WorldWideScience

Sample records for island community 1992-4

  1. Barrier island community change: What controls it?

    Dows, B.; Young, D.; Zinnert, J.

    2014-12-01

    Conversion from grassland to woody dominated communities has been observed globally. In recent decades, this pattern has been observed in coastal communities along the mid-Atlantic U.S. In coastal environments, a suite of biotic and abiotic factors interact as filters to determine plant community structure and distribution. Microclimatic conditions: soil and air temperature, soil moisture and salinity, and light attenuation under grass cover were measured across a grassland-woody encroachment gradient on a Virginia barrier island; to identify the primary factors that mediate this change. Woody establishment was associated with moderately dense (2200 shoots/m2) grass cover, but reduced at high (> 6200 shoots/ m2) and low (Moderately dense grass cover reduced light attenuation (82.50 % reduction) to sufficiently reduce soil temperature thereby limiting soil moisture evaporation. However, high grass density reduced light attenuation (98.7 % reduction) enough to inhibit establishment of woody species; whereas low grass density attenuated much less light (48.7 % reduction) which allowed for greater soil moisture evaporation. Soil salinity was dynamic as rainfall, tidal inundation, and sea spray produce spatiotemporal variation throughout the barrier island landscape. The importance of light and temperature were compounded as they also indirectly affect soil salinity via their affects on soil moisture. Determining how these biotic and abiotic factors relate to sea level rise and climate change will improve understanding coastal community response as global changes proceed. Understanding how community shifts affect ecosystem function and their potential to affect adjacent systems will also improve predictive ability of coastal ecosystem responses.

  2. Collapsing avian community on a Hawaiian island

    Paxton, Eben H.; Camp, Richard J.; Gorresen, P. Marcos; Crampton, Lisa H.; Leonard, David L.; VanderWerf, Eric

    2016-01-01

    The viability of many species has been jeopardized by numerous negative factors over the centuries, but climate change is predicted to accelerate and increase the pressure of many of these threats, leading to extinctions. The Hawaiian honeycreepers, famous for their spectacular adaptive radiation, are predicted to experience negative responses to climate change, given their susceptibility to introduced disease, the strong linkage of disease distribution to climatic conditions, and their current distribution. We document the rapid collapse of the native avifauna on the island of Kaua‘i that corresponds to changes in climate and disease prevalence. Although multiple factors may be pressuring the community, we suggest that a tipping point has been crossed in which temperatures in forest habitats at high elevations have reached a threshold that facilitates the development of avian malaria and its vector throughout these species’ ranges. Continued incursion of invasive weeds and non-native avian competitors may be facilitated by climate change and could also contribute to declines. If current rates of decline continue, we predict multiple extinctions in the coming decades. Kaua‘i represents an early warning for the forest bird communities on the Maui and Hawai‘i islands, as well as other species around the world that are trapped within a climatic space that is rapidly disappearing.

  3. Functional and phylogenetic structure of island bird communities.

    Si, Xingfeng; Cadotte, Marc W; Zeng, Di; Baselga, Andrés; Zhao, Yuhao; Li, Jiaqi; Wu, Yiru; Wang, Siyu; Ding, Ping

    2017-05-01

    Biodiversity change in anthropogenically transformed habitats is often nonrandom, yet the nature and importance of the different mechanisms shaping community structure are unclear. Here, we extend the classic Theory of Island Biogeography (TIB) to account for nonrandom processes by incorporating species traits and phylogenetic relationships into a study of faunal relaxation following habitat loss and fragmentation. Two possible mechanisms can create nonrandom community patterns on fragment islands. First, small and isolated islands might consist of similar or closely related species because they are environmentally homogeneous or select for certain shared traits, such as dispersal ability. Alternatively, communities on small islands might contain more dissimilar or distantly related species than on large islands because limited space and resource availability result in greater competitive exclusion among species with high niche overlap. Breeding birds were surveyed on 36 islands and two mainland sites annually from 2010 to 2014 in the Thousand Island Lake region, China. We assessed community structure of breeding birds on these subtropical land-bridge islands by integrating species' trait and evolutionary distances. We additionally analysed habitat heterogeneity and variance in size ratios to distinguish biotic and abiotic processes of community assembly. Results showed that functional-phylogenetic diversity increased with island area, and decreased with isolation. Bird communities on the mainland were more diverse and generally less clustered than island bird communities and not different than randomly assembled communities. Bird communities on islands tend to be functionally similar and phylogenetically clustered, especially on small and isolated islands. The nonrandom decline in species diversity and change in bird community structure with island area and isolation, along with the relatively homogeneous habitats on small islands, support the environmental

  4. MARINE BOTTOM COMMUNITIES OF BLOCK ISLAND WATERS

    The sea has long been an integral part of Block Island's natural history, beginning when the rising sea surrounded the high spot on a Pleistocene terminal moraine that became Block Island. The southern New England continental shelf, which lies around Block Island, and the Great S...

  5. Bird communities in two oceanic island forests fragmented by roads ...

    Although most studies on road effects on birds have been conducted on continental grounds, road fragmentation on oceanic islands is often heavier. We assessed variation in bird communities near (≤ 25 m) and far (>100 m) from forest roads dividing laurel and pine forests on Tenerife, Canary Islands. Line transects were ...

  6. Reef community structure, Sand Island, Oahu HI, (NODC Accession 0000177)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These reports provide the results of nine years (1990-98) of an annual quantitative monitoring of shallow marine communities inshore of the Sand Island Ocean...

  7. Structure of a toothed cetacean community around a tropical island ...

    ... cetacean community around a tropical island (Mayotte, Mozambique Channel) ... Patterns of spatial distribution underscore the existence of three main ... The outer slope of the barrier reef appears to be of primary importance in terms of ...

  8. Predicting community structure in snakes on Eastern Nearctic islands using ecological neutral theory and phylogenetic methods.

    Burbrink, Frank T; McKelvy, Alexander D; Pyron, R Alexander; Myers, Edward A

    2015-11-22

    Predicting species presence and richness on islands is important for understanding the origins of communities and how likely it is that species will disperse and resist extinction. The equilibrium theory of island biogeography (ETIB) and, as a simple model of sampling abundances, the unified neutral theory of biodiversity (UNTB), predict that in situations where mainland to island migration is high, species-abundance relationships explain the presence of taxa on islands. Thus, more abundant mainland species should have a higher probability of occurring on adjacent islands. In contrast to UNTB, if certain groups have traits that permit them to disperse to islands better than other taxa, then phylogeny may be more predictive of which taxa will occur on islands. Taking surveys of 54 island snake communities in the Eastern Nearctic along with mainland communities that have abundance data for each species, we use phylogenetic assembly methods and UNTB estimates to predict island communities. Species richness is predicted by island area, whereas turnover from the mainland to island communities is random with respect to phylogeny. Community structure appears to be ecologically neutral and abundance on the mainland is the best predictor of presence on islands. With regard to young and proximate islands, where allopatric or cladogenetic speciation is not a factor, we find that simple neutral models following UNTB and ETIB predict the structure of island communities. © 2015 The Author(s).

  9. Renewable based hydrogen energy projects in remote and island communities

    Miles, S.; Gillie, M.

    2009-01-01

    Task 18 working group of the International Energy Agency's Hydrogen Implementing Agreement has been evaluating and documenting experiences with renewable based hydrogen energy projects in remote and island communities in the United Kingdom, Canada, Norway, Iceland, Gran Canaria, Spain and New Zealand. The objective was to examine the lessons learned from existing projects and provide recommendations regarding the effective development of hydrogen systems. In order to accomplish this task, some of the drivers behind the niche markets where hydrogen systems have already been developed, or are in the development stages, were studied in order to determine how these could be expanded and modified to reach new markets. Renewable based hydrogen energy projects for remote and island communities are currently a key niche market. This paper compared various aspects of these projects and discussed the benefits, objectives and barriers facing the development of a hydrogen-based economy

  10. Strategy Development of Community Base Tourism in Tidung Island, Jakarta

    Dhian Tyas Untari

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of thus study is to establish a community-based tourism development strategy in Tidung Island. Researcher use Strategy Management matrix, In this research, tourist entrepreneurs and tourist as an observation unit and is determined as an analysis unit of the company that is the decision makers are very influential in the company itself, including related Human Resources, Finance, Production, and Marketing. Eigen Factor score is use ase the weighting input data from the results of questionnaires. From the questionnaire, a score is obtained from the average given by the respondents at each key success factors, where in the input process the researcher used IFAS / IFAS Matrix, and in the process of strategy formulation, the researcher used the recommendation from the Grand Matrix Strategy output. The results of the output recommendations, which will then be implemented in the development of community-based tourism on the island of Tidung. Based on the Grand Matrix Strategy chart seen that the outline of Tidung Island tourism into the weak category, where the quadrant Challenges and Weaknesses is much greater than the strength and opportunities. Thus the strategy that can be done is with; improve tourism governance by maximizing the function of tourism development programs of DKI Jakarta Province, encouraging the Provincial Government of DKI Jakarta to allocate funds and attention to alternative tourism such as marine tourism located in Kepulauan Seribu, maximizing Community Service Activities of Higher Education as a medium of knowladge community transfer Tidung Island, improving the mode of transportation and increasing the frequency of ship felling Jakarta - Pulau Tidung.

  11. Community Empowerment Strategy Based on Social and Cultural Capital of Coastal Communities at Makassar Island

    Tanzil, Tanzil

    2018-05-01

    The study aims to (1) analyze the form and the function of social capital in fisher communities of Makasar Island (2) formulate a strategy of empowerment through reinforcement of social capital in fisher communities in Makasar Island. The methodological design used is a case study. The data is then analysed through descriptive-qualitative, an analysis carried out continuously from the collection of data until the investigation is completed. The study findings showed that the fisher communities in Makasar Island have social and cultural capital that can be identified on the forms of trust, values/norms, and networks in which each social and cultural capital has become a power for fishermen to survive and adapt to its environment. The results of this study also identify various problems related to the process of empowering fishing communities on the island of Makassar. The problems also become a constraint for fishermen to improve their business so that they obtain relatively low incomes. The problems are: firstly, the weakness on the use of technology so that the productivity of fishermen is relatively low and the small business scale, the second, the difficulty in business development because of the limited access to capital and the third, the poor of business management as the result of limited ability in business management. These factors then lead the fishing communities on the island of Makasar powerless to exploit the rich potential of marine resources.

  12. DISTANCE EDUCATION POTENTIAL FOR A CANADIAN RURAL ISLAND COMMUNITY

    Tom JONES

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to investigate the potential impact of distance education on a small, rural, Canadian island community. Presently, the population of small, rural island communities on the west coast of Canada are facing numerous challenges to retain and to attract permanent residents and families and to provide support and direction for those residents who wish to pursue K-12 accreditation, post-secondary education, vocational/trades training and up-grading or life-long learning. A unique set of considerations confront many of these isolated communities if they wish to engage in distance education and training. This set ranges from internet access to excessive travel by secondary students to the lack of centralized facility. For this study, a group of 48 participants were interviewed to determine their perceptions of the potential for distance education to impact on the community's educational, both academic and vocational, life-long learning and economic needs. The results indicated that there were four general areas of purported benefit: academic advancement, an improved quality of life, support for young families and a stabilizing affect on the local economy. Suggestions for the implementation of a suitable distance education resource are noted.

  13. Sustainability of rainwater catchment systems for small island communities

    Bailey, Ryan T.; Beikmann, Alise; Kottermair, Maria; Taboroši, Danko; Jenson, John W.

    2018-02-01

    Communities living on atolls and similar low-lying islands in the tropical Pacific rely on rainwater and shallow groundwater to meet domestic water needs. Rainwater, generally captured and stored using rooftop rainwater catchment systems, is the preferred water source due to higher quality and convenience of access. This study assesses the performance of rainwater catchment systems (RWCS) on Ifalik Atoll, located in Yap State, Federated States of Micronesia in the western Pacific. A field survey was conducted in August 2015 to evaluate RWCS features (guttered roof area, storage tank size, gutter leakage conditions), determine numbers of users, and estimate daily water use via household surveys. All 152 RWCS were surveyed. Water balance modeling was applied to the RWCS to estimate end-of-day stored rainwater volumes for each day of the 1997-1999 time period, during which an El Niño-induced drought occurred. Results indicate that the community is resilient to drought, although the majority of RWCS were depleted of rainwater and hence community sharing was required. Scenario testing indicates that increasing guttered roof area is the optimal strategy for enhancing system reliability. For example, the volume of water maintained at the peak of a drought can be tripled if the available roof areas for the RWCS are guttered. Design curves, which provide a set of roof area - tank volume combinations that achieve specified levels of reliability, were created and can be used to plan new RWCS. Besides offering insights into community-wide water storage and usage patterns and resiliency for Ifalik Atoll, this study presents methods that can be applied to other atoll island communities throughout the Indo-Pacific region.

  14. Island of Mayotte on its way to the international community

    Ivan Victorovich Nezhentsev

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article devoted to the analysis of change of status of Mayotte with signing of the Treaty on the possession of Mayotte to France in 1841 continuing until Mayotte’s departmentalization in 2011. Relations between France and Mayotte are essentially different from traditional cooperation “Metropolitan-colony”, due the fact that Mayotte was an important strategic territory of France in the Indian Ocean since 19th century. The article contains the detail analysis of specifics features of French colonial administration. The legislative changes of territorial status of Mayotte traced on the basis of researched decrees, laws, resolutions. The status of Mayotte had changed with the expansion of the colonial Empire: from autonomy up until 1912, to the dependent and controlled up until 1946. In the next 20 years Mayotte crosses swords for the expansion of autonomy from France. Besides it, in this chapter of the article considers the processes of formation of various people's movements, such as “Mouvement du peuple mahorais”, which purposed to get from metropolitan France the status of the French Overseas territory. After the fall of the colonial system, France tried to prevent the final breakdown of the Empire, for that French Republic takes root intro their colonies in a structure of France by legislation. In 1975 Comoros gained independence, and entered immediately into a confrontation with France with regard to Mayotte. The international community headed by the UN required return the island to the Comoros, despite it France referred to a popular referendum during which the residents of Mayotte had expressed a desire to be a part of France. Hurriedly, France granted to Mayotte the status of the Overseas community of France. Despite the new status, Mayotte continued to be a backward region of France up until 1990s. In the 21st century starts a new period of changes. There is an active development of the island in such spheres as

  15. Islands in a Sea of Mud: Insights From Terrestrial Island Theory for Community Assembly on Insular Marine Substrata.

    Meyer, K S

    Most marine hard-bottom habitats are isolated, separated from other similar habitats by sand or mud flats, and can be considered analogous to terrestrial islands. The extensive scientific literature on terrestrial islands provides a theoretical framework for the analysis of isolated marine habitats. More individuals and higher species richness occur on larger marine substrata, a pattern that resembles terrestrial islands. However, while larger terrestrial islands have greater habitat diversity and productivity, the higher species richness on larger marine hard substrata can be explained by simple surface area and hydrodynamic phenomena: larger substrata extend further into the benthic boundary, exposing fauna to faster current and higher food supply. Marine island-like communities are also influenced by their distance to similar habitats, but investigations into the reproductive biology and dispersal ability of individual species are required for a more complete understanding of population connectivity. On terrestrial islands, nonrandom co-occurrence patterns have been attributed to interspecific competition, but while nonrandom co-occurrence patterns have been found for marine fauna, different mechanisms are responsible, including epibiontism. Major knowledge gaps for community assembly in isolated marine habitats include the degree of connectivity between isolated habitats, mechanisms of succession, and the extent of competition on hard substrata, particularly in the deep sea. Anthropogenic hard substrata of known age can be used opportunistically as "natural" laboratories to begin answering these questions. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Challenges for Sustainable Communities in the Solomon Islands: Food Security in Honiara and Livelihoods on Savo Island

    Nichole Georgeou

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This article highlights the challenges of community sustainability in the emerging market economy of Solomon Islands as it grows increasingly reliant on imported foodstuffs. It examines the ways in which Solomon Islanders from neighbouring Savo Island engage with HCM and the opportunities it brings. Using Renzaho and Mellor’s (2010 conceptual framework for analysis of food security assessment we explore the symbiotic relationship that provides food security for those living in and around Honiara city, and income for the mostly subsistence farmers who supply Honiara’s growing population with fresh agricultural produce. Data from five focus groups from three villages on Savo Island reveals the critical importance of income from market sales at the HCM. The article demonstrates the mix of logistical and environmental challenges that confront people when trying to earn money through farming and sales of surplus food.

  17. Heat Islands

    EPA's Heat Island Effect Site provides information on heat islands, their impacts, mitigation strategies, related research, a directory of heat island reduction initiatives in U.S. communities, and EPA's Heat Island Reduction Program.

  18. Dive tourism, communities and small islands: lessons from Malaysia and Indonesia

    Hampton, Mark P.; Jeyacheya, Julia

    2014-01-01

    Coastal tourism is growing rapidly across South-East Asia, especially in small islands. Islands and coastal areas face significant issues of how to manage the rapid growth of tourism whilst retaining economic benefits for the local host community. First, the paper sets the context and charts the scale and significance of international dive tourism, especially in less developed countries. The paper draws upon extensive fieldwork in small island destinations in Malaysia and Indonesia and explor...

  19. Diatom communities from the sub-Antarctic Prince Edward Islands: diversity and distribution patterns

    Van de Vijver, B.; Gremmen, N.J.M.; Smith, V.

    2008-01-01

    During an extensive survey of the freshwater and moss-inhabiting diatoms of the Prince Edward Islands, a total of 214 taxa belonging to 60 genera were found. Three main communities can be found on the two islands. A large part of the samples was grouped into an aquatic group, bringing together all

  20. The Central Pine Barrens of Long Island, New York - Steps to improve community preparedness for wildfire

    Rachel Hudson; Kristen Nelson; Erika Lang

    2004-01-01

    This handout provides cooperators and high fire risk communities in the area in and around the central pine barrens of Long Island, New York examples of steps to take to increase wildfire preparedness.

  1. Inter- and Intraspecific Variations of Bacterial Communities Associated with Marine Sponges from San Juan Island, Washington

    Lee, O. O.; Wong, Y. H.; Qian, P.-Y.

    2009-01-01

    This study attempted to assess whether conspecific or congeneric sponges around San Juan Island, Washington, harbor specific bacterial communities. We used a combination of culture-independent DNA fingerprinting techniques (terminal restriction

  2. Social Identity and Community Resilience towards Tourism Development in Mabul Island, Semporna Sabah, Malaysia

    Norhaya Hanum Mohamad

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Mabul Island is a small isolated island located in the east of Semporna, Sabah. The island is inhabited by refugees from southern Philippines, which consist of few ethnics such as Suluk, Bajau, Bisayak, and so on. The communities in small islands are usually late in the development process. They often face problems of adapting to the development and they are commonly left behind in many things. With low population density, many of these communities receive little attention from the government. This resulted in insufficient support and poor basic infrastructure and services. However, Mabul Island is a very popular tourist destination for diving activities after Sipadan Island in Sabah. Tourism development and the impacts on local community have been widely discussed in the literature. However, the role of local communities in the tourism from the perspective of identity is rarely emphasized. Tajfel (1972 defined social identity as “that part of an individual’s self-concept which derives from his knowledge of his membership of a social group together with the value and emotional significance attached to that membership”. Based on the conceptual framework introduced by Palme, Koenig-Lewis, and Jones, this study applied the theory of social identity in examining the differences between two major communities in Mabul Island; Suluk and Bajau communities. The objectives of this study were to study the relationships that existed within the groups and to investigate the impacts of tourism development on social identity of local communities. This study also examined to what extent the social identities can adapt to the tourism booming in Mabul Island.

  3. Building a Learning Community: Telecommunications, Collaborations, and Sharing on Long Island.

    Schneiderman, Bette E.; Carriero, Corinne

    The Long Island Team is a collaborative system of K-12 students and teachers, university students and faculty, and community members who have been linked by telecommunications and in-person sessions. Since 1993 the group has culminated their work together at an annual sharing event. This paper provides the history of the learning community, a list…

  4. [Edge effect of the plant community structure on land-bridge islands in the Thousand Island Lake].

    Su, Xiao-Fei; Yuan, Jin-Feng; Hu, Guang; Xu, Gao-Fu; Yu, Ming-Jian

    2014-01-01

    The research was conducted on 29 land-bridge islands in the Thousand Island Lake (TIL), where long-term monitoring plots were set up during 2009-2010. The community attributes including species richness, Shannon index, plant mean height, plant mean diameter at breast height (DBH) and plant density along the edge-interior gradient from edge to interior forest were calculated to investigate the edge effect. The results showed that the species richness and Shannon index were affected through the whole gradient (larger than 50 m), while the range of edge effect was 20-30 m on mean plant height, and 10 m on plant density and mean DBH. Community attributes differed significantly among the edge gradients. The species richness and Shannon index peaked at the intermediate edge gradient. Plant density decreased and plant mean height increased along the edge to interior gradient. All five community attributes were significantly associated with the edge gradient, also different functional groups, evergreen or deciduous species, trees or shrubs, shade tolerant or shade intolerant species, were differentially influenced by the edge effect. It was demonstrated the influence of edge effect on the fragmented forest community varied with community attributes and functional groups.

  5. Challenges to Plastic Up-Cycling in Small Island Communities: A Palauan Tale

    Starkey, Lark

    2017-01-01

    Plastics in the marine environment are a growing environmental threat with mounting research on impacts, sources and management strategies. Small island communities are subject to greater threats because of dual inputs of marine plastics via ocean currents and locally used plastics, with a heavy reliance on imported packaged goods. The resulting plastic buildup on islands is often combined with a lack of infrastructure and remoteness, leaving few options for management. However, a number of e...

  6. Community Involvement in Tourism Entrepreneurship: A Case Study in Tioman Island, Malaysia

    Norhafiza Md Sharif

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The tourism sector is one of the major economic contributors to most countries. Island tourism is one of the important tourism products of a country and is able to catalyse socio-economic development for the local communities. In Malaysia, studies on local entrepreneurship development in Tioman Island has not been given much attention by researchers. To fill this gap, this study aims to provide information on the field of entrepreneurial tourism in Tioman Island. The main objective of this study is to identify the characteristics of the island community as a tourism entrepreneur and to analyse the problems and challenges faced by the island's tourism entrepreneurs. The findings show that the majority of entrepreneurs are male, aged between 25 to 44, receive education until secondary school and married. Most of the local tourism entrepreneurs run the food and beverage business and manage their businesses for 11 to 15 years and earn a monthly income of RM2001 to RM4000. The local tourism operators also face a few problems such as capital and finance, marketing, business management and infrastructure. At the same time, the entrepreneurs also expect collaboration from the government to play an important role in advancing the island's tourism industry. At the same time, local tourism entrepreneurs also expect cooperation from the government and other authorities to play a role in developing the island's tourism industry.

  7. User acceptance of diesel/PV hybrid system in an island community

    Phuangpornpitak, N.; Kumar, S.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a study conducted at a rural (island) community to understand the role of PV hybrid system installed on an island. Until 2004, most islanders had installed diesel generators in their homes to generate electricity, which was directly supplied to appliances or stored in the batteries for later use. A field survey was carried out to study the user satisfaction of the PV hybrid system in the island community. The attitude of islanders to the PV hybrid system was mostly positive. The islanders can use more electricity, the supply of which can meet the demand. A comparison of pollutions before and after installation of the PV hybrid system was made along with the interviews with the users. The data show that the users are highly satisfied with the PV hybrid system which can reduce environmental impact, especially air and noise pollutions. New opportunities as a result of access to electric service include studying and reading at night that were not possible earlier. All the islanders use the PV hybrid system and more importantly, no one found that the system made their life worse as compared to the earlier state of affairs. (author)

  8. Learning and Leaving: Education and Depopulation in an Island Community

    Gillies, Donald

    2014-01-01

    This paper probes the extent to which education can be identified as a factor in rural depopulation. The study focuses on the Scottish Hebridean island of Raasay which has seen significant population loss since census records began in 1841. In this study the post-school destinations of all pupils enrolled at Raasay School 1901-2000 have been…

  9. A multi-decade time series of kelp forest community structure at San Nicolas Island, California

    Lafferty, Kevin D.; Kenner, Michael C.; Estes, James A.; Tinker, M. Tim; Bodkin, James L.; Cowen, Robert K.; Harrold, Christopher; Novak, Mark; Rassweiler, Andrew; Reed, Daniel C.

    2013-01-01

    San Nicolas Island is surrounded by broad areas of shallow subtidal habitat, characterized by dynamic kelp forest communities that undergo dramatic and abrupt shifts in community composition. Although these reefs are fished, the physical isolation of the island means that they receive less impact from human activities than most reefs in Southern California, making San Nicolas an ideal place to evaluate alternative theories about the dynamics of these communities. Here we present monitoring data from seven sampling stations surrounding the island, including data on fish, invertebrate, and algal abundance. These data are unusual among subtidal monitoring data sets in that they combine relatively frequent sampling (twice per year) with an exceptionally long time series (since 1980). Other outstanding qualities of the data set are the high taxonomic resolution captured and the monitoring of permanent quadrats and swaths where the history of the community structure at specific locations has been recorded through time. Finally, the data span a period that includes two of the strongest ENSO events on record, a major shift in the Pacific decadal oscillation, and the reintroduction of sea otters to the island in 1987 after at least 150 years of absence. These events provide opportunities to evaluate the effects of bottom-up forcing, top-down control, and physical disturbance on shallow rocky reef communities.

  10. : Reiterating the boundary: community discourse in light of proposed technological change on Vinalhaven Island, Maine, USA

    Jessica E. Brophy

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This qualitative work is a case study of Vinalhaven, a small Maine island, and its negotiation of the intersection of technology use, space, place, and identity. Using a phenomenologically informed theoretical approach coupled with a version of Foucault’s archaeology of discourse (1972, 1994 as a method of analysis, the role of place and space is explored in the context of a bounded community’s public discussion about whether or not to build a cell phone tower on the island. In opposition to the oft-cited narrative of technology-as-connective-panacea, the discourse of the community surrounding the potential technology serves to complicate the community’s expression of its boundaries. If anything, the potential introduction of a new form of connectivity for the island community prompts a reaffirmation and re-articulation of the community’s boundaries, its sense of self, and its experience of isolation. The case study offers insight into approaches to the introduction of connective technologies and infrastructures in island communities, thus extending both place-based theories of technology and the depth of island studies.

  11. A Mosaic of Geothermal and Marine Features Shapes Microbial Community Structure on Deception Island Volcano, Antarctica

    Amanda G. Bendia; Camila N. Signori; Diego C. Franco; Rubens T. D. Duarte; Brendan J. M. Bohannan; Vivian H. Pellizari

    2018-01-01

    Active volcanoes in Antarctica contrast with their predominantly cold surroundings, resulting in environmental conditions capable of selecting for versatile and extremely diverse microbial communities. This is especially true on Deception Island, where geothermal, marine, and polar environments combine to create an extraordinary range of environmental conditions. Our main goal in this study was to understand how microbial community structure is shaped by gradients of temperature, salinity, an...

  12. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander community governance of health research: Turning principles into practice.

    Gwynn, Josephine; Lock, Mark; Turner, Nicole; Dennison, Ray; Coleman, Clare; Kelly, Brian; Wiggers, John

    2015-08-01

    Gaps exist in researchers' understanding of the 'practice' of community governance in relation to research with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples. We examine Aboriginal community governance of two rural NSW research projects by applying principles-based criteria from two independent sources. One research project possessed a strong Aboriginal community governance structure and evaluated a 2-year healthy lifestyle program for children; the other was a 5-year cohort study examining factors influencing the mental health and well-being of participants. The National Health and Medical Research Council of Australia's 'Values and ethics: guidelines for ethical conduct in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander research' and 'Ten principles relevant to health research among Indigenous Australian populations' described by experts in the field. Adopt community-based participatory research constructs. Develop clear governance structures and procedures at the beginning of the study and allow sufficient time for their establishment. Capacity-building must be a key component of the research. Ensure sufficient resources to enable community engagement, conduct of research governance procedures, capacity-building and results dissemination. The implementation of governance structures and procedures ensures research addresses the priorities of the participating Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities, minimises risks and improves outcomes for the communities. Principles-based Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander community governance of research is very achievable. Next steps include developing a comprehensive evidence base for appropriate governance structures and procedures, and consolidating a suite of practical guides for structuring clear governance in health research. © 2015 National Rural Health Alliance Inc.

  13. Colonization and community: the Vancouver Island coalfield and the making of the British Columbian working class

    Belshaw, J.D. [University College of the Cariboo, Kamloops, BC (Canada). Department of Philosophy, History, and Politics

    2002-07-01

    During the nineteenth century, coal miners from Europe, Asia, and eastern North America settled on Vancouver Island, British Columbia to mine coal deposits at Nanaimo, Wellington, and Cumberland. The factors that attracted British miners and their families, their expectations and ambitions, and their integration into mining communities are discussed. Working conditions, household wages, racism, industrial organization, gender, schooling, leisure, and community building and identity are considered.

  14. Mathematics Funds of Knowledge: "Sotmaute" and "Sermaute" Fish in a Torres Strait Islander Community

    Ewing, Bronwyn

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe a project with one Torres Strait Islander Community. It provides some insights into parents' funds of knowledge that are mathematical in nature, such as sorting shells and giving fish. The idea of funds of knowledge is based on the premise that people are competent and have knowledge that has been…

  15. Prokaryotic communities and operating metabolisms in the surface and the permafrost of Deception Island (Antarctica)

    Blanco, Yolanda; Prieto-Ballesteros, Olga; Gómez, Manuel J.; Moreno-Paz, Mercedes; García-Villadangos, Miriam; Rodríguez-Manfredi, José Antonio; Cruz-Gil, Patricia; Sánchez-Román, Mónica; Rivas, Luis A.; Parro, Victor

    In this study we examined the microbial community composition and operating metabolisms on the surface and in the permafrost of Deception Island, (Antarctica) with an on site antibody microarray biosensor. Samples (down to a depth of 4.2m) were analysed with LDChip300 (Life Detector Chip), an

  16. Geothermal power development in Hawaii. Volume II. Infrastructure and community-services requirements, Island of Hawaii

    Chapman, G.A.; Buevens, W.R.

    1982-06-01

    The requirements of infrastructure and community services necessary to accommodate the development of geothermal energy on the Island of Hawaii for electricity production are identified. The following aspects are covered: Puna District-1981, labor resources, geothermal development scenarios, geothermal land use, the impact of geothermal development on Puna, labor resource requirments, and the requirements for government activity.

  17. Climate change effects on soil arthropod communities from the Falkland Islands and the maritime Antartic.

    Bokhorst, S.F.; Huiskes, A.; Convey, P.; van Bodegom, P.M.; Aerts, R.

    2008-01-01

    Over a 2-year study, we investigated the effect of environmental change on the diversity and abundance of soil arthropod communities (Acari and Collembola) in the Maritime Antarctic and the Falkland Islands. Open Top Chambers (OTCs), as used extensively in the framework of the northern boreal

  18. Species interactions during diversification and community assembly in an island radiation of shrews.

    Jacob A Esselstyn

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Closely related, ecologically similar species often have adjacent distributions, suggesting competitive exclusion may contribute to the structure of some natural communities. In systems such as island archipelagos, where speciation is often tightly associated with dispersal over oceanic barriers, competitive exclusion may prevent population establishment following inter-island dispersal and subsequent cladogenesis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using a combination of tools, we test the hypothesis that the distributions of shrew (Crocidura species in the Philippines are the result of competitive exclusion preventing secondary invasion of occupied islands. We first compare ecological niche models between two widespread, allopatric species and find statistical support for their ecological similarity, implying that competition for habitat between these species is possible. We then examine dispersion patterns among sympatric species and find some signal for overdispersion of body size, but not for phylogenetic branch length. Finally, we simulate the process of inter-island colonization under a stochastic model of dispersal lacking ecological forces. Results are dependent on the geographic scope and colonization probability employed. However, some combinations suggest that the number of inter-island dispersal events necessary to populate the archipelago may be much higher than the minimum number of colonization events necessary to explain current estimates of species richness and phylogenetic relationships. If our model is appropriate, these results imply that alternative factors, such as competitive exclusion, may have influenced the process of inter-island colonization and subsequent cladogenesis. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We interpret the combined results as providing tenuous evidence that similarity in body size may prevent co-occurrence in Philippine shrews and that competitive exclusion among ecologically similar species, rather

  19. Phenological Characterization of Desert Sky Island Vegetation Communities with Remotely Sensed and Climate Time Series Data

    Stuart E. Marsh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Climate change and variability are expected to impact the synchronicity and interactions between the Sonoran Desert and the forested sky islands which represent steep biological and environmental gradients. The main objectives were to examine how well satellite greenness time series data and derived phenological metrics (e.g., season start, peak greenness can characterize specific vegetation communities across an elevation gradient, and to examine the interactions between climate and phenological metrics for each vegetation community. We found that representative vegetation types (11, varying between desert scrub, mesquite, grassland, mixed oak, juniper and pine, often had unique seasonal and interannual phenological trajectories and spatial patterns. Satellite derived land surface phenometrics (11 for each of the vegetation communities along the cline showed numerous distinct significant relationships in response to temperature (4 and precipitation (7 metrics. Satellite-derived sky island vegetation phenology can help assess and monitor vegetation dynamics and provide unique indicators of climate variability and patterns of change.

  20. Appropriate health promotion for Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities: crucial for closing the gap.

    Demaio, Alessandro; Drysdale, Marlene; de Courten, Maximilian

    2012-06-01

    Health promotion for Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities and their people has generally had limited efficacy and poor sustainability. It has largely failed to recognise and appreciate the importance of local cultures and continues to have minimal emphasis on capacity building, community empowerment and local ownership. Culturally Appropriate Health Promotion is a framework of principles developed in 2008 with the World Health Organization and the Global Alliance for Health Promotion. It serves as a guide for community-focused health promotion practice to be built on and shaped by the respect for understanding and utilisation of local knowledge and culture. Culturally Appropriate Health Promotion is not about targeting, intervening or responding. Rather, it encourages health programme planners and policymakers to have a greater understanding, respect, a sense of empowerment and collaboration with communities, and their sociocultural environment to improve health. This commentary aims to examine and apply the eight principles of Culturally Appropriate Health Promotion to the Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander context. It proposes a widespread adoption of the framework for a more respectful, collaborative, locally suitable and therefore appropriate approach to Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health promotion.

  1. Community Participation Of Coastal Area On Management Of National Park, Karimunjawa Island

    Wibowo, Bambang A.; Aditomo, Aryo B.; Prihantoko, Kukuh E.

    2018-02-01

    Karimunjawa island located in Jepara Regacy, Central Java has potential marine and fishing resources. Since 1998, this area has been selected as conservation for its natural resources. National park of Karimunjawa is managed by Balai Taman Nasional Karimunjawa (Karimunjawa National Park Beuroue). Some activities involved community have been done in order to get effective management. Community participation is an important component for success in coastal area management. The level of community/people awareness anual on natural resource conservation can increate sustainable resource. However, it is necesssary to provide tools in resource utilization for the community, so that their economic life can be secured. This study observe the level of community participation in the effort of Karimunjawa National Park management. Descriptive method and purposive random sampling were used to carry out the study parameters observed in this study include community participation related to level of knowladge and obedience on the rule of area zonation, an its impact to community. The result show that community knowledge was quite high (40%) with obedience (56%) on the rule of area zonation. Impact area zonation rule was less significant to community. The level of community participation to Karimunjawa National Park management was performed will low to medium level.

  2. The helminth community of the skink Chalcides sexlineatus from Gran Canaria (Canary Islands).

    Roca, V; Carretero, M A; Jorge, F; Perera, A; Ferrero, A; Rodríguez-Reina, S

    2012-06-01

    A survey of the gastrointestinal helminth communities of a population of Chalcides sexlineatus Steindachner, a small skink endemic to Gran Canaria island (Canary Archipelago, Spain), was conducted to determine the prevalence, abundance and species diversity of intestinal parasites in these reptiles. Only three parasite species were found, one cestode, Oochoristica agamae Baylis, 1919 and two nematodes, Parapharyngodon micipsae (Seurat, 1917) and Pharyngodonidae gen. sp. Helminth infracommunities of C. sexlineatus showed low values of abundance and species richness and diversity, being more similar to the helminth community of Tarentola boettgeri boettgeri (Steindachner) rather than those of Gallotia stehlini (Schenkel), both syntopic with the sampled host.

  3. Macrobenthic community response to copper in Shelter Island Yacht Basin, San Diego Bay, California.

    Neira, Carlos; Mendoza, Guillermo; Levin, Lisa A; Zirino, Alberto; Delgadillo-Hinojosa, Francisco; Porrachia, Magali; Deheyn, Dimitri D

    2011-04-01

    We examined Cu contamination effects on macrobenthic communities and Cu concentration in invertebrates within Shelter Island Yacht Basin, San Diego Bay, California. Results indicate that at some sites, Cu in sediment has exceeded a threshold for "self defense" mechanisms and highlight the potential negative impacts on benthic faunal communities where Cu accumulates and persists in sediments. At sites with elevated Cu levels in sediment, macrobenthic communities were not only less diverse but also their total biomass and body size (individual biomass) were reduced compared to sites with lower Cu. Cu concentration in tissue varied between species and within the same species, reflecting differing abilities to "regulate" their body load. The spatial complexity of Cu effects in a small marina such as SIYB emphasizes that sediment-quality criteria based solely on laboratory experiments should be used with caution, as they do not necessarily reflect the condition at the community and ecosystem levels. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Perceptions about interventions to control schistosomiasis among the Lake Victoria island communities of Koome, Uganda.

    Richard E Sanya

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Praziquantel-based mass treatment is the main approach to controlling schistosomiasis mansoni in endemic areas. Interventions such as provision and use of safe water, minimising contact with infested water, disposal of stool in latrines and snail control provide key avenues to break the transmission cycle and can sustain the benefits of mass treatment in the long term. Efforts are also being made to develop a schistosomiasis vaccine which, if effective, might reduce the incidence of re-infection after treatment. However, any interventions deployed need to be acceptable to, and sustainable by, the target communities.In this qualitative study, we investigated the perceptions of six Lake Victoria island communities of Koome, Uganda, about interventions to control Schistosoma mansoni infection and their willingness to participate in Schistosoma vaccine trials. Thirty-two in-depth interviews, 12 key informant interviews and 10 focus group discussions were conducted. Data were analysed using a thematic content approach.Intestinal schistosomiasis was not regarded as a serious health problem because a mass treatment programme is in place. However, the communities lack safe water sources and latrines. Mass treatment with praziquantel, safe water supplies and use of toilets were deemed the most acceptable interventions by the participants. The communities are willing to participate in Schistosoma vaccine trials.Knowledge of a community's perception about interventions to control schistosomiasis can be valuable to policy makers and programme implementers intending to set up interventions co-managed by the community members. In this study, the views of the Lake Victoria island communities of Koome are presented. This study also provides data to guide further work on alternative interventions such as Schistosoma vaccine trials in these communities.

  5. Perceptions about interventions to control schistosomiasis among the Lake Victoria island communities of Koome, Uganda.

    Sanya, Richard E; Tumwesige, Edward; Elliott, Alison M; Seeley, Janet

    2017-10-01

    Praziquantel-based mass treatment is the main approach to controlling schistosomiasis mansoni in endemic areas. Interventions such as provision and use of safe water, minimising contact with infested water, disposal of stool in latrines and snail control provide key avenues to break the transmission cycle and can sustain the benefits of mass treatment in the long term. Efforts are also being made to develop a schistosomiasis vaccine which, if effective, might reduce the incidence of re-infection after treatment. However, any interventions deployed need to be acceptable to, and sustainable by, the target communities. In this qualitative study, we investigated the perceptions of six Lake Victoria island communities of Koome, Uganda, about interventions to control Schistosoma mansoni infection and their willingness to participate in Schistosoma vaccine trials. Thirty-two in-depth interviews, 12 key informant interviews and 10 focus group discussions were conducted. Data were analysed using a thematic content approach. Intestinal schistosomiasis was not regarded as a serious health problem because a mass treatment programme is in place. However, the communities lack safe water sources and latrines. Mass treatment with praziquantel, safe water supplies and use of toilets were deemed the most acceptable interventions by the participants. The communities are willing to participate in Schistosoma vaccine trials. Knowledge of a community's perception about interventions to control schistosomiasis can be valuable to policy makers and programme implementers intending to set up interventions co-managed by the community members. In this study, the views of the Lake Victoria island communities of Koome are presented. This study also provides data to guide further work on alternative interventions such as Schistosoma vaccine trials in these communities.

  6. Nuclear accident at Three Mile Island: its effect on a local community

    Behler, G.T. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    This dissertation consists of a longitudinal case study of the extent to which the structure of community power in Riverside, (a pseudonym) Pennsylvania (the largest community located within five miles of the Three Mile Island nuclear facility) changed as a result of the March, 1979 accident. The investigation centers around testing a basic working hypothesis. Simply stated, this working hypothesis argues that Riverside's power structure has become more pluralistic in response to the Three Mile Island nuclear accident. An additional corollary to this working hypothesis is also tested. This corollary asserts that many of Riverside's community power actors have become much more cosmopolitan in their political-action tactics and problem-solving orientations as a results of the TMI crisis. The aforementioned working hypothesis and associated corollary are tested via the combined utilization of three different techniques for measuring the distribution of social power. The findings of the study clearly demonstrate the existence of increased pluralism, politicization, and cosmopolitanism within Riverside since March of 1979. Furthermore, these research results, and the entire dissertation itself, contribute to a number of subfields within the discipline of sociology. In particular,contributions are noted for the subfields of community power, social movements, and disaster research

  7. Local Community Advocacy for the Thirty Meter Telescope on the Big Island of Hawai’i

    Currie, Thayne; Ha, Richard; Imai-Hong, Amber; Silva, Jasmin; Stark, Chris; Naea Stevens, Dashiel

    2018-01-01

    The Thirty Meter Telescope project is a next-generation ground-based optical/infrared telescope planned for construction on Mauna Kea. It is also a prominent social issue in Hawai’i, touching upon a wide range of island-specific issues, including economic/educational opportunities and justice, Hawaii’s long and proud history of astronomy/navigation, the cultural significance of Mauna Kea to some Hawaiians, and Hawaiian sovereignty. In this talk, we describe local community outreach carried out by Hawai’i island resident members of our group, Yes2TMT, and also by the pro-TMT Hawaiian group P.U.E.O based in Hilo. We have cultivated a substantial social media community and persistent on-the-ground advocacy that addresses the many misconceptions about TMT while providing an outlet for concerns from our neighbors. Since early 2016 and thanks to the efforts of many on Hawai’i, support for TMT has increased, especially from the Hawaiian community: the project is now favored by at least 70% of Hawaii’s residents. Our goal is to help bring TMT to Hawai’i under conditions deemed acceptable by the vast majority of the local community.

  8. The Impact of State Intervention on Social Capital of Fishermen Community in Small Islands

    Sakaria J Anwar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to discuss the impact of state intervention on social capital of fishermen community in small islands. The research was conducted in Barrang Lompo Island, Makassar. The data was collected through in-depth interview and limited observation from twelve informants determined by snowball sampling. Questionnaires were also spread to about 40 respondents. The data was then analyzed qualitatively to explain research’s data and facts. The results of the research show that state intervention for the last ten years on small islands communities has impact on various aspects such as the diminishing loyalty and trust among locals to the government. Therefore, the intervention reduce the community’s participation, individually and collectively, in development activities. The situation, in turn, could affect the diminishing political capacity of the locals and government in the implementation of development in the islands. The state intervention, however, strengthened social solidarity, local value practices and the enthusiasm to understand religious values which in turn could tighten the internal bond of a community. This bond can become a potential strength to build communities in small islands. Tulisan ini bertujuan untuk mendiskusikan dampak intervensi negara pada kapital sosial komunitas nelayan di pulau-pulau kecil. Penelitian ini dilakukan di Pulau Barrang Lompo, Makassar. Pengumpulan data dilakukan melalui wawancara mendalam dan observasi terbatas dari dua belas informan ditentukan oleh snowball sampling. Kuesioner juga menyebar ke 40 responden. Data tersebut kemudian dianalisis secara kualitatif untuk menjelaskan data penelitian dan fakta. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa intervensi negara selama sepuluh tahun terakhir pada masyarakat pulau-pulau kecil memiliki dampak pada berbagai aspek seperti, mengurangi loyalitas dan kepercayaan di antara penduduk setempat kepada pemerintah. Oleh karena itu, partisipasi mereka, secara

  9. Local and regional effects on community structure of dung beetles in a mainland-island scenario.

    Pedro Giovâni da Silva

    Full Text Available Understanding the ecological mechanisms driving beta diversity is a major goal of community ecology. Metacommunity theory brings new ways of thinking about the structure of local communities, including processes occurring at different spatial scales. In addition to new theories, new methods have been developed which allow the partitioning of individual and shared contributions of environmental and spatial effects, as well as identification of species and sites that have importance in the generation of beta diversity along ecological gradients. We analyzed the spatial distribution of dung beetle communities in areas of Atlantic Forest in a mainland-island scenario in southern Brazil, with the objective of identifying the mechanisms driving composition, abundance and biomass at three spatial scales (mainland-island, areas and sites. We sampled 20 sites across four large areas, two on the mainland and two on the island. The distribution of our sampling sites was hierarchical and areas are isolated. We used standardized protocols to assess environmental heterogeneity and sample dung beetles. We used spatial eigenfunctions analysis to generate the spatial patterns of sampling points. Environmental heterogeneity showed strong variation among sites and a mild increase with increasing spatial scale. The analysis of diversity partitioning showed an increase in beta diversity with increasing spatial scale. Variation partitioning based on environmental and spatial variables suggests that environmental heterogeneity is the most important driver of beta diversity at the local scale. The spatial effects were significant only at larger spatial scales. Our study presents a case where environmental heterogeneity seems to be the main factor structuring communities at smaller scales, while spatial effects are more important at larger scales. The increase in beta diversity that occurs at larger scales seems to be the result of limitation in species dispersal

  10. Invaders of pollination networks in the Galápagos Islands: emergence of novel communities

    Travset, A.; Heleno, R.; Chamorro, S.

    2013-01-01

    The unique biodiversity of most oceanic archipelagos is currently threatened by the introduction of alien species that can displace native biota, disrupt native ecological interactions, and profoundly affect community structure and stability. We investigated the threat of aliens on pollination...... networks in the species-rich lowlands of five Gala´pagos Islands. Twenty per cent of all species (60 plants and 220 pollinators) in the pooled network were aliens, being involved in 38 per cent of the interactions. Most aliens were insects, especially dipterans (36%), hymenopterans (30%) and lepidopterans...... (14%). These alien insects had more links than either endemic pollinators or non-endemic natives, some even acting as island hubs. Aliens linked mostly to generalized species, increasing nestedness and thus network stability. Moreover, they infiltrated all seven connected modules (determined...

  11. Colonization and Community: the Vancouver Island coalfield and the making of the British Columbian working class

    John Douglas Belshaw [University College of the Cariboo, Kamloops, BC (Canada). Department of Philosophy, History, and Politics

    2002-04-01

    In the nineteenth century coal-miners imported from Europe, Asia, and eastern North America burrowed beneath the Vancouver Island towns of Nanaimo, Wellington, and Cumberland. The book looks at British Columbia's first working class, the men, women, and children beneath and beyond the pit-head. Beginning with an exploration of emigrant expectations and ambitions, it investigates working conditions, household wages, racism, industrial organization, gender, schooling, leisure, community building, and the fluid identity of the British mining colony, the archetypal west coast proletariat. By connecting the story of Vancouver Island to the larger story of Victorian industrialization, the author delineates what was distinctive and what was common about the lot of the settler society.

  12. Community perceptions of mental health needs: a qualitative study in the Solomon Islands

    Silove Derrick

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Psychosocial and mental health needs in the aftermath of conflict and disaster have attracted substantial attention. In the Solomon Islands, the conceptualisation of mental health, for several decades regarded by policy makers as primarily a health issue, has broadened and been incorporated into the national development and social policy agendas, reflecting recognition of the impact of conflict and rapid social change on the psychosocial wellbeing of the community as a whole. We sought to understand how mental health and psychosocial wellbeing were seen at the community level, the extent to which these issues were identified as being associated with periods of 'tension', violence and instability, and the availability of traditional approaches and Ministry of Health services to address these problems. Methods This article reports the findings of qualitative research conducted in a rural district on the island of Guadalcanal in the Solomon Islands. Key informant interviews were conducted with community leaders, and focus groups were held with women, men and young people. Wellbeing was defined broadly. Results Problems of common concern included excessive alcohol and marijuana use, interpersonal violence and abuse, teenage pregnancy, and lack of respect and cooperation. Troubled individuals and their families sought help for mental problems from various sources including chiefs, church leaders and traditional healers and, less often, trauma support workers, health clinic staff and police. Substance-related problems presented special challenges, as there were no traditional solutions at the individual or community level. Severe mental illness was also a challenge, with few aware that a community mental health service existed. Contrary to our expectations, conflict-related trauma was not identified as a major problem by the community who were more concerned about the economic and social sequelae of the conflict. Conclusion

  13. Appropriate Health Promotion for Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Communities

    Demaio, Alessandro Rhyll; Drysdale, Marlene; de Courten, Maximilian

    2012-01-01

    building, community empowerment and local ownership. Culturally-Appropriate Health Promotion is a framework of principles developed in 2008 with the World Health Organization (Geneva) and Global Alliance for Health Promotion. It guides community-focused health promotion practice built on and shaped...... by the respect, understanding and utilisation of local knowledge and culture. Culturally-Appropriate Health Promotion is not about ‘targeting’, ‘intervening’ or ‘responding’. Rather, it results in health program planners and policy-makers understanding, respecting, empowering and collaborating with communities......, and their socio-cultural environment, towards better health. This commentary aims to examine and apply the 8 principles of Culturally-Appropriate Health Promotion to the Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander context. It proposes its widespread adoption as a framework for a more respectful...

