC code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Z.; Chin, Y.S. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, ON (Canada)

    2014-07-01

    This paper compares containment thermal-hydraulics simulations performed using GOTHIC against a past test set of large scale buoyancy induced helium-air-steam mixing experiments that had been performed at the AECL's Chalk River Laboratories. A number of typical post-accident containment phenomena, including thermal/gas stratification, natural convection, cool air entrainment, steam condensation on concrete walls and active local air cooler, were covered. The results provide useful insights into hydrogen gas mixing behaviour following a loss-of-coolant accident and demonstrate GOTHIC's capability in simulating these phenomena. (author)

  1. Simulation of buoyancy induced gas mixing tests performed in a large scale containment facility using GOTHIC code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, Z.; Chin, Y.S.

    2014-01-01

    This paper compares containment thermal-hydraulics simulations performed using GOTHIC against a past test set of large scale buoyancy induced helium-air-steam mixing experiments that had been performed at the AECL's Chalk River Laboratories. A number of typical post-accident containment phenomena, including thermal/gas stratification, natural convection, cool air entrainment, steam condensation on concrete walls and active local air cooler, were covered. The results provide useful insights into hydrogen gas mixing behaviour following a loss-of-coolant accident and demonstrate GOTHIC's capability in simulating these phenomena. (author)

  2. Sex and stress: Men and women show different cortisol responses to psychological stress induced by the Trier social stress test and the Iowa singing social stress test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reschke-Hernández, Alaine E; Okerstrom, Katrina L; Bowles Edwards, Angela; Tranel, Daniel

    2017-01-02

    Acute psychological stress affects each of us in our daily lives and is increasingly a topic of discussion for its role in mental illness, aging, cognition, and overall health. A better understanding of how such stress affects the body and mind could contribute to the development of more effective clinical interventions and prevention practices. Over the past 3 decades, the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) has been widely used to induce acute stress in a laboratory setting based on the principles of social evaluative threat, namely, a judged speech-making task. A comparable alternative task may expand options for examining acute stress in a controlled laboratory setting. This study uses a within-subjects design to examine healthy adult participants' (n = 20 men, n = 20 women) subjective stress and salivary cortisol responses to the standard TSST (involving public speaking and math) and the newly created Iowa Singing Social Stress Test (I-SSST). The I-SSST is similar to the TSST but with a new twist: public singing. Results indicated that men and women reported similarly high levels of subjective stress in response to both tasks. However, men and women demonstrated different cortisol responses; men showed a robust response to both tasks, and women displayed a lesser response. These findings are in line with previous literature and further underscore the importance of examining possible sex differences throughout various phases of research, including design, analysis, and interpretation of results. Furthermore, this nascent examination of the I-SSST suggests a possible alternative for inducing stress in the laboratory. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Dynamic response of infrastructure to environmentally induced loads analysis, measurements, testing, and design

    CERN Document Server

    Manolis, George

    2017-01-01

    This book provides state of the art coverage of important current issues in the analysis, measurement, and monitoring of the dynamic response of infrastructure to environmental loads, including those induced by earthquake motion and differential soil settlement. The coverage is in five parts that address numerical methods in structural dynamics, soil–structure interaction analysis, instrumentation and structural health monitoring, hybrid experimental mechanics, and structural health monitoring for bridges. Examples that give an impression of the scope of the topics discussed include the seismic analysis of bridges, soft computing in earthquake engineering, use of hybrid methods for soil–structure interaction analysis, effects of local site conditions on the inelastic dynamic analysis of bridges, embedded models in wireless sensor networks for structural health monitoring, recent developments in seismic simulation methods, and seismic performance assessment and retrofit of structures. Throughout, the empha...

  4. Sensing System for Salinity Testing Using Laser-induced Graphene Sensors

    KAUST Repository

    Nag, Anindya

    2017-08-05

    The paper presents the development and implementation of a low-cost salinity sensing system. Commercial polymer films were laser ablated at specific conditions to form graphene-based sensors on flexible Kapton substrates. Sodium chloride was considered as the primary constituent for testing due to its prominent presence in water bodies. The sensor was characterized by testing different concentrations of sodium chloride. A standard curve was developed to perform real-time testing with a sample taken from sea water of unknown concentration. The sensitivity and resolution of these graphene sensors for the experimental solutions were 1.07Ω/ppm and 1ppm respectively. The developed system was validated by testing it with a real sample and cross checking it on the calibration curve. The signal conditioning circuit was further enhanced by embedding a microcontroller to the designed system. The obtained results did provide a platform for implementation of a low-cost salinity sensing system that could be used in marine applications.

  5. Nickel-sulphate-induced contact dermatitis in the guinea pig maximization test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohold, A E; Nielsen, G D; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    1991-01-01

    Nickel sulphate is a sensitizer in guinea pigs, but the frequency of sensitization varies from study to study. The dose-response relationship for NiSO4.6H2O was evaluated in the guinea pig maximization test in this study. 6 intradermal (0.01%-3.0% aq.) and 6 topical (0.25%-10.0% pet.) concentrati...

  6. Sensing System for Salinity Testing Using Laser-induced Graphene Sensors

    KAUST Repository

    Nag, Anindya; Mukhopadhyay, Subhas Chandra; Kosel, Jü rgen

    2017-01-01

    The paper presents the development and implementation of a low-cost salinity sensing system. Commercial polymer films were laser ablated at specific conditions to form graphene-based sensors on flexible Kapton substrates. Sodium chloride was considered as the primary constituent for testing due to its prominent presence in water bodies. The sensor was characterized by testing different concentrations of sodium chloride. A standard curve was developed to perform real-time testing with a sample taken from sea water of unknown concentration. The sensitivity and resolution of these graphene sensors for the experimental solutions were 1.07Ω/ppm and 1ppm respectively. The developed system was validated by testing it with a real sample and cross checking it on the calibration curve. The signal conditioning circuit was further enhanced by embedding a microcontroller to the designed system. The obtained results did provide a platform for implementation of a low-cost salinity sensing system that could be used in marine applications.

  7. Effect of perphenazine enanthate on open-field test behaviour and stress-induced hyperthermia in domestic sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedernera-Romano, Cecilia; Ruiz de la Torre, José L; Badiella, Llorenç; Manteca, Xavier

    2010-01-01

    The open-field test (OFT) and stress-induced hyperthermia (SIH) have been used to measure individual differences in fear. The present study has been designed as a pharmacological validation of OFT and SIH as indicators of fear in sheep using perphenazine enanthate (PPZ), a long-acting neuroleptic. Twenty four ewes of two breeds, Lacaune and Ripollesa, were tested in an arena measuring 5mx2.5m. Treatment group received one dose of 1.5mg/kg of PPZ and control group received sterile sesame oil. All animals were tested for 10min and behaviours were recorded. Rectal temperature was measured at the beginning (T1) and at the end (T2) of the test. SIH was defined as the difference between T2 and T1. Sheep were tested on days 1, 2, 3, 4, 7 and 9 after PPZ injection. Variables were analysed using a mixed model. PPZ decreased bleats on days 2, 3, 4 and the SIH response on days 2 and 3. Breed differences were observed. Treated animals showed positive correlations between SIH and bleats; squares entered; attempts to escape and negative correlation between SIH and visits to the food bucket. Our results suggest that behaviour and SIH on the OFT are useful measures of fear in sheep.

  8. A test of the hypothesis that impact-induced fractures are preferred sites for later tectonic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Sean C.; Duxbury, Elizabeth D.

    1987-01-01

    Impact cratering has been an important process in the solar system. The cratering event is generally accompanied by faulting in adjacent terrain. Impact-induced faults are nearly ubiquitous over large areas on the terrestrial planets. The suggestion is made that these fault systems, particularly those associated with the largest impact features are preferred sites for later deformation in response to lithospheric stresses generated by other processes. The evidence is a perceived clustering of orientations of tectonic features either radial or concentric to the crater or basin in question. An opportunity exists to test this suggestion more directly on Earth. The terrestrial continents contain more than 100 known or probable impact craters, with associated geological structures mapped to varying levels of detail. Prime facie evidence for reactivation of crater-induced faults would be the occurrence of earthquakes on these faults in response to the intraplate stress field. Either an alignment of epicenters with mapped fault traces or fault plane solutions indicating slip on a plane approximately coincident with that inferred for a crater-induced fault would be sufficient to demonstrate such an association.

  9. Prevention of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced toxicity in testes of rats treated with Physalis peruviana L. fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel Moneim, Ahmed E

    2016-06-01

    Treatment of rats with carbon tetrachloride (CCl4; 2 ml/kg body weight) once a week for 12 weeks caused a significant decrease in serum levels of testosterone, luteinizing hormone, and follicle-stimulating hormone. These decreases in sex hormones were reduced with Physalis peruviana L. (Cape gooseberry) juice supplementation. In addition, testicular activity of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, and glutathione-S-transferase suppressed with CCl4 were elevated after P. peruviana juice supplements. P. peruviana juice supplementation significantly increased the testicular glutathione and significantly decreased the level of lipid peroxidation and the nitric oxide production compared with the CCl4 group. In addition, the decline in the activity of antioxidant enzymes after CCl4 was ameliorated by P. peruviana Moreover, degeneration of germ and Leydig cells along with deformities in spermatogenesis induced after CCl4 injections were prevented with the supplementation of P. peruviana juice. Furthermore, P. peruviana juice attenuated CCl4-induced apoptosis in testes tissue by inhibition of caspase-3 activity. The results clearly demonstrate that P. peruviana juice augments the antioxidants defense mechanism against CCl4-induced reproductive toxicity and provides evidence that the juice may have a therapeutic role in free radical-mediated diseases and infertility. © The Author(s) 2014.

  10. Space Shuttle Main Engine Low Pressure Oxidizer Turbo-Pump Inducer Dynamic Environment Characterization through Water Model and Hot-Fire Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arellano, Patrick; Patton, Marc; Schwartz, Alan; Stanton, David

    2006-01-01

    The Low Pressure Oxidizer Turbopump (LPOTP) inducer on the Block II configuration Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) experienced blade leading edge ripples during hot firing. This undesirable condition led to a minor redesign of the inducer blades. This resulted in the need to evaluate the performance and the dynamic environment of the redesign, relative to the current configuration, as part of the design acceptance process. Sub-scale water model tests of the two inducer configurations were performed, with emphasis on the dynamic environment due to cavitation induced vibrations. Water model tests were performed over a wide range of inlet flow coefficient and pressure conditions, representative of the scaled operating envelope of the Block II SSME, both in flight and in ground hot-fire tests, including all power levels. The water test hardware, facility set-up, type and placement of instrumentation, the scope of the test program, specific test objectives, data evaluation process and water test results that characterize and compare the two SSME LPOTP inducers are discussed. In addition, dynamic characteristics of the two water models were compared to hot fire data from specially instrumented ground tests. In general, good agreement between the water model and hot fire data was found, which confirms the value of water model testing for dynamic characterization of rocket engine turbomachinery.

  11. Drilling-induced borehole-wall damage at spent fuel test-climax

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weed, H.C.; Durham, W.B.

    1982-12-01

    Microcracks in a sample of quartz monzonite from the Spent Fuel Test-Climax were measured by means of a scanning electron microscope in order to estimate the background level of damage near the borehole-wall. It appears that the hammer-drilling operation used to create the borehole has caused some microfracturing in a region 10 to 30 mm wide around the borehole. Beyond 30 mm, the level of microfracturing cannot be distinguished from background

  12. Mercury Induced Biochemical Alterations As Oxidative Stress In Mugil Cephalus In Short Term Toxicity Test

    OpenAIRE

    J.S.I Rajkumar; Samuel Tennyson

    2013-01-01

    Mugil cephalus juveniles of size 2.5 ±0.6cm were exposed to mercury in short term chronic toxicity test through static renewal bioassay to detect the possible biochemical agent as biomarkers in aquatic pollution and in estuarine contamination as specific. Lipid peroxidation levels, glutathione S -transferase, catalase, reduced glutathione and acetylcholinesterase were studied as biochemical parameters. Increased thio-barbituric acid reactive substances levels were observed under exposur...

  13. Genetic Test Reporting and Counseling for Melanoma Risk in Minors May Improve Sun Protection Without Inducing Distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stump, Tammy K; Aspinwall, Lisa G; Kohlmann, Wendy; Champine, Marjan; Hauglid, Jamie; Wu, Yelena P; Scott, Emily; Cassidy, Pamela; Leachman, Sancy A

    2018-01-19

    Genetic testing of minors is advised only for conditions in which benefits of early intervention outweigh potential psychological harms. This study investigated whether genetic counseling and test reporting for the CDKN2A/p16 mutation, which confers highly elevated melanoma risk, improved sun protection without inducing distress. Eighteen minors (M age  = 12.4, SD = 1.9) from melanoma-prone families completed measures of protective behavior and distress at baseline, 1 week (distress only), 1 month, and 1 year following test disclosure. Participants and their mothers were individually interviewed on the psychological and behavioral impact of genetic testing 1 month and 1 year post-disclosure. Carriers (n = 9) and noncarriers (n = 9) reported significantly fewer sunburns and a greater proportion reported sun protection adherence between baseline and 1 year post-disclosure; results did not vary by mutation status. Anxiety symptoms remained low post-disclosure, while depressive symptoms and cancer worry decreased. Child and parent interviews corroborated these findings. Mothers indicated that genetic testing was beneficial (100%) because it promoted risk awareness (90.9%) and sun protection (81.8%) without making their children scared (89.9%); several noted their child's greater independent practice of sun protection (45.4%). In this small initial study, minors undergoing CDKN2A/p16 genetic testing reported behavioral improvements and consistently low distress, suggesting such testing may be safely implemented early in life, allowing greater opportunity for risk-reducing lifestyle changes.

  14. Biodegradable Polymers Induce CD54 on THP-1 Cells in Skin Sensitization Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Yeon Suk; Kato, Reiko; Tsuchiya, Toshie

    2011-01-01

    Currently, nonanimal methods of skin sensitization testing for various chemicals, biodegradable polymers, and biomaterials are being developed in the hope of eliminating the use of animals. The human cell line activation test (h-CLAT) is a skin sensitization assessment that mimics the functions of dendritic cells (DCs). DCs are specialized antigen-presenting cells, and they interact with T cells and B cells to initiate immune responses. Phenotypic changes in DCs, such as the production of CD86 and CD54 and internalization of MHC class II molecules, have become focal points of the skin sensitization test. In this study, we used h-CLAT to assess the effects of biodegradable polymers. The results showed that several biodegradable polymers increased the expression of CD54, and the relative skin sensitizing abilities of biodegradable polymers were PLLG (75 : 25) < PLLC (40 : 60) < PLGA (50 : 50) < PCG (50 : 50). These results may contribute to the creation of new guidelines for the use of biodegradable polymers in scaffolds or allergenic hazards.

  15. Biodegradable Polymers Induce CD54 on THP-1 Cells in Skin Sensitization Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeon Suk Jung

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, nonanimal methods of skin sensitization testing for various chemicals, biodegradable polymers, and biomaterials are being developed in the hope of eliminating the use of animals. The human cell line activation test (h-CLAT is a skin sensitization assessment that mimics the functions of dendritic cells (DCs. DCs are specialized antigen-presenting cells, and they interact with T cells and B cells to initiate immune responses. Phenotypic changes in DCs, such as the production of CD86 and CD54 and internalization of MHC class II molecules, have become focal points of the skin sensitization test. In this study, we used h-CLAT to assess the effects of biodegradable polymers. The results showed that several biodegradable polymers increased the expression of CD54, and the relative skin sensitizing abilities of biodegradable polymers were PLLG (75 : 25 < PLLC (40 : 60 < PLGA (50 : 50 < PCG (50 : 50. These results may contribute to the creation of new guidelines for the use of biodegradable polymers in scaffolds or allergenic hazards.

  16. Experimental Issues in Testing a Semiactive Technique to Control Earthquake Induced Vibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Caterino

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This work focuses on the issues to deal with when approaching experimental testing of structures equipped with semiactive control (SA systems. It starts from practical experience authors gained in a recent wide campaign on a large scale steel frame structure provided with a control system based on magnetorheological dampers. The latter are special devices able to achieve a wide range of physical behaviours using low-power electrical currents. Experimental activities involving the use of controllable devices require special attention in solving specific aspects that characterize each of the three phases of the SA control loop: acquisition, processing, and command. Most of them are uncommon to any other type of structural testing. This paper emphasizes the importance of the experimental assessment of SA systems and shows how many problematic issues likely to happen in real applications are also present when testing these systems experimentally. This paper highlights several problematic aspects and illustrates how they can be addressed in order to achieve a more realistic evaluation of the effectiveness of SA control solutions. Undesired and unavoidable effects like delays and control malfunction are also remarked. A discussion on the way to reduce their incidence is also offered.

  17. Steam condensation induced water hammer in a vertical up-fill configuration within an integral test facility. Experiments and computational simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dirndorfer, Stefan

    2017-01-17

    Condensation induced water hammer is a source of danger and unpredictable loads in pipe systems. Studies concerning condensation induced water hammer were predominantly made for horizontal pipes, studies concerning vertical pipe geometries are quite rare. This work presents a new integral test facility and an analysis of condensation induced water hammer in a vertical up-fill configuration. Thanks to the state of the art technology, the phenomenology of vertical condensation induced water hammer can be analysed by means of sufficient high-sampled experimental data. The system code ATHLET is used to simulate UniBw condensation induced water hammer experiments. A newly developed and implemented direct contact condensation model enables ATHLET to calculate condensation induced water hammer. Selected experiments are validated by the modified ATHLET system code. A sensitivity analysis in ATHLET, together with the experimental data, allows to assess the performance of ATHLET to compute condensation induced water hammer in a vertical up-fill configuration.

  18. Steam condensation induced water hammer in a vertical up-fill configuration within an integral test facility. Experiments and computational simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dirndorfer, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    Condensation induced water hammer is a source of danger and unpredictable loads in pipe systems. Studies concerning condensation induced water hammer were predominantly made for horizontal pipes, studies concerning vertical pipe geometries are quite rare. This work presents a new integral test facility and an analysis of condensation induced water hammer in a vertical up-fill configuration. Thanks to the state of the art technology, the phenomenology of vertical condensation induced water hammer can be analysed by means of sufficient high-sampled experimental data. The system code ATHLET is used to simulate UniBw condensation induced water hammer experiments. A newly developed and implemented direct contact condensation model enables ATHLET to calculate condensation induced water hammer. Selected experiments are validated by the modified ATHLET system code. A sensitivity analysis in ATHLET, together with the experimental data, allows to assess the performance of ATHLET to compute condensation induced water hammer in a vertical up-fill configuration.

  19. Protective role of Tinospora cordifolia extract against radiation-induced qualitative, quantitative and biochemical alterations in testes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Priyanka; Parmar, Jyoti; Sharma, Priyanka; Verma, Preeti; Goyal, P.K.

    2012-01-01

    In today's changing global scenario, ionizing radiation is considered as most potent cause of oxidative stress mediated by free radical flux which induces severe damage at various hierarchical levels in the organization in the living organisms. Testis is a highly prolific tissue with fast cellular renewal and poor antioxidant defense; therefore it becomes an easy target for the radiation-induced free radicals that have long been suggested as major cause of male infertility. Chemical radioprotection is an important strategy to countermeasure the deleterious effects of radiation. Several Indian medicinal plants are rich source of antioxidants and these have been used for the treatment of ailments. Tinospora cordifolia, commonly known as amrita, is one of the plants that have several pharmacological and therapeutic properties. Therefore, the present study was performed to evaluate the deleterious effects of semi lethal dose of gamma radiation on testicular tissue and their possible inhibition by Tinospora cordifolia root extract (TCE). For this purpose, healthy Swiss albino male mice were selected from an inbred colony and divided into four groups. Group I (normal) was administered double distilled water (DDW) volume equal to TCE (75 mg/kg.b.wt/animal) by oral gavage. Group II was orally supplemented TCE as 75 mg/kg. b.wt once daily for 5 consecutive days. Group III (irradiated control) received DDW orally equivalent to TCE for 5 days then exposed to 5 Gy gamma radiation. Group IV (experimental) was administered TCE as in Group II and exposed to radiation (as in Group III). Irradiation resulted into significant decrease in the frequency of different spermatogenic cell counts along with severe histo-pathological lesions up to 7th day of irradiation in testes of irradiated control animals, thereafter, recovery followed towards the normal architecture. TCE pretreatment effectively prevented radiation induced such alterations in cellular counts and testicular injuries by

  20. The effect of N-acetylcysteine on cardiac contractility to dobutamine in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xing; Xia, Zhengyuan; Leo, Joyce M; Pang, Catherine C Y

    2005-09-05

    We examined if myocardial depression at the acute phase of diabetes (3 weeks after injection of streptozotocin, 60 mg/kg i.v.) is due to activation of inducible nitric oxide synthase and production of peroxynitrite, and if treatment with N-acetylcysteine (1.2 g/day/kg for 3 weeks, antioxidant) improves cardiac function. Four groups of rats were used: control, N-acetylcysteine-treated control, diabetic and N-acetylcysteine-treated diabetic. Pentobarbital-anaesthetized diabetic rats, relative to the controls, had reduced left ventricular contractility to dobutamine (1-57 microg/min/kg). The diabetic rats also had increased myocardial levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, immunostaining of inducible nitric oxide synthase and nitrotyrosine, and similar baseline 15-F2t-isoprostane. N-acetylcysteine did not affect responses in the control rats; but increased cardiac contractility to dobutamine, reduced myocardial immunostaining of inducible nitric oxide synthase and nitrotyrosine and level of 15-F2t-isoprostane, and increased cardiac contractility to dobutamine in the diabetic rats. Antioxidant supplementation in diabetes reduces oxidative stress and improves cardiac function.

  1. Coombs Antiglobulin Test Using Brucella abortus 99 as Antigen To Detect Incomplete Antibodies Induced by B. abortus RB51 Vaccine in Cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Ciuchini, Franco; Adone, Rosanna; Pasquali, Paolo

    2002-01-01

    This study showed that vaccination of cattle with Brucella abortus rough strain RB51 induces incomplete antibodies that can be detectable by a Coombs antiglobulin test using the B. abortus 99 smooth strain.

  2. An in vitro model to test relative antioxidant potential: Ultraviolet-induced lipid peroxidation in liposomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelle, E.; Maes, D.; Padulo, G.A.; Kim, E.K.; Smith, W.P.

    1990-01-01

    Since antioxidants have been shown to play a major role in preventing some of the effects of aging and photoaging in skin, it is important to study this phenomenon in a controlled manner. This was accomplished by developing a simple and reliable in vitro technique to assay antioxidant efficacy. Inhibition of peroxidation by antioxidants was used as a measure of relative antioxidant potential. Liposomes, high in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), were dispersed in buffer and irradiated with ultraviolet (UV) light. Irradiated liposomes exhibited a significantly higher amount of hydroperoxides than liposomes containing antioxidants in a dose- and concentration-dependent manner. Lipid peroxidation was determined spectrophotometrically by an increase in thiobarbituric acid reacting substances. To further substantiate the production of lipid peroxides, gas chromatography was used to measure a decrease in PUFA substrate. In order of decreasing antioxidant effectiveness, the following results were found among lipophilic antioxidants: BHA greater than catechin greater than BHT greater than alpha-tocopherol greater than chlorogenic acid. Among hydrophilic antioxidants, ascorbic acid and dithiothreitol were effective while glutathione was ineffective. In addition, ascorbic acid was observed to act synergistically with alpha-tocopherol, which is in agreement with other published reports on the interaction of these two antioxidants. Although peroxyl radical scavengers seem to be at a selective advantage in this liposomal/UV system, these results demonstrate the validity of this technique as an assay for measuring an antioxidant's potential to inhibit UV-induced peroxidation

  3. Planck-scale induced left–right gauge theory at LHC and experimental tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.K. Parida

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent measurements at LHC have inspired searches for TeV scale left–right gauge theory originating from grand unified theories. We show that inclusion of Planck-scale induced effects due to dim.5 operator not only does away with all the additional intermediate symmetries, but also it predicts the minimal set of light Higgs scalars tailored after neutrino masses and dilepton, or trilepton signals. The heavy-light neutrino mixings are predicted from charged fermion mass fits in SO(10 and LFV constraints which lead to new predictions for dilepton or trilepton production signals. Including fine-structure constant matching and two-loop, and threshold effects predict MWR=g2R104.3±1.5±0.2 GeV and proton lifetime τp=1036.15±5.8±0.2 yrs with WR gauge boson coupling g2R=0.56–0.57. Predictions on lepton flavour and lepton number violations are accessible to ongoing experiments. Current CMS data on di-electron excess at s=8 TeV are found to be consistent with WR gauge boson mass MWR≥1.9–2.2 TeV which also agrees with the values obtained from dijet resonance production data. We also discuss plausible explanations for diboson production excesses observed at LHC and make predictions expected at s=14 TeV.

  4. Effect of exercise-induced dehydration on circulatory markers of oxidative damage and antioxidant capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgescu, Vincent P; de Souza Junior, Tacito P; Behrens, Christian; Barros, Marcelo P; Bueno, Carlos Alves; Utter, Alan C; McAnulty, Lisa S; McAnulty, Steven R

    2017-07-01

    Dehydration is a common event associated with exercise. However, few studies have examined the effects of dehydration on plasma redox status in humans. Eighty-two athletes were recruited and baseline anthropometrics and blood samples were obtained. Athletes then engaged in a dehydration protocol, training until 3% of preweight body mass was lost. Athletes returned to the lab and had postdehydration blood collected. Athletes then consumed an isotonic drink until pre-exercise body weight was reestablished. Blood was then recollected (1 h post full rehydration (PFR)). Samples were centrifuged and the plasma snap frozen in liquid nitrogen and stored at -80 °C. Lipid and protein oxidative stress was determined by measuring F 2 -isoprostanes and protein carbonyls (PC), respectively. Antioxidant capacity was determined by the ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) and trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assays. Plasma osmolality was determined using an osmometer. Statistical analysis utilized a 1-way ANOVA with posthoc testing. Values are reported as mean ± SD. Plasma osmolality was significantly elevated immediately postdehydration (p ≤ 0.001) but decreased to baseline at PFR. Plasma TEAC increased immediately postdehydration and at PFR (p ≤ 0.001). FRAP increased immediately postdehydration (p ≤ 0.001) and decreased to below baseline at PFR (p ≤ 0.05). Conversely, F 2 -isoprostanes declined significantly from baseline to immediately postdehydration and then significantly rose at PFR (p ≤ 0.001), whereas PC declined at PFR (p ≤ 0.01). This study indicates that dehydration and exercise cause a significant increase in plasma osmolality and antioxidant potential immediately postexercise. We propose dehydration significantly elevates antioxidant concentration which suppresses F 2 -isoprostanes and PC.

  5. Chronic treatment with fluoxetine and sertraline prevents forced swimming test-induced hypercontractility of rat detrusor muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilge, Sirri; Bozkurt, Ayhan; Bas, Duygu B; Aksoz, Elif; Savli, Evren; Ilkaya, Fatih; Kesim, Yuksel

    2008-01-01

    Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) reuptake inhibitors represent important targets for the development of new treatments for detrusor overactivity and urinary incontinence. The present study was undertaken to investigate the effects of the forced swimming test (FST) on the contractile response of isolated rat detrusor muscle and to examine the effects of in vivo treatments of fluoxetine and sertraline on altered detrusor muscle contractility. Fluoxetine (20 mg/kg ip) and sertraline (10 mg/kg ip) were administered once a day for 14 days. Rats were exposed to the FST on the 15th day. After the test, detrusor muscles were removed and placed in organ baths, and the contraction responses induced by carbachol, potassium chloride (KCl) and electrical field stimulation (EFS) were recorded. The contractile responses of detrusor muscle strips to carbachol and electrical field stimulation were found to be increased at all carbachol doses and frequencies, respectively. FST also increased the contractile responses to KCl, which is used to test the differences in postreceptor-mediated contractions. The hypercontractile responses of detrusor strips to carbachol, EFS and KCl were abolished by treatment with both fluoxetine and sertraline. These treatments also decreased the immobility duration in the FST consistent with an antidepressant-like effect in this test. The results of this study provide the first evidence that FST increases contractility of the rat detrusor muscle, and this hypercontractility was abolished by chronic treatments of fluoxetine and sertraline at antidepressant doses by decreasing the postreceptor-mediated events.

  6. Molecular and structural changes induced by essential oils treatments in Vicia faba roots detected by genotoxicity testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturchio, Elena; Boccia, Priscilla; Zanellato, Miriam; Meconi, Claudia; Donnarumma, Lucia; Mercurio, Giuseppe; Mecozzi, Mauro

    2016-01-01

    Over the last few years, there has been an increased interest in exploiting allelopathy in organic agriculture. The aim of this investigation was to examine the effects of essential oil mixtures in order to establish their allelopathic use in agriculture. Two mixtures of essential oils consisting respectively of tea tree oil (TTO) and clove plus rosemary (C + R) oils were tested. Phytotoxicity and genotoxicity tests on the root meristems of Vicia faba minor were performed. A phytotoxic influence was particularly relevant for C + R mixture, while genotoxicity tests revealed significant results with both C + R oil mixture and TTO. Phenotypic analysis on Vicia faba minor primary roots following C + R oil mixture treatment resulted in callose production, an early symptom attributed to lipid peroxidation. The approach described in this study, based on genotoxicity bioassays, might identify specific DNA damage induced by essential oil treatments. These tests may represent a powerful method to evaluate potential adverse effects of different mixtures of essential oils that might be useful in alternative agriculture. Future studies are focusing on the positive synergism of more complex mixtures of essential oils in order to reduce concentrations of potentially toxic components while at the same time maintaining efficacy in antimicrobial and antifungal management.

  7. Papaver Rhoeas L. Hydroalcoholic Extract Exacerbates Forced Swimming Test-Induced Depression in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Naser Osanloo; Akram Najafi-Abedi; Fatemeh Jafari; Farshid Javid; Mohsen Pirpiran; Mohammad-Reza Memar-Jafari; Seyed Ali Mousavi-Khosravi; Mohammad Rahimzadeh-Behzadi; Mina Ranjbaran; Hedayat Sahraei

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Depression is one of the most frequent psychiatric disorders in the world with occurs with higher incidence in women. In the present study, the effect of water-alcoholic extract of Papaver rhoeas L. on forced swimming test (FST) in Swiss-Webster mice were examined. Methods: We used Swiss-Webster mice (20-25 g) to execute FST on them. The plant extract (1, 10, 30, and 100 mg/kg) was injected to the animals 30 minutes before each session. Fluoxetine (20 mg/k...

  8. Papaver Rhoeas L. Hydroalcoholic Extract Exacerbates Forced Swimming Test-Induced Depression in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osanloo, Naser; Najafi-Abedi, Akram; Jafari, Fatemeh; Javid, Farshid; Pirpiran, Mohsen; Memar Jafari, Mohammad-Reza; Mousavi Khosravi, Seyed Ali; Rahimzadeh Behzadi, Mohammad; Ranjbaran, Mina; Sahraei, Hedayat

    2016-07-01

    Depression is one of the most frequent psychiatric disorders in the world with occurs with higher incidence in women. In the present study, the effect of water-alcoholic extract of Papaver rhoeas L. on forced swimming test (FST) in Swiss-Webster mice were examined. We used Swiss-Webster mice (20-25 g) to execute FST on them. The plant extract (1, 10, 30, and 100 mg/kg) was injected to the animals 30 minutes before each session. Fluoxetine (20 mg/kg) was used as standard antidepressant drug. In another group of animals, 30 minutes after extract administration, blood samples were taken from retro-orbital sinus for corticosterone assay. Yet in third group, the drugs were injected to the animals and 30 minutes later, their activities were tested in an open field apparatus. Our experiments showed that the extract efficiently reduced FST time both in male and female mice dose-dependently. This effect was comparable with fluoxetine. In addition, corticosterone assay indicated that plasma corticosterone in animals which received extract was higher than those amounts in fluoxetine and saline controls. Moreover, the animals did not show any motor activity deficit in all doses of the extract and fluoxetine compared to saline control. The extract of Papaver rhoeas can reduce immobility time which is comparable to the effect of fluoxetine. Also the effect of the extract is contrary to its effects on plasma corticosterone level and or animals' activity.

  9. Testing a laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy technique on the Arctic sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, D.; Nam, S. I.

    2017-12-01

    Physical and geochemical investigations coupled with the Laser-induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) were performed on three surface sediment cores (ARA03B/24BOX, ARA02B/01(A)MUC, ARA02B/02MUC and ARA02B/03(A)MUC) recovered from the western Arctic Ocean (Chukchi Sea) during IBRV ARON expeditions in 2012. The LIBS technique was applied to carry out elemental chemical analysis of the Arctic sediments and compared with that measured by ITRAX X-ray fuorescence (XRF) core scanning. LIBS and XRF have shown similar elemental composition within each sediment core. In this study, mineral composition (XRD), grain size distribution and organic carbon content as well as elemental composition (LIBS) were all considered to understand paleoenvironmental changes (ocean circulation, sea-ice drift, iceberg discharge, and etc.) recorded in the Arctic Holocene sediment. Quantitative LIBS analysis shows a gradually varying distribution of the elements along the sampled core and clear separation between the cores. The cores are geochemically characterized by elevated Mn profile. The gradient of mineral composition and grain sizes among the cores shows regional distribution and variation in sedimentary condition due to geological distance between East Siberian and North America. The present study reveals that a LIBS technique can be employed for in-situ sediment analyses for the Arctic Ocean. Furthermore, LIBS does not require costly equipment, trained operators, and complicated sample pre-treatment processes compared to Atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) and inductively coupled plasma emission spectroscopy (ICP), and also known to show relatively high levels of sensitivity, precision, and distinction than XRF analysis, scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive spectrometry (SEM-EDS), and electron probe X-ray microanalysis (EPMA).

  10. [Silent myocardial ischemia and exercise-induced arrhythmia detected by the exercise test in the total health promotion plan (THP)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwane, M; Shibe, Y; Itoh, K; Kinoshita, F; Kanagawa, Y; Kobayashi, M; Mugitani, K; Ohta, M; Ohata, H; Yoshikawa, A; Ikuta, Z; Nakamura, Y; Mohara, O

    2001-03-01

    We investigated the prevalence and characteristics of ischemic heart disease especially silent myocardial ischemia (SMI) and arrhythmia in need of careful observation in the exercise stress tests in the Total Health Promotion Plan (THP), which was conducted between 1994-96 for the purpose of measuring cardiopulmonary function. All workers (n = 4,918, 4,426 males) aged 18-60 yr old in an occupational field were studied. Exercise tests with an ergometer were performed by the LOPS protocol, in which the maximal workload was set up as a presumed 70-80% maximal oxygen intake, or STEP (original multistage protocol). ECG changes were evaluated with a CC5 lead. Two hundred and fifteen people refused the study because of a common cold, lumbago and so on. Of 4,703 subjects, 17 with abnormal rest ECG and 19 with probable anginal pain were excluded from the exercise tests. Of 4,667 who underwent the exercise test, 37 (0.79%) had ischemic ECG change, and 155 (3.32%) had striking arrhythmia. These 228 subjects then did a treadmill exercise test with Bruce protocol. Twenty-two (0.47% of 4,703) showed positive ECG change, 9 (0.19%) of 22 had abnormal findings on a 201Tl scan. 8 (0.17%) were diagnosed as SMI (Cohn I), in which the prevalence of hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes mellitus, smoker and positive familial history of ischemic heart disease was greater than that of all subjects. In a 15-30 month follow up, none has developed cardiac accidents. Exercise-induced arrhythmia was detected in 11 (0.23%) subjects. Four were non-sustained ventricular tachycardia without any organic disease, 4 were ventricular arrhythmia based on cardiomyopathy detected by echocardiography, 2 were atrial fibrillation and another was WPW syndrome. It is therefore likely that the ergometer exercise test in THP was effective in preventing sudden death caused by ischemic heart disease or striking arrhythmia.

  11. Oxidative Damage to the Salivary Glands of Rats with Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes-Temporal Study: Oxidative Stress and Diabetic Salivary Glands

    OpenAIRE

    Kna?, M.; Maciejczyk, M.; Daniszewska, I.; Klimiuk, A.; Matczuk, J.; Ko?odziej, U.; Waszkiel, D.; ?adny, J. R.; ?endzian-Piotrowska, M.; Zalewska, A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective. This study evaluated oxidative damage caused to the salivary glands in streptozotocin-induced diabetes (DM). Materials and Methods. Rats were divided into 4 groups: groups 1 and 2, control rats, and groups 3 and 4, DM rats. 8-Hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), protein carbonyl (PC), 4-hydroxynonenal protein adduct (4-HNE), oxidized and/or MDA-modified LDL-cholesterol (oxy-LDL/MDA), 8-isoprostanes (8-isoP), and oxidative stress index (OSI) were measured at 7 (groups 1 and 3) and 14...

  12. Road and rail traffic noise induce comparable extra-aural effects as revealed during a short-term memory test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugen Gallasch

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To examine extraaural effects as induced by 20 min of road (ROAD and 20 min of rail (RAIL traffic noise with same loudness (75 dBA, a laboratory study was carried out. The study (N = 54 consisted of 28 high and 26 low-annoyed healthy individuals as determined by a traffic annoyance test. To control attention, all individuals performed a nonauditory short-term memory test during the noise exposures. A within-subject design, with phases of ROAD, RAIL, and CALM (memory test only, alternated by phases of rest, was defined. Heart rate (HR, systolic blood pressure (sBP, total peripheral resistance (TPR, as well as three autonomic variables, preejection period (PEP, 0.15–0.4 Hz high-frequency component of HR variability (HF, and salivary stress biomarker alpha amylase (sAA were measured. In relation to CALM, HR increased (RAIL +2.1%, ROAD +2.5%, sBP tended to increase against the end of noise exposure, PEP decreased (RAIL −0.7%, ROAD −0.8%, HF decreased (RAIL −3.4%, ROAD −2.9%, and sAA increased (RAIL +78%, ROAD +69%. No differences were found between RAIL and ROAD, indicating that both noise stressors induced comparable extraaural effects. Factor annoyance showed significant during CALM. Here a reduced sympathetic drive (higher PEP values combined with an increased vascular tone (higher TPR values was found at the high-annoyed subgroup.

  13. Testing environment shape differentially modulates baseline and nicotine-induced changes in behavior: Sex differences, hypoactivity, and behavioral sensitization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illenberger, J M; Mactutus, C F; Booze, R M; Harrod, S B

    2018-02-01

    In those who use nicotine, the likelihood of dependence, negative health consequences, and failed treatment outcomes differ as a function of gender. Women may be more sensitive to learning processes driven by repeated nicotine exposure that influence conditioned approach and craving. Sex differences in nicotine's influence over overt behaviors (i.e. hypoactivity or behavioral sensitization) can be examined using passive drug administration models in male and female rats. Following repeated intravenous (IV) nicotine injections, behavioral sensitization is enhanced in female rats compared to males. Nonetheless, characteristics of the testing environment also mediate rodent behavior following drug administration. The current experiment used a within-subjects design to determine if nicotine-induced changes in horizontal activity, center entries, and rearing displayed by male and female rats is detected when behavior was recorded in round vs. square chambers. Behaviors were recorded from each group (males-round: n=19; males-square: n=18; females-square: n=19; and females-round: n=19) immediately following IV injection of saline, acute nicotine, and repeated nicotine (0.05mg/kg/injection). Prior to nicotine treatment, sex differences were apparent only in round chambers. Following nicotine administration, the order of magnitude for the chamber that provided enhanced detection of hypoactivity or sensitization was contingent upon both the dependent measure under examination and the animal's biological sex. As such, round and square testing chambers provide different, and sometimes contradictory, accounts of how male and female rats respond to nicotine treatment. It is possible that a central mechanism such as stress or cue sensitivity is impacted by both drug exposure and environment to drive the sex differences observed in the current experiment. Until these complex relations are better understood, experiments considering sex differences in drug responses should balance

  14. Comparison of a teratogenic transcriptome-based predictive test based on human embryonic versus inducible pluripotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinde, Vaibhav; Perumal Srinivasan, Sureshkumar; Henry, Margit; Rotshteyn, Tamara; Hescheler, Jürgen; Rahnenführer, Jörg; Grinberg, Marianna; Meisig, Johannes; Blüthgen, Nils; Waldmann, Tanja; Leist, Marcel; Hengstler, Jan Georg; Sachinidis, Agapios

    2016-12-30

    Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) partially recapitulate early embryonic three germ layer development, allowing testing of potential teratogenic hazards. Because use of hESCs is ethically debated, we investigated the potential for human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) to replace hESCs in such tests. Three cell lines, comprising hiPSCs (foreskin and IMR90) and hESCs (H9) were differentiated for 14 days. Their transcriptome profiles were obtained on day 0 and day 14 and analyzed by comprehensive bioinformatics tools. The transcriptomes on day 14 showed that more than 70% of the "developmental genes" (regulated genes with > 2-fold change on day 14 compared to day 0) exhibited variability among cell lines. The developmental genes belonging to all three cell lines captured biological processes and KEGG pathways related to all three germ layer embryonic development. In addition, transcriptome profiles were obtained after 14 days of exposure to teratogenic valproic acid (VPA) during differentiation. Although the differentially regulated genes between treated and untreated samples showed more than 90% variability among cell lines, VPA clearly antagonized the expression of developmental genes in all cell lines: suppressing upregulated developmental genes, while inducing downregulated ones. To quantify VPA-disturbed development based on developmental genes, we estimated the "developmental potency" (D p ) and "developmental index" (D i ). Despite differences in genes deregulated by VPA, uniform D i values were obtained for all three cell lines. Given that the D i values for VPA were similar for hESCs and hiPSCs, D i can be used for robust hazard identification, irrespective of whether hESCs or hiPSCs are used in the test systems.

  15. Testing of resveratrol microemulsion photostability and protective effect against UV induced oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juškaitė, Vaida; Ramanauskienė, Kristina; Briedis, Vitalis

    2017-06-27

    Resveratrol is well known for its antioxidant activity and susceptibility to ultraviolet radiation. Development of formulations providing improved stability and relevant drug delivery of resveratrol is still a challenging task. The aim of this study was to determine protective characteristics of formulated microemulsions by evaluating photoisomerization of resveratrol and to investigate the effects of resveratrol on human keratinocyte cells under oxidative stress caused by ultraviolet radiation. Incorporation of resveratrol into microemulsions resulted in increased photostability of active compounds and the results demonstrated that photodegradation of resveratrol was significantly delayed. Results of biopharmaceutical evaluation in vitro demonstrated that up to 60 % of resveratrol was released from microemulsions within 6 hours under a constant release rate profile. In vivo biological testing confirmed the ability of resveratrol to protect cells from oxidative stress and to increase cell viability. It was concluded that microemulsions might be considered in the development of UV light sensitive compounds.

  16. Testing of resveratrol microemulsion photostability and protective effect against UV induced oxidative stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juškaitė Vaida

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Resveratrol is well known for its antioxidant activity and susceptibility to ultraviolet radiation. Development of formulations providing improved stability and relevant drug delivery of resveratrol is still a challenging task. The aim of this study was to determine protective characteristics of formulated microemulsions by evaluating photoisomerization of resveratrol and to investigate the effects of resveratrol on human keratinocyte cells under oxidative stress caused by ultraviolet radiation. Incorporation of resveratrol into microemulsions resulted in increased photostability of active compounds and the results demonstrated that photodegradation of resveratrol was significantly delayed. Results of biopharmaceutical evaluation in vitro demonstrated that up to 60 % of resveratrol was released from microemulsions within 6 hours under a constant release rate profile. In vivo biological testing confirmed the ability of resveratrol to protect cells from oxidative stress and to increase cell viability. It was concluded that microemulsions might be considered in the development of UV light sensitive compounds.

  17. Testing parameters of TMR heads affected by dynamic-tester induced EMI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruesubthaworn, A.; Sivaratana, R.; Ungvichian, V.; Siritaratiwat, A.

