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Sample records for isolates showed higher

  1. Fish kidney cells show higher tolerance to hyperosmolality than amphibian

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    Lang Gui

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In contrast to fish, amphibians inhabit both aquatic and terrestrial environments. To better understand osmoregulation in fish and amphibian, we have investigated the morphological changes in kidney cells to osmotic stress. To address this, kidney cell line isolated from the freshwater grass carp (CIK and Chinese giant salamander (GSK were challenged to different mediums with distinct osmotic pressures (100, 300 and 700 mOsm. Morphological alterations of the fish and amphibian cells were compared by optical and electron microscopy. Following hyposmotic treatment (100 mOsm, both CIK and GSK cells became unhealthy and show condensed chromatin, swollen mitochondria and cytoplasmic vacuole. Meanwhile, after hyperosmotic treatment (700 mOsm, shrunken CIK cells with multipolar shape, pale or lightly stained cytoplasm, condensed chromatin, vacuoles and swollen mitochondria were detected. GSK cells were seriously damaged and most were completely lysed. The results suggest that fish kidney cells show a higher degree of tolerance to hyperosmoticity by comparing to amphibians and provide novel insights on the osmoregulatory capacity and adaptability of kidney cells between the two animal groups.

  2. Isolation and characterization of higher metallofullerenes Ca@C92 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    allofullerenes containing alkaline earth metal ions could be isolated although their relative yields are extremely low. Ca@C92 and Ca@C94 are also ... est cage size for lanthanide and alkaline earth higher metallofullerenes isolated and ... suming stage is to remove abundant hollow small cage fullerenes and enrich higher ...

  3. Amniotic Fluid Cells Show Higher Pluripotency-Related Gene Expression Than Allantoic Fluid Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehl, Debora; Generali, Melanie; Görtz, Sabrina; Geering, Diego; Slamecka, Jaroslav; Hoerstrup, Simon P; Bleul, Ulrich; Weber, Benedikt

    2017-10-01

    Amniotic fluid represents an abundant source of multipotent stem cells, referred as broadly multipotent given their differentiation potential and expression of pluripotency-related genes. However, the origin of this broadly multipotent cellular fraction is not fully understood. Several sources have been proposed so far, including embryonic and extraembryonic tissues. In this regard, the ovine developmental model uniquely allows for direct comparison of fetal fluid-derived cells from two separate fetal fluid cavities, the allantois and the amnion, over the entire duration of gestation. As allantoic fluid mainly collects fetal urine, cells originating from the efferent urinary tract can directly be compared with cells deriving from the extraembryonic amniotic tissues and the fetus. This study shows isolation of cells from the amniotic [ovine amniotic fluid cells (oAFCs)] and allantoic fluid [ovine allantoic fluid cells (oALCs)] in a strictly paired fashion with oAFCs and oALCs derived from the same fetus. Both cell types showed cellular phenotypes comparable to standard mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), with trilineage differentiation potential, and expression of common ovine MSC markers. However, the expression of MSC markers per single cell was higher in oAFCs as measured by flow cytometry. oAFCs exhibited higher proliferative capacities and showed significantly higher expression of pluripotency-related genes OCT4, STAT3, NANOG, and REX1 by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction compared with paired oALCs. No significant decrease of pluripotency-related gene expression was noted over gestation, implying that cells with high differentiation potential may be isolated at the end of pregnancy. In conclusion, this study suggests that cells with highest stem cell characteristics may originate from the fetus itself or the amniotic fetal adnexa rather than from the efferent urinary tract or the allantoic fetal adnexa.

  4. Transmission trials, ITS2-PCR and RAPD-PCR show identity of Toxocara canis isolates from red fox and dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epe, C; Meuwissen, M; Stoye, M; Schnieder, T

    1999-07-01

    Toxocara canis isolates from dog and from red fox were compared in transmission trials and with molecular analysis using RAPD-PCR technique and comparison of the ITS2 sequence. After oral infection of bitches with 20,000 embryonated T. canis eggs of vulpine and canine origin, the vertical transmission to pup's was examined. All animals of both groups developed typical clinical symptoms of toxocarosis. The haematological, serological, parasitological and post mortem results showed no differences between both isolates except for the infectivity of T. canis stages in mice where the fox isolate showed a significant higher infectivity than the dog isolate. The RAPD-PCR showed a similarity coefficient of 0.95, similar to the range of intraspecific variation in Toxocara cati and Toxascaris leonina specimens as outgroups. The ITS2 comparison showed a 100% identity between both isolates with no intraspecific variations. Therefore, the study shows that the fox and the dog isolate of T. canis were identical in infectivity, transmission and molecular structure; a host adaptation could not be found and the fox has to be seen as a reservoir for T. canis infections in dogs. Considering the increasing number of foxes in urban areas the importance of helminth control in dogs is stressed.

  5. Lysogenic Streptococcus suis isolate SS2-4 containing prophage SMP showed increased mortality in zebra fish compared to the wild-type isolate.

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    Fang Tang

    Full Text Available Streptococcus suis (S. suis infection is considered to be a major problem in the swine industry worldwide. Based on the capsular type, 33 serotypes of S. suis have been described, with serotype 2 (SS2 being the most frequently isolated from diseased piglets. Little is known, however, about the pathogenesis and virulence factors of S. suis. Research on bacteriophages highlights a new area in S. suis research. A S. suis serotype 2 bacteriophage, designated SMP, has been previously isolated in our laboratory. Here, we selected a lysogenic isolate in which the SMP phage was integrated into the chromosome of strain SS2-4. Compared to the wild-type isolate, the lysogenic strain showed increased mortality in zebra fish. Moreover the sensitivity of the lysogenic strain to lysozyme was seven times higher than that of the wild-type.

  6. A herbicide-resistant ACCase 1781 Setaria mutant shows higher fitness than wild type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, T; Picard, J C; Tian, X; Darmency, H

    2010-10-01

    It is often alleged that mutations conferring herbicide resistance have a negative impact on plant fitness. A mutant ACCase1781 allele endowing resistance to the sethoxydim herbicide was introgressed from a resistant green foxtail (Setaria viridis (L.) Beauv) population into foxtail millet (S. italica (L.) Beauv.). (1) Better and earlier growth of resistant plants was observed in a greenhouse cabinet. (2) Resistant plants of the advanced BC7 backcross generation showed more vigorous juvenile growth in the field, earlier flowering, more tillers and higher numbers of grains than susceptible plants did, especially when both genotypes were grown in mixture, but their seeds were lighter than susceptible seeds. (3) Field populations originating from segregating hybrids had the expected allele frequencies under normal growth conditions, but showed a genotype shift toward an excess of homozygous resistant plants within 3 years in stressful conditions. Lower seed size, lower germination rate and perhaps unexplored differences in seed longevity and predation could explain how the resistant plants have the same field fitness over the whole life cycle as the susceptible ones although they produce more seeds. More rapid growth kinetics probably accounted for higher fitness of the resistant plants in adverse conditions. The likelihood of a linkage with a beneficial gene is discussed versus the hypothesis of a pleiotropic effect of the ACCase resistance allele. It is suggested that autogamous species like Setaria could not develop a resistant population without the help of a linkage with a gene producing a higher fitness.

  7. Fibroblasts maintained in 3 dimensions show a better differentiation state and higher sensitivity to estrogens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montani, Claudia [Laboratory of Biotechnology, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Civic Hospital of Brescia (Italy); Steimberg, Nathalie; Boniotti, Jennifer [Laboratory of Tissue Engineering, Anatomy and Physiopathology Unit, Department of Clinical and Experimental Sciences, School of Medicine, University of Brescia (Italy); Biasiotto, Giorgio; Zanella, Isabella [Laboratory of Biotechnology, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Civic Hospital of Brescia (Italy); Department of Molecular and Translational Medicine, University of Brescia, Brescia (Italy); Diafera, Giuseppe [Integrated Systems Engineering (ISE), Milan (Italy); Biunno, Ida [IRGB-CNR, Milan (Italy); IRCCS-Multimedica, Milan (Italy); Caimi, Luigi [Laboratory of Biotechnology, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Civic Hospital of Brescia (Italy); Department of Molecular and Translational Medicine, University of Brescia, Brescia (Italy); Mazzoleni, Giovanna [Laboratory of Tissue Engineering, Anatomy and Physiopathology Unit, Department of Clinical and Experimental Sciences, School of Medicine, University of Brescia (Italy); Di Lorenzo, Diego, E-mail: diego.dilorenzo@yahoo.it [Laboratory of Biotechnology, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Civic Hospital of Brescia (Italy)

    2014-11-01

    Cell differentiation and response to hormonal signals were studied in a 3D environment on an in-house generated mouse fibroblast cell line expressing a reporter gene under the control of estrogen responsive sequences (EREs). 3D cell culture conditions were obtained in a Rotary Cell Culture System; (RCCS™), a microgravity based bioreactor that promotes the aggregation of cells into multicellular spheroids (MCS). In this bioreactor the cells maintained a better differentiated phenotype and more closely resembled in vivo tissue. The RCCS™ cultured fibroblasts showed higher expression of genes regulating cell assembly, differentiation and hormonal functions. Microarray analysis showed that genes related to cell cycle, proliferation, cytoskeleton, migration, adhesion and motility were all down-regulated in 3D as compared to 2D conditions, as well as oncogene expression and inflammatory cytokines. Controlled remodeling of ECM, which is an essential aspect of cell organization, homeostasis and tissue was affected by the culture method as assessed by immunolocalization of β-tubulin. Markers of cell organization, homeostasis and tissue repair, metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2) and its physiological inhibitor (TIMP4) changed expression in association with the relative formation of cell aggregates. The fibroblasts cultured in the RCCS™ maintain a better responsiveness to estrogens, measured as expression of ERα and regulation of an ERE-dependent reporter and of the endogenous target genes CBP, Rarb, MMP1 and Dbp. Our data highlight the interest of this 3D culture model for its potential application in the field of cell response to hormonal signals and the pharmaco-toxicological analyses of chemicals and natural molecules endowed of estrogenic potential. - Highlights: • We here characterized the first cell line derived from an estrogen reporter mouse. • In the RCCS cells express an immortalized behavior but not a transformed phenotype. • The RCCS provides a system for

  8. Higher isolation of NDM-1 producing Acinetobacter baumannii from the sewage of the hospitals in Beijing.

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    Chuanfu Zhang

    Full Text Available Multidrug resistant microbes present in the environment are a potential public health risk. In this study, we investigate the presence of New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase 1 (NDM-1 producing bacteria in the 99 water samples in Beijing City, including river water, treated drinking water, raw water samples from the pools and sewage from 4 comprehensive hospitals. For the bla NDM-1 positive isolate, antimicrobial susceptibility testing was further analyzed, and Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE was performed to determine the genetic relationship among the NDM-1 producing isolates from sewage and human, as well as the clinical strains without NDM-1. The results indicate that there was a higher isolation of NDM-1 producing Acinetobacter baumannii from the sewage of the hospitals, while no NDM-1 producing isolates were recovered from samples obtained from the river, drinking, or fishpond water. Surprisingly, these isolates were markedly different from the clinical isolates in drug resistance and pulsed field gel electrophoresis profiles, suggesting different evolutionary relationships. Our results showed that the hospital sewage may be one of the diffusion reservoirs of NDM-1 producing bacteria.

  9. Higher isolation of NDM-1 producing Acinetobacter baumannii from the sewage of the hospitals in Beijing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chuanfu; Qiu, Shaofu; Wang, Yong; Qi, Lihua; Hao, Rongzhang; Liu, Xuelin; Shi, Yun; Hu, Xiaofeng; An, Daizhi; Li, Zhenjun; Li, Peng; Wang, Ligui; Cui, Jiajun; Wang, Pan; Huang, Liuyu; Klena, John D; Song, Hongbin

    2014-01-01

    Multidrug resistant microbes present in the environment are a potential public health risk. In this study, we investigate the presence of New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase 1 (NDM-1) producing bacteria in the 99 water samples in Beijing City, including river water, treated drinking water, raw water samples from the pools and sewage from 4 comprehensive hospitals. For the bla NDM-1 positive isolate, antimicrobial susceptibility testing was further analyzed, and Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE) was performed to determine the genetic relationship among the NDM-1 producing isolates from sewage and human, as well as the clinical strains without NDM-1. The results indicate that there was a higher isolation of NDM-1 producing Acinetobacter baumannii from the sewage of the hospitals, while no NDM-1 producing isolates were recovered from samples obtained from the river, drinking, or fishpond water. Surprisingly, these isolates were markedly different from the clinical isolates in drug resistance and pulsed field gel electrophoresis profiles, suggesting different evolutionary relationships. Our results showed that the hospital sewage may be one of the diffusion reservoirs of NDM-1 producing bacteria.

  10. The drug target genes show higher evolutionary conservation than non-target genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Wenhua; Xu, Yongdeng; Guo, Yiying; Yu, Ziqi; Feng, Guanglong; Liu, Panpan; Luan, Meiwei; Zhu, Hongjie; Liu, Guiyou; Zhang, Mingming; Lv, Hongchao; Duan, Lian; Shang, Zhenwei; Li, Jin; Jiang, Yongshuai; Zhang, Ruijie

    2016-01-26

    Although evidence indicates that drug target genes share some common evolutionary features, there have been few studies analyzing evolutionary features of drug targets from an overall level. Therefore, we conducted an analysis which aimed to investigate the evolutionary characteristics of drug target genes. We compared the evolutionary conservation between human drug target genes and non-target genes by combining both the evolutionary features and network topological properties in human protein-protein interaction network. The evolution rate, conservation score and the percentage of orthologous genes of 21 species were included in our study. Meanwhile, four topological features including the average shortest path length, betweenness centrality, clustering coefficient and degree were considered for comparison analysis. Then we got four results as following: compared with non-drug target genes, 1) drug target genes had lower evolutionary rates; 2) drug target genes had higher conservation scores; 3) drug target genes had higher percentages of orthologous genes and 4) drug target genes had a tighter network structure including higher degrees, betweenness centrality, clustering coefficients and lower average shortest path lengths. These results demonstrate that drug target genes are more evolutionarily conserved than non-drug target genes. We hope that our study will provide valuable information for other researchers who are interested in evolutionary conservation of drug targets.

  11. Dihydrochalcone Compounds Isolated from Crabapple Leaves Showed Anticancer Effects on Human Cancer Cell Lines

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    Xiaoxiao Qin

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Seven dihydrochalcone compounds were isolated from the leaves of Malus crabapples, cv. “Radiant”, and their chemical structures were elucidated by UV, IR, ESI-MS, 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR analyses. These compounds, which include trilobatin (A1, phloretin (A2, 3-hydroxyphloretin (A3, phloretin rutinoside (A4, phlorizin (A5, 6′′-O-coumaroyl-4′-O-glucopyranosylphloretin (A6, and 3′′′-methoxy-6′′-O-feruloy-4′-O-glucopyranosyl-phloretin (A7, all belong to the phloretin class and its derivatives. Compounds A6 and A7 are two new rare dihydrochalcone compounds. The results of a MTT cancer cell growth inhibition assay demonstrated that phloretin and these derivatives showed significant positive anticancer activities against several human cancer cell lines, including the A549 human lung cancer cell line, Bel 7402 liver cancer cell line, HepG2 human ileocecal cancer cell line, and HT-29 human colon cancer cell line. A7 had significant effects on all cancer cell lines, suggesting potential applications for phloretin and its derivatives. Adding a methoxyl group to phloretin dramatically increases phloretin’s anticancer activity.

  12. Isolation and characterization of pigmented bacteria showing antimicrobial activity from Malaysian marine environment

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    Ahmad, A.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Natural products play a prominent role in the discovery of leads for the development of drugs in the treatment ofhuman diseases. Much of nature remains to be explored, especially marine and microbial environments.Methodology and results: Fifty-five pigmented marine bacteria were isolated from sponges, seawater, mangrovesediment, sea cucumber and mussel from different coastal area of Malaysia. The antimicrobial activities of thesebacteria were investigated by disk diffusion method against pathogenic bacteria. Out of 55 isolates, 18 isolates exhibitedantimicrobial activity, which based on morphological characterization, 53% of them were Gram positive and 47% wereGram negative. All active isolates were able to tolerate more than 4% NaCl in the nutrient agar medium that indicatedthey were autochthonous to marine environment and moderate salt tolerant in nature. Molecular identification of isolatesby the strong antimicrobial activities indicates that isolates WPRA3 (JX020764 and SM11-3j belong to genus Serratiaand isolate SDPM1 (JQ083392 belongs to genus Zooshikella.Conclusion, significance and impact of study: The results of present study revealed that the active isolates arepotential producer of antimicrobial secondary metabolites and might be utilized as drug candidate.

  13. Plasmodium falciparum isolates from Angola show the StctVMNT haplotype in the pfcrt gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Effective treatment remains a mainstay of malaria control, but it is unfortunately strongly compromised by drug resistance, particularly in Plasmodium falciparum, the most important human malaria parasite. Although P. falciparum chemoresistance is well recognized all over the world, limited data are available on the distribution and prevalence of pfcrt and pfmdr1 haplotypes that mediate resistance to commonly used drugs and that show distinct geographic differences. Methods Plasmodium falciparum-infected blood samples collected in 2007 at four municipalities of Luanda, Angola, were genotyped using PCR and direct DNA sequencing. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the P. falciparum pfcrt and pfmdr1 genes were assessed and haplotype prevalences were determined. Results and Discussion The most prevalent pfcrt haplotype was StctVMNT (representing amino acids at codons 72-76). This result was unexpected, since the StctVMNT haplotype has previously been seen mainly in parasites from South America and India. The CVIET, CVMNT and CVINT drug-resistance haplotypes were also found, and one previously undescribed haplotype (CVMDT) was detected. Regarding pfmdr1, the most prevalent haplotype was YEYSNVD (representing amino acids at codons 86, 130, 184, 1034, 1042, 1109 and 1246). Wild haplotypes for pfcrt and pfmdr1 were uncommon; 3% of field isolates harbored wild type pfcrt (CVMNK), whereas 21% had wild type pfmdr1 (NEYSNVD). The observed predominance of the StctVMNT haplotype in Angola could be a result of frequent travel between Brazil and Angola citizens in the context of selective pressure of heavy CQ use. Conclusions The high prevalence of the pfcrt SVMNT haplotype and the pfmdr1 86Y mutation confirm high-level chloroquine resistance and might suggest reduced efficacy of amodiaquine in Angola. Further studies must be encouraged to examine the in vitro sensitivity of pfcrt SVMNT parasites to artesunate and amodiaquine for better conclusive data. PMID:20565881

  14. A Geographically Diverse Collection of Schizosaccharomyces pombe Isolates Shows Limited Phenotypic Variation but Extensive Karyotypic Diversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brown, William R A; Liti, Gianni; Rosa, Carlos; James, Steve; Roberts, Ian; Robert, Vincent; Jolly, Neil; Tang, Wen; Baumann, Peter; Green, Carter; Schlegel, Kristina; Young, Jonathan; Hirchaud, Fabienne; Leek, Spencer; Thomas, Geraint; Blomberg, Anders; Warringer, Jonas

    2011-01-01

    The fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe has been widely used to study eukaryotic cell biology, but almost all of this work has used derivatives of a single strain. We have studied 81 independent natural isolates and 3 designated laboratory strains of Schizosaccharomyces pombe.

  15. Group and Individual Variability in Mouse Pup Isolation Calls Recorded on the Same Day Show Stability

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    Terra D. Barnes

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Mice produce ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs in a variety of social situations, and USVs have been leveraged to study many neurological diseases including verbal dyspraxia, depression, autism and stuttering. Pups produce isolation calls, a common USV, spontaneously when they are isolated from their mother during the first 2 weeks of life. Several genetic manipulations affect (and often reduce pup isolation calls in mice. To facilitate the use of this assay as a means of testing whether significant functional differences in genotypes exist instead of contextual differences, we test the variability inherent in many commons measures of mouse vocalizations. Here we use biological consistency as a way of determining which are reproducible in mouse pup vocalizations. We present a comprehensive analysis of the normal variability of these vocalizations in groups of mice, individual mice and different strains of mice. To control for maturation effects, we recorded pup isolation calls in the same group of C57BL/6J 5 days old mice twice, with 1 h of rest in between recordings. In almost all cases, the group averages between the first and second recordings were the same. We also found that there were high correlations in some parameters in individual mice across recording while others were not well correlated. These findings could be replicated for the majority of features in a separate group of C57BL/6J mice and a group of 129/SvEvBrd-C57BL/6J mice. The averages of these mouse USV features are highly consistent and represent a robust assay to test the effects of genetic and other interventions in the experimental setting.

  16. Isolation of baker's yeast mutants with proline accumulation that showed enhanced tolerance to baking-associated stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsolmonbaatar, Ariunzaya; Hashida, Keisuke; Sugimoto, Yukiko; Watanabe, Daisuke; Furukawa, Shuhei; Takagi, Hiroshi

    2016-12-05

    During bread-making processes, yeast cells are exposed to baking-associated stresses such as freeze-thaw, air-drying, and high-sucrose concentrations. Previously, we reported that self-cloning diploid baker's yeast strains that accumulate proline retained higher-level fermentation abilities in both frozen and sweet doughs than the wild-type strain. Although self-cloning yeasts do not have to be treated as genetically modified yeasts, the conventional methods for breeding baker's yeasts are more acceptable to consumers than the use of self-cloning yeasts. In this study, we isolated mutants resistant to the proline analogue azetidine-2-carboxylate (AZC) derived from diploid baker's yeast of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Some of the mutants accumulated a greater amount of intracellular proline, and among them, 5 mutants showed higher cell viability than that observed in the parent wild-type strain under freezing or high-sucrose stress conditions. Two of them carried novel mutations in the PRO1 gene encoding the Pro247Ser or Glu415Lys variant of γ-glutamyl kinase (GK), which is a key enzyme in proline biosynthesis in S. cerevisiae. Interestingly, we found that these mutations resulted in AZC resistance of yeast cells and desensitization to proline feedback inhibition of GK, leading to intracellular proline accumulation. Moreover, baker's yeast cells expressing the PRO1 P247S and PRO1 E415K gene were more tolerant to freezing stress than cells expressing the wild-type PRO1 gene. The approach described here could be a practical method for the breeding of proline-accumulating baker's yeasts with higher tolerance to baking-associated stresses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Genetic characterization of Toxoplasma gondii isolates from Portugal, Austria and Israel reveals higher genetic variability within the type II lineage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, S K; Ajzenberg, D; Rivera-Sanchez, A; Su, C; Dubey, J P

    2015-06-01

    This study compared genetic diversity of Toxoplasma gondii isolates from Portugal, Austria and Israel. For this, we genotyped 90 T. gondii isolates (16 from Portugal, 67 from Austria and 7 from Israel) using 10 nested PCR-restriction length polymorphism (RFLP) genetic markers and 15 microsatellite (MS) markers. By PCR-RFLP typing, 7 isolates from Portugal chickens were identified as type II (ToxoDB #1 or #3), 4 were type III (ToxoDB #2) and the remaining 4 isolates have unique genotype pattern were designated as ToxoDB #254. One mouse virulent isolate from a bovine fetus (Bos taurus) in Portugal was type I (ToxoDB #10) at all loci and designated as TgCowPr1. All 67 isolates from Austria and 7 from Israel were type II (ToxoDB #1 or #3). By MS typing, many additional genetic variations were revealed among the type II and type III isolates. Phylogenetic analysis showed that isolates from the same geographical locations tend to cluster together, and there is little overlapping of genotypes among different locations. This study demonstrated that the MS markers can provide higher discriminatory power to reveal association of genotypes with geographical locations. Future studies of the type II strains in Europe by these MS markers will be useful to reveal transmission patterns of the parasite.

  18. Potential Antioxidant Anthraquinones Isolated from Rheum emodi Showing Nematicidal Activity against Meloidogyne incognita

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    Brijesh Tripathi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidant and nematicidal properties were evaluated for R. emodi extractives which are extracted by standardizing and adopting accelerated solvent extraction (ASE method along with traditional Soxhlet extraction. The extracted material was separated using flash chromatography and the separation conditions and solvents were standardized for the extracted plant constituents. The purity was detected by using analytical reverse phase high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC. LC-MS/MS detection in the direct infusion mode of the isolated, purified products afforded four anthraquinones, characterized by their infrared spectra (IR and 1H spectra as chrysophanol, physcion, emodin, and aloe-emodin. Five antraquinone glucoside derivatives and piceatannol-3-O-β-d-glucopyranoside have also been detected from the extracted product. During in vitro evaluation the antioxidant potential of methanolic crude extract (CE1 was the highest, followed by ethyl acetate crude extract (CE2 and chloroform extract (CE3 in DPPH radical scavenging activity. The CE1 also demonstrated outstanding nematicidal activity as compared with other extracts, pure anthraquinones, and even positive control azadirachtin. The study conclusively demonstrated the antioxidant potential of R. emodi extracts and also its ability in extenuating the Meloidogyne incognita (root-knot nematode. The bioassay results can be extrapolated to actual field condition and clinical studies.

  19. The invasive wetland plant Alternanthera philoxeroides shows a higher tolerance to waterlogging than its native Congener Alternanthera sessilis.

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    Yue Chen

    Full Text Available Plant invasion is one of the major threats to natural ecosystems. Phenotypic plasticity is considered to be important for promoting plant invasiveness. High tolerance of stress can also increase survival of invasive plants in adverse habitats. Limited growth and conservation of carbohydrate are considered to increase tolerance of flooding in plants. However, few studies have examined whether invasive species shows a higher phenotypic plasticity in response to waterlogging or a higher tolerance of waterlogging (lower plasticity than native species. We conducted a greenhouse experiment to compare the growth and morphological and physiological responses to waterlogging of the invasive, clonal, wetland species Alternanthera philoxeroides with those of its co-occurring, native, congeneric, clonal species Alternanthera sessilis. Plants of A. philoxeroides and A. sessilis were subjected to three treatments (control, 0 and 60 cm waterlogging. Both A. philoxeroides and A. sessilis survived all treatments. Overall growth was lower in A. philoxeroides than in A. sessilis, but waterlogging negatively affected the growth of A. philoxeroides less strongly than that of A. sessilis. Alternanthera philoxeroides thus showed less sensitivity of growth traits (lower plasticity and higher waterlogging tolerance. Moreover, the photosynthetic capacity of A. philoxeroides was higher than that of A. sessilis during waterlogging. Alternanthera philoxeroides also had higher total non-structural and non-soluble carbohydrate concentrations than A. sessilis at the end of treatments. Our results suggest that higher tolerance to waterlogging and higher photosynthetic capacity may partly explain the invasion success of A. philoxeroides in wetlands.

  20. Newcastle Disease Viruses Causing Recent Outbreaks Worldwide Show Unexpectedly High Genetic Similarity to Historical Virulent Isolates from the 1940s

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    Dimitrov, Kiril M.; Lee, Dong-Hun; Williams-Coplin, Dawn; Olivier, Timothy L.; Miller, Patti J.

    2016-01-01

    Virulent strains of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) cause Newcastle disease (ND), a devastating disease of poultry and wild birds. Phylogenetic analyses clearly distinguish historical isolates (obtained prior to 1960) from currently circulating viruses of class II genotypes V, VI, VII, and XII through XVIII. Here, partial and complete genomic sequences of recent virulent isolates of genotypes II and IX from China, Egypt, and India were found to be nearly identical to those of historical viruses isolated in the 1940s. Phylogenetic analysis, nucleotide distances, and rates of change demonstrate that these recent isolates have not evolved significantly from the most closely related ancestors from the 1940s. The low rates of change for these virulent viruses (7.05 × 10−5 and 2.05 × 10−5 per year, respectively) and the minimal genetic distances existing between these and historical viruses (0.3 to 1.2%) of the same genotypes indicate an unnatural origin. As with any other RNA virus, Newcastle disease virus is expected to evolve naturally; thus, these findings suggest that some recent field isolates should be excluded from evolutionary studies. Furthermore, phylogenetic analyses show that these recent virulent isolates are more closely related to virulent strains isolated during the 1940s, which have been and continue to be used in laboratory and experimental challenge studies. Since the preservation of viable viruses in the environment for over 6 decades is highly unlikely, it is possible that the source of some of the recent virulent viruses isolated from poultry and wild birds might be laboratory viruses. PMID:26888902

  1. Genome sequence of Lactobacillus salivarius SMXD51, a potential probiotic strain isolated from chicken cecum, showing anti-campylobacter activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kergourlay, Gilles; Messaoudi, Soumaya; Dousset, Xavier; Prévost, Hervé

    2012-06-01

    We report the draft genome sequence of Lactobacillus salivarius SMXD51, isolated from the cecum of healthy chickens showing an activity against Campylobacter--the food-borne pathogen that is the most common cause of gastroenteritis in the European Union (EU)--and potentially interesting features for a probiotic strain, explaining our interest in it.

  2. The isolation and improvement of Aspergillus niger by radiation for higher production of citric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radziah A; Foziah Ali; Zainab H

    2000-01-01

    Local citric acid producer of fungal strain Aspergillus niger have been successfully isolated from stale bread and onion. The isolates, designated as SB 1 and NN I showed a potential performance for citric acid production of 49% and 52% yield respectively, in shake flask studies. The strain improvement on NN1 was carried out by radiation induced mutation by gamma rays at LD 5 0 of 1.28 kGy

  3. Hydrogels from feather keratin show higher viscoelastic properties and cell proliferation than those from hair and wool keratins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esparza, Yussef; Bandara, Nandika; Ullah, Aman; Wu, Jianping

    2018-09-01

    Hydrogel prepared from keratin shows potential applications in tissue engineering. However, the importance of the keratin sources has not been considered. The objectives of this study were to characterize and compare the rheological (storage modulus), physical (porosity, pore size, swelling capacity, and water contact angle) and in vitro cell compatibility of hydrogel scaffolds prepared from various keratin sources. Keratins were characterized by means of their molecular weight, amino acid composition, thermal and conformational properties. Hydrogels from chicken feather keratins demonstrated substantially higher storage modulus (G') than hair and wool keratin hydrogels. However, higher swelling capacity (>3000%) was determined in hair and wool over feather keratin (1500%) hydrogels. Our results suggest that small molecular weight and β-sheet conformation of feather keratin (~10 kDa) facilitated the self-assembly of rigid hydrogels through disulfide bond re-oxidation. Whereas, high molecular weight (10-75 kDa) stretchable α-helix conformation in hair and wool keratins resulted in weaker hydrogels. The cell cultures using fibroblasts showed the highest proliferation rate on chicken feather keratin hydrogel scaffolds. After 15 days of culture, partial breakdown of keratin fibers was observed. Results indicate that stiffer avian keratins can be used to fabricate more mechanically robust biomaterials than mammalian keratins. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Single-provenance mature conifers show higher non-structural carbohydrate storage and reduced growth in a drier location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piper, Frida I; Fajardo, Alex; Hoch, Günter

    2017-08-01

    Since growth is more sensitive to drought than photosynthesis, trees inhabiting dry regions are expected to exhibit higher carbohydrate storage and less growth than their conspecifics from more humid regions. However, the same pattern can be the result of different genotypes inhabiting contrasting humidity conditions. To test if reduced growth and high carbohydrate storage are environmentally driven by drought, we examined the growth and non-structural carbohydrate (NSC) concentrations in single-provenance stands of mature trees of Pinus contorta Douglas and Pinus ponderosa Douglas ex C. Lawson planted at contrasting humidity conditions (900 versus 300 mm of annual precipitation) in Patagonia, Chile. Individual tree growth was measured for each species and at each location as mean basal area increment of the last 10 years (BAI10), annual shoot elongation for the period 2011-14, and needle length for 2013 and 2014 cohorts. Additionally, needle, branch, stem sapwood and roots were collected from each sampled tree to determine soluble sugars, starch and total NSC concentrations. The two species showed lower mean BAI10 and 2013 needle length in the dry site; P. ponderosa also had lower annual shoot extension for 2011 and 2014, and lower 2014 needle length, in the dry than in the mesic site. By contrast, NSC concentrations of all woody tissues for both species were either similar or higher in the dry site when compared with the mesic site. Patterns of starch and sugars were substantially different: starch concentrations were similar between sites except for roots of P. ponderosa, which were higher in the dry site, while sugar concentrations of all woody tissues in both species were higher in the dry site. Overall, our study provides evidence that reduced growth along with carbon (C) accumulation is an environmentally driven response to drought. Furthermore, the significant accumulation of low-molecular weight sugars in the dry site is compatible with a prioritized C

  5. Human and Animal Isolates of Yersinia enterocolitica Show Significant Serotype-Specific Colonization and Host-Specific Immune Defense Properties

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    Schaake, Julia; Kronshage, Malte; Uliczka, Frank; Rohde, Manfred; Knuuti, Tobias; Strauch, Eckhard; Fruth, Angelika; Wos-Oxley, Melissa

    2013-01-01

    Yersinia enterocolitica is a human pathogen that is ubiquitous in livestock, especially pigs. The bacteria are able to colonize the intestinal tract of a variety of mammalian hosts, but the severity of induced gut-associated diseases (yersiniosis) differs significantly between hosts. To gain more information about the individual virulence determinants that contribute to colonization and induction of immune responses in different hosts, we analyzed and compared the interactions of different human- and animal-derived isolates of serotypes O:3, O:5,27, O:8, and O:9 with murine, porcine, and human intestinal cells and macrophages. The examined strains exhibited significant serotype-specific cell binding and entry characteristics, but adhesion and uptake into different host cells were not host specific and were independent of the source of the isolate. In contrast, survival and replication within macrophages and the induced proinflammatory response differed between murine, porcine, and human macrophages, suggesting a host-specific immune response. In fact, similar levels of the proinflammatory cytokine macrophage inflammatory protein 2 (MIP-2) were secreted by murine bone marrow-derived macrophages with all tested isolates, but the equivalent interleukin-8 (IL-8) response of porcine bone marrow-derived macrophages was strongly serotype specific and considerably lower in O:3 than in O:8 strains. In addition, all tested Y. enterocolitica strains caused a considerably higher level of secretion of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 by porcine than by murine macrophages. This could contribute to limiting the severity of the infection (in particular of serotype O:3 strains) in pigs, which are the primary reservoir of Y. enterocolitica strains pathogenic to humans. PMID:23959720

  6. Two bee-pollinated plant species show higher seed production when grown in gardens compared to arable farmland.

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    John Cussans

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Insect pollinator abundance, in particular that of bees, has been shown to be high where there is a super-abundance of floral resources; for example in association with mass-flowering crops and also in gardens where flowering plants are often densely planted. Since land management affects pollinator numbers, it is also likely to affect the resultant pollination of plants growing in these habitats. We hypothesised that the seed or fruit set of two plant species, typically pollinated by bumblebees and/or honeybees might respond in one of two ways: 1 pollination success could be reduced when growing in a floriferous environment, via competition for pollinators, or 2 pollination success could be enhanced because of increased pollinator abundance in the vicinity.We compared the pollination success of experimental plants of Glechoma hederacea L. and Lotus corniculatus L. growing in gardens and arable farmland. On the farms, the plants were placed either next to a mass-flowering crop (oilseed rape, Brassica napus L. or field beans, Vicia faba L. or next to a cereal crop (wheat, Triticum spp.. Seed set of G. hederacea and fruit set of L. corniculatus were significantly higher in gardens compared to arable farmland. There was no significant difference in pollination success of G. hederacea when grown next to different crops, but for L. corniculatus, fruit set was higher in the plants growing next to oilseed rape when the crop was in flower.The results show that pollination services can limit fruit set of wild plants in arable farmland, but there is some evidence that the presence of a flowering crop can facilitate their pollination (depending on species and season. We have also demonstrated that gardens are not only beneficial to pollinators, but also to the process of pollination.

  7. MDS shows a higher expression of hTERT and alternative splice variants in unactivated T-cells.

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    Dong, Wen; Wu, Lei; Sun, Houfang; Ren, Xiubao; Epling-Burnette, Pearlie K; Yang, Lili

    2016-11-01

    Telomere instability and telomerase reactivation are believed to play an important role in the development of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). Abnormal enzymatic activity of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT), and its alternative splice variants have been reported to account for deregulated telomerase function in many cancers. In this study, we aim to compare the differences in expression of hTERT and hTERT splice variants, as well as telomere length and telomerase activity in unstimulated T-cells between MDS subgroups and healthy controls. Telomere length in MDS cases was significantly shorter than controls (n = 20, pMDS using World Health Organization classification (WHO subgroups versus control: RARS, p= 0.009; RCMD, p=0.0002; RAEB1/2, p=0.004, respectively) and the International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS subgroups: Low+Int-1, pMDS patients (n=20) had significantly higher telomerase activity (p=0.002), higher total hTERT mRNA levels (p=0.001) and hTERT α+β- splice variant expression (pMDS (r=0.58, p=0.007). This data is in sharp contrast to data published previously by our group showing a reduction in telomerase and hTERT mRNA in MDS T-cells after activation. In conclusion, this study provides additional insight into hTERT transcript patterns and activity in peripheral T-cells of MDS patients. Additional studies are necessary to better understand the role of this pathway in MDS development and progression.

  8. Volatile organic compounds emitted by filamentous fungi isolated from flooded homes after Hurricane Sandy show toxicity in a Drosophila bioassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, G; Yin, G; Inamdar, A A; Luo, J; Zhang, N; Yang, I; Buckley, B; Bennett, J W

    2017-05-01

    Superstorm Sandy provided an opportunity to study filamentous fungi (molds) associated with winter storm damage. We collected 36 morphologically distinct fungal isolates from flooded buildings. By combining traditional morphological and cultural characters with an analysis of ITS sequences (the fungal DNA barcode), we identified 24 fungal species that belong to eight genera: Penicillium (11 species), Fusarium (four species), Aspergillus (three species), Trichoderma (two species), and one species each of Metarhizium, Mucor, Pestalotiopsis, and Umbelopsis. Then, we used a Drosophila larval assay to assess possible toxicity of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted by these molds. When cultured in a shared atmosphere with growing cultures of molds isolated after Hurricane Sandy, larval toxicity ranged from 15 to 80%. VOCs from Aspergillus niger 129B were the most toxic yielding 80% mortality to Drosophila after 12 days. The VOCs from Trichoderma longibrachiatum 117, Mucor racemosus 138a, and Metarhizium anisopliae 124 were relatively non-toxigenic. A preliminary analysis of VOCs was conducted using solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry from two of the most toxic, two of the least toxic, and two species of intermediate toxicity. The more toxic molds produced higher concentrations of 1-octen-3-ol, 3-octanone, 3-octanol, 2-octen-1-ol, and 2-nonanone; while the less toxic molds produced more 3-methyl-1-butanol and 2-methyl-1-propanol, or an overall lower amount of volatiles. Our data support the hypothesis that at certain concentrations, some VOCs emitted by indoor molds are toxigenic. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Intrinsic atopic dermatitis shows similar TH2 and higher TH17 immune activation compared with extrinsic atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez-Fariñas, Mayte; Dhingra, Nikhil; Gittler, Julia; Shemer, Avner; Cardinale, Irma; de Guzman Strong, Cristina; Krueger, James G; Guttman-Yassky, Emma

    2013-08-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is classified as extrinsic and intrinsic, representing approximately 80% and 20% of patients with the disease, respectively. Although sharing a similar clinical phenotype, only extrinsic AD is characterized by high serum IgE levels. Because most patients with AD exhibit high IgE levels, an "allergic"/IgE-mediated disease pathogenesis was hypothesized. However, current models associate AD with T-cell activation, particularly TH2/TH22 polarization, and epidermal barrier defects. We sought to define whether both variants share a common pathogenesis. We stratified 51 patients with severe AD into extrinsic AD (n = 42) and intrinsic AD (n = 9) groups (with similar mean disease activity/SCORAD scores) and analyzed the molecular and cellular skin pathology of lesional and nonlesional intrinsic AD and extrinsic AD by using gene expression (real-time PCR) and immunohistochemistry. A significant correlation between IgE levels and SCORAD scores (r = 0.76, P extrinsic AD. Marked infiltrates of T cells and dendritic cells and corresponding epidermal alterations (keratin 16, Mki67, and S100A7/A8/A9) defined lesional skin of patients with both variants. However, higher activation of all inflammatory axes (including TH2) was detected in patients with intrinsic AD, particularly TH17 and TH22 cytokines. Positive correlations between TH17-related molecules and SCORAD scores were only found in patients with intrinsic AD, whereas only patients with extrinsic AD showed positive correlations between SCORAD scores and TH2 cytokine (IL-4 and IL-5) levels and negative correlations with differentiation products (loricrin and periplakin). Although differences in TH17 and TH22 activation exist between patients with intrinsic AD and those with extrinsic AD, we identified common disease-defining features of T-cell activation, production of polarized cytokines, and keratinocyte responses to immune products. Our data indicate that a TH2 bias is not the sole cause of high Ig

  10. Prevention of reperfusion lung injury by lidocaine in isolated rat lung ventilated with higher oxygen levels.

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    Das K

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Lidocaine, an antiarrhythmic drug has been shown to be effective against post-ischaemic reperfusion injury in heart. However, its effect on pulmonary reperfusion injury has not been investigated. AIMS: We investigated the effects of lidocaine on a postischaemic reperfused rat lung model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Lungs were isolated and perfused at constant flow with Krebs-Henseilet buffer containing 4% bovine serum albumin, and ventilated with 95% oxygen mixed with 5% CO2. Lungs were subjected to ischaemia by stopping perfusion for 60 minutes followed by reperfusion for 10 minutes. Ischaemia was induced in normothermic conditions. RESULTS: Postischaemic reperfusion caused significant (p < 0.0001 higher wet-to-dry lung weight ratio, pulmonary arterial pressure and peak airway pressure compared to control lungs. Lidocaine, at a dose of 5mg/Kg b.w. was found to significantly (p < 0.0001 attenuate the increase in the wet-to-dry lung weight ratio, pulmonary arterial pressure and peak airway pressure observed in post-ischaemic lungs. CONCLUSION: Lidocaine is effective in preventing post-ischaemic reperfusion injury in isolated, perfused rat lung.

  11. Genes with stable DNA methylation levels show higher evolutionary conservation than genes with fluctuant DNA methylation levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ruijie; Lv, Wenhua; Luan, Meiwei; Zheng, Jiajia; Shi, Miao; Zhu, Hongjie; Li, Jin; Lv, Hongchao; Zhang, Mingming; Shang, Zhenwei; Duan, Lian; Jiang, Yongshuai

    2015-11-24

    Different human genes often exhibit different degrees of stability in their DNA methylation levels between tissues, samples or cell types. This may be related to the evolution of human genome. Thus, we compared the evolutionary conservation between two types of genes: genes with stable DNA methylation levels (SM genes) and genes with fluctuant DNA methylation levels (FM genes). For long-term evolutionary characteristics between species, we compared the percentage of the orthologous genes, evolutionary rate dn/ds and protein sequence identity. We found that the SM genes had greater percentages of the orthologous genes, lower dn/ds, and higher protein sequence identities in all the 21 species. These results indicated that the SM genes were more evolutionarily conserved than the FM genes. For short-term evolutionary characteristics among human populations, we compared the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) density, and the linkage disequilibrium (LD) degree in HapMap populations and 1000 genomes project populations. We observed that the SM genes had lower SNP densities, and higher degrees of LD in all the 11 HapMap populations and 13 1000 genomes project populations. These results mean that the SM genes had more stable chromosome genetic structures, and were more conserved than the FM genes.

  12. Heart transplant centers with multidisciplinary team show a higher level of chronic illness management - Findings from the International BRIGHT Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cajita, Maan Isabella; Baumgartner, Eva; Berben, Lut; Denhaerynck, Kris; Helmy, Remon; Schönfeld, Sandra; Berger, Gabriele; Vetter, Christine; Dobbels, Fabienne; Russell, Cynthia L; De Geest, Sabina

    The objectives of this study were to: (1) explore the proportion of HTx centers that have a multidisciplinary team and (2) assess the relationship between multidisciplinarity and the level of chronic illness management (CIM). The International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation (ISHLT) recommends a multidisciplinary approach in heart transplant (HTx) follow-up care but little is known regarding the proportion of HTx centers that meet this recommendation and the impact on patient care. HTx centers with a multidisciplinary team may offer higher levels of CIM, a care model that has the potential to improve outcomes after HTx. We conducted a secondary analysis of the BRIGHT study, a cross-sectional study in 11 countries. Multidisciplinarity in the 36 HTx centers was assessed through HTx director reports and was defined as having a team that was composed of physician(s), nurse(s), and another healthcare professional (either a social worker, psychiatrist, psychologist, pharmacist, dietician, physical therapist, or occupational therapist). CIM was assessed with the Patient Assessment of Chronic Illness Care (PACIC). Multiple linear regression assessed the relationship between multidisciplinarity and the level of CIM. Twenty-nine (80.6%) of the HTx centers had a multidisciplinary team. Furthermore, multidisciplinarity was significantly associated with higher levels of CIM (β = 5.2, P = 0.042). Majority of the HTx centers follows the ISHLT recommendation for a multidisciplinary approach. Multidisciplinarity was associated with CIM and point toward a structural factor that needs to be in place for moving toward CIM. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Simulation of quitting smoking in the military shows higher lifetime medical spending more than offset by productivity gains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wenya; Dall, Timothy M; Zhang, Yiduo; Zhang, Shiping; Arday, David R; Dorn, Patricia W; Jain, Anjali

    2012-12-01

    Despite the documented benefits of quitting smoking, studies have found that smokers who quit may have higher lifetime medical costs, in part because of increased risk for medical conditions, such as type 2 diabetes, brought on by associated weight gain. Using a simulation model and data on 612,332 adult smokers in the US Department of Defense's TRICARE Prime health plan in 2008, we estimated that cessation accompanied by weight gain would increase average life expectancy by 3.7 years, and that the average lifetime reduction in medical expenditures from improved health ($5,600) would be offset by additional expenditures resulting from prolonged life ($7,300). Results varied by age and sex: For females ages 18-44 at time of cessation, there would be net savings of $1,200 despite additional medical expenditures from prolonged life. Avoidance of weight gain after quitting smoking would increase average life expectancy by four additional months and reduce mean extra spending resulting from prolonged life by $700. Overall, the average net lifetime health care cost increase of $1,700 or less per ex-smoker would be modest and, for employed people, more than offset by even one year's worth of productivity gains. These results boost the case for smoking cessation programs in the military in particular, along with not selling cigarettes in commissaries or at reduced prices.

  14. Tamsulosin shows a higher unbound drug fraction in human prostate than in plasma: a basis for uroselectivity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korstanje, Cees; Krauwinkel, Walter; van Doesum-Wolters, Francisca L C

    2011-01-01

    AIM The aim of this small patient study was to investigate tamsulosin concentrations in prostate and plasma samples in order to identify potential differences in the pharmacokinetics (PK) in plasma and prostate contributing to its pharmacodynamic activity profile in patients. METHODS Forty-one patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) scheduled for open prostatectomy were given tamsulosin 0.4 mg for 6–21 days in order to reach steady-state PK. Patients were randomized over four groups to allow collection of plasma and tissue samples at different time points after last dose administration. Samples were collected during surgery and assayed for tamsulosin HCl. The free fraction (fu) of tamsulosin was determined by ultracentrifugation of plasma and prostate tissue spiked with 14C-tamsulosin. RESULTS Cmax in plasma at 4.4 h for total tamsulosin was 15.2 ng ml−1 and AUC(0,24 h) was 282 ng ml−1 h, while for prostate Cmax at 11.4 h post-dose was 5.4 ng ml−1 and AUC(0,24 h) was 120 ng ml−1 h. AUC(0,24 h) for total tamsulosin in prostate was 43% of the plasma AUC(0,24 h). fu was 0.4 % for plasma and 59.1% for prostate. Therefore calculated on unbound tamsulosin, a ratio of 63 resulted for prostate vs. plasma Cmax concentrations. CONCLUSIONS These data indicate that in patients with confirmed BPH the amount of tamsulosin freely available in the target tissue (prostate) is much higher than in plasma. PMID:21745239

  15. Ecotoxicological assessment of solar cell leachates: Copper indium gallium selenide (CIGS) cells show higher activity than organic photovoltaic (OPV) cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brun, Nadja Rebecca [University of Applied Sciences and Arts Northwestern Switzerland, School of Life Sciences, Gründenstrasse 40, CH-4132 Muttenz (Switzerland); Institute of Biogeochemistry and Pollutant Dynamics, ETH Zurich, Universitätsstrasse 16, CH-8092 Zürich (Switzerland); Wehrli, Bernhard [Institute of Biogeochemistry and Pollutant Dynamics, ETH Zurich, Universitätsstrasse 16, CH-8092 Zürich (Switzerland); Fent, Karl, E-mail: karl.fent@fhnw.ch [University of Applied Sciences and Arts Northwestern Switzerland, School of Life Sciences, Gründenstrasse 40, CH-4132 Muttenz (Switzerland); Institute of Biogeochemistry and Pollutant Dynamics, ETH Zurich, Universitätsstrasse 16, CH-8092 Zürich (Switzerland)

    2016-02-01

    Despite the increasing use of photovoltaics their potential environmental risks are poorly understood. Here, we compared ecotoxicological effects of two thin-film photovoltaics: established copper indium gallium selenide (CIGS) and organic photovoltaic (OPV) cells. Leachates were produced by exposing photovoltaics to UV light, physical damage, and exposure to environmentally relevant model waters, representing mesotrophic lake water, acidic rain, and seawater. CIGS cell leachates contained 583 μg L{sup −1} molybdenum at lake water, whereas at acidic rain and seawater conditions, iron, copper, zinc, molybdenum, cadmium, silver, and tin were present up to 7219 μg L{sup −1}. From OPV, copper (14 μg L{sup −1}), zinc (87 μg L{sup −1}) and silver (78 μg L{sup −1}) leached. Zebrafish embryos were exposed until 120 h post-fertilization to these extracts. CIGS leachates produced under acidic rain, as well as CIGS and OPV leachates produced under seawater conditions resulted in a marked hatching delay and increase in heart edema. Depending on model water and solar cell, transcriptional alterations occurred in genes involved in oxidative stress (cat), hormonal activity (vtg1, ar), metallothionein (mt2), ER stress (bip, chop), and apoptosis (casp9). The effects were dependent on the concentrations of cationic metals in leachates. Addition of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid protected zebrafish embryos from morphological and molecular effects. Our study suggests that metals leaching from damaged CIGS cells, may pose a potential environmental risk. - Highlights: • Photovoltaics may be disposed in the environment after usage. • Copper indium gallium selenide (CIGS) and organic (OPV) cells were compared. • Morphological and molecular effects were assessed in zebrafish embryos. • Environmental condition affected metal leaching and ecotoxicological activity. • Damaged CIGS cells pose higher risk to the environment than OPV cells.

  16. Microsatellite typing of clinical and environmental Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii isolates from Cuba shows multiple genetic lineages.

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    Maria-Teresa Illnait-Zaragozi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Human cryptococcal infections have been associated with bird droppings as a likely source of infection. Studies toward the local and global epidemiology of Cryptococcus spp. have been hampered by the lack of rapid, discriminatory, and exchangeable molecular typing methods. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We selected nine microsatellite markers for high-resolution fingerprinting from the genome of C. neoformans var. grubii. This panel of markers was applied to a collection of clinical (n = 122 and environmental (n = 68; from pigeon guano C. neoformans var. grubii isolates from Cuba. All markers proved to be polymorphic. The average number of alleles per marker was 9 (range 5-51. A total of 104 genotypes could be distinguished. The discriminatory power of this panel of markers was 0.993. Multiple clusters of related genotypes could be discriminated that differed in only one or two microsatellite markers. These clusters were assigned as microsatellite complexes. The majority of environmental isolates (>70% fell into 1 microsatellite complex containing only few clinical isolates (49 environmental versus 2 clinical. Clinical isolates were segregated over multiple microsatellite complexes. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: A large genotypic variation exists in C. neoformans var. grubii. The genotypic segregation between clinical and environmental isolates from pigeon guano suggests additional source(s of human cryptococcal infections. The selected panel of microsatellite markers is an excellent tool to study the epidemiology of C. neoformans var. grubii.

  17. Higher frequency of social learning in China than in the West shows cultural variation in the dynamics of cultural evolution.

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    Mesoudi, Alex; Chang, Lei; Murray, Keelin; Lu, Hui Jing

    2015-01-07

    Cultural evolutionary models have identified a range of conditions under which social learning (copying others) is predicted to be adaptive relative to asocial learning (learning on one's own), particularly in humans where socially learned information can accumulate over successive generations. However, cultural evolution and behavioural economics experiments have consistently shown apparently maladaptive under-utilization of social information in Western populations. Here we provide experimental evidence of cultural variation in people's use of social learning, potentially explaining this mismatch. People in mainland China showed significantly more social learning than British people in an artefact-design task designed to assess the adaptiveness of social information use. People in Hong Kong, and Chinese immigrants in the UK, resembled British people in their social information use, suggesting a recent shift in these groups from social to asocial learning due to exposure to Western culture. Finally, Chinese mainland participants responded less than other participants to increased environmental change within the task. Our results suggest that learning strategies in humans are culturally variable and not genetically fixed, necessitating the study of the 'social learning of social learning strategies' whereby the dynamics of cultural evolution are responsive to social processes, such as migration, education and globalization.

  18. THE LESSONIA NIGRESCENS SPECIES COMPLEX (LAMINARIALES, PHAEOPHYCEAE) SHOWS STRICT PARAPATRY AND COMPLETE REPRODUCTIVE ISOLATION IN A SECONDARY CONTACT ZONE(1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tellier, Florence; Tapia, Javier; Faugeron, Sylvain; Destombe, Christophe; Valero, Myriam

    2011-08-01

    During secondary contact between phylogenetically closely related species (sibling species) having diverged in allopatry, the maintenance of species integrity depends on intrinsic and extrinsic reproductive barriers. In kelps (Phaeophyceae), the observations of hybrids in laboratory conditions suggest that reproductive isolation is incomplete. However, not all interspecific crosses are successful, and very few hybrids have been observed in nature, despite the co-occurrence of many kelp species in sympatry. This suggests that there are reproductive barriers that maintain species integrity. In this study, we characterized the fine genetic structure of a secondary contact zone to clarify the extent of reproductive isolation between two sister species. In Lessonia nigrescens Bory (Laminariales, Phaeophyta) species complex, two cryptic species have been recently found out from gene phylogenies, and-waiting for a formal taxonomic description-we used their geographic distribution to name them (northern and southern species). We studied 12 populations, distributed along 50 km of coastline, and employed two molecular approaches, assigning individuals to phylogenetic species according to a diagnostic mitochondrial marker (351 individuals analyzed) and quantifying interspecific gene flow with four microsatellite markers (248 individuals analyzed). No hybridization or introgression was revealed, indicating complete reproductive isolation in natural conditions. Unexpectedly, our study demonstrated that the two species were strictly segregated in space. This absence of co-occurrence along the contact zone can partially explain the lack of hybridization, raising new interesting questions as to the mechanisms that limit sympatry at small spatial scales. © 2011 Phycological Society of America.

  19. Transcription of the var genes from a freshly-obtained field isolate of Plasmodium falciparum shows more variable switching patterns than long laboratory-adapted isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Run; Zhang, Dongmei; Chen, Biaobang; Zhu, Yongqiang; Zhang, Yilong; Wang, Shengyue; Pan, Weiqing

    2015-02-07

    Antigenic variation in Plasmodium falciparum involves switching among multicopy var gene family and is responsible for immune evasion and the maintenance of chronic infections. Current understanding of var gene expression and switching patterns comes from experiments conducted on long laboratory-adapted strains, with little known about their wild counterparts. Genome sequencing was used to obtain 50 var genes from a parasite isolated from the China-Myanmar border. Four clones with different dominant var genes were cultured in vitro in replicates for 50 generations. Transcription of the individual var gene was detected by real-time PCR and then the switching process was analysed. The expression of multicopy var genes is mutually exclusive in clones of a wild P. falciparum isolate. The activation of distinct primary dominant var genes leads to different and favoured switching patterns in the four clones. The on/off rates of individual var genes are variable and the choice of subsequent dominant var genes are random, which results in the different switching patterns among replicates of each clonal wild P. falciparum isolate with near identical initial transcription profiles. This study suggests that the switching patterns of var genes are abundant, which consist of both conserved and random parts.

  20. A urine midmolecule osteocalcin assay shows higher discriminatory power than a serum midmolecule osteocalcin assay during short-term alendronate treatment of osteoporotic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, A K; Mohan, S; Singer, F R; Baylink, D J

    2002-07-01

    We isolated and characterized a peptide fragment corresponding to amino acid sequence 14-28 of human osteocalcin in urine from Paget's disease, and developed a polyclonal antibody reactive to this peptide in urine. We used this antibody to measure urinary fragments of osteocalcin and compared to efficacy of the urinary osteocalcin assay with a serum osteocalcin (sOC) assay (ELISA-Osteo, Cis-Bio International) to monitor the short-term changes in bone turnover in response to alendronate treatment. The synthetic peptide-based urinary osteocalcin (uOC) radioimmunoassay (RIA) showed an analytical sensitivity of 6.25 ng/mL, standard curve range of 3.12-400 ng/mL, and mean intra- (n = 20) and interassay (n = 30) coefficient of variation (CV) of sALP) (Alkphose-B, Metra Biosystems) in serum samples. The percent change data obtained between baseline and 30 days (n = 18) posttreatment suggested a rapid decline in uOC concentration (-27%, p sALP (-3.4%, p = 0.689), two specific markers of bone formation. As expected, due to the coupling of bone formation and bone resorption, the concentration of all markers showed a 30%-45% decline compared with baseline values after 90 days (n = 16) of treatment. Correlation of markers after a 30 day treatment with alendronate revealed a higher correlation (r = 0.61, p sALP (r = -0.14, p = 0.295) with uNTx. Similarly, correlation coefficients with r values between 0.48 and 0.55 (p < 0.05) were observed between uOC, sNTx, and sCTx, whereas no significant correlation was observed between sOC and sNTx or sCTx. These results provide indirect evidence that fragments measured by the urine assay probably originated from bone resorption, and suggest that the uOC assay could be used to assess short-term changes in bone metabolism with regard to osteocalcin.

  1. Recombinant human melatonin receptor MT1 isolated in mixed detergents shows pharmacology similar to that in mammalian cell membranes.

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    Christel Logez

    Full Text Available The human melatonin MT1 receptor-belonging to the large family of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs-plays a key role in circadian rhythm regulation and is notably involved in sleep disorders and depression. Structural and functional information at the molecular level are highly desired for fine characterization of this receptor; however, adequate techniques for isolating soluble MT1 material suitable for biochemical and biophysical studies remain lacking. Here we describe the evaluation of a panel of constructs and host systems for the production of recombinant human MT1 receptors, and the screening of different conditions for their solubilization and purification. Our findings resulted in the establishment of an original strategy using a mixture of Fos14 and CHAPS detergents to extract and purify a recombinant human MT1 from Pichia pastoris membranes. This procedure enabled the recovery of relatively pure, monomeric and ligand-binding active MT1 receptor in the near-milligram range. A comparative study based on extensive ligand-binding characterization highlighted a very close correlation between the pharmacological profiles of MT1 purified from yeast and the same receptor present in mammalian cell membranes. The high quality of the purified MT1 was further confirmed by its ability to activate its cognate Gαi protein partner when reconstituted in lipid discs, thus opening novel paths to investigate this receptor by biochemical and biophysical approaches.

  2. Salmonella strains isolated from Galápagos iguanas show spatial structuring of serovar and genomic diversity.

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    Emily W Lankau

    Full Text Available It is thought that dispersal limitation primarily structures host-associated bacterial populations because host distributions inherently limit transmission opportunities. However, enteric bacteria may disperse great distances during food-borne outbreaks. It is unclear if such rapid long-distance dispersal events happen regularly in natural systems or if these events represent an anthropogenic exception. We characterized Salmonella enterica isolates from the feces of free-living Galápagos land and marine iguanas from five sites on four islands using serotyping and genomic fingerprinting. Each site hosted unique and nearly exclusive serovar assemblages. Genomic fingerprint analysis offered a more complex model of S. enterica biogeography, with evidence of both unique strain pools and of spatial population structuring along a geographic gradient. These findings suggest that even relatively generalist enteric bacteria may be strongly dispersal limited in a natural system with strong barriers, such as oceanic divides. Yet, these differing results seen on two typing methods also suggests that genomic variation is less dispersal limited, allowing for different ecological processes to shape biogeographical patterns of the core and flexible portions of this bacterial species' genome.

  3. Salmonella strains isolated from Galápagos iguanas show spatial structuring of serovar and genomic diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lankau, Emily W; Cruz Bedon, Lenin; Mackie, Roderick I

    2012-01-01

    It is thought that dispersal limitation primarily structures host-associated bacterial populations because host distributions inherently limit transmission opportunities. However, enteric bacteria may disperse great distances during food-borne outbreaks. It is unclear if such rapid long-distance dispersal events happen regularly in natural systems or if these events represent an anthropogenic exception. We characterized Salmonella enterica isolates from the feces of free-living Galápagos land and marine iguanas from five sites on four islands using serotyping and genomic fingerprinting. Each site hosted unique and nearly exclusive serovar assemblages. Genomic fingerprint analysis offered a more complex model of S. enterica biogeography, with evidence of both unique strain pools and of spatial population structuring along a geographic gradient. These findings suggest that even relatively generalist enteric bacteria may be strongly dispersal limited in a natural system with strong barriers, such as oceanic divides. Yet, these differing results seen on two typing methods also suggests that genomic variation is less dispersal limited, allowing for different ecological processes to shape biogeographical patterns of the core and flexible portions of this bacterial species' genome.

  4. Isolation and expression analysis of EcbZIP17 from different finger millet genotypes shows conserved nature of the gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopperla, Ramakrishna; Singh, Sonam; Mohanty, Sasmita; Reddy, Nanja; Padaria, Jasdeep C; Solanke, Amolkumar U

    2017-10-01

    Basic leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factors comprise one of the largest gene families in plants. They play a key role in almost every aspect of plant growth and development and also in biotic and abiotic stress tolerance. In this study, we report isolation and characterization of EcbZIP17 , a group B bZIP transcription factor from a climate smart cereal, finger millet ( Eleusine coracana L.). The genomic sequence of EcbZIP17 is 2662 bp long encompassing two exons and one intron with ORF of 1722 bp and peptide length of 573 aa. This gene is homologous to AtbZIP17 ( Arabidopsis ), ZmbZIP17 (maize) and OsbZIP60 (rice) which play a key role in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress pathway. In silico analysis confirmed the presence of basic leucine zipper (bZIP) and transmembrane (TM) domains in the EcbZIP17 protein. Allele mining of this gene in 16 different genotypes by Sanger sequencing revealed no variation in nucleotide sequence, including the 618 bp long intron. Expression analysis of EcbZIP17 under heat stress exhibited similar pattern of expression in all the genotypes across time intervals with highest upregulation after 4 h. The present study established the conserved nature of EcbZIP17 at nucleotide and expression level.

  5. Salmonella Strains Isolated from Galápagos Iguanas Show Spatial Structuring of Serovar and Genomic Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lankau, Emily W.; Cruz Bedon, Lenin; Mackie, Roderick I.