  14. Maximizing effectiveness of adaptation action in Pacific Island communities using coastal wave attenuation models

    Jung, H.; Carruthers, T.; Allison, M. A.; Weathers, D.; Moss, L.; Timmermans, H.

    2017-12-01

    Pacific Island communities are highly vulnerable to the effects of climate change, specifically accelerating rates of sea level rise, changes to storm intensity and associated rainfall patterns resulting in flooding and shoreline erosion. Nature-based adaptation is being planned not only to reduce the risk from shoreline erosion, but also to support benefits of a healthy ecosystem (e.g., supporting fisheries or coral reefs). In order to assess potential effectiveness of the nature-based actions to dissipate wave energy, two-dimensional X-Beach models were developed to predict the wave attenuation effect of coastal adaptation actions at the pilot sites—the villages of Naselesele and Somosomo on Taveuni island, Fiji. Both sites are experiencing serious shoreline erosion due to sea level rise and storm wave. The water depth (single-beam bathymetry), land elevation (truck-based LiDAR), and vegetation data including stem density and height were collected in both locations in a June 2017 field experiment. Wave height and water velocity were also measured for the model setup and calibration using a series of bottom-mounted instruments deployed in the 0-15 m water depth portions of the study grid. The calibrated model will be used to evaluate a range of possible adaptation actions identified by the community members of Naselesele and Somosomo. Particularly, multiple storm scenario runs with management-relevant shoreline restoration/adaptation options will be implemented to evaluate efficiencies of each adaptation action (e.g., no action, with additional planted trees, with sand mining, with seawalls constructed with natural materials, etc.). These model results will help to better understand how proposed adaption actions may influence future shoreline change and maximize benefits to communities in island nations across the SW Pacific.

  15. A Mosaic of Geothermal and Marine Features Shapes Microbial Community Structure on Deception Island Volcano, Antarctica

    Amanda G. Bendia

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Active volcanoes in Antarctica contrast with their predominantly cold surroundings, resulting in environmental conditions capable of selecting for versatile and extremely diverse microbial communities. This is especially true on Deception Island, where geothermal, marine, and polar environments combine to create an extraordinary range of environmental conditions. Our main goal in this study was to understand how microbial community structure is shaped by gradients of temperature, salinity, and geochemistry in polar marine volcanoes. Thereby, we collected surface sediment samples associated with fumaroles and glaciers at two sites on Deception, with temperatures ranging from 0 to 98°C. Sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene was performed to assess the composition and diversity of Bacteria and Archaea. Our results revealed that Deception harbors a combination of taxonomic groups commonly found both in cold and geothermal environments of continental Antarctica, and also groups normally identified at deep and shallow-sea hydrothermal vents, such as hyperthermophilic archaea. We observed a clear separation in microbial community structure across environmental gradients, suggesting that microbial community structure is strongly niche driven on Deception. Bacterial community structure was significantly associated with temperature, pH, salinity, and chemical composition; in contrast, archaeal community structure was strongly associated only with temperature. Our work suggests that Deception represents a peculiar “open-air” laboratory to elucidate central questions regarding molecular adaptability, microbial evolution, and biogeography of extremophiles in polar regions.

  16. Performance Results for Massachusetts and Rhode Island Deep Energy Retrofit Pilot Community

    Gates, C. [Building Science Corporation, Somerville, MA (United States); Neuhauser, K. [Building Science Corporation, Somerville, MA (United States)

    2014-03-01

    Between December, 2009 and December, 2012, 42 deep energy retrofit (DER) projects were completed through a pilot program sponsored by National Grid and conducted in Massachusetts and Rhode Island. Thirty-seven of these projects were comprehensive retrofits while five were partial DERs, meaning that high performance retrofit was implemented for a single major enclosure component or a limited number of major enclosure components. Building Science Corporation developed a consistent "package" of measures in terms of the performance targeted for major building components. Based on the community experience, this DER package is expected to result in yearly source energy use near 110 MMBtu/year or approximately 40% below the Northeast regional average.

  17. [Fish community structure and its seasonal change in subtidal sandy beach habitat off southern Gouqi Island].

    Wang, Zhen-Hua; Wang, Kai; Zhao, Jing; Zhang, Shou-Yu

    2011-05-01

    To understand the characteristics of fish community structure in sandy beach habitats of island reef water areas, and to evaluate the potential capacity of these habitats in local fish stock maintenance, fishes were monthly collected with multi-mesh trammel nets in 2009 from the subtidal sandy beach habitat off southern Gouqi Island, taking the adjacent rocky reef habitat as the control. alpha and beta species diversity indices, index of relative importance (IRI), relative catch rate, and dominance curve for abundance and biomass (ABC curve) were adopted to compare the fish species composition, diversity, and community pattern between the two habitats, and multivariate statistical analyses such as non-metric multidimensional scaling (nMDS) and cluster were conducted to discuss the fish assemblage patterns. A total of 63 fish species belonging to 11 orders, 38 families, and 56 genera were collected, of which, 46 fish species were appeared in the two habitats. Due to the appearance of more warm water species in sandy bottom, the fishes in subtidal sandy beach habitat showed much higher richness, and the abundance catch rate (ACR) from May to July was higher than that in rocky reef habitat. In most rest months, the ACR in subtidal sandy beach habitat also showed the similar trend. However, the species richness and diversity in spring and summer were significantly lower in subtidal sandy beach habitat than in rocky reef habitat, because of the high species dominance and low evenness in the sandy beach habitat. Japanese tonguefish (Paraplagusia japonica) was the indicator species in the sandy beach habitat, and dominated in early spring, later summer, autumn, and winter when the fishing pressure was not strong. In sandy bottom, a unique community structure was formed and kept in dynamic, due to the nursery use of sandy beach by Japanese anchovy (Engraulis japonicus) from May to July, the gathering of gray mullet (Mugil cephalus) in most months for feeding, and the large

  18. A cultural landscape approach to community-based conservation in Solomon Islands

    Richard K. Walter

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available International environmental organizations have an increasing commitment to the development of conservation programs in high-diversity regions where indigenous communities maintain customary rights to their lands and seas. A major challenge that these programs face is the alignment of international conservation values with those of the indigenous communities whose cooperation and support are vital. International environmental organizations are focused on biodiversity conservation, but local communities often have a different range of concerns and interests, only some of which relate to biodiversity. One solution to this problem involves adoption of a cultural landscape approach as the ethical and organizational foundation of the conservation program. In our conservation work in coastal Melanesia, we have developed a cultural landscape approach that involves the construction of a conceptual model of environment that reflects the indigenous perceptions of landscape. This model incorporates cultural, ideational, and spiritual values alongside other ecosystem services and underpins the conservation activities, priorities, and organizational structure of our programs. This cultural landscape model was a reaction to a survey of environmental values conducted by our team in which Solomon Islanders reported far greater interest in conserving cultural heritage sites than any other ecosystem resources. This caused a radical rethinking of community-based conservation programs. The methodologies we adopted are derived from the fields of archaeology and historical anthropology, in which there is an established practice of working through research problems within the framework of indigenous concepts of, and relationship to, landscape. In our work in Isabel Province, Solomon Islands, coastal communities have enthusiastically adopted conservation programs that are based on cultural landscape models that recognize indigenous values. A particularly useful tool is

  19. Empowering Local Communities through Tourism Entrepreneurship: The Case of Micro Tourism Entrepreneurs in Langkawi Island

    Nordin Aleff Omar Shah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The tourism sector has a huge effect in developing countries by providing immense economic opportunities to the local community. Entrepreneurship has been identified as essential actors for creating job opportunities, generating income, increasing standard of living and generally growing the economy. Using the random sampling approach, the questionnaires were distributed to the tourism entrepreneurs in the tourism attraction area in Langkawi Island. During the survey period, only a total of 263 entrepreneurs completed the questionnaires. The objective of this study is to explore the economic empowerment of the tourism entrepreneurship in contributing to income level, creating job opportunities and increasing standard of living. The findings of the study clearly show that the tourism entrepreneur activities contribute positively to income level, jobs, opportunities and standard of living of the local community.

  20. Distribution and interaction patterns of bacterial communities in an ornithogenic soil of Seymour Island, Antarctica.

    Rampelotto, Pabulo Henrique; Barboza, Anthony Diego Muller; Pereira, Antônio Batista; Triplett, Eric W; Schaefer, Carlos Ernesto G R; de Oliveira Camargo, Flávio Anastácio; Roesch, Luiz Fernando Wurdig

    2015-04-01

    Next-generation, culture-independent sequencing offers an excellent opportunity to examine network interactions among different microbial species. In this study, soil bacterial communities from a penguin rookery site at Seymour Island were analyzed for abundance, structure, diversity, and interaction networks to identify interaction patterns among the various taxa at three soil depths. The analysis revealed the presence of eight phyla distributed in different proportions among the surface layer (0-8 cm), middle layer (20-25 cm), and bottom (35-40 cm). The bottom layer presented the highest values of bacterial richness, diversity, and evenness when compared to surface and middle layers. The network analysis revealed the existence of a unique pattern of interactions in which the soil microbial network formed a clustered topology, rather than a modular structure as is usually found in biological communities. In addition, specific taxa were identified as important players in microbial community structure. Furthermore, simulation analyses indicated that the loss of potential keystone groups of microorganisms might alter the patterns of interactions within the microbial community. These findings provide new insights for assessing the consequences of environmental disturbances at the whole-community level in Antarctica.

  1. Differential paths to activism: a study of social movement organizations in Three Mile Island communities

    Cable, S.M.

    1985-01-01

    This project compares political activists from four community protest organizations in Three Mile Island (TMI) communities that were formed as a response of the March 1979 accident at the TMI nuclear power plant. These organizations constituted four separate groups of activists concerned with the same set of grievances. The purpose of the study was to compare the activists across groups to assess differential paths to activism. The data were gathered over a three-year period from March 1979 to March 1982 and included monthly newsletters published by the organizations, newspaper accounts of relevant events; and a systematic survey of 149 of the most active participants. The thesis of differential paths to activism was supported by the data; two relatively distinct paths were found to dominate the TMI communities. In the path that dominated in communities within five miles of the plant, activists tended to be older, more conservative, and less ideologically inclined to protest prior to the accident. In the path to activism that dominated in communities further from the plant site, activists tended to be younger, more liberal, and more experienced in protests

  2. Community Structure Of Coral Reefs In Saebus Island, Sumenep District, East Java

    Rizmaadi, Mada; Riter, Johannes; Fatimah, Siti; Rifaldi, Riyan; Yoga, Arditho; Ramadhan, Fikri; Ambariyanto, Ambariyanto

    2018-02-01

    Increasing degradation coral reefs ecosystem has created many concerns. Reduction of this damage can only be done with good and proper management of coral reef ecosystem based on existing condition. The condition of coral reef ecosystem can be determined by assessing its community structure. This study investigates community structure of coral reef ecosystems around Saebus Island, Sumenep District, East Java, by using satellite imagery analysis and field observations. Satellite imagery analysis by Lyzenga methods was used to determine the observation stations and substrate distribution. Field observations were done by using Line Intercept Transect method at 4 stations, at the depth of 3 and 10 meters. The results showed that the percentage of coral reef coverage at the depth of 3 and 10 meters were 64.36% and 59.29%, respectively, and included in fine coverage category. This study found in total 25 genera from 13 families of corals at all stations. The most common species found were Acropora, Porites, and Pocillopora, while the least common species were Favites and Montastrea. Average value of Diversity, Uniformity and Dominancy indices were 2.94, 0.8 and 0.18 which include as medium, high, and low category, respectively. These results suggest that coral reef ecosystems around Saebus Island is in a good condition.

  3. The effect of environmental change on vascular plant and cryptogam communities from the Falkland Islands and the Maritime Antarctic

    Convey Peter

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Antarctic terrestrial vegetation is subject to one of the most extreme climates on Earth. Currently, parts of Antarctica are one of the fastest warming regions on the planet. During 3 growing seasons, we investigated the effect of experimental warming on the diversity and abundance of coastal plant communities in the Maritime Antarctic region (cryptogams only and the Falkland Islands (vascular plants only. We compared communities from the Falkland Islands (51°S, mean annual temperature 7.9°C, with those of Signy Island (60°S, -2.1°C and Anchorage Island (67°S, -2.6°C, and experimental temperature manipulations at each of the three islands using Open Top Chambers (OTCs. Results Despite the strong difference in plant growth form dominance between the Falkland Islands and the Maritime Antarctic, communities across the gradient did not differ in total diversity and species number. During the summer months, the experimental temperature increase at 5 cm height in the vegetation was similar between the locations (0.7°C across the study. In general, the response to this experimental warming was low. Total lichen cover showed a non-significant decreasing trend at Signy Island (p Conclusion These results suggest that small temperature increases may rapidly lead to decreased soil moisture, resulting in more stressful conditions for plants. The more open plant communities (grass and lichen appeared more negatively affected by such changes than dense communities (dwarf shrub and moss.

  4. Inter- and Intraspecific Variations of Bacterial Communities Associated with Marine Sponges from San Juan Island, Washington

    Lee, O. O.

    2009-04-10

    This study attempted to assess whether conspecific or congeneric sponges around San Juan Island, Washington, harbor specific bacterial communities. We used a combination of culture-independent DNA fingerprinting techniques (terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis [DGGE]) and culture-dependent approaches. The results indicated that the bacterial communities in the water column consisted of more diverse bacterial ribotypes than and were drastically different from those associated with the sponges. High levels of similarity in sponge-associated bacterial communities were found only in Myxilla incrustans and Haliclona rufescens, while the bacterial communities in Halichondria panicea varied substantially among sites. Certain terminal restriction fragments or DGGE bands were consistently obtained for different individuals of M. incrustans and H. rufescens collected from different sites, suggesting that there are stable or even specific associations of certain bacteria in these two sponges. However, no specific bacterial associations were found for H. panicea or for any one sponge genus. Sequencing of nine DGGE bands resulted in recovery of seven sequences that best matched the sequences of uncultured Proteobacteria. Three of these sequences fell into the sponge-specific sequence clusters previously suggested. An uncultured alphaproteobacterium and a culturable Bacillus sp. were found exclusively in all M. incrustans sponges, while an uncultured gammaproteobacterium was unique to H. rufescens. In contrast, the cultivation approach indicated that sponges contained a large proportion of Firmicutes, especially Bacillus, and revealed large variations in the culturable bacterial communities associated with congeneric and conspecific sponges. This study revealed sponge species-specific but not genus- or site-specific associations between sponges and bacterial communities and emphasized the importance of using a combination

  5. Changes in vegetation and biological soil crust communities on sand dunes stabilizing after a century of grazing on San Miguel Island, Channel Island National Park, California

    Zellman, Kristine L.

    2014-01-01

    San Miguel Island is the westernmost of the California Channel Islands and one of the windiest areas on the west coast of North America. The majority of the island is covered by coastal sand dunes, which were stripped of vegetation and subsequently mobilized due to droughts and sheep ranching during the late 19th century and early 20th century. Since the removal of grazing animals, vegetation and biological soil crusts have once again stabilized many of the island's dunes. In this study, historical aerial photographs and field surveys were used to develop a chronosequence of the pattern of change in vegetation communities and biological soil crust levels of development (LOD) along a gradient of dune stabilization. Historical aerial photographs from 1929, 1954, 1977, and 2009 were georeferenced and used to delineate changes in vegetation canopy cover and active (unvegetated) dune extent among 5 historical periods (pre-1929, 1929–1954, 1954–1977, 1977–2009, and 2009–2011). During fieldwork, vegetation and biological soil crust communities were mapped along transects distributed throughout San Miguel Island's central dune field on land forms that had stabilized during the 5 time periods of interest. Analyses in a geographic information system (GIS) quantified the pattern of changes that vegetation and biological soil crust communities have exhibited on the San Miguel Island dunes over the past 80 years. Results revealed that a continuing increase in total vegetation cover and a complex pattern of change in vegetation communities have taken place on the San Miguel Island dunes since the removal of grazing animals. The highly specialized native vascular vegetation (sea rocket, dunedelion, beach-bur, and locoweed) are the pioneer stabilizers of the dunes. This pioneer community is replaced in later stages by communities that are dominated by native shrubs (coastal goldenbush, silver lupine, coyote-brush, and giant coreopsis), with apparently overlapping or

  6. Amphidromy links a newly documented fish community of continental Australian streams, to oceanic islands of the west Pacific.

    Paul A Thuesen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Indo-Pacific high island streams experience extreme hydrological variation, and are characterised by freshwater fish species with an amphidromous life history. Amphidromy is a likely adaptation for colonisation of island streams following stochastic events that lead to local extirpation. In the Wet Tropics of north-eastern Australia, steep coastal mountain streams share similar physical characteristics to island systems. These streams are poorly surveyed, but may provide suitable habitat for amphidromous species. However, due to their ephemeral nature, common non-diadromous freshwater species of continental Australia are unlikely to persist. Consequently, we hypothesise that coastal Wet Tropics streams are faunally more similar, to distant Pacific island communities, than to nearby faunas of large continental rivers. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Surveys of coastal Wet Tropics streams recorded 26 species, 10 of which are first records for Australia, with three species undescribed. This fish community is unique in an Australian context in that it contains mostly amphidromous species, including sicydiine gobies of the genera Sicyopterus, Sicyopus, Smilosicyopus and Stiphodon. Species presence/absence data of coastal Wet Tropics streams were compared to both Wet Tropics river networks and Pacific island faunas. ANOSIM indicated the fish fauna of north-eastern Australian coastal streams were more similar to distant Pacific islands (R = 0.76, than to nearby continental rivers (R = 0.98. MAIN CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Coastal Wet Tropics streams are faunally more similar to distant Pacific islands (79% of species shared, than to nearby continental fauna due to two factors. First, coastal Wet Tropics streams lack many non-diadromous freshwater fish which are common in nearby large rivers. Second, many amphidromous species found in coastal Wet Tropics streams and Indo-Pacific islands remain absent from large rivers of the Wet Tropics

  7. Multiple Household Water Sources and Their Use in Remote Communities With Evidence From Pacific Island Countries

    Elliott, Mark; MacDonald, Morgan C.; Chan, Terence; Kearton, Annika; Shields, Katherine F.; Bartram, Jamie K.; Hadwen, Wade L.

    2017-11-01

    Global water research and monitoring typically focus on the household's "main source of drinking-water." Use of multiple water sources to meet daily household needs has been noted in many developing countries but rarely quantified or reported in detail. We gathered self-reported data using a cross-sectional survey of 405 households in eight communities of the Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI) and five Solomon Islands (SI) communities. Over 90% of households used multiple sources, with differences in sources and uses between wet and dry seasons. Most RMI households had large rainwater tanks and rationed stored rainwater for drinking throughout the dry season, whereas most SI households collected rainwater in small pots, precluding storage across seasons. Use of a source for cooking was strongly positively correlated with use for drinking, whereas use for cooking was negatively correlated or uncorrelated with nonconsumptive uses (e.g., bathing). Dry season water uses implied greater risk of water-borne disease, with fewer (frequently zero) handwashing sources reported and more unimproved sources consumed. Use of multiple sources is fundamental to household water management and feasible to monitor using electronic survey tools. We contend that recognizing multiple water sources can greatly improve understanding of household-level and community-level climate change resilience, that use of multiple sources confounds health impact studies of water interventions, and that incorporating multiple sources into water supply interventions can yield heretofore-unrealized benefits. We propose that failure to consider multiple sources undermines the design and effectiveness of global water monitoring, data interpretation, implementation, policy, and research.

  8. Effects of Community Singing Program on Mental Health Outcomes of Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander People: A Meditative Approach.

    Sun, Jing; Buys, Nicholas

    2016-03-01

    To evaluate the impact of a meditative singing program on the health outcomes of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people. The study used a prospective intervention design. The study took place in six Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities and Community Controlled Health Services in Queensland, Australia. Study participants were 210 Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander adults aged 18 to 71 years, of which 108 were in a singing intervention group and 102 in a comparison group. A participative community-based community singing program involving weekly singing rehearsals was conducted over an 18-month period. Standardized measures in depression, resilience, sense of connectedness, social support, and singing related quality of life were used. The general linear model was used to compare differences pre- and postintervention on outcome variables, and structural equation modeling was used to examine the pathway of the intervention effect. Results revealed a significant reduction in the proportion of adults in the singing group classified as depressed and a concomitant significant increase in resilience levels, quality of life, sense of connectedness, and social support among this group. There were no significant changes for these variables in the comparison group. The participatory community singing approach linked to preventative health services was associated with improved health, resilience, sense of connectedness, social support, and mental health status among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander adults. © The Author(s) 2016.

  9. Can Perceptions of Environmental and Climate Change in Island Communities Assist in Adaptation Planning Locally?

    Aswani, Shankar; Vaccaro, Ismael; Abernethy, Kirsten; Albert, Simon; de Pablo, Javier Fernández-López

    2015-12-01

    Local perceptions of environmental and climate change, as well as associated adaptations made by local populations, are fundamental for designing comprehensive and inclusive mitigation and adaptation plans both locally and nationally. In this paper, we analyze people's perceptions of environmental and climate-related transformations in communities across the Western Solomon Islands through ethnographic and geospatial methods. Specifically, we documented people's observed changes over the past decades across various environmental domains, and for each change, we asked respondents to identify the causes, timing, and people's adaptive responses. We also incorporated this information into a geographical information system database to produce broad-scale base maps of local perceptions of environmental change. Results suggest that people detected changes that tended to be acute (e.g., water clarity, logging intensity, and agricultural diseases). We inferred from these results that most local observations of and adaptations to change were related to parts of environment/ecosystem that are most directly or indirectly related to harvesting strategies. On the other hand, people were less aware of slower insidious/chronic changes identified by scientific studies. For the Solomon Islands and similar contexts in the insular tropics, a broader anticipatory adaptation planning strategy to climate change should include a mix of local scientific studies and local observations of ongoing ecological changes.

  10. The Leisure Time of the Young Population in Local Island Communities – the Example of the Zadar Islands (Iž, Dugi Otok, Ugljan

    Dragutin Babić

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses the problem of leisure time in local communities on the islands of the Zadar Archipelago (Iž, Dugi Otok, Ugljan. The model for the analysis was provided by an empirical survey carried out on the population of three Zadar islands in autumn 2001. In researching the migration dilemmas of the young population on the three Zadar islands, the methods used were a questionnaire and interviews (essays written by pupils. The questionnaire contained 39 questions, with possible answers provided in regard to important segments of island issues and the way in which young islanders perceived them. The questionnaire was filled out by 107 elementary and secondary school pupils from Ugljan, Iž and Dugi Otok. The following independent variables were used in the analysis of the empirical material: school (elementary – secondary, island of residence (Ugljan – Dugi Otok – Iž and gender (male – female. Leisure time is a pressing issue for people in the (postmodern epoch. How should it be utiilsed and how can one utilise it without becoming a passive recipient of exterior content, and thus an object of manipulation of powerful groups, from political groups to economical ones? Play, as a form of self-realisation in opposition to mass-media messages and contents, becomes, in this sense, one of the best solutions in utilising leisure time. This applies especially to the young population. The research results confirm that most pupils, despite their obligations (school and extra-school obligations, travelling have sufficient leisure time. Elementary school pupils are less burdened by obligations and have more leisure time. The situation is different for secondary school pupils, whose burdens and duties already significantly reduce time for play, entertainment and relaxation. The main reasons for a lack of leisure time in both groups are school obligations. The ways of spending leisure time are quite various; however passive forms (watching TV

  11. Subtidal soft-bottom macroinvertebrate communities of the Canary Islands. An ecological approach

    Oscar Monterroso

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The Canarian archipelago is characterized by a mosaic of soft-bottoms such as Cymodocea nodosa meadows, Caulerpa spp. meadows, mäerl bottoms, sabellid fields and bare sandy seabeds, including various macroinfaunal communities. Vegetated habitats (e.g. Cymodocea and Caulerpa maintain more diverse communities than the non-vegetated seabeds. The results indicated that Caulerpa meadows and, to a lesser extent, Cymodocea nodosa and sabellid fields are the richest and most diverse ecosystems in the study area. Moreover, biodiversity differences among islands could be detected with maximum values on the eastern islands (Lanzarote and Gran Canaria and lowest values on the western ones (La Palma.O arquipélago das Canárias é caracterizado por um mosaico de fundos inconsolidados contendo bancos de Cymodocea nodosa, Caulerpa spp., fundos calcários, bancos de sabelídeos e sedimento não biogênico, que abrigam diferentes comunidades da macrofauna. Ambientes vegetados (Cymodocea e Caulerpa possuem comunidades mais diversificadas quando comparados aos ambientes de fundos não vegetados. Os resultados do presente estudo indicaram que os bancos de Caulerpa, primeiramente, e em seguida os bancos de Cymodocea nodosa e de sabelídeos, formam os sistemas mais ricos e diversificados da área. Além disso, puderam também ser detectadas diferenças de biodiversidade entre as ilhas do arquipélago, sendo os valores mais altos localizados nas ilhas ao leste (Lanzarote e Gran Canaria e os menores nas ilhas à oeste (La Palma.

  12. Ethnic and Gender Subgroup Differences in Education, Employment, and Incarceration in the Asian American and Pacific Islander Community

    Teranishi, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The stratification of opportunities and disparate outcomes for Black and Latino boys and men has been well documented. However, there remains a lack of awareness about the extent to which these issues are relevant for the Asian American and Pacific Islander (AAPI) community. This brief focuses on key status and leading indicators for the mobility…

  13. Community structure and coral health status across the depth gradients of Grande Island, Central west coast of India

    Manikandan, B.; Ravindran, J.; Mohan, H.; Periasamy, R.; ManiMurali, R.; Ingole, B.S.

    The Grande Island, located at the central west coast of India is one of the less studied coral reef systems in India. In this study, we provide a comprehensive description of the coral community structure and health status of corals across...

  14. Targeted Expansion Project for Outreach and Treatment for Substance Abuse and HIV Risk Behaviors in Asian and Pacific Islander Communities

    Nemoto, Tooru; Iwamoto, Mariko; Kamitani, Emiko; Morris, Anne; Sakata, Maria

    2011-01-01

    Access to culturally competent HIV/AIDS and substance abuse treatment and prevention services is limited for Asian and Pacific Islanders (APIs). Based on the intake data for a community outreach project in the San Francisco Bay Area (N = 1,349), HIV risk behaviors were described among the targeted API risk groups. The self-reported HIV prevalence…

  15. Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Benthic Macroinvertebrate Community Assessment, 2000-10 (NODC Accession 0002301)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Northwestern Hawaiian islands were sampled during October 2000 at 63 stations on 9 atolls or islands under the lead of NOAA. This work is affiliated with the...

  16. Forest Islands and Castaway Communities: REDD+ and Forest Restoration in Prey Lang Forest

    Courtney Work

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Climate Change policies are playing an ever-increasing role in global development strategies and their implementation gives rise to often-unforeseen social conflicts and environmental degradations. A landscape approach to analyzing forest-based Climate Change Mitigation policies (CCM and land grabs in the Prey Lang Forest landscape, Cambodia revealed two Korea-Cambodia partnership projects designed to increase forest cover that are juxtaposed in this paper. Case study data revealed a REDD+ project with little negative impact or social conflict in the project area and an Afforestation/Reforestation (A/R project that created both social and ecological conflicts. The study concludes that forest-based CCM policies can reduce conflict through efforts at minimal transformation of local livelihoods, maximal attention to the tenure rights, responsibilities, and authority of citizens, and by improving, not degrading, the project landscapes. The paper presents the circumstances under which these guidelines are sidestepped by the A/R project, and importantly reveals that dramatic forest and livelihood transformation had already affected the community and environment in the REDD+ project site. There are deep contradictions at the heart of climate change policies toward which attention must be given, lest we leave our future generations with nothing but forest islands and castaway communities.

  17. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Forty-one. Rhode Island

    Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is presented of the laws and programs of the State of Rhode Island governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  18. Comparative Ecophysiology and Evolutionary Biology of Island and Mainland Chaparral Communities

    Ramirez, Aaron Robert

    2015-01-01

    The unique nature of island ecosystems have fascinated generations of naturalists, ecologists, and evolutionary biologists. Studying island systems led to the development of keystone biological theories including: Darwin and Wallace's theories of natural selection, Carlquist's insights into the biology of adaptive radiations, MacArthur and Wilson's theory of island biogeography, and many others. Utilizing islands as natural laboratories allows us to discover the underlying fabric of ecology a...

  19. Community structure of fish and macrobenthos at selected sites fronting Sand Island, Oahu, Hawaii in relation to the Sand Island Deep Ocean Sewage Outfall, 1990 - 1998 (NODC Accession 0000177)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This report provides the results of nine years of an annual quantitative monitoring of shallow marine communities inshore of the Sand Island Ocean Outfall, Oahu,...

  20. An innovative community organizing campaign to improve mental health and wellbeing among Pacific Island youth in South Auckland, New Zealand.

    Han, Hahrie; Nicholas, Alexandra; Aimer, Margaret; Gray, Jonathon

    2015-12-01

    To examine whether being an organizer in a community organizing program improves personal agency and self-reported mental health outcomes among low-income Pacific Island youth in Auckland, New Zealand. Counties Manukau Health initiated a community organizing campaign led and run by Pacific Island youth. We used interviews, focus groups and pre- and post-campaign surveys to examine changes among 30 youths as a result of the campaign. Ten youths completed both pre- and post-campaign surveys. Eleven youths participated in focus groups, and four in interviews. Overall, youths reported an increased sense of agency and improvements to their mental health. Community organizing has potential as a preventive approach to improving mental health and developing agency over health among disempowered populations. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.

  1. COMPLEX EVALUATION OF THE NUMBER DYNAMICS OF COLONIAL WATERBIRD COMMUNITIES (THE CASE OF SOME ISLANDS OF SIVASH REGION

    Matsyura A.V.

    2011-12-01

    quantitative data on breeding birds will be the next step of the study of the island birds’ turnover. The results of the analysis of population dynamics assist to count the minimal population size for the colonization of new islands and stable existence of bird communities. Detailed analysis will allow to estimate the effect of competition on population and to determine the competitive variability inside and between the species breeding on islands.

  2. Modeling vegetation community responses to sea-level rise on Barrier Island systems: A case study on the Cape Canaveral Barrier Island complex, Florida, USA.

    Tammy E Foster

    Full Text Available Society needs information about how vegetation communities in coastal regions will be impacted by hydrologic changes associated with climate change, particularly sea level rise. Due to anthropogenic influences which have significantly decreased natural coastal vegetation communities, it is important for us to understand how remaining natural communities will respond to sea level rise. The Cape Canaveral Barrier Island complex (CCBIC on the east central coast of Florida is within one of the most biologically diverse estuarine systems in North America and has the largest number of threatened and endangered species on federal property in the contiguous United States. The high level of biodiversity is susceptible to sea level rise. Our objective was to model how vegetation communities along a gradient ranging from hydric to upland xeric on CCBIC will respond to three sea level rise scenarios (0.2 m, 0.4 m, and 1.2 m. We used a probabilistic model of the current relationship between elevation and vegetation community to determine the impact sea level rise would have on these communities. Our model correctly predicted the current proportions of vegetation communities on CCBIC based on elevation. Under all sea level rise scenarios the model predicted decreases in mesic and xeric communities, with the greatest losses occurring in the most xeric communities. Increases in total area of salt marsh were predicted with a 0.2 and 0.4 m rise in sea level. With a 1.2 m rise in sea level approximately half of CCBIC's land area was predicted to transition to open water. On the remaining land, the proportions of most of the vegetation communities were predicted to remain similar to that of current proportions, but there was a decrease in proportion of the most xeric community (oak scrub and an increase in the most hydric community (salt marsh. Our approach provides a first approximation of the impacts of sea level rise on terrestrial vegetation communities

  3. Modeling vegetation community responses to sea-level rise on Barrier Island systems: A case study on the Cape Canaveral Barrier Island complex, Florida, USA.

    Foster, Tammy E; Stolen, Eric D; Hall, Carlton R; Schaub, Ronald; Duncan, Brean W; Hunt, Danny K; Drese, John H

    2017-01-01

    Society needs information about how vegetation communities in coastal regions will be impacted by hydrologic changes associated with climate change, particularly sea level rise. Due to anthropogenic influences which have significantly decreased natural coastal vegetation communities, it is important for us to understand how remaining natural communities will respond to sea level rise. The Cape Canaveral Barrier Island complex (CCBIC) on the east central coast of Florida is within one of the most biologically diverse estuarine systems in North America and has the largest number of threatened and endangered species on federal property in the contiguous United States. The high level of biodiversity is susceptible to sea level rise. Our objective was to model how vegetation communities along a gradient ranging from hydric to upland xeric on CCBIC will respond to three sea level rise scenarios (0.2 m, 0.4 m, and 1.2 m). We used a probabilistic model of the current relationship between elevation and vegetation community to determine the impact sea level rise would have on these communities. Our model correctly predicted the current proportions of vegetation communities on CCBIC based on elevation. Under all sea level rise scenarios the model predicted decreases in mesic and xeric communities, with the greatest losses occurring in the most xeric communities. Increases in total area of salt marsh were predicted with a 0.2 and 0.4 m rise in sea level. With a 1.2 m rise in sea level approximately half of CCBIC's land area was predicted to transition to open water. On the remaining land, the proportions of most of the vegetation communities were predicted to remain similar to that of current proportions, but there was a decrease in proportion of the most xeric community (oak scrub) and an increase in the most hydric community (salt marsh). Our approach provides a first approximation of the impacts of sea level rise on terrestrial vegetation communities, including important

  4. Bacterial communities hitching a hike - a guide to the river system of the Red river, Disko Island, West Greenland

    Hauptmann, Aviaja Zenia Edna Lyberth; Markussen, Thor N.; Stibal, Marek

    of different water sources on the microbial communities in Arctic rivers and estuaries remains unknown. In this study we used 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing to assess a small river and its estuary on Disko Island, West Greenland (69°N). We describe the bacterial community through a river into the estuary......Glacier melting and altered precipitation patterns influence Arctic freshwater and coastal ecosystems. Arctic rivers are central to Arctic water ecosystems linking glacier meltwaters and precipitation with the ocean through transport of particulate matter and microorganisms. However, the impact......, including communities originating in a glacier and a proglacial lake. Our results show that water from the glacier and lake transports distinct communities into the river in terms of diversity and community composition. Bacteria of terrestrial origin were among the dominating OTUs in the main river, while...

  5. Performance Results for Massachusetts and Rhode Island Deep Energy Retrofit Pilot Community

    Gates, C. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Neuhauser, K. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2014-03-01

    Between December, 2009 and December, 2012 42 deep energy retrofit (DER) projects were completed through a DER pilot program sponsored by National Grid and conducted in Massachusetts and Rhode Island. 37 of these projects were comprehensive retrofits while 5 were partial DERs, meaning that high performance retrofit was implemented for a single major enclosure component or a limited number of major enclosure components. The 42 DER projects represent 60 units of housing. The comprehensive projects all implemented a consistent 'package' of measures in terms of the performance targeted for major building components. Projects exhibited some variations in the approach to implementing the retrofit package. Pre- and post-retrofit air leakage measurements were performed for each of the projects. Each project also reported information about project costs including identification of energy-related costs. Post-retrofit energy-use data was obtained for 29 of the DER projects. Post-retrofit energy use was analyzed based on the net energy used by the DER project regardless of whether the energy was generated on site or delivered to the site. Homeowner surveys were returned by 12 of the pilot participants. Based on the community experience, this DER package is expected to result in yearly source energy use near 110 MMBtu/year or approximately 40% below the Northeast regional average. Larger to medium sized homes that successful implement these retrofits can be expected to achieve source EUI that is comparable to Passive House targets for new construction. The community of DER projects show post-retrofit airtightness below 1.5 ACH50 to be eminently achievable.

  6. Catastrophic impact of typhoon waves on coral communities in the Ryukyu Islands under global warming

    Hongo, Chuki; Kawamata, Hideki; Goto, Kazuhisa

    2012-06-01

    Typhoon-generated storm waves generally cause mechanical damage to coral communities on present-day reefs, and the magnitude and extent of damage is predicted to increase in the near future as a result of global warming. Therefore, a comprehensive understanding of potential future scenarios of reef ecosystems is of prime interest. This study assesses the current status of coral communities on Ibaruma reef, Ryukyu Islands, on the basis of field observations, engineering and fluid dynamic models, and calculations of wave motion, and predicts the potential effects of a super-extreme typhoon (incident wave height,H = 20 m; wave period, T = 20 s) on the reef. On the present-day reef, massive corals occur in shallow lagoons and tabular corals occur from the reef crest to the reef slope. The observed distribution of corals, which is frequently attacked by moderate (H = 10 m, T = 10 s) and extreme (H = 10 m, T = 15 s) typhoons, is consistent with the predictions of engineering models. Moreover, this study indicates that if a super-extreme typhoon attacks the reef in the near future, massive corals will survive in the shallow lagoons but tabular corals on the reef crest and reef slope will be severely impacted. The findings imply that super-extreme typhoons will cause a loss of species diversity, as the tabular corals are important reef builders and are critical to the maintenance of reef ecosystems. Consequently, reef restoration is a key approach to maintaining reef ecosystems in the wake of super-extreme typhoons.

  7. Community shelter use in response to two benthic decapod predators in the Long Island Sound.

    Hudson, David M; Reagan, Dugan; Crivello, Joseph F

    2016-01-01

    To investigate community shelter effects of two invasive decapod species, Hemigrapsus sanguineus and Carcinus maenas, in the Long Island Sound (LIS), we deployed artificial shelters in the intertidal and immediate subtidal zones. These consisted of five groups during the summer: a control, a resident H. sanguineus male or female group, and a resident C. maenas male or female group. We quantified utilization of the shelters at 24 h by counting crabs and fish present. We found significant avoidance of H. sanguineus in the field by benthic hermit crabs (Pagurus spp.) and significant avoidance of C. maenas by the seaboard goby (Gobiosoma ginsburgi). The grubby (Myoxocephalus aenaeus) avoided neither treatment, probably since it tends to be a predator of invertebrates. H. sanguineus avoided C. maenas treatments, whereas C. maenas did not avoid any treatment. Seasonal deployments in the subtidal indicated cohabitation of a number of benthic species in the LIS, with peak shelter use corresponding with increased predation and likely reproductive activity in spring and summer for green crabs (C. maenas), hermit crabs (Pagurus spp.), seaboard gobies (G. ginsburgi), and grubbies (Myoxocephalus aenaeus).

  8. Community shelter use in response to two benthic decapod predators in the Long Island Sound

    David M. Hudson

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available To investigate community shelter effects of two invasive decapod species, Hemigrapsus sanguineus and Carcinus maenas, in the Long Island Sound (LIS, we deployed artificial shelters in the intertidal and immediate subtidal zones. These consisted of five groups during the summer: a control, a resident H. sanguineus male or female group, and a resident C. maenas male or female group. We quantified utilization of the shelters at 24 h by counting crabs and fish present. We found significant avoidance of H. sanguineus in the field by benthic hermit crabs (Pagurus spp. and significant avoidance of C. maenas by the seaboard goby (Gobiosoma ginsburgi. The grubby (Myoxocephalus aenaeus avoided neither treatment, probably since it tends to be a predator of invertebrates. H. sanguineus avoided C. maenas treatments, whereas C. maenas did not avoid any treatment. Seasonal deployments in the subtidal indicated cohabitation of a number of benthic species in the LIS, with peak shelter use corresponding with increased predation and likely reproductive activity in spring and summer for green crabs (C. maenas, hermit crabs (Pagurus spp., seaboard gobies (G. ginsburgi, and grubbies (Myoxocephalus aenaeus.

  9. Functional diversity of the macro‑invertebrate community in the port area of Kerkennah Islands (Tunisia

    N. ALOUI‑BEJAOUI

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The harbour area of Sidi Youssef in Kerkennah islands is characterized by specific anthropogenic pressures linked to fishing activities. To study the functional diversity of benthic macro invertebrates, 10 stations located around the port and along the ship canal were sampled by SCUBA diving. Collected invertebrates were identified, counted and preserved. For the functional organization of the community, the most common biodiversity indices and functional groups were assessed at each station, and main physical and chemical parameters were measured. Results showed that the main apparent anthropogenic stress, that could lead to negative impacts on the studied area, was related to dredging/harbour activities. Suspension feeders, consisting essentially of polychaetes, which may be disturbed by water turbidity, dominated the stations farthest from the port, where the intensity of harbour activities is obviously reduced. On the contrary, carnivores dominated inside the port, possibly benefiting from fish scraps discarded at the area, while stations close to the port appeared to be more balanced trophically. The applied biotic indices showed that the area is in good ecological status, except of the navigation channel and the port entrance, which were slightly degraded.

  10. Using Comics to Promote Colorectal Cancer Screening in the Asian American and Pacific Islander Communities.

    Wang, Jiayan Linda; Acevedo, Nazia; Sadler, Georgia Robins

    2017-06-23

    There are unaesthetic aspects in teaching people about the early detection of colorectal cancer using the fecal immunochemical test. Comics were seen as a way to overcome those unaesthetic aspects. This study used the Asian grocery store-based cancer education venue to pilot-test the clarity, cultural acceptability, and alignment of five colorectal cancer education comics intended for publication in Asian American and Pacific Islander (API) community newspapers. After developing the colorectal cancer education comics, API students asked shoppers to review a comic from their collection and provide feedback on how to make the comic clearer and more culturally pertinent to API readers. To evaluate viewers' responses, the students gathered such unobtrusive data as: (1) how many of the predetermined salient information points were discussed as the student educators interacted with shoppers and (2) how many comics the shoppers were willing to review. Shoppers were also asked to evaluate how effective the comics would be at motivating colorectal cancer screening among APIs. The students were able to cover all of the salient information points with the first comic. As evidence of the comics' capacity to engage shoppers' interest, shoppers willingly evaluated all five comics. Using multiple comics enabled the educators to repeatedly address the four salient colorectal cancer information points. Thus, the comics helped student educators to overcome the unesthetic elements of colorectal cancer discussions, while enabling them to engage shoppers in animated discussions, for far more time than with their conventional didactic educational methods.

  11. The "ripple effect": Health and community perceptions of the Indigenous Marathon Program on Thursday Island in the Torres Strait, Australia.

    Macniven, Rona; Plater, Suzanne; Canuto, Karla; Dickson, Michelle; Gwynn, Josephine; Bauman, Adrian; Richards, Justin

    2018-02-19

    Physical inactivity is a key health risk among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander (Indigenous) Australians. We examined perceptions of the Indigenous Marathon Program (IMP) in a remote Torres Strait island community. Semi-structured interviews with community and program stakeholders (n = 18; 14 Indigenous) examined barriers and enablers to running and the influence of the IMP on the community. A questionnaire asked 104 running event participants (n = 42 Indigenous) about their physical activity behaviours, running motivation and perceptions of program impact. Qualitative data were analysed using thematic content analysis, and quantitative data were analysed using descriptive statistics. Interviews revealed six main themes: community readiness, changing social norms to adopt healthy lifestyles, importance of social support, program appeal to hard-to-reach population groups, program sustainability and initiation of broader healthy lifestyle ripple effects beyond running. Barriers to running in the community were personal (cultural attitudes; shyness) and environmental (infrastructure; weather; dogs). Enablers reflected potential strategies to overcome described barriers. Indigenous questionnaire respondents were more likely to report being inspired to run by IMP runners than non-Indigenous respondents. Positive "ripple" effects of the IMP on running and broader health were described to have occurred through local role modelling of healthy lifestyles by IMP runners that reduced levels of "shame" and embarrassment, a common barrier to physical activity among Indigenous Australians. A high initial level of community readiness for behaviour change was also reported. SO WHAT?: Strategies to overcome this "shame" factor and community readiness measurement should be incorporated into the design of future Indigenous physical activity programs. © 2018 Australian Health Promotion Association.

  12. Characteristics of the birds community in the islands off the West Coast of Seogwipo City, Korea

    Wan-Byung Kim

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to survey the status of birds in islands off the west coast of Seogwipo City – Beomseom, Hyeongjeseom, Marado, and Gapado islands – in May and September 2013, as a part of the joint research of the Korean Biodiversity Consortium. As a result, 56 species were observed in those four islands: 167 individuals of 15 species on Beomseom, 79 individuals of 13 species on Hyeongjeseom, 193 individuals of 21 species on Gapado, and 354 individuals of 42 species on Marado; where seven threatened birds were confirmed to inhabit there. Apus pacificus is dominant on Beomseom, Hyeongjeseom, and Marado while Passer montanus is dominant on Gapado. Species diversity was highest on Marado (2.54 which was followed by Gapado and Beomseom (1.99 and Hyeongjeseom (1.82. These findings will be used as valuable data to protect the biota of the islands off Seogwipo including Beomseom that was a state-designated natural reserve.

  13. Benthic Macroinvertebrate Community Assessment, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, October 2000, (NODC Accession 0002301)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Northwestern Hawaiian lslands were sampled during October 2000 at 63 stations on 9 atolls or islands under the lead of NOAA. This work is affiliated with the...

  14. Indigenous knowledge management to enhance community resilience to tsunami risk: lessons learned from Smong traditions in Simeulue island, Indonesia

    Rahman, A.; Sakurai, A.; Munadi, K.

    2017-02-01

    Knowledge accumulation and production embedded in communities through social interactions meant that the Smong tradition of indigenous knowledge of tsunami risk successfully alerted people to the 2004 tsunami, on the island of Simeulue, in Aceh, Indonesia. Based on this practical example, an indigenous management model was developed for Smong information. This knowledge management method involves the transformation of indigenous knowledge into applicable ways to increase community resilience, including making appropriate decisions and taking action in three disaster phases. First, in the pre-disaster stage, the community needs to be willing to mainstream and integrate indigenous knowledge of disaster risk reduction issues into related activities. Second, during disasters, the Smong tradition should make the community able to think clearly, act based on informed decisions, and protect themselves and others by using their indigenous knowledge. Last, in the post-disaster phase, the community needs to be strong enough to face challenges and support each other and “building back better” efforts, using local resources. The findings for the Smong tradition provide valuable knowledge about community resilience. Primary community resilience to disasters is strongly related to existing knowledge that triggers appropriate decisions and actions during pre-disaster, disaster, and post-disaster phases.

  15. Colonization of Coral Communities in the Krakatau Islands Strict Marine Nature Reserve, Indonesia (Kolonisasi Komunitas Karang di Kepulanan Krakatau

    Singgih Afifa Putra

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Pulau-pulau Krakatau memiliki dinamika secara geomorfologi, dan berbagai perubahan fisik yang berlangsung memberikan dampak terhadap biota, termasuk pada proses dan tingkat pergantian suksesi komunitasnya. Tujuan penelitian ini untuk menjelaskan kondisi terkini dan proses kolonisasi komunitas karang, termasuk status kerusakan komunitas karang dan disturbansi lingkungan yang mempengaruhinya. Line intercept transect dilakukan di enam stasiun pada dua kedalaman yang berbeda yakni 5 dan 10m. Sedangkan observasi terhadap komunitas koral dilakukan dengan perekaman video. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa suksesi atau perkembangan komunitas (i.e. kolonisasi karang yang dijumpai di Pulau Anak Krakatau masih mengindikasikan tahap awal kolonisasi, berbeda dengan komunitas karang yang dijumpai di Pulau Rakata dan Panjang. Diversifikasi komunitas karang di kedua pulau tersebut, menunjukkan dominansi spesies oportunis dan pioner (i.e. Pocillopora dan Seriatopora yang umum dijumpai di Anak Krakatau sudah tergantikan. Dominansi dari beberapa spesies karang telah mengindikasikan terjadinya proses eksklusi kompetitif di antara komunitas karang. Tiga tipe komunitas karang yang dijumpai dapat dibedakan menurut karakteristik masing-masing kawasan, yaitu komunitas kawasan terpapar, semi terpapar/terlindung, dan terlindung. Kerusakan komunitas karang di Krakatau berdasarkan kriteria indeks kerusakan karang (CDI sudah termasuk kedalam kategori wilayah “hot spot”, dimana sangat memerlukan perhatian, pengawasan, pengamatan atau restorasi komunitas karang. Hasil penelitian ini memberikan gambaran bahwa terjadinya kolonisasi dan tingkat kerusakan komunitas karang perlu menjadi acuan dalam pengelolaan kawasan terumbu karang di Cagar Alam Laut Krakatau. Kata kunci: kolonisasi, suksesi; komunitas karang; pengelolaan; Krakatau Krakatau Islands diversity is geomorphologically dynamic, and these physical changes influence on organisms including community successional

  16. Hurricane Impacts on Small Island Communities: Case study of Hurricane Matthew on Great Exuma, The Bahamas

    Sullivan Sealey, Kathleen; Bowleg, John

    2017-04-01

    Great Exuma has been a UNESCO Eco-hydrology Project Site with a focus on coastal restoration and flood management. Great Exuma and its largest settlement, George Town, support a population of just over 8.000 people on an island dominated by extensive coastal wetlands. The Victoria Pond Eco-Hydrology project restored flow and drainage to highly-altered coastal wetlands to reduce flooding of the built environment as well as regain ecological function. The project was designed to show the value of a protected wetland and coastal environment within a populated settlement; demonstrating that people can live alongside mangroves and value "green" infrastructure for flood protection. The restoration project was initiated after severe storm flooding in 2007 with Tropical Storm Noel. In 2016, the passing of Hurricane Matthew had unprecedented impacts on the coastal communities of Great Exuma, challenging past practices in restoration and flood prevention. This talk reviews the loss of natural capital (for example, fish populations, mangroves, salt water inundation) from Hurricane Matthew based on a rapid response survey of Great Exuma. The surprisingly find was the impact of storm surge on low-lying areas used primarily for personal farms and small-scale agriculture. Although women made up the overwhelming majority of people who attended Coastal Restoration workshops, women were most adversely impacted by the recent hurricane flooding with the loss of their small low-lying farms and gardens. Although increasing culverts in mangrove creeks in two areas did reduce building flood damage, the low-lying areas adjacent to mangroves, mostly ephemeral freshwater wetlands, were inundated with saltwater, and seasonal crops in these areas were destroyed. These ephemeral wetlands were designed as part of the wetland flooding system, it was not known how important these small areas were to artisanal farming on Great Exuma. The size and scope of Hurricane Matthew passing through the

  17. Ethnobotany of Canarium plant species used by Tobelo Dalam (Togutil ethnic community of Halmahera Island, Indonesia

    M. NASIR TAMALENE

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Tamalene MN, Al-Muhdhar MHI, Suarsini E, Rahman F, Hasan S. 2016. Ethnobotany of Canarium plant species used by Tobelo Dalam (Togutil ethnic community of Halmahera Island, Indonesia. Biodiversitas 17: 61-69. Tobelo Dalam (Togutil ethnic group has been using local plants for years; one of them is Canarium. The ethnic are nomads and live in conservation forests. Data on ethnobotanical knowledge was collected through interview technique with “work in the wood” method. There were three types of informant: main informants, key informants, and recommended informants. Main informants were chosen through purposive sampling technique while key informants and recommended informants were chosen through snowball sampling technique. The informants in this study were grouped based on their age: 14 children (5-11 years, 18 teenagers (12-25 years, 13 adults (26-45 years, nine elder (46-65 years and three old age (≥ 65 years. The result of fidelity level analysis (FL% indicated that all age groups had FL value of 100% in utilizing walnut as local food. Regarding the use of skin exocarp the result was as follow: children (FL: 28.57%, teenagers (FL: 77.77%, adults (FL: 69.23%, and elder and old age (FL: 100%. Whereas, the use of Shell endocarp among the age groups was as follow: children (FL: 14.28%, teenagers (FL: 66.66%, adults (FL: 46.15%, elder (FL: 33.33%, and old age (FL: 100%. Canarium bark had value of FL% in children (FL: 35.71%, teenagers (FL: 61.11%, adults (FL: 92.3%, elder (FL: 33.33%, and old age (FL: 100%. The use of resin by the groups was children (FL: 50%, teenagers (FL: 83.33%, adults (FL: 92.3%, elder and old age (FL: 100%. The use of Canarium root among the groups was children (FL: 14.28%, teenagers (FL: 61.11%, adults (FL: 92.3%, elder (FL: 33.33%, and old age (FL: 100%. The use of plant’s trunk was as follow: children (FL: 50%, teenagers (FL: 77.77%, adults, elder, and old age (FL: 100%. The research indicated that walnut

  18. Nematode diversity, abundance and community structure 50 years after the formation of the volcanic island of Surtsey

    Ilieva-Makulec, K.; Bjarnadottir, B.; Sigurdsson, B. D.