    2007-01-01

    A variety of expected electromagnetic interference (EMI) sources of both radiated and conducted EMI emissions produced by a dynamic tester is studied. It is determined that the power cable connector of the robot arm radiates a significant electric field (E-field) of about 197 V/m at 1 foot away and an estimated calculation of the E-field of about 212 mV/m is at the spindle motor. These fields can be attenuated by about 20-30 dB when using a copper lined Faraday's cage. Furthermore, the study has revealed that the radiated EMI plays a more significant role than the conducted EMI. In addition, it is determined that out of seven selected testing parameters, the SGAW is rather more sensitive to EMI than conventional failure parameters, especially static glitche during the write cycle

  18. Pattern of c-Fos expression induced by tail suspension test in the mouse brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kentaro Hiraoka

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The tail suspension test (TST has been widely used as a screening assay for antidepressant drugs. However, the neural substrates underlying the stress response and antidepressant-like effect during the TST remain largely unknown despite the prevalence of this test. In the present study, we used immunohistochemistry to examine alterations in c-Fos expression as a measure of neuronal activity in the mouse brain after acute administration of the antidepressant drugs nortriptyline or escitalopram (or saline as a control with or without a subsequent TST session. We found that without the TST session, nortriptyline administration enhanced the density of c-Fos-immunoreactive cells in regions of the central extended amygdala, paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus, and relevant regions of the brain stem, whereas escitalopram did not change c-Fos expression in any region. Following the TST in the absence of antidepressant drugs, we observed a significant increase in c-Fos-positive cell density in a number of brain regions within the limbic telencephalon, hypothalamus, and brain stem. We detected a statistically significant interaction using an analysis of variance between the main effects of the drug and stress response in four regions: the infralimbic cortex, lateral septal nucleus (intermediate part, ventrolateral preoptic nucleus, and solitary nucleus. Following the TST, escitalopram but not nortriptyline increased c-Fos-positive cell density in the infralimbic cortex and ventrolateral preoptic nucleus, whereas nortriptyline but not escitalopram increased c-Fos expression in the solitary nucleus. Both antidepressants significantly increased c-Fos expression in the lateral septal nucleus (intermediate part. The present results indicate that neuronal activity increases in septo-hypothalamic regions and related structures, especially the lateral septal nucleus, following administration of drugs producing an antidepressant-like effect in mice subjected to

  19. Cornea stress test--evaluation of corneal endothelial function in vivo by contact lens induced stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saini Jagjit

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Reliable and valid assessment of corneal endothelial function is a critical input for diagnosing, prognosticating and monitoring progression of disorders affecting corneal endothelium. In 123 eyes, corneal endothelial function was assessed employing data from the corneal hydration recovery dynamics. Serial pachometric readings were recorded on Haag-Striet pachometer with Mishima-Hedbys modification before and after two hours of thick soft contact lens wear. Percentage Recovery Per Hour (PRPH was derived from raw data as an index of endothelial function. Assessed PRPH in pseudophakic corneal oedema and Fuchs′ endothelial dystrophy eyes (35.9 +/- 9.8% was significantly lower than normal controls (61.9 +/- 10.5%. On employing receiver operation characteristics curve analysis the tested results demonstrated high sensitivity (87% and specificity (92% for detection of low endothelial function at PRPH cut off of 47.5%. Using this PRPH cut off, 80% of Fuchs′ endothelial dystrophy and 93.3% of pseudophakic corneal oedema eyes could be demonstrated to have low endothelial function. A total of 66.7% of diabetic eyes also demonstrated PRPH of lower than 47.5%. Clear corneal grafts demonstrated PRPH values of 24.6% to 73.0%. Of 6 corneal grafts that demonstrated initial PRPH of lower than 47.5%, 4 failed within 4 to 6 months. Our data demonstrated high sensitivity and specificity of this corneal stress test. PRPH index was useful in quantifying endothelial function in clinical disorders including diabetes mellitus. The index PRPH was demonstrated to be useful in monitoring and prognosticating outcome of corneal grafts.

  20. Modelling and testing the molecular mechanism of radiation-induced chromatid breaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryant, P. E.

    2001-01-01

    Chromatid breaks induced by ionizing radiation in the G2 phase of the cell cycle are considered as markers of individual human radiosensitivity and may indicate the presence of low-penetrance genes regulating susceptibility to breast and other cancers). Together with our own study of Scottish (Tayside) breast cancer patients and a group of normal controls these studies show an overall 10-fold variation in chromatid break frequency (the parameter defining individual chromosomal 'radiosensitivity'). Thus, an understanding of the mechanisms and genes involved in determining these widely different responses should help to clarify the reasons for individual radiosensitivity and may lead us to identify key genes involved in cancer susceptibility. The presence of colour-switches at around 16% of chromatid break points (detected in harlequin-stained chromosomes) indicates that this type of chromatid break is formed by a chromatin rearrangement involving one or more large chromatin domains of the order of 3 - 5 Mbp, possibly representing transcription 'factories'. The signal model of chromatid breaks assumes that all chromatid breaks are the result of chromatin rearrangements, and that the initiating DNA double-strand break (dsb) is itself not involved in the rearrangement but signals its presence (possibly via ATM protein or DNAPK) leading to the initiation of the chromatin rearrangement. Experimental evidence from radiosensitive cell lines (e.g. human AT and hamster irs2) and with the nucleoside analogue araA (9-β-D-arabinofuranosyladenine) demonstrates the lack of correspondence between the rejoining kinetics of dsb and that of disappearance of chromatid breaks, thus supporting the signal model. Coupled with the linear induction of chromatid breaks with dose in both human and rodent cell lines of various types, and the production of chromatid breaks by single dsb in genetically engineered cell lines the classical 'breakage-first' model of chromatid breaks is no longer

  1. Passive smoking reduces and vitamin C increases exercise-induced oxidative stress: does this make passive smoking an anti-oxidant and vitamin C a pro-oxidant stimulus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodorou, Anastasios A; Paschalis, Vassilis; Kyparos, Antonios; Panayiotou, George; Nikolaidis, Michalis G

    2014-11-07

    The current interpretative framework states that, for a certain experimental treatment (usually a chemical substance) to be classified as "anti-oxidant", it must possess the property of reducing (or even nullifying) exercise-induced oxidative stress. The aim of the study was to compare side by side, in the same experimental setup, redox biomarkers responses to an identical acute eccentric exercise session, before and after chronic passive smoking (considered a pro-oxidant stimulus) or vitamin C supplementation (considered an anti-oxidant stimulus). Twenty men were randomly assigned into either passive smoking or vitamin C group. All participants performed two acute eccentric exercise sessions, one before and one after either exposure to passive smoking or vitamin C supplementation for 12 days. Vitamin C, oxidant biomarkers (F2-isoprostanes and protein carbonyls) and the non-enzymatic antioxidant (glutathione) were measured, before and after passive smoking, vitamin C supplementation or exercise. It was found that chronic exposure to passive smoking increased the level of F2-isoprostanes and decreased the level of glutathione at rest, resulting in minimal increase or absence of oxidative stress after exercise. Conversely, chronic supplementation with vitamin C decreased the level of F2-isoprostanes and increased the level of glutathione at rest, resulting in marked exercise-induced oxidative stress. Contrary to the current scientific consensus, our results show that, when a pro-oxidant stimulus is chronically delivered, it is more likely that oxidative stress induced by subsequent exercise is decreased and not increased. Reversely, it is more likely to find greater exercise-induced oxidative stress after previous exposure to an anti-oxidant stimulus. We believe that the proposed framework will be a useful tool to reach more pragmatic explanations of redox biology phenomena. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Updated assessment of the six-minute walk test as predictor of acute radiation-induced pneumonitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao Jingfang; Zhang Junan; Zhou Sumin; Das, Shiva; Hollis, Donna R.; Folz, Rodney J.; Wong, Terence Z.; Marks, Lawrence B.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the utility of the 6-minute walk test (6MWT) as a predictor of symptomatic radiation-induced pneumonitis (RP). Methods: As part of a prospective trial to study radiation-induced lung injury, 53 patients receiving thoracic radiotherapy (RT) underwent a pre-RT 6MWT, pulmonary function tests (PFTs), and had ≥3-month follow-up for prospective assessment of Grade 2 or worse RP (requiring medications or worse). Dosimetric parameters (e.g., the percentage of lung receiving ≥30 Gy) were extracted from the lung dose-volume histogram. The correlations between the 6MWT and PFT results were assessed using Pearson's correlation. The receiver operating characteristic technique was used in patient subgroups to evaluate the predictive capacities for RP of the dosimetric parameters, 6MWT results, and PFT results, or the combination (using discriminant analysis) of all three metrics. ROCKIT software was used to compare the receiver operating characteristic areas between each predictive model. The association of the decline in 6MWT with the development of RP was evaluated using Fisher's exact test. Results: The pre-RT PFT and 6MWT results correlated weakly (r = 0.44-0.57, p ≤ 0.001), suggesting that they measure somewhat different physiologic functions. Of the 53 patients, 9 (17%) developed RP. The dose-volume histogram-based dosimetric parameters were the best single-metric model for predicting RP (e.g., percentage of lung receiving ≥30 Gy, receiver operating characteristic area 0.73, p = 0.03). Including the PFT or 6MWT results with the percentage of lung receiving ≥30 Gy did not improve the predictions. The predictive abilities of dosimetric-based models improved when the analysis was restricted to those patients whose tumors were not causing regional lung dysfunction. No correlation was found between the decline in the 6MWT result and the RP rate (p = 0.6). Conclusion: Although the PFTs and 6MWT are related to each other, the correlation coefficients

  3. Testing model parameters for wave‐induced dune erosion using observations from Hurricane Sandy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overbeck, Jacquelyn R.; Long, Joseph W.; Stockdon, Hilary F.

    2017-01-01

    Models of dune erosion depend on a set of assumptions that dictate the predicted evolution of dunes throughout the duration of a storm. Lidar observations made before and after Hurricane Sandy at over 800 profiles with diverse dune elevations, widths, and volumes are used to quantify specific dune erosion model parameters including the dune face slope, which controls dune avalanching, and the trajectory of the dune toe, which controls dune migration. Wave‐impact models of dune erosion assume a vertical dune face and erosion of the dune toe along the foreshore beach slope. Observations presented here show that these assumptions are not always valid and require additional testing if these models are to be used to predict coastal vulnerability for decision‐making purposes. Observed dune face slopes steepened by 43% yet did not become vertical faces, and only 50% of the dunes evolved along a trajectory similar to the foreshore beach slope. Observations also indicate that dune crests were lowered during dune erosion. Moreover, analysis showed a correspondence between dune lowering and narrower beaches, smaller dune volumes, and/or longer wave impact.

  4. Testing model parameters for wave-induced dune erosion using observations from Hurricane Sandy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overbeck, J. R.; Long, J. W.; Stockdon, H. F.

    2017-01-01

    Models of dune erosion depend on a set of assumptions that dictate the predicted evolution of dunes throughout the duration of a storm. Lidar observations made before and after Hurricane Sandy at over 800 profiles with diverse dune elevations, widths, and volumes are used to quantify specific dune erosion model parameters including the dune face slope, which controls dune avalanching, and the trajectory of the dune toe, which controls dune migration. Wave-impact models of dune erosion assume a vertical dune face and erosion of the dune toe along the foreshore beach slope. Observations presented here show that these assumptions are not always valid and require additional testing if these models are to be used to predict coastal vulnerability for decision-making purposes. Observed dune face slopes steepened by 43% yet did not become vertical faces, and only 50% of the dunes evolved along a trajectory similar to the foreshore beach slope. Observations also indicate that dune crests were lowered during dune erosion. Moreover, analysis showed a correspondence between dune lowering and narrower beaches, smaller dune volumes, and/or longer wave impact.

  5. Testing the efficacy of antimicrobial peptides in the topical treatment of induced osteomyelitis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melicherčík, Pavel; Čeřovský, Václav; Nešuta, Ondřej; Jahoda, David; Landor, Ivan; Ballay, Rastislav; Fulín, Petr

    2018-01-01

    Joint replacement infections and osteomyelitis are among the most serious complications in orthopaedics and traumatology. The risk factors for these infections are often bacterial resistance to antimicrobials. One of the few solutions available to control bacterial resistance involves antimicrobials, which have a different mechanism of action from traditional antibiotics. Antimicrobial peptides (AMP) appear to be highly promising candidates in the treatment of resistant infections. We have identified several AMP in the venom of various wild bees and designed analogues that show potent antimicrobial activity and low toxicity against eukaryotic cells. The aim of the present study was to test the efficacy of one of those synthetic peptide analogues for the treatment of acute osteomyelitis invoked in laboratory rats. Femoral cavities of 20 laboratory Wistar rats were infected with Staphylococcus aureus. After 1 week, eight rats received an injectable calcium phosphate carrier alone, another eight rats were treated with a calcium phosphate mixed with AMP, and four rats were left without any further treatment. After another week, all rats were euthanized and radiographs were made of both the operated and healthy limbs. The animals with the carrier alone exhibited more severe acute osteomyelitis on radiographs in comparison to the recipients of the calcium phosphate carrier loaded AMP and untreated infected individuals. Based on the results of the above mentioned experiment, it was concluded that when injected directly into the site of femoral acute osteomyelitis, the calcium phosphate carrier mixed with AMP reduced osteomyelitis signs visible on radiographs.

  6. Protocol for the Differentiation of Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells into Mixed Cultures of Neurons and Glia for Neurotoxicity Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pistollato, Francesca; Canovas-Jorda, David; Zagoura, Dimitra; Price, Anna

    2017-06-09

    Human pluripotent stem cells can differentiate into various cell types that can be applied to human-based in vitro toxicity assays. One major advantage is that the reprogramming of somatic cells to produce human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) avoids the ethical and legislative issues related to the use of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs). HiPSCs can be expanded and efficiently differentiated into different types of neuronal and glial cells, serving as test systems for toxicity testing and, in particular, for the assessment of different pathways involved in neurotoxicity. This work describes a protocol for the differentiation of hiPSCs into mixed cultures of neuronal and glial cells. The signaling pathways that are regulated and/or activated by neuronal differentiation are defined. This information is critical to the application of the cell model to the new toxicity testing paradigm, in which chemicals are assessed based on their ability to perturb biological pathways. As a proof of concept, rotenone, an inhibitor of mitochondrial respiratory complex I, was used to assess the activation of the Nrf2 signaling pathway, a key regulator of the antioxidant-response-element-(ARE)-driven cellular defense mechanism against oxidative stress.

  7. Tests of the wire ageing induced by radiation in the barrel muon chambers of the CMS experiment at LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conti, E.; Ballarini, R.; Gasparine, F.

    1999-01-01

    In CMS the barrel muon detectors are drift tubes (DT) filled with Ar/CO 2 gas. Materials of the DT in contact with the gas can outgas pollutant substances during irradiation which may cause a loss of gain or a worsening of the time resolution (wire ageing) during the multiplication process. This article presents the laboratory tests performed to verify that the materials used in DT do not induce wire ageing. The tests concern all the materials inside the DT which are in contact with the gas: 1) mylar tape with glue based on reticulated silicon polymers, 2) Al tape with mono-acrylic glue, 3) bare FR4 boards for HV, and 4) complete FR4 boards for HV (with cables, resistors, capacitors and glue). Both Al and mylar are known to be safe from the point of view of ageing, so the tests concern essentially the glues. For all the above materials, the result is negative, it means that no change of the wire gain has been measured within a few percents which is the sensitivity of the apparatus. (A.C.)

  8. Prolonged storage-induced changes in haematology parameters referred for testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elise Schapkaitz

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Referral of samples for the work-up of haematological disorders from remote laboratories can result in a delay in analysis. Objective: The stability of the full blood count (FBC, differential count (DIFF, reticulocyte and peripheral blood smear (PBS morphology during extended storage was evaluated. Methods: Forty blood samples stored in ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA were analysed on an ADVIA® 120 haematology analyser. The samples (25% abnormal; 75% normal were stored at room temperature (RT and at 4 °C – 8 °C. Analysis of samples stored at RT was performed every 12 hours for two days. Analysis of samples stored at 4 °C – 8 °C was performed at 12 hours and subsequently every 24 hours for seven days. Results: FBC parameters (red cell count, haemoglobin and DIFF parameters (percentages of basophils, lymphocytes and monocytes were stable for at least 48 hours when stored at RT. Platelets were only stable for 12 hours and the white cell count was stable for 36 hours when stored at RT. Storing samples at 4 °C – 8 °C significantly increased the stability of most parameters, in particular, mean cell volume and percentage of reticulocytes. However, DIFF parameters were associated with lower stability at 4 °C – 8 °C. PBS morphology was compromised prior to 12 hours whether stored at RT or at 4 °C – 8 °C. Conclusion: This study provides evidence that blood samples stored in EDTA at 4 °C – 8 °C for seven days are suitable for testing on the ADVIA® 120 analyser for the FBC and percentage of reticulocyte parameters. However, storage at 4 °C – 8 °C is not a solution for samples referred for DIFF and PBS morphology review.

  9. Odour identification test and its relation to cardiac 123I‐metaiodobenzylguanidine in patients with drug induced parkinsonism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Phil Hyu; Yeo, Seung Hyeon; Yong, Seok Woo; Kim, Yun Joong

    2007-01-01

    We investigated olfactory function and its relation to cardiac 123I‐metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) uptake in 15 patients with drug induced parkinsonism (DIP). The mean Cross Cultural Smell Identification (CCSI) score was significantly greater in patients with DIP than in those with Parkinson's disease (PD: 6.9 (1.6) vs 4.4 (2.2); p<0.001); however, the mean CCSI score in patients with DIP was not significantly different from controls. One patient with DIP, whose CCSI score was significantly reduced, also exhibited decreased cardiac MIBG uptake. DIP patients with CCSI scores within the normal range had normal cardiac MIBG uptake. Our study suggests that an olfactory function test may be a useful tool for detecting DIP unrelated to PD and for identifying patients with DIP who have subclinical PD. PMID:17557797

  10. Experimental investigation of localized stress-induced leakage current distribution in gate dielectrics using array test circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyeonwoo; Teramoto, Akinobu; Kuroda, Rihito; Suwa, Tomoyuki; Sugawa, Shigetoshi

    2018-04-01

    Localized stress-induced leakage current (SILC) has become a major problem in the reliability of flash memories. To reduce it, clarifying the SILC mechanism is important, and statistical measurement and analysis have to be carried out. In this study, we applied an array test circuit that can measure the SILC distribution of more than 80,000 nMOSFETs with various gate areas at a high speed (within 80 s) and a high accuracy (on the 10-17 A current order). The results clarified that the distributions of localized SILC in different gate areas follow a universal distribution assuming the same SILC defect density distribution per unit area, and the current of localized SILC defects does not scale down with the gate area. Moreover, the distribution of SILC defect density and its dependence on the oxide field for measurement (E OX-Measure) were experimentally determined for fabricated devices.

  11. Alpha-driven magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) and MHD-induced alpha loss in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Z.; Nazikian, R.; Fu, G.Y.

    1997-02-01

    Alpha-driven toroidal Alfven eigenmodes (TAEs) are observed as predicted by theory in the post neutral beam phase in high central q (safety factor) deuterium-tritium (D-T) plasmas in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR). The mode location, poloidal structure and the importance of q profile for TAE instability are discussed. So far no alpha particle loss due to these modes was detected due to the small mode amplitude. However, alpha loss induced by kinetic ballooning modes (KBMs) was observed in high confinement D-T discharges. Particle orbit simulation demonstrates that the wave-particle resonant interaction can explain the observed correlation between the increase in alpha loss and appearance of multiple high-n (n ≥ 6, n is the toroidal mode number) modes

  12. Evaluation of genetic alteration induced by radon gas using the micronucleus test (Tradescantia sp. clone KU-20)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruschi, Armando L.; Azevedo, Heliana de; Macacini, Jose F.; Roque, Claudio V.

    2011-01-01

    The first observations over the existence of radon gas (Rn), initially known as 'thorium emanation', were carried out between the end of 19 th and beginning of 20 th centuries. A result of uranium-238 (U 238 ) radioactive decay, radon is a tasteless, odorless and colorless gas under room temperature, with a 3.825-day half life and particle α emission in its decay, and as final product of its disintegration, the stable lead-206 isotope (Pb 206 ). Being it is the gas with the highest density known, closed and poor ventilated environments are favorable to its accumulation, with its inhalation being the highest health risk. The use of vegetal bioindicators has shown to be excellent on the monitoring of air quality and on mutagenic potential of various pollutants contained in the atmosphere. Within this context, the objective of this study was to evaluate the micronucleus test application potential utilizing the Tradescantia sp. clone KU-20, in order to evaluate genetic alterations induced by radon gas. Stems of Tradescantia sp. clone KU-20, previously immerse in Hoagland solution, were introduced in a radon detection equipment's calibration chamber (Alphaguard), containing radium salt. Afterwards, the accommodated stems were exposed to radon gas (the average radon concentration was 7.639 KBq/m3) for 24 hours. The results demonstrated an increase on micronucleus formation (39.23 + 2.143 MCN/100 tetrads) in stems exposed in relation to the negative control (18.00 + 1.396 MCN/100 tetrads). The difference between the values indicated a significant increase on micronucleus frequency in the inflorescences subjected to radon gas. The presented results demonstrated the micronucleus test application potential using Tradescantia clone KU-20 to evaluate genetic effects induced by radon gas. (author)

  13. Temperature-dependency analysis and correction methods of in-situ power-loss estimation for crystalline silicon modules undergoing potential-induced degradation stress testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spataru, Sergiu; Hacke, Peter; Sera, Dezso

    2015-01-01

    We propose a method of in-situ characterization of the photovoltaic module power at standard test conditions using superposition of the dark current-voltage (I-V) curve measured at elevated stress temperature during potential-induced degradation (PID) testing. PID chamber studies were performed o...

  14. Effect of Withania somnifera on forced swimming test induced immobility in mice and its interaction with various drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, P C; Trivedi, N A; Bhatt, J D; Hemavathi, K G

    2006-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the antidepressant action of Withania somnifera (WS) as well as its interaction with the conventional antidepressant drugs and to delineate the possible mechanism of its antidepressant action using forced swimming model in mice. Effect of different doses of WS, fluoxetine and imipramine were studied on forced swimming test induced mean immobility time (MIT). Moreover effect of WS 100 mg/kg, i.p. was observed at different time intervals. Effect produced by combination of sub therapeutic doses of WS with imipramine (2.5 mg/kg, i.p.) as well as fluoxetine (2.5 mg/kg, i.p.) were also observed. Effect of WS (100 mg/kg, i.p.) as well as combination of WS (37.5 mg/kg, i.p.) with either imipramine (2.5 mg/kg, i.p.) or fluoxetine (2.5 mg/kg, i.p.) were observed in mice pretreated with reserpine (2 mg/kg, i.p.) and clonidine (0.15 mg/kg, i.p.). Effects of prazosin (3 mg/kg, i.p.) or haloperidol (0.1 mg/kg, i.p.) pre-treatment were also observed on WS induced decrease in MIT. WS produced dose dependent decrease in MIT. Maximum effect in MIT was observed after 30 min of treatment with WS 100 mg/kg, i.p. Combination of WS (37.5 mg/kg, i.p.) with imipramine (2.5 mg/kg, i.p.) or fluoxetine (2.5 mg/kg, i.p.) also produced significant decrease in the MIT. Clonidine and reserpine induced increase in MIT, was significantly reversed by treatment with WS (100 mg/kg, i.p.) as well as combination of WS (37.5 mg/kg, i.p.) with either imipramine (2.5 mg/kg, i.p.) or fluoxetine (2.5 mg/kg, i.p.). Pre-treatment with prazosin but not haloperidol, significantly antagonized the WS (100 mg/kg, i.p.) induced decrease in MIT. It is concluded that, WS produced significant decrease in MIT in mice which could be mediated partly through a adrenoceptor as well as alteration in the level of central biogenic amines.

  15. Sex-Specific Diurnal Immobility Induced by Forced Swim Test in Wild Type and Clock Gene Deficient Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ningyue Li

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The link between alterations in circadian rhythms and depression are well established, but the underlying mechanisms are far less elucidated. We investigated the circadian characteristics of immobility behavior in wild type (WT mice and mice with mutations in core Clock genes. Methods: All mice were tested with forced swim test (FST at 4 h intervals. Results: These experiments revealed significant diurnal rhythms associated with immobility behavior in both male and female WT mice with sex-different circadian properties. In addition, male mice showed significantly less immobility during the night phase in comparison to female mice. Female Per1Brdm1 mice also showed significant rhythmicity. However, the timing of rhythmicity was very different from that observed in female wild type mice. Male Per1Brdm1 mice showed a pattern of rhythmicity similar to that of wild type mice. Furthermore, female Per1Brdm1 mice showed higher duration of immobility in comparison to male Per1Brdm1 mice in both daytime and early night phases. Neither Per2Brdm1 nor ClockΔ19 mice showed significant rhythmicity, but both female Per2Brdm1 and ClockΔ19 mice had lower levels of immobility, compared to males. Conclusions: This study highlights the differences in the circadian characteristics of immobility induced by FST in WT, ClockΔ19, Per1, and Per2 deficient mice.

  16. Simultaneous Laser-induced Fluorescence of Nitric Oxide and Atomic Oxygen in the Hypersonic Materials Environment Test System Arcjet Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, Craig; Lincoln, Daniel; Bathel, Brett; Inman, Jennifer; Danehy, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Simultaneous nitric oxide (NO) and atomic oxygen (O) laser induced fluorescence (LIF) experiments were performed in the Hypersonic Materials Environmental Test System (HYMETS) facility at the NASA Langley Research Center. The data serves as an experimental database for validation for chemical and thermal nonequilibrium models used in hypersonic flows. Measurements were taken over a wide range of stagnation enthalpies (6.7 - 18.5 MJ/kg) using an Earth atmosphere simulant with a composition of 75% N2, 20% O2, and 5% Ar (by volume). These are the first simultaneous measurements of NO and O LIF to be reported in literature for the HYMETS facility. The maximum O LIF mean signal intensity was observed at a stagnation enthalpy of approximately 12 MJ/kg while the maximum NO LIF mean signal intensity was observed at a stagnation enthalpy of 6.7 MJ/kg. Experimental results were compared to simple fluorescence model that assumes equilibrium conditions in the plenum and frozen chemistry in the isentropic nozzle expansion (Mach 5). The equilibrium calculations were performed using CANTERA v2.1.1 with 16 species. The fluorescence model captured the correlation in mean O and NO LIF signal intensities over the entire range of stagnation enthalpies tested. Very weak correlations between single-shot O and NO LIF intensities were observed in the experiments at all of the stagnation enthalpy conditions.

  17. Early smoking-induced lung lesions in asymptomatic subjects. Correlations between high resolution dynamic CT and pulmonary function testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spaggiari, Enrica; Zompadori, Maurizio; Bna', Claudio; Ormitti, Francesca; Svaerzellati, Nicola; Rabaiotti, Enrico; Verduri, Alessia; Chetta, Alfredo

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the prevalence and significance of the pathological effects of cigarette smoking on the lung and the sensitivity of high-resolution CT (HRCT) in the recognition of early smoking-induced lesions in asymptomatic former of current smokers. Materials and methods: We performed a prospective and consecutive analysis of 36 volunteers (16 males, 20 females), 10 non-smokers (3 males, 7 females) and 26 smokers (13 males, 13 females / 17 current smokers; 9 former smokers), all asymptomatic and with normal respiratory flows. These subjects underwent lung function testing and HRCT, after providing written informed consent for the study. The HRCT scans were obtained at three pre-selected levels (aortic arch, tracheal carina and venous hilum). The same scans were obtained in post-expiration phase. At the level of the apical segmental bronchus of the right upper lobe, we measured on the monitor wall thickening, and the total and internal diameters using the techniques reported in literature. Each study was independently evaluated by two radiologists that were blinded to all clinical and functional data: they also evaluated the presence, prevalence and type of emphysema, areas of patchy hyperlucency and oligoemia in the inspiration phase and areas of expiratory air trapping. The extension was evaluated with the visual score method. The data obtained were analysed with the Windows SPSS package for statistical analysis. Results: The two groups (non smokers and smokers) showed significant differences in some functional tests such as FEV1 (p [it

  18. Guanosine prevents behavioral alterations in the forced swimming test and hippocampal oxidative damage induced by acute restraint stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettio, Luis E B; Freitas, Andiara E; Neis, Vivian B; Santos, Danúbia B; Ribeiro, Camille M; Rosa, Priscila B; Farina, Marcelo; Rodrigues, Ana Lúcia S

    2014-12-01

    Guanosine is a guanine-based purine that modulates glutamate uptake and exerts neurotrophic and neuroprotective effects. In a previous study, our group demonstrated that this endogenous nucleoside displays antidepressant-like properties in a predictive animal model. Based on the role of oxidative stress in modulating depressive disorders as well as on the association between the neuroprotective and antioxidant properties of guanosine, here we investigated if its antidepressant-like effect is accompanied by a modulation of hippocampal oxidant/antioxidant parameters. Adult Swiss mice were submitted to an acute restraint stress protocol, which is known to cause behavioral changes that are associated with neuronal oxidative damage. Animals submitted to ARS exhibited an increased immobility time in the forced swimming test (FST) and the administration of guanosine (5mg/kg, p.o.) or fluoxetine (10mg/kg, p.o., positive control) before the exposure to stressor prevented this alteration. Moreover, the significantly increased levels of hippocampal malondialdehyde (MDA; an indicator of lipid peroxidation), induced by ARS were not observed in stressed mice treated with guanosine. Although no changes were found in the hippocampal levels of reduced glutathione (GSH), the group submitted to ARS procedure presented enhanced glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities and reduced catalase (CAT) activity in the hippocampus. Guanosine was able to prevent the alterations in GPx, GR, CAT activities, and in SOD/CAT activity ratio, but potentiated the increase in SOD activity elicited by ARS. Altogether, the present findings indicate that the observed antidepressant-like effects of guanosine might be related, at least in part, to its capability of modulating antioxidant defenses and mitigating hippocampal oxidative damage induced by ARS. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Antidiabetic Activity Test of Ethanolic Seri Leave’s (Muntingia Calabura L. Extract in Male Rats Induced by Alloxan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herlina Herlina

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Antidiabetic activity test of ethanol extract of seri leave (Muntingia calabura L. rats induced by alloxan has been done. Male wistar albino rats are used as animal models which divided into 6 groups, normal group (aquadest, negative control group (Na CMC 0,5%, positive control group (glibenclamide 0,43 mg/200 gBB, and 1, 2, and 3 treatment groups (ethanol extract of seri leave 65, 130, dan 260 mg/kgBB. Rats blood glucose level after induced intraperitoneally by alloxan 130 mg/kgBB can be stated as diabetes when >200 mg/dL. Preprandial blood glucose levels are measured using DTN-410-K photometer, on day 0, 5, 10, and 15. The average result of AUC0-15 and percentage of decreasing blood glucose level for positive control group are 2732,5 and 37,43%, and 3 treatment groups (65 mg/kgBB, 130 mg/kgBB, and 260 mg/kgBB 3105 and 28,90%; 2962,5 and 32,16%; 2810 and 35,66%. This point indicated that the ethanol extract of seri leave has an antidiabetic activity and there is no significant difference compared with glibenclamide (p<0,05. Percentage of blood glucose decrease level the third treatment group there is no significant difference compare with positive control group. According to the relation between percentage of blood glucose decrease level with dose, value of ED50 of ethanol extract of seri leave is 692,424 mg/kgBB.

  20. A test of genotypic variation in specificity of herbivore-induced responses in Solidago altissima L. (Asteraceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uesugi, A.; Poelman, E.H.; Kessler, A.

    2013-01-01

    Plant-induced responses to multiple herbivores can mediate ecological interactions among herbivore species, thereby influencing herbivore community composition in nature. Several studies have indicated high specificity of induced responses to different herbivore species. In addition, there may be

  1. Preclinical Testing of an Oncolytic Parvovirus: Standard Protoparvovirus H-1PV Efficiently Induces Osteosarcoma Cell Lysis In Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiss, Carsten; Kis, Zoltán; Leuchs, Barbara; Frank-Stöhr, Monika; Schlehofer, Jörg R; Rommelaere, Jean; Dinsart, Christiane; Lacroix, Jeannine

    2017-10-17

    Osteosarcoma is the most frequent malignant disease of the bone. On the basis of early clinical experience in the 1960s with H-1 protoparvovirus (H-1PV) in osteosarcoma patients, this effective oncolytic virus was selected for systematic preclinical testing on various osteosarcoma cell cultures. A panel of five human osteosarcoma cell lines (CAL 72, H-OS, MG-63, SaOS-2, U-2OS) was tested. Virus oncoselectivity was confirmed by infecting non-malignant human neonatal fibroblasts and osteoblasts used as culture models of non-transformed mesenchymal cells. H-1PV was found to enter osteosarcoma cells and to induce viral DNA replication, transcription of viral genes, and translation to viral proteins. After H-1PV infection, release of infectious viral particles from osteosarcoma cells into the supernatant indicated successful viral assembly and egress. Crystal violet staining revealed progressive cytomorphological changes in all osteosarcoma cell lines. Infection of osteosarcoma cell lines with the standard H-1PV caused an arrest of the cell cycle in the G2 phase, and these lines had a limited capacity for standard H-1PV virus replication. The cytotoxicity of wild-type H-1PV virus towards osteosarcoma cells was compared in vitro with that of two variants, Del H-1PV and DM H-1PV, previously described as fitness variants displaying higher infectivity and spreading in human transformed cell lines of different origins. Surprisingly, wild-type H-1PV displayed the strongest cytostatic and cytotoxic effects in this analysis and thus seems the most promising for the next preclinical validation steps in vivo.

  2. Preclinical Testing of an Oncolytic Parvovirus: Standard Protoparvovirus H-1PV Efficiently Induces Osteosarcoma Cell Lysis In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carsten Geiss

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Osteosarcoma is the most frequent malignant disease of the bone. On the basis of early clinical experience in the 1960s with H-1 protoparvovirus (H-1PV in osteosarcoma patients, this effective oncolytic virus was selected for systematic preclinical testing on various osteosarcoma cell cultures. A panel of five human osteosarcoma cell lines (CAL 72, H-OS, MG-63, SaOS-2, U-2OS was tested. Virus oncoselectivity was confirmed by infecting non-malignant human neonatal fibroblasts and osteoblasts used as culture models of non-transformed mesenchymal cells. H-1PV was found to enter osteosarcoma cells and to induce viral DNA replication, transcription of viral genes, and translation to viral proteins. After H-1PV infection, release of infectious viral particles from osteosarcoma cells into the supernatant indicated successful viral assembly and egress. Crystal violet staining revealed progressive cytomorphological changes in all osteosarcoma cell lines. Infection of osteosarcoma cell lines with the standard H-1PV caused an arrest of the cell cycle in the G2 phase, and these lines had a limited capacity for standard H-1PV virus replication. The cytotoxicity of wild-type H-1PV virus towards osteosarcoma cells was compared in vitro with that of two variants, Del H-1PV and DM H-1PV, previously described as fitness variants displaying higher infectivity and spreading in human transformed cell lines of different origins. Surprisingly, wild-type H-1PV displayed the strongest cytostatic and cytotoxic effects in this analysis and thus seems the most promising for the next preclinical validation steps in vivo.

  3. Involvement of central opioid systems in human interferon-α induced immobility in the mouse forced swimming test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makino, Mitsuhiro; Kitano, Yutaka; Komiyama, Chika; Hirohashi, Masaaki; Takasuna, Kiyoshi

    2000-01-01

    We investigated the mechanism by which human interferon-α (IFN-α) increases the immobility time in a forced swimming test, an animal model of depression.Central administration of IFN-α (0.05–50 IU per mouse, i.cist.) increased the immobility time in the forced swimming test in mice in a dose-dependent manner.Neither IFN-β nor -γ possessed any effect under the same experimental conditions.Pre-treatment with an opioid receptor antagonist, naloxone (1 mg kg−1, s.c.) inhibited the prolonged immobility time induced by IFN-α (60 KIU kg−1, i.v. or 50 IU per mouse. i.cist.).Peripheral administration of naloxone methiodide (1 mg kg−1, s.c.), which does not pass the blood–brain barrier, failed to block the effect of IFN-α, while intracisternal administration of naloxone methiodide (1 nmol per mouse) completely blocked.The effect of IFN-α was inhibited by a μ1-specific opioid receptor antagonist, naloxonazine (35 mg kg−1, s.c.) and a μ1/μ2 receptor antagonist, β-FNA (40 mg kg−1, s.c.). A selective δ-opioid receptor antagonist, naltrindole (3 mg kg−1, s.c.) and a κ-opioid receptor antagonist, nor-binaltorphimine (20 mg kg−1, s.c.), both failed to inhibit the increasing effect of IFN-α.These results suggest that the activator of the central opioid receptors of the μ1-subtype might be related to the prolonged immobility time of IFN-α, but δ and κ-opioid receptors most likely are not involved. PMID:10903965

  4. Plastic Deformation Induced by Nanoindentation Test Applied on ZrN/Si3N4 Multilayer Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengtao Wu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available ZrN/Si3N4 multilayer coating that alternates with either nanocrystalline ZrN or amorphous Si3N4 interlayers was fabricated by reactively magnetron sputtering in an Ar-N2 mixture atmosphere. The thicknesses of the nanocrystalline ZrN and the amorphous Si3N4 interlayers are ~12.5 and 2.5 nm, respectively. The ZrN/Si3N4 coating exhibits a promoted hardness of 28.6 ± 1.2 GPa when compared to the binary ZrN. Microstructure evolution just underneath the nanoindentation impression of the ZrN/Si3N4 multilayer coating has been investigated. The result indicates that both ZrN nanograin rotations and plastic flow of the Si3N4 interlayers contribute to the permanent deformation of the multilayer coating induced by the nanoindentation. In addition, the introduction of the a-Si3N4 interlayers hinders both the initiation and propagation of microcracks when the multilayer coating was applied to the scratch test. The propagation deflection of the microcracks was observed attributed to the heterogenous interface, which produces the hardness promotion of the multilayer coating eventually.

  5. Development of railgun pellet injector using a laser-induced plasma armature. Results of dummy pellet acceleration tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onozuka, Masanori; Oda, Yasushi; Azuma, Kingo; Ogino, Mutsuo

    1995-01-01

    Using the low electric energy railgun system, dummy pellet acceleration tests have been conducted to investigate the application of the electromagnetic railgun system for high-speed pellet injection into fusion plasmas. The primary objective of the development is to improve the pellet acceleration efficiency and durability of the rail materials. In the system, the pellet is pre-accelerated before railgun acceleration. A laser beam is used to induce plasma armature. The ignited plasma armature is accelerated by an electromagnetic force that accelerates the pellet. As low electric energy was used, rail materials were used for multiple operations. Tungsten-alloy rail provided longer durability and slightly higher energy conversion coefficient than copper rail. The energy conversion coefficient was from 0.3 to 0.5% using a plastic insulator. A ceramic insulator improved the energy conversion coefficient by 80%. The highest pellet velocity was 1.7 km/s using wooden pellets accelerated by 1m-long railgun. Based on the findings, it is estimated that the hydrogen pellet has the potential to be accelerated to 5 km/s using a 3m-long railgun. (author)

  6. A case study comparing the use of laser induced fluorescence with cone penetrometer testing to more conventional screening methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Earley, K.; Rapp, K.

    1995-01-01

    Site assessments utilizing in-situ techniques to characterize subsurface stratigraphy and contaminant distribution are becoming more accepted and commonly used. Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF) spectroscopy with Cone Penetrometer Test (CPT) is a new technology that provides real-time data on stratigraphy and petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs) in the subsurface environment. Over the last two years, LIF technological advances have led to field equipment with improved durability, reduced bulk and weight, and the ability to integrate LIF systems with CPT equipment. The Rapid Optical Screening Tool (a Unisys registered trademark hereafter referred to as ROST) presents the development of an in-situ data collection system which couples state-of-the-art LIF technology with CPT. ROST/CPT technology has recently been utilized in a variety of field and soil conditions. These advances, along with the need for rapid in-situ information on the horizontal and vertical distribution of petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs) have resulted in equipment that is now available for commercial applications. This paper presents a comparison of ROST/CPT to more conventional characterization methods at a manufacturing site in Nebraska. Various PHCs were stored in underground and above ground storage tanks across the site. One of these PHC spill areas consisting of a mixture of diesel fuel oil and kerosene was selected for a comparative study between various site assessment methods

  7. Development of railgun pellet injector using a laser-induced plasma armature. Results of dummy pellet acceleration tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onozuka, Masanori; Oda, Yasushi; Azuma, Kingo; Ogino, Mutsuo [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd., Yokohama (Japan). Nuclear Energy Systems Engineering Center

    1995-03-01

    Using the low electric energy railgun system, dummy pellet acceleration tests have been conducted to investigate the application of the electromagnetic railgun system for high-speed pellet injection into fusion plasmas. The primary objective of the development is to improve the pellet acceleration efficiency and durability of the rail materials. In the system, the pellet is pre-accelerated before railgun acceleration. A laser beam is used to induce plasma armature. The ignited plasma armature is accelerated by an electromagnetic force that accelerates the pellet. As low electric energy was used, rail materials were used for multiple operations. Tungsten-alloy rail provided longer durability and slightly higher energy conversion coefficient than copper rail. The energy conversion coefficient was from 0.3 to 0.5% using a plastic insulator. A ceramic insulator improved the energy conversion coefficient by 80%. The highest pellet velocity was 1.7 km/s using wooden pellets accelerated by 1m-long railgun. Based on the findings, it is estimated that the hydrogen pellet has the potential to be accelerated to 5 km/s using a 3m-long railgun. (author).

  8. Remote detection and recognition of bio-aerosols by laser-induced fluorescense lidar: practical implementation and field tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boreysho, Anatoly; Savin, Andrey; Morozov, Alexey; Konyaev, Maxim; Konovalov, Konstantin

    2007-06-01

    Recognition of aerosol clouds material at some significant distance is now a key requirement for the wide range of applications. The elastic backscatter lidar have demonstrated high capabilities in aerosol remote detection, cloud real-time mapping at very long distances for low-concentration natural aerosols as well as artificial ones [1]. However, recognition ability is required to make them more relevant. Laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) looks very promising with respect to the recognition problem. New approach based on mobile lidar complex [2] equipped by spectrally-and range-resolved LIF-sensor is described as well as some results of field tests. The LIF-sensor consists of four-harmonics Nd:YAG laser equipped by an output expander to provide final beam divergence camera collimated with the lidar scanning direction. The LIF-lidar is mounted on a truck-based platform (20-feet container) as a part of multi-purpose mobile lidar complex and adjusted for field conditions.

  9. The impact of exercise-induced muscle damage on performance test outcomes in elite female basketball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doma, Kenji; Leicht, Anthony; Sinclair, Wade; Schumann, Moritz; Damas, Felipe; Burt, Dean; Woods, Carl

    2017-09-11

    The purpose of this study was two-fold. First, to examine the impact exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD) on physical fitness qualities following a basketball-specific training session. Secondly, to determine the reproducibility of the sport-specific performance measures in elite female basketball players. Ten elite female basketball players (age 25.6 ± 4.5 years; height 1.8 ± 0.7m; body mass 76.7 ± 8.3kg) undertook a 90-minute training session involving repeated jumping, sprinting and game-simulated training. Indirect muscle damage markers (i.e., countermovement jump [CMJ], delayed-onset of muscle soreness [DOMS] and creatine kinase [CK]) and sport-specific performances (i.e., change of direction [COD] and suicide test [ST]) were measured prior to and 24 hours post training. These measures were also collected one week following training to determine the reproducibility of the basketball-specific performance measures. A significant reduction in lower-body power (-3.5±3.6%; P0.05). The intra-class correlation coefficient and coefficient of variation for the COD and ST were 0.81 and 0.90, respectively, and 1.9% and 1.5%, respectively. In conclusion, appropriate recovery should be considered the day following basketball-specific training sessions in elite basketball players. Furthermore, this study showed the usability of performance measures to detect changes during periods of EIMD, with acceptable reproducibility and minimal measurement error.