    2012-01-01

    It is thought that dispersal limitation primarily structures host-associated bacterial populations because host distributions inherently limit transmission opportunities. However, enteric bacteria may disperse great distances during food-borne outbreaks. It is unclear if such rapid long-distance dispersal events happen regularly in natural systems or if these events represent an anthropogenic exception. We characterized Salmonella enterica isolates from the feces of free-living Galápagos land and marine iguanas from five sites on four islands using serotyping and genomic fingerprinting. Each site hosted unique and nearly exclusive serovar assemblages. Genomic fingerprint analysis offered a more complex model of S. enterica biogeography, with evidence of both unique strain pools and of spatial population structuring along a geographic gradient. These findings suggest that even relatively generalist enteric bacteria may be strongly dispersal limited in a natural system with strong barriers, such as oceanic divides. Yet, these differing results seen on two typing methods also suggests that genomic variation is less dispersal limited, allowing for different ecological processes to shape biogeographical patterns of the core and flexible portions of this bacterial species' genome. PMID:22615968

  6. Recombinant human melatonin receptor MT1 isolated in mixed detergents shows pharmacology similar to that in mammalian cell membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logez, Christel; Berger, Sylvie; Legros, Céline; Banères, Jean-Louis; Cohen, William; Delagrange, Philippe; Nosjean, Olivier; Boutin, Jean A; Ferry, Gilles; Simonin, Frédéric; Wagner, Renaud

    2014-01-01

    The human melatonin MT1 receptor-belonging to the large family of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs)-plays a key role in circadian rhythm regulation and is notably involved in sleep disorders and depression. Structural and functional information at the molecular level are highly desired for fine characterization of this receptor; however, adequate techniques for isolating soluble MT1 material suitable for biochemical and biophysical studies remain lacking. Here we describe the evaluation of a panel of constructs and host systems for the production of recombinant human MT1 receptors, and the screening of different conditions for their solubilization and purification. Our findings resulted in the establishment of an original strategy using a mixture of Fos14 and CHAPS detergents to extract and purify a recombinant human MT1 from Pichia pastoris membranes. This procedure enabled the recovery of relatively pure, monomeric and ligand-binding active MT1 receptor in the near-milligram range. A comparative study based on extensive ligand-binding characterization highlighted a very close correlation between the pharmacological profiles of MT1 purified from yeast and the same receptor present in mammalian cell membranes. The high quality of the purified MT1 was further confirmed by its ability to activate its cognate Gαi protein partner when reconstituted in lipid discs, thus opening novel paths to investigate this receptor by biochemical and biophysical approaches.

  7. Monocytes isolated by positive and negative magnetic sorting techniques show different molecular characteristics and immunophenotypic behaviour [version 3; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jashdeep Bhattacharjee

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Magnetic sorting of cells, based on  microbead conjugated antibodies (Abs, employs positive as well as negative immunomagnetic separation methods, for isolation of a specific cell population. These microbeads are suggested to be nontoxic, biodegradable carriers conjugated to various antibodies. Isolation of cells through positive selection involves the attachment of antibody conjugated microbeads to the cells of interest, followed by their isolation in the presence of a strong magnetic field to obtain higher purity. Negative selection involves attachment of microbead conjugated antibodies to all other cell populations except the cells of interest, which remain untagged. In the present study, we compared the two methods for their effect on functional and immunophenotypic behavior of isolated CD14+ monocytes. Methods: Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs were isolated from blood collected from healthy volunteers by density gradient centrifugation. Human blood derived monocytes were isolated through positive selection and negative selection, making use of the appropriate monocyte isolation kit. Monocytes were then stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS and their activation and proliferation capacity were examined. The degradation or dissociation of cell-bound microbeads was also investigated. Results: We observed an impaired LPS sensitivity as well as poor activation and proliferation capacity upon stimulation by LPS in positively sorted CD14+ monocytes as compared to negatively sorted CD14+ monocytes. The attached microbeads did not degrade and remained attached to the cells even after 6 days of culture. Conclusions: Our results suggest that positively sorted CD14+ cells exhibit hampered functionality and may result in inaccurate analysis and observations in downstream applications. However, these cells can be used for immediate analytical procedures.

  8. Gene expression analysis of two extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis isolates show that two-component response systems enhance drug resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Guohua; Cui, Zhenling; Sun, Xian; Peng, Jinfu; Jiang, Jun; Wu, Wei; Huang, Wenhua; Chu, Kaili; Zhang, Lu; Ge, Baoxue; Li, Yao

    2015-05-01

    Global analysis of expression profiles using DNA microarrays was performed between a reference strain H37Rv and two clinical extensively drug-resistant isolates in response to three anti-tuberculosis drug exposures (isoniazid, capreomycin, and rifampicin). A deep analysis was then conducted using a combination of genome sequences of the resistant isolates, resistance information, and related public microarray data. Certain known resistance-associated gene sets were significantly overrepresented in upregulated genes in the resistant isolates relative to that observed in H37Rv, which suggested a link between resistance and expression levels of particular genes. In addition, isoniazid and capreomycin response genes, but not rifampicin, either obtained from published works or our data, were highly consistent with the differentially expressed genes of resistant isolates compared to those of H37Rv, indicating a strong association between drug resistance of the isolates and genes differentially regulated by isoniazid and capreomycin exposures. Based on these results, 92 genes of the studied isolates were identified as candidate resistance genes, 10 of which are known resistance-related genes. Regulatory network analysis of candidate resistance genes using published networks and literature mining showed that three two-component regulatory systems and regulator CRP play significant roles in the resistance of the isolates by mediating the production of essential envelope components. Finally, drug sensitivity testing indicated strong correlations between expression levels of these regulatory genes and sensitivity to multiple anti-tuberculosis drugs in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. These findings may provide novel insights into the mechanism underlying the emergence and development of drug resistance in resistant tuberculosis isolates and useful clues for further studies on this issue. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Human isolates of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium from Taiwan displayed significantly higher levels of antimicrobial resistance than those from Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torpdahl, Mia; Lauderdale, Tsai-Ling; Liang, Shiu-Yun; Li, Ishien; Wei, Sung-Hsi; Chiou, Chien-Shun

    2013-02-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium is a major zoonotic pathogen with a high prevalence of antimicrobial resistance. This pathogen can disseminate across borders and spread far distances via the food trade and international travel. In this study, we compared the genotypes and antimicrobial resistance of 378 S. Typhimurium isolates collected in Taiwan and Denmark between 2009 and 2010. Genotyping revealed that many S. Typhimurium strains were concurrently circulating in Taiwan, Denmark and other countries in 2009 and 2010. When compared to the isolates collected from Denmark, the isolates from Taiwan displayed a significantly higher level of resistance to 11 of the 12 tested antimicrobials. Seven genetic clusters (A-G) were designated for the isolates. A high percentage of the isolates in genetic clusters C, F and G were multidrug-resistant. Of the isolates in cluster C, 79.2% were ASSuT-resistant, characterized by resistance to ampicillin, streptomycin, sulfamethoxazole, and tetracycline. In cluster F, 84.1% of the isolates were ACSSuT-resistant (resistant to ASSuT and chloramphenicol). Cluster G was unique to Taiwan and characterized in most isolates by the absence of three VNTRs (ST20, ST30 and STTR6) as well as a variety of multidrug resistance profiles. This cluster exhibited very high to extremely high levels of resistance to several first-line drugs, and among the seven clusters, it displayed the highest levels of resistance to cefotaxime and ceftazidime, ciprofloxacin and gentamicin. The high prevalence of antimicrobial resistance in S. Typhimurium from Taiwan highlights the necessity to strictly regulate the use of antimicrobials in the agriculture and human health care sectors. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Isolation of Fully Human Antagonistic RON Antibodies Showing Efficient Block of Downstream Signaling and Cell Migration1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunes, Zeynep; Zucconi, Adriana; Cioce, Mario; Meola, Annalisa; Pezzanera, Monica; Acali, Stefano; Zampaglione, Immacolata; De Pratti, Valeria; Bova, Luca; Talamo, Fabio; Demartis, Anna; Monaci, Paolo; La Monica, Nicola; Ciliberto, Gennaro; Vitelli, Alessandra

    2011-01-01

    RON belongs to the c-MET family of receptor tyrosine kinases. As its well-known family member MET, RON and its ligand macrophage-stimulating protein have been implicated in the progression and metastasis of tumors and have been shown to be overexpressed in cancer. We generated and tested a large number of human monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against human RON. Our screening yielded three high-affinity antibodies that efficiently block ligand-dependent intracellular AKT and MAPK signaling. This effect correlates with the strong reduction of ligand-activated migration of T47D breast cancer cell line. By cross-competition experiments, we showed that the antagonistic antibodies fall into three distinct epitope regions of the RON extracellular Sema domain. Notably, no inhibition of tumor growth was observed in different epithelial tumor xenografts in nude mice with any of the antibodies. These results suggest that distinct properties beside ligand antagonism are required for anti-RON mAbs to exert antitumor effects in vivo. PMID:21286376

  11. [A 53-year-old man with herpes encephalitis showing acceleration of improvement in higher brain function after general anesthesia with sevoflurane: a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Togashi, Naohiko; Kaida, Kenichi; Hongo, Yu; Ogawa, Go; Ishikawa, Yukinobu; Takeda, Katsuhiko; Kamakura, Keiko

    2014-01-01

    We experienced a right-handed 53-year-old man who presented with disturbance of consciousness and fever. Herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) was diagnosed based on the detection of herpes simplex virus DNA in the cerebrospinal fluid. The administration of acyclovir for 42 days improved his consciousness level. Drowsiness, fever and seizures reappeared 20 days after stopping acyclovir treatment (day 67) and he responded well to vidarabine and methylprednisolone pulse therapy. An assessment of aphasia on day 98 revealed transcortical sensory aphasia. Brain MRI showed lesion in the left temporal lobe, bilateral insular cortexes and bilateral frontal lobe. His higher brain dysfunction continued. On day 156, he underwent hip replacement arthroplasty under general anesthesia sevoflurane. His higher brain dysfunction rapidly improved thereafter. We concluded that the accelerated improvement in our patient's higher brain function was related to the protective effect of sevoflurane. Some reports also show the protective effects of sevoflurane in experimental allergic encephalomyelitis by inhibition of T cell activation. These protective and anti-inflammatory effects may explain the accelerated improvement in higher brain function after general anesthesia.

  12. AMT1;1 transgenic rice plants with enhanced NH4(+) permeability show superior growth and higher yield under optimal and suboptimal NH4(+) conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranathunge, Kosala; El-Kereamy, Ashraf; Gidda, Satinder; Bi, Yong-Mei; Rothstein, Steven J

    2014-03-01

    The major source of nitrogen for rice (Oryza sativa L.) is ammonium (NH4(+)). The NH4(+) uptake of roots is mainly governed by membrane transporters, with OsAMT1;1 being a prominent member of the OsAMT1 gene family that is known to be involved in NH4(+) transport in rice plants. However, little is known about its involvement in NH4(+) uptake in rice roots and subsequent effects on NH4(+) assimilation. This study shows that OsAMT1;1 is a constitutively expressed, nitrogen-responsive gene, and its protein product is localized in the plasma membrane. Its expression level is under the control of circadian rhythm. Transgenic rice lines (L-2 and L-3) overexpressing the OsAMT1;1 gene had the same root structure as the wild type (WT). However, they had 2-fold greater NH4(+) permeability than the WT, whereas OsAMT1;1 gene expression was 20-fold higher than in the WT. Analogous to the expression, transgenic lines had a higher NH4(+) content in the shoots and roots than the WT. Direct NH4(+) fluxes in the xylem showed that the transgenic lines had significantly greater uptake rates than the WT. Higher NH4(+) contents also promoted higher expression levels of genes in the nitrogen assimilation pathway, resulting in greater nitrogen assimilates, chlorophyll, starch, sugars, and grain yield in transgenic lines than in the WT under suboptimal and optimal nitrogen conditions. OsAMT1;1 also enhanced overall plant growth, especially under suboptimal NH4(+) levels. These results suggest that OsAMT1;1 has the potential for improving nitrogen use efficiency, plant growth, and grain yield under both suboptimal and optimal nitrogen fertilizer conditions.

  13. AMT1;1 transgenic rice plants with enhanced NH4 + permeability show superior growth and higher yield under optimal and suboptimal NH4 + conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothstein, Steven J.

    2014-01-01

    The major source of nitrogen for rice (Oryza sativa L.) is ammonium (NH4 +). The NH4 + uptake of roots is mainly governed by membrane transporters, with OsAMT1;1 being a prominent member of the OsAMT1 gene family that is known to be involved in NH4 + transport in rice plants. However, little is known about its involvement in NH4 + uptake in rice roots and subsequent effects on NH4 + assimilation. This study shows that OsAMT1;1 is a constitutively expressed, nitrogen-responsive gene, and its protein product is localized in the plasma membrane. Its expression level is under the control of circadian rhythm. Transgenic rice lines (L-2 and L-3) overexpressing the OsAMT1;1 gene had the same root structure as the wild type (WT). However, they had 2-fold greater NH4 + permeability than the WT, whereas OsAMT1;1 gene expression was 20-fold higher than in the WT. Analogous to the expression, transgenic lines had a higher NH4 + content in the shoots and roots than the WT. Direct NH4 + fluxes in the xylem showed that the transgenic lines had significantly greater uptake rates than the WT. Higher NH4 + contents also promoted higher expression levels of genes in the nitrogen assimilation pathway, resulting in greater nitrogen assimilates, chlorophyll, starch, sugars, and grain yield in transgenic lines than in the WT under suboptimal and optimal nitrogen conditions. OsAMT1;1 also enhanced overall plant growth, especially under suboptimal NH4 + levels. These results suggest that OsAMT1;1 has the potential for improving nitrogen use efficiency, plant growth, and grain yield under both suboptimal and optimal nitrogen fertilizer conditions. PMID:24420570

  14. Gas exchange at whole plant level shows that a less conservative water use is linked to a higher performance in three ecologically distinct pine species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar-Tortosa, D.; Castro, J.; Rubio de Casas, R.; Viñegla, B.; Sánchez-Cañete, E. P.; Villar-Salvador, P.

    2018-04-01

    Increasing temperatures and decreasing precipitation in large areas of the planet as a consequence of global warming will affect plant growth and survival. However, the impact of climatic conditions will differ across species depending on their stomatal response to increasing aridity, as this will ultimately affect the balance between carbon assimilation and water loss. In this study, we monitored gas exchange, growth and survival in saplings of three widely distributed European pine species (Pinus halepensis, P. nigra and P. sylvestris) with contrasting distribution and ecological requirements in order to ascertain the relationship between stomatal control and plant performance. The experiment was conducted in a common garden environment resembling rainfall and temperature conditions that two of the three species are expected to encounter in the near future. In addition, gas exchange was monitored both at the leaf and at the whole-plant level using a transient-state closed chamber, which allowed us to model the response of the whole plant to increased air evaporative demand (AED). P. sylvestris was the species with lowest survival and performance. By contrast, P. halepensis showed no mortality, much higher growth (two orders of magnitude), carbon assimilation (ca. 14 fold higher) and stomatal conductance and water transpiration (ca. 4 fold higher) than the other two species. As a consequence, P. halepensis exhibited higher values of water-use efficiency than the rest of the species even at the highest values of AED. Overall, the results strongly support that the weaker stomatal control of P. halepensis, which is linked to lower stem water potential, enabled this species to maximize carbon uptake under drought stress and ultimately outperform the more water conservative P. nigra and P. sylvestris. These results suggest that under a hotter drought scenario P. nigra and P. sylvestris would very likely suffer increased mortality, whereas P. halepensis could maintain

  15. Extraordinary Diversity of Immune Response Proteins among Sea Urchins: Nickel-Isolated Sp185/333 Proteins Show Broad Variations in Size and Charge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Lauren S.; Schrankel, Catherine S.; Brown, Kristy J.; Smith, L. Courtney

    2015-01-01

    Effective protection against pathogens requires the host to produce a wide range of immune effector proteins. The Sp185/333 gene family, which is expressed by the California purple sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus in response to bacterial infection, encodes a highly diverse repertoire of anti-pathogen proteins. A subset of these proteins can be isolated by affinity to metal ions based on multiple histidines, resulting in one to four bands of unique molecular weight on standard Western blots, which vary depending on the individual sea urchin. Two dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE) of nickel-isolated protein samples followed by Western blot was employed to detect nickel-isolated Sp185/333 (Ni-Sp185/333) proteins and to evaluate protein diversity in animals before and after immune challenge with marine bacteria. Ni-Sp185/333 proteins of the same molecular weight on standard Western blots appear as a broad complex of variants that differ in pI on 2DE Western blots. The Ni-Sp185/333 protein repertoire is variable among animals, and shows a variety of changes among individual sea urchins in response to immune challenges with both the same and different species of bacteria. The extraordinary diversity of the Ni-Sp185/333 proteins may provide significant anti-pathogen capabilities for sea urchins that survive solely on innate immunity. PMID:26406912

  16. Socially disadvantaged city districts show a higher incidence of acute ST-elevation myocardial infarctions with elevated cardiovascular risk factors and worse prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmucker, J; Seide, S; Wienbergen, H; Fiehn, E; Stehmeier, J; Günther, K; Ahrens, W; Hambrecht, R; Pohlabeln, H; Fach, A

    2017-09-22

    The importance of socioeconomic status (SES) for coronary heart disease (CHD)-morbidity is subject of ongoing scientific investigations. This study was to explore the association between SES in different city-districts of Bremen/Germany and incidence, severity, treatment modalities and prognosis for patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarctions (STEMI). Since 2006 all STEMI-patients from the metropolitan area of Bremen are documented in the Bremen STEMI-registry. Utilizing postal codes of their home address they were assigned to four groups in accordance to the Bremen social deprivation-index (G1: high, G2: intermediate high, G3: intermediate low, G4: low socioeconomic status). Three thousand four hundred sixty-two consecutive patients with STEMI admitted between 2006 and 2015 entered analysis. City areas with low SES showed higher adjusted STEMI-incidence-rates (IR-ratio 1.56, G4 vs. G1). This elevation could be observed in both sexes (women IRR 1.63, men IRR 1.54) and was most prominent in inhabitants  3000 U/l, OR 1.95, 95% CI 1.4-2.8) and severe impairment of LV-function post-STEMI (OR 2.0, 95% CI 1.2-3.4). Long term follow-up revealed that lower SES was associated with higher major adverse cardiac or cerebrovascular event (MACCE)-rates after 5 years: G1 30.8%, G2 35.7%, G3 36.0%, G4 41.1%, p (for trend) = 0.02. This worse prognosis could especially be shown for young STEMI-patients (<50 yrs. of age) 5-yr. mortality-rates(G4 vs. G1) 18.4 vs. 3.1%, p = 0.03 and 5-year-MACCE-rates (G4 vs. G1) 32 vs. 6.3%, p = 0.02. This registry-data confirms the negative association of low socioeconomic status and STEMI-incidence, with higher rates of smoking and obesity, more extensive infarctions and worse prognosis for the socio-economically deprived.

  17. Photosystem I shows a higher tolerance to sorbitol-induced osmotic stress than photosystem II in the intertidal macro-algae Ulva prolifera (Chlorophyta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Shan; Zheng, Zhenbing; Gu, Wenhui; Xie, Xiujun; Huan, Li; Pan, Guanghua; Wang, Guangce

    2014-10-01

    The photosynthetic performance of the desiccation-tolerant, intertidal macro-algae Ulva prolifera was significantly affected by sorbitol-induced osmotic stress. Our results showed that photosynthetic activity decreased significantly with increases in sorbitol concentration. Although the partial activity of both photosystem I (PS I) and photosystem II (PS II) was able to recover after 30 min of rehydration, the activity of PS II decreased more rapidly than PS I. At 4 M sorbitol concentration, the activity of PS II was almost 0 while that of PS I was still at about one third of normal levels. Following prolonged treatment with 1 and 2 M sorbitol, the activity of PS I and PS II decreased slowly, suggesting that the effects of moderate concentrations of sorbitol on PS I and PS II were gradual. Interestingly, an increase in non-photochemical quenching occurred under these conditions in response to moderate osmotic stress, whereas it declined significantly under severe osmotic stress. These results suggest that photoprotection in U. prolifera could also be induced by moderate osmotic stress. In addition, the oxidation of PS I was significantly affected by osmotic stress. P700(+) in the thalli treated with high concentrations of sorbitol could still be reduced, as PS II was inhibited by 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea (DCMU), but it could not be fully oxidized. This observation may be caused by the higher quantum yield of non-photochemical energy dissipation in PS I due to acceptor-side limitation (Y(NA)) during rehydration in seawater containing DCMU. © 2014 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  18. Systematic review and meta-analysis shows a specific micronutrient profile in people with Down Syndrome: Lower blood calcium, selenium and zinc, higher red blood cell copper and zinc, and higher salivary calcium and sodium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amene Saghazadeh

    Full Text Available Different metabolic profiles as well as comorbidities are common in people with Down Syndrome (DS. Therefore it is relevant to know whether micronutrient levels in people with DS are also different. This systematic review was designed to review the literature on micronutrient levels in people with DS compared to age and sex-matched controls without DS. We identified sixty nine studies from January 1967 to April 2016 through main electronic medical databases PubMed, Scopus, and Web of knowledge. We carried out meta-analysis of the data on four essential trace elements (Cu, Fe, Se, and Zn, six minerals (Ca, Cl, K, Mg, Na, and P, and five vitamins (vitamin A, B9, B12, D, and E. People with DS showed lower blood levels of Ca (standard mean difference (SMD = -0.63; 95% confidence interval (CI: -1.16 to -0.09, Se (SMD = -0.99; 95% CI: -1.55 to -0.43, and Zn (SMD = -1.30; 95% CI: -1.75 to -0.84, while red cell levels of Zn (SMD = 1.88; 95% CI: 0.48 to 3.28 and Cu (SMD = 2.77; 95% CI: 1.96 to 3.57 were higher. They had also higher salivary levels of Ca (SMD = 0.85; 95% CI: 0.38 to 1.33 and Na (SMD = 1.04; 95% CI: 0.39 to 1.69. Our findings that micronutrient levels are different in people with DS raise the question whether these differences are related to the different metabolic profiles, the common comorbidities or merely reflect DS.

  19. Screening of Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Iranian sourdoughs for Antifungal Activity: Enterococcus faecium showed the Most Potent Antifungal Activity in Bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alam Taghi-Zadeh

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: The use of antifungal lactic acid bacteria as starter for bread making could be a good alternative to improve the stability of bread shelf life.Material and Methods: In this study, a total of 57 lactic acid bacteria were isolated from spontaneously fermented wheat sourdoughs collected in Chahar-Mahalo Bakhryari province of Iran. The isolates were screened for in vitro antifungal activity (towards Aspergilus niger or Penicillium roqueforti; and the selected isolates (six isolates were applied in flat bread making. The freshly baked breads were nebulized with a suspension of either molds, containing 104 spores ml-1, and the fungal growth on breads was monitored over a 7-day storage period.Results and Conclusion: Bread produced with either isolates AN3 and MB1 (both were identified as Enterococcus faecium restrained the growth of Aspergillus niger for up to 5 days. Even though none of the isolates were strong enough to inhibit the growth of Penicillium roquforti on bread, the surface area of breads contaminated by this fungus was significantly lower than the control samples. To our knowledge, it was the first report indicating the anti-mold activity of Enterococcus faecium strains isolated from sourdough. These isolates seem to be promising for further analysis and their application in bread industry for prolonging the shelf life.Conflict of interest: The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest.

  20. Characterization of bacterial isolates from rotting potato tuber tissue showing antagonism to Dickeya sp. biovar 3 in vitro and in planta

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Czajkowski, R.L.; De Boer, W.J.; Van Veen, J.A.; Van der Wolf, J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Possibilities for biocontrol of biovar 3 Dickeya sp. in potato were investigated, using bacteria from rotting potato tissue isolated by dilution plating on nonselective agar media. In a plate assay, 649 isolates were screened for antibiosis against Dickeya sp. IPO2222 and for the production of

  1. Genetic characterization of Toxoplasma gondii isolates from Portugal, Austria, and Israel reveals higher genetic variability within the type II lineage

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study compared genetic diversity of Toxoplasma gondii isolates from Portugal, Austria and Israel. For this, we genotyped 90 T. gondii isolates (16 from Portugal, 67 from Austria and 7 from Israel) using 10 nested PCR-restriction length polymorphism (RFLP) genetic markers and 15 microsatellite (...

  2. Dehydrodiconiferyl Alcohol Isolated from Cucurbita moschata Shows Anti-adipogenic and Anti-lipogenic Effects in 3T3-L1 Cells and Primary Mouse Embryonic Fibroblasts*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Junghun; Kim, Donghyun; Choi, Jonghyun; Choi, Hyounjeong; Ryu, Jae-Ha; Jeong, Jinhyun; Park, Eun-Jin; Kim, Seon-Hee; Kim, Sunyoung

    2012-01-01

    A water-soluble extract from the stems of Cucurbita moschata, code named PG105, was previously found to contain strong anti-obesity activities in a high fat diet-induced obesity mouse model. One of its biological characteristics is that it inhibits 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation. To isolate the biologically active compound(s), conventional solvent fractionation was performed, and the various fractions were tested for anti-adipogenic activity using Oil Red O staining method. A single spot on thin layer chromatography of the chloroform fraction showed a potent anti-adipogenic activity. When purified, the structure of its major component was resolved as dehydrodiconiferyl alcohol (DHCA), a lignan, by NMR and mass spectrometry analysis. In 3T3-L1 cells, synthesized DHCA significantly reduced the expression of several adipocyte marker genes, including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (Pparg), CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein α (Cebpa), fatty acid-binding protein 4 (Fabp4), sterol response element-binding protein-1c (Srebp1c), and stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase-1 (Scd), and decreased lipid accumulation without affecting cell viability. DHCA also suppressed the mitotic clonal expansion of preadipocytes (an early event of adipogenesis), probably by suppressing the DNA binding activity of C/EBPβ, and lowered the production level of cyclinA and cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (Cdk2), coinciding with the decrease in DNA synthesis and cell division. In addition, DHCA directly inhibited the expression of SREBP-1c and SCD-1. Similar observations were made, using primary mouse embryonic fibroblasts. Taken together, our data indicate that DHCA may contain dual activities, affecting both adipogenesis and lipogenesis. PMID:22262865

  3. Show me the money!’ An insight into the Copyright Licensing Agency (CLA and its interaction with Higher Education Institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinusha Mendis

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper will be to provide a case study of the Copyright Licensing Agency (CLA and its inter-action with Higher Education Institutions (HEIs. The paper will begin by introducing and expanding on the concept of higher education institutions and how they have had to adapt to copyright reproduction, especially from the mid twentieth century, with the advent of the photocopy machine. The paper will touch upon the copyright laws that have attempted to regulate copying within HEIs in the UK and consider whether it has been a success or not. The paper will then carry out a study in to CLA and will aim to raise and answer the following question: what really happens to the money that is collected from HEIs by the CLA and distributed through the Authors Licensing and Collecting Society (ALCS and Publishers Licensing Society (PLS? Is the license fee collected from HEIs fairly distributed amongst the right holders? Having looked at both HEIs and collecting societies (CLA specifically, the paper will consider whether collecting societies are the best practical solution we have or whether we are putting up with a system that we have come to know? The UUK v CLA case revealed the dangerous side of collecting societies, especially that of CLA and questioned its motives and aims. In offering a solution, the system in USA will be considered where the US law allows for two or more competing collecting societies in one area. Does competition combat an abuse of a dominant position, which is what we have in the UK and is this the way forward for the UK? Or does competition curtail creativity? Whilst some of these questions have been answered by the author, others have been left open for consideration.

  4. The complete nucleotide sequence of the barley yellow dwarf GPV isolate from China shows that it is a new member of the genus Polerovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenwei; Cheng, Zhuomin; Xu, Lei; Wu, Maosen; Waterhouse, Peter; Zhou, Guanghe; Li, Shifang

    2009-01-01

    The complete nucleotide sequence of the ssRNA genome of a Chinese GPV isolate of barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV) was determined. It comprised 5673 nucleotides, and the deduced genome organization resembled that of members of the genus Polerovirus. It was most closely related to cereal yellow dwarf virus-RPV (77% nt identity over the entire genome; coat protein amino acid identity 79%). The GPV isolate also differs in vector specificity from other BYDV strains. Biological properties, phylogenetic analyses and detailed sequence comparisons suggest that GPV should be considered a member of a new species within the genus, and the name Wheat yellow dwarf virus-GPV is proposed.

  5. Fibres from flax overproducing β-1,3-glucanase show increased accumulation of pectin and phenolics and thus higher antioxidant capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Recently, in order to improve the resistance of flax plants to pathogen infection, transgenic flax that overproduces β-1,3-glucanase was created. β-1,3-glucanase is a PR protein that hydrolyses the β-glucans, which are a major component of the cell wall in many groups of fungi. For this study, we used fourth-generation field-cultivated plants of the Fusarium -resistant transgenic line B14 to evaluate how overexpression of the β-1,3-glucanase gene influences the quantity, quality and composition of flax fibres, which are the main product obtained from flax straw. Results Overproduction of β-1,3-glucanase did not affect the quantity of the fibre obtained from the flax straw and did not significantly alter the essential mechanical characteristics of the retted fibres. However, changes in the contents of the major components of the cell wall (cellulose, hemicellulose, pectin and lignin) were revealed. Overexpression of the β-1,3-glucanase gene resulted in higher cellulose, hemicellulose and pectin contents and a lower lignin content in the fibres. Increases in the uronic acid content in particular fractions (with the exception of the 1 M KOH-soluble fraction of hemicelluloses) and changes in the sugar composition of the cell wall were detected in the fibres of the transgenic flax when compared to the contents for the control plants. The callose content was lower in the fibres of the transgenic flax. Additionally, the analysis of phenolic compound contents in five fractions of the cell wall revealed important changes, which were reflected in the antioxidant potential of these fractions. Conclusion Overexpression of the β-1,3-glucanase gene has a significant influence on the biochemical composition of flax fibres. The constitutive overproduction of β-1,3-glucanase causes a decrease in the callose content, and the resulting excess glucose serves as a substrate for the production of other polysaccharides. The monosaccharide excess redirects the phenolic

  6. Countries with Higher Levels of Gender Equality Show Larger National Sex Differences in Mathematics Anxiety and Relatively Lower Parental Mathematics Valuation for Girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoet, Gijsbert; Bailey, Drew H; Moore, Alex M; Geary, David C

    2016-01-01

    Despite international advancements in gender equality across a variety of societal domains, the underrepresentation of girls and women in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) related fields persists. In this study, we explored the possibility that the sex difference in mathematics anxiety contributes to this disparity. More specifically, we tested a number of predictions from the prominent gender stratification model, which is the leading psychological theory of cross-national patterns of sex differences in mathematics anxiety and performance. To this end, we analyzed data from 761,655 15-year old students across 68 nations who participated in the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA). Most importantly and contra predictions, we showed that economically developed and more gender equal countries have a lower overall level of mathematics anxiety, and yet a larger national sex difference in mathematics anxiety relative to less developed countries. Further, although relatively more mothers work in STEM fields in more developed countries, these parents valued, on average, mathematical competence more in their sons than their daughters. The proportion of mothers working in STEM was unrelated to sex differences in mathematics anxiety or performance. We propose that the gender stratification model fails to account for these national patterns and that an alternative model is needed. In the discussion, we suggest how an interaction between socio-cultural values and sex-specific psychological traits can better explain these patterns. We also discuss implications for policies aiming to increase girls' STEM participation.

  7. Countries with Higher Levels of Gender Equality Show Larger National Sex Differences in Mathematics Anxiety and Relatively Lower Parental Mathematics Valuation for Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Despite international advancements in gender equality across a variety of societal domains, the underrepresentation of girls and women in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) related fields persists. In this study, we explored the possibility that the sex difference in mathematics anxiety contributes to this disparity. More specifically, we tested a number of predictions from the prominent gender stratification model, which is the leading psychological theory of cross-national patterns of sex differences in mathematics anxiety and performance. To this end, we analyzed data from 761,655 15-year old students across 68 nations who participated in the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA). Most importantly and contra predictions, we showed that economically developed and more gender equal countries have a lower overall level of mathematics anxiety, and yet a larger national sex difference in mathematics anxiety relative to less developed countries. Further, although relatively more mothers work in STEM fields in more developed countries, these parents valued, on average, mathematical competence more in their sons than their daughters. The proportion of mothers working in STEM was unrelated to sex differences in mathematics anxiety or performance. We propose that the gender stratification model fails to account for these national patterns and that an alternative model is needed. In the discussion, we suggest how an interaction between socio-cultural values and sex-specific psychological traits can better explain these patterns. We also discuss implications for policies aiming to increase girls’ STEM participation. PMID:27100631

  8. Polysaccharide fraction from higher plants which strongly interacts with the cytosolic phosphorylase isozyme. I. Isolation and characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Yi; Steup, M.

    1990-01-01

    From leaves of Spinacia oleracea L. or from Pisum sativum L. and from cotyledons of germinating pea seeds a high molecular weight polysaccharide fraction was isolated. The apparent size of the fraction, as determined by gel filtration, was similar to that of dextran blue. Following acid hydrolysis the monomer content of the polysaccharide preparation was studied using high pressure liquid and thin layer chromatography. Glucose, galactose, arabinose, and ribose were the main monosaccharide compounds. The native polysaccharide preparation interacted strongly with the cytosolic isozyme of phosphorylase (EC 2.4.1.1). Interaction with the plastidic phosphorylase isozyme(s) was by far weaker. Interaction with the cytosolic isozyme was demonstrated by affinity electrophoresis, kinetic measurements, and by 14 C-labeling experiments in which the glucosyl transfer from [ 14 C]glucose 1-phosphate to the polysaccharide preparation was monitored

  9. Toxicity assessments of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in isolated mitochondria, rat hepatocytes, and zebrafish show good concordance across chemical classes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadanaciva, Sashi; Aleo, Michael D.; Strock, Christopher J.; Stedman, Donald B.; Wang, Huijun; Will, Yvonne

    2013-01-01

    To reduce costly late-stage compound attrition, there has been an increased focus on assessing compounds in in vitro assays that predict attributes of human safety liabilities, before preclinical in vivo studies are done. Relevant questions when choosing a panel of assays for predicting toxicity are (a) whether there is general concordance in the data among the assays, and (b) whether, in a retrospective analysis, the rank order of toxicity of compounds in the assays correlates with the known safety profile of the drugs in humans. The aim of our study was to answer these questions using nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) as a test set since NSAIDs are generally associated with gastrointestinal injury, hepatotoxicity, and/or cardiovascular risk, with mitochondrial impairment and endoplasmic reticulum stress being possible contributing factors. Eleven NSAIDs, flufenamic acid, tolfenamic acid, mefenamic acid, diclofenac, meloxicam, sudoxicam, piroxicam, diflunisal, acetylsalicylic acid, nimesulide, and sulindac (and its two metabolites, sulindac sulfide and sulindac sulfone), were tested for their effects on (a) the respiration of rat liver mitochondria, (b) a panel of mechanistic endpoints in rat hepatocytes, and (c) the viability and organ morphology of zebrafish. We show good concordance for distinguishing among/between NSAID chemical classes in the observations among the three approaches. Furthermore, the assays were complementary and able to correctly identify “toxic” and “non-toxic” drugs in accordance with their human safety profile, with emphasis on hepatic and gastrointestinal safety. We recommend implementing our multi-assay approach in the drug discovery process to reduce compound attrition. - Highlights: • NSAIDS cause liver and GI toxicity. • Mitochondrial uncoupling contributes to NSAID liver toxicity. • ER stress is a mechanism that contributes to liver toxicity. • Zebrafish and cell based assays are complimentary

  10. Toxicity assessments of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in isolated mitochondria, rat hepatocytes, and zebrafish show good concordance across chemical classes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nadanaciva, Sashi [Compound Safety Prediction, Worldwide Medicinal Chemistry, Pfizer, Inc., Groton, CT 06340 (United States); Aleo, Michael D. [Drug Safety Research and Development, Pfizer Inc., Groton, CT 06340 (United States); Strock, Christopher J. [Cyprotex US, Watertown, MA 02472 (United States); Stedman, Donald B. [Drug Safety Research and Development, Pfizer Inc., Groton, CT 06340 (United States); Wang, Huijun [Computational Sciences, Pfizer Inc., Groton, CT 06340 (United States); Will, Yvonne, E-mail: yvonne.will@pfizer.com [Compound Safety Prediction, Worldwide Medicinal Chemistry, Pfizer, Inc., Groton, CT 06340 (United States)

    2013-10-15

    To reduce costly late-stage compound attrition, there has been an increased focus on assessing compounds in in vitro assays that predict attributes of human safety liabilities, before preclinical in vivo studies are done. Relevant questions when choosing a panel of assays for predicting toxicity are (a) whether there is general concordance in the data among the assays, and (b) whether, in a retrospective analysis, the rank order of toxicity of compounds in the assays correlates with the known safety profile of the drugs in humans. The aim of our study was to answer these questions using nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) as a test set since NSAIDs are generally associated with gastrointestinal injury, hepatotoxicity, and/or cardiovascular risk, with mitochondrial impairment and endoplasmic reticulum stress being possible contributing factors. Eleven NSAIDs, flufenamic acid, tolfenamic acid, mefenamic acid, diclofenac, meloxicam, sudoxicam, piroxicam, diflunisal, acetylsalicylic acid, nimesulide, and sulindac (and its two metabolites, sulindac sulfide and sulindac sulfone), were tested for their effects on (a) the respiration of rat liver mitochondria, (b) a panel of mechanistic endpoints in rat hepatocytes, and (c) the viability and organ morphology of zebrafish. We show good concordance for distinguishing among/between NSAID chemical classes in the observations among the three approaches. Furthermore, the assays were complementary and able to correctly identify “toxic” and “non-toxic” drugs in accordance with their human safety profile, with emphasis on hepatic and gastrointestinal safety. We recommend implementing our multi-assay approach in the drug discovery process to reduce compound attrition. - Highlights: • NSAIDS cause liver and GI toxicity. • Mitochondrial uncoupling contributes to NSAID liver toxicity. • ER stress is a mechanism that contributes to liver toxicity. • Zebrafish and cell based assays are complimentary.

  11. MATLAB-based algorithm to estimate depths of isolated thin dike-like sources using higher-order horizontal derivatives of magnetic anomalies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekinci, Yunus Levent

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an easy-to-use open source computer algorithm (code) for estimating the depths of isolated single thin dike-like source bodies by using numerical second-, third-, and fourth-order horizontal derivatives computed from observed magnetic anomalies. The approach does not require a priori information and uses some filters of successive graticule spacings. The computed higher-order horizontal derivative datasets are used to solve nonlinear equations for depth determination. The solutions are independent from the magnetization and ambient field directions. The practical usability of the developed code, designed in MATLAB R2012b (MathWorks Inc.), was successfully examined using some synthetic simulations with and without noise. The algorithm was then used to estimate the depths of some ore bodies buried in different regions (USA, Sweden, and Canada). Real data tests clearly indicated that the obtained depths are in good agreement with those of previous studies and drilling information. Additionally, a state-of-the-art inversion scheme based on particle swarm optimization produced comparable results to those of the higher-order horizontal derivative analyses in both synthetic and real anomaly cases. Accordingly, the proposed code is verified to be useful in interpreting isolated single thin dike-like magnetized bodies and may be an alternative processing technique. The open source code can be easily modified and adapted to suit the benefits of other researchers.

  12. Isolated galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Einasto, Maret

    1990-01-01

    To test for the possible presence of really isolated galaxies, which form a randomly distributed population in voids, we compare the distribution of most isolated galaxies in an observed sample with distributions of the same number of random points using the nearest neighbour test. The results show that the random population of really isolated galaxies does not exist - even the most isolated galaxies are connected with systems of galaxies, forming their outlying parts. (author)

  13. Effect of higher minimum inhibitory concentrations of quaternary ammonium compounds in clinical E. coli isolates on antibiotic susceptibilities and clinical outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffet-Bataillon, S; Branger, B; Cormier, M; Bonnaure-Mallet, M; Jolivet-Gougeon, A

    2011-10-01

    Quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) are cationic surfactants used as preservatives and environmental disinfectants. Limited data are available regarding the effect of QACs in the clinical setting. We performed a prospective cohort study in 153 patients with Escherichia coli bacteraemia from February to September 2008 at University Hospital in Rennes. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of antibiotics and QACs alkyldimethylbenzylammonium chloride (ADBAC) and didecyldimethylammonium chloride (DDAC) were determined by the agar dilution method. The capacity of biofilm production was assayed using the Crystal Violet method, and mutation frequencies by measuring the capacity of strains to generate resistance to rifampicin. Logistic regression analysis showed that one of the significant factors related to low MICs for ADBAC (≤16 mg/L) and DDAC (≤8 mg/L), was cotrimoxazole susceptibility (odds ratio: 3.72; 95% confidence interval: 1.22-11.24; P=0.02 and OR: 3.61; 95% CI: 1.56-7.56; PAntibiotic susceptibility to cotrimoxazole was strongly associated with susceptibility to amoxicillin and nalidixic acid (PE. coli isolates and antibiotic resistance. Copyright © 2011 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Yeast Isolation for Bioethanol Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EKA RURIANI

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available We have isolated 12 yeast isolates from five different rotten fruits by using a yeast glucose chloramphenicol agar (YGCA medium supplemented with tetracycline. From pre-screening assay, four isolates exhibited higher substrate (glucose-xylose consumption efficiency in the reaction tube fermentation compared to Saccharomyces cerevisiae dan Saccharomyces ellipsoids as the reference strains. Based on the fermentation process in gooseneck flasks, we observed that two isolates (K and SB showed high fermentation efficiency both in sole glucose and mixed glucose-xylose substrate. Moreover, isolates K and SB produced relatively identical level of ethanol concentration compared to the reference strains. Isolates H and MP could only produce high levels of ethanol in glucose fermentation, while only half of that amount of ethanol was detected in glucose-xylose fermentation. Isolate K and SB were identified as Pichia kudriavzeevii (100% based on large sub unit (LSU ribosomal DNA D1/D2 region.

  15. Frozen cord blood hematopoietic stem cells differentiate into higher numbers of functional natural killer cells in vitro than mobilized hematopoietic stem cells or freshly isolated cord blood hematopoietic stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Luevano

    Full Text Available Adoptive natural killer (NK cell therapy relies on the acquisition of large numbers of NK cells that are cytotoxic but not exhausted. NK cell differentiation from hematopoietic stem cells (HSC has become an alluring option for NK cell therapy, with umbilical cord blood (UCB and mobilized peripheral blood (PBCD34(+ being the most accessible HSC sources as collection procedures are less invasive. In this study we compared the capacity of frozen or freshly isolated UCB hematopoietic stem cells (CBCD34(+ and frozen PBCD34(+ to generate NK cells in vitro. By modifying a previously published protocol, we showed that frozen CBCD34(+ cultures generated higher NK cell numbers without loss of function compared to fresh CBCD34(+ cultures. NK cells generated from CBCD34(+ and PBCD34(+ expressed low levels of killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptors but high levels of activating receptors and of the myeloid marker CD33. However, blocking studies showed that CD33 expression did not impact on the functions of the generated cells. CBCD34(+-NK cells exhibited increased capacity to secrete IFN-γ and kill K562 in vitro and in vivo as compared to PBCD34(+-NK cells. Moreover, K562 killing by the generated NK cells could be further enhanced by IL-12 stimulation. Our data indicate that the use of frozen CBCD34(+ for the production of NK cells in vitro results in higher cell numbers than PBCD34(+, without jeopardizing their functionality, rendering them suitable for NK cell immunotherapy. The results presented here provide an optimal strategy to generate NK cells in vitro for immunotherapy that exhibit enhanced effector function when compared to alternate sources of HSC.

  16. Mildly abnormal general movement quality in infants is associated with higher Mead acid and lower arachidonic acid and shows a U-shaped relation with the DHA/AA ratio

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Goor, S. A.; Schaafsma, A.; Erwich, J. J. H. M.; Dijck-Brouwer, D. A. J.; Muskiet, F. A. J.

    We showed that docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) supplementation during pregnancy and lactation was associated with more mildly abnormal (MA) general movements (GMs) in the infants. Since this finding was unexpected and inter-individual DHA intakes are highly variable, we explored the relationship between

  17. Obesity in show cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbee, R J

    2014-12-01

    Obesity is an important disease with a high prevalence in cats. Because obesity is related to several other diseases, it is important to identify the population at risk. Several risk factors for obesity have been described in the literature. A higher incidence of obesity in certain cat breeds has been suggested. The aim of this study was to determine whether obesity occurs more often in certain breeds. The second aim was to relate the increased prevalence of obesity in certain breeds to the official standards of that breed. To this end, 268 cats of 22 different breeds investigated by determining their body condition score (BCS) on a nine-point scale by inspection and palpation, at two different cat shows. Overall, 45.5% of the show cats had a BCS > 5, and 4.5% of the show cats had a BCS > 7. There were significant differences between breeds, which could be related to the breed standards. Most overweight and obese cats were in the neutered group. It warrants firm discussions with breeders and cat show judges to come to different interpretations of the standards in order to prevent overweight conditions in certain breeds from being the standard of beauty. Neutering predisposes for obesity and requires early nutritional intervention to prevent obese conditions. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  18. Mildly abnormal general movement quality in infants is associated with higher Mead acid and lower arachidonic acid and shows a U-shaped relation with the DHA/AA ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Goor, S A; Schaafsma, A; Erwich, J J H M; Dijck-Brouwer, D A J; Muskiet, F A J

    2010-01-01

    We showed that docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) supplementation during pregnancy and lactation was associated with more mildly abnormal (MA) general movements (GMs) in the infants. Since this finding was unexpected and inter-individual DHA intakes are highly variable, we explored the relationship between GM quality and erythrocyte DHA, arachidonic acid (AA), DHA/AA and Mead acid in 57 infants of this trial. MA GMs were inversely related to AA, associated with Mead acid, and associated with DHA/AA in a U-shaped manner. These relationships may indicate dependence of newborn AA status on synthesis from linoleic acid. This becomes restricted during the intrauterine period by abundant de novo synthesis of oleic and Mead acids from glucose, consistent with reduced insulin sensitivity during the third trimester. The descending part of the U-shaped relation between MA GMs and DHA/AA probably indicates DHA shortage next to AA shortage. The ascending part may reflect a different developmental trajectory that is not necessarily unfavorable. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Showing Value (Editorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Koufogiannakis

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available When Su Cleyle and I first decided to start Evidence Based Library and Information Practice, one of the things we agreed upon immediately was that the journal be open access. We knew that a major obstacle to librarians using the research literature was that they did not have access to the research literature. Although Su and I are both academic librarians who can access a wide variety of library and information literature from our institutions, we belong to a profession where not everyone has equal access to the research in our field. Without such access to our own body of literature, how can we ever hope for practitioners to use research evidence in their decision making? It would have been contradictory to the principles of evidence based library and information practice to do otherwise.One of the specific groups we thought could use such an open access venue for discovering research literature was school librarians. School librarians are often isolated and lacking access to the research literature that may help them prove to stakeholders the importance of their libraries and their role within schools. Certainly, school libraries have been in decline and the use of evidence to show value is needed. As Ken Haycock noted in his 2003 report, The Crisis in Canada’s School Libraries: The Case for Reform and Reinvestment, “Across the country, teacher-librarians are losing their jobs or being reassigned. Collections are becoming depleted owing to budget cuts. Some principals believe that in the age of the Internet and the classroom workstation, the school library is an artifact” (9. Within this context, school librarians are looking to our research literature for evidence of the impact that school library programs have on learning outcomes and student success. They are integrating that evidence into their practice, and reflecting upon what can be improved locally. They are focusing on students and showing the impact of school libraries and

  20. Isolation of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus from apparently healthy human animal attendants, cattle and cattle wastes in Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madoshi, B. P.; Mtambo, M. M.A.; Muhairwa, A. P.

    2018-01-01

    faecalis was the most prevalent species from all sources of isolation (43·5%), followed by Enterococcus faecium (38·4%). Isolates of E. faecium showed a higher number of phenotypic antimicrobial resistance than isolates of E. faecalis. Fifty-eight isolates, which showed resistance or intermediate...

  1. Antimicrobial drug resistance of Salmonella isolates from meat and humans, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, Marianne Nielsine; Andersen, Jens Strodl; Aabo, Søren

    2007-01-01

    We compared 8,144 Salmonella isolates collected from meat imported to or produced in Denmark, as well as from Danish patients. Isolates from imported meat showed a higher rate of antimicrobial drug resistance, including multidrug resistance, than did isolates from domestic meat. Isolates from...... humans showed resistance rates lower than those found in imported meat but higher than in domestic meat. These findings indicate that programs for controlling resistant Salmonella spp. are a global issue...

  2. Antimicrobial drug resistance of Salmonella isolates from meat and humans, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, Marianne; Andersen, Jens Strodl; Aabo, Søren

    2007-01-01

    We compared 8,144 Salmonella isolates collected from meat imported to or produced in Denmark, as well as from Danish patients. Isolates from imported meat showed a higher rate of antimicrobial drug resistance, including multidrug resistance, than did isolates from domestic meat. Isolates from...... humans showed resistance rates lower than those found in imported meat but higher than in domestic meat. These findings indicate that programs for controlling resistant Salmonella spp. are a global issue....

  3. Show-Bix &

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The anti-reenactment 'Show-Bix &' consists of 5 dias projectors, a dial phone, quintophonic sound, and interactive elements. A responsive interface will enable the Dias projectors to show copies of original dias slides from the Show-Bix piece ”March på Stedet”, 265 images in total. The copies are...

  4. Talking with TV shows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandvik, Kjetil; Laursen, Ditte

    2014-01-01

    User interaction with radio and television programmes is not a new thing. However, with new cross-media production concepts such as X Factor and Voice, this is changing dramatically. The second-screen logic of these productions encourages viewers, along with TV’s traditional one-way communication...... mode, to communicate on interactive (dialogue-enabling) devices such as laptops, smartphones and tablets. Using the TV show Voice as our example, this article shows how the technological and situational set-up of the production invites viewers to engage in new ways of interaction and communication...

  5. Coat protein sequence shows that Cucumber mosaic virus isolate

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A viral disease was identified on geraniums (Pelargonium spp.) grown in a greenhouse at the Institute of Himalayan Bioresource Technology (IHBT), Palampur, exhibiting mild mottling and stunting. The causal virus (Cucumber mosaic virus, CMV) was identified and characterized on the basis of host range, aphid ...

  6. Coat protein sequence shows that Cucumber mosaic virus isolate ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Madhu

    crop is reported to be infecetd by a number of pests and dis- eases (Rao et al 2000) including a ... Plant Virus Lab, Floriculture Division, Institute of Himalayan Bioresource Technology, Palampur 176 061, India. *Corresponding author (Fax ..... ELISA test used in testing the plants (either mechanical- ly inoculated or naturally ...

  7. Coat protein sequence shows that Cucumber mosaic virus isolate ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Madhu

    A viral disease was identified on geraniums (Pelargonium spp.) grown in a greenhouse at the .... DNA was cloned in p-GEM Teasy vector (Promega, USA) as per the ... M. persicae and A. gossypii transmitted the virus in non persistent manner ...

  8. Talk Show Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Mitzi Ruth

    1992-01-01

    Proposes having students perform skits in which they play the roles of the science concepts they are trying to understand. Provides the dialog for a skit in which hot and cold gas molecules are interviewed on a talk show to study how these properties affect wind, rain, and other weather phenomena. (MDH)

  9. Honored Teacher Shows Commitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratte, Kathy

    1987-01-01

    Part of the acceptance speech of the 1985 National Council for the Social Studies Teacher of the Year, this article describes the censorship experience of this honored social studies teacher. The incident involved the showing of a videotape version of the feature film entitled "The Seduction of Joe Tynan." (JDH)

  10. The energy show

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The Energy Show is a new look at the problems of world energy, where our supplies come from, now and in the future. The programme looks at how we need energy to maintain our standards of living. Energy supply is shown as the complicated set of problems it is - that Fossil Fuels are both raw materials and energy sources, that some 'alternatives' so readily suggested as practical options are in reality a long way from being effective. (author)

  11. Stress-Induced Hyperglycemia, but Not Diabetic Hyperglycemia, Is Associated with Higher Mortality in Patients with Isolated Moderate and Severe Traumatic Brain Injury: Analysis of a Propensity Score-Matched Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rau, Cheng-Shyuan; Wu, Shao-Chun; Chen, Yi-Chun; Chien, Peng-Chen; Hsieh, Hsiao-Yun; Kuo, Pao-Jen; Hsieh, Ching-Hua

    2017-11-03

    Background : Admission hyperglycemia is associated with higher morbidity and mortality in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI). Stress-induced hyperglycemia (SIH), a form of hyperglycemia induced by the stress response, is associated with increased patient mortality following TBI. However, admission hyperglycemia occurs not only in SIH but also in patients with diabetic hyperglycemia (DH). Current information regarding whether trauma patients with SIH represent a distinct group with differential outcomes compared to those with DH remains limited. Methods : Serum glucose concentration ≥200 mg/dL upon arrival at the emergency department was defined as hyperglycemia. Presence of diabetes mellitus (DM) was determined by patient history and/or admission glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) level ≥6.5%. In the present study, the patient cohort included those with moderate and severe TBI, as defined by an Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) score ≥3 points in the head, and excluded those who had additional AIS scores ≥3 points in any other region of the body. A total of 1798 adult patients with isolated moderate to severe TBI were allocated into four groups: SIH ( n = 140), DH ( n = 187), diabetic normoglycemia (DN, n = 186), and non-diabetic normoglycemia (NDN, n = 1285). Detailed patient information was retrieved from the Trauma Registry System at a level I trauma center between 1 January 2009, and 31 December 2015. Unpaired Student's t - and Mann-Whitney U -tests were used to analyze normally and non-normally distributed continuous data, respectively. Categorical data were compared using the Pearson chi-square or two-sided Fisher's exact tests. Matched patient populations were allocated in a 1:1 ratio according to propensity scores calculated by NCSS software. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the effect of SIH and DH on the adjusted mortality outcome. Results : In patients with isolated moderate to severe TBI, the presence of SIH and DH led to 9.1-fold and 2

  12. Higher Education

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kunle Amuwo: Higher Education Transformation: A Paradigm Shilt in South Africa? ... ty of such skills, especially at the middle management levels within the higher ... istics and virtues of differentiation and diversity. .... may be forced to close shop for lack of capacity to attract ..... necessarily lead to racial and gender equity,.

  13. Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    & Development (LDRD) National Security Education Center (NSEC) Office of Science Programs Richard P Databases National Security Education Center (NSEC) Center for Nonlinear Studies Engineering Institute Scholarships STEM Education Programs Teachers (K-12) Students (K-12) Higher Education Regional Education

  14. Comparative genomic analysis shows that avian pathogenic Escherichia coli isolate IMT5155 (O2:K1:H5; ST complex 95, ST140 shares close relationship with ST95 APEC O1:K1 and human ExPEC O18:K1 strains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangkai Zhu Ge

    Full Text Available Avian pathogenic E. coli and human extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli serotypes O1, O2 and O18 strains isolated from different hosts are generally located in phylogroup B2 and ST complex 95, and they share similar genetic characteristics and pathogenicity, with no or minimal host specificity. They are popular objects for the study of ExPEC genetic characteristics and pathogenesis in recent years. Here, we investigated the evolution and genetic blueprint of APEC pathotype by performing phylogenetic and comparative genome analysis of avian pathogenic E. coli strain IMT5155 (O2:K1:H5; ST complex 95, ST140 with other E. coli pathotypes. Phylogeny analyses indicated that IMT5155 has closest evolutionary relationship with APEC O1, IHE3034, and UTI89. Comparative genomic analysis showed that IMT5155 and APEC O1 shared significant genetic overlap/similarities with human ExPEC dominant O18:K1 strains (IHE3034 and UTI89. Furthermore, the unique PAI I5155 (GI-12 was identified and found to be conserved in APEC O2 serotype isolates. GI-7 and GI-16 encoding two typical T6SSs in IMT5155 might be useful markers for the identification of ExPEC dominant serotypes (O1, O2, and O18 strains. IMT5155 contained a ColV plasmid p1ColV5155, which defined the APEC pathotype. The distribution analysis of 10 sequenced ExPEC pan-genome virulence factors among 47 sequenced E. coli strains provided meaningful information for B2 APEC/ExPEC-specific virulence factors, including several adhesins, invasins, toxins, iron acquisition systems, and so on. The pathogenicity tests of IMT5155 and other APEC O1:K1 and O2:K1 serotypes strains (isolated in China through four animal models showed that they were highly virulent for avian colisepticemia and able to cause septicemia and meningitis in neonatal rats, suggesting zoonotic potential of these APEC O1:K1 and O2:K1 isolates.

  15. Retinal shows its true colours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coughlan, N. J.A.; Adamson, B. D.; Gamon, L.

    2015-01-01

    Retinal is one of Nature's most important and widespread chromophores, exhibiting remarkable versatility in its function and spectral response, depending on its protein environment. Reliable spectroscopic and photochemical data for the isolated retinal molecule are essential for calibrating theor...

  16. Characterization of Trypanosoma brucei gambiense stocks isolated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Trypanosoma brucei gambiense was isolated twice from each of 23 patients in Côte d'Ivoire. Genetic characterization using RAPD (Random Primed Amplified Polymorphic DNA) showed additional variability within a given isoenzyme profile (zymodeme), confirming that this fingerprinting method has a higher discriminative ...

  17. Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrickson, Robert M.

    This chapter reports 1982 cases involving aspects of higher education. Interesting cases noted dealt with the federal government's authority to regulate state employees' retirement and raised the questions of whether Title IX covers employment, whether financial aid makes a college a program under Title IX, and whether sex segregated mortality…

  18. Globalisation and Higher Education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marginson, Simon; van der Wende, Marijk

    2007-01-01

    Economic and cultural globalisation has ushered in a new era in higher education. Higher education was always more internationally open than most sectors because of its immersion in knowledge, which never showed much respect for juridical boundaries. In global knowledge economies, higher education

  19. Broader tropism and higher cytopathicity for CD4+ T cells of a syncytium-inducing compared to a non-syncytium-inducing HIV-1 isolate as a mechanism for accelerated CD4+ T cell decline in vivo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fouchier, R. A.; Meyaard, L.; Brouwer, M.; Hovenkamp, E.; Schuitemaker, H.

    1996-01-01

    The emergence of syncytium-inducing (SI) HIV-1 isolates in infected individuals precedes an accelerated CD4+ T cell decline and is associated with high virus load and rapid disease progression. The exact mechanism by which SI HIV-1 variants may cause this enhanced clinical progression is unknown.

  20. Isolated optic nerve pseudotumour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patankar, T.; Prasad, S.; Krishnan, A.; Laxminarayan, R.

    2000-01-01

    Isolated optic nerve involvement by the idiopathic inflammatory process is a rare finding and very few reports are available. Here a case of an isolated optic nerve inflammatory pseudotumour presenting with gradually progressive unilateral loss of vision is described. It showed dramatic response to a trial of steroids and its differential diagnoses are discussed. Copyright (1999) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  1. Different Babesia canis isolates, different diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schetters, T P; Moubri, K; Précigout, E; Kleuskens, J; Scholtes, N C; Gorenflot, A

    1997-11-01

    Using surface immunofluorescence isolate-specific antigens were detected on the membrane of erythrocytes infected with Babesia parasites. In addition, the strains reacted differently with Plasmagel in that the European isolate (B.c. canis) could be purified on Plasmagel effectively, whereas infected erythrocytes of the South-African isolate (B.c. rossi) could not. Experimental infection of dogs with Babesia canis isolates from geographically different areas revealed different pathology. The European isolate obtained from France exhibited transient parasitaemia, usually below 1%, associated with low PCV values and congestion of internal organs. Clinical disease was correlated with an effect on the coagulation system, and not with peripheral parasitaemia. Infection of dogs with South-African-derived isolate induced high parasitaemia usually much higher than 1%, which required chemotherapeutic treatment. In these animals clinical disease was correlated with peripheral parasitaemia and not with parameters of the coagulation system. The results show that the etiology of disease caused by these isolates of B.c. canis and B.c. rossi is different. This might have implications for the development of vaccines against these infections.

  2. In Vitro Activities of Amphotericin B, Terbinafine, and Azole Drugs against Clinical and Environmental Isolates of Aspergillus terreus Sensu Stricto

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Mariana S.; Rojas, Florencia D.; Cattana, María E.; Sosa, María de los Ángeles; Iovannitti, Cristina A.; Giusiano, Gustavo E.

    2015-01-01

    The antifungal susceptibilities of 40 clinical and environmental isolates of A. terreus sensu stricto to amphotericin B, terbinafine, itraconazole, and voriconazole were determined in accordance with CLSI document M38-A2. All isolates had itraconazole and voriconazole MICs lower than epidemiologic cutoff values, and 5% of the isolates had amphotericin B MICs higher than epidemiologic cutoff values. Terbinafine showed the lowest MICs. No significant differences were found when MICs of clinical and environmental isolates were compared. PMID:25824228

  3. Toxigenic Corynebacterium ulcerans isolated from a free-roaming red fox (Vulpes vulpes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sting, Reinhard; Ketterer-Pintur, Sandra; Contzen, Matthias; Mauder, Norman; Süss-Dombrowski, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Corynebacterium (C.) ulcerans could be isolated from the spleen of a red fox (Vulpes vulpes) that had been found dead in the state of Baden-Württemberg, Germany. Pathohistological examination suggested that the fox had died of distemper, as was confirmed by PCR. The isolate was identified biochemically, by MALDI-TOF MS, FT-IR and by partial 16S rRNA, rpoB and tox gene sequencing. Using the Elek test the C. ulcerans isolate demonstrated diphtheria toxin production. FT-IR and sequencing data obtained from the C. ulcerans isolate from the red fox showed higher similarity to isolates from humans than to those from wild game.

  4. Characterization of Candidate probionts isolated from human breast milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalkhali, S; Mojgani, N

    2017-05-20

    This study was designed to isolate and identify the potential probionts present in 32 healthy mothers' breast milk. Microbial culture media and 16SrRNA sequencing were used to isolate and identify the bacteria and all isolates were analyzed for their antagonistic potential, resistance to acidic pH, bile salts and survival under simulated gastric and intestinal conditions. The colonization potential was further assessed based on adherence to human enterocyte-like Caco-2 cell lines. The breast milk samples harbored significant numbers of Gram positive and catalase negative (85%) bacteria. Based on 16SrRNA sequencing, these isolates were identified as Lactobacillus casei, L.gasseri, L.fermentum, L.plantarum, Pediococcus acidilactici, and Enterococcus facieum. Among the isolates, P. acidilactici was the most frequent species (71%) present in these samples. Few Gram and catalase positive isolates, Staphylococcus aureus and S.hominiis were also observed. The isolates were viable and unviable in pH 3 and 1.5, respectively, while all isolates survived in 1.0% bile salt. As putative probionts, P.acidilactici 1C showed a significantly higher percentage of adhesion to Caco-2 cells (p< 0.05)than the other two isolates L.plantarum 7A and E.facieum 2C. Bacterial strains isolated from human breast milk were shown to have probiotic properties including anti-infective protection and may be considered as future therapeutics for infants.

  5. Isolated vertigo and possibility of brain ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosarrezai, Arash; Toghae, Mansoureh; Majed, Masoud; Aloosh, Mehdi

    2012-08-01

    In cases of isolated vertigo, physicians are unable to definitely distinguish between central or peripheral vertigo by history and physical examination. Some central causes of isolated vertigo such as cerebellar stroke can be life-threatening and require intervention. Brain infarction can be detected shortly after the onset of clinical symptoms by using diffusion-weighted MRI (DWI). We have conducted this study to perform DWI on isolated vertigo patients with a higher probability of brain infarction. We enrolled 55 consecutive patients with isolated vertigo who had at least one cardiovascular risk factor. A questionnaire that consisted of cardiovascular risk factors was completed and DWI performed for each patient. We analyzed the association of cardiovascular risk factors with infarction as identified by DWI. Using DWI, 5 (9.1%) patients had an acute ischemic stroke. Among cardiovascular risk factors, analysis showed a significant relationship between diabetes mellitus (DM) and infarction. Isolated vertigo may occur due to the occlusion of a small artery in the area of brain circulated by the posterior inferior cerebellar artery. According to our results, DWI may be used in diabetic patients with isolated vertigo to locate a probable infarction.

  6. Radioactive waste: show time? - 16309

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Codee, Hans; Verhoef, Ewoud

    2009-01-01

    Time will render radioactive waste harmless. How can we manage the time radioactive substances remain harmful? Just 'wait and see' or 'marking time' is not an option. We need to isolate the waste from our living environment and control it as long as necessary. For the situation in the Netherlands, it is obvious that a period of long term storage is needed. Both the small volume of waste and the limited financial possibilities are determining factors. Time is needed to let the volume of waste grow and to let the money, needed for disposal, grow in a capital growth fund. An organisation such as COVRA - the radioactive waste organisation in the Netherlands - can only function when it has good, open and transparent relationship with the public and particularly with the local population. If we tell people that we safely store radioactive waste for 100 years, they often ask: 'That long?' How can we explain the long-term aspect of radioactive waste management in a way people can relate to? In this paper, an overview is given of the activities of COVRA on the communication of radioactive waste management. (authors)

  7. Risk Aversion in Game Shows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steffen; Harrison, Glenn W.; Lau, Morten I.