    2014-10-01

    The soil nematode fauna can give important insights into soil development and other habitat changes that occur during primary succession. We investigated the generic composition, density, distribution and community structure of nematodes 50 years after the formation of a pristine volcanic island, Surtsey, Iceland. Part of the island has received additional nutrient inputs from seagulls breeding there since 1985, while the reminder has been much less affected and is at present found at a different successional sere. In total, 25 genera of nematodes were identified, of which 14 were reported on Surtsey for the first time. Nematode communities were more diverse in the more infertile area outside the gull colony, where 24 genera were found, compared to 18 inside. The trophic structure of the nematode communities showed relatively higher abundance of fungal feeders in the infertile areas, but relatively more bacterial- and plant-feeders inside the colony. Nematode abundance in surface soil was, however, significantly higher within the gull colony, with 16.7 ind. cm-2 compared to 3.6 ind. cm-2 outside. A multivariate analysis indicated that the nematode abundance and distribution on Surtsey were most strongly related to the soil C : N ratio, soil acidity, plant cover and biomass, soil temperature and soil depth.

  19. A prescription for sustaining community engagement in malaria elimination on Aneityum Island, Vanuatu: an application of Health Empowerment Theory.

    Watanabe, Noriko; Kaneko, Akira; Yamar, Sam; Taleo, George; Tanihata, Takeo; Lum, J Koji; Larson, Peter S; Shearer, Nelma B C

    2015-07-31

    Community engagement has contributed to disease control and elimination in many countries. Community engagement in malaria elimination (ME) on Aneityum Island has been sustained since its introduction in the early 1990s. Capacity developed within this population has led to a health empowered community response. Health Empowerment Theory (HET) can account for the innovative community actions and capacity development efforts taken to realize and sustain meaningful changes in well-being. This study used the HET framework to investigate participant perceptions of ME efforts on the island focusing on two HET elements, personal and social-contextual resources. The purpose of this study was to explore the role of empowerment as a critical element of community engagement. Six focus group discussions, ten key informant interviews and 17 in-depth interviews were conducted in July 2012 on Aneityum. Both deductive and inductive approaches to qualitative content analysis were used to identify themes, which were condensed, coded and classified based on the HET elements above. Awareness and use of personal and social-contextual resources played an important role in ME efforts. Most participants shared their knowledge to prevent malaria reintroduction. Many participants reported their skills needed for behavioral maintenance, problem-solving or leadership. Participants who perceived a threat took preventive actions even in the dry season. Community leaders focused on second generation capacity development. A local health coalition provided ME services. Members of networks were sources of information and assistance. Face-to-face was the preferred method of communication. Barriers to engagement (e.g., financial difficulties, health literacy issues and underdeveloped infrastructure) were minimized through active collaboration and mutual assistance. In the community engagement continuum, health empowerment develops incrementally overtime as people gain their knowledge and skills, form

  20. The association between economic development, lifestyle differentiation, and C-reactive protein concentration within rural communities in Hainan Island, China.

    Inoue, Yosuke; Stickley, Andrew; Yazawa, Aki; Li, Dandan; Du, Jianwei; Jin, Yuming; Chen, Yan; Watanabe, Chiho

    2016-01-01

    Earlier fieldwork in rural areas of Hainan Island, China, demonstrated that during the course of economic development increasing differences had emerged in lifestyles within communities. It is possible that these variations might have stratified residents into subpopulations with different health attributes. This study examined the association between C-reactive protein (CRP) concentration, a biomarker of future cardiovascular events, and personal lifestyle parameters and the degree of community-level economic development among rural communities. A cross-sectional field survey was undertaken in 19 rural communities in Hainan. Convenience sampling was used to recruit 1,744 participants. Dried blood spot samples were collected to measure high-sensitivity CRP concentration. Sex-stratified multilevel regression analyses were conducted to identify factors associated with CRP concentration among the participants. While CRP concentration was negatively associated with being married and (more) education among men, for women CRP concentration was associated with the frequency of poultry consumption (P = 0.014) and the experience of migratory work in the previous year (P = 0.009). In addition, for females, living in communities with a greater degree of inequality, as indexed by the Gini coefficient, was also associated with increased CRP concentration (P = 0.003). Given that CRP concentration is a marker of future CVD risk, this study suggests that within these previously homogenous rural communities, economic development might have stratified people into population subgroups with a different CVD risk. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Pararchive and Island Stories: collaborative co-design and community digital heritage on the Isle of Bute

    Paul R.J. Duffy

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article draws on work undertaken during two recent research projects that focused on the practices and experiences of a group of heritage volunteers working on rural settlement archaeology on the Isle of Bute, Scotland. In it we outline the process of co-creation of the YARN digital storytelling platform, explore the methodological approach employed for successful co-design, and reflect on how our initial experiences have led to a longer term, hyperlocal focus around issues of empowerment, upskilling and digital engagement in a Scottish island community.

  2. Community structure and carbonate production of a temperate rhodolith bank from Arvoredo Island, southern Brazil

    Douglas F. M. Gherardi

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available A small (100,000 m² rhodolith bank located at the Arvoredo Marine Biological Reserve (Santa Catarina, Brazil has been surveyed to determine the main bank components, the community structure, and carbonate production rates. Data from five photographic transects perpendicular to Arvoredo Island shore were complemented with sediment samples and shallow cores, all collected by scuba diving. The main bank component is the unattached, nongeniculate, coralline red algae Lithophyllum sp., used as substrate by the zoanthid Zoanthus sp. Percentage cover of living and dead coralline algae, zoanthids and sediment patches account for nearly 98% of the investigated area. Classification and ordination of samples showed that differences in the proportion of live and dead thalli of Lithophyllum sp. determine the relative abundances of zoanthids. Results also indicate that similarity of samples is high and community gradients are subtle. Significant differences in percentage cover along transects are concentrated in the central portion of the bank. Low carbonate content of sediments from deeper samples suggests low rates of recruitment and dispersal of coralline algae via fragmentation. However, carbonate production of Lithophyllum sp ranging from 55-136.3 g m-2 yr-1 agrees with production rates reported for other temperate settings. In the long run, rhodolith density at Arvoredo Is. is likely to be dependent upon random dispersal of spores and/or fragments from other source areas.Investigou-se um pequeno (100,000 m² banco de rodolitos localizado na Reserva Biológica Marinha do Arvoredo (Santa Catarina, Brasil para se determinar os pricipais componentes do banco, a estrutura da comunidade e a produção de carbonato de cálcio. Dados de cobertura relativa foram obtidos ao longo de cinco transectos fotográficos perpendiculares à ilha do Arvoredo, e complementados com amostras de sedimento superficial e testemunhos rasos. O principal componente do banco é a

  3. Water quality and aquatic communities of upland wetlands, Cumberland Island National Seashore, Georgia, April 1999 to July 2000

    Frick, Elizabeth A.; Gregory, M. Brian; Calhoun, Daniel L.; Hopkins, Evelyn H.

    2002-01-01

    Cumberland Island is the southernmost and largest barrier island along the coast of Georgia. The island contains about 2,500 acres of freshwater wetlands that are located in a variety of physical settings, have a wide range of hydroperiods, and are influenced to varying degrees by surface and ground water, rainwater, and seawater. In 1999-2000, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the National Park Service, conducted a water-quality study of Cumberland Island National Seashore to document and interpret the quality of a representative subset of surface- and ground-water resources for management of the seashore's natural resources. As part of this study, historical ground-water, surface-water, and ecological studies conducted on Cumberland Island also were summarized. Surface-water samples from six wetland areas located in the upland area of Cumberland Island were collected quarterly from April 1999 to March 2000 and analyzed for major ions, nutrients, trace elements, and field water-quality constituents including specific conductance, pH, temperature, dissolved oxygen, alkalinity, tannin and lignin, and turbidity. In addition, water temperature and specific conductance were recorded continuously from two wetland areas located near the mean high-tide mark on the Atlantic Ocean beaches from April 1999 to July 2000. Fish and invertebrate communities from six wetlands were sampled during April and December 1999. The microbial quality of the near-shore Atlantic Ocean was assessed in seawater samples collected for 5 consecutive days in April 1999 at five beaches near campgrounds where most recreational water contact occurs. Ground-water samples were collected from the Upper Floridan aquifer in April 1999 and from the surficial aquifer in April 2000 at 11 permanent wells and 4 temporary wells (drive points), and were analyzed for major ions, nutrients, trace elements, and field water-quality constituents (conductivity, pH, temperature, dissolved oxygen, and

  4. Phytobenthic communities of intertidal rock pools in the eastern islands of Azores and their relation to position on shore and pool morphology

    Wallenstein, Francisco; Peres, Sara D.; Xavier, Emanuel D.; Neto, Ana I.

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to characterize algal composition inside rock-pools from two islands of the Azores archipelago (São Miguel and Santa Maria) and relate it to shore height and pool morphology. Pools were categorized as upper, medium and lower intertidal according to the surrounding communities. Maximum depth and surface area were used to reflect morphology and qualitative sampling to evaluate algal species richness. PRIMER software assessed the similarity across islands, sites, shore height...

  5. VET Retention in Remote Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Communities. Good Practice Guide

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER), 2017

    2017-01-01

    This good practice guide is based on the research project "Enhancing training advantage for remote Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander learners" by John Guenther et al. on behalf of Ninti One Limited. The project examines five unique and successful vocational education and training (VET) programs in remote areas and identifies how…

  6. Workforce Development for Communities in Crisis and Transition: A Case Study of the Windward Islands.

    Whittington, L. Alfons

    The Windward Islands (Dominica, Grenada, St. Lucia, and St. Vincent and the Grenadines) have taken several approaches to educate the work force and prepare for the technology-driven society of the future. These approaches include government initiatives, such as the governments' commitment to primary education and more recently to secondary…

  7. Integrated prevalence mapping of schistosomiasis, soil-transmitted helminthiasis and malaria in lakeside and island communities in Lake Victoria, Uganda

    2011-01-01

    Background It is widely advocated that integrated strategies for the control of neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) are cost-effective in comparison to vertical disease-specific programmes. A prerequisite for implementation of control interventions is the availability of baseline data of prevalence, including the population at risk and disease overlap. Despite extensive literature on the distribution of schistosomiasis on the mainland in Uganda, there has been a knowledge gap for the prevalence of co-infections with malaria, particularly for island communities in Lake Victoria. In this study, nine lakeshore and island districts were surveyed for the prevalence of NTDs and malaria, as well as educational and health infrastructure. Results A total of 203 communities were surveyed, including over 5000 school-age children. Varying levels of existing health infrastructure were observed between districts, with only Jinja District regularly treating people for NTDs. Community medicine distributors (CMD) were identified and trained in drug delivery to strengthen capacity. Prevalence levels of intestinal schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis were assessed via Kato-Katz thick smears of stool and malaria prevalence determined by microscopy of fingerprick blood samples. Prevalence levels were 40.8%, 26.04% and 46.4%, respectively, while the prevalence of co-infection by Schistosoma mansoni and Plasmodium spp. was 23.5%. Socio-economic status was strongly associated as a risk factor for positive infection status with one or more of these diseases. Conclusions These results emphasise the challenges of providing wide-scale coverage of health infrastructure and drug distribution in remote lakeshore communities. The data further indicate that co-infections with malaria and NTDs are common, implying that integrated interventions for NTDs and malaria are likely to maximize cost-effectiveness and sustainability of disease control efforts. PMID:22166365

  8. Integrated prevalence mapping of schistosomiasis, soil-transmitted helminthiasis and malaria in lakeside and island communities in Lake Victoria, Uganda.

    Kabatereine, Narcis B; Standley, Claire J; Sousa-Figueiredo, Jose C; Fleming, Fiona M; Stothard, J Russell; Talisuna, Ambrose; Fenwick, Alan

    2011-12-13

    It is widely advocated that integrated strategies for the control of neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) are cost-effective in comparison to vertical disease-specific programmes. A prerequisite for implementation of control interventions is the availability of baseline data of prevalence, including the population at risk and disease overlap. Despite extensive literature on the distribution of schistosomiasis on the mainland in Uganda, there has been a knowledge gap for the prevalence of co-infections with malaria, particularly for island communities in Lake Victoria. In this study, nine lakeshore and island districts were surveyed for the prevalence of NTDs and malaria, as well as educational and health infrastructure. A total of 203 communities were surveyed, including over 5000 school-age children. Varying levels of existing health infrastructure were observed between districts, with only Jinja District regularly treating people for NTDs. Community medicine distributors (CMD) were identified and trained in drug delivery to strengthen capacity. Prevalence levels of intestinal schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis were assessed via Kato-Katz thick smears of stool and malaria prevalence determined by microscopy of fingerprick blood samples. Prevalence levels were 40.8%, 26.04% and 46.4%, respectively, while the prevalence of co-infection by Schistosoma mansoni and Plasmodium spp. was 23.5%. Socio-economic status was strongly associated as a risk factor for positive infection status with one or more of these diseases. These results emphasise the challenges of providing wide-scale coverage of health infrastructure and drug distribution in remote lakeshore communities. The data further indicate that co-infections with malaria and NTDs are common, implying that integrated interventions for NTDs and malaria are likely to maximize cost-effectiveness and sustainability of disease control efforts.

  9. Benefits, barriers, and intentions/desires of nurses related to distance learning in rural island communities.

    Kataoka-Yahiro, Merle R; Richardson, Karol; Mobley, Joseph

    2011-03-01

    This study assessed distance learning needs among nurses on the Neighbor Islands in Hawaii. An exploratory study was conducted using a descriptive qualitative design. Of the 37 nurses who completed the study, 7 were nurse administrators and 30 were staff nurses. There were 18 focus groups of nurses recruited from six public hospitals on the Neighbor Islands. Three major themes related to distance learning emerged in this study: benefits, barriers, and intentions/desires. Each major theme had several linkages to categories and subcategories. Overall findings were as follows: (1) cost was mentioned more often in three major thematic areas (benefit, barriers, and intentions/desires); (2) the need to revisit and address current curriculum approaches and practices in distance learning programs was identified; and (3) strong recommendations were made for programs and organizational support for distance learning in hospital settings. These findings have implications for nursing research, education, and practice. Copyright 2011, SLACK Incorporated.

  10. EVALUATING THE IMAGE OF TOURISM DESTINATIONS. THE CASE OF THE AUTONOMOUS COMMUNITY OF THE CANARY ISLANDS

    Roxana - Andreea SARAGEA

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In the context of increased competition on the international tourism market, the assessment of destination image has become a research subject for both managers aiming to improve destination positioning and academic researchers. In order to obtain a competitive advantage, every tourist destination must identify, maintain and reinforce, through appropriate marketing policies, unique items that form and build over time "the destination' s image". Accordingly, the ultimate target of the tourist destinations' promoters should be to achieve a high level of coincidence between the promoted or projected image and the perceived image of the destination, held by potential and actual tourists. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to illustrate promotional techniques and methods used by the authorities of the Canary Islands over the years (projected image, and to identify, through a survey among the citizens of Braşov, the image that they have of the Canary Islands (perceived image.

  11. Designing an Early Childhood Environment: A Community-Built Playscape on Matakana Island, New Zealand

    Christie, Toni; Christie, Robin

    2011-01-01

    Across the mouth of the Tauranga Harbour lies a piece of paradise, Te Moutere o Matakana--Matakana Island. It is blessed with an ocean beach with white sand and a mean surf break, tidal flats, wetlands, fertile pasture, and a native and exotic forest. It is home to a maori language nest for the local children--Te Kohanga Reo o te Moutere o…

  12. Getting to know the island: Artistic experiments in rural community development

    Crawshaw, Julie

    2016-01-01

    This paper makes an original contribution to our understandings of the relational role of artistic practice as part of rural community development. Art-led initiatives are now commonplace in rural development strategies. However, the effects of art in rural community, particularly beyond economic development, have received little attention. In this paper we seek to address this omission by exploring artistic ex- periments as part of community development processes. Theoretically, we draw on r...

  13. Alien dominance of the parasitoid wasp community along an elevation gradient on Hawai'i Island

    Peck, R.W.; Banko, P.C.; Schwarzfeld, M.; Euaparadorn, M.; Brinck, K.W.

    2008-01-01

    Through intentional and accidental introduction, more than 100 species of alien Ichneumonidae and Braconidae (Hymenoptera) have become established in the Hawaiian Islands. The extent to which these parasitoid wasps have penetrated native wet forests was investigated over a 1,765 m elevation gradient on windward Hawai'i Island. For >1 year, malaise traps were used to continuously monitor parasitoid abundance and species richness in nine sites over three elevations. A total of 18,996 individuals from 16 subfamilies were collected. Overall, the fauna was dominated by aliens, with 44 of 58 species foreign to the Hawaiian Islands. Ichneumonidae was dominant over Braconidae in terms of both diversity and abundance, comprising 67.5% of individuals and 69.0% of species collected. Parasitoid abundance and species richness varied significantly with elevation: abundance was greater at mid and high elevations compared to low elevation while species richness increased with increasing elevation, with all three elevations differing significantly from each other. Nine species purposely introduced to control pest insects were found, but one braconid, Meteorus laphygmae, comprised 98.0% of this assemblage, or 28.3% of the entire fauna. Endemic species, primarily within the genera Spolas and Enicospilus, were collected almost exclusively at mid- and high-elevation sites, where they made up 22.1% and 36.0% of the total catch, respectively. Overall, 75.9% of species and 96.0% of individuals are inferred to parasitize Lepidoptera larvae and pupae. Our results support previous data indicating that alien parasitoids have deeply penetrated native forest habitats and may have substantial impacts on Hawaiian ecosystems. ?? 2008 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  14. The Social Perspective on the Renewable Energy Autonomy of Geographically Isolated Communities: Evidence from a Mediterranean Island

    Fontina Petrakopoulou

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The use of renewable energy sources can provide a path toward sustainable development and regional energy independence. In particular, renewable-based energy autonomy constitutes a viable option in remote areas. This work presents a survey on the use of renewable energy as part of an energy autonomy plan on a Mediterranean island. The study also included personal communications with residents and local community leaders. The results show an overall positive attitude toward renewable energy applications. The majority of the respondents support the implementation of renewable-based, small-scale projects corresponding to local energy autonomy scenarios. They are, furthermore, convinced that a wider use of renewable technologies can reduce the environmental impact of conventional fuels. However, although people are aware of technologies widely used on the island, they are much less so when it comes to less prominent technologies (wave energy, fuel cells, etc.. People tend to be more open to installations of solar, wind and geothermal energy, while generally they dislike nuclear and coal power plants. Lastly, the majority of the respondents believe that local policies on energy issues should change, while they also perceive the lack of political will as one of the most important obstacles to the implementation of renewable technologies.

  15. Around the Table: Food Insecurity, Socioeconomic Status, and Instrumental Social Support among Women Living in a Rural Kenyan Island Community.

    Nagata, Jason M; Fiorella, Kathryn J; Salmen, Charles R; Hickey, Matthew D; Mattah, Brian; Magerenge, Richard; Milner, Erin M; Weiser, Sheri D; Bukusi, Elizabeth A; Cohen, Craig R

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship among socioeconomic status, social support, and food insecurity in a rural Kenyan island community. A cross-sectional random sample of 111 female heads of households representing 583 household members were surveyed in Mfangano Island, Kenya from August to October 2010 using adaptations of the Household Food Insecurity Access Scale and the Medical Outcomes Study Social Support Survey. In multiple linear regression models, less instrumental social support, defined as concrete direct ways people help others (B = -0.81; 95% confidence interval [CI] -1.45 to -0.17), and decreased ownership scale based on owning material assets (B = -2.93; 95% CI -4.99 to -0.86) were significantly associated with increased food insecurity, controlling for age, education, marital status, and household size. Social support interventions geared at group capacity and resilience may be crucial adjuncts to improve and maintain the long term food security and health of persons living in low-resource regions.

  16. Impact of Three Mile Island on the nuclear community and the future of nuclear power

    Baron, S.

    1980-01-01

    The Three Mile Island incident has already impacted on the future of nuclear power specifically and on the energy crisis generally. The resultant NRC's de facto moratorium on the licensing of commercial nuclear power plants will increase the use of oil, raise the cost of electric power, and may create power shortages. On the positive side, TMI may have been beneficial in that it has precipitated a searching reassessment and improvement of nuclear power safety and practices-TMI not withstanding, the rate of nuclear power expansion must increase; otherwise the energy crisis will deepen in the years to come

  17. On the Edge of Crisis: Contending Perspectives on Development, Tourism, and Community Participation on Rote Island, Indonesia

    Cassandra Wright

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The eastern Indonesian province of Nusa Tenggara Timur (NTT is struggling to overcome the burden of widespread poverty, illness, and illiteracy. Within the context of globalisation and Indonesia���s ongoing transitions in governance, people on Rote Island, NTT, are experiencing rapid socio-cultural change. The increasing arrival of tourists and foreign business interests add further complexity to these processes of transition. The direction forward for Rote is a topic of considerable debate amongst community members, development workers, businesses, and other stakeholders. This qualitative pilot study explores key community stakeholders’ perspectives on development, tourism, and community sustainability in Delha, Rote. It has revealed conflicting perspectives about future development and tourism on Rote, with particular concern regarding social, cultural, and environmental impacts, and loss of autonomy and community control. Important ‘dynamics of exclusion’ between stakeholders are identified. More equitable participation in planning and decision-making is needed to ensure that the benefits of tourism and development are not concentrated with a privileged few. ----- Die indonesische Provinz Nusa Tenggara Timur (NTT ist mit weitverbreiteter Armut, Krankheiten und Analphabetismus konfrontiert. Im Kontext der Globalisierung und Indonesiens politischer Transformation vollzieht sich ein rascher soziokultureller Wandel auf der Insel Rote, NTT. Eine steigende Zahl an TouristInnen sowie ausländische Unternehmensinteressen verschärfen die komplexe Übergangssituation. Der weitere Entwicklungsweg für Rote ist Gegenstand zahlreicher Debatten zwi- schen Community-Mitgliedern, EntwicklungshelferInnen, Unternehmen und anderen AkteurInnen. Die vorliegende qualitative Vorstudie untersucht zentrale Perspektiven unterschiedlicher Akteu- rInnen in Bezug auf die zukünftige Entwicklung Rotes und legt besonderes Augenmerk auf soziale, kulturelle und

  18. How wind became a four-letter word: Lessons for community engagement from a wind energy conflict in King Island, Australia

    Colvin, R.M.; Witt, G.Bradd; Lacey, Justine

    2016-01-01

    Wind is recognised as a key source of renewable energy. Despite broad public support for the sector, wind energy proposals have routinely triggered social conflict and localised opposition. To promote social acceptance and avoid conflict, the wind energy sector undertakes community engagement. This paper interrogates the community engagement undertaken in King Island (Tasmania, Australia) for a large scale wind energy development proposal which did not proceed to implementation due to external economic factors. Despite the proponent's adoption of what was described as a ‘best practice’ community engagement strategy, the proposal caused significant social conflict for the community. In-depth interviews (n=30) were conducted with members of the King Island community and were qualitatively analysed through the social identity lens. Five key drivers of the local conflict were identified: problematic pre-feasibility engagement; the lack of a third-party facilitator of the community consultative committee; holding a vote which polarised the community; the lack of a clear place in the engagement process for local opposition, and; the significance of local context. These findings are instructive for improving community engagement practice for wind energy and other energy generation and land use change sectors. - Highlights: • Community engagement for a controversial wind energy proposal is analysed. • Key factors driving local conflict are identified and discussed. • The social identity approach provides understanding of hidden complexities. • Implications for community engagement practice are discussed.

  19. Shifting elasmobranch community assemblage at Cocos Island--an isolated marine protected area.

    White, Easton R; Myers, Mark C; Flemming, Joanna Mills; Baum, Julia K

    2015-08-01

    Fishing pressure has increased the extinction risk of many elasmobranch (shark and ray) species. Although many countries have established no-take marine reserves, a paucity of monitoring data means it is still unclear if reserves are effectively protecting these species. We examined data collected by a small group of divers over the past 21 years at one of the world's oldest marine protected areas (MPAs), Cocos Island National Park, Costa Rica. We used mixed effects models to determine trends in relative abundance, or probability of occurrence, of 12 monitored elasmobranch species while accounting for variation among observers and from abiotic factors. Eight of 12 species declined significantly over the past 2 decades. We documented decreases in relative abundance for 6 species, including the iconic scalloped hammerhead shark (Sphyrna lewini) (-45%), whitetip reef shark (Triaenodon obesus) (-77%), mobula ray (Mobula spp.) (-78%), and manta ray (Manta birostris) (-89%), and decreases in the probability of occurrence for 2 other species. Several of these species have small home ranges and should be better protected by an MPA, which underscores the notion that declines of marine megafauna will continue unabated in MPAs unless there is adequate enforcement effort to control fishing. In addition, probability of occurrence at Cocos Island of tiger (Galeocerdo cuvier), Galapagos (Carcharhinus galapagensis), blacktip (Carcharhinus limbatus), and whale (Rhincodon typus) sharks increased significantly. The effectiveness of MPAs cannot be evaluated by examining single species because population responses can vary depending on life history traits and vulnerability to fishing pressure. © 2015 Society for Conservation Biology.

  20. A unique coral community in the mangroves of Hurricane Hole, St. John, US Virgin Islands

    Rogers, Caroline S.

    2017-01-01

    Corals do not typically thrive in mangrove environments. However, corals are growing on and near the prop roots of red mangrove trees in Hurricane Hole, an area within the Virgin Islands Coral Reef National Monument under the protection of the US National Park Service in St. John, US Virgin Islands. This review summarizes current knowledge of the remarkable biodiversity of this area. Over 30 scleractinian coral species, about the same number as documented to date from nearby coral reefs, grow here. No other mangrove ecosystems in the Caribbean are known to have so many coral species. This area may be a refuge from changing climate, as these corals weathered the severe thermal stress and subsequent disease outbreak that caused major coral loss on the island’s coral reefs in 2005 and 2006. Shading by the red mangrove trees reduces the stress that leads to coral bleaching. Seawater temperatures in these mangroves are more variable than those on the reefs, and some studies have shown that this variability results in corals with a greater resistance to higher temperatures. The diversity of sponges and fish is also high, and a new genus of serpulid worm was recently described. Continuing research may lead to the discovery of more new species.

  1. Epilithic Cyanobacterial Communities of a Marine Tropical Beach Rock (Heron Island, Great Barrier Reef): Diversity and Diazotrophy▿

    Díez, Beatriz; Bauer, Karolina; Bergman, Birgitta

    2007-01-01

    The diversity and nitrogenase activity of epilithic marine microbes in a Holocene beach rock (Heron Island, Great Barrier Reef, Australia) with a proposed biological calcification “microbialite” origin were examined. Partial 16S rRNA gene sequences from the dominant mat (a coherent and layered pink-pigmented community spread over the beach rock) and biofilms (nonstratified, differently pigmented microbial communities of small shallow depressions) were retrieved using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), and a clone library was retrieved from the dominant mat. The 16S rRNA gene sequences and morphological analyses revealed heterogeneity in the cyanobacterial distribution patterns. The nonheterocystous filamentous genus Blennothrix sp., phylogenetically related to Lyngbya, dominated the mat together with unidentified nonheterocystous filaments of members of the Pseudanabaenaceae and the unicellular genus Chroococcidiopsis. The dominance and three-dimensional intertwined distribution of these organisms were confirmed by nonintrusive scanning microscopy. In contrast, the less pronounced biofilms were dominated by the heterocystous cyanobacterial genus Calothrix, two unicellular Entophysalis morphotypes, Lyngbya spp., and members of the Pseudanabaenaceae family. Cytophaga-Flavobacterium-Bacteroides and Alphaproteobacteria phylotypes were also retrieved from the beach rock. The microbial diversity of the dominant mat was accompanied by high nocturnal nitrogenase activities (as determined by in situ acetylene reduction assays). A new DGGE nifH gene optimization approach for cyanobacterial nitrogen fixers showed that the sequences retrieved from the dominant mat were related to nonheterocystous uncultured cyanobacterial phylotypes, only distantly related to sequences of nitrogen-fixing cultured cyanobacteria. These data stress the occurrence and importance of nonheterocystous epilithic cyanobacteria, and it is hypothesized that such epilithic cyanobacteria

  2. Ngoelmun Yawar, Our Journey: The Transition and The Challenges for Female Students Leaving Torres Strait Island Communities for Boarding Schools in Regional Queensland

    Bobongie, Francis

    2017-01-01

    This paper explores the transitional experiences and challenges faced by girls from the Torres Strait Islands when they leave individual communities to attend boarding school in regional Queensland. The paper presents original ethnographic research using a narrative enquiry approach, capturing stories as narrated by a broad cohort of girls from…

  3. Community-based participatory research projects and policy engagement to protect environmental health on St Lawrence Island, Alaska

    Pamela K. Miller

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives . This article synthesizes discussion of collaborative research results, interventions and policy engagement for St Lawrence Island (SLI, Alaska, during the years 2000–2012. Methods . As part of on-going community-based participatory research (CBPR studies on SLI, 5 discrete exposure-assessment projects were conducted: (a a biomonitoring study of human blood serum; (b–d 3 investigations of levels of contaminants in environmental media at an abandoned military site at Northeast Cape – using sediment cores and plants, semi-permeable membrane devices and blackfish, respectively; and (e a study of traditional foods. Results . Blood serum in residents of SLI showed elevated levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs with higher levels among those exposed to the military site at Northeast Cape, an important traditional subsistence-use area. Environmental studies at the military site demonstrated that the site is a continuing source of PCBs to a major watershed, and that clean-up operations at the military site generated PCB-contaminated dust on plants in the region. Important traditional foods eaten by the people of SLI showed elevated concentrations of PCBs, which are primarily derived from the long-range transport of persistent pollutants that are transported by atmospheric and marine currents from more southerly latitudes to the north. Interventions . An important task for all CBPR projects is to conduct intervention strategies as needed in response to research results. Because of the findings of the CBPR projects on SLI, the CBPR team and the people of the Island are actively engaging in interventions to ensure cleanup of the formerly used military sites; reform chemicals policy on a national level; and eliminate persistent pollutants internationally. The goal is to make the Island and other northern/Arctic communities safe for themselves and future generations. Conclusions . As part of the CBPR projects conducted from 2000 to 2012

  4. Subtidal soft-bottom macroinvertebrate communities of the Canary Islands. An ecological approach

    Monterroso,Oscar; Riera,Rodrigo; Núñez,Jorge

    2012-01-01

    The Canarian archipelago is characterized by a mosaic of soft-bottoms such as Cymodocea nodosa meadows, Caulerpa spp. meadows, mäerl bottoms, sabellid fields and bare sandy seabeds, including various macroinfaunal communities. Vegetated habitats (e.g. Cymodocea and Caulerpa) maintain more diverse communities than the non-vegetated seabeds. The results indicated that Caulerpa meadows and, to a lesser extent, Cymodocea nodosa and sabellid fields are the richest and most diverse ecosystems in th...

  5. Gill monogenean communities (Platyhelminthes, Monogenea, Dactylogyridae) of butterflyfishes from tropical Indo-West Pacific Islands.

    Reverter, Miriam; Cutmore, Scott C; Bray, Rodney; Cribb, Thomas H; Sasal, Pierre

    2016-10-01

    We studied the monogenean communities of 34 species of butterflyfish from the tropical Indo-West Pacific, identifying 13 dactylogyrid species (including two species that are presently undescribed). Monogenean assemblages differed significantly between host species in terms of taxonomic structure, intensity and prevalence. Parasite richness ranged from 0 (Chaetodon lunulatus) to 11 (C. auriga, C. citrinellus and C. lunula). Host specificity varied between the dactylogyrids species, being found on 2-29 of the 34 chaetodontid species examined. Sympatric butterflyfish species were typically parasitized by different combinations of dactylogyrid species, suggesting the existence of complex host-parasite interactions. We identified six clusters of butterflyfish species based on the similarities of their dactylogyrid communities. Dactylogyrid richness and diversity were not related to host size, diet specialization, depth range or phylogeny of butterflyfish species. However, there was a weak positive correlation between monogenean richness and diversity and host geographical range. Most communities of dactylogyrids were dominated by Haliotrema aurigae and H. angelopterum, indicating the importance of the genus Haliotrema in shaping monogenean communities of butterflyfishes. This study casts light on the structure of the monogenean communities of butterflyfishes, suggesting that the diversity and complexity of community structures arises from a combination of host species-specific parameters.

  6. Collaboration versus communication: The Department of Energy's Amchitka Island and the Aleut Community

    Burger, Joanna; Gochfeld, Michael; Pletnikoff, Karen

    2009-01-01

    Increasingly managers and scientists are recognizing that solving environmental problems requires the inclusion of a wide range of disciplines, governmental agencies, Native American tribes, and other stakeholders. Usually such inclusion involves communication at the problem-formulation phase, and at the end to report findings. This paper examines participatory research, the differences between the traditional stakeholder involvement method of communication (often one-way, at the beginning and the end), compared to full collaboration, where parties are actively involved in the scientific process. Using the Department of Energy's (DOE) Amchitka Island in the Aleutians as a case study, we demonstrate that the inclusion of Aleut people throughout the process resulted in science that was relevant not only to the agency's needs and to the interested and affected parties, but that led to a solution. Amchitka Island was the site of three underground nuclear tests from 1965 to 1971, and virtually no testing of radionuclide levels in biota, subsistence foods, or commercial fish was conducted after the 1970s. When DOE announced plans to close Amchitka, terminating its managerial responsibility, without any further testing of radionuclide levels in biota, there was considerable controversy, which resulted in the development of a Science Plan to assess the potential risks to the marine environment from the tests. The Consortium for Risk Evaluation with Stakeholder Participation (CRESP) was the principle entity that developed and executed the science plan. Unlike traditional science, CRESP embarked on a process to include the Alaskan Natives of the Aleutian Islands (Aleuts), relevant state and federal agencies, and other stakeholders at every phase. Aleuts were included in the problem-formulation, research design refinement, the research, analysis of data, dissemination of research findings, and public communication. This led to agreement with the results, and to developing a

  7. Bereavement care interventions and outcome criteria planned by community nurses in the Canary Islands.

    Rodríguez-Álvaro, Martín; García-Hernández, Alfonso Miguel; Brito-Brito, Pedro Ruymán; Aguirre-Jaime, Armando; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Domingo Ángel

    2018-02-19

    Nursing care in bereavement is complex. Primary health care is the ideal setting to support the bereaved, but we do not know much about the care plans designed by primary health care nurses in the treatment of grief. To identify the outcomes criteria and interventions planned by nurses for mourners with and without complications in the Canary Islands. Retrospective longitudinal study, using the electronic health records of the Canary Islands health service of people with a diagnosis of grieving, risk of complicated grieving and complicated grieving, in the period 2009-2014. NOC outcomes criteria were recorded in 67% of the mourners, and up to 24 different outcomes were identified. The main outcomes measures were Grief resolution; Psychosocial adjustment, Life change; Coping; Family coping; Family social climate and Caregiver emotional health. The remaining outcomes were present in less than 1% of the mourners. Although the outcomes criteria proposed by nurses in the mourners with and without complications were quite homogeneous, differences in interventions were found. In 67% of the cases, NIC interventions were reported. Ninety-nine different interventions were identified in the mourners; the most frequent were Emotional support; Grief work facilitation; Active listening; Coping enhancement and counselling. The remaining identified interventions were present in less than 5% of patients. The main interventions in the mourners with complications were Grief work facilitation; Coping enhancement; Active listening; Counselling and Family integrity promotion. Nurses state that there are more interventions and outcomes in mourners with complications. Given the few methodologically reliable studies that prove their effectiveness, continued research in this area is recommended. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Bottom trawling and oxygen minimum zone influences on continental slope benthic community structure off Vancouver Island (NE Pacific)

    De Leo, Fabio C.; Gauthier, Maéva; Nephin, Jessica; Mihály, Steven; Juniper, S. Kim

    2017-03-01

    Understanding responses of benthic ecosystems to cumulative impacts of natural stressors, long-term ocean change and increasing resource exploitation is an emerging area of interest for marine ecologists and environmental managers. Few, if any, studies have quantitatively addressed cumulative effects in the deep sea. We report here on a study from the continental slope off Vancouver Island (Canada) in the northeast Pacific Ocean, where the Oxygen Minimum Zone impinges on seabed habitats that are subjected to widespread bottom trawling, primarily by the fishery for thornyhead (Sebastolobus ssp.). We examined how the benthic megafauna in this area was influenced by varying levels of dissolved oxygen and trawling activity, along a depth gradient that was also likely to shape community composition. Continuous video and sonar records from two ROV surveys (50 linear km total; depth range 300-1400 m) respectively provided data on faunal attributes (composition, abundance and diversity) and the frequency of trawl door marks on the seabed. Faunal and trawl data were compiled in a geo-referenced database along with corresponding dissolved oxygen data, and pooled into 500 m segments for statistical analysis. Trawl mark occurrence peaked between 500 and 1100 m, corresponding to areas of slope subjected to hypoxia (PERMANOVA analyses, with characterizing taxa identified for all three factors. Depth, dissolved oxygen and trawl mark density accounted for 21% to 52% of the variability in benthic community structure according to multiple regression (DISTLM) models. Species richness was highest at intermediate depths and in areas subject to intermediate levels of trawling, and higher under hypoxia than under severe hypoxia. These statistically significant trends demonstrate that the structuring influences of bottom trawling on deep-sea benthic communities can be observed even where communities are being shaped by strong environmental gradients.

  9. A matter of scale: damage from Hurricane Hugo (1989) to U.S. Virgin Islands reefs at the colony, community and whole reef level

    Rogers, Caroline S.

    1993-01-01

    Studies at Buck Island Reef National Monument (St. Croix) and Virgin Islands National Park (St. John) by scientists in the U.S. National Park Service Coral Reef Assessment Program re- vealed the effects of Humcane Hugo on individual coral species, community parameters, and overall reef structure. Effects of the storm varied with depth, coral species, location relative to the storm path, character of the pre-storm communities, and ecological history. Live coral cover, initially less than 30% at all sites, dropped by 40 to 73%. Cover by the dominant species Montastrea annularis de- clined about 35% on the St. John reefs. At Buck Island, Acropora palmata cover, already reduced from 85% to 5% by white band disease and storms, fell to 0.8% after Hugo. Some areas on the south side of Buck Island were reduced to rubble pave- ment while other areas escaped serious damage. Data from cores at Buck Island reveal the influence of wave energy and storm frequency on overall reef character. Patchiness and variation in the responses of different species, zones, and entire reefs to the storm suggest that assessment of long-term trends in reef structure and composition requires analysis of changes at permanent study sites distributed over large areas.

  10. The soil and plant determinants of community structures of the dominant actinobacteria in Marion Island terrestrial habitats, Sub-Antarctica

    Sanyika, TW

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Marion Island is a Sub-Antarctic island made up of distinct ecological habitats based on soil physiochemical, plant cover and physical characteristics. The microbial diversity and ecological determinants in this harsh Sub-Antarctic environment...

  11. Organic matter quantity and source affects microbial community structure and function following volcanic eruption on Kasatochi Island, Alaska

    Zeglin, Lydia H.; Wang, Bronwen; Waythomas, Christopher F.; Rainey, Frederick; Talbot, Sandra L.

    2016-01-01

    In August 2008, Kasatochi volcano erupted and buried a small island in pyroclastic deposits and fine ash; since then, microbes, plants and birds have begun to re-colonize the initially sterile surface. Five years post-eruption, bacterial 16S rRNA gene and fungal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) copy numbers and extracellular enzyme activity (EEA) potentials were one to two orders of magnitude greater in pyroclastic materials with organic matter (OM) inputs relative to those without, despite minimal accumulation of OM (eruptive surfaces with OM inputs had the highest β-glucosidase, phosphatase, NAGase and cellobiohydrolase activities, and had microbial population sizes approaching those in reference soils. In contrast, the strongest factor determining bacterial community composition was the dominance of plants versus birds as OM input vectors. Although soil pH ranged from 3.9 to 7.0, and %C ranged 100×, differentiation between plant- and bird-associated microbial communities suggested that cell dispersal or nutrient availability are more likely drivers of assembly than pH or OM content. This study exemplifies the complex relationship between microbial cell dispersal, soil geochemistry, and microbial structure and function; and illustrates the potential for soil microbiota to be resilient to disturbance.

  12. Y-chromosome diversity is inversely associated with language affiliation in paired Austronesian- and Papuan-speaking communities from Solomon Islands.

    Cox, Murray P; Mirazón Lahr, Marta

    2006-01-01

    The Solomon Islands lie in the center of Island Melanesia, bordered to the north by the Bismarck Archipelago and to the south by Vanuatu. The nation's half-million inhabitants speak around 70 languages from two unrelated language groups: Austronesian, a language family widespread in the Pacific and closely related to languages spoken in Island Southeast Asia, and "East Papuan", generally defined as non-Austronesian and distantly related to the extremely diverse Papuan languages of New Guinea. Despite the archipelago's presumed role as a staging post for the settlement of Remote Oceania, genetic research on Solomon Island populations is sparse. We collected paired samples from two regions that have populations speaking Austronesian and Papuan languages, respectively. Here we present Y-chromosome data from these samples, the first from Solomon Islands. We detected five Y-chromosome lineages: M-M106, O-M175, K-M9*, K-M230, and the extremely rare clade, K1-M177. Y-chromosome lineages from Solomon Islands fall within the range of other Island Melanesian populations but display markedly lower haplogroup diversity. From a broad Indo-Pacific perspective, Y-chromosome lineages show partial association with the distribution of language groups: O-M175 is associated spatially with Austronesian-speaking areas, whereas M-M106 broadly correlates with the distribution of Papuan languages. However, no relationship between Y-chromosome lineages and language affiliation was observed on a small scale within Solomon Islands. This pattern may result from a sampling strategy that targeted small communities, where individual Y-chromosome lineages can be fixed or swept to extinction by genetic drift or favored paternal exogamy. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 18:35-50, 2006. (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  13. Demonstration of a Graywater Management Project at a Community Level on the Island of Puerto Rico

    Housing development practices in Puerto Rico, especially in rural areas, have often not considered the proper treatment and disposal of wastewater or the collection and treatment of stormwater. These practices have created a legacy of communities without proper sewage disposal in...

  14. Natural mixing of species: novel plant–animal communities on Caribbean Islands

    Ariel E. Lugo; T.A. Carlo; Jr. Wunderle

    2012-01-01

    Global anthropogenic activities are responsible for the modification of landscapes, creation of novel environments and movement of species across biogeographic regions. A consequence of this activity is the mixing of native and introduced species and the formation of novel biotic communities. We review the ecological consequences of the mixing of native and introduced...

  15. Integrated waste-to-energy conversion and waste transportation within island communities

    Zsigraiova, Zdena; Tavares, Gilberto; Semiao, Viriato; Carvalho, Maria de Graca

    2009-01-01

    Usually in islands both primary energy sources and drinking water are missing. Additionally, municipal solid waste (MSW) must be managed avoiding exclusive use of landfills, which limits sustainable development. Power generation from MSW incineration contributes significantly to replacing energy produced from fossil fuels and to reduce overall emissions. A solution based on thermodynamics, environmental and economic analyses and 3D-GIS modelling for the afore-mentioned problems for Cape Verde is proposed. This model integrates waste transportation optimisation and incineration with energy recovery combining production of heat and power (CHP), the heat being used for drinking water production. The results show that extraction condensing steam turbines are more suitable when power production is a priority (5.0 MW with 4000 m 3 /d of drinking water), whereas back-pressure turbines yield 5540-6650 m 3 /d of drinking water with an additional power production of 3.3-4.7 MW. The environmental and economic assessment performed shows the feasibility of the proposed CHP solution, which brings a considerable reduction in net air emissions (1.6 kt), including a significant decrease in the greenhouse gas emissions (131 ktCO 2 ), and that the revenue from energy sales ( Euro 15 million) has potential to balance the incineration cost. Moreover, when terrain relief is accounted for in the route optimisation for minimum fuel consumption, savings up to 11% are obtained.

  16. Impact of a dengue outbreak experience in the preventive perceptions of the community from a temperate region: Madeira Island, Portugal.

    Teresa Nazareth

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The ability to effectively modify behaviours is increasingly relevant to attain and maintain a good health status. Current behaviour-change models and theories present two main approaches for (healthier decision-making: one analytical/logical, and one experiential/emotional/intuitive. Therefore, to achieve an integral and dynamic understanding of the public perceptions both approaches should be considered: community surveys should measure cognitive understanding of health-risk contexts, and also explore how past experiences affect this understanding. In 2011, community perceptions regarding domestic source reduction were assessed in Madeira Island͘. After Madeira's first dengue outbreak (2012 a unique opportunity to compare perceptions before and after the outbreak-experience occurred. This was the aim of this study, which constituted the first report on the effect of an outbreak experience on community perceptions regarding a specific vector-borne disease. A cross-sectional survey was performed within female residents at the most aegypti-infested areas. Perceptions regarding domestic source reduction were assessed according to the Essential Perception (EP-analysis tool. A matching process paired individuals from studies performed before and after the outbreak, ensuring homogeneity in six determinant variables. After the outbreak, there were more female residents who assimilated the concepts considered to be essential to understand the proposed behaviour. Nevertheless, no significant difference was observed in the number of female residents who achieved the defined 'minimal understanding''. Moreover, most of the population (95.5% still believed at least in one of the identified myths. After the outbreak some myths disappeared and others appeared. The present study quantified and explored how the experience of an outbreak influenced the perception regarding a dengue-preventive behaviour. The outbreak experience surprisingly led to the appearance

  17. Impact of a Dengue Outbreak Experience in the Preventive Perceptions of the Community from a Temperate Region: Madeira Island, Portugal

    Nazareth, Teresa; Sousa, Carla Alexandra; Porto, Graça; Gonçalves, Luzia; Seixas, Gonçalo; Antunes, Luís; Silva, Ana Clara; Teodósio, Rosa

    2015-01-01

    The ability to effectively modify behaviours is increasingly relevant to attain and maintain a good health status. Current behaviour-change models and theories present two main approaches for (healthier) decision-making: one analytical/logical, and one experiential/emotional/intuitive. Therefore, to achieve an integral and dynamic understanding of the public perceptions both approaches should be considered: community surveys should measure cognitive understanding of health-risk contexts, and also explore how past experiences affect this understanding. In 2011, community perceptions regarding domestic source reduction were assessed in Madeira Island. After Madeira’s first dengue outbreak (2012) a unique opportunity to compare perceptions before and after the outbreak-experience occurred. This was the aim of this study, which constituted the first report on the effect of an outbreak experience on community perceptions regarding a specific vector-borne disease. A cross-sectional survey was performed within female residents at the most aegypti-infested areas. Perceptions regarding domestic source reduction were assessed according to the Essential Perception (EP)-analysis tool. A matching process paired individuals from studies performed before and after the outbreak, ensuring homogeneity in six determinant variables. After the outbreak, there were more female residents who assimilated the concepts considered to be essential to understand the proposed behaviour. Nevertheless, no significant difference was observed in the number of female residents who achieved the defined ‘minimal understanding’’. Moreover, most of the population (95.5%) still believed at least in one of the identified myths. After the outbreak some myths disappeared and others appeared. The present study quantified and explored how the experience of an outbreak influenced the perception regarding a dengue-preventive behaviour. The outbreak experience surprisingly led to the appearance of new

  18. Impact of a dengue outbreak experience in the preventive perceptions of the community from a temperate region: Madeira Island, Portugal.