  10. Numerical prediction of shock induced oscillations over a 2D airfoil: Influence of turbulence modelling and test section walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thiery, Mylene [Aerodynamics and Energetics Modelling Department, Turbulence Modelling and Prediction Unit, ONERA Toulouse, 2 avenue Edouard Belin, 31055 Toulouse Cedex 4 (France); Coustols, Eric [Aerodynamics and Energetics Modelling Department, Turbulence Modelling and Prediction Unit, ONERA Toulouse, 2 avenue Edouard Belin, 31055 Toulouse Cedex 4 (France)]. E-mail: Eric.Coustols@onera.fr

    2006-08-15

    The present study deals with recent numerical results from on-going research conducted at ONERA/DMAE regarding the prediction of transonic flows, for which shock wave/boundary layer interaction is important. When this interaction is strong enough (M {>=} 1.3), shock induced oscillations (SIO) appear at the suction side of the airfoil and lead to the formation of unsteady separated areas. The main issue is then to perform unsteady computations applying appropriate turbulence modelling and relevant boundary conditions with respect to the test case. Computations were performed with the ONERA elsA software and the URANS-type approach, closure relationships being achieved from transport-equation models. Applications are provided for the OAT15A airfoil data base, well documented for unsteady CFD validation (mean and r.m.s. pressure, phase-averaged LDA data, ...). In this paper, the capabilities of turbulence models are evaluated with two 2D URANS strategies, under free-stream or confined conditions. The latter takes into account the adaptive upper and lower wind-tunnel walls. A complete 3D URANS simulation was then performed to demonstrate the real impact of all lateral wind-tunnel walls on such a flow.

  11. Numerical prediction of shock induced oscillations over a 2D airfoil: Influence of turbulence modelling and test section walls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thiery, Mylene; Coustols, Eric

    2006-01-01

    The present study deals with recent numerical results from on-going research conducted at ONERA/DMAE regarding the prediction of transonic flows, for which shock wave/boundary layer interaction is important. When this interaction is strong enough (M ≥ 1.3), shock induced oscillations (SIO) appear at the suction side of the airfoil and lead to the formation of unsteady separated areas. The main issue is then to perform unsteady computations applying appropriate turbulence modelling and relevant boundary conditions with respect to the test case. Computations were performed with the ONERA elsA software and the URANS-type approach, closure relationships being achieved from transport-equation models. Applications are provided for the OAT15A airfoil data base, well documented for unsteady CFD validation (mean and r.m.s. pressure, phase-averaged LDA data, ...). In this paper, the capabilities of turbulence models are evaluated with two 2D URANS strategies, under free-stream or confined conditions. The latter takes into account the adaptive upper and lower wind-tunnel walls. A complete 3D URANS simulation was then performed to demonstrate the real impact of all lateral wind-tunnel walls on such a flow

  12. Characteristic findings of exercise ECG test, perfusion SPECT and coronary angiography in patients with exercise induced myocardial stunning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Byeong Cheol; Seo, Ji Hyoung; Bae, Jin Ho; Jeong, Shin Young; Park, Hun Sik; Lee, Jae Tae; Chae, Shung Chull; Lee, Kyu Bo [School of Medicine, Kyungpook National Univ., Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-06-01

    Transient wall motion abnormality and contractile dysfunction of the left ventricle (LV) can be observed in patients with coronary artery disease due to post-stress myocardial stunning. To understand clinical characteristics of stress induced LV dysfunction, we have compared the findings of exercise stress test, myocardial perfusion SPECT and coronary angiography between subjects with and without post-stress LV dysfunction. Among subjects who underwent exercise stress test, myocardial perfusion SPECT and coronary angiography within a month of interval, we enrolled 36 patients with post-stress LV ejection fraction (LVEF) was {>=}5% lower than rest (stunning group) and 16 patients with difference of post-stress and rest LVEF was lesser than 1% (non-stunning group) for this study. Treadmill exercise stress gated myocardial perfusion SPECT was performed with dual head SPECT camera using 740 MBq Tc-99m MIBI and coronary angiography was also performed by conventional Judkins method. Stunning group had a significantly higher incidence of hypercholesterolemia than non-stunning group(45.5 vs 7.1%, p=0.01). Stunning group also had higher incidence of diabetes mellitus and lower incidence of hypertension, but these were not statistically significant. Stunning group had larger and more severe perfusion defect in stress perfusion myocardial SPECT than non-stunning group(extent 18.2 vs 9.2%, p=0.029; severity 13.5 vs 6.9, p=0.040). Stunning group also had higher degree of reversibility of perfusion defect, higher incidence of positive exercise stress test and higher incidence of having severe stenosis(80{approx}99%) in coronary angiography than non-stunning group, but these were not statistically significant. In stunning group, all of 4 patients without perfusion defect had significant coronary artery stenosis and had received revascularization treatment. Patients with post-stress LV dysfunction had larger and more severe perfusion defect and severe coronary artery stenosis than

  13. The Lemna minor growth inhibition test as basis to evaluate radiation or radionuclide-induced effects on freshwater plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horemans, N.; Van Hees, M.; Van Hoeck, A.; Vandenhove, H. [Belgian Nuclear Research Centre, SCK.CEN, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium)

    2014-07-01

    The setting of radiation protection criteria for wildlife is based on tiered Environmental Risk Assessments (ERA) methods. At various points in such a tiered ERA robust and transparent benchmark values are needed to indicate the levels of exposure that are considered safe to the environment. Although not ideal these benchmark values are today mainly based on laboratory-based experiments in which the toxic effects of radiation or radionuclides to one selected species exposed under standardised growth conditions is studied. As such an eco-toxicity test has been developed for the floating macrophyte Lemna minor that can be used to test the effect of different chemicals in freshwater. Here the use of this test to estimate effects of radiation or radionuclides and its relevance to the environment will be discussed. First single dose response curves are shown that were set up according to the guidelines for gamma, uranium and as a reference also cadmium. According to the guidelines growth inhibition can be calculated on different endpoints like frond number and frond area. The choice of this endpoint seems to be of major importance as dependent on the stressor significant shifts in the EC50 values, the concentration giving 50% effect, were observed. For gamma radiation a recovery experiment was set up in irradiated plants were allowed to grow again for 7 days in control conditions. It was shown that plant growth rate did not catch up with that of the non-irradiated group. On the contrary, plant cultures that showed a growth inhibition above 40% immediately after irradiation completely collapsed during the recovery period indicating no recovery from the gamma induced damage and resulting in a 3-fold lower EC50 value after 7 days recovery. The relevance of these data to the environment will be further discussed. Finally the influence of different cations on the uranium speciation and toxicity are studied. These experiments are the first steps to set up a biotic ligand

  14. Analysis and model-tests on vortex-induced oscillation of bridges; Kyoryo no uzu reishin ni kansuru sanjigen oto kaiseki to fudo jikken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamura, N. [Hitachi Zosen Corp., Osaka (Japan); Ogasawara, M. [Kansai Electric Power Co. Inc., Osaka (Japan); Shiraishi, N. [Maizuru College of Technology, Kyoto (Japan); Nanjo, M.

    1996-07-21

    In order to predict the three-dimensional response to vortex-induced oscillation of bridges, a model was investigated using the aerodynamic force coefficient including vortex-induced and self-excited forces, and the nonlinear response coefficient expressing constancy of response to vortex-induced oscillation. In the analysis, change of frequency in wind by the self-excited force, aerodynamic damping term, effect of the mode, and correlation of the vortex-induced force along member axis were taken into account. The aerodynamic force and nonlinear response coefficients were identified from the homogeneous and turbulent flow results of wind tunnel tests using a two-dimensional spring support rigid body model with varied damping factor. The aerodynamic damping term can be estimated from the nonlinear aerodynamic force coefficient, but it was enough to calculate it from the quasi-stationary coefficient in general bridge profiles. The correlation of the vortex-induced force was obtained from measurements of the vertical variation components of trailing flow under the resonance state, or the pressure distribution of the member surface. When comparing to the wind tunnel test of three-dimensional model of cable-stayed bridge, the response amplitude by the present analysis method was consistent well with the test results rather than by the method in which the amplitude of two-dimensional model was corrected. 10 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. The GALATEA test facility and a first study of α-induced surface events in a germanium detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irlbeck, Sabine

    2014-01-30

    Germanium detectors are a choice technology in fundamental research. They are suitable for the search for rare events due to their high sensitivity and excellent energy resolution. As an example, the GERDA (GERmanium Detector Array) experiment searching for neutrinoless double beta decay is described. The observation of this decay would resolve the fundamental question whether the neutrino is its own antiparticle. Especially adapted detector technologies and low background rates needed to detect very rare events such as neutrinoless double beta decays are discussed. The identification of backgrounds originating from the interaction of radiation, especially α-particles, is a focus of this thesis. Low background experiments face problems from α-particles due to unavoidable surface contaminations of the germanium detectors. The segmentation of detectors is used to obtain information about the special characteristics of selected events. The high precision test stand GALATEA was especially designed for surface scans of germanium detectors. As part of this work, GALATEA was completed and commissioned. The final commissioning required major upgrades of the original design which are described in detail. Collimator studies with two commercial germanium detectors are presented. Different collimation levels for a β-source were investigated and crystal axis effects were examined. The first scan with an α-source of the passivated end-plate of a special 19-fold segmented prototype detector mounted in GALATEA is described. The α-induced surface events were studied and characterized. Crosstalk and mirror pulses seen in the segments of the germanium detector were analyzed. The detector studies presented in this thesis will help to further improve the design of germanium detectors for low background experiments.

  16. Changes of mitochondrial structure, ATPase and Ca2+ concentration in spermatogenic cells of mouse testes induced by low dose radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhicheng; Liu Shuchun; Li Pengwu; Kang Shunai; Liang Shuo; Zhao Gang; Gong Shouliang

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To observe the ultrastructure, ATPase activity and Ca 2+ concentration ([Ca 2+ ]i) of mitochondria in the sperematogenic cells of mouse testes 3-24 h after low dose radiation with 0.025-0.200 Gy X-rays, and illuminate the effects of mitochondrion structure and relative biological function on apoptosis. Methods: The ultrastructure changes of mitochondria in the spermatogenic cells were observed with transmission electron microscope; the ATPase activity was measured with protein enzymic method; [Ca 2+ ]i was measured indirectly by flow cytometry with Fluo-3 probes. Results: The mitochondria swelled and vacuolizated, and their cristae were broken in the spermatogonia and spermatocytes 12 h after irradiation, and their nuclei were karyopyknosis, the acrosomal vesicle structure was ambiguity, the membrane structure was unclear, and the mitochondria in spermatids were vacuolization. The activities of Na + -K + -ATPase in mouse testis tissue 12 h after irradiated with 0.025-0.200 Gy decreased compared with those with 0 Gy, the Na + -K + -ATPase activities of the cells irradiated with 0.05-0.200 Gy decreased significantly compared with those with 0 Gy (P 2+ -ATPase of the cells irradiated with 0.025-0.200 Gy decreased significantly compared with those with 0 Gy (P 2+ ]i in mouse testis spermatogenic cells had similar dose-response relationship, [Ca 2+ ]i after irradiated with 0.075 Gy decreased compared with those with 0 Gy (P + -K + -ATPase in mouse testis tissues decreased obviously compared with those at 0 h (P 2+ -ATPase in mouse testis tissues increased slightly at 3 h, then decreased at 6-24 h compared with those at 0 h (P 2+ ]i in mouse testis spermatogenic cells had similar time course-response relationship, [Ca 2+ ]i at 12 h decreased significantly compared with at 0 h (P 2+ ]i induced by low dose radiation. (authors)

  17. The GALATEA test facility and a first study of α-induced surface events in a germanium detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irlbeck, Sabine

    2014-01-01

    Germanium detectors are a choice technology in fundamental research. They are suitable for the search for rare events due to their high sensitivity and excellent energy resolution. As an example, the GERDA (GERmanium Detector Array) experiment searching for neutrinoless double beta decay is described. The observation of this decay would resolve the fundamental question whether the neutrino is its own antiparticle. Especially adapted detector technologies and low background rates needed to detect very rare events such as neutrinoless double beta decays are discussed. The identification of backgrounds originating from the interaction of radiation, especially α-particles, is a focus of this thesis. Low background experiments face problems from α-particles due to unavoidable surface contaminations of the germanium detectors. The segmentation of detectors is used to obtain information about the special characteristics of selected events. The high precision test stand GALATEA was especially designed for surface scans of germanium detectors. As part of this work, GALATEA was completed and commissioned. The final commissioning required major upgrades of the original design which are described in detail. Collimator studies with two commercial germanium detectors are presented. Different collimation levels for a β-source were investigated and crystal axis effects were examined. The first scan with an α-source of the passivated end-plate of a special 19-fold segmented prototype detector mounted in GALATEA is described. The α-induced surface events were studied and characterized. Crosstalk and mirror pulses seen in the segments of the germanium detector were analyzed. The detector studies presented in this thesis will help to further improve the design of germanium detectors for low background experiments.

  18. Soluble β-(1,3)-glucans enhance LPS-induced response in the monocyte activation test, but inhibit LPS-mediated febrile response in rabbits: Implications for pyrogenicity tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo-Ruiz, Zenia; Menéndez-Sardiñas, Dalia E; Pacios-Michelena, Anabel; Gabilondo-Ramírez, Tatiana; Montero-Alejo, Vivian; Perdomo-Morales, Rolando

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, we aimed to determine the influence of β-(1,3)-d-glucans on the LPS-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine response in the Monocyte Activation Test (MAT) for pyrogens, and on the LPS-induced febrile response in the Rabbit Pyrogen Test (RPT), thus evaluating the resulting effect in the outcome of each test. It was found that β-(1,3)-d-glucans elicited the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α, also known as endogenous pyrogens, but not enough to classify them as pyrogenic according to MAT. The same β-(1,3)-d-glucans samples were non-pyrogenic by RPT. However, β-(1,3)-d-glucans significantly enhanced the LPS-induced pro-inflammatory cytokines response in MAT, insomuch that samples containing non-pyrogenic concentrations of LPS become pyrogenic. On the other hand, β-(1,3)-d-glucans had no effect on sub-pyrogenic LPS doses in the RPT, but surprisingly, inhibited the LPS-induced febrile response of pyrogenic LPS concentrations. Thus, while β-(1,3)-d-glucans could mask the LPS pyrogenic activity in the RPT, they exerted an overstimulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the MAT. Hence, MAT provides higher safety since it evidences an unwanted biological response, which is not completely controlled and is overlooked by the RPT. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Assessment of D-methionine protecting cisplatin-induced otolith toxicity by vestibular-evoked myogenic potential tests, ATPase activities and oxidative state in guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Wu-Chia; Chang, Chih-Ming; Liao, Li-Jen; Wang, Chi-Te; Young, Yi-Ho; Chang, Yih-Leong; Cheng, Po-Wen

    2015-01-01

    To date, inadequate study has been devoted to the toxic vestibular effects caused by cisplatin. In addition, no electrophysiological examination has been conducted to assess cisplatin-induced otolith toxicity. The purposes of this study are thus two-fold: 1) to determine whether cervical vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials (VEMPs) and ocular VEMPs are practical electrophysiological methods of testing for cisplatin-induced otolith toxicity and 2) to examine if D-methionine (D-met) pre-injection would protect the otolith organs against cisplatin-induced changes in enzyme activities and/or oxidative status. Guinea pigs were intraperitoneally treated once daily with the following injections for seven consecutive days: sterile 0.9% saline control, cisplatin (5 mg/kg) only, D-met (300 mg/kg) only, or a combination of d-met (300 mg/kg) and cisplatin (5 mg/kg), respectively, with a 30 minute window in between. Each animal underwent the oVEMP and cVEMP tests before and after treatment. The changes in the biochemistry of the otolith organs, including membranous Na(+), K(+)-ATPase and Ca(2+)-ATPase, lipid peroxidation (LPO) levels and nitric oxide (NO) levels, were also evaluated. In the cisplatin-only treated guinea pigs, the mean amplitudes of the oVEMP tests were significantly (potolith dysfunction. D-Met attenuated the reduced ATPase activities and increased oxidative stress induced by cisplatin toxicity in the otolith organs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Blockade of Adrenal Medulla-Derived Epinephrine Potentiates Bee Venom-Induced Antinociception in the Mouse Formalin Test: Involvement of Peripheral β-Adrenoceptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suk-Yun Kang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The injection of diluted bee venom (DBV into an acupoint has been used traditionally in eastern medicine to treat a variety of inflammatory chronic pain conditions. We have previously shown that DBV had a potent antinociceptive efficacy in several rodent pain models. However, the peripheral mechanisms underlying DBV-induced antinociception remain unclear. The present study was designed to investigate the role of peripheral epinephrine on the DBV-induced antinociceptive effect in the mouse formalin assay. Adrenalectomy significantly enhanced the antinociceptive effect of DBV during the late phase of the formalin test, while chemical sympathectomy had no effect. Intraperitoneal injection of epinephrine blocked this adrenalectomy-induced enhancement of the DBV-induced antinociceptive effect. Moreover, injection of a phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PNMT inhibitor enhanced the DBV-induced antinociceptive effect. Administration of nonselective β-adrenergic antagonists also significantly potentiated this DBV-induced antinociception, in a manner similar to adrenalectomy. These results demonstrate that the antinociceptive effect of DBV treatment can be significantly enhanced by modulation of adrenal medulla-derived epinephrine and this effect is mediated by peripheral β-adrenoceptors. Thus, DBV acupoint stimulation in combination with inhibition of peripheral β-adrenoceptors could be a potentially novel strategy for the management of inflammatory pain.

  1. Involvement of the cholinergic system of CA1 on harmane-induced amnesia in the step-down passive avoidance test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasehi, Mohammad; Sharifi, Shahrbano; Zarrindast, Mohammad Reza

    2012-08-01

    β-carboline alkaloids such as harmane (HA) are naturally present in the human food chain. They are derived from the plant Peganum harmala and have many cognitive effects. In the present study, effects of the nicotinic system of the dorsal hippocampus (CA1) on HA-induced amnesia and exploratory behaviors were examined. One-trial step-down and hole-board paradigms were used to assess memory retention and exploratory behaviors in adult male mice. Pre-training (15 mg/kg) but not pre-testing intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of HA decreased memory formation but did not alter exploratory behaviors. Moreover, pre-testing administration of nicotine (0.5 µg/mouse, intra-CA1) decreased memory retrieval, but induced anxiogenic-like behaviors. On the other hand, pre-test intra-CA1 injection of ineffective doses of nicotine (0.1 and 0.25 µg/mouse) fully reversed HA-induced impairment of memory after pre-training injection of HA (15 mg/kg, i.p.) which did not alter exploratory behaviors. Furthermore, pre-testing administration of mecamylamine (0.5, 1 and 2 µg/mouse, intra-CA1) did not alter memory retrieval but fully reversed HA-induced impairment of memory after pre-training injection of HA (15 mg/kg, i.p.) which had no effect on exploratory behaviors. In conclusion, the present findings suggest the involvement of the nicotinic cholinergic system in the HA-induced impairment of memory formation.

  2. Bithermal and isothermal experimental test design and resulting influence on the pore formation during high-temperature-induced fatigue of the alloy 800 H

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurta, S.

    1991-01-01

    For investigating the damaging mechanism, bithermal TMF tests have been carried out with the alloy 800H, applying fast pressure half-cycles at low temperature (e.g. 300 C) and slow tensile phases at high temperature (e.g. 700 C). The experimental data thus obtained have been compared with the results of isothermal tests performed at 700 C. Most of the experiments have been performed stress-controlled and with a constant range of plastic strain. Under this regime, deformation is induced in the case of asymmetric test design within the tensile load phase, at various constant tensile stresses each, wheras in the compressive load phase, the stress is constantly increased for compressive stress-governed testing. The results obtained from both test types show that the type of compressive load phase is the factor governing the efficiency of pore formation. (orig.) [de

  3. Quantitative analysis of stress-induced martensites by in situ transmission electron microscopy superelastic tests in Cu-Al-Ni shape memory alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    No, M.L.; Ibarra, A.; Caillard, D.; San Juan, J.

    2010-01-01

    Stress-induced martensite nucleation and further growing, in Cu-Al-Ni shape memory alloys, have been studied during in situ superelastic tests in the transmission electron microscope. Two kinds of martensite, β 3 ' and γ 3 ' , are induced and can coexist under stress, both exhibiting in a high density of stacking faults. The interface plane and the orientation relationships between the different variants of such martensites have been determined, and the atomic configurations of the lattices across the interface have been described. Finally, in light of the results, selection rules for the stress-induced promoted martensites at the nano-scale have been established, being determined by the shear direction and the basal plane of the martensite lattice.

  4. Effects of ketamine and N-methyl-D-aspartate on fluoxetine-induced antidepressant-related behavior using the forced swimming test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owolabi, Rotimi Adegbenga; Akanmu, Moses Atanda; Adeyemi, Oluwole Isaac

    2014-04-30

    This study investigated the effects of ketamine on fluoxetine-induced antidepressant behavior using the forced swimming test (FST) in mice. In order to understand the possible role of N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) neurotransmission in the antidepressant effect of fluoxetine, different groups of mice (n=10) were administered with acute ketamine (3mg/kg, i.p.), acute NMDA (75mg/kg and 150mg/kg, i.p.) and a 21-day chronic ketamine (15mg/kg, i.p./day) were administered prior to the administration of fluoxetine (20mg/kg, i.p.) in the mice. Antidepressant related behavior (immobility score) was measured using the forced swimming test. The results showed that the acute ketamine and fluoxetine alone treatments elicited a significant (pfluoxetine-induced decrease in immobility score. In contrast, pre-treatment with NMDA (150mg/kg) significantly (pfluoxetine-induced decrease in immobility score. On the other hand, chronic administration of ketamine significantly elicited an increase in immobility score as well as reversed the reduction induced by fluoxetine. Similarly, NMDA administration at both 75mg/kg and 150mg/kg increased immobility score in chronically administered ketamine groups. Furthermore, chronic administration of ketamine, followed by NMDA (75mg/kg) and fluoxetine significantly elevated the immobility score when compared with the group that received NMDA and fluoxetine but not chronically treated with ketamine. It can be suggested) that facilitation of NMDA transmission blocked fluoxetine-induced reduction in immobility score, while down-regulation of NMDA transmission is associated with increase in fluoxetine-induced antidepressant-related behavior in mice. Down-regulation of the NMDA transmission is proposed as an essential component of mechanism of suppression of depression related behaviors by fluoxetine. Modulation of NMDA transmission is suggested to be relevant in the mechanism of action of fluoxetine. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights

  5. The impact of induced positive mood on symptomatic behaviour in eating disorders. An experimental, AB/BA crossover design testing a multimodal presentation during a test-meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardi, Valentina; Esposito, Mirko; Clarke, Ariana; Schifano, Sylvia; Treasure, Janet

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to test the impact of a multimodal positive mood vodcast including pleasant images, background uplifting music and a script designed to elicit positive mood on eating disorders-related symptoms in participants suffering from an Eating Disorder (ED) and healthy controls (HCs). Forty-two women with an ED (Anorexia Nervosa [AN]: N = 19; Bulimia Nervosa [BN]: N = 23) and 36 HCs were included in an AB/BA cross-over design which compared the use of a positive mood induction procedure ("positive mood vodcast") with a control condition (i.e. blue static background, neutral music, and script describing objective facts) during a test-meal. Self-report measures and behavioural tasks were completed before and after the test-meal. The positive mood vodcast was associated with greater consumption of the test meal in the AN group; reduced vigilance to food stimuli and lower anxiety in the BN sample; and no significant changes in the HC group. The use of a positive mood vodcast was associated with some beneficial effects in the context of an experimental test-meal in participants with an ED. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Application of Optical Coherence Tomography and Contrast Sensitivity Test for Observing Fundus Changes of Patients With Pregnancy-Induced Hypertension Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhixue; Zou, Yuanyuan; Li, Wenying; Wang, Xueyan; Zhang, Min; Wang, Wenying

    2015-11-01

    This study was aimed to investigate the fundus changes of patients with pregnancy-induced hypertension syndrome (PIHS) using optical coherence tomography (OCT) technology and contrast sensitivity (CS) tests.Ninety-eight patients with PIHS underwent routine eye examinations including vision correction, fundus examination, OCT, and CS tests. The CS test was performed at low, medium, and high frequency, respectively. Moreover, the difference in CS tests between 2 groups was analyzed by independent-samples T test. The Kruskal-Wallis rank sum test and linear regression model were used to detect the correlation of OCT with CS, respectively. Meanwhile Satterthwaite approximate T test was adopted for pairwise comparisons after nonparametric analysis of variance.The OCT test revealed that 56.76% of the examined eyes showed shallow retinal detachment in the macula lutea and around the optic disk. The differences in CS at each spatial frequency between the case and control group were statistically significant (P tests might be valuable methods in observing fundus changes for PIHS patients.

  7. Dynamic Test Method Based on Strong Electromagnetic Pulse for Electromagnetic Shielding Materials with Field-Induced Insulator-Conductor Phase Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yun; Zhao, Min; Wang, Qingguo

    2018-01-01

    In order to measure the pulse shielding performance of materials with the characteristic of field-induced insulator-conductor phase transition when materials are used for electromagnetic shielding, a dynamic test method was proposed based on a coaxial fixture. Experiment system was built by square pulse source, coaxial cable, coaxial fixture, attenuator, and oscilloscope and insulating components. S11 parameter of the test system was obtained, which suggested that the working frequency ranges from 300 KHz to 7.36 GHz. Insulating performance is good enough to avoid discharge between conductors when material samples is exposed in the strong electromagnetic pulse field up to 831 kV/m. This method is suitable for materials with annular shape, certain thickness and the characteristic of field-induced insulator-conductor phase transition to get their shielding performances of strong electromagnetic pulse.

  8. Testing Testing Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deville, Craig; O'Neill, Thomas; Wright, Benjamin D.; Woodcock, Richard W.; Munoz-Sandoval, Ana; Gershon, Richard C.; Bergstrom, Betty

    1998-01-01

    Articles in this special section consider (1) flow in test taking (Craig Deville); (2) testwiseness (Thomas O'Neill); (3) test length (Benjamin Wright); (4) cross-language test equating (Richard W. Woodcock and Ana Munoz-Sandoval); (5) computer-assisted testing and testwiseness (Richard Gershon and Betty Bergstrom); and (6) Web-enhanced testing…

  9. The reduction of radiation-induced mitotic delay by caffeine: a test of the cyclic AMP hypothesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oleinick, N.L.; Brewer, E.N.; Rustad, R.C.

    1978-01-01

    A study has been made of the reduction in γ-radiation-induced mitotic delay by caffeine in the naturally-synchronous plasmodial slime mould. Physarum polycephalum during late G 2 and early prophase, and the results compared with those obtained with other compounds of similar structure and/or physiological function. The reduction of radiation-induced mitotic delay was related to increasing concentrations of caffeine over at least two orders of magnitude. Pre-irradiation treatment with caffeine had no detectable effect. Caffeine had to be present for most, if not all, of the post-irradiation pre-mitotic period. Other chemicals which are reported to inhibit cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase either reduce or increase radiation-induced mitotic delay. The results therefore indicate that the reduction of mitotic delay by caffeine is not a result of altered cyclic AMP levels. (UK)

  10. Stimulation of the metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) 2 receptor attenuates the MK-801-induced increase in the immobility time in the forced swimming test in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaura, Kazuaki; Karasawa, Jun-Ichi; Hikichi, Hirohiko

    2016-02-01

    Negative symptoms of schizophrenia are poorly managed using the currently available antipsychotics. Previous studies indicate that agonists of the metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) 2/3 receptors may provide a novel approach for the treatment of schizophrenia. However, the effects of mGlu2/3 receptor agonists or mGlu2 receptor positive allosteric modulators have not yet been clearly elucidated in animal models of the negative symptoms of schizophrenia. Recently, we reported that the forced swimming test in rats treated with subchronic MK-801, an NMDA receptor antagonist, may be regarded as a useful test to evaluate the activities of drugs against the negative symptoms of schizophrenia. We evaluated the effects of LY379268, an mGlu2/3 receptor agonist, and BINA, an mGlu2 receptor positive allosteric modulator, on the hyperlocomotion induced by acute administration of MK-801 (0.15mg/kg, sc) and on the increase in the immobility time in the forced swimming test induced by subchronic treatment with MK-801 (0.5mg/kg, sc, twice a day for 7 days) in rats. Both LY379268 (3mg/kg, sc) and BINA (100mg/kg, ip) attenuated the increase in the immobility time induced by subchronic treatment with MK-801 at the same doses at which they attenuated the MK-801-induced increase in locomotor activity, but had no effect on the immobility time in saline-treated rats. The present results suggest that stimulation of the mGlu2 receptor attenuates the increase in the immobility time in the forced swimming test elicited by subchronic administration of MK-801, and may be potentially useful for treatment of the negative symptoms of schizophrenia. Copyright © 2015 Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  11. APPLIED ASPECTS OF SLCO1B1 PHARMACOGENETIC TESTING FOR PREDICTING OF STATIN-INDUCED MYOPATHY AND PERSONALIZATION OF STATINS THERAPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Sychev

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The clinical significance of the SLCO1B1 gene polymorphism (encoding an organic anion transport polipeptide in the development of statin induced myopathy is considered. Possible tactics of statin dose determination on the basis of pharmacogenetic testing is discussed. Indications for the use of this approach in clinical practice that should increase the efficacy and safety of the statin therapy are also considered.

  12. Assessing Stress-Induced Sleep Reactivity in College Students: The European Portuguese Version of the Ford Insomnia Response to Stress Test (FIRST)

    OpenAIRE

    Marques, Daniel Ruivo; Allen Gomes, Ana; Drake, Christopher Lawrence; Roth, Thomas; de Azevedo, Maria Helena Pinto

    2016-01-01

    Over the past few years, the comprehensive models of insomnia have exhibited impressive developments. However, there is scarce knowledge on predisposing or vulnerability factors for insomnia. One of the most promising constructs to aid in filling this gap is stress-induced sleep reactivity assessed through self-report. Our aim was to study the psychometric properties of the European Portuguese version of the Ford Insomnia Response to Stress Test (FIRST).

  13. Applicability of an exaggerated forearm wash test for efficacy testing of two corticosteroids, tacrolimus and glycerol, in topical formulations against skin irritation induced by two different irritants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, A; Andersen, F; Petersen, T K

    2011-01-01

    applied, we tested the efficacy of four anti-irritant compounds using the two different irritants sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) and nonanoic acid (NON). Methods: In a randomized, double-blind, controlled trial, healthy volunteers were exposed to 5% SLS and 50% NON (the right and the left forearm...

  14. Evaluation of the Repeatability of the Delta Q Duct Leakage Testing TechniqueIncluding Investigation of Robust Analysis Techniques and Estimates of Weather Induced Uncertainty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dickerhoff, Darryl; Walker, Iain

    2008-08-01

    The DeltaQ test is a method of estimating the air leakage from forced air duct systems. Developed primarily for residential and small commercial applications it uses the changes in blower door test results due to forced air system operation. Previous studies established the principles behind DeltaQ testing, but raised issues of precision of the test, particularly for leaky homes on windy days. Details of the measurement technique are available in an ASTM Standard (ASTM E1554-2007). In order to ease adoption of the test method, this study answers questions regarding the uncertainty due to changing weather during the test (particularly changes in wind speed) and the applicability to low leakage systems. The first question arises because the building envelope air flows and pressures used in the DeltaQ test are influenced by weather induced pressures. Variability in wind induced pressures rather than temperature difference induced pressures dominates this effect because the wind pressures change rapidly over the time period of a test. The second question needs to answered so that DeltaQ testing can be used in programs requiring or giving credit for tight ducts (e.g., California's Building Energy Code (CEC 2005)). DeltaQ modeling biases have been previously investigated in laboratory studies where there was no weather induced changes in envelope flows and pressures. Laboratory work by Andrews (2002) and Walker et al. (2004) found biases of about 0.5% of forced air system blower flow and individual test uncertainty of about 2% of forced air system blower flow. The laboratory tests were repeated by Walker and Dickerhoff (2006 and 2008) using a new ramping technique that continuously varied envelope pressures and air flows rather than taking data at pre-selected pressure stations (as used in ASTM E1554-2003 and other previous studies). The biases and individual test uncertainties for ramping were found to be very close (less than 0.5% of air handler flow) to those

  15. Accelerated Testing and Modeling of Potential-Induced Degradation as a Function of Temperature and Relative Humidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hacke, Peter; Spataru, Sergiu; Terwilliger, Kent

    2015-01-01

    An acceleration model based on the Peck equation was applied to power performance of crystalline silicon cell modules as a function of time and of temperature and humidity, which are the two main environmental stress factors that promote potential-induced degradation (PID). This model was derived...

  16. Accelerated Testing and Modeling of Potential-Induced Degradation as a Function of Temperature and Relative Humidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hacke, Peter; Spataru, Sergiu; Terwilliger, Kent

    2015-01-01

    An acceleration model based on the Peck equation was applied to power performance of crystalline silicon cell modules as a function of time and of temperature and humidity, the two main environmental stress factors that promote potential-induced degradation. This model was derived from module pow...

  17. Parental knowledge reduces long term anxiety induced by false-positive test results after newborn screening for cystic fibrosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vernooij-van Langen, A.M.M.; Pal, S.M. van der; Reijntjens, A.J.T.; Loeber, J.G.; Dompeling, E.; Dankert-Roelse, J.E.

    2014-01-01

    Background: False-positive screening results in newborn screening for cystic fibrosis may lead to parental stress, family relationship problems and a changed perception of the child's health. Aim of the study: To evaluate whether parental anxiety induced by a false positive screening result

  18. Repeated dose 90-day oral toxicity test of G-7% NANA in rats: An application of new criterion for toxicity determination to test article-induced changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Hye Seon; An, MinJi; Lee, Ji Sun; Kim, Hee Kyong; Park, Yeong-Chul

    2018-06-01

    G-7% NANA is N-acetylneuraminic acid(NANA) containing 7% sialic acid isolated from glycomacropeptide (GMP), a compound of milk. Since NANA is likely to have immunotoxicity, the need to ensure safety for long-term administration has been raised. In this study, a 90-day repeated oral dose toxicity test was performed in rats using G-7% NANA in the dosages of 0, 1250, 2500 and 5000 mg/kg/day.A toxicity determination criterion based on the significant change caused by the administration of the substancewas developed for estimating NOEL, NOAEL and LOAELapplied to this study. When analyzing the immunological markers, no significant changes were observed, even if other significant changes were observed in the high dose group. In accordance with the toxicity determination criterion developed, the NOEL in male and female has been determined as 2500 mg/kg/day, and the NOAEL in females has been determined as 5000 mg/kg/day. The toxicity determination criterion, applied for the first time in the repeated dose toxicity tests, could provide a basis for distinguishing NOEL and NOAEL more clearly; nevertheless, the toxicity determination criterion needs to be supplemented by adding differentiating adverse effects and non-adverse effects based on more experiences of the repeated dose toxicity tests. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Characterization of three different sensory fibers by use of neonatal capsaicin treatment, spinal antagonism and a novel electrical stimulation-induced paw flexion test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamaguchi Asuka

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In the present study, we first report an in vivo characterization of flexor responses induced by three distinct sine-wave stimuli in the electrical stimulation-induced paw flexion (EPF test in mice. The fixed sine-wave electric stimulations of 5 Hz (C-fiber, 250 Hz (Aδ-fiber and 2000 Hz (Aβ-fiber to the hind paw of mice induced a paw-flexion response and vocalization. The average threshold for paw flexor responses by sine-wave stimulations was much lower than that for vocalization. Neonatally (P3 pretreatment with capsaicin to degenerate polymodal substance P-ergic C-fiber neurons increased the threshold to 5 Hz (C-fiber stimuli, but not to 250 Hz (Aδ-fiber and 2000 Hz (Aβ-fiber. The flexor responses to 5 Hz stimuli were significantly blocked by intrathecal (i.t. pretreatment with both CP-99994 and MK-801, an NK1 and NMDA receptor antagonist, respectively, but not by CNQX, an AMPA/kainate receptor antagonist. On the other hand, the flexor responses induced by 250 Hz stimuli were blocked by MK-801 (i.t. but not by CP-99994 or CNQX. In contrast, flexor responses induced by 2000 Hz stimuli were only blocked by CNQX treatment. These data suggest that we have identified three pharmacologically different categories of responses mediated through different primary afferent fibers. Furthermore, we also carried out characterization of the in vivo functional sensitivity of each of the sensory fiber types in nerve-injured mice using the EPF test, and found that the threshold to both 250 Hz and 2000 Hz stimulations were markedly decreased, whereas the threshold to 5 Hz stimulations was significantly increased. Thus we found opposing effects on specific sensory fiber-mediated responses as a result of nerve injury in mice. These results also suggest that the EPF analysis is useful for the evaluation of plasticity in sensory functions in animal disease models.

  20. The effect of combined treatment with risperidone and antidepressants on the MK-801-induced deficits in the social interaction test in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamińska, Katarzyna; Rogóż, Zofia

    2015-12-01

    Several clinical reports have suggested that augmentation of atypical antipsychotics' activity by antidepressants may efficiently improve the treatment of negative and some cognitive symptoms of schizophrenia. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of antidepressant mirtazapine or escitalopram and risperidone (an atypical antipsychotic), given separately or jointly, on the MK-801-induced deficits in the social interaction test in rats. Antidepressants and risperidone were given 60 and 30 min before the test, respectively. The social interaction of male Wistar rats was measured for 10 min, starting 4 h after MK-801 (0.1 mg/kg) administration. In the social interaction test, MK-801-induced deficits in the parameters studied, i.e. the number of episodes and the time of interactions. Risperidone at a higher dose (0.1 mg/kg) reversed that effect. Co-treatment with an ineffective dose of risperidone (0.01 mg/kg) and mirtazapine (2.5 or 5 mg/kg) or escitalopram only at a dose of 5 mg/kg (but not 2.5 and 10 mg/kg) abolished the deficits evoked by MK-801. The obtained results suggest that especially mirtazapine, and to a smaller degree escitalopram may enhance the antipsychotic-like effect of risperidone in the animal test modeling some negative symptoms of schizophrenia. Copyright © 2015 Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  1. Comparison of six-minute walking tests conducted with and without supplemental oxygen in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and exercise-induced oxygen desaturation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozalevli, S.; Ozden, A.; Gocen, Z.; Cimrin, Arif Hikmet

    2007-01-01

    There are contradictory reports in the literature on the supplemental oxygen administered before or after exercise tests. In light of this, we compared the results of 6-minute walking tests performed in room-air conditions (A6MWT) in patients with supplemental oxygen (O6MWT) in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and exercise-induced oxygen desaturation. Thirty-one patients with COPD were included in the study. The A6MWT and O6MWT were performed in randomized order on each patient. During the tests, severity dyspenia and tiring of the leg were evaluated by the Modified Borg Scale. Heart rate and pulsed oxygen saturation and blood pressure were measured by pulse oximeter. Walking distance was longer with the O6MWT than with the A6MWT (P=0.001). The O6MWT resulted in a smaller increase in dyspnea, leg fatigue and heart rate and a smaller drop in pulsed saturation than the A6MWT (P<0.05). The walking distance with O6MWT correlated with respiratory function and hemodynamic parameters (P<0.05). The O6MWT, which produced less hemodynamic stress and was safer than the A6MWT, might provide more accurate information on exercise limitations for patients with COPD. These results suggest that the O6MWT can be used as a standard walking exercise test for patients with COPd and exercise-induced oxygen desaturation. (author)

  2. A non-destructive test method to monitor corrosion products and corrosion-induced cracking in reinforced cement based materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michel, Alexander; Pease, Bradley Justin; Peterova, Adela

    2011-01-01

    ) was conducted to describe the impact of water-to-cement ratio and corrosion current density (i.e., corrosion rate) on the reinforcement corrosion process. Focus was placed, in particular on the determination of the corrosion accommodating region (CAR) and time to corrosion-induced cracking. Experimental results...... showed that x-ray attenuation measurements allow determination of the actual concentrations of corrosion products averaged through the specimen thickness. The total mass loss of steel measured by x-ray attenuation was found to be in very good agreement with the calculated mass loss obtained by Faraday......’s law. Furthermore, experimental results demonstrated that the depth of penetration of corrosion products as well as time to corrosion-induced cracking is varying for the different water-to-cement ratios and applied corrosion current densities....

  3. A tan in a test tube - in vitro models for investigating ultraviolet radiation-induced damage in skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Tara L; Dawson, Rebecca A; Van Lonkhuyzen, Derek R; Kimlin, Michael G; Upton, Zee

    2012-06-01

    Presently, global rates of skin cancers induced by ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure are on the rise. In view of this, current knowledge gaps in the biology of photocarcinogenesis and skin cancer progression urgently need to be addressed. One factor that has limited skin cancer research has been the need for a reproducible and physiologically-relevant model able to represent the complexity of human skin. This review outlines the main currently-used in vitro models of UVR-induced skin damage. This includes the use of conventional two-dimensional cell culture techniques and the major animal models that have been employed in photobiology and photocarcinogenesis research. Additionally, the progression towards the use of cultured skin explants and tissue-engineered skin constructs, and their utility as models of native skin's responses to UVR are described. The inherent advantages and disadvantages of these in vitro systems are also discussed. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  4. Oxygen restriction as challenge test reveals early high-fat-diet-induced changes in glucose and lipid metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duivenvoorde, L.P.M.; Schothorst, van E.M.; Derous, D.; Stelt, van der I.; Masania, J.; Rabbani, N.; Thornalley, P.J.; Keijer, J.

    2015-01-01

    Challenge tests stress homeostasis and may reveal deviations in health that remain masked under unchallenged conditions. Ideally, challenge tests are non-invasive and applicable in an early phase of an animal experiment. Oxygen restriction (OxR; based on ambient, mild normobaric hypoxia) is a

  5. Differential involvement of 5-HT(1A) and 5-HT(1B/1D) receptors in human interferon-alpha-induced immobility in the mouse forced swimming test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongmei; Wang, Wei; Jiang, Zhenzhou; Shang, Jing; Zhang, Luyong

    2010-01-01

    Although Interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha, CAS 9008-11-1) is a powerful drug in treating several viral infections and certain tumors, a considerable amount of neuropsychiatric side-effects such as depression and anxiety are an unavoidable consequence. Combination with the selective serotonin (5-HT) reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) fluoxetine (CAS 56296-78-7) significantly improved the situation. However, the potential 5-HT(1A) receptor- and 5-HT(1B) receptor-signals involved in the antidepressant effects are still unclear. The effects of 5-HT(1A) receptor- and 5-HT(1B) receptor signals were analyzed by using the mouse forced swimming test (FST), a predictive test of antidepressant-like action. The present results indicated that (1) fluoxetine (administrated intragastrically, 30 mg/kg; not subactive dose: 15 mg/kg) significantly reduced IFN-alpha-induced increase of the immobility time in the forced swimming test; (2) 5-HT(1A) receptor- and 5-HT(1B) receptor ligands alone or in combination had no effects on IFN-alpha-induced increase of the immobility time in the FST; (3) surprisingly, WAY 100635 (5-HT(1A) receptor antagonist, 634908-75-1) and 8-OH-DPAT(5-HT(1A) receptor agonist, CAS 78950-78-4) markedly enhanced the antidepressant effect of fluoxetine at the subactive dose (15 mg/kg, i. g.) on the IFN-alpha-treated mice in the FST. Further investigations showed that fluoxetine combined with WAY 100635 and 8-OH-DPAT failed to produce antidepressant effects in the FST. (4) Co-application of CGS 12066A (5-HT(1B) receptor agonist, CAS 109028-09-3) or GR 127935 (5-HT(1B/1D) receptor antagonist, CAS 148642-42-6) with fluoxetine had no synergistic effects on the IFN-alpha-induced increase of immobility time in FST. (5) Interestingly, co-administration of GR 127935, WAY 100635 and fluoxetine significantly reduced the IFN-alpha-induced increase in immobility time of FST, being more effective than co-administration of WAY 100635 and fluoxetine. All results suggest that (1) compared to

  6. Testing the hypothesis that vitamin C deficiency is a risk factor for clozapine-induced agranulocytosis using guinea pigs and ODS rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ip, Julia; Wilson, John X; Uetrecht, Jack P

    2008-04-01

    The use of clozapine is limited by a relatively high incidence of drug-induced agranulocytosis. Clozapine is oxidized by bone marrow cells to a reactive nitrenium ion. Although many idiosyncratic drug reactions are immune-mediated, the fact that patients with a history of clozapine-induced agranulocytosis do not immediately develop agranulocytosis on rechallenge suggests that some other factor may be responsible for the idiosyncratic nature of this reaction. The reactive nitrenium ion is very rapidly reduced back to clozapine by vitamin C, and many schizophrenic patients are vitamin C deficient. We set out to test the hypothesis that vitamin C deficiency is a major risk factor for clozapine-induced agranulocytosis using a vitamin C deficient guinea pig model. Although the vitamin C deficient guinea pigs did not develop agranulocytosis, the amount of clozapine covalent binding in these animals was less than we had previously observed in samples from rats and humans. Therefore, we studied ODS rats that also cannot synthesize vitamin C. Vitamin C deficient ODS rats also did not develop agranulocytosis, and furthermore, although covalent binding in the bone marrow was greater than that in the guinea pig, it was not increased in the vitamin C deficient ODS rats relative to ODS rats that had adequate vitamin C in their diet. Therefore, it is very unlikely that vitamin C deficiency is a major risk factor for clozapine-induced agranulocytosis.