    2008-01-01

    We review the use of behavior from television game shows to infer risk attitudes. These shows provide evidence when contestants are making decisions over very large stakes, and in a replicated, structured way. Inferences are generally confounded by the subjective assessment of skill in some games......, and the dynamic nature of the task in most games. We consider the game shows Card Sharks, Jeopardy!, Lingo, and finally Deal Or No Deal. We provide a detailed case study of the analyses of Deal Or No Deal, since it is suitable for inference about risk attitudes and has attracted considerable attention....

  8. Measuring performance at trade shows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kåre

    2004-01-01

    Trade shows is an increasingly important marketing activity to many companies, but current measures of trade show performance do not adequately capture dimensions important to exhibitors. Based on the marketing literature's outcome and behavior-based control system taxonomy, a model is built...... that captures a outcome-based sales dimension and four behavior-based dimensions (i.e. information-gathering, relationship building, image building, and motivation activities). A 16-item instrument is developed for assessing exhibitors perceptions of their trade show performance. The paper presents evidence...

  9. Characterization of lactococci isolated from homemade kefir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kojić M.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Five bacteriocin-producing lactococci isolates from traditionally prepared kefir were determined as Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis. The analyzed isolates showed different plasmid profiles and no cross inhibition between them was detected. Moreover, natural isolate BGKF26 was resistant to the antimicrobial activity of nisin producing strain NP45. Plasmid curing experiments revealed that the genes encoding bacteriocin and proteinase production are located on separate genetic elements, except in BGKF26. Production of the tested bacteriocins depends on the concentration of casitone or triptone in the medium. Higher concentrations of casitone or triptone induce bacteriocin activity. Our DNA-DNA hybridization analyses suggest that the analyzed antimicrobial compounds probably are lactococcin-like bacteriocins.

  10. Hydrocarbon-degradation by Isolate Pseudomonas lundensis UTAR FPE2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeline, S. Y. Ting

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the potential of isolate Pseudomonas lundensis UTAR FPE2 as a hydrocarbon degrader was established. Their biodegradation activity was first detected with the formation of clearing zones on Bushnell-Hass agar plates, with the largest diameter observed on plates supplemented with paraffin, followed by mineral oil and petrol. Utilization of hydrocarbon sources were again detected in broth cultures supplemented with similar hydrocarbon substrates, where the mean viable cell count recovered from hydrocarbon-supplemented broth cultures were higher than the initial inoculum except for napthalene. In both tests, the isolate showed higher degradability towards aliphatic hydrocarbon sources, and the least activity towards the aromatic hydrocarbon naphthalene. The isolate P. lundensis UTAR FPE2 (8 log10 cfu/mL also degraded crude diesel sample, with 69% degradation during the first three days. To conclude, this study suggests the potential use of this isolate for bioremediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated environments.

  11. Input-output rearrangement of isolated converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Mickey Pierre; Kovacevic, Milovan; Mønster, Jakob Døllner

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a new way of rearranging the input and output of isolated converters. The new arrangement posses several advantages, as increased voltage range, higher power handling capabilities, reduced voltage stress and improved efficiency, for applications where galvanic isolation...

  12. Higher English for CFE

    CERN Document Server

    Bridges, Ann; Mitchell, John

    2015-01-01

    A brand new edition of the former Higher English: Close Reading , completely revised and updated for the new Higher element (Reading for Understanding, Analysis and Evaluation) - worth 30% of marks in the final exam!. We are working with SQA to secure endorsement for this title. Written by two highly experienced authors this book shows you how to practice for the Reading for Understanding, Analysis and Evaluation section of the new Higher English exam. This book introduces the terms and concepts that lie behind success and offers guidance on the interpretation of questions and targeting answer

  13. Characterisation of successive Acinetobacter baumannii isolates from a deceased haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hyeon Jin; Kil, Min Cheol; Choi, Ji-Young; Kim, Sun Ju; Park, Ki-Sup; Kim, Yae-Jean; Ko, Kwan Soo

    2017-01-01

    In this study, 38 Acinetobacter baumannii isolates successively isolated from blood, skin swabs and tracheal aspirates from a single patient who died from haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis were investigated. The isolates were collected between March 2012 and August 2012. A. baumannii genotypes were determined by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). In vitro antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed and colistin heteroresistance and persistence were evaluated. The structure of AbaR resistance islands was explored, and serum sensitivity was determined. Based on MLST analysis, all 38 A. baumannii isolates showed the same sequence type (ST138). However, PFGE analysis showed that isolates from blood samples belonged to different genotypes depending on the isolation time: whilst blood isolates obtained at the early stages showed restriction patterns similar to those of isolates from other sources, isolates obtained at later stages exhibited a distinct pattern. All isolates were resistant to imipenem, cefepime, ciprofloxacin and piperacillin/tazobactam. Five isolates from tracheal aspirates and one from a skin swab were resistant to polymyxins, and two isolates from skin swabs and one from another source were non-susceptible to tigecycline. All colistin-susceptible isolates showed heteroresistance to colistin, and four were persisters. Isolates from blood showed higher survival rates against human serum than those from other sources. This study shows that the patient was infected with more than one A. baumannii strain. Heteroresistance, persistence or evasion of the innate immune response may explain the failure of antimicrobial treatments in this patient. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. and International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  14. Tokyo Motor Show 2003; Tokyo Motor Show 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joly, E.

    2004-01-01

    The text which follows present the different techniques exposed during the 37. Tokyo Motor Show. The report points out the great tendencies of developments of the Japanese automobile industry. The hybrid electric-powered vehicles or those equipped with fuel cells have been highlighted by the Japanese manufacturers which allow considerable budgets in the research of less polluting vehicles. The exposed models, although being all different according to the manufacturer, use always a hybrid system: fuel cell/battery. The manufacturers have stressed too on the intelligent systems for navigation and safety as well as on the design and comfort. (O.M.)

  15. Academically Ambitious and Relevant Higher Education Research: The Legacy of the Consortium of Higher Education Researchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teichler, Ulrich

    2013-01-01

    The Consortium of Higher Education Researchers (CHER) was founded in 1988 to stimulate international communication and collaboration of higher education researchers. A need was felt to offset the isolation of the small numbers of scholars in this area of expertise in many countries, as well as the isolation of individual disciplines addressing…

  16. Reality show: um paradoxo nietzschiano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilana Feldman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available

    O fenômeno dos reality shows - e a subseqüente relação entre imagem e verdade - assenta-se sobre uma série de paradoxos. Tais paradoxos podem ser compreendidos à luz do pensamento do filósofo alemão Friedrich Nietzsche, que, através dos usos de formulações paradoxais, concebia a realidade como um mundo de pura aparência e a verdade como um acréscimo ficcional, como um efeito. A ficção é então tomada, na filosofia de Nietzsche, não em seu aspecto falsificante e desrealizador - como sempre pleiteou nossa tradição metafísica -, mas como condição necessária para que certa espécie de invenção possa operar como verdade. Sendo assim, a própria expressão reality show, através de sua formulação paradoxal, engendra explicitamente um mundo de pura aparência, em que a verdade, a parte reality da proposição, é da ordem do suplemento, daquilo que se acrescenta ficcionalmente - como um adjetivo - a show. O ornamento, nesse caso, passa a ocupar o lugar central, apontando para o efeito produzido: o efeito-de-verdade. Seguindo, então, o pensamento nietzschiano e sua atualização na contemporaneidade, investigaremos de que forma os televisivos “shows de realidade” operam paradoxalmente, em consonância com nossas paradoxais práticas culturais.

  17. Research on typical topologies of a tubular horizontal-gap passive magnetic levitation vibration isolator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Yiheng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic levitation vibration isolators have attracted more and more attention in the field of high-precision measuring and machining equipment. In this paper, we describe a tubular horizontal-gap passive magnetic levitation vibration isolator. Four typical topologies of the tubular horizontal-gap passive magnetic levitation vibration isolator are proposed. The analytical expression of magnetic force is derived. The relationship between levitation force, force density, force ripple and major structural parameters are analysed by finite element method, which is conductive to the design and optimization of the tubular horizontal-gap passive magnetic levitation vibration isolator. The force characteristics of different topologies of the tubular horizontal-gap passive magnetic levitation vibration isolator are compared and evaluated from the aspect of force density, force ripple and manufacturability. In comparison with conventional passive magnetic levitation vibration isolators, the proposed tubular horizontal-gap passive magnetic levitation vibration isolator shows advantage in higher force density.

  18. Isolation of human simple repeat loci by hybridization selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, J A; Neumann, R; Gobert, S; Jeffreys, A J

    1994-04-01

    We have isolated short tandem repeat arrays from the human genome, using a rapid method involving filter hybridization to enrich for tri- or tetranucleotide tandem repeats. About 30% of clones from the enriched library cross-hybridize with probes containing trimeric or tetrameric tandem arrays, facilitating the rapid isolation of large numbers of clones. In an initial analysis of 54 clones, 46 different tandem arrays were identified. Analysis of these tandem repeat loci by PCR showed that 24 were polymorphic in length; substantially higher levels of polymorphism were displayed by the tetrameric repeat loci isolated than by the trimeric repeats. Primary mapping of these loci by linkage analysis showed that they derive from 17 chromosomes, including the X chromosome. We anticipate the use of this strategy for the efficient isolation of tandem repeats from other sources of genomic DNA, including DNA from flow-sorted chromosomes, and from other species.

  19. Isolation and characterization of Pseudomonas putida WLY for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Using the BMM medium containing 100 mg/L of reactive brilliant red X-3B, a decolorizing bacterium with higher decolorization activity was isolated and it showed a decolorization zone of 10 mm; this decolorizing bacterium was identified as Pseudomonas putida WLY based on physiological and biochemical characteristics ...

  20. Benchmarking for Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Norman, Ed.; Lund, Helen, Ed.

    The chapters in this collection explore the concept of benchmarking as it is being used and developed in higher education (HE). Case studies and reviews show how universities in the United Kingdom are using benchmarking to aid in self-regulation and self-improvement. The chapters are: (1) "Introduction to Benchmarking" (Norman Jackson…

  1. Screening of Trichoderma isolates for their potential of biosorption of nickel and cadmium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nongmaithem, Nabakishor; Roy, Ayon; Bhattacharya, Prateek Madhab

    2016-01-01

    Fourteen Trichoderma isolates were evaluated for their tolerance to two heavy metals, nickel and cadmium. Three isolates, MT-4, UBT-18, and IBT-I, showed high levels of nickel tolerance, whereas MT-4, UBT-18, and IBT-II showed better tolerance of cadmium than the other isolates. Under nickel stress, biomass production increased up to a Ni concentration of 60ppm in all strains but then decreased as the concentrations of nickel were further increased. Among the nickel-tolerant isolates, UBT-18 produced significantly higher biomass upon exposure to nickel (up to 150ppm); however, the minimum concentration of nickel required to inhibit 50% of growth (MIC50) was highest in IBT-I. Among the cadmium-tolerant isolates, IBT-II showed both maximum biomass production and a maximum MIC50 value in cadmium stress. As the biomass of the Trichoderma isolates increased, a higher percentage of nickel removal was observed up to a concentration of 40ppm, followed by an increase in residual nickel and a decrease in biomass production at higher nickel concentrations in the medium. The increase in cadmium concentrations resulted in a decrease in biomass production and positively correlated with an increase in residual cadmium in the culture broth. Nickel and cadmium stress also influenced the sensitivity of the Trichoderma isolates to soil fungistasis. Isolates IBT-I and UBT-18 were most tolerant to fungistasis under nickel and cadmium stress, respectively. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  2. Isolation World

    OpenAIRE

    Núñez Martín, Eugeni

    2012-01-01

    El trabajo de fin de grado tiene como nombre “Isolation World”, que en su traducción literal significa “Aislamiento del mundo”, un videojuego diseñado y creado desde cero en su totalidad, utilizando herramientas y conocimiento de lógica en programación que se han ido aprendiendo y desarrollando a lo largo de la carrera.

  3. Biosurfactant production by yeasts isolated from hydrocarbon polluted environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Kamalpreet; Sangwan, Seema; Kaur, Harpreet

    2017-11-03

    Thirty-two yeast isolates were retrieved from four soil samples collected from hydrocarbon-polluted locations of Hisar, Haryana, using enrichment culture technique with 1% (v/v) diesel as carbon source. Total nine isolates showing blood agar haemolysis were screened further for biosurfactant production. Yeast isolate, YK32, gave highest 8.4-cm oil displacement which was found to be significantly higher as compared to positive control, 0.2% (w/v) SDS (6.6 cm), followed by 6.2 and 6.0 cm by isolates YK20 and YK21, respectively. Maximum emulsification index was obtained in case of isolates YK20 and YK21 measuring 53.8%, after 6 days of incubation utilizing glucose as carbon source, whereas isolate YK32 was found to be reducing surface tension up to 93 dynes/cm and presented 99.6% degree of hydrophobicity. Olive oil has supported maximum surface tension reduction in isolates YK32 and YK21 equivalent to 53 and 48 dynes/cm and gave 88.3 and 88.5% degree of hydrophobicity, respectively. Diesel was not preferred as carbon source by most of the isolates except YK28 which generated 5.5-cm oil displacement, 25% emulsification index, reduced surface tension to the level of 38 dynes/cm and presented 89% degree of hydrophobicity. Conclusively, isolates YK20, YK21, YK22 and YK32 were marked as promising biosurfactant producers and were subjected to identification. Based on microscopic examination and biochemical peculiarities, isolates YK21 and YK22 might be identified as Candida spp., whereas, isolates YK20 and YK32 might be identified as Saccharomycopsis spp. and Brettanomyces spp., respectively. Interestingly it is the first report indicating Saccharomycopsis spp. and Brettanomyces spp. as a potential biosurfactant producer.

  4. Molecular Characterization of Geographically Different Banana bunchy top virus Isolates in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvarajan, R; Mary Sheeba, M; Balasubramanian, V; Rajmohan, R; Dhevi, N Lakshmi; Sasireka, T

    2010-10-01

    Banana bunchy top disease (BBTD) caused by Banana bunchy top virus (BBTV) is one of the most devastating diseases of banana and poses a serious threat for cultivars like Hill Banana (Syn: Virupakshi) and Grand Naine in India. In this study, we have cloned and sequenced the complete genome comprised of six DNA components of BBTV infecting Hill Banana grown in lower Pulney hills, Tamil Nadu State, India. The complete genome sequence of this hill banana isolate showed high degree of similarity with the corresponding sequences of BBTV isolates originating from Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh State, India, and from Fiji, Egypt, Pakistan, and Australia. In addition, sixteen coat protein (CP) and thirteen replicase genes (Rep) sequences of BBTV isolates collected from different banana growing states of India were cloned and sequenced. The replicase sequences of 13 isolates showed high degree of similarity with that of South Pacific group of BBTV isolates. However, the CP gene of BBTV isolates from Shervroy and Kodaikanal hills of Tamil Nadu showed higher amino acid sequence variability compared to other isolates. Another hill banana isolate from Meghalaya state had 23 nucleotide substitutions in the CP gene but the amino acid sequence was conserved. This is the first report of the characterization of a complete genome of BBTV occurring in the high altitudes of India. Our study revealed that the Indian BBTV isolates with distinct geographical origins belongs to the South Pacific group, except Shervroy and Kodaikanal hill isolates which neither belong to the South Pacific nor the Asian group.

  5. Psychopathology of social isolation

    OpenAIRE

    Baek, Sang-Bin

    2014-01-01

    The most important defining factor of being human is the use of symbolic language. Language or communication problem occurs during the growth, the child will have a higher risk of social isolation and then the survival will be threatened constantly. Today, adolescents and youths are familiar with computer and smart-phone devices, and communication with others by these devices is easy than face-to-face communication. As adolescents and youths live in the comfortable and familiar cyber-world ra...

  6. Genome analysis of environmental and clinical P. aeruginosa isolates from sequence type-1146.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Sánchez

    Full Text Available The genomes of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates of the new sequence type ST-1146, three environmental (P37, P47 and P49 and one clinical (SD9 isolates, with differences in their antibiotic susceptibility profiles have been sequenced and analysed. The genomes were mapped against P. aeruginosa PAO1-UW and UCBPP-PA14. The allelic profiles showed that the highest number of differences were in "Related to phage, transposon or plasmid" and "Secreted factors" categories. The clinical isolate showed a number of exclusive alleles greater than that for the environmental isolates. The phage Pf1 region in isolate SD9 accumulated the highest number of nucleotide substitutions. The ORF analysis of the four genomes assembled de novo indicated that the number of isolate-specific genes was higher in isolate SD9 (132 genes than in isolates P37 (24 genes, P47 (16 genes and P49 (21 genes. CRISPR elements were found in all isolates and SD9 showed differences in the spacer region. Genes related to bacteriophages F116 and H66 were found only in isolate SD9. Genome comparisons indicated that the isolates of ST-1146 are close related, and most genes implicated in pathogenicity are highly conserved, suggesting a genetic potential for infectivity in the environmental isolates similar to the clinical one. Phage-related genes are responsible of the main differences among the genomes of ST-1146 isolates. The role of bacteriophages has to be considered in the adaptation processes of isolates to the host and in microevolution studies.

  7. ERP for Romanian Higher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Also most of the big ERP providers provide solutions for higher education, including SAP AG, Oracle, JD Eduards, Peoplesoft, universities preferr other specialized applications which better fit their specific needs. This paper presents the advantages of an integrated solution for higher education and analyzes the solutions offered for this sector by the Romanian ERP market. The conlusion is more like an invitation to discussion about possible solutions to the present Romanian university situation: low budgets, changing regulations, isolated, self-developed applications.

  8. Degradation and depolymerization of plastic waste by local bacterial isolates and bubble column reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, Amal A.; Alzuhairi, Mohammed; Aljanabi, Noor H.

    2018-05-01

    Accumulation of plastics, especially Polyethylene terephthalate (PET), is an ever increasing ecological threat due to its excessive usage in everyday human life. Nowadays, there are many methods to get rid of plastic wastes including burning, recycling and burying. However, these methods are not very active since their long period, anaerobic conditions that increase the rate of toxic materials released into the environment. This work aims to study the biological degradation of PET microorganism isolated from soil sample. Thirty eight (38) bacterial isolates were isolated from ten soil and plastic waste sample collected from four different waste disposal sites in Baghdad city during different periods between December 2016 and March 2017. Isolation was performed using enrichment culture method (flasks method) by culturing the soil samples in flasks with MSM medium where there is no carbon source only PET. Results showed that Al-Za'farania sample gave a higher number of isolates (13 isolates), while other samples gave less number of isolates. Screening was performed depending on their ability to grow in liquid MSM which contains PET powder and pieces and change the color of the PET-emulsified liquid medium as well as their ability to form the clear zone on PET-MSM agar. The results showed that NH-D-1 isolate has the higher ability to degrade DPET and PET pieces. According to morphological, biochemical characterization and Vitek-2 technique, the most active isolate was identified as Acinetobacter baumannii.

  9. Primary isolated hepatic tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheikh, A.S.F.; Qureshi, I.H.; Saba, K.; Bukhari, M.H.

    2013-01-01

    Isolated hepatic tuberculosis without pulmonary or bowel involvement is a diagnostic challenge and can cause considerable morbidity. A young lady from Lahore presented with fever, pain in right hypochondria, nausea and weight loss. CT scan of abdomen showed multiple small hypodense non-enhancing lesions and a heterogeneous texture of liver. Biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of hepatic tuberculosis. It was concluded a case of isolated hepatic tuberculosis without evidence of other primary sites involvement. It is important to consider tuberculosis in the differential diagnosis when suspecting lymphoproliferative or metastatic diseases in a patient with vague symptoms and abnormal hepatic texture on CT. (author)

  10. Higher antibiotic yielding mutants of bacillus subtilis by gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, M.S.; Shaukat, G.A.; Malik, M.A.

    1987-01-01

    When Bacillus Subtilis AECL69 was grown in malt extract-pepetone-molasses-sugar (MPMS) medium, it could produce antibiotic substance(s) with antibacterial and antifungal properties in the culture fluid. The bacterial cells grown in MPMS medium were washed and suspended into distilled water and irradiated with gamma rays in Gammacell 220 at different doses. Higher antibiotic yielding isolates (plus mutants) were obtained from cell pollutions irradiated at 15 Kr. These gamma rays-induced plus mutants showed simultaneous higher production of antibacterial as well as antifungal activity. (author)

  11. Comparative Genome Analyses of Streptococcus suis Isolates from Endocarditis Demonstrate Persistence of Dual Phenotypic Clones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tohya, Mari; Watanabe, Takayasu; Maruyama, Fumito; Arai, Sakura; Ota, Atsushi; Athey, Taryn B T; Fittipaldi, Nahuel; Nakagawa, Ichiro; Sekizaki, Tsutomu

    2016-01-01

    Many bacterial species coexist in the same niche as heterogeneous clones with different phenotypes; however, understanding of infectious diseases by polyphenotypic bacteria is still limited. In the present study, encapsulation in isolates of the porcine pathogen Streptococcus suis from persistent endocarditis lesions was examined. Coexistence of both encapsulated and unencapsulated S. suis isolates was found in 26 out of 59 endocarditis samples. The isolates were serotype 2, and belonged to two different sequence types (STs), ST1 and ST28. The genomes of each of the 26 pairs of encapsulated and unencapsulated isolates from the 26 samples were sequenced. The data showed that each pair of isolates had one or more unique nonsynonymous mutations in the cps gene, and the encapsulated and unencapsulated isolates from the same samples were closest to each other. Pairwise comparisons of the sequences of cps genes in 7 pairs of encapsulated and unencapsulated isolates identified insertion/deletions (indels) ranging from one to 104 bp in different cps genes of unencapsulated isolates. Capsule expression was restored in a subset of unencapsulated isolates by complementation in trans with cps expression vectors. Examination of gene content common to isolates indicated that mutation frequency was higher in ST28 pairs than in ST1 pairs. Genes within mobile genetic elements were mutation hot spots among ST28 isolates. Taken all together, our results demonstrate the coexistence of dual phenotype (encapsulated and unencapsulated) bacterial clones and suggest that the dual phenotypes arose independently in each farm by means of spontaneous mutations in cps genes.

  12. The ciliate Paramecium shows higher motility in non-uniform chemical landscapes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl Giuffre

    Full Text Available We study the motility behavior of the unicellular protozoan Paramecium tetraurelia in a microfluidic device that can be prepared with a landscape of attracting or repelling chemicals. We investigate the spatial distribution of the positions of the individuals at different time points with methods from spatial statistics and Poisson random point fields. This makes quantitative the informal notion of "uniform distribution" (or lack thereof. Our device is characterized by the absence of large systematic biases due to gravitation and fluid flow. It has the potential to be applied to the study of other aquatic chemosensitive organisms as well. This may result in better diagnostic devices for environmental pollutants.

  13. The Ciliate Paramecium Shows Higher Motility in Non-Uniform Chemical Landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuffre, Carl; Hinow, Peter; Vogel, Ryan; Ahmed, Tanvir; Stocker, Roman; Consi, Thomas R.; Strickler, J. Rudi

    2011-01-01

    We study the motility behavior of the unicellular protozoan Paramecium tetraurelia in a microfluidic device that can be prepared with a landscape of attracting or repelling chemicals. We investigate the spatial distribution of the positions of the individuals at different time points with methods from spatial statistics and Poisson random point fields. This makes quantitative the informal notion of “uniform distribution” (or lack thereof). Our device is characterized by the absence of large systematic biases due to gravitation and fluid flow. It has the potential to be applied to the study of other aquatic chemosensitive organisms as well. This may result in better diagnostic devices for environmental pollutants. PMID:21494596

  14. Antimicrobial Effect of Bacteriocin produced Pediococcus pentosaceus on some clinical isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nehad A. Taher

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available About 10 isolates of Pediococcus sp were isolated from different cheese made in Iraq, These isolates were identified morphologically and biochemically and Api20 kit, thus there was only 6 isolate were identified as Pediococcus pentosaceus (60%.In this study, we investigate, the effect of crude Bacteriocin from Pediococcus pentosaceus on 30 clinical isolates (5 E.coli, 5 Klepsiella pneumoniae, 5 Staphylococcus aureus, 5 Pseudomonas aeroginosa, 5 Bacillus subtilis, 5 Candida albicans. The protein concentration of this Bacteriocin was measured 67mg\\ml by Bradford method and used as (1:2 by vol during the measuring the antimicrobial activity against the above clinical isolates by two methods wells and  agar plug assay. The results showed that  the inhibitory activity of this Bacteriocin was higher by wells method than agar pluq assay against Gram–positive bacteria or Gram-negative bacteria and yeast under this study.

  15. Conjunctival sac bacterial flora isolated prior to cataract surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suto C

    2012-01-01

    a history of allergic conjunctivitis. Methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci showed a significantly higher detection rate in diabetic patients than nondiabetic patients (20.3% versus 7.0%, P < 0.05. The percentage of all isolates resistant to levofloxacin, cefmenoxime, and tobramycin was 14.0%, 15.2%, and 17.9%, respectively, with no significant differences among these drugs.Conclusion: The high bacterial isolation rate in patients >60 years old and the high methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci isolation rate in patients with diabetes are important to consider for prevention of perioperative infections.Keywords: endophthalmitis, cataract surgery, conjunctival sac, bacterial flora, diabetes mellitus

  16. Cellulose biosynthesis in higher plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystyna Kudlicka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of the control and regulation of cellulose synthesis is fundamental to an understanding of plant development since cellulose is the primary structural component of plant cell walls. In vivo, the polymerization step requires a coordinated transport of substrates across membranes and relies on delicate orientations of the membrane-associated synthase complexes. Little is known about the properties of the enzyme complexes, and many questions about the biosynthesis of cell wall components at the cell surface still remain unanswered. Attempts to purify cellulose synthase from higher plants have not been successful because of the liability of enzymes upon isolation and lack of reliable in vitro assays. Membrane preparations from higher plant cells incorporate UDP-glucose into a glucan polymer, but this invariably turns out to be predominantly β -1,3-linked rather than β -1,4-linked glucans. Various hypotheses have been advanced to explain this phenomenon. One idea is that callose and cellulose-synthase systems are the same, but cell disruption activates callose synthesis preferentially. A second concept suggests that a regulatory protein as a part of the cellulose-synthase complex is rapidly degraded upon cell disruption. With new methods of enzyme isolation and analysis of the in vitro product, recent advances have been made in the isolation of an active synthase from the plasma membrane whereby cellulose synthase was separated from callose synthase.

  17. Characterization of Staphylococcus aureus isolates from raw milk sources in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillan, Kate; Moore, Sean C; McAuley, Catherine M; Fegan, Narelle; Fox, Edward M

    2016-07-29

    Highly pathogenic strains of Staphylococcus aureus can cause disease in both humans and animals. In animal species, including ruminants, S. aureus may cause severe or sub-clinical mastitis. Dairy animals with mastitis frequently shed S. aureus into the milk supply which can lead to food poisoning in humans. The aim of this study was to use genotypic and immunological methods to characterize S. aureus isolates from milk-related samples collected from 7 dairy farms across Victoria. A total of 30 S. aureus isolates were collected from milk and milk filter samples from 3 bovine, 3 caprine and 1 ovine dairy farms across Victoria, Australia. Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE) identified 11 distinct pulsotypes among isolates; all caprine and ovine isolates shared greater than 80 % similarity regardless of source. Conversely, bovine isolates showed higher diversity. Multi-Locus Sequence Typing (MLST) identified 5 different sequence types (STs) among bovine isolates, associated with human or ruminant lineages. All caprine and ovine isolates were ST133, or a single allele variant of ST133. Two new novel STs were identified among isolates in this study (ST3183 and ST3184). With the exception of these 2 new STs, eBURST analysis predicted all other STs to be founding members of their associated clonal complexes (CCs). Analysis of genetic markers revealed a diverse range of classical staphylococcal enterotoxins (SE) among isolates, with 11 different SEs identified among bovine isolates, compared with just 2 among caprine and ovine isolates. None of the isolates contained mecA, or were resistant to oxacillin. The only antibiotic resistance identified was that of a single isolate resistant to penicillin; this isolate also contained the penicillin resistance gene blaZ. Production of SE was observed at 16 °C and/or 37 °C in milk, however no SE production was detected at 12 °C. Although this study characterized a limited number of isolates, bovine-associated isolates

  18. Hanseniaspora uvarum from winemaking environments show spatial and temporal genetic clustering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warren eAlbertin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hanseniaspora uvarum is one of the most abundant yeast species found on grapes and in grape must, at least before the onset of alcoholic fermentation which is usually performed by Saccharomyces species. The aim of this study was to characterise the genetic and phenotypic variability within the H. uvarum species. One hundred and fifteen strains isolated from winemaking environments in different geographical origins were analysed using 11 microsatellite markers and a subset of 47 strains were analysed by AFLP. H. uvarum isolates clustered mainly on the basis of their geographical localisation as revealed by microsatellites. In addition, a strong clustering based on year of isolation was evidenced, indicating that the genetic diversity of Hanseniaspora uvarum isolates was related to both spatial and temporal variations. Conversely, clustering analysis based on AFLP data provided a different picture with groups showing no particular characteristics, but provided higher strain discrimination. This result indicated that AFLP approaches are inadequate to establish the genetic relationship between individuals, but allowed good strain discrimination. At the phenotypic level, several extracellular enzymatic activities of enological relevance (pectinase, chitinase, protease, β-glucosidase were measured but showed low diversity. The impact of environmental factors of enological interest (temperature, anaerobia and copper addition on growth was also assessed and showed poor variation. Altogether, this work provided both new analytical tool (microsatellites and new insights into the genetic and phenotypic diversity of H. uvarum, a yeast species that has previously been identified as a potential candidate for co-inoculation in grape must, but whose intraspecific variability had never been fully assessed.

  19. Isolation, Identification, and Xanthine Oxidase Inhibition Activity of Alkaloid Compound from Peperomia pellucida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fachriyah, E.; Ghifari, M. A.; Anam, K.

    2018-04-01

    The research of the isolation and xanthine oxidation inhibition activity of alkaloid compound from Peperomia pellucida has been carried out. Alkaloid extract is isolated by column chromatography and preparative TLC. Alkaloid isolate is identified spectroscopically by UV-Vis spectrophotometer, FT-IR, and LC-MS/MS. Xanthine oxidase inhibition activity is carried out by in vitro assay. The result showed that the alkaloid isolated probably has piperidine basic structure. The alkaloid isolate has N-H, C-H, C = C, C = O, C-N, C-O-C groups and the aromatic ring. The IC50 values of ethanol and alkaloid extract are 71.6658 ppm and 76.3318 ppm, respectively. Alkaloid extract of Peperomia pellucida showed higher activity than ethanol extract.

  20. Numerical conversion efficiency of thermally isolated Seebeck nanoantennas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Briones

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this letter, we evaluate the conversion efficiency of thermally isolated Seebeck nanoantennas by numerical simulations and discuss their uses and scope for energy harvesting applications. This analysis includes the simple case of titanium-nickel dipoles suspended in air above the substrate by a 200 nm silicon dioxide membrane to isolate the heat dissipation. Results show that substantially thermal gradients are induced along the devices leading to a harvesting efficiency around 10-4 %, 400 % higher than the previously reported Seebeck nanoantennas. In the light of these results, different optimizing strategies should be considered in order to make the Seebeck nanoantennas useful for harvesting applications.

  1. Neglected isolated scaphoid dislocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Ryoon Baek

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors present a case of isolated scaphoid dislocation in a 40-year-old male that was undiagnosed for 2 months. The patient was treated by open reduction, Kirschner wire fixation, interosseous ligament repair using a suture anchor and Blatt's dorsal capsulodesis. At 6 years followup, his radiographs of wrist showed a normal carpal alignment with a scapholunate gap of 3 mm and no evidence of avascular necrosis (AVN of the scaphoid.

  2. Bacteriophages show promise as antimicrobial agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alisky, J; Iczkowski, K; Rapoport, A; Troitsky, N

    1998-01-01

    The emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria has prompted interest in alternatives to conventional drugs. One possible option is to use bacteriophages (phage) as antimicrobial agents. We have conducted a literature review of all Medline citations from 1966-1996 that dealt with the therapeutic use of phage. There were 27 papers from Poland, the Soviet Union, Britain and the U.S.A. The Polish and Soviets administered phage orally, topically or systemically to treat a wide variety of antibiotic-resistant pathogens in both adults and children. Infections included suppurative wound infections, gastroenteritis, sepsis, osteomyelitis, dermatitis, empyemas and pneumonia; pathogens included Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, Klebsiella, Escherichia, Proteus, Pseudomonas, Shigella and Salmonella spp. Overall, the Polish and Soviets reported success rates of 80-95% for phage therapy, with rare, reversible gastrointestinal or allergic side effects. However, efficacy of phage was determined almost exclusively by qualitative clinical assessment of patients, and details of dosages and clinical criteria were very sketchy. There were also six British reports describing controlled trials of phage in animal models (mice, guinea pigs and livestock), measuring survival rates and other objective criteria. All of the British studies raised phage against specific pathogens then used to create experimental infections. Demonstrable efficacy against Escherichia, Acinetobacter, Pseudomonas and Staphylococcus spp. was noted in these model systems. Two U.S. papers dealt with improving the bioavailability of phage. Phage is sequestered in the spleen and removed from circulation. This can be overcome by serial passage of phage through mice to isolate mutants that resist sequestration. In conclusion, bacteriophages may show promise for treating antibiotic resistant pathogens. To facilitate further progress, directions for future research are discussed and a directory of authors from the reviewed

  3. Serological characterisation of foot-and-mouth disease type 'O' field isolates from Peru: 1992-1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Espinoza, A.M.

    1998-01-01

    Nineteen field isolates of foot-and-mouth disease Virus (FMDV) recovered from bovine epithelial samples corresponding to outbreaks present in different regions of Peru, between 1992-1994 were studied. The relationship of the virus isolates to the O/Urubamba vaccine strain of Peru was determined by the calculation of the 'r' values obtained by the liquid-phase blocking ELISA. All the isolates showed 'r' values higher than 0.66 indicating that the vaccine strain should protect against the field strains. Characterization of the field isolates by a trapping ELISA using a panel of monoclonal antibodies against FMDV O/Switzerland and O/Caseros, showed slight differences in the profiles of the field isolates when compared with the O/Urubamba vaccine strain, but no differences were found among all the isolates. (author)

  4. Isolation and identification of Profenofos degrading bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saadatullah Malghani

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available An enrichment culture technique was used to isolate bacterial strains responsible for the biodegradation of profenofos in a soil from Hubei province of central China. Two pure bacterial cultures, named W and Y, were isolated and subsequently characterized by sequencing of 16S rRNA genes and biochemical tests. Isolate W showed 96% similarity to the 16S rRNA gene of a Pseudomonas putida unlike Y which showed 99% similarity to the 16S rRNA gene of Burkholderia gladioli. Both strains grew well at pH 5.5-7.2 with a broad temperature profile ranging from 28º to 36 ºC. Bioremediation of profenofos-contaminated soil was examined using soil treated with 200 ug g-1; profenofos resulted in a higher degradation rate than control soils without inoculation. In a mineral salt medium (FTW reduction in profenofos concentration was 90% within 96 hours of incubation. A literature survey revealed that no data is available regarding the role of Burkholderia gladioli on pesticide biodegradation as well as on profenofos.

  5. Isolated Proofs of Knowledge and Isolated Zero Knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgård, Ivan Bjerre; Nielsen, Jesper Buus; Wichs, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    . This is because the prover may just be forwarding messages between the environment and the verifier while the environment performs all the necessary computation. In this paper we consider an ℓ-isolated prover, which is restricted to exchanging at most ℓ bits of information with its environment. We introduce a new...... notion called ℓ-isolated proofs of knowledge (ℓ-IPoK). These protocols securely ensure that an ℓ-isolated prover knows the witness. To prevent the above-mentioned attack, an ℓ-IPoK protocol has to have communication complexity greater than ℓ. We show that for any relation in NP and any value ℓ...

  6. Isolated Horizon, Killing Horizon and Event Horizon

    OpenAIRE

    Date, G.

    2001-01-01

    We consider space-times which in addition to admitting an isolated horizon also admit Killing horizons with or without an event horizon. We show that an isolated horizon is a Killing horizon provided either (1) it admits a stationary neighbourhood or (2) it admits a neighbourhood with two independent, commuting Killing vectors. A Killing horizon is always an isolated horizon. For the case when an event horizon is definable, all conceivable relative locations of isolated horizon and event hori...

  7. Effective Communication in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Melissa

    2014-01-01

    The intent for this paper is to show that communication within the higher education field is a current problem. By looking first at the different styles, forms, and audiences for communication, the reader will hopefully gain perspective as to why this is such a problem in higher education today. Since the Millennial generation is the newest set of…

  8. Characterization of Fusobacterium necrophorum isolated from llama and alpaca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Amit; Anderson, David; Amachawadi, Raghavendra G; Nagaraja, Tiruvoor G; Narayanan, Sanjeev K

    2013-07-01

    Fusobacterium necrophorum, a Gram-negative, anaerobic bacterium, is an opportunistic animal and human pathogen that causes a variety of infections termed necrobacillosis. There are 2 subspecies of F. necrophorum (subsp. necrophorum and subsp. funduliforme) that differ morphologically and biochemically and in virulence. Leukotoxin, a secreted protein, is considered to be the major virulence factor. In camelids, F. necrophorum causes a variety of infections, generally involving the lips, tongue, pharynx, interdigital spaces, foot pad, larynx, mandible, or maxillary bones. The objective of the current study was to characterize the presumptive Fusobacterium isolates from a variety of necrotic infections in llama (Lama glama) and alpaca (Vicugna pacos) and determine whether the strains possess leukotoxin activities. A total of 7 isolates from alpaca and 2 isolates from llama were characterized. Based on growth characteristics in broth culture, and biochemical and polymerase chain reaction analyses, all 9 isolates belonged to subsp. necrophorum and possessed the putative hemagglutinin gene. Western blot analysis with antileukotoxin antibodies raised in rabbit showed the presence of leukotoxin protein in the culture supernatant of all isolates. Furthermore, flow cytometry of the culture supernatants demonstrated cytotoxicity to bovine and alpaca polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs). The extent of cytotoxicity to either alpaca or bovine PMNs differed among camelid strains. The cytotoxicity of many of the camelid strains was higher (P llama and alpaca are similar to bovine isolates, and leukotoxin may be a major virulence factor.

  9. Phenotypic and Genotypic Resistance of Salmonella Isolates from Healthy and Diseased Pigs in China During 2008-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiu, Yueguang; Zhu, Shun; Khan, Sher Bahadar; Sun, Mengzhen; Zou, Geng; Meng, Xianrong; Wu, Bin; Zhou, Rui; Li, Shaowen

    2017-07-01

    The antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella strains is rapidly increasing worldwide, which poses significant threats to animal and public health. In this study, a total of 249 porcine Salmonella isolates collected in China during 2008-2015 were examined, including 155 clinical isolates from diseased pigs and 94 nonclinical isolates from healthy pigs. Based on the minimum inhibitory concentration of seven antimicrobial agents, 96.4% of the isolates were resistant to at least one of the tested antibiotics and 81.0% of them showed multidrug resistance. The highest antimicrobial resistance was observed for tetracycline (85.9%), and the lowest was found for cefotaxime (13.3%). The isolates from diseased pigs exhibited significantly higher levels of antimicrobial resistance than those from healthy pigs. Twenty-two isolates from healthy pigs were resistant to ciprofloxacin, which may inhibit the curative effectiveness of fluoroquinolones on bacterial food-borne poisoning and infections in humans caused by contaminated food. Moreover, cefotaxime resistance of the strains isolated from diseased pigs during 2013-2015 was significantly higher compared with the strains isolated during 2008-2010. Further study showed that the correlation between phenotypic and genotypic resistance varied among the isolates from different sources, and in many cases, the presence of resistance genes was not consistent with the resistance to the corresponding antimicrobials. These results are very significant for veterinary practice and public health.

  10. Comparison of Microbiological and Probiotic Characteristics of Lactobacilli Isolates from Dairy Food Products and Animal Rumen Contents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neethu Maria Jose

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Lactobacilli are employed in probiotic food preparations and as feed additives in poultry and livestock, due to health benefits associated with their consumption. The objective of this study was to evaluate and compare the probiotic potential of ten lactobacilli strains isolated from commercial dairy food products and animal rumen contents in New Zealand. Genetic identification of the isolates revealed that all belonged to the genus Lactobacillus, specifically the species L. reuteri, L. rhamnosus and L. plantarum. All isolates did not show any haemolytic behaviour. Isolates of dairy origin showed better tolerance to low pH stress. On the other hand, rumen isolates exhibited a higher tolerance to presence of bile salts. All isolates exhibited resistance to aminoglycoside antibiotics, however most were sensitive to ampicillin. Isolates of rumen origin demonstrated a higher inhibitory effect on Listeria monocytogenes, Enterobacter aerogenes and Salmonella menston. Bacterial adherence of all isolates increased with a decrease in pH. This screening study on lactobacilli isolates has assessed and identified potential probiotic candidates for further evaluation.

  11. Antimicrobial Activity of Cell Free Supernatant of Irradiated Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdelaleem, M.A.; AL-Hagar, O.E.Aa.

    2015-01-01

    Attempts were made to isolate bio preservatives using food wastes with no value and low cost. Whey is the raw material achieved that value. Whey and many other food wastes are used in our study to isolate Lactic acid bacteria (LAB). Cell free supernatants (CFS) of isolates are used to evaluate their antimicrobial activity against indicator pathogenic bacterial strains. CFS-9 isolate from whey has the highest inhibitory activity compared to all other isolates. The inhibitory activity of CFS-9, Nisin (400 IU / ml) and the standard Lactococcus Lactis Subsp. Lactis ATCC 11454 (Lacto) were determined. Furthermore, isolate-9 and Lacto strains were exposed to irradiation at different doses. The inhibition zones of; control isolate-9 (non-irradiated) showed the highest values against all indicator strains, CFS of irradiated Lacto at dose 250 Gy was the highest value against Bacillus cereus and Escherichia coli compared to other irradiation treatments, CFS of irradiated Lacto at dose 100 Gy was the highest value against Staph aureus, while the inhibition zone was in the highest value in CFS of irradiated Lacto at dose 500 Gy against Salmonella typhimurium. Nisin (400 IU / ml) was significantly higher than all CFS of irradiated isolate-9 while, the inhibition zones of all CFS-Lacto (irradiated and nonirradiated) are better and higher than nisin-400

  12. Analysis of pathogenic factors of Proteus mirabilis isolated from urinary tract infection

    OpenAIRE

    室谷,勝久

    1991-01-01

    Proteus mirabilis has several pathogenic factors such as adherent ability to urinary tract epitherial cells, urease, motility and resistance to urine. The pathogenic activities of clinically isolated P. mirabilis were analyzed. Higher pathogenic strains (No. 25 and No. 30) which had morphologically different pili but had a higher density of pili showed strong adherent activity to bladder epithelial cells of mouse and rat. These strains also showed a clear chemotaxis to urinary tract tissue ex...

  13. Neurophysiological correlates of word processing deficits in isolated reading and isolated spelling disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakos, Sarolta; Landerl, Karin; Bartling, Jürgen; Schulte-Körne, Gerd; Moll, Kristina

    2018-03-01

    In consistent orthographies, isolated reading disorders (iRD) and isolated spelling disorders (iSD) are nearly as common as combined reading-spelling disorders (cRSD). However, the exact nature of the underlying word processing deficits in isolated versus combined literacy deficits are not well understood yet. We applied a phonological lexical decision task (including words, pseudohomophones, legal and illegal pseudowords) during ERP recording to investigate the neurophysiological correlates of lexical and sublexical word-processing in children with iRD, iSD and cRSD compared to typically developing (TD) 9-year-olds. TD children showed enhanced early sensitivity (N170) for word material and for the violation of orthographic rules compared to the other groups. Lexical orthographic effects (higher LPC amplitude for words than for pseudohomophones) were the same in the TD and iRD groups, although processing took longer in children with iRD. In the iSD and cRSD groups, lexical orthographic effects were evident and stable over time only for correctly spelled words. Orthographic representations were intact in iRD children, but word processing took longer compared to TD. Children with spelling disorders had partly missing orthographic representations. Our study is the first to specify the underlying neurophysiology of word processing deficits associated with isolated literacy deficits. Copyright © 2017 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Oligotrophic bacteria isolated from clinical materials.

    OpenAIRE

    Tada, Y; Ihmori, M; Yamaguchi, J

    1995-01-01

    Oligotrophic bacteria (oligotrophs) are microorganisms that grow in extremely nutritionally deficient conditions in which the concentrations of organic substances are low. Many oligotrophic bacteria were isolated from clinical materials including urine, sputum, swabbings of the throat, vaginal discharges, and others. Seventy-seven strains of oligotrophic bacteria from 871 samples of clinical material were isolated. A relatively higher frequency of isolation of oligotrophic bacteria was shown ...

  15. Microbiological features and clinical impact of the type VI secretion system (T6SS) in Acinetobacter baumannii isolates causing bacteremia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jungok; Lee, Ji-Young; Lee, Haejeong; Choi, Ji Young; Kim, Dae Hun; Wi, Yu Mi; Peck, Kyong Ran; Ko, Kwan Soo

    2017-10-03

    We investigated the genetic background and microbiological features of T6SS-positive Acinetobacter baumannii isolates and clinical impact of the T6SS in patients with A. baumannii bacteremia. One hundred and 62 A. baumannii isolates from patients with bacteremia in 2 tertiary-care hospitals in Korea were included in this study. Approximately one-third (51/162, 31.5%) of the A. baumannii clinical isolates possessed the hcp gene, and the hcp-positive isolates were found in several genotypes in multilocus sequence typing. The expression and secretion of Hcp protein varied among the clinical isolates. A. baumannii isolates with detectable Hcp secretion (T6SS+) could better outcompete Escherichia coli compared with T6SS- isolates, including hcp-negative and inactivated hcp-positive isolates. In addition, T6SS+ isolates showed higher biofilm-forming activity and better survival in the presence of normal human serum than the T6SS- isolates. T6SS+ isolates were more frequently detected in patients with catheter-related bloodstream infection, haematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients, and patients receiving immunosuppressive agents. However, T6SS was not a prognostic factor for mortality. Our results suggest that the T6SS of A. baumannii is associated with virulence and contributes to infections in immunocompromised patients and those with implanted medical devices.

  16. Educational Pathways to Remote Employment in Isolated Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Denkenberger

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Those who live in isolated communities often lack reliable, skilled employment opportunities, which fundamentally undermines their human security. For individuals who wish to remain in their isolated communities for family, religious, philosophical or other reasons, their attachment to their communities creates a disincentive for higher education. This promotes low educational achievement, which in turn results in low socioeconomic status, lack of social mobility, and a generational cycle of poverty. The human misery that results from such a feedback loop is observed in isolated communities throughout North America, including aboriginal communities in Canada. Fortunately, maturation of information and communication technologies now offers individuals the potential to gain high-skilled employment while living in an isolated community, using both (i virtual work/remote work and (ii remote training and education. To examine that potential, this study: 1 categorizes high-skill careers that demand a higher education and are widely viable for remote work, 2 examines options for obtaining the required education remotely, and 3 performs an economic analysis of investing in remote education, quantifying the results in return on investment. The results show that the Internet has now opened up the possibility of both remote education and remote work. Though the investment in college education is significant, there are loans available and the return on investment is generally far higher than the interest rate on the loans. The results identified several particularly promising majors and dozens of high-income careers. The ability to both obtain an education and employment remotely offers the potential to lift many people living in isolated communities out of poverty, reduce inequality overall, and provide those living in isolated communities with viable means of employment security, which not only allows personal sustainability, but also the potential for

  17. [Study on VNTR diversity of clinical Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from Qinghai].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bin; Liu, Haican; Wang, Zhaofen; Ma, Yongcheng; Su, Xiaodong; Jiang, Mingxia; Wan, Kanglin; Liu, Shou; Zhao, Xiuqin; Qu, Shugen

    2015-10-01

    To investigate the variable number tandem repeats (VNTR) genetic polymorphisms, genotyping and distribution pattern of clinical Mycobacterium (M.) tuberculosis isolates from Qinghai province. The clinical M. tuberculosis strains isolated from the patients with tuberculosis and related background data were collected from Qinghai Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention from 2009 to 2012. Genotyping was conducted by using multiple locus VNTR analysis (MLVA). Genomic DNA was extracted and 15 VNTR loci were amplified with PCR and the PCR products were detected with gel electrophoresis. The VNTR diversity and clusters of genotyping were analyzed with BioNumerics (Version 5.0). A total of 251 clinical M. tuberculosis isolates were analyzed with 15 VNTR loci showing that there were great genetic diversity in these isolates. Six of the 15 VNTR loci, showed that the Hunter-Gaston index (HGI) were higher than 0.6, in which the highest resolution was MIRU26. The clusters of genotyping showed that these isolates could be categorized into four gene clusters and 238 genotypes. The four gene clusters accounted for 4.9%, 91.9%, 1.6% and 1.6% of the clinical isolates, respectively. The results showed that there is great variety of VNTR genetic polymorphisms in clinical M. tuberculosis isolates in Qinghai province.

  18. Selection and characterisation of monepantel resistance in Teladorsagia circumcincta isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.J. Bartley

    2015-08-01

    To address these questions three MPTL-resistant Teladorsagia circumcincta isolates (MTci2-11, MTci5-13 and MTci7-12 have been artificially selected in vivo from phenotypically characterised parent isolates (MTci2, MTci5, MTci7 respectively. The selection process involved collecting and culturing eggs from surviving worms from sheep administered sub-optimal dosages of MPTL (Zolvix® to provide infective larvae to infect further sheep until resistant isolates were generated (between 9 and 13 rounds of selection. A controlled efficacy test was conducted using the original parental isolates and the newly generated MPTL resistant isolates (n = 5 per group. Selected isolates were assessed both under anthelmintic stress (Zolvix®, 2.5 mg/kg bodyweight; MTci-MPTL and at rest (untreated, MTci-CON. A number of life-history traits were assessed, namely, worm establishment rates, time to patency, faecal egg output, body length of adults and eggs in utero. The estimated resistance status of the selected isolates was confirmed with 48%, 28% and 9% reductions in worm burden at 7-days post Zolvix® administration for MTci2-11-MPTL, MTci5-13-MPTL and MTci7-12-MPTL, respectively, compared with untreated controls. One of the selected isolates MTci7-12-CON showed significantly greater total worm burden (p = 0.025, greater establishment rate (p = 0.033, decreased time to patency (p = 0.048, higher cumulative egg outputs (p = 0.002 compared with its parental derivative MTci7. The trial results suggest that anthelmintic selection in T. circumcincta, albeit under experimental conditions, can select for more prolific/fecund and quicker maturing populations. These data provide an insight into how parasites evolve in response to anthelmintic pressure.

  19. Isolation and characterization of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii from calves and piglets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Foditsch

    Full Text Available The goal of our study was to isolate and characterize Faecalibacterium prausnitzii from fecal samples of healthy calves and piglets, in order to develop a novel probiotic for livestock animals. We identified 203 isolates of Faecalibacterium sp., which were clustered in 40 genetically distinct groups. One representative isolate from each cluster was selected for further characterization. The concentrations of the short chain fatty acids (SCFA acetate, butyrate, propionate and isobutyrate in the culture media were measured by gas chromatography. We observed reduction in the concentration of acetate followed by concomitant increase in the concentration of butyrate, suggesting that the isolates were consuming acetate present in the media and producing butyrate. Butyrate production correlated positively with bacterial growth. Since butyrate has many benefits to the colonic epithelial cells, the selection of strains that produce higher amounts of butyrate is extremely important for the development of this potential probiotic. The effect of pH and concentration of bile salts on bacterial growth was also evaluated in order to mimic the conditions encountered by F. prausnitzii in vivo. The optimal pH for growth ranged between 5.5 and 6.7, while most isolates were inhibited by of the lowest concentration of bile salts tested (0.1%. Antimicrobial resistance profile showed that most isolates of Faecalibacterium sp. were resistant against ciprofloxacin and sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim. More than 50% of the isolates were resistant to tetracycline, amikacin, cefepime and cefoxitin. A total of 19 different combinations of multidrug resistance were observed among the isolates. Our results provide new insights into the cultural and physiological characteristics of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii illustrating large variability in short chain fatty acid production, in vitro growth, sensitivity to bile salts, and antibiotic resistance and suggesting that future

  20. K. OXYTOCA BACTERIOPHAGES ISOLATION METHODS IMPROVEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. R. Sadrtdinova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of a study related to increasing the efficiency of phage isolation of bacteria of the species K. oxytoca, by developing the optimal composition of the medium used in the work. In scientific research, in almost all methods associated with the isolation of bacteriophages, meat-peptone broth and meat-peptone agar are used as the nutrient basis. The peculiarities of growth and cultivation of microorganisms create certain difficulties for the isolation of phages active against bacteria of the species K. oxytoca. The selection of components and the creation of an environment that would ensure the optimal growth of both the bacterial culture and the reproduction of the virus makes it possible to facilitate the isolation of bacteriophages. The number of bacterial strains used in the work was 7. All strains of cultures were obtained from the Museum of the Department of Microbiology, Virology, Epizootology and Veterinary and Sanitary Expertise of the Federal State Budget Educational Institution of Higher Education “Ulyanovsk State Agrarian University named after P.A. Stolypin”. The studies included 2 main stages. The first stage consisted in isolation of bacteriophages by the method of isolation from the external environment by the method of Adelson L.I., Lyashenko E.A. The material for the studies were samples: soil, sewage sample, fecal samples (2. Only 4 samples. According to the chosen method, the sowing of the putative phagolysate was carried out on meat-peptone agar (1.5% and the agar for isolating bacteriophages (Aph (1.5%. A positive result was the presence on the environment of negative colonies, clearly visible on the matt background of deep growth of bacteria. A negative result is a continuous growth (“lawn” of bacterial culture. As a control, the culture of the microorganism studied was used for the media. In the course of the conducted studies for the first stage, 2 bacteriophages were isolated, active

  1. Molecular characterization of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from Tehran, Iran by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis and spoligotyping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seifu Gizaw Feyisa

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: INTRODUCTION Characterization of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB isolates by DNA fingerprinting has contributed to tuberculosis (TB control. The aim of this study was to determine the genetic diversity of MTB isolates from Tehran province in Iran. METHODS MTB isolates from 60 Iranian and 10 Afghan TB patients were fingerprinted by standard IS6110-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP analysis and spoligotyping. RESULTS The copy number of IS6110 ranged from 10-24 per isolate. The isolates were classified into 22 clusters showing ≥ 80% similarity by RFLP analysis. Fourteen multidrug-resistant (MDR isolates were grouped into 4 IS6110-RFLP clusters, with 10 isolates [71% (95% CI: 45-89%] in 1 cluster, suggesting a possible epidemiological linkage. Eighteen Iranian isolates showed ≥ 80% similarity with Afghan isolates. There were no strains with identical fingerprints. Spoligotyping of 70 isolates produced 23 distinct patterns. Sixty (85.7% isolates were grouped into 13 clusters, while the remaining 10 isolates (14.2% were not clustered. Ural (formerly Haarlem4 (n = 22, 31.4% was the most common family followed by Central Asian strain (CAS (n = 18, 25.7% and T (n = 9, 12.8% families. Only 1strain was characterized as having the Beijing genotype. Among 60 Iranian and 10 Afghan MTB isolates, 25% (95% CI: 16-37 and 70% (95% CI: 39-89 were categorized as Ural lineage, respectively. CONCLUSIONS A higher prevalence of Ural family MTB isolates among Afghan patients than among Iranian patients suggests the possible transmission of this lineage following the immigration of Afghans to Iran.

  2. Two distinct tumor phenotypes isolated from glioblastomas show different MRS characteristics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Thorsen, F.; Jirák, D.; Wang, J.; Syková, Eva; Bjerkvig, R.; Enger, P.O.; van der Kogel, A.; Hájek, M.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 8 (2008), s. 830-838 ISSN 0952-3480 Grant - others:EU(NO) LSHC-CT-2004-504743 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : Glioblastoma * Proton MRS * Creatine Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 4.329, year: 2008

  3. Medicinal plants and their isolated compounds showing anti-Trichomonas vaginalis- activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehriardestani, Mozhgan; Aliahmadi, Atousa; Toliat, Tayebeh; Rahimi, Roja

    2017-04-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis is a major of non-viral sexually-transmitted infection and an important cause of serious obstetrical and gynecological complications. Treatment options for trichomoniasis are limited to nitroimidazole compounds. The increasing resistance and allergic reactions to nitroimidazole and recurrent trichomoniasis make it essential to identify and develop new drugs against trichomoniasis. Medicinal plants are an important source for discovery of new medications. This review discusses the anti-trichomonas effects of medicinal plants and their chemical constituents to find better options against this pathogenic protozoon. Electronic databases were searched to collect all data from the year 2000 through September 2015 for in vitro, in vivo and clinical studies on the effect of medicinal plants on T. vaginalis. A total of 95 in vitro and clinical studies were identified. Only four human studies were found in this review. The Asteracea, Lamiaceae and Myrtaceae families contained the greatest number of plants with anti-trichomonas activity. Persea americana, Ocimum basilicum and Verbascum thapsus were the most efficacious against T. vaginalis. Plant metabolites containing alkaloids, isoflavonoid glucosides, essential oils, lipids, saponins and sesquiterpene lactones were found to possess anti-trichomonas properties. Assessing the structure-activity of highly-potent anti-trichomonas phytochemicals is suggested for finding natural, semisynthetic and synthetic anti-trichomonas compounds. Further clinical studies are necessary for confirmation of natural anti-trichomonas substances and completion of their safety profiles. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Isolation and identification of 4-a-rhamnosyloxy benzyl glucosinolate in Noccaea caerulescens showing intraspecific variation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaf, de R.M.; Krosse, S.; Swolfs, A.E.M.; Brinke, te E.; Prill, N.; Leimu, R.; Galen, van P.M.; Wang, Y.; Aarts, M.G.M.; Dam, van N.M.

    2015-01-01

    Glucosinolates are secondary plant compounds typically found in members of the Brassicaceae and a few other plant families. Usually each plant species contains a specific subset of the ~130 different glucosinolates identified to date. However, intraspecific variation in glucosinolate profiles is

  5. Isolation of rat adrenocortical mitochondria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solinas, Paola [Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States); Department of Medicine, Center for Mitochondrial Disease, School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States); Fujioka, Hisashi [Electron Microscopy Facility, Department of Pharmacology, Center for Mitochondrial Disease, School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States); Tandler, Bernard [Department of Biological Sciences, School of Dental Medicine, Center for Mitochondrial Disease, School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States); Hoppel, Charles L., E-mail: charles.hoppel@case.edu [Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States); Department of Medicine, Center for Mitochondrial Disease, School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States)

    2012-10-12

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A method for isolation of adrenocortical mitochondria from the adrenal gland of rats is described. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The purified isolated mitochondria show excellent morphological integrity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The properties of oxidative phosphorylation are excellent. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The method increases the opportunity of direct analysis of adrenal mitochondria from small animals. -- Abstract: This report describes a relatively simple and reliable method for isolating adrenocortical mitochondria from rats in good, reasonably pure yield. These organelles, which heretofore have been unobtainable in isolated form from small laboratory animals, are now readily accessible. A high degree of mitochondrial purity is shown by the electron micrographs, as well as the structural integrity of each mitochondrion. That these organelles have retained their functional integrity is shown by their high respiratory control ratios. In general, the biochemical performance of these adrenal cortical mitochondria closely mirrors that of typical hepatic or cardiac mitochondria.

  6. Isolated Cardiac Hydatid Cyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shakil, U.; Rehman, A. U.; Shahid, R.

    2015-01-01

    Hydatid cyst disease is common in our part of the world. Cardiac hydatid cyst is its rare manifestation. We report this case of 48-year male having isolated cardiac hydatid cyst, incidentally found on computed tomography. This patient presented in medical OPD of Combined Military Hospital, Lahore with one month history of mild retrosternal discomfort. His general physical and systemic examinations as well as ECG were unremarkable. Chest X-ray showed an enlarged cardiac shadow with mildly irregular left heart border. Contrast enhanced CT scan of the chest showed a large well defined multiloculated non-enhancing cystic lesion with multiple daughter cysts involving wall of left ventricle and overlying pericardium. Serology for echinococcus confirmed the diagnosis of hydatid cyst. Patient was offered the surgical treatment but he opted for medical treatment only. Albendezol was prescribed. His follow-up echocardiography after one month showed no significant decrease in size of the cyst. (author)

  7. Molecular Detection of Inducible Clindamycin Resistance among Staphylococcal Strains Isolated from Hospital Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shadiyeh Abdollahi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives: Macrolide, lincosamide and streptogramin B (MLSB antimicrobial agents are used in the treatment of staphylococcal infections. They prevent the microbial protein synthesis system through binding to 23 S rRNA. The aim of this study was to apply molecular methods to detect inducible clindamycin resistance genes among staphylococcal strains isolated from clinical specimens.   Methods : Two hundred staphylococcus strains were isolated from nose and throat swabs of patients in Toohid and Besat hospitals in Sanandaj . Antimicrobial susceptibilities of isolates were determined using disc diffusion method, agar screen test and D-Test. A multiplex PCR was performed using primers specific for erm (A, B, C, TR genes.   Results: Out of 200 isolates, 18.5 % were MRSA and 32% were MRCNS (methicillin resistant coagulase negative staphylococci. Of 80 erythromycin resistant isolates, 48 were coagulase negative and 32 were S. aureus. Among the 48 coagulase negative staphylococci (CONS isolates, 11.63% expressed the MLSB-inducible phenotypes. Using PCR, the frequency of different genes in the collection of isolates were as follows: ermA 5.41 % , erm B 5.41 % , and erm C 3.13%. The ermTR gene was negative in all isolates. Among the 32 S. aureus isolates, 9.38% expressed the MLSB-nducible phenotype. Using PCR, these isolates harbored erm A (2.22%, ermB (2.22%, ermC (2.22% and ermTR (2.22% .   Conclusion: This is the first study to show the rate of inducible clindamycin clinical isolates of staphylococci harboring erm genes in Sananadaj. It also demonstrated the frequency of erm genes was higher among CONS isolates than S. aureus. This data suggested the transfer of resistance gene from nonpathogenic to pathogenic strains is likely to happen. Therefore, screening and control of these resistance genes is recommended at clinical laboratories.

  8. Isolation and characterization of cellulolytic Bacillus licheniformis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eight cellulose degrading bacteria were isolated from compost and were identified as Bacillus licheniformis by 16S rRNA sequencing. Among the eight isolates, Bacillus licheniformis B4, B7 and B8 showed the highest cellulase activity. B. licheniformis B4 and B8 showed the maximum cellulase activity during the stationary ...

  9. Prevalence and Biotyping of Pasteurella Haemolytica Isolates from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    P. haemolytica isolated from Sahel sheep and goat in Maiduguri was characterized phenotypically. A total of 92 P. haemolytica isolates were obtained from the nasopharyngeal swabs while a total of 15 isolates came from pneumonic lung samples. The results showed that 37(20.22%) P. haemolytica isolates were obtained ...