    Nazareth, Teresa; Sousa, Carla Alexandra; Porto, Graça; Gonçalves, Luzia; Seixas, Gonçalo; Antunes, Luís; Silva, Ana Clara; Teodósio, Rosa

    2015-03-01

    The ability to effectively modify behaviours is increasingly relevant to attain and maintain a good health status. Current behaviour-change models and theories present two main approaches for (healthier) decision-making: one analytical/logical, and one experiential/emotional/intuitive. Therefore, to achieve an integral and dynamic understanding of the public perceptions both approaches should be considered: community surveys should measure cognitive understanding of health-risk contexts, and also explore how past experiences affect this understanding. In 2011, community perceptions regarding domestic source reduction were assessed in Madeira Island͘. After Madeira's first dengue outbreak (2012) a unique opportunity to compare perceptions before and after the outbreak-experience occurred. This was the aim of this study, which constituted the first report on the effect of an outbreak experience on community perceptions regarding a specific vector-borne disease. A cross-sectional survey was performed within female residents at the most aegypti-infested areas. Perceptions regarding domestic source reduction were assessed according to the Essential Perception (EP)-analysis tool. A matching process paired individuals from studies performed before and after the outbreak, ensuring homogeneity in six determinant variables. After the outbreak, there were more female residents who assimilated the concepts considered to be essential to understand the proposed behaviour. Nevertheless, no significant difference was observed in the number of female residents who achieved the defined 'minimal understanding''. Moreover, most of the population (95.5%) still believed at least in one of the identified myths. After the outbreak some myths disappeared and others appeared. The present study quantified and explored how the experience of an outbreak influenced the perception regarding a dengue-preventive behaviour. The outbreak experience surprisingly led to the appearance of new myths

  19. Technology, Performance, and Market Report of Wind-Diesel Applications for Remote and Island Communities: Preprint

    Baring-Gould, I.; Dabo, M.

    2009-02-01

    This paper describes the current status of wind-diesel technology and its applications, the current research activities, and the remaining system technical and commercial challenges. System architectures, dispatch strategies, and operating experience from a variety of wind-diesel systems will be discussed, as well as how recent development to explore distributed energy generation solutions for wind generation can benefit from the performance experience of operating systems. The paper also includes a detailed discussion of the performance of wind-diesel applications in Alaska, where 10 wind-diesel stations are operating and additional systems are currently being implemented. Additionally, because this application represents an international opportunity, a community of interest committed to sharing technical and operating developments is being formed. The authors hope to encourage this expansion while allowing communities and nations to investigate the wind-diesel option for reducing their dependence on diesel-driven energy sources.

  20. Technology, Performance, and Market Report of Wind-Diesel Applications for Remote and Island Communities: Preprint

    Baring-Gould, I.; Dabo, M.

    2009-05-01

    This paper describes the current status of wind-diesel technology and its applications, the current research activities, and the remaining system technical and commercial challenges. System architectures, dispatch strategies, and operating experience from a variety of wind-diesel systems will be discussed, as well as how recent development to explore distributed energy generation solutions for wind generation can benefit from the performance experience of operating systems. The paper also includes a detailed discussion of the performance of wind-diesel applications in Alaska, where 10 wind-diesel stations are operating and additional systems are currently being implemented. Additionally, because this application represents an international opportunity, a community of interest committed to sharing technical and operating developments is being formed. The authors hope to encourage this expansion while allowing communities and nations to investigate the wind-diesel option for reducing their dependence on diesel-driven energy sources.

  1. Environmental perception among residents of Ratones and Peri Lagoon communities, Santa Catarina Island

    Otávio da Silva Custódio

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Lack of basic sanitation is linked to population growth disjointed of public policies. This work developed between July 2015 and July 2016 aimed to evaluate the perceptions of riverside land owners on the status of water bodies in the locations of Ratones River and Peri Lagoon, Florianópolis (Santa Catarina. We interviewed 51 residents in total. And the residents of Ratones knew a larger number of rivers and described direct supply of water bodies to their homes, compared to that obtained in the community of Peri Lagoon, where most homes was supplied by the public network. Both communities have shown intradomiciliary water filtration, assumed riparian forests degraded, considered the rainwater important for ecosystems health, and reported lack of sewage treatment. We conclude that residents tended to have an anthropocentric environmental vision, which residents interpret the environment as a space disconnected from the man.

  2. Results from a Community-Wide Pilot Program to Standardize COPD Education for Patients Across Healthcare Settings in Rhode Island.

    Pelland, Kimberly; Youssef, Rouba; Calandra, Kathleen; Cellar, Jennifer; Thiesen, Jennifer; Gardner, Rebekah

    2017-07-05

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is associated with significant morbidity, decreased quality of life, and burdensome hospital admissions. Therefore, patients with COPD interact with clinicians in a number of healthcare settings. A coalition of healthcare practitioners in Rhode Island, in partnership with the local Quality Improvement Organization, designed and implemented a standardized, COPD education program for use across multiple healthcare settings. More than 60 organizations participated, producing 140 Master Trainers, who trained 634 staff members at their facilities from October 2015 through June 2016. Master Trainers were satisfied with the training, and we observed significant increases in knowledge scores post-training among all participants, which remained significant when stratified by setting. These results demonstrate that implementation of a community-based program to disseminate patient-centered, standardized COPD education in multiple healthcare settings is feasible. We hope this program will ultimately improve patient outcomes and serve as the foundation for expanding standardized education for other chronic conditions. [Full article available at http://rimed.org/rimedicaljournal-2017-07.asp].

  3. Impact of the Three Mile Island accident as perceived by those living in the surrounding community

    Trunk, A.D.; Trunk, E.V.

    1983-01-01

    The foregoing has pointed out that the public had a false sense of security about TMI. The plant was designed to withstand an accident. What the public heard was that an accident could not happen. A lack of knowledge and misconceptions about nuclear reactors contributed to an interpretation that the accident would have a devastating effect on such things as real-estate, tourism, farming, infant mortality, health, business and jobs. This perception changed as data was reported. The community is alive and prospering. Some still have strong apprehensions. The drawn out cleanup process does not help. The large majority have learned to accept the presence of TMI and are assured that the impact has been more psychological than real

  4. The submarine volcano eruption off El Hierro Island: Effects on the scattering migrant biota and the evolution of the pelagic communities

    Ariza, Alejandro

    2014-07-21

    The submarine volcano eruption off El Hierro Island (Canary Islands) on 10 October 2011 promoted dramatic perturbation of the water column leading to changes in the distribution of pelagic fauna. To study the response of the scattering biota, we combined acoustic data with hydrographic profiles and concurrent sea surface turbidity indexes from satellite imagery. We also monitored changes in the plankton and nekton communities through the eruptive and post-eruptive phases. Decrease of oxygen, acidification, rising temperature and deposition of chemicals in shallow waters resulted in a reduction of epipelagic stocks and a disruption of diel vertical migration (nocturnal ascent) of mesopelagic organisms. Furthermore, decreased light levels at depth caused by extinction in the volcanic plume resulted in a significant shallowing of the deep acoustic scattering layer. Once the eruption ceased, the distribution and abundances of the pelagic biota returned to baseline levels. There was no evidence of a volcano-induced bloom in the plankton community. © 2014 Ariza et al.

  5. MICROBIAL COMMUNITY OF BLACK BAND DISEASE ON INFECTION, HEALTHY, AND DEAD PART OF SCLERACTINIAN Montipora sp. COLONY AT SERIBU ISLANDS, INDONESIA

    Ofri Johan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available It is crucial to understand the microbial community associated with the host when attempting to discern the pathogen responsible for disease outbreaks in scleractinian corals. This study determines changes in the bacterial community associated with Montipora sp. in response to black band disease in Indonesian waters. Healthy, diseased, and dead Montipora sp. (n = 3 for each sample type per location were collected from three different locations (Pari Island, Pramuka Island, and Peteloran Island. DGGE (Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis was carried out to identify the bacterial community associated with each sample type and histological analysis was conducted to identify pathogens associated with specific tissues. Various Desulfovibrio species were found as novelty to be associated with infection samples, including Desulfovibrio desulfuricans, Desulfovibrio magneticus, and Desulfovibrio gigas, Bacillus benzoevorans, Bacillus farraginis in genus which previously associated with pathogenicity in corals. Various bacterial species associated with uninfected corals were lost in diseased and dead samples. Unlike healthy samples, coral tissues such as the epidermis, endodermis, zooxanthellae were not present on dead samples under histological observation. Liberated zooxanthellae and cyanobacteria were found in black band diseased Montipora sp. samples.

  6. Network Connectedness, Sense of Community, and Risk Perception of Climate Change Professionals in the Pacific Islands Region

    Corlew, L. K.; Keener, V. W.; Finucane, M.

    2013-12-01

    The Pacific Regional Integrated Sciences and Assessments (Pacific RISA) Program conducted social network analysis research of climate change professionals (broadly defined) who are from or work in Hawaii and the U.S.-Affiliated Pacific Islands (USAPI) region. This study is supported by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and the Pacific Islands Climate Science Center (PICSC) to address an identified need for a resource that quantifies the region's collaborative network of climate change professionals, and that supports the further development of cross-regional and inter-sectoral collaborations for future research and adaptation activities. A survey was distributed to nearly 1,200 people who are from and/or work in climate change related fields in the region. The Part One Survey questions (not confidential) created a preferential attachment network by listing major players in Hawaii and the USAPI, with additional open fields to identify important contacts in the greater professional network. Participants (n=340) identified 975 network contacts and frequency of communications (weekly, monthly, seasonally, yearly, at least once ever). Part Two Survey questions (confidential, n=302) explored climate change risk perceptions, Psychological Sense of Community (PSOC), sense of control over climate change impacts, sense of responsibility to act, policy beliefs and preferences regarding climate change actions, concern and optimism scales about specific impacts, and demographic information. Graphical representations of the professional network are being developed for release in September 2013 as a free online tool to promote and assist collaboration building among climate professionals in the region. The graphs are partitioned according to network 'hubs' (high centrality), participant location, and profession to clearly identify network strengths and opportunities for future collaborations across spatial and professional boundaries. For additional

  7. Coastal Mapping for Baseline Geoscience Knowledge to Support Community Hazard Assessment and Sustainable Development, Eastern Baffin Island, Nunavut

    Forbes, D. L.; Bell, T.; Campbell, D. C.; Cowan, B.; Deering, R. L.; Hatcher, S. V.; Hughes Clarke, J. E.; Irvine, M.; Manson, G. K.; Smith, I. R.; Edinger, E.

    2015-12-01

    Since 2012 we have carried out extensive multibeam bathymetric and backscatter surveys in coastal waters of eastern Baffin Island, supplemented by sub-bottom imaging and coring. Shore-zone surveys have been undertaken in proximity to the communities of Iqaluit and Qikiqtarjuaq, following earlier work in Clyde River. These support benthic habitat mapping, geological exploration, analysis of past and present sea-level trends, and assessment of coastal hazards relating to climate change and seabed instability. Outputs include a seamless topographic-bathymetric digital elevation model (DEM) of extensive boulder-strewn tidal flats in the large tidal-range setting at Iqaluit, supporting analysis of coastal flooding, wave run-up, and sea-ice impacts on a rapidly developing urban waterfront in the context of climate change. Seabed mapping of inner Frobisher Bay seaward of Iqaluit reveals a potential local tsunami hazard in widespread submarine slope failures, the triggers, magnitudes, and ages of which are the subject of ongoing research. In fjords of the Cumberland Peninsula, this project has mapped numerous submerged delta terraces at 19 to 45 m present water depth. These attest to an early postglacial submerged shoreline, displaced by glacial-isostatic adjustment. It rises linearly over a distance of 100 km east to west, where a submerged boulder barricade on a -16 m shoreline was discovered at a proposed port site in Broughton Channel near Qikiqtarjuaq. Palaeotopographic mapping using the multibeam data revealed an enclosed estuarine environment quite different from the present-day open passage swept by tidal currents. At Clyde River, combined seabed and onshore DEMs with geohazard mapping provided foundation data for community assessment and planning under a local knowledge co-production initiative. The geohazard work identified portions of the town-site more vulnerable to both coastal flooding and potential thaw subsidence, while the shallow delta terrace suggested a

  8. Alcohol management plans in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander (Indigenous Australian communities in Queensland: community residents have experienced favourable impacts but also suffered unfavourable ones

    Alan R. Clough

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Australia, ‘Alcohol Management Plans’ (AMPs provide the policy infrastructure for State and Commonwealth Governments to address problematic alcohol use among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders. We report community residents’ experiences of AMPs in 10 of Queensland’s 15 remote Indigenous communities. Methods This cross-sectional study used a two-stage sampling strategy: N = 1211; 588 (48% males, 623 (52% females aged ≥18 years in 10 communities. Seven propositions about ‘favourable’ impacts and seven about ‘unfavourable’ impacts were developed from semi-structured interviews. For each proposition, one-sample tests of proportions examined participant agreement and multivariable binary logistic regressions assessed influences of gender, age (18–24, 25–44, 45–64, ≥65 years, residence (≥6 years, current drinking and Indigenous status. Confirmatory factor analyses estimated scale reliability (ρ, item loadings and covariances. Results Slim majorities agreed that: AMPs reduced violence (53%, p = 0.024; community a better place to live (54%, 0.012; and children were safer (56%, p < 0.001. More agreed that: school attendance improved (66%, p < 0.001; and awareness of alcohol’s harms increased (71%, p < 0.001. Participants were equivocal about improved personal safety (53%, p = 0.097 and reduced violence against women (49%, p = 0.362. The seven ‘favourable’ items reliably summarized participants’ experiences of reduced violence and improved community amenity (ρ = 0.90. Stronger agreement was found for six ‘unfavourable’ items: alcohol availability not reduced (58%, p < 0.001; drinking not reduced (56%, p < 0.001; cannabis use increased (69%, p < 0.001; more binge drinking (73%, p < 0.001; discrimination experienced (77%, p < 0.001; increased fines, convictions and criminal records for breaching restrictions (90%, p < 0

  9. Morphotype-based characterization of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal communities in a restored tropical dry forest, Margarita island-Venezuela

    Laurie Fajardo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The mycorrhizal component of revegetated areas after ecological restoration or rehabilitation in arid and semiarid tropical areas has been scarcely assessed, particularly those made after mining disturbance. We evaluated and compared the presence of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi of a small area of restored tropical dry for est destroyed by sand extraction, with a non-restored area of similar age, at the peninsula of Macanao, Margarita Island (Venezuela. Our study was undertaken in 2009, four years after planting, and the mycorrhizal status was evaluated in four restored plots (8 x 12.5 m (two were previously treated with hydrogel (R2 and R2', and two were left untreated (R1 and R1', and four non-restored plots of similar size (NR1 and NR1' with graminoid physiognomy with some scattered shrubs; and NR2 and NR2', with a more species rich plant community. Apparently the restoration management promoted higher arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF species richness and diversity, particularly in restored soils where the hydrogel was added (R2 treatment. Soil of the NR1 treat ment (with a higher herbaceous component showed the highest spore density, compared to samples of soils under the other treatments. Considering species composition, Claroideoglomus etunicatumand Rhizophagus intraradiceswere found in all treatments; besides, Diversispora spurcaand Funneliformis geosporumwere only found in non-restored plots, while members of the Gigasporaceae (a family associated with little disturbed sites were commonly observed in the plots with restored soils. Mycorrhizal colonization was similar in the restored and non-restored areas, being a less sensitive indicator of the ecosystem recovery. The trend of higher richness and diversity of AMF in the restored plot with hydrogel suggests that this management strategy contributes to accelerate the natural regeneration in those ecosystems where water plays an essential role.

  10. Island biogeography

    Whittaker, Robert James; Fernández-Palacios, José María; Matthews, Thomas J.

    2017-01-01

    Islands provide classic model biological systems. We review how growing appreciation of geoenvironmental dynamics of marine islands has led to advances in island biogeographic theory accommodating both evolutionary and ecological phenomena. Recognition of distinct island geodynamics permits gener...

  11. Fatherhood in Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities: An Examination of Barriers and Opportunities to Strengthen the Male Parenting Role.

    Reilly, Lyndon; Rees, Susan

    2018-03-01

    Traditional Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander societies value men's role as parents; however, the importance of promoting fatherhood as a key social determinant of men's well-being has not been fully appreciated in Western medicine. To strengthen the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander male parenting role, it is vital to examine current barriers and opportunities. The first author (a male Aboriginal health project officer) conducted yarning sessions in three remote Australian communities, two being Aboriginal, the other having a high Aboriginal population. An expert sample of 25 Aboriginal and 6 non-Aboriginal stakeholders, including maternal and child health workers and men's group facilitators, considered barriers and opportunities to improve men's parenting knowledge and role, with an aim to inform services and practices intended to support men's parenting. A specific aim was to shape an existing men's group program known as Strong Fathers, Strong Families. A thematic analysis of data from the project identified barriers and opportunities to support men's role as parents. Challenges included the transition from traditional to contemporary parenting practices and low level of cultural and male gender sensitivity in maternal and child health services. Services need to better understand and focus on men's psychological empowerment and to address shame and lack of confidence around parenting. Poor literacy and numeracy are viewed as contributing to disempowerment. Communities need to champion Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander male father role models. Biases and barriers should be addressed to improve service delivery and better enable men to become empowered and confident fathers.

  12. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Assessment of coral reef fish communities in the U.S. Virgin Islands

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data provided in this data set were collected around the U.S. Virgin Islands (USVI) as part of NOAA National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science (NCCOS)-led missions...

  13. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Assessment of coral reef benthic communities in the U.S. Virgin Islands

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data provided in this data set were collected around the U.S. Virgin Islands (USVI) as part of NOAA National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science (NCCOS)-led missions...

  14. First quantification of subtidal community structure at Tristan da Cunha Islands in the remote South Atlantic: from kelp forests to the deep sea

    Hamilton, Scott L.; Davis, Kathryn; Thompson, Christopher D. H.; Turchik, Alan; Jenkinson, Ryan; Simpson, Doug; Sala, Enric

    2018-01-01

    Tristan da Cunha Islands, an archipelago of four rocky volcanic islands situated in the South Atlantic Ocean and part of the United Kingdom Overseas Territories (UKOTs), present a rare example of a relatively unimpacted temperate marine ecosystem. We conducted the first quantitative surveys of nearshore kelp forests, offshore pelagic waters and deep sea habitats. Kelp forests had very low biodiversity and species richness, but high biomass and abundance of those species present. Spatial variation in assemblage structure for both nearshore fish and invertebrates/algae was greatest between the three northern islands and the southern island of Gough, where sea temperatures were on average 3-4o colder. Despite a lobster fishery that provides the bulk of the income to the Tristan islands, lobster abundance and biomass are comparable to or greater than many Marine Protected Areas in other parts of the world. Pelagic camera surveys documented a rich biodiversity offshore, including large numbers of juvenile blue sharks, Prionace glauca. Species richness and abundance in the deep sea is positively related to hard rocky substrate and biogenic habitats such as sea pens, crinoids, whip corals, and gorgonians were present at 40% of the deep camera deployments. We observed distinct differences in the deep fish community above and below ~750 m depth. Concurrent oceanographic sampling showed a discontinuity in temperature and salinity at this depth. While currently healthy, Tristan’s marine ecosystem is not without potential threats: shipping traffic leading to wrecks and species introductions, pressure to increase fishing effort beyond sustainable levels and the impacts of climate change all could potentially increase in the coming years. The United Kingdom has committed to protection of marine environments across the UKOTs, including Tristan da Cunha and these results can be used to inform future management decisions as well as provide a baseline against which future

  15. First quantification of subtidal community structure at Tristan da Cunha Islands in the remote South Atlantic: from kelp forests to the deep sea.

    Caselle, Jennifer E; Hamilton, Scott L; Davis, Kathryn; Thompson, Christopher D H; Turchik, Alan; Jenkinson, Ryan; Simpson, Doug; Sala, Enric

    2018-01-01

    Tristan da Cunha Islands, an archipelago of four rocky volcanic islands situated in the South Atlantic Ocean and part of the United Kingdom Overseas Territories (UKOTs), present a rare example of a relatively unimpacted temperate marine ecosystem. We conducted the first quantitative surveys of nearshore kelp forests, offshore pelagic waters and deep sea habitats. Kelp forests had very low biodiversity and species richness, but high biomass and abundance of those species present. Spatial variation in assemblage structure for both nearshore fish and invertebrates/algae was greatest between the three northern islands and the southern island of Gough, where sea temperatures were on average 3-4o colder. Despite a lobster fishery that provides the bulk of the income to the Tristan islands, lobster abundance and biomass are comparable to or greater than many Marine Protected Areas in other parts of the world. Pelagic camera surveys documented a rich biodiversity offshore, including large numbers of juvenile blue sharks, Prionace glauca. Species richness and abundance in the deep sea is positively related to hard rocky substrate and biogenic habitats such as sea pens, crinoids, whip corals, and gorgonians were present at 40% of the deep camera deployments. We observed distinct differences in the deep fish community above and below ~750 m depth. Concurrent oceanographic sampling showed a discontinuity in temperature and salinity at this depth. While currently healthy, Tristan's marine ecosystem is not without potential threats: shipping traffic leading to wrecks and species introductions, pressure to increase fishing effort beyond sustainable levels and the impacts of climate change all could potentially increase in the coming years. The United Kingdom has committed to protection of marine environments across the UKOTs, including Tristan da Cunha and these results can be used to inform future management decisions as well as provide a baseline against which future monitoring

  16. Heat Island Compendium

    Heat islands can be mitigated through measures like planting trees and vegetation, installing green roofs and cool roofs, and using cool pavements. The compendium describes all of these strategies and shows how communities around the country are being used

  17. Contribution to the study of deep coastal detritic bottoms: the algal communities of the continental shelf off the Balearic Islands, Western Mediterranean

    S. JOHER

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Three main algal-dominated coastal detritic communities from the continental shelf off Mallorca and Menorca (Balearic Islands, Western Mediterranean are described herein: maërl beds dominated by Spongites fruticulosus and forests of Laminaria rodriguezii located in the Menorca channel, and Peyssonnelia inamoena beds found along the Southern coast of Menorca. There seems to be a gradient of disturbance from the highly disturbed Peyssonnelia beds to the almost undisturbed L. rodriguezii forests. Whether this gradient is the result of current and past anthropogenic pressure (e.g. trawling intensity or is driven by natural environmental factors needs further assessment. Finally, the location of the target communities by means of ROV dives combined with the use of a Box-Corer dredge and beam trawl proved to be a good methodology in the study of the composition and structure of these deep water detritic communities.

  18. Pediatrics in the Marshall Islands

    Dungy, C.I.; Morgan, B.C.; Adams, W.H.

    1984-01-01

    The delivery of health care to children living on isolated island communities presents unique challenges to health professionals. An evolved method of providing longitudinal services to infants and children residing on islands of the Marshall Island chain - a central Pacific portion of the Micronesian archipelago - is presented. The difficulties associated with provision of comprehensive health care in a vast ocean area are discussed

  19. Incidence and Risk Factors of Childhood Pneumonia-Like Episodes in Biliran Island, Philippines--A Community-Based Study.

    Hisato Kosai

    Full Text Available Pneumonia is a leading cause of deaths in infants and young children in developing countries, including the Philippines. However, data at the community level remains limited. Our study aimed to estimate incidence and mortality rates and to evaluate risk factors and health-seeking behavior for childhood pneumonia. A household level interview survey was conducted in Biliran Island, the Philippines. Caregivers were interviewed using a semi-structured questionnaire to check if children had symptoms suggesting pneumonia-like episodes from June 2011 to May 2012. Of 3,327 households visited in total, 3,302 (99.2% agreed to participate, and 5,249 children less than 5 years of age were included in the study. Incidence rates of pneumonia-like episodes, severe pneumonia-like episodes, and pneumonia-associated mortality were 105, 61, and 0.9 per 1,000 person-years, respectively. History of asthma [hazard ratio (HR: 5.85, 95% confidence interval (CI: 4.83-7.08], low socioeconomic status (SES (HR: 1.11, 95% CI: 1.02-1.20, and long travel time to the healthcare facility estimated by cost distance analysis (HR: 1.32, 95% CI: 1.09-1.61 were significantly associated with the occurrence of pneumonia-like episodes by the Cox proportional hazards model. For severe pneumonia-like episodes, a history of asthma (HR: 8.39, 95% CI: 6.54-10.77 and low SES (HR: 1.30, 95% CI: 1.17-1.45 were significant risk factors. Children who had a long travel time to the hospital were less likely to seek hospital care (Odds ratio: 0.32, 95% CI: 0.19-0.54 when they experienced severe pneumonia-like episodes. Incidence of pediatric pneumonia-like episodes was associated with a history of asthma, SES, and the travel time to healthcare facilities. Travel time was also identified as a strong indicator for health-seeking behavior. Improved access to healthcare facilities is important for early and effective management. Further studies are warranted to understand the causal relationship

  20. Incidence and Risk Factors of Childhood Pneumonia-Like Episodes in Biliran Island, Philippines—A Community-Based Study

    Kosai, Hisato; Tamaki, Raita; Saito, Mayuko; Tohma, Kentaro; Alday, Portia Parian; Tan, Alvin Gue; Inobaya, Marianette Tawat; Suzuki, Akira; Kamigaki, Taro; Lupisan, Soccoro; Tallo, Veronica; Oshitani, Hitoshi

    2015-01-01

    Pneumonia is a leading cause of deaths in infants and young children in developing countries, including the Philippines. However, data at the community level remains limited. Our study aimed to estimate incidence and mortality rates and to evaluate risk factors and health-seeking behavior for childhood pneumonia. A household level interview survey was conducted in Biliran Island, the Philippines. Caregivers were interviewed using a semi-structured questionnaire to check if children had symptoms suggesting pneumonia-like episodes from June 2011 to May 2012. Of 3,327 households visited in total, 3,302 (99.2%) agreed to participate, and 5,249 children less than 5 years of age were included in the study. Incidence rates of pneumonia-like episodes, severe pneumonia-like episodes, and pneumonia-associated mortality were 105, 61, and 0.9 per 1,000 person-years, respectively. History of asthma [hazard ratio (HR): 5.85, 95% confidence interval (CI): 4.83–7.08], low socioeconomic status (SES) (HR: 1.11, 95% CI: 1.02–1.20), and long travel time to the healthcare facility estimated by cost distance analysis (HR: 1.32, 95% CI: 1.09–1.61) were significantly associated with the occurrence of pneumonia-like episodes by the Cox proportional hazards model. For severe pneumonia-like episodes, a history of asthma (HR: 8.39, 95% CI: 6.54–10.77) and low SES (HR: 1.30, 95% CI: 1.17–1.45) were significant risk factors. Children who had a long travel time to the hospital were less likely to seek hospital care (Odds ratio: 0.32, 95% CI: 0.19–0.54) when they experienced severe pneumonia-like episodes. Incidence of pediatric pneumonia-like episodes was associated with a history of asthma, SES, and the travel time to healthcare facilities. Travel time was also identified as a strong indicator for health-seeking behavior. Improved access to healthcare facilities is important for early and effective management. Further studies are warranted to understand the causal relationship

  1. A new species of the genus Ammonicera (Prosobranchia, Omalogyridae) in a coralline algae community from Jeju Island, off the south coast of Korea

    Waki, Tsukasa; Rolán, Emilio; Noseworthy, Ronald G.; Kang, Hyun-Sil; Choi, Kwang-Sik

    2017-12-01

    A species of the genus Ammonicera Vayssière, 1893 collected from coralline algae communities in Jeju Island, South Korea, is described as a new species, A. aurea, for science. Its morphological characters are described and illustrated by SEM micrographs. This new species can be clearly distinguished from other Ammonicera species from the Pacific Ocean by the presence of a spiral cord and about 25 slightly-elevated axial ribs, resulting in about 25 nodules at intersecting points of the cord and ribs on the last whorl of the teleoconch.

  2. The biodiversity and species composition of the spider community of Marion Island, a recent survey (Arachnida: Araneae

    T.T. Khoza

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Marion Island, the larger of the Prince Edward Islands, lies in the sub-Antarctic biogeographic region in the southern Indian Ocean. From previous surveys, four spider species are known from Marion. The last survey was undertaken in 1968. During this study a survey was undertaken over a period of four weeks on the island to determine the present spider diversity and to record information about the habitat preferences and general behaviour of the species present. Three collection methods (active search, Tullgren funnels and pitfall traps were used, and spiders were sampled from six habitat sites. A total of 430 spiders represented by four families were collected, Myro kerguelenesis crozetensis Enderlein, 1909 and M. paucispinosus Berland, 1947 (Desidae, Prinerigone vagans (Audouin, 1826 (Linyphiidae, Cheiracanthium furculatum Karsch, 1879 (Miturgidae and an immature Salticidae. The miturgid and salticid are first records. Neomaso antarticus (Hickman, 1939 (Linyphiidae was absent from samples, confirming that the species might have been an erroneous record.

  3. Climate shapes the novel plant communities that form after deforestation in Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands

    Thomas J. Brandeis; Eileen Helmer; H. Marcano-Vega; Ariel E. Lugo

    2009-01-01

    Environmental and past land use controls on tree species assemblages on the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands were characterized to determine whether biophysical factors or land-use history has been more important in determining the species composition of secondary tropical forests after large-scale forest clearing for agriculture, widespread...

  4. Diversity of Microbial Communities and Quantitative Chemodiversity in Layers of Marine Sediment Cores from a Causeway (Kaichu-Doro in Okinawa Island, Japan

    Taha Soliman

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Microbial community diversity and chemodiversity were investigated in marine sediments adjacent to the Okinawan “Kaichu-Doro” Causeway, which was constructed 46 years ago to connect a group of four islands (Henza-jima, Miyagi-jima, Ikei-jima, Hamahiga-jima to the Okinawan main island. This causeway was not built on pilings, but by land reclamation; hence, it now acts as a long, thin peninsula. The construction of this causeway was previously shown to have influenced the surrounding marine ecosystem, causing ecosystem fragmentation and loss of water circulation. In this study, we collected sediment cores (n = 10 from five paired sites in 1 m water depths. Each pair of sites consisted of one site each on the immediate north and south sides of the causeway. Originally the members of each pair were much closer to each other (<150 m than to other pairs, but now the members of each pair are isolated by the causeway. Each core was 60–80 cm long and was divided into 15-cm layers. We examined the vertical diversity of microbial communities and chemical compounds to determine the correlation between chemodiversity and microbial communities among marine sediment cores and layers. Principal coordinate analyses (PCoA of detected compounds and of bacterial and archaeal operational taxonomic units (OTUs revealed that the north and south sides of the causeway are relatively isolated, with each side having unique microbial OTUs. Additionally, some bacterial families (e.g., Acidaminobacteraceae, Rhizobiaceae, and Xanthomonadaceae were found only on the south side of Kaichu-Doro. Interestingly, we found that the relative abundance of OTUs for some microbial families increased from top to bottom, but this was reversed in some other families. We conclude that the causeway has altered microbial community composition and metabolite profiles in marine sediments.

  5. Diversity of Microbial Communities and Quantitative Chemodiversity in Layers of Marine Sediment Cores from a Causeway (Kaichu-Doro) in Okinawa Island, Japan.

    Soliman, Taha; Reimer, James D; Yang, Sung-Yin; Villar-Briones, Alejandro; Roy, Michael C; Jenke-Kodama, Holger

    2017-01-01

    Microbial community diversity and chemodiversity were investigated in marine sediments adjacent to the Okinawan "Kaichu-Doro" Causeway, which was constructed 46 years ago to connect a group of four islands (Henza-jima, Miyagi-jima, Ikei-jima, Hamahiga-jima) to the Okinawan main island. This causeway was not built on pilings, but by land reclamation; hence, it now acts as a long, thin peninsula. The construction of this causeway was previously shown to have influenced the surrounding marine ecosystem, causing ecosystem fragmentation and loss of water circulation. In this study, we collected sediment cores ( n = 10) from five paired sites in 1 m water depths. Each pair of sites consisted of one site each on the immediate north and south sides of the causeway. Originally the members of each pair were much closer to each other (microbial communities and chemical compounds to determine the correlation between chemodiversity and microbial communities among marine sediment cores and layers. Principal coordinate analyses (PCoA) of detected compounds and of bacterial and archaeal operational taxonomic units (OTUs) revealed that the north and south sides of the causeway are relatively isolated, with each side having unique microbial OTUs. Additionally, some bacterial families (e.g., Acidaminobacteraceae, Rhizobiaceae, and Xanthomonadaceae) were found only on the south side of Kaichu-Doro. Interestingly, we found that the relative abundance of OTUs for some microbial families increased from top to bottom, but this was reversed in some other families. We conclude that the causeway has altered microbial community composition and metabolite profiles in marine sediments.

  6. Potential impacts of sea level rise on native plant communities and associated cultural sites in coastal areas of the main Hawaiian Islands

    Jacobi, James D.; Warshauer, Frederick R.

    2017-01-01

    Hawaiian coastal vegetation is comprised of plant species that are adapted to growing in extremely harsh conditions (salt spray, wave wash, wind, and substrates with limited nutrients) found in this habitat zone. Prior to human colonization of Hawai‘i coastal vegetation extended as a continuous ring around each of the islands, broken only by stretches of recent lava flows or unstable cliff faces. However, since humans arrived in Hawai‘i many areas that originally supported native coastal plant communities have been highly altered or the native vegetation totally removed for agriculture, housing, or resort development, destroyed by fire, displaced by invasive plants, eaten by introduced mammals, or damaged by recreational use. This study was focused on identifying sites that still retain relatively intact and highly diverse native coastal plant communities throughout the main Hawaiian Islands that may be further impacted by projected sea level rise. Approximately 40 percent of Hawai‘i’s coastlines were found to still contain high quality native coastal plant communities. Most of these sites were located in areas where the coastal vegetation can still migrate inshore in response to rising sea level and associated inundation by waves. However, six sites with high-quality native coastal vegetation were found on low-lying offshore islets that will be totally inundated with a one meter increase in sea level and thirty sites were found to have some type of fixed barrier, such as a paved road or structure, which would restrict the plants from colonizing the adjacent inland areas. Many of these sites also have other cultural resources that are fixed in place and will definitely be impacted by rising sea level. The results of this study can help refine our understanding of Hawai‘i’s remaining native coastal vegetation and aid with the development of management and restoration strategies to ensure the long-term survival of these unique plant communities.

  7. Carbon Stock of Seagrass Community in Barranglompo Island, Makassar (Stok Karbon pada Komunitas Lamun di Pulau Barranglompo, Makassar

    Supriadi Supriadi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Konsep blue carbon yang diperkenalkan oleh UNEP, FAO dan UNESCO pada tahun 2009 memasukkan padang lamun sebagai salah satu ekosistem yang mempunyai peran dalam penyerapan karbon global. Karbon yang diserap disimpan dan dialirkan dalam beberapa kompartemen, antara lain di sedimen, herbivora, kolom air, ekosistem lain dan dalam bentuk biomassa. Penelitian dilakukan di Pulau Barranglompo, Makassar, untuk melihat potensi stok karbon yang tersimpan dalam biomassa lamun. Kepadatan lamun diukur dengan melakukan sampling menggunakan metode transek kuadrat dengan ukuran 50cm x 50cm. Sedangkan untuk biomassa dilakukan dengan transek 20cm x 20cm. Hubungan antara kepadatan, biomassa dan kandungan karbon dari lamun digunakan untuk menentukan jumlah stok karbon. Kepadatan lamun disurvei pada 236 titik, sedangkan untuk pengambilan sampel biomassa dilakukan pada 30 titik. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa komunitas lamun mempunyai total stok karbon sebesar 73,86 ton dari total luas padang lamun 64,3 ha. Karbon di bawah substrat sebesar 56,55 ton (76,3%, lebih tinggi dibanding karbon di atas substrat yang hanya 17,57 ton (23,7%. Jenis lamun Enhalus acoroides menyumbang lebih dari 70% terhadap total stok karbon. Berdasarkan kelas karbon, kontribusi terbesar ditemukan pada kelas 100-200 gC.m-2 sebesar 29,41 ton (39,7%. Hasil ini menunjukkan bahwa ekosistem lamun berperan sangat penting dalam menjaga stok karbon di laut sehingga perlu mendapatkan perhatian untuk konservasinya. Kata kunci: konsep blue karbon, lamun, Barranglompo   Blue carbon concept as introduced by UNEP, FAO and UNESCO in 2009 included seagrass beds as one ecosystem having a significant role in global carbon absorption. Absorbed carbon was stored and distributed in various compartments such as in sediments, herbivores, water column, other ecosystems and in form of biomass. The research was conducted in Barranglompo Island, Makassar City to analyze the potency of carbon stock that stored within

  8. Coral community composition and reef development at the Similan Islands, Andaman Sea, in response to strong environmental variations

    Schmidt, GM; Phongsuwan, N; Jantzen, C; Roder, Cornelia; Khokiattiwong, S; Richter, C

    2012-01-01

    The Similan Islands, a Thai archipelago in the Andaman Sea located near the shelf break, are subjected to frequent (up to several events per hour) and abrupt changes in physico-chemical conditions, particularly during the dry season (NE monsoon, January through April) and to an intense monsoon season with strong surface wave action (May to October). The exposed west slopes of the islands feature more coral species, but lack a carbonate reef framework. By contrast, the sheltered east sides show a complex reef framework dominated by massive Porites. Our results suggest that the sudden changes in temperature, pH and nutrients (drops of up to 10°C and 0.6 U and increases of up to 9.4 µmol NOx l−1, respectively) due to pulsed upwelling events may rival the importance of surface waves and storms in shaping coral distribution and reef development.

  9. Coral community composition and reef development at the Similan Islands, Andaman Sea, in response to strong environmental variations

    Schmidt, GM

    2012-06-07

    The Similan Islands, a Thai archipelago in the Andaman Sea located near the shelf break, are subjected to frequent (up to several events per hour) and abrupt changes in physico-chemical conditions, particularly during the dry season (NE monsoon, January through April) and to an intense monsoon season with strong surface wave action (May to October). The exposed west slopes of the islands feature more coral species, but lack a carbonate reef framework. By contrast, the sheltered east sides show a complex reef framework dominated by massive Porites. Our results suggest that the sudden changes in temperature, pH and nutrients (drops of up to 10°C and 0.6 U and increases of up to 9.4 µmol NOx l−1, respectively) due to pulsed upwelling events may rival the importance of surface waves and storms in shaping coral distribution and reef development.

  10. Vegetation response of a dry shrubland community to feral goat management on the island of Moloka‘i, Hawai‘i

    Jacobi, James D.; Stock, Jonathan

    2017-12-14

    The Hawaiian Islands are well known for their unique ecosystem assemblages that have a high proportion of endemic flora and fauna. However, since human colonization of this archipelago—starting with the arrival of Polynesian sailors approximately 1,200 years ago, and particularly following western contact in 1778—thousands of non-native species have been introduced to the Islands and many of these alien species have had severe impacts on the native ecosystems. Particularly damaging to these ecosystems are large mammals, including goats (Capra hircus), pigs (Sus scrofa), cattle (Bos taurus), deer (Axis axis and Odocoileus hemionus), and sheep (Ovis spp.), which are collectively referred to here as ungulates; they cause extensive damage to the native vegetation by their browsing, grazing, and trampling. Similar impacts have been documented elsewhere, including New Zealand and many other island ecosystems.Previous studies in Hawai‘i have utilized fenced exclosures to assess the impacts of feral or wild ungulates on vegetation and the recovery potential for the native plant communities by comparing plant community composition, structure, and cover inside the fenced area (without ungulates) over time to the vegetation condition outside of the protection of the fence. In some cases, the native vegetation recovered once the animals were removed. However, in other situations alien plants were more competitive and dominated the revegetation process after the impacts of ungulates had been reduced or eliminated.This report describes the response of a highly degraded lowland dry habitat plant community located on the south slope of east Moloka‘i, Hawai‘i, to reduction of browsing and grazing impacts caused by feral goats. For this study, vegetation response inside a fenced exclosure was compared to vegetation change in the area outside of the fence that was still accessible to goats. This study is part of the larger U.S. Geological Survey Ridge-to-Reef (USGS-R2R

  11. Canary Islands

    1992-01-01

    This easterly looking view shows the seven major volcanic islands of the Canary Island chain (28.0N, 16.5W) and offers a unique view of the islands that have become a frequent vacation spot for Europeans. The northwest coastline of Africa, (Morocco and Western Sahara), is visible in the background. Frequently, these islands create an impact on local weather (cloud formations) and ocean currents (island wakes) as seen in this photo.

  12. Returning from the Horizon: Introducing Urban Island Studies

    Xavier Barceló Pinya

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Island studies tends to focus on peripheral, isolated, and marginal aspects of island communities, while urban studies has showed scant awareness of islandness: Although many people research cities on islands, there is little tradition of researching island cities or urban archipelagos per se. Island cities (densely populated small islands and population centres of larger islands and archipelagos nevertheless play import cultural, economic, political, and environmental roles on local, regional, and global scales. Many major cities and ports have developed on small islands, and even villages can fulfil important urban functions on lightly populated islands. Island concepts are also deployed to metaphorically describe developments in urban space. The journal Urban Island Studies explores island and urban processes around the world, taking an island approach to urban research and an urban approach to island research.

  13. Renewable energy islands in Europe

    Oestergaard, Iben [ed.

    1998-12-31

    This publication includes a compiled presentation of various aspects concerning the possible transformation of some European islands into renewable energy communities and these projects were presented by a selection of pioneer islands at the first European Seminar on Renewable Energy Islands, held on the Danish island of Samsoee, 29-30 June 1998. This issue has increased in importance with the presentation of the ambitious EU-White Paper: `Energy for the future: Renewable Sources of Energy` which was adopted in 1998. One of the key elements of the strategy for an accelerated implementation of renewable energy is to transform 100 localities within Europe into communities which are to be 100% self-sufficient with renewable energy before 2010. In line with this strategy, the Danish Government appointed the island of Samsoe towards the end of 1997 to be the first `official` Danish, renewable energy island. This is to serve as a demonstration project for other local communities, both in Denmark as well as in the rest Europe. Gothland, Madeira, Canary Islands, Cape Verde, Arki, Crete, Minorca and Orkney Islands were represented. Environmental advantages of wind, solar and wave power for distant island communities were indicated. Serious savings would be achieved by limitation of fossil fuel import and utilization of local resources. (EG)

  14. STRIVE, San Diego! Methodology of a Community-Based Participatory Intervention to Enhance Healthy Dining at Asian and Pacific Islander Restaurants.

    Oropeza, Sarah; Sadile, Mary Grace; Phung, Chantine Nguyen; Cabiles, Moana; Spackman, Sandy; Abuan, Myleen; Seligman, Fe; Araneta, Maria Rosario

    2018-03-01

    Asian American, Native Hawaiian, and Pacific Islander (AANHPI) populations have elevated prevalence of dietary-related chronic conditions; however, culturally relevant dietary interventions are lacking. This article describes the methodology for a community-based participatory intervention. Strategies to Reach and Implement the Vision of Health Equity, San Diego! aims to increase access to healthy food in AANHPI restaurants, grocery stores, and farmers' markets. Time series quasi-experimental study design. Dietitians, health promotion specialists, and community partners collaborated with restaurant owners and chefs to develop culturally tailored approaches without compromising traditional flavors. AANHPI restaurants in San Diego County, CA. Twenty restaurants and 600 diners are anticipated and will be sampled at 3 intervals for a total of 1,800 diners. We describe the community-based interventions within restaurants, including (1) analyzing and modifying selected recipes to create and promote healthier dishes; (2) providing nutrition labels on selected food items; (3) marketing healthy menu items through food tastings, signage, and social media promotion; and (4) offering low-sodium soy sauce and other condiments. Temporal changes in availability of healthful options, and the frequency of healthy dining choices. Program evaluation consists of assessment of the nutritional environment in 20 participating restaurants and surveys of customers' opinions and behaviors at baseline and at 3 and 12 months postintervention. Fifteen restaurants have been recruited to date. Copyright © 2017 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Assessment of Damage and Adaptation Strategies for Structures and Infrastructure from Storm Surge and Sea Level Rise for a Coastal Community in Rhode Island, United States

    Christopher Small

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an evaluation of inundation, erosion, and wave damage for a coastal community in Rhode Island, USA. A methodology called the Coastal Environmental Risk Index (CERI was used that incorporates levels of inundation including sea level rise, wave heights using STWAVE, and detailed information about individual structures from an E911 database. This information was input into damage functions developed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers following Hurricane Sandy. Damage from erosion was evaluated separately from local published erosion rates. Using CERI, two different adaptation strategies were evaluated that included a combination of dune restoration, protective berms, and a tide gate. A total of 151 out of 708 structures were estimated to be protected from inundation and wave action by the combined measures. More importantly, the use of CERI allowed for the assessment of the impact of different adaptation strategies on both individual structures and an entire community in a Geographical Information Systems (GIS environment. This tool shows promise for use by coastal managers to assess damage and mitigate risk to coastal communities.

  16. Phylogenetic analysis of the fecal microbial community in herbivorous land and marine iguanas of the Galápagos Islands using 16S rRNA-based pyrosequencing.

    Hong, Pei-Ying; Wheeler, Emily; Cann, Isaac K O; Mackie, Roderick I

    2011-09-01

    Herbivorous reptiles depend on complex gut microbial communities to effectively degrade dietary polysaccharides. The composition of these fermentative communities may vary based on dietary differences. To explore the role of diet in shaping gut microbial communities, we evaluated the fecal samples from two related host species--the algae-consuming marine iguana (Amblyrhynchus cristatus) and land iguanas (LI) (genus Conolophus) that consume terrestrial vegetation. Marine and LI fecal samples were collected from different islands in the Galápagos archipelago. High-throughput 16S rRNA-based pyrosequencing was used to provide a comparative analysis of fecal microbial diversity. At the phylum level, the fecal microbial community in iguanas was predominated by Firmicutes (69.5±7.9%) and Bacteroidetes (6.2±2.8%), as well as unclassified Bacteria (20.6±8.6%), suggesting that a large portion of iguana fecal microbiota is novel and could be involved in currently unknown functions. Host species differed in the abundance of specific bacterial groups. Bacteroides spp., Lachnospiraceae and Clostridiaceae were significantly more abundant in the marine iguanas (MI) (P-value>1E-9). In contrast, Ruminococcaceae were present at >5-fold higher abundance in the LI than MI (P-value>6E-14). Archaea were only detected in the LI. The number of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) in the LI (356-896 OTUs) was >2-fold higher than in the MI (112-567 OTUs), and this increase in OTU diversity could be related to the complexity of the resident bacterial population and their gene repertoire required to breakdown the recalcitrant polysaccharides prevalent in terrestrial plants. Our findings suggest that dietary differences contribute to gut microbial community differentiation in herbivorous lizards. Most importantly, this study provides a better understanding of the microbial diversity in the iguana gut; therefore facilitating future efforts to discover novel bacterial-associated enzymes that

  17. Pollination services mapping and economic valuation from insect communities: a case study in the Azores (Terceira Island

    Ana Picanço

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Insect pollinators provide vital ecosystem services through its maintenance of plant biological diversity and its role in food production. Indeed, adequate pollination services can increase the production and quality of fruit and vegetable crops. This service is currently challenged by land use intensification and expanding human population growth. Hence, this study aims: (1 to assess the pollination services in different land uses with different levels of disturbance through GIS mapping technique using insect pollinators abundance and richness as indicators, and (2 estimate the economic value of pollination by insects in agricultural crops. Our study takes place in a small oceanic island, Terceira (Azores, Portugal. Our results showed, remarkably, that not only the pristine vegetation areas, but also the orchards and agricultural areas have relatively high values of pollination services, even though both land uses have opposite disturbance levels. For the economic valuation, we analyzed 24 crops in the island and found that 18 depend on pollinators with one-third of these crops having 65% or 95% dependence on pollinators. The economic contribution of pollinators totals 36.2% of the total mean annual agricultural income of the dependent crops, highlighting the importance of insect pollinators in agricultural production and consequent economic gain productions.

  18. Determining Microeukaryotic Plankton Community around Xiamen Island, Southeast China, Using Illumina MiSeq and PCR-DGGE Techniques.

    Lingyu Yu

    Full Text Available Microeukaryotic plankton are important components of aquatic environments and play key roles in marine microbial food webs; however, little is known about their genetic diversity in subtropical offshore areas. Here we examined the community composition and genetic diversity of the microeukaryotic plankton in Xiamen offshore water by PCR-DGGE (polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, clone-based sequencing and Illumina based sequencing. The Illumina MiSeq sequencing revealed a much (approximately two orders of magnitude higher species richness of the microeukaryotic community than DGGE, but there were no significant difference in species richness and diversity among the northern, eastern, southern or western stations based on both methods. In this study, Copepoda, Ciliophora, Chlorophyta, Dinophyceae, Cryptophyta and Bacillariophyta (diatoms were the dominant groups even though diatoms were not detected by DGGE. Our Illumina based results indicated that two northern communities (sites N2 and N3 were significantly different from others in having more protozoa and fewer diatoms. Redundancy analysis (RDA showed that both temperature and salinity were the significant environmental factors influencing dominant species communities, whereas the full microeukaryotic community appeared to be affected by a complex of environmental factors. Our results suggested that extensive sampling combined with more deep sequencing are needed to obtain the complete diversity of the microeukaryotic community, and different diversity patterns for both abundant and rare taxa may be important in evaluating the marine ecosystem health.