  7. Genetic variation of drought tolerance in Pinus pinaster at three hierarchical levels: a comparison of induced osmotic stress and field testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaspar, Maria João; Velasco, Tania; Feito, Isabel; Alía, Ricardo; Majada, Juan

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the survival capacity of forest trees to periods of severe water stress could improve knowledge of the adaptive potential of different species under future climatic scenarios. In long lived organisms, like forest trees, the combination of induced osmotic stress treatments and field testing can elucidate the role of drought tolerance during the early stages of establishment, the most critical in the life of the species. We performed a Polyethylene glycol-osmotic induced stress experiment and evaluated two common garden experiments (xeric and mesic sites) to test for survival and growth of a wide range clonal collection of Maritime pine. This study demonstrates the importance of additive vs non additive effects for drought tolerance traits in Pinus pinaster, and shows differences in parameters determining the adaptive trajectories of populations and family and clones within populations. The results show that osmotic adjustment plays an important role in population variation, while biomass allocation and hydric content greatly influence survival at population level. Survival in the induced osmotic stress experiment presented significant correlations with survival in the xeric site, and height growth at the mesic site, at population level, indicating constraints of adaptation for those traits, while at the within population level no significant correlation existed. These results demonstrate that population differentiation and within population genetic variation for drought tolerance follow different patterns.

  8. Genetic variation of drought tolerance in Pinus pinaster at three hierarchical levels: a comparison of induced osmotic stress and field testing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria João Gaspar

    Full Text Available Understanding the survival capacity of forest trees to periods of severe water stress could improve knowledge of the adaptive potential of different species under future climatic scenarios. In long lived organisms, like forest trees, the combination of induced osmotic stress treatments and field testing can elucidate the role of drought tolerance during the early stages of establishment, the most critical in the life of the species. We performed a Polyethylene glycol-osmotic induced stress experiment and evaluated two common garden experiments (xeric and mesic sites to test for survival and growth of a wide range clonal collection of Maritime pine. This study demonstrates the importance of additive vs non additive effects for drought tolerance traits in Pinus pinaster, and shows differences in parameters determining the adaptive trajectories of populations and family and clones within populations. The results show that osmotic adjustment plays an important role in population variation, while biomass allocation and hydric content greatly influence survival at population level. Survival in the induced osmotic stress experiment presented significant correlations with survival in the xeric site, and height growth at the mesic site, at population level, indicating constraints of adaptation for those traits, while at the within population level no significant correlation existed. These results demonstrate that population differentiation and within population genetic variation for drought tolerance follow different patterns.

  9. Capacity of novelty-induced locomotor activity and the hole-board test to predict sensitivity to the conditioned rewarding effects of cocaine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arenas, M Carmen; Daza-Losada, Manuel; Vidal-Infer, Antonio; Aguilar, Maria A; Miñarro, José; Rodríguez-Arias, Marta

    2014-06-22

    Novelty-seeking in rodents, defined as enhanced specific exploration of novel situations, is considered to predict the response of animals to drugs of abuse and, thus, allow "drug-vulnerable" individuals to be identified. The main objective of this study was to assess the predictive ability of two well-known paradigms of the novelty-seeking trait - novelty-induced locomotor activity (which distinguishes High- and Low-Responder mice, depending on their motor activity) and the hole-board test (which determines High- and Low-Novelty Seeker mice depending on the number of head dips they perform) - to identify subjects that would subsequently be more sensitive to the conditioned rewarding effects of cocaine in a population of young adult (PND 56) and adolescent (PND 35) OF1 mice of both sexes. Conditioned place preference (CPP), a useful tool for evaluating the sensitivity of individuals to the incentive properties of addictive drugs, was induced with a sub-threshold dose of cocaine (1 mg/kg, i.p.). Our results showed that novelty-induced motor activity had a greater predictive capacity to identify "vulnerable-drug" individuals among young-adult mice (PND 56), while the hole-board test was more effective in adolescents (PND 35). High-NR young-adults, which presented higher motor activity in the first ten minutes of the test (novelty-reactivity), were 3.9 times more likely to develop cocaine-induced CPP than Low-NR young-adults. When total activity (1h) was evaluated (novelty-habituation), only High-R (novelty-non-habituating) young-adult male and Low-R (novelty-habituating) female mice produced a high conditioning score. However, only High-Novelty Seeker male and female adolescents and Low-Novelty Seeker female young-adult animals (according to the hole-board test), acquired cocaine-induced CPP. These findings should contribute to the development of screening methods for identifying at-risk human drug users and prevention strategies for those with specific

  10. Study of protective effect of Avicennia marina hydroethanolic leaf extract on testes tissue and spermatogenesis in male rat induced with carbon tetrachloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z soleimani

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The toxic chemical compounds are widelyused in the world. Carbon tetrachloride which is used in hygiene industries caused tissue disorders. Medicinal plants have protective effects in body tissues. In this study the protective effect of Avicennia marina leaf extract (MLE on spermatogenesis in male rat were induced with ccl4 investigating. Method and materials: The 42 male rats with 220-250 gr body weight were divided randomly in 6 groups(n=7: control (taking normal saline,0.5ml/day, i,p , sham(taking olive oil, 0.5ml/day, i,p single dose,group induced by ccl4(carbon tetrachloride 1:1 with olive oil,0.5ml single dose, i,p, treated groups: (1,2 and3 by carbon tetrachloride 1:1 with olive oil,0.5ml single dose and 200mg/Kg, 400mg/Kg and 800mg/kg MLE /day for 96 hrs, i,p. After the examination the blood samples were collected from heart directly and testosterone , FSH, LH , sperm count, sperm motility and GSI were analyzed and the microscopic studies of testes tissue were done. All data were expressed as mean±SEM. and statistical significance differences were accepted at P<0.05. Results: Our results showed that the carbon tetrachloride has necrotic effect in testes. The number of sperm and motility were increased and microscopic study of testes tissue showed the necrosis and inflammation with decrease in spermatogonia and spermatocytes comparedwith ccl4 induced only group significantly (P<0.001 and treated groups were no changed. Conclusion: the Avicennia marina hydroethanolic extract has antioxidant and flavonoids compounds which can protect the testes tissues from toxic chemical agents.

  11. Non-contact test of coating by means of laser-induced ultrasonic excitation and holographic sound representation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crostack, H.A.; Pohl, K.Y.; Radtke, U.

    1991-01-01

    In order to circumvent the problems of introducing and picking off sound, which occur in conventional ultrasonic testing, a completely non-contact test process was developed. The ultrasonic surface wave required for the test is generated without contact by absorption of laser beams. The recording of the ultrasound also occurs by a non-contact holographic interferometry technique, which permits a large scale representation of the sound. Using the example of MCrAlY and ZrO 2 layers, the suitability of the process for testing thermally sprayed coatings on metal substrates is identified. The possibilities and limits of the process for the detection and description of delamination and cracks are shown. (orig.) [de

  12. Oxidative damage and neurodegeneration in manganese-induced neurotoxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milatovic, Dejan; Zaja-Milatovic, Snjezana; Gupta, Ramesh C.; Yu, Yingchun; Aschner, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Exposure to excessive manganese (Mn) levels results in neurotoxicity to the extrapyramidal system and the development of Parkinson's disease (PD)-like movement disorder, referred to as manganism. Although the mechanisms by which Mn induces neuronal damage are not well defined, its neurotoxicity appears to be regulated by a number of factors, including oxidative injury, mitochondrial dysfunction and neuroinflammation. To investigate the mechanisms underlying Mn neurotoxicity, we studied the effects of Mn on reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, changes in high-energy phosphates (HEP), neuroinflammation mediators and associated neuronal dysfunctions both in vitro and in vivo. Primary cortical neuronal cultures showed concentration-dependent alterations in biomarkers of oxidative damage, F 2 -isoprostanes (F 2 -IsoPs) and mitochondrial dysfunction (ATP), as early as 2 h following Mn exposure. Treatment of neurons with 500 μM Mn also resulted in time-dependent increases in the levels of the inflammatory biomarker, prostaglandin E 2 (PGE 2 ). In vivo analyses corroborated these findings, establishing that either a single or three (100 mg/kg, s.c.) Mn injections (days 1, 4 and 7) induced significant increases in F 2 -IsoPs and PGE 2 in adult mouse brain 24 h following the last injection. Quantitative morphometric analyses of Golgi-impregnated striatal sections from mice exposed to single or three Mn injections revealed progressive spine degeneration and dendritic damage of medium spiny neurons (MSNs). These findings suggest that oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction and neuroinflammation are underlying mechanisms in Mn-induced neurodegeneration.

  13. Induced pluripotent stem cell-derived limbal epithelial cells (LiPSC) as a cellular alternative for in vitro ocular toxicity testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aberdam, Edith; Petit, Isabelle; Sangari, Linda; Aberdam, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Induced pluripotent stem cells hold great potential to produce unlimited amount of differentiated cells as cellular source for regenerative medicine but also for in vitro drug screening and cytotoxicity tests. Ocular toxicity testing is mandatory to evaluate the risks of drugs and cosmetic products before their application to human patients by preventing eye irritation or insult. Since the global ban to use animals, many human-derived alternatives have been proposed, from ex-vivo enucleated postmortem cornea, primary corneal cell culture and immortalized corneal epithelial cell lines. All of them share limitations for their routine use. Using an improved protocol, we derived limbal epithelial cells from human induced pluripotent stem cells, named LiPSC, that are able to be passaged and differentiate further into corneal epithelial cells. Comparative RT-qPCR, immunofluorescence staining, flow cytometry analysis and zymography assays demonstrate that LiPSC are morphologically and molecularly similar to the adult stem cells. Moreover, contrary to HCE, LiPSC and primary limbal cells display similarly sensitive to cytotoxicity treatment among passages. Our data strongly suggest that LiPSC could become a powerful alternative cellular model for cosmetic and drug tests.

  14. Induced pluripotent stem cell-derived limbal epithelial cells (LiPSC as a cellular alternative for in vitro ocular toxicity testing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edith Aberdam

    Full Text Available Induced pluripotent stem cells hold great potential to produce unlimited amount of differentiated cells as cellular source for regenerative medicine but also for in vitro drug screening and cytotoxicity tests. Ocular toxicity testing is mandatory to evaluate the risks of drugs and cosmetic products before their application to human patients by preventing eye irritation or insult. Since the global ban to use animals, many human-derived alternatives have been proposed, from ex-vivo enucleated postmortem cornea, primary corneal cell culture and immortalized corneal epithelial cell lines. All of them share limitations for their routine use. Using an improved protocol, we derived limbal epithelial cells from human induced pluripotent stem cells, named LiPSC, that are able to be passaged and differentiate further into corneal epithelial cells. Comparative RT-qPCR, immunofluorescence staining, flow cytometry analysis and zymography assays demonstrate that LiPSC are morphologically and molecularly similar to the adult stem cells. Moreover, contrary to HCE, LiPSC and primary limbal cells display similarly sensitive to cytotoxicity treatment among passages. Our data strongly suggest that LiPSC could become a powerful alternative cellular model for cosmetic and drug tests.

  15. Qualification of spontaneous undirected locomotor behavior of fish for sublethal toxicity testing. Part 2. Variability of measurement parameters under toxicant-induced stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grillitsch, B.; Vogl, C.; Wytek, R.

    1999-12-01

    Spontaneous locomotor behavior of semiadult zebra fish (Brachydanio rerio) was recorded under sublethal short-term exposure to the anionic technical surfactant, linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (C{sub 10-13}-LAS) and cadmium in single compound tests using an automated video-monitoring and object-tracing system. Vertical position and swimming velocity in the horizontal and vertical directions were used as behavioral measurement parameters. Data were analyzed by different statistical methods. In pairwise comparisons, consistent, statistically significant, and toxicant-induced alterations of locomotor behavior were observed only for test concentrations, which also caused aspectoric symptoms of intoxication. This comparatively low sensitivity of the behavioral indication criteria was related to high variation in the measurement parameters and corresponding high, minimum detectable, statistically significant, and toxicant-induced deviations. In contrast, results obtained by regression analysis showed significant trends in locomotor activity over the range of toxicant concentrations tested. Thus, the findings support the inappropriateness of no observed effect concentrations and the lowest observed effect concentrations as summary measures of toxicity and indicate that the regression analysis approach is superior to the analysis of variance approach.

  16. Effect of Bcl-2/Bax gene expression on apoptosis of spermatogenic cells of mouse testes induced by low dose radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Guangwei; Wang Chunyan; Lu Zhe; Liu Shunchun; Gong Shouliang

    2003-01-01

    The different kinds of spermatogenic cells were separated using density gradient centrifugation and their apoptosis and Bcl-2 and Bax protein expression were measured with flow cytometry and immunohistochemical method, respectively. The results showed the apoptosis in all kinds of spermatogenic cells induced by low dose radiation (LDR) had a obvious regularity. When the doses were 0.025 and 0.05 Gy, spermatogonia apoptosis was dominant. With the increase of irradiation dose (0.075-0.2 Gy), spermatocytes also showed an apoptotic change, but the apoptotic percentage of spermatogonia was significantly higher than that of spermatocytes. Moreover, the apoptosis of spermatids and spermatozoa scarcely occurred after LDR. Bax protein was primarily expressed in spermatogonia and spermatocytes, and the former was significantly higher than that of the latter after LDR. With the increase of irradiation dose, Bax protein expression showed a upgrading tendency, but that of spermatids and spermatozoa scarcely occurred. Bcl-2 protein was primarily expressed in spermatids and spermatozoa, but the Bcl-2 protein expressions of spermatogonia and spermatocytes scarcely occurred after LDR. These results imply that the interacting regulation of Bcl-2 and Bax gene expression might be involved in selective apoptosis of spermatogenic cells induced by LDR, which provided an experimental evidence for further exploring the apoptotic mechanism of adaptive response of spermatogenic cells by LDR

  17. Earthquake induced rock shear through a deposition hole - modelling of three scale tests for validation of models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boergesson, Lennart; Hernelind, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. Three model shear tests of very high quality simulating a horizontal rock shear through a KBS-3V deposition hole in the centre of a canister were performed 1986. The tests simulated a deposition hole in the scale 1:10 with reference density of the buffer, very stiff confinement simulating the rock, and a solid bar of copper simulating the canister. The three tests were almost identical with exception of the rate of shear, which was varied between 0.031 and 160 mm/s, i.e. with a factor of more than 5000, and the density of the bentonite, which differed slightly. The tests were very well documented. Shear force, shear rate, total stress in the bentonite, strain in the copper and the movement of the top of the simulated canister were measured continuously during the shear. After finished shear the equipment was dismantled and careful sampling of the bentonite with measurement of water ratio and density were made. The deformed copper 'canister' was also carefully measured after the test. The tests have been modelled with the finite element code Abaqus with the same models and techniques that were used for the full scale cases in the Swedish safety assessment SR-Site. The results have been compared with the measured results, which has yielded very valuable information about the relevancy of the material models and the modelling technique. An elastic-plastic material model was used for the bentonite where the stress-strain relations have been derived from laboratory tests. The material model is also described in another article to this conference. The material model is made a function of both the density and the strain rate at shear. Since the shear is fast and takes place under undrained conditions, the density is not changed during the tests. However, strain rate varies largely with both the location of the elements and time. This can be taken into account in Abaqus by making the material model a function of the strain

  18. Characterization of Pump-Induced Acoustics in Space Launch System Main Propulsion System Liquid Hydrogen Feedline Using Airflow Test Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberhart, C. J.; Snellgrove, L. M.; Zoladz, T. F.

    2015-01-01

    High intensity acoustic edgetones located upstream of the RS-25 Low Pressure Fuel Turbo Pump (LPFTP) were previously observed during Space Launch System (STS) airflow testing of a model Main Propulsion System (MPS) liquid hydrogen (LH2) feedline mated to a modified LPFTP. MPS hardware has been adapted to mitigate the problematic edgetones as part of the Space Launch System (SLS) program. A follow-on airflow test campaign has subjected the adapted hardware to tests mimicking STS-era airflow conditions, and this manuscript describes acoustic environment identification and characterization born from the latest test results. Fluid dynamics responsible for driving discrete excitations were well reproduced using legacy hardware. The modified design was found insensitive to high intensity edgetone-like discretes over the bandwidth of interest to SLS MPS unsteady environments. Rather, the natural acoustics of the test article were observed to respond in a narrowband-random/mixed discrete manner to broadband noise thought generated by the flow field. The intensity of these responses were several orders of magnitude reduced from those driven by edgetones.

  19. Haertel's turbidity test and extraction of conifer needles by benzene as methods for the determination of smoke-induced damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Materna, J; Hrncirova, L

    1960-01-01

    The applicability of the Haertel turbidity test to the assessment of smoke damage to conifers is based on the observation that needles from smoke damage to conifers is based on the observation that needles from smoke-damaged areas eliminate less wax than undamaged needles. Of the various organic solvent and extraction methods tested, best results were obtained by a half-hour extraction of the wax from the needle surface with cold benzene. The evaporation residue from this extraction method contained only traces of components from the inside of the needles; microscopic examination of the surface of the needles revealed that all wax was removed from the needle surface fissures. Comparison of wax quantities extracted from needles from smoke-damage areas with those from healthy needles and comparison of wax yields from areas which suffered different degrees of smoke damage confirmed that higher wax yields are obtained from healthy than from smoke-damaged needles. Comparison with results of turbidity tests disclosed that benzene extraction yields decreased with increasing turbidity test values, indicating that increased turbidity of smoke-damaged needles is not caused by wax. In the Haertel test extract, silicon, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium, sulfur, iron, nitrogenous substances, tannin, glycides, and waxes were found. It is as yet unresolved which substances contribute to increased turbidity from smoke damage.

  20. Effect of Low Dose Lead (Pb) Administration on Tail Immersion Test and Formalin-induced Pain in Wistar Rats: Possible Modulatory Role of Cobalt (II) Chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umar, A H; Suleiman, I; Muhammed, H

    2017-03-06

    Lead (Pb) is cheap and there is a long tradition of its use, but its toxic effects have also been recognized. There is increased public health concern regarding the hazards of low dose Pb exposure to adults and children. Studies have shown the risks for hypertension, decrements in renal function, subtle decline in cognitive function, and adverse reproductive outcome at low blood Pb level. In this study, the possible modulatory role of cobalt (II) chloride (CoCl2) on low level Pb exposure on tail immersion test and formalin induced pain was investigated. Twenty adult Wistar rats of both sexes (weight 150g to 200g) were used. The animals were divided into four groups (n = 5) and administered Pb (5mg/kg), Pb (5mg/kg) + CoCl2 (50mg/kg) and CoCl2 (50mg/kg) orally for twenty-eight days. The last group served as control and were given distilled water only. In the tail immersion test, there was no significant change in reaction time for all three groups when compared to the control. In the formalin-induced pain, pain score after five and forty-five minutes also do not show significant change for all the three groups when compared to control. This work suggested that exposure to 5mg/kg Pb for twenty-eight days do not significantly impair reaction time in tail immersion test and pain score in formalin induced pain in Wistar rats. Also, administration of 50mg/kg CoCl2 do not improve performance of the animals in the experiments.

  1. Preclinical Testing of an Oncolytic Parvovirus: Standard Protoparvovirus H-1PV Efficiently Induces Osteosarcoma Cell Lysis In Vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Carsten Geiss; Zoltán Kis; Barbara Leuchs; Monika Frank-Stöhr; Jörg R. Schlehofer; Jean Rommelaere; Christiane Dinsart; Jeannine Lacroix

    2017-01-01

    Osteosarcoma is the most frequent malignant disease of the bone. On the basis of early clinical experience in the 1960s with H-1 protoparvovirus (H-1PV) in osteosarcoma patients, this effective oncolytic virus was selected for systematic preclinical testing on various osteosarcoma cell cultures. A panel of five human osteosarcoma cell lines (CAL 72, H-OS, MG-63, SaOS-2, U-2OS) was tested. Virus oncoselectivity was confirmed by infecting non-malignant human neonatal fibroblasts and osteoblasts...

  2. Estimation of body surface area in the musk shrew ( Suncus murinus): a small animal for testing chemotherapy-induced emesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiseman, Julie L; Sciullo, Michael; Wang, Hong; Beumer, Jan H; Horn, Charles C

    2017-10-01

    Several cancer chemotherapies cause nausea and vomiting, which can be dose-limiting. Musk shrews are used as preclinical models for chemotherapy-induced emesis and for antiemetic effectiveness. Unlike rats and mice, shrews possess a vomiting reflex and demonstrate an emetic profile similar to humans, including acute and delayed phases. As with most animals, dosing of shrews is based on body weight, while translation of such doses to clinically equivalent exposure requires doses based on body surface area. In the current study body surface area in musk shrews was directly assessed to determine the Meeh constant (K m ) conversion factor (female = 9.97, male = 9.10), allowing estimation of body surface area based on body weight. These parameters can be used to determine dosing strategies for shrew studies that model human drug exposures, particularly for investigating the emetic liability of cancer chemotherapeutic agents.

  3. Radiation effects on testes. XI. Studies on glycogen and its metabolizing enzymes following radiation-induced atrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, G.S.; Bawa, S.R.

    1977-01-01

    Effect of radiation on enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism has been studied. It is observed that hexokinase of testis is highly sensitive to radiation damage. Reduced hexokinase activity seems to be related to those parts of the testis (spermatocytes and spermatids) which depend upon glucose for their functioning. Radiation-induced atrophic testis is rich in glycogen content. The observations on the inhibition of gluocose-6-phosphatase and phosphorylase may explain the higher levels of the polysaccharide although a possibility of enhanced glycogenesis due to the activation of glycogen synthetase has also been suggested. The presence of glucose-6-phosphate isomerase and glycogen in atrophied testis in 11-month-treated rats indicate the higher glycolytic activity with hyperplastic testicular interstitium. The results suggest that the accumulated glycogen is acting as a reserve substrate in nongerminal cells

  4. Radiation Induced F-1 Sterility For The Control Of Cotton Bollworm , Helicoverpa armigera (Huebner) In Pilot Test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segsarnviriya, Suchada; Pransopon, Prapon; Kongratarpon, Titima; Vongcheeree, Satit

    2005-10-01

    Pilot trials of radiation induced F-1 sterility for the control of cotton bollworm Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner) were studied for 3 cotton crop seasons in 3 locations at Amphor Takfa, Nakornsawan province in 2002, 2003 and 2004. Irradiated male pupae at a sub sterilizing dose of 150 Gy were released : approximately 11,170 42,900 and 36,400 pupae from July to December of 2002, 2003 and 2004, respectively. The insecticide plots were maintained as a comparison to determine the efficiency of this method. Checking of larvae on cotton plants by the systematic random sampling method and the cotton yield were used to evaluate the impact of the pupal release. It was found that the releasing plots and the insecticide plots gave similar results in terms of the number of larvae and the cotton yield. Therefore, the F-1 sterility method was a possible method for the control of cotton bollworm

  5. Test chip for detecting thin film cracking induced by fast temperature cycling and electromigration in multilevel interconnect systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, Van Hieu; Nguyen, H.; Salm, Cora; Vroemen, J.; Voets, J.; Krabbenborg, B.H.; Bisschop, J.; Mouthaan, A.J.; Kuper, F.G.

    2002-01-01

    Temperature cycling in power ICs is a reliability hazard, even more so when electromigration is playing a role as well. The frequency of the temperature cycling is in the audio domain, which makes it impossible to test in environmental chambers. In the paper, the design and application of a novel

  6. Test chip for Detecting Thin Film Cracking Induced by Fast Temperature Cycling and Electromigration in Multilevel Interconnect Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, Van Hieu; Salm, Cora; Vroemen, J.; Voets, J.; Krabbenborg, B.H.; Krabbenborg, B.; Bisschop, J.; Mouthaan, A.J.; Kuper, F.G.

    2002-01-01

    Temperature cycling in power ICs is a reliability hazard, even more so when electromigration is playing a role as well. The frequency of the temperature cycling is in the audio domain, which makes it impossible to test in environmental chambers. In the paper, the design and application of a novel

  7. LPS-induced lung inflammation in marmoset monkeys - an acute model for anti-inflammatory drug testing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Seehase

    Full Text Available Increasing incidence and substantial morbidity and mortality of respiratory diseases requires the development of new human-specific anti-inflammatory and disease-modifying therapeutics. Therefore, new predictive animal models that closely reflect human lung pathology are needed. In the current study, a tiered acute lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced inflammation model was established in marmoset monkeys (Callithrix jacchus to reflect crucial features of inflammatory lung diseases. Firstly, in an ex vivo approach marmoset and, for the purposes of comparison, human precision-cut lung slices (PCLS were stimulated with LPS in the presence or absence of the phosphodiesterase-4 (PDE4 inhibitor roflumilast. Pro-inflammatory cytokines including tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α and macrophage inflammatory protein-1 beta (MIP-1β were measured. The corticosteroid dexamethasone was used as treatment control. Secondly, in an in vivo approach marmosets were pre-treated with roflumilast or dexamethasone and unilaterally challenged with LPS. Ipsilateral bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL was conducted 18 hours after LPS challenge. BAL fluid was processed and analyzed for neutrophils, TNF-α, and MIP-1β. TNF-α release in marmoset PCLS correlated significantly with human PCLS. Roflumilast treatment significantly reduced TNF-α secretion ex vivo in both species, with comparable half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC(50. LPS instillation into marmoset lungs caused a profound inflammation as shown by neutrophilic influx and increased TNF-α and MIP-1β levels in BAL fluid. This inflammatory response was significantly suppressed by roflumilast and dexamethasone. The close similarity of marmoset and human lungs regarding LPS-induced inflammation and the significant anti-inflammatory effect of approved pharmaceuticals assess the suitability of marmoset monkeys to serve as a promising model for studying anti-inflammatory drugs.

  8. Fenitrothion induced oxidative stress and morphological alterations of sperm and testes in male sprague-dawley rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izatus Shima Taib

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Fenitrothion residue is found primarily in soil, water and food products and can lead to a variety of toxic effects on the immune, hepatobiliary and hematological systems. However, the effects of fenitrothion on the male reproductive system remain unclear. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of fenitrothion on the sperm and testes of male Sprague-Dawley rats. METHODS: A 20 mg/kg dose of fenitrothion was administered orally by gavages for 28 consecutive days. Blood sample was obtained by cardiac puncture and dissection of the testes and cauda epididymis was performed to obtain sperm. The effects of fenitrothion on the body and organ weight, biochemical and oxidative stress, sperm characteristics, histology and ultrastructural changes in the testes were evaluated. RESULTS: Fenitrothion significantly decreased the body weight gain and weight of the epididymis compared with the control group. Fenitrothion also decreased plasma cholinesterase activity compared with the control group. Fenitrothion altered the sperm characteristics, such as sperm concentration, sperm viability and normal sperm morphology, compared with the control group. Oxidative stress markers, such as malondialdehyde, protein carbonyl, total glutathione and glutathione S-transferase, were significantly increased and superoxide dismutase activity was significantly decreased in the fenitrothion-treated group compared with the control group. The histopathological and ultrastructural examination of the testes of the fenitrothion-treated group revealed alterations corresponding with the biochemical changes compared with the control group. CONCLUSION: A 20 mg/kg dose of fenitrothion caused deleterious effects on the sperm and testes of Sprague-Dawley rats.

  9. Fenitrothion induced oxidative stress and morphological alterations of sperm and testes in male sprague-dawley rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taib, Izatus Shima; Budin, Siti Balkis; Ghazali, Ahmad Rohi; Jayusman, Putri Ayu; Louis, Santhana Raj; Mohamed, Jamaludin

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Fenitrothion residue is found primarily in soil, water and food products and can lead to a variety of toxic effects on the immune, hepatobiliary and hematological systems. However, the effects of fenitrothion on the male reproductive system remain unclear. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of fenitrothion on the sperm and testes of male Sprague-Dawley rats. METHODS: A 20 mg/kg dose of fenitrothion was administered orally by gavages for 28 consecutive days. Blood sample was obtained by cardiac puncture and dissection of the testes and cauda epididymis was performed to obtain sperm. The effects of fenitrothion on the body and organ weight, biochemical and oxidative stress, sperm characteristics, histology and ultrastructural changes in the testes were evaluated. RESULTS: Fenitrothion significantly decreased the body weight gain and weight of the epididymis compared with the control group. Fenitrothion also decreased plasma cholinesterase activity compared with the control group. Fenitrothion altered the sperm characteristics, such as sperm concentration, sperm viability and normal sperm morphology, compared with the control group. Oxidative stress markers, such as malondialdehyde, protein carbonyl, total glutathione and glutathione S-transferase, were significantly increased and superoxide dismutase activity was significantly decreased in the fenitrothion-treated group compared with the control group. The histopathological and ultrastructural examination of the testes of the fenitrothion-treated group revealed alterations corresponding with the biochemical changes compared with the control group. CONCLUSION: A 20 mg/kg dose of fenitrothion caused deleterious effects on the sperm and testes of Sprague-Dawley rats. PMID:23420164

  10. Manifestation of J wave induced by acetylcholine applied for a coronary spasm provocation test in a patient with aborted sudden cardiac death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodama, Hiroyuki; Fujita, Kazumasa; Moriyama, Shouhei; Irie, Kei; Noda, Hirotaka; Yokoyama, Taku; Fukata, Mitsuhiro; Arita, Takeshi; Odashiro, Keita; Maruyama, Toru; Akashi, Koichi

    2017-06-01

    A 51-year-old man with a resuscitation episode was referred to our hospital. Coronary angiography revealed a focal spasm overlapped with organic stenosis where a bare metal stent was implanted. Acetylcholine (ACh) provocation test did not induce chest pain. It revealed no discernible ST-T changes but unmasked a J wave at the end of the QRS complex, which was associated with short-coupled repetitive premature ventricular beats. A J wave reportedly appears immediately before the onset of ventricular fibrillation caused by vasospastic angina. However, a J wave observed newly after a coronary spasm provocation test using ACh without ST-T changes is informative when considering the mechanisms of the J wave.

  11. Melatonin improve the sperm quality in forced swimming test induced oxidative stress in nandrolone treated Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minaii, Bagher; Moayeri, Ardeshir; Shokri, Saeed; Habibi Roudkenar, Mehryar; Golmohammadi, Taghi; Malek, Fatemeh; Barbarestani, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of melatonin on the sperm quality and testis weight after the combination of swimming exercise and nandrolone decanoate (DECA). Two groups of male Wistar rats were treated for eight weeks as follows; group A consist of CO (control), Sham, N (DECA), S (swimming) and NS (DECA plus swimming); and group B: Sham M (sham melatonin), M (melatonin), MN (melatonin plus DECA), MS (melatonin plus swimming), MNS (melatonin, DECA plus swimming). The motility of sperm was significantly improved in melatonin groups in comparison to N, S and NS groups (P≤0.05).  The left testes weight was decreased in N, NS and MNS groups, and the right testes weight was decreased in N,S,NS, MS and MNS groups in compare with the control group. This study concluded that melatonin probably could improve the sperm motility and sex organs weight after the combination of DECA and exercise.

  12. 3D pancreatic carcinoma spheroids induce a matrix-rich, chemoresistant phenotype offering a better model for drug testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longati, Paola; Heuchel, Rainer L; Jia, Xiaohui; Eimer, Johannes; Wagman, Annika; Witt, Michael-Robin; Rehnmark, Stefan; Verbeke, Caroline; Toftgård, Rune; Löhr, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is the fourth most common cause of cancer related death. It is lethal in nearly all patients, due to an almost complete chemoresistance. Most if not all drugs that pass preclinical tests successfully, fail miserably in the patient. This raises the question whether traditional 2D cell culture is the correct tool for drug screening. The objective of this study is to develop a simple, high-throughput 3D model of human PDAC cell lines, and to explore mechanisms underlying the transition from 2D to 3D that might be responsible for chemoresistance. Several established human PDAC and a KPC mouse cell lines were tested, whereby Panc-1 was studied in more detail. 3D spheroid formation was facilitated with methylcellulose. Spheroids were studied morphologically, electron microscopically and by qRT-PCR for selected matrix genes, related factors and miRNA. Metabolic studies were performed, and a panel of novel drugs was tested against gemcitabine. Comparing 3D to 2D cell culture, matrix proteins were significantly increased as were lumican, SNED1, DARP32, and miR-146a. Cell metabolism in 3D was shifted towards glycolysis. All drugs tested were less effective in 3D, except for allicin, MT100 and AX, which demonstrated effect. We developed a high-throughput 3D cell culture drug screening system for pancreatic cancer, which displays a strongly increased chemoresistance. Features associated to the 3D cell model are increased expression of matrix proteins and miRNA as well as stromal markers such as PPP1R1B and SNED1. This is supporting the concept of cell adhesion mediated drug resistance

  13. Acute heat stress induces differential gene expressions in the testes of a broiler-type strain of Taiwan country chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shih-Han; Cheng, Chuen-Yu; Tang, Pin-Chi; Chen, Chih-Feng; Chen, Hsin-Hsin; Lee, Yen-Pai; Huang, San-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    The expression of testicular genes following acute heat stress has been reported in layer-type roosters, but few similar studies have been conducted on broilers. This study investigated the effect of acute heat stress on the gene expression in the testes of a broiler-type strain of Taiwan country chickens. Roosters were subjected to acute heat stress (38°C) for 4 h, and then exposed to 25°C, with testes collected 0, 2, and 6 h after the cessation of heat stress, using non-heat-stressed roosters as controls (n = 3 roosters per group). The body temperature and respiratory rate increased significantly (pstress. The numbers of apoptotic cells increased 2 h after the acute heat stress (79 ± 7 vs. 322 ± 192, control vs. heat stress; pstressed chickens from those of the controls, including genes involved in the response to stimulus, protein metabolism, signal transduction, cell adhesion, transcription, and apoptosis. The mRNA expressions of upregulated genes, including HSP25, HSP90AA1, HSPA2, and LPAR2, and of downregulated genes, including CDH5, CTNNA3, EHF, CIRBP, SLA, and NTF3, were confirmed through quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Moreover, numerous transcripts in the testes exhibited distinct expressions between the heat-stressed broiler-type and layer-type chickens. We concluded that the transcriptional responses of testes to acute heat stress may differ between the broiler-type and layer-type roosters. Whether the differential expression patterns associate with the heat-tolerance in the strains require a further exploration.

  14. Quantification of particle-induced inflammatory stress response: a novel approach for toxicity testing of earth materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harrington Andrea D

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reactive oxygen species (ROS are vital regulators of many cellular functions in the body. The intracellular ROS concentration is highly regulated by a balance between pro-oxidants and anti-oxidants. A chronic excess of pro-oxidants leads to elevated ROS concentrations and inflammation, possibly initiating or enhancing disease onset. Mineral-induced generation of ROS, the role of minerals in upregulating cellular ROS, and their role in the development of several occupational diseases are now widely recognized. However, there is no standard protocol to determine changes in ROS production in cells after exposure to mineral dust or earth materials in general. In this study, a new method for determining the degree of cellular toxicity (i.e., cytotoxicity of particles is described that will help bridge the gap in knowledge. Results By measuring the production of ROS and the viability of cells, an inflammatory stress response (ISR indicator is defined. This approach normalizes the ROS upregulation with respect to the number of viable cells at the time of measurement. We conducted experiments on a series of minerals and soils that represent materials that are inert (i.e., glass beads, anatase, and a soil with low trace element content, moderately reactive (i.e., soil with high trace element content, and highly reactive (i.e., pyrite. Inert materials generated the lowest ISR, averaging 350% compared to the control. Acid washed pyrite produced the highest ISR (1,100 fold higher than the control. The measurements conducted as a function of time showed a complex response. Most materials showed an increase in ISR with particle loading. Conclusions The amount of cellularly generated ROS and cell viability combined provide a better understanding of particle-induced oxidative stress. The results indicate that some earth materials may solicit an initial burst of ROS, followed by a second phase in which cell viability decreases and ROS

  15. Cost-effectiveness analysis of HLA-B*5801 testing in preventing allopurinol-induced SJS/TEN in Thai population.

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    Surasak Saokaew

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS and Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis (TEN, caused by allopurinol therapy, are strongly associated with the human leukocyte antigen (HLA, HLA-B*5801. Identification of HLA-B*5801 genotype before prescribing allopurinol offers the possibility of avoiding allopurinol-induced SJS/TEN. As there is a paucity of evidence about economic value of such testing, this study aims to determine the cost-effectiveness of HLA-B*5801 testing compared with usual care (no genetic testing before allopurinol administration in Thailand. METHODS AND FINDING: A decision analytical and Markov model was used to estimate life time costs and outcomes represented as quality adjusted life years (QALYs gained. The model was populated with relevant information of the association between gene and allopurinol-induced SJS/TEN, test characteristics, costs, and epidemiologic data for Thailand from a societal perspective. Input data were obtained from the literature and a retrospective database analysis. The results were expressed as incremental cost per QALY gained. A base-case analysis was performed for patients at age 30. A series of sensitivity analyses including scenario, one-way, and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were constructed to explore the robustness of the findings. Based on a hypothetical cohort of 1,000 patients, the incremental total cost was 923,919 THB (USD 29,804 and incremental QALY was 5.89 with an ICER of 156,937.04 THB (USD 5,062 per QALY gained. The cost of gout management, incidence of SJS/TEN, case fatality rate of SJS/TEN, and cost of genetic testing are considered very influential parameters on the cost-effectiveness value of HLA-B*5801 testing. CONCLUSIONS: The genetic testing for HLA-B*5801 before allopurinol administration is considered a highly potential cost-effective intervention in Thailand. The findings are sensitive to a number of factors. In addition to cost-effectiveness findings, consideration of other

  16. Analysis of irradiation-induced stresses in coating layers of coated fuel particles for the High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Kimio; Kikuchi, Teruo; Fukuda, Kousaku; Sato, Sadao; Toyota, Junji; Shiozawa, Shusaku; Sawa, Kazuhiro; Kashimura, Satoru.

    1991-07-01

    Irradiation-induced stresses in coating layers of coated fuel particles were analyzed by the MICROS-2 code for the fuels of the High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR) under its operating conditions. The analyses were made on the standard core fuel (A-type) and the test fuels comprising the advanced SiC-coated particle fuel (B-1 type) and the ZrC-coated particle fuel (B-2 type). For the B-1 type fuel, the stresses were relieved due to the thicker buffer and SiC layers than for the A type fuel. The slightly decreased thickness of the fourth layer for the B-1 type than for the A type fuel had no significant effect on the stresses. As for the B-2 type fuel, almost the same results as for the B-1 type were obtained under an assumption that the ZrC layer as well as the SiC layer undergoes negligible dimension change within the analysis conditions. The obtained results indicated that the B-1 and B-2 type fuels are better than the A type fuel in terms of integrity against the irradiation-induced stresses. Finally, research subjects for development of the analysis code on the fuel behavior are discussed. (author)

  17. Involvement of dopamine D1/D2 receptors on harmane-induced amnesia in the step-down passive avoidance test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasehi, Mohammad; Piri, Morteza; Nouri, Maryam; Farzin, Davood; Nayer-Nouri, Touraj; Zarrindast, Mohammad Reza

    2010-05-25

    Ingestion of harmane and other alkaloids derived from plant Peganum harmala has been shown to elicit profound behavioural and toxic effects in humans, including hallucinations, excitation, feelings of elation, and euphoria. These alkaloids in the high doses can cause a toxic syndrome characterized by tremors and convulsions. Harmane has also been shown to act on a variety of receptor systems in the mammalian brain, including those for serotonin, dopamine and benzodiazepines. In animals, it has been reported to affect short and long term memory. In the present study, effects of dopamine D1 and D2 receptor antagonists on the harmane (HA)-induced amnesia and exploratory behaviors were examined in mice. One-trial step-down and hole-board paradigms were used for the assessment of memory retention and exploratory behaviors in adult male NMRI mice respectively. Intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of HA (5 and 10 mg/kg) immediately after training decreased memory consolidation, while had no effect on anxiety-like behavior. Memory retrieval was not altered by 15- or 30 min pre-testing administration of the D1 (SCH23390, 0.025, 0.05 and 0.1 mg/kg) or D2 (sulpiride 12.5, 25 and 50 mg/kg) receptor antagonists, respectively. In contrast, SCH23390 (0.05 and 0.1 mg/kg) or sulpiride (25 and 50 mg/kg) pre-test administration fully reversed HA-induced impairment of memory consolidation. Finally, neither D1 nor D2 receptor blockade affected exploratory behaviors in the hole-board paradigm. Altogether, these findings strongly suggest an involvement of D1 and D2 receptors modulation in the HA-induced impairment of memory consolidation. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. IN VITRO MODELS TO EVALUATE DRUG-INDUCED HYPERSENSITIVITY: POTENTIAL TEST BASED ON ACTIVATION OF DENDRITIC CELLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Galbiati

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Hypersensitivity drug reactions (HDRs are the adverse effect of pharmaceuticals that clinically resemble allergy. HDRs account for approximately 1/6 of drug-induced adverse effects, and include immune-mediated ('allergic' and non immune-mediated ('pseudo allergic' reactions. In recent years, the severe and unpredicted drug adverse events clearly indicate that the immune system can be a critical target of drugs. Enhanced prediction in preclinical safety evaluation is, therefore, crucial. Nowadays, there are no validated in vitro or in vivo methods to screen the sensitizing potential of drugs in the pre-clinical phase. The problem of non-predictability of immunologically-based hypersensitivity reactions is related to the lack of appropriate experimental models rather than to the lack of -understanding of the adverse phenomenon.We recently established experimental conditions and markers to correctly identify drug associated with in vivo hypersensitivity reactions using THP-1 cells and IL-8 production, CD86 and CD54 expression. The proposed in vitro method benefits from a rationalistic approach with the idea that allergenic drugs share with chemical allergens common mechanisms of cell activation. This assay can be easily incorporated into drug development for hazard identification of drugs, which may have the potential to cause in vivo hypersensitivity reactions. The purpose of this review is to assess the state of the art of in vitro models to assess the allergenic potential of drugs based on the activation of dendritic cells.

  19. of Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-1α Activity by the Fusion of High-Resolution SPECT and Morphological Imaging Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirofumi Fujii

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. We aimed to clearly visualize heterogeneous distribution of hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF activity in tumor tissues in vivo. Methods. We synthesized of 125I-IPOS, a 125I labeled chimeric protein probe, that would visualize HIF activity. The biodistribution of 125I-IPOS in FM3A tumor-bearing mice was evaluated. Then, the intratumoral localization of this probe was observed by autoradiography, and it was compared with histopathological findings. The distribution of 125I-IPOS in tumors was imaged by a small animal SPECT/CT scanner. The obtained in vivo SPECT-CT fusion images were compared with ex vivo images of excised tumors. Fusion imaging with MRI was also examined. Results. 125I-IPOS well accumulated in FM3A tumors. The intratumoral distribution of 125I-IPOS by autoradiography was quite heterogeneous, and it partially overlapped with that of pimonidazole. High-resolution SPECT-CT fusion images successfully demonstrated the heterogeneity of 125I-IPOS distribution inside tumors. SPECT-MRI fusion images could give more detailed information about the intratumoral distribution of 125I-IPOS. Conclusion. High-resolution SPECT images successfully demonstrated heterogeneous intratumoral distribution of 125I-IPOS. SPECT-CT fusion images, more favorably SPECT-MRI fusion images, would be useful to understand the features of heterogeneous intratumoral expression of HIF activity in vivo.