  10. Social isolation and risk for malnutrition among older people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulos, Christa; Salameh, Pascale; Barberger-Gateau, Pascale

    2017-02-01

    Social isolation and loneliness are emerging issues among the geriatric population. The relationships between both, and their impact on health and nutritional status in older people are complex. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the association between three components of social isolation: social network, feeling of loneliness, commensality and nutritional status. A total of 1200 randomly selected elderly individuals aged ≥65 years and living in rural areas of Lebanon participated in the present study. Data were collected during a face-to-face interview including nutritional status (Mini-Nutritional Assessment), measures of social isolation (Lubben Social Network Scale), subjective loneliness (Jong-Gierveld Loneliness Scale), sociodemographic conditions, and health and functional status. Both social isolation and loneliness were independently associated with a higher risk of malnutrition (OR 1.58, P = 0.011; OR 1.15, P = 0.020, respectively). However no association was found between the frequency of sharing meals and the risk of malnutrition. The present study showed that social isolation and subjective loneliness are two independent risk factors for malnutrition among older people. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2017; 17: 286-294. © 2016 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  11. Isolation and characterization of avian metapneumovirus from chickens in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Ji-Sun; Lee, Hyun-Jeong; Jeong, Seung-Hwan; Park, Jeong-Yong; Hong, Young-Ho; Lee, Youn-Jeong; Youn, Ho-Sik; Lee, Dong-Woo; Do, Sun-Hee; Park, Seung-Yong; Choi, In-Soo; Lee, Joong-Bok; Song, Chang-Seon

    2010-03-01

    Avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) causes upper respiratory tract infections in chickens and turkeys. Although the swollen head syndrome (SHS) associated with aMPV in chickens has been reported in Korea since 1992, this is the study isolating aMPV from chickens in this country. We examined 780 oropharyngeal swab or nasal turbinate samples collected from 130 chicken flocks to investigate the prevalence of aMPV and to isolate aMPV from chickens from 2004-2008. Twelve aMPV subtype A and 13 subtype B strains were detected from clinical samples by the aMPV subtype A and B multiplex real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RRT-PCR). Partial sequence analysis of the G glycoprotein gene confirmed that the detected aMPVs belonged to subtypes A and B. Two aMPVs subtype A out of the 25 detected aMPVs were isolated by Vero cell passage. In animal experiments with an aMPV isolate, viral RNA was detected in nasal discharge, although no clinical signs of SHS were observed in chickens. In contrast to chickens, turkeys showed severe nasal discharge and a relatively higher titer of viral excretion than chickens. Here, we reveal the co-circulation of aMPV subtypes A and B, and isolate aMPVs from chicken flocks in Korea.

  12. Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Bordetella bronchiseptica Isolates from Swine and Companion Animals and Detection of Resistance Genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Prüller

    Full Text Available Bordetella bronchiseptica causes infections of the respiratory tract in swine and other mammals and is a precursor for secondary infections with Pasteurella multocida. Treatment of B. bronchiseptica infections is conducted primarily with antimicrobial agents. Therefore it is essential to get an overview of the susceptibility status of these bacteria. The aim of this study was to comparatively analyse broth microdilution susceptibility testing according to CLSI recommendations with an incubation time of 16 to 20 hours and a longer incubation time of 24 hours, as recently proposed to obtain more homogenous MICs. Susceptibility testing against a panel of 22 antimicrobial agents and two fixed combinations was performed with 107 porcine isolates from different farms and regions in Germany and 43 isolates obtained from companion animals in Germany and other European countries. Isolates with increased MICs were investigated by PCR assays for the presence of resistance genes. For ampicillin, all 107 porcine isolates were classified as resistant, whereas only a single isolate was resistant to florfenicol. All isolates obtained from companion animals showed elevated MICs for β-lactam antibiotics and demonstrated an overall low susceptibility to cephalosporines. Extension of the incubation time resulted in 1-2 dilution steps higher MIC50 values of porcine isolates for seven antimicrobial agents tested, while isolates from companion animals exhibited twofold higher MIC50/90 values only for tetracycline and cefotaxime. For three antimicrobial agents, lower MIC50 and MIC90 values were detected for both, porcine and companion animal isolates. Among the 150 isolates tested, the resistance genes blaBOR-1 (n = 147, blaOXA-2, (n = 4, strA and strB (n = 17, sul1 (n = 10, sul2 (n = 73, dfrA7 (n = 3 and tet(A (n = 8 were detected and a plasmid localisation was identified for several of the resistance genes.

  13. Higher Education and Inequality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Roger

    2018-01-01

    After climate change, rising economic inequality is the greatest challenge facing the advanced Western societies. Higher education has traditionally been seen as a means to greater equality through its role in promoting social mobility. But with increased marketisation higher education now not only reflects the forces making for greater inequality…

  14. Higher Education in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Public Policy Institute of California, 2016

    2016-01-01

    Higher education enhances Californians' lives and contributes to the state's economic growth. But population and education trends suggest that California is facing a large shortfall of college graduates. Addressing this short­fall will require strong gains for groups that have been historically under­represented in higher education. Substantial…

  15. Reimagining Christian Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulme, E. Eileen; Groom, David E., Jr.; Heltzel, Joseph M.

    2016-01-01

    The challenges facing higher education continue to mount. The shifting of the U.S. ethnic and racial demographics, the proliferation of advanced digital technologies and data, and the move from traditional degrees to continuous learning platforms have created an unstable environment to which Christian higher education must adapt in order to remain…

  16. Happiness in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elwick, Alex; Cannizzaro, Sara

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates the higher education literature surrounding happiness and related notions: satisfaction, despair, flourishing and well-being. It finds that there is a real dearth of literature relating to profound happiness in higher education: much of the literature using the terms happiness and satisfaction interchangeably as if one were…

  17. Gender and Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bank, Barbara J., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    This comprehensive, encyclopedic review explores gender and its impact on American higher education across historical and cultural contexts. Challenging recent claims that gender inequities in U.S. higher education no longer exist, the contributors--leading experts in the field--reveal the many ways in which gender is embedded in the educational…

  18. Effect of media composition, including gelling agents, on isolation of previously uncultured rumen bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyonyo, T; Shinkai, T; Tajima, A; Mitsumori, M

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop novel anaerobic media using gellan gum for the isolation of previously uncultured rumen bacteria. Four anaerobic media, a basal liquid medium (BM) with agar (A-BM), a modified BM (MBM) with agar (A-MBM), an MBM with phytagel (P-MBM) and an MBM with gelrite (G-MBM) were used for the isolation of rumen bacteria and evaluated for the growth of previously uncultured rumen bacteria. Of the 214 isolates composed of 144 OTUs, 103 isolates (83 OTUs) were previously uncultured rumen bacteria. Most of the previously uncultured strains were obtained from A-MBM, G-MBM and P-MBM, but the predominant cultural members, isolated from each medium, differed. A-MBM and G-MBM showed significantly higher numbers of different OTUs derived from isolates than A-BM (P rumen bacteria were isolated from all media used, the ratio of previously uncultured bacteria to total isolates was increased in A-MBM, P-MBM and G-MBM. © 2012 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  19. Molecular identification of clinical Nocardia isolates from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudramurthy, Shivaprakash M; Honnavar, Prasanna; Kaur, Harsimran; Samanta, Palash; Ray, Pallab; Ghosh, Anup; Chakrabarti, Arunaloke

    2015-10-01

    The epidemiology of nocardiosis is evolving with increasing number of Nocardia spp. causing human infection. In recent years, molecular techniques have been used to identify Nocardia spp. There are limited data available on the spectrum of Nocardia spp. isolated from clinical samples in India. Here, a molecular study was carried on 30 clinical isolates maintained in our National Culture Collection to evaluate the techniques used for identifying the agents. The isolates were identified by sequencing two promising genes: the 16S rRNA gene and hsp65. Both hsp65 and the 16S rRNA gene could reliably identify 90 % of Nocardia isolates, i.e. N. farcinica, N. cyriacigeorgica, N. brasiliensis, N. otitidiscaviarum, N. amamiensis and N. pneumoniae. The mean percentage dissimilarity of sequence identification was higher using the hsp65 gene (4 %, range 0-7.9 %) compared with the 16S rRNA gene (2.3 %, range 0-8.9 %). Two isolates that showed ambiguous results in both the short segment of the 16S rRNA gene and hsp65 sequences could be resolved by sequencing a larger fragment (∼1000 bp) of the 16S rRNA gene. Both of these isolates were identified as N. beijingensis with similarities of 99.8 and 100 % compared with the standard strain. Genotyping of N. cyriacigeorgica strains was performed using hsp65 gene sequences and compared with previously described genotypes. Our N. cyriacigeorgica isolates belonged to genotype 1 (n = 4) and genotype 2 (n = 2). The present study highlights a wide spectrum of Nocardia spp. in India and emphasizes the need for molecular techniques for identification to the species level.

  20. Quality of Higher Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zou, Yihuan

    is about constructing a more inclusive understanding of quality in higher education through combining the macro, meso and micro levels, i.e. from the perspectives of national policy, higher education institutions as organizations in society, individual teaching staff and students. It covers both......Quality in higher education was not invented in recent decades – universities have always possessed mechanisms for assuring the quality of their work. The rising concern over quality is closely related to the changes in higher education and its social context. Among others, the most conspicuous...... changes are the massive expansion, diversification and increased cost in higher education, and new mechanisms of accountability initiated by the state. With these changes the traditional internally enacted academic quality-keeping has been given an important external dimension – quality assurance, which...

  1. Comparative Genome Analyses of Streptococcus suis Isolates from Endocarditis Demonstrate Persistence of Dual Phenotypic Clones.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mari Tohya

    Full Text Available Many bacterial species coexist in the same niche as heterogeneous clones with different phenotypes; however, understanding of infectious diseases by polyphenotypic bacteria is still limited. In the present study, encapsulation in isolates of the porcine pathogen Streptococcus suis from persistent endocarditis lesions was examined. Coexistence of both encapsulated and unencapsulated S. suis isolates was found in 26 out of 59 endocarditis samples. The isolates were serotype 2, and belonged to two different sequence types (STs, ST1 and ST28. The genomes of each of the 26 pairs of encapsulated and unencapsulated isolates from the 26 samples were sequenced. The data showed that each pair of isolates had one or more unique nonsynonymous mutations in the cps gene, and the encapsulated and unencapsulated isolates from the same samples were closest to each other. Pairwise comparisons of the sequences of cps genes in 7 pairs of encapsulated and unencapsulated isolates identified insertion/deletions (indels ranging from one to 104 bp in different cps genes of unencapsulated isolates. Capsule expression was restored in a subset of unencapsulated isolates by complementation in trans with cps expression vectors. Examination of gene content common to isolates indicated that mutation frequency was higher in ST28 pairs than in ST1 pairs. Genes within mobile genetic elements were mutation hot spots among ST28 isolates. Taken all together, our results demonstrate the coexistence of dual phenotype (encapsulated and unencapsulated bacterial clones and suggest that the dual phenotypes arose independently in each farm by means of spontaneous mutations in cps genes.

  2. Comparative Genome Analyses of Streptococcus suis Isolates from Endocarditis Demonstrate Persistence of Dual Phenotypic Clones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tohya, Mari; Watanabe, Takayasu; Maruyama, Fumito; Arai, Sakura; Ota, Atsushi; Athey, Taryn B. T.; Fittipaldi, Nahuel; Nakagawa, Ichiro; Sekizaki, Tsutomu

    2016-01-01

    Many bacterial species coexist in the same niche as heterogeneous clones with different phenotypes; however, understanding of infectious diseases by polyphenotypic bacteria is still limited. In the present study, encapsulation in isolates of the porcine pathogen Streptococcus suis from persistent endocarditis lesions was examined. Coexistence of both encapsulated and unencapsulated S. suis isolates was found in 26 out of 59 endocarditis samples. The isolates were serotype 2, and belonged to two different sequence types (STs), ST1 and ST28. The genomes of each of the 26 pairs of encapsulated and unencapsulated isolates from the 26 samples were sequenced. The data showed that each pair of isolates had one or more unique nonsynonymous mutations in the cps gene, and the encapsulated and unencapsulated isolates from the same samples were closest to each other. Pairwise comparisons of the sequences of cps genes in 7 pairs of encapsulated and unencapsulated isolates identified insertion/deletions (indels) ranging from one to 104 bp in different cps genes of unencapsulated isolates. Capsule expression was restored in a subset of unencapsulated isolates by complementation in trans with cps expression vectors. Examination of gene content common to isolates indicated that mutation frequency was higher in ST28 pairs than in ST1 pairs. Genes within mobile genetic elements were mutation hot spots among ST28 isolates. Taken all together, our results demonstrate the coexistence of dual phenotype (encapsulated and unencapsulated) bacterial clones and suggest that the dual phenotypes arose independently in each farm by means of spontaneous mutations in cps genes. PMID:27433935

  3. Optimum Shock Isolation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bolotnik, Nikolai

    2001-01-01

    .... Several types of performance criteria for isolation are considered, the most important of which are the peak force transmitted to the body to be isolated and the maximum displacement of the body relative to the base...

  4. Isolated patellofemoral osteoarthritis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonbergen, J.P.W. van; Poolman, R.W.; Kampen, A. van

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The optimal treatment for isolated patellofemoral osteoarthritis is unclear at present. We systematically reviewed the highest level of available evidence on the nonoperative and operative treatment of isolated patellofemoral osteoarthritis to develop an evidenced-based

  5. Age-related associative deficits and the isolation effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badham, Stephen P; Maylor, Elizabeth A

    2013-01-01

    If all but one of the items in a list are similar (e.g., all black except one red), memory for the different item is enhanced (the isolation effect). Older adults generally show similar or smaller isolation effects compared to young adults, which has been attributed to age-related deficits in associative memory whereby older adults are less able to associate an isolated stimulus to its isolating feature. Experiment 1 examined the isolation effect for isolation based on spatial position, modality and color; in Experiment 2, the criterion for isolation was the associative relation between stimuli. The results consistently showed no differences between young and older participants in the magnitude of the isolation effect. Whilst age deficits in associative memory may act to reduce the isolation effect in older adults, age deficits in self-initiated processing and inhibitory functionality may counteract this reduction by enhancing the isolation effect in older adults.

  6. Planning for Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindstrom, Caj-Gunnar

    1984-01-01

    Decision processes for strategic planning for higher education institutions are outlined using these parameters: institutional goals and power structure, organizational climate, leadership attitudes, specific problem type, and problem-solving conditions and alternatives. (MSE)

  7. Advert for higher education

    OpenAIRE

    N.V. Provozin; А.S. Teletov

    2011-01-01

    The article discusses the features advertising higher education institution. The analysis results of marketing research students for their choice of institutions and further study. Principles of the advertising campaign on three levels: the university, the faculty, the separate department.

  8. Emotional isolation in BBC Forum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sienkiewicz, J; Chmiel, A

    2014-01-01

    We analyze emotionally annotated massive data from BBC Forum and examine properties of the isolation phenomenon of negative and positive users. Our results show the existence of a percolation threshold dependent on the average emotional value in the network of negatively charged nodes

  9. On higher derivative gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accioly, A.J.

    1987-01-01

    A possible classical route conducting towards a general relativity theory with higher-derivatives starting, in a sense, from first principles, is analysed. A completely causal vacuum solution with the symmetries of the Goedel universe is obtained in the framework of this higher-derivative gravity. This very peculiar and rare result is the first known vcuum solution of the fourth-order gravity theory that is not a solution of the corresponding Einstein's equations.(Author) [pt

  10. Higher Spins & Strings

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2014-01-01

    The conjectured relation between higher spin theories on anti de-Sitter (AdS) spaces and weakly coupled conformal field theories is reviewed. I shall then outline the evidence in favour of a concrete duality of this kind, relating a specific higher spin theory on AdS3 to a family of 2d minimal model CFTs. Finally, I shall explain how this relation fits into the framework of the familiar stringy AdS/CFT correspondence.

  11. Molecular characterization, fitness and mycotoxin production of benzimidazole-resistant isolates of Penicillium expansum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malandrakis, Anastasios A; Markoglou, Anastasios N; Konstantinou, Sotiris; Doukas, Eleftherios G; Kalampokis, John F; Karaoglanidis, George S

    2013-04-01

    Penicillium expansum field-strains resistant to benzimidazole fungicides were isolated in high frequency from decayed apple fruit collected from packinghouses and processing industries located in the region of Imathia, N. Greece. In vitro fungitoxicity tests resulted in the identification of two different resistant phenotypes: highly (BEN-HR) and moderately (BEN-MR) carbendazim-resistant. Thirty seven percent of the isolated P. expansum strains belonged to the BEN-HR phenotype, carried no apparent fitness penalties and exhibited resistance levels higher than 60 based on EC50 values. Cross resistance studies with other benzimidazole fungicides showed that all BEN-HR and BEN-MR isolates were also less sensitive to benomyl and thiabendazole. Fungitoxicity tests on the response of BEN-HR isolates to fungicides belonging to other chemical classes revealed no cross-resistance relationships between benzimidazoles and the phenylpyrrole fludioxonil, the dicarboximide iprodione, the anilinopyrimidine cyprodinil, the QoI pyraclostrobin, the imidazole imazalil and the triazole tebuconazole, indicating that a target-site modification is probably responsible for the BEN-HR phenotype observed. Contrary to the above, some BEN-MR isolates exhibited an increased sensitivity to cyprodinil compared to benzimidazole-sensitive ones. BEN-MR isolates had fitness parameters similar to the benzimidazole-sensitive isolates except for conidia production which appeared significantly decreased. Analysis of mycotoxin production (patulin and citrinin) showed that all benzimidazole-resistant isolates produced mycotoxins at concentrations significantly higher than sensitive isolates both on culture medium and on artificially inoculated apple fruit. Comparison of the β-tubulin gene DNA sequence between resistant and sensitive isolates revealed a point mutation resulting from the E198A substitution of the corresponding protein in most but not all HR isolates tested. Molecular analysis of the

  12. [A study on genotype of 271 mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates in 6 prefectures in Yunnan Province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, L Y; Yang, X; Ru, H H; Yang, H J; Yan, S Q; Ma, L; Chen, J O; Yang, R; Xu, L

    2018-01-06

    Objective: To understand the characteristics of genotypes of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates in Yunnan province, and provide the molecular epidemiological evidence for prevention and control of tuberculosis in Yunnan Province. Methods: Mycobacterium Tuberculosis isolates were collected from 6 prefectures of Yunnan province in 2014 and their Genetypes of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates were obtained using spoligotyping and multiple locus variable numbers of tandem repeats analysis (MLVA). The results of spoligotyping were entered into the SITVITWEB database to obtain the Spoligotyping International Type (SIT) patterns and the sublineages of MTB isolates. The genoyping patterns were clustered with BioNumerics (version 5.0). Results: A total of 271 MTB isolates represented patients were collected from six prefectures in Yunnan province. Out of these patients, 196 (72.3%) were male. The mean age of the patients was (41.9±15.1) years. The most MTB isolates were from Puer, totally 94 iusolates(34.69%). Spoligotyping analysis revealed that 151 (55.72%) MTB isolates belonged to the Beijing genotype, while the other 120 (44.28%) were from non-Beijing genotype; 40 genotypes were consisted of 24 unique genotypes and 16 clusters. The 271 isolates were differentiated into 30 clusters (2 to 17 isolates per cluster) and 177 unique genotypes, showing a clustering rate of 23.62%. Beijing genotype strains showed higher clustering rate than non-Beijing genotype strains (29.14% vs 16.67%). The HGI of 12-locus VNTR in total MTB strains, Beijing genotype strains and non-Beijing genotype was 0.993, 0.982 and 0.995 respectively. Conclusion: The Beijing genotype was the predominant genotype in Yunnan Province, the characteristics of Mycobacterium tuberculosis showed high genetic diversity. The genotyping data reflect the potential recent ongoing transmission in some area, which highlights the urgent need for early diagnosis and treatment of the infectious TB cases, to cut off the

  13. Seismic isolation systems designed with distinct multiple frequencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Ting-shu; Seidensticker, R.W.

    1991-01-01

    Two systems for seismic base isolation are presented. The main feature of these system is that, instead of only one isolation frequency as in conventional isolation systems, they are designed to have two distinct isolation frequencies. When the responses during an earthquake exceed the design value(s), the system will automatically and passively shift to the secondly isolation frequency. Responses of these two systems to different ground motions including a harmonic motion with frequency same as the primary isolation frequency, show that no excessive amplification will occur. Adoption of these new systems certainly will greatly enhance the safety and reliability of an isolated superstructure against future strong earthquakes. 3 refs

  14. Fuel Class Higher Alcohols

    KAUST Repository

    Sarathy, Mani

    2016-08-17

    This chapter focuses on the production and combustion of alcohol fuels with four or more carbon atoms, which we classify as higher alcohols. It assesses the feasibility of utilizing various C4-C8 alcohols as fuels for internal combustion engines. Utilizing higher-molecular-weight alcohols as fuels requires careful analysis of their fuel properties. ASTM standards provide fuel property requirements for spark-ignition (SI) and compression-ignition (CI) engines such as the stability, lubricity, viscosity, and cold filter plugging point (CFPP) properties of blends of higher alcohols. Important combustion properties that are studied include laminar and turbulent flame speeds, flame blowout/extinction limits, ignition delay under various mixing conditions, and gas-phase and particulate emissions. The chapter focuses on the combustion of higher alcohols in reciprocating SI and CI engines and discusses higher alcohol performance in SI and CI engines. Finally, the chapter identifies the sources, production pathways, and technologies currently being pursued for production of some fuels, including n-butanol, iso-butanol, and n-octanol.

  15. Optimal Admission to Higher Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albæk, Karsten

    This paper constructs higher education admission rules that maximise graduation rates and thus increase the skill level of the work force. An application shows that students with a low level in mathematics in secondary school ought to find it easier to be admitted to an economics programme than...... to law or psychology programmes, even though economics is the most difficult programme from which to graduate without a strong background in mathematics. Indirect gains from optimal admission include the potential of making whole cohorts of students more able to graduate with a higher education degree....

  16. Effect of Fusarium isolates and their filtrates on respiratory rate and chemical analysis of squash plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Shenawy, Z; Mansour, M A; El-Behrawi, S

    1978-01-01

    The highly pathogenic isolate stimulated the emergence of the squash seedlings first, caused, however, the highest death rate of the seedlings finally. Fusarium isolates and their culture filtrates inhibited the respiratory rate of squash plants significantly. However, F. oxysporum isolates inhibited respiration more than F. solani isolates. Seasonal changes of respiration decline show that the respiratory rate decreased with plant growth in the case of infested soil and of plants injected with culture filtrates. However, spraying Fusarium culture filtrates on the foliage gave opposite results when the plants grew older. Fusarium solani isolates decreased nitrogen content of squash stems and leaves, while F. oxysporum isolates gave reverse results. Injecting Fusarium culture filtrate into the plant decreased nitrogen content of both stems and leaves, while spraying the foliage with the filtrates increased nitrogen content more than that of the control. Phosphorus content of the stems of squash plants, sown in infested soil, was less than in the control when the plants were treated with F. solani and higher when they were treated with F. oxysporum isolates. On the other hand, the phosphorus content of squash leaves was higher than in the control. In the case of injected plants, however, the phosphorus content in stems and leaves was equal to that of the control or less, and with sprayed plants it was higher than in the control. Infesting the soil with Fusarium isolates and spraying the foliage with their culture filtrates increased potassium content of squash stems and leaves, while injecting the filtrates into the plants decreased potassium content of both stems and leaves.

  17. Characteristics of enterotoxin distribution, hemolysis, lecithinase, and starch hydrolysis of Bacillus cereus isolated from infant formulas and ready-to-eat foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Ji-Yeon; Park, Jong-Hyun

    2015-03-01

    Bacillus cereus is a ubiquitous environmental microbe implicated as a main cause of food poisoning with various symptoms, depending on the strain type and the isolation source. In this study, the potential virulence factors and biochemical properties of B. cereus isolated from infant formulas and ready-to-eat (RTE) foods were analyzed and compared. A total of 347 B. cereus strains were isolated and identified from 687 infant food formulas and RTE food samples. All the isolates had one or more enterotoxin genes, and one-half of the strains had all 3 enterotoxin genes (hbl, nhe, and cytK) that are involved in food poisoning in humans. Here, all the 3 genes were detected in 50% of the B. cereus isolates from RTE foods and only 14% of the isolates were identified from infant formulas. The latter harbored low cytK and bceT, and very low hbl genes. Most B. cereus isolates possessed the hemolysis gene, but not the ces gene. The infant formula isolates showed stronger hemolysis activity than the other isolates. In addition, 26% of the total isolates showed low lecithinase activities and 10% showed high lecithinase activities. A greater number of isolates from the infant formula showed high lecithinase activity than those from the RTE foods. Approximately 83% of the isolates were positive and 17% were negative for starch hydrolysis. Over 90% of the RTE food isolates and only 35% of the infant formula isolates were positive for starch hydrolysis. However, all the strains possessed nhe, but their harboring patterns of hbl and cytK were significantly different. Most starch-hydrolyzing strains possessed hbl, but only 23% nonstarch-hydrolyzing isolates possessed this gene. Moreover, very low nonstarch hydrolyzing strains harbored cytK. Most nonstarch-hydrolyzing isolates showed high lecithinase and strong hemolysis activities, and very low hbl and cytK harboring. In summary, most infant formula isolates showed stronger hemolysis and higher lecithinase activities with lower

  18. Composition, structure and functional properties of protein concentrates and isolates produced from walnut (Juglans regia L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Xiaoying; Hua, Yufei

    2012-01-01

    In this study, composition, structure and the functional properties of protein concentrate (WPC) and protein isolate (WPI) produced from defatted walnut flour (DFWF) were investigated. The results showed that the composition and structure of walnut protein concentrate (WPC) and walnut protein isolate (WPI) were significantly different. The molecular weight distribution of WPI was uniform and the protein composition of DFWF and WPC was complex with the protein aggregation. H(0) of WPC was significantly higher (p structure of WPI was similar to WPC. WPI showed big flaky plate like structures; whereas WPC appeared as a small flaky and more compact structure. The most functional properties of WPI were better than WPC. In comparing most functional properties of WPI and WPC with soybean protein concentrate and isolate, WPI and WPC showed higher fat absorption capacity (FAC). Emulsifying properties and foam properties of WPC and WPI in alkaline pH were comparable with that of soybean protein concentrate and isolate. Walnut protein concentrates and isolates can be considered as potential functional food ingredients.

  19. Higher spin gauge theories

    CERN Document Server

    Henneaux, Marc; Vasiliev, Mikhail A

    2017-01-01

    Symmetries play a fundamental role in physics. Non-Abelian gauge symmetries are the symmetries behind theories for massless spin-1 particles, while the reparametrization symmetry is behind Einstein's gravity theory for massless spin-2 particles. In supersymmetric theories these particles can be connected also to massless fermionic particles. Does Nature stop at spin-2 or can there also be massless higher spin theories. In the past strong indications have been given that such theories do not exist. However, in recent times ways to evade those constraints have been found and higher spin gauge theories have been constructed. With the advent of the AdS/CFT duality correspondence even stronger indications have been given that higher spin gauge theories play an important role in fundamental physics. All these issues were discussed at an international workshop in Singapore in November 2015 where the leading scientists in the field participated. This volume presents an up-to-date, detailed overview of the theories i...

  20. INTERNATIONALIZATION IN HIGHER EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalina Crisan-Mitra

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Internationalization of higher education is one of the key trends of development. There are several approaches on how to achieve competitiveness and performance in higher education and international academic mobility; students’ exchange programs, partnerships are some of the aspects that can play a significant role in this process. This paper wants to point out the student’s perception regarding two main directions: one about the master students’ expectation regarding how an internationalized master should be organized and should function, and second the degree of satisfaction of the beneficiaries of internationalized master programs from Babe-Bolyai University. This article is based on an empirical qualitative research that was implemented to students of an internationalized master from the Faculty of Economics and Business Administration. This research can be considered a useful example for those preoccupied to increase the quality of higher education and conclusions drawn have relevance both theoretically and especially practically.

  1. Quality of Higher Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zou, Yihuan; Zhao, Yingsheng; Du, Xiangyun

    . This transformation involves a broad scale of change at individual level, organizational level, and societal level. In this change process in higher education, staff development remains one of the key elements for university innovation and at the same time demands a systematic and holistic approach.......This paper starts with a critical approach to reflect on the current practice of quality assessment and assurance in higher education. This is followed by a proposal that in response to the global challenges for improving the quality of higher education, universities should take active actions...... of change by improving the quality of teaching and learning. From a constructivist perspective of understanding education and learning, this paper also discusses why and how universities should give more weight to learning and change the traditional role of teaching to an innovative approach of facilitation...

  2. Reputation in Higher Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martensen, Anne; Grønholdt, Lars

    2005-01-01

    leaders of higher education institutions to set strategic directions and support their decisions in an effort to create even better study programmes with a better reputation. Finally, managerial implications and directions for future research are discussed.Keywords: Reputation, image, corporate identity......The purpose of this paper is to develop a reputation model for higher education programmes, provide empirical evidence for the model and illustrate its application by using Copenhagen Business School (CBS) as the recurrent case. The developed model is a cause-and-effect model linking image...

  3. Reputation in Higher Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plewa, Carolin; Ho, Joanne; Conduit, Jodie

    2016-01-01

    Reputation is critical for institutions wishing to attract and retain students in today's competitive higher education setting. Drawing on the resource based view and configuration theory, this research proposes that Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) need to understand not only the impact...... of independent resources but of resource configurations when seeking to achieve a strong, positive reputation. Utilizing fuzzy set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA), the paper provides insight into different configurations of resources that HEIs can utilize to build their reputation within their domestic...

  4. Navigating in higher education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thingholm, Hanne Balsby; Reimer, David; Keiding, Tina Bering

    Denne rapport er skrevet på baggrund af spørgeskemaundersøgelsen – Navigating in Higher Education (NiHE) – der rummer besvarelser fra 1410 bachelorstuderende og 283 undervisere fordelt på ni uddannelser fra Aarhus Universitet: Uddannelsesvidenskab, Historie, Nordisk sprog og litteratur, Informati......Denne rapport er skrevet på baggrund af spørgeskemaundersøgelsen – Navigating in Higher Education (NiHE) – der rummer besvarelser fra 1410 bachelorstuderende og 283 undervisere fordelt på ni uddannelser fra Aarhus Universitet: Uddannelsesvidenskab, Historie, Nordisk sprog og litteratur...

  5. Experimental Study of Vibration Isolation Characteristics of a Geometric Anti-Spring Isolator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lixun Yan

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to realize low-frequency vibration isolation, a novel geometric anti-spring isolator consisting of several cantilever blade springs are developed in this paper. The optimal design parameters of the geometric anti-spring isolator for different nonlinear geometric parameters are theoretically obtained. The transmissibility characteristic of the geometric anti-spring isolator is investigated through mathematical simulation. A geometric anti-spring isolator with a nonlinear geometric parameter of 0.92 is designed and its vibration isolation performance and nonlinearity characteristic is experimentally studied. The experiment results show that the designed isolator has good low-frequency vibration isolation performance, of which the initial isolation frequency is less than 3.6 Hz when the load weight is 21 kg. The jump phenomena of the response of the isolator under linear frequency sweep excitation are observed, and this result demonstrates that the geometric anti-spring isolator has a complex nonlinearity characteristics with the increment of excitation amplitude. This research work provides a theoretical and experimental basis for the application of the nonlinear geometric anti-spring low-frequency passive vibration isolation technology in engineering practice.

  6. Exploring Higher Thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conover, Willis M.

    1992-01-01

    Maintains that the social studies reform movement includes a call for the de-emphasis of rote memory and more attention to the development of higher-order thinking skills. Discusses the "thinking tasks" concept derived from the work of Hilda Taba and asserts that the tasks can be used with almost any social studies topic. (CFR)

  7. Higher-Order Hierarchies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernst, Erik

    2003-01-01

    This paper introduces the notion of higher-order inheritance hierarchies. They are useful because they provide well-known benefits of object-orientation at the level of entire hierarchies-benefits which are not available with current approaches. Three facets must be adressed: First, it must be po...

  8. Inflation from higher dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shafi, Q.

    1987-01-01

    We argue that an inflationary phase in the very early universe is related to the transition from a higher dimensional to a four-dimensional universe. We present details of a previously considered model which gives sufficient inflation without fine tuning of parameters. (orig.)

  9. Higher Education Funding Formulas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeown-Moak, Mary P.

    1999-01-01

    One of the most critical components of the college or university chief financial officer's job is budget planning, especially using formulas. A discussion of funding formulas looks at advantages, disadvantages, and types of formulas used by states in budgeting for higher education, and examines how chief financial officers can position the campus…

  10. Liberty and Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Dennis F.

    1989-01-01

    John Stuart Mill's principle of liberty is discussed with the view that it needs to be revised to guide moral judgments in higher education. Three key elements need to be modified: the action that is constrained; the constraint on the action; and the agent whose action is constrained. (MLW)

  11. Fuel Class Higher Alcohols

    KAUST Repository

    Sarathy, Mani

    2016-01-01

    This chapter focuses on the production and combustion of alcohol fuels with four or more carbon atoms, which we classify as higher alcohols. It assesses the feasibility of utilizing various C4-C8 alcohols as fuels for internal combustion engines

  12. Evaluation in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bognar, Branko; Bungic, Maja

    2014-01-01

    One of the means of transforming classroom experience is by conducting action research with students. This paper reports about the action research with university students. It has been carried out within a semester of the course "Methods of Upbringing". Its goal has been to improve evaluation of higher education teaching. Different forms…

  13. Higher-level Innovization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandaru, Sunith; Tutum, Cem Celal; Deb, Kalyanmoy

    2011-01-01

    we introduce the higher-level innovization task through an application of a manufacturing process simulation for the Friction Stir Welding (FSW) process where commonalities among two different Pareto-optimal fronts are analyzed. Multiple design rules are simultaneously deciphered from each front...

  14. Creativity in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaspar, Drazena; Mabic, Mirela

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents results of research related to perception of creativity in higher education made by the authors at the University of Mostar from Bosnia and Herzegovina. This research was based on a survey conducted among teachers and students at the University. The authors developed two types of questionnaires, one for teachers and the other…

  15. California's Future: Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Hans

    2015-01-01

    California's higher education system is not keeping up with the changing economy. Projections suggest that the state's economy will continue to need more highly educated workers. In 2025, if current trends persist, 41 percent of jobs will require at least a bachelor's degree and 36 percent will require some college education short of a bachelor's…

  16. Cyberbullying in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minor, Maria A.; Smith, Gina S.; Brashen, Henry

    2013-01-01

    Bullying has extended beyond the schoolyard into online forums in the form of cyberbullying. Cyberbullying is a growing concern due to the effect on its victims. Current studies focus on grades K-12; however, cyberbullying has entered the world of higher education. The focus of this study was to identify the existence of cyberbullying in higher…

  17. Isolation, Characterization and Application of Bacterial Population From Agricultural Soil at Sohag Province, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahig, A. E.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Forty soil samples of agriculture soil were collected from two different sites in Sohag province, Egypt, during hot and cold seasons. Twenty samples were from soil irrigated with canal water (site A and twenty samples were from soil irrigated with wastewater (site B. This study aimed to compare the incidence of plasmids in bacteria isolated from soil and to investigate the occurrence of metal and antibiotic resistance bacteria, and consequently to select the potential application of these bacteria in bioremediation. The total bacterial count (CFU/gm in site (B was higher than that in site (A. Moreover, the CFU values in summer were higher than those values in winter at both sites. A total of 771 bacterial isolates were characterized as Bacillus, Micrococcus, Staphylococcus, Pseudomonas, Eschershia, Shigella, Xanthomonas, Acetobacter, Citrobacter, Enterobacter, Moraxella and Methylococcus. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs of Pb+2, Cu+2, Zn+2, Hg+2, Co+2, Cd+2, Cr+3, Te+2, As+2 and Ni+2 for plasmid-possessed bacteria were determined and the highest MICs were 1200 µg/mL for lead, 800 µg/mL for both Cobalt and Arsenate, 1200 µg/mL for Nickel, 1000 µg/ml for Copper and less than 600 µg/mL for other metals. Bacterial isolates from both sites A and B showed multiple heavy metal resistance. A total of 337 bacterial isolates contained plasmids and the incidence of plasmids was approximately 25-50% higher in bacteria isolated from site (B than that from site (A. These isolates were resistance to different antibiotics. Approximately, 61% of the bacterial isolates were able to assimilate insecticide, carbaryl, as a sole source of carbon and energy. However, the Citrobacter AA101 showed the best growth on carbaryl.

  18. Competitiveness - higher education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Labas Istvan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Involvement of European Union plays an important role in the areas of education and training equally. The member states are responsible for organizing and operating their education and training systems themselves. And, EU policy is aimed at supporting the efforts of member states and trying to find solutions for the common challenges which appear. In order to make our future sustainable maximally; the key to it lies in education. The highly qualified workforce is the key to development, advancement and innovation of the world. Nowadays, the competitiveness of higher education institutions has become more and more appreciated in the national economy. In recent years, the frameworks of operation of higher education systems have gone through a total transformation. The number of applying students is continuously decreasing in some European countries therefore only those institutions can “survive” this shortfall, which are able to minimize the loss of the number of students. In this process, the factors forming the competitiveness of these budgetary institutions play an important role from the point of view of survival. The more competitive a higher education institution is, the greater the chance is that the students would like to continue their studies there and thus this institution will have a greater chance for the survival in the future, compared to ones lagging behind in the competition. Aim of our treatise prepared is to present the current situation and main data of the EU higher education and we examine the performance of higher education: to what extent it fulfils the strategy for smart, sustainable and inclusive growth which is worded in the framework of Europe 2020 programme. The treatise is based on analysis of statistical data.

  19. Feather wastes digestion by new isolated strains Bacillus sp. in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Feather wastes digestion by new isolated strains Bacillus sp. in Morocco. ... The most efficient isolated strain selected was compared with Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633. Results showed ... African Journal of Biotechnology Vol.3(1) 2004: 67-70 ...

  20. Challenges in hardening technologies using shallow-trench isolation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaneyfelt, M.R.; Dodd, P.E.; Draper, B.L.; Flores, R.S.

    1998-02-01

    Challenges related to radiation hardening CMOS technologies with shallow-trench isolation are explored. Results show that trench hardening can be more difficult than simply replacing the trench isolation oxide with a hardened field oxide

  1. UV Photography Shows Hidden Sun Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... mcat1=de12", ]; for (var c = 0; c UV photography shows hidden sun damage A UV photograph gives ... developing skin cancer and prematurely aged skin. Normal photography UV photography 18 months of age: This boy's ...

  2. IEA Shows Concerns Over China's Oil Stockpiling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ Reportedly, China's oil imports accounted for nearly one third of the world's total oil supply in 2003. The country's oil imports are estimated at 110~120 million tons in 2004,equal to 2.2~2.4 million barrels per day, much higher than 91 million tons in 2003. International Energy Agency has helped the Chinese government with the country's strategic oil stockpiling plan by offering the training. The Paris-based IEA has urged China to take into consideration how to operate and maintain the national strategic oil stockpiling system and clarify the roles of the enterprises and the State in oil stockpiling.

  3. Bioremediation Of Heavy Metals By Pseudomonas Putida Isolated From Groundwater In Egypt.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fawazy

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In this present study total four bacterial isolates were obtained from 34 collected groundwater samples in 10th of Ramadan Sharkia governorate Egypt. These isolate were grown on nutrient agar supplemented with 1mgl of iron manganese and combination between them VV. Further testing of the bacterial isolates were grown on nutrient agar supplemented with different concentrations 2 4 5 6 7 8 and 9 mgl of iron and manganese. Out of four isolates one bacterial isolate no.83 has shown the resistance to heavy metals at maximum concentration of 8mgl. Selected isolate no.S83 was identified as Pseudomonas putida S83 according to Bergeys manual depending on morphological and biochemical characteristics. Transmission electron microscopy study of P. putida isolate no. S83 showed accumulation of heavy metal salts within and external to bacterial cells. P. putida S83 have higher removal efficiency of Fe2 94.5 and Mn2 94 at concentration 2 mgl and 96 hours.

  4. Wideband Isolation by Frequency Conversion in a Josephson-Junction Transmission Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranzani, Leonardo; Kotler, Shlomi; Sirois, Adam J.; DeFeo, Michael P.; Castellanos-Beltran, Manuel; Cicak, Katarina; Vale, Leila R.; Aumentado, José

    2017-11-01

    Nonreciprocal transmission and isolation at microwave frequencies are important in many practical applications. In particular, compact isolators are useful in protecting sensitive quantum circuits operating at cryogenic temperatures from amplifier backaction and other environmental noise such as black-body radiation from higher temperature stages. However, the size of commercial cryogenic isolators limits the ability to measure multiple quantum circuits because of space constraints in typical dilution refrigerator systems. Furthermore, isolators usually require the use of ferrite components that cannot be integrated at the chip level and, since they also need large biasing magnetic fields, are incompatible with superconducting quantum circuits. In this work we show one way to accomplish isolation in a superconducting chip-scale device, a traveling-wave unidirectional frequency converter based on a parametrically pumped superconducting Josephson-junction transmission line, demonstrating better than 4.8 dB of inferred signal isolation from 6.6 to 11.4 GHz, with a maximum of 12 dB at 9.5 GHz. By using frequency diplexing techniques a conventional isolator could be implemented over this bandwidth.

  5. Cosmic censorship in higher dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goswami, Rituparno; Joshi, Pankaj S.

    2004-01-01

    We show that the naked singularities arising in dust collapse from smooth initial data (which include those discovered by Eardley and Smarr, Christodoulou, and Newman) are removed when we make a transition to higher dimensional spacetimes. Cosmic censorship is then restored for dust collapse, which will always produce a black hole as the collapse end state for dimensions D≥6, under conditions to be motivated physically such as the smoothness of initial data from which the collapse develops

  6. Radiosensitivity of higher plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Zhijie

    1992-11-01

    The general views on radiosensitivity of higher plants have been introduced from published references. The radiosensitivity varies with species, varieties and organs or tissues. The main factors of determining the radiosensitivity in different species are nucleus volume, chromosome volume, DNA content and endogenous compounds. The self-repair ability of DNA damage and chemical group of biological molecules, such as -SH thiohydroxy of proteins, are main factors to determine the radiosensitivity in different varieties. The moisture, oxygen, temperature radiosensitizer and protector are important external factors for radiosensitivity. Both the multiple target model and Chadwick-Leenhouts model are ideal mathematical models for describing the radiosensitivity of higher plants and the latter has more clear significance in biology

  7. Higher Education Language Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Karen M.

    2013-01-01

    Summary of recommendations HEIs are encouraged, within the framework of their own societal context, mission, vision and strategies, to develop the aims and objectives of a Higher Education Language Policy (HELP) that allows them to implement these strategies. In this process, they may want......: As the first step in a Higher Education Language Policy, HEIs should determine the relative status and use of the languages employed in the institution, taking into consideration the answers to the following questions:  What is/are the official language(s) of the HEI?  What is/are the language...... and the level of internationalisation the HEI has or wants to have, and as a direct implication of that, what are the language proficiency levels expected from the graduates of these programme?  Given the profile of the HEI and its educational strategies, which language components are to be offered within...

  8. Educational Outreach: The Space Science Road Show

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, N. L. J.

    2002-01-01

    The poster presented will give an overview of a study towards a "Space Road Show". The topic of this show is space science. The target group is adolescents, aged 12 to 15, at Dutch high schools. The show and its accompanying experiments would be supported with suitable educational material. Science teachers at schools can decide for themselves if they want to use this material in advance, afterwards or not at all. The aims of this outreach effort are: to motivate students for space science and engineering, to help them understand the importance of (space) research, to give them a positive feeling about the possibilities offered by space and in the process give them useful knowledge on space basics. The show revolves around three main themes: applications, science and society. First the students will get some historical background on the importance of space/astronomy to civilization. Secondly they will learn more about novel uses of space. On the one hand they will learn of "Views on Earth" involving technologies like Remote Sensing (or Spying), Communication, Broadcasting, GPS and Telemedicine. On the other hand they will experience "Views on Space" illustrated by past, present and future space research missions, like the space exploration missions (Cassini/Huygens, Mars Express and Rosetta) and the astronomy missions (Soho and XMM). Meanwhile, the students will learn more about the technology of launchers and satellites needed to accomplish these space missions. Throughout the show and especially towards the end attention will be paid to the third theme "Why go to space"? Other reasons for people to get into space will be explored. An important question in this is the commercial (manned) exploration of space. Thus, the questions of benefit of space to society are integrated in the entire show. It raises some fundamental questions about the effects of space travel on our environment, poverty and other moral issues. The show attempts to connect scientific with

  9. 2008 LHC Open Days Physics: the show

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    A host of events and activities await visitors to the LHC Open Days on 5 and 6 April. A highlight will be the physics shows funded by the European Physical Society (EPS), which are set to surprise and challenge children and adults alike! School children use their experience of riding a bicycle to understand how planets move around the sun (Copyright : Circus Naturally) Participating in the Circus Naturally show could leave a strange taste in your mouth! (Copyright : Circus Naturally) The Rino Foundation’s experiments with liquid nitrogen can be pretty exciting! (Copyright: The Rino Foundation)What does a bicycle have in common with the solar system? Have you ever tried to weigh air or visualise sound? Ever heard of a vacuum bazooka? If you want to discover the answers to these questions and more then come to the Physics Shows taking place at the CERN O...

  10. Online Italian fandoms of American TV shows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora Benecchi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Internet has changed media fandom in two main ways: it helps fans connect with each other despite physical distance, leading to the formation of international fan communities; and it helps fans connect with the creators of the TV show, deepening the relationship between TV producers and international fandoms. To assess whether Italian fan communities active online are indeed part of transnational online communities and whether the Internet has actually altered their relationship with the creators of the original text they are devoted to, qualitative analysis and narrative interviews of 26 Italian fans of American TV shows were conducted to explore the fan-producer relationship. Results indicated that the online Italian fans surveyed preferred to stay local, rather than using geography-leveling online tools. Further, the sampled Italian fans' relationships with the show runners were mediated or even absent.

  11. Mutation and premating isolation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodruff, R. C.; Thompson, J. N. Jr

    2002-01-01

    While premating isolation might be traceable to different genetic mechanisms in different species, evidence supports the idea that as few as one or two genes may often be sufficient to initiate isolation. Thus, new mutation can theoretically play a key role in the process. But it has long been thought that a new isolation mutation would fail, because there would be no other individuals for the isolation-mutation-carrier to mate with. We now realize that premeiotic mutations are very common and will yield a cluster of progeny carrying the same new mutant allele. In this paper, we discuss the evidence for genetically simple premating isolation barriers and the role that clusters of an isolation mutation may play in initiating allopatric, and even sympatric, species divisions.

  12. Phylogenetic analysis, fumonisin production and pathogenicity of Fusarium fujikuroi strains isolated from rice in the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Alejandra; Marín, Patricia; González-Jaén, M Teresa; Aguilar, Kristel Grace I; Cumagun, Christian Joseph R

    2013-09-01

    Fusarium fujikuroi Nirenberg is a maize and rice pathogen causing important agricultural losses and produces fumonisins - mycotoxins which pose health risk to humans and farm animals. However, little information is available about the phylogenetics of this species and its ability to produce fumonisins in rice. We studied 32 strains isolated from rice in the Philippines and performed a phylogenetic analysis using the partial sequence of Elongation Factor 1 alpha (EF-1α) including isolates belonging to closely related species. Fumonisin B1 (FB1 ) production was analyzed in 7-day-old cultures grown in fumonisin-inducing medium by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay-based method and by real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction using primers for FUM1 gene, a key gene in fumonisin biosynthesis. Nucleotide diversities per site (π) were 0.00024 ± 0.00022 (standard deviation) for the 32 F. fujikuroi strains from the Philippines and 0.00189 ± 0.00143 for all 34 F. fujikuroi strains, respectively. F. fujikuroi isolates grouped into one cluster separated from the rest of isolates belonging to the closely related F. proliferatum and showed very low variability, irrespective of their geographic origin. The cluster containing strains of F. proliferatum showed higher intraspecific variability than F. fujikuroi. Thirteen of the 32 strains analyzed were FB1 producers (40.62%), with production ranging from 0.386 to 223.83 ppm. All isolates analyzed showed FUM1 gene expression above 1 and higher than the CT value of the non-template control sample. Both seedling stunting and elongation were induced by the isolates in comparison with the control. F. fujikuroi are distinct from F. proliferatum isolates based on phytogenetic analysis and are potential fumonisin producers because all are positive for FUM1 gene expression. No relationship between fumonisin production and pathogenicity could be observed. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Physics in isolation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    In late May, about 330 physicists made their way up to isolated and beautiful Lake Louise high in the Canadian Rockies about 100 miles west of Calgary in a second effort to increase interactions between particle and nuclear physicists. The conference series aims to foster exciting and diverse physics by bringing the different physicists together somewhere which is so isolated that they must interact with each other. The formula worked very well and isolated Lake Louise was a huge success

  14. Physics in isolation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1986-09-15

    In late May, about 330 physicists made their way up to isolated and beautiful Lake Louise high in the Canadian Rockies about 100 miles west of Calgary in a second effort to increase interactions between particle and nuclear physicists. The conference series aims to foster exciting and diverse physics by bringing the different physicists together somewhere which is so isolated that they must interact with each other. The formula worked very well and isolated Lake Louise was a huge success.

  15. Ciprofloxacin susceptibility of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates from keratitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lomholt, JA; Kilian, Mogens

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To examine the ciprofloxacin susceptibility of 106 Pseudomonas aeruginosa eye isolates from the United Kingdom, Denmark, India, the United States, and Australia, and to determine the molecular mechanisms of resistance. METHODS: Ciprofloxacin susceptibility was tested by an agar dilution method...... keratitis, endophthalmitis, contact lens associated red eye (CLARE), and contact lens storage cases showed MIC values below 1 mg/l. Several allelic forms of gyrA and a single variation in the mexR gene product were detected in 10 ciprofloxacin susceptible strains. CONCLUSIONS: The vast majority of eye...... isolates of P aeruginosa from European countries are fully susceptible to ciprofloxacin and the concentration of ciprofloxacin eye drops used for local treatment (3000 mg/l) exceeds MIC values for strains recorded as resistant. Mutations in more than one target gene were associated with higher MIC values....

  16. Antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of Brachyspira intermedia isolates from European layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verlinden, Marc; Boyen, Filip; Pasmans, Frank; Garmyn, An; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Martel, An

    2011-09-01

    A broth microdilution method was used to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility of 20 Brachyspira intermedia isolates obtained from different layer flocks in Belgium and The Netherlands between 2008 and 2010. The antimicrobial agents used were tylosin, tilmicosin, tiamulin, valnemulin, doxycycline, and lincomycin. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) distribution patterns of tylosin, tilmicosin, lincomycin, and doxycycline were bimodal, demonstrating acquired resistance against doxycycline in three strains, against the macrolides in two strains, and against lincomycin in one strain. The MICs of tiamulin and valnemulin showed a monomodal distribution, but with tailing toward the higher MIC values, possibly suggesting low-level acquired resistance in six isolates. Sequencing revealed a G1058C mutation in the 16S rRNA gene in all doxycycline-resistant strains. The strain resistant to tylosin, tilmicosin, and lincomycin had an A2058T mutation in the 23S rRNA gene.

  17. Ciprofloxacin susceptibility of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates from keratitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lomholt, JA; Kilian, Mogens

    2003-01-01

    keratitis, endophthalmitis, contact lens associated red eye (CLARE), and contact lens storage cases showed MIC values below 1 mg/l. Several allelic forms of gyrA and a single variation in the mexR gene product were detected in 10 ciprofloxacin susceptible strains. CONCLUSIONS: The vast majority of eye......AIM: To examine the ciprofloxacin susceptibility of 106 Pseudomonas aeruginosa eye isolates from the United Kingdom, Denmark, India, the United States, and Australia, and to determine the molecular mechanisms of resistance. METHODS: Ciprofloxacin susceptibility was tested by an agar dilution method...... isolates of P aeruginosa from European countries are fully susceptible to ciprofloxacin and the concentration of ciprofloxacin eye drops used for local treatment (3000 mg/l) exceeds MIC values for strains recorded as resistant. Mutations in more than one target gene were associated with higher MIC values....

  18. Effect of isolation techniques on the characteristics of pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) protein isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adenekan, Monilola K; Fadimu, Gbemisola J; Odunmbaku, Lukumon A; Oke, Emmanuel K

    2018-01-01

    In this study, the effect of different isolation techniques on the isolated proteins from pigeon pea was investigated. Water, methanol, ammonium sulfate, and acetone were used for the precipitation of proteins from pigeon pea. Proximate composition, and antinutritional and functional properties of the pigeon pea flour and the isolated proteins were measured. Data generated were statistically analyzed. The proximate composition of the water-extracted protein isolate was moisture 8.30%, protein 91.83%, fat 0.25%, ash 0.05%, and crude fiber 0.05%. The methanol-extracted protein isolate composition was moisture 7.87%, protein 91.83%, fat 0.17%, and ash 0.13%, while crude fiber and carbohydrates were not detected. The composition of the ammonium sulfate-extracted protein isolate was moisture 7.73%, protein 91.73%, fat 0.36, ash 0.13%, and crude fiber 0.67%. The acetone-extracted protein isolate composition was moisture 8.03%, protein 91.50%, ash 0.67%, and fat 0.30%, but crude fiber and carbohydrates were not detected. The isolate precipitated with ammonium sulfate displayed the highest foaming capacity (37.63%) and foaming stability (55.75%). Isolates precipitated with methanol and acetone had the highest water absorption capacity (160%). Pigeon pea protein isolates extracted with methanol and ammonium sulfate had the highest oil absorption capacity of 145%. Protein isolates recovered through acetone and methanol had the highest emulsifying capacity of 2.23% and emulsifying stability of 91.47%, respectively. The proximate composition of the recovered protein isolates were of high purity. This shows the efficiency of the extraction techniques. The isolates had desirable solubility index. All the isolation techniques brought significant impact on the characteristics of the isolated pigeon pea protein.

  19. Duchenne muscular dystrophy models show their age

    OpenAIRE

    Chamberlain, Jeffrey S.

    2010-01-01

    The lack of appropriate animal models has hampered efforts to develop therapies for Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). A new mouse model lacking both dystrophin and telomerase (Sacco et al., 2010) closely mimics the pathological progression of human DMD and shows that muscle stem cell activity is a key determinant of disease severity.

  20. Show Them You Really Want the Job

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlmutter, David D.

    2012-01-01

    Showing that one really "wants" the job entails more than just really wanting the job. An interview is part Broadway casting call, part intellectual dating game, part personality test, and part, well, job interview. When there are 300 applicants for a position, many of them will "fit" the required (and even the preferred) skills listed in the job…

  1. A Talk Show from the Past.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Arlene F.

    1991-01-01

    Describes a two-day activity in which elementary students examine voting rights, the right to assemble, and women's suffrage. Explains the game, "Assemble, Reassemble," and a student-produced talk show with five students playing the roles of leaders of the women's suffrage movement. Profiles Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Lucretia Mott, Susan…

  2. Laser entertainment and light shows in education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabaratnam, Andrew T.; Symons, Charles

    2002-05-01

    Laser shows and beam effects have been a source of entertainment since its first public performance May 9, 1969, at Mills College in Oakland, California. Since 1997, the Photonics Center, NgeeAnn Polytechnic, Singapore, has been using laser shows as a teaching tool. Students are able to exhibit their creative skills and learn at the same time how lasers are used in the entertainment industry. Students will acquire a number of skills including handling three- phase power supply, operation of cooling system, and laser alignment. Students also acquire an appreciation of the arts, learning about shapes and contours as they develop graphics for the shows. After holography, laser show animation provides a combination of the arts and technology. This paper aims to briefly describe how a krypton-argon laser, galvanometer scanners, a polychromatic acousto-optic modulator and related electronics are put together to develop a laser projector. The paper also describes how students are trained to make their own laser animation and beam effects with music, and at the same time have an appreciation of the operation of a Class IV laser and the handling of optical components.

  3. The Last Great American Picture Show

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elsaesser, Thomas; King, Noel; Horwath, Alexander

    2004-01-01

    The Last Great American Picture Show brings together essays by scholars and writers who chart the changing evaluations of the American cinema of the 1970s, sometimes referred to as the decade of the lost generation, but now more and more recognized as the first New Hollywood, without which the

  4. Investigation of the Antimicrobial Activity of Bacillus licheniformis Strains Isolated from Retail Powdered Infant Milk Formulae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Ordóñez, Avelino; Begley, Máire; Clifford, Tanya; Deasy, Thérèse; Considine, Kiera; O'Connor, Paula; Ross, R Paul; Hill, Colin

    2014-03-01

    This study investigated the potential antimicrobial activity of ten Bacillus licheniformis strains isolated from retail infant milk formulae against a range of indicator (Lactococcus lactis, Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Listeria innocua) and clinically relevant (Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae, Salmonella Typhimurium and Escherichia coli) microorganisms. Deferred antagonism assays confirmed that all B. licheniformis isolates show antimicrobial activity against the Gram-positive target organisms. PCR and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry analyses indicated that four of the B. licheniformis isolates produce the bacteriocin lichenicidin. The remaining six isolates demonstrated a higher antimicrobial potency than lichenicidin-producing strains. Further analyses identified a peptide of ~1,422 Da as the most likely bioactive responsible for the antibacterial activity of these six isolates. N-terminal sequencing of the ~1,422 Da peptide from one strain identified it as ILPEITXIFHD. This peptide shows a high homology to the non-ribosomal peptides bacitracin and subpeptin, known to be produced by Bacillus spp. Subsequent PCR analyses demonstrated that the six B. licheniformis isolates may harbor the genetic machinery needed for the synthesis of a non-ribosomal peptide synthetase similar to those involved in production of subpeptin and bacitracin, which suggests that the ~1,422 Da peptide might be a variant of subpeptin and bacitracin.

  5. Short communication: In vitro antimicrobial susceptibility of Mycoplasma agalactiae strains isolated from dairy goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterna, A; Sánchez, A; Gómez-Martín, A; Corrales, J C; De la Fe, C; Contreras, A; Amores, J

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the susceptibility to several antimicrobials of 28 isolates of Mycoplasma agalactiae obtained from goats in a region (southeastern Spain) where contagious agalactia is endemic. For each isolate, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) against 12 antimicrobials of the quinolone, macrolide, aminoglycoside, and tetracycline families was determined. The antimicrobials with the lowest MIC were enrofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, tylosin, and doxycycline, all with MIC90 (concentration at which growth of 90% of the isolates is inhibited) <1 µg/mL. Norfloxacin (a quinolone) showed a wide MIC range (0.1-12.8 µg/mL), suggesting a resistance mechanism toward this antimicrobial that was not elicited by enrofloxacin or ciprofloxacin (the other quinolones tested). Erythromycin showed the highest MIC90 such that its use against Mycoplasma agalactiae is not recommended. Finally, Mycoplasma agalactiae isolates obtained from goat herds with clinical symptoms of contagious agalactia featured higher MIC90 and MIC50 (concentration at which growth of 50% of the isolates is inhibited) values for many of the antimicrobials compared with isolates from asymptomatic animals. The relationship between the extensive use of antimicrobials in herds with clinical contagious agalactia and variations in MIC requires further study. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Genetic diversity and antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter and Salmonella strains isolated from decoys and raptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurado-Tarifa, E; Torralbo, A; Borge, C; Cerdà-Cuéllar, M; Ayats, T; Carbonero, A; García-Bocanegra, I

    2016-10-01

    Infections caused by thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. and Salmonella spp. are the leading causes of human gastroenteritis worldwide. Wild birds can act as reservoirs of both pathogens. A survey was carried out to determine the prevalence, genetic diversity and antimicrobial resistance of thermotolerant Campylobacter and Salmonella in waterfowl used as decoys and wild raptors in Andalusia (Southern Spain). The overall prevalence detected for Campylobacter was 5.9% (18/306; CI95%: 3.25-8.52) in decoys and 2.3% (9/387; CI95%: 0.82-3.83) in wild raptors. Isolates were identified as C. jejuni, C. coli and C. lari in both bird groups. Salmonella was isolated in 3.3% (10/306; CI95%: 2.3-4.3) and 4.6% (18/394; CI95%: 3.5-5.6) of the decoys and raptors, respectively. Salmonella Enteritidis and Typhimurium were the most frequently identified serovars, although Salmonella serovars Anatum, Bredeney, London and Mikawasima were also isolated. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis of isolates showed higher genetic diversity within Campylobacter species compared to Salmonella serovars. Campylobacter isolates showed resistance to gentamicin, ciprofloxacin and tetracycline, while resistance to erythromycin and tetracycline was found in Salmonella isolates. The results indicate that both decoys and raptors can act as natural carriers of Campylobacter and Salmonella in Spain, which may have important implications for public and animal health. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Antifungal Activity of Bee Venom and Sweet Bee Venom against Clinically Isolated Candida albicans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-Bae Lee

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate the antifungal effect of bee venom (BV and sweet bee venom (SBV against Candida albicans (C. albicans clinical isolates. Methods: In this study, BV and SBV were examined for antifungal activities against the Korean Collection for Type Cultures (KCTC strain and 10 clinical isolates of C. albicans. The disk diffusion method was used to measure the antifungal activity and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC assays were performed by using a broth microdilution method. Also, a killing curve assay was conducted to investigate the kinetics of the anti- fungal action. Results: BV and SBV showed antifungal activity against 10 clinical isolates of C. albicans that were cultured from blood and the vagina by using disk diffusion method. The MIC values obtained for clinical isolates by using the broth microdilution method varied from 62.5 μg/ mL to 125 μg/mL for BV and from 15.63 μg/mL to 62.5 μg/mL for SBV. In the killing-curve assay, SBV behaved as amphotericin B, which was used as positive control, did. The antifungal efficacy of SBV was much higher than that of BV. Conclusion: BV and SBV showed antifungal activity against C. albicans clinical strains that were isolated from blood and the vagina. Especially, SBV might be a candidate for a new antifungal agent against C. albicans clinical isolates.

  8. Higher Education in Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jørgen Lerche; Andreasen, Lars Birch

    2015-01-01

    Higher education systems around the world have been undergoing fundamental changes through the last 50 years from more narrow self-sustaining universities for the elite and into mass universities, where new groups of students have been recruited and the number of students enrolled has increased...... an impact on the educational systems in Scandinavia, and what possible futures can be envisioned?...... dramatically. In adjusting to the role of being a mass educational institution, universities have been challenged on how to cope with external pressures, such as forces of globalization and international markets, increased national and international competition for students and research grants, increased...

  9. Higher engineering mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    John Bird

    2014-01-01

    A practical introduction to the core mathematics principles required at higher engineering levelJohn Bird's approach to mathematics, based on numerous worked examples and interactive problems, is ideal for vocational students that require an advanced textbook.Theory is kept to a minimum, with the emphasis firmly placed on problem-solving skills, making this a thoroughly practical introduction to the advanced mathematics engineering that students need to master. The extensive and thorough topic coverage makes this an ideal text for upper level vocational courses. Now in

  10. Development of novel Alicyclobacillus spp. isolation medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, S; Kang, D-H

    2005-01-01

    To develop a new isolation medium with higher recovery rates of Alicyclobacillus spp. SK agar was developed with optimized incubation temperature, pH, acidulant, Tween 80 concentration and divalent cation addition. Results indicate that detection of Alicyclobacillus spp. by SK agar was significantly higher (P > 0.05) than those obtained by K agar, orange serum agar, and potato dextrose agar. Current media used for Alicyclobacillus spp. isolation still resulted in high numbers of false negative products. The sensitivity of SK agar to Alicyclobacillus spp. allows detection of low numbers of Alicyclobacillus spp. and also provides a more higher isolation results compared with currently used media. SK agar will be useful to the fruit juice industry to obtain more accurate numbers of contaminant Alicyclobacillus spp. With this media, false negative samples can be reduced, and the likelihood of exported products being rejected can be greatly reduced.

  11. Pathogenicity of Bacillus thuringiensis isolated from two species of Acromyrmex (Hymenoptera, Formicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. M. N. Pinto

    Full Text Available The control of Acromyrmex leaf-cutting ants is necessary due to the severe damage they cause to diverse crops. A possibility was to control them using the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt that characteristically produces insecticidal crystal proteins (ICPs. The ICPs have been effective in controlling lepidopterans, dipterans, and coleopterans, but their action against hymenopterans is unknown. This paper describes an attempt to isolate Bt from ants of two Acromyrmex species, to evaluate its pathogenicity towards these ants, and to test isolates by PCR. Bacterial isolates of Bt obtained from A. crassispinus and A. lundi have been assayed against A. lundi in the laboratory. The bioassays were carried out in BOD at 25°C, with a 12-hour photoperiod, until the seventh day after treatment. The Bt isolates obtained were submitted to total DNA extraction and tested by PCR with primers specific to cry genes. The results showed Bt presence in 40% of the assessed samples. The data from the in vivo assays showed a mortality rate higher than 50% in the target population, with the Bt HA48 isolate causing 100% of corrected mortality. The PCR results of Bt isolates showed a magnification of DNA fragments relative to cry1 genes in 22% of the isolates, and cry9 in 67%. Cry2, cry3, cry7, and cry8 genes were not detected in the tested samples, and 22% had no magnified DNA fragments corresponding to the assessed cry genes. The results are promising not only regarding allele identification in new isolates, but also fort the assays aimed at determining the Bt HA48 LC50's, which can eventually be applied in controlling of Acromyrmex leaf-cutting ants.