  19. Distribution of the herpetofauna community associated to four areas with different interference degree in Gorgona Island, Colombian pacific

    Urbina C, Jose Nicolas; Londono M, Maria Cecilia

    2003-01-01

    A total of 1840 individuals from 28 species (19 reptiles and 9 amphibians) were found in Gorgona Island, during June and July 2001. Based on 32 transects placed in four areas with different antropic perturbation degree (Prison, palm plantations, secondary forest and primary forest) it was found that the species richness was higher at the secondary forest. The species registered at primary and secondary forest where very similar as well as the species present at the prison and the palm plantations. A Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA) showed that Boa constricto1; Basiliscus galeritus. Ameiva bridgesii and Epipedobates boulengeri were found to be associated to open areas and their distribution was hardly affected by the environmental temperature. From the following species associated with forested areas, the canopy cover over the micro habitat influenced the distribution of Eleutherodactylus gularis. Eleutherodactylus achatinus and Bothrops atrox. While the understory cover influenced the distribution of Atelopus elegans. Bufo typhonius. Micrurus mipartitus y Enyalioides heterolepis

  20. Ecological and morphological patterns in communities of land snails of the genus Mandarina from the Bonin Islands.

    Chiba, Satoshi

    2004-01-01

    The land snail genus Mandarina has undergone extensive radiation within the Bonin Islands in the west Pacific. The preferred above-ground vegetation heights of sympatric species were clearly different. They separated into arboreal, semi-arboreal, exposed ground and sheltered ground ecotypes. Shells of species with different ecotypes differ markedly, but shells of species with the same ecotype are very similar to each other. Shell morphologies of some phylogenetically distantly related species with the same ecotype were indistinguishable. Character evolution estimated parsimoniously using a phylogenetic tree suggests that the speciation among sympatric species is accompanied by ecological and morphological diversification. In addition, species coexistence of Mandarina is related to niche differentiation. The above findings suggest that ecological interactions among species contribute to the ecological and morphological diversification and radiation of these land snails in this depauperate environment.

  1. International migration, transnational links and ethnic economy. The case of the Indostanic community in the Canary Islands

    Ana María López Sala

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The Sindhi diaspora is one of the most extensive and influential of Asian commercial diasporas. Its expansion commenced in the 15th century, but it grew significantly in the second half of the 19th century and in the middle of the 20th. The aim of this article is to describe the Sindhis’ settling and commercial activity on the Canary Islands one of the establishing points of the network and to produce a critical reflection of some of the alternative guidelines for economic integration in places where, as in this case, the territory is presented as a space of opportunities for achieving economic objectives. Such an analysis must consider the make-up and dynamic of this transnational network through which information, capital, goods and people circulate.

  2. Reproductive phenology of three species of Gelidiales (Rhodophyta in two macroalgal communities from Tenerife (Atlantic Ocean, Canary Islands, Spain

    Polifrone, Milena

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The reproductive phenology of three species of Gelidiales, Gelidium canariense, Gelidium arbuscula and Pterocladiella capillacea, was analysed seasonally for a period of one year in two localities on the West coast of Tenerife (Atlantic Ocean, Canary Islands, Spain. Considerations are provided on sex ratio, maximum length and branch order of uprights and on the length of the thalli for each sexual and asexual phase of the Canary Islands populations. The three species were characterized by a high percentage of tetrasporophytes, while female and male gametophytes have been observed only in little proportion. Only G. canariense showed gametophytes in all seasons while the occurrence of gametophytes in G. arbuscula and Pterocladiella capillacea demonstrated a clear seasonality.

    La fenología reproductiva de tres especies de Gelidiales, Gelidium canariense, Gelidium arbuscula y Pterocladiella capillacea, ha sido analizada estacionalmente por un periodo de un año en dos localidades de la costa este de Tenerife (Oceano Atlántico, Islas Canarias, España. Se realizan consideraciones sobre sex ratio, longitud máxima y orden de ramificación de los ramets y se aporta información sobre la longitud del talo por cada fase sexual y asexual de las poblaciones canarias. Las tres especies se caracterizan por presentar un elevado porcentaje de tetrasporofitos, mientras que los gametofitos masculinos y femeninos han sido observados en proporciones reducidas. Sólo G. canariense presenta gametofitos en todas las estaciones, mientras que en G. arbuscula y Pterocladiella capillacea demostraban una clara estacionalidad.

  3. Up, down, and all around: scale-dependent spatial variation in rocky-shore communities of Fildes Peninsula, King George Island, Antarctica.

    Nelson Valdivia

    Full Text Available Understanding the variation of biodiversity along environmental gradients and multiple spatial scales is relevant for theoretical and management purposes. Hereby, we analysed the spatial variability in diversity and structure of intertidal and subtidal macrobenthic Antarctic communities along vertical environmental stress gradients and across multiple horizontal spatial scales. Since biotic interactions and local topographic features are likely major factors for coastal assemblages, we tested the hypothesis that fine-scale processes influence the effects of the vertical environmental stress gradients on the macrobenthic diversity and structure. We used nested sampling designs in the intertidal and subtidal habitats, including horizontal spatial scales ranging from few centimetres to 1000s of metres along the rocky shore of Fildes Peninsula, King George Island. In both intertidal and subtidal habitats, univariate and multivariate analyses showed a marked vertical zonation in taxon richness and community structure. These patterns depended on the horizontal spatial scale of observation, as all analyses showed a significant interaction between height (or depth and the finer spatial scale analysed. Variance and pseudo-variance components supported our prediction for taxon richness, community structure, and the abundance of dominant species such as the filamentous green alga Urospora penicilliformis (intertidal, the herbivore Nacella concinna (intertidal, the large kelp-like Himantothallus grandifolius (subtidal, and the red crustose red alga Lithothamnion spp. (subtidal. We suggest that in coastal ecosystems strongly governed by physical factors, fine-scale processes (e.g. biotic interactions and refugia availability are still relevant for the structuring and maintenance of the local communities. The spatial patterns found in this study serve as a necessary benchmark to understand the dynamics and adaptation of natural assemblages in response to

  4. Baseline survey for rare plant species and native plant communities within the Kamehameha Schools 'Lupea Safe Harbor Planning Project Area, North Kona District, Island of Hawai'i

    Jacobi, James; Warshauer, F. R.; Price, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    Kamehameha Schools, in conjunction with several federal, state, and private organizations, has proposed to conduct conservation management on approximately 5,340 ha (~13,200 acres) of land they own in the vicinity of Kīpukalupea in the North Kona District on the island of Hawai'i. The goal of this program is to restore and enhance the habitat to benefit native plant and animal populations that are currently, or were formerly, found in this site. The initial phase of this project has been focused on various activities including conducting baseline surveys for bird and plant species so Kamehameha Schools could develop a Safe Harbor Agreement (SHA) for the proposed project lands relative to the habitat management and species reintroduction efforts they would like to conduct in the Lupea Project area. This report summarizes methods that were used to collect field data on plant species and communities within the project area, and the results of that initial survey. The information was used to calculate baseline values for all listed threatened or endangered plant species found, or expected to be found, within the project area, and to design a monitoring program to assess changes in plant communities and rare plant species relative to management activities over the duration of the SHA.

  5. Multidimensional Scaling Approach to Evaluate the Level of Community Forestry Sustainability in Babak Watershed, Lombok Island, West Nusa Tenggara

    Ryke Nandini

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Community forestry in Babak watershed is one of the efforts to reduce critical land area. The aim of this research was to evaluate the level of community forestry sustainability in both of community forest (HKm and private forest in Babak watershed. Multidimensional scaling (MDS was used to analyse the level of community forest sustainability based on the five dimensions of ecology, economy, social, institutional, and technology as well as 29 attributes. Leverage analysis was used to know the sensitive attributes of sustainability, while Monte Carlo analysis and goodness of fit was used to find the accuracy of MDS analysis. The result shows that HKm was in moderate sustainability level (sustainability index 54.08% and private forest was in less sustainability level (sustainability index 48.53%. Furthermore, the ecology and technology in HKm were classified as less sustainable, while the institution and technology in private forest were considered less sustainable. There were 11 sensitive attributes of HKm and 19 sensitive attributes of private forest. The priorities of attribute improvement in HKm include land recovering (the dimension of ecology and cooperative development (the dimension of technology. In private forest, the priorities of attribute improvement include leadership capacity building (the institutional dimension and also the use of silviculture intensive and soil conservation (the dimension of technology.

  6. Variability in patterns of macro-epiphytic leaf community of Posidonia oceanica in the Islands of Kuriate: Western coast of Tunisia

    Ben Brahim Mounir

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To test the response of the epiphyte community structure and biomass of the Posidonia oceanica (P. oceanica leaves to natural disturbance. Methods: Sampling of P. oceanica was carried in winter and summer on three sites in Kuriate Islands (western coast of Tunisia subject to different environments disturbances. Shoots of P. oceanica were preserved in seawater-formalin (5% solution for macro-epiphytes species identification in the laboratory. The samples were examined for leaf surface per shoot and the coverage (expressed as a percentage of leaf surface of each morphological group, then carefully scraped with a razor blade. Epiphytes and scraped leaves were oven-dried at 60 °C for 48 h. Biomass was expressed as g dry weight/shoot. Results: The biomass and the percentage cover of macro-epiphytic leaves showed seasonal variation. The highest values of epiphytic leaves were detected in summer whereas the lowest values were registered during winter. ANOVA showed that Kuriate Islands functioned as a single ecosystem in terms assemblage of macro-epiphytic leaves since no significant variation was detected for biomass and percentage cover at the scale site. Our study showed that natural disturbance had no effect on the assemblage distribution and the biomass of macro-epiphyte on the leaves of P. oceanica between the scales of site, whereas variability at the smallest scale was detected. ANOVA showed that exposure to wind and current had no effect on the biomass of macro-epiphytes leaves. Conclusions: Biomass and assemblages of macro-epiphytic leaves of P. oceanica were high in summer and homogenous between all sites investigated. Natural disturbances such as exposure to wind have no effect on the distribution and the biomass of epiphytes on the shallow meadow.

  7. Annual cycle of the microzooplankton communities in the waters surrounding the Palm Island Nature Reserve (north Lebanon, with special attention to tintinnids

    M. ABBOUD-ABI SAAB

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The distribution, abundance and annual cycle of microzooplankton communities have been studied monthly at five sampling stations in the north Lebanon, covering both neritic and oceanic waters in the vicinity of small islands situated 5 km offshore.In general, the density of microprotozoans, except for ciliates, increased from the coastal towards the offshore area, with stations situated near the islands being similar to the offshore rather than to the coastal ones. The microprotozoan species showed their highest numbers in late autumn and early winter. Foraminifera abundance ranged from 20 to 3390 inds.m -3 (mean= 549 whereas Acantharia abundance was highest in spring and ranged from 0 to 2608 inds.m -3 (mean 259. The Polycistina had their highest numbers in late winter, which ranged from 0 to 6024 inds.m -3 (mean= 740. The Heliozoa were abundant in late autumn with numbers ranging from 0 to 5165 inds.m -3 (mean= 555. The annual cycle of Tintinnids at all the stations was bimodal with a principal peak in October-November and another one in May, while minimum numbers were recorded in August-September. A succession of populations was observed all year round with a density ranging between 344 and 38986 inds.m -3 (mean = 10878. Ninety different species of Tintinnids were recorded. The diversity index varied between 0.19 and 4.15. It was concluded that there was a large-scale gradient in seasonal diversity which could be related to the annual average sea surface temperature and to the development of the vertical thermic structure.

  8. PENGEMBANGAN PARIWISATA BAHARI BERBASIS MASYARAKAT DI PULAU KALEDUPA, KABUPATEN WAKATOBI, PROVINSI SULAWESI TENGGARA (Community Based Marine Tourism Development in Kaledupa Island, Wakatobi Regency, South East Sulawesi Province

    Hadiwijaya Lesmana Salim

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Tujuan penelitian adalah mengetahui pengembangan pariwisata bahari berbasis masyarakat di Pulau Kaledupa dan sekitarnya, Kabupaten Wakatobi, Provinsi Sulawesi Tenggara. Penelitian dilakukan pada bulan Oktober – November 2014. Penelitian menggunakan metode analisis prospektif partisipatif, wawancara, analisis pengaruh antar-variabel kunci, membangun skenario, dan analisis implikasi strategis dan aksi antisipatif. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa terdapat tiga variabel utama yang harus dititikberatkan dalam pengembangan wisata bahari di Pulau Kaledupa dan sekitarnya, yaitu informatif, koordinasi antar instansi, dan sumberdaya alam. Penitikberatan pada ketiga variabel tersebut diharapkan dapat menghilangkan kesalahpahaman dan kesalahpenafsiran atas informasi yang diberikan sehingga dapat menunjang hubungan yang harmonis antar pemangku kepentingan pengembangan wisata bahari. Koordinasi yang harmonis diharapkan dapat mensinergikan antar perencanaan, pengembangan dan pengelolaan. Diharapkan pula sumberdaya alam yang ada berkesinambungan tanpa mengurangi dan merusak kualitasnya.   ABSTRACT The research on community based marine tourism development at Kaledupa island has been conducted on October – November 2014. This research used participatory prospective analysis, interview, Influence Analysis of inter key variables, scenario building, and Analysis of Strategic Implication and Anticipative act. The result shows that there are three key variables that should be focused on marine tourism development at Kaledupa island i.e informative, inter-institutions coordination, and natural resources. These variables should be focused in order to relieve misconception and misinterpretation on information which is given, so that it can support harmonic relationship between marine tourism stakeholders. The synergy of planning, development, and management can be expected from harmonic coordination. It is also expected that existing natural resources

  9. Changes in bird communities of Admiralty Bay, King George Island (West Antarctic: insights from monitoring data (1977–1996

    Sierakowski Kazimierz

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper summarizes results of twenty years of seabird observations carried out between 1977 and 1996 on the western shore of Admiralty Bay (King George Island, South Shetlands, Antarctic. Changes in population size, distribution and phenology of the breeding species as well as the appearance of non-breeding species are reported. A total of 34 species of birds were observed, including 13 breeding species. Among the non-breeding species, four were observed to visit the site regularly, six rarely, and the remaining 11 were observed only occasionally. Among breeding populations, three Pygoscelis penguin species, the main krill consumers, were most numerous. The Adélie Penguin (P. adeliae dominated among the penguins nesting in the investigated areas, reaching 23,661 breeding pairs in 1978. Two other penguin species were less abundant with population sizes of approximately 7,200 breeding pairs for the Chinstrap Penguin (P. antarcticus and 3,100 breeding pairs for the Gentoo Penguin (P. papua in the same year. During the following two decades, breeding populations of pygoscelid species experienced a declining trend and their numbers were reduced by 68.0% for Chinstrap, 67.1% for Gentoo, and 33.9% for Adélie Penguins. The data reported here represent a unique reference basis and provide valuable information about indicator species, suitable for comparison with contemporary observations of bird populations in the Antarctic Peninsula region, a place of rapidly occurring climate changes and intensive harvesting of marine living resources.

  10. Marine subsidies of island communities in the Gulf of California: evidence from stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes

    Anderson, W.B.; Polis, G.A.

    1998-01-01

    Coastal sites support larger (2 to > 100 x) populations of many consumers than inland sites on islands in the Gulf of California. Previous data suggested that subsidies of energy and nutrients from the ocean allowed large coastal populations. Stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes are frequently used to analyse diet composition of organisms: they are particularly useful to distinguish between diet sources with distinct isotopic signatures, such as marine and terrestrial diets. We analyzed the 13 C and 15 N concentrations of coastal versus inland spiders and scorpions to test the hypothesis that coastal individuals exhibited more strongly marine-based diets than inland individuals. Coastal spiders and scorpions were significantly more enriched in 13 C and 15 N than inland spiders and scorpions, suggesting that the coastal individuals consumed more marine-based foods than their inland counterparts. These patterns existed in both drought years and wet El Nino years. However, the marine influence was stronger in drought years when terrestrial productivity was nearly non-existent, than in wet years when terrestrial productivity increased by an order of magnitude. (au)

  11. Subsistence patterns and blood pressure variation in two rural Caboclo communities of Marajó Island, Pará, Brazil.

    Silva, Hilton P; Crews, Douglas E; Neves, Walter A

    1995-01-01

    Blood pressure (BP) increases with age in westernized societies, is higher in men, and is correlated with the body mass index (BMI). Traditional societies present more variable patterns of BP. In 1991, BP and anthropometric data from two "Caboclo" (rural populations of mixed ancestry) groups from Marajó Island, Brazil, were collected: The Paricatuba group, (N = 20;12 women), with a subsistence base of fishing, collection of palm fruits, and traditional gardening; and the Praia Grande group (N = 26; 14 women), where subsistence is based on mechanized agriculture. In Paricatuba, mean BP is 109/74 mmHg in men and 101/70 mmHg in women. There are no significant differences between BP of men and women, and systolic blood pressure (SBP) increases with age. Both SBP and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) are associated with weight, but only DBP is associated with the BMI, while SBP is associated with stature. In Praia Grande, mean BP is 120/76 mmHg in men and 118/70 mmHg in women, with no significant differences between the sexes. In Praia Grande, SBP is higher than in Paricatuba, and both SBP and DBP are associated with age. Compared with urban groups, both Caboclo samples have low BP. Still, differences in BP and body habitus between the two groups support a hypothesis that degree of westernization influences mean levels of BP in rural Amazonian populations. Further, the results also may be interpreted as suggesting that associations of sex, age, and BMI with BP, commonly reported in urban samples, are a byproduct of westernization rather than a result of genetic factors. © 1995 Wiley-Liss, Inc. Copyright © 1995 Wiley-Liss, Inc., A Wiley Company.

  12. School-community collaboration in disaster education in a primary school near Merapi volcano in Java Island

    Tuswadi, Takehiro, Hayashi

    2016-05-01

    This paper describes our latest innovation in implementation of school-community collaboration in disaster education at Sekolah Dasar Negeri 1 Banaran, located in Cangkringan district of Sleman regency, as high-risk area of having impacts from Merapi eruption. The collaboration between school and local communities in an integrated disaster prevention lesson provides a space for students to not only obtain important information and knowledge about natural disasters through their teacher in the classroom but also gain important knowledge directly from the people who live around the school. Through this study, students are taught to be sensitive to utilize the resources in their nearest environment to support the process and the results of their learning about survival in a disaster prone area. Many students have not well understood relation between earthquake and volcanic eruption. Result of student groups' interview to a number of local community members showed that (1) In 2010 Merapi eruptions, from 8 residents, 5 of them, together with their family members were staying at home and getting panic while 3 other residents had already evacuated. (2) Five residents reported no one in their village was killed although some houses were damaged. (3) For anticipating future eruption, the residents confessed to quickly follow the government for evacuation by preparing in advance the transportation, masks, their own precious goods and important documents. From the result of the groups' report during discussion activities in the class, it was revealed that the students are aware of immediate evacuation as the best way to keep themselves safe from eruption. They also understood things to bring for evacuation including maskers.

  13. Chemosynthetic trophic support for the benthic community at an intertidal cold seep site at Mocha Island off central Chile

    Sellanes, Javier; Zapata-Hernández, Germán; Pantoja, Silvio; Jessen, Gerdhard L.

    2011-12-01

    We analyzed C and N stable isotope ratios of benthic fauna and their potential food sources at an intertidal methane seep site and a control site without emanation at Mocha Island (central Chile). The objective was to trace the origin of the main food sources used by the local heterotrophic fauna, based on the hypothesis that chemosynthetic production could be partially fueling the local food web at the seep site. Food sources sampled at both sites included macroalgae, particulate organic matter and bacteria-like filaments found growing over the red algae Gelidium lingulatum within the areas of active methane release. At the control site, located 11 km away from the gas emanation, fauna exhibited moderate δ 13C values ranging from -16.2‰ (in a nereid polychaete) to -14.8‰ (in a cirolanid isopod), which were consistent with those of the potential photosynthetic food sources sampled at this site (-20.2 to -16.5‰). δ 13C values of the photosynthetic food sources at the seep site similarly ranged between -25.4 and -17.9‰. However, a portion of the animals at this site were consistently more 13C-depleted, with δ 13C values close to that of the seeping methane (-43.8‰) and the bacteria-like filaments (-39.2 ± 2.5‰) also collected at this site. Specific examples were the Marphysa sp. polychaetes (δ 13C = -44.7 ± 0.6‰), the Schistomeringos sp. dorvilleid polychaetes (δ 13C = -42.9‰), and the tanaid crustacean Zeuxo marmoratus (δ 13C = -37.3 ± 0.2‰). The significantly higher δ 13C values of the herbivorous gastropod Tegula atra at the seep site (-29.3 ± 3.1‰) than at the control site (-12.6 ± 0.3‰) also indicated differences among sites of the preferred carbon sources of this species. Mixing model estimates indicate that at the seep site bacteria-like filaments could be contributing up to ˜60% of the assimilated diet of selected invertebrates. Furthermore, several indicators of trophic structure, based in isotopic niche metrics, indicate a

  14. Understanding the scale of Marine protection in Hawai'i: from community-based management to the remote Northwestern Hawaiian Islands.

    Friedlander, Alan M; Stamoulis, Kostantinos A; Kittinger, John N; Drazen, Jeffrey C; Tissot, Brian N

    2014-01-01

    Ancient Hawaiians developed a sophisticated natural resource management system that included various forms of spatial management. Today there exists in Hawai'i a variety of spatial marine management strategies along a range of scales, with varying degrees of effectiveness. State-managed no-take areas make up less than 0.4% of nearshore waters, resulting in limited ecological and social benefits. There is increasing interest among communities and coastal stakeholders in integrating aspects of customary Hawaiian knowledge into contemporary co-management. A network of no-take reserves for aquarium fish on Hawai'i Island is a stakeholder-driven, adaptive management strategy that has been successful in achieving ecological objectives and economic benefits. A network of large-scale no-take areas for deepwater (100-400m) bottomfishes suffered from a lack of adequate data during their initiation; however, better technology, more ecological data, and stakeholder input have resulted in improvements and the ecological benefits are becoming clear. Finally, the Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument (PMNM) is currently the single largest conservation area in the United States, and one of the largest in the world. It is considered an unqualified success and is managed under a new model of collaborative governance. These case studies allow an examination of the effects of scale on spatial marine management in Hawai'i and beyond that illustrate the advantages and shortcomings of different management strategies. Ultimately a marine spatial planning framework should be applied that incorporates existing marine managed areas to create a holistic, regional, multi-use zoning plan engaging stakeholders at all levels in order to maximize resilience of ecosystems and communities.

  15. Multiple timescale analysis of the urban heat island effect based on the Community Land Model: a case study of the city of Xi'an, China.

    Gao, Meiling; Shen, Huanfeng; Han, Xujun; Li, Huifang; Zhang, Liangpei

    2017-12-06

    Urban heat islands (UHIs) are the phenomenon of urban regions usually being warmer than rural regions, which significantly impacts both the regional ecosystem and societal activities. Numerical simulation can provide spatially and temporally continuous datasets for UHI analysis. In this study, a spatially and temporally continuous ground temperature dataset of Xi'an, China was obtained through numerical simulation based on the Community Land Model version 4.5 (CLM4.5), at a temporal resolution of 30 min and a spatial resolution of 0.05 ∘ × 0.05 ∘ . Based on the ground temperature, the seasonal average UHI intensity (UHII) was calculated and the seasonal variation of the UHI effect was analyzed. The monthly variation tendency of the urban heat stress was also investigated. Based on the diurnal cycle of ground temperature and the UHI effect in each season, the variation tendencies of the maximum, minimum, and average UHII were analyzed. The results show that the urban heat stress in summer is the strongest among all four seasons. The heat stress in urban areas is very significant in July, and the UHII is the weakest in January. Regarding the diurnal cycle of UHII, the maximum always appears at 06:30 UTC to 07:30 UTC, while the minimum intensity of the UHI effect occurs at different times in the different seasons. The results of this study could provide a reference for policymakers about how to reduce the damage caused by heat stress.

  16. Analysis of early bacterial communities on volcanic deposits on the island of Miyake (Miyake-jima), Japan: a 6-year study at a fixed site.

    Fujimura, Reiko; Sato, Yoshinori; Nishizawa, Tomoyasu; Nanba, Kenji; Oshima, Kenshiro; Hattori, Masahira; Kamijo, Takashi; Ohta, Hiroyuki

    2012-01-01

    Microbial colonization on new terrestrial substrates represents the initiation of new soil ecosystem formation. In this study, we analyzed early bacterial communities growing on volcanic ash deposits derived from the 2000 Mount Oyama eruption on the island of Miyake (Miyake-jima), Japan. A site was established in an unvegetated area near the summit and investigated over a 6-year period from 2003 to 2009. Collected samples were acidic (pH 3.0-3.6), did not utilize any organic substrates in ECO microplate assays (Biolog), and harbored around 106 cells (g dry weight)(-1) of autotrophic Fe(II) oxidizers by most-probable-number (MPN) counts. Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans, Acidithiobacillus ferrivorans, and the Leptospirillum groups I, II and III were found to be abundant in the deposits by clone library analysis of bacterial 16S rRNA genes. The numerical dominance of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans was also supported by analysis of the gene coding for the large subunit of the form I ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RubisCO). Comparing the 16S rRNA gene clone libraries from samples differing in age, shifts in Fe(II)-oxidizing populations seemed to occur with deposit aging. The detection of known 16S rRNA gene sequences from Fe(III)-reducing acidophiles promoted us to propose the acidity-driven iron cycle for the early microbial ecosystem on the deposit.

  17. Stepping-stones to the Edge: Artistic Expressions of Islandness in an Ocean of Islands

    Laurie Brinklow

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Since the earliest of times, islands have captured the artistic imagination—and, often, for the artist who finds his or her muse in being ‘islanded’, the smaller the island the better. Archipelagos offer an ideal setting for artists who take their inspiration from place: on small islands off islands they can experience an intensity of island living they might not otherwise have on a main island: boundedness and connection, isolation and community. This paper examines expressions of islandness by artists who live on islands off islands that are poles apart—‘archipelagos’ of the Canadian North Atlantic and the Great Southern Ocean. It draws upon interviews with those artists and writers to consider the nature of humans’ attachment and attraction to islands, exploring through the lens of phenomenology what Stratford et al. call the “entanglement between and among islands”.

  18. The effects of island ontogeny on species diversity and phylogeny

    Valente, Luis M.; Etienne, Rampal S.; Phillimore, Albert B.

    2014-01-01

    A major goal of island biogeography is to understand how island communities are assembled over time. However, we know little about the influence of variable area and ecological opportunity on island biotas over geological time-scales. Islands have limited life spans, and it has been posited that

  19. Large-scale coral recruitment patterns on Mona Island, Puerto Rico: evidence of a transitional community trajectory after massive coral bleaching and mortality

    Edwin A. Hernández-Delgado

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Coral reefs have largely declined across the northeastern Caribbean following the 2005 massive bleaching event. Climate change-related sea surface warming and coral disease outbreaks of a white plague-like syndrome and of yellow band disease (YBD have caused significant coral decline affecting massive reef building species (i.e., Orbicella annularis species complex which show no apparent signs of recovery through larval sexual recruitment. We addressed coral recruit densities across three spur and groove reef locations along the western shelf of remote Mona Island, Puerto Rico: Punta Capitán (PCA, Pasa de Las Carmelitas (PLC, and Las Carmelitas-South (LCS. Data were collected during November 2012 along 93 haphazard transects across three depth zones (<5m, 5-10m, 10-15m. A total of 32 coral species (9 octocorals, 1 hydrocoral, 22 scleractinians were documented among the recruit community. Communities had low densities and dominance by short-lived brooder species seven years after the 2005 event. Mean coral recruit density ranged from 1.2 to 10.5/m2 at PCA, 6.3 to 7.2/m² at LCS, 4.5 to 9.5/m² at PLC. Differences in coral recruit community structure can be attributed to slight variation in percent macroalgal cover and composition as study sites had nearly similar benthic spatial heterogeneity. Dominance by ephemeral coral species was widespread. Recovery of largely declining massive reef-building species such as the O. annularis species complex was limited or non-existent. The lack of recovery could be the combined result of several mechanisms involving climate change, YBD disease, macroalgae, fishing, urchins and Mona Island’s reefs limited connectivity to other reef systems. There is also for rehabilitation of fish trophic structure, with emphasis in recovering herbivore guilds and depleted populations of D. antillarum. Failing to recognize the importance of ecosystem-based management and resilience rehabilitation may deem remote coral reefs

  20. Marshall Islands

    World Bank

    2015-01-01

    This note aims to build understanding of the existing disaster risk financing and insurance (DRFI) tools in use in The Marshall Islands and to identify gaps where potential engagement could further develop financial resilience. The likelihood that a hazardous event will have a significant impact on the Marshall Islands has risen with the increasing levels of population and assets in the urban ...

  1. Community

    stability Science & Innovation Collaboration Careers Community Environment Science & Innovation Recruitment Events Community Commitment Giving Campaigns, Drives Economic Development Employee Funded neighbor pledge: contribute to quality of life in Northern New Mexico through economic development

  2. Demographic Ageing on Croatian Islands

    Ivo Nejašmić

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the changes in the population structure of the Croatian islands by age, warns of the degree of ageing, provides spatial differentiation of this process and presents perspective of ageing at the level of settlement. Typing of population ageing is based on scores and has seven types. The total island population in 2011 belongs to the type 5 – very old population. Almost a half of the settlements (out of 303 have been affected by the highest levels of ageing (types 6 and 7. It was found that a quarter of island settlements will become “dead villages” in a foreseeable future; most of them are on small islands but also in the interior of larger islands. These are villages decaying in every respect, in which the way of life, as we know it, veins and goes out. The present ageing villagers are their last residents in most cases. Eve¬rything suggests that demographic recovery of the islands is not possible with the forces in situ. It is important to strike a balance between the needs and opportunities in order to successfully organize life on the islands, both small and large ones, and the fact is that there is a continuing disparity, which is especially profound in small islands. A sensitive and selective approach is needed to overcome the unfavourable demographic trends. Therefore it is necessary to respect the particularities of indi¬vidual islands and island groups in devising development strategy. Solutions to the problems must come of the local and wider community in synergy with relevant professional and scientific institutions. However, if the solutions are not found or measures do not give results, if the islands are left to desorganisation and senilisation, a part of the islands will become a wasteland. With regard to the value of this area whose wealth are people in the first place, this would be an intolerable civilization decline.

  3. A cluster randomized controlled cross-over bed net acceptability and preference trial in Solomon Islands: community participation in shaping policy for malaria elimination

    Appleyard Bridget

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A key component of the malaria elimination strategy in Solomon Islands (SI is widespread coverage of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs. The success of this strategy is dependent on LLIN acceptability and compliance. There has been unresolved debate among policy makers and donors as to which type of LLIN would be most appropriate for large-scale distribution in SI, and anecdotal reports of a lack of acceptability of certain brands of LLINs. A cluster randomized controlled crossover bed net acceptability and preference trial was therefore carried out from July to September, 2008 to inform policy and to facilitate community engagement and participation in the selection of the most appropriate LLIN for use in SI. Method A three-stage sampling method was used to randomly select the study population from Malaita Province, SI. Three brands of LLINs were assessed in this study: Olyset®, PermaNet® and DuraNet®. Bed net acceptability and preference were evaluated through surveys at three defined time points after short and longer-term trial of each LLIN. Results The acceptability of PermaNet® after short-term use (96.5% was significantly greater than Olyset® (67.3%, p and DuraNet® (69.8%, p . The acceptability of DuraNet® and Olyset® after short-term use was not significantly different at the 5% level. LLINs that were perceived not to prevent mosquito bites were significantly less acceptable than LLINs that were perceived to prevent mosquito bites (OR 0.15; 95%CI 0.03 to 0.6. LLINs that allow a pleasant night's sleep (OR 6.3; 95%CI:3.3-12.3 and have a soft texture (OR 5.7; 95%CI:1.9-20.5 were considered more acceptable than those that did not. Olyset®'s acceptability decreased over time and this was due to net wrinkling/shrinkage after washing resulting in reduced efficiency in preventing mosquito bites. The increase in DuraNet® acceptability was a result of a reduction in minor adverse events following longer-term use

  4. Rhode Island Hurricane Evacuation Study Technical Data Report

    1995-01-01

    .... The purpose of the study is to provide the Rhode Island Emergency Management Agency and Rhode Island coastal communities with realistic data quantifying the major factors involved in hurricane...

  5. Community.

    Grauer, Kit, Ed.

    1995-01-01

    Art in context of community is the theme of this newsletter. The theme is introduced in an editorial "Community-Enlarging the Definition" (Kit Grauer). Related articles include: (1) "The Children's Bridge is not Destroyed: Heart in the Middle of the World" (Emil Robert Tanay); (2) "Making Bridges: The Sock Doll…

  6. Re-designing an Earth Sciences outreach program for Rhode Island public elementary schools to address new curricular standards and logistical realities in the community

    Richter, N.; Vachula, R. S.; Pascuzzo, A.; Prilipko Huber, O.

    2017-12-01

    In contrast to middle and high school students, elementary school students in Rhode Island (RI) have no access to dedicated science teachers, resulting in uneven quality and scope of science teaching across the state. In an attempt to improve science education in local public elementary schools, the Department of Earth, Environmental, and Planetary Sciences (DEEPS) at Brown University initiated a student-driven science-teaching program that was supported by a NSF K-12 grant from 2007 to 2014. The program led to the development of an extensive in-house lesson plan database and supported student-led outreach and teaching in several elementary and middle school classrooms. After funding was terminated, the program continued on a volunteer basis, providing year-round science teaching for several second-grade classrooms. During the 2016-2017 academic year, New Generation Science Standards (NGSS) were introduced in RI public schools, and it became apparent that our outreach efforts required adaptation to be more efficient and relevant for both elementary school students and teachers. To meet these new needs, DEEPS, in collaboration with the Providence Public School District, created an intensive summer re-design program involving both graduate and undergraduate students. Three multi-lesson units were developed in collaboration with volunteer public school teachers to specifically address NGSS goals for earth science teaching in 2nd, 3rd and 4th grades. In the 2017-2018 academic year DEEPS students will co-teach the science lessons with the public school teachers in two local elementary schools. At the end of the next academic year all lesson plans and activities will be made publically available through a newly designed DEEPS outreach website. We herein detail our efforts to create and implement new educational modules with the goals of: (1) empowering teachers to instruct science, (2) engaging students and fostering lasting STEM interest and competency, (3) optimizing

  7. Coastal management strategy for small island: ecotourism potency development in Karimata Island, West Kalimantan

    Rudiastuti, A. W.; Munawaroh; Setyawan, I. E.; Pramono, G. H.

    2018-04-01

    Sustainable coastal management is playing an important role in coastal resources conservation, particularly on small islands. Karimata archipelago has unique characteristics and great potential to be developed as a tourism object, one of which is Karimata Island as the largest island and also reserve area. The concept of ecotourism focuses on the ecology conservation, economic benefits, and social life. Ecotourism aims to build sustainable tourism that provides economically viable and social benefits to the community. This study aims to develop coastal management strategy based on ecotourism at Karimata Island. Spatial approaching through coastal type was done. Qualitative descriptive analysis and SWOT are used to develop sustainable management strategies for the coast of Karimata Island, where the opportunities and challenges to the development of coastal ecotourism Karimata Island also included. If this potential is optimally utilized, it can be relied as an economic opportunity for local communities. Structurally shaped coast, marine depositional coast and coast build by organism are several of coastal types found at Karimata Island. Coastal ecosystems inhabited Karimata Island are mangroves, coral reefs, and macro-algae. Karimata Island have not been optimally utilized for tourist destinations. The biggest obstacle encountered is the accessibility from Kalimantan or other island at Karimata islands. Several problems related to the utilization of coastal resources were found such as mangrove and coral reef damage, also regulation that less supportive. The results of this study are expected to provide an overview of solutions for the development of coastal tourism potentials in Karimata Island.

  8. Class renormalization: islands around islands

    Meiss, J.D.

    1986-01-01

    An orbit of 'class' is one that rotates about a periodic orbit of one lower class with definite frequency. This contrasts to the 'level' of a periodic orbit which is the number of elements in its continued fraction expansion. Level renormalization is conventionally used to study the structure of quasi-periodic orbits. The scaling structure of periodic orbits encircling other periodic orbits in area preserving maps is discussed here. Fixed points corresponding to the accumulation of p/q bifurcations are found and scaling exponents determined. Fixed points for q > 2 correspond to self-similar islands around islands. Frequencies of the island boundary circles at the fixed points are obtained. Importance of this scaling for the motion of particles in stochastic regions is emphasized. (author)

  9. Culture Matters. Community Report. Reporting on a Research Project To Explore Factors Affecting the Outcomes of Vocational Education and Training for Aboriginal and Torres Straits Islander People.

    Buchanan, Matthew; Egg, Mez

    The factors leading to positive outcomes in vocational education and training (VET) for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people were examined through person-to-person and telephone interviews with indigenous Australian students and VET providers. The interviews focused on the following: the range of VET provision and the extent of its…

  10. Immigration history of amphidromous species on a Greater Antillean island

    Benjamin D. Cook; Catherine M. Pringle; Jane M. Hughes

    2010-01-01

    Aim To use molecular data to test for dispersal structuring in the immigration history of an amphidromous community on an island. Location The Caribbean island of Puerto Rico. Methods Mitochondrial DNA sequences were obtained from 11 amphidromous species, including shrimps, fish and a gastropod, sampled from throughout the island. The timing of population expansion (TE...

  11. Estuarine fish biodiversity of Socotra Island (N.W. Indian Ocean): from the fish community to the functioning of Terapon jarbua populations

    Lavergne, Edouard

    2012-01-01

    Understanding connectivity between estuarine nurseries and marine habitats is fundamental to explore fish population dynamics and to the design of effective conservation and fisheries management strategies. The aim of this work was to provide the first faunistic and ecological baseline of Socotra Island (North-Western Indian Ocean) estuaries and lagoon fishes for governmental coastal managers and decision makers, with a particular focus on the population functioning of a sentinel species: Ter...

  12. Introduced mammals on Western Indian Ocean islands

    James C. Russell

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The diversity of introduced mammals and their introduction history varies greatly across the Western Indian Ocean (WIO islands, from ancient introductions in the past millennia on islands off the East coast of Africa where extant terrestrial native mammal communities exist, to very recent invasions in the past decades on islands in the Mascarene archipelago. We compile the distribution of 16 introduced mammal taxa on 28 island groups comprising almost 2000 islands. Through an exhaustive literature review and expert consultation process we recorded all mammal eradications, and species recoveries which could be attributed to introduced mammal eradication or control. All island groups have been invaded by mammals, and invasive cats and rats in particular are ubiquitous, but cultural contingency has also led to regional invasions by other mammals such as lemurs, civets and tenrecs. Mammal eradications have been attempted on 45 islands in the WIO, the majority in the Seychelles and Mauritius, and where successful have resulted in spectacular recovery of species and ecosystems. Invasive mammalian predator eradication or control in association with habitat management has led to improved conservation prospects for at least 24 species, and IUCN red-list down-listing of eight species, in the Mascarene Islands. Future island conservation prioritisation in the region will need to take account of global climate change and predicted sea-level rises and coastal inundation. Greater investment and prioritisation in island conservation in the region is warranted, given its high biodiversity values and the extent of invasions.

  13. Island development: Local governance under globalization

    Huei-Min Tsai

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Issues surrounding island development have generated a growing volume of research. What does it mean to develop? How can island communities maintain control over development processes to the benefit of the local economy, rather than seeing economic flows enter and exit the island with little or a primarily negative impact? And how important is local knowledge for edifying local governance and enhancing potentials for innovation in island development? Island histories have repeatedly been forwarded as exemplars and ‘lessons’ for global learning on (unsustainability. To consider these issues, we have selected a number of papers from among the presentations given at the International Geographical Union’s Commission on Islands Conference, Island Development: Local Economy, Culture, Innovation and Sustainability, which took place in the Penghu Archipelago, Taiwan, 1–5 October 2013. These papers serve as examples of how the processes of globalization have penetrated the borders and changed the political and economic structures of islands. They also explore how island-based innovations in science, technology, culture, and formal or informal governance might contribute to sustainable island development.

  14. Host-guest interaction on Bruny and Magnetic Islands, Australia

    Moyle, Brent Don

    2017-01-01

    Islands are integral to the earth’s biodiversity, with their distinct environments offering a haven for a variety of threatened species of plants, wildlife and unique human cultures. Worldwide, tourism activity profoundly impacts upon destinations, but the impacts on islands are noticeably more acute due to their fragile environments and isolated communities. Research has found that tourism can impact island communities in a variety of ways, including economically, socially and environmentall...

  15. Antibacterial Susceptibilities of Escherichia coli from Community-Acquired Urinary Tract Infections in the Faroe Islands, Associations with Antibacterial Sales, and Comparison with Iceland and Denmark

    Magnussen, Marita Debess; Gislason, Hannes; Gaini, Shahin

    2018-01-01

    , and compare with Iceland and Denmark. From 2009 to 2010 and in 2012, 12 general practitioners from the Faroe Islands were recruited to provide urine samples from patients. Antibacterial susceptibilities were determined by disc diffusion testing according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute...... methods and criteria. Logistic regression (quasibinomial) of the antibacterial resistance proportions versus mean sales during the period of 2008-2011 was used to determine association. Nonsusceptibility to at least 1 of the 14 antibacterial drugs investigated was found in 54% of the E. coli isolates...... and was most common to ampicillin (46%), followed by sulfamethoxazole (39%), trimethoprim (27%), trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (27%), and

  16. Rhode Island Flood Plain Management Services; Bench & Reference Mark Catalogue Portsmouth, Newport and Warwick, Rhode Island

    Hatfield, Christopher

    1994-01-01

    This study, which developed a catalog of bench and reference marks for several communities in Rhode Island, was conducted by the Long Range Planning Branch, Planning Directorate, New England Division, U.S...

  17. Tenarife Island, Canary Island Archipelago, Atlantic Ocean

    1991-01-01

    Tenarife Island is one of the most volcanically active of the Canary Island archipelago, Atlantic Ocean, just off the NW coast of Africa, (28.5N, 16.5W). The old central caldera, nearly filled in by successive volcanic activity culminating in two stratocones. From those two peaks, a line of smaller cinder cones extend to the point of the island. Extensive gullies dissect the west side of the island and some forests still remain on the east side.

  18. Investigation of the marine communities of Midway Harbor and adjacent lagoon, Midway Atoll, Northwest Hawaiian Islands in 1998 (NODC Accession 0001098)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A survey of the marine communities of Midway Atoll harbor and surrounding lagoon was conducted at 12 sites from September 5 to 9, 1998. The primary focus of these...

  19. Biogeographic characterization of fish and benthic communities, St Croix, US Virgin Islands 2012-05-07 to 2012-05-18 (NODC Accession 0125237)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Reef fish populations are a conspicuous and essential component of USVI coral reef ecosystems. Yet despite their importance, striking population and community level...

  20. Developing a wintering waterfowl community baseline for environmental monitoring of Narragansett Bay, Rhode Island [version 3; referees: 1 approved, 2 approved with reservations

    Betty J. Kreakie

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2004, the Atlantic Ecology Division of the US Environmental Protection Agency’s Office of Research and Development began an annual winter waterfowl survey of Rhode Island’s Narragansett Bay. Herein, we explore the survey data gathered from 2004 to 2011 in order to establish a benchmark understanding of our waterfowl communities and to establish a statistical framework for future environmental monitoring. The abundance and diversity of wintering waterfowl were relatively stable during the initial years of this survey, except in 2010 when there was a large spike in abundance and a reciprocal fall in diversity. There was no significant change in ranked abundance of most waterfowl species, with only Bufflehead (Bucephala albeola and Hooded Merganser (Lophodytes cucllatus showing a slight yet significant upward trend during the course of our survey period. Nonmetric multidimensional scaling (NMDS was used to examine the community structure of wintering waterfowl. The results of the NMDS indicate that there is a spatial structure to the waterfowl communities of Narragansett Bay and this structure has remained relatively stable since the survey began. Our NMDS analysis helps to solidify what is known anecdotally about the bay’s waterfowl ecology, and provides a formalized benchmark for long-term monitoring of Narragansett Bay’s waterfowl communities. Birds, including waterfowl, are preferred bioindicators and we propose using our multivariate approach to monitor the future health of the bay. While this research focuses on a specific area of New England, these methods can be easily applied to novel areas of concern and provide a straightforward nonparametric approach to community-level monitoring. The methods provide a statistic test to examine potential drivers of community turnover and well-suited visualization tools.

  1. The Strong Family Program: an innovative model to engage Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander youth and Elders with reproductive and sexual health community education.

    Duley, P; Botfield, J R; Ritter, T; Wicks, J; Brassil, A

    2017-08-01

    Issue addressed Aboriginal youth in Australia often experience high rates of intimate partner violence (family violence) and poorer reproductive and sexual health than their non-Aboriginal counterparts. To address some of the disparities, the Strong Family Program was developed to deliver reproductive and sexual health education to Aboriginal communities in New South Wales. Methods Development of the program was based on an extensive consultation process with Aboriginal communities. It was implemented in three communities, with two groups from each hosting Aboriginal youth and Elders in a yarning circle within the culturally respectful frameworks of 'men and boys'' and 'women and girls'' business. An evaluation was conducted to measure reproductive and sexual health knowledge and attitude changes upon program completion, using pre- and post-program surveys and yarning (focus group discussions). Results Program participants comprised 48 females and 28 males. Overall, mean knowledge and attitude scores improved upon completion of the program (from 77% to 82% and from 4.15 to 4.32 out of 5, respectively). Among participants aged 20 years and under (the youngest participant was 13 years), there was an increase in knowledge (P=0.034); among participants aged over 20 years (the oldest participant was 78 years), there was an increase in positive attitudes (P=0.001). Participants perceived the information provided to be useful and relevant, with many reporting improved knowledge and attitudes around rights and respectful relationships. Conclusions Reproductive and sexual health education in Aboriginal communities should be based on community consultations and carried out within a culturally appropriate framework to promote greater success. Continued implementation of the Strong Family Program will promote increased understanding of respectful relationships and improved health outcomes for Aboriginal young people. So what? The Strong Family Program was based on an extensive

  2. An Island Called Cuba

    Jean Stubbs

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Review of: An Island Called Home: Returning to Jewish Cuba. Ruth Behar, photographs by Humberto Mayol. New Brunswick NJ: Rutgers University Press, 2007. xiii + 297 pp. (Cloth US$ 29.95 Fidel Castro: My Life: A Spoken Autobiography. Fidel Castro & Ignacio Ramonet. New York: Scribner/Simon & Schuster, 2008. vii + 724 pp. (Paper US$ 22.00, e-book US$ 14.99 Cuba: What Everyone Needs to Know. Julia E. Sweig. New York: Oxford University Press, 2009. xiv + 279 pp. (Paper US$ 16.95 [First paragraph] These three ostensibly very different books tell a compelling story of each author’s approach, as much as the subject matter itself. Fidel Castro: My Life: A Spoken Autobiography is based on a series of long interviews granted by the then-president of Cuba, Fidel Castro, to Spanish-Franco journalist Ignacio Ramonet. Cuba: What Everyone Needs to Know, by U.S. political analyst Julia Sweig, is one of a set country series, and, like Ramonet’s, presented in question/answer format. An Island Called Home: Returning to Jewish Cuba, with a narrative by Cuban-American anthropologist Ruth Behar and photographs by Cuban photographer Humberto Mayol, is a retrospective/introspective account of the Jewish presence in Cuba. While from Ramonet and Sweig we learn much about the revolutionary project, Behar and Mayol convey the lived experience of the small Jewish community against that backdrop.

  3. Partnering on a Curriculum To Address the Dental Care Crisis in a Rural Island Community: The First Step of a Career Ladder Program in Dental Assisting.

    Pezzoli, J. A.; Johnson, Nancy

    This document describes the curriculum and objectives of the Certificate of Completion in Dental Assisting at Maui Community College, Hawaii. Hawaii is below the national average in oral health care, with as many as 40% of Maui residents being underserved. Dental disease among the uninsured and underinsured in Hawaii is three times the national…

  4. Reducing inequities among children with asthma in the island of Puerto Rico: experiences of a community-based, trans-sectoral effort.

    Lara, Marielena; Valencia, Gilberto Ramos; Gavillán, Jesús A González Gavillán; Reyes, Beatriz Morales; Arabía, Carmen; Malpica, Fernando López; Freytes, Dharma M; Rodríguez-Sánchez, Mario H; Chinman, Matthew

    2009-01-01

    Children living in the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico have the highest poverty and asthma prevalence rates of all U.S. children. Since 2000, a group of community, health care, education, housing, and academic representatives have been collaborating in a project to improve quality of life and reduce disparities among children with asthma in very poor communities in Puerto Rico. To date the project has implemented a successful intervention in the Luis Lloréns Torres Housing Project, aimed at adapting evidence-based interventions to improve the social and physical environment of children with asthma. The program has recently been extended to another San Juan housing area, the Manuel A. Pérez Housing Project. Using implementation theory, the authors report and reflect on the project's experience to date, provide recommendations, and discuss implications of lessons learned to address inequities in asthma care throughout other underserved areas in the U.S., Latin America, and the Caribbean.

  5. Greater Baltimore Open Air: an Internet of Things (IoT) approach to citizen science and community-driven climate, air quality, and urban heat island monitoring

    Scott, A.; Kelley, C.; Azdoud, Y.; Ambikapathi, R.; Hobson, M.; Lehman, A.; Ghugare, P.; He, C.; Zaitchik, B. F.; Waugh, D.; McCormack, M.; Baja, K.