  20. MODELING OF FLOW AND TRANSPORT INDUCED BY PRODUCTION OF HYDROFRACTURE-STIMULATED GAS WELLS NEAR THE RULISON NUCLEAR TEST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodges, Rex A. [Navarro Research and Engineering; Cooper, Clay [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Reno, NV (United States); Falta, Ronald [Clemson Univ., SC (United States)

    2012-09-17

    The Piceance Basin in western Colorado contains significant reserves of natural gas in poorly connected, low-permeability (tight) sandstone lenses of the Mesaverde Group. The ability to enhance the production of natural gas in this area has long been a goal of the oil and gas industry. The U.S. Atomic Energy Commission, a predecessor agency to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, participated in three tests using nuclear detonations to fracture tight formations in an effort to enhance gas production. The tests were conducted under Project Plowshare, a program designed to identify peaceful, beneficial uses for nuclear devices. The first, Project Gasbuggy, was conducted in 1967 in the San Juan Basin of New Mexico. The two subsequent tests, Project Rulison in 1969 and Project Rio Blanco in 1973, were in the Piceance Basin. The ability to enhance natural gas production from tight sands has become practical through advances in hydraulic fracturing technology (hydrofracturing). This technology has led to an increase in drilling activity near the Rulison site, raising concerns that contamination currently contained in the subsurface could be released through a gas well drilled too close to the site. As wells are drilled nearer the site, the DOE Office of Legacy Management has taken the approach outlined in the June 2010 Rulison Path Forward document (DOE 2010), which recommends a conservative, staged approach to gas development. Drillers are encouraged to drill wells in areas with a low likelihood of encountering contamination (both distance and direction from the detonation zone are factors) and to collect data from these wells prior to drilling nearer the site’s 40 acre institutional control boundary (Lot 11). Previous modeling results indicate that contamination has been contained within Lot 11 (Figure 1). The Path Forward document couples the model predictions with the monitoring of gas and produced water from the gas wells

  1. Therapeutic tests on methylcholanthrene-induced fibrosarcoma and transplanted fibrosarcoma of the mouse - clostridial oncolysis and its enhancement by high-frequency hyperthermia and X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pirlet, T.

    1982-01-01

    Tests aimed at a conditioning of tumours by means of x-ray irradiation and high-frequency hyperthermia. Methyl cholanthrene-induced fibrosarcoma (IMCM) and its transplant version (T-IMCM) produced at the neck of NMRI-mice at a critical localization immediately next to vital organs, served as a test system since it is almost resistant to simple oncolysis. Individual therapy components were compared for their mutual enhancement of efficacy in 16 test groups, and the triple combination (Cl + X-ray + HFH) was tested in relapse application as well. A 2000-R-x-ray irradiation was followed by almost simultaneous 4 min HF heating and i.v. spore administration at 12 h intervals. Assessment criteria were tumour growth, survival rates and times, absence of recidivity and healing, analysis of post-mortem findings and dimension or duration of lyses. In addition, the two tumour types of induction and transplant tumour were compared. The typical course of clostridial oncolysis can be confirmed in principle. Results show that it is possible by means of additional physical methods as were applied, to increase the systemically apathogenic and selective therapy principle of rather negligible oncolysis to over 80% (IMCM) or 97% (T-IMCM). Concerning the MCA fibrosarcoma which is very resistant to clostridial oncolysis in this mouse-tumour model, marked prolongations of survival or healing are possible even in extremely critical localization. In principle, this provides the preconditions for including oncolysis in clinical studies in human medicine. (orig./MG) [de

  2. Can human resources induce sustainability in business?: Modeling, testing and correlating HR index and company's business results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zubović Jovan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this paper the authors analyze the impact of the composite human resource index on sustainable growth in a specific business sector in a transition country. Sustainability of country's economy is growingly relying on the knowledge economy which has been implemented in strategies of sustainable development throughout Europe. The knowledge economy is mostly based on human resources and the way they are organized and managed in the companies actively operating in competitive markets. In order to confirm importance of the human resources (HR index, results were tested by means of modeling, measuring and correlating the HR index with business results at micro level. The tests were conducted on the data from the survey in Serbian meat processing industry. The results were then compared with the results from the survey conducted in a financial industry. Moreover, a model was made that could be applicable in all countries that do not have available official statistic data on the level of investments in human resources. The focus was on determining the correlation direction, and hence creating a research model applicable in all business sectors. It has been found that a significant one-way correlation exists between business performance and increased HR index. In that way it has been confirmed that in Serbian economy that has recorded global decrease during transition, certain business sectors, and especially companies with high levels of investments in improving its HR index record above average and sustainable growth.

  3. Use of serologic tests to predict resistance to Canine distemper virus-induced disease in vaccinated dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Wayne A; Totten, Janet S; Lappin, Michael R; Schultz, Ronald D

    2015-09-01

    The objective of the current study was to determine whether detection of Canine distemper virus (CDV)-specific serum antibodies correlates with resistance to challenge with virulent virus. Virus neutralization (VN) assay results were compared with resistance to viral challenge in 2 unvaccinated Beagle puppies, 9 unvaccinated Beagle dogs (4.4-7.2 years of age), and 9 vaccinated Beagle dogs (3.7-4.7 years of age). Eight of 9 (89%) unvaccinated adult dogs exhibited clinical signs after virus challenge, and 1 (13%) dog died. As compared to adult dogs, the 2 unvaccinated puppies developed more severe clinical signs and either died or were euthanized after challenge. In contrast, no clinical signs were detected after challenge of the 9 adult vaccinated dogs with post-vaccination intervals of up to 4.4 years. In vaccinated dogs, the positive and negative predictive values of VN assay results for resistance to challenge were 100% and 0%, respectively. Results indicate that dogs vaccinated with modified live CDV can be protected from challenge for ≤4.4 years postvaccination and that detection of virus-specific antibodies is predictive of whether dogs are resistant to challenge with virulent virus. Results also indicate that CDV infection in unvaccinated dogs results in age-dependent morbidity and mortality. Knowledge of age-dependent morbidity and mortality, duration of vaccine-induced immunity, and the positive and negative predictive values of detection of virus-specific serum antibodies are useful in development of rational booster vaccination intervals for the prevention of CDV-mediated disease in adult dogs. © 2015 The Author(s).

  4. Acute reversible inactivation of the bed nucleus of stria terminalis induces antidepressant-like effect in the rat forced swimming test

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background The bed nucleus of stria terminalis (BNST) is a limbic forebrain structure involved in hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis regulation and stress adaptation. Inappropriate adaptation to stress is thought to compromise the organism's coping mechanisms, which have been implicated in the neurobiology of depression. However, the studies aimed at investigating BNST involvement in depression pathophysiology have yielded contradictory results. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of temporary acute inactivation of synaptic transmission in the BNST by local microinjection of cobalt chloride (CoCl2) in rats subjected to the forced swimming test (FST). Methods Rats implanted with cannulae aimed at the BNST were submitted to 15 min of forced swimming (pretest). Twenty-four hours later immobility time was registered in a new 5 min forced swimming session (test). Independent groups of rats received bilateral microinjections of CoCl2 (1 mM/100 nL) before or immediately after pretest or before the test session. Additional groups received the same treatment and were submitted to the open field test to control for unspecific effects on locomotor behavior. Results CoCl2 injection into the BNST before either the pretest or test sessions reduced immobility in the FST, suggesting an antidepressant-like effect. No significant effect of CoCl2 was observed when it was injected into the BNST immediately after pretest. In addition, no effect of BNST inactivation was observed in the open field test. Conclusion These results suggest that acute reversible inactivation of synaptic transmission in the BNST facilitates adaptation to stress and induces antidepressant-like effects. PMID:20515458

  5. Acute reversible inactivation of the bed nucleus of stria terminalis induces antidepressant-like effect in the rat forced swimming test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joca Sâmia RL

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The bed nucleus of stria terminalis (BNST is a limbic forebrain structure involved in hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis regulation and stress adaptation. Inappropriate adaptation to stress is thought to compromise the organism's coping mechanisms, which have been implicated in the neurobiology of depression. However, the studies aimed at investigating BNST involvement in depression pathophysiology have yielded contradictory results. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of temporary acute inactivation of synaptic transmission in the BNST by local microinjection of cobalt chloride (CoCl2 in rats subjected to the forced swimming test (FST. Methods Rats implanted with cannulae aimed at the BNST were submitted to 15 min of forced swimming (pretest. Twenty-four hours later immobility time was registered in a new 5 min forced swimming session (test. Independent groups of rats received bilateral microinjections of CoCl2 (1 mM/100 nL before or immediately after pretest or before the test session. Additional groups received the same treatment and were submitted to the open field test to control for unspecific effects on locomotor behavior. Results CoCl2 injection into the BNST before either the pretest or test sessions reduced immobility in the FST, suggesting an antidepressant-like effect. No significant effect of CoCl2 was observed when it was injected into the BNST immediately after pretest. In addition, no effect of BNST inactivation was observed in the open field test. Conclusion These results suggest that acute reversible inactivation of synaptic transmission in the BNST facilitates adaptation to stress and induces antidepressant-like effects.

  6. Does bisphenol A induce superfeminization in Marisa cornuarietis? Part II: toxicity test results and requirements for statistical power analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Valery E; Aufderheide, John; Warbritton, Ryan; van der Hoeven, Nelly; Caspers, Norbert

    2007-03-01

    This study presents results of the effects of bisphenol A (BPA) on adult egg production, egg hatchability, egg development rates and juvenile growth rates in the freshwater gastropod, Marisa cornuarietis. We observed no adult mortality, substantial inter-snail variability in reproductive output, and no effects of BPA on reproduction during 12 weeks of exposure to 0, 0.1, 1.0, 16, 160 or 640 microg/L BPA. We observed no effects of BPA on egg hatchability or timing of egg hatching. Juveniles showed good growth in the control and all treatments, and there were no significant effects of BPA on this endpoint. Our results do not support previous claims of enhanced reproduction in Marisa cornuarietis in response to exposure to BPA. Statistical power analysis indicated high levels of inter-snail variability in the measured endpoints and highlighted the need for sufficient replication when testing treatment effects on reproduction in M. cornuarietis with adequate power.

  7. A phantom test of proton-induced dual-energy X-ray angiography using iodinated contrast media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oguri, Y.; Hasegawa, J.; Ogawa, M.; Kaneko, J.; Sasa, K.

    2007-01-01

    Characteristic-line radiation from heavy metal targets bombarded by MeV proton beams has been tested as an X-ray source for dual-energy K-edge subtraction imaging for human angiography (blood vessel imaging) based on iodinated contrast media. To utilize the strong absorption by iodine (Z=53) at its K-absorption edge (33.2 keV), we used K α -line of La (lanthanum, Z=57) at 33.4 keV. As a reference, also K α X emission of Sn (tin, Z=50) at 25.2 keV was employed. Metallic plates of La and Sn were irradiated by 7-MeV protons to produce these characteristic X-rays. Energy-subtraction method was tested using Lucite phantoms which contain aqueous solutions of KI (potassium iodide) with different concentrations. Also Ca(H 2 PO 4 ) 2 powder was stuffed in these phantoms to simulate bones. The transmission images of the phantoms were recorded on imaging plates. During the exposure, the energy spectra of the X-rays were monitored by a CdTe detector. We found that the contrast of images of iodide solutions taken with La X-rays was higher than that with Sn X-rays. Also the energy subtraction procedure was successfully applied to reduce the graphical noise due to the bones and inhomogeneity of the soft tissue. However, to apply the present method to actual clinical use, the X-ray intensity must be increased by several orders of magnitude. Also the transmission of the 'lower-energy' photons has to be a few orders higher for imaging of objects as thick as human chest. (author)

  8. Strain differences in paroxetine-induced reduction of immobility time in the forced swimming test in mice: role of serotonin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzzetti, Sara; Calcagno, Eleonora; Canetta, Alessandro; Sacchetti, Giuseppina; Fracasso, Claudia; Caccia, Silvio; Cervo, Luigi; Invernizzi, Roberto W

    2008-10-10

    We studied the antidepressant-like effect of paroxetine in strains of mice carrying different isoforms of tryptophan hydroxylase-2 (TPH-2), the enzyme responsible for the synthesis of brain serotonin (5-HT). The effect of paroxetine alone and in combination with pharmacological treatments enhancing or lowering 5-HT synthesis or melatonin was assessed in the forced swimming test in mice carrying allelic variants of TPH-2 (1473C in C57BL/6 and 1473G in DBA/2 and BALB/c). Changes in brain 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) accumulation and melatonin levels were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. Paroxetine (2.5 and 5 mg/kg) reduced immobility time in C57BL/6J and C57BL/6N mice but had no such effect in DBA/2J, DBA/2N and BALB/c mice, even at 10 mg/kg. Enhancing 5-HT synthesis with tryptophan reinstated the antidepressant-like effect of paroxetine in DBA/2J, DBA/2N and BALB/c mice whereas inhibition of 5-HT synthesis prevented the effect of paroxetine in C57BL/6N mice. The response to paroxetine was not associated with changes in locomotor activity, brain melatonin or brain levels of the drug measured at the end of the behavioral test. These results support the importance of 5-HT synthesis in the response to SSRIs and suggest that melatonin does not contribute to the ability of tryptophan to rescue the antidepressant-like effect of paroxetine.

  9. In vivo testing of a 3D bifurcating microchannel scaffold inducing separation of regenerating axon bundles in peripheral nerves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoyanova, Irina I.; van Wezel, Richard J. A.; Rutten, Wim L. C.

    2013-12-01

    Artificial nerve guidance channels enhance the regenerative effectiveness in an injured peripheral nerve but the existing design so far has been limited to basic straight tubes simply guiding the growth to bridge the gap. Hence, one of the goals in development of more effective neuroprostheses is to create bidirectional highly selective neuro-electronic interface between a prosthetic device and the severed nerve. A step towards improving selectivity for both recording and stimulation have been made with some recent in vitro studies which showed that three-dimensional (3D) bifurcating microchannels can separate neurites growing on a planar surface and bring them into contact with individual electrodes. Since the growing axons in vivo have the innate tendency to group in bundles surrounded by connective tissue, one of the big challenges in neuro-prosthetic interface design is how to overcome it. Therefore, we performed experiments with 3D bifurcating guidance scaffolds implanted in the sciatic nerve of rats to test if this new channel architecture could trigger separation pattern of ingrowth also in vivo. Our results showed that this new method enabled the re-growth of neurites into channels with gradually diminished width (80, 40 and 20 µm) and facilitated the separation of the axonal bundles with 91% success. It seems that the 3D bifurcating scaffold might contribute towards conveying detailed neural control and sensory feedback to users of prosthetic devices, and thus could improve the quality of their daily life.

  10. Test-retest assessment of cortical activation induced by repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation with brain atlas-guided optical topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Fenghua; Kozel, F. Andrew; Yennu, Amarnath; Croarkin, Paul E.; McClintock, Shawn M.; Mapes, Kimberly S.; Husain, Mustafa M.; Liu, Hanli

    2012-11-01

    Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a technology that stimulates neurons with rapidly changing magnetic pulses with demonstrated therapeutic applications for various neuropsychiatric disorders. Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) is a suitable tool to assess rTMS-evoked brain responses without interference from the magnetic or electric fields generated by the TMS coil. We have previously reported a channel-wise study of combined rTMS/fNIRS on the motor and prefrontal cortices, showing a robust decrease of oxygenated hemoglobin concentration (Δ[HbO2]) at the sites of 1-Hz rTMS and the contralateral brain regions. However, the reliability of this putative clinical tool is unknown. In this study, we develop a rapid optical topography approach to spatially characterize the rTMS-evoked hemodynamic responses on a standard brain atlas. A hemispherical approximation of the brain is employed to convert the three-dimensional topography on the complex brain surface to a two-dimensional topography in the spherical coordinate system. The test-retest reliability of the combined rTMS/fNIRS is assessed using repeated measurements performed two to three days apart. The results demonstrate that the Δ[HbO2] amplitudes have moderate-to-high reliability at the group level; and the spatial patterns of the topographic images have high reproducibility in size and a moderate degree of overlap at the individual level.

  11. 6-Gingerol-rich fraction from Zingiber officinale ameliorates carbendazim-induced endocrine disruption and toxicity in testes and epididymis of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salihu, M; Ajayi, B O; Adedara, I A; de Souza, D; Rocha, J B T; Farombi, E O

    2017-06-01

    This study evaluated the protective effects of 6-gingerol-rich fraction (6-GRF) from Zingiber officinale on carbendazim (CBZ)-induced reproductive toxicity in rats. Adult male rats were treated with either CBZ (50 mg/kg) alone or in combination with 6-GRF (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg) for 14 consecutive days. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GCMS) analysis revealed that 6-GRF consists of ten bioactive chemical components with 6-gingerol being the most abundant (30.76%). Administration of 6-GRF significantly (p < .05) prevented CBZ-mediated increase in absolute and relative testes weights as well as restored the sperm quantity and quality in the treated rats to near control. In testes and epididymis, 6-GRF significantly abolished CBZ-mediated increase in oxidative damage as well as augmented antioxidant enzymes activities and glutathione level in the treated rats. Moreover, CBZ administration alone significantly decreased plasma levels of testosterone, thyrotropin, triiodothyronine and tetraiodothyronine, whereas follicle-stimulating hormone was significantly elevated without affecting luteinising hormone and prolactin levels when compared with the control. Conversely, 6-GRF ameliorated the disruption in the hormonal levels and restored their levels to near normalcy in CBZ-treated rats. Collectively, 6-GRF inhibited the adverse effects of CBZ on the antioxidant defence systems, hormonal balance and histology of the testes and epididymis in rats. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  12. Amplification of transcutaneous and percutaneous bone-conduction devices with a test-band in an induced model of conductive hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Marn Joon; Lee, Jae Ryung; Yang, Chan Joo; Yoo, Myung Hoon; Jin, In Suk; Choi, Chi Ho; Park, Hong Ju

    2016-11-01

    Transcutaneous devices have a disadvantage, the dampening effect by soft tissue between the bone and devices. We investigated hearing outcomes with percutaneous and transcutaneous devices using test-bands in an induced unilateral conductive hearing loss. Comparison of hearing outcomes of two devices in the same individuals. The right ear was plugged in 30 subjects and a test-band with devices (Cochlear™ Baha® BP110 Power and Sophono® Alpha-2 MPO™) was applied on the right mastoid tip with the left ear masked. Sound-field thresholds, speech recognition thresholds (SRTs), and word recognition scores (WRSs) were compared. Aided thresholds of Sophono were significantly better than those of Baha at most frequencies. Sophono WRSs (86 ± 12%) at 40 dB SPL and SRTs (14 ± 5 dB HL) were significantly better than those (73 ± 24% and 23 ± 8 dB HL) of Baha. However, Sophono WRSs (98 ± 3%) at 60 dB SPL did not differ from Baha WRSs (95 ± 12%). Amplifications of the current transcutaneous device were not inferior to those of percutaneous devices with a test-band in subjects with normal bone-conduction thresholds. Since the percutaneous devices can increase the gain when fixed to the skull by eliminating the dampening effect, both devices are expected to provide sufficient hearing amplification.

  13. The effect of sequential dual-gas testing on laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy-based discrimination: Application to brass samples and bacterial strains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehse, Steven J.; Mohaidat, Qassem I.

    2009-01-01

    Four Cu-Zn brass alloys with different stoichiometries and compositions have been analyzed by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) using nanosecond laser pulses. The intensities of 15 emission lines of copper, zinc, lead, carbon, and aluminum (as well as the environmental contaminants sodium and calcium) were normalized and analyzed with a discriminant function analysis (DFA) to rapidly categorize the samples by alloy. The alloys were tested sequentially in two different noble gases (argon and helium) to enhance discrimination between them. When emission intensities from samples tested sequentially in both gases were combined to form a single 30-spectral line 'fingerprint' of the alloy, an overall 100% correct identification was achieved. This was a modest improvement over using emission intensities acquired in argon gas alone. A similar study was performed to demonstrate an enhanced discrimination between two strains of Escherichia coli (a Gram-negative bacterium) and a Gram-positive bacterium. When emission intensities from bacteria sequentially ablated in two different gas environments were combined, the DFA achieved a 100% categorization accuracy. This result showed the benefit of sequentially testing highly similar samples in two different ambient gases to enhance discrimination between the samples.

  14. Multi-stratified multiple regression tests of the linear/no-threshold theory of radon-induced lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, B.L.

    1992-01-01

    A plot of lung-cancer rates versus radon exposures in 965 US counties, or in all US states, has a strong negative slope, b, in sharp contrast to the strong positive slope predicted by linear/no-threshold theory. The discrepancy between these slopes exceeds 20 standard deviations (SD). Including smoking frequency in the analysis substantially improves fits to a linear relationship but has little effect on the discrepancy in b, because correlations between smoking frequency and radon levels are quite weak. Including 17 socioeconomic variables (SEV) in multiple regression analysis reduces the discrepancy to 15 SD. Data were divided into segments by stratifying on each SEV in turn, and on geography, and on both simultaneously, giving over 300 data sets to be analyzed individually, but negative slopes predominated. The slope is negative whether one considers only the most urban counties or only the most rural; only the richest or only the poorest; only the richest in the South Atlantic region or only the poorest in that region, etc., etc.,; and for all the strata in between. Since this is an ecological study, the well-known problems with ecological studies were investigated and found not to be applicable here. The open-quotes ecological fallacyclose quotes was shown not to apply in testing a linear/no-threshold theory, and the vulnerability to confounding is greatly reduced when confounding factors are only weakly correlated with radon levels, as is generally the case here. All confounding factors known to correlate with radon and with lung cancer were investigated quantitatively and found to have little effect on the discrepancy

  15. Recreating the shading effects of ship wake induced turbidity to test acclimation responses in the seagrass Thalassia hemprichii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, Nicola K.; Yaakub, Siti Maryam; Tay, Jason K. L.; Todd, Peter A.

    2017-12-01

    Elevated sediment delivery and resuspension in coastal waters from human activities such as shipping can have detrimental effects on seagrass health by limiting light penetration. Managing seagrasses requires knowledge of their light acclamatory abilities so guidelines for coastal activities (e.g. ship movements) that influence sediment dynamics can be created. Guidelines typically focus on ensuring that seagrasses are able to meet their minimal light requirements (MLR). MLRs can be achieved by different light regimes, but it remains unknown whether a chronically low yet stable light regime is less or more detrimental than a highly variable regime with periods of extreme low to no light. To test this, we compared the physiological and morphological responses of Thalassia hemprichii among three light regimes: an open control (30-40% ambient light), a shaded control with (11-15% ambient light), and a fluctuating shade (4-30% ambient light). The MLR for the T. hemprichii we studied was lower (4-10% ambient light) than previous reports (mean = 18%) illustrating enhanced light acclimation in Singapore's chronically turbid waters. Seagrass shoots in the shaded control, however, exhibited significantly more morphological stress symptoms, with reduced shoot growth and lower below ground biomass. These data suggest that for seagrass exposed to periods of acute light stress, energetic costs associated with photo-acclimation to more variable light regimes can be offset if the plant can meet its daily light requirements during periods of high light. Management of seagrass beds should incorporate regular light monitoring and move towards an adaptive feedback-based approach to ensure the long-term viability of these vulnerable ecosystems.

  16. Genome-wide association study identifies polymorphisms associated with the analgesic effect of fentanyl in the preoperative cold pressor-induced pain test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaori Takahashi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Opioid analgesics are widely used for the treatment of moderate to severe pain. The analgesic effects of opioids are well known to vary among individuals. The present study focused on the genetic factors that are associated with interindividual differences in pain and opioid sensitivity. We conducted a multistage genome-wide association study in subjects who were scheduled to undergo mandibular sagittal split ramus osteotomy and were not medicated until they received fentanyl for the induction of anesthesia. We preoperatively conducted the cold pressor-induced pain test before and after fentanyl administration. The rs13093031 and rs12633508 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs near the LOC728432 gene region and rs6961071 SNP in the tcag7.1213 gene region were significantly associated with the analgesic effect of fentanyl, based on differences in pain perception latency before and after fentanyl administration. The associations of these three SNPs that were identified in our exploratory study have not been previously reported. The two polymorphic loci (rs13093031 and rs12633508 were shown to be in strong linkage disequilibrium. Subjects with the G/G genotype of the rs13093031 and rs6961071 SNPs presented lower fentanyl-induced analgesia. Our findings provide a basis for investigating genetics-based analgesic sensitivity and personalized pain control. Keywords: Opioid sensitivity, Analgesia, Fentanyl, Polymorphism, GWAS

  17. Use of the gapped bead-on-plate test to investigate hydrogen induced cracking of flux cored arc welds of a quenched and tempered steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Liang; Dunne, Druce; Davidson, Len

    2014-01-01

    Gapped bead-on-plate (G-BOP) testing of flux cored arc welds was conducted to assess the susceptibility to hydrogen induced cold cracking (HICC) of weld metal deposited on a high strength quenched and tempered steel. For preheat temperatures higher than 40°C, no weld metal cracking was observed using a shielding gas consisting of argon with 20% carbon dioxide. In contrast, the no-crack condition was not achieved for a shielding gas consisting of argon-5% carbon dioxide for preheat temperatures lower than 100°C. This extraordinary difference in weld metal HICC resistance indicates that, in general, the shielding gas mixture can exert a major influence on weld metal transverse cold cracking behaviour

  18. Characterization and diagnostic evaluation of chronic polyneuropathies induced by oxaliplatin and docetaxel comparing skin biopsy to quantitative sensory testing and nerve conduction studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krøigård, T; Schrøder, H D; Qvortrup, C

    2014-01-01

    was to characterize the neuropathies with regard to symptoms, neurological signs and objective evidence of damage to the structure and function of the peripheral nerves. Furthermore, the diagnostic values of skin biopsy, quantitative sensory testing (QST) and nerve conduction studies (NCS) were compared. METHODS......: Patients complaining of neuropathy symptoms at least 3 months after completion of treatment with oxaliplatin (n = 20) or docetaxel (n = 20) were recruited from the Department of Oncology or using hospital records. Neuropathy scores were determined along with the intraepidermal nerve fibre density in skin....... Mechanical detection threshold was most often affected in the QST. NCS, QTS and skin biopsy were abnormal in 11, 13 and 17 and 7, 11 and 15 of the oxaliplatin-treated patients and docetaxel-treated patients, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy after oxaliplatin or docetaxel...

  19. Effects of a glycine transporter-1 inhibitor and D-serine on MK-801-induced immobility in the forced swimming test in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaura, Kazuaki; Koike, Hiroyuki; Kinoshita, Kohnosuke; Kambe, Daiji; Kaku, Ayaka; Karasawa, Jun-ichi; Chaki, Shigeyuki; Hikichi, Hirohiko

    2015-02-01

    Glutamatergic dysfunction, particularly the hypofunction of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors, is involved in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. The positive modulation of the glycine site on the NMDA receptor has been proposed as a novel therapeutic approach for schizophrenia. However, its efficacy against negative symptoms, which are poorly managed by current medications, has not been fully addressed. In the present study, the effects of the positive modulation of the glycine site on the NMDA receptor were investigated in an animal model of negative symptoms of schizophrenia. The subchronic administration of MK-801 increased immobility in the forced swimming test in rats without affecting spontaneous locomotor activity. The increased immobility induced by MK-801 was attenuated by the atypical antipsychotic clozapine but not by either the typical antipsychotic haloperidol or the antidepressant imipramine, indicating that the increased immobility induced by subchronic treatment with MK-801 in the forced swimming test may represent a negative symptom of schizophrenia. Likewise, positive modulation of the glycine sites on the NMDA receptor using an agonist for the glycine site, D-serine, and a glycine transporter-1 inhibitor, N-[(3R)-3-([1,1'-biphenyl]-4-yloxy)-3-(4-fluorophenyl)propyl]-N-methylglycine hydrochloride (NFPS), significantly reversed the increase in immobility in MK-801-treated rats without reducing the immobility time in vehicle-treated rats. The present results show that the stimulation of the NMDA receptor through the glycine site on the receptor either directly with D-serine or by blocking glycine transporter-1 attenuates the immobility elicited by the subchronic administration of MK-801 and may be potentially useful for the treatment of negative symptoms of schizophrenia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Hydroethanolic extract of Carthamus tinctorius induces antidepressant-like effects: modulation by dopaminergic and serotonergic systems in tail suspension test in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi-Maleki, Saeid; Mousavi, Zahra

    2017-09-01

    Studies indicate that major deficiency in the levels of monoaminergic transmitters is a reason for severe depression. On the other hand, it is shown that Carthamus tinctorius L. (CT) may improve neuropsychological injuries by regulation of the monoamine transporter action. Hence, the present study was undertaken to evaluate the involvement of monoaminergic systems in antidepressant-like effect of CT extract in the tail suspension test (TST) in mice. The mice were intraperitoneally (IP) treated with CT extract (100-400 mg/kg) 1 hr before the TST. To investigate the involvement of monoaminergic systems in antidepressant-like effect, the mice were treated with receptor antagonists 15 min before CT extract treatment (400 mg/kg, IP) and 1 hr before the TST. Findings showed that CT extract (100-400 mg/kg, IP), dose-dependently induced antidepressant-like effect ( P open-field test. Pretreatment of mice with SCH23390, sulpiride, haloperidol, WAY100135, cyproheptadine, ketanserin and p-chlorophenylalanine (PCPA) inhibited the antidepressant-like effect of CT extract (400 mg/kg, IP), but not with prazosin and yohimbine. Co-administration of CT extract (100 mg/kg, IP) with sub-effective doses of fluoxetine (5 mg/kg, IP) or imipramine (5 mg/kg, IP) increased their antidepressant-like response. Our findings firstly showed that components (especially N-Hexadecanoic acid) of CT extract induce antidepressant-like effects by interaction with dopaminergic (D1 and D2) and serotonergic (5HT1A, 5-HT2A receptors) systems. These findings validate the folk use of CT extract for the management of depression.

  1. Using vitamin E to prevent the impairment in behavioral test, cell loss and dendrite changes in medial prefrontal cortex induced by tartrazine in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafati, Ali; Nourzei, Nasrin; Karbalay-Doust, Saied; Noorafshan, Ali

    2017-03-01

    Tartrazine is a food color that may adversely affect the nervous system. Vitamin E is a neuro-protective agent. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of tartrazine and vitamin E on the performance of rats in memory and learning tests as well as the structure of medial Prefrontal Cortex (mPFC). The rats were first divided into seven groups which received the followings for a period of seven weeks: distilled water, corn oil, vitamin E (100mg/kg/day), a low dose (50mg/kg/day) and a high dose (50mg/kg/day) of tartrazine with and without vitamin E. Behavioral tests were conducted and the brain was extracted for stereological methods The high dose of tartrazine decreased the exploration time of novel objects (Ptartrazine led into an increase in working and reference memory errors in acquisition and retention phases (eight-arm radial maze) compared to distilled water group (Ptartrazine induced a reduction in the volume of mPFC (∼13%) and its subdivision. Not only that, but the number of neurons and glial cells (∼14%) as well as the mushroom and thin spines per dendrite length declined. The length of dendrites per neuron also reduced in comparison to the distilled water group (Ptartrazine prevented the above-mentioned changes. An acceptable daily dose of tartrazine could induce impairment in spatial memory and dendrite structure. Moreover, a high dose of tartrazine may defect the visual memory, mPFC structure, the spatial memory and also cause dendrite changes. Vitamin E could prevent the behavioral and structural changes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. Field deployment test of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) technology at the Yucca Mountain Exploratory Studies Facility, Test Alcove No. 1, March 2-9, 1994: Milestone Report LA4047

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blacic, J.; Pettit, D.; Cremers, D.

    1996-01-01

    A field test in the Exploratory Studies Facility at Yucca Mountain, Nevada was performed to determine the feasibility of real-time elemental analysis of rock encountered in air core drilling using the technique of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). Over the period March 2-9, 1994, hundreds of LIBS spectra were collected in real-time, reflecting the elemental composition of dust produced at the drill head of the second horizontal core hole in Test Alcove No. 1. The particle-laden, drill-coring effluent air stream served as the means to obtain a representative rock sample immediately surrounding the drill bit. LIBS spectra were taken with the spectral range centered at 250, 330, 410, and 500 nm so that representative, overlapping spectral coverage from 200 to 550 nm was obtained for the dust. Spectral lines for the major elements Si, Al, K, Na, and Fe and the minor elements Ca, Mg, Ti, and Mn were observed. Some simple engineering improvements to the cyclone separator were identified if this approach to dust analysis is pursued in the future

  3. Evaluation of the effect of Dardia Lipo Line on skin inflammation induced by surfactants using the repeated open-application test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortonne, J-P; Queille-Roussel, C

    2007-09-01

    Medical skin care products are topical preparations with mainly moisturizing properties. A new line of medical skin products with an excellent tolerability profile and improved hydration for dry skin has been developed, but beneficial effects have not yet been investigated on damaged skin. To investigate if these products maintain barrier function and hydration status, improve subjective symptoms due to irritant contact dermatitis and to prove their tolerability on damaged skin. Single-centre, blinded, randomized, controlled study in 20 healthy Caucasian women. 5% sodium lauryl sulphate solution was used to induce skin irritation. Two sites on the inside surface of both forearms of each subject were treated daily for 5 days (irritation period). Lipo Cream, Lipo Milk (water-in-oil emulsions) and Lipo Ointment (water-free formulation) were applied twice daily to three of the four test sites on days 1-5. The fourth site was used as a control. Visual readings, subjective symptom assessments, transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and colorimetric measurements, corneometry and skin microrelief macrophotographies were done on days 1-6. On day 6, TEWL was increased vs baseline on all sites; however, TEWL with Lipo Cream or Lipo Ointment was significantly lower than control. At day 6, skin capacitance was 94%, 100% and 85% of baseline value for the cream, milk and ointment, respectively, versus 72% for control. All test products were well tolerated. Lipo Line products showed both protective properties against epidermal dysfunction and significant hydrating effect.

  4. Laser-induced damage threshold tests of ultrafast multilayer dielectric coatings in various environmental conditions relevant for operation of ELI beamlines laser systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ďurák, Michal; Velpula, Praveen Kumar; Kramer, Daniel; Cupal, Josef; Medřík, Tomáš; Hřebíček, Jan; Golasowski, Jiří; Peceli, Davorin; Kozlová, Michaela; Rus, Bedřich

    2017-01-01

    Increasing the laser-induced damage resistance of optical components is one of the major challenges in the development of Peta-watt (PW) class laser systems. The extreme light infrastructure (ELI) beamlines project will provide ultrafast laser systems with peak powers up to 10 PW available every minute and PW class beams at 10 Hz complemented by a 5-TW, 1-kHz beamline. Sustainable performance of PW class laser systems relies on the durability of the employed optical components. As part of an effort to evaluate the damage resistance of components utilized in ELI beamlines systems, damage thresholds of several optical multilayer dielectric coatings were measured with different laser parameters and in different environments. Three coatings were tested with 10 Hz and 1 kHz pulse repetition rates, and the effect of a cleaning treatment on their damage resistance was examined. To explore the damage threshold behavior at different vacuum levels, one coating was subject to tests at various residual gas pressures. No change of damage threshold in a high vacuum with respect to ambient pressure was recorded. The effect of the cleaning treatment was found to be inconsistent, suggesting that development of the optimal cleaning treatment for a given coating requires consideration of its specific properties.

  5. Koumine exhibits anxiolytic properties without inducing adverse neurological effects on functional observation battery, open-field and Vogel conflict tests in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chao-Jie; Zhong, Zhi-Feng; Xin, Zhi-Ming; Hong, Long-Hui; Su, Yan-Ping; Yu, Chang-Xi

    2017-04-01

    Koumine, an active alkaloid of neurotoxic plant Gelsemium, has been focused on its therapeutic uses, especially in central nervous system. Nevertheless, less is known about the neurological effects of koumine, which hampers its potential therapeutic exploitation. Moreover, as the anxiolytic potential of Gelsemium has raised many critical issues, its active principles on the anxiolytic and other neurological effects need to be further investigated. Here, we used functional observation battery (FOB) of mice to systematically measure the neurological effects of koumine at the effective doses, and then further confirmed its anxiolytic properties in open-field test (OFT) of mice and Vogel conflict test (VCT) of rats. Koumine exhibited anxiolytic-like activities but did not affect other autonomic, neurological and physical functions in FOB. Furthermore, koumine released anxiolytic responses and anti-punishment action in a manner similar to diazepam in OFT and VCT, respectively. The results constitutes solid set of fundamental data further demonstrating anxiolytic properties of koumine at the therapeutic doses without inducing adverse neurological effects, which supports the perspectives for the development of safe and effective koumine medicine against pathological anxiety.

  6. Differences in detection of Aeromonas salmonicida in covertly infected salmonid fishes by the stress-inducible furunculosis test and culture-based assays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipriano, R.C.; Ford, L.A.; Smith, D.R.; Schachte, J.H.; Petrie, C.J.

    1997-01-01

    Accurate detection of Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida (the cause of furunculosis disease) in covertly infected salmonids is difficult and is a cause of concern for those involved in fish health inspection and resource management programs. In this study, we examined populations of brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis, Atlantic salmon Salmo salar, and lake trout Salvelinus namaycush that previously sustained natural episodes of furunculosis. Consequently, the sampled fish were presumed to harbor latent infections. Mucus, gill, liver, kidney, heart, spleen, and intestine samples (N = 100 fish per group sampled) were processed and examined by (1) direct dilution counts and (2) quadrant streaking after a 48-h pre-enrichment in trypticase soy broth (TSB). Another subsample of fish from each group was then subjected to stress-inducible furunculosis tests. Stress tests detected A. salmonicida in three of four groups of fish that were examined whereas the pathogen was detected in only two of the groups analyzed with culture-based assays. Although pre-enrichment in TSB enhanced detection within internal sampling sites including the liver, heart, spleen, and kidney, enrichment did not enhance detection from mucus, gill, or intestinal samples.

  7. Preclinical Testing of an Oncolytic Parvovirus in Ewing Sarcoma: Protoparvovirus H-1 Induces Apoptosis and Lytic Infection In Vitro but Fails to Improve Survival In Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacroix, Jeannine; Kis, Zoltán; Josupeit, Rafael; Schlund, Franziska; Stroh-Dege, Alexandra; Frank-Stöhr, Monika; Leuchs, Barbara; Schlehofer, Jörg R; Rommelaere, Jean; Dinsart, Christiane

    2018-06-03

    About 70% of all Ewing sarcoma (EWS) patients are diagnosed under the age of 20 years. Over the last decades little progress has been made towards finding effective treatment approaches for primarily metastasized or refractory Ewing sarcoma in young patients. Here, in the context of the search for novel therapeutic options, the potential of oncolytic protoparvovirus H-1 (H-1PV) to treat Ewing sarcoma was evaluated, its safety having been proven previously tested in adult cancer patients and its oncolytic efficacy demonstrated on osteosarcoma cell cultures. The effects of viral infection were tested in vitro on four human Ewing sarcoma cell lines. Notably evaluated were effects of the virus on the cell cycle and its replication efficiency. Within 24 h after infection, the synthesis of viral proteins was induced. Efficient H-1PV replication was confirmed in all four Ewing sarcoma cell lines. The cytotoxicity of the virus was determined on the basis of cytopathic effects, cell viability, and cell lysis. These in vitro experiments revealed efficient killing of Ewing sarcoma cells by H-1PV at a multiplicity of infection between 0.1 and 5 plaque forming units (PFU)/cell. In two of the four tested cell lines, significant induction of apoptosis by H-1PV was observed. H-1PV thus meets all the in vitro criteria for a virus to be oncolytic towards Ewing sarcoma. In the first xenograft experiments, however, although an antiproliferative effect of intratumoral H-1PV injection was observed, no significant improvement of animal survival was noted. Future projects aiming to validate parvovirotherapy for the treatment of pediatric Ewing sarcoma should focus on combinatorial treatments and will require the use of patient-derived xenografts and immunocompetent syngeneic animal models.

  8. Arsenic Removal from Groundwater by Solar Driven Inline-Electrolytic Induced Co-Precipitation and Filtration—A Long Term Field Test Conducted in West Bengal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malakar, Pradyut; Jana, Bana Bihari; Benz, Florian; Goldmaier, Alexander; Feistel, Ulrike; Jana, Joydev; Lahiri, Susmita; Alvarez, Juan Antonio

    2017-01-01

    Arsenic contamination in drinking water resources is of major concern in the Ganga delta plains of West Bengal in India and Bangladesh. Here, several laboratory and field studies on arsenic removal from drinking water resources were conducted in the past and the application of strong-oxidant-induced co-precipitation of arsenic on iron hydroxides is still considered as the most promising mechanism. This paper suggests an autonomous, solar driven arsenic removal setting and presents the findings of a long term field test conducted in West Bengal. The system applies an inline-electrolytic cell for in situ chlorine production using the natural chloride content of the water and by that substituting the external dosing of strong oxidants. Co-precipitation of As(V) occurs on freshly formed iron hydroxide, which is removed by Manganese Greensand Plus® filtration. The test was conducted for ten months under changing source water conditions considering arsenic (187 ± 45 µg/L), iron (5.5 ± 0.8 mg/L), manganese (1.5 ± 0.4 mg/L), phosphate (2.4 ± 1.3 mg/L) and ammonium (1.4 ± 0.5 mg/L) concentrations. Depending on the system setting removal rates of 94% for arsenic (10 ± 4 µg/L), >99% for iron (0.03 ± 0.03 mg/L), 96% for manganese (0.06 ± 0.05 mg/L), 72% for phosphate (0.7 ± 0.3 mg/L) and 84% for ammonium (0.18 ± 0.12 mg/L) were achieved—without the addition of any chemicals/adsorbents. Loading densities of arsenic on iron hydroxides averaged to 31 µgAs/mgFe. As the test was performed under field conditions and the here proposed removal mechanisms work fully autonomously, it poses a technically feasible treatment alternative, especially for rural areas. PMID:28974053

  9. Arsenic Removal from Groundwater by Solar Driven Inline-Electrolytic Induced Co-Precipitation and Filtration-A Long Term Field Test Conducted in West Bengal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otter, Philipp; Malakar, Pradyut; Jana, Bana Bihari; Grischek, Thomas; Benz, Florian; Goldmaier, Alexander; Feistel, Ulrike; Jana, Joydev; Lahiri, Susmita; Alvarez, Juan Antonio

    2017-10-02

    Arsenic contamination in drinking water resources is of major concern in the Ganga delta plains of West Bengal in India and Bangladesh. Here, several laboratory and field studies on arsenic removal from drinking water resources were conducted in the past and the application of strong-oxidant-induced co-precipitation of arsenic on iron hydroxides is still considered as the most promising mechanism. This paper suggests an autonomous, solar driven arsenic removal setting and presents the findings of a long term field test conducted in West Bengal. The system applies an inline-electrolytic cell for in situ chlorine production using the natural chloride content of the water and by that substituting the external dosing of strong oxidants. Co-precipitation of As(V) occurs on freshly formed iron hydroxide, which is removed by Manganese Greensand Plus ® filtration. The test was conducted for ten months under changing source water conditions considering arsenic (187 ± 45 µg/L), iron (5.5 ± 0.8 mg/L), manganese (1.5 ± 0.4 mg/L), phosphate (2.4 ± 1.3 mg/L) and ammonium (1.4 ± 0.5 mg/L) concentrations. Depending on the system setting removal rates of 94% for arsenic (10 ± 4 µg/L), >99% for iron (0.03 ± 0.03 mg/L), 96% for manganese (0.06 ± 0.05 mg/L), 72% for phosphate (0.7 ± 0.3 mg/L) and 84% for ammonium (0.18 ± 0.12 mg/L) were achieved-without the addition of any chemicals/adsorbents. Loading densities of arsenic on iron hydroxides averaged to 31 µgAs/mgFe. As the test was performed under field conditions and the here proposed removal mechanisms work fully autonomously, it poses a technically feasible treatment alternative, especially for rural areas.

  10. Development of a possible nonmammalian test system for radiation-induced germ-cell mutagenesis using a fish, the Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shima, A.; Shimada, A.