  12. The heterogeneity of socially isolated older adults: a social isolation typology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machielse, Anja

    2015-01-01

    Recent statistics show a growing number of older adults who are living alone and are socially isolated. It is against this background that, in recent years, many interventions have been developed to address social isolation among the elderly. Evaluative studies show that most interventions are hardly effective, though. An important reason for this is the heterogeneity of the socially isolated. This article offers insight into this heterogeneity by presenting a typology with different profiles of socially isolated older adults and the intervention implications of this typology. The typology is derived from an extensive qualitative study on socially isolated elderly individuals in the Netherlands. The typology imposes some degree of order to a diversity of circumstances, ambitions, and possibilities of the socially isolated elderly, thereby deepening the understanding of the heterogeneity of this population. The definition of social isolation used in this study starts from a societal angle of incidence, namely the current policy context of Western European welfare states, in which governments emphasize the importance of independence and self-reliance of their citizens. Developed from that perspective, the typology provides a theoretical basis for applying interventions aimed at increasing self-reliance of social isolated elderly. This perspective on social isolation also has consequences for the way in which the effectiveness of interventions to alleviate social isolation is assessed.

  13. Reality, ficción o show

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Ruíz Moreno

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Para tener un punto de vista claro y objetivo frente a la polémica establecida en torno al programa “Protagonistas de novela” y la tendiente proliferación de los reality show en las parrillas de programación de la televisión colombiana, se realizó un análisis de texto y contenido de dicho programa, intentando definirlo desde sus posibilidades de realidad, ficción y show. Las unidades de análisis y el estudio de su tratamiento arrojaron un alto contenido que gira en torno a las emociones del ser humano relacionadas con la convivencia, tratadas a manera de show y con algunos aportes textuales de ficción, pero sin su elemento mediador básico, el actor, quitándole toda la posibilidad de tener un tratamiento con la profundidad, distancia y ética que requieren los temas de esta índole. El resultado es un formato que sólo busca altos índices de sintonía y que pertenece más a la denominada televisión “trash”, que a una búsqueda de realidad del hombre y mucho menos de sociedad.

  14. Towards higher intensities

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    Over the past 2 weeks, commissioning of the machine protection system has advanced significantly, opening up the possibility of higher intensity collisions at 3.5 TeV. The intensity has been increased from 2 bunches of 1010 protons to 6 bunches of 2x1010 protons. Luminosities of 6x1028 cm-2s-1 have been achieved at the start of fills, a factor of 60 higher than those provided for the first collisions on 30 March.   The recent increase in LHC luminosity as recorded by the experiments. (Graph courtesy of the experiments and M. Ferro-Luzzi) To increase the luminosity further, the commissioning crews are now trying to push up the intensity of the individual proton bunches. After the successful injection of nominal intensity bunches containing 1.1x1011 protons, collisions were subsequently achieved at 450 GeV with these intensities. However, half-way through the first ramping of these nominal intensity bunches to 3.5 TeV on 15 May, a beam instability was observed, leading to partial beam loss...

  15. Inhibitory and enzyme-kinetic investigation of chelerythrine and lupeol isolated from Zanthoxylum rhoifolium against krait snake venom acetylcholinesterase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, Mustaq, E-mail: mushtaq213@yahoo.com [University of Science and Technology, Bannu, (Pakistan). Department of Biotechnology; Weber, Andrea D.; Zanon, Graciane; Tavares, Luciana de C.; Ilha, Vinicius; Dalcol, Ionara I.; Morel, Ademir F., E-mail: ademirfariasm@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, RS (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica

    2014-01-15

    The in vitro activity of chelerythrine and lupeol, two metabolites isolated from Zanthoxylum rhoifolium were studied against the venom of the snake Bungarus sindanus (Elapidae). The venom, which is highly toxic to humans, consists mainly by the enzyme acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Both compounds showed activity against the venom, and the alkaloid chelerythrine presented higher activity than did triterpene lupeol. (author)

  16. A nonself sugar mimic of the HIV glycan shield shows enhanced antigenicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doores, Katie J.; Fulton, Zara; Hong, Vu; Patel, Mitul K.; Scanlan, Christopher N.; Wormald, Mark R.; Finn, M.G.; Burton, Dennis R.; Wilson, Ian A.; Davis, Benjamin G. (Scripps); (Oxford)

    2011-08-24

    Antibody 2G12 uniquely neutralizes a broad range of HIV-1 isolates by binding the high-mannose glycans on the HIV-1 surface glycoprotein, gp120. Antigens that resemble these natural epitopes of 2G12 would be highly desirable components for an HIV-1 vaccine. However, host-produced (self)-carbohydrate motifs have been unsuccessful so far at eliciting 2G12-like antibodies that cross-react with gp120. Based on the surprising observation that 2G12 binds nonproteinaceous monosaccharide D-fructose with higher affinity than D-mannose, we show here that a designed set of nonself, synthetic monosaccharides are potent antigens. When introduced to the terminus of the D1 arm of protein glycans recognized by 2G12, their antigenicity is significantly enhanced. Logical variation of these unnatural sugars pinpointed key modifications, and the molecular basis of this increased antigenicity was elucidated using high-resolution crystallographic analyses. Virus-like particle protein conjugates containing such nonself glycans are bound more tightly by 2G12. As immunogens they elicit higher titers of antibodies than those immunogenic conjugates containing the self D1 glycan motif. These antibodies generated from nonself immunogens also cross-react with this self motif, which is found in the glycan shield, when it is presented in a range of different conjugates and glycans. However, these antibodies did not bind this glycan motif when present on gp120.

  17. Isolation and Characterization of Pollulan Produced by a Local Isolate of Aureobasidium Pullulans

    OpenAIRE

    Kassim, Mohammad Bashir Ismail [محمد بشيراسماعيل قاسم

    2000-01-01

    A local isolate of Aureobasidium pullulans was obtained from fig leaves surface. The isolate was identified as A. pullulans on the basis of appearance of polymorphism in the colonies, melanin pigment and pullulan production in shake flask cultures. Pullulan production by the local isolate of A pullulans was two thirds of that produced by ATCC 42023. The studies of physico — chemical properties, chemical analysis, sugar composition periodate oxidation and smith degradation showed that the pull...

  18. Phylogenetic analysis of Newcastle disease viruses isolated from commercial poultry in Mozambique, 2011 to 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mapaco, L.P.; Monjane, I.V.A.; Nhamusso, A.E.; Viljoen, G.J; Dundon, W.G.; Achá, S.J.

    2016-01-01

    Full text: The complete sequence of the fusion (F) protein gene from eleven Newcastle disease viruses (NDV) isolated from commercial poultry in Mozambique between 2011 and 2016 has been generated. The F gene cleavage site motif for all eleven isolates was 112RRRKRF117 indicating that the viruses are virulent. A phylogenetic analysis using the full F gene sequence revealed that the viruses clustered within genotype VIIh and showed a higher similarity to NDVs from South Africa, China and Southeast Asia than to viruses previously described in Mozambique in 1994 to 1995 and 2005. The characterization of these new NDVs has important implications for Newcastle disease management and control in Mozambique. (author)

  19. Higher-order (non-)modularity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appel, Claus; van Oostrom, Vincent; Simonsen, Jakob Grue

    2010-01-01

    We show that, contrary to the situation in first-order term rewriting, almost none of the usual properties of rewriting are modular for higher-order rewriting, irrespective of the higher-order rewriting format. We show that for the particular format of simply typed applicative term rewriting...... systems modularity of confluence, normalization, and termination can be recovered by imposing suitable linearity constraints....

  20. Electricity production shows improvement across Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    In the first half of 1991, electricity production from Canadian utilities improved substantially compared to the first half of 1990. Canada was a net importer of 5332 GWh in January-June 1990 while it was a net exporter of 5250 GWh in January-June 1991. The largest single factor in this reversal is the improved performance of Ontario Hydro's CANDU reactors. Total acid gas emissions by Ontario Hydro for 1991 are expected to total 240,000 tonnes, about the same as 1990, but at much higher capacity factors. A combination of recession, private power generation, and the startup of the Seabrook nuclear station have put a brake on power exports to the USA. New Brunswick Power exports were not only affected by the new capacity at Seabrook but also because of low water conditions at its hydroelectric plants. Hydro-Quebec generated 300 GWh more hydraulic energy in June 1991 than in June 1990 and its Gentilly-2 nuclear station has been operating at 96.7% capacity. The Quebec utility exported 1215 GWh to the USA and 2121 GWh to other Canadian utilities in January-June 1991, compared to 1602 GWh and 2232 GWh resspectively in January-June 1990. 1 tab

  1. Teaching at higher levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-11-01

    Undergraduate physics programmes for the 21st century were under discussion at a recent event held in Arlington, USA, open to two or three members of the physics faculties of universities from across the whole country. The conference was organized by the American Association of Physics Teachers with co-sponsorship from the American Institute of Physics, the American Physical Society and Project Kaleidoscope. Among the various aims were to learn about physics departments that have successfully revitalized their undergraduate physics programmes with innovative introductory physics courses and multi-track majors programmes. Engineers and life scientists were to be asked directly how physics programmes can better serve their students, and business leaders would be speaking on how physics departments can help to prepare their students for the diverse careers that they will eventually follow. It was planned to highlight ways that departments could fulfil their responsibilities towards trainee teachers, to identify the resources needed for revitalizing a department's programme, and to develop guidelines and recommendations for a funding programme to support collaborative efforts among physics departments for carrying out the enhancements required. More details about the conference can be found on the AAPT website (see http://www.aapt.org/programs/rupc.html). Meanwhile the UK's Higher Education Funding Council has proposed a two-pronged approach to the promotion of high quality teaching and learning, as well as widening participation in higher education from 1999-2000. A total of £60m should be available to support these initiatives by the year 2001-2002. As part of this scheme the Council will invite bids from institutions to support individual academics in enhancing learning and teaching, as well as in recognition of individual excellence. As with research grants, such awards would enable staff to pursue activities such as the development of teaching materials

  2. Isolated adrenal paracoccidioidomycosis: Case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uribe Castro, Jorge Ricardo; Quintana, Humberto; Puentes, Alix Sofia and others

    2011-01-01

    Even though paracoccidioidomycosis has a relatively high prevalence in Latin America in a systemic form, isolated cases, especially compromising the adrenal glands, are uncommon, with only two reported cases. In this article, we report the case of a 55 year-old male with clinical manifestations of adrenal insufficiency. The only imaging finding was the presence of bilateral adrenal masses. The biopsy showed Paracoccidioides brasiliensis infection.

  3. Evolution of Isolated Neutron Stars

    OpenAIRE

    Popov, S. B.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we briefly review our recent results on evolution and properties of isolated neutron stars (INSs) in the Galaxy. As the first step we discuss stochastic period evolution of INSs. We briefly discuss how an INS's spin period evolves under influence of interaction with turbulized interstellar medium. To investigate statistical properties of the INS population we calculate a {\\it census} of INSs in our Galaxy. Then we show that for exponential field decay the range of minimum value ...

  4. Higher Order Mode Fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Israelsen, Stine Møller

    This PhD thesis considers higher order modes (HOMs) in optical fibers. That includes their excitation and characteristics. Within the last decades, HOMs have been applied both for space multiplexing in optical communications, group velocity dispersion management and sensing among others......-radial polarization as opposed to the linear polarization of the LP0X modes. The effect is investigated numerically in a double cladding fiber with an outer aircladding using a full vectorial modesolver. Experimentally, the bowtie modes are excited using a long period grating and their free space characteristics...... and polarization state are investigated. For this fiber, the onset of the bowtie effect is shown numerically to be LP011. The characteristics usually associated with Bessel-likes modes such as long diffraction free length and selfhealing are shown to be conserved despite the lack of azimuthal symmetry...

  5. Spiky higher genus strings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambjoern, J.; Bellini, A.; Johnston, D.

    1990-10-01

    It is clear from both the non-perturbative and perturbative approaches to two-dimensional quantum gravity that a new strong coupling regime is setting in at d=1, independent of the genus of the worldsheet being considered. It has been suggested that a Kosterlitz-Thouless (KT) phase transition in the Liouville theory is the cause of this behaviour. However, it has recently been pointed out that the XY model, which displays a KT transition on the plane and the sphere, is always in the strong coupling, disordered phase on a surface of constant negative curvature. A higher genus worldsheet can be represented as a fundamental region on just such a surface, which might seem to suggest that the KT picture predicts a strong coupling region for arbitrary d, contradicting the known results. We resolve the apparent paradox. (orig.)

  6. Three distinct clones of carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii with high diversity of carbapenemases isolated from patients in two hospitals in Kuwait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.A. Al-Sweih

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Objectives: This study was undertaken to investigate the clonal relatedness of multidrug-resistant (MDR Acinetobacter baumannii isolates collected from patients in two teaching hospitals in Kuwait. Materials and methods: Clinically significant consecutive isolates of A. baumannii obtained from patients in the Mubarak (36 and Adan (58 hospitals over a period of 6 months were studied. These isolates were identified using molecular methods, and their antimicrobial susceptibility was determined by the Etest method. The mechanism of resistance to carbapenem was investigated by PCR, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE was used to determine the clonal relatedness of MDR isolates. Results: Of the 94 isolates investigated, 80 (85.1% were multidrug resistant (MDR. The A. baumannii PFGE clone A and subclone A1 were the most prevalent in patients infected with MDR isolates. Fifty-five (94.8% and 15 (41.7% of the MDR isolates from the Adan and Mubarak hospitals, respectively, belonged to PFGE clone A; isolates in this group showed higher resistance rates to antibiotics than isolates form other groups. Of the 94 isolates, 40 (42.6% were resistant to either imipenem or meropenem or to both (CRAB. Most CRAB isolates (29/40 or 72.5% carried bla genes, which code for MBL (VIM-2 and IMP-1 enzymes. Two isolates harbored blaOXA-23. Conclusion: Three distinct clones of CRAB were isolated, providing evidence of a high diversity of carbapenemases among our geographically related isolates. Keywords: MDR A. baumannii, Genotypes, bla genes, Kuwait hospitals

  7. A high-affinity inhibitor of yeast carboxypeptidase Y is encoded by TFS1 and shows homology to a family of lipid binding proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, A W; Svendsen, I; Sørensen, S O

    1998-01-01

    signals for transport into the endoplasmic reticulum. Surprisingly, Ic is encoded by TFS1, which has previously been isolated as a high-copy suppressor of cdc25-1. CDC25 encodes the putative GTP exchange factor for Ras1p/Ras2p in yeast. In an attempt to rationalize this finding, we looked...... degree of specificity, showing a 200-fold higher Ki toward a carboxypeptidase from Candida albicans which is highly homologous to carboxypeptidase Y. The TFS1 gene product shows extensive similarity to a class of proteins termed "21-23-kDa lipid binding proteins", members of which are found in several...

  8. Myopes show increased susceptibility to nearwork aftereffects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciuffreda, K J; Wallis, D M

    1998-09-01

    Some aspects of accommodation may be slightly abnormal (or different) in myopes, compared with accommodation in emmetropes and hyperopes. For example, the initial magnitude of accommodative adaptation in the dark after nearwork is greatest in myopes. However, the critical test is to assess this initial accommodative aftereffect and its subsequent decay in the light under more natural viewing conditions with blur-related visual feedback present, if a possible link between this phenomenon and clinical myopia is to be considered. Subjects consisted of adult late- (n = 11) and early-onset (n = 13) myopes, emmetropes (n = 11), and hyperopes (n = 9). The distance-refractive state was assessed objectively using an autorefractor immediately before and after a 10-minute binocular near task at 20 cm (5 diopters [D]). Group results showed that myopes were most susceptible to the nearwork aftereffect. It averaged 0.35 D in initial magnitude, with considerably faster posttask decay to baseline in the early-onset (35 seconds) versus late-onset (63 seconds) myopes. There was no myopic aftereffect in the remaining two refractive groups. The myopes showed particularly striking accommodatively related nearwork aftereffect susceptibility. As has been speculated and found by many others, transient pseudomyopia may cause or be a precursor to permanent myopia or myopic progression. Time-integrated increased retinal defocus causing axial elongation is proposed as a possible mechanism.

  9. Selection and characterisation of monepantel resistance in Teladorsagia circumcincta isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartley, D J; Devin, L; Nath, M; Morrison, A A

    2015-08-01

    Monepantel (MPTL) is one of two new anthelmintic compounds introduced onto the sheep market to control gastro-intestinal nematodes. Resistance to this compound is rare but has been reported. In order to preserve the efficacy of this and other anthelmintics, it is essential to understand both (a) the mechanisms involved in the selection of resistance and (b) how the parasites evolve to deal with these compounds. To address these questions three MPTL-resistant Teladorsagia circumcincta isolates (MTci2-11, MTci5-13 and MTci7-12) have been artificially selected in vivo from phenotypically characterised parent isolates (MTci2, MTci5, MTci7 respectively). The selection process involved collecting and culturing eggs from surviving worms from sheep administered sub-optimal dosages of MPTL (Zolvix®) to provide infective larvae to infect further sheep until resistant isolates were generated (between 9 and 13 rounds of selection). A controlled efficacy test was conducted using the original parental isolates and the newly generated MPTL resistant isolates (n = 5 per group). Selected isolates were assessed both under anthelmintic stress (Zolvix®, 2.5 mg/kg bodyweight; MTci-MPTL) and at rest (untreated, MTci-CON). A number of life-history traits were assessed, namely, worm establishment rates, time to patency, faecal egg output, body length of adults and eggs in utero. The estimated resistance status of the selected isolates was confirmed with 48%, 28% and 9% reductions in worm burden at 7-days post Zolvix® administration for MTci2-11-MPTL, MTci5-13-MPTL and MTci7-12-MPTL, respectively, compared with untreated controls. One of the selected isolates MTci7-12-CON showed significantly greater total worm burden (p = 0.025), greater establishment rate (p = 0.033), decreased time to patency (p = 0.048), higher cumulative egg outputs (p = 0.002) compared with its parental derivative MTci7. The trial results suggest that anthelmintic selection in T

  10. Intelligence Tests with Higher G-Loadings Show Higher Correlations with Body Symmetry: Evidence for a General Fitness Factor Mediated by Developmental Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokosch, M.D.; Yeo, R.A.; Miller, G.F.

    2005-01-01

    Just as body symmetry reveals developmental stability at the morphological level, general intelligence may reveal developmental stability at the level of brain development and cognitive functioning. These two forms of developmental stability may overlap by tapping into a ''general fitness factor.'' If so, then intellectual tests with higher…

  11. Ancient bacteria show evidence of DNA repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnson, Sarah Stewart; Hebsgaard, Martin B; Christensen, Torben R

    2007-01-01

    -term survival of bacteria sealed in frozen conditions for up to one million years. Our results show evidence of bacterial survival in samples up to half a million years in age, making this the oldest independently authenticated DNA to date obtained from viable cells. Additionally, we find strong evidence...... geological timescales. There has been no direct evidence in ancient microbes for the most likely mechanism, active DNA repair, or for the metabolic activity necessary to sustain it. In this paper, we couple PCR and enzymatic treatment of DNA with direct respiration measurements to investigate long...... that this long-term survival is closely tied to cellular metabolic activity and DNA repair that over time proves to be superior to dormancy as a mechanism in sustaining bacteria viability....

  12. Microbiological and environmental issues in show caves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiz-Jimenez, Cesareo

    2012-07-01

    Cultural tourism expanded in the last half of the twentieth century, and the interest of visitors has come to include caves containing archaeological remains. Some show caves attracted mass tourism, and economical interests prevailed over conservation, which led to a deterioration of the subterranean environment and the rock art. The presence and the role of microorganisms in caves is a topic that is often ignored in cave management. Knowledge of the colonisation patterns, the dispersion mechanisms, and the effect on human health and, when present, over rock art paintings of these microorganisms is of the utmost importance. In this review the most recent advances in the study of microorganisms in caves are presented, together with the environmental implications of the findings.

  13. Seismic isolation of nuclear power plants using sliding isolation bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Manish

    eight sites across the United States to show that the factor is equal to 1.0 for seismically isolated NPPs, if the risk is dominated by horizontal earthquake shaking. Response-history analyses using different models of seismically isolated NPPs are performed to understand the importance of the choice of friction model, model complexity and vertical ground motion for calculating horizontal displacement response across a wide range of sites and shaking intensities. A friction model for the single concave FP bearing should address heating. The pressure- and velocity-dependencies were not important for the models and sites studied. Isolation-system displacements can be computed using a macro model comprising a single FP bearing.

  14. Diversity of bacteria associated with Bursaphelenchus xylophilus and other nematodes isolated from Pinus pinaster trees with pine wilt disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo Neves Proença

    Full Text Available The pinewood nematode (PWN, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, has been thought to be the only causal agent of pine wilt disease (PWD, however, since bacteria have been suggested to play a role in PWD, it is important to know the diversity of the microbial community associated to it. This study aimed to assess the microbial community associated with B. xylophilus and with other nematodes isolated from pine trees, Pinus pinaster, with PWD from three different affected forest areas in Portugal. One hundred and twenty three bacteria strains were isolated from PWN and other nematodes collected from 14 P. pinaster. The bacteria strains were identified by comparative analysis of the 16S rRNA gene partial sequence. All except one gram-positive strain (Actinobacteria belonged to the gram-negative Beta and Gammaproteobacteria. Most isolates belonged to the genus Pseudomonas, Burkholderia and to the family Enterobacteriaceae. Species isolated in higher percentage were Pseudomonas lutea, Yersinia intermedia and Burkholderia tuberum. The major bacterial population associated to the nematodes differed according to the forest area and none of the isolated bacterial species was found in all different forest areas. For each of the sampled areas, 60 to 100% of the isolates produced siderophores and at least 40% produced lipases. The ability to produce siderophores and lipases by most isolates enables these bacteria to have a role in plant physiological response. This research showed a high diversity of the microbial community associated with B. xylophilus and other nematodes isolated from P. pinaster with PWD.

  15. Diversity of bacteria associated with Bursaphelenchus xylophilus and other nematodes isolated from Pinus pinaster trees with pine wilt disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proença, Diogo Neves; Francisco, Romeu; Santos, Clara Vieira; Lopes, André; Fonseca, Luís; Abrantes, Isabel M O; Morais, Paula V

    2010-12-09

    The pinewood nematode (PWN), Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, has been thought to be the only causal agent of pine wilt disease (PWD), however, since bacteria have been suggested to play a role in PWD, it is important to know the diversity of the microbial community associated to it. This study aimed to assess the microbial community associated with B. xylophilus and with other nematodes isolated from pine trees, Pinus pinaster, with PWD from three different affected forest areas in Portugal. One hundred and twenty three bacteria strains were isolated from PWN and other nematodes collected from 14 P. pinaster. The bacteria strains were identified by comparative analysis of the 16S rRNA gene partial sequence. All except one gram-positive strain (Actinobacteria) belonged to the gram-negative Beta and Gammaproteobacteria. Most isolates belonged to the genus Pseudomonas, Burkholderia and to the family Enterobacteriaceae. Species isolated in higher percentage were Pseudomonas lutea, Yersinia intermedia and Burkholderia tuberum. The major bacterial population associated to the nematodes differed according to the forest area and none of the isolated bacterial species was found in all different forest areas. For each of the sampled areas, 60 to 100% of the isolates produced siderophores and at least 40% produced lipases. The ability to produce siderophores and lipases by most isolates enables these bacteria to have a role in plant physiological response. This research showed a high diversity of the microbial community associated with B. xylophilus and other nematodes isolated from P. pinaster with PWD.

  16. Partial Sequencing of 16S rRNA Gene of Selected Staphylococcus aureus Isolates and its Antibiotic Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harsi Dewantari Kusumaningrum

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The choice of primer used in 16S rRNA sequencing for identification of Staphylococcus species found in food is important. This study aimed to characterize Staphylococcus aureus isolates by partial sequencing based on 16S rRNA gene employing primers 16sF, 63F or 1387R. The isolates were isolated from milk, egg dishes and chicken dishes and selected based on the presence of sea gene that responsible for formation of enterotoxin-A. Antibiotic susceptibility of the isolates towards six antibiotics was also tested. The use of 16sF resulted generally in higher identity percentage and query coverage compared to the sequencing by 63F or 1387R. BLAST results of all isolates, sequenced by 16sF, showed 99% homology to complete genome of four S. aureus strains, with different characteristics on enterotoxin production and antibiotic resistance. Considering that all isolates were carrying sea gene, indicated by the occurence of 120 bp amplicon after PCR amplification using primer SEA1/SEA2,  the isolates were most in agreeing to S. aureus subsp. aureus ST288. This study indicated that 4 out of 8 selected isolates were resistant towards streptomycin. The 16S rRNA gene sequencing using 16sF is useful for identification of S. aureus. However, additional analysis such as PCR employing specific gene target, should give a valuable supplementary information, when specific characteristic is expected.

  17. Isolation and characterization of phenol degrading yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Riddhi; Rajkumar, Shalini

    2009-04-01

    A phenol degrading yeast isolate was identified and characterized from the soil sample collected from a landfill site, in Ahmedabad, India, by plating the soil dilutions on Sabouraud's Dextrose Agar. The microscopic studies and biochemical tests indicated the isolate to be Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The phenol degrading potential of the isolate was measured by inoculation of pure culture in the mineral medium containing various phenol concentrations ranging from 100 to 800 mg l(-1 )and monitoring phenol disappearance rate at regular intervals of time. Growth of the isolate in mineral medium with various phenol concentrations was monitored by measuring the turbidity (OD(600) nm). The results showed that the isolated yeast was tolerant to phenol up to 800 mg(-1). The phenol degradation ranged from 8.57 to 100% for the concentration of phenol from 800 mg l(-1 )to 200 mg l(-1), respectively. ((c) 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim).

  18. Isolation of Pasteurella multocida from broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Poernomo

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available Pasteurella multocida, the etiological agent of fowl cholera, was isolated from five, 32 days oldbroilerchickens in the late of 1992. The chickens were from a farm located in Bogor area, raised in cages and each flock consisted of 1,550 broilers . Therewere 230 birds, aging from 28-31 days old, died with clinical signs of lameness and difficulty in breathing. Serological test of the isolate revealed serotype Aof Carter classification . To prove its virulences, the isolate was then inoculated into 3 mice subcutaneously. The mice died less then 24 hours postinoculation and P. multocida can be reisolated . The sensitivity test to antibiotics and sulfa preparations showed that the isolate was sensitive to ampicillin, doxycyclin, erythromycin, gentamycin, sulfamethoxazol-trimethoprim and baytril, but resistance to tetracyclin, kanamycin and oxytetracyclin. This is the first report of P. multocida isolation in broiler chickens in Indonesia, and it is intended to add information on bacterial diseases in poultry in Indonesia.

  19. Reforming Iraqi Journalism and Mass Communication Higher Education: Adapting the UNESCO Model Curricula for Journalism Education to Iraqi Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlik, John V.; Laufer, Peter D.; Burns, David P.; Ataya, Ramzi T.

    2012-01-01

    Journalism and mass communication higher education in Iraq is well established but largely isolated from global developments since the 1970s. In the post-Iraq war period, the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) implemented a multiyear project to work with the leadership of Iraqi higher education to help update…

  20. [Community structure and diversity of culturable moderate halophilic bacteria isolated from Qrhan salt lake on Qinghai-Tibet Plateau].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Shuo

    2017-04-04

    I studied the community structure and diversity of culturable moderate halophilic bacteria isolated from Qrhan Salt Lake. I isolated and cultured the moderate halophilic bacteria on different selective media. After the 16S rRNA gene sequences was amplified and measured, I constructed the phylogenic tree, analyzed the community structure and calculated the diversity indexes according to the 16S rRNA gene information. A total of 421 moderate halophilic bacteria were isolated from water and mud samples in Qrhan Salt Lake. The 16S rRNA gene information showed that 4 potential novel species belonged to the family Bacillaceae. Eighty-three model strains belonged to 3 phylurms 6 families 16 genus. Among them, Bacillus sp., Oceanobacillus sp. and Halomonas sp. were dominant species. Diversity analysis showed that the diversity of strains isolated from water sample was higher than that from mud sample, but the dominance degree of strains isolated from mud sample was higher than that from water sample. The genetic diversity of moderate halophilic bacteria isolated from Qrhan Salt Lake was abundant. Also, there were dominant and novel species of culturable moderate halophilic bacteria in this lake.

  1. Effect of Origanum heracleoticum L. essential oil on food-borne Penicillium aurantiogriseum and Penicilium chrysogenum isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čabarkapa Ivana S.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Molds are ubiquitously distributed in nature and their spores can be found in the atmosphere even at high altitudes. The difficulty of controlling these undesirable molds, as well as the growing interest of the consumers in natural products, have been forcing the industry to find new alternatives for food preservation. The modern trends in nutrition suggest the limitation of synthetic food additives or substitution with natural ones. Aromatic herbs are probably the most important source of natural antimicrobial agents. Origanum heracleoticum L. essential oil has been known as an interesting source of antimicrobial compounds to be applied in food preservation. In the this work, we have investigated the effect of essential oil obtained from O. heracleoticum on growth of six isolates of Penicillium aurantiogriseum and four isolates of Penicillium chrysogenum isolated from meat plant for traditional Petrovacka sausage (Petrovská klobása production. The findings reveal that the essential oil of O. heracleoticum provides inhibition of all of fungal isolates tested. O. heracleoticum L. essential oil exhibited higher antifungal activity against the isolates of P. chrysogenum than the isolates of P. aurantiogriseum. O. heracleoticum essential oil showed a MIC value ranging from 25 to 100 μL/mL. The fungi cultivated in the medium with higher concentration of essential oil showed certain morphological changes. The alterations included lack of sporulation and loss of pigmentation.

  2. Phylogenetic relationships of Chaetomium isolates based on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Molecular characterization of 18 Chaetomium isolates collected from India based on the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the rRNA gene sequences was done. Phylogenetic analysis of full length ITS region showed that Chaetomium globosum isolates, Cg1, Cg2, Cg6, Cg11 and Cg15, Chaetomium spp. isolates, ...

  3. A half mode inkjet printed tunable ferrite isolator

    KAUST Repository

    Ghaffar, Farhan A.; Vaseem, Mohammed; Bray, Joey. R.; Shamim, Atif

    2017-01-01

    . The isolation band can be controlled by changing the applied magnetostatic bias. As the bias is varied from 1500 Oe to 3500 Oe the center frequency of the isolation band varies from 4.45 GHz to 9 GHz. The measured response of the isolator shows that it can

  4. Learning higher mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Pontrjagin, Lev Semenovič

    1984-01-01

    Lev Semenovic Pontrjagin (1908) is one of the outstanding figures in 20th century mathematics. In a long career he has made fundamental con­ tributions to many branches of mathematics, both pure and applied. He has received every honor that a grateful government can bestow. Though in no way constrained to do so, he has through the years taught mathematics courses at Moscow State University. In the year 1975 he set himself the task of writing a series of books on secondary school and beginning university mathematics. In his own words, "I wished to set forth the foundations of higher mathematics in a form that would have been accessible to myself as a lad, but making use of all my experience as a scientist and a teacher, ac­ cumulated over many years. " The present volume is a translation of the first two out of four moderately sized volumes on this theme planned by Pro­ fessor Pontrjagin. The book begins at the beginning of modern mathematics, analytic ge­ ometry in the plane and 3-dimensional space. Refin...

  5. Isolation of peat swamp forest foliar endophyte fungi as biofertilizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safinah Surya Hakim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Peatland restoration activity is facing many obstacles, particularly in planting techniques and poor nutrient in peat soil. Naturally, endophytic fungi are abundant and have great potential as biofertilizer. This research investigates the potential endophytic fungi isolated from leaves of peat swamp tree species for biofertilizer. Research activities include: exploration, in vitro test to examine the phosphate solubilization and identification. Result showed that there were 360 leave segments collected from 4 sampling locations. The colonization percentage of 222 isolates ranged from 52.17% - 60.17%. Fifty seven morphospecies were selected from 222 isolates. Twelve isolates demonstrated ability to produce clear zones and ten isolates were selected for identification. It is concluded that twelve isolated demonstrated potential ability to produce clear zone and Penicillum citrinum isolate P3.10 was identified as an isolate that show the highest potential ability as a biofertilizer

  6. Canadian geologic isolation program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dyne, P.J.

    1976-01-01

    The Canadian geologic isolation program is directed at examining the potential of (1) salt deposits and (2) hard rock as repositories for radioactive wastes. It was felt essential from the inception that alternative host rocks be evaluated over a fairly large geographical area. The studies on salt deposits to date are based on existing geological information and have identified the areas that show some potential and merit further study. The factors considered include depth, thickness and purity of the deposit, overlying aquifers, and the potential for gas and oil exploration as well as potash recovery. The studies on hard rock are restricted to plutonic igneous rocks in the Ontario part of the Canadian Shield. Because geological information on their nature and extent is sparse, the study is limited to bodies that are well exposed and for which information is available.for which information is available. Field studies in the next two seasons are aimed at mapping the fault and joint patterns and defining the geologic controls on their development. In 1977 and 1978, two or three of the more favorable sites will be mapped in greater detail, and an exploratory drilling program will be established to determine the extent of fracturing at depth and the hydrology of these fractures. Conceptual designs of mined repositories in hard rock are also being made with the hope of identifying, at an early stage in this program, special problems in hard-rock repositories that may require development and study

  7. The Growth of Higher Educators for Social Justice: Collaborative Professional Development in Higher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molly K. Ness, PhD

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we investigate what happened when, contrary to the typical isolation of faculty in higher education, a group of higher educators from various disciplines in a graduate school of education met regularly to discuss issues related to our teaching and social justice. More specifically, we explored the following research question: How does collaboration among higher educators from various disciplines shape their beliefs and practices of teaching for social justice? Over three years of collaboration and conversation, not only did we expand our own knowledge and understandings of notions of social justice, but we began to take important steps towards increasing our social justice actions in our teaching. This article explores our efforts to create a self-directed professional development group of higher educators and provides suggestions for similarly interested higher educators.

  8. Improvement of vitamin B-6 production by gamma radiation in bacterial isolates from soil sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trongpanich, Yanee; Anutrakunchai, Chitchanok; Piadang, Nattayana

    2006-09-01

    A vitamin B-6 producing bacterium, Rhizobium sp. 6.1C1 was isolated from soil and produced vitamin B-6 (mainly pyridoxamine) 0.27 mg per liter. Rhizobium sp. 6.1C1 is mesophile bacterium which was not able to grow at over 4 0C. The objective of this study was to improve vitamin B-6 production in high temperature by gamma radiation. The result showed that 677 mutant isolates which were obtained from irradiation dose 0.8 and 1 kGy, were able to grow at 5 0C. Only 4 isolates (08-361, 10-3, 10-94 and 10-98) showed high amount of vitamin B-6 per mg protein. From the results of optimum temperature and initial pH of medium showed high amount of vitamin B-6 per mg protein. From the results of optimum temperature and initial pH of medium showed that isolate 08-361 showed higher amount of vitamin b-6 than wild type. However, this value of vitamin B-6 from this mutant was lower than that when screening. Forms of produced vitamin B-6 from mutant were identified by HPLC. The result showed produced vitamin B-6 were PM and PMP, similar with wild type. Effect of gamma radiation stability of mutant is further study.

  9. Marine fungi isolated from Chilean fjord sediments can degrade oxytetracycline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahumada-Rudolph, R; Novoa, V; Sáez, K; Martínez, M; Rudolph, A; Torres-Diaz, C; Becerra, J

    2016-08-01

    Salmon farming is the main economic activity in the fjords area of Southern Chile. This activity requires the use of antibiotics, such as oxytetracycline, for the control and prevention of diseases, which have a negative impact on the environment. We analyzed the abilities of endemic marine fungi to biodegrade oxytetracycline, an antibiotic used extensively in fish farming. We isolated marine fungi strains from sediment samples obtained from an area of fish farming activity. The five isolated strains showed an activity on oxytetracycline and were identified as Trichoderma harzianum, Trichoderma deliquescens, Penicillium crustosum, Rhodotorula mucilaginosa, and Talaromyces atroroseus by a scanning electron microscopy and characterized by molecular techniques. Results showed significant degradation in the concentration of oxytetracycline at the first 2 days of treatment for all strains analyzed. At 21 days of treatment, the concentration of oxytetracycline was decreased 92 % by T. harzianum, 85 % by T. deliquescens, 83 % by P. crustosum, 73 % by R. mucilaginosa, and 72 % by T. atroroseus, all of which were significantly higher than the controls. Given these results, we propose that fungal strains isolated from marine sediments may be useful tools for biodegradation of antibiotics, such as oxytetracycline, in the salmon industry.

  10. Higher prices, higher quality? Evidence from German nursing homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herr, Annika; Hottenrott, Hanna

    2016-02-01

    This study investigates the relationship between prices and quality of 7400 German nursing homes. We use a cross section of public quality reports for all German nursing homes, which had been evaluated between 2010 and 2013 by external institutions. Our analysis is based on multivariate regressions in a two stage least squares framework, where we instrument prices to explain their effect on quality controlling for income, nursing home density, demographics, labour market characteristics, and infrastructure at the regional level. Descriptive analysis shows that prices and quality do not only vary across nursing homes, but also across counties and federal states and that quality and prices correlate positively. Second, the econometric analysis, which accounts for the endogenous relation between negotiated price and reported quality, shows that quality indeed positively depends on prices. In addition, more places in nursing homes per people in need are correlated with both lower prices and higher quality. Finally, unobserved factors at the federal state level capture some of the variation of reported quality across nursing homes. Our results suggest that higher prices increase quality. Furthermore, since reported quality and prices vary substantially across federal states, we conclude that the quality and prices of long-term care facilities may well be compared within federal states but not across. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. NASA GIBS Use in Live Planetarium Shows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmart, C. B.

    2015-12-01

    The American Museum of Natural History's Hayden Planetarium was rebuilt in year 2000 as an immersive theater for scientific data visualization to show the universe in context to our planet. Specific astrophysical movie productions provide the main daily programming, but interactive control software, developed at AMNH allows immersive presentation within a data aggregation of astronomical catalogs called the Digital Universe 3D Atlas. Since 2006, WMS globe browsing capabilities have been built into a software development collaboration with Sweden's Linkoping University (LiU). The resulting Uniview software, now a product of the company SCISS, is operated by about fifty planetariums around that world with ability to network amongst the sites for global presentations. Public presentation of NASA GIBS has allowed authoritative narratives to be presented within the range of data available in context to other sources such as Science on a Sphere, NASA Earth Observatory and Google Earth KML resources. Specifically, the NOAA supported World Views Network conducted a series of presentations across the US that focused on local ecological issues that could then be expanded in the course of presentation to national and global scales of examination. NASA support of for GIBS resources in an easy access multi scale streaming format like WMS has tremendously enabled particularly facile presentations of global monitoring like never before. Global networking of theaters for distributed presentations broadens out the potential for impact of this medium. Archiving and refinement of these presentations has already begun to inform new types of documentary productions that examine pertinent, global interdependency topics.

  12. Isolation and identification of halotolerant soil bacteria from coastal Patenga area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Shafkat Shamim; Siddique, Romana; Tabassum, Nafisa

    2017-10-30

    Halotolerant bacteria have multiple uses viz. fermentation with lesser sterility control and industrial production of bioplastics. Moreover, it may increase the crop productivity of coastal saline lands in Bangladesh by transferring the salt tolerant genes into the plants. The study focused on the isolation and identification of the halotolerant bacteria from three soil samples, collected from coastal Patenga area. The samples were inoculated in nutrient media containing a wide range of salt concentrations. All the samples showed 2, 4 and 6% (w/v) salt tolerance. The isolates from Patenga soil (4, 6%) and beach soil (2%) showed catalase activity and all the isolates showed negative results for oxidase activity, indole production, lactose and motility. All the samples provided positive results for dextrose fermentation. Other tests provided mixed results. Based on the morphological characteristics, biochemical tests and ABIS software analysis the isolates fall within the Enterobacteriaceae, Clostridium and Corynebacterium, with a predominance of Vibrios. Overall the isolates can be considered as mild halotolerant, with the best growth observed at lower salinities and no halophilism detected. Among many possibilities, the genes responsible for the salt tolerant trait in these species can be identified, extracted and inserted into the crop plants to form a transgenic plant to result in higher yield for the rest of the year.

  13. Phylogenetic grouping and pathotypic comparison of urine and fecal Escherichia coli isolates from children with urinary tract infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoumeh Navidinia

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the phylogenetic background and to assess hlyD (involved in the secretion of haemolysin A and intll (encoding a class 1 integrase in Escherichia coli isolates derived from urinary and fecal specimens. A total of 200 E. coli isolates was collected from patients presenting with urinary tract infection (UTI during September 2009 to September 2010 and screened for hlyD and intll genes by polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Phylogenetic analysis showed that E. coli is composed of four main phylogenetic groups (A, B1, B2 and D and that uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC isolates mainly belong to groups B2 (54% and D (34% whereas group A (44% and D (26% are predominant among commensal E. coli isolates. In this study, hlyD was present in 26% of UPEC and 2% of commensal E. coli isolates. However, hemolytic activity was detected for 42% of UPEC and 6% of commensal E. coli isolates (p < 0.05. intll gene was more frequently expressed in UPEC (24% in comparison with commensal E. coli isolates (12%. Resistance to aztreonam, co-trimoxazole and cefpodoxime were frequently found among UPEC isolates whereas commensal E. coli isolates were commonly resistant to co-trimoxazole, nalidixic acid and cefotaxime. Concluding, a considerable difference between UPEC and commensal E. coli isolates was observed regarding their phylogenetic groups, presence of class 1 integron and hlyD gene, hemolysin activity and resistance pattern. The detection of class 1 integrons and hlyD gene was higher among UPEC compared with commensal E. coli isolates. These findings may contribute for a better understanding of the factors involved in the pathogenesis of UPEC.

  14. Comparison of chickpea rhizobia isolates from diverse Portuguese natural populations based on symbiotic effectiveness and DNA fingerprint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laranjo, M; Branco, C; Soares, R; Alho, L; Carvalho, M D E; Oliveira, S

    2002-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that differences in chickpea yields obtained in four distinct Portuguese regions (Beja, Elvas-Casas Velhas, Elvas-Estação Nacional de Melhoramento de Plantas (ENMP) and Evora) could be due to variation between the natural rhizobia populations. Estimation of the size of the different rhizobial populations showed that Elvas-ENMP population was the largest one. Elvas-ENMP population also revealed a higher proportion of isolates carrying more than one plasmid. Assessment of genetic diversity of the native rhizobia populations by a DNA fingerprinting PCR method, here designated as DAPD (Direct Amplified Polymorphic DNA), showed a higher degree of variation in Elvas-ENMP and Beja populations. The symbiotic effectiveness (SE) of 39 isolates was determined and ranged 13-34%. Statistical analysis showed that SE was negatively correlated with plasmid number of the isolate. The largest indigenous rhizobia population was found in Elvas-ENMP. DAPD pattern and plasmid profile analysis both suggested a higher genetic diversity among the populations of Elvas-ENMP and Beja. No relationship was found between SE of the isolates and their origin site. The large native population, rather than the symbiotic performance of individual rhizobia, could contribute to the higher chickpea yields obtained in Elvas-ENMP.

  15. Technical note: Antimicrobial susceptibility of Portuguese isolates of Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis in subclinical bovine mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, S F; Bexiga, R; Cavaco, L M; Vilela, C L

    2007-07-01

    To evaluate the antimicrobial resistance traits of staphylococci responsible for subclinical bovine mastitis in Portugal, the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of 7 antimicrobial agents, frequently administered for mastitis treatment, were determined for 30 Staphylococcus aureus and 31 Staphylococcus epidermidis field isolates. Beta-lactamase production was detected through the use of nitrocefin-impregnated discs. The MIC that inhibited 90% of the isolates tested (MIC90) of penicillin, oxacillin, cefazolin, gentamicin, sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim, oxytetracycline, and enrofloxacin were, respectively, 4, 0.5, 1, 1, 0.25, 0.25, and 0.06 microg/mL for Staph. aureus and > or = 64, 8, 1, 32, > or = 64, > or = 64, and 0.06 microg/mL for Staph. epidermidis. All Staph. aureus isolates showed susceptibility to oxacillin, cefazolin, gentamicin, sulphamethoxazole/trimethoprim, and enrofloxacin. Beta-lactamase production was detected in 20 of these isolates (66.7%), all of which were resistant to penicillin. Of the 31 Staph. epidermidis tested, 24 (77.4%) were beta-lactamase positive. All isolates were susceptible to both cefazolin and enrofloxacin. Nine Staph. epidermidis isolates were resistant to oxacillin, with MIC values ranging from 4 to 8 microg/mL. The MIC values of 5 antimicrobial agents tested were higher than those reported in other countries. Enrofloxacin was the only exception, showing lower MIC values compared with other reports. Overall, the antimicrobial agents tested in our study, with the exception of penicillin, were active against the 61 isolates studied.

  16. Geoscience is Important? Show Me Why

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boland, M. A.

    2017-12-01

    "The public" is not homogenous and no single message or form of messaging will connect the entire public with the geosciences. One approach to promoting trust in, and engagement with, the geosciences is to identify specific sectors of the public and then develop interactions and communication products that are immediately relevant to that sector's interests. If the content and delivery are appropriate, this approach empowers people to connect with the geosciences on their own terms and to understand the relevance of the geosciences to their own situation. Federal policy makers are a distinct and influential subgroup of the general public. In preparation for the 2016 presidential election, the American Geosciences Institute (AGI) in collaboration with its 51 member societies prepared Geoscience for America's Critical Needs: Invitation to a National Dialogue, a document that identified major geoscience policy issues that should be addressed in a national policy platform. Following the election, AGI worked with eight other geoscience societies to develop Geoscience Policy Recommendations for the New Administration and the 115th Congress, which outlines specific policy actions to address national issues. State and local decision makers are another important subgroup of the public. AGI has developed online content, factsheets, and case studies with different levels of technical complexity so people can explore societally-relevant geoscience topics at their level of technical proficiency. A related webinar series is attracting a growing worldwide audience from many employment sectors. Partnering with government agencies and other scientific and professional societies has increased the visibility and credibility of these information products with our target audience. Surveys and other feedback show that these products are raising awareness of the geosciences and helping to build reciprocal relationships between geoscientists and decision makers. The core message of all

  17. Intrinsic atopic dermatitis (AD) shows similar Th2 and higher Th17 immune activation compared to extrinsic AD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez-Fariñas, M; Dhingra, N; Gittler, J; Shemer, A; Cardinale, I; de Guzman Strong, C; Krueger, JG; Guttman-Yassky, E

    2013-01-01

    Background Atopic dermatitis (AD) is classified as extrinsic (ADe) and intrinsic (ADi), representing approximately 80% and 20% of patients, respectively. While sharing a similar clinical phenotype, only ADe is characterized by high serum IgE. Since most AD patients exhibit high IgE, an “allergic”/IgE-mediated disease pathogenesis was hypothesized. However, current models associate AD with T-cell activation, particularly Th2/Th22 polarization, and epidermal barrier defects. Objective To define if both variants share a common pathogenesis. Methods We stratified 51 severe AD patients as ADe (42) and ADi (9) (with similar mean disease activity/SCORAD), and analyzed the molecular and cellular skin pathology of lesional and non-lesional ADi and ADe using gene-expression (RT-PCR) and immunohistochemistry. Results A significant correlation between IgE levels and SCORAD (r=0.76, pextrinsic and intrinsic AD variants might be treated with T-cell targeted therapeutics or agents that modify keratinocyte responses. PMID:23777851

  18. Ecotoxicological assessment of solar cell leachates: Copper indium gallium selenide (CIGS) cells show higher activity than organic photovoltaic (OPV) cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brun, Nadja Rebecca; Wehrli, Bernhard; Fent, Karl

    2016-02-01

    Despite the increasing use of photovoltaics their potential environmental risks are poorly understood. Here, we compared ecotoxicological effects of two thin-film photovoltaics: established copper indium gallium selenide (CIGS) and organic photovoltaic (OPV) cells. Leachates were produced by exposing photovoltaics to UV light, physical damage, and exposure to environmentally relevant model waters, representing mesotrophic lake water, acidic rain, and seawater. CIGS cell leachates contained 583 μg L(-1) molybdenum at lake water, whereas at acidic rain and seawater conditions, iron, copper, zinc, molybdenum, cadmium, silver, and tin were present up to 7219 μg L(-1). From OPV, copper (14 μg L(-1)), zinc (87 μg L(-1)) and silver (78 μg L(-1)) leached. Zebrafish embryos were exposed until 120 h post-fertilization to these extracts. CIGS leachates produced under acidic rain, as well as CIGS and OPV leachates produced under seawater conditions resulted in a marked hatching delay and increase in heart edema. Depending on model water and solar cell, transcriptional alterations occurred in genes involved in oxidative stress (cat), hormonal activity (vtg1, ar), metallothionein (mt2), ER stress (bip, chop), and apoptosis (casp9). The effects were dependent on the concentrations of cationic metals in leachates. Addition of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid protected zebrafish embryos from morphological and molecular effects. Our study suggests that metals leaching from damaged CIGS cells, may pose a potential environmental risk. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Nogo-A-deficient Transgenic Rats Show Deficits in Higher Cognitive Functions, Decreased Anxiety, and Altered Circadian Activity Patterns

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Petrásek, Tomáš; Prokopová, Iva; Sládek, Martin; Weissová, Kamila; Vojtěchová, Iveta; Bahník, Štěpán; Zemanová, Anna; Schönig, K.; Berger, S.; Tews, B.; Bartsch, D.; Schwab, M. E.; Sumová, Alena; Stuchlík, Aleš

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 8, Mar 18 (2014), s. 90 ISSN 1662-5153 R&D Projects: GA MZd(CZ) NT13386 Grant - others:Rada Programu interní podpory projektů mezinárodní spolupráce AV ČR(CZ) M200111204; Univerzita Karlova(CZ) 365911 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : behavior * Nogo-A * circadian system * learning * memory Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 3.270, year: 2014

  20. Survey results show that adults are willing to pay higher insurance premiums for generous coverage of specialty drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romley, John A; Sanchez, Yuri; Penrod, John R; Goldman, Dana P

    2012-04-01

    Generous coverage of specialty drugs for cancer and other diseases may be valuable not only for sick patients currently using these drugs, but also for healthy people who recognize the potential need for them in the future. This study estimated how healthy people value insurance coverage of specialty drugs, defined as high-cost drugs that treat cancer and other serious health conditions like multiple sclerosis, by quantifying willingness to pay via a survey. US adults were estimated to be willing to pay an extra $12.94 on average in insurance premiums per month for generous specialty-drug coverage--in effect, $2.58 for every dollar in out-of-pocket costs that they would expect to pay with a less generous insurance plan. Given the value that people assign to generous coverage of specialty drugs, having high cost sharing on these drugs seemingly runs contrary to what people value in their health insurance.

  1. Impacts of tourism hotspots on vegetation communities show a higher potential for self-propagation along roads than hiking trails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Isabelle D; Croft, David B

    2014-10-01

    Vegetation communities along recreational tracks may suffer from substantial edge-effects through the impacts of trampling, modified environmental conditions and competition with species that benefit from disturbance. We assessed impacts on trackside vegetation by comparing high and low usage tourism sites at a 1-10 m distance from recreational tracks in a popular arid-lands tourism destination in South Australia. The central aim was quantification of the strengths and spatial extent of tourism impacts along recreational tracks with a qualitative comparison of roads and trails. Track-distance gradients were most prevalent at high usage sites. There, species community composition was altered, total plant cover decreased, non-native species cover increased, plant diversity increased or decreased (depending on the distance) and soil compaction increased towards recreational tracks. Roadside effects were greater and more pervasive than trailside effects. Further, plant diversity did not continuously increase towards the road verge as it did along trails but dropped sharply in the immediate road shoulder which indicated high disturbance conditions that few species were able to tolerate. To our knowledge, we are the first to demonstrate that the access mode to a recreation site influences the potential of certain impacts, such as the increase of non-native species, to self-perpetuate from their points of introduction to disjointed sites with a predisposition to disturbance. Due to this propulsion of impacts, the overall spatial extent of roadside impacts was far greater than initially apparent from assessments at the road verge. We discuss possible means of mitigating these impacts. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Evaluation of Virulence Factors In vitro, Resistance to Osmotic Stress and Antifungal Susceptibility of Candida tropicalis Isolated from the Coastal Environment of Northeast Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuza-Alves, Diana L.; de Medeiros, Sayama S. T. Q.; de Souza, Luanda B. F. C.; Silva-Rocha, Walicyranison P.; Francisco, Elaine C.; de Araújo, Maria C. B.; Lima-Neto, Reginaldo G.; Neves, Rejane P.; Melo, Analy S. de Azevedo; Chaves, Guilherme M.

    2016-01-01

    Several studies have been developed regarding human health risks associated with the recreational use of beaches contaminated with domestic sewage. These wastes contain various micro-organisms, including Candida tropicalis. In this context, the objective of this study was to characterize C. tropicalis isolates from the sandy beach of Ponta Negra, Natal, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil, regarding the expression of in vitro virulence factors, adaptation to osmotic stress and susceptibility to antifungal drugs. We analyzed 62 environmental isolates and observed a great variation among them for the various virulence factors evaluated. In general, environmental isolates were more adherent to human buccal epithelial cells (HBEC) than C. tropicalis ATCC13803 reference strain, and they also showed increased biofilm production. Most of the isolates presented wrinkled phenotypes on Spider medium (34 isolates, 54.8%). The majority of the isolates also showed higher proteinase production than control strains, but low phospholipase activity. In addition, 35 isolates (56.4%) had high hemolytic activity (hemolysis index > 0.55). With regard to C. tropicalis resistance to osmotic stress, 85.4% of the isolates were able to grow in a liquid medium containing 15% sodium chloride. The strains were highly resistant to the azoles tested (fluconazole, voriconazole and itraconazole). Fifteen strains were resistant to the three azoles tested (24.2%). Some strains were also resistant to amphotericin B (14 isolates; 22.6%), while all of them were susceptible for the echinocandins tested, except for a single strain of intermediate susceptibility to micafungin. Our results demonstrate that C. tropicalis isolated from the sand can fully express virulence attributes and showed a high persistence capacity on the coastal environment; in addition of showing high minimal inhibitory concentrations to several antifungal drugs used in current clinical practice, demonstrating that environmental isolates may

  3. MOX Fabrication Isolation Considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eric L. Shaber; Bradley J Schrader

    2005-08-01

    This document provides a technical position on the preferred level of isolation to fabricate demonstration quantities of mixed oxide transmutation fuels. The Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative should design and construct automated glovebox fabrication lines for this purpose. This level of isolation adequately protects the health and safety of workers and the general public for all mixed oxide (and other transmutation fuel) manufacturing efforts while retaining flexibility, allowing parallel development and setup, and minimizing capital expense. The basis regulations, issues, and advantages/disadvantages of five potential forms of isolation are summarized here as justification for selection of the preferred technical position.

  4. Molecular epidemiology of pneumococcal isolates from children in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Hua Kang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To investigate the molecular epidemiology of pneumococcal isolates in Chongqing, China. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 51 invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae (S. pneumoniae strains were from children with invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD and 32 carriage strains from healthy children from January 2010 to December 2013 at the Children’s Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, China. Multilocus sequence typing was used to identify the sequence types (STs. Capsular serotypes were determined by multiplex polymerase chain reaction. Drug susceptibility and resistance was determined by minimum inhibitory concentrations. Results: In this study, 11 serotypes were identified among the 83 S. pneumoniae clinical isolates tested. Prevalent serotypes were 19A (20.4%, 6A/B (20.4%, 19F (15.7%, 14 (14.5%, and 23F (10.8%. Serotype 19F was the most frequent carriage strain, and serotype 19A was the most frequent invasive strain. The ST983 was the most prevalent ST for carriage strains, and ST320 was the most prevalent ST for invasive strains. For gene analysis, psaA (99.5% and piaA (98.6% were present and much conserved in all pneumococci tested. The cps2A and pcsB genes were more frequent in invasive isolates than carriage strains. Antimicrobial resistance rates of invasive pneumococcal isolates to erythromycin, penicillin, meropenem, cefotaxime, and clindamycin were higher than the carriage isolates from children. Conclusion: Our epidemiological evidence shows that 19A, 6A/B, 19F, 14, and 23F remain the most prevalent serotypes, which can be targeted by PCV13. Genotypes and drug resistance varied between carriage and invasive strains. The PsaA and PiaA may be good protein vaccine candidates.

  5. DAST in Flight Showing Diverging Wingtip Oscillations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    -104 chase plane. When the DAST's mission ended, it deployed a parachute and then a specially equipped Air Force helicopter recovered the drone in mid-air. On the ground, a pilot controlled the DAST vehicle from a remote cockpit while researchers in another room monitored flight data transmitted via telemetry. They made decisions on the conduct of the flight while the DAST was in the air. In case of failure in any of the ground systems, the DAST vehicle could also be flown to a recovery site using a backup control system in the F-104. The DAST Program experienced numerous problems. Only eighteen flights were achieved, eight of them captive (in which the aircraft flew only while still attached to the launch aircraft). Four of the flights were aborted and two resulted in crashes--one on June 12, 1980, and the second on June 1, 1983. Meanwhile, flight experiments with higher profiles, better funded remotely piloted research vehicles took priority over DAST missions. After the 1983 crash, which was caused by a malfunction that disconnected the landing parachute from the drone, the program was disbanded. Because DAST drones were considered expendable, certain losses were anticipated. Managers and researchers involved in other high-risk flight projects gained insights from the DAST program that could be applied to their own flight research programs. The DAST aircraft had a wingspan of 14 feet, four inches and a nose-to-tail length of 28 feet, 4 inches. The fuselage had a radius of about 2.07 feet. The aircraft's maximum loaded weight was about 2,200 pounds. It derived its power from a Continental YJ69-T-406 engine.

  6. Nonlinearity management in higher dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kevrekidis, P G; Pelinovsky, D E; Stefanov, A

    2006-01-01

    In the present paper, we revisit nonlinearity management of the time-periodic nonlinear Schroedinger equation and the related averaging procedure. By means of rigorous estimates, we show that the averaged nonlinear Schroedinger equation does not blow up in the higher dimensional case so long as the corresponding solution remains smooth. In particular, we show that the H 1 norm remains bounded, in contrast with the usual blow-up mechanism for the focusing Schroedinger equation. This conclusion agrees with earlier works in the case of strong nonlinearity management but contradicts those in the case of weak nonlinearity management. The apparent discrepancy is explained by the divergence of the averaging procedure in the limit of weak nonlinearity management

  7. Spectroscopy of higher bottomonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferretti J.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this contribution, we discuss our recent unquenched quark model results for the spectrum of bb̄ mesons with self energy corrections, due to the coupling to the meson-meson continuum. Our unquenched quark model predictions for the masses of the recently discovered χb(3P states are compared to those of a re-fit of Godfrey and Isgur’s relativized quark model to the most recent experimental data. The possible importance of continuum effects in the χb(3P states is discussed. Finally, we show our quark model results for the radiative decays of the χb(3P system and the open-bottom decays of bb̄ mesons.

  8. Higher Efficiency HVAC Motors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flynn, Charles Joseph [QM Power, Inc., Kansas City, MO (United States)

    2018-02-13

    failure prone capacitors from the power stage. Q-Sync’s simpler electronics also result in higher efficiency because it eliminates the power required by the PCB to perform the obviated power conversions and PWM processes after line synchronous operating speed is reached in the first 5 seconds of operation, after which the PWM circuits drop out and a much less energy intensive “pass through” circuit takes over, allowing the grid-supplied AC power to sustain the motor’s ongoing operation.

  9. Isolation and characterization of lignin from the oak wood bioethanol production residue for adhesives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soo Jung; Kim, Hyun Joo; Cho, Eun Jin; Song, Younho; Bae, Hyeun-Jong

    2015-01-01

    Lignin was isolated from the residue of bioethanol production with oak wood via alkaline and catalyzed organosolv treatments at ambient temperature to improve the purity of lignin for the materials application. The isolated lignins were analyzed for their chemical composition by nitrobenzene oxidation method and their functionality was characterized via wet chemistry method, element analysis, (1)H NMR, GPC and FTIR-ATR. The isolated lignin by acid catalyzed organosolv treatment (Acid-OSL) contained a higher lignin content, aromatic proton, phenolic hydroxyl group and a lower nitrogen content that is more reactive towards chemical modification. The lignin-based adhesives were prepared and the bond strength was measured to evaluate the enhanced reactivity of lignin by the isolation. Two steps of phenolation and methylolation were applied for the modification of the isolated lignins and their tensile strengths were evaluated for the use as an adhesive. The acid catalyzed organosolv lignin-based adhesives had comparable bond strength to phenol-formaldehyde adhesives. The analysis of lignin-based adhesives by FTIR-ATR and TGA showed structural similarity to phenol adhesive. The results demonstrate that the reactivity of lignin was enhanced by isolation from hardwood bioethanol production residues at ambient temperature and it could be used in a value-added application to produce lignin-based adhesives. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Genetic characterization of commercial Saccharomyces cerevisiae isolates recovered from vineyard environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuller, Dorit; Pereira, Leonor; Alves, Hugo; Cambon, Brigitte; Dequin, Sylvie; Casal, Margarida

    2007-08-01

    One hundred isolates of the commercial Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain Zymaflore VL1 were recovered from spontaneous fermentations carried out with grapes collected from vineyards located close to wineries in the Vinho Verde wine region of Portugal. Isolates were differentiated based on their mitochondrial DNA restriction patterns and the evaluation of genetic polymorphisms was carried out by microsatellite analysis, interdelta sequence typing and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Genetic patterns were compared to those obtained for 30 isolates of the original commercialized Zymaflore VL1 strain. Among the 100 recovered isolates we found a high percentage of chromosomal size variations, most evident for the smaller chromosomes III and VI. Complete loss of heterozygosity was observed for two isolates that had also lost chromosomal heteromorphism; their growth and fermentative capacity in a synthetic must medium was also affected. A considerably higher number of variant patterns for interdelta sequence amplifications was obtained for grape-derived strains compared to the original VL1 isolates. Our data show that the long-term presence of strain VL1 in natural grapevine environments induced genetic changes that can be detected using different fingerprinting methods. The observed genetic changes may reflect adaptive mechanisms to changed environmental conditions that yeast cells encounter during their existence in nature. (c) 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Genomic and biological characterization of Newcastle disease viruses isolated from migratory mallards (Anas platyrhynchos).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, Momena; Yaqub, Tahir; Nazir, Jawad; Shehzad, Wasim; Aziz-Ul-Rahman; Sohail, Tayyebah; Mukhtar, Nadia; Mehboob, Arsalan; Munir, Muhammad; Shabbir, Muhammad Zubair

    2018-04-30

    Given the global evolutionary dynamics of Newcastle disease viruses (NDVs), it is imperative to continue extensive surveillance, routine monitoring and characterization of isolates originating from natural reservoirs (waterfowls). In this report, we isolated and characterized two virulent NDV strains from clinically healthy mallard (Anas platyrhynchos). Both isolates had a genome of 15,192 nucleotides encoding six genes in an order of 3´-NP-P-M-F-HN-L-5´. The biological characteristics (mean death time: 49.5-50 hr, EID 50 10 8.5  ml -1 ) and presence of a typical cleavage site in the fusion (F) protein (112R-R-Q-K-R↓F117) confirmed the velogenic nature of these isolates. Phylogenetic analysis classified both isolates as members of genotype VII within class-II. Furthermore, based upon the hypervariable region of the F gene (375 nt), isolates showed clustering within sub-genotype VIIi. Similarity index and parallel comparison revealed a higher nucleotide divergence from commonly used vaccine strains; LaSota (21%) and Mukteswar (17%). A comparative residues analysis with representative strains of different genotypes, including vaccine strains, revealed a number of substitutions at important structural and functional domains within the F and hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) proteins. Together, the results highlight consistent evolution among circulating NDVs supporting extensive surveillance of the virus in waterfowl to better elucidate epidemiology, evolutionary relationships and their impacts on commercial and backyard poultry.