    2017-12-01

    Anthropogenic activities alter the urban surface and surface atmosphere, generating heat and pollutants that have known detrimental impacts on health. Monitoring these environmental variables in urban environments is made difficult by the spatial heterogeneity of urban environments, meaning that two nearby locations may have significantly different temperatures, humidities, or gas concentrations. Thus, urban monitoring often requires more densely placed monitors than current standards or budgets allow. Recent advances in low-cost sensors and Internet of Things (IoT) enabled hardware offer possible solutions. We present an autonomous wireless, open-source, IoT-enabled environmental monitor called a WeatherCube, developed for the Greater Baltimore Open Air project, funded in part by the EPA SmartCity Challenge. The WeatherCube is suitable for urban monitoring and capable of measuring meteorological variables (temperature and humidity) as well as air quality (ozone, nitrogen dioxide, and sulfur dioxide). The WeatherCube devices were built in collaboration with Johns Hopkins University, local government, and community members, including through an innovative job training program. Monitors are hosted by community partners and libraries throughout Baltimore city and surrounding communities. We present the first wave of data collected by the Greater Baltimore Open Air project and compare it to data collected by the Maryland Department of the Environment (MDE). Additionally, we will provide an overview of our experience engaging with the local makers, citizen scientists, and environmental groups to improve their urban environmental monitoring. By developing low-cost devices tailored for urban environmental monitoring, we present an innovative model for both conducting research and community outreach.

  6. Bacterial community composition and predicted functional ecology of sponges, sediment and seawater from the thousand islands reef complex, West Java, Indonesia.

    de Voogd, Nicole J; Cleary, Daniel F R; Polónia, Ana R M; Gomes, Newton C M

    2015-04-01

    In the present study, we assessed the composition of Bacteria in four biotopes namely sediment, seawater and two sponge species (Stylissa massa and Xestospongia testudinaria) at four different reef sites in a coral reef ecosystem in West Java, Indonesia. In addition to this, we used a predictive metagenomic approach to estimate to what extent nitrogen metabolic pathways differed among bacterial communities from different biotopes. We observed marked differences in bacterial composition of the most abundant bacterial phyla, classes and orders among sponge species, water and sediment. Proteobacteria were by far the most abundant phylum in terms of both sequences and Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs). Predicted counts for genes associated with the nitrogen metabolism suggested that several genes involved in the nitrogen cycle were enriched in sponge samples, including nosZ, nifD, nirK, norB and nrfA genes. Our data show that a combined barcoded pyrosequencing and predictive metagenomic approach can provide novel insights into the potential ecological functions of the microbial communities. Not only is this approach useful for our understanding of the vast microbial diversity found in sponges but also to understand the potential response of microbial communities to environmental change. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Ground-Dwelling Arthropod Communities of a Sky Island Mountain Range in Southeastern Arizona, USA: Obtaining a Baseline for Assessing the Effects of Climate Change.

    Wallace M Meyer

    Full Text Available The few studies that have addressed past effects of climate change on species distributions have mostly focused on plants due to the rarity of historical faunal baselines. However, hyperdiverse groups like Arthropoda are vital to monitor in order to understand climate change impacts on biodiversity. This is the first investigation of ground-dwelling arthropod (GDA assemblages along the full elevation gradient of a mountain range in the Madrean Sky Island Region, establishing a baseline for monitoring future changes in GDA biodiversity. To determine how GDA assemblages relate to elevation, season, abiotic variables, and corresponding biomes, GDA were collected for two weeks in both spring (May and summer (September 2011 in the Santa Catalina Mountains, Arizona, using pitfall traps at 66 sites in six distinct upland (non-riparian/non-wet canyon biomes. Four arthropod taxa: (1 beetles (Coleoptera, (2 spiders (Araneae, (3 grasshoppers and crickets (Orthoptera, and (4 millipedes and centipedes (Myriapoda were assessed together and separately to determine if there are similar patterns across taxonomic groups. We collected 335 species of GDA: 192/3793 (species/specimens Coleoptera, 102/1329 Araneae, 25/523 Orthoptera, and 16/697 Myriapoda. GDA assemblages differed among all biomes and between seasons. Fifty-three percent (178 species and 76% (254 species of all GDA species were found in only one biome and during only one season, respectively. While composition of arthropod assemblages is tied to biome and season, individual groups do not show fully concordant patterns. Seventeen percent of the GDA species occurred only in the two highest-elevation biomes (Pine and Mixed Conifer Forests. Because these high elevation biomes are most threatened by climate change and they harbor a large percentage of unique arthropod species (11-25% depending on taxon, significant loss in arthropod diversity is likely in the Santa Catalina Mountains and other isolated

  8. Researching Pacific island livelihoods:

    Egelund Christensen, Andreas; Mertz, Ole

    2010-01-01

    on contemporary theories of nissology and conceptual analytical frameworks for island research. Through a review of selected case-study-based island literature on changing livelihoods coming out of the South Pacific, we wish to illustrate and discuss advantages of finding common grounds for small island studies....... The focus is on two dimensions of island livelihood, migration and natural resource management, both of which are significant contributors in making island livelihoods and shaping Pacific seascapes. We argue that there is still a substantial lack of studies targeting small island dynamics that are empirical...

  9. Comparative Studies on Community Ecology of Two Types of Subtropical Forests Grown in Silicate and Limestone Habitats in the Northern Part of Okinawa Island, Japan

    S. M. Feroz

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to compare woody species diversity, spatial distribution of trees and stand structure on the basis of the architectural stratification between two types of subtropical forests in the northern part of Okinawa Island, Japan, tree censuses in a 750 m2 plot in silicate habitat and a 1000 m2 plot in limestone habitat were performed. It was found that both subtropical forests growing in silicate and limestone habitats consisted of four architectural layers. A total of 26 families, 43 genera, 60 species and 4684 individuals larger than 0.1 m high in the silicate habitat, and 31 families, 51 genera, 62 species and 4798 individuals larger than 0.0 m high in the limestone habitat, were recorded. As a result, the floristic composition in the silicate habitat was quite different from that in the limestone habitat in terms of similarity index ( Π C = 0.07; approximately only one-sixth of the species were in common. The floristic composition among layers was more similar in the silicate habitat than in the limestone habitat. Castanopsis sieboldii (Mak. Hatusima was the most dominant species in the silicate habitat, but was completely absent in the limestone habitat where Cinnamomum japonicum Sieb. ex Nees was the most dominant species. The potential number of species in the silicate forest (62 was lower than that in the limestone forest (71. However, the woody species diversity was higher in the silicate forest than in the limestone forest. The values of H′ and J′ tended to increase from the top layer downward except for the bottom layer in the silicate forest, while this increasing trend was reversed in the limestone forest. It follows that high woody species diversity in the silicate forest depended on small-sized trees, whereas in the limestone forest it depended on big-sized trees. The spatial distribution of trees in the forests was random in each layer, except the top layer, where there existed a double-clump structure. High degree of

  10. Generalized model of island biodiversity

    Kessler, David A.; Shnerb, Nadav M.

    2015-04-01

    The dynamics of a local community of competing species with weak immigration from a static regional pool is studied. Implementing the generalized competitive Lotka-Volterra model with demographic noise, a rich dynamics with four qualitatively distinct phases is unfolded. When the overall interspecies competition is weak, the island species recapitulate the mainland species. For higher values of the competition parameter, the system still admits an equilibrium community, but now some of the mainland species are absent on the island. Further increase in competition leads to an intermittent "disordered" phase, where the dynamics is controlled by invadable combinations of species and the turnover rate is governed by the migration. Finally, the strong competition phase is glasslike, dominated by uninvadable states and noise-induced transitions. Our model contains, as a special case, the celebrated neutral island theories of Wilson-MacArthur and Hubbell. Moreover, we show that slight deviations from perfect neutrality may lead to each of the phases, as the Hubbell point appears to be quadracritical.

  11. Exploring factors impacting early childhood health among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander families and communities: protocol for a population-based cohort study using data linkage (the ‘Defying the Odds’ study)

    Gubhaju, Lina; Jorm, Louisa; Preen, David; Jones, Jocelyn; Joshy, Grace; Shepherd, Carrington; McAullay, Daniel; Eades, Sandra; Ball, Stephen

    2018-01-01

    Introduction Empirical evidence on family and community risk and protective factors influencing the comparatively high rates of potentially preventable hospitalisations and deaths among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander infants and children is limited. As is evidence on geographical variation in these risks. The ‘Defying the Odds’ study aims to explore the impact of perinatal outcomes, maternal social and health outcomes and level of culturally secure service availability on the health outcomes of Western Australian (WA) Aboriginal infants and children aged 0–5 years. Methods and analysis The study combines a retrospective cohort study that uses state-wide linked health and administrative data from 12 data sources for multiple generations within Aboriginal families in WA, with specifically collected survey data from health and social services supporting Aboriginal families in regions of WA. Data sources include perinatal/birth registration, hospital, emergency department, mental health services, drug and alcohol service use, mortality, infectious disease notifications, and child protection and family services. Multilevel regression models will be used to examine the intensity of admissions and presentations, mortality, intensity of long stays and morbidity-free survival (no admissions) for Aboriginal children born in WA in 2000–2013. Relationships between maternal (and grand-maternal) health and social factors and child health outcomes will be quantified. Community-level variation in outcomes for Aboriginal children and factors contributing to this variation will be examined, including the availability of culturally secure services. Online surveys were sent to staff members at relevant services to explore the scope, reach and cultural security of services available to support Aboriginal families across selected regions of WA. Ethics and dissemination Ethics approvals have been granted for the study. Interpretation and dissemination are guided by the

  12. The lichen and bryophyte vegetation of Cuverville Island, Antarctica

    de Leeuw, C; Aptroot, A; van Zanten, B

    1998-01-01

    In the Antarctic summer of 1993 the vegetation of Cuverville Island, a small island near the west coast of the Antarctic Peninsula, was mapped and described. Eleven different plant communities of algae, lichens, bryophytes and spermatophytes have been distinguished. The 51 species Vary from endemic

  13. Diomede Islands, Bering Straight

    2008-01-01

    The Diomede Islands consisting of the western island Big Diomede (also known as Imaqliq, Nunarbuk or Ratmanov Island), and the eastern island Little Diomede (also known as Krusenstern Island or Inaliq), are two rocky islands located in the middle of the Bering Strait between Russia and Alaska. The islands are separated by an international border and the International Date Line which is approximately 1.5 km from each island; you can look from Alaska into tomorrow in Russia. At the closest land approach between the United States, which controls Little Diomede, and Russia, which controls Big Diomede, they are 3 km apart. Little Diomede Island constitutes the Alaskan City of Diomede, while Big Diomede Island is Russia's easternmost point. The first European to reach the islands was the Russian explorer Semyon Dezhnev in 1648. The text of the 1867 treaty finalizing the sale of Alaska uses the islands to designate the border between the two nations. The image was acquired July 8, 2000, covers an area of 13.5 x 10.8 km, and is located at 65.8 degrees north latitude, 169 degrees west longitude. The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  14. Tales of island tails

    Groot, de Alma V.; Oost, Albert P.; Veeneklaas, Roos M.; Lammerts, Evert Jan; Duin, van Willem E.; Wesenbeeck, van Bregje K.

    2016-01-01

    The Frisian islands (Southern North Sea) have extensive island tails, i.e. the entire downdrift side of an island consisting of salt marshes, dunes, beaches and beach plains, and green beaches. Currently, large parts of these tails are ageing and losing dynamics, partly due to human influence.

  15. Rhode Island unemployment

    Leonard Lardaro

    2010-01-01

    How can a state like Rhode Island have such a high unemployment rate? This question has been asked often over the past year, especially since at one point, Rhode Island found itself with the dubious distinction of having the highest unemployment rate in the United States. Following that extreme, Rhode Island seemed to settle into a niche where its rank was third nationally.

  16. A Method for Recruiting Participants from Isolated Islands of Small Island Developing States (SIDS) for Survey Research

    Moosa, Sheena; Koopman-Boyden, Peggy

    2016-01-01

    Representing isolated small island communities through social survey research continues to be challenging. We examine a locally developed method to reach and recruit older people (65+ years) for a survey on well-being in the small island developing state of Maldives. The use of messengers to recruit participants is examined in the context of these…

  17. Biodiversity characterisation and hydrodynamic consequences of marine fouling communities on marine renewable energy infrastructure in the Orkney Islands Archipelago, Scotland, UK.

    Want, Andrew; Crawford, Rebecca; Kakkonen, Jenni; Kiddie, Greg; Miller, Susan; Harris, Robert E; Porter, Joanne S

    2017-08-01

    As part of ongoing commitments to produce electricity from renewable energy sources in Scotland, Orkney waters have been targeted for potential large-scale deployment of wave and tidal energy converting devices. Orkney has a well-developed infrastructure supporting the marine energy industry; recently enhanced by the construction of additional piers. A major concern to marine industries is biofouling on submerged structures, including energy converters and measurement instrumentation. In this study, the marine energy infrastructure and instrumentation were surveyed to characterise the biofouling. Fouling communities varied between deployment habitats; key species were identified allowing recommendations for scheduling device maintenance and preventing spread of invasive organisms. A method to measure the impact of biofouling on hydrodynamic response is described and applied to data from a wave-monitoring buoy deployed at a test site in Orkney. The results are discussed in relation to the accuracy of the measurement resources for power generation. Further applications are suggested for future testing in other scenarios, including tidal energy.

  18. Coastal groundwater exchange on a small Pacific atoll island: Roi Namur, Republic of the Marshall Islands

    Oberle, Ferdinand K. J.; Swarzenski, Peter W.; Storlazzi, Curt

    2017-04-01

    Atoll islands, most of which only average 1-2 meters above today's sea level, provide a tremendous natural laboratory in which to study and better understand the intensifying impacts of high rates of sea-level rise on tropical reef-lined islands globally due to their unique geologic structure and limited water supply. Groundwater resources of atolls are typically minimal due to the low elevation and small surface area of the islands and are also subject to recurring droughts, and more frequent, storm-driven seawater overwash events. Although groundwater is the principal means of freshwater storage on atoll islands and is a major factor in determining the overall sustainability of island communities, hydrological data on how an aquifer will response to changes in sea-level rise or storm-driven overwash remain limited. We here present high-resolution time series hydrogeological and geochemical data to determine the role of the atoll's carbonate geology, land use, and atmospheric and oceanographic forcing in driving coastal groundwater exchange on the island of Roi Namur on Kwajalein Atoll in the Republic of the Marshall Islands. This information can provide new estimates on the recovery and resilience of coastal groundwater resources on such islands to expected climate change-driven perturbations.

  19. Pacific Island Network Marine Fish Monitoring Dataset - Transects

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The benthic marine community in the Pacific Island Network (PACN) is a complex ecologic system and a diverse taxonomic environment, including algae and corals and...

  20. Long-Term Effectiveness of a Lifestyle Intervention for the Primary Prevention of Type 2 Diabetes in a Low Socio-Economic Community--An Intervention Follow-Up Study on Reunion Island.

    Fianu, Adrian; Bourse, Léa; Naty, Nadège; Le Moullec, Nathalie; Lepage, Benoît; Lang, Thierry; Favier, François

    2016-01-01

    In type 2 diabetes (T2D) prevention research, evidence for maintenance of risk factor reduction after three years of follow-up is needed. The objective of this study was to evaluate the long-term effectiveness of a combined lifestyle intervention aiming at controlling body weight (BW) and waist circumference (WC) in non-diabetic, overweight/obese adults living in a low socio-economic community. On Reunion Island, 445 adults living in deprived areas, aged 18-40 and at high-risk for T2D, were included in an intervention versus control trial for primary prevention (2001-2002). The intervention promoted a healthy diet and moderate regular physical activity, through actions strengthening individuals or community and improving living conditions. The control group received a one-shot medical information and nutritional advices. After the end of the trial (2003), 259 of the subjects participated in a follow-up study (2010-2011). The outcomes were the nine-year changes from baseline in BW, body mass index (BMI) and WC measurements, separately. Statistical analyses were performed on an intention-to-treat basis, using available and imputed datasets. At inclusion, T2D risk factors were prevalent: family history of diabetes in first-degree relatives (42%), women with a personal history of gestational diabetes (11%), total obesity (43%, median BMI 29.1 kg/m²) and central obesity (71%). At follow-up, the adjusted effect on imputed dataset was significant for WC -2.4 cm (95% confidence interval: -4.7 to -0.0 cm, p = 0.046), non-significant for BW -2.2 kg (-4.6 to +0.2 kg, p = 0.073) and BMI -0.81 kg/m² (-1.69 to +0.08 kg/m², p = 0.074). A specific long-term effect was the increased likelihood of reduction in adiposity: BW loss, BMI reduction, and WC reduction were more frequent in the intervention group. In the context of low socio-economic communities, our data support the assumption of long-term effect of lifestyle interventions targeting total obesity and central obesity two

  1. A comparison of motivations between island tourists visiting Penghu, Taiwan, and Phuket, Thailand

    Chi-Ming Hsieh; Sung Hee Park

    2009-01-01

    The island tourism market is a major growth segment in international tourism. The islands of Penghu, Taiwan, and Phuket, Thailand have become major tourism destinations for Taiwanese tourists, who have had an economic impact on the local communities of these islands. The objectives of this study were to develop a profile of Taiwanese tourists visiting Penghu and Phuket...

  2. Sedimentology, Mineralogy, Morphology, and Characterization of Purple Non-Sulfur Bacteria Communities from Modern Hypersaline Microbial Mats in Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands

    Rodriguez Colon, B. J.; Rivera-Lopez, E. O.; Ramirez-Martinez, W. R.; Rios-Velazquez, C.; Perez-Valentin, K. A.

    2017-12-01

    Microbial mats are organosedimentary structures which house complex guilds of microbial communities, held together by a gelatinous exopolymeric substance (EPS). This biofilm contributes to the formation of laminations by binding and trapping sediments, as well as in-situ organomineralization. Microbial mats commonly thrive in extreme habitats, such as the hypersaline environments, which have been studied throughout several coastal regions in the Caribbean. This project aims to study the morphology, sedimentology, and mineralogy of five different modern hypersaline microbial mats from Puerto Rico and Anegada that have not yet been studied, to assess their differences/similarities. At the same time, we intent to isolate and characterize purple non-sulfur bacteria (PNSB), which is an anoxyphototrophic microorganism that contributes to the pink pigmentation observed in the second layer of a typical microbial mat. Different layers within each mat were separated, dissected and dissolved to remove all organic material. The resulting sediment was then analyzed mineralogically using X-ray diffraction, and used to make petrographic thin sections. To isolate PNSB candidates, serial dilutions followed by filtration were performed to extracted sections from the pink layer of each mat. The samples were planted in Petri dishes with marine media and placed in Anaerobic Jars. Colonies Descriptions, Gram stain and molecular analysis using 16S rDNA gene was performed. Preliminary results show a diversity of mat morphologies throughout the ponds, similar to what has been observed in other hypersaline ponds and marshes in the Caribbean. Sedimentary analysis shows that the mats from Puerto Rico have similar allochthonous material (e.g. Halimeda sp. fragments). Microcodium fabrics, conoform structures, and hemispheroidal morphologies were observed as well. In Anegada, lithified microbialites were observed in the Red Pond location. Mineralogically, all samples were similar except for the

  3. Biological survey of the Prince Edward Islands, December 2008

    P.G. Ryan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A biological survey of the Prince Edward Islands took place in December 2008. The survey repeated an earlier survey of the populations of surface-nesting seabirds on both islands and of fur seals (Arctocephalus spp. and alien plants on Prince Edward Island in December 2001. Observations on burrowing seabirds, macro-invertebrates and plant communities on Prince Edward Island and an oceanographic survey of surrounding waters were also included. The survey confirmed many of the observations made on the earlier survey and permitted an assessment of trends in the abundance and distribution of biota since 2001.

  4. Energy Transition Initiative: Islands Playbook (Book)

    2015-01-01

    The Island Energy Playbook (the Playbook) provides an action-oriented guide to successfully initiating, planning, and completing a transition to an energy system that primarily relies on local resources to eliminate a dependence on one or two imported fuels. It is intended to serve as a readily available framework that any community can adapt to organize its own energy transition effort.

  5. Paradise Islands? Island States and Environmental Performance

    Sverker C. Jagers

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Island states have been shown to outperform continental states on a number of large-scale coordination-related outcomes, such as levels of democracy and institutional quality. The argument developed and tested in this article contends that the same kind of logic may apply to islands’ environmental performance, too. However, the empirical analysis shows mixed results. Among the 105 environmental outcomes that we analyzed, being an island only has a positive impact on 20 of them. For example, island states tend to outcompete continental states with respect to several indicators related to water quality but not in aspects related to biodiversity, protected areas, or environmental regulations. In addition, the causal factors previously suggested to make islands outperform continental states in terms of coordination have weak explanatory power in predicting islands’ environmental performance. We conclude the paper by discussing how these interesting findings can be further explored.

  6. Balancing water, religion and tourism on Redang Island, Malaysia

    Fisher, Joshua B.; Nawaz, Rizwan; Fauzi, Rosmadi; Nawaz, Faiza; Sadek, Eran Sadek Said Md; Abd Latif, Zulkiflee; Blackett, Matthew

    2008-04-01

    Redang Island (Pulau Redang) is an island off of Peninsular Malaysia that is part of a Marine Park archipelago of corals and thousands of fish and invertebrates. The relatively isolated local community is generally centered on fishing, and Islam guides daily life. Recently, the tourism industry has expanded on the island. New hotels and resorts provide jobs, but also expose the locals to western culture and touristic behavior, which may clash with deeply traditional community values. Further, the tourism industry may be putting a strain on the natural resources, especially the quantity and quality of freshwater. The island village may become divided between those who support the tourism industry and those who do not. Here we present an exploratory investigation into the development environment culture dynamics of tourism, water and religion on Redang Island while building collaborations between universities of this Muslim state and the West.

  7. Balancing water, religion and tourism on Redang Island, Malaysia

    Fisher, Joshua B; Nawaz, Rizwan; Nawaz, Faiza; Fauzi, Rosmadi; Sadek, Eran Sadek Said Md; Latif, Zulkiflee Abd; Blackett, Matthew

    2008-01-01

    Redang Island (Pulau Redang) is an island off of Peninsular Malaysia that is part of a Marine Park archipelago of corals and thousands of fish and invertebrates. The relatively isolated local community is generally centered on fishing, and Islam guides daily life. Recently, the tourism industry has expanded on the island. New hotels and resorts provide jobs, but also expose the locals to western culture and touristic behavior, which may clash with deeply traditional community values. Further, the tourism industry may be putting a strain on the natural resources, especially the quantity and quality of freshwater. The island village may become divided between those who support the tourism industry and those who do not. Here we present an exploratory investigation into the development-environment-culture dynamics of tourism, water and religion on Redang Island while building collaborations between universities of this Muslim state and the West

  8. Balancing water, religion and tourism on Redang Island, Malaysia

    Fisher, Joshua B [Environmental Change Institute, School of Geography and the Environment, Oxford University, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 0EZ (United Kingdom); Nawaz, Rizwan; Nawaz, Faiza [HydroRisk Ltd, Leeds University Union, Lifton Place, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Fauzi, Rosmadi [Department of Geography, Universiti Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Sadek, Eran Sadek Said Md; Latif, Zulkiflee Abd [Department of Surveying Science and Geomatics, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); Blackett, Matthew [Department of Geography, King' s College London, Strand, London WC2R 2LS (United Kingdom)], E-mail: joshbfisher@gmail.com

    2008-04-15

    Redang Island (Pulau Redang) is an island off of Peninsular Malaysia that is part of a Marine Park archipelago of corals and thousands of fish and invertebrates. The relatively isolated local community is generally centered on fishing, and Islam guides daily life. Recently, the tourism industry has expanded on the island. New hotels and resorts provide jobs, but also expose the locals to western culture and touristic behavior, which may clash with deeply traditional community values. Further, the tourism industry may be putting a strain on the natural resources, especially the quantity and quality of freshwater. The island village may become divided between those who support the tourism industry and those who do not. Here we present an exploratory investigation into the development-environment-culture dynamics of tourism, water and religion on Redang Island while building collaborations between universities of this Muslim state and the West.

  9. Youth lead youth in Marshall Islands.

    Johnson, G

    1988-01-01

    The promotion of family planning and birth control in Pacific countries is often frustrated by traditional and religious beliefs, if not deterred by tremendous funding and logistics problems. In the central Pacific republic of the Marshall Islands, however, youthful health workers are taking a unique approach to health promotion that has spurred acceptance of the once controversial subjects of family planning and birth control. A group known as Youth to Youth in Health is spearheading a family planning outreach drive in the schools and community in the Marshall Islands. Coupling health presentations with traditional island music and dance to produce lively health shows, the group's programs on family planning, birth control, nutrition, and cancer have struck a responsive chord in a culture known for its religious and traditional conservatism. The group makes creative use of puppet shows, skits, health songs, and pantomimes, interspersed with contemporary renditions of Marshall Islands music and traditional dances. These have rekindled pride in their culture among the group and sparked a sense of urgency about the need to improve health conditions in the islands. As evidence of the group's impact, family planning staff point to a nearly 4-fold rise in the number of youth clients under 19 years since the Youth to Youth started in mid-1986. Their combination of traditional custom with family planning and other health information has proved to be an innovative and needed program for the islands.

  10. Tanzania - Mafia Island Airport

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — The evaluation design and subsequent data gathering activities will address the following key research questions: a) Has the Mafia Island Airport Upgrade Project...

  11. A man and his island: The island mirror in Michael Crummey’s Sweetland

    Laurie Brinklow

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Between 1946 and 1975, dozens of islands and outports in the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador were abandoned as part of a government resettlement policy. Families and communities were torn apart, and a culture and way of life that revolved around the fishery changed irrevocably. The practice, which continues to this day, has been well documented, particularly by artists and writers. Michael Crummey’s 2014 novel Sweetland is a recent iteration. The relationship between humans and place is complex: on an island, with compressed space and a very real boundary that is the ocean, emotional attachments to one’s place are often heightened and distilled. What happens when a person is displaced from his or her island; when bonds of attachment are severed and one’s mirrored double is destroyed? Sweetland offers a fictional lens through which we see an example of a mirrored relationship between an island protagonist and his island setting. Exploring themes of attachment to place, and what Barry Lopez calls a “storied” or “reciprocal” relationship with the land, this paper examines what happens to a man when confronted with leaving an island he knows as deeply as his own body and soul; and how the island reacts.

  12. Three Mile Island accident. Local reactions

    1979-04-01

    Local reactions to the Three Mile Island are presented as well as newspaper articles covering this accident. In addition, this document presents a plan to set forth procedures and guidelines to be utilized by authorized emergency personnel in Middletown, Royalton, Londonderry Township, and Lower Swatara Township located in Pennsylvania, United States. The plan will provide for the orderly and efficient handling of area residents during time of serious incidents emanating from Three Mile Island facility. Emergency personnel in each community should be familiar with portions of the plan that pertain to the other near-by communities. The cooperation of all parties concerned will insure that a maximum effort is being made to help protect the public against injuries and v/ill in some cases keep any damages to communities to a minimum

  13. 77 FR 41168 - Marine Mammals; Subsistence Taking of Northern Fur Seals; St. Paul Island

    2012-07-12

    ... Administrative Procedure Act (APA). The Pribilof Island Community of St. Paul Island, Aleut Community of St. Paul... comment on from the resulting list and click on the ``Submit a Comment'' icon on the right of that line... Adobe PDF file formats only. Information related to the request for rulemaking is available on the...

  14. Strategy Implementation in a Small Island Community

    A.A. van der Maas (Arnoud)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractStrategy implementation is of high importance to organization science and practice, due to its direct relation to organizational performance, its high complexity, and high failure rate. This PhD thesis is about strategy implementation and the reasons for success or failure. Despite its

  15. Socio-Spatial Typology In Karanrang Island

    Amin Ishak Rahmi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The phenomenon of community life on the small island is influenced by the stimulating factor of harmonious social interaction system through cooperation, kinship, economic activity, children playing, transportation system, religion and other social activities. The social dynamics of small island communities appear in the layout and environment in which they live, how they manage and utilize space, both indoors and outdoors. The purpose of this paper is to describe the socio-spatial typology of settlements on Karanrang Island, including a description of the spatial pattern of communalenvironments. Research approaches through spatial similarities and differences in the classification of behavioral setting, including physical, non-physical, socio-spatial arrangements. Karanrang Island as a research focus which has an area of 7.8 Ha is one of small islands inhabited in cluster PangkajeneIslands (Pangkep South Sulawesi, with characteristic of dense settlement, and diversity of tribe, also inhabited by 434 families. The method of this research is observation, data collection through field survey with descriptive analysis based on empirical data on meso / environment which is divided into:1 inter building space; 2 Space in the building; 3 Open space, and; 4 Environmental facilities. The results showed that classification of socio-spatial typology of communal environment is divided into four types of socio-spatial models based on the configuration of social interaction activities, namely:1 Type of Linear Centripetal, at the inter buildings space; 2 Type of Centripetal Cluster, space on the building; 3 Type of Centrifugal Cluster, at green open space/field; 4 Type of cluster Centripetal, at environmental facilities. The socio-spatial type based on actor’s activities, occupancy, and territory, can be distinguished on: 1 Type of children’s activity; 2 Type of mother’sactivity; 3 Type of father’s activity, and 4 Type of combination activity.

  16. Bruny on the Brink: Governance, Gentrification and Tourism on an Australian Island

    Rebecca Jackson

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the influence of islandness on development and governance of Bruny Island (offshore from Tasmania, Australia’s only island state. While traditional economic activities, particularly agriculture, are in decline, tourism is increasingly important to the island economy. While some 600 people live on the island all-year-round; there are some 2,000 ratepayers, including holiday home owners. This location is being rapidly ‘discovered’ by people drawn from interstate and overseas to the island lifestyle, and this is leading to a process of gentrification, with consequences for islanders. Bruny Island’s local governing authority is based on the Tasmanian mainland and hence is another source of externally-driven change. Amidst these pressures, island community visioning can be an important source of resilience.

  17. On the representation of the island in my artwork

    Astrid Nobel

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This essay explores the development of an art project with the island as its central theme. The process is explained through a selection of background material and other considerations that have led to the eventual work. As a starting point for this project, the author worked on the island where she was born and raised: Ameland, The Netherlands. To experience the island from an outsider’s point of view, she also stayed for some time on Grímsey, North Iceland. The work that came forth from this period of experiencing and gathering information around islands, Iland / Us, consists of two sculptures that deal with borders, protection, self and community. Among the selected fragments are texts from literature and science, photos and sketches, alternated with personal island experience.

  18. Vancouver Island gas supply

    Des Brisay, C.

    2005-01-01

    Terasen Gas is pursuing alternatives for the supply of additional natural gas capacity to Vancouver Island. Its subsidiary, Terasen Gas (Vancouver Island) Inc. (TGVI), is responding to the need for delivery of increased gas supply and, is supporting plans for new gas-fired power generation on Vancouver Island. TGVI's proposal for new natural gas capacity involves a combination of compression and pipeline loops as well as the addition of a storage facility for liquefied natural gas (LNG) at Mt. Hayes to help manage price volatility. This presentation outlined the objectives and components of the resource planning process, including demand forecast scenarios and the preferred infrastructure options. tabs., figs

  19. Barrier island habitat map and vegetation survey—Dauphin Island, Alabama, 2015

    Enwright, Nicholas M.; Borchert, Sinéad M.; Day, Richard H.; Feher, Laura C.; Osland, Michael J.; Wang, Lei; Wang, Hongqing

    2017-08-04

    Barrier islands are dynamic environments due to their position at the land-sea interface. Storms, waves, tides, currents, and relative sea-level rise are powerful forces that shape barrier island geomorphology and habitats (for example, beach, dune, marsh, and forest). Hurricane Katrina in 2005 and the Deep Water Horizon oil spill in 2010 are two major events that have affected habitats and natural resources on Dauphin Island, Alabama. The latter event prompted a collaborative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, and the State of Alabama funded by the National Fish and Wildlife Foundation to investigate viable, sustainable restoration options that protect and restore the natural resources of Dauphin Island, Alabama.In order to understand the feasibility and sustainability of various restoration scenarios, it is important to understand current conditions on Dauphin Island. To further this understanding, a detailed 19-class habitat map for Dauphin Island was produced from 1-foot aerial infrared photography collected on December 4, 2015, and lidar data collected in January 2015. We also conducted a ground survey of habitat types, vegetation community structure, and elevations in November and December 2015. These products provide baseline data regarding the ecological and general geomorphological attributes of the area, which can be compared with observations from other dates for tracking changes over time.

  20. From Multilingualism to Bilingualism: Changes in Language Use, Language Value, and Social Mobility among Engdewu Speakers in the Solomon Islands

    Emerine Hicks, Rachel

    2017-01-01

    On the island of Santa Cruz in the Solomon Islands, the Engdewu language is facing imminent language shift because of the increasing use of the lingua franca Solomon Islands Pijin in the community. In this article, I argue that this language shift is occurring because of changes to the social structure in Baemawz, one of the villages where Engdewu…

  1. Patterns of Social Interaction and Concepts of Interpersonal-Relating at Different Life-Stages in the Marquesas Islands.

    Martini, Mary

    This research report describes a study of Marquesas Islanders and how they interact with each other at different life stages from childhood, through youth and adulthood. Fieldwork for this study was conducted for a 10-month period on the island of 'Ua Pou, Marquesas Islands, French Polynesia. A small community of about 200 people in a valley on…

  2. Island formation without attractive interaction

    Jansen, A.P.J.

    2008-01-01

    We show that adsorbates on surfaces can form islands even if there are no attractive interactions. Instead, strong repulsion between adsorbates at short distances can lead to islands, because such islands increase the entropy of the adsorbates that are not part of the islands. We suggest that this

  3. Assessment of species composition, diversity, and biomass in marine habitats and subhabitats around offshore islets in the main Hawaiian islands, April 2 - September 20, 2007 (NCEI Accession 0042684)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The marine algae, invertebrate and fish communities were surveyed at ten islet or offshore island sites in the Main Hawaiian Islands in the vicinity of Lanai, (Puu...

  4. Energy Design Guidelines for High Performance Schools: Tropical Island Climates

    2004-11-01

    The Energy Design Guidelines for High Performance Schools--Tropical Island Climates provides school boards, administrators, and design staff with guidance to help them make informed decisions about energy and environmental issues important to school systems and communities. These design guidelines outline high performance principles for the new or retrofit design of your K-12 school in tropical island climates. By incorporating energy improvements into their construction or renovation plans, schools can significantly reduce energy consumption and costs.

  5. Coalescence of magnetic islands

    Pellat, R.

    1982-01-01

    The paper gives the analytical theory of the coalescence instability and of a new, one island, instability. These instabilities are expected to be relevant for the disruptions observed in Tokamak experiments and astrophysical plasmas

  6. Three Mile Island accident. Local reactions; L'accident de Three Mile Island. Reactions locales

    NONE

    1979-04-15

    Local reactions to the Three Mile Island are presented as well as newspaper articles covering this accident. In addition, this document presents a plan to set forth procedures and guidelines to be utilized by authorized emergency personnel in Middletown, Royalton, Londonderry Township, and Lower Swatara Township located in Pennsylvania, United States. The plan will provide for the orderly and efficient handling of area residents during time of serious incidents emanating from Three Mile Island facility. Emergency personnel in each community should be familiar with portions of the plan that pertain to the other near-by communities. The cooperation of all parties concerned will insure that a maximum effort is being made to help protect the public against injuries and v/ill in some cases keep any damages to communities to a minimum.

  7. Three Mile Island revisited

    MacLeod, G.K.

    1986-01-01

    The accident at Three Mile Island proved that the Pennsylvania Department of Health lacked the tools to deal with the serious health consequences that occurred during and after this emergency. Despite the relative safety of nuclear power generation, we must be better prepared for the health and medical consequences of serous radiation emergencies. The author reviews the Three Mile Island accident through the eyes of newspaper reporters

  8. Islands and Islandness in Rock Music Lyrics

    Daniele Mezzana

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a first exploration, qualitative in character, based on a review of 412 songs produced in the period 1960-2009, about islands in rock music as both social products and social tools potentially contributing to shaping ideas, emotions, will, and desires. An initial taxonomy of 24 themes clustered under five meta-themes of space, lifestyle, emotions, symbolism, and social-political relations is provided, together with some proposals for further research.

  9. Equilibrium Bird Species Diversity in Atlantic Islands.

    Valente, Luis; Illera, Juan Carlos; Havenstein, Katja; Pallien, Tamara; Etienne, Rampal S; Tiedemann, Ralph

    2017-06-05

    Half a century ago, MacArthur and Wilson proposed that the number of species on islands tends toward a dynamic equilibrium diversity around which species richness fluctuates [1]. The current prevailing view in island biogeography accepts the fundamentals of MacArthur and Wilson's theory [2] but questions whether their prediction of equilibrium can be fulfilled over evolutionary timescales, given the unpredictable and ever-changing nature of island geological and biotic features [3-7]. Here we conduct a complete molecular phylogenetic survey of the terrestrial bird species from four oceanic archipelagos that make up the diverse Macaronesian bioregion-the Azores, the Canary Islands, Cape Verde, and Madeira [8, 9]. We estimate the times at which birds colonized and speciated in the four archipelagos, including many previously unsampled endemic and non-endemic taxa and their closest continental relatives. We develop and fit a new multi-archipelago dynamic stochastic model to these data, explicitly incorporating information from 91 taxa, both extant and extinct. Remarkably, we find that all four archipelagos have independently achieved and maintained a dynamic equilibrium over millions of years. Biogeographical rates are homogeneous across archipelagos, except for the Canary Islands, which exhibit higher speciation and colonization. Our finding that the avian communities of the four Macaronesian archipelagos display an equilibrium diversity pattern indicates that a diversity plateau may be rapidly achieved on islands where rates of in situ radiation are low and extinction is high. This study reveals that equilibrium processes may be more prevalent than recently proposed, supporting MacArthur and Wilson's 50-year-old theory. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. North Aegean island landscapes as ecomuseums: the case of Lesvos Island

    Evangelos Pavlis

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The main advantage of the Aegean islands, in generating national, regional, or international competitiveness, compared to the areas on the continental mainland, is their natural and cultural assets, their cultural landscapes. Consequently, the organized utilization of cultural heritage, rich biodiversity, and the unique Aegean landscape, could make the islands attractive as places to live or work and help them fulfill their sustainability goals. Ecomuseums are ‘in situ’ museums, aimed at local communities and managed by them, aiming at the interpretation, protection, utilization, and promotion of natural and cultural assets of a place, and at the economic revival of marginal regions through the combinational development of small-scale tourism, local manufacturing, and primary production sectors. They could function as laboratories of sustainable development. The island of Lesvos has been selected as a case study for such a potential ecomuseum.

  11. Heron Island, Australia

    2002-01-01

    Heron Island is located at the sourthern end of Australia's 2,050 km-long Great Barrier Reef. Surrounded by coral reef and home to over 1000 species of fish, scuba divers and scientists alike are drawn to the island's resort and research station. The true-color image above was taken by Space Imaging's Ikonos satellite with a resolution of 4 meters per pixel-high enough to see individual boats tied up at the small marina. The narrow channel leading from the marina to the ocean was blasted and dredged decades ago, before the island became a national park. Since then the Australian government has implemented conservation measures, such as limiting the number of tourists and removing or recycling, instead of incinerating, all trash. One of the applications of remote sensing data from Ikonos is environmental monitoring, including studies of coral reef health. For more information about the island, read Heron Island. Image by Robert Simmon, based on data copyright Space Imaging

  12. Small Island Visitor Attractions

    Haven Allahar

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes a process framework for developing and managing visitor attractions (VA in small island developing states with Trinidad and Tobago, a two-island state in the Caribbean, as the case study. An extensive literature review was conducted, supported by field observations, individual depth interviews, and small and large focus group meetings. The process framework identified four sets of processes: national policy formulation and legislation; inventory, classification, evaluation, and ranking of VA; general operations management involving project management activities; and site specific activities of development, operations, and maintenance. The value of the framework lies in the fact that no similar framework applicable to small islands was covered in the literature and validation was obtained from a panel of experts and a cross section of tourism stakeholders in Tobago.

  13. Island of Luzon, Philippines

    1990-01-01

    In this north to south view of the Island of Luzon, Philippines (13.0N, 120.0E), the prominent Cordillera Central mountain range where gold, copper and silver are mined. The several large rivers that drain this region normally carry a heavy silt load to the sea but the absence of sediment plumes in this view is evidence of hot dry weather and lack of recent rains. Manila, the capital city is just visible at the south end of the island.

  14. Chatham Islands Climate Change

    Mullan, B.; Salinger, J.; Thompson, C.; Ramsay, D.; Wild, M.

    2005-06-01

    This brief report provides guidance on climate change specific to the Chatham Islands, to complement the information recently produced for local government by the Ministry for the Environment in 'Climate Change Effects and Impacts Assessment: A guidance manual for Local Government in New Zealand' and 'Coastal Hazards and Climate Change: A guidance manual for Local Government in New Zealand'. These previous reports contain a lot of generic information on climate change, and how to assess associated risks, that is relevant to the Chatham Islands Council.

  15. Island in the Air

    Simonsen, Dorthe Gert

    2017-01-01

    In this article, I explore the formation of airspace in Britain from 1910 to 1913. The technology of flight challenged the “flat discourse” of nationalized geography, drawing up instead a volumetric space in the sky as airplanes flew from the Continent to England. The drive to control aerial...... extension of the Island Kingdom, extrapolating its coastal borders into the sky. However, even as Parliament passed the Aerial Navigation Act in 1913, this legal construction of an island in the air could not endure the agency of airplanes. The formation of airspace, I argue, is a history particularly well...

  16. Archaeoastronomy of Easter Island

    Edwards, Edmundo

    Astronomer priests or "skywatchers" on Easter Island lived in stone towers that were used as observatories and built stone markers in the periphery that indicated the heliacal rising of certain stars that served to indicate the arrival of marine birds, turtles, the offshore fishing season, and times for planting and harvest. Petroglyphs related to such sites depict outriggers, fishhooks, pelagic fish, and turtles and supposedly represented a star map. In this chapter, we analyze a set of such skywatchers dwellings, and stone markers located upon the North coast of Easter Island that have astronomic orientations, its related petroglyphs, and the relations between these directions with their yearly activities and their ritual calendar.

  17. Long Island Solar Farm

    Anders, R.

    2013-05-01

    The Long Island Solar Farm (LISF) is a remarkable success story, whereby very different interest groups found a way to capitalize on unusual circumstances to develop a mutually beneficial source of renewable energy. The uniqueness of the circumstances that were necessary to develop the Long Island Solar Farm make it very difficult to replicate. The project is, however, an unparalleled resource for solar energy research, which will greatly inform large-scale PV solar development in the East. Lastly, the LISF is a superb model for the process by which the project developed and the innovation and leadership shown by the different players.

  18. Islanded operation of distribution networks

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This report summarises the results of a study assessing the benefits and risks to distribution network of generator islanding and examining the technical, commercial and regulatory changes required to facilitate the operation of islanding. The background to the study is traced, and details are given of a literature review, the technical criteria for operating sections of the network in islanding mode, and the impact of islanding on trading. Case studies and a detailed implementation plan, data acquisition, and commercial incentives are discussed.

  19. Islanded operation of distribution networks

    2005-01-01

    This report summarises the results of a study assessing the benefits and risks to distribution network of generator islanding and examining the technical, commercial and regulatory changes required to facilitate the operation of islanding. The background to the study is traced, and details are given of a literature review, the technical criteria for operating sections of the network in islanding mode, and the impact of islanding on trading. Case studies and a detailed implementation plan, data acquisition, and commercial incentives are discussed

  20. 77 FR 26643 - Asian American and Pacific Islander Heritage Month, 2012

    2012-05-04

    ... Proclamation 8810--Law Day, U.S.A., 2012 Proclamation 8811--Loyalty Day, 2012 Proclamation 8812--National Day... AAPI communities by improving access to Federal programs where Asian American and Pacific Islanders are... Americans and Pacific Islanders, and to observe this month with appropriate programs and activities. IN...

  1. 77 FR 27188 - Extension of Application Period for Seats for the Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary...

    2012-05-09

    ... Period for Seats for the Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council AGENCY: Office of National Marine Sanctuaries (ONMS), National Ocean Service (NOS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric... following vacant seats on the Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council: Chumash Community...

  2. The Island Smart Energy System and Market

    Ma, Zheng; Billanes, Joy Dalmacio; Jørgensen, Bo Nørregaard

    2017-01-01

    developing island smart energy systems with the integration of renewable energy resources can increase the energy supply and address the global island energy issues. The island smart energy system operates either in a single-island or in multi-islands. However the island characteristics and influ...

  3. Solomon Islands Botany

    Steenis, van C.G.G.J.

    1969-01-01

    A discussion of the Results of the Royal Society Expedition to the British Solomon Islands Protectorate, 1965. Organized by E.J.H. Corner. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B 255 (1969) 185-631, 196 fig. University Printing House, Shaftesbury Road, Cambridge. Obtainable through booksellers or direct to the Royal

  4. Pacific Island Pharmacovigilance

    McEwen, John; Vestergaard, Lasse S.; Sanburg, Amanda L C

    2016-01-01

    Many Pacific Island countries (PICs) are recipients of funding support from the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (Global Fund). However, most of these countries cannot be expected to meet Global Fund and World Health Organization (WHO) minimum requirements for a functioning...

  5. Magnetic-island formation

    Boozer, A.H.

    1983-08-01

    The response of a finite conductivity plasma to resonant magnetic perturbations is studied. The equations, which are derived for the time development of magnetic islands, help one interpret the singular currents which occur under the assumption of perfect plasma conductivity. The relation to the Rutherford regime of resistive instabilities is given

  6. Bone island and leprosy

    Carpintero, P.; Garcia-Frasquet, A. [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Cordoba University, Medical School, Reina Sofia University Hospital, Cordoba (Spain); Tarradas, E. [Department of Imaging, Cordoba University, Medical School, Cordoba (Spain); Logrono, C. [Department of Dermatology, Reina Sofia University Hospital, Cordoba (Spain); Carrascal, A. [Department of Radiology, Infanta Elena Hospital, Huelva (Spain); Carreto, A. [Department of Radiology, Reina Sofia University Hospital, Cordoba (Spain)

    1998-06-01

    Objective. To determine the incidence of bone islands in leprosy patients. Design. X-rays of feet and hands of patients with Hansen`s disease (leprosy) were reviewed retrospectively. A second group of related age- and sex-matched patients who did not have Hansen`s disease was used for control purposes. Controls had undergone hand or foot X-rays during diagnosis of other pathologies. The patients with Hansen`s disease were compared with the control group, and were also analyzed as subgroups with different types of leprosy. The results were subjected to statistical analysis. Patients. Ninety patients with Hansen`s disease were randomly selected for this study. Patients who had had ulcers on hands or feet were excluded from the study. Results and conclusions. Bone islands were demonstrated in 20 patients with Hansen`s disease; no bone islands were observed in the controls. This was statistically significant (P<0.01). Bone islands were only seen in patients with lepromatous leprosy and borderline types but were not demonstrated in patients with tuberculoid leprosy. There was also a statistically significant relationship for a disease duration of 15 years or more. The cause of this raised incidence of enostosis in leprosy patients is not clear, but there may be a genetic predisposition in patients with leprosy, or it may be a side effect of leprosy, especially the lepromatous form. (orig.) With 4 figs., 2 tabs., 9 refs.

  7. Bone island and leprosy

    Carpintero, P.; Garcia-Frasquet, A.; Tarradas, E.; Logrono, C.; Carrascal, A.; Carreto, A.

    1998-01-01

    Objective. To determine the incidence of bone islands in leprosy patients. Design. X-rays of feet and hands of patients with Hansen's disease (leprosy) were reviewed retrospectively. A second group of related age- and sex-matched patients who did not have Hansen's disease was used for control purposes. Controls had undergone hand or foot X-rays during diagnosis of other pathologies. The patients with Hansen's disease were compared with the control group, and were also analyzed as subgroups with different types of leprosy. The results were subjected to statistical analysis. Patients. Ninety patients with Hansen's disease were randomly selected for this study. Patients who had had ulcers on hands or feet were excluded from the study. Results and conclusions. Bone islands were demonstrated in 20 patients with Hansen's disease; no bone islands were observed in the controls. This was statistically significant (P<0.01). Bone islands were only seen in patients with lepromatous leprosy and borderline types but were not demonstrated in patients with tuberculoid leprosy. There was also a statistically significant relationship for a disease duration of 15 years or more. The cause of this raised incidence of enostosis in leprosy patients is not clear, but there may be a genetic predisposition in patients with leprosy, or it may be a side effect of leprosy, especially the lepromatous form. (orig.)

  8. Multidecadal shoreline changes of atoll islands in the Marshall Islands

    Ford, M.

    2012-12-01

    Atoll islands are considered highly vulnerable to the impacts of continued sea level rise. One of the most commonly predicted outcomes of continued sea level rise is widespread and chronic shoreline erosion. Despite the widespread implications of predicted erosion, the decadal scale changes of atoll island shorelines are poorly resolved. The Marshall Islands is one of only four countries where the majority of inhabited land is comprised of reef and atoll islands. Consisting of 29 atolls and 5 mid-ocean reef islands, the Marshall Islands are considered highly vulnerable to the impacts of sea level rise. A detailed analysis of shoreline change on over 300 islands on 10 atolls was undertaken using historic aerial photos (1945-1978) and modern high resolution satellite imagery (2004-2012). Results highlight the complex and dynamic nature of atoll islands, with significant shifts in shoreline position observed over the period of analysis. Results suggest shoreline accretion is the dominant mode of change on the islands studied, often associated with a net increase in vegetated island area. However, considerable inter- and intra-atoll variability exists with regards to shoreline stability. Findings are discussed with respect to island morphodynamics and potential hazard mitigation and planning responses within atoll settings.