    1991-01-01

    To develop a specific-locus test (SLT) system for environmental mutagenesis using vertebrate species other than the mouse, we first established a tester stock of the fish medaka (Oryzias latipes) that is homozygous recessive at three loci. The phenotypic expression of these loci can be easily recognized early in embryonic development by observation through the transparent egg membrane. We irradiated wild-type males with 137Cs gamma-rays to determine the dose-response relationships for dominant lethal and specific-locus mutations induced in sperm, spermatids, and spermatogonia. Through observation of 322,666 loci in control offspring and 374,026 loci in offspring obtained from 0.64-, 4.75-, or 9.50-Gy-irradiated gametes, specific-locus mutations were phenotypically detected during early development. These putative mutations, designated total mutation, can be recognized only in embryos of oviparous animals. The developmental fate of these mutant embryos was precisely followed. During subsequent embryonic development, a large fraction died and thus was unavailable for test-crossing, which was used to identify viable mutations. Our medaka SLT system demonstrates that the vast majority of total mutations is associated with dominant lethal mutations. Thus far only one spontaneous viable mutation has been observed, so that all doubling calculations involving this endpoint carry a large error. With these reservations, however, we conclude that the quantitative data so far obtained from the medaka SLT are quite comparable to those from the mouse SLT and, hence, indicate the validity of the medaka SLT as a possible nonmammalian test system

  11. Preclinical Testing of an Oncolytic Parvovirus in Ewing Sarcoma: Protoparvovirus H-1 Induces Apoptosis and Lytic Infection In Vitro but Fails to Improve Survival In Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeannine Lacroix

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available About 70% of all Ewing sarcoma (EWS patients are diagnosed under the age of 20 years. Over the last decades little progress has been made towards finding effective treatment approaches for primarily metastasized or refractory Ewing sarcoma in young patients. Here, in the context of the search for novel therapeutic options, the potential of oncolytic protoparvovirus H-1 (H-1PV to treat Ewing sarcoma was evaluated, its safety having been proven previously tested in adult cancer patients and its oncolytic efficacy demonstrated on osteosarcoma cell cultures. The effects of viral infection were tested in vitro on four human Ewing sarcoma cell lines. Notably evaluated were effects of the virus on the cell cycle and its replication efficiency. Within 24 h after infection, the synthesis of viral proteins was induced. Efficient H-1PV replication was confirmed in all four Ewing sarcoma cell lines. The cytotoxicity of the virus was determined on the basis of cytopathic effects, cell viability, and cell lysis. These in vitro experiments revealed efficient killing of Ewing sarcoma cells by H-1PV at a multiplicity of infection between 0.1 and 5 plaque forming units (PFU/cell. In two of the four tested cell lines, significant induction of apoptosis by H-1PV was observed. H-1PV thus meets all the in vitro criteria for a virus to be oncolytic towards Ewing sarcoma. In the first xenograft experiments, however, although an antiproliferative effect of intratumoral H-1PV injection was observed, no significant improvement of animal survival was noted. Future projects aiming to validate parvovirotherapy for the treatment of pediatric Ewing sarcoma should focus on combinatorial treatments and will require the use of patient-derived xenografts and immunocompetent syngeneic animal models.

  12. Evaluation of oxidative stress using exhaled breath 8-isoprostane ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: There have been limited numbers of studies on patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) to determine oxidative stress in exhaled breath condensate (EBC). Those two studies have been carried out on hemodialysis patients, and hydrogen peroxide and nitric oxide have been studied in order to show ...

  13. Prenatal administration of the cytochrome P4501A inducer, Β-naphthoflavone (BNF), attenuates hyperoxic lung injury in newborn mice: Implications for bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) in premature infants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Couroucli, Xanthi I.; Liang Yanhong Wei; Jiang Weiwu; Wang Lihua; Barrios, Roberto; Yang Peiying; Moorthy, Bhagavatula

    2011-01-01

    Supplemental oxygen contributes to the development of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) in premature infants. In this investigation, we tested the hypothesis that prenatal treatment of pregnant mice (C57BL/6J) with the cytochrome P450 (CYP)1A1 inducer, ss-napthoflavone (BNF), will lead to attenuation of lung injury in newborns (delivered from these dams) exposed to hyperoxia by mechanisms entailing transplacental induction of hepatic and pulmonary CYP1A enzymes. Pregnant mice were administered the vehicle corn oil (CO) or BNF (40 mg/kg), i.p., once daily for 3 days on gestational days (17-19), and newborns delivered from the mothers were either maintained in room air or exposed to hyperoxia (> 95% O 2 ) for 1-5 days. After 3-5 days of hyperoxia, the lungs of CO-treated mice showed neutrophil infiltration, pulmonary edema, and perivascular inflammation. On the other hand, BNF-pretreated neonatal mice showed decreased susceptibility to hyperoxic lung injury. These mice displayed marked induction of ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) (CYP1A1) and methoxyresorufin O-demethylase (MROD) (CYP1A2) activities, and levels of the corresponding apoproteins and mRNA levels until PND 3 in liver, while CYP1A1 expression alone was augmented in the lung. Prenatal BNF did not significantly alter gene expression of pulmonary NAD(P)H quinone reductase (NQO1). Hyperoxia for 24-72 h resulted in increased pulmonary levels of the F 2 -isoprostane 8-iso-PGF 2α , whose levels were decreased in mice prenatally exposed to BNF. In conclusion, our results suggest that prenatal BNF protects newborns against hyperoxic lung injury, presumably by detoxification of lipid hydroperoxides by CYP1A enzymes, a phenomenon that has implications for prevention of BPD in infants. - Highlights: → Supplemental oxygen is routinely administered to premature infants. → Hyperoxia causes lung injury in experimental animals. → Prenatal treatment of mice with beta-naphthoflavone attenuates oxygen injury

  14. Exercise-induced hypertension, cardiovascular events, and mortality in patients undergoing exercise stress testing: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Martin G; Otahal, Petr; Cleland, Verity J; Blizzard, Leigh; Marwick, Thomas H; Sharman, James E

    2013-03-01

    The prognostic relevance of a hypertensive response to exercise (HRE) is ill-defined in individuals undergoing exercise stress testing. The study described here was intended to provide a systematic review and meta-analysis of published literature to determine the value of exercise-related blood pressure (BP) (independent of office BP) for predicting cardiovascular (CV) events and mortality. Online databases were searched for published longitudinal studies reporting exercise-related BP and CV events and mortality rates. We identified for review 12 longitudinal studies with a total of 46,314 individuals without significant coronary artery disease, with total CV event and mortality rates recorded over a mean follow-up of 15.2±4.0 years. After adjustment for age, office BP, and CV risk factors, an HRE at moderate exercise intensity carried a 36% greater rate of CV events and mortality (95% CI, 1.02-1.83, P = 0.039) than that of subjects without an HRE. Additionally, each 10mm Hg increase in systolic BP during exercise at moderate intensity was accompanied by a 4% increase in CV events and mortality, independent of office BP, age, or CV risk factors (95% CI, 1.01-1.07, P = 0.02). Systolic BP at maximal workload was not significantly associated with the outcome of an increased rate of CV, whether analyzed as a categorical (HR=1.49, 95% CI, 0.90-2.46, P = 0.12) or a continuous (HR=1.01, 95% CI, 0.98-1.04, P = 0.53) variable. An HRE at moderate exercise intensity during exercise stress testing is an independent risk factor for CV events and mortality. This highlights the need to determine underlying pathophysiological mechanisms of exercise-induced hypertension.

  15. Acoustic and vibrational tests of effects induced on building by the demolition of the 'Ponte del Barco' Firenze - Toscana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stragapede, Francesco; Biannucci, Roberto; Pascini, Lando Umberto; Leonasi, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    For demolition of Ponte del Barco, the Torrente Mugnone overpass at the Parco delle Cascine of Firenze, were checked up entities in the field of energy and vibrational noise produced during activities on sensitive lens, considering the building located near the structure being demolished. The vibrations to the building have been checked with reference to noise thresholds of disturbance to the person (UNI 9614) and resentment/damage to the building (UNI 9 9 16). Evaluation of transient vibration actions on the building were examined during the demolition of the structure, carried out using excavator CAT 320 D LN equipped with concrete crusher, and handling stages of demolition material using excavator ZAX 2 40 Hitachi equipped with a shovel. The tests were conducted with Symphonie type level meter (class 1 REF. EN60651/94 and EN60804/9 4) and oriented velocimeters n. 4 recording stations using GEOBOX of Sara Electr. Instr. The noise level was compared with the acoustic limits of the area and the intensity of vibration induced on sensitive building was related to thresholds of disturbance to the person and damage to structures, ensuring that in the course of the demolition operations were the conditions of security of operators in the area and the absence of damage to the buildings. Based on the findings from the analysis, the acoustic activity of demolition of the Bridge in Florence took place within the acoustic limits of exemption of localization activities (class IV – area of intense human activity). The exceeded the thresholds of vibrational disturbance to the person was checked, in reference UNI 9614; the exceeded the thresholds for structural damage was not checked, in reference to UNI 9916. The attendance of the necessary staff for testing acoustic and vibrational did not affect any sensitive subject even in the presence of the excess of noise and vibration thresholds of disturbance to the person.

  16. Vitamin E can improve behavioral tests impairment, cell loss, and dendrite changes in rats' medial prefrontal cortex induced by acceptable daily dose of aspartame.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafati, Ali; Noorafshan, Ali; Jahangir, Mahboubeh; Hosseini, Leila; Karbalay-Doust, Saied

    2018-01-01

    Aspartame is an artificial sweetener used in about 6000 sugar-free products. Aspartame consumption could be associated with various neurological disorders. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of aspartame onmedial Prefrontal Cortex (mPFC) as well as neuroprotective effects of vitamin E. The rats were divided into seven groups, including distilled water, corn oil, vitamin E (100mg/kg/day), and low (acceptable daily dose) and high doses of aspartame (40 and 200mg/kg/day) respectively, with or without vitamin E consumption, for 8 weeks. Behavioral tests were recorded and the brain was prepared for stereological assessments. Novel objects test and eight-arm radial maze showed impairmentoflong- and short-termmemoriesin aspartame groups. Besides, mPFC volume, infralimbic volume, neurons number, glial cells number, dendrites length per neuron,and number of spines per dendrite length were decreased by 7-61% in the rats treated with aspartame. However, neurons' number, glial cells number, and rats' performance in eight-arm radial mazes were improved by concomitant consumption of vitamin E and aspartame. Yet, the mPFC volume and infralimbic cortex were protected only in the rats receiving the low dose of aspartame+vitamin E. On the other hand, dendrites length, spines number,and novel object recognition were not protected by treatment with vitamin E+aspartame. The acceptable daily dose or higher doses of aspartame could induce memory impairments and cortical cells loss in mPFC. However, vitamin E could ameliorate some of these changes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. Doppler measurements of the ionosphere on the occasion of the Apollo-Soyuz test project. Part 1: Computer simulation of ionospheric-induced Doppler shifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossi, M. D.; Gay, R. H.

    1975-01-01

    A computer simulation of the ionospheric experiment of the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project (ASTP) was performed. ASTP is the first example of USA/USSR cooperation in space and is scheduled for summer 1975. The experiment consists of performing dual-frequency Doppler measurements (at 162 and 324 MHz) between the Apollo Command Service Module (CSM) and the ASTP Docking Module (DM), both orbiting at 221-km height and at a relative distance of 300 km. The computer simulation showed that, with the Doppler measurement resolution of approximately 3 mHz provided by the instrumentation (in 10-sec integration time), ionospheric-induced Doppler shifts will be measurable accurately at all times, with some rare exceptions occurring when the radio path crosses regions of minimum ionospheric density. The computer simulation evaluated the ability of the experiment to measure changes of columnar electron content between CSM and DM (from which horizontal gradients of electron density at 221-km height can be obtained) and to measure variations in DM-to-ground columnar content (from which an averaged columnar content and the electron density at the DM can be deduced, under some simplifying assumptions).

  18. Homogeneity testing and quantitative analysis of manganese (Mn in vitrified Mn-doped glasses by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. K. Unnikrishnan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS, an atomic emission spectroscopy method, has rapidly grown as one of the best elemental analysis techniques over the past two decades. Homogeneity testing and quantitative analysis of manganese (Mn in manganese-doped glasses have been carried out using an optimized LIBS system employing a nanosecond ultraviolet Nd:YAG laser as the source of excitation. The glass samples have been prepared using conventional vitrification methods. The laser pulse irradiance on the surface of the glass samples placed in air at atmospheric pressure was about 1.7×109 W/cm2. The spatially integrated plasma emission was collected and imaged on to the spectrograph slit using an optical-fiber-based collection system. Homogeneity was checked by recording LIBS spectra from different sites on the sample surface and analyzing the elemental emission intensities for concentration determination. Validation of the observed LIBS results was done by comparison with scanning electron microscope- energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX surface elemental mapping. The analytical performance of the LIBS system has been evaluated through the correlation of the LIBS determined concentrations of Mn with its certified values. The results are found to be in very good agreement with the certified concentrations.

  19. Arsenic Removal from Groundwater by Solar Driven Inline-Electrolytic Induced Co-Precipitation and Filtration—A Long Term Field Test Conducted in West Bengal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Otter

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic contamination in drinking water resources is of major concern in the Ganga delta plains of West Bengal in India and Bangladesh. Here, several laboratory and field studies on arsenic removal from drinking water resources were conducted in the past and the application of strong-oxidant-induced co-precipitation of arsenic on iron hydroxides is still considered as the most promising mechanism. This paper suggests an autonomous, solar driven arsenic removal setting and presents the findings of a long term field test conducted in West Bengal. The system applies an inline-electrolytic cell for in situ chlorine production using the natural chloride content of the water and by that substituting the external dosing of strong oxidants. Co-precipitation of As(V occurs on freshly formed iron hydroxide, which is removed by Manganese Greensand Plus® filtration. The test was conducted for ten months under changing source water conditions considering arsenic (187 ± 45 µg/L, iron (5.5 ± 0.8 mg/L, manganese (1.5 ± 0.4 mg/L, phosphate (2.4 ± 1.3 mg/L and ammonium (1.4 ± 0.5 mg/L concentrations. Depending on the system setting removal rates of 94% for arsenic (10 ± 4 µg/L, >99% for iron (0.03 ± 0.03 mg/L, 96% for manganese (0.06 ± 0.05 mg/L, 72% for phosphate (0.7 ± 0.3 mg/L and 84% for ammonium (0.18 ± 0.12 mg/L were achieved—without the addition of any chemicals/adsorbents. Loading densities of arsenic on iron hydroxides averaged to 31 µgAs/mgFe. As the test was performed under field conditions and the here proposed removal mechanisms work fully autonomously, it poses a technically feasible treatment alternative, especially for rural areas.

  20. Fialuridine induces acute liver failure in chimeric TK-NOG mice: a model for detecting hepatic drug toxicity prior to human testing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Xu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Seven of 15 clinical trial participants treated with a nucleoside analogue (fialuridine [FIAU] developed acute liver failure. Five treated participants died, and two required a liver transplant. Preclinical toxicology studies in mice, rats, dogs, and primates did not provide any indication that FIAU would be hepatotoxic in humans. Therefore, we investigated whether FIAU-induced liver toxicity could be detected in chimeric TK-NOG mice with humanized livers.Control and chimeric TK-NOG mice with humanized livers were treated orally with FIAU 400, 100, 25, or 2.5 mg/kg/d. The response to drug treatment was evaluated by measuring plasma lactate and liver enzymes, by assessing liver histology, and by electron microscopy. After treatment with FIAU 400 mg/kg/d for 4 d, chimeric mice developed clinical and serologic evidence of liver failure and lactic acidosis. Analysis of liver tissue revealed steatosis in regions with human, but not mouse, hepatocytes. Electron micrographs revealed lipid and mitochondrial abnormalities in the human hepatocytes in FIAU-treated chimeric mice. Dose-dependent liver toxicity was detected in chimeric mice treated with FIAU 100, 25, or 2.5 mg/kg/d for 14 d. Liver toxicity did not develop in control mice that were treated with the same FIAU doses for 14 d. In contrast, treatment with another nucleotide analogue (sofosbuvir 440 or 44 mg/kg/d po for 14 d, which did not cause liver toxicity in human trial participants, did not cause liver toxicity in mice with humanized livers.FIAU-induced liver toxicity could be readily detected using chimeric TK-NOG mice with humanized livers, even when the mice were treated with a FIAU dose that was only 10-fold above the dose used in human participants. The clinical features, laboratory abnormalities, liver histology, and ultra-structural changes observed in FIAU-treated chimeric mice mirrored those of FIAU-treated human participants. The use of chimeric mice in preclinical toxicology

  1. Fialuridine induces acute liver failure in chimeric TK-NOG mice: a model for detecting hepatic drug toxicity prior to human testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Dan; Nishimura, Toshi; Nishimura, Sachiko; Zhang, Haili; Zheng, Ming; Guo, Ying-Ying; Masek, Marylin; Michie, Sara A; Glenn, Jeffrey; Peltz, Gary

    2014-04-01

    Seven of 15 clinical trial participants treated with a nucleoside analogue (fialuridine [FIAU]) developed acute liver failure. Five treated participants died, and two required a liver transplant. Preclinical toxicology studies in mice, rats, dogs, and primates did not provide any indication that FIAU would be hepatotoxic in humans. Therefore, we investigated whether FIAU-induced liver toxicity could be detected in chimeric TK-NOG mice with humanized livers. Control and chimeric TK-NOG mice with humanized livers were treated orally with FIAU 400, 100, 25, or 2.5 mg/kg/d. The response to drug treatment was evaluated by measuring plasma lactate and liver enzymes, by assessing liver histology, and by electron microscopy. After treatment with FIAU 400 mg/kg/d for 4 d, chimeric mice developed clinical and serologic evidence of liver failure and lactic acidosis. Analysis of liver tissue revealed steatosis in regions with human, but not mouse, hepatocytes. Electron micrographs revealed lipid and mitochondrial abnormalities in the human hepatocytes in FIAU-treated chimeric mice. Dose-dependent liver toxicity was detected in chimeric mice treated with FIAU 100, 25, or 2.5 mg/kg/d for 14 d. Liver toxicity did not develop in control mice that were treated with the same FIAU doses for 14 d. In contrast, treatment with another nucleotide analogue (sofosbuvir 440 or 44 mg/kg/d po) for 14 d, which did not cause liver toxicity in human trial participants, did not cause liver toxicity in mice with humanized livers. FIAU-induced liver toxicity could be readily detected using chimeric TK-NOG mice with humanized livers, even when the mice were treated with a FIAU dose that was only 10-fold above the dose used in human participants. The clinical features, laboratory abnormalities, liver histology, and ultra-structural changes observed in FIAU-treated chimeric mice mirrored those of FIAU-treated human participants. The use of chimeric mice in preclinical toxicology studies could improve

  2. A Mixed Flavonoid-Fish Oil Supplement Induces Immune-Enhancing and Anti-Inflammatory Transcriptomic Changes in Adult Obese and Overweight Women—A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynn Cialdella-Kam

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Flavonoids and fish oils have anti-inflammatory and immune-modulating influences. The purpose of this study was to determine if a mixed flavonoid-fish oil supplement (Q-Mix; 1000 mg quercetin, 400 mg isoquercetin, 120 mg epigallocatechin (EGCG from green tea extract, 400 mg n3-PUFAs (omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (220 mg eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and 180 mg docosahexaenoic acid (DHA from fish oil, 1000 mg vitamin C, 40 mg niacinamide, and 800 µg folic acid would reduce complications associated with obesity; that is, reduce inflammatory and oxidative stress markers and alter genomic profiles in overweight women. Overweight and obese women (n = 48; age = 40–70 years were assigned to Q-Mix or placebo groups using randomized double-blinded placebo-controlled procedures. Overnight fasted blood samples were collected at 0 and 10 weeks and analyzed for cytokines, C-reactive protein (CRP, F2-isoprostanes, and whole-blood-derived mRNA, which was assessed using Affymetrix HuGene-1_1 ST arrays. Statistical analysis included two-way ANOVA models for blood analytes and gene expression and pathway and network enrichment methods for gene expression. Plasma levels increased with Q-Mix supplementation by 388% for quercetin, 95% for EPA, 18% for DHA, and 20% for docosapentaenoic acid (DPA. Q-Mix did not alter plasma levels for CRP (p = 0.268, F2-isoprostanes (p = 0.273, and cytokines (p > 0.05. Gene set enrichment analysis revealed upregulation of pathways in Q-Mix vs. placebo related to interferon-induced antiviral mechanism (false discovery rate, FDR < 0.001. Overrepresentation analysis further disclosed an inhibition of phagocytosis-related inflammatory pathways in Q-Mix vs. placebo. Thus, a 10-week Q-Mix supplementation elicited a significant rise in plasma quercetin, EPA, DHA, and DPA, as well as stimulated an antiviral and inflammation whole-blood transcriptomic response in overweight women.

  3. Demonstration of a 100-mJ OPO/OPA for future lidar applications and laser-induced damage threshold testing of optical components for MERLIN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsen, Florian; Livrozet, Marie; Strotkamp, Michael; Wüppen, Jochen; Jungbluth, Bernd; Kasemann, Raphael; Löhring, Jens; Meissner, Ansgar; Meyer, Rudolf; Hoffmann, Hans-Dieter; Poprawe, Reinhart

    2018-02-01

    In the field of atmospheric research, lidar is a powerful technology that can measure gas or aerosol concentrations, wind speed, or temperature profiles remotely. To conduct such measurements globally, spaceborne systems are advantageous. Pulse energies in the 100-mJ range are required to achieve highly accurate, longitudinal resolved measurements. Measuring concentrations of specific gases, such as CH4 or CO2, requires output wavelengths in the IR-B, which can be addressed by optical-parametric frequency conversion. An OPO/OPA frequency conversion setup was designed and built as a demonstration module to address the 1.6-μm range. The pump laser is an Nd:YAG-MOPA system, consisting of a stable oscillator and two subsequent Innoslab-based amplifier stages that deliver up to 500 mJ of output pulse energy at 100 Hz repetition frequency. The OPO is inherited from the OPO design for the CH4 lidar instrument on the French-German climate satellite methane remote-sensing lidar mission (MERLIN). To address the 100-mJ regime, the OPO output beam is amplified in a subsequent multistage OPA. With potassium titanyl phosphate as nonlinear medium, the OPO/OPA delivered more than 100 mJ of output energy at 1645 nm from 450 mJ of the pump energy and a pump pulse duration of 30 ns. This corresponds to a quantum conversion efficiency of about 25%. In addition to demonstrating optical performance for future lidar systems, this laser will be part of a laser-induced damage thresholds test facility, which will be used to qualify optical components especially for the MERLIN.

  4. Using biological and physico-chemical test methods to assess the role of concrete mixture design in resistance to microbially induced corrosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    House, Mitchell Wayne

    Concrete is the most widely used material for construction of wastewater collection, storage, and treatment infrastructure. The chemical and physical characteristics of hydrated portland cement make it susceptible to degradation under highly acidic conditions. As a result, some concrete wastewater infrastructure may be susceptible to a multi-stage degradation process known as microbially induced corrosion, or MIC. MIC begins with the production of aqueous hydrogen sulfide (H2S(aq)) by anaerobic sulfate reducing bacteria present below the waterline. H2S(aq) partitions to the gas phase where it is oxidized to sulfuric acid by the aerobic sulfur oxidizing bacteria Thiobacillus that resides on concrete surfaces above the waterline. Sulfuric acid then attacks the cement paste portion of the concrete matrix through decalcification of calcium hydroxide and calcium silica hydrate coupled with the formation of expansive corrosion products. The attack proceeds inward resulting in reduced service life and potential failure of the concrete structure. There are several challenges associated with assessing a concrete's susceptibility to MIC. First, no standard laboratory tests exist to assess concrete resistance to MIC. Straightforward reproduction of MIC in the laboratory is complicated by the use of microorganisms and hydrogen sulfide gas. Physico-chemical tests simulating MIC by immersing concrete specimens in sulfuric acid offer a convenient alternative, but do not accurately capture the damage mechanisms associated with biological corrosion. Comparison of results between research studies is difficult due to discrepancies that can arise in experimental methods even if current ASTM standards are followed. This thesis presents two experimental methods to evaluate concrete resistance to MIC: one biological and one physico-chemical. Efforts are made to address the critical aspects of each testing method currently absent in the literature. The first method presented is a new test

  5. Early metabolic responses to lithium/pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus in rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imran, Imran; Hillert, Markus H; Klein, Jochen

    2015-12-01

    The lithium-pilocarpine model of status epilepticus is a well-known animal model of temporal lobe epilepsy. We combined this model with in vivo microdialysis to investigate energy metabolites and acute cellular membrane damage during seizure development. Rats were implanted with dialysis probes and pretreated with lithium chloride (127 mg/kg i.p.). Twenty-four hours later, they received pilocarpine (30 mg/kg s.c.) which initiated seizures within 30 min. In the dialysate from rat hippocampus, we observed a transient increase in glucose and a prominent, five-fold increase in lactate during seizures. Lactate release was because of neuronal activation as it was strongly reduced by infusion of tetrodotoxin, administration of atropine or when seizures were terminated by diazepam or ketamine. In ex vivo assays, mitochondrial function as measured by respirometry was not affected by 90 min of seizures. Extracellular levels of choline, however, increased two-fold and glycerol levels 10-fold, which indicate cellular phospholipid breakdown during seizures. Within 60 min of pilocarpine administration, hydroxylation of salicylate increased two-fold and formation of isoprostanes 20-fold, revealing significant oxidative stress in hippocampal tissue. Increases in lactate, glycerol and isoprostanes were abrogated, and increases in choline were completely prevented, when hippocampal probes were perfused with calcium-free solution. Similarly, administration of pregabalin (100 mg/kg i.p.), a calcium channel ligand, 15 min prior to pilocarpine strongly attenuated parameters of membrane damage and oxidative stress. We conclude that seizure development in a rat model of status epilepticus is accompanied by increases in extracellular lactate, choline and glycerol, and by oxidative stress, while mitochondrial function remains intact for at least 90 min. Membrane damage depends on calcium influx and can be prevented by treatment with pregabalin. Status epilepticus (SE) was induced in rats by

  6. GluN2C/GluN2D subunit-selective NMDA receptor potentiator CIQ reverses MK-801-induced impairment in prepulse inhibition and working memory in Y-maze test in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryavanshi, P S; Ugale, R R; Yilmazer-Hanke, D; Stairs, D J; Dravid, S M

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose Despite ample evidence supporting the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) hypofunction hypothesis of schizophrenia, progress in the development of effective therapeutics based on this hypothesis has been limited. Facilitation of NMDA receptor function by co-agonists (d-serine or glycine) only partially alleviates the symptoms in schizophrenia; other means to facilitate NMDA receptors are required. NMDA receptor sub-types differ in their subunit composition, with varied GluN2 subunits (GluN2A-GluN2D) imparting different physiological, biochemical and pharmacological properties. CIQ is a positive allosteric modulator that is selective for GluN2C/GluN2D-containing NMDA receptors (Mullasseril et al.). Experimental Approach The effect of systemic administration of CIQ was tested on impairment in prepulse inhibition (PPI), hyperlocomotion and stereotypy induced by i.p. administration of MK-801 and methamphetamine. The effect of CIQ was also tested on MK-801-induced impairment in working memory in Y-maze spontaneous alternation test. Key Results We found that systemic administration of CIQ (20 mg·kg−1, i.p.) in mice reversed MK-801 (0.15 mg·kg−1, i.p.)-induced, but not methamphetamine (3 mg·kg−1, i.p.)-induced, deficit in PPI. MK-801 increased the startle amplitude to pulse alone, which was not reversed by CIQ. In contrast, methamphetamine reduced the startle amplitude to pulse alone, which was reversed by CIQ. CIQ also partially attenuated MK-801- and methamphetamine-induced hyperlocomotion and stereotyped behaviours. Additionally, CIQ reversed the MK-801-induced working memory deficit in spontaneous alternation in a Y-maze. Conclusion and Implications Together, these results suggest that facilitation of GluN2C/GluN2D-containing receptors may serve as an important therapeutic strategy for treating positive and cognitive symptoms in schizophrenia. PMID:24236947

  7. Exercise training attenuates sympathetic activation and oxidative stress in diet-induced obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, G; Liu, J-Y; Zhang, H-X; Li, Q; Zhang, S-W

    2015-01-01

    It is known that excessive sympathetic activity and oxidative stress are enhanced in obesity. This study aimed to clarify whether exercise training (ET) attenuates sympathetic activation and oxidative stress in obesity. The obesity was induced by high-fat diet (HFD) for 12 weeks. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to four groups: regular diet (RD) plus sedentary (RD-S), RD plus ET (RD-ET), HFD plus sedentary (HFD-S), and HFD plus ET (HFD-ET). The rats in RD-ET and HFD-ET groups were trained on a motorized treadmill for 60 min/day, five days/week for 8 weeks. The sympathetic activity was evaluated by the plasma norepinephrine (NE) level. The superoxide anion, malondialdehyde and F2-isoprostanes levels in serum and muscles were measured to evaluate oxidative stress. The ET prevented the increases in the body weight, arterial pressure and white adipose tissue mass in HFD rats. The NE level in plasma and oxidative stress related parameters got lower in HFD-ET group compared with HFD-S group. We have found decreased mRNA and protein levels of toll-like receptor (TLR)-2 and TLR-4 by ET in HFD rats. These findings suggest that ET may be effective for attenuating sympathetic activation and oxidative stress in diet-induced obesity.

  8. Effects of Exercise on Oxidative Stress in Rats Induced by Ozone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalina Martinez-Campos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress (OS induced by acute exercise is reduced by chronic exercise. Ozone (O3 exposure produces OS. The aim of this study was to determine if aerobic exercise (AE reduced OS produced by O3. A pilot experiment was performed with male Wistar rats submitted to AE (trained to swim 90 min/day. Adaptation to exercise was demonstrated three weeks after training by means of changes in reduced nitrates (NOx in plasma. Therefore, two-week training was chosen for the following experiments. Six of twelve trained rats were exposed to O3 (0.5 ppm, 4 h/day, one hour before exercise. Two groups of sedentary animals (n=6 each were used as controls, one of which was exposed to O3. At the end of the experiments NOx, 8-isoprostane (8-IP, malondialdehyde (MDA, superoxide dismutase (SOD activity, and carbonyls (CBs were measured in plasma. CBs did not change in any group. O3-induced OS was manifested by reduced NOx and SOD activity, as well as increased 8-IP and MDA. Exercise significantly blocked O3 effects although SOD was also decreased by exercise (a greater drop occurring in the O3 group. It is concluded that AE protects against OS produced by O3 and the effect is independent of SOD.

  9. Laser-induced micro-thermography - an innovative method of nondestructive testing of coatings. Laserinduzierte Mikrothermographie - ein innovatives ZfP-Verfahren zur Pruefung von Beschichtungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radtke, U; Crostack, H A; Peppler, P; Winschuh, E

    1992-01-01

    The described, innovative NDT method of the laser-induced thermowave analysis, also called laser-induced microthermography, permits the 3D imaging of thermal characteristics with high axial and lateral resolution. The results show that the method is suitable for the quality control of coatings and yields information on thickness, thermal homogeneity and adhesion as well as valuable additional information, as compared to conventional metallography. (orig.)

  10. Chemokines, macrophage inflammatory protein-2 and stromal cell-derived factor-1{alpha}, suppress amyloid {beta}-induced neurotoxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raman, Dayanidhi; Milatovic, Snjezana-Zaja [Department of Cancer Biology, Vanderbilt University, School of Medicine, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Milatovic, Dejan [Department of Pediatrics/Pediatric Toxicology, Vanderbilt University, School of Medicine, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Splittgerber, Ryan [Department of Cancer Biology, Vanderbilt University, School of Medicine, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Fan, Guo-Huang [Department of Neurobiology and Neurotoxicology, Meharry Medical College, Nashville, TN 37221 (United States); Richmond, Ann, E-mail: ann.richmond@vanderbilt.edu [VA Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Department of Cancer Biology, Vanderbilt University, School of Medicine, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States)

    2011-11-15

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by a progressive cognitive decline and accumulation of neurotoxic oligomeric peptides amyloid-{beta} (A{beta}). Although the molecular events are not entirely known, it has become evident that inflammation, environmental and other risk factors may play a causal, disruptive and/or protective role in the development of AD. The present study investigated the ability of the chemokines, macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2) and stromal cell-derived factor-1{alpha} (SDF-1{alpha}), the respective ligands for chemokine receptors CXCR2 and CXCR4, to suppress A{beta}-induced neurotoxicity in vitro and in vivo. Pretreatment with MIP-2 or SDF-1{alpha} significantly protected neurons from A{beta}-induced dendritic regression and apoptosis in vitro through activation of Akt, ERK1/2 and maintenance of metalloproteinase ADAM17 especially with SDF-1{alpha}. Intra-cerebroventricular (ICV) injection of A{beta} led to reduction in dendritic length and spine density of pyramidal neurons in the CA1 area of the hippocampus and increased oxidative damage 24 h following the exposure. The A{beta}-induced morphometric changes of neurons and increase in biomarkers of oxidative damage, F{sub 2}-isoprostanes, were significantly inhibited by pretreatment with the chemokines MIP-2 or SDF-1{alpha}. Additionally, MIP-2 or SDF-1{alpha} was able to suppress the aberrant mislocalization of p21-activated kinase (PAK), one of the proteins involved in the maintenance of dendritic spines. Furthermore, MIP-2 also protected neurons against A{beta} neurotoxicity in CXCR2-/- mice, potentially through observed up regulation of CXCR1 mRNA. Understanding the neuroprotective potential of chemokines is crucial in defining the role for their employment during the early stages of neurodegeneration. -- Research highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Neuroprotective ability of the chemokines MIP2 and CXCL12 against A{beta} toxicity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MIP

  11. Chemokines, macrophage inflammatory protein-2 and stromal cell-derived factor-1α, suppress amyloid β-induced neurotoxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raman, Dayanidhi; Milatovic, Snjezana-Zaja; Milatovic, Dejan; Splittgerber, Ryan; Fan, Guo-Huang; Richmond, Ann

    2011-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by a progressive cognitive decline and accumulation of neurotoxic oligomeric peptides amyloid-β (Aβ). Although the molecular events are not entirely known, it has become evident that inflammation, environmental and other risk factors may play a causal, disruptive and/or protective role in the development of AD. The present study investigated the ability of the chemokines, macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2) and stromal cell-derived factor-1α (SDF-1α), the respective ligands for chemokine receptors CXCR2 and CXCR4, to suppress Aβ-induced neurotoxicity in vitro and in vivo. Pretreatment with MIP-2 or SDF-1α significantly protected neurons from Aβ-induced dendritic regression and apoptosis in vitro through activation of Akt, ERK1/2 and maintenance of metalloproteinase ADAM17 especially with SDF-1α. Intra-cerebroventricular (ICV) injection of Aβ led to reduction in dendritic length and spine density of pyramidal neurons in the CA1 area of the hippocampus and increased oxidative damage 24 h following the exposure. The Aβ-induced morphometric changes of neurons and increase in biomarkers of oxidative damage, F 2 -isoprostanes, were significantly inhibited by pretreatment with the chemokines MIP-2 or SDF-1α. Additionally, MIP-2 or SDF-1α was able to suppress the aberrant mislocalization of p21-activated kinase (PAK), one of the proteins involved in the maintenance of dendritic spines. Furthermore, MIP-2 also protected neurons against Aβ neurotoxicity in CXCR2−/− mice, potentially through observed up regulation of CXCR1 mRNA. Understanding the neuroprotective potential of chemokines is crucial in defining the role for their employment during the early stages of neurodegeneration. -- Research highlights: ► Neuroprotective ability of the chemokines MIP2 and CXCL12 against Aβ toxicity. ► MIP-2 or CXCL12 prevented dendritic regression and apoptosis in vitro. ► Neuroprotection through activation of Akt, ERK

  12. An Examination of the Counting Talk Test's Ability to Discern Individual Variability in Exercise-Induced Metabolic Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonafiglia, Jacob T.; Sawula, Laura J.; Gurd, Brendon J.

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if the counting talk test can be used to discern whether an individual is exercising above or at/below maximal lactate steady state. Twenty-two participants completed VO[subscript 2]peak and counting talk test incremental step tests followed by an endurance test at 65% of work rate at VO[subscript 2]peak…

  13. Validation of basophil histamine release against the autologous serum skin test and outcome of serum-induced basophil histamine release studies in a large population of chronic urticaria patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Platzer, M H; Grattan, C E H; Poulsen, Lars K.

    2005-01-01

    the immunoglobulin E (IgE) or the high affinity IgE receptor (FcepsilonRI) and serum-induced histamine release (HR) from basophils and mast cells. We have examined the correlation between the ASST and a new basophil histamine-releasing assay (the HR-Urtikaria test) in a group of well-characterized CU patients...... and subsequently determined the frequency of HR-Urticaria-positive sera from a larger population of CU patients....

  14. Induced Abortion

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Induced Abortion Home For Patients Search FAQs Induced Abortion Page ... Induced Abortion FAQ043, May 2015 PDF Format Induced Abortion Special Procedures What is an induced abortion? What ...

  15. Contextual Match and Cue-Independence of Retrieval-Induced Forgetting: Testing the Prediction of the Model by Norman, Newman, and Detre (2007)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanczakowski, Maciej; Mazzoni, Giuliana

    2013-01-01

    Retrieval-induced forgetting (RIF) is the finding of impaired memory performance for information stored in long-term memory due to retrieval of a related set of information. This phenomenon is often assigned to operations of a specialized mechanism recruited to resolve interference during retrieval by deactivating competing memory representations.…

  16. Validation of the RELAP5 code for the modeling of flashing-induced instabilities under natural-circulation conditions using experimental data from the CIRCUS test facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozmenkov, Y. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V. (FZD), Institute of Safety Research, P.O.B. 510119, D-01324 Dresden (Germany); Institute of Physics and Power Engineering, Obninsk (Russian Federation); Rohde, U., E-mail: U.Rohde@hzdr.de [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V. (FZD), Institute of Safety Research, P.O.B. 510119, D-01324 Dresden (Germany); Manera, A. [Paul Scherrer Institute (Switzerland)

    2012-02-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We report about the simulation of flashing-induced instabilities in natural circulation systems. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Flashing-induced instabilities are of relevance for operation of pool-type reactors of small power at low pressure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The RELAP5 code is validated against measurement data from natural circulation experiments. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The magnitude and frequency of the oscillations were reproduced in good agreement with the measurement data. - Abstract: This paper reports on the use of the RELAP5 code for the simulation of flashing-induced instabilities in natural circulation systems. The RELAP 5 code is intended to be used for the simulation of transient processes in the Russian RUTA reactor concept operating at atmospheric pressure with forced convection of coolant. However, during transient processes, natural circulation with flashing-induced instabilities might occur. The RELAP5 code is validated against measurement data from natural circulation experiments performed within the framework of a European project (NACUSP) on the CIRCUS facility. The facility, built at the Delft University of Technology in The Netherlands, is a water/steam 1:1 height-scaled loop of a typical natural-circulation-cooled BWR. It was shown that the RELAP5 code is able to model all relevant phenomena related to flashing induced instabilities. The magnitude and frequency of the oscillations were reproduced in a good agreement with the measurement data. The close correspondence to the experiments was reached by detailed modeling of all components of the CIRCUS facility including the heat exchanger, the buffer vessel and the steam dome at the top of the facility.

  17. Arsenic Removal from Groundwater by Solar Driven Inline-Electrolytic Induced Co-Precipitation and Filtration—A Long Term Field Test Conducted in West Bengal

    OpenAIRE

    Otter, Philipp; Malakar, Pradyut; Jana, Bana Bihari; Grischek, Thomas; Benz, Florian; Goldmaier, Alexander; Feistel, Ulrike; Jana, Joydev; Lahiri, Susmita; Alvarez, Juan Antonio

    2017-01-01

    Arsenic contamination in drinking water resources is of major concern in the Ganga delta plains of West Bengal in India and Bangladesh. Here, several laboratory and field studies on arsenic removal from drinking water resources were conducted in the past and the application of strong-oxidant-induced co-precipitation of arsenic on iron hydroxides is still considered as the most promising mechanism. This paper suggests an autonomous, solar driven arsenic removal setting and presents the finding...

  18. Non-contact test of coating by means of laser-induced ultrasonic excitation and holographic sound representation. Beruehrungslose Pruefung von Beschichtungen mittels laserinduzierter Ultraschallanregung und holographischer Schallabbildung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crostack, H A; Pohl, K Y [QZ-DO Qualitaetszentrum Dortmund GmbH und Co. KG (Germany); Radtke, U [Dortmund Univ. (Germany). Fachgebiet Qualitaetskontrolle

    1991-01-01

    In order to circumvent the problems of introducing and picking off sound, which occur in conventional ultrasonic testing, a completely non-contact test process was developed. The ultrasonic surface wave required for the test is generated without contact by absorption of laser beams. The recording of the ultrasound also occurs by a non-contact holographic interferometry technique, which permits a large scale representation of the sound. Using the example of MCrAlY and ZrO[sub 2] layers, the suitability of the process for testing thermally sprayed coatings on metal substrates is identified. The possibilities and limits of the process for the detection and description of delamination and cracks are shown. (orig.).

  19. Review of the Reported Measures of Clinical Validity and Clinical Utility as Arguments for the Implementation of Pharmacogenetic Testing: A Case Study of Statin-Induced Muscle Toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marleen E. Jansen

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Advances from pharmacogenetics (PGx have not been implemented into health care to the expected extent. One gap that will be addressed in this study is a lack of reporting on clinical validity and clinical utility of PGx-tests. A systematic review of current reporting in scientific literature was conducted on publications addressing PGx in the context of statins and muscle toxicity. Eighty-nine publications were included and information was selected on reported measures of effect, arguments, and accompanying conclusions. Most authors report associations to quantify the relationship between a genetic variation an outcome, such as adverse drug responses. Conclusions on the implementation of a PGx-test are generally based on these associations, without explicit mention of other measures relevant to evaluate the test's clinical validity and clinical utility. To gain insight in the clinical impact and select useful tests, additional outcomes are needed to estimate the clinical validity and utility, such as cost-effectiveness.

  20. Effect of desipramine and citalopram treatment on forced swimming test-induced changes in cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) immunoreactivity in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Sung; Kim, Hee Jeong; Kim, Hyun Ju; Choi, Sun Hye; Kim, Jin Wook; Kim, Jeong Min; Shin, Kyung Ho

    2014-05-01

    Recent study demonstrates antidepressant-like effect of cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) in the forced swimming test (FST), but less is known about whether antidepressant treatments alter levels of CART immunoreactivity (CART-IR) in the FST. To explore this possibility, we assessed the treatment effects of desipramine and citalopram, which inhibit the reuptake of norepinephrine and serotonin into the presynaptic terminals, respectively, on changes in levels of CART-IR before and after the test swim in mouse brain. Levels of CART-IR in the nucleus accumbens shell (AcbSh), dorsal bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (dBNST), and hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) were significantly increased before the test swim by desipramine and citalopram treatments. This increase in CART-IR in the AcbSh, dBNST, and PVN before the test swim remained elevated by desipramine treatment after the test swim, but this increase in these brain areas returned to near control levels after test swim by citalopram treatment. Citalopram, but not desipramine, treatment increased levels of CART-IR in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) and the locus ceruleus (LC) before the test swim, and this increase was returned to control levels after the test swim in the CeA, but not in the LC. These results suggest common and distinct regulation of CART by desipramine and citalopram treatments in the FST and raise the possibility that CART in the AcbSh, dBNST, and CeA may be involved in antidepressant-like effect in the FST.

  1. Protection of DFP-induced oxidative damage and neurodegeneration by antioxidants and NMDA receptor antagonist

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaja-Milatovic, Snjezana; Gupta, Ramesh C.; Aschner, Michael; Milatovic, Dejan

    2009-01-01

    Prophylactic agents acutely administered in response to anticholinesterases intoxication can prevent toxic symptoms, including fasciculations, seizures, convulsions and death. However, anticholinesterases also have long-term unknown pathophysiological effects, making rational prophylaxis/treatment problematic. Increasing evidence suggests that in addition to excessive cholinergic stimulation, organophosphate compounds such as diisopropylphosphorofluoridate (DFP) induce activation of glutamatergic neurons, generation of reactive oxygen (ROS) and nitrogen species (RNS), leading to neurodegeneration. The present study investigated multiple affectors of DFP exposure critical to cerebral oxidative damage and whether antioxidants and NMDA receptor antagonist memantine provide neuroprotection by preventing DFP-induced biochemical and morphometric changes in rat brain. Rats treated acutely with DFP (1.25 mg/kg, s.c.) developed onset of toxicity signs within 7-15 min that progressed to maximal severity of seizures and fasciculations within 60 min. At this time point, DFP caused significant (p 2 -isoprostanes, F 2 -IsoPs; and F 4 -neuroprostanes, F 4 -NeuroPs), RNS (citrulline), and declines in high-energy phosphates (HEP) in rat cerebrum. At the same time, quantitative morphometric analysis of pyramidal neurons of the hippocampal CA1 region revealed significant (p 2 -IsoPs, F 4 -NeuroPs, citrulline, and depletion of HEP were noted. Furthermore, attenuation in oxidative damage following antioxidants or memantine pretreatment was accompanied by rescue from dendritic degeneration of pyramidal neurons in the CA1 hippocampal area. These findings closely associated DFP-induced lipid peroxidation with dendritic degeneration of pyramidal neurons in the CA1 hippocampal area and point to possible interventions to limit oxidative injury and dendritic degeneration induced by anticholinesterase neurotoxicity.