  12. Slime production and antibiotic susceptibility in staphylococci isolated from clinical samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seza Arslan

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available A total of 187 isolates from several clinical specimens were identified to species level as 129 Staphylococcus aureus strains and 58 coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS strains by the API Staph System (Biomerieux. Slime production was detected both by the conventional Christensen's method as well as by the Congo red agar method. Seventy-two strains of staphylococci isolates (38.5% were found to be slime producers by Christensen's test tube method whereas 58 strains (31% were slime positive with Congo red agar method. There was no statistically significant difference between the two methods for the detection of slime production (P > 0.05. Susceptibility of isolates against antimicrobial agents was tested by the disk diffusion method. Staphylococcal species had resistance to one or more antibiotics. Among the various antimicrobial agents, oxacillin (71.1% and erythromycin (47.1% showed higher resistance than most of the agents used against all isolates. Oxacillin resistant S. aureus (ORSA and oxacillin resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci (ORCNS, 97 (75.2% and 36 (62.1% respectively were frequently observed in strains isolated from clinical materials. Among the ORSA strains, two strains were resistant to vancomycin. Moreover, 96 (74.4% of 129 S. aureus strains were positive for blactamase enzyme. However, 78 (81.25% of 96 b-lactamase positive S. aureus strains were b-lactamase positive ORSA isolates, but none of them had vancomycin resistance.

  13. Phylogenetic groups among Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates from Brazil: relationship with antimicrobial resistance and origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Melo, Maíra Espíndola Silva; Cabral, Adriane Borges; Maciel, Maria Amélia Vieira; da Silveira, Vera Magalhães; de Souza Lopes, Ana Catarina

    2011-05-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the distribution of phylogenetic groups among Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates from Recife, Brazil and to assess the relationship between the groups and the isolation sites and resistance profile. Ninety four isolates of K. pneumoniae from hospital or community infections and from normal microbiota were analyzed by gyrA PCR-RFLP, antibiotic susceptibility, and adonitol fermentation. The results revealed the distinction of three phylogenetic groups, as it has also been reported in Europe, showing that these clusters are highly conserved within K. pneumoniae. Group KpI was dominantly represented by hospital and community isolates while groups KpII and KpIII displayed mainly normal microbiota isolates. The resistance to third generation cephalosporins, aztreonam, imipenem, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, and streptomycin was only observed in KpI. The percentage of resistance was higher in KpI, followed by KpII and KpIII. The differences in the distribution of K. pneumoniae phylogenetic groups observed in this study suggest distinctive clinical and epidemiological characteristics among the three groups, which is important to understand the epidemiology of infections caused by this organism. This is the first study in Brazil on K. pneumoniae isolates from normal microbiota and community infections regarding the distribution of phylogenetic groups based on the gyrA gene.

  14. High-frequency parameters of magnetic films showing magnetization dispersion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sidorenkov, V.V.; Zimin, A.B.; Kornev, Yu.V.

    1988-01-01

    Magnetization dispersion leads to skewed resonance curves shifted towards higher magnetizing fields, together with considerable reduction in the resonant absorption, while the FMR line width is considerably increased. These effects increase considerably with frequency, in contrast to films showing magnetic-anisotropy dispersion, where they decrease. It is concluded that there may be anomalies in the frequency dependence of the resonance parameters for polycrystalline magnetic films

  15. Establishing the isolated Standard Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wells, James D.; Zhang, Zhengkang; Zhao, Yue

    2017-02-01

    The goal of this article is to initiate a discussion on what it takes to claim ''there is no new physics at the weak scale,'' namely that the Standard Model (SM) is ''isolated.'' The lack of discovery of beyond the SM (BSM) physics suggests that this may be the case. But to truly establish this statement requires proving all ''connected'' BSM theories are false, which presents a significant challenge. We propose a general approach to quantitatively assess the current status and future prospects of establishing the isolated SM (ISM), which we give a reasonable definition of. We consider broad elements of BSM theories, and show many examples where current experimental results are not sufficient to verify the ISM. In some cases, there is a clear roadmap for the future experimental program, which we outline, while in other cases, further efforts - both theoretical and experimental - are needed in order to robustly claim the establishment of the ISM in the absence of new physics discoveries.

  16. Isolated vasculitis of the CNS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Block, F.; Reith, W.

    2000-01-01

    Vasculitis is a rare cause for disease of the CNS. The isolated vasculitis of the CNS is restricted to the CNS whereas other forms of vasculitis affect various organs including the CNS. Headache, encephalopathy, focal deficits and epileptic seizures are the major symptoms suggestive for vasculitis. One major criterion of the isolated vasculitis of the CNS is the lack of evidence for other vasculitis forms or for pathology of other organs. Angiography displays multifocal segmental stenosis of intracranial vessels. MRI demonstrates multiple lesions which in part show enhancement after gadolinium. A definite diagnosis can only be made on the grounds of biopsy from leptomeninges and parenchyma. Therapy consists of corticosteroids and cyclophosphamid. (orig.) [de

  17. isolated from Trichoderma harzianum

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-05-21

    May 21, 2014 ... Chitinase gene from Trichoderma harzianum was cloned and hetrologously over expressed in ... used by Trichoderma to inhibit the growth of other fungi. ..... actinomycete isolates from niche habitats in Manipur for antibiotic.

  18. STREPTOMYCETE Producing Antibiotics Isolated From Egyptian Soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SALAMA, S.M; MAHMOUD, S.M; ELKABBANY, H.M.

    2010-01-01

    An investigation was concerned the distribution of Streptomyces species in some types of Egyptian soils. Thirty nine actinomycetes isolates were obtained from 7 types of Egyptian soils; 8 isolates exhibited antimicrobial activities against all tested organisms and three of them were identified as Streptomyces griseoluteus (YM23), Streptomyces aurantiogriseus (S15) and Streptomyces nogalator (H12). RAPD-PCR showed correlation between 8 isolates in 3 clades. The active metabolite was extracted with ethyl acetate and concentrated in vacuum and the crude fraction was purified using thin layer and column chromatography

  19. Isolate resistance of Blastocystis hominis to metronidazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haresh, K; Suresh, K; Khairul Anus, A; Saminathan, S

    1999-04-01

    Isolates of Blastocystis hominis from infected immigrant workers from Indonesia, Bangladesh and infected individuals from Singapore and Malaysia were assessed for growth pattern and degree of resistance to different concentrations of metronidazole. Viability of the cells was assessed using eosin-brillian cresyl blue which stained viable cells green and nonviable cells red. The Bangladeshi and Singaporean isolates were nonviable even at the lowest concentration of 0.01 mg/ml, whereas 40% of the initial inoculum of parasites from the Indonesian isolate at day one were still viable in cultures with 1.0 mg/ml metronidazole. The study shows that isolates of B. hominis of different geographical origin have different levels of resistance to metronidazole. The search for more effective drugs to eliminate th parasite appears inevitable, especially since surviving parasites from metronidazole cultures show greater ability to multiply in subcultures than controls.

  20. Efficacy of Metarhizium anisopliae isolate MAX-2 from Shangri-la, China under desiccation stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Metarhizium anisopliae, a soil-borne entomopathogen found worldwide, is an interesting fungus for biological control. However, its efficacy in the fields is significantly affected by environmental conditions, particularly moisture. To overcome the weakness of Metarhizium and determine its isolates with antistress capacity, the efficacies of four M. anisopliae isolates, which were collected from arid regions of Yunnan Province in China during the dry season, were determined at different moisture levels, and the efficacy of the isolate MAX-2 from Shangri-la under desiccation stress was evaluated at low moisture level. Results M. anisopliae isolates MAX-2, MAC-6, MAL-1, and MAQ-28 showed gradient descent efficacies against sterile Tenebrio molitor larvae, and gradient descent capacities against desiccation with the decrease in moisture levels. The efficacy of MAX-2 showed no significant differences at 35% moisture level than those of the other isolates. However, significant differences were found at 8% to 30% moisture levels. The efficacies of all isolates decreased with the decrease in moisture levels. MAX-2 was relatively less affected by desiccation stress. Its efficacy was almost unaffected by the decrease at moisture levels > 25%, but slowly decreased at moisture levels molitor larvae under desiccation stress and in wet microhabitat. Local black patches were found on the cuticles of the insects, and the cadavers dried without fungal growth under desiccation stress. However, dark black internodes and fungal growth were found after death of the insects in the wet microhabitat. Conclusions MAX-2 showed significantly higher efficacy and superior antistress capacity than the other isolates under desiccation stress. The infection of sterile T. molitor larvae at low moisture level constituted a valid laboratory bioassay system in evaluating M. anisopliae efficacy under desiccation stress. PMID:24383424

  1. Efficacy of Metarhizium anisopliae isolate MAX-2 from Shangri-la, China under desiccation stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zi-Hong; Xu, Ling; Yang, Feng-lian; Ji, Guang-Hai; Yang, Jing; Wang, Jian-Yun

    2014-01-03

    Metarhizium anisopliae, a soil-borne entomopathogen found worldwide, is an interesting fungus for biological control. However, its efficacy in the fields is significantly affected by environmental conditions, particularly moisture. To overcome the weakness of Metarhizium and determine its isolates with antistress capacity, the efficacies of four M. anisopliae isolates, which were collected from arid regions of Yunnan Province in China during the dry season, were determined at different moisture levels, and the efficacy of the isolate MAX-2 from Shangri-la under desiccation stress was evaluated at low moisture level. M. anisopliae isolates MAX-2, MAC-6, MAL-1, and MAQ-28 showed gradient descent efficacies against sterile Tenebrio molitor larvae, and gradient descent capacities against desiccation with the decrease in moisture levels. The efficacy of MAX-2 showed no significant differences at 35% moisture level than those of the other isolates. However, significant differences were found at 8% to 30% moisture levels. The efficacies of all isolates decreased with the decrease in moisture levels. MAX-2 was relatively less affected by desiccation stress. Its efficacy was almost unaffected by the decrease at moisture levels > 25%, but slowly decreased at moisture levels molitor larvae under desiccation stress and in wet microhabitat. Local black patches were found on the cuticles of the insects, and the cadavers dried without fungal growth under desiccation stress. However, dark black internodes and fungal growth were found after death of the insects in the wet microhabitat. MAX-2 showed significantly higher efficacy and superior antistress capacity than the other isolates under desiccation stress. The infection of sterile T. molitor larvae at low moisture level constituted a valid laboratory bioassay system in evaluating M. anisopliae efficacy under desiccation stress.

  2. Plant-Adapted Escherichia coli Show Increased Lettuce Colonizing Ability, Resistance to Oxidative Stress and Chemotactic Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dublan, Maria de los Angeles; Ortiz-Marquez, Juan Cesar Federico; Lett, Lina; Curatti, Leonardo

    2014-01-01

    Background Escherichia coli is a widespread gut commensal and often a versatile pathogen of public health concern. E. coli are also frequently found in different environments and/or alternative secondary hosts, such as plant tissues. The lifestyle of E. coli in plants is poorly understood and has potential implications for food safety. Methods/Principal Findings This work shows that a human commensal strain of E. coli K12 readily colonizes lettuce seedlings and produces large microcolony-like cell aggregates in leaves, especially in young leaves, in proximity to the vascular tissue. Our observations strongly suggest that those cell aggregates arise from multiplication of single bacterial cells that reach those spots. We showed that E. coli isolated from colonized leaves progressively colonize lettuce seedlings to higher titers, suggesting a fast adaptation process. E. coli cells isolated from leaves presented a dramatic rise in tolerance to oxidative stress and became more chemotactic responsive towards lettuce leaf extracts. Mutant strains impaired in their chemotactic response were less efficient lettuce colonizers than the chemotactic isogenic strain. However, acclimation to oxidative stress and/or minimal medium alone failed to prime E. coli cells for enhanced lettuce colonization efficiency. Conclusion/Significance These findings help to understand the physiological adaptation during the alternative lifestyle of E. coli in/on plant tissues. PMID:25313845

  3. Antibiotic resistance and biofilm formation of some bacteria isolated from sediment, water and fish farms in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faja, Orooba Meteab; Usup, Gires; Ahmad, Asmat

    2018-04-01

    A total of 90 isolates of bacteria were isolated, from sediment (10) samples, water (10) samples and fish (12) samples (Sea bass, Snapper, Grouper and Tilapia). These include 22 isolates of bacteria from sediment, 28 isolates from water and 40 isolates from fish. All the isolates were tested for sensitivity to 13 antibiotics using disc diffusion method. The isolates showed high resistance to some antibiotics based on samples source. Isolates from sediment showed highest resistance toward novobiocin, kanamycin, ampicillin and streptomycin while isolates from water showed highest resistance against vancomycin, penicillin, streptomycin and tetracycline, in contrast, in fish sample showed highest resistance toward vancomycin, ampicillin, streptomycin and tetracycline. Most of the isolates showed biofilm formation ability with different degrees. Out of 22 bacteria isolates from water, two isolates were weak biofilm formers, six isolates moderate biofilm formers and fourteen isolates strong biofilm formers. While, out of 28 bacteria isolates from water one isolate was weak biofilm former, five isolates moderate biofilm formers and 22 strong biofilm formers Fish isolate showed three isolates (8%) moderate biofilm formers and 27 isolates strong biofilm formers. Biofilm formation was one of the factors that lead to antibiotic resistance of the bacterial isolates from these samples.

  4. Seminational surveillance of fungemia in Denmark: notably high rates of fungemia and numbers of isolates with reduced azole susceptibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arendrup, Maiken Cavling; Fuursted, Kurt; Gahrn-Hansen, Bente

    2005-01-01

    laboratory systems documented a continuous increase of candidemia cases since the early 1990s. For the 272 susceptibility-tested isolates, MICs of amphotericin B and caspofungin were within the limits expected for the species or genus. However, decreased azole susceptibility, defined as a fluconazole MIC...... of >8 microg/ml and/or itraconazole MIC of >0.125 microg/ml, was detected for 11 Candida isolates that were neither C. glabrata nor C. krusei. Including intrinsically resistant fungi, we detected decreased susceptibility to fluconazole and/or itraconazole in 87 (32%) current Danish bloodstream fungal...... isolates. We showed a continuous increase of fungemia in Denmark and an annual rate in 2003 to 2004 higher than in most other countries. The proportion of bloodstream fungal isolates with reduced susceptibility to fluconazole and/or itraconazole was also notably high....

  5. Social Isolation, Depression, and Psychological Distress Among Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Harry Owen; Taylor, Robert Joseph; Nguyen, Ann W; Chatters, Linda

    2018-02-01

    To investigate the impact of objective and subjective social isolation from extended family members and friends on depressive symptoms and psychological distress among a national sample of older adults. Data for older adults (55 years and above) from the National Survey of American Life ( N = 1,439) were used to assess level of objective social isolation and subjective social isolation and to test regression models examining their impact on depressive symptoms (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression [CES-D] Scale) and psychological distress (Kessler 6 [K6] Scale). The majority of respondents were not socially isolated from family or friends; 5% were objectively isolated from family and friends, and less than 1% were subjectively isolated from family and friends. Regression analyses using both social isolation measures indicated that objective social isolation was unrelated to depressive symptoms and psychological distress. However, subjective social isolation from both family and friends and from friends only was associated with more depressive symptoms, and subjective social isolation from friends only was associated with higher levels of psychological distress. Assessments of social isolation among older populations should account for both subjective and objective dimensions, as well as both family and friend social networks. Social isolation from friends is an important, but understudied, issue that has significant consequences for older adult mental health.

  6. Genotoxicological Evaluation of NUTRALYS Pea Protein Isolate

    OpenAIRE

    Aouatif, Chentouf; Looten, Ph.; Parvathi, M. V. S.; Raja Ganesh, S.; Paranthaman, V.

    2013-01-01

    NUTRALYS Pea Protein Isolate, a protein supplement, is a high-quality source of protein which is primarily emulsifying functional protein. We evaluated the genotoxic potential of NUTRALYS isolated from dry yellow pea, using three established genotoxicity tests (AMES test in vitro chromosomal aberration test, and in vivo micronucleus test) employing OECD guidelines under GLP conditions. In the bacterial reverse mutation test, NUTRALYS did not show positive responses in strains detecting point ...

  7. Candida species isolated from the vaginal mucosa of HIV-infected women in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Matos Oliveira

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC is the second most common vaginal infection. HIV-infection is a risk factor for this infection. OBJECTIVE: To determine the frequency of VVC and to describe the main Candida species isolated and their susceptibility to antifungal drugs in HIV-infected patients, compared to HIV-uninfected women in Salvador, Brazil. METHODS: Cross-sectional study including a group of 64 HIV-infected women and 76 uninfected women, followed up at the AIDS reference center and at the Gynecological Clinic of Escola Bahiana de Medicina e Saúde Pública (Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. RESULTS: Frequency of Candida spp. was higher in HIV-infected women (29.7% than in HIV-uninfected controls (14.5% (p = 0.02. The odds ratio value for vulvovaginal candidiasis in HIV-infected patients was 2.6 (95% CI: 1.07 - 6.32 p = 0.03. Candida albicans was the most commonly isolated species in both HIV-infected (52.3% and uninfected women (85.7%, followed by C. parapsolis in 17.6% and 14.3%, respectively. In HIV-infected women, C. glabrata, C. parapsilosis, and a coinfection of C. albicans and C. glabrata were also identified. There was no significant difference between Candida species isolated from the vaginal mucosa of women with VVC and colonization of the vaginal mucosa of HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected women. One C. glabrata isolate from an HIV-infected patient was resistant to fluconazole and other two isolates exhibited a dose-dependent susceptibility. CONCLUSION: Our results confirm a higher frequency of Candida spp. isolated from the vaginal mucosa of HIV-infected women and a broader spectrum of species involved. Only Candida glabrata isolates showed decreased susceptibility to fluconazole.

  8. Characterisation of Commensal Escherichia coli Isolated from Apparently Healthy Cattle and Their Attendants in Tanzania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balichene P Madoshi

    Full Text Available While pathogenic types of Escherichia coli are well characterized, relatively little is known about the commensal E. coli flora. In the current study, antimicrobial resistance in commensal E. coli and distribution of ERIC-PCR genotypes among isolates of such bacteria from cattle and cattle attendants on cattle farms in Tanzania were investigated. Seventeen E. coli genomes representing different ERIC-PCR types of commensal E. coli were sequenced in order to determine their possible importance as a reservoir for both antimicrobial resistance genes and virulence factors. Both human and cattle isolates were highly resistant to tetracycline (40.8% and 33.1%, sulphamethazole-trimethoprim (49.0% and 8.8% and ampicillin (44.9% and 21.3%. However, higher proportion of resistant E. coli and higher frequency of resistance to more than two antimicrobials was found in isolates from cattle attendants than isolates from cattle. Sixteen out of 66 ERIC-PCR genotypes were shared between the two hosts, and among these ones, seven types contained isolates from cattle and cattle attendants from the same farm, suggesting transfer of strains between hosts. Genome-wide analysis showed that the majority of the sequenced cattle isolates were assigned to phylogroups B1, while human isolates represented phylogroups A, C, D and E. In general, in silico resistome and virulence factor identification did not reveal differences between hosts or phylogroups, except for lpfA and iss found to be cattle and B1 phylogroup specific. The most frequent plasmids replicon genes found in strains from both hosts were of IncF type, which are commonly associated with carriage of antimicrobial and virulence genes. Commensal E. coli from cattle and attendants were found to share same genotypes and to carry antimicrobial resistance and virulence genes associated with both intra and extraintestinal E. coli pathotypes.

  9. VEGETATIVE COMPATIBILITY OF Fusarium oxysporum ISOLATED FROM WEEDS IN EASTERN CROATIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Ilić

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Different formae speciales of Fusarium oxysporum are the main causal agent of Fusarium wilts. In 2008 and 2009 we collected F. oxysporum samples from symptomless Abutilon theophrasti, Xanthium strumarium, Chenopodium album, Matricaria perforata, Ambrosia artemisiifolia, Polygonum lapathifolium, Sonchus arvensis, Amaranthus blitoides, Amaranthus retroflexus, Datura stramonium, Sorghum halepense and Hibiscus trionum. Only 16 out of 41 isolates of F. oxysporum yielded nit mutants. The frequency of nit3 mutants was higher (43% than the frequency of nit1 (35% and NitM (22% mutants. Two vegetative compatibility groups (VCGs of F. oxysporum were determined in the complementation tests. These results stress out the problem with isolation of nit mutants and show a high genetic diversity of F. oxysporum isolated from weeds.

  10. Production of cellulases by fungal cultures isolated from forest litter soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sri Lakshmi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were the isolation and screening of fungal cultures from forest litter soil for cellulases production. In the present study, four fungal cultures were isolated and identified. Among these fungal cultures, three belonged to the genus Aspergillus and one belonged to the genus Pencillium. These fungal cultures were tested to find their ability to produce cellulases, that catalyze the degradation of cellulose, which is a linear polymer made of glucose subunits linked by beta-1, 4 glycosidic bonds. The fungal isolate 3 (Aspergillus sp. was noticed to show maximum zone of hydrolysis of carboxy-methyl cellulose and produce higher titers of cellulases including exoglucanase, endoglucanase and beta -D-glucosidase. The activities of the cellulases were determined by Filter paper assay (FPA, Carboxy-methly cellulase assay (CMCase and beta -D-glucosidase assay respectively. The total soluble sugar and extracellular protein contents of the fungal filtrates were also determined.

  11. Bioconversion of glycerol for bioethanol production using isolated Escherichia coli SS1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheril Norliana Suhaimi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Bioconverting glycerol into various valuable products is one of glycerol's promising applications due to its high availability at low cost and the existence of many glycerol-utilizing microorganisms. Bioethanol and biohydrogen, which are types of renewable fuels, are two examples of bioconverted products. The objectives of this study were to evaluate ethanol production from different media by local microorganism isolates and compare the ethanol fermentation profile of the selected strains to use of glucose or glycerol as sole carbon sources. The ethanol fermentations by six isolates were evaluated after a preliminary screening process. Strain named SS1 produced the highest ethanol yield of 1.0 mol: 1.0 mol glycerol and was identified as Escherichia coli SS1 Also, this isolated strain showed a higher affinity to glycerol than glucose for bioethanol production.

  12. Identification and Characterization of Yeast Isolates from Pharmaceutical Waste Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjeta Recek

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to develop an efficient an system for waste water pretreatment, the isolation of indigenous population of microorganisms from pharmaceutical waste water was done. We obtained pure cultures of 16 yeast isolates that differed slightly in colony morphology. Ten out of 16 isolates efficiently reduced COD in pharmaceutical waste water. Initial physiological characterization failed to match the 10 yeast isolates to either Pichia anomala or Pichia ciferrii. Restriction analysis of rDNA (rDNA-RFLP using three different restriction enzymes: HaeIII, MspI and CfoI, showed identical patterns of the isolates and Pichia anomala type strain. Separation of chromosomal DNAs of yeast isolates by the pulsed field gel electrophoresis revealed that the 10 isolates could be grouped into 6 karyotypes. Growth characteristics of the 6 isolates with distinct karyotypes were then studied in batch cultivation in pharmaceutical waste water for 80 hours.

  13. Isolation of cells for selective treatment and analysis using a magnetic microfluidic chip

    KAUST Repository

    Yassine, Omar

    2014-05-01

    This study describes the development and testing of a magnetic microfluidic chip (MMC) for trapping and isolating cells tagged with superparamagnetic beads (SPBs) in a microfluidic environment for selective treatment and analysis. The trapping and isolation are done in two separate steps; first, the trapping of the tagged cells in a main channel is achieved by soft ferromagnetic disks and second, the transportation of the cells into side chambers for isolation is executed by tapered conductive paths made of Gold (Au). Numerical simulations were performed to analyze the magnetic flux and force distributions of the disks and conducting paths, for trapping and transporting SPBs. The MMC was fabricated using standard microfabrication processes. Experiments were performed with E. coli (K12 strand) tagged with 2.8 μm SPBs. The results showed that E. coli can be separated from a sample solution by trapping them at the disk sites, and then isolated into chambers by transporting them along the tapered conducting paths. Once the E. coli was trapped inside the side chambers, two selective treatments were performed. In one chamber, a solution with minimal nutrition content was added and, in another chamber, a solution with essential nutrition was added. The results showed that the growth of bacteria cultured in the second chamber containing nutrient was significantly higher, demonstrating that the E. coli was not affected by the magnetically driven transportation and the feasibility of performing different treatments on selectively isolated cells on a single microfluidic platform.

  14. Notable fibrolytic enzyme production by Aspergillus spp. isolates from the gastrointestinal tract of beef cattle fed in lignified pastures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Oliveira Abrão

    Full Text Available Fungi have the ability to degrade vegetal cell wall carbohydrates, and their presence in the digestive tract of ruminants can minimize the effects of lignified forage on ruminal fermentation. Here, we evaluated enzyme production by Aspergillus spp. isolates from the digestive tracts of cattle grazed in tropical pastures during the dry season. Filamentous fungi were isolated from rumen and feces by culture in cellulose-based medium. Ninety fungal strains were isolated and identified by rDNA sequence analysis, microculture, or both. Aspergillus terreus was the most frequently isolated species, followed by Aspergillus fumigatus. The isolates were characterized with respect to their cellulolytic, xylanolytic, and lignolytic activity through qualitative evaluation in culture medium containing a specific corresponding carbon source. Carboxymethyl cellulase (CMCase activity was quantified by the reducing sugar method. In the avicel and xilan degradation test, the enzyme activity (EA at 48 h was significantly higher other periods (P < 0.05. Intra- and inter-specific differences in EA were verified, and high levels of phenoloxidases, which are crucial for lignin degradation, were observed in 28.9% of the isolates. Aspergillus terreus showed significantly higher EA for avicelase (3.96 ±1.77 and xylanase (3.13 ±.091 than the other Aspergillus species at 48 h of incubation. Isolates AT13 and AF69 showed the highest CMCase specific activity (54.84 and 33.03 U mg-1 protein, respectively. Selected Aspergillus spp. isolates produced remarkable levels of enzymes involved in vegetal cell wall degradation, suggesting their potential as antimicrobial additives or probiotics in ruminant diets.

  15. Single spore isolation and morphological characterization of local Malaysian isolates of rice blast fungus Magnoporthe grisea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Ankitta; Ratnam, Wickneswari; Bhuiyan, Md Atiqur Rahman; Ponaya, Ariane; Jena, Khisord K.

    2015-09-01

    Rice blast is a destructive disease, caused by the fungal pathogen Magnaporthe grisea. It causes considerable damage to rice and leads to crop loss in rice growing regions worldwide. Although fungicides can be used to control rice blast, they generate additional cost in rice production and contamination of environment and food. Therefore, the use of resistant varieties is thought to be one of the most economically and environmentally efficient ways of crop protection from the disease. Six new local Malaysian isolates of M. grisea were isolated using single spore isolation method. Five isolates were from infected leaf samples collected from Kompleks Latihan MADA, Kedah and one was from Kelantan. These isolates were identified using morphological characteristics and microscopic studies and later confirmed by ITSequences. These isolates were induced to sporulate and used for greenhouse screening on two differential rice varieties: Mahsuri (susceptible) and Pongsu Seribu 2 (resistant). Among the 6 isolates, isolate number 3 was found to be the most virulent showing high sporulation while isolate number 4 was very slow growing, and the least virulent.

  16. Higher Education--The Flexible Employment Sector?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Jill; Ridgley, Clare; Spurgeon, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Explored the extent to which policies and practices promoting work-life balance (family friendly policies) have been taken up within the English higher education sector. Responses from 50 higher education institutions show that flexible working practices are more widespread than the formal policies of institutions would suggest. (SLD)

  17. Translanguaging in Higher Education: Beyond Monolingual Ideologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazak, Catherine M., Ed.; Carroll, Kevin S., Ed.

    2016-01-01

    This book examines translanguaging in higher education and provides clear examples of what translanguaging looks like in practice in particular contexts around the world. While higher education has historically been seen as a monolingual space, the case studies from the international contexts included in this collection show us that institutions…

  18. Characterization of Leishmania isolates from Nepalese patients with visceral leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Kishor; Yanagi, Testuo; Pandey, Basu Dev; Mallik, Arun Kumar; Sherchand, Jeevan Bahadur; Kanbara, Hiroji

    2007-05-01

    In Nepal, visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is endemic in 13 districts of the central and eastern regions. A total of 166 bone-marrow aspirates were obtained from patients with suspected VL. Ninety-seven were identified as positive by microscopy, and 29 of those were successfully isolated and cultured. We characterized these isolates by molecular analysis and by their ability to infect mice. PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of the mini-exon and the cysteine proteinase b gene showed that all isolates were Leishmania donovani, and the restriction pattern of the Nepalese isolates corresponded to the standard Indian strain of L. donovani but differed from that of the Kenyan strain. The single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis of ribosomal internal transcribed spacer showed no genetic heterogeneity within Nepalese isolates. Intraperitoneal inoculation with the promastigotes of all isolates resulted in amastigote proliferation in the spleen of 20 nude mice, of which ten isolates were highly infective, and ten were moderately infective, including one BALB/c mouse. Of the 20 amastigotes isolated from the spleen of nude mice, only the ten highly infective isolates infected BALB/c mice, of which, two isolates were considered to have low infectivity, three isolates were considered to be moderately infective, and five isolates were considered to be highly infective.

  19. Candida tropicalis from veterinary and human sources shows similar in vitro hemolytic activity, antifungal biofilm susceptibility and pathogenesis against Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brilhante, Raimunda Sâmia Nogueira; Oliveira, Jonathas Sales de; Evangelista, Antônio José de Jesus; Serpa, Rosana; Silva, Aline Lobão da; Aguiar, Felipe Rodrigues Magalhães de; Pereira, Vandbergue Santos; Castelo-Branco, Débora de Souza Collares Maia; Pereira-Neto, Waldemiro Aquino; Cordeiro, Rossana de Aguiar; Sidrim, José Júlio Costa; Rocha, Marcos Fábio Gadelha

    2016-08-30

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro hemolytic activity and biofilm antifungal susceptibility of veterinary and human Candida tropicalis strains, as well as their pathogenesis against Caenorhabditis elegans. Twenty veterinary isolates and 20 human clinical isolates of C. tropicalis were used. The strains were evaluated for their hemolytic activity and biofilm production. Biofilm susceptibility to itraconazole, fluconazole, voriconazole, amphotericin B and caspofungin was assessed using broth microdilution assay. The in vivo evaluation of strain pathogenicity was investigated using the nematode C. elegans. Hemolytic factor was observed in 95% of the strains and 97.5% of the isolates showed ability to form biofilm. Caspofungin and amphotericin B showed better results than azole antifungals against mature biofilms. Paradoxical effect on mature biofilm metabolic activity was observed at elevated concentrations of caspofungin (8-64μg/mL). Azole antifungals were not able to inhibit mature C. tropicalis biofilms, even at the higher tested concentrations. High mortality rates of C. elegans were observed when the worms were exposed to with C. tropicalis strains, reaching up to 96%, 96h after exposure of the worms to C. tropicalis strains. These results reinforce the high pathogenicity of C. tropicalis from veterinary and human sources and show the effectiveness of caspofungin and amphotericin B against mature biofilms of this species. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Vaginal versus Obstetric Infection Escherichia coli Isolates among Pregnant Women: Antimicrobial Resistance and Genetic Virulence Profile.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Sáez-López

    Full Text Available Vaginal Escherichia coli colonization is related to obstetric infections and the consequent development of infections in newborns. Ampicillin resistance among E. coli strains is increasing, which is the main choice for treating empirically many obstetric and neonatal infections. Vaginal E. coli strains are very similar to extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli with regards to the virulence factors and the belonging to phylogroup B2. We studied the antimicrobial resistance and the genetic virulence profile of 82 E. coli isolates from 638 vaginal samples and 63 isolated from endometrial aspirate, placental and amniotic fluid samples from pregnant women with obstetric infections. The prevalence of E. coli in the vaginal samples was 13%, which was significant among women with associated risk factors during pregnancy, especially premature preterm rupture of membranes (p<0.0001. Sixty-five percent of the strains were ampicillin-resistant. The E. coli isolates causing obstetric infections showed higher resistance levels than vaginal isolates, particularly for gentamicin (p = 0.001. The most prevalent virulence factor genes were those related to the iron uptake systems revealing clear targets for interventions. More than 50% of the isolates belonged to the virulent B2 group possessing the highest number of virulence factor genes. The ampicillin-resistant isolates had high number of virulence factors primarily related to pathogenicity islands, and the remarkable gentamicin resistance in E. coli isolates from women presenting obstetric infections, the choice of the most appropriate empiric treatment and clinical management of pregnant women and neonates should be carefully made. Taking into account host-susceptibility, the heterogeneity of E. coli due to evolution over time and the geographical area, characterization of E. coli isolates colonizing the vagina and causing obstetric infections in different regions may help to develop interventions and avoid the

  1. Sex differences in the outcome of juvenile social isolation on HPA axis function in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisu, M G; Garau, A; Boero, G; Biggio, F; Pibiri, V; Dore, R; Locci, V; Paci, E; Porcu, P; Serra, M

    2016-04-21

    Women are more likely than men to suffer from anxiety disorders and major depression. These disorders share hyperresponsiveness to stress as an etiological factor. Thus, sex differences in brain arousal systems and their regulation by chronic stress may account for the increased vulnerability to these disorders in women. Social isolation is a model of early life stress that results in neurobiological alterations leading to increased anxiety-like and depressive-like behaviors. Here we investigated the sex difference in the effects of post-weaning social isolation on acute stress sensitivity and behavior in rats. In both sexes, social isolation at weaning reduced basal levels of the neuroactive steroid allopregnanolone in the brain and of corticosterone in plasma. Moreover, acute stress increased plasma corticosterone levels in both group-housed and socially isolated male and female rats; however this effect was greater in male than female rats subjected to social isolation. Intriguingly, group-housed female rats showed no change in plasma and brain levels of allopregnanolone after acute foot-shock stress. The absence of stress-induced effects on allopregnanolone synthesis might be due to the physiologically higher levels of this hormone in females vs. males. Accordingly, increasing allopregnanolone levels in male rats blunted the response to foot-shock stress in these animals. Socially isolated male, but not female, rats also display depressive-like behavior and increased hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). The ovarian steroids could "buffer" the effect of this adverse experience in females on these parameters. Finally, the dexamethasone (DEX) suppression test indicated that the chronic stress associated with social isolation impairs feedback inhibition in both sexes in which an increase in the abundance of glucocorticoid receptors (GRs) in the hippocampus was found. Altogether, these results demonstrate that social isolation affects neuroendocrine

  2. Disruptive technologies in higher education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Flavin

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the role of “disruptive” innovative technologies in higher education. In this country and elsewhere, Higher Education Institutions (HEIs have invested significant sums in learning technologies, with Virtual Learning Environments (VLEs being more or less universal, but these technologies have not been universally adopted and used by students and staff. Instead, other technologies not owned or controlled by HEIs are widely used to support learning and teaching. According to Christensen's theory of Disruptive Innovation, these disruptive technologies are not designed explicitly to support learning and teaching in higher education, but have educational potential. This study uses Activity Theory and Expansive Learning to analyse data regarding the impact of disruptive technologies. The data were obtained through a questionnaire survey about awareness and use of technologies, and through observation and interviews, exploring participants’ actual practice. The survey answers tended to endorse Disruptive Innovation theory, with participants establishing meanings for technologies through their use of them, rather than in keeping with a designer's intentions. Observation revealed that learners use a narrow range of technologies to support learning, but with a tendency to use resources other than those supplied by their HEIs. Interviews showed that participants use simple and convenient technologies to support their learning and teaching. This study identifies a contradiction between learning technologies made available by HEIs, and technologies used in practice. There is no evidence to suggest that a wide range of technologies is being used to support learning and teaching. Instead, a small range of technologies is being used for a wide range of tasks. Students and lecturers are not dependent on their HEIs to support learning and teaching. Instead, they self-select technologies, with use weighted towards established brands. The

  3. Higher dimensional discrete Cheeger inequalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Gundert

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available For graphs there exists a strong connection between spectral and combinatorial expansion properties. This is expressed, e.g., by the discrete Cheeger inequality, the lower bound of which states that $\\lambda(G \\leq h(G$, where $\\lambda(G$ is the second smallest eigenvalue of the Laplacian of a graph $G$ and $h(G$ is the Cheeger constant measuring the edge expansion of $G$. We are interested in generalizations of expansion properties to finite simplicial complexes of higher dimension (or uniform hypergraphs. Whereas higher dimensional Laplacians were introduced already in 1945 by Eckmann, the generalization of edge expansion to simplicial complexes is not straightforward. Recently, a topologically motivated notion analogous to edge expansion that is based on $\\mathbb{Z}_2$-cohomology was introduced by Gromov and independently by Linial, Meshulam and Wallach. It is known that for this generalization there is no direct higher dimensional analogue of the lower bound of the Cheeger inequality. A different, combinatorially motivated generalization of the Cheeger constant, denoted by $h(X$, was studied by Parzanchevski, Rosenthal and Tessler. They showed that indeed $\\lambda(X \\leq h(X$, where $\\lambda(X$ is the smallest non-trivial eigenvalue of the ($(k-1$-dimensional upper Laplacian, for the case of $k$-dimensional simplicial complexes $X$ with complete $(k-1$-skeleton. Whether this inequality also holds for $k$-dimensional complexes with non-com\\-plete$(k-1$-skeleton has been an open question.We give two proofs of the inequality for arbitrary complexes. The proofs differ strongly in the methods and structures employed,and each allows for a different kind of additional strengthening of the original result.

  4. Efficient Isolation of Cardiac Stem Cells from Brown Adipose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiqiang Liu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac stem cells represent a logical cell type to exploit in cardiac regeneration. The efficient harvest of cardiac stem cells from a suitable source would turn promising in cardiac stem cell therapy. Brown adipose was recently found to be a new source of cardiac stem cells, instrumental to myocardial regeneration. Unfortunately, an efficient method for the cell isolation is unavailable so far. In our study we have developed a new method for the efficient isolation of cardiac stem cells from brown adipose by combining different enzymes. Results showed that the total cell yield dramatically increased (more than 10 times, P<.01 compared with that by previous method. The content of CD133-positive cells (reported to differentiate into cardiomyocytes with a high frequency was much higher than that in the previous report (22.43% versus 3.5%. Moreover, the isolated cells could be the efficiently differentiated into functional cardiomyocytes in optimized conditions. Thus, the new method we established would be of great use in further exploring cardiac stem cell therapy.

  5. Molecular epidemiology of Mycobacterium tuberculosis clinical isolates in Southwest Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ojo, Olabisi O

    2010-10-01

    Tuberculosis has had significant effects on Ireland over the past two centuries, causing persistently higher morbidity and mortality than in neighbouring countries until the last decade. This study describes the results of genotyping and drug susceptibility testing of 171 strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex isolated between January 2004 and December 2006 in a region of Ireland centred on the city of Cork. Spoligotype comparisons were made with the SpolDB4 database and clustered 130 strains in 23 groups, forty-one strains showed unique Spoligotyping patterns. The commonest spoligotypes detected were ST0137 (X2) (16.9%), and ST0351 (15.8%) (\\'U\\' clade). The major spoligotype clades were X (26.2%), U (19.3%), T (15.2%), Beijing (5.9%), Haarlem (4.7%), LAM (4.1%), BOVIS (1.75%), with 12.9% unassigned strains. A 24-locus VNTR genotyping produced 15 clusters containing 49 isolates, with high discrimination index (HGDI>0.99). A combination of Spoligotyping and VNTR reduced the number of clustered isolates to 47 in 15 clusters (27.5%). This study identified ST351 as common among Irish nationals, and found a low rate of drug resistance with little evidence of transmission of drug resistant strains. Strain clustering was significantly associated with age under 55 years and Irish nationality. Only strains of Euro-American lineage formed clusters. Molecular typing did not completely coincide with the results of contact investigations.

  6. Seismic isolation structure for pool-type LMFBR - isolation building with vertically isolated floor for NSSS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakurai, A.; Shiojiri, H.; Aoyagi, S.; Matsuda, T.; Fujimoto, S.; Sasaki, Y.; Hirayama, H.

    1987-01-01

    The NSSS isolation floor vibration characteristics were made clear. Especially, the side support bearing (rubber bearing) is effective for horizontal floor motion restraint and rocking motion control. Seismic isolation effects for responses of the reactor components can be sufficiently expected, using the vertical seismic isolation floor. From the analytical and experimental studies, the following has been concluded: (1) Seismic isolation structure, which is suitable for large pool-type LMFBR, were proposed. (2) Seismic response characteristics of the seismic isolation structure were investigated. It was made clear that the proposed seismic isolation (Combination of the isolated building and the isolated NSSS floor) was effective. (orig./HP)

  7. Isolation and antibiogram of Staphylococcus, Streptococcus and Escherichia coli isolates from clinical and subclinical cases of bovine mastitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nihar Nalini Mohanty,

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was aimed to isolate and evaluate the continuous change in the pattern of drug resistance showed by different mastitogenic organisms, isolated from clinical and subclinical cases of mastitis.Materials and Methods: The study was carried out using 150 milk samples received from various clinical and subclinical cases, from which the causative organisms were isolated and subjected to in vitro antibiotic sensitivity test.Results: The bacteriological analysis of the samples indicated the presence of both Gram positive and Gram negative organisms followed by isolation of isolates like Staphylococcus, E. coli, Streptococcus, Bacillus, Corynebacterium, Listeria, Klebsiella. The in vitro sensitivity of Staphylococcus, E. coli and Streptococcus isolates revealed that they were more sensitive towards newer antimicrobials like Levofloxacin and Enrofloxacin.Conclusion: The prevalence of Staphylococcus was found to be maximum followed by Streptococcus and E. coli among the isolated organisms. Levofloxacin and Enrofloxacin were found to be most effective against the targeted isolates.

  8. Characterization of lactic acid bacteria isolated from poultry farms in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Lactobacilli strains, both isolated from faeces, produced higher amounts of cells and lactic acid from soils as compared to the lactococci strain isolated from feathers. L (+)-lactic acid is the only optical isomer for use in pharmaceutical and food industries because is only adapted to assimilate this form. The optical isomers ...

  9. Isolation and screening phosphate solubilizers from composts as biofertilizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phua Choo Kwai Hoe; Khairuddin Abdul Rahim; Latiffah Norddin; Abdul Razak Ruslan

    2006-01-01

    Phosphate solubilizers are miroorganisms that able to solubilize insoluble inorganic phosphate compounds or hydrolyze organic phosphate to inorganic P. Therefore make the P to be available for plant and consequently enhance plant growth and yield. Recently, phosphate solubilizing microorganisms has been shown to play an important role in the biofertilizer industry. Fifty-one bacterial were isolated from eleven composts. Most of the phosphate solubilizers were isolated from natural farming composted compost and normal composting compost. This shows that both of these composts are more suitable to use for phosphate solubilizer isolation compare commercial composts. Fourteen of the isolates were found to be phosphate solubilizers. These isolates produced a clear zone on the phosphate agar plates, showing their potential as biofertilizer. AP3 was significantly produced the largest clear zone compared with other isolates. This indicates that isolate AP 3 could be a good phosphate solubilizer. Thus, their effectiveness in the greenhouse and field should be evaluated. (Author)

  10. X-ray sensitive strains of CHO cells show decreased frequency of stable transfection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeggo, P.; Smith, J.

    1987-01-01

    Six X-ray sensitive (xrs) strains of the Chinese hamster ovary cell line have previously been isolated and shown to have a defect in double strand break rejoining. In this study, these strains have been investigated for their ability to take up and integrate foreign DNA. All the xrs strains investigated so far have shown a decreased frequency of stable transfectants compared to their parent line, in experiments using the plasmid pSV2gpt, which contains the selectable bacterial gene, guanine phosphoribosyl transferase. This decreased frequency is observed over a wide range of DNA concentrations (0.1 to 20 μg DNA) but is more pronounced at higher DNA concentrations. In contrast, these xrs strains show the same level of transfection proficiency as the wild type parent using a transient transfection system with a plasmid containing the bacterial CAT (chloramphenicol acetyl transferase) gene. Since the level of CAT activity does not depend on integration of foreign DNA, this suggests that the xrs strains are able to take up the same amount of DNA as the parent strains, but have a defect in the integration of foreign DNA. Since this integration of foreign DNA probably occurs by non-homologous recombination, this may indicate a role of the xrs gene product in this process

  11. Bianchi identities in higher dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pravda, V; Pravdova, A; Coley, A; Milson, R

    2004-01-01

    A higher dimensional frame formalism is developed in order to study implications of the Bianchi identities for the Weyl tensor in vacuum spacetimes of the algebraic types III and N in arbitrary dimension n. It follows that the principal null congruence is geodesic and expands isotropically in two dimensions and does not expand in n - 4 spacelike dimensions or does not expand at all. It is shown that the existence of such principal geodesic null congruence in vacuum (together with an additional condition on twist) implies an algebraically special spacetime. We also use the Myers-Perry metric as an explicit example of a vacuum type D spacetime to show that principal geodesic null congruences in vacuum type D spacetimes do not share this property

  12. Isolation, characterization, virulence and immunogenicity testing of field isolates of Pasteurella multocida, Staphylococcus aureus, and Streptococcus agalactiae in laboratory settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qudratullah; Muhammad, G; Saqib, M; Bilal, M Qamar

    2017-08-01

    The present study was designed to investigate isolation, characterization, virulence and immunogenicity testing of field isolates of Pasteurella multocida, Staphylococcus aureus, and Streptococcus agalactiae in rabbits and mice. Isolates of P. multocida, S. aureus and Str. agalactiae recovered from field cases of Hemorragic septicemia and mastitis were scrutinized for virulence/pathogenicity and immunogenicity. Mouse LD 50 of P. multocida showed that P. multocida isolate No.1 was more virulent than isolates No. 2 and 3. Virulence of isolate No.1S. aureus and Str. agalactiae revealed that 100, 80% rabbits died within 18h of inoculation. Seven-digit numerical profiles of these 4 isolates with API ® Staph test strips isolates, No.1 (6736153) showed good identification (S. aureus id=90.3%). Indirect ELISA-based serum antibody titers to P. multocida isolate No.1, S. aureus No.1, Str. agalactiae, isolate No.1 elicited high antibody titers 1.9, 1.23, 1.12 respectively. All the pathogens of Isolate No. 1 (P. multocida, S. aureus Str. agalactiae), were high antibody than others isolates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Isolation and identification of ferric reducing bacteria and evaluation of their roles in iron availability in two calcareous soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorbanzadeh, N.; Lakzian, A.; Haghnia, G. H.; Karimi, A. R.

    2014-12-01

    Iron is an essential element for all organisms which plays a crucial role in important biochemical processes such as respiration and photosynthesis. Iron deficiency seems to be an important problem in many calcareous soils. Biological dissimilatory Fe(III) reduction increases iron availability through reduction of Fe(III) to Fe(II). The aim of this study was to isolate, identify and evaluate some bacterial isolates for their abilities to reduce Fe(III) in two calcareous soils. Three bacterial isolates were selected and identified from paddy soils by using 16S rRNA amplification and then inoculated to sterilized and non-sterilized calcareous soils in the presence and absence of glucose. The results showed that all isolates belonged to Bacillus genus and were capable of reducing Fe(III) to Fe(II) in vitro condition. The amount of Fe(III) reduction in sterilized calcareous soils was significantly higher when inoculated with PS23 isolate and Shewanella putrefaciens ( S. putrefaciens) (as positive control) compared to PS16 and PS11 isolates. No significant difference was observed between PS11 and PS16 isolates in the presence of indigenous microbial community. The results also revealed that glucose had a significant effect on Fe(III) reduction in the examined calcareous soil samples. The amount of Fe(III) reduction increased two-fold when soil samples were treated with glucose and inoculated by S. putrefaciens and PS23 in non-sterilized soils.

  14. Expression of the CDR1 efflux pump in clinical Candida albicans isolates is controlled by a negative regulatory element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaur, Naseem Akhtar; Manoharlal, Raman; Saini, Preeti; Prasad, Tulika; Mukhopadhyay, Gauranga; Hoefer, Milan; Morschhaeuser, Joachim; Prasad, Rajendra

    2005-01-01

    Resistance to azole antifungal drugs in clinical isolates of the human fungal pathogen Candida albicans is often caused by constitutive overexpression of the CDR1 gene, which encodes a multidrug efflux pump of the ABC transporter superfamily. To understand the relevance of a recently identified negative regulatory element (NRE) in the CDR1 promoter for the control of CDR1 expression in the clinical scenario, we investigated the effect of mutation or deletion of the NRE on CDR1 expression in two matched pairs of azole-sensitive and resistant clinical isolates of C. albicans. Expression of GFP or lacZ reporter genes from the wild type CDR1 promoter was much higher in the azole-resistant C. albicans isolates than in the azole-susceptible isolates, reflecting the known differences in CDR1 expression in these strains. Deletion or mutation of the NRE resulted in enhanced reporter gene expression in azole-sensitive strains, but did not further increase the already high CDR1 promoter activity in the azole-resistant strains. In agreement with these findings, electrophoretic mobility shift assays showed a reduced binding to the NRE of nuclear extracts from the resistant C. albicans isolates as compared with extracts from the sensitive isolates. These results demonstrate that the NRE is involved in maintaining CDR1 expression at basal levels and that this repression is overcome in azole-resistant clinical C. albicans isolates, resulting in constitutive CDR1 overexpression and concomitant drug resistance

  15. The study of salinity and drought tolerance of Sinorhizobium meliloti isolated from province of Kerman in vivo condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mahboobe abolhasani zeraatkar

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that the host plant inoculation by native strains with high efficiency has a positive effect on plant yield and biological nitrogen fixation process. The main aim of this investigation was to based on salinity and drought experiments, four isolates of Sinorhizobium meliloti (S27K and S36K tolerant isolates, S109K semi-sensitive isolate, S56K sensitive isolate were selected for plant inoculation which was under drought stress in greenhouse condition. This experiment was carried out by using a factorial model in completely randomized design. Results showed that inoculation of alfalfa plants with high salinity and drought tolerant of Sinorhizobium meliloti bacteria could increased biological nitrogen fixation process (symbiotic efficiency, percent crude protein and yield of alfalfa under salinity and drought conditions significantly. There were not any significant differences between S27K and S36K isolates and positive control (no nitrogen limitation. Symbiotic efficiency increased 3.4 times higher than alfalfa plants were inoculated by sensitive isolates S56K when alfalfa plants were inoculated by S27K and S36K isolates.

  16. Bioremediation capability and characterization of bacteria isolated from petroleum contaminated soils in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golafarin Ghoreishi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to isolate bacteria for bioremediation of petroleum polluted soils. Five samples were used for isolation in this study. They were four soil samples in addition to one kerosene sample. The soil samples including soils contaminated by crude oil and gas oil and two soil samples with no outward contamination which were collected from Shiraz Oil Refinery sites. Seven strains were selected among the isolated colonies for further experiments. The selected isolates were cultured in standard succinate medium (SSM minimal medium in which 2.5% v/v kerosene was used as carbon source. In another bacterial SSM culture, carbon, sulfur or nitrogen source was removed and 20% v/v kerosene added to check the ability of isolates to utilizekerosene as sole source for C, N and S. Finally, cultures of four strains with higher growth in modified SSM cultures were selected for GC analysis. In this study they were named C2 and C4 which were isolated from crude oil contaminated soil and SI1 and SI2 isolated from soils with no outward contamination. GC analysis showed that C2 could degrade 69% of 5% v/v kerosene in 7 d, while C4 and SI1 degraded 48% and 42% of 5% v/v kerosene during this 7-d period respectively, and the degradation ability of SI2 was 38% after 7 d. Analysis of 16S rRNA gene showed that C2 was close to Citrobacter sedlakii, C4 and SI1 were related to Entrobacter hormeachei and SI2 was close to Entrobacter cloacae, respectively.

  17. Comparative characterisation of the biofilm-production abilities of Staphylococcus epidermidis isolated from human skin and platelet concentrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Mariam; Kohnen, Carissa; Mallya, Shruti; Kou, Yuntong; Zapata, Adriana; Ramirez-Arcos, Sandra

    2018-02-01

    Staphylococcus epidermidis is the predominant contaminant of platelet concentrates (PCs), a blood product used to treat patients with platelet deficiencies. This microorganism is able to form surface-attached aggregates (biofilms) in human skin. Herein, the abundance of S. epidermidis biofilm-producers in contaminated PCs compared to skin isolates was explored. Furthermore, the potential positive selection of S. epidermidis biofilm-producers during the blood donation process and PC manufacturing was investigated. Twenty-four S. epidermidis isolates obtained from contaminated PCs and 48 S. epidermidis isolates obtained from the venipuncture area of human volunteers were compared for their ability to form biofilms in laboratory media and in PCs using a semi quantitative crystal violet assay. Also, the presence of the biofilm-associated icaA and icaD genes was assessed by PCR-amplification.Results/Key findings.Biofilm production in laboratory media showed a higher number of S. epidermidis biofilm-producers in the skin-derived group (43.7 %) compared to the PC-derived isolates (25 %). However, all skin and PC isolates formed biofilms in PCs. The prevalence of ica-positive biofilm-producer isolates was similar in PC and skin isolates (16.6 and 18.8 %, respectively). In contrast, the abundance of ica-negative biofilm-producers was lower in PC isolates compared to skin isolates (8.3 vs 25 %, respectively). Positive selection of S. epidermidis biofilm-producers during blood donation and PC manufacturing was not observed. Interestingly, ica-negative biofilm-producers seem to be negatively affected by skin disinfection, blood processing and PC storage. Furthermore, this study shows that S. epidermidis adopts a biofilm-forming phenotype in PCs regardless of its genetic background or origin.

  18. Bioavailability of cadmium from soy isolate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Y.H.; Fox, M.R.S.; Tao, S.H.

    1986-01-01

    Studies with 109 Cd showed that more Cd was taken up by duodenum (D) and jejunum-ileum (J-I) of Japanese Quail (JQ) with soy isolate (SI) than with casein gelatin (CG) diet. The purpose of this study was to compare the bioavailability of endogenous Cd from SI with CdCl 2 added to a CG diet. Day-old JQ were fed either SI or CG diet containing 121 ppb of Cd. Beginning at 7 d of age, 109 CdCl 2 was incorporated into both diets at 100 uci/kg and a group of birds from each diet was killed on 8, 9, 11, 14 and 21 d. Growth was normal with both diets and food intake was similar. Cd concentration (determined by ICAP and AAS furnace) was significantly higher with CG than with SI on all days in D and up to 11 d of age in J-I. Although much less Cd accumulated in liver and kidneys than in D and J-I, the levels were also higher with CG. Total Cd uptake by liver and kidneys increased gradually with CG whereas there was little increase with SI. Specific activity of Cd in D and J-I with CG remained the same throughout the experiment, but increased significantly with SI up to 11 d of age. The specific activity of Cd in liver and kidneys from both CG and SI increased with time but the rate was greater with SI. The patterns of specific activity indicate differences among tissues and between CG and SI for time required to reach equilibrium between 109 Cd and non-radioactive Cd. These data also show that endogenous Cd in SI is less bioavailable than CdCl 2 added to CG diet

  19. Thermodynamic laws in isolated systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilbert, Stefan; Hänggi, Peter; Dunkel, Jörn

    2014-12-01

    The recent experimental realization of exotic matter states in isolated quantum systems and the ensuing controversy about the existence of negative absolute temperatures demand a careful analysis of the conceptual foundations underlying microcanonical thermostatistics. Here we provide a detailed comparison of the most commonly considered microcanonical entropy definitions, focusing specifically on whether they satisfy or violate the zeroth, first, and second laws of thermodynamics. Our analysis shows that, for a broad class of systems that includes all standard classical Hamiltonian systems, only the Gibbs volume entropy fulfills all three laws simultaneously. To avoid ambiguities, the discussion is restricted to exact results and analytically tractable examples.

  20. Sensitivity of some local isolates of Mycoplasma gallisepticum against antibiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutiastuti Wahyuwardani

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available Sensitivity of five local isolates ofMycoplasma gallisepticum (MG strain and two standard MG isolates obtained from Australia were tested against antibiotics of oxytetracycline, doxycycline, erythromycin, bacitracin, vancomycin, methicillin and penicillin using antibiogram disc method. The result showed that one, 2 and 3 local MG isolates were resistent to doxycycline, erythromycin and oxytetracycline respectively . MG isolate of ADA7 from Australia was found to be resistent to all antibiotics tested. None ofthe local MG isolates were sensitive against bacitracin, vancomycin, methicillin and penicillin.

  1. Responses of an isolation system with distinct multiple frequencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Ting-shu; Seidensticker, R.W.

    1991-01-01

    Base isolation systems are generally designed with a single natural frequency. A major concern for these isolation systems is that, if the dominant frequency of a future earthquake is equal or close to the system's natural frequency, the ground motion will be greatly amplified because of resonance,and the superstructure would suffer severe damages. This paper present an isolation system designed with two distinct frequencies. Its responses to different ground motions, including a harmonic motion, show that no excessive amplification will occur. Adoption of this isolation system would greatly enhance the safety of an isolated superstructure against future strong earthquakes. 3 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  2. Isolation of cellulose microfibrils - An enzymatic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sain, M.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Isolation methods and applications of cellulose microfibrils are expanding rapidly due to environmental benefits and specific strength properties, especially in bio-composite science. In this research, we have success-fully developed and explored a novel bio-pretreatment for wood fibre that can substantially improve the microfibril yield, in comparison to current techniques used to isolate cellulose microfibrils. Microfibrils currently are isolated in the laboratory through a combination of high shear refining and cryocrushing. A high energy requirement of these procedures is hampering momentum in the direction of microfibril isolation on a sufficiently large scale to suit potential applications. Any attempt to loosen up the microfibrils by either complete or partial destruction of the hydrogen bonds before the mechanical process would be a step forward in the quest for economical isolation of cellulose microfibrils. Bleached kraft pulp was treated with OS1, a fungus isolated from Dutch Elm trees infected with Dutch elm disease, under different treatment conditions. The percentage yield of cellulose microfibrils, based on their diameter, showed a significant shift towards a lower diameter range after the high shear refining, compared to the yield of cellulose microfibrils from untreated fibres. The overall yield of cellulose microfibrils from the treated fibres did not show any sizeable decrease.

  3. Proteome Analysis of the Plant Pathogenic Fungus Monilinia laxa Showing Host Specificity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olja Bregar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Brown rot fungus Monilinia laxa (Aderh. & Ruhl. Honey is an important plant pathogen in stone and pome fruits in Europe. We applied a proteomic approach in a study of M. laxa isolates obtained from apples and apricots in order to show the host specifity of the isolates and to analyse differentially expressed proteins in terms of host specifity, fungal pathogenicity and identification of candidate proteins for diagnostic marker development. Extracted mycelium proteins were separated by 2-D electrophoresis (2-DE and visualized by Coomassie staining in a non-linear pH range of 3–11 and Mr of 14–116 kDa. We set up a 2-DE reference map of M. laxa, resolving up to 800 protein spots, and used it for image analysis. The average technical coefficient of variance (13 % demonstrated a high reproducibility of protein extraction and 2-D polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2-DE PAGE, and the average biological coefficient of variance (23 % enabled differential proteomic analysis of the isolates. Multivariate statistical analysis (principal component analysis discriminated isolates from two different hosts, providing new data that support the existence of a M. laxa specialized form f. sp. mali, which infects only apples. A total of 50 differentially expressed proteins were further analyzed by LC-MS/MS, yielding 41 positive identifications. The identified mycelial proteins were functionally classified into 6 groups: amino acid and protein metabolism, energy production, carbohydrate metabolism, stress response, fatty acid metabolism and other proteins. Some proteins expressed only in apple isolates have been described as virulence factors in other fungi. The acetolactate synthase was almost 11-fold more abundant in apple-specific isolates than in apricot isolates and it might be implicated in M. laxa host specificity. Ten proteins identified only in apple isolates are potential candidates for the development of M. laxa host-specific diagnostic markers.

  4. Cerveau isolé and pretrigeminal rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zernicki, B; Gandolfo, G; Glin, L; Gottesmann, C

    1984-01-01

    Cortical and hippocampal EEG activity was analysed in 14 cerveau isole and 8 pretrigerninal rats. In the acute stage, waking EEG patterns were absent in the cerveau isole, whereas sleep EEG patterns were absent in the pretrigeminal preparations. However, already on the second day the EEG waking-sleep cycle recovered in the majority of rats. Paradoxically, stimuli directed to the caudal part of preparations evoked stronger cortical and hippocampal EEG arousal than olfactory and visual stimuli. The behavior of the caudal part was observed in 25 preparations. Although in abortive form, the rats did show some locomotor and grooming behavior, and could be fed orally. The peripheral events of paradoxical sleep appeared only on the fourth or fifth day of survival of the cerveau isole rats. It is concluded that the activity of the isolated cerebrum of the rat is similar to that of cat preparations, but that functions of the caudal neuraxis are superior in rats.

  5. Isolated Optic Disc Tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansour, Ahmad M.; Tabbara, Khalid F.; Tabbarah, Zuhair

    2015-01-01

    We present a healthy male subject who developed progressive visual loss in the left eye initially diagnosed as optic neuritis. Upon suspicion of infectious etiology, testing was positive for tuberculosis. There were no signs or symptoms of active systemic tuberculosis infection. The patient responded swiftly to antimycobacterial therapy with return of vision and resolution of disc swelling. Positive purified protein derivative skin test, negative chest radiograph, negative systemic workup, negative workup for other causes of unilateral optic neuritis and quick response to mycobacterial therapy reaffirm the entity of isolated optic disc tuberculosis similar to isolated choroidal tuberculosis without systemic manifestation. PMID:26483675

  6. Isolated Optic Disc Tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad M. Mansour

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We present a healthy male subject who developed progressive visual loss in the left eye initially diagnosed as optic neuritis. Upon suspicion of infectious etiology, testing was positive for tuberculosis. There were no signs or symptoms of active systemic tuberculosis infection. The patient responded swiftly to antimycobacterial therapy with return of vision and resolution of disc swelling. Positive purified protein derivative skin test, negative chest radiograph, negative systemic workup, negative workup for other causes of unilateral optic neuritis and quick response to mycobacterial therapy reaffirm the entity of isolated optic disc tuberculosis similar to isolated choroidal tuberculosis without systemic manifestation.

  7. Diet of the prehistoric population of Rapa Nui (Easter Island, Chile) shows environmental adaptation and resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarman, Catrine L; Larsen, Thomas; Hunt, Terry; Lipo, Carl; Solsvik, Reidar; Wallsgrove, Natalie; Ka'apu-Lyons, Cassie; Close, Hilary G; Popp, Brian N

    2017-10-01

    The Rapa Nui "ecocide" narrative questions whether the prehistoric population caused an avoidable ecological disaster through rapid deforestation and over-exploitation of natural resources. The objective of this study was to characterize prehistoric human diets to shed light on human adaptability and land use in an island environment with limited resources. Materials for this study included human, faunal, and botanical remains from the archaeological sites Anakena and Ahu Tepeu on Rapa Nui, dating from c. 1400 AD to the historic period, and modern reference material. We used bulk carbon and nitrogen isotope analyses and amino acid compound specific isotope analyses (AA-CSIA) of collagen isolated from prehistoric human and faunal bone, to assess the use of marine versus terrestrial resources and to investigate the underlying baseline values. Similar isotope analyses of archaeological and modern botanical and marine samples were used to characterize the local environment. Results of carbon and nitrogen AA-CSIA independently show that around half the protein in diets from the humans measured came from marine sources; markedly higher than previous estimates. We also observed higher δ 15 N values in human collagen than could be expected from the local environment. Our results suggest highly elevated δ 15 N values could only have come from consumption of crops grown in substantially manipulated soils. These findings strongly suggest that the prehistoric population adapted and exhibited astute environmental awareness in a harsh environment with nutrient poor soils. Our results also have implications for evaluating marine reservoir corrections of radiocarbon dates. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Show Horse Welfare: Horse Show Competitors' Understanding, Awareness, and Perceptions of Equine Welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt, Melissa A; Hiney, Kristina; Richardson, Jennifer C; Waite, Karen; Borron, Abigail; Brady, Colleen M

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to gain a better understanding of stock-type horse show competitors' understanding of welfare and level of concern for stock-type show horses' welfare. Data were collected through an online questionnaire that included questions relating to (a) interest and general understanding of horse welfare, (b) welfare concerns of the horse show industry and specifically the stock-type horse show industry, (c) decision-making influences, and (d) level of empathic characteristics. The majority of respondents indicated they agree or strongly agree that physical metrics should be a factor when assessing horse welfare, while fewer agreed that behavioral and mental metrics should be a factor. Respondent empathy levels were moderate to high and were positively correlated with the belief that mental and behavioral metrics should be a factor in assessing horse welfare. Respondents indicated the inhumane practices that most often occur at stock-type shows include excessive jerking on reins, excessive spurring, and induced excessive unnatural movement. Additionally, respondents indicated association rules, hired trainers, and hired riding instructors are the most influential regarding the decisions they make related to their horses' care and treatment.