  9. The reticulating phylogeny of island biogeography theory.

    Lomolino, Mark V; Brown, James H

    2009-12-01

    Biogeographers study all patterns in the geographic variation of life, from the spatial variation in genetic and physiological characteristics of cells and individuals, to the diversity and dynamics of biological communities among continental biotas or across oceanic archipelagoes. The field of island biogeography, in particular, has provided some genuinely transformative insights for the biological sciences, especially ecology and evolutionary biology. Our purpose here is to review the historical development of island biogeography theory during the 20th century by identifying the common threads that run through four sets of contributions made during this period, including those by Eugene Gordon Munroe (1948, 1953), Edward O. Wilson (1959, 1961), Frank W. Preston (1962a,b), and the seminal collaborations between Wilson and Robert H. MacArthur (1963, 1967), which revolutionized the field and served as its paradigm for nearly four decades. This epistemological account not only reviews the intriguing history of island theory, but it also includes fundamental lessons for advancing science through transformative integrations. Indeed, as is likely the case with many disciplines, island theory advanced not as a simple accumulation of facts and an orderly succession of theories and paradigms, but rather in fits and starts through a reticulating phylogeny of ideas and alternating periods of specialization and reintegration. We conclude this review with a summary of the salient features of this scientific revolution in the contest of Kuhn's structure, which strongly influenced theoretical advances during this period, and we then describe some of the fundamental assumptions and tenets of an emerging reintegration of island biogeography theory.

  10. Coastal hazards and groundwater salinization on low coral islands.

    Terry, James P.; Chui, T. F. May

    2016-04-01

    Remote oceanic communities living on low-lying coral islands (atolls) without surface water rely for their survival on the continuing viability of fragile groundwater resources. These exist in the form of fresh groundwater lenses (FGLs) that develop naturally within the porous coral sand and gravel substrate. Coastal hazards such as inundation by high-energy waves driven by storms and continuing sea-level rise (SLR) are among many possible threats to viable FGL size and quality on atolls. Yet, not much is known about the combined effects of wave washover during powerful storms and SLR on different sizes of coral island, nor conversely how island size influences lens resilience against damage. This study investigates FGL damage by salinization (and resilience) caused by such coastal hazards using a modelling approach. Numerical modelling is carried out to generate steady-state FGL configurations at three chosen island sizes (400, 600 and 800 m widths). Steady-state solutions reveal how FGL dimensions are related in a non-linear manner to coral island size, such that smaller islands develop much more restricted lenses than larger islands. A 40 cm SLR scenario is then imposed. This is followed by transient simulations to examine storm-induced wave washover and subsequent FGL responses to saline damage over a 1 year period. Smaller FGLs display greater potential for disturbance by SLR, while larger and more robust FGLs tend to show more resilience. Further results produce a somewhat counterintuitive finding: in the post-SLR condition, FGL vulnerability to washover salinization may actually be reduced, owing to the thinner layer of unsaturated substrate lying above the water table into which saline water can infiltrate during a storm event. Nonetheless, combined washover and SLR impacts imply overall that advancing groundwater salinization may lead to some coral islands becoming uninhabitable long before they are completely submerged by sea-level rise, thereby calling

  11. Report on survey project for demonstration of warm sea water bathing facilities using unutilized resources such as wastes in islands by carbonizing them into energy; 2001 nendo kankyo chowa gata energy community field test jigyo chosa hokokusho. Rito ni okeru haikibutsu tou mikatsuyo shigen no tanka energyka no kaisui on'yoku shisetsu heno jissho chosa jigyo

    NONE

    2002-05-01

    Surveys and discussions have been performed in Yuge Town in Ehime Prefecture for aiming at promotion of district development and zero emission in islands by carbonizing general wastes (household refuses and business operation wastes) and bamboos in the islands to utilize their energies as a substitute for the heat source of the warm sea water bathing facilities, as well as utilizing the produced carbides as soil improving materials or deodorants. The surveys were performed on bamboo carbonizing and gas carbonizing technologies, energy utilization feasibility, analysis of wastes composition, and identification of quantity of bamboos in existence. In discussing the energy utilization system by means of carbonization, it was revealed that the introduction of the bamboo carbonizing and gas carbonizing technologies can sufficiently satisfy the heat demand of the Yuge Town community facilities, although the amount of heat that can be supplied may vary because of difference in the technical processes. Also with regard to the problems of dioxins contained in the discharged gas and the problems of heavy metals contained in the carbides, it was discovered that different environmental criteria can be met as evidenced by the existing demonstration data. (NEDO)

  12. Primary productivity of marine macrophytes in the coral reef lagoon of the Kadmat Island, Lakshadweep

    Dhargalkar, V.K.; Shaikh, N.

    n situ primary productivity measurements were carried out with different macrophyte species (belonging to four groups) dominating the benthic communities in the coral reef lagoon of the Kadmat Island of the Lakshadweep Archipelago...

  13. Combined multibeam and bathymetry data from Rhode Island Sound and Block Island Sound: a regional perspective

    Poppe, Lawrence J.; McMullen, Katherine Y.; Danforth, William W.; Blankenship, Mark R.; Clos, Andrew R.; Glomb, Kimberly A.; Lewit, Peter G.; Nadeau, Megan A.; Wood, Douglas A.; Parker, Castleton E.

    2014-01-01

    Detailed bathymetric maps of the sea floor in Rhode Island and Block Island Sounds are of great interest to the New York, Rhode Island, and Massachusetts research and management communities because of this area's ecological, recreational, and commercial importance. Geologically interpreted digital terrain models from individual surveys provide important benthic environmental information, yet many applications of this information require a geographically broader perspective. For example, individual surveys are of limited use for the planning and construction of cross-sound infrastructure, such as cables and pipelines, or for the testing of regional circulation models. To address this need, we integrated 14 contiguous multibeam bathymetric datasets that were produced by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration during charting operations into one digital terrain model that covers much of Block Island Sound and extends eastward across Rhode Island Sound. The new dataset, which covers over 1244 square kilometers, is adjusted to mean lower low water, gridded to 4-meter resolution, and provided in Universal Transverse Mercator Zone 19, North American Datum of 1983 and geographic World Geodetic Survey of 1984 projections. This resolution is adequate for sea-floor feature and process interpretation but is small enough to be queried and manipulated with standard Geographic Information System programs and to allow for future growth. Natural features visible in the data include boulder lag deposits of winnowed Pleistocene strata, sand-wave fields, and scour depressions that reflect the strength of oscillating tidal currents and scour by storm-induced waves. Bedform asymmetry allows interpretations of net sediment transport. Anthropogenic features visible in the data include shipwrecks and dredged channels. Together the merged data reveal a larger, more continuous perspective of bathymetric topography than previously available, providing a fundamental framework for

  14. Photographic images of benthic coral, algae and invertebrate species in marine habitats and subhabitats around offshore islets in the main Hawaiian Islands, April 2 - September 20, 2007 (NODC Accession 0043046)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The marine algae, invertebrate and fish communities were surveyed at ten islet or offshore island sites in the Main Hawaiian Islands in the vicinity of Lanai, (Puu...

  15. The Solomon Islands tsunami of 6 February 2013 field survey in the Santa Cruz Islands

    Fritz, H. M.; Papantoniou, A.; Biukoto, L.; Albert, G.

    2013-12-01

    observed on volcanic Tinakula Island and on Ndendo Island. Observations from the 2013 Santa Cruz tsunami are compared against the 2007 and 2010 Solomon Islands tsunamis. The team also interviewed eyewitnesses and educated residents about the tsunami hazard in numerous ad hoc presentations and discussions. The combination of ancestral knowledge and recent Solomon Islands wide geohazards education programs triggered an immediate spontaneous self-evacuation containing the death toll in the small evacuation window of few minutes between the end of the ground shaking and the onslaught of the tsunami. Fortunately school children were shown a video on the 1 April 2007 Solomon Islands tsunami 3 months prior to the Santa Cruz event and the headmaster of the school at Venga evacuated the later flooded school already during a foreshock. On Tomotu Noi Island at Bamoi the residents evacuated inland towards a crocodile infested lake, which was not reached by the tsunami inundation. Community-based education and awareness programs are particularly essential to help save lives in locales at risk from near-source tsunamis.

  16. Island solution; Inselloesung

    Bah, Isaac

    2013-06-15

    On the Azores island Graciosa the Berlin-based company Younicos has installed a new electricity system with advanced storage technology, which will make the islanders independent from fossil fuels. With an energy mix of wind power, photovoltaics and biomass the dependence on fossil fuels should be terminated. In the center of the flagship project specifically developed hybrid batteries are used (combination of sodium-sulfur- and lithium-ion batteries) with 2.7 MW of power and a storage capacity of ten megawatts hours. [German] Auf der Azoren-Insel Graciosa installiert das Berliner Unternehmen Younicos ein neues Stromsystem mit modernster Speichertechnologie, das die Bewohner unabhaengig von fossilen Energietraegern machen soll. Mit einem Energiemix aus Windkraft, Photovoltaik und Biomasse soll die Abhaengigkeit von fossilen Brennstoffen beendet werden. Im Zentrum des Vorzeigeprojekts stehen speziell fuer den Inseleinsatz entwickelte Hybridbatterien (Kombination aus Natrium-Schwefel- und Lithium-Ionen-Akkus) mit 2,7 Megawatt Leistung und eine Speicherkapazitaet von zehn Megawattestunden.

  17. Urban heat island 1

    Bühler, Oliver; Jensen, Marina Bergen; Petersen, Karen Sejr

    2010-01-01

    Urban Heat Island beskriver det forhold, at temperaturen i byområder er højere end temperaturen i tilgrænsede landområder. Årsagen hertil ligger i den urbane arealanvendelse, hvor en mindre andel af arealerne er dækket af vegetation, og en større andel består af forseglede arealer.......Urban Heat Island beskriver det forhold, at temperaturen i byområder er højere end temperaturen i tilgrænsede landområder. Årsagen hertil ligger i den urbane arealanvendelse, hvor en mindre andel af arealerne er dækket af vegetation, og en større andel består af forseglede arealer....

  18. Charge Islands Through Tunneling

    Robinson, Daryl C.

    2002-01-01

    It has been recently reported that the electrical charge in a semiconductive carbon nanotube is not evenly distributed, but rather it is divided into charge "islands." This paper links the aforementioned phenomenon to tunneling and provides further insight into the higher rate of tunneling processes, which makes tunneling devices attractive. This paper also provides a basis for calculating the charge profile over the length of the tube so that nanoscale devices' conductive properties may be fully exploited.

  19. Islands in the Ocean

    Elena Bagina

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Today’s China is an outpost of modern western architecture. All famous architects and firms build here. Having lost their historical context, the objects of traditional Chinese architecture become islands in the ocean of new development. Their destiny is controversial. Architectural masterpieces are perceived in a superficial manner not only by tourists, but also by local people. The link of times that used to be cherished in Chinese culture is being broken today.

  20. MARICULTURE ON CROATIAN ISLANDS

    Gordana Šarušić

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available The first attempts of intensive mariculture in Croatia commenced at the very beginning of 1980’s. The mid-eighties brought an expansion of mariculture production, which has been continuously increasing. A few different marine organisms are intensively cultured - both fish and shellfish. Among them commercially most important and highly valued species are sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax and sea bream Sparus aurata. Mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis and oyster Ostrea edulis are the most important shellfish. Fish species such as dentex Dentex dentex, red sea bream Pagrus major and sheepshead bream Puntazzo puntazzo are reared too, but in a rather small quantities. Only recently the rearing, on-growing- of bluefin tuna Thunnus thynnus started in Croatia. The juveniles (70% are reared in a Croatian hatcheries, and 30% has to be imported mainly from Italy and France, due to a higher demand for this kind of culture among the small growers. Croatian part of Adriatic sea possesses a number of geomorfologicaly suitable sites and meteorological conditions which determined the choice - type - of intensive culture. All fish species are reared in a floating cages. The choice of cages i. e. semi off-shore or floating frames, size, rearing volume and design depend on the investors personal preference. The annual turnouf of a market size bass was about 600t and 300t bream in 1996., by 10 island farms which is 70% of total production in Croatia. Including other cultured fish species last year production was up to 1000t, and it™s being estimated to be about 1300t in the following year. The shellfish production on the islands is usually individual attempt of farmers, producing minor quantities mostly in polyculture. This production has bigger potential but it’s limited owing to the EU quality control regulations which do not allow the export, and by domestic market which has drastically decreased due to the collapse of tourism during the recent war. Almost 80

  1. Hydrogen, fuel cells and renewable energy integration in islands

    Bauen, A.; Hart, D.; Foradini, F.; Hart, D.

    2002-01-01

    Remote areas such as islands rely on costly and highly polluting diesel and heavy fuel oil for their electricity supply. This paper explored the opportunities for exploiting economically and environmentally viable renewable energy sources, in particular hydrogen storage, on such islands. In particular, this study focused on addressing the challenge of matching energy supply with demand and with technical issues regarding weak grids that are hindered with high steady state voltage levels and voltage fluctuations. The main technical characteristics of integrated renewable energy and hydrogen systems were determined by modelling a case study for the island of El Hierro (Canary Islands). The paper referred to the challenges regarding the technical and economic viability of such systems and their contribution to the economic development of remote communities. It was noted that energy storage plays an important role in addressing supply and demand issues by offering a way to control voltage and using surplus electricity at times of low load. Electrical energy can be stored in the form of potential or chemical energy. New decentralized generation technologies have also played a role in improving the energy efficiency of renewable energy sources. The feasibility of using hydrogen for energy storage was examined with particular reference to fuel-cell based energy supply in isolated island communities. 4 refs., 5 figs

  2. Legacy of the Pacific Islander cancer control network.

    Hubbell, F Allan; Luce, Pat H; Afeaki, William P; Cruz, Lee Ann C; McMullin, Juliet M; Mummert, Angelina; Pouesi, June; Reyes, Maria Lourdes; Taumoepeau, Leafa Tuita; Tu'ufuli, Galeai Moali'itele; Wenzel, Lari

    2006-10-15

    The groundwork for the Pacific Islander cancer control network (PICCN) began in the early 1990s with a study of the cancer control needs of American Samoans. The necessity for similar studies among other Pacific Islander populations led to the development of PICCN. The project's principal objectives were to increase cancer awareness and to enhance cancer control research among American Samoans, Tongans, and Chamorros. PICCN was organized around a steering committee and 6 community advisory boards, 2 from each of the targeted populations. Membership included community leaders, cancer control experts, and various academic and technical organizations involved with cancer control. Through this infrastructure, the investigators developed new culturally sensitive cancer education materials and distributed them in a culturally appropriate manner. They also initiated a cancer control research training program, educated Pacific Islander students in this field, and conducted pilot research projects. PICCN conducted nearly 200 cancer awareness activities in its 6 study sites and developed cancer educational materials on prostate, colorectal, lung, breast, and cervical cancer and tobacco control in the Samoan, Tongan, and Chamorro languages. PICCN trained 9 students who conducted 7 pilot research projects designed to answer important questions regarding the cancer control needs of Pacific Islanders and to inform interventions targeting those needs. The legacy of PICCN lies in its advancement of improving cancer control among Pacific Islanders and setting the stage for interventions that will help to eliminate cancer-related health disparities. Cancer 2006. (c) 2006 American Cancer Society.

  3. Self-sustained magnetic islands

    Chatenet, J H; Luciani, J F [Ecole Polytechnique, 91 - Palaiseau (France); Garbet, X [Association Euratom-CEA, Centre d` Etudes de Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France). Dept. de Recherches sur la Fusion Controlee

    1996-06-01

    Numerical simulations of a single magnetic island evolution are presented in the regime where the island width is smaller than an ion Larmor radius. It is shown that the island rotation is controlled by particle diffusion due to collisions or a background of microturbulence. As expected from the theory of a stationary island, there exist cases where linearly stable magnetic perturbation are nonlinearly self-sustained. This situation corresponds to large poloidal beta and temperature gradient. The drive is due to diamagnetic frequency effects. However, this situation is not generic, and islands can also decay. It is found that a magnetic island is self-sustained for a negative off-diagonal diffusion coefficient. This case occurs in a tokamak if the inward particle pinch is due to the temperature gradient. (author). 30 refs.

  4. Self-sustained magnetic islands

    Chatenet, J.H.; Luciani, J.F.; Garbet, X.

    1996-06-01

    Numerical simulations of a single magnetic island evolution are presented in the regime where the island width is smaller than an ion Larmor radius. It is shown that the island rotation is controlled by particle diffusion due to collisions or a background of microturbulence. As expected from the theory of a stationary island, there exist cases where linearly stable magnetic perturbation are nonlinearly self-sustained. This situation corresponds to large poloidal beta and temperature gradient. The drive is due to diamagnetic frequency effects. However, this situation is not generic, and islands can also decay. It is found that a magnetic island is self-sustained for a negative off-diagonal diffusion coefficient. This case occurs in a tokamak if the inward particle pinch is due to the temperature gradient. (author)

  5. The real bounty: marine biodiversity in the Pitcairn Islands.

    Alan M Friedlander

    Full Text Available In 2012 we conducted an integrated ecological assessment of the marine environment of the Pitcairn Islands, which are four of the most remote islands in the world. The islands and atolls (Ducie, Henderson, Oeno, and Pitcairn are situated in the central South Pacific, halfway between New Zealand and South America. We surveyed algae, corals, mobile invertebrates, and fishes at 97 sites between 5 and 30 m depth, and found 51 new records for algae, 23 for corals, and 15 for fishes. The structure of the ecological communities was correlated with age, isolation, and geomorphology of the four islands. Coral and algal assemblages were significantly different among islands with Ducie having the highest coral cover (56% and Pitcairn dominated by erect macroalgae (42%. Fish biomass was dominated by top predators at Ducie (62% of total fish biomass and at Henderson (35%. Herbivorous fishes dominated at Pitcairn, while Oeno showed a balanced fish trophic structure. We found high levels of regional endemism in the fish assemblages across the islands (45%, with the highest level observed at Ducie (56% by number. We conducted the first surveys of the deep habitats around the Pitcairn Islands using drop-cameras at 21 sites from depths of 78 to 1,585 m. We observed 57 fish species from the drop-cams, including rare species such as the false catshark (Pseudotriakis microdon and several new undescribed species. In addition, we made observations of typically shallow reef sharks and other reef fishes at depths down to 300 m. Our findings highlight the uniqueness and high biodiversity value of the Pitcairn Islands as one of the least impacted in the Pacific, and suggest the need for immediate protection.

  6. Patterns of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungal Distribution on Mainland and Island Sandy Coastal Plain Ecosystems in Brazil.

    da Silva, Iolanda Ramalho; de Souza, Francisco Adriano; da Silva, Danielle Karla Alves; Oehl, Fritz; Maia, Leonor Costa

    2017-10-01

    Although sandy coastal plains are important buffer zones to protect the coast line and maintain biological diversity and ecosystem services, these ecosystems have been endangered by anthropogenic activities. Thus, information on coastal biodiversity and forces shaping coastal biological diversity are extremely important for effective conservation strategies. In this study, we aimed to compare arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungal communities from soil samples collected on the mainland and nearby islands located in Brazilian sandy coastal plain ecosystems (Restingas) to get information about AM fungal biogeography and identify factors shaping these communities. Soil samples were collected in 2013 and 2014 on the beachfront of the tropical sandy coastal plain at six sites (three island and three mainland locations) across the northeast, southeast, and south regions of Brazil. Overall, we recorded 53 AM fungal species from field and trap culture samples. The richness and diversity of AM fungal species did not differ between mainland and island locations, but AM fungal community assemblages were different between mainland and island environments and among most sites sampled. Glomeromycota communities registered from island samples showed higher heterogeneity than communities from mainland samples. Sandy coastal plains harbor diverse AM fungal communities structured by climatic, edaphic, and spatial factors, while the distance from the colonizing source (mainland environments) does not strongly affect the AM fungal communities in Brazilian coastal environments.

  7. Increase Economic Valuation of Marine Ecotourism Spots In Small Islands

    Rahakbauw, Siska D.; Teniwut, Wellem A.; Renjaan, Meiskyana R.; Hungan, Marselus

    2017-10-01

    Ecotourism is one of the fast-growing sectors especially in the developing country as a source of revenue. To get a sustainable development of ecotourism, it needs broad and comprehensive effort from central government and local government, perfect example in that regards in Indonesia is Bali and Lombok. For another area in Indonesia like Kei Islands which located in two administrative governments have a major problem to build a sustainable nature-based tourism because of the location of this area to the major cities in the country makes the travel cost is high. This situation makes the role of local community as the backbone of the growth and development of nature-based tourism is critical. By using structural equation modeling (SEM), we constructed a model to enhance local community perception on economic valuation of ecotourism spots in the area. Results showed that perceived quality as the mediation driven by the intensity of appearance on national television and the internet could increase community attachment to increase willingness to pay from the local community on ecotourism in Kei islands. Also, the result also indicated that WTP value for the local community on ecotourism in Kei Islands was 10.81 per trip, with average trip per month was 1 to 4 times.

  8. Contrasts in the marine ecosystem of two Macaronesian islands: A comparison between the remote Selvagens Reserve and Madeira Island.

    Friedlander, Alan M; Ballesteros, Enric; Clemente, Sabrina; Gonçalves, Emanuel J; Estep, Andrew; Rose, Paul; Sala, Enric

    2017-01-01

    The islands of Madeira and Selvagens are less than 300 km apart but offer a clear contrast between a densely populated and highly developed island (Madeira), and a largely uninhabited and remote archipelago (Selvagens) within Macaronesia in the eastern Atlantic. The Madeira Archipelago has ~260,000 inhabitants and receives over six million visitor days annually. The Selvagens Islands Reserve is one of the oldest nature reserves in Portugal and comprises two islands and several islets, including the surrounding shelf to a depth of 200 m. Only reserve rangers and a small unit of the maritime police inhabit these islands. The benthic community around Selvagens was dominated by erect and turf algae, while the community at Madeira was comprised of crustose coralline and turf algae, sessile invertebrates, and sea urchin barrens. The sea urchin Diadema africanum was 65% more abundant at Madeira than at Selvagens. Total fish biomass was 3.2 times larger at Selvagens than at Madeira, and biomass of top predators was more than 10 times larger at Selvagens. Several commercially important species (e.g., groupers, jacks), which have been overfished throughout the region, were more common and of larger size at Selvagens than at Madeira. Important sea urchin predators (e.g., hogfishes, triggerfishes) were also in higher abundance at Selvagens compared to Madeira. The effects of fishing and other anthropogenic influences are evident around Madeira. This is in stark contrast to Selvagens, which harbors healthy benthic communities with diverse algal assemblages and high fish biomass, including an abundance of large commercially important species. The clear differences between these two island groups highlights the importance of expanding and strengthening the protection around Selvagens, which harbors one of the last intact marine ecosystems in the North Atlantic, and the need to increase management and protection around Madeira.

  9. Contrasts in the marine ecosystem of two Macaronesian islands: A comparison between the remote Selvagens Reserve and Madeira Island.

    Alan M Friedlander

    Full Text Available The islands of Madeira and Selvagens are less than 300 km apart but offer a clear contrast between a densely populated and highly developed island (Madeira, and a largely uninhabited and remote archipelago (Selvagens within Macaronesia in the eastern Atlantic. The Madeira Archipelago has ~260,000 inhabitants and receives over six million visitor days annually. The Selvagens Islands Reserve is one of the oldest nature reserves in Portugal and comprises two islands and several islets, including the surrounding shelf to a depth of 200 m. Only reserve rangers and a small unit of the maritime police inhabit these islands. The benthic community around Selvagens was dominated by erect and turf algae, while the community at Madeira was comprised of crustose coralline and turf algae, sessile invertebrates, and sea urchin barrens. The sea urchin Diadema africanum was 65% more abundant at Madeira than at Selvagens. Total fish biomass was 3.2 times larger at Selvagens than at Madeira, and biomass of top predators was more than 10 times larger at Selvagens. Several commercially important species (e.g., groupers, jacks, which have been overfished throughout the region, were more common and of larger size at Selvagens than at Madeira. Important sea urchin predators (e.g., hogfishes, triggerfishes were also in higher abundance at Selvagens compared to Madeira. The effects of fishing and other anthropogenic influences are evident around Madeira. This is in stark contrast to Selvagens, which harbors healthy benthic communities with diverse algal assemblages and high fish biomass, including an abundance of large commercially important species. The clear differences between these two island groups highlights the importance of expanding and strengthening the protection around Selvagens, which harbors one of the last intact marine ecosystems in the North Atlantic, and the need to increase management and protection around Madeira.

  10. Organizations as Designed Islands

    Pasquale Gagliardi

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The literature and practice of organizational design are mostly based on simplistic conceptions which ignore recent theoretical developments in organizational studies. Conceiving of organizations as ‘designed islands’, it is argued, can contribute to a more solid theoretical foundation to organization theory, viewed as normative science. Relying on the work of Peter Sloterdijk, who describes the forms of life in space in terms of spheres, the heuristic power of the island metaphor is explored. What can be learnt from the art of isolating in order to construct lived organizational environments is then discussed, and the paradoxical relationship between connection and isolation is highlighted.

  11. Three Mile Island

    Wood, M.S.; Shultz, S.M.

    1988-01-01

    This bibliography is divided into the following categories: Accident Overviews, Sequence and Causes; International Commentary and Reaction; Emergency Preparedness and Disaster Planning; Health Effects; Radioactive Releases and the Environment; Accident Investigations/Commissions; Nuclear Industry: Safety, Occupational, and Financial Issues; Media and Communications; Cleanup; Sociopolitical Response and Commentary; Restart; Legal Ramifications; Federal Documents: President's Commission on the Accident at Three Mile Island; Federal Documents: Nuclear Regulatory Commission; Federal Documents: United States Department of Energy; Federal Documents: Miscellaneous Reports; Pennsylvania State Documents; Federal and State Hearings; and Popular Literature

  12. Weather In Some Islands

    王良华

    2007-01-01

    There are four seasons in a year. When spring comes, the weather is mild(温和的). Summer comes after spring. Summer is the hottest season of the year. Autumn follows summer. It is the best season of the year. Winter is the coldest season of the year. Some islands(岛) have their own particular(特别的) seasons because their weather is very much affected(影响) by the oceans(海洋) around them. In Britain, winter is not very cold and summer is not very hot.

  13. Islands and non-islands in native and heritage Korean

    Boyoung eKim

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available To a large extent, island phenomena are cross-linguistically invariable, but English and Korean present some striking differences in this domain. English has wh-movement and Korean does not, and while both languages show sensitivity to wh-islands, only English has island effects for adjunct clauses. Given this complex set of differences, one might expect Korean/English bilinguals, and especially heritage Korean speakers (i.e. early bilinguals whose L2 became their dominant language during childhood to be different from native speakers, since heritage speakers have had more limited exposure to Korean, may have had incomplete acquisition and/or attrition, and may show significant transfer effects from the L2. Here we examine islands in heritage speakers of Korean in the U.S. Through a series of four formal acceptability experiments comparing these heritage speakers with native speakers residing in Korea, we show that the two groups are remarkably similar. Both show clear evidence for wh-islands and an equally clear lack of adjunct island effects. Given the very different linguistic environment that the heritage speakers have had since early childhood, this result lends support to the idea that island phenomena are largely immune to environmental influences and stem from deeper properties of the processor and/or grammar. Similarly, it casts some doubt on recent proposals that islands are learned from the input.

  14. Improvement of Human Resources Quality through Vocational Training in Tourism in Karimunjawa Islands (Central Java, Indonesia): A Pro-Economical Tourism Approach

    Putro, S. Eko; Sukirno; Budi, S.; Didik, W.

    2016-01-01

    The effort to improve human resource quality is not easy to be implemented. This effort becomes more complicated to do when implemented to the group of poor community, especially in this case marginal community of small island. This research analyzes the characteristic of poor household in small island as well as the strategy of poverty…

  15. Genetic diversity of a clonal angiosperm near its range limit: The case of Cymodocea nodosa at the Canary Islands

    Alberto, Filipe; Arnaud-Haond, Sophie; Duarte, Carlos M.; Serrao, Ester Álvares

    2006-01-01

    The seagrass Cymodocea nodosa forms a unique community in the Canary Islands, where it is classified as an endangered species. Biogeographic theory predicts that clonal species on islands near their distributional limits might show lower proportions of sexual (versus clonal) reproduction, lower genetic diversity, and higher differentiation. We addressed these hypotheses by comparing the genetic structure of C. nodosa from 10 meadows in the 4 main Canary Islands with 2 Iberian sites (Atlantic ...

  16. Enjebi Island dose assessment

    Robison, W.L.; Conrado, C.L.; Phillips, W.A.

    1987-07-01

    We have updeated the radiological dose assessment for Enjebi Island at Enewetak Atoll using data derived from analysis of food crops grown on Enjebi. This is a much more precise assessment of potential doses to people resettling Enjebi Island than the 1980 assessment in which there were no data available from food crops on Enjebi. Details of the methods and data used to evaluate each exposure pathway are presented. The terrestrial food chain is the most significant potential exposure pathway and 137 Cs is the radionuclide responsible for most of the estimated dose over the next 50 y. The doses are calculated assuming a resettlement date of 1990. The average wholebody maximum annual estimated dose equivalent derived using our diet model is 166 mremy;the effective dose equivalent is 169 mremy. The estimated 30-, 50-, and 70-y integral whole-body dose equivalents are 3.5 rem, 5.1 rem, and 6.2 rem, respectively. Bone-marrow dose equivalents are only slightly higher than the whole-body estimates in each case. The bone-surface cells (endosteal cells) receive the highest dose, but they are a less sensitive cell population and are less sensitive to fatal cancer induction than whole body and bone marrow. The effective dose equivalents for 30, 50, and 70 y are 3.6 rem, 5.3 rem, and 6.6 rem, respectively. 79 refs., 17 figs., 24 tabs

  17. Estrutura de duas formações vegetais do cordão externo da restinga de Marambaia, RJ Structure of two plant communities on Marambaia barrier island, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Luis Fernando Tavares de Menezes

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available Foram caracterizadas duas formações vegetais, psamófila-reptante e arbustiva de Palmae, no cordão arenoso externo da restinga de Marambaia (RJ com base na posição topográfica, na fisionomia e na estrutura, utilizando-se o método de parcelas. Embora as duas formações sejam visualmente distintas, há uma zona de transição entre elas. Das 23 espécies amostradas na formação psamófila-reptante, Ipomoea pes-caprae, Ipomoea imperati, Allagoptera arenaria, Sporobolus virginicus, Remirea marítima e Panicum racemosum despontaram com maiores valores de importância (VI. A formação halófila dominada por Blutaparon portulacoides, típica de outras restingas no litoral brasileiro, não foi identificada devido ao intenso dinamismo da faixa entre o mar e a primeira linha de cristas praiais estabilizadas. A formação arbustiva de Palmae é dominada por Allagoptera arenaria, com 56% do VI total, dentre as 64 espécies amostradas. As duas formações são dominadas por geófitas rizomatosas.Two plant communities (creeping psamophyte and palm scrub are described from the outer Marambaia beach ridge, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, based on topography, vegetation physiognomy, and structure. Although the two communities can be distinguished visually, they are joined by a transition zone. Ipomoea pes-caprae, Ipomoea imperati, Remirea maritima, Allagoptera arenaria, Sporobolus virginicus, and Panicum racemosum were the most important species sampled in the creeping psammophyte community out of a total of 23. The halophyte community reported for other sandy coastal plains in Brazil was not observed at Marambaia due to the intense wave action on this beach. The palm scrub community was dominated by Allagoptera arenaria (56% of total importance value out of a total of 64 species. Rhizome-geophytes dominate both communities.

  18. Reconstructed Marine Fisheries Catches at a Remote Island Group: Pitcairn Islands (1950–2014

    Amy R. Coghlan

    2017-09-01

    effort levels and shift target fishing zones. Implementation of MPAs such as the Pitcairn Island Marine Reserve protect large oceanic areas from risk of future industrial exploitation, whilst protecting near-shore reef and deep-water zones, maintaining domestic coastal fisheries vital for local communities.

  19. Monitoring developments in island waters

    Crellin, L.V.

    1995-01-01

    The environmental effects of islands in the Irish Sea of the offshore oil and gas industry are discussed in this paper, in particular on sand and gravel resources. This information is considered by the Department of Trade and Industry when granting prospecting, exploration and production licenses. Consultation between industry and islanders forms part of the license granting process. (UK)

  20. Islands for nuclear power stations

    Usher, E.F.F.W.; Fraser, A.P.

    1981-01-01

    The safety principles, design criteria and types of artificial island for an offshore nuclear power station are discussed with particular reference to siting adjacent to an industrial island. The paper concludes that the engineering problems are soluble and that offshore nuclear power stations will eventually be built but that much fundamental work is still required. (author)

  1. Lessons from the Tōhoku tsunami: A model for island avifauna conservation prioritization

    Reynolds, Michelle H.; Berkowitz, Paul; Klavitter, John; Courtot, Karen

    2017-01-01

    Earthquake-generated tsunamis threaten coastal areas and low-lying islands with sudden flooding. Although human hazards and infrastructure damage have been well documented for tsunamis in recent decades, the effects on wildlife communities rarely have been quantified. We describe a tsunami that hit the world's largest remaining tropical seabird rookery and estimate the effects of sudden flooding on 23 bird species nesting on Pacific islands more than 3,800 km from the epicenter. We used global positioning systems, tide gauge data, and satellite imagery to quantify characteristics of the Tōhoku earthquake-generated tsunami (11 March 2011) and its inundation extent across four Hawaiian Islands. We estimated short-term effects of sudden flooding to bird communities using spatially explicit data from Midway Atoll and Laysan Island, Hawai'i. We describe variation in species vulnerability based on breeding phenology, nesting habitat, and life history traits. The tsunami inundated 21%–100% of each island's area at Midway Atoll and Laysan Island. Procellariformes (albatrosses and petrels) chick and egg losses exceeded 258,500 at Midway Atoll while albatross chick losses at Laysan Island exceeded 21,400. The tsunami struck at night and during the peak of nesting for 14 colonial seabird species. Strongly philopatric Procellariformes were vulnerable to the tsunami. Nonmigratory, endemic, endangered Laysan Teal (Anas laysanensis) were sensitive to ecosystem effects such as habitat changes and carcass-initiated epizootics of avian botulism, and its populations declined approximately 40% on both atolls post-tsunami. Catastrophic flooding of Pacific islands occurs periodically not only from tsunamis, but also from storm surge and rainfall; with sea-level rise, the frequency of sudden flooding events will likely increase. As invasive predators occupy habitat on higher elevation Hawaiian Islands and globally important avian populations are concentrated on low-lying islands

  2. Islanded operation of distributed networks

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This report summarises the findings of a study to investigate the regulatory, commercial and technical risks and benefits associated with the operation of distributed generation to power an islanded section of distributed network. A review of published literature was carried out, and UK generators were identified who could operate as part of an island network under the existing technical, regulatory, and safety framework. Agreement on case studies for consideration with distributed network operators (DNOs) is discussed as well as the quantification of the risks, benefits and costs of islanding, and the production of a case implementation plan for each case study. Technical issues associated with operating sections of network in islanded mode are described, and impacts of islanding on trading and settlement, and technical and commercial modelling are explored.

  3. A roadmap for island biology

    Patino, Jairo; Whittaker, Robert J.; Borges, Paulo A.V.

    2017-01-01

    Aims: The 50th anniversary of the publication of the seminal book, The Theory of Island Biogeography, by Robert H. MacArthur and Edward O. Wilson, is a timely moment to review and identify key research foci that could advance island biology. Here, we take a collaborative horizon-scanning approach...... to identify 50 fundamental questions for the continued development of the field. Location: Worldwide. Methods: We adapted a well-established methodology of horizon scanning to identify priority research questions in island biology, and initiated it during the Island Biology 2016 conference held in the Azores......); global change (5); conservation and management policies (5); and invasive alien species (4). Main conclusions: Collectively, this cross-disciplinary set of topics covering the 50 fundamental questions has the potential to stimulate and guide future research in island biology. By covering fields ranging...

  4. Islanded operation of distributed networks

    2005-01-01

    This report summarises the findings of a study to investigate the regulatory, commercial and technical risks and benefits associated with the operation of distributed generation to power an islanded section of distributed network. A review of published literature was carried out, and UK generators were identified who could operate as part of an island network under the existing technical, regulatory, and safety framework. Agreement on case studies for consideration with distributed network operators (DNOs) is discussed as well as the quantification of the risks, benefits and costs of islanding, and the production of a case implementation plan for each case study. Technical issues associated with operating sections of network in islanded mode are described, and impacts of islanding on trading and settlement, and technical and commercial modelling are explored

  5. El hábito tabáquico en el colectivo de colegiados en enfermería de la Comunidad de las Islas Baleares The smoking habits of registered nurses in the community of the Balearic Islands

    Jordi Pericás

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: Se pretende evidenciar las conductas, creencias y actitudes relacionadas con el hábito tabáquico, del colectivo de colegiados de enfermería de las Islas Baleares. Sujetos y métodos: Estudio descriptivo transversal, mediante entrevista telefónica personal a 430 profesionales aleatorizados a partir de una población total de 4.800 colegiados de las Islas Baleares. La entrevista constaba de una parte dirigida a todos los colegiados independientemente de su hábito tabáquico, en la que se valoraban variables demográficas y actitudes ante la problemática del tabaquismo, tanto a nivel de creencias como de conductas y actitudes ante los pacientes, y otra parte específicamente dirigida a fumadores y exfumadores con la intención de caracterizar su hábito tabáquico. Resultados: De los 430 encuestados el 80% son mujeres. La media de edad es de 38 años. El 26,7% de la población es fumador. Los fumadores preguntan menos por el hábito tabáquico, se consideran peor formados en su manejo y aconsejan menos que abandonen el tabaco a sus pacientes que los no fumadores. Fuman menos en Atención Primaria que en Atención Especializada. Conclusión: Debería incrementarse la formación académica y laboral en tabaquismo ya que la mitad de los profesionales no se sienten preparados para su manejo.Introduction: This study aims to show the conducts, beliefs and attitudes towards smoking issues held by registered nurses in the Balearic Islands. Subjects and methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted through personal phone interviews with 430 nursing professionals selected randomly from the 4,800 registered nurses in Balearic Islands. The first part of the interview was directed to all nurses, whether addicted to tobacco or not, and rated demographic variables and attitudes towards smoking issues in terms of beliefs, as well as conducts and attitudes towards patients. The second part was specifically addressed to smokers and

  6. Surface elevation change and susceptibility of different mangrove zones to sea-level rise on Pacific high islands o Micronesia

    K.W. Krauss; D.R. Cahoon; J.A. Allen; K.C. Ewel; J.C. Lynch; N. Cormier

    2010-01-01

    Mangroves on Pacific high islands offer a number of important ecosystem services to both natural ecological communities and human societies. High islands are subjected to constant erosion over geologic time, which establishes an important source of terrigeneous sediment for nearby marinecommunities. Many of these sediments are deposited in mangrove forests and offer...

  7. Island in an island – The suggestions for transportation improvement plan for Haidian Island, Haikou, Hainan

    Sia Rosalind Juo Ling

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Haidian Island, which situated at the Northern part of Haikou City of Hainan Province, is an island within a city. Haidian Island is unique in term of it's development which centered around an university, the Hainan University, besides some others important landmarks, such as Haikou city hospital, Baishamen municipal park, Golf Driving Range etc. All commercials, residential, recreational activities etc are planned to serve Hainan University in particular. The study, taking ‘Haidian Island Area Development Control Plan’ as case study, would like to look into the importance of transportation and traffic planning. The study used observation, site investigation and traffic study methods to gather data needed. Firstly the study analyzed the current state of transportation system for Haidian Island in accordance to the Island Development Control plan and Haikou master plan and identified the problems. Then, the study made some recommendations for these problems. The study highlighted the important of non-motorized, cycling and walking as the main transportation system for an education-based island and as supportive to domestic tourism activities found. The transportation planning suggested by the study took ‘green and low-carbon’ approaches considered the role of University as the core activity in the island.

  8. Satisfaction with the quality of life on Croatian small islands: Zlarin, Kaprije and Žirje

    Satisfaction with the quality of life on Croatian small islands: Zlarin, Kaprije and Žirje

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to determine the levels of satisfaction with various life domains that constitute objective conditions of the quality of island life, and which influence the perception of islanders’ personal well-being among the inhabitants of three small islands (Zlarin, Kaprije and Žirje in Croatia. The obtained results are based on a resident survey (N=141. A quality of life assessment was carried out by recognizing the specificity of an island’s surface area and its population (small communities, mostly elderly people, as well as by evaluating choices that respondents perceive to be important for their well-being. Based on applied multivariate analyses, the research suggests that life satisfaction, besides a significant correlation with material status (income, is also greatly affected by the extent of preserved social values, common to the rural communities to which the observed islands belong, such as the closeness of personal relationships (level of acceptance in the local community, solidarity and the social order maintained through informal control (which provides a sense of security. Both islanders who have never lived off their island, as well as returnees and in-migrants, positively value the way of life in island communities.

  9. Energy Self-Sufficient Island

    Bratic, S.; Krajacic, G.; Duic, N.; Cotar, A.; Jardas, D.

    2011-01-01

    In order to analyze energy self-sufficient island, example of a smaller island, connected to the power system of a bigger island with an undersea cable, was taken. Mounting substation 10/0,4 is situated on the island and for the moment it provides enough electricity using the medium voltage line. It is assumed that the island is situated on the north part of the Adriatic Sea. The most important problem that occurs on the island is the population drop that occurs for a significant number of years, therefore, life standard needs to be improved, and economic development needs to be encouraged immediately. Local authorities to stimulate sustainable development on the island through different projects, to breath in a new life to the island, open new jobs and attract new people to come live there. Because of the planned development and increase of the population, energy projects, planned as a support to sustainable development, and later achievement of the energy self-sufficiency, is described in this paper. Therefore, Rewisland methodology appliance is described taking into the account three possible scenarios of energy development. Each scenario is calculated until year 2030. Also, what is taken into the account is 100% usage of renewable sources of energy in 2030. Scenario PTV, PP, EE - This scenario includes installation of solar photovoltaic modules and solar thermal collectors on the buildings roofs, as well as well as implementation of energy efficiency on the island (replacement of the street light bulbs with LED lightning, replacement of the old windows and doors on the houses, as well as the installation of the thermal insulation). Scenario PV island - This scenario, similarly to the previous one, includes installation of solar photovoltaic modules and solar thermal collectors an the residential buildings, as well as the 2 MW photovoltaic power plant and ''Green Hotel'', a building that satisfies all of its energy needs completely from renewable energy sources

  10. Defense.gov Special Report: Asian-American Pacific Islander Heritage Month

    in the Asian American and Pacific Islander community waiting to sworn into the President's Advisory Command's first dedicated campaign geared towards the Asian-American community, 'A Warriors' Education,' is Northwestern University with a Bachelor of Arts degree in Psychology in 2005. After college, Lt. Sham attended

  11. Hospitalizations for Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 among Maori and Pacific Islanders, New Zealand

    Verrall, Ayesha; Norton, Katherine; Rooker, Serena; Dee, Stephen; Olsen, Leeanne; Tan, Chor Ee; Paull, Sharon; Allen, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Community transmission of influenza A pandemic (H1N1) 2009 was followed by high rates of hospital admissions in the Wellington region of New Zealand, particularly among Maori and Pacific Islanders. These findings may help health authorities anticipate the effects of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 in other communities. PMID:20031050

  12. Three Mile Island accident

    Barre, B.; Olivier, E.; Roux, J.P.; Pelle, P.

    2010-01-01

    Deluded by equivocal instrumentation signals, operators at TMI-2 (Three Mile Island - unit 2) misunderstood what was going on in the reactor and for 2 hours were taking inadequate decisions that turned a reactor incident into a major nuclear event that led to the melting of about one third of the core. The TMI accident had worldwide impacts in the domain of nuclear safety. The main consequences in France were: 1) the introduction of the major accident approach and the reinforcement of crisis management; 2) the improvement of the reactor design, particularly that of the pressurizer valves; 3) the implementation of safety probabilistic studies; 4) a better taking into account of the feedback experience in reactor operations; and 5) a better taking into account of the humane factor in reactor safety. (A.C.)

  13. Three Mile Island update

    Snyder, B.J.

    1984-01-01

    Almost six years after the accident at Three Mile Island-2, cleanup operations are proceeding and the financial condition of the owners has improved. The author reviews some of the cleanup activities and notes the milestones ahead before reaching the September, 1988 target date for completion. A decision to decommission or refurbish will follow the completion of fuel removal activities in 1987. The cleanup has produced considerable data and useful information. In particular, the experience of large-scale decontamination and radioactive waste processing, along with information on fission product transport, is relevant for maintenance and safe operation of other plants. Both macro- and microscopic examination of the core could help in developing safer reactors in the future. 3 figures, 1 table

  14. PWR: nuclear islands

    1989-01-01

    Framatome and its partners have produced this glossary of technical terms that can be used in writing English language documents relating to power plants (nuclear islands, individual components, nuclear services, etc.) with the hope of improving the quality of the documents intended for their clients, suppliers and partners and for others. This glossary will be particularly useful to the translators and authors of technical proposals, design documents, manufacturing documents, construction and operating documents concerning Pressurized Water Reactors written in English or French. It can also be useful as a reference document for students, researchers, journalists, etc., having to write on this subject. We would like to thank all those individuals working at the Ministere de la Recherche et de la Technologie, Electricite de France, Jeumont Schneider and Framatome who have contributed to this glossary. We would also appreciate any comments or sugestions intended to improve subsequent editions of this glossary [fr

  15. Mauritius - a Sustainable Island

    Larsen, Anders

    2010-01-01

    production is determined to be the way forward. A step in this direction is to devolve upon citizens the ability and motivation to produce electricity via small-scale distributed generation (SSDG), i.e. wind, photovoltaic and hydro installations below 50 kW. Given that SSDG is more expensive per installed......The Government of Mauritius has a long-term vision of transforming Mauritius into a sustainable Island. One important element towards the achievement of this vision is to increase the country's renewable energy usage and thereby reducing dependence on fossil fuels. Democratisation of energy...... capacity than the existing much larger power plants, subsidies are needed so as to provide incentives to small independent power producers (SIPP), households and firms to invest in SSDG.The paper presents the context, the theoretical considerations and the proposed incentive schemes to enable electricity...

  16. SRTM Anaglyph: Fiji Islands

    2000-01-01

    The Sovereign Democratic Republic of the Fiji Islands, commonly known as Fiji, is an independent nation consisting of some 332 islands surrounding the Koro Sea in the South Pacific Ocean. This topographic image shows Viti Levu, the largest island in the group. With an area of 10,429 square kilometers (about 4000 square miles), it comprises more than half the area of the Fiji Islands. Suva, the capital city, lies on the southeast shore. The Nakauvadra, the rugged mountain range running from north to south, has several peaks rising above 900 meters (about 3000 feet). Mount Tomanivi, in the upper center, is the highest peak at 1324 meters (4341 feet). The distinct circular feature on the north shore is the Tavua Caldera, the remnant of a large shield volcano that was active about 4 million years ago. Gold has been mined on the margin of the caldera since the 1930s. The Nadrau plateau is the low relief highland in the center of the mountain range. The coastal plains in the west, northwest and southeast account for only 15 percent of Viti Levu's area but are the main centers of agriculture and settlement.This shaded relief anaglyph image was generated using preliminary topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. A computer-generated artificial light source illuminates the elevation data from the top (north) to produce a pattern of light and shadows. Slopes facing the light appear bright, while those facing away are shaded. The stereoscopic effect was created by first draping the shaded relief image back over the topographic data and then generating two differing perspectives, one for each eye. When viewed through special glasses, the result is a vertically exaggerated view of the Earth's surface in its full three dimensions. Anaglyph glasses cover the left eye with a red filter and cover the right eye with a blue filter.This image was acquired by SRTM aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument

  17. The Role of Social and Cultural Values in Public Education in Remote Island: a Case Study in Karimunjawa Islands, Indonesia

    Yety Rochwulaningsih

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to analyze education problems in remote islands especially in Parang island of Karimunjawa Islands, Indonesia. Specifically, this paper aims to identify socio-cultural values and its role in education both formal and nonformal. The research was conducted in the Parang Island one of thousand  remote islands in Indonesia. The result shows that education in Parang island encounter strategic issues including the teacher attendance who mostly comes from outside of the island. Their mobility of certain matters force the teachers to go out from the island but sometime because of geographical condition their return to the island is unable to be ensured. This natural constraints precisely construct typical socio-cultural values especially in local education. The values which include multiculturalism, mutual cooperation, and togetherness has integrated into some subjects such as, Citizenship Education, Indonesian Language, Islamic Education, and some local contents such as Marine Education. It has been internalized into empirical experiences of the students as part of marine community that is typically open and egalitarian in character. Meanwhile, Islamic tend to be patterned in syncretism which promote balance and harmony of life. These values have been practices transmitted in religious education such as madrasah and some of informal Islamic institutions. The multiculturalism live, in harmony is effectively socialized through education, family life and community.Artikel ini mengkaji permasalahan bagaimana kondisi pendidikan di Pulau Parang sebagai pulau terpencil berlangsung dan bagaimana peranan nilai-nilai sosial budaya di dalamnya. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa pendidikan di Pulau Parang menghadapi berbagai persoalan strategis antara lain eksistensi guru tetap yang hampir semuanya berasal dari luar pulau dengan mobilitas yang tinggi harus sering ke luar pulau dan karena gelombang laut yang besar sering tidak dapat dipastikan

  18. Tourism infrastructure development prioritization in Sabang Island using analytic network process methods

    Rani, Hafnidar A.; Afifuddin, Moch.; Akbar, Herry

    2017-11-01

    Indonesia has been widely known as an archipelago country, with its geographical location is at the equator, which make this country as a tropical country. It has the topography of diverse islands which consist of lakes, mountains, and one of countries which have the longest coastline. This condition cause Indonesia has various beautiful tourism objects and become the attraction to the international tourists to come. Indonesia still has the other islands which are as beautiful as Bali Island offering different beauties. One of them is an island located in the most western island of Indonesia, which becomes the zero point of the country. It is Sabang Island in Aceh Province. Sabang Island is the small volcanic island located in the most western island of Sumatra. Infrastructure becomes the basic device in supporting this tourism aspect, which the buildings and service institutions play the important role in appropriate managing of economic and community needs. The problem in this study is how to determine the priority of tourism infrastructure development in Sabang Island. The objective of this study is to determine the priority rank of tourism infrastructure development and the priority rank of the potential investment in Sabang Island to be developed. The ranking results of the Analytic Network Process (ANP) calculations of tourism locations/zones and tourism supporting infrastructure found that Teupin Layeu and Gapang, and Rubiah Island have the highest priority to be developed in the hotel/accommodation infrastructure which scores are 0.02589 and 0.02120. Then followed by parking infrastructure in Teupin Layeu and access road to Km 0 which became as the main priority determined by Sabang government which scores are 0.01750 and 0.01618.