  2. Free radical scavenging reverses fructose-induced salt-sensitive hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zenner ZP

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Zachary P Zenner, Kevin L Gordish, William H Beierwaltes Department of Internal Medicine, Hypertension and Vascular Research Division, Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, MI, USA Abstract: We have previously reported that a moderate dietary supplementation of 20% fructose but not glucose leads to a salt-sensitive hypertension related to increased proximal sodium–hydrogen exchanger activity and increased renal sodium retention. We also found that while high salt increased renal nitric oxide formation, this was retarded in the presence of fructose intake. We hypothesized that at least part of the pathway leading to fructose-induced salt-sensitive hypertension could be due to fructose-induced formation of reactive oxygen species and inappropriate stimulation of renin secretion, all of which would contribute to an increase in blood pressure. We found that both 20% fructose intake and a high-salt diet stimulated 8-isoprostane excretion. The superoxide dismutase (SOD mimetic tempol significantly reduced this elevated excretion. Next, we placed rats on a high-salt diet (4% for 1 week in combination with normal rat chow or 20% fructose with or without chronic tempol administration. A fructose plus high-salt diet induced a rapid increase (15 mmHg in systolic blood pressure and reversed high salt suppression of plasma renin activity. Tempol treatment reversed the pressor response and restored high salt suppression of renin. We conclude that fructose-induced salt-sensitive hypertension is driven by increased renal reactive oxygen species formation associated with salt retention and an enhanced renin–angiotensin system. Keywords: reactive oxygen species, tempol, sodium, renin, oxidative stress

  3. Selected biomarkers as predictive tools in testing efficacy of melatonin and coenzyme Q on propionic acid - induced neurotoxicity in rodent model of autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ghamdi, Mashael; Al-Ayadhi, Laila; El-Ansary, Afaf

    2014-02-25

    Exposures to environmental toxins are now thought to contribute to the development of autism spectrum disorder. Propionic acid (PA) found as a metabolic product of gut bacteria has been reported to mimic/mediate the neurotoxic effects of autism. Results from animal studies may guide investigations on human populations toward identifying environmental contaminants that produce or drugs that protect from neurotoxicity. Forty-eight young male Western Albino rats were used in the present study. They were grouped into six equal groups 8 rats each. The first group received a neurotoxic dose of buffered PA (250 mg/Kg body weight/day for 3 consecutive days). The second group received only phosphate buffered saline (control group). The third and fourth groups were intoxicated with PA as described above followed by treatment with either coenzyme Q (4.5 mg/kg body weight) or melatonin (10 mg/kg body weight) for one week (therapeutically treated groups). The fifth and sixth groups were administered both compounds for one week prior to PA (protected groups). Heat shock protein70 (Hsp70), Gamma amino-butyric acid (GABA), serotonin, dopamine, oxytocin and interferon γ-inducible protein 16 together with Comet DNA assay were measured in brain tissues of the six studied groups. The obtained data showed that PA caused multiple signs of brain toxicity revealed in depletion of GABA, serotonin, and dopamine, are which important neurotransmitters that reflect brain function, interferon γ-inducible protein 16 and oxytocin. A high significant increase in tail length, tail DNA% damage and tail moment was reported indicating the genotoxic effect of PA. Administration of melatonin or coenzyme Q showed both protective and therapeutic effects on PA-treated rats demonstrated in a remarkable amelioration of most of the measured parameters. In conclusion, melatonin and coenzyme Q have potential protective and restorative effects against PA-induced brain injury, confirmed by improvement in

  4. The definition, diagnostic testing, and management of chronic inducible urticarias - The EAACI/GA(2) LEN/EDF/UNEV consensus recommendations 2016 update and revision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magerl, M; Altrichter, S; Borzova, E; Giménez-Arnau, A; Grattan, C E H; Lawlor, F; Mathelier-Fusade, P; Meshkova, R Y; Zuberbier, T; Metz, M; Maurer, M

    2016-06-01

    These recommendations for the definition, diagnosis and management of chronic inducible urticaria (CIndU) extend, revise and update our previous consensus report on physical urticarias and cholinergic urticaria (Allergy, 2009). The aim of these recommendations is to improve the diagnosis and management of patients with CIndU. Our recommendations acknowledge the latest changes in our understanding of CIndU, and the available therapeutic options, as well as the development of novel diagnostic tools. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Testing the ability of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus to evade the protective immune response induced in rainbow trout by DNA vaccination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sepulveda, Dagoberto; Lorenzen, Niels

    2013-01-01

    , this work aims to evaluate whether VHSV is able to evade the protective immune response induced by the DNA vaccination. Earlier studies have demonstrated that VHSV can evade the neutralizing effect of monoclonal antibodies by mutations in the glycoprotein gene. One approach of the present study is therefore...... to try to isolate VHSV variants which can escape the neutralizing activity of serum from fish immunized with the DNA vaccine. To do so, a highly pathogenic VHSV isolate (DK3592B) will be repeatedly passaged in fish cell cultures in the presence of neutralizing fish serum. Another approach comprises...

  6. [Protective effect of Liuweidihuang Pills against cellphone electromagnetic radiation-induced histomorphological abnormality, oxidative injury, and cell apoptosis in rat testes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hui-rong; Cao, Xiao-hui; Ma, Xue-lian; Chen, Jin-jin; Chen, Jing-wei; Yang, Hui; Liu, Yun-xiao

    2015-08-01

    To observe the effect of Liuweidihuang Pills in relieving cellphone electromagnetic radiation-induced histomorphological abnormality, oxidative injury, and cell apoptosis in the rat testis. Thirty adult male SD rats were equally randomized into a normal, a radiated, and a Liuweidihuang group, the animals in the latter two groups exposed to electromagnetic radiation of 900 MHz cellphone frequency 4 hours a day for 18 days. Meanwhile, the rats in the Liuweidihuang group were treated with the suspension of Liuweidihuang Pills at 1 ml/100 g body weight and the other rats intragastrically with the equal volume of purified water. Then all the rats were killed for observation of testicular histomorphology by routine HE staining, measurement of testicular malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione (GSH) levels by colorimetry, and determination of the expressions of bax and bcl-2 proteins in the testis tissue by immunohistochemistry. Compared with the normal controls, the radiated rats showed obviously loose structure, reduced layers of spermatocytes, and cavitation in the seminiferous tubules. Significant increases were observed in the MDA level (P radiated rats. In comparison with the radiated rats, those of the Liuweidihuang group exhibited nearly normal testicular structure, significantly lower MDA level (P electromagnetic radiation-induced histomorphological abnormality of the testis tissue and reduce its oxidative damage and cell apoptosis.

  7. Effects of Cuminum cyminum L. essential oil on some epididymal sperm parameters and histopathology of testes following experimentally induced copper poisoning in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakhaee, E; Emadi, L; Azari, O; Kheirandish, R; Esmaili Nejad, M R; Shafiei Bafti, H

    2016-06-01

    Copper overload can cause sperm cell damage by inducing oxidative stress. On the other hand, cumin has a good antioxidant potential. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of cumin on sperm quality and testicular tissue following experimentally induced copper poisoning in mice. Forty-eight mature male mice were divided into four equal groups as follows: group Cu which received 0.1 ml copper sulphate at dose of 100 mg kg(-1) , group Cc which received Cuminum cyminum at dose of 1 mg kg(-1) , treatment group which received copper sulphate (100 mg kg(-1) ) and treated with Cuminum cyminum (1 mg kg(-1) ), and control group which received the same volume of normal saline. Six mice in each group were sacrificed at week 4 and week 6. The results showed that sperm concentration, motility and viability in group Cu were significantly decreased at weeks 4 and 6, and severe degenerative changes were observed in testicular tissues in comparison with the control group. In treatment group, significant improvement in the sperm count, motility and viability, and normal architecture in most seminiferous tubules with organised epithelium was observed compared to the group Cu. The sperm quality parameters in the treatment group approached those of the control group. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  8. Processed coffee alleviates DSS-induced colitis in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernd L. Fiebich

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTBackground: Coffee is one of the most widely consumed beverages in the world and it has been demonstrated that it has important therapeutic activities not only because of its caffeine content but also owing to the presence of other biologically active small molecules such as chlorogenic acid, trigonelline and cyclopentadiones. However, chlorogenic acid is degraded into catechol, pyrogallol and hydroxyhydroquinone, which are thought to induce irritation of the gastric mucosa. To reduce the content of irritant compounds processing methods have been developed prior to roasting the coffee beans.Objectives: The aim of this study was to study the anti-inflammatory and gastro-protective effects of processed coffee (Idee-Kaffee on in LPS-treated human primary monocytes and in a murine model of colon inflammation (IBD model.Results: In this study we have analyzed the effects on inflammatory events in cultured cells and in mice drinking a commercially available processed coffee. The processed coffee inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced proinflammatory cytokines such as interleukin (IL-1, tumor necrosis factor (TNF, IL-6 and IL-8, and other inflammatory mediators such as prostaglandin (PGE2 and 8-isoprostane in cultured human primary monocytes. Oral administration of dissolved processed coffee, i.e., in its usual beverage form, improved greatly the adverse macroscopic and histological features of dextran sodium sulfate (DSS-induced colitis in mice in a dose-dependent manner. Processed coffee not only largely prevented DSS-induced colitis but also dramatically suppressed in vivo NF-B and STAT3 activities through inhibition of IB and STAT3 phosphorylation. Furthermore, this solubleFunctional Foods in Health and Disease 2013; 3(5:133-145coffee bean extract reduced the expression of proinflammatory cytokines TNF, IL-11, and IL-6 and the expression of cyclooxygenase (COX-2 in colonic tissues.Conclusions: This work identified

  9. Evaluation of sulfate reduction at experimentally induced mixing interfaces using small-scale push-pull tests in an aquifer-wetland system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kneeshaw, Tara A.; McGuire, Jennifer T.; Smith, Erik W.; Cozzarelli, Isabelle M.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents small-scale push-pull tests designed to evaluate the kinetic controls on SO 4 2- reduction in situ at mixing interfaces between a wetland and aquifer impacted by landfill leachate at the Norman Landfill research site, Norman, OK. Quantifying the rates of redox reactions initiated at interfaces is of great interest because interfaces have been shown to be zones of increased biogeochemical transformations and thus may play an important role in natural attenuation. To mimic the aquifer-wetland interface and evaluate reaction rates, SO 4 2- -rich anaerobic aquifer water (∼100mg/LSO 4 2- ) was introduced into SO 4 2- -depleted wetland porewater via push-pull tests. Results showed SO 4 2- reduction was stimulated by the mixing of these waters and first-order rate coefficients were comparable to those measured in other push-pull studies. However, rate data were complex involving either multiple first-order rate coefficients or a more complex rate order. In addition, a lag phase was observed prior to SO 4 2- reduction that persisted until the mixing interface between test solution and native water was recovered, irrespective of temporal and spatial constraints. The lag phase was not eliminated by the addition of electron donor (acetate) to the injected test solution. Subsequent push-pull tests designed to elucidate the nature of the lag phase support the importance of the mixing interface in controlling terminal electron accepting processes. These data suggest redox reactions may occur rapidly at the mixing interface between injected and native waters but not in the injected bulk water mass. Under these circumstances, push-pull test data should be evaluated to ensure the apparent rate is actually a function of time and that complexities in rate data be considered

  10. Phase analysis of gated blood pool SPECT for multiple stress testing assessments of ventricular mechanical dyssynchrony in a tachycardia-induced dilated cardiomyopathy canine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salimian, Samaneh; Thibault, Bernard; Finnerty, Vincent; Grégoire, Jean; Harel, François

    2017-02-01

    Stress-induced dyssynchrony has been shown to be independently correlated with clinical outcomes in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) and narrow QRS complexes. However, the extent to which stress levels affect inter- and intraventricular dyssynchrony parameters remains unknown. Ten large dogs were submitted to tachycardia-induced DCM by pacing the right ventricular apex for 3-4 weeks to reach a target ejection fraction (EF) of 35% or less. Stress was then induced in DCM dogs by administering intravenous dobutamine up to a maximum of 20 μg·kg -1 ·min -1 . Hemodynamic and ventricular dyssynchrony data were analyzed by left ventricular (LV) pressure measurements and gated blood pool SPECT (GBPS) imaging. In order to assess mechanical dyssynchrony in DCM subjects and compare it with that of 8 normal counterparts, we extracted the following data: count-based indices of LV contraction homogeneity index (CHI), entropy and phase standard deviation, and interventricular dyssynchrony index. A significant LV intraventricular dyssynchrony (CHI: 96.4 ± 1.3% in control vs 78.6% ± 10.9% in DCM subjects) resulted in an intense LV dysfunction in DCM subjects (EF: 49.5% ± 8.4% in control vs 22.6% ± 6.0% in DCM), compared to control subjects. However, interventricular dyssynchrony did not vary significantly between the two groups. Under stress, DCM subjects showed a significant improvement in ventricular functional parameters at each level (EF: 22.6% ± 6.0% at rest vs 48.1% ± 5.8% at maximum stress). All intraventricular dyssynchrony indices showed a significant increase in magnitude of synchrony from baseline to stress levels of greater than or equal to 5 μg·kg -1 ·min -1 dobutamine. There were individual differences in the magnitude and pattern of change in interventricular dyssynchrony during the various levels of stress. Based on GBPS analyses, different levels of functional stress, even in close intervals, can have a significant impact on

  11. Earthquake induced rock shear through a deposition hole. Modelling of three model tests scaled 1:10. Verification of the bentonite material model and the calculation technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boergesson, Lennart (Clay Technology AB, Lund (Sweden)); Hernelind, Jan (5T Engineering AB, Vaesteraas (Sweden))

    2010-11-15

    Three model shear tests of very high quality simulating a horizontal rock shear through a deposition hole in the centre of a canister were performed 1986. The tests and the results are described by /Boergesson 1986/. The tests simulated a deposition hole in the scale 1:10 with reference density of the buffer, very stiff confinement simulating the rock, and a solid bar of copper simulating the canister. The three tests were almost identical with exception of the rate of shear, which was varied between 0.031 and 160 mm/s, i.e. with a factor of more than 5,000 and the density of the bentonite, which differed slightly. The tests were very well documented. Shear force, shear rate, total stress in the bentonite, strain in the copper and the movement of the top of the simulated canister were measured continuously during the shear. After finished shear the equipment was dismantled and careful sampling of the bentonite with measurement of water ratio and density were made. The deformed copper 'canister' was also carefully measured after the test. The tests have been modelled with the finite element code Abaqus with the same models and techniques that were used for the full scale scenarios in SR-Site. The results have been compared with the measured results, which has yielded very valuable information about the relevancy of the material models and the modelling technique. An elastic-plastic material model was used for the bentonite where the stress-strain relations have been derived from laboratory tests. The material model is made a function of both the density and the strain rate at shear. Since the shear is fast and takes place under undrained conditions, the density is not changed during the tests. However, strain rate varies largely with both the location of the elements and time. This can be taken into account in Abaqus by making the material model a function of the strain rate for each element. A similar model, based on tensile tests on the copper used in

  12. A pilot randomised trial of induced blood-stage Plasmodium falciparum infections in healthy volunteers for testing efficacy of new antimalarial drugs.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McCarthy, J.S.; Sekuloski, S.; Griffin, P.M.; Elliott, S.; Douglas, N.; Peatey, C.; Rockett, R.; O'Rourke, P.; Marquart, L.; Hermsen, C.C.; Duparc, S.; Mohrle, J.; Trenholme, K.R.; Humberstone, A.J.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Critical to the development of new drugs for treatment of malaria is the capacity to safely evaluate their activity in human subjects. The approach that has been most commonly used is testing in subjects with natural malaria infection, a methodology that may expose symptomatic subjects

  13. Output capabilities of personal music players and assessment of preferred listening levels of test subjects: outlining recommendations for preventing music-induced hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breinbauer, Hayo A; Anabalón, Jose L; Gutierrez, Daniela; Cárcamo, Rodrigo; Olivares, Carla; Caro, Jorge

    2012-11-01

    Our goal was to assess the impact of personal music players, earphones, and music styles on output, the subject's preferred listening levels, and outline recommendations for the prevention of music-induced hearing loss. Experimental study. Personal music players' output capabilities and volunteers' preferred output levels were assessed in different settings. Based on current noise-induced hearing loss exposure limits, recommendations were outlined. On three different devices and earphone types and 10 music styles, free field equivalent sound pressure output levels were assessed by applying a microphone probe inside the auditory canal. Forty-five hearing-healthy volunteers were asked to select preferred listening levels in different background noise scenarios. Sound pressure output reached 126 dB. No difference was found between device types, whereas earbud and supra-aural earphones showed significantly lower outputs than in-ear earphones (P music style groups were identified with as much as 14.4 dB difference between them. In silence, 17.8% of volunteers spontaneously selected a listening level above 85 dB. With 90 dB background noise, 40% selected a level above 94 dB. Earphone attenuation capability was found to correlate significantly with preferred level reductions (r = 0.585, P < .001). In-ear and especially supra-aural earphones reduced preferred listening levels the most. Safe-use recommendations were outlined, whereas selecting the lowest volume setting comfortable remained the main suggestion. High background noise attenuating earphones may help in reducing comfortable listening levels and should be preferred. A risk table was elaborated, presenting time limits before reaching a risky exposure. Copyright © 2012 The American Laryngological, Rhinological, and Otological Society, Inc.

  14. Cigarette smoke induced genotoxicity and respiratory tract pathology: evidence to support reduced exposure time and animal numbers in tobacco product testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalrymple, Annette; Ordoñez, Patricia; Thorne, David; Walker, David; Camacho, Oscar M; Büttner, Ansgar; Dillon, Debbie; Meredith, Clive

    2016-06-01

    Many laboratories are working to develop in vitro models that will replace in vivo tests, but occasionally there remains a regulatory expectation of some in vivo testing. Historically, cigarettes have been tested in vivo for 90 days. Recently, methods to reduce and refine animal use have been explored. This study investigated the potential of reducing animal cigarette smoke (CS) exposure to 3 or 6 weeks, and the feasibility of separate lung lobes for histopathology or the Comet assay. Rats were exposed to sham air or CS (1 or 2 h) for 3 or 6 weeks. Respiratory tissues were processed for histopathological evaluation, and Alveolar type II cells (AEC II) isolated for the Comet assay. Blood was collected for Pig-a and micronucleus quantification. Histopathological analyses demonstrated exposure effects, which were generally dependent on CS dose (1 or 2 h, 5 days/week). Comet analysis identified that DNA damage increased in AEC II following 3 or 6 weeks CS exposure, and the level at 6 weeks was higher than 3 weeks. Pig-a mutation or micronucleus levels were not increased. In conclusion, this study showed that 3 weeks of CS exposure was sufficient to observe respiratory tract pathology and DNA damage in isolated AEC II. Differences between the 3 and 6 week data imply that DNA damage in the lung is cumulative. Reducing exposure time, plus analyzing separate lung lobes for DNA damage or histopathology, supports a strategy to reduce and refine animal use in tobacco product testing and is aligned to the 3Rs (replacement, reduction and refinement).

  15. Spontaneous micronucleus frequencies in human peripheral blood lymphocytes as a screening test for an individual variation in a different population and radiation-induced micronucleus induction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Chang-Mo; Jeon, Hye-Jeong; Cho, Chul-Koo

    2004-01-01

    Our studies were to evaluate the role of epigenetic factors in the variation of radiosensitivity on human peripheral blood lymphocytes by measuring the frequencies of micronucleus (MN) from 293 healthy subjects of different population for assessing the radiation health risk in Korea. We analyzed the frequencies of both spontaneous and in vitro 60 Co γ-rays or 50MeV neutron-induced MNs. The frequencies of spontaneous NMs not only vary greatly between individuals, but also working or living areas. The increased levels of cells with spontaneous MNs were observed with an increasing age. The frequencies of spontaneous MNs were significantly higher in females than in males. For both sexes, MN frequency was significantly and positively correlated with age. Age and gender are the most important demographic variables impacting on the MN index. Donors who had ever smoked showed significantly increased frequencies of MNs compared to nonsmokers. The main lifestyle factors influencing the MN index in the subjects are correlated significantly and positively with smoke while measuring the spontaneous frequencies of micronuclei. Therefore, it is evident that with regard to the application of MN assay all future studies to evaluate the association between radiosensitivity and susceptibility for radiation health risks in different populations should take into account the effect of age, gender and lifestyle. For the dose-response study, the induced MNs were observed at all doses, and the numerical changes according to doses. The dose-response curves were fitted with a linear-quadratic forms of the dose, and the results were different for γ-rays and neutrons significantly. Neutrons were more effective than γ-rays in producing MN with a dose-dependent manner. The frequency of MN varies with dose. The RBE for a micronuclei was 2.37 ± 0.17. The results suggested that the MN assay have a high potential to ensure appropriate quality control and a standard documentation protocol, which

  16. Aerobic training suppresses exercise-induced lipid peroxidation and inflammation in overweight/obese adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssef, Hala; Groussard, Carole; Lemoine-Morel, Sophie; Pincemail, Joel; Jacob, Christophe; Moussa, Elie; Fazah, Abdallah; Cillard, Josiane; Pineau, Jean-Claude; Delamarche, Arlette

    2015-02-01

    This study aimed to determine whether aerobic training could reduce lipid peroxidation and inflammation at rest and after maximal exhaustive exercise in overweight/obese adolescent girls. Thirty-nine adolescent girls (14-19 years old) were classified as nonobese or overweight/obese and then randomly assigned to either the nontrained or trained group (12-week multivariate aerobic training program). Measurements at the beginning of the experiment and at 3 months consisted of body composition, aerobic fitness (VO2peak) and the following blood assays: pre- and postexercise lipid peroxidation (15F2a-isoprostanes [F2-Isop], lipid hydroperoxide [ROOH], oxidized LDL [ox-LDL]) and inflammation (myeloperoxidase [MPO]) markers. In the overweight/ obese group, the training program significantly increased their fat-free mass (FFM) and decreased their percentage of fat mass (%FM) and hip circumference but did not modify their VO2peak. Conversely, in the nontrained overweight/obese group, weight and %FM increased, and VO2peak decreased, during the same period. Training also prevented exercise-induced lipid peroxidation and/or inflammation in overweight/obese girls (F2-Isop, ROOH, ox-LDL, MPO). In addition, in the trained overweight/obese group, exercise-induced changes in ROOH, ox-LDL and F2-Isop were correlated with improvements in anthropometric parameters (waist-to-hip ratio, %FM and FFM). In conclusion aerobic training increased tolerance to exercise-induced oxidative stress in overweight/obese adolescent girls partly as a result of improved body composition.

  17. IN-VIVO DIAGNOSIS OF CHEMICALLY INDUCED MELANOMA IN AN ANIMAL MODEL USING UV-VISIBLE AND NIR ELASTIC SCATTERING SPECTROSCOPY: PRELIMINARY TESTING.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. A' AMAR; R. LEY; ET AL

    2001-01-01

    Elastic light scattering spectroscopy (ESS) has the potential to provide spectra that contain both morphological and chromophore information from tissue. We report on a preliminary study of this technique, with the hope of developing a method for diagnosis of highly-pigmented skin lesions, commonly associated with skin cancer. Four opossums were treated with dimethylbenz(a)anthracene to induce both malignant melanoma and benign pigmented lesions. Skin lesions were examined in vivo using both UV-visible and near infrared (NIR) ESS, with wavelength ranges of 330-900 nm and 900-1700 nm, respectively. Both portable systems used identical fiber-optic probe geometry throughout all of the measurements. The core diameters for illuminating and collecting fibers were 400 and 200 {micro}m, respectively, with center-to-center separation of 350 {micro}m. The probe was placed in optical contact with the tissue under investigation. Biopsies from lesions were analyzed by two standard histopathological procedures. Taking into account only the biopsied lesions, UV-visible ESS showed distinct spectral correlation for 11/13 lesions. The NIR-ESS correlated well with 12/13 lesions correctly. The results of these experiments showed that UV-visible and NIR-ESS have the potential to classify benign and malignant skin lesions, with encouraging agreement to that provided by standard histopathological examination. These initial results show potential for ESS based diagnosis of pigmented skin lesions, but further trials are required in order to substantiate the technique.

  18. An improved data integration algorithm to constrain the 3D displacement field induced by fast deformation phenomena tested on the Napa Valley earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polcari, Marco; Fernández, José; Albano, Matteo; Bignami, Christian; Palano, Mimmo; Stramondo, Salvatore

    2017-12-01

    In this work, we propose an improved algorithm to constrain the 3D ground displacement field induced by fast surface deformations due to earthquakes or landslides. Based on the integration of different data, we estimate the three displacement components by solving a function minimization problem from the Bayes theory. We exploit the outcomes from SAR Interferometry (InSAR), Global Positioning System (GNSS) and Multiple Aperture Interferometry (MAI) to retrieve the 3D surface displacement field. Any other source of information can be added to the processing chain in a simple way, being the algorithm computationally efficient. Furthermore, we use the intensity Pixel Offset Tracking (POT) to locate the discontinuity produced on the surface by a sudden deformation phenomenon and then improve the GNSS data interpolation. This approach allows to be independent from other information such as in-situ investigations, tectonic studies or knowledge of the data covariance matrix. We applied such a method to investigate the ground deformation field related to the 2014 Mw 6.0 Napa Valley earthquake, occurred few kilometers from the San Andreas fault system.

  19. A simple and reliable in vitro test system for the analysis of induced aneuploidy as well as other cytogenetic end-points using Chinese hamster cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dulout, F.N.; Natarajan, A.T.

    1987-01-01

    Although aneuploidy is a serious human health problem, the experimental methodology devised until now to study the mechanisms involved in the induction of aneuploidy and for the screening of aneuploidy-inducing agents has not been so much employed to have the necessary validation. A procedure using primary cell cultures of Chinese hamster embryo cells grown on cover glasses is described. To avoid the excessive scattering and subsequent loss of chromosomes, a hypotonic treatment with a 0.17% sodium chloride solution, at room temperature, followed by in situ fixation has been standardized. This procedure improves the method through the reduction of the spontaneous frequency of aneuploid cells. Experiments carried out with cells treated with X-rays, X-rays plus caffeine, and the synthetic estrogen diethylstilbestrol (DES) demonstrated the accuracy of the system since the average chromosome number remained constant in spite of the induction of high frequencies of aneuploid cells. Moreover, the method allows for the analysis of other cytogenetic endpoints such as anaphase-telophase alterations, structural chromosome aberrations or sister chromatid exchanges. (author)

  20. Benchmark test of 14-MeV neutron-induced gamma-ray production data in JENDL-3.2 and FENDL/E-1.0 through analysis of the OKTAVIAN experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maekawa, F.; Oyama, F.

    1996-01-01

    Secondary gamma rays play an important role along with neutrons in influencing nuclear design parameters, such as nuclear heating, radiation dose, and material damage on the plasma-facing components, vacuum vessel, and superconducting magnets, of fusion devices. Because evaluated nuclear data libraries are used in the designs, one must examine the accuracy of secondary gamma-ray data in these libraries through benchmark tests of existing experiments. The validity of the data should be confirmed, or problems with the data should be pointed out through these benchmark tests to ensure the quality of the design. Here, gamma-ray production data of carbon, fluorine, aluminum, silicon, titanium, chromium, manganese, cobalt, copper, niobium, molybdenum, tungsten, and lead in JENDL-3.2 and FENDL/E-1.0 induced by 14-MeV neutrons are tested through benchmark analyses of leakage gamma-ray spectrum measurements conducted at the OKTAVIAN deuterium-tritium neutron source facility. The MCNP transport code is used along with the flagging method for detailed analyses of the spectra. As a result, several moderate problems are pointed out for secondary gamma-ray data of titanium, chromium, manganese, and lead in FENDL/E-1.0. Because no fatal errors are found, however, secondary gamma-ray data for the 13 elements in both libraries are reasonably well validated through these benchmark tests as far as 14-MeV neutron incidence is concerned

  1. Meuse/Haute-Marne underground research laboratory examination, on a shaft wall, of pluri-decametric features induced by borehole hydro fracturing tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertrand, L.; Gros, Y. [ANTER, Direction Technique, 45 - Orleans (France); Reboursz, H.; Wileveauz, Y. [Agence Nationale pour la Gestion des Dechets Radioactifs (ANDRA/DP/EST/SS), 55 - Bure (France); Proudhon, B. [GEO-TER, subcontractor to EDF-TEGG, 13 - Aix en Provence (France)

    2005-07-01

    In the year 2000, prior to the sinking of the two shafts of the laboratory, two vertical cored boreholes were drilled according to the axis of each of the shafts. The EST205 borehole drilled along the axis of the auxiliary shaft intersects the Callovo-Oxfordian layers in its lower part. Stress measurements were performed there by hydraulic fracturing method, on the one hand at the bottom of the Oxfordian limestone (6 tests between 375 and 416 m depth), on the other hand in the more clayey Callovo-Oxfordian layer (8 tests between 417 and 500 m depth). Both boreholes were subsequently sealed by cement. During shaft sinking, a detailed geological survey of the walls was performed at each blast round. During this survey, positioned by means of a grid of targets whose locations are recorded by topographical measurements, lithological changes as well as structural features visible on the wall are carefully recorded. In this context, the wall of 3 successive blast rounds are seen to display, roughly aligned with the West and South generating lines of the shaft, two sub-vertical joints with nil aperture and an average strike of N155 degree. These joints can be traced over more than 15 m height, between levels -434 and -451 m. More at depth, the walls display four parallel sub-horizontal joints, recorded between 466,5 and 476 m depth. These smoothly undulating joints are observed over the entire shaft wall perimeter. (authors)

  2. Toxicity of two imidazolium ionic liquids, [bmim][BF4] and [omim][BF4], to standard aquatic test organisms: Role of acetone in the induced toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsarpali, Vasiliki; Dailianis, Stefanos

    2015-07-01

    The main goal of this study was to investigate the toxicity of the imidazolium-based ionic liquids (ILs), [bmim][BF4] (1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate) and [omim][BF4] (1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate), in battery of standard aquatic toxicity test organisms. Specifically, exposure of the algae Scenedesmus rubescens, crustaceans Thamnocephalus platyurus and Artemia franciscana, rotifers Brachionus calyciflorus and Brachionus plicatilis and bivalve Mytilus galloprovincialis to different concentrations of [bmim][BF4], [omim][BF4] and/or a binary mixture of [bmim][BF4]-[omim][BF4] (1:1) with or without acetone (carrier solvent), revealed that solvent can differentially mediate ILs' toxic profile. Acetone's ability to differentially affect ILs' cation's alkyl chain length, as well as the hydrolysis of [BF4(-)] anions was evident. Given that the toxic potency of the tested ILs seemed to be equal or even higher (in some cases) than those of conventional organic solvents, the present study revealed that the characterization of imidazolium-based ILs as "green solvents" should not be generalized, at least in case of their natural occurrence in mixtures with organic solvents, such as acetone. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Measuring sunscreen protection against solar-simulated radiation-induced structural radical damage to skin using ESR/spin trapping: development of an ex vivo test method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haywood, Rachel; Volkov, Arsen; Andrady, Carima; Sayer, Robert

    2012-03-01

    The in vitro star system used for sunscreen UVA-testing is not an absolute measure of skin protection being a ratio of the total integrated UVA/UVB absorption. The in vivo persistent-pigment-darkening method requires human volunteers. We investigated the use of the ESR-detectable DMPO protein radical-adduct in solar-simulator-irradiated skin substitutes for sunscreen testing. Sunscreens SPF rated 20+ with UVA protection, reduced this adduct by 40-65% when applied at 2 mg/cm(2). SPF 15 Organic UVA-UVB (BMDBM-OMC) and TiO(2)-UVB filters and a novel UVA-TiO(2) filter reduced it by 21, 31 and 70% respectively. Conventional broad-spectrum sunscreens do not fully protect against protein radical-damage in skin due to possible visible-light contributions to damage or UVA-filter degradation. Anisotropic spectra of DMPO-trapped oxygen-centred radicals, proposed intermediates of lipid-oxidation, were detected in irradiated sunscreen and DMPO. Sunscreen protection might be improved by the consideration of visible-light protection and the design of filters to minimise radical leakage and lipid-oxidation.

  4. Winter-swimming as a building-up body resistance factor inducing adaptive changes in the oxidant/antioxidant status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubkowska, Anna; Dołęgowska, Barbara; Szyguła, Zbigniew; Bryczkowska, Iwona; Stańczyk-Dunaj, Małgorzata; Sałata, Daria; Budkowska, Marta

    2013-01-01

    The aim of our research was to examine whether winter-swimming for five consecutive months results in adaptational changes improving tolerance to stress induced by exposure to cryogenic temperatures during whole-body cryostimulation (WBC). The research involved 15 healthy men, with normal bodyweight, who had never been subjected to either WBC or cold water immersion. During the experiment, the participants were twice subjected to WBC (3 min/- 130°C), namely before the winter-swimming season and after the season. Blood was taken seven times: In the morning before each cryostimulation, 30 min after each cryostimulation and the next morning. Additionally, control blood was collected in the middle of the winter season, in February. Our analysis concerned changes in hematological parameters as well as in reduced glutathione and oxidized glutathione, total oxidant status, total antioxidant status and in components of the antioxidant system: Superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, glutathione S-transferase and 8-Isoprostanes as a sensitive indicator of oxidative stress. We found significant changes in hemoglobin concentration, the number of red blood cells, the hematocrit index and mean corpuscular volume of red blood cell and the percentage of monocytes and granulocytes after the winter swimming season. The response to cryogenic temperatures was milder after five months of winter-swimming. The obtained results may indicate positive adaptive changes in the antioxidant system of healthy winter-swimmers. These changes seem to increase the readiness of the human body to stress factors.

  5. Contribution of PPARγ in modulation of acrolein-induced inflammatory signaling in gp91phox knock-out mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousefipour, Zivar; Chug, Neha; Marek, Katarzyna; Nesbary, Alicia; Mathew, Joseph; Ranganna, Kasturi; Newaz, Mohammad A

    2017-08-01

    Oxidative stress and inflammation are major contributors to acrolein toxicity. Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. We investigated the contribution of PPARγ ligand GW1929 to the attenuation of oxidative stress in acrolein-induced insult. Male gp91 phox knock-out (KO) mice were treated with acrolein (0.5 mg·(kg body mass) -1 by intraperitoneal injection for 7 days) with or without GW1929 (GW; 0.5 mg·(kg body mass) -1 ·day -1 , orally, for 10 days). The livers were processed for further analyses. Acrolein significantly increased 8-isoprostane and reduced PPARγ activity (P acrolein-treated WT mice, and was reduced by GW1929 (by 65%). KO mice exhibited higher xanthine oxidase (XO). Acrolein increased XO and COX in WT mice and XO in KO mice. GW1929 significantly reduced COX in WT and KO mice and reduced XO in KO mice. Acrolein significantly reduced the total antioxidant status in WT and KO mice (P acrolein-treated WT mice. GW1929 reduced NF-κB levels (by 51%) in KO mice. Acrolein increased CD36 in KO mice (by 43%), which was blunted with GW1929. Data confirms that the generation of free radicals by acrolein is mainly through NAD(P)H, but other oxygenates play a role too. GW1929 may alleviate the toxicity of acrolein by attenuating NF-κB, COX, and CD36.

  6. Chilean Strawberry Consumption Protects against LPS-Induced Liver Injury by Anti-Inflammatory and Antioxidant Capability in Sprague-Dawley Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Molinett

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Chilean strawberry fruit has high content of antioxidants and polyphenols. Previous studies evidenced antioxidant properties by in vitro methods. However, the antioxidant effect and its impact as functional food on animal health have not been evaluated. In this study, rats were fed with a Chilean strawberry aqueous extract (4 g/kg of animal per day and then subjected to LPS-induced liver injury (5 mg/kg. Transaminases and histological studies revealed a reduction in liver injury in rats fed with strawberry aqueous extract compared with the control group. Additionally, white strawberry supplementation significantly reduced the serum levels and gene expression of TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β cytokines compared with nonsupplemented rats. The level of F2-isoprostanes and GSH/GSSG indicated a reduction in liver oxidative stress by the consumption of strawberry aqueous extract. Altogether, the evidence suggests that dietary supplementation of rats with a Chilean white strawberry aqueous extract favours the normalization of oxidative and inflammatory responses after a liver injury induced by LPS.

  7. Chilean Strawberry Consumption Protects against LPS-Induced Liver Injury by Anti-Inflammatory and Antioxidant Capability in Sprague-Dawley Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinett, Sebastian; Nuñez, Francisca; Moya-León, María Alejandra; Zúñiga-Hernández, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    The Chilean strawberry fruit has high content of antioxidants and polyphenols. Previous studies evidenced antioxidant properties by in vitro methods. However, the antioxidant effect and its impact as functional food on animal health have not been evaluated. In this study, rats were fed with a Chilean strawberry aqueous extract (4 g/kg of animal per day) and then subjected to LPS-induced liver injury (5 mg/kg). Transaminases and histological studies revealed a reduction in liver injury in rats fed with strawberry aqueous extract compared with the control group. Additionally, white strawberry supplementation significantly reduced the serum levels and gene expression of TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β cytokines compared with nonsupplemented rats. The level of F2-isoprostanes and GSH/GSSG indicated a reduction in liver oxidative stress by the consumption of strawberry aqueous extract. Altogether, the evidence suggests that dietary supplementation of rats with a Chilean white strawberry aqueous extract favours the normalization of oxidative and inflammatory responses after a liver injury induced by LPS.

  8. Oxidative Damage to the Salivary Glands of Rats with Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes-Temporal Study: Oxidative Stress and Diabetic Salivary Glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knaś, M; Maciejczyk, M; Daniszewska, I; Klimiuk, A; Matczuk, J; Kołodziej, U; Waszkiel, D; Ładny, J R; Żendzian-Piotrowska, M; Zalewska, A

    2016-01-01

    Objective. This study evaluated oxidative damage caused to the salivary glands in streptozotocin-induced diabetes (DM). Materials and Methods. Rats were divided into 4 groups: groups 1 and 2, control rats, and groups 3 and 4, DM rats. 8-Hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), protein carbonyl (PC), 4-hydroxynonenal protein adduct (4-HNE), oxidized and/or MDA-modified LDL-cholesterol (oxy-LDL/MDA), 8-isoprostanes (8-isoP), and oxidative stress index (OSI) were measured at 7 (groups 1 and 3) and 14 (groups 2 and 4) days of experiment. Results. The unstimulated salivary flow in DM rats was reduced in the 2nd week, while the stimulated flow was decreased throughout the duration of the experiment versus control. OSI was elevated in both diabetic glands in the 1st and 2nd week, whereas 8-isoP and 8-OHdG were higher only in the parotid gland in the second week. PC and 4-HNE were increased in the 1st and 2nd week, whereas oxy-LDL/MDA was increased in the 2nd week in the diabetic parotid glands. Conclusions. Diabetes induces oxidative damage of the salivary glands, which seems to be caused by processes taking place in the salivary glands, independently of general oxidative stress. The parotid glands are more vulnerable to oxidative damage in these conditions.

  9. Oxidative Damage to the Salivary Glands of Rats with Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes-Temporal Study: Oxidative Stress and Diabetic Salivary Glands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Knaś

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This study evaluated oxidative damage caused to the salivary glands in streptozotocin-induced diabetes (DM. Materials and Methods. Rats were divided into 4 groups: groups 1 and 2, control rats, and groups 3 and 4, DM rats. 8-Hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG, protein carbonyl (PC, 4-hydroxynonenal protein adduct (4-HNE, oxidized and/or MDA-modified LDL-cholesterol (oxy-LDL/MDA, 8-isoprostanes (8-isoP, and oxidative stress index (OSI were measured at 7 (groups 1 and 3 and 14 (groups 2 and 4 days of experiment. Results. The unstimulated salivary flow in DM rats was reduced in the 2nd week, while the stimulated flow was decreased throughout the duration of the experiment versus control. OSI was elevated in both diabetic glands in the 1st and 2nd week, whereas 8-isoP and 8-OHdG were higher only in the parotid gland in the second week. PC and 4-HNE were increased in the 1st and 2nd week, whereas oxy-LDL/MDA was increased in the 2nd week in the diabetic parotid glands. Conclusions. Diabetes induces oxidative damage of the salivary glands, which seems to be caused by processes taking place in the salivary glands, independently of general oxidative stress. The parotid glands are more vulnerable to oxidative damage in these conditions.

  10. The Relationship Between Advertising-Induced Anger and Self-efficacy on Persuasive Outcomes: A Test of the Anger Activism Model Using the Truth Campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilakkuvan, Vinu; Turner, Monique Mitchell; Cantrell, Jennifer; Hair, Elizabeth; Vallone, Donna

    Turner's Anger Activism Model (AAM) contends anger and efficacy interact in a unique way to determine message responses to campaign materials. This study tested the AAM using responses to 2 truth antismoking advertisements collected in August-October 2014 via an online, cross-sectional survey of 15- to 21-year-olds. Those aware of each of the truth advertisements (n = 319 for each) were organized into 4 anger/efficacy groups. Analysis of variance and regressions were conducted to understand group differences in message-related cognitions (persuasiveness, receptivity, conversation). Message cognitions were highest among the high anger/high efficacy group and lowest among the low anger/low efficacy group.

  11. Proposal for Testing and Validation of Vacuum Ultra-Violet Atomic Laser-Induced Fluorescence as a Method to Analyze Carbon Grid Erosion in Ion Thrusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Richard

    2003-01-01

    Previous investigation under award NAG3-25 10 sought to determine the best method of LIF to determine the carbon density in a thruster plume. Initial reports from other groups were ambiguous as to the number of carbon clusters that might be present in the plume of a thruster. Carbon clusters would certainly affect the ability to LIF; if they were the dominant species, then perhaps the LIF method should target clusters. The results of quadrupole mass spectroscopy on sputtered carbon determined that minimal numbers of clusters were sputtered from graphite under impact from keV Krypton. There were some investigations in the keV range by other groups that hinted at clusters, but at the time the proposal was presented to NASA, there was no data from low-energy sputtering available. Thus, the proposal sought to develop a method to characterize the population only of atoms sputtered from a graphite target in a test cell. Most of the ground work had been established by the previous two years of investigation. The proposal covering 2003 sought to develop an anti-Stokes Raman shifting cell to generate VUW light and test this cell on two different laser systems, ArF and YAG- pumped dye. The second goal was to measure the lowest detectable amounts of carbon atoms by 156.1 nm and 165.7 nm LIF. If equipment was functioning properly, it was expected that these goals would be met easily during the timeframe of the proposal, and that is the reason only modest funding was requested. The PI was only funded at half- time by Glenn during the summer months. All other work time was paid for by Whitworth College. The college also funded a student, Charles Shawley, who worked on the project during the spring.