  9. The Didactics of Higher Education Didactics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Tina Bering; Qvortrup, Ane

    Based on a systematic categorization and analysis of a total of 393 contributions in three journals for research and development in higher education, the paper shows how the scholarship of teaching and learning in higher education (SoTL) over time have produced a didactic pattern. We designate th...... for general didactics and education research. Especially, how the scholarship of teaching and learning in higher education puts itself at the disposal of the on-going didactical professionalization of teachers in higher education.......Based on a systematic categorization and analysis of a total of 393 contributions in three journals for research and development in higher education, the paper shows how the scholarship of teaching and learning in higher education (SoTL) over time have produced a didactic pattern. We designate...... this pattern “The didactics of higher education didactics”. The analytical framework is found in the didactics of Paul Heimann (Die Lehrteoretische Didaktik) and the empirical basis in the abstracts in Higher Education Research & Development, Uniped and Danish Journal for Teaching and Learning in Higher...

  10. Social Isolation Stress Induces Anxious-Depressive-Like Behavior and Alterations of Neuroplasticity-Related Genes in Adult Male Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Ieraci

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Stress is a major risk factor in the onset of several neuropsychiatric disorders including anxiety and depression. Although several studies have shown that social isolation stress during postweaning period induces behavioral and brain molecular changes, the effects of social isolation on behavior during adulthood have been less characterized. Aim of this work was to investigate the relationship between the behavioral alterations and brain molecular changes induced by chronic social isolation stress in adult male mice. Plasma corticosterone levels and adrenal glands weight were also analyzed. Socially isolated (SI mice showed higher locomotor activity, spent less time in the open field center, and displayed higher immobility time in the tail suspension test compared to group-housed (GH mice. SI mice exhibited reduced plasma corticosterone levels and reduced difference between right and left adrenal glands. SI showed lower mRNA levels of the BDNF-7 splice variant, c-Fos, Arc, and Egr-1 in both hippocampus and prefrontal cortex compared to GH mice. Finally, SI mice exhibited selectively reduced mGluR1 and mGluR2 levels in the prefrontal cortex. Altogether, these results suggest that anxious- and depressive-like behavior induced by social isolation stress correlates with reduction of several neuroplasticity-related genes in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex of adult male mice.

  11. Isolation and characterization of copper tolerant bacterial isolates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farooq, S.; Shoeb, E.; Badar, U.; Akhtar, J.

    2008-01-01

    Twelve bacterial strains were isolated from metal contaminated sites close to the chemical factory, Purification and characterization of these strains was done. Maximum tolerable concentration (MTC) of all the isolated strains was determined against heavy metals cadmium chloride (CdCl/sub 2/), copper sulphate (CuSO/sub 4/), and nickel chloride (NiCI/sub 2/) and antibiotics kanamycin (Km), streptomycin (Sm), and chloramphenicol (Cm). Most promising strain was found to be GESSF012 which showed MTC of 4.5 mM and 1.6 mM against CdCI/sub 2/ in enriched and minimal media respectively; whereas MTC of 750 micro g/ml was against Sm. GESSF012 demonstrated the occurrence of multiple stress tolerance as this strain showed considerable tolerance against other heavy metals including CuSO/sub 4/, (3.0 mM in enriched media and 1.8 mM in minimal media) and NiCl/sub 2/, (2.0 mM in enriched media and 1.8 mM in minimal media) as well as other antibiotics Cm and Km (150 and 125 micro g/ml respectively). Plasmids were detected in most of the strains including GESSF012. (author)

  12. Antioxidant Activity of Whey from Milk Fermented with Lactobacillus Species Isolated from Nigerian Fermented Foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ifeoma Korie

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Eight Lactobacillus isolates obtained from five indigenous fermented foods (ogi, ogi baba, wara, kunnu and ugba were investigated. Wara is a dairy-based food while the others are not dairy-based. The bacteria were isolated on MRS agar and purified by successive streaking on the same medium. The whey fraction of skimmed milk fermented with each isolate was assayed for radical scavenging effects using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical. All the whey fractions showed radical scavenging activities. The five isolates with the highest activities were selected. On the basis of Gram stain reaction, cellular morphology, biochemical tests and carbohydrate utilization profiles they were identified as strains of Lactobacillus brevis, L. fermentum, L. plantarum, L. casei and L. delbrueckii. The antioxidant activities of whey fractions from 24-hour fermentations with the selected organisms were investigated using both radical scavenging effects and lipid peroxidation inhibitory activity. The radical scavenging activity was generally higher than the lipid peroxidation inhibition, except in the L. plantarum strain, which did not show any significant difference in both activities. The probiotic potential of the isolates was evaluated by pH and bile tolerance. None of the selected isolates showed any growth at pH=2.0 but L. casei and L. delbrueckii survived at this pH. Four of the five selected isolates were able to grow in 0.5 % dehydrated bile, with L. casei strain showing the highest level of growth, followed by L. delbrueckii. L. plantarum strain was not bile tolerant. The ability of L. casei and L. delbrueckii strains to survive at pH=2 and grow in the presence of bile indicates that the isolates may be able to colonize the gastrointestinal tract. The findings of this study indicate that Lactobacillus strains isolated from indigenous Nigerian fermented foods could be useful as starter cultures to provide antioxidants in food and that fermented milk

  13. Soil Bacterial and Fungal Communities Show Distinct Recovery Patterns during Forest Ecosystem Restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shan; Li, Song; Avera, Bethany N; Strahm, Brian D; Badgley, Brian D

    2017-07-15

    Bacteria and fungi are important mediators of biogeochemical processes and play essential roles in the establishment of plant communities, which makes knowledge about their recovery after extreme disturbances valuable for understanding ecosystem development. However, broad ecological differences between bacterial and fungal organisms, such as growth rates, stress tolerance, and substrate utilization, suggest they could follow distinct trajectories and show contrasting dynamics during recovery. In this study, we analyzed both the intra-annual variability and decade-scale recovery of bacterial and fungal communities in a chronosequence of reclaimed mined soils using next-generation sequencing to quantify their abundance, richness, β-diversity, taxonomic composition, and cooccurrence network properties. Bacterial communities shifted gradually, with overlapping β-diversity patterns across chronosequence ages, while shifts in fungal communities were more distinct among different ages. In addition, the magnitude of intra-annual variability in bacterial β-diversity was comparable to the changes across decades of chronosequence age, while fungal communities changed minimally across months. Finally, the complexity of bacterial cooccurrence networks increased with chronosequence age, while fungal networks did not show clear age-related trends. We hypothesize that these contrasting dynamics of bacteria and fungi in the chronosequence result from (i) higher growth rates for bacteria, leading to higher intra-annual variability; (ii) higher tolerance to environmental changes for fungi; and (iii) stronger influence of vegetation on fungal communities. IMPORTANCE Both bacteria and fungi play essential roles in ecosystem functions, and information about their recovery after extreme disturbances is important for understanding whole-ecosystem development. Given their many differences in phenotype, phylogeny, and life history, a comparison of different bacterial and fungal recovery

  14. Best in show but not best shape: a photographic assessment of show dog body condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Such, Z R; German, A J

    2015-08-01

    Previous studies suggest that owners often wrongly perceive overweight dogs to be in normal condition. The body shape of dogs attending shows might influence owners' perceptions, with online images of overweight show winners having a negative effect. This was an observational in silico study of canine body condition. 14 obese-prone breeds and 14 matched non-obese-probe breeds were first selected, and one operator then used an online search engine to identify 40 images, per breed, of dogs that had appeared at a major national UK show (Crufts). After images were anonymised and coded, a second observer subjectively assessed body condition, in a single sitting, using a previously validated method. Of 1120 photographs initially identified, 960 were suitable for assessing body condition, with all unsuitable images being from longhaired breeds. None of the dogs (0 per cent) were underweight, 708 (74 per cent) were in ideal condition and 252 (26 per cent) were overweight. Pugs, basset hounds and Labrador retrievers were most likely to be overweight, while standard poodles, Rhodesian ridgebacks, Hungarian vizslas and Dobermanns were least likely to be overweight. Given the proportion of show dogs from some breeds that are overweight, breed standards should be redefined to be consistent with a dog in optimal body condition. British Veterinary Association.

  15. Comparison of Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis Strains isolated from water and clinical samples: antimicrobial susceptibility and genetic relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo-Rojas, Gonzalo; Mazari-Hiríart, Marisa; Ponce de León, Sergio; Amieva-Fernández, Rosa I; Agis-Juárez, Raúl A; Huebner, Johannes; López-Vidal, Yolanda

    2013-01-01

    Enterococci are part of the normal intestinal flora in a large number of mammals, and these microbes are currently used as indicators of fecal contamination in water and food for human consumption. These organisms are considered one of the primary causes of nosocomial and environmental infections due to their ability to survive in the environment and to their intrinsic resistance to antimicrobials. The aims of this study were to determine the biochemical patterns and antimicrobial susceptibilities of Enterococcus faecalis and E. faecium isolates from clinical samples and from water (groundwater, water from the Xochimilco wetland, and treated water from the Mexico City Metropolitan Area) and to determine the genetic relationships among these isolates. A total of 121 enterococcus strains were studied; 31 and 90 strains were isolated from clinical samples and water (groundwater, water from the Xochimilco wetland, and water for agricultural irrigation), respectively. Identification to the species level was performed using a multiplex PCR assay, and antimicrobial profiles were obtained using a commercial kit. Twenty-eight strains were analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). E. faecium strains isolated from water showed an atypical biochemical pattern. The clinical isolates showed higher resistance to antibiotics than those from water. Both the enterococci isolated from humans, and those isolated from water showed high genetic diversity according to the PFGE analysis, although some strains seemed to be closely related. In conclusion, enterococci isolated from humans and water are genetically different. However, water represents a potential route of transmission to the community and a source of antimicrobial resistance genes that may be readily transmitted to other, different bacterial species.

  16. Comparison of Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis Strains isolated from water and clinical samples: antimicrobial susceptibility and genetic relationships.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo Castillo-Rojas

    Full Text Available Enterococci are part of the normal intestinal flora in a large number of mammals, and these microbes are currently used as indicators of fecal contamination in water and food for human consumption. These organisms are considered one of the primary causes of nosocomial and environmental infections due to their ability to survive in the environment and to their intrinsic resistance to antimicrobials. The aims of this study were to determine the biochemical patterns and antimicrobial susceptibilities of Enterococcus faecalis and E. faecium isolates from clinical samples and from water (groundwater, water from the Xochimilco wetland, and treated water from the Mexico City Metropolitan Area and to determine the genetic relationships among these isolates. A total of 121 enterococcus strains were studied; 31 and 90 strains were isolated from clinical samples and water (groundwater, water from the Xochimilco wetland, and water for agricultural irrigation, respectively. Identification to the species level was performed using a multiplex PCR assay, and antimicrobial profiles were obtained using a commercial kit. Twenty-eight strains were analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE. E. faecium strains isolated from water showed an atypical biochemical pattern. The clinical isolates showed higher resistance to antibiotics than those from water. Both the enterococci isolated from humans, and those isolated from water showed high genetic diversity according to the PFGE analysis, although some strains seemed to be closely related. In conclusion, enterococci isolated from humans and water are genetically different. However, water represents a potential route of transmission to the community and a source of antimicrobial resistance genes that may be readily transmitted to other, different bacterial species.

  17. A note on isolate domination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Sahul Hamid

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A set $S$ of vertices of a graph $G$ such that $\\left\\langle S\\right\\rangle$ has an isolated vertex is called an \\emph{isolate set} of $G$. The minimum and maximum cardinality of a maximal isolate set are called the \\emph{isolate number} $i_0(G$ and the \\emph{upper isolate number} $I_0(G$ respectively. An isolate set that is also a dominating set (an irredundant set is an $\\emph{isolate dominating set} \\ (\\emph{an isolate irredundant set}$. The \\emph{isolate domination number} $\\gamma_0(G$ and the \\emph{upper isolate domination number} $\\Gamma_0(G$ are respectively the minimum and maximum cardinality of a minimal isolate dominating set while the \\emph{isolate irredundance number} $ir_0(G$ and the \\emph{upper isolate irredundance number} $IR_0(G$ are the minimum and maximum cardinality of a maximal isolate irredundant set of $G$. The notion of isolate domination was introduced in \\cite{sb} and the remaining were introduced in \\cite{isrn}. This paper further extends a study of these parameters.   

  18. Emotion regulation during isolation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Poláčková Šolcová, Iva; Šolcová, Iva

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 47, Suppl. 1 (2012) ISSN 0020-7594. [International Congress of Psychology /30./. 22.07.2012-27.07.2012, Cape Town] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP407/11/2226 Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : emotion regulation * isolation * Mars500 Subject RIV: AN - Psychology

  19. Beyond insulation and isolation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højlund, Marie Koldkjær

    2016-01-01

    are insulation and isolation strategies to reduce measurable and perceptual noise levels. However, these strategies do not actively support the need to feel like an integral part of the shared hospital environment, which is a key element in creating healing environments, according to the paradigm of Evidence-Based...

  20. Fault isolation techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas, A.

    1981-01-01

    Three major areas that are considered in the development of an overall maintenance scheme of computer equipment are described. The areas of concern related to fault isolation techniques are: the programmer (or user), company and its policies, and the manufacturer of the equipment.

  1. Proteoglycan isolation and analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Woods, A; Couchman, J R

    2001-01-01

    Proteoglycans can be difficult molecules to isolate and analyze due to large mass, charge, and tendency to aggregate or form macromolecular complexes. This unit describes detailed methods for purification of matrix, cell surface, and cytoskeleton-linked proteoglycans. Methods for analysis...

  2. Isolated limb perfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, Rosalyn; Chantier, Nariane

    1994-12-08

    Growing concern over the rising incidence of malignant melanoma has brought about a need for information on this disorder and the treatment available. Isolated limb perfusion is a relatively new technique used in only a few hospitals. An increased knowledge base will lead to a better understanding of the nursing care required and to a more in-depth care plan.

  3. Broadband Faraday isolator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berent, Michał; Rangelov, Andon A; Vitanov, Nikolay V

    2013-01-01

    Driving on an analogy with the technique of composite pulses in quantum physics, we theoretically propose a broadband Faraday rotator and thus a broadband optical isolator, which is composed of sequences of ordinary Faraday rotators and achromatic quarter-wave plates rotated at the predetermined angles.

  4. Molecular characterization of two isolates of sweet potato leaf curl ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparison analysis showed that DNA-A sequence of JS1 isolate was closely related to that of sweet potato leaf curl virus (SPLCV) from United States with nucleotide sequence identity of 97.0% and DNA-A of Y338 showed highest sequence identity at 97.8% with an isolate of SPLCV from China. Phylogenetic analysis ...

  5. Comprehensive Molecular Characterization of Escherichia coli Isolates from Urine Samples of Hospitalized Patients in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina C. Campos

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Urinary tract infections (UTIs are often caused by Escherichia coli. Their increasing resistance to broad-spectrum antibiotics challenges the treatment of UTIs. Whereas, E. coli ST131 is often multidrug resistant (MDR, ST69 remains susceptible to antibiotics such as cephalosporins. Both STs are commonly linked to community and nosocomial infections. E. coli phylogenetic groups B2 and D are associated with virulence and resistance profiles making them more pathogenic. Little is known about the population structure of E. coli isolates obtained from urine samples of hospitalized patients in Brazil. Therefore, we characterized E. coli isolated from urine samples of patients hospitalized at the university and three private hospitals in Rio de Janeiro, using whole genome sequencing. A high prevalence of E. coli ST131 and ST69 was found, but other lineages, namely ST73, ST648, ST405, and ST10 were also detected. Interestingly, isolates could be divided into two groups based on their antibiotic susceptibility. Isolates belonging to ST131, ST648, and ST405 showed a high resistance rate to all antibiotic classes tested, whereas isolates belonging to ST10, ST73, ST69 were in general susceptible to the antibiotics tested. Additionally, most ST69 isolates, normally resistant to aminoglycosides, were susceptible to this antibiotic in our population. The majority of ST131 isolates were ESBL-producing and belonged to serotype O25:H4 and the H30-R subclone. Previous studies showed that this subclone is often associated with more complicated UTIs, most likely due to their high resistance rate to different antibiotic classes. Sequenced isolates could be classified into five phylogenetic groups of which B2, D, and F showed higher resistance rates than groups A and B1. No significant difference for the predicted virulence genes scores was found for isolates belonging to ST131, ST648, ST405, and ST69. In contrast, the phylogenetic groups B2, D and F showed a higher

  6. Curricula for sustainability in higher education

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This books presents the curricula necessary for sustainability in higher education. It shows how the learning process is transforming in order to promote sustainability. It prepares administrators, teachers and students to diffuse the development in the field, showing a curricula based on three interconnected pillars: the environment, the economic and the social aspects. It contains 8 chapters introducing research advances in the field.

  7. Viscoelasticity of new generation thermoplastic polyurethane vibration isolators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bek, Marko; Betjes, Joris; von Bernstorff, Bernd-Steffen; Emri, Igor

    2017-12-01

    This paper presents the analysis of pressure dependence of three thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) materials on vibration isolation. The three TPU Elastollan® materials are 1190A, 1175A, and 1195D. The aim of this investigation was to analyze how much the performance of isolation can be enhanced using patented Dissipative bulk and granular systems technology. The technology uses granular polymeric materials to enhance materials properties (without changing its chemical or molecular composition) by exposing them to "self-pressurization," which shifts material energy absorption maxima toward lower frequencies, to match the excitation frequency of dynamic loading to which a mechanical system is exposed. Relaxation experiments on materials were performed at different isobaric and isothermal states to construct mastercurves, the time-temperature-pressure interrelation was modeled using the Fillers-Moonan-Tschoegl model. Dynamic material functions, related to isolation stiffness and energy absorption, were determined with the Schwarzl approximation. An increase in stiffness and energy absorption at selected hydrostatic pressure, compared to its stiffness and energy absorption at ambient conditions, is represented with κk(p, ω), defining the increase in stiffness and κd(p, ω), defining the increase in energy absorption. The study showed that close to the glassy state, moduli of 1190A and 1195D are about 6-9 times higher compared to 1175A, whereas their properties at ambient conditions are, for all practical purposes, the same. TPU 1190A turns out to be most sensitive to pressure: at 300 MPa its properties are shifted for 5.5 decades, while for 1195D and 1175A this shift is only 3.5 and 1.5 decades, respectively. In conclusion, the stiffness and energy absorption of isolation may be increased with pressure for about 100 times for 1190A and 1195D and for about 10 times for 1175A.

  8. Entomopathogens Isolated from Invasive Ants and Tests of Their Pathogenicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Fernanda Miori de Zarzuela

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Some ant species cause severe ecological and health impact in urban areas. Many attempts have been tested to control such species, although they do not always succeed. Biological control is an alternative to chemical control and has gained great prominence in research, and fungi and nematodes are among the successful organisms controlling insects. This study aimed to clarify some questions regarding the biological control of ants. Invasive ant species in Brazil had their nests evaluated for the presence of entomopathogens. Isolated entomopathogens were later applied in colonies of Monomorium floricola under laboratory conditions to evaluate their effectiveness and the behavior of the ant colonies after treatment. The entomopathogenic nematodes Heterorhabditis sp. and Steinernema sp. and the fungi Beauveria bassiana, Metarhizium anisopliae, and Paecilomyces sp. were isolated from the invasive ant nests. M. floricola colonies treated with Steinernema sp. and Heterorhabditis sp. showed a higher mortality of workers than control. The fungus Beauveria bassiana caused higher mortality of M. floricola workers. However, no colony reduction or elimination was observed in any treatment. The defensive behaviors of ants, such as grooming behavior and colony budding, must be considered when using fungi and nematodes for biological control of ants.

  9. [Isolation and antimicrobial activities of actinomycetes from vermicompost].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xue-jun; Yan, Shuang-lin; Min, Chang-li; Yang, Yan

    2015-02-01

    In this paper, actinomycetes were isolated from vermicompost by tablet coating method. Antimicrobial activities of actinomycetes were measured by the agar block method. Strains with high activity were identified based on morphology and biochemical characteristics, as well as 16S rDNA gene sequence analysis. The results showed that 26 strains of actinomycetes were isolated, 16 of them had antimicrobial activities to the test strains which accounts for 61.54% of all strains. Among the 16 strains, the strain QYF12 and QYF22 had higher antimicrobial activity to Micrococcus luteus, with a formed inhibition zone of 27 mm and 31 mm, respectively. While the strain QYF26 had higher antimicrobial activity to Bacillus subtilis, and the inhibition zone diameter was 21 mm. Based on the identification of strains with high activity, the strain QYF12 was identified as Streptomyces chartreusis, the strain QYF22 was S. ossamyceticus and the strain QYF26 was S. gancidicus. This study provided a theoretical basis for further separate antibacterial product used for biological control.

  10. Biofilm Formation and Disinfectant Susceptibility of Persistent and Nonpersistent Listeria monocytogenes Isolates from Gorgonzola Cheese Processing Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Annalisa; Bertolotti, Luigi; Brito, Luisa; Civera, Tiziana

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether the biofilm-forming ability and/or the disinfectant susceptibility accounted for the persistence of Listeria monocytogenes in Gorgonzola cheese processing plants. For this purpose, a set of 16 L. monocytogenes isolates collected in the 2004-2007 period was analyzed, including 11 persistent isolates collected in different years, within the collection period, and displaying identical or highly correlated pulsotypes. The evaluation of biofilm-forming ability was assessed using crystal violet (CV) staining and the enumeration of viable cells on stainless steel coupons (SSC). Absorbance values obtained with CV staining for persistent and nonpersistent isolates were not significantly different (rm-ANOVA p > 0.05) and the cell counts from nonpersistent isolates showed to be higher compared with persistent isolates (rm-ANOVA p biofilms on SSC, grown in nutrient-rich (dirty) and limiting (clean) conditions using acid acetic-hydrogen peroxide (P3) and acid citric-hydrogen peroxide (MS) commercial disinfectants. The treatment was considered effective when a 4 Log reduction in viable cell count was observed. The Log reductions of persistent and nonpersistent isolates, obtained with both the assays in clean and dirty conditions, were compared and no significant differences were detected (rm-ANOVA p > 0.05). A greater influence of organic matter on MS could explain why P3 was efficient in reducing to effective levels the majority of the isolates at the lowest concentration suggested by the manufacturer (0.2% [v/v]), while the same purpose required a higher concentration (1% [v/v]) of MS. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that the persistence of these isolates in Gorgonzola cheese processing plants was linked neither to the biofilm-forming ability nor to their susceptibility to hydrogen peroxide-based disinfectants; therefore, other factors should contribute to the persistent colonization of the dairies.

  11. Makerere Journal of Higher Education

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Makerere Journal of Higher Education (MAJOHE) is the official publication of ... management and improvement of higher education from an international viewpoint. ... Historical Development of Science and Technology Education in Nigeria: ...

  12. Easy Money: Tax Exporting and State Support for Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, John M.; Fowles, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    There is a substantial literature that assesses the effects of tax-exporting capacities on the tax structures and aggregate spending levels that state governments choose to implement, but no work exists that isolates the effects of state tax exporting on higher education spending. Using state-level data for 1989, 1995, 2002, and 2007, we estimate…

  13. Chlorine-containing natural compounds in higher plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engvild, Kjeld Christensen

    1986-01-01

    More than 130 chlorine-containing compounds have been isolated from higher plants and ferns; about half are polyacetylenes, thiophenes and sesquiterpene lactones from the Asteraceae. A chlorinated chlorophyll may be an important part of photosystem 1. High biological activity is found in 4...

  14. Evaluation of Mycelium Growth Rate and Yield of White Button Mushroom Isolates (Agaricus bisporus in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Javad Ahmadi Lahijani

    2017-10-01

    using LSD test at 5% significance level. Results and discussion: There were significant differences among isolates based on mycelium growth rate and yield. In PDA medium, 2200 isolate showed the fastest mycelium growth rate with 1.9 mm.day-1 and final colony diameter of 8.1 cm. were This isolate also showed the fastest mycelium growth rate on CYM medium and covering the spawn and compost media surfaces, and produced the highest yield along with A15a isolate (A15a and 2200 with 22.1 and 19.4 kg.m-2, respectively. Magnum d with mycelium growth rate of 0.7 mm.day-1 and final colony diameter of 3.1 cm showed the slowest mycelium growth rate. On average, 75% of isolates were grouped in slow mycelium growth rate class and 25% were placed in fast mycelium growth rate class. Isolates A15a, 2200, A15, M7219 and F64d showed fast mycelium growth rate. All of the isolates showed filamentous mycelium growth type and no abnormal mycelium growth type was observed. Isolate A15a with 50% coverage of compost surface during the first 5 days and 90% during the 15 days showed the fastest mycelium growth rate on this medium, followed by isolates F64d, 2200 and A15a. Normal mycelium growth rate on compost medium varied from 6-8 to sometimes 10-12 mm.day-1 (Farsi and Pooyanfar, 2011. There was a high positive correlation between mycelium growth rate and the yield component, so that isolates with faster mycelium growth rate produced higher yield. Farsi and Gordan, (2001 also reported significant positive correlation between filamentous mycelium type and yield, so that isolates with filamentous mycelium growth type and high mycelium growth rate produced higher yield. Faster mycelium growth rate is considered as a desire characteristic in mushroom cultivation due to the reduction of contamination risk of other micro-organisms (Oie, 2003. Conclusion: There was a high significant difference among white button mushroom isolates in terms of mycelium growth rate and yield. Isolates with faster

  15. Ecophysiological characterization of Aspergillus carbonarius, Aspergillus tubingensis and Aspergillus niger isolated from grapes in Spanish vineyards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Cela, E; Crespo-Sempere, A; Ramos, A J; Sanchis, V; Marin, S

    2014-03-03

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the diversity of black aspergilli isolated from berries from different agroclimatic regions of Spain. Growth characterization (in terms of temperature and water activity requirements) of Aspergillus carbonarius, Aspergillus tubingensis and Aspergillus niger was carried out on synthetic grape medium. A. tubingensis and A. niger showed higher maximum temperatures for growth (>45 °C versus 40-42 °C), and lower minimum aw requirements (0.83 aw versus 0.87 aw) than A. carbonarius. No differences in growth boundaries due to their geographical origin were found within A. niger aggregate isolates. Conversely, A. carbonarius isolates from the hotter and drier region grew and produced OTA at lower aw than other isolates. However, little genetic diversity in A. carbonarius was observed for the microsatellites tested and the same sequence of β-tubulin gene was observed; therefore intraspecific variability did not correlate with the geographical origin of the isolates or with their ability to produce OTA. Climatic change prediction points to drier and hotter climatic scenarios where A. tubingensis and A. niger could be even more prevalent over A. carbonarius, since they are better adapted to extreme high temperature and drier conditions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. In vitro antimicrobial activity of extracts and isolated compound from Dalbergia stipulacea Roxb. leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Arvind; Bhat, Tahir Ahmad; Singh, Rattan Deep

    2017-07-01

    The study was designed to examine the in vitro antimicrobial efficacy of extracts and isolated compound of Dalbergia stipulacea. Combined extracts (chloroform and methanol) of plant leaves fractionated with n-butanol loaded with column afforded a flavonoid glycoside compound identified as luteolin 4'-rutinoside. Different extracts and isolated compound exhibited pronounced antibacterial and antifungal varied activities against four bacteria (Clostridium acetobutylinium, Bacillus subtilis, Streptococcus mutans, and Pseudomonas sp.) and one fungus (Candida albicans) susceptibility were determined using disc diffusion method. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of extracts and isolated compounds was determined by broth dilution method. The maximum activity was shown by chloroform extract against C. albicans with a zone of inhibition of 17 mm and minimum activity was displayed by methanolic extract against Pseudomonas sp. with 5 mm. However, isolated compound has shown maximum activity against Pseudomonas sp. with 15 mm. The MIC values higher in methanol extract against Pseudomonas sp. and isolated compound shows good against Pseudomonas sp. and B. subtilis. Our findings indicate that plant could be used as a good antimicrobial agent in food, pharmaceutical and bio-pesticide industries.

  17. IDENTIFICATION AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY OF POTENTIAL PROBIOTIC BACTERIA ISOLATED FROM POECILIA RETICULATA (GUPPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aparna Balakrishna

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Antagonistic activities against candidate indicator strains, adhesion to mucus and biofilm formation of potential probiotic strains isolated from Poecilia reticulata were evaluated. Four isolated strains (MBTU_PB1, MBTU_PB2, MBTU_PB3 and MBTU_PB4 showed moderate to strong antagonistic activities against the tested five indicator strains (Aeromonas hydrophila1739, Vibrio cholera 3906, Flavobacterium 2495, Acinetobacter 1271 and Alcaligenes 1424 and these isolates were further identified using biochemical tests and 16S rDNA gene sequence analysis. Except the whole cell product, the other three cellular components, namely, heat-killed whole cell product, intracellular product and extracellular product of all the four selected isolates were equally effective, as revealed by the zone of inhibitions to the tested indicator strains. The in vitro adhesion property or the ability of colonization is often considered as a selection criteria for probiotics. All the selected four strains had higher adhesion abilities than the indicator strains. Further, these four strains had the ability to form biofilms on polystyrene surfaces. The in vitro characterization of these four strains suggests possibility of using the isolates, as individual strain or in combination, for probiotic therapy in aquaculture.

  18. Perceived social isolation moderates the relationship between early childhood trauma and pulse pressure in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Greg J; Hawkley, Louise; Ball, Aaron; Berntson, Gary G; Cacioppo, John T

    2013-06-01

    Over a million children are subjected to some form of trauma in the United States every year. Early trauma has been shown to have deleterious effects on cardiovascular health in adulthood. However, the presence of strong social relationships as an adult can buffer an individual against many of the harmful effects of early trauma. Furthermore, the perception of social isolation has been shown to be a significant risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disease and is a strong predictor of all cause mortality. One likely mechanism thought to underlie the influence of perceived isolation on health is changes in arterial stiffness. One of the more widely used measures of arterial stiffness in older individuals is pulse pressure. The goal of the present study was to determine whether early childhood trauma is associated with elevations on pulse pressure. Furthermore, this study sought to determine whether perceived social isolation moderates the relationship between early trauma and pulse pressure. Results revealed that individuals with low perceived social isolation displayed no significant relationship between early trauma and pulse pressure. However, individuals who reported higher levels of perceived isolation showed a significant positive association between early trauma and pulse pressure. Therefore, the detrimental effects of early trauma may be partially dependent upon the quality of social relationships as an adult. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Multidrug-Resistance and Toxic Metal Tolerance of Medically Important Bacteria Isolated from an Aquaculture System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resende, Juliana Alves; Silva, Vânia L.; Fontes, Cláudia Oliveira; Souza-Filho, Job Alves; de Oliveira, Tamara Lopes Rocha; Coelho, Cíntia Marques; César, Dionéia Evangelista; Diniz, Cláudio Galuppo

    2012-01-01

    The use of antimicrobials and toxic metals should be considered carefully in aquaculture and surrounding environments. We aimed to evaluate medically relevant bacteria in an aquaculture system and their susceptibility to antimicrobials and toxic metals. Selective cultures for enterobacteria (ENT), non-fermenting Gram-negative rods (NFR) and Gram-positive cocci (GPC) were obtained from water samples collected in two different year seasons. The isolated bacteria were biochemically identified and antimicrobial and toxic metal susceptibility patterns were determined. Overall, 407 representative strains were recovered. In general, bacteria isolated from fish ponds showed higher multiple antibiotic resistance indices when compared to those isolated from a water-fed canal. Resistance to penicillin and azithromycin was observed more frequently in the GPC group, whereas resistance to ampicillin and ampicillin/sulbactam or gentamicin was observed more frequently in the ENT and NFR groups, respectively. All the isolated bacteria were tolerant to nickel, zinc, chromium and copper at high levels (≥1,024 μg mL−1), whereas tolerance to cadmium and mercury varied among the isolated bacteria (2–1,024 μg mL−1). Multidrug-resistant bacteria were more frequent and diverse in fish ponds than in the water-fed canal. A positive correlation was observed between antimicrobial resistance and metal tolerance. The data point out the need for water treatment associated with the aquaculture system. PMID:22972388

  20. Identification of Salmonella serovars isolated from live molluscan shellfish and their significance in the marine environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Urtaza, Jaime; Saco, Montserrat; Hernandez-Cordova, Gustavo; Lozano, Antonio; Garcia-Martin, Oscar; Espinosa, Joaquin

    2003-02-01

    A study on the presence of Salmonella spp. in live molluscs was performed, which included a description of the different serovars isolated and their relationship to the marine environment. A total of 2,980 samples of shellfish from Galicia (N.W. Spain) were tested for the presence of Salmonella spp. between September 1998 and August 2001. The overall incidence of Salmonella was 1.8% and showed a slight rise during the 3 years of the study. Mussels and oysters presented a higher incidence than clams and cockles, possibly because of their distinct growing habitat. A seasonal pattern was noted for the isolation of Salmonella spp.: 54% of the isolations were detected from September to November. That nearly 67% of the total Salmonella was isolated from shellfish with fecal coliform levels fecal coliforms do not necessarily indicate the absence of Salmonella. A total of nine serovars were found in the 54 Salmonella isolated. Salmonella Senftenberg was the most frequent (50%), followed by Salmonella Typhimurium (18%) and Salmonella Agona (17%). Salmonella Senftenberg was detected frequently during the year, whereas the remaining serovars were detected only on occasional contamination events.

  1. Association between physical activity, participation in Physical Education classes, and social isolation in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Simone José dos; Hardman, Carla Menêses; Barros, Simone Storino Honda; Santos da Franca, Carolina; Santos, Carolina da F B F; Barros, Mauro Virgilio Gomes de

    2015-01-01

    To analyze the association between physical activity, participation in Physical Education classes, and indicators of social isolation among adolescents. This was an epidemiological study based on secondary analysis of data from a representative sample of students (14-19 years) from public high schools (n=4,207). Data were collected through the questionnaire Global School-based Student Health Survey. The independent variables were the level of physical activity and enrollment in Physical Education classes, while the dependent variables were two indicators of social isolation (feeling of loneliness and having few friends). Descriptive and inferential procedures were used in the statistical analysis. Most of the adolescents were classified as insufficiently active (65.1%) and reported not attending Physical Education classes (64.9%). Approximately two in each ten participants reported feeling of loneliness (15.8%) and, in addition, about one in each five adolescents reported have only one friend (19.5%). In the bivariate analysis, a significantly lower proportion of individuals reporting social isolation was observed among adolescents who referred higher enrollment in Physical Education classes. After adjustment for confounding variables, binary logistic regression showed that attending Physical Education classes was identified as a protective factor in relation to the indicator of social isolation 'having few friends,' but only for girls. It was concluded that participation in Physical Education classes is associated with reduced social isolation among female adolescents. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of different arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal isolates on growth and arsenic accumulation in Plantago lanceolata L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orłowska, Elżbieta; Godzik, Barbara; Turnau, Katarzyna

    2012-01-01

    The role of indigenous and non-indigenous arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) on As uptake by Plantago lanceolata L. growing on substrate originating from mine waste rich in As was assessed in a pot experiment. P. lanceolata inoculated with AMF had higher shoot and root biomass and lower concentrations of As in roots than the non-inoculated plants. There were significant differences in As concentration and uptake between different AMF isolates. Inoculation with the indigenous isolate resulted in increased transfer of As from roots to shoots; AMF from non-polluted area apparently restricted plants from absorbing As to the tissue; and plants inoculated with an AMF isolate from Zn–Pb waste showed strong As retainment within the roots. Staining with dithizone indicated that AMF might be actively involved in As accumulation. The mycorrhizal colonization affected also the concentration of Cd and Zn in roots and Pb concentration, both in shoots and roots. - Highlights: ► The role of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in As uptake was studied. ► Growth of Plantago lanceolata was significantly enhanced by mycorrhizal inoculation. ► Arsenic concentration and uptake significantly depended on the AMF isolate. ► Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi may be useful for bioremediation of As contaminated wastes. - Effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on As uptake by Plantago lanceolata strongly depends on the origin of fungal isolates.

  3. Internationalization of Chinese Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Linhan; Huang, Danyan

    2013-01-01

    This paper probes into the development of internationalization of higher education in China from ancient times to modern times, including the emergence of international connections in Chinese higher education and the subsequent development of such connections, the further development of internationalization of Chinese higher education, and the…

  4. A Tax for Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenstyk, Goldie

    2012-01-01

    Higher education pays off handsomely for society. Yet on a nationwide basis, states' support for higher education per full-time-equivalent student has fallen to just $6,290, the lowest in 15 years. A dedicated source of funds for higher education is problematic. But what if state and federal lawmakers applied the impeccable logic of the gas tax to…

  5. Discrete optimization of isolator locations for vibration isolation systems: An analytical and experimental investigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ponslet, E.R.; Eldred, M.S. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Structural Dynamics Dept.

    1996-05-17

    An analytical and experimental study is conducted to investigate the effect of isolator locations on the effectiveness of vibration isolation systems. The study uses isolators with fixed properties and evaluates potential improvements to the isolation system that can be achieved by optimizing isolator locations. Because the available locations for the isolators are discrete in this application, a Genetic Algorithm (GA) is used as the optimization method. The system is modeled in MATLAB{trademark} and coupled with the GA available in the DAKOTA optimization toolkit under development at Sandia National Laboratories. Design constraints dictated by hardware and experimental limitations are implemented through penalty function techniques. A series of GA runs reveal difficulties in the search on this heavily constrained, multimodal, discrete problem. However, the GA runs provide a variety of optimized designs with predicted performance from 30 to 70 times better than a baseline configuration. An alternate approach is also tested on this problem: it uses continuous optimization, followed by rounding of the solution to neighboring discrete configurations. Results show that this approach leads to either infeasible or poor designs. Finally, a number of optimized designs obtained from the GA searches are tested in the laboratory and compared to the baseline design. These experimental results show a 7 to 46 times improvement in vibration isolation from the baseline configuration.

  6. Compost as a source of microbial isolates for the bioremediation of heavy metals: In vitro selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vargas-García, María del Carmen; López, María José; Suárez-Estrella, Francisca; Moreno, Joaquín

    2012-01-01

    Heavy metal pollution has become a major environmental concern nowadays and the bioremediation of polluted habitats is an increasingly popular strategy due to both its efficiency and safety. A screening and selection protocol based on different composting processes was designed in order to isolate heavy metal-resistant microorganisms. A collection of 51 microorganisms was obtained and most of them showed the capability to tolerate heavy metals in multi-polluted aqueous systems (Cd(II), Cr(VI), Ni, Pb, Zn(II)), as well as to remove them. The highest detoxification ratios were observed for Pb. Some of the isolates detoxifying more than a 90% of this metal, while the other metals were removed in a range between 20% and 60%. The best isolates (Graphium putredinis, Fusarium solani, Fusarium sp. and Penicillium chrysogenum) were further assayed in order to determine the predominant removal mechanism and the potential use of their dead biomass as a biosorbent. Intracellular accumulation was the prevalent mechanism for most isolates and metals, with the exception of Ni. In this case, the proportion removed by extracellular adsorption was similar or even higher than that removed by intracellular accumulation. Thus, the efficiency of living cells was higher than that of dead biomass except in the case of Ni. - Highlights: ► Composting is a good reservoir for the isolation of HM-resistant microorganisms. ► Pb was the most removed heavy metal in multi-polluted aqueous systems. ► Intracellular accumulation was the predominant mechanism for heavy metal removal. ► Graphium putredinis, which detoxifies organic pollutants, was the most efficient isolate.

  7. Compost as a source of microbial isolates for the bioremediation of heavy metals: In vitro selection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vargas-Garcia, Maria del Carmen, E-mail: mcvargas@ual.es; Lopez, Maria Jose, E-mail: mllopez@ual.es; Suarez-Estrella, Francisca, E-mail: fsuarez@ual.es; Moreno, Joaquin, E-mail: jcasco@ual.es

    2012-08-01

    Heavy metal pollution has become a major environmental concern nowadays and the bioremediation of polluted habitats is an increasingly popular strategy due to both its efficiency and safety. A screening and selection protocol based on different composting processes was designed in order to isolate heavy metal-resistant microorganisms. A collection of 51 microorganisms was obtained and most of them showed the capability to tolerate heavy metals in multi-polluted aqueous systems (Cd(II), Cr(VI), Ni, Pb, Zn(II)), as well as to remove them. The highest detoxification ratios were observed for Pb. Some of the isolates detoxifying more than a 90% of this metal, while the other metals were removed in a range between 20% and 60%. The best isolates (Graphium putredinis, Fusarium solani, Fusarium sp. and Penicillium chrysogenum) were further assayed in order to determine the predominant removal mechanism and the potential use of their dead biomass as a biosorbent. Intracellular accumulation was the prevalent mechanism for most isolates and metals, with the exception of Ni. In this case, the proportion removed by extracellular adsorption was similar or even higher than that removed by intracellular accumulation. Thus, the efficiency of living cells was higher than that of dead biomass except in the case of Ni. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Composting is a good reservoir for the isolation of HM-resistant microorganisms. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Pb was the most removed heavy metal in multi-polluted aqueous systems. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Intracellular accumulation was the predominant mechanism for heavy metal removal. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Graphium putredinis, which detoxifies organic pollutants, was the most efficient isolate.

  8. Toxigenic profile of methicillin-sensitive and resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolated from special groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Camila Sena Martins; Fortaleza, Carlos Magno Castelo Branco; Witzel, Claudia Lima; Silveira, Mônica; Bonesso, Mariana Fávero; Marques, Silvio Alencar; Cunha, Maria de Lourdes Ribeiro de Souza da

    2016-02-16

    Staphylococcus aureus is characterized by its pathogenicity and high prevalence, causing disease in both healthy and immunocompromised individuals due to its easy dissemination. This fact is aggravated by the widespread dissemination of S. aureus carrying toxigenic genes. The objective of this study was to determine the toxigenic profile of methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) in patients with purulent skin and/or soft tissue infections seen at the Dermatology Department of the University Hospital of the Botucatu Medical School, asymptomatic adults older than 60 years living in nursing homes, and prison inmates of the Avaré Detention Center. PCR was used for the detection of the mecA gene, enterotoxin genes (sea, seb, and sec), exfoliative toxins A and B (eta and etb), toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 (tst), panton-valentine leukocidin (lukS-PV and lukF-PV), and alpha- and delta-hemolysins or cytotoxins (hla and hld). The results showed a significant prevalence of toxigenic genes among S. aureus isolates from asymptomatic individuals, with the observation of a higher prevalence of cytotoxin genes. However, the panton-valentine leukocidin gene was only detected in MSSA isolated from patients with skin infections and the tst gene was exclusively found in MSSA isolated from prison inmates. The present study demonstrated a significant prevalence of toxigenic genes in MSSA and MRSA strains isolated from asymptomatic S. aureus carriers. There was a higher prevalence of cytotoxin genes.

  9. Isolated tumor endothelial cells maintain specific character during long-term culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Kohei; Ohga, Noritaka; Hida, Yasuhiro; Muraki, Chikara; Tsuchiya, Kunihiko; Kurosu, Takuro; Akino, Tomoshige; Shih, Shou-Ching

    2010-01-01

    Tumor angiogenesis is necessary for solid tumor progression and metastasis. Increasing evidence indicates that tumor endothelial cells (TECs) are more relevant to the study of tumor angiogenesis than normal endothelial cells (NECs) because their morphologies and gene expression are different from NECs. However, it is challenging to isolate and culture large numbers of pure ECs from tumor tissue since the percentage of ECs is only about 1-2% and tumor cells and fibroblasts easily overgrow them. In addition, there has been concern that isolated TECs may lose their special phenotype once they are dissociated from tumor cells. In this study, we have successfully purified murine TECs from four different human tumor xenografts and NECs from murine dermal tissue. Isolated ECs expressed endothelial markers, such as CD31, VE-cadherin (CD144), and endoglin (CD105), for more than 3 months after isolation. TECs maintained tumor endothelial-specific markers, such as tumor endothelial marker 8 (TEM8) and aminopeptidase N (APN), as in tumor blood vessels in vivo. In addition, TECs were more proliferative and motile than NECs. TECs showed a higher response to VEGF and higher expression of VEGF receptors-1 and -2 than NECs did. Stem cell antigen-1 was up-regulated in all four TECs, suggesting that they have a kind of stemness. Cultured TECs maintain distinct biological differences from NECs as in vivo. In conclusion, it was suggested that TECs are relevant material for tumor angiogenesis research.

  10. Design experience on seismically isolated buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giuliani, G.C.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes the practical problems associated with the structural design of seismically isolated buildings now under construction in Ancona, Italy. These structures are the first seismically isolated buildings in Italy. The Ancona region is in zone 2 of the Italian Seismic Code. It has a design acceleration of 0.07 g which corresponds to a ground surface acceleration of 0.25 g. The last significant earthquake was recorded on June 14, 1972, having a single shock-type wave with a peak acceleration of 0.53 g. Taking into account the aforesaid earthquake, the structural design of these new buildings was performed according to an acceleration spectrum which was different from the zone 2 seismic code and which provided protection for stronger ground motions. To minimize the cost of the structure, the buildings used ribbed plate decks, thus reducing the amount of material and the mass of the structures to be isolated. The design requirements, dynamic analysis performed, structural design, and practical engineering employed are reported in this paper. A comparison between the costs of a conventionally designed and a base-isolated structure is also reported. It shows a net savings of 7% for the base-isolated structure. The tests undertaken for certifying the mechanical properties of the isolators for both static and dynamic loads are also described, as is the full-scale dynamic test which is scheduled for next year (1990) for one of the completed buildings. (orig.)

  11. Frequency of isolation and antibiotic resistance patterns of bacterial isolates from wound infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanović-Radić, Z.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Six hundred and thirteen bacterial strains were isolated from wound swabs and the isolates were identified on the basis of growth on differential and selective media. In order to test the sensitivity of isolated strains to different antibiotics, the disc diffusion method, according to EUCAST protocol v 5.0 was used. The most common species isolated from wound swabs was Staphylococcus epidermidis (18.4%, followed by Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterococcus faecalis (16.8%, 12.7% and 10.4%, respectively. The maximum resistance of Gram-positive cocci was observed to penicillin and the lowest to linezolid. Gram-negative bacteria showed the highest resistance to tetracyclines, while the same strains demonstrated the highest sensitivity to polypeptide antibiotics. Comparison of the resistance patterns of Gramnegative and Gram-positive bacterial strains showed significant difference in the tetracycline efficiency.

  12. Thyroid nodules with isolated macrocalcification: Malignancy and diagnostic efficacy of fine-needle aspiration and core needle biopsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Na, Dong Gyu; Kim, Dae Sik; Kim, Soo Jin [Dept. of Radiology, Human Medical Imaging and Intervention Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ryoo, Jae Wook [Dept. of Radiology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jung, So Lyung [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul St. Mary' s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-07-15

    This study was performed to determine the malignancy risk of thyroid nodules with isolated macrocalcification and to evaluate the diagnostic efficacy of fine-needle aspiration (FNA) and core needle biopsy (CNB). From May 2008 to December 2014, a total of 44 patients with isolated macrocalcifications were enrolled from 4,081 consecutive patients who underwent FNA or CNB at a single institution. We assessed the malignancy risk of nodules with isolated macrocalcification. We compared the diagnostic results between FNA and CNB, and the diagnostic efficacy of each procedure was evaluated by the rate of inconclusive results. We compared the diagnostic performance for malignancy between FNA and CNB with a criterion of malignant or atypia/follicular lesion of undetermined significance (indeterminate) diagnostic results. We investigated whether the ultrasonographic feature of isolated macrocalcification was predictive of malignancy. The malignancy risk of nodules with isolated macrocalcification was 16.1% in 31 nodules with final diagnoses and 11.4% in all nodules. CNB demonstrated a significantly lower rate of nondiagnostic and inconclusive results than FNA (7.7% vs. 53.8%, P=0.002 and 15.4% vs. 57.7%, P=0.003, respectively) in 26 nodules that underwent both FNA and CNB. CNB showed a marginally higher diagnostic performance for identifying malignancy than FNA (P=0.067). The ultrasonographic features of the anterior margin of isolated macrocalcification were not predictive of malignancy (P>0.999). Thyroid nodules with isolated macrocalcification had a low to intermediate malignancy risk and should not be considered benign nodules. CNB showed a higher diagnostic efficacy than FNA in these nodules.

  13. Thyroid nodules with isolated macrocalcification: Malignancy and diagnostic efficacy of fine-needle aspiration and core needle biopsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Na, Dong Gyu; Kim, Dae Sik; Kim, Soo Jin; Ryoo, Jae Wook; Jung, So Lyung

    2016-01-01

    This study was performed to determine the malignancy risk of thyroid nodules with isolated macrocalcification and to evaluate the diagnostic efficacy of fine-needle aspiration (FNA) and core needle biopsy (CNB). From May 2008 to December 2014, a total of 44 patients with isolated macrocalcifications were enrolled from 4,081 consecutive patients who underwent FNA or CNB at a single institution. We assessed the malignancy risk of nodules with isolated macrocalcification. We compared the diagnostic results between FNA and CNB, and the diagnostic efficacy of each procedure was evaluated by the rate of inconclusive results. We compared the diagnostic performance for malignancy between FNA and CNB with a criterion of malignant or atypia/follicular lesion of undetermined significance (indeterminate) diagnostic results. We investigated whether the ultrasonographic feature of isolated macrocalcification was predictive of malignancy. The malignancy risk of nodules with isolated macrocalcification was 16.1% in 31 nodules with final diagnoses and 11.4% in all nodules. CNB demonstrated a significantly lower rate of nondiagnostic and inconclusive results than FNA (7.7% vs. 53.8%, P=0.002 and 15.4% vs. 57.7%, P=0.003, respectively) in 26 nodules that underwent both FNA and CNB. CNB showed a marginally higher diagnostic performance for identifying malignancy than FNA (P=0.067). The ultrasonographic features of the anterior margin of isolated macrocalcification were not predictive of malignancy (P>0.999). Thyroid nodules with isolated macrocalcification had a low to intermediate malignancy risk and should not be considered benign nodules. CNB showed a higher diagnostic efficacy than FNA in these nodules

  14. Antimicrobial Agent of Susceptibilities and Antiseptic Resistance Gene Distribution among Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Isolates from Patients with Impetigo and Staphylococcal Scalded Skin Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguchi, Norihisa; Nakaminami, Hidemasa; Nishijima, Setsuko; Kurokawa, Ichiro; So, Hiromu; Sasatsu, Masanori

    2006-01-01

    The susceptibilities to antimicrobial agents of and distributions of antiseptic resistance genes in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains isolated between 1999 and 2004 in Japan were examined. The data of MRSA strains that are causative agents of impetigo and staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome (SSSS) were compared with those of MRSA strains isolated from patients with other diseases. The susceptibilities to antiseptic agents in MRSA isolates from patients with impetigo and SSSS were higher than those in MRSA isolates from patients with other diseases. The distribution of the qacA/B genes in MRSA strains isolated from patients with impetigo and SSSS (1.3%, 1/76) was remarkably lower than that in MRSA strains isolated from patients with other diseases (45.9%, 95/207). Epidemiologic typings of staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) showed that MRSA strains isolated from patients with impetigo and SSSS had type IV SCCmec (75/76), except for one strain, and 64.5% (49/76) of the strains had different PFGE types. In addition, the patterns of restriction digestion of all tested qacA/B plasmid in MRSA isolates having different PFGE types were identical. The results showed that a specific MRSA clone carrying qacA/B was not prevalent, but qacA/B was spread among health care-associated MRSA strains. Therefore, it was concluded that the lower distribution rate of qacA/B resulted in higher susceptibilities to cationic antiseptic agents in MRSA isolated from patients with impetigo and SSSS. PMID:16757607

  15. Loneliness, Social Isolation, and Cardiovascular Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Ning; Li, Huige

    2018-03-20

    Social and demographic changes have led to an increased prevalence of loneliness and social isolation in modern society. Recent Advances: Population-based studies have demonstrated that both objective social isolation and the perception of social isolation (loneliness) are correlated with a higher risk of mortality and that both are clearly risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Lonely individuals have increased peripheral vascular resistance and elevated blood pressure. Socially isolated animals develop more atherosclerosis than those housed in groups. Molecular mechanisms responsible for the increased cardiovascular risk are poorly understood. In recent reports, loneliness and social stress were associated with activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis and the sympathetic nervous system. Repeated and chronic social stress leads to glucocorticoid resistance, enhanced myelopoiesis, upregulated proinflammatory gene expression, and oxidative stress. However, the causal role of these mechanisms in the development of loneliness-associated CVD remains unclear. Elucidation of the molecular mechanisms of how CVD is induced by loneliness and social isolation requires additional studies. Understanding of the pathomechanisms is essential for the development of therapeutic strategies to prevent the detrimental effects of social stress on health. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 28, 837-851.

  16. Analysis of Iranian isolates of Fusarium solani using morphological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-01-05

    Jan 5, 2012 ... showed that the isolates showed a high genetic diversity. Ten clusters were ..... pathogenicity towards pea (Kistler et al., 1996;. Wasmann and .... Fusarium eumartii and its action on pathogenesis related proteins. Eur. J. Plant ...

  17. Tomato Fruits Show Wide Phenomic Diversity but Fruit Developmental Genes Show Low Genomic Diversity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijee Mohan

    Full Text Available Domestication of tomato has resulted in large diversity in fruit phenotypes. An intensive phenotyping of 127 tomato accessions from 20 countries revealed extensive morphological diversity in fruit traits. The diversity in fruit traits clustered the accessions into nine classes and identified certain promising lines having desirable traits pertaining to total soluble salts (TSS, carotenoids, ripening index, weight and shape. Factor analysis of the morphometric data from Tomato Analyzer showed that the fruit shape is a complex trait shared by several factors. The 100% variance between round and flat fruit shapes was explained by one discriminant function having a canonical correlation of 0.874 by stepwise discriminant analysis. A set of 10 genes (ACS2, COP1, CYC-B, RIN, MSH2, NAC-NOR, PHOT1, PHYA, PHYB and PSY1 involved in various plant developmental processes were screened for SNP polymorphism by EcoTILLING. The genetic diversity in these genes revealed a total of 36 non-synonymous and 18 synonymous changes leading to the identification of 28 haplotypes. The average frequency of polymorphism across the genes was 0.038/Kb. Significant negative Tajima'D statistic in two of the genes, ACS2 and PHOT1 indicated the presence of rare alleles in low frequency. Our study indicates that while there is low polymorphic diversity in the genes regulating plant development, the population shows wider phenotype diversity. Nonetheless, morphological and genetic diversity of the present collection can be further exploited as potential resources in future.

  18. New Data on Vaccine Antigen Deficient Bordetella pertussis Isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valérie Bouchez

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Evolution of Bordetella pertussis is driven by natural and vaccine pressures. Isolates circulating in regions with high vaccination coverage present multiple allelic and antigenic variations as compared to isolates collected before introduction of vaccination. Furthermore, during the last epidemics reported in regions using pertussis acellular vaccines, isolates deficient for vaccine antigens, such as pertactin (PRN, were reported to reach high proportions of circulating isolates. More sporadic filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA or pertussis toxin (PT deficient isolates were also collected. The whole genome of some recent French isolates, deficient or non-deficient in vaccine antigens, were analyzed. Transcription profiles of the expression of the main virulence factors were also compared. The invasive phenotype in an in vitro human tracheal epithelial (HTE cell model of infection was evaluated. Our genomic analysis focused on SNPs related to virulence genes known to be more likely to present allelic polymorphism. Transcriptomic data indicated that isolates circulating since the introduction of pertussis vaccines present lower transcription levels of the main virulence genes than the isolates of the pre-vaccine era. Furthermore, isolates not producing FHA present significantly higher expression levels of the entire set of genes tested. Finally, we observed that recent isolates are more invasive in HTE cells when compared to the reference strain, but no multiplication occurs within cells.

  19. Vaginal versus Obstetric Infection Escherichia coli Isolates among Pregnant Women: Antimicrobial Resistance and Genetic Virulence Profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sáez-López, Emma; Guiral, Elisabet; Fernández-Orth, Dietmar; Villanueva, Sonia; Goncé, Anna; López, Marta; Teixidó, Irene; Pericot, Anna; Figueras, Francesc; Palacio, Montse; Cobo, Teresa; Bosch, Jordi; Soto, Sara M

    2016-01-01

    Vaginal Escherichia coli colonization is related to obstetric infections and the consequent development of infections in newborns. Ampicillin resistance among E. coli strains is increasing, which is the main choice for treating empirically many obstetric and neonatal infections. Vaginal E. coli strains are very similar to extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli with regards to the virulence factors and the belonging to phylogroup B2. We studied the antimicrobial resistance and the genetic virulence profile of 82 E. coli isolates from 638 vaginal samples and 63 isolated from endometrial aspirate, placental and amniotic fluid samples from pregnant women with obstetric infections. The prevalence of E. coli in the vaginal samples was 13%, which was significant among women with associated risk factors during pregnancy, especially premature preterm rupture of membranes (pinfections showed higher resistance levels than vaginal isolates, particularly for gentamicin (p = 0.001). The most prevalent virulence factor genes were those related to the iron uptake systems revealing clear targets for interventions. More than 50% of the isolates belonged to the virulent B2 group possessing the highest number of virulence factor genes. The ampicillin-resistant isolates had high number of virulence factors primarily related to pathogenicity islands, and the remarkable gentamicin resistance in E. coli isolates from women presenting obstetric infections, the choice of the most appropriate empiric treatment and clinical management of pregnant women and neonates should be carefully made. Taking into account host-susceptibility, the heterogeneity of E. coli due to evolution over time and the geographical area, characterization of E. coli isolates colonizing the vagina and causing obstetric infections in different regions may help to develop interventions and avoid the aetiological link between maternal carriage and obstetric and subsequent puerperal infections.

  20. Treatment of Experimental Acute Radiation Disease in Mice with Probiotics, Quinolones, and General Gnotobiological Isolation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Korschunov, V

    1998-01-01

    .... The effect of lactobacilli was higher under gnotobiological isolation. Lactobacilli suppressed the gram-negative enterics and decreased translocation of the strict anaerobes, but not streptococci...

  1. Frequency of antiseptic resistance genes in clinical staphycocci and enterococci isolates in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyda Ignak

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Disinfectants and antiseptics are biocides widely used in hospitals to prevent spread of pathogens. It has been reported that antiseptic resistance genes, qac’s, caused tolerance to a variety of biocidal agents, such as benzalkonium chloride (BAC and chlorhexidine digluconate (CHDG in Staphylococcus spp. isolates. We aimed to search the frequency of antiseptic resistance genes in clinical Staphylococcus spp. and Enterococcus spp. isolates to investigate the possible association with antiseptic tolerance and antibiotic resistance. Methods Antiseptic resistance genes (qacA/B, smr, qacG, qacH, and qacJ isolated from Gram-positive cocci (69 Staphylococcus spp. and 69 Enterococcus spp. were analyzed by PCR method. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs of BAC and CHDG were determined by agar dilution method, whereas antibiotic susceptibility was analyzed by disk diffusion method according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI criteria. Results The frequency of antiseptic resistance genes was found to be high (49/69; 71.0% in our clinical staphylococci isolates but absent (0/69; 0% in enterococci isolates. The frequency of qacA/B and smr genes was higher (25/40; 62.5% and 7/40; 17.5%, respectively in coagulase negative staphylococci (CNS when compared to Staphylococcus aureus strains (3/29; 10.3%, and 4/29; 13.8%, respectively. In contrast, the frequency of qacG and qacJ genes was higher (11/29; 37.9% and 8/29; 27.5%, respectively in S. aureus than those of CNS (5/40; 12.5%, 10/40; 25.0% strains. qacH was not identified in none of the strains. We found an association between presence of antiseptic resistance genes and increased MIC values of BAC (>4 μg/mL in staphylococci and it was found to be statistically statistically significant (p < 0.01. We also showed that MICs of BAC and CHDG of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE isolates were significantly higher than those of vancomycin

  2. Demographical history and palaeodistribution modelling show range shift towards Amazon Basin for a Neotropical tree species in the LGM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitorino, Luciana Cristina; Lima-Ribeiro, Matheus S; Terribile, Levi Carina; Collevatti, Rosane G

    2016-10-13

    We studied the phylogeography and demographical history of Tabebuia serratifolia (Bignoniaceae) to understand the disjunct geographical distribution of South American seasonally dry tropical forests (SDTFs). We specifically tested if the multiple and isolated patches of SDTFs are current climatic relicts of a widespread and continuously distributed dry forest during the last glacial maximum (LGM), the so called South American dry forest refugia hypothesis, using ecological niche modelling (ENM) and statistical phylogeography. We sampled 235 individuals of T. serratifolia in 17 populations in Brazil and analysed the polymorphisms at three intergenic chloroplast regions and ITS nuclear ribosomal DNA. Coalescent analyses showed a demographical expansion at the last c. 130 ka (thousand years before present). Simulations and ENM also showed that the current spatial pattern of genetic diversity is most likely due to a scenario of range expansion and range shift towards the Amazon Basin during the colder and arid climatic conditions associated with the LGM, matching the expected for the South American dry forest refugia hypothesis, although contrasting to the Pleistocene Arc hypothesis. Populations in more stable areas or with higher suitability through time showed higher genetic diversity. Postglacial range shift towards the Southeast and Atlantic coast may have led to spatial genome assortment due to leading edge colonization as the species tracks suitable environments, leading to lower genetic diversity in populations at higher distance from the distribution centroid at 21 ka. Haplotype sharing or common ancestry among populations from Caatinga in Northeast Brazil, Atlantic Forest in Southeast and Cerrado biome and ENM evince the past connection among these biomes.

  3. Antagonistic Activity of Trichoderma ISolates against Sclerotium rolfsii : Screening of Efficient Isolates from Morocco Soils for Biological Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Khattabi

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Seventy Trichoderma spp. isolates collected from different regions of Morocco were tested for their capacity to inhibit in vitro mycelial growth of Sclerotium rolfsii, and for their effect on the viability of S. rolfsii sclerotia in the soil. The Trichoderma spp. isolates inhibited mycelial growth of S. rolfsii to various degrees, with 52% of isolates expressing an average inhibition, varying between 45 and 55%. The effect on the viability of sclerotia in the soil also varied between isolates of Trichoderma, with the majority (84% having a slight effect. A group of twenty isolates identified as Trichoderma harzianum when tested in sterilized soil, significantly reduced sclerotial viability though not in natural soil. Four of these isolates (Nz, Kb2, Kb3 and Kf1 showed good antagonistic activity against S. rolfsii and were also highly competitive in natural soil. These isolates would therefore be candidates for development in biological control program.

  4. Benchmarking in Czech Higher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plaček Michal

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The first part of this article surveys the current experience with the use of benchmarking at Czech universities specializing in economics and management. The results indicate that collaborative benchmarking is not used on this level today, but most actors show some interest in its introduction. The expression of the need for it and the importance of benchmarking as a very suitable performance-management tool in less developed countries are the impetus for the second part of our article. Based on an analysis of the current situation and existing needs in the Czech Republic, as well as on a comparison with international experience, recommendations for public policy are made, which lie in the design of a model of a collaborative benchmarking for Czech economics and management in higher-education programs. Because the fully complex model cannot be implemented immediately – which is also confirmed by structured interviews with academics who have practical experience with benchmarking –, the final model is designed as a multi-stage model. This approach helps eliminate major barriers to the implementation of benchmarking.

  5. Isolation & characterization of Brucella melitensis isolated from patients suspected for human brucellosis in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Barua

    2016-01-01

    Interpretation & conclusions: The present study showed an overall isolation rate of 17.64 per cent for B. melitensis. There is a need to establish facilities for isolation and characterization of Brucella species for effective clinical management of the disease among patients as well as surveillance and control of infection in domestic animals. Further studies are needed from different geographical areas of the country with different level of endemicity to plan and execute control strategies against human brucellosis.