  19. Findings of the Marshall Islands nationwide radiological study

    McEwan, A.C.

    1996-01-01

    Full text: The Marshall Islands were affected by nuclear weapon tests carried out over the period 1946-1958, and particularly from the Bravo detonation on 1 March 1954, which deposited heavy fallout on the islands of Rongelap atoll about 100 miles to the east of Bikini. Surveys of residual radioactivity of the northern atolls of the Marshalls group had been carried out by the US Department of Energy, but continuing concerns about health effects of exposure to fallout, particularly thyroid disease, led the Marshall Islands government in 1989 to set up a study of residual radioactivity across the entire country. A study of residual radioactivity on all significant atolls and islands was carried out by ground surveys during 1990-94. The study was supervised by an international panel of 5 non US scientists. The measurements included portable gamma spectrometer measurements at points on a grid pattern, with associated soil samples and periodic soil profile and vegetation samples. From these measurements external exposure rates from deposited fallout have been calculated, and estimates made of the ingestion doses which might be received by resident populations consuming diets made up of differing amounts of locally produced foodstuffs. On the basis of a survey of dietary intake by a Rongelap community a current diet (containing 18% of foods from local sources) and a more traditional diet (75% from local sources) were used for comparison purposes. Measurements were made on 432 islands of the 29 atolls and 5 islands that make up the Marshalls group. Atolls in the latitude range 9-12 degrees north have Cs-137 soil concentrations which are elevated above levels expected from global fallout. Over 90% of the radiation dose from residual fallout is attributable to Cs-137, and arises primarily from dietary intake. Doses to actual or hypothetical residents are about 4 times greater for traditional as compared with current diets. For four atolls there are some islands where

  20. Cancer prevalence in Easter Island population - 2006-2010.

    Rius, Eduardo Bravo; Armaroli, Pabla Yaikin; Contreras, Gustavo Saint-Pierre

    2013-01-01

    In Easter Island, population is composed by original habitants, the Rapa Nui culture and introduced people, mainly from continental Chile, who have a different ethnic origin. The aim of this research was to describe cancer frequency in resident population in Easter Island, and secondarily compare the findings with other islands of Polynesia and continental Chile. We reviewed the statistics of patients treated in Hanga Roa Hospital during the period 2006-2010, finding a total of 49 patients with cancer during the study. The most frequent cancers in Easter Island's people were breast cancer (8 cases), skin (8 cases), cervical (8 cases), lung (5 cases) and gastric (4 cases). According to gender, in females the most frequent cancer was breast, followed by skin and cervical, while in men, lung, prostate and hematopoietic cancers were the most frequent. Most cases of cervical cancer occurred in women of Rapa Nui ethnicity, while most skin cancers were found in non-Rapa Nui people. In case of the most common cancer in Easter Island, education (e.g. Papanicolaou and mammography screening) and prevention in the community (e.g. use sun block, avoid cigarettes) should be useful tools to reduce incidence.

  1. Place in Pacific Islands Climate Education

    Barros, C.; Koh, M. W.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding place, including both the environment and its people, is essential to understanding our climate, climate change, and its impacts. For us to develop a sense of our place, we need to engage in multiple ways of learning: observation, experimentation, and opportunities to apply new knowledge (Orr, 1992). This approach allows us to access different sources of knowledge and then create local solutions for local issues. It is especially powerful when we rely on experts and elders in our own community along with information from the global community.The Pacific islands Climate Education Partnership (PCEP) is a collaboration of partners—school systems, nongovernmental organizations, and government agencies—working to support learning and teaching about climate in the Pacific. Since 2009, PCEP partners have been working together to develop and implement classroom resources, curriculum standards, and teacher professional learning opportunities in which learners approach climate change and its impacts first through the lens of their own place. Such an approach to putting place central to teaching and learning about climate requires partnership and opportunities for learners to explore solutions for and with their communities. In this presentation, we will share the work unfolding in the Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI) as one example of PCEP's approach to place-based climate education. Three weeklong K-12 teacher professional learning workshops took place during June-July 2015 in Majuro, RMI on learning gardens, climate science, and project-based learning. Each workshop was co-taught with local partners and supports educators in teaching climate-related curriculum standards through tasks that can foster sense of place through observation, experimentation, and application of new knowledge. Additionally, we will also share PCEP's next steps in place-based climate education, specifically around emerging conversations about the importance of highlighting

  2. Microborer settlement at Maug Island, 2014-05-17 to 2014-08-13 (NCEI Accession 0156331)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data describe the microborer communities recruiting to Icelandic spar fragments deployed at three sites along a CO2 gradient at Maug Island, CNMI. These data...

  3. Island biogeography of marine organisms

    Pinheiro, Hudson T.; Bernardi, Giacomo; Simon, Thiony; Joyeux, Jean-Christophe; Macieira, Raphael M.; Gasparini, João Luiz; Rocha, Claudia; Rocha, Luiz A.

    2017-09-01

    Studies on the distribution and evolution of organisms on oceanic islands have advanced towards a dynamic perspective, where terrestrial endemicity results from island geographical aspects and geological history intertwined with sea-level fluctuations. Diversification on these islands may follow neutral models, decreasing over time as niches are filled, or disequilibrium states and progression rules, where richness and endemism rise with the age of the archipelago owing to the splitting of ancestral lineages (cladogenesis). However, marine organisms have received comparatively little scientific attention. Therefore, island and seamount evolutionary processes in the aquatic environment remain unclear. Here we analyse the evolutionary history of reef fishes that are endemic to a volcanic ridge of seamounts and islands to understand their relations to island evolution and sea-level fluctuations. We also test how this evolutionary history fits island biogeography theory. We found that most endemic species have evolved recently (Pleistocene epoch), during a period of recurrent sea-level changes and intermittent connectivity caused by repeated aerial exposure of seamounts, a finding that is consistent with an ephemeral ecological speciation process. Similar to findings for terrestrial biodiversity, our data suggest that the marine speciation rate on islands is negatively correlated with immigration rate. However, because marine species disperse better than terrestrial species, most niches are filled by immigration: speciation increases with the random accumulation of species with low dispersal ability, with few opportunities for in situ cladogenesis and adaptive radiation. Moreover, we confirm that sea-level fluctuations and seamount location play a critical role in marine evolution, mainly by intermittently providing stepping stones for island colonization.

  4. Bamboo Diversity in Sumba Island

    KARSONO

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Bamboo is one of the economic plant which grow widely in the villages and have been used by the local people in the villages. Indonesia has about 10% of the world bamboo, 50% among them was endemic to Indonesia. According Widjaja (2001 Lesser Sunda Island which consists of Lombok, Sumbawa, Flores, Timor, Sumba and other small island eastern of Flores has 14 bamboo species, however, the information from the Sumba Island was lacking because of lacking data from this area except one species which was proposed by S. Soenarko in 1977 where the type specimens was collected by Iboet 443 in 1925. To fullfill data from the Sumba Island, an exploration to this area has been conducted on July 2003. The observation was done in West Sumba and East Sumba District, especially in two natioal parks at both districts. According to this inventory study in the Sumba Island, there were 10 bamboo species in Sumba Island, 1 species among them (Dinochloa sp. was a new species which has not been collected before, whereas the other species (Dinochloa kostermansiana has a new addition record from this area. The bamboo species in Sumba Island were Bambusa blumeana, Bambusa vulgaris, Dendocalamus asper, Dinochloa kostermansiana, Dinochloa sp., Gigantochloa atter, Nastus reholtumianus, Phyllostachys aurea, Schisotachyum brachycladum and Schizostachyum lima. From 10 recorded species, the genera Dinochloa and Nastus grow wild in the forest, whereas another species grow widly or cultivated in the garden. Furthermore, the genus Dinochloa was the only genus grow climbing. The endemic species found in Sumba Island was Nastus reholttumianus, whereas Dinochloa kostermansiana was also found in Flores Island.

  5. Effects of religion, economics, and geography on genetic structure of Fogo Island, Newfoundland.

    Crawford, M H; Koertevlyessy, T; Huntsman, R G; Collins, M; Duggirala, R; Martin, L; Keeping, D

    1995-01-01

    The population structure of Fogo Island, Newfoundland is described using geography, religious affiliation, economic factors (such as the presence of a fish-packing plant), and genetic markers. Five different analytic methods, R-matrix analysis, r ii VS. mean per locus heterozygosity, predicted kinship (ϕ), mean first passage time, and Mantel matrix comparisons, were applied to the Fogo Island genetic and demographic data. The results suggest that geography plays a role on Fogo Island in the distribution of genes, while religion, ethnicity, and economic factors play less significant roles. The communities with fish-packing plants and tourism serve as migratory "sinks" for Fogo islanders seeking employment. Reproductively, the most isolated village on Fogo Island is Tilting, and this is reflected in its genetic uniqueness, initially caused by Irish settlement and subsequently the action of stochastic processes. © 1995 Wiley-Liss, Inc. Copyright © 1995 Wiley-Liss, Inc., A Wiley Company.

  6. Living on the margin: dealing with climate change in remote Pacific islands

    Birk, Thomas Ladegaard Kümmel

    In the global debate of climate change the fate of small islands states has played a significant role, in spite of the relatively few people affected. This thesis examines how such islands, here mainly represented by two atoll groups in remote parts of Solomon Islands in the Southwest Pacific, Reef...... Islands and Ontong Java, have been and will be affected, and what adaptation strategies they may employ. An attempt is made to cover a wide range of aspects of this problem field, spanning from climate change itself and its impacts on livelihood activities to decision-making processes and sets of actions......, while current voluntary migration may be claimed to have positive effects on island communities. In order for migration to constitute a viable ‘adaptation option’ in a future situation of increased rate of sea-level rise, certain barriers to migration need to be overcome, however. Theses barriers...

  7. Reliving Island Life: Staging Stories of the Blasket Islands

    Daithí Kearney

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The Blasket Islands are located off the south-west coast of Ireland. No longer inhabited, the Great Blasket Island and its distinctive culture have been documented by a variety of writers and are celebrated today in an interpretative centre on the mainland and in performances by Siamsa Tíre, The National Folk Theatre of Ireland. “Siamsa” developed from local initiatives in North Kerry during the early 1960s and is located today in Tralee, Co. Kerry. It aims to present Irish folklore and folk culture through the medium of theatre involving music, song, dance and mime but invariably no dialogue. In this paper, I focus on the production Oiléan, based loosely on the stories of the Blasket Islanders, which was initially devised as part of the fiftieth anniversary commemoration of the departure of the last inhabitants of the islands in 2003.

  8. Outpatient alcohol withdrawal management for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples.

    Brett, Jonathan; Lawrence, Leanne; Ivers, Rowena; Conigrave, Kate

    2014-08-01

    There is concern from within Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities about the lack of access to alcohol withdrawal management ('detox') services. Outpatient detox is described within national Australian guidelines as a safe option for selected drinkers. However, uncertainly exists as to how suited Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples are to this approach. 
 Consultations were conducted with stakeholders of four health services providing outpatient detox for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples in NSW. Thematic analysis was performed to determine elements perceived as important for success. Key themes that emerged were individual engagement, flexibility, assessment of suitability, Aboriginal staff and community engagement, practical support, counselling, staff education and support, coping with relapse and contingency planning. 
 There is a need to improve access to alcohol detox services for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples. The outpatient setting seems to be a feasible and safe environment to provide this kind of service for selected drinkers.

  9. Equilibrium theory of island biogeography: A review

    Angela D. Yu; Simon A. Lei

    2001-01-01

    The topography, climatic pattern, location, and origin of islands generate unique patterns of species distribution. The equilibrium theory of island biogeography creates a general framework in which the study of taxon distribution and broad island trends may be conducted. Critical components of the equilibrium theory include the species-area relationship, island-...

  10. Oak restoration trials: Santa Catalina Island

    Lisa Stratton

    2002-01-01

    Two restoration trials involving four oak species have been implemented as part of a larger restoration program for Catalina Island. In 1997 the Catalina Island Conservancy began an active program of restoration after 50 years of ranching and farming activities on the island. The restoration program includes removing feral goats and pigs island-wide and converting 80...

  11. Quantifying anthropogenically driven morphologic changes on a barrier island: Fire Island National Seashore, New York

    Kratzmann, Meredith G.; Hapke, Cheryl J.

    2012-01-01

    Beach scraping, beach replenishment, and the presence of moderate development have altered the morphology of the dune–beach system at Fire Island National Seashore, located on a barrier island on the south coast of Long Island, New York. Seventeen communities are interspersed with sections of natural, nonmodified land within the park boundary. Beach width, dune elevation change, volume change, and shoreline change were calculated from light detection and ranging (LIDAR), real-time kinematic global positioning system (RTK GPS), and beach profile data sets at two ∼4 km long study sites. Each site contains both modified (developed, replenished, and/or scraped) and nonmodified (natural) areas. The analysis spans 9 years, from 1998 to 2007, which encompasses both scraping and replenishment events at Fire Island. The objectives of this study were to quantify and compare morphological changes in modified and nonmodified zones, and to identify erosional areas within the study sites.Areas of increased volume and shoreline accretion were observed at both sites and at the western site are consistent with sand replenishment activities. The results indicate that from 1998 to 2007 locations backed by development and that employed beach scraping and/or replenishment as erosion control measures experienced more loss of volume, width, and dune elevation as compared with adjacent nonmodified areas. A detailed analysis of one specific modification, beach scraping, shows distinct morphological differences in scraped areas relative to nonscraped areas of the beach. In general, scraped areas where there is development on the dunes showed decreases in all measured parameters and are more likely to experience overwash during storm events. Furthermore, the rapid mobilization of material from the anthropogenic (scraped) dune results in increased beach accretion downcoast.National park lands are immediately adjacent to developed areas on Fire Island, and even relatively small human

  12. Community Health Warriors: Marshallese Community Health Workers' Perceptions and Experiences with CBPR and Community Engagement.

    Purvis, Rachel S; Bing, Williamina Ioanna; Jacob, Christopher J; Lang, Sharlynn; Mamis, Sammie; Ritok, Mandy; Rubon-Chutaro, Jellesen; McElfish, Pearl Anna

    2017-01-01

    Our manuscript highlights the viewpoints and reflections of the native Marshallese community health workers (CHWs) engaged in research with the local Marshallese community in Northwest Arkansas. In particular, this paper documents the vital role Marshallese CHWs play in the success of programs and research efforts. The negative health effects of nuclear testing in the Marshall Islands has been passed down through many generations, along with unfavorable attitudes toward the U.S. government and researchers. However, the community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach used by the University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences (UAMS) has allowed the native Marshallese CHWs to become advocates for the Marshallese community. The use of native CHWs has also leveled the power dynamics that can be a barrier to community-based research, and has strengthened trust with community stakeholders. Our paper shows how using Marshallese CHWs can produce positive health outcomes for the Marshallese community.

  13. Status of coral communities in American Samoa: a re-survey of long-term monitoring sites in 2002 (NODC Accession 0001470)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A re-survey of coral communities in the American Samoa Archipelago covering the island of Tutuila and the Manu'a Group of islands (Ofu, Olosega, and Tau), was...

  14. Single origin of the Mascarene stick insects: ancient radiation on sunken islands?

    Bradler, Sven; Cliquennois, Nicolas; Buckley, Thomas R.

    2015-01-01

    Background The study of islands as model systems plays a key role in understanding many evolutionary processes. Knowledge of the historical events leading to present-day island communities is pivotal for exploring fundamental mechanisms of speciation and adaptation. The remote Mascarene archipelago (Mauritius, Réunion, Rodrigues), considered to be the product of an age-progressive trend of north-to-south volcanic activity in the Indian Ocean, hosts a remarkably diverse, endemic and threatened...

  15. Distribution of cesium-137 in tree crop products collected from residence islands impacted by the U.S. nuclear test program in the northern Marshall Islands

    Peters, S.K.G.; Kehl, S.R.; Martinelli, R.E.; Tamblin, M.W.; Hamilton, T.F.

    2013-01-01

    The Marshall Islands Program at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has completed a series of radiological surveys at Bikini, Rongelap, Utroek, and Enewetak Atolls in the Marshall Islands designed to take a representative sample of food supplies with emphasis on determining 137 Cs activity concentrations in common food plants. Coconuts (Cocos nucifera L.) are the most common and abundant food plant, and provided a common sample type to characterize the level and variability of activity concentrations of 137 Cs in plant foods collected from different islands and atolls. Other dominant food types included Pandanus (Pandanus spp.) and breadfruit (Actocarpus spp.). In general, the activity concentration of 137 Cs in food plants was found to decrease significantly between the main residence islands on Bikini, Rongelap, Utrōk, and Enewetak Atolls. The mean activity concentration of 137 Cs measured in drinking coconut meat and juice was 0.72 (95 % CI 0.68-0.77) and 0.34 (95 % CI 0.30-0.38) Bq g -1 , respectively, on Bikini Island; 0.019 (95 % CI 0.017-0.021) and 0.027 (95 % CI 0.023-0.031) Bq g -1 , respectively, on Rongelap Island; 0.010 (95 % CI 0.007-0.013) and 0.007 (95 % CI 0.004-0.009) Bq g -1 , respectively, on Utroek Island; and 0.002 (95 % CI 0.0013-0.0024) and 0.002 (95 % CI 0.001-0.0025) Bq g -1 , respectively, on Enewetak Island. High levels of variability are reported across all islands. These results will be used to improve the accuracy and reliability of predictive dose assessments, help characterize levels of uncertainty and variability in activity concentrations of fallout radionuclides in plant foods, and allow atoll communities to make informed decisions about resettlement and possible options for cleanup and rehabilitation of islands and atolls. (author)

  16. The Three Mile Island Disaster.

    Crosby, Emeral

    1980-01-01

    For the past decade, education has been experiencing meltdown, explosions, radiation leaks, heat pollution, and management crises, just like the Three Mile Island disaster. This article offers suggestions on how to deal with these problems. (Author/LD)

  17. Ship impact against protection islands

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    1997-01-01

    The five most exposed piers and the anchor blocks on the East Bridge shall be protected by aritificial islands. Extensive analytical and experimental investitations were carried out to verify the efficiency of how these protection works....

  18. Three Mile Island Accident Data

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Three Mile Island Accident Data consists of mostly upper air and wind observations immediately following the nuclear meltdown occurring on March 28, 1979, near...

  19. Archaeology of Bet Dwarka Island

    Sundaresh; Gaur, A.S.

    Explorations along the shore and in the intertidal zone at Bet Dwarka island, Gujarat, India were carried out by the Marine Archaeology Centre of National Institute of Oceanography (NIO), Goa, India between 1981-1994. Artefacts of both...

  20. Elder abuse within the family environment in the Azores Islands

    Carmona-Torres, Juan Manuel; Carvalhal-Silva, Rosa María; Viera-Mendes, Maria Helena; Recio-Andrade, Beatriz; Goergen, Thomas; Rodríguez-Borrego, María Aurora

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives: to dimension abuse against vulnerable adults within the family and community environment in the Azores Islands, identify risk factors for abuse and describe the profile of an abused elder. Method: descriptive cross-sectional study. Random sampling. The instruments used were: clinical histories of the users, Mini-Mental State Examination, Index of Independence in Basic Activities of Daily Living, Family APGAR Scale, Elder Abuse Suspicion Index and Social Work Assessment ...

  1. Political Socialization Media of Selayar Islands General Election

    Andi Gau Kadir; Nurlinah; Rahmatullah

    2017-01-01

    - This paper aims to identify the most influential political socialization media in shaping the political culture of maritime communities in the Selayar Islands District. The research method used is a combination of quantitative and qualitative methods with data collection methods in the form of surveys, interviews and document studies. Data analysis uses quantitative analysis in the form of cross-tabulation of data and qualitative analysis. The results showed that there was no significant...

  2. Socialization of Solar Energy Utilization in Ponpes Al Hidayah, Arjasa, Kangean Island, Sumenep

    Cahyono, Y.; Setyaningrum, Y.; Sarasechan, A.; Nafsi, R. G.; Setiyono; Salamah, M. D.; Triyuliana, N. A.; Silvia, L.; Subagyo, B. A.; Zainuri, M.; Triwikantoro; Baqiya, M. A.; Endarko; Asrori, M. Z.; Pratapa, S.; Suasmoro; Darminto

    2018-03-01

    Electricity problem of most small islands in Indonesia has become a serious problem and need to be immediately resolved. In this present paper, Kangean Islands, Sumenep district of Madura, Indonesia, is one of the most suitable islands for an example. In this island, the existing electricity supply is mainly generated by diesel generators. Even though there are also electricity supplies from the government and private companies, it is very limited capacities just a few families. It is clear that the daily electricity requirements in the Kangean Islands are not adequately met. There is no self-supporting from the local residents to meet their daily energy needs. The community service activity helps to improve the understanding and the self-supporting of the Kangean Island community, especially for the young generation, in the field of electrical energy by utilizing renewable energy sources, especially solar cell system technology. Thus, it is expected that natural resources in Kangean Island can be utilized properly and able to increase the productivity. Finally, in this paper, the light intensity and surface temperature effects on the performance of a monocrystal solar cell are discussed.

  3. Further ecological and shoreline stability reconnaissance surveys of Back Island, Behm Canal, Southeast Alaska

    Young, J.S.; Strand, J.A.; Ecker, R.M.

    1987-09-01

    A diver reconnaissance of the intertidal and subtidal zones of Back Island was performed to catalog potentially vulnerable shellfish, other invertebrates, and marine plant resources occurring at three proposed alternate pier sites on the west side of Back Island. Additionally, a limited survey of terrestrial vegetation was conducted in the vicinity of one of the proposed alternate pier sites to describe the littoral community and to list the dominant plant species found there. Finally, a reconnaissance survey of the shoreline of Back Island was conducted to evaluate potential changes in shoreline stability resulting from construction of onshore portions of the Southeast Alaska Acoustic Measurement Facility (SEAFAC).

  4. Strategies for International Cooperation in Support of Energy Development in Pacific Island Nations

    Miller, M.; Voss, P.; Warren, A.; Baring-Gould, I.; Conrad, M.

    2012-05-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has been partnering with island communities around the world to address the technical, policy, social, and economic hurdles to deploying energy efficiency and renewable energy technologies (RETs) on small, islanded systems. The lessons learned from these partnerships are briefly summarized in this document with the goal of supporting the International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA) in the development of specific near-term and longer-term strategies for island RET deployment.

  5. Migration Dilemmas of Islanders: Commuting Leading to Migration or Remaining at Home

    Ivan Lajić

    2001-09-01

    shopping, visiting doctors, as well as visiting relatives and friends. Depopulation of the islands in the Šibenik costal area has had an effect on reducing the size of the category of commuters, commuting pupils and commuting employees. The islands are more and more becoming a peripheral area, and the islanders see the absence of the young population as a particular problem. Commuting pupils are facing dilemmas regarding the decision to leave the islands or remain on them, with both alternatives at present having equal weight. The desire to remain on the islands is somewhat stronger among secondary school pupils, in comparison to elementary school pupils, and somewhat stronger among female pupils than among male pupils. Commuting of (especially young island populations has a tendency to develop into out-migration, which could have a further negative effect on the socio-demographic situation and, if the trend is not changed, could threaten the perspectives of local island communities. Factors influencing continued residence on the islands pertain to the sphere of economics, as well as to ecological valorisation of the islands. Tourism is the most attractive economic activity, although agriculture is also becoming more and more attractive, especially olive-growing as a traditional island activity. Transportation links do not constitute a major push factor leading to the decision to leave. However, in the given context this concerns the islands nearest the mainland, which are often better linked to the mainland centre (Šibenik than are suburban areas on the mainland itself.

  6. Magnetic island formation in tokamaks

    Yoshikawa, S.

    1989-04-01

    The size of a magnetic island created by a perturbing helical field in a tokamak is estimated. A helical equilibrium of a current- carrying plasma is found in a helical coordinate and the helically flowing current in the cylinder that borders the plasma is calculated. From that solution, it is concluded that the helical perturbation of /approximately/10/sup /minus/4/ of the total plasma current is sufficient to cause an island width of approximately 5% of the plasma radius. 6 refs

  7. Island biodiversity conservation needs palaeoecology

    Nogué, Sandra; de Nascimento, Lea; Froyd, Cynthia A.

    2017-01-01

    to human activities. Consequently, even the most degraded islands are a focus for restoration, eradication, and monitoring programmes to protect the remaining endemic and/or relict populations. Here, we build a framework that incorporates an assessment of the degree of change from multiple baseline...... and the introduction of non-native species. We provide exemplification of how such approaches can provide valuable information for biodiversity conservation managers of island ecosystems....

  8. Three Mile Island

    2015-01-01

    This document addresses the Three Mile Island accident which resulted in a core partial fusion. It recalls that other reactors of this plant are still being operated. The operation of this PWR is briefly described, and the main events and phases of the accident are briefly presented (failure of the secondary circuit supply pump, failure of a pressurizer component and wrong information about it, mistaken reaction in the control room, core partial fusion due to insufficient cooling means). It shows that the accident occurred because of a combination of technical failures and human mistakes. This situation has put operator education and organisation into question again. The main actors and their mistakes, weaknesses and responsibilities are indicated: Metropolitan Edison (the operator), the NRC (the US nuclear safety authority). Some key figures are recalled, as well as the context of construction of the plant. Impacts and consequences are reviewed: implementation of new standards, population concern. The document outlines that radioactive exposures due to the accident were minor

  9. Arctic Islands LNG

    Hindle, W.

    1977-01-01

    Trans-Canada Pipe Lines Ltd. made a feasibility study of transporting LNG from the High Arctic Islands to a St. Lawrence River Terminal by means of a specially designed and built 125,000 cu m or 165,000 cu m icebreaking LNG tanker. Studies were made of the climatology and of ice conditions, using available statistical data as well as direct surveys in 1974, 1975, and 1976. For on-schedule and unimpeded (unescorted) passage of the LNG carriers at all times of the year, special navigation and communications systems can be made available. Available icebreaking experience, charting for the proposed tanker routes, and tide tables for the Canadian Arctic were surveyed. Preliminary design of a proposed Arctic LNG icebreaker tanker, including containment system, reliquefaction of boiloff, speed, power, number of trips for 345 day/yr operation, and liquefaction and regasification facilities are discussed. The use of a minimum of three Arctic Class 10 ships would enable delivery of volumes of natural gas averaging 11.3 million cu m/day over a period of a year to Canadian markets. The concept appears to be technically feasible with existing basic technology.

  10. Continental Island Formation and the Archaeology of Defaunation on Zanzibar, Eastern Africa.

    Mary E Prendergast

    Full Text Available With rising sea levels at the end of the Pleistocene, land-bridge or continental islands were formed around the world. Many of these islands have been extensively studied from a biogeographical perspective, particularly in terms of impacts of island creation on terrestrial vertebrates. However, a majority of studies rely on contemporary faunal distributions rather than fossil data. Here, we present archaeological findings from the island of Zanzibar (also known as Unguja off the eastern African coast, to provide a temporal perspective on island biogeography. The site of Kuumbi Cave, excavated by multiple teams since 2005, has revealed the longest cultural and faunal record for any eastern African island. This record extends to the Late Pleistocene, when Zanzibar was part of the mainland, and attests to the extirpation of large mainland mammals in the millennia after the island became separated. We draw on modeling and sedimentary data to examine the process by which Zanzibar was most recently separated from the mainland, providing the first systematic insights into the nature and chronology of this process. We subsequently investigate the cultural and faunal record from Kuumbi Cave, which provides at least five key temporal windows into human activities and faunal presence: two at the end of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM, one during the period of post-LGM rapid sea level rise and island formation, and two in the late Holocene (Middle Iron Age and Late Iron Age. This record demonstrates the presence of large mammals during the period of island formation, and their severe reduction or disappearance in the Kuumbi Cave sequence by the late Holocene. While various limitations, including discontinuity in the sequence, problematize attempts to clearly attribute defaunation to anthropogenic or island biogeographic processes, Kuumbi Cave offers an unprecedented opportunity to examine post-Pleistocene island formation and its long-term consequences for

  11. Continental Island Formation and the Archaeology of Defaunation on Zanzibar, Eastern Africa

    Prendergast, Mary E.; Rouby, Hélène; Punnwong, Paramita; Marchant, Robert; Crowther, Alison; Kourampas, Nikos; Shipton, Ceri; Walsh, Martin; Lambeck, Kurt; Boivin, Nicole L.

    2016-01-01

    With rising sea levels at the end of the Pleistocene, land-bridge or continental islands were formed around the world. Many of these islands have been extensively studied from a biogeographical perspective, particularly in terms of impacts of island creation on terrestrial vertebrates. However, a majority of studies rely on contemporary faunal distributions rather than fossil data. Here, we present archaeological findings from the island of Zanzibar (also known as Unguja) off the eastern African coast, to provide a temporal perspective on island biogeography. The site of Kuumbi Cave, excavated by multiple teams since 2005, has revealed the longest cultural and faunal record for any eastern African island. This record extends to the Late Pleistocene, when Zanzibar was part of the mainland, and attests to the extirpation of large mainland mammals in the millennia after the island became separated. We draw on modeling and sedimentary data to examine the process by which Zanzibar was most recently separated from the mainland, providing the first systematic insights into the nature and chronology of this process. We subsequently investigate the cultural and faunal record from Kuumbi Cave, which provides at least five key temporal windows into human activities and faunal presence: two at the end of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), one during the period of post-LGM rapid sea level rise and island formation, and two in the late Holocene (Middle Iron Age and Late Iron Age). This record demonstrates the presence of large mammals during the period of island formation, and their severe reduction or disappearance in the Kuumbi Cave sequence by the late Holocene. While various limitations, including discontinuity in the sequence, problematize attempts to clearly attribute defaunation to anthropogenic or island biogeographic processes, Kuumbi Cave offers an unprecedented opportunity to examine post-Pleistocene island formation and its long-term consequences for human and animal

  12. Continental Island Formation and the Archaeology of Defaunation on Zanzibar, Eastern Africa.

    Prendergast, Mary E; Rouby, Hélène; Punnwong, Paramita; Marchant, Robert; Crowther, Alison; Kourampas, Nikos; Shipton, Ceri; Walsh, Martin; Lambeck, Kurt; Boivin, Nicole L

    2016-01-01

    With rising sea levels at the end of the Pleistocene, land-bridge or continental islands were formed around the world. Many of these islands have been extensively studied from a biogeographical perspective, particularly in terms of impacts of island creation on terrestrial vertebrates. However, a majority of studies rely on contemporary faunal distributions rather than fossil data. Here, we present archaeological findings from the island of Zanzibar (also known as Unguja) off the eastern African coast, to provide a temporal perspective on island biogeography. The site of Kuumbi Cave, excavated by multiple teams since 2005, has revealed the longest cultural and faunal record for any eastern African island. This record extends to the Late Pleistocene, when Zanzibar was part of the mainland, and attests to the extirpation of large mainland mammals in the millennia after the island became separated. We draw on modeling and sedimentary data to examine the process by which Zanzibar was most recently separated from the mainland, providing the first systematic insights into the nature and chronology of this process. We subsequently investigate the cultural and faunal record from Kuumbi Cave, which provides at least five key temporal windows into human activities and faunal presence: two at the end of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), one during the period of post-LGM rapid sea level rise and island formation, and two in the late Holocene (Middle Iron Age and Late Iron Age). This record demonstrates the presence of large mammals during the period of island formation, and their severe reduction or disappearance in the Kuumbi Cave sequence by the late Holocene. While various limitations, including discontinuity in the sequence, problematize attempts to clearly attribute defaunation to anthropogenic or island biogeographic processes, Kuumbi Cave offers an unprecedented opportunity to examine post-Pleistocene island formation and its long-term consequences for human and animal

  13. The sexual practices of Asian and Pacific Islander high school students.

    Schuster, M A; Bell, R M; Nakajima, G A; Kanouse, D E

    1998-10-01

    To describe the sexual behaviors, beliefs, and attitudes of Asian and Pacific Islander California high school students and to compare them to other racial/ethnic groups. Data were collected from an anonymous self-administered survey of 2026 ninth to 12th graders in a Los Angeles County school district; 186 of the respondents described themselves as Asian and Pacific Islander. The survey was conducted in April 1992. A higher percentage of Asian and Pacific Islander adolescents (73%) compared with African-American (28%, p masturbation of or by a partner, fellatio with ejaculation, cunnilingus, and anal intercourse. Few students in any group reported homosexual genital sexual activities. Asians and Pacific Islanders who had had vaginal intercourse were more likely than most other groups to have used a condom at first vaginal intercourse, but Asians and Pacific Islanders had not used condoms more consistently over the prior year. Asians and Pacific Islanders were more likely to expect parental disapproval if they had vaginal intercourse and less likely to think that their peers had had vaginal intercourse. Asian and Pacific Islander high school students in one California school district appear to be at lower sexual risk than other racial/ethnic groups. However, a large minority are engaging in activities that can transmit disease and lead to unwanted pregnancy. Therefore, current efforts to develop culturally sensitive clinical and community-based approaches to sexual risk prevention should include Asians and Pacific Islanders.

  14. Day of two suns. US nuclear testing and the Pacific Islanders

    Dibblin, Jane.

    1988-01-01

    The book focuses on two Pacific communities affected by nuclear testing, the people of Rongelap atoll irradiated by fallout, and the people of Kwajalein atoll forced to leave their islands so it could be used as a target area for missiles launched from the western USA. Both atolls are part of the Marshall Islands which are on the eastern side of the groups of islands known as Micronesia. The USA conducted 66 nuclear tests in the period 1946-1958, one on Bikini Island, codenamed Bravo, causing the contamination of Rongelap. Following the halting of atmospheric nuclear explosions in 1958 the area became a missile testing target area. The reasons why the Marshall Islands were used, the effects of the fallout and destruction of the islanders way of life when they were moved from their homes is described. It draws widely on experience of the Marshall Islanders themselves. One of the appendices lists the tests and displacement in the Marshall Islands in chronological order. (U.K.)

  15. Community structures of soil animals and survival of land snails on an island of the Ogasawara Archipelago Estruturas de comunidades de animais de solo e sobrevivência dos caracóis terrestres numa ilha do Arquipélago Ogasawara

    Motohiro Hasegawa

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available On Chichijima, one of the Ogasawara (Bonin Islands located in the Western Pacific Ocean, land snails have declined, the suggested cause being predation pressure by an invasive flatworm (Platydemus manokwari. Soil fauna were investigated in areas where the snail survives, and where it has become extinct. Much of the fauna, dominated by introduced earthworms and ants, was undiminished, however, one undescribed but endemic carabid (Badister sp., which selectively feeds on land snails, was absent in snail-extinct areas. The invasive flatworm P. manokwari has been reported to feed also on the carcasses of earthworms, as well as on live snails, and is therefore expected to occur in most parts of Chichijima Island. Among other groups, the density of isopods (also dominated by exotic species was very low, in comparison with the reported ones 30 years ago. Community structure is currently reflected by dominance of earthworms and ants, decline of endemic isopods, and a high frequency of introduced or alien species.Em Chichijima, uma das ilhas do Arquipélago Ogasawara (Bonin, localizado no Oceano Pacífico Ocidental, o número de caracóis terrestres diminuiu, e a causa provável é a predação por uma planária invasora (Platydemus manokwari. A fauna edáfica foi avaliada nas áreas onde o caracol sobreviveu e onde se extinguiu. Grande parte da fauna, dominada inicialmente por minhocas e formigas, não diminuiu; contudo, um carabídeo endêmico e não descrito (Badister sp., que se alimenta de caracóis terrestres, não estava presente nas áreas em que o caracol foi extinto. Sabe-se que a planária invasiva P. manokwari se alimenta não só das carcaças das minhocas, mas também de caracóis vivos, e por isso habita a maior parte da Ilha Chichijima. Entre outros grupos, a densidade de isópodos (também dominados por espécies exóticas foi muita baixa, em comparação aos relatos feitos 30 anos antes. A estrutura da comunidade é refletida atualmente

  16. Prevalence of human toxoplasmosis in san carlos island, venezuela

    Chacín-Bonilla, Leonor; Sánchez-Chávez, Yulaicy; Estévez, Jesús; Larreal, Yraima; Molero, Emelyn

    2003-01-01

    A survey of 335 individuals, 1-65 years of age (mean ±SD of 20.8 ±15.7), in 6 communities from the San Carlos Island, Western Venezuela, was conducted to study the prevalence of serum antibody to Toxoplasma gondii. The indirect hemagglutination test showed an overall infection rate of 49.8% (167 of 335) that ranged 23-64.8% according to the locality. No association between antibody status and age or risk factors was detected. Higher antibody rates were found in a windward coast community, and...

  17. Foundation Investigation for Ground Based Radar Project-Kwajalein Island, Marshall Islands

    1990-04-01

    iL_ COPY MISCELLANEOUS PAPER GL-90-5 i iFOUNDATION INVESTIGATION FOR GROUND BASED RADAR PROJECT--KWAJALEIN ISLAND, MARSHALL ISLANDS by Donald E...C!assification) Foundatioa Investigation for Ground Based Radar Project -- Kwajalein Island, Marshall Islands 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Yule, Donald E...investigation for the Ground Based Radar Project -- Kwajalein Island, Marshall Islands , are presented.- eophysical tests comprised of surface refrac- tion

  18. AKRO/SF: Community Development Quota (CDQ) System

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Western Alaska Community Development Quota (CDQ) Program allocates a percentage of all Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands quotas for groundfish, prohibited species,...

  19. Vocational Education with a Twist: This School Teaches Community Service.

    Lewis, Barbara

    1983-01-01

    At Davis Vocational Technical High School in Lincoln (Rhode Island) students in such areas as carpentry, culinary arts, and cosmetology provide free services to the community and gain valuable experience. (Author/JM)

  20. Bryophytes from Simeonof Island in the Shumagin Islands, southwestern Alaska

    Schofield, W.B.; Talbot, S. S.; Talbot, S.L.

    2004-01-01

    Simeonof Island is located south of the Alaska Peninsula in the hyperoceanic sector of the middle boreal subzone. We examined the bryoflora of Simeonof Island to determine species composition in an area where no previous collections had been reported. This field study was conducted in sites selected to represent the spectrum of environmental variation within Simeonof Island. Data were analyzed using published reports to compare bryophyte distribution patterns at three levels, the Northern Hemisphere, North America, and Alaska. A total of 271 bryophytes were identified: 202 mosses and 69 liverworts. The annotated list of species for Simeonof Island expands the known range for many species and fills distribution gaps within Hulte??n's Western Pacific Coast district. Maps and notes on the distribution of 14 significant distribution records are presented. Compared with bryophyte distribution in the Northern Hemisphere, the bryoflora of Simeonof Island primarily includes taxa of boreal (55%), temperate (20%), arctic (10%), and cosmopolitan (8%) distribution; 6% of the moss flora are western North America endemics. A description of the bryophytes present in the vegetation and habitat types is provided as is a quantitative analysis of the most frequently occurring bryophytes in crowberry heath.

  1. Barrier island facies models and recognition criteria

    Mulhern, J.; Johnson, C. L.

    2017-12-01

    Barrier island outcrops record transgressive shoreline motion at geologic timescales, providing integral clues to understanding how coastlines respond to rising sea levels. However, barrier island deposits are difficult to recognize. While significant progress has been made in understanding the modern coastal morphodynamics, this insight is not fully leveraged in existing barrier island facies models. Excellent outcrop exposures of the paralic Upper Cretaceous Straight Cliffs Formation of southern Utah provide an opportunity to revise facies models and recognition criteria for barrier island deposits. Preserved barrier islands are composed of three main architectural elements (shorefaces, tidal inlets, and tidal channels) which occur independently or in combination to create larger-scale barrier island deposits. Barrier island shorefaces record progradation, while barrier island tidal inlets record lateral migration, and barrier island tidal channels record aggradation within the tidal inlet. Four facies associations are used to describe and characterize these barrier island architectural elements. Barrier islands occur in association with backarrier fill and internally contain lower and upper shoreface, high-energy upper shoreface, and tidal channel facies. Barrier islands bound lagoons or estuaries, and are distinguished from other shoreface deposits by their internal facies and geometry, association with backbarrier facies, and position within transgressive successions. Tidal processes, in particular tidal inlet migration and reworking of the upper shoreface, also distinguish barrier island deposits. Existing barrier island models highlight the short term heterogeneous and dynamic nature of barrier island systems, yet overlook processes tied to geologic time scales, such as multi-directional motion, erosion, and reworking, and their expressions in preserved barrier island strata. This study uses characteristic outcrop expressions of barrier island successions to

  2. One million served: Rhode Island`s recycling facility

    Malloy, M.G.

    1997-11-01

    Rhode Island`s landfill and adjacent materials recovery facility (MRF) in Johnston, both owned by the quasi-public Rhode Island Resource Recovery Corp. (RIRRC, Johnston), serve the entire state. The $12-million recycling facility was built in 1989 next to the state`s sole landfill, the Central Landfill, which accepts only in-state trash. The MRF is operated for RIRRC by New England CRInc. (Hampton, N.H.), a unit of Waste Management, Inc. (WMI, Oak Brook, Ill.). It handles a wide variety of materials, from the usual newspaper, cardboard, and mixed containers to new streams such as wood waste, scrap metal, aseptic packaging (milk and juice boxes), and even textiles. State municipalities are in the process of adding many of these new recyclable streams into their curbside collection programs, all of which feed the facility.

  3. Terrestrial bird population trends on Aguiguan (Goat Island), Mariana Islands

    Amidon, Fred; Camp, Richard J.; Marshall, Ann P.; Pratt, Thane K.; Williams, Laura; Radley, Paul; Cruz, Justine B.

    2014-01-01

    The island of Aguiguan is part of the Mariana archipelago and currently supports populations of four endemic species, including one endemic genus, Cleptornis. Bird population trends since 1982 were recently assessed on the neighbouring islands of Saipan, Tinian, and Rota indicating declines in some native species. Point-transect surveys were conducted in 2008 by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service to assess population densities and trends on Aguiguan. Densities for six of the nine native birds—White-throated Ground-dove Gallicolumba xanthonura, Collared Kingfisher Todiramphus chloris, Rufous Fantail Rhipidura rufifrons, Golden White-eye Cleptornis marchei, Bridled White-eye Zosterops conspicillatus and Micronesian Starling Aplonis opaca—and the non-native bird—Island Collared-dove Streptopelia bitorquata—were significantly greater in 2008 than in 1982. No differences in densities were detected among the surveys for Mariana Fruit-dove Ptilinopus roseicapilla, and Micronesian MyzomelaMyzomela rubratra. Three federally and locally listed endangered birds—Nightingale Reed-warbler Acrocephalus luscinius, Mariana Swiftlet Collocalia bartschi, and Micronesian Megapode Megapodius laperous)—were either not detected during the point-transect counts, the surveys were not appropriate for the species, or the numbers of birds detected were too small to estimate densities. The factors behind the increasing trends for some species are unknown but may be related to increased forest cover on the island since 1982. With declining trends for some native species on neighbouring islands, the increasing and stable trends on Aguiguan is good news for forest bird populations in the region, as Aguiguan populations can help support conservation efforts on other islands in the archipelago.

  4. Late Quaternary climate change shapes island biodiversity

    Weigelt, Patrick; Steinbauer, Manuel; Cabral, Juliano

    2016-01-01

    Island biogeographical models consider islands either as geologically static with biodiversity resulting from ecologically neutral immigration–extinction dynamics1, or as geologically dynamic with biodiversity resulting from immigration–speciation–extinction dynamics influenced by changes in island...... sea levels3, 4 and caused massive changes in island area, isolation and connectivity5, orders of magnitude faster than the geological processes of island formation, subsidence and erosion considered in island theory2, 6. Consequences of these oscillations for present biodiversity remain unassessed5, 7...

  5. Habitat Fragmentation Drives Plant Community Assembly Processes across Life Stages

    Hu, Guang; Feeley, Kenneth J.; Yu, Mingjian

    2016-01-01

    Habitat fragmentation is one of the principal causes of biodiversity loss and hence understanding its impacts on community assembly and disassembly is an important topic in ecology. We studied the relationships between fragmentation and community assembly processes in the land-bridge island system of Thousand Island Lake in East China. We focused on the changes in species diversity and phylogenetic diversity that occurred between life stages of woody plants growing on these islands. The observed diversities were compared with the expected diversities from random null models to characterize assembly processes. Regression tree analysis was used to illustrate the relationships between island attributes and community assembly processes. We found that different assembly processes predominate in the seedlings-to-saplings life-stage transition (SS) vs. the saplings-to-trees transition (ST). Island area was the main attribute driving the assembly process in SS. In ST, island isolation was more important. Within a fragmented landscape, the factors driving community assembly processes were found to differ between life stage transitions. Environmental filtering had a strong effect on the seedlings-to-saplings life-stage transition. Habitat isolation and dispersal limitation influenced all plant life stages, but had a weaker effect on communities than area. These findings add to our understanding of the processes driving community assembly and species coexistence in the context of pervasive and widespread habitat loss and fragmentation. PMID:27427960

  6. Land-use change and managed aquifer recharge effects on the hydrogeochemistry of two contrasting atoll island aquifers, Roi-Namur Island, Republic of the Marshall Islands

    Hejazian, Mehrdad; Gurdak, Jason J.; Swarzenski, Peter; Odigie, Kingsley O.; Storlazzi, Curt D.

    2017-01-01

    -use/land-cover change and managed aquifer recharge as a promising management approach for communities on other low-lying atoll islands to increase the resilience of their groundwater supplies and help them adapt to future climate change related stresses. - Highlights: • Land use and managed aquifer recharge (MAR) alter hydrogeochemistry on atolls. • Land use and MAR create differences in pH, ORP, Ca"2"+, NH_4"+, TDN, and δ"1"3C-DIC. • Land use and MAR create annual increase in porosity: 0.004% (Roi), 0.024% (Namur). • Changes to land use and MAR may increase groundwater resilience on other atolls.

  7. Land-use change and managed aquifer recharge effects on the hydrogeochemistry of two contrasting atoll island aquifers, Roi-Namur Island, Republic of the Marshall Islands

    Hejazian, Mehrdad; Gurdak, Jason J.; Swarzenski, Peter W.; Odigie, Kingsley; Storlazzi, Curt

    2017-01-01

    managed aquifer recharge as a promising management approach for communities on other low-lying atoll islands to increase the resilience of their groundwater supplies and help them adapt to future climate change related stresses.

  8. Late Quaternary climate change shapes island biodiversity.

    Weigelt, Patrick; Steinbauer, Manuel Jonas; Cabral, Juliano Sarmento; Kreft, Holger

    2016-04-07

    Island biogeographical models consider islands either as geologically static with biodiversity resulting from ecologically neutral immigration-extinction dynamics, or as geologically dynamic with biodiversity resulting from immigration-speciation-extinction dynamics influenced by changes in island characteristics over millions of years. Present climate and spatial arrangement of islands, however, are rather exceptional compared to most of the Late Quaternary, which is characterized by recurrent cooler and drier glacial periods. These climatic oscillations over short geological timescales strongly affected sea levels and caused massive changes in island area, isolation and connectivity, orders of magnitude faster than the geological processes of island formation, subsidence and erosion considered in island theory. Consequences of these oscillations for present biodiversity remain unassessed. Here we analyse the effects of present and Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) island area, isolation, elevation and climate on key components of angiosperm diversity on islands worldwide. We find that post-LGM changes in island characteristics, especially in area, have left a strong imprint on present diversity of endemic species. Specifically, the number and proportion of endemic species today is significantly higher on islands that were larger during the LGM. Native species richness, in turn, is mostly determined by present island characteristics. We conclude that an appreciation of Late Quaternary environmental change is essential to understand patterns of island endemism and its underlying evolutionary dynamics.

  9. Greece, Milos Island Geothermal Project

    Delliou, E.E.

    1990-01-01

    On Milos island (Aegean Sea) a high enthalpy, water dominated geothermal field of high salinity exists. At 1985, a 2MW geothermoelectric pilot plant was installed on the island. This plant has been provided by Mitsubishi Heavy Industries of Japan under a contract with Public Power Corporation of Greece. Due to high salinity of the geothermal fluid, unforeseen problems (scaling mainly) arisen in both steam and brine cycles. As a consequence, the operation (trial mainly) of the power plant have been interrupted several times for long periods, in order to identify the arisen, each time, problems and find the most appropriate technical solution. The above fact, as well as, some unfortunate coincidences described in this paper, led Milos people to react against geothermal development in their island. The sequence of the events, technical and non-technical, their approach and the relevant conclusions are reported in this presentation

  10. Dust Storm Hits Canary Islands

    2002-01-01

    A thick pall of sand and dust blew out from the Sahara Desert over the Atlantic Ocean yesterday (January 6, 2002), engulfing the Canary Islands in what has become one of the worst sand storms ever recorded there. In this scene, notice how the dust appears particularly thick in the downwind wake of Tenerife, the largest of the Canary Islands. Perhaps the turbulence generated by the air currents flowing past