  12. Modulatory effect of cilostazol on tramadol-induced behavioral and neurochemical alterations in rats challenged across the forced swim despair test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noha M. Gamil

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Pain-associated depression is encountered clinically in some cases such as cancer, chronic neuropathy, and after operations. Tramadol is an opioid analgesic drug that may modulate monoaminergic neurotransmission by inhibition of noradrenaline and serotonin reuptake that may contribute to its antidepressant-like effects. Clinically, tramadol is used either alone or in combination with other NSAIDs in the treatment of cases associated with pain and depression, e.g. low back pain, spinal cord injury, and post-operative pain management. However, tramadol monotherapy as an antidepressant is impeded by severe adverse effects including seizures and serotonin syndrome. Interestingly, phosphodiesterase-III inhibitors demonstrated novel promising antidepressant effects. Among which, cilostazol was reported to attenuate depression in post-stroke cases, geriatrics and patients undergoing carotid artery stenting. Therefore, this study was carried out to investigate the possible antidepressant-like effects of tramadol and/or cilostazol on the behavioral level in experimental animals, and to examine the neurochemical and biochemical effects of tramadol, cilostazol and their combination in rats, in order to explore the probable mechanisms of action underlying their effects. To achieve our target, male albino mice and rats were randomly allocated into five groups and administered either vehicle for control, fluoxetine (20 mg/kg, p.o., tramadol HCl (20 mg/kg, p.o., cilostazol (100 mg/kg, p.o., or combination of both tramadol and cilostazol. At day 14, mice and rats were challenged in the tail suspension test and forced swim test, respectively. Rats were sacrificed and brains were isolated for determination of brain monoamines, MDA, NO, SOD, and TNF-α. The current results showed that concurrent administration of cilostazol to tramadol-treated animals modulated depression on the behavioral level, and showed ameliorative neurochemical and biochemical effects

  13. Plant Proteinase Inhibitor BbCI Modulates Lung Inflammatory Responses and Mechanic and Remodeling Alterations Induced by Elastase in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Almeida-Reis

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Proteinases play a key role in emphysema. Bauhinia bauhinioides cruzipain inhibitor (BbCI is a serine-cysteine proteinase inhibitor. We evaluated BbCI treatment in elastase-induced pulmonary alterations. Methods.  C57BL/6 mice received intratracheal elastase (ELA group or saline (SAL group. One group of mice was treated with BbCI (days 1, 15, and 21 after elastase instillation, ELABC group. Controls received saline and BbCI (SALBC group. After 28 days, we evaluated respiratory mechanics, exhaled nitric oxide, and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. In lung tissue we measured airspace enlargement, quantified neutrophils, TNFα-, MMP-9-, MMP-12-, TIMP-1-, iNOS-, and eNOS-positive cells, 8-iso-PGF2α, collagen, and elastic fibers in alveolar septa and airways. MUC-5-positive cells were quantified only in airways. Results. BbCI reduced elastase-induced changes in pulmonary mechanics, airspace enlargement and elastase-induced increases in total cells, and neutrophils in BALF. BbCI reduced macrophages and neutrophils positive cells in alveolar septa and neutrophils and TNFα-positive cells in airways. BbCI attenuated elastic and collagen fibers, MMP-9- and MMP-12-positive cells, and isoprostane and iNOS-positive cells in alveolar septa and airways. BbCI reduced MUC5ac-positive cells in airways. Conclusions. BbCI improved lung mechanics and reduced lung inflammation and airspace enlargement and increased oxidative stress levels induced by elastase. BbCI may have therapeutic potential in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

  14. Development of monitoring system using acoustic emission for detection of helium gas leakage for primary cooling system and flow-induced vibration for heat transfer tube of heat exchangers for the High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tachibana, Yukio; Kunitomi, Kazuhiko; Furusawa, Takayuki; Shinozaki, Masayuki; Satoh, Yoshiyuki; Yanagibashi, Minoru

    1998-10-01

    The High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR) uses helium gas for its primary coolant, whose leakage inside reactor containment vessel is considered in design of the HTTR. It is necessary to detect leakage of helium gas at an early stage so that total amount of the leakage should be as small as possible. On the other hand, heat transfer tubes of heat exchangers of the HTTR are designed not to vibrate at normal operation, but the flow-induced vibration is to be monitored to provide against an emergency. Thus monitoring system of acoustic emission for detection of primary coolant leakage and vibration of heat transfer tubes was developed and applied to the HTTR. Before the application to the HTTR, leakage detection test was performed using 1/4 scaled model of outer tube of primary concentric hot gas duct. Result of the test covers detectable minimum leakage rate and effect of difference in gas, pressure, shape of leakage path and distance from the leaking point. Detectable minimum leakage rate was about 5 Ncc/sec. The monitoring system is promising in leakage detection, though countermeasure to noise is to be needed after the HTTR starts operating. (author)

  15. In Vivo Protective Effects of Nootkatone against Particles-Induced Lung Injury Caused by Diesel Exhaust Is Mediated via the NF-κB Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abderrahim Nemmar

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Numerous studies have shown that acute particulate air pollution exposure is linked with pulmonary adverse effects, including alterations of pulmonary function, inflammation, and oxidative stress. Nootkatone, a constituent of grapefruit, has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. However, the effect of nootkatone on lung toxicity has not been reported so far. In this study we evaluated the possible protective effects of nootkatone on diesel exhaust particles (DEP-induced lung toxicity, and the possible mechanisms underlying these effects. Mice were intratracheally (i.t. instilled with either DEP (30 µg/mouse or saline (control. Nootkatone was given to mice by gavage, 1 h before i.t. instillation, with either DEP or saline. Twenty-four hours following DEP exposure, several physiological and biochemical endpoints were assessed. Nootkatone pretreatment significantly prevented the DEP-induced increase in airway resistance in vivo, decreased neutrophil infiltration in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, and abated macrophage and neutrophil infiltration in the lung interstitium, assessed by histolopathology. Moreover, DEP caused a significant increase in lung concentrations of 8-isoprostane and tumor necrosis factor α, and decreased the reduced glutathione concentration and total nitric oxide activity. These actions were all significantly alleviated by nootkatone pretreatment. Similarly, nootkatone prevented DEP-induced DNA damage and prevented the proteolytic cleavage of caspase-3. Moreover, nootkatone inhibited nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB induced by DEP. We conclude that nootkatone prevented the DEP-induced increase in airway resistance, lung inflammation, oxidative stress, and the subsequent DNA damage and apoptosis through a mechanism involving inhibition of NF-κB activation. Nootkatone could possibly be considered a beneficial protective agent against air pollution-induced respiratory adverse effects.

  16. In Vivo Protective Effects of Nootkatone against Particles-Induced Lung Injury Caused by Diesel Exhaust Is Mediated via the NF-κB Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemmar, Abderrahim; Al-Salam, Suhail; Beegam, Sumaya; Yuvaraju, Priya; Hamadi, Naserddine; Ali, Badreldin H

    2018-02-26

    Numerous studies have shown that acute particulate air pollution exposure is linked with pulmonary adverse effects, including alterations of pulmonary function, inflammation, and oxidative stress. Nootkatone, a constituent of grapefruit, has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. However, the effect of nootkatone on lung toxicity has not been reported so far. In this study we evaluated the possible protective effects of nootkatone on diesel exhaust particles (DEP)-induced lung toxicity, and the possible mechanisms underlying these effects. Mice were intratracheally (i.t.) instilled with either DEP (30 µg/mouse) or saline (control). Nootkatone was given to mice by gavage, 1 h before i.t. instillation, with either DEP or saline. Twenty-four hours following DEP exposure, several physiological and biochemical endpoints were assessed. Nootkatone pretreatment significantly prevented the DEP-induced increase in airway resistance in vivo, decreased neutrophil infiltration in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, and abated macrophage and neutrophil infiltration in the lung interstitium, assessed by histolopathology. Moreover, DEP caused a significant increase in lung concentrations of 8-isoprostane and tumor necrosis factor α, and decreased the reduced glutathione concentration and total nitric oxide activity. These actions were all significantly alleviated by nootkatone pretreatment. Similarly, nootkatone prevented DEP-induced DNA damage and prevented the proteolytic cleavage of caspase-3. Moreover, nootkatone inhibited nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) induced by DEP. We conclude that nootkatone prevented the DEP-induced increase in airway resistance, lung inflammation, oxidative stress, and the subsequent DNA damage and apoptosis through a mechanism involving inhibition of NF-κB activation. Nootkatone could possibly be considered a beneficial protective agent against air pollution-induced respiratory adverse effects.

  17. Test Architecture, Test Retrofit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulcher, Glenn; Davidson, Fred

    2009-01-01

    Just like buildings, tests are designed and built for specific purposes, people, and uses. However, both buildings and tests grow and change over time as the needs of their users change. Sometimes, they are also both used for purposes other than those intended in the original designs. This paper explores architecture as a metaphor for language…

  18. Andrographolide protects against cigarette smoke-induced oxidative lung injury via augmentation of Nrf2 activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, SP; Tee, W; Ng, DSW; Chan, TK; Peh, HY; Ho, WE; Cheng, C; Mak, JC; Wong, WSF

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose Cigarette smoke is a major cause for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Andrographolide is an active biomolecule isolated from the plant Andrographis paniculata. Andrographolide has been shown to activate nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), a redox-sensitive antioxidant transcription factor. As Nrf2 activity is reduced in COPD, we hypothesize that andrographolide may have therapeutic value for COPD. Experimental Approach Andrographolide was given i.p. to BALB/c mice daily 2 h before 4% cigarette smoke exposure for 1 h over five consecutive days. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and lungs were collected for analyses of cytokines, oxidative damage markers and antioxidant activities. BEAS-2B bronchial epithelial cells were exposed to cigarette smoke extract (CSE) and used to study the antioxidant mechanism of action of andrographolide. Key Results Andrographolide suppressed cigarette smoke-induced increases in lavage fluid cell counts; levels of IL-1β, MCP-1, IP-10 and KC; and levels of oxidative biomarkers 8-isoprostane, 8-OHdG and 3-nitrotyrosine in a dose-dependent manner. Andrographolide promoted inductions of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione reductase (GR) activities in lungs from cigarette smoke-exposed mice. In BEAS-2B cells, andrographolide markedly increased nuclear Nrf2 accumulation, promoted binding to antioxidant response element (ARE) and total cellular glutathione level in response to CSE. Andrographolide up-regulated ARE-regulated gene targets including glutamate-cysteine ligase catalytic (GCLC) subunit, GCL modifier (GCLM) subunit, GPx, GR and heme oxygenase-1 in BEAS-2B cells in response to CSE. Conclusions Andrographolide possesses antioxidative properties against cigarette smoke-induced lung injury probably via augmentation of Nrf2 activity and may have therapeutic potential for treating COPD. PMID:23146110

  19. Herpes simplex virus induces neural oxidative damage via microglial cell Toll-like receptor-2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Little Morgan R

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Using a murine model of herpes simplex virus (HSV-1 encephalitis, our laboratory has determined that induction of proinflammatory mediators in response to viral infection is largely mediated through a Toll-like receptor-2 (TLR2-dependent mechanism. Published studies have shown that, like other inflammatory mediators, reactive oxygen species (ROS are generated during viral brain infection. It is increasingly clear that ROS are responsible for facilitating secondary tissue damage during central nervous system infection and may contribute to neurotoxicity associated with herpes encephalitis. Methods Purified microglial cell and mixed neural cell cultures were prepared from C57B/6 and TLR2-/- mice. Intracellular ROS production in cultured murine microglia was measured via 2', 7'-Dichlorofluorescin diacetate (DCFH-DA oxidation. An assay for 8-isoprostane, a marker of lipid peroxidation, was utilized to measure free radical-associated cellular damage. Mixed neural cultures obtained from β-actin promoter-luciferase transgenic mice were used to detect neurotoxicity induced by HSV-infected microglia. Results Stimulation with HSV-1 elevated intracellular ROS in wild-type microglial cell cultures, while TLR2-/- microglia displayed delayed and attenuated ROS production following viral infection. HSV-infected TLR2-/- microglia produced less neuronal oxidative damage to mixed neural cell cultures in comparison to HSV-infected wild-type microglia. Further, HSV-infected TLR2-/- microglia were found to be less cytotoxic to cultured neurons compared to HSV-infected wild-type microglia. These effects were associated with decreased activation of p38 MAPK and p42/p44 ERK in TLR2-/- mice. Conclusions These studies demonstrate the importance of microglial cell TLR2 in inducing oxidative stress and neuronal damage in response to viral infection.

  20. The study of the irradiation-induced embrittlement of reactor pressure vessels. Analysis of surveillance test specimens of a commercial nuclear reactor pressure vessel studied by three-dimensional atom probe and positron annihilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagai, Yasuyoshi; Toyama, Takeshi; Hasegawa, Masayuki

    2007-01-01

    The study of embrittlement of nuclear power reactor pressure vessels (RPVs) is of critical importance for the safety assessment in the nuclear industry. Some origins of embrittlement are attributed to fine Cu precipitates, matrix defects, grain boundary segregation of P and late blooming phase. This review article described nanostructural observation by three-dimensional atom probe (3DAP) and positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS). The density and sizes of Cu-rich nanoprecipitates and grain boundary segregation are sensitively detected by 3DAP, and vacancies are probed by PAS. Element analysis around vacancies and fine microstructural Cu precipitates not containing vacancies are successfully observed by a coincidence doppler broadening method. The nanostructural evolution of irradiation-induced Cu-rich nanoprecipitates (CRNPs) and vacancy clusters in surveillance test specimens of commercial nuclear reactor pressure vessel steel welds of Doel-2 in Belgium were revealed by combining 3DAP and PAS. In both medium (0.13 wt%) and high (0.30 wt%) Cu welds, the CRNPs were found to form readily at the very beginning of the reactor lifetime. On the other hand, small vacancy clusters start appearing after the initial Cu precipitates and accumulate steadily with increasing neutron dose. The CRNPs were also observed at very low dose rate of neutrons in the test specimen of Calder Hall Reactor of Japan Atomic Power Company. The significant enhancement of these Cu precipitates results in the embrittlement in practical RPVs. At very high dose of 2.2x10 18 n/cm 2 by JMTR, the Cu precipitates were scarcely observed, and the irradiation-induced embrittlement was primarily caused from vacancy-impurity complexes and dislocation loops. (author)

  1. Prevalence of Walking-Related Motor Fatigue in Persons With Multiple Sclerosis: Decline in Walking Distance Induced by the 6-Minute Walk Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leone, Carmela; Severijns, Deborah; Doležalová, Vendula; Baert, Ilse; Dalgas, Ulrik; Romberg, Anders; Bethoux, Francois; Gebara, Benoit; Santoyo Medina, Carmen; Maamâgi, Heigo; Rasova, Kamila; Maertens de Noordhout, Benoît; Knuts, Kathy; Skjerbaek, Anders; Jensen, Ellen; Wagner, Joanne M; Feys, Peter

    2016-05-01

    To investigate the individual occurrence of walking-related motor fatigue in persons with multiple sclerosis (PwMS), according to disability level and disease phenotype.Study design This was a cross-sectional, multinational study.Participants They were 208 PwMS from 11 centers with Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) scores up to 6.5. The percentage change in distance walked (distance walked index, DWI) was calculated between minute 6 and 1 (DWI(6-1)) of the 6-Minute Walk Test (6MWT). Its magnitude was used to classify participants into 4 subgroups: (1) DWI(6-1)[≥5%], (2) DWI(6-1)[5%; -5%], (3) DWI(6-1)[-5%; > -15%], and (4) DWI(6-1)[≤-15%]. The latter group was labeled as having walking-related motor fatigue. PwMS were stratified into 5 subgroups based on the EDSS (0-2.5, 3-4, 4.5-5.5, 6, 6.5) and 3 subgroups based on MS phenotype (relapsing remitting [RR], primary progressive [PP], and secondary progressive [SP]). The DWI6-1was ≥5% in 16 PwMS (7.7%), between 5% and -5% in 70 PwMS (33.6%), between -5% and -15% in 58 PwMS (24%), and ≤-15% in 64 PwMS (30.8%). The prevalence of walking-related motor fatigue (DWI(6-1)[≤-15%]) was significantly higher among the progressive phenotype (PP = 50% and SP = 39%; RR = 15.6%) and PwMS with higher disability level (EDSS 4.5-5.5 = 48.3%, 6 = 46.3% and 6.5 = 51.5%, compared with EDSS 0-2.5 = 7.8% and 3-4 = 16.7%;P< .05). Stepwise multiple regression analysis indicated that EDSS, but not MS phenotype, explained a significant part of the variance in DWI(6-1)(R(2)= 0.086;P< .001). More than one-third of PwMS showed walking-related motor fatigue during the 6MWT, with its prevalence greatest in more disabled persons (up to 51%) and in those with progressive MS phenotype (up to 50%). Identification of walking-related motor fatigue may lead to better-tailored interventions. © The Author(s) 2015.

  2. Exercise Training Mitigates Water Pipe Smoke Exposure-Induced Pulmonary Impairment via Inhibiting NF-κB and Activating Nrf2 Signalling Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abderrahim Nemmar

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Water pipe smoking is a tobacco smoking method commonly used in Eastern countries and is gaining popularity in Europe and North America, in particular among adolescents and young adults. Several clinical and experimental studies have reported that exposure to water pipe smoke (WPS induces lung inflammation and impairment of pulmonary function. However, the mechanisms of such effects are not understood, as are data on the possible palliative effect of exercise training. The present study evaluated the effects of regular aerobic exercise training (treadmill: 5 days/week, 40 min/day on subchronic exposure to WPS (30 minutes/day, 5 days/week for 2 months. C57BL/6 mice were exposed to air or WPS with or without exercise training. Airway resistance measured using forced oscillation technique was significantly and dose-dependently increased in the WPS-exposed group when compared with the air-exposed one. Exercise training significantly prevented the effect of WPS on airway resistance. Histologically, the lungs of WPS-exposed mice had focal moderate interstitial inflammatory cell infiltration consisting of neutrophil polymorphs, plasma cells, and lymphocytes. There was a mild increase in intra-alveolar macrophages and a focal damage to alveolar septae in some foci. Exercise training significantly alleviated these effects and also decreased the WPS-induced increase of tumor necrosis factor α and interleukin 6 concentrations and attenuated the increase of 8-isoprostane in lung homogenates. Likewise, the lung DNA damage induced by WPS was significantly inhibited by exercise training. Moreover, exercise training inhibited nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB expression induced by WPS and increased that of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2. Our findings suggest that exercise training significantly mitigated WPS-induced increase in airway resistance, inflammation, oxidative stress, and DNA damage via mechanisms that include inhibiting NF-κB and

  3. Testing Significance Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joachim I. Krueger

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The practice of Significance Testing (ST remains widespread in psychological science despite continual criticism of its flaws and abuses. Using simulation experiments, we address four concerns about ST and for two of these we compare ST’s performance with prominent alternatives. We find the following: First, the 'p' values delivered by ST predict the posterior probability of the tested hypothesis well under many research conditions. Second, low 'p' values support inductive inferences because they are most likely to occur when the tested hypothesis is false. Third, 'p' values track likelihood ratios without raising the uncertainties of relative inference. Fourth, 'p' values predict the replicability of research findings better than confidence intervals do. Given these results, we conclude that 'p' values may be used judiciously as a heuristic tool for inductive inference. Yet, 'p' values cannot bear the full burden of inference. We encourage researchers to be flexible in their selection and use of statistical methods.

  4. A preclinical murine model for the early detection of radiation-induced brain injury using magnetic resonance imaging and behavioral tests for learning and memory: with applications for the evaluation of possible stem cell imaging agents and therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngen, Ethel J; Wang, Lee; Gandhi, Nishant; Kato, Yoshinori; Armour, Michael; Zhu, Wenlian; Wong, John; Gabrielson, Kathleen L; Artemov, Dmitri

    2016-06-01

    Stem cell therapies are being developed for radiotherapy-induced brain injuries (RIBI). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) offers advantages for imaging transplanted stem cells. However, most MRI cell-tracking techniques employ superparamagnetic iron oxide particles (SPIOs), which are difficult to distinguish from hemorrhage. In current preclinical RIBI models, hemorrhage occurs concurrently with other injury markers. This makes the evaluation of the recruitment of transplanted SPIO-labeled stem cells to injury sites difficult. Here, we developed a RIBI model, with early injury markers reflective of hippocampal dysfunction, which can be detected noninvasively with MRI and behavioral tests. Lesions were generated by sub-hemispheric irradiation of mouse hippocampi with single X-ray beams of 80 Gy. Lesion formation was monitored with anatomical and contrast-enhanced MRI and changes in memory and learning were assessed with fear-conditioning tests. Early injury markers were detected 2 weeks after irradiation. These included an increase in the permeability of the blood-brain barrier, demonstrated by a 92 ± 20 % contrast enhancement of the irradiated versus the non-irradiated brain hemispheres, within 15 min of the administration of an MRI contrast agent. A change in short-term memory was also detected, as demonstrated by a 40.88 ± 5.03 % decrease in the freezing time measured during the short-term memory context test at this time point, compared to that before irradiation. SPIO-labeled stem cells transplanted contralateral to the lesion migrated toward the lesion at this time point. No hemorrhage was detected up to 10 weeks after irradiation. This model can be used to evaluate SPIO-based stem cell-tracking agents, short-term.

  5. Heparin-Induced Thrombocytopenia Antibody Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Contact a Scientist Find Us On Social Media: Facebook Twitter Google Plus Footer Menu Home About This Site Contact Us Terms Of Use In The News Policies Editorial Review Board Partner | Advertise | License Sponsors and Partners Spread the Word Subscribe ...

  6. Cost-effectiveness analysis of HLA-B*58: 01 genetic testing before initiation of allopurinol therapy to prevent allopurinol-induced Stevens-Johnson syndrome/toxic epidermal necrolysis in a Malaysian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Huey Yi; Lim, Yi Heng; Prawjaeng, Juthamas; Tassaneeyakul, Wichittra; Mohamed, Zahurin; Chaiyakunapruk, Nathorn

    2018-02-01

    allopurinol-induced SJS/TEN in Malaysia and the lower efficacy of probenecid compared with allopurinol in gout control. This analysis showed that HLA-B*58:01 genetic testing before allopurinol initiation is unlikely to be a cost-effective intervention in Malaysia.

  7. Dietary quercetin exacerbates the development of estrogen-induced breast tumors in female ACI rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Bhupendra; Mense, Sarah M.; Bhat, Nimee K.; Putty, Sandeep; Guthiel, William A.; Remotti, Fabrizio; Bhat, Hari K.

    2010-01-01

    Phytoestrogens are plant compounds that structurally mimic the endogenous estrogen 17β-estradiol (E 2 ). Despite intense investigation, the net effect of phytoestrogen exposure on the breast remains unclear. The objective of the current study was to examine the effects of quercetin on E 2 -induced breast cancer in vivo. Female ACI rats were given quercetin (2.5 g/kg food) for 8 months. Animals were monitored weekly for palpable tumors, and at the end of the experiment, rats were euthanized, breast tumor and different tissues excised so that they could be examined for histopathologic changes, estrogen metabolic activity and oxidant stress. Quercetin alone did not induce mammary tumors in female ACI rats. However, in rats implanted with E 2 pellets, co-exposure to quercetin did not protect rats from E 2 -induced breast tumor development with 100% of the animals developing breast tumors within 8 months of treatment. No changes in serum quercetin levels were observed in quercetin and quercetin + E 2 -treated groups at the end of the experiment. Tumor latency was significantly decreased among rats from the quercetin + E 2 group relative to those in the E 2 group. Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) activity was significantly downregulated in quercetin-exposed mammary tissue. Analysis of 8-isoprostane F 2α (8-iso-PGF 2α ) levels as a marker of oxidant stress showed that quercetin did not decrease E 2 -induced oxidant stress. These results indicate that quercetin (2.5 g/kg food) does not confer protection against breast cancer, does not inhibit E 2 -induced oxidant stress and may exacerbate breast carcinogenesis in E 2 -treated ACI rats. Inhibition of COMT activity by quercetin may expose breast cells chronically to E 2 and catechol estrogens. This would permit longer exposure times to the carcinogenic metabolites of E 2 and chronic exposure to oxidant stress as a result of metabolic redox cycling to estrogen metabolites, and thus quercetin may exacerbate E 2 -induced

  8. Seismic testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sollogoub, Pierre

    2001-01-01

    This lecture deals with: qualification methods for seismic testing; objectives of seismic testing; seismic testing standards including examples; main content of standard; testing means; and some important elements of seismic testing

  9. Schirmer test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tear test; Tearing test; Dry eye test; Basal secretion test; Sjögren - Schirmer; Schirmer's test ... used when the eye doctor suspects you have dry eye. Symptoms include dryness of the eyes or excessive ...

  10. Pinworm test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxyuriasis test; Enterobiasis test; Tape test ... diagnose this infection is to do a tape test. The best time to do this is in ... lay their eggs at night. Steps for the test are: Firmly press the sticky side of a ...

  11. Induced Seismicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keranen, Katie M.; Weingarten, Matthew

    2018-05-01

    The ability of fluid-generated subsurface stress changes to trigger earthquakes has long been recognized. However, the dramatic rise in the rate of human-induced earthquakes in the past decade has created abundant opportunities to study induced earthquakes and triggering processes. This review briefly summarizes early studies but focuses on results from induced earthquakes during the past 10 years related to fluid injection in petroleum fields. Study of these earthquakes has resulted in insights into physical processes and has identified knowledge gaps and future research directions. Induced earthquakes are challenging to identify using seismological methods, and faults and reefs strongly modulate spatial and temporal patterns of induced seismicity. However, the similarity of induced and natural seismicity provides an effective tool for studying earthquake processes. With continuing development of energy resources, increased interest in carbon sequestration, and construction of large dams, induced seismicity will continue to pose a hazard in coming years.

  12. Combined acute hyperglycemic and hyperinsulinemic clamp induced profibrotic and proinflammatory responses in the kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariappan, Meenalakshmi M; DeSilva, Kristin; Sorice, Gian Pio; Muscogiuri, Giovanna; Jimenez, Fabio; Ahuja, Seema; Barnes, Jefferey L; Choudhury, Goutam Ghosh; Musi, Nicolas; DeFronzo, Ralph; Kasinath, Balakuntalam S

    2014-02-01

    Increase in matrix protein content in the kidney is a cardinal feature of diabetic kidney disease. While renal matrix protein content is increased by chronic hyperglycemia, whether it is regulated by acute elevation of glucose and insulin has not been addressed. In this study, we aimed to evaluate whether short duration of combined hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia, mimicking the metabolic environment of prediabetes and early type 2 diabetes, induces kidney injury. Normal rats were subjected to either saline infusion (control, n = 4) or 7 h of combined hyperglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp (HG+HI clamp; n = 6). During the clamp, plasma glucose and plasma insulin were maintained at about 350 mg/dl and 16 ng/ml, respectively. HG+HI clamp increased the expression of renal cortical transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) and renal matrix proteins, laminin and fibronectin. This was associated with the activation of SMAD3, Akt, mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) complexes, and ERK signaling pathways and their downstream target events in the initiation and elongation phases of mRNA translation, an important step in protein synthesis. Additionally, HG+HI clamp provoked renal inflammation as shown by the activation of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and infiltration of CD68-positive monocytes. Urinary F2t isoprostane excretion, an index of renal oxidant stress, was increased in the HG+HI clamp rats. We conclude that even a short duration of hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia contributes to activation of pathways that regulate matrix protein synthesis, inflammation, and oxidative stress in the kidney. This finding could have implications for the control of short-term rises in blood glucose in diabetic individuals at risk of developing kidney disease.

  13. Oxidized lipids enhance RANKL production by T lymphocytes: implications for lipid-induced bone loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Lucia S; Parhami, Farhad; Tintut, Yin; Kitchen, Christina M R; Demer, Linda L; Effros, Rita B

    2009-11-01

    Osteoporosis is a systemic disease that is associated with increased morbidity, mortality and health care costs. Whereas osteoclasts and osteoblasts are the main regulators of bone homeostasis, recent studies underscore a key role for the immune system, particularly via activation-induced T lymphocyte production of receptor activator of NFkappaB ligand (RANKL). Well-documented as a mediator of T lymphocyte/dendritic cell interactions, RANKL also stimulates the maturation and activation of bone-resorbing osteoclasts. Given that lipid oxidation products mediate inflammatory and metabolic disorders such as osteoporosis and atherosclerosis, and since oxidized lipids affect several T lymphocyte functions, we hypothesized that RANKL production might also be subject to modulation by oxidized lipids. Here, we show that short term exposure of both unstimulated and activated human T lymphocytes to minimally oxidized low density lipoprotein (LDL), but not native LDL, significantly enhances RANKL production and promotes expression of the lectin-like oxidized LDL receptor-1 (LOX-1). The effect, which is also observed with 8-iso-Prostaglandin E2, an inflammatory isoprostane produced by lipid peroxidation, is mediated via the NFkappaB pathway, and involves increased RANKL mRNA expression. The link between oxidized lipids and T lymphocytes is further reinforced by analysis of hyperlipidemic mice, in which bone loss is associated with increased RANKL mRNA in T lymphocytes and elevated RANKL serum levels. Our results suggest a novel pathway by which T lymphocytes contribute to bone changes, namely, via oxidized lipid enhancement of RANKL production. These findings may help elucidate clinical associations between cardiovascular disease and decreased bone mass, and may also lead to new immune-based approaches to osteoporosis.

  14. Ultrasonic Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hyeong Jun; Kuk, Jeong Han

    2002-02-15

    This book introduces ultrasonic testing, which tells of outline of ultrasonic testing, principle of ultrasonic testing, prosperities of ultrasonic waves, radiographic test and ultrasonic test, basic theory on ultrasonic testing, mode conversion, transmission and diffraction, ultrasonic flaw detection and probe, standard test piece and reference test piece, like KS(JIS) ASME and ASTM, classification and properties of ultrasonic testing, straight beam method, angle beam method, ASME SEC.V.Art.5 ASTMA 388 and KS B 0817 Korean industrial standard.

  15. Trichomonas Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Genetic Tests for Targeted Cancer Therapy Glucose Tests Gonorrhea Testing Gram Stain Growth Hormone Haptoglobin hCG Pregnancy ... With some NAATs, samples collected for testing of gonorrhea and chlamydial infections can also be used to ...

  16. Coombs test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Direct antiglobulin test; Indirect antiglobulin test; Anemia - hemolytic ... No special preparation is necessary for this test. ... There are 2 types of the Coombs test: Direct Indirect The direct ... that are stuck to the surface of red blood cells. Many diseases ...

  17. Ham test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acid hemolysin test; Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria - Ham test; PNH - Ham test ... BJ. In: Chernecky CC, Berger BJ, eds. Laboratory Tests and Diagnostic Procedures . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier ...

  18. Magnesium Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PF4 Antibody Hepatitis A Testing Hepatitis B Testing Hepatitis C Testing HER2/neu Herpes Testing High-sensitivity C-reactive Protein (hs-CRP) Histamine Histone Antibody HIV Antibody and HIV Antigen (p24) HIV Antiretroviral Drug Resistance Testing, Genotypic HIV Viral Load HLA Testing HLA- ...

  19. Lipase Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PF4 Antibody Hepatitis A Testing Hepatitis B Testing Hepatitis C Testing HER2/neu Herpes Testing High-sensitivity C-reactive Protein (hs-CRP) Histamine Histone Antibody HIV Antibody and HIV Antigen (p24) HIV Antiretroviral Drug Resistance Testing, Genotypic HIV Viral Load HLA Testing HLA- ...

  20. Rubella Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PF4 Antibody Hepatitis A Testing Hepatitis B Testing Hepatitis C Testing HER2/neu Herpes Testing High-sensitivity C-reactive Protein (hs-CRP) Histamine Histone Antibody HIV Antibody and HIV Antigen (p24) HIV Antiretroviral Drug Resistance Testing, Genotypic HIV Viral Load HLA Testing HLA- ...

  1. Mono Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PF4 Antibody Hepatitis A Testing Hepatitis B Testing Hepatitis C Testing HER2/neu Herpes Testing High-sensitivity C-reactive Protein (hs-CRP) Histamine Histone Antibody HIV Antibody and HIV Antigen (p24) HIV Antiretroviral Drug Resistance Testing, Genotypic HIV Viral Load HLA Testing HLA- ...

  2. AMA Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PF4 Antibody Hepatitis A Testing Hepatitis B Testing Hepatitis C Testing HER2/neu Herpes Testing High-sensitivity C-reactive Protein (hs-CRP) Histamine Histone Antibody HIV Antibody and HIV Antigen (p24) HIV Antiretroviral Drug Resistance Testing, Genotypic HIV Viral Load HLA Testing HLA- ...

  3. Coagulin-L ameliorates TLR4 induced oxidative damage and immune response by regulating mitochondria and NOX-derived ROS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddy, Sukka Santosh [Pharmacology Division, CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow 226031 (India); Chauhan, Parul [Medicinal and Process Chemistry Division, CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow 226031 (India); Maurya, Preeti [Pharmacology Division, CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow 226031 (India); Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research, New Delhi 110025 (India); Saini, Deepika [Medicinal and Process Chemistry Division, CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow 226031 (India); Yadav, Prem Prakash, E-mail: pp_yadav@cdri.res.in [Medicinal and Process Chemistry Division, CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow 226031 (India); Barthwal, Manoj Kumar, E-mail: manojbarthwal@cdri.res.in [Pharmacology Division, CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow 226031 (India)

    2016-10-15

    Withanolides possess diverse biological and pharmacological activity but their immunomodulatory function is less realized. Hence, coagulin-L, a withanolide isolated from Withania coagulans Dunal has been studied for such an effect in human and murine cells, and mice model. Coagulin-L (1, 3, 10 μM) exhibited immunomodulatory effect by suppressing TLR4 induced immune mediators such as cytokines (GMCSF, IFNα, IFNγ, IL-1α, IL-1Rα, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-2R, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-7, IL-10, IL-12 (p40/p70), IL-13, IL-15, IL-17), chemokines (IL-8/CXCL8, MIG/CXCL9, IP-10/CXCL10, KC, MCP-1/CCL2, MIP-1α/CCL3, MIP-1β/CCL4, RANTES/CCL5, eotaxin/CCL11), growth factors (FGF-basic, VEGF), nitric oxide and intracellular superoxide. Mechanistically, coagulin-L abrogated LPS induced total and mitochondrial ROS generation, NOX2, NOX4 mRNA expression, IRAK and MAPK (p38, JNK, ERK) activation. Coagulin-L also attenuated IκBα degradation, which prevented NFκB downstream iNOS expression and pro-inflammatory cytokine release. Furthermore, coagulin-L (10, 25, 50 mg/kg, p.o.), undermined the LPS (10 mg/kg, i.p.) induced endotoxemia response in mice as evinced from diminished cytokine release, nitric oxide, aortic p38 MAPK activation and endothelial tissue impairment besides suppressing NOX2 and NOX4 expression in liver and aorta. Moreover, coagulin-L also alleviated the ROS mediated oxidative damage which was assessed through protein carbonyl, lipid hydroperoxide, 8-isoprostane and 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine quantification. To extend, coagulin-L also suppressed carrageenan-induced paw edema and thioglycollate-induced peritonitis in mice. Therefore, coagulin-L can be of therapeutic importance in pathological conditions induced by oxidative damage. - Highlights: • Coagulin-L demonstrates immunomodulatory effects in vivo and in vitro by modulating ROS. • Coagulin-L modulates TH1/TH2/TH17 immunokines. • Coagulin-L exerts immunomodulatory effect by regulating TLR4-IRAK- ROS

  4. The effect of tomato juice supplementation on biomarkers and gene expression related to lipid metabolism in rats with induced hepatic steatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Pozuelo, Gala; Navarro-González, Inmaculada; González-Barrio, Rocío; Santaella, Marina; García-Alonso, Javier; Hidalgo, Nieves; Gómez-Gallego, Carlos; Ros, Gaspar; Periago, María Jesús

    2015-09-01

    Tomato products are a dietary source of natural antioxidants, especially lycopene, which accumulates in the liver, where it exerts biological effects. Taking into consideration this fact, the aim of the present study was to ascertain the effect of tomato consumption on biomarkers and gene expression related to lipid metabolism in rats with induced steatosis. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (8 weeks old) were randomly grouped (n = 6 rats/group) in four experimental groups: NA (normal diet and water), NL (normal diet and tomato juice), HA (high fat diet and water) and HL (high fat diet and tomato juice). After 7 weeks, rats were euthanized, and plasma, urine, feces and liver were sampled to analyze the biomarkers related to lipid metabolism, inflammation and oxidative stress. The H diet induced steatosis (grade II) in the HA and HL groups, which was confirmed by the levels of alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase, histological examination and the presence of dyslipidemia. The intake of tomato juice led to an accumulation of all-E and Z-lycopene and its metabolites in the livers of these animals; levels were higher in HL than in NL, apparently due to higher absorption (63.07 vs. 44.45%). A significant improvement in the plasma level of high-density lipoprotein was observed in the HL group compared with HA animals, as was an alleviation of oxidative stress through reduction of isoprostanes in the urine. In relation to fatty acid gene expression, an overexpression of several genes related to fatty acid transport, lipid hydrolysis and mitochondrial and peroxisomal β-fatty acid oxidation was observed in the HL group. The consumption of tomato juice and tomato products reduced hallmarks of steatosis, plasmatic triglycerides and very low-density lipoproteins, and increased lipid metabolism by inducing an overexpression of genes involved in more efficient fatty acid oxidation.

  5. Neuropathy Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... LD) Lactoferrin Lactose Tolerance Tests LDL Cholesterol LDL Particle Testing (LDL-P) Lead Legionella Testing Leptin Levetiracetam Lipase ... tests, such as computed tomography (CT) scans or magnetic resonance imaging ... suspected, additional testing may be performed to evaluate heart rate, blood ...

  6. Pilocarpine iontophoresis test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjortskov, N; Jepsen, Leif; Nielsen, B

    1995-01-01

    The pilocarpine iontophoresis test (P-test) is used as a predictor of the capacity to produce sweat. Therefore, we studied the reproducibility of this test in 12 normal subjects on 10 consecutive days. Furthermore, we determined whether the P-test reflects whole-body and regional sweat secretion...... during exercise in the heat. Finally, we determined whether the P-test stimulates the eccrine sweat glands to maximal sweat secretion. Six growth hormone-deficient (GHD) patients who are known to have decreased sweating, and 11 healthy control subjects were studied. To induce maximal sweat secretion......, the patients exercised on a bicycle ergometer at a workload corresponding to 40% of their maximal aerobic power (VO2max). The 11 healthy subjects exercised at a workload of 150 W. All subjects exercised for 60 min in ambient air at 35 degrees C, with 50% relative humidity. The P-test showed a mean day...

  7. Pharmacogenomic Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your family Plan for the future Insurance and financial planning Transition for children Emergency preparedness Testing & Services Testing ... Support Genetic Disease Information Find a Support Group Financial Planning Who Should I Tell? Genetic Testing & Counseling Compensation ...

  8. Predictive Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your family Plan for the future Insurance and financial planning Transition for children Emergency preparedness Testing & Services Testing ... Support Genetic Disease Information Find a Support Group Financial Planning Who Should I Tell? Genetic Testing & Counseling Compensation ...

  9. Syphilis Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Genetic Tests for Targeted Cancer Therapy Glucose Tests Gonorrhea Testing Gram Stain Growth Hormone Haptoglobin hCG Pregnancy ... treated for another sexually transmitted disease , such as gonorrhea Is pregnant, during the first prenatal visit and ...

  10. Randomization tests

    CERN Document Server

    Edgington, Eugene

    2007-01-01

    Statistical Tests That Do Not Require Random Sampling Randomization Tests Numerical Examples Randomization Tests and Nonrandom Samples The Prevalence of Nonrandom Samples in Experiments The Irrelevance of Random Samples for the Typical Experiment Generalizing from Nonrandom Samples Intelligibility Respect for the Validity of Randomization Tests Versatility Practicality Precursors of Randomization Tests Other Applications of Permutation Tests Questions and Exercises Notes References Randomized Experiments Unique Benefits of Experiments Experimentation without Mani

  11. Maternal periodontal disease is associated with oxidative stress during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickman, M Ashley; Boggess, Kim A; Moss, Kevin L; Beck, James D; Offenbacher, Steven

    2011-03-01

    We sought to determine if maternal periodontal disease is associated with oxidative stress as measured by serum 8-isoprostane. A secondary analysis was conducted using prospective data from the Oral Conditions and Pregnancy Study. Healthy women enrolled at periodontal disease status was categorized as healthy, mild, or moderate to severe by clinical criteria. Maternal serum was analyzed for 8-isoprostane using ultrasensitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Elevated 8-isoprostane level was defined as ≥ 75th percentile. Maternal factors associated with elevated 8-isoprostane were determined using chi-square or T test. Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess association between elevated 8-isoprostane and maternal factors. Seven hundred ninety-one women had complete data. Median (interquartile) 8-isoprostane serum level was 1806 (16 to 81,870) pg/dL. Using bivariate analysis, maternal age, race, marital status, utilization of public assistance, and mild or moderate to severe periodontal disease were associated with elevated serum 8-isoprostane. Using logistic regression, moderate to severe periodontal disease (adjusted odds ratio 2.9, 95% confidence interval: 1.7 to 5.0) remained significantly associated with an elevated serum 8-isoprostane level. Maternal periodontal disease is associated with oxidative stress during pregnancy. Further study is needed to determine the role of maternal oxidative stress in periodontal disease-associated adverse pregnancy outcomes. © Thieme Medical Publishers.

  12. Test chamber

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leferink, Frank Bernardus Johannes

    2009-01-01

    A test chamber for measuring electromagnetic radiation emitted by an apparatus to be tested or for exposing an apparatus to be tested to an electromagnetic radiation field. The test chamber includes a reverberation chamber made of a conductive tent fabric. To create a statistically uniform field in

  13. Diffuse Transcranial Electrical Stimulation (DTES)-induced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Higher voltages were needed to induce convulsion in pretreated animals than in normal animals. It is therefore suggestive that DTES-induced hypermotility can be used as an animal model for testing drugs that can be of advantage in the management of non convulsive (petit mal) status epilepticus (SE), and DTES induced ...

  14. Tensile testing

    CERN Document Server

    2004-01-01

    A complete guide to the uniaxial tensile test, the cornerstone test for determining the mechanical properties of materials: Learn ways to predict material behavior through tensile testing. Learn how to test metals, alloys, composites, ceramics, and plastics to determine strength, ductility and elastic/plastic deformation. A must for laboratory managers, technicians, materials and design engineers, and students involved with uniaxial tensile testing. Tensile Testing , Second Edition begins with an introduction and overview of the test, with clear explanations of how materials properties are determined from test results. Subsequent sections illustrate how knowledge gained through tensile tests, such as tension properties to predict the behavior (including strength, ductility, elastic or plastic deformation, tensile and yield strengths) have resulted in improvements in materals applications. The Second Edition is completely revised and updated. It includes expanded coverage throughout the volume on a variety of ...

  15. Test quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartley, R.S.; Keller, A.E.

    1992-01-01

    Inservice testing of safety-related components at nuclear power plants is performed under the American Society of Mechanical Engineers Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (the Code). Subsections IWP and IWV of Section 11 of the Code state test method and frequency requirements for pumps and valves, respectively. Tests vary greatly in quality and frequency. This paper explores the concept of test quality and its relationship with operational readiness and preventive maintenance. This paper also considers the frequencies of component testing. Test quality is related to a test's ability to detect degradation that can cause component failure. The quality of the test depends on several factors, including specific parameters measured, system or component conditions, and instrument accuracy. The quality of some currently required tests for check valves, motor-operated valves, and pumps is also discussed. Suggestions are made to improve test quality by measuring different parameters, testing valves under load, and testing positive displacement pumps at high pressure and centrifugal pumps at high flow rate conditions. These suggestions can help to improve the level of assurance of component operational readiness gained from testing

  16. Test quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartley, R.S.; Keller, A.E.

    1992-01-01

    This document discusses inservice testing of safety-related components at nuclear power plants which is performed under the American Society of Mechanical Engineers Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (the Code). Subsections IWP and IWV of Section XI of the Code state test method and frequency requirements for pumps and valves respectively. Tests vary greatly in quality and frequency. This paper explores the concept of test quality and its relationship with operational readiness and preventive maintenance. This paper also considers the frequencies of component testing. Test quality is related to a test's ability to detect degradation that can cause component failure. The quality of the test depends on several factors, including specific parameters measured, system or component conditions, and instrument accuracy. The quality of some currently required tests for check valves, motor-operated valves, and pumps is also discussed. Suggestions are made to improve test quality by measuring different parameters, testing valves under load, and testing positive displacement pumps at high pressure and centrifugal pumps at high flow rate conditions. These suggestions can help to improve the level of assurance of component operational readiness gained from testing

  17. Randomization tests

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Edgington, Eugene S

    1980-01-01

    .... This book provides all the necessary theory and practical guidelines, such as instructions for writing computer programs, to permit experimenters to transform any statistical test into a distribution-free test...