  6. Biofilm-forming activity of bacteria isolated from toilet bowl biofilms and the bactericidal activity of disinfectants against the isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Miho; Gomi, Mitsuhiro; Matsumune, Norihiko; Niizeki, Kazuma; Sakagami, Yoshikazu

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the sanitary conditions of toilets, the bacterial counts of the toilet bowl biofilms in 5 Kansai area and 11 Kansai and Kanto area homes in Japan were measured in winter and summer seasons, respectively. Isolates (128 strains) were identified by analyzing 16S ribosomal RNA sequences. The number of colonies and bacterial species from biofilms sampled in winter tended to be higher and lower, respectively, than those in summer. Moreover, the composition of bacterial communities in summer and winter samples differed considerably. In summer samples, biofilms in Kansai and Kanto areas were dominated by Blastomonas sp. and Mycobacterium sp., respectively. Methylobacterium sp. was detected in all toilet bowl biofilms except for one sample. Methylobacterium sp. constituted the major presence in biofilms along with Brevundimonas sp., Sphingomonas sp., and/or Pseudomonas sp. The composition ratio of the sum of their genera was 88.0 from 42.9% of the total bacterial flora. The biofilm formation abilities of 128 isolates were investigated, and results suggested that Methylobacterium sp. and Sphingomonas sp. were involved in biofilm formation in toilet bowls. The biofilm formation of a mixed bacteria system that included bacteria with the highest biofilm-forming ability in a winter sample was greater than mixture without such bacteria. This result suggests that isolates possessing a high biofilm-forming activity are involved in the biofilm formation in the actual toilet bowl. A bactericidal test against 25 strains indicated that the bactericidal activities of didecyldimethylammonium chloride (DDAC) tended to be higher than those of polyhexamethylene biguanide (PHMB) and N-benzyl-N,N-dimethyldodecylammonium chloride (ADBAC). In particular, DDAC showed high bactericidal activity against approximately 90% of tested strains under the 5 h treatment.

  7. High voltage isolation transformer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clatterbuck, C. H.; Ruitberg, A. P. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A high voltage isolation transformer is provided with primary and secondary coils separated by discrete electrostatic shields from the surfaces of insulating spools on which the coils are wound. The electrostatic shields are formed by coatings of a compound with a low electrical conductivity which completely encase the coils and adhere to the surfaces of the insulating spools adjacent to the coils. Coatings of the compound also line axial bores of the spools, thereby forming electrostatic shields separating the spools from legs of a ferromagnetic core extending through the bores. The transformer is able to isolate a high constant potential applied to one of its coils, without the occurrence of sparking or corona, by coupling the coatings, lining the axial bores to the ferromagnetic core and by coupling one terminal of each coil to the respective coating encasing the coil.

  8. Higher-derivative Lee-Wick unification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carone, Christopher D.

    2009-01-01

    We consider gauge coupling unification in Lee-Wick extensions of the Standard Model that include higher-derivative quadratic terms beyond the minimally required set. We determine how the beta functions are modified when some Standard Model particles have two Lee-Wick partners. We show that gauge coupling unification can be achieved in such models without requiring the introduction of additional fields in the higher-derivative theory and we comment on possible ultraviolet completions.

  9. Mechanical beam isolator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Post, R.F.; Vann, C.S.

    1996-10-01

    Back-reflections from a target, lenses, etc. can gain energy passing backwards through a laser just like the main beam gains energy passing forwards. Unless something blocks these back-reflections early in their path, they can seriously damage the laser. A Mechanical Beam Isolator is a device that blocks back-reflections early, relatively inexpensively, and without introducing aberrations to the laser beam

  10. Cryptic Plutella species show deep divergence despite the capacity to hybridize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Kym D; Baker, Gregory J; Powis, Kevin J; Kent, Joanne K; Ward, Christopher M; Baxter, Simon W

    2018-05-29

    Understanding genomic and phenotypic diversity among cryptic pest taxa has important implications for the management of pests and diseases. The diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella L., has been intensively studied due to its ability to evolve insecticide resistance and status as the world's most destructive pest of brassicaceous crops. The surprise discovery of a cryptic species endemic to Australia, Plutella australiana Landry & Hebert, raised questions regarding the distribution, ecological traits and pest status of the two species, the capacity for gene flow and whether specific management was required. Here, we collected Plutella from wild and cultivated brassicaceous plants from 75 locations throughout Australia and screened 1447 individuals to identify mtDNA lineages and Wolbachia infections. We genotyped genome-wide SNP markers using RADseq in coexisting populations of each species. In addition, we assessed reproductive compatibility in crossing experiments and insecticide susceptibility phenotypes using bioassays. The two Plutella species coexisted on wild brassicas and canola crops, but only 10% of Plutella individuals were P. australiana. This species was not found on commercial Brassica vegetable crops, which are routinely sprayed with insecticides. Bioassays found that P. australiana was 19-306 fold more susceptible to four commonly-used insecticides than P. xylostella. Laboratory crosses revealed that reproductive isolation was incomplete but directionally asymmetric between the species. However, genome-wide nuclear SNPs revealed striking differences in genetic diversity and strong population structure between coexisting wild populations of each species. Nuclear diversity was 1.5-fold higher in P. australiana, yet both species showed limited variation in mtDNA. Infection with a single Wolbachia subgroup B strain was fixed in P. australiana, suggesting that a selective sweep contributed to low mtDNA diversity, while a subgroup A strain infected just 1

  11. Higher order effects of pseudoparticles in QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hietarinta, J.; Palmer, W.F.

    1977-01-01

    Gauge invariant Green's functions of quark-antiquark bilinear densities in massless, two-color QCD are studied. Nonzero-energy fermion modes, pseudoparticle solutions with topological charge absolute value ν > 1, and n-point functions with n > 2. Some general properties of the O(Dirac constant) approximation are developed, enabling one to isolate and define the terms which contribute to a general n-point function. The higher effects it is found preserve the symmetry breakdown found earlier in the 2-point function (U(2) x U(2) → SU(2) x SU(2) x U(1)). It is shown that a previous 2-point function analysis is exact to order Dirac constant

  12. Isolation and Characterization of Gramineae and Fabaceae Soda Lignins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez-Robles, Juan; Sánchez, Rafael; Espinosa, Eduardo; Savy, Davide; Mazzei, Pierluigi; Piccolo, Alessandro; Rodríguez, Alejandro

    2017-02-04

    Some agricultural residues such as wheat or barley straw, as well as certain fast-growing plants like Leucaena leucocephala and Chamaecytisus proliferus , could be used as raw materials for the paper industry as an alternative to traditional plants (eucalyptus, pine, etc.). In the present study, four types of lignin obtained from the spent liquors produced by the pulping processes using the abovementioned feedstocks were isolated and characterized. Lignin samples were acquired through an acid precipitation from these spent liquors. The characterization of the precipitated lignin samples were performed using a Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and both liquid- and solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) to analyse the chemical structure, and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) for determining the thermal properties. Additionally, chemical composition of lignin fractions was also measured. Even though they were of different botanical origin, all the studied samples except for wheat straw lignin had a similar chemical composition and thermal behaviour, and identical chemical structure. Wheat straw lignin showed a greater amount of Klason lignin and lower carbohydrate content. Furthermore, this lignin sample showed a higher thermal stability and significantly different cross-peak patterns in the 2D-NMR experiments. The molecular structures corresponding to p -coumarate (PCA), ferulate (FA) and cinnamyl aldehyde end-groups (J) were only detected in wheat isolated lignin.

  13. Isolation and Characterization of Gramineae and Fabaceae Soda Lignins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez-Robles, Juan; Sánchez, Rafael; Espinosa, Eduardo; Savy, Davide; Mazzei, Pierluigi; Piccolo, Alessandro; Rodríguez, Alejandro

    2017-01-01

    Some agricultural residues such as wheat or barley straw, as well as certain fast-growing plants like Leucaena leucocephala and Chamaecytisus proliferus, could be used as raw materials for the paper industry as an alternative to traditional plants (eucalyptus, pine, etc.). In the present study, four types of lignin obtained from the spent liquors produced by the pulping processes using the abovementioned feedstocks were isolated and characterized. Lignin samples were acquired through an acid precipitation from these spent liquors. The characterization of the precipitated lignin samples were performed using a Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and both liquid- and solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) to analyse the chemical structure, and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) for determining the thermal properties. Additionally, chemical composition of lignin fractions was also measured. Even though they were of different botanical origin, all the studied samples except for wheat straw lignin had a similar chemical composition and thermal behaviour, and identical chemical structure. Wheat straw lignin showed a greater amount of Klason lignin and lower carbohydrate content. Furthermore, this lignin sample showed a higher thermal stability and significantly different cross-peak patterns in the 2D-NMR experiments. The molecular structures corresponding to p-coumarate (PCA), ferulate (FA) and cinnamyl aldehyde end-groups (J) were only detected in wheat isolated lignin. PMID:28165411

  14. Isolation and Characterization of Gramineae and Fabaceae Soda Lignins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Domínguez-Robles

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Some agricultural residues such as wheat or barley straw, as well as certain fast-growing plants like Leucaena leucocephala and Chamaecytisus proliferus, could be used as raw materials for the paper industry as an alternative to traditional plants (eucalyptus, pine, etc.. In the present study, four types of lignin obtained from the spent liquors produced by the pulping processes using the abovementioned feedstocks were isolated and characterized. Lignin samples were acquired through an acid precipitation from these spent liquors. The characterization of the precipitated lignin samples were performed using a Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR and both liquid- and solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR to analyse the chemical structure, and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA for determining the thermal properties. Additionally, chemical composition of lignin fractions was also measured. Even though they were of different botanical origin, all the studied samples except for wheat straw lignin had a similar chemical composition and thermal behaviour, and identical chemical structure. Wheat straw lignin showed a greater amount of Klason lignin and lower carbohydrate content. Furthermore, this lignin sample showed a higher thermal stability and significantly different cross-peak patterns in the 2D-NMR experiments. The molecular structures corresponding to p-coumarate (PCA, ferulate (FA and cinnamyl aldehyde end-groups (J were only detected in wheat isolated lignin.

  15. Comparative Transcriptomics of Bacillus mycoides Strains in Response to Potato-Root Exudates Reveals Different Genetic Adaptation of Endophytic and Soil Isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Yanglei; de Jong, Anne; Frenzel, Elrike; Kuipers, Oscar P

    2017-01-01

    Plant root secreted compounds alter the gene expression of associated microorganisms by acting as signal molecules that either stimulate or repel the interaction with beneficial or harmful species, respectively. However, it is still unclear whether two distinct groups of beneficial bacteria, non-plant-associated (soil) strains and plant-associated (endophytic) strains, respond uniformly or variably to the exposure with root exudates. Therefore, Bacillus mycoides , a potential biocontrol agent and plant growth-promoting bacterium, was isolated from the endosphere of potatoes and from soil of the same geographical region. Confocal fluorescence microscopy of plants inoculated with GFP-tagged B. mycoides strains showed that the endosphere isolate EC18 had a stronger plant colonization ability and competed more successfully for the colonization sites than the soil isolate SB8. To dissect these phenotypic differences, the genomes of the two strains were sequenced and the transcriptome response to potato root exudates was compared. The global transcriptome profiles evidenced that the endophytic isolate responded more pronounced than the soil-derived isolate and a higher number of significant differentially expressed genes were detected. Both isolates responded with the alteration of expression of an overlapping set of genes, which had previously been reported to be involved in plant-microbe interactions; including organic substance metabolism, oxidative reduction, and transmembrane transport. Notably, several genes were specifically upregulated in the endosphere isolate EC18, while being oppositely downregulated in the soil isolate SB8. These genes mainly encoded membrane proteins, transcriptional regulators or were involved in amino acid metabolism and biosynthesis. By contrast, several genes upregulated in the soil isolate SB8 and downregulated in the endosphere isolate EC18 were related to sugar transport, which might coincide with the different nutrient availability

  16. The effect of chronic fluoxetine on social isolation-induced changes on sucrose consumption, immobility behavior, and on serotonin and dopamine function in hippocampus and ventral striatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenes, Juan C; Fornaguera, Jaime

    2009-03-02

    This study examined the effect of fluoxetine, a selective serotonin (5-HT) reuptake inhibitor, on isolation-induced changes on sucrose consumption and preference, spontaneous open-field activity, forced swimming behavior, and on tissue levels of 5-HT and dopamine (DA) in hippocampus and ventral striatum (VS). Male Sprague-Dawley rats were reared in social isolation or group housing from postnatal day 28. Thirty-two days later, half of the isolated animals were orally treated with fluoxetine (10mg/kg/day) during the following 34 days. At the end of this period, behavior was assessed and afterward ex-vivo tissue samples were obtained. It was found that fluoxetine restored isolation-increased sucrose consumption and immobility behavior, without affecting locomotor activity, which appeared slightly increased in isolated groups both treated and untreated. In the hippocampus, isolation rearing depleted 5-HT contents and increased 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) levels, as well as 5-HT and DA turnover. These neurochemical alterations were reversed by fluoxetine. In VS, treated and untreated isolated rats showed higher 5-HT levels than grouped congeners. Although fluoxetine did not affect 5-HT and DA contents in this region, it slightly reversed the alterations in the 5-HT and DA turnover observed in isolated rats. Overall, social isolation impaired incentive and escape motivated behaviors. At the neurochemical level, isolation rearing affected 5-HT rather than DA activity, and this differential effect was more noticeable in hippocampus than in VS. The chronic treatment with fluoxetine during the last month of rearing somewhat prevented these behavioral and neurochemical alterations. Our data suggest that isolation rearing is an appropriate procedure to model some developmental-related alterations underlying depression disorders.

  17. CHARACTERIZATION OF LACTIC ACID BACTERIA ISOLATED FROM SUMBAWA MARE MILK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nengah Sujaya

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available A study was carried out to isolate and characterize lactic acid bacteria (LAB from the Sumbawa mares milk The Isolation of LAB was conducted in Man Rogosa Sharpe (MRS agar. The isolates were characterized by standard methods, such as Gram staining, cell morphology study and fermentation activities. The ability of the isolates to inhibit some pathogenic bacteria was studied by dual culture assay. Isolates showing the widest spectrum of inhibiting pathogenic bacteria were further identified using API 50 CHL. The results showed that Sumbawa mare milk was dominated by lactobacilli and weisella/leuconostoc. As many as 26 out 36 isolates belong to homofermentative lactobacilli and another 10 isolates belong to both heterofermentative lactobacilli and weissella or leuconostoc. Twenty four isolates inhibited the growth of Escherichia coli 25922, Shigela flexneri, Salmonella typhimurium, and Staphylococcus aureus 29213. Two promising isolates with the widest spectrum of inhibiting pathogenic bacteria, Lactobacillus sp. SKG34 and Lactobacillus sp. SKG49, were identified respectively as Lactobacillus rhamnosus SKG34 and Lactobacillus ramnosus SKG49. These two isolates were specific strains of the sumbawa mare milk and are very potential to be developed as probiotic for human.

  18. Isolation, identification and anti-candidal activity of filamentous fungi from Saudi Arabia soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nouf M. Al-Enazi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Ten fungal strains; namely, Penicillium melinii, Petriella setifera, Aspergillus pseudo-niger, Alternaria chlamydospora, Pythium nayoroense, Phoma glomerata, Mucor ramosissimus, Mucor racemosus, Fusarium chlamydosporum and Rhizopus azygosporus were isolated from soil. The extra- and intra-cellular extracts of the fungal strains grown on malt extract and yeast-extract sucrose media were screened for their anticandidal activity against different clinically-isolated Candida species. Most of the fungal extracts showed activity against different Candida species. However, the fungal strains grew on malt extract showed greater activities than those grew on yeast extract sucrose media. The activity of the intracellular was higher than the extracellular metabolites. All fungal extracts (extra and intra were similar in chemical constituent; they contained carbohydrates and/or glycosides, unsaturated sterols and/or triterpens, tannins and traces of coumarins. Alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, anthraquinones and cardenolides were no detected. The intra-cellular extracts contained more compounds than the extra-cellular extracts.

  19. Antibacterial susceptibility of bacteria isolated from burns and wounds of cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulaiman A. Alharbi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study 540 burns and wound swabs were collected from cancer patients of some Egyptian hospitals. The single infection was detected from 210, and 70 cases among wounded and burned patients, while mixed infection was 30 and 45, respectively. We recovered where 60 isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 60 isolates of Staphylococcus aureus, 7 isolates of Staphylococcus epidermidis, 4 isolates of Streptococcus pyogenes, 25 isolates of Escherichia coli, 23 isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae and 27 isolates of Proteus vulgaris from 355 burn and surgical wound infections . All bacterial isolates showed high resistance to the commonly used β-lactams (amoxycillin, cefaclor, ampicillin, vancomycin, amoxicillin/clavulonic, and low resistance to imepenim and ciprofloxacin. Plasmid analysis of six multidrug resistant and two susceptible bacterial isolates revealed the same plasmid pattern. This indicated that R-factor is not responsible for the resistance phenomenon among the isolated opportunistic bacteria. The effect of ultraviolet radiation on the isolated bacteria was studied.

  20. Miniature Optical Isolator, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To address NASA's need for compact optical isolators, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to continue the development of a new Miniature Optical Isolator...

  1. Isolation and Cultivation of Anaerobes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aragao Börner, Rosa

    2016-01-01

    Anaerobic microorganisms play important roles in different biotechnological processes. Their complex metabolism and special cultivation requirements have led to less isolated representatives in comparison to their aerobic counterparts.In view of that, the isolation and cultivation of anaerobic...

  2. The VGF-Derived Neuropeptide TLQP-21 Shows No Impact on Hormone Secretion in the Isolated Perfused Rat Pancreas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Charlotte Bayer; Svendsen, B; Holst, Jens Juul

    2015-01-01

    investigated the impact of TLQP-21 on insulin, glucagon, and somatostatin secretion in the perfused rat pancreas. We found that administration of 5 and 50 nM TLQP-21 had no impact on pancreatic hormone secretion at 3.5 or 8 mM glucose levels. Increasing TLQP-21 (200 nM) and glucose concentration (3.5 and 16 m...

  3. Magnetic Quasi-Phase Matching All-Fiber Isolator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunte A. Lu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We have experimentally demonstrated an all-fiber optical isolator with 20 dB isolation. The result shows that the quasi-phase matching technique via a meter-long magnet array is highly feasible to generate more than 45 degrees of Faraday rotation in the fibers. The all-fiber isolator can also be temperature tuned to operate between 1048 nm and 1066 nm wavelength.

  4. In vitro susceptibility of Pasteurella multocida subspecies multocida strains isolated from swine to 42 antimicrobial agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez Martin, C B; Rodríguez Ferri, E F

    1993-08-01

    The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 42 antimicrobial agents were determined against 59 strains of Pasteurella multocida subspecies multocida, all isolated from swine lungs with lesions indicative of pneumonia. Penicillins (except cloxacillin), aminoglycosides, tetracyclines, erythromycin, josamycin, thiamphenicol, colistin, rifampin and mupirocin showed good activities, with ranging resistance between 0 and 6.8%. Higher resistance was observed for spiramycin and fosfomycin. Tylosin, vancomycin, metronidazole, dapsone and tiamulin, to which strains showed high rates of resistance, were ineffective. Cephalosporins (especially the third-generation cephalosporins) and quinolones (especially the fluorinated quinolones) were the most effective antimicrobial agents against P. multocida subsp. multocida strains and they might be of value for in vivo use.

  5. Establishing the isolated Standard Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wells, James D.; Zhang, Zhengkang [Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Michigan Center for Theoretical Physics; Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Zhao, Yue [Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Michigan Center for Theoretical Physics

    2017-02-15

    The goal of this article is to initiate a discussion on what it takes to claim ''there is no new physics at the weak scale,'' namely that the Standard Model (SM) is ''isolated.'' The lack of discovery of beyond the SM (BSM) physics suggests that this may be the case. But to truly establish this statement requires proving all ''connected'' BSM theories are false, which presents a significant challenge. We propose a general approach to quantitatively assess the current status and future prospects of establishing the isolated SM (ISM), which we give a reasonable definition of. We consider broad elements of BSM theories, and show many examples where current experimental results are not sufficient to verify the ISM. In some cases, there is a clear roadmap for the future experimental program, which we outline, while in other cases, further efforts - both theoretical and experimental - are needed in order to robustly claim the establishment of the ISM in the absence of new physics discoveries.

  6. Preparation and characterization of baru (Dipteryx alata Vog) nut protein isolate and comparison of its physico-chemical properties with commercial animal and plant protein isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Ângela A; Favaro, Simone P; Miranda, Cesar H B; Neves, Valdir A

    2017-01-01

    The Brazilian leguminous tree locally known in the Cerrado Biome as baru (Dipteryx alata Vog), provides a healthy edible oil source. The proteinaceous cake remaining after oil extraction could be transformed into new products to foodstuff development, such as protein concentrates and isolates, adding value to the production chain. In this study, it is described the preparation and characterization of baru nut protein isolate (BPI) from deffated baru flour, and measurements of its functional, nutritional, and thermal properties, in comparison to the more common vegetable (soybeans) and animal (casein and albumin) protein sources of the food industry. BPI presented higher protein content than soybean, casein and albumin commercial protein isolates, despite losses of albumins and low molecular weight globulins during the isolation procedure. Thermodynamics studies suggested that BPI has a well-conserved protein arrangement and lower thermostability than the other protein sources. BPI showed high in vitro digestibility and suitable and desirable functional properties such as water and oil absorption capacity, emulsifying activity, and foam formation and stability at mild and neutral pH. BPI could be used either as a substitute ingredient in oily food formulations or in the development of new products of its own. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Speciation and antifungal susceptibility profiles of Candida isolates from vaginitis patients attending STD Clinic at a Tertiary Care Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Sasikala

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Back ground: Candidiasis is the most common vaginal infection affecting approximately 50–72% of women. Rapid identification of yeast isolates to species level is essential to optimize antifungal treatment. Aim: To determine the prevalence of various Candida species among vaginal candidiasis and to determine the antifungal susceptibility pattern of the isolates. Materials and Methods: A total of 471 women who were clinically diagnosed to have vaginal candidiasis were included in the study. Out of 471 vaginitis patients, 91 were positive for Candida species. All the isolates were speciated comprising five species – C. albicans 42 (46.1%, C. krusei 5 (5.5%, C. glabrata 40 (43.9%, C. tropicalis 3 (3.3%, and C. gullermondi 1 (1.1%. Antifungal susceptibility testing result of all Candida isolates are 100% susceptible to amphotericin B, nystatin, flucytosine, econazole, ketoconazole, miconazole, fluconazole. C. krusei isolates are showing 100% resistance to fluconazole. Discussion: In the present study, C. albicans is most common species 46.1% followed by C. glabarata. C. albicans adhere to vaginal, epithelial cells in significantly higher number than other Candida species. This could explain relative higher frequency of C. albicans in vaginal candidiasis. Conclusion: Presumptive identification followed by confirmation of Candida species helps to initiate early appropriate antifungal treatment, thereby reducing the morbidity and mortality.

  8. Effect of drying methods on the structure, thermo and functional properties of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum) protein isolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feyzi, Samira; Varidi, Mehdi; Zare, Fatemeh; Varidi, Mohammad Javad

    2018-03-01

    Different drying methods due to protein denaturation could alter the functional properties of proteins, as well as their structure. So, this study focused on the effect of different drying methods on amino acid content, thermo and functional properties, and protein structure of fenugreek protein isolate. Freeze and spray drying methods resulted in comparable protein solubility, dynamic surface and interfacial tensions, foaming and emulsifying properties except for emulsion stability. Vacuum oven drying promoted emulsion stability, surface hydrophobicity and viscosity of fenugreek protein isolate at the expanse of its protein solubility. Vacuum oven process caused a higher level of Maillard reaction followed by the spray drying process, which was confirmed by the lower amount of lysine content and less lightness, also more browning intensity. ΔH of fenugreek protein isolates was higher than soy protein isolate, which confirmed the presence of more ordered structures. Also, the bands which are attributed to the α-helix structures in the FTIR spectrum were in the shorter wave number region for freeze and spray dried fenugreek protein isolates that show more possibility of such structures. This research suggests that any drying method must be conducted in its gentle state in order to sustain native structure of proteins and promote their functionalities. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Campylobacter iguaniorum sp. nov., isolated from reptiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    During samplings of reptiles for Epsilonproteobacteria, Campylobacter strains were isolated from lizards and chelonians not belonging to any of the established taxa. Initial AFLP, PCR, and 16S rRNA sequence analysis showed that these strains were most closely related to Campylobacter fetus and Campy...

  10. Chromium Tolerance and Bioremoval by Cyanobacteria Isolated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two cyanobacterial species Nostoc calcicola HH-12 and Chroococcus minutus HH-11 isolated from a textile mill oxidation pond were examined individually and as consortium for their chromium(VI) tolerance and bioremoval from aqueous solutions. Both species were tolerant to the metal and showed significant increase ...

  11. An isolated vaginal metastasis from rectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ai Sadatomo

    2016-02-01

    Conclusion: We should keep the vagina within the field of view of pelvic MRI, which is one of the preoperative diagnostic tools for colorectal cancer. If female patients show gynecological symptoms, gynecological examination should be recommended. Isolated vaginal metastases are an indication for surgical resection, and adjuvant chemotherapy is also recommended.

  12. Polyclonal antibodies of Ganoderma boninense isolated from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Polyclonal antibodies of Ganoderma boninense isolated from Malaysian oil palm for detection of basal stem rot disease. ... ELISA-PAb shows better detection as compared to cultural-based method, Ganoderma selective medium (GSM) with an improvement of 18% at nursery trial. The present study also demonstrates ...

  13. Isolation and molecular characterization of phytase producing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Isolation and molecular characterization of phytase producing bacteria from Malaysia hot springs. ... The strains were further analyzed in broth culture using sodium phytate as substrate. Among them, strain L3 was selected as the best producer (0.16 U/ml after 72 h of culture). This phytase showed optimal activity at 37 °C ...

  14. Isolation and functional characterization of a biosurfactant produced by Lactobacillus paracasei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudiña, Eduardo J; Teixeira, José A; Rodrigues, Lígia R

    2010-03-01

    In this study, the crude biosurfactant produced by a Lactobacillus paracasei strain isolated in a Portuguese dairy industry was characterized. The minimum surface tension (41.8mN/m) and the critical micelle concentration (2.5mg/ml) obtained were found to be similar to the values previously reported for biosurfactants isolated from other lactobacilli. The biosurfactant was found to be stable to pH changes over a range from 6 to 10, being more effective at pH 7, and showed no loss of surface activity after incubation at 60 degrees C for 120h. Although the biosurfactant chemical composition has not been determined yet, a fraction was isolated through acidic precipitation, which exhibited higher surface activity as compared with the crude biosurfactant. Furthermore, this isolated biosurfactant showed antimicrobial and anti-adhesive activities against several pathogenic microorganisms. In addition, L. paracasei exhibited a strong autoaggregating phenotype, which was maintained after washing and resuspending the cells in PBS, meaning that this attribute must be related to cell surface components and not to excreted factors. The autoaggregation ability exhibited by this strain, together with the antimicrobial and anti-adhesive properties observed for this biosurfactant opens the possibility for its use as an effective probiotic strain.

  15. Molecular differentiation of sheep and cattle isolates of Fasciola hepatica using RAPD-PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khakpour, M.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Understanding genetic structure and status of genetic variation of Fasciola hepatica isolates from different hosts, has important implications on epidemiology and effective control of fasciolosis. Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD-PCR was used to study the genetic variation of F. hepatica in sheep and cattle. DNA was extracted from adult helminthes removed from livers of each infected animal in slaughterhouse at East-Azerbaijan province, North-West of Iran. DNA template amplified by the polymerase chain reaction, using three oligonucleotide decamers with arbitrary DNA sequences as primers. RAPD patterns showed the specific but different pattern DNA patterns for each primer. The intraspecific similarity coefficient within two isolates of F. hepatica was ranged between 69 to 100%. Present findings showed that the interspecific genetic distance was higher than intraspecific genetic distances (19-47% compares to 0-19%. Pair wise similarity matrices generated from each isolates-primer combination were totaled and the similarity coefficient between strains were calculated both manually (Nei and Li method and software analysis (Free-Tree-Freeware program. The inferred phylogenetic tree on the fingerprinting of these isolates clearly demonstrated the existence of population genetic diversity sub structuring within F. hepatica of sheep and cattle of Iran, raising interesting questions on the host specificity, epidemiology (e.g., zoonotic transmission and ecology of this fluke. RAPD-PCR is useful for both individual identification and epidemiological investigations in endemic regions.

  16. Purification and characterization of a thermostable alkaline cellulase produced by Bacillus licheniformis 380 isolated from compost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ÉVILIN G. DE MARCO

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT During composting processes, the degradation of organic waste is accomplished and driven by a succession of microbial populations exhibiting a broad range of functional competencies. A total of 183 bacteria, isolated from a composting process, were evaluated for cellulase activity at different temperatures (37, 50, 60, and 70°C and pH values. Out of the 22 isolates that showed activity, isolate 380 showed the highest cellulase activity. Its ability to produce cellulase was evaluated in culture medium supplemented with carboxymethyl cellulose, microcrystalline cellulose, wheat straw, and rice husk. The culture medium supplemented with carboxymethyl cellulose induced higher enzyme activity after 6 hours of incubation (0.12 UEA mL-1 min-1. For wheat straw and rice husk, the results were 0.08 UEA mL-1 min-1 for both, while for microcrystalline cellulose, 0.04 UEA mL-1 min-1 were observed. The highest carboxymethyl cellulase activity was observed at 60°C (0.14 UEA mL-1 min-1 for both crude and partially purified enzyme after 30 and 120 min of incubation, respectively. Alkalinization of the medium was observed during cultivation in all substrates. The cellulase had a molecular mass of 20 kDa determined by SDS-Page. Isolate 380 was identified as Bacillus licheniformis. This work provides a basis for further studies on composting optimization.

  17. Identification of virulence genes carried by bacteriophages obtained from clinically isolated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karasartova, Djursun; Cavusoglu, Zeynep Burcin; Turegun, Buse; Ozsan, Murat T; Şahin, Fikret

    2016-12-01

    Bacteriophages play an important role in the pathogenicity of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) either by carrying accessory virulence factors or several superantigens. Despite their importance, there are not many studies showing the actual distribution of the virulence genes carried by the prophages obtained from the clinically isolated Staphylococcus. In this study, we investigated prophages obtained from methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) strains isolated from hospital- and community-associated (HA-CA) infections for the virulence factors. In the study, 43 phages isolated from 48 MRSA were investigated for carrying toxin genes including the sak, eta, lukF-PV, sea, selp, sek, seg, seq chp, and scn virulence genes using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Southern blot. Restriction fragment length polymorphism was used to analyze phage genomes to investigate the relationship between the phage profiles and the toxin genes' presence. MRSA strains isolated from HA infections tended to have higher prophage presence than the MRSA strains obtained from the CA infections (97% and 67%, respectively). The study showed that all the phages with the exception of one phage contained one or more virulence genes in their genomes with different combinations. The most common toxin genes found were sea (83%) followed by sek (77%) and seq (64%). The study indicates that prophages encode a significant proportion of MRSA virulence factors.

  18. Evaluation of Drug Resistance Pattern of Escherichia coli Strains Isolated from Fasa Vali-e-Asr Hospital Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Abdollahi Kheirabadi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objective: Antibiotic resistance due to the widespread use of antibiotics is one of the major causes of failure in antibiotic treatment. The aim of this study was to investigate the rates of antibiotic resistance among Escherichia coli isolates from Fasa Vali-e-Asr Hospital patients.   Materials & Methods : In total, 234 isolates of Escherichia coli strains, obtained from inpatients and outpatients, were studied. The identity of the isolated strains was confirmed by bacteriologic methods. T he drug sensitivity definition test to 17 antibiotics was done via the disk diffusion antibiogram method. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of the resistant isolates to Ciprofloxacin and Imipenem was measured using the s erial dilution method according to the CLSI standards.   Results : The resistance rates of the isolates to Ciprofloxacin and Imipenem by disk diffusion antibiogram method were 22.65% and 11.11% and by serial dilution method were 19.66 % and 9.4% of all the isolates, respectively.   Conclusion: These results show higher resistance of Escherichia coli to Ciprofloxacin and Imipenem as compared to the results in previous studies. Further investigation will shed light on how to more effectively battle antibiotic resistance of virulent microorganisms.

  19. Characterization of micro-organisms isolated from dairy industry after cleaning and fogging disinfection with alkyl amine and peracetic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bore, E; Langsrud, S

    2005-01-01

    To characterize micro-organisms isolated from Norwegian dairy production plants after cleaning and fogging disinfection with alkyl amine/peracetic acid and to indicate reasons for survival. Microbial samples were collected from five dairy plants after cleaning and fogging disinfection. Isolates from two of these production plants, which used fogging with alkylamino acetate (plant A), and peracetic acid (plant B), were chosen for further characterization. The sequence of the 16S ribosomal DNA, fatty acid analysis and biochemical characteristics were used to identify isolates. Three isolates identified as Rhodococcus erythropolis, Methylobacterium rhodesianum and Rhodotorula mucilaginosa were isolated from plant A and one Sphingomonas sp. and two M. extorquens from plant B. Different patterns of resistance to seven disinfectants in a bactericidal suspension test and variable degree of attachment to stainless steel were found. The strains with higher disinfectant resistance showed lower degree of attachment than susceptible strains. The study identifies and characterizes micro-organisms present after cleaning and fogging disinfection. Both surface attachment and resistance were shown as possible reasons for the presence of the isolates after cleaning and disinfection. These results contribute to the awareness of disinfectant resistance as well as attachment as mechanisms of survival in dairy industry. It also strengthens the argument of frequent alternation of disinfectants in the food processing industry to avoid the establishment of resistant house strains.

  20. Diazotrophic bacteria isolated from wild rice Oryza glumaepatula (Poaceae in the Brazilian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Ivan Fernandes Júnior

    2013-06-01

    . The growth- promoting ability was confirmed for at least five isolates. For these bacteria, the root and shoot growing results showed higher increases when compared to those observed in plants inoculated with the evaluated reference strains. These results indicate that O. glumaepatula is colonized by a high diverse diazotrophic community in the Brazilian Amazon. Further investigations are now being carried out to determine the taxonomic positions of these isolates and their growth promoting mechanisms.

  1. Diazotrophic bacteria isolated from wild rice Oryza glumaepatula (Poaceae) in the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Júnior, Paulo Ivan Fernandes; Pereira, Gilmara Maria Duarte; Perin, Liamara; da Silva, Luana Mesquita; Baraúna, Alexandre Cardoso; Alvess, Francilene Muniz; Passos, Samuel Ribeiro; Zilli, Jerri Edson

    2013-06-01

    -promoting ability was confirmed for at least five isolates. For these bacteria, the root and shoot growing results showed higher increases when compared to those observed in plants inoculated with the evaluated reference strains. These results indicate that O. glumaepatula is colonized by a high diverse diazotrophic community in the Brazilian Amazon. Further investigations are now being carried out to determine the taxonomic positions of these isolates and their growth promoting mechanisms.

  2. Correlates of Objective Social Isolation from Family and Friends among Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatters, Linda M.; Taylor, Harry Owen; Taylor, Robert Joseph

    2018-01-01

    This study examined the correlates of objective social isolation from extended family members and friends among older adults. The analysis is based on the older adult sub-sample of the National Survey of American Life (n = 1321). Multinomial logistic regression analyses examined race/ethnicity, demographics, functional health and family and friend network factors as correlates of objective isolation from family and friends. Only 4.47% of respondents were objectively isolated from both their extended family and friends, 10.82% were isolated from their friends, and 7.43% were isolated from their family members. Men were more likely to be objectively isolated from both family and friends and older adults who live with others were significantly more likely to be objectively isolated from their friends. When controlling for subjective social isolation, the two measures of functional health were significantly associated with objective social isolation. In particular, higher levels of self-care impairment decreased the risk of being objectively isolated from friends only, whereas higher mobility impairment was associated with an increased likelihood of being objectively isolated from friends only. Subjective evaluations of social isolation from family and friends were consistently associated with being objectively isolated from family and friends. There were no significant differences between African-Americans, Black Caribbeans and non-Hispanic Whites in objective isolation. These and other findings are discussed in detail. PMID:29510504

  3. Correlates of Objective Social Isolation from Family and Friends among Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatters, Linda M; Taylor, Harry Owen; Nicklett, Emily J; Taylor, Robert Joseph

    2018-03-03

    This study examined the correlates of objective social isolation from extended family members and friends among older adults. The analysis is based on the older adult sub-sample of the National Survey of American Life ( n = 1321). Multinomial logistic regression analyses examined race/ethnicity, demographics, functional health and family and friend network factors as correlates of objective isolation from family and friends. Only 4.47% of respondents were objectively isolated from both their extended family and friends, 10.82% were isolated from their friends, and 7.43% were isolated from their family members. Men were more likely to be objectively isolated from both family and friends and older adults who live with others were significantly more likely to be objectively isolated from their friends. When controlling for subjective social isolation, the two measures of functional health were significantly associated with objective social isolation. In particular, higher levels of self-care impairment decreased the risk of being objectively isolated from friends only, whereas higher mobility impairment was associated with an increased likelihood of being objectively isolated from friends only. Subjective evaluations of social isolation from family and friends were consistently associated with being objectively isolated from family and friends. There were no significant differences between African-Americans, Black Caribbeans and non-Hispanic Whites in objective isolation. These and other findings are discussed in detail.

  4. Strategic Planning for Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotler, Philip; Murphy, Patrick E.

    1981-01-01

    The framework necessary for achieving a strategic planning posture in higher education is outlined. The most important benefit of strategic planning for higher education decision makers is that it forces them to undertake a more market-oriented and systematic approach to long- range planning. (Author/MLW)

  5. Higher Education, Poverty and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilak, Jandhyala B. G.

    2010-01-01

    There is a presumption among many policy makers that higher education is not necessary for economic growth and development; it is literacy and basic education and at best secondary education that are argued to be important. Estimates of internal rate of return contributed to strengthening of such a presumption. Accordingly, higher education has…

  6. Women in Higher Education Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Association of American Colleges, Washington, DC. Project on the Status and Education of Women.

    Two papers are presented that examine the barriers to women in academic decision making and identify a variety of effective strategies for improving the status of women in higher education administration. "Strategies for Advancing Women in Higher Education Administration," by Garry D. Hays, proposes that commitment to increasing the…

  7. The Marketing of Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooker, George; Noble, Michael

    1985-01-01

    Formal college and university marketing programs are challenging to develop and implement because of the complexity of the marketing mix, the perceived inappropriateness of a traditional marketing officer, the number of diverse groups with input, the uniqueness of higher education institutions, and the difficulty in identifying higher education…

  8. Higher Education and Ethical Value

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeong-Kyu

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore the importance of ethical value in higher education as well as the relevance between ethical value and higher education. In order to examine the study logically, three research questions are addressed: First, what is value, ethical value, and Asiatic ethical value? Second, for whom and what is higher…

  9. Exploring Higher Education Financing Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkrumah-Young, Kofi K.; Powell, Philip

    2011-01-01

    Higher education can be financed privately, financed by governments, or shared. Given that the benefits of education accrue to the individual and the state, many governments opt for shared financing. This article examines the underpinnings of different options for financing higher education and develops a model to compare conditions to choices and…

  10. Disruptive Technologies in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flavin, Michael

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyses the role of "disruptive" innovative technologies in higher education. In this country and elsewhere, Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) have invested significant sums in learning technologies, with Virtual Learning Environments (VLEs) being more or less universal, but these technologies have not been universally…

  11. Higher Education, Employability and Competitiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlin, Samo; Svetlicic, Marjan

    2012-01-01

    This paper studies the relationship between competitiveness and higher education systems in Europe. It explores whether more competitive countries have developed more labour-market-oriented systems of higher education (HE) that thereby give their graduates greater short term employability potential. Based on and a large-scale survey among 45.000…

  12. Learning Entrepreneurship in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taatila, Vesa P.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: There is a constant need to produce more entrepreneurial graduates from higher education institutions. This paper aims to present and discuss several successful cases of entrepreneurial learning environments in order to suggest some important aspects that higher education institutions should consider. Design/methodology/approach: The…

  13. Feminist Research in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ropers-Huilman, Rebecca; Winters, Kelly T.

    2011-01-01

    This essay provides an overview of feminist methodology and its potential to enhance the study of higher education. Foregrounding the multiple purposes and research relationships developed through feminist research, the essay urges higher education scholars to engage feminist theories, epistemologies, and methods to inform policy, research, and…

  14. Queering Transformation in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Msibi, Thabo

    2013-01-01

    Transformation in higher education has tended to focus on race and sex, at the expense of other forms of discrimination. This article addresses the silencing of "queer" issues in higher education. Using queer theory as a framework, and drawing on current literature, popular media reports, two personal critical incidents and a project…

  15. Leading Change in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    McRoy, Ian; Gibbs, Paul

    2009-01-01

    This article considers the situation in the UK higher education system and investigates specifically the leadership practice in a cluster of UK institutions as they changed their status. The research goes further to advocate a form of contextualized leadership that is relevant to higher institutions under change. (Contains 1 figure.)

  16. Higher Education: Open for Business

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilde, Christian, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    This book addresses a problem in higher learning, which is newly recognized in the academic spotlight: the overcommercialization of higher education. The book asks that you, the reader, think about the following: Did you go to a Coke or Pepsi school? Do your children attend a Nike or Adidas school? Is the college in your town a Dell or Gateway…

  17. Polish Higher Education: Intersectoral Distinctiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musial, Joanna

    2014-01-01

    This study analyzes degrees of differences between the private and public sectors of Polish higher education. It finds them to be strong: Polish private institutions function very differently from Polish public institutions and these differences correspond with those found in the literature on higher education elsewhere in the world. Polish…

  18. Innovations in Higher Education? Hah!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschner, Ann

    2012-01-01

    One can hardly mention higher education today without hearing the word "innovation," or its understudies "change," "reinvention," "transformation." Last summer the National Governors Association opened its meeting with a plenary session on higher education, innovation, and economic growth. But there is nothing funny about the need for innovation…

  19. Fact Book on Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Joseph L.; Diaz, Alicia A.

    2009-01-01

    The "Southern Regional Education Board (SREB) Fact Book on Higher Education" is one of the nation's most comprehensive collections of comparative data on higher education. For decades, state leaders, policy-makers, researchers and journalists have used the "Fact Book" to find useful data quickly--and to learn more about…

  20. Higher Franz-Reidemeister torsion

    CERN Document Server

    Igusa, Kiyoshi

    2002-01-01

    The book is devoted to the theory of topological higher Franz-Reidemeister torsion in K-theory. The author defines the higher Franz-Reidemeister torsion based on Volodin's K-theory and Borel's regulator map. He describes its properties and generalizations and studies the relation between the higher Franz-Reidemeister torsion and other torsions used in K-theory: Whitehead torsion and Ray-Singer torsion. He also presents methods of computing higher Franz-Reidemeister torsion, illustrates them with numerous examples, and describes various applications of higher Franz-Reidemeister torsion, particularly for the study of homology of mapping class groups. Packed with up-to-date information, the book provides a unique research and reference tool for specialists working in algebraic topology and K-theory.

  1. Comparative Serum Challenges Show Divergent Patterns of Gene Expression and Open Chromatin in Human and Chimpanzee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzollo, Jason; Nielsen, William J; Shibata, Yoichiro; Safi, Alexias; Crawford, Gregory E; Wray, Gregory A; Babbitt, Courtney C

    2018-03-01

    Humans experience higher rates of age-associated diseases than our closest living evolutionary relatives, chimpanzees. Environmental factors can explain many of these increases in disease risk, but species-specific genetic changes can also play a role. Alleles that confer increased disease susceptibility later in life can persist in a population in the absence of selective pressure if those changes confer positive adaptation early in life. One age-associated disease that disproportionately affects humans compared with chimpanzees is epithelial cancer. Here, we explored genetic differences between humans and chimpanzees in a well-defined experimental assay that mimics gene expression changes that happen during cancer progression: A fibroblast serum challenge. We used this assay with fibroblasts isolated from humans and chimpanzees to explore species-specific differences in gene expression and chromatin state with RNA-Seq and DNase-Seq. Our data reveal that human fibroblasts increase expression of genes associated with wound healing and cancer pathways; in contrast, chimpanzee gene expression changes are not concentrated around particular functional categories. Chromatin accessibility dramatically increases in human fibroblasts, yet decreases in chimpanzee cells during the serum response. Many regions of opening and closing chromatin are in close proximity to genes encoding transcription factors or genes involved in wound healing processes, further supporting the link between changes in activity of regulatory elements and changes in gene expression. Together, these expression and open chromatin data show that humans and chimpanzees have dramatically different responses to the same physiological stressor, and how a core physiological process can evolve quickly over relatively short evolutionary time scales.

  2. Diabetes in population isolates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grarup, Niels; Moltke, Ida; Albrechtsen, Anders

    2015-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is an increasing health problem worldwide with particularly high occurrence in specific subpopulations and ancestry groups. The high prevalence of T2D is caused both by changes in lifestyle and genetic predisposition. A large number of studies have sought to identify...... on glucose-stimulated plasma glucose, serum insulin levels, and T2D. The variant defines a specific subtype of non-autoimmune diabetes characterized by decreased post-prandial glucose uptake and muscular insulin resistance. These and other recent findings in population isolates illustrate the value...

  3. Journey from isolation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wim A. Dreyer

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Since the Ottawa Consultation in 1982, the relationship between the Nederduitsch Hervormde Kerk van Afrika (NHKA and the World Alliance of Reformed Churches (WARC was nonexistent. In the NHKA it became progressively clear that it would be impossible to travel the road of faith alone. This article examined the factors which contributed to the growing isolation of the NHKA, especially nationalism, a particularistic ecclesiology and the rejection of Apartheid by international ecumenical bodies. It also reflected on efforts of the NHKA to return to the international ecumenical movement.

  4. Waste isolation: a bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLaren, L.H.

    1982-12-01

    This bibliography contains information on waste isolation included in the Department of Energy's Energy Data Base from Janurary 1981 through November 1982. The abstracts are grouped by subject category as shown in the table of contents. Entries in the subject index also facilitate access by subject, e.g., Radioactive Waste Disposal/Salt Deposits. Within each category the arrangement is by report number for reports, followed by nonreports in reverse chronological order. These citations are to research reports, journal articles, books, patents, theses, and conference papers from worldwide sources. Five indexes, each preceded by a brief description, are provided: Corporate Author, Personal Author, Subject, Contract Number, and Report Number

  5. Isolation, Identification, and Evaluation of Novel Probiotic Strains Isolated from Feces of Breast-Fed Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panya, Marutpong; Lulitanond, Viraphong; Rattanachaikunsopon, Pongsak; Srivoramas, Thanyakarn; Chaiwong, Tarinee

    2016-01-01

    To isolate, identify, and evaluate the probiotic properties of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from the feces of breast-fed infants. The probiotic tests included investigation of hemolysis activity, survival in simulated gastrointestinal tract conditions (acid and bile salt tolerance), susceptibility to antibiotics, and ability to inhibit selected bacterial pathogens (Escherichia coli O157:H7, Vibrio cholerae and Salmonella enterica subsp enterica serovar Typhimurium). The bacterial species identification was performed by both carbohydrate utilization and partial 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing. Five of fifty LAB isolates (UBU-03, UBU-06, UBU-09, UBU-34, and UBU-37) showed good probiotic properties. These five isolates showed non-hemolysis type (gamma-hemolysis), susceptibility to all antibiotics tested except for vancomycin, ability to survive in the simulated gastrointestinal conditions of both acid and bile salt solution, and ability to inhibit growth of E. coli O157: H7 and V. cholerae. Bacterial species identification revealed that all five isolates were firmly identified as Lactobacillus rhamnosus species. The L. rhamnosus strains that were isolated and characterized in this study could be considered as probiotic strains, and then used for further probiotic characterization in human cell cultures or animal models.

  6. Biochemical and physicochemical analysis of fish protein isolate recovered from red snapper (Lutjanus sp.) by-product using isoelectric solubilization/precipitation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramono, H.; Pujiastuti, D. Y.; Sahidu, A. M.

    2018-04-01

    The effect of acid- and alkali-process on biochemical and physicochemical characteristics of fish protein isolate from red snapper (Lutjanus sp) by-product was evaluated. Protein recovered by alkali process (16.79%) was higher compared to acid process (13.75%). Reduction of lipid content and total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N) exhibited in both treatments indicated both process improved fish protein isolate recovered from red snapper by-product. In addition, the increasing of water holding capacity and oil binding capacity were observed. However, high peroxide value of fish protein isolate was showed in both treatment. This finding indicated that acid and alkali process can be used as a useful method to recover proteins from red snapper by-product. Alkali process gave a protein isolate with better overall quality compared to acid process.

  7. Antimicrobial susceptibilities and random amplified polymorphic DNA-PCR fingerprint characterization of Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis and Lactococcus garvieae isolated from bovine intramammary infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plumed-Ferrer, C; Barberio, A; Franklin-Guild, R; Werner, B; McDonough, P; Bennett, J; Gioia, G; Rota, N; Welcome, F; Nydam, D V; Moroni, P

    2015-09-01

    In total, 181 streptococci-like bacteria isolated from intramammary infections (IMI) were submitted by a veterinary clinic to Quality Milk Production Services (QMPS, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY). The isolates were characterized by sequence analysis, and 46 Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis and 47 Lactococcus garvieae were tested for susceptibility to 17 antibiotics. No resistant strains were found for β-lactam antibiotics widely used in clinical practice (penicillin, ampicillin, and amoxicillin), and all minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) were far from the resistance breakpoints. Eight strains had MIC intermediate to cefazolin. The random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD)-PCR fingerprint patterns showed a slightly higher heterogeneity for Lc. lactis ssp. lactis isolates than for Lc. garvieae isolates. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Isolation & characterization of Brucella melitensis isolated from patients suspected for human brucellosis in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barua, Anita; Kumar, Ashu; Thavaselvam, Duraipandian; Mangalgi, Smita; Prakash, Archana; Tiwari, Sapana; Arora, Sonia; Sathyaseelan, Kannusamy

    2016-01-01

    Background & objectives: Brucellosis is endemic in the southern part of India. A combination of biochemical, serological and molecular methods is required for identification and biotyping of Brucella. The present study describes the isolation and biochemical, molecular characterization of Brucella melitensis from patients suspected for human brucellosis. Methods: The blood samples were collected from febrile patients suspected to have brucellosis. A total of 18 isolates were obtained from 102 blood samples subjected to culture. The characterization of these 18 isolates was done by growth on Brucella specific medium, biochemical reactions, CO2 requirement, H2S production, agglutination with A and M mono-specific antiserum, dye sensitivity to basic fuchsin and thionin. Further, molecular characterization of the isolates was done by amplification of B. melitensis species specific IS711 repetitive DNA fragment and 16S (rRNA) sequence analysis. PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of omp2 locus and IS711 gene was also done for molecular characterization. Results: All 102 suspected samples were subjected to bacteria isolation and of these, 18 isolates could be recovered on blood culture. The biochemical, PCR and PCR-RFLP and 16s rRNA sequencing revealed that all isolates were of B. melitensis and matched exactly with reference strain B. melitensis 16M. Interpretation & conclusions: The present study showed an overall isolation rate of 17.64 per cent for B. melitensis. There is a need to establish facilities for isolation and characterization of Brucella species for effective clinical management of the disease among patients as well as surveillance and control of infection in domestic animals. Further studies are needed from different geographical areas of the country with different level of endemicity to plan and execute control strategies against human brucellosis. PMID:27488010

  9. Teaching basic lung isolation skills on human anatomy simulator: attainment and retention of lung isolation skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latif, Rana K; VanHorne, Edgar M; Kandadai, Sunitha Kanchi; Bautista, Alexander F; Neamtu, Aurel; Wadhwa, Anupama; Carter, Mary B; Ziegler, Craig H; Memon, Mohammed Faisal; Akça, Ozan

    2016-01-20

    Lung isolation skills, such as correct insertion of double lumen endobronchial tube and bronchial blocker, are essential in anesthesia training; however, how to teach novices these skills is underexplored. Our aims were to determine (1) if novices can be trained to a basic proficiency level of lung isolation skills, (2) whether video-didactic and simulation-based trainings are comparable in teaching lung isolation basic skills, and (3) whether novice learners' lung isolation skills decay over time without practice. First, five board certified anesthesiologist with experience of more than 100 successful lung isolations were tested on Human Airway Anatomy Simulator (HAAS) to establish Expert proficiency skill level. Thirty senior medical students, who were naive to bronchoscopy and lung isolation techniques (Novice) were randomized to video-didactic and simulation-based trainings to learn lung isolation skills. Before and after training, Novices' performances were scored for correct placement using pass/fail scoring and a 5-point Global Rating Scale (GRS); and time of insertion was recorded. Fourteen novices were retested 2 months later to assess skill decay. Experts' and novices' double lumen endobronchial tube and bronchial blocker passing rates showed similar success rates after training (P >0.99). There were no differences between the video-didactic and simulation-based methods. Novices' time of insertion decayed within 2 months without practice. Novices could be trained to basic skill proficiency level of lung isolation. Video-didactic and simulation-based methods we utilized were found equally successful in training novices for lung isolation skills. Acquired skills partially decayed without practice.

  10. Enhanced hydrocarbon biodegradation by a newly isolated bacillus subtilis strain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christova, N.; Tuleva, B.; Nikolova-Damyanova, B.

    2004-01-01

    The relation between hydrocarbon degradation and biosurfactant (rhamnolipid) production by a new bacillus subtilis 22BN strain was investigated. The strain was isolated for its capacity to utilize n-hexadecane and naphthalene and at the same time to produce surface-active compound at high concentrations (1.5 - 2.0 g l -1 ). Biosurfactant production was detected by surface tension lowering and emulsifying activity. The strain is a good degrader of both hydrocarbons used with degradability of 98.3 ± 1% and 75 ± 2% for n-hexadecane and naphthalene, respectively. Measurement of cell hydrophobicity showed that the combination of slightly soluble substrate and rhamnolipid developed higher hydrophobicity correlated with increased utilization of both hydrocarbon substrates. To our knowledge, this is the first report of bacillus subtilis strain that degrades hydrophobic compounds and at the same time produces rhamnolipid biosurfactant. (orig.)

  11. Comparison of MKP and BSK-H media for the cultivation and isolation of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Ružić-Sabljić

    Full Text Available The isolation of B. burgdorferi sensu lato requires the use of complex cultivation media. The aim of the study was to compare the usefulness of BSK-H (a commercial medium produced by HiMedia, India and MKP medium. MKP and BSK-H media were prepared in accordance with the relevant protocols. Borrelia strains and skin culture biopsies were simultaneously inoculated into both media, incubated and checked for growth. Borrelial growth characteristics, isolation rates and characteristics of the isolated borreliae were analysed and compared. Initially, numbers of spirochaetes were higher in BSK-H than in MKP; however, in comparison with MKP, the strains subcultured in BSK-H medium were more frequently irregular, thin and non-motile, and rapidly died. In addition, the borrelial isolation rate from erythema migrans skin samples was higher in MKP than in BSK-H medium (108/171, 63.2% versus 70/171, 40.9%; p<0.0001. The far most frequently isolated species was Borrelia afzelii (92.9% and 97.2% strains isolated from BSK-H and MKP, respectively. Comparison of strains cultured from individual patients in both media showed differences in plasmid contents in 9/46 (19.6% strain pairs, and protein profiles differed in 30/43 (69.8% strain pairs, most often in the expression of OspC (in 27/28 patients OspC was expressed only in strains growing in MKP. BSK-H medium supports the growth of borrelial strains but MKP is superior with regard to the isolation rate, morphology and motility of strains. BSK-H medium supports fast initial growth of borreliae but this is followed by rapid deformation and death of the spirochaetes.

  12. Zeaxanthin Radical Cation Formation in Minor Light-Harvesting Complexes of Higher Plant Antenna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avenson, Thomas H.; Ahn, Tae Kyu; Zigmantas, Donatas; Niyogi, Krishna K.; Li, Zhirong; Ballottari, Matteo; Bassi, Roberto; Fleming, Graham R.

    2008-01-31

    Previous work on intact thylakoid membranes showed that transient formation of a zeaxanthin radical cation was correlated with regulation of photosynthetic light-harvesting via energy-dependent quenching. A molecular mechanism for such quenching was proposed to involve charge transfer within a chlorophyll-zeaxanthin heterodimer. Using near infrared (880-1100 nm) transient absorption spectroscopy, we demonstrate that carotenoid (mainly zeaxanthin) radical cation generation occurs solely in isolated minor light-harvesting complexes that bind zeaxanthin, consistent with the engagement of charge transfer quenching therein. We estimated that less than 0.5percent of the isolated minor complexes undergo charge transfer quenching in vitro, whereas the fraction of minor complexes estimated to be engaged in charge transfer quenching in isolated thylakoids was more than 80 times higher. We conclude that minor complexes which bind zeaxanthin are sites of charge transfer quenching in vivo and that they can assume Non-quenching and Quenching conformations, the equilibrium LHC(N)<--> LHC(Q) of which is modulated by the transthylakoid pH gradient, the PsbS protein, and protein-protein interactions.

  13. Medullary sponge kidney and isolated hemihyperplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P S Priyamvada

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The term hemihyperplasia refers to an enlargement of body parts beyond the normal asymmetry. Hemihyperplasia can be isolated or associated with various well-described malformation syndromes. Medullary sponge kidney (MSK has been described with isolated and syndromic hemihyperplasia; the actual prevalence is not known The hemi hypertrophy can be so subtle that it may be easily overlooked. MSK need not be limited to the side of hemihyperplasia - most often it is bilateral. Around 33 cases has been reported from different parts of the world of which 15 cases are isolated hemi hyperplasia (IHH, the remaining occurring in the context of various malformation syndromes So far only one case has been reported from India. We report a case of IHH involving right side of the body, recurrent renal stones, incomplete distal renal tubular acidosis hypercalciuria and imaging showing bilateral MSKs.

  14. MICROSCOPIC FUNGI ISOLATED FROM POLISH HONEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soňa Felšöciová

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The characterization of some honey samples from Poland was carried out on the basis of their microbiological (fungi and yeasts analysis. Most of the samples contained less than 20 % water. The amount of fungi found in the honey samples was less than 1 x 102 CFU.g-1 but 19 % of the samples had more yeasts than 1 x 102 CFU.g-1 – up to 5.7 x 102 CFU.g-1. The isolated fungi were Alternaria spp., Aspergillus spp., Cladosporium spp., Fusarium spp., Mycelia sterilia, Rhizopus spp. and Penicillium spp. The last genus was isolated very frequently. A total number of eight fungal Penicillium species were identified namely, Penicillium brevicompactum, P. commune, P. corylophilum, P. crustosum, P. expansum, P. griseofulvum, P. chrysogenum and P. polonicum. They were isolated using dilution plate method. The results showed that honeys produced in this region are of good microbiological quality.

  15. Increased cefepime MIC for enterobacteriacae clinical isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najafi, Narges; Alikhani, Ahmad; Babamahmoudi, Farhang; Davoudi, Alireza; Ghasemiyan, Roya; Aliyan, Shahriar; Shoujaiifar, Arman

    2013-01-01

    Background : Cefepime was used as empirical treatment in ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) induced by gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. This study aimed to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of cefepime against microorganism causing VAP in Mazandaran, North of Iran. This study was performed on VAP patients diagnosed with clinical pulmonary infection score (CPIS) scores in ICU of two hospitals. For each patient suspected of having VAP, quantitative culture of endotracheal aspiration (QEA) was performed and MIC was determined by micro dilution test. Data were collected and analyzed. Thirty- five cases of enterobacteriaceae were isolated orderly including E coli 13, P. aeruginosa 11, Enterobacter 7 and K. pneumonia 4 cases. All the isolated E. coli, Enterobacter and Klebsiella, 54.5% of P. aeruginosa isolated were fully resistant to cefepime. The results of this study show that cefepime is not a reasonable choice for empirical treatment of nosocomial pneumonia and VAP.

  16. THK: CLB Crossed Linear Bearing Seismic Isolators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toniolo, Roberto

    2008-01-01

    This text highlights the new seismic isolation technology called CLB (Crossed Linear Bearing), which is made of linear guides with recirculating steel ball technology. It describes specifications and building characteristics, provides examples of seismic isolation and application functionalities and shows experimental data. Since 1994, the constant commitment by Japan to develop diversified anti-seismic systems based on the precise needs of the structures to protect and the areas where they were built has led to the creation of important synergy between the research institutions of leading Japanese companies and THK's Centre for Research and Development. Their goal has been to develop new technology and solutions to allow seismic isolation to be effective in the following cases:

  17. Higher education journals as didactic frameworks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Tina Bering; Qvortrup, Ane

    2018-01-01

    topics. Students as participants and learners are a frequent topic in especially one journal, but receive little attention in the other journals. Also, educational technologies receive a varying degree of attention across the journals. Based on the mapping, this article discusses Higher Education......During the last 20 years, we have witnessed a growing interest in research in teaching, learning and educational development in higher education (HE). The result is that ‘Higher Education Didactics’ has established itself as a research field in its own right. This article explores Higher Education...... influential, while the others stem from the Anglo-Saxon curriculum tradition. The mapping shows that all journals are strongly occupied with teaching methods, especially methods grounded in theories of active and social learning. In contrast, didactic categories such as goal, content and assessment are rare...

  18. Holography and higher-spin theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petkou, T.

    2005-01-01

    I review recent work on the holographic relation between higher-spin theories in Anti-de Sitter spaces and conformal field theories. I present the main results of studies concerning the higher-spin holographic dual of the three-dimensional O(N) vector model. I discuss the special role played by certain double-trace deformations in Conformal Field Theories that have higher-spin holographic duals. Moreover, I show that duality transformations in a U(1) gauge theory on AdS 4 induce boundary double-trace deformations and argue that a similar effect takes place in the holography of linearized higher-spin theories on AdS 4 . (Abstract Copyright [2005], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  19. Fatty acid synthase inhibitors isolated from Punica granatum L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, He-Zhong [School of Life Science and Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, (China); Ma, Qing-Yun; Liang, Wen-Juan; Huang, Sheng-Zhuo; Dai, Hao-Fu; Wang, Peng-Cheng; Zhao, You-Xing, E-mail: zhaoyx1011@163.com [Institute of Tropical Bioscience and Biotechnology, Chinese Academy of Tropical Agricultural Sciences, Haikou (China); Fan, Hui-Jin; Ma, Xiao-Feng, E-mail: maxiaofeng@gucas.ac.cn [College of Life Sciences, Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China)

    2012-05-15

    The aim of this work is the isolation of fatty acid synthase (FAS) inhibitors from the ethyl acetate extracts of fruit peels of Punica granatum L. Bioassay-guided chemical investigation of the fruit peels resulted in the isolation of seventeen compounds mainly including triterpenoids and phenolic compounds, from which one new oleanane-type triterpene (punicaone) along with fourteen known compounds were isolated for the first time from this plant. Seven isolates were evaluated for inhibitory activities of FAS and two compounds showed to be active. Particularly, flavogallonic acid exhibited strong FAS inhibitory activity with IC{sub 50} value of 10.3 {mu}mol L{sup -1}. (author)

  20. Fatty acid synthase inhibitors isolated from Punica granatum L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, He-Zhong; Ma, Qing-Yun; Liang, Wen-Juan; Huang, Sheng-Zhuo; Dai, Hao-Fu; Wang, Peng-Cheng; Zhao, You-Xing; Fan, Hui-Jin; Ma, Xiao-Feng

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this work is the isolation of fatty acid synthase (FAS) inhibitors from the ethyl acetate extracts of fruit peels of Punica granatum L. Bioassay-guided chemical investigation of the fruit peels resulted in the isolation of seventeen compounds mainly including triterpenoids and phenolic compounds, from which one new oleanane-type triterpene (punicaone) along with fourteen known compounds were isolated for the first time from this plant. Seven isolates were evaluated for inhibitory activities of FAS and two compounds showed to be active. Particularly, flavogallonic acid exhibited strong FAS inhibitory activity with IC 50 value of 10.3 μmol L -1 . (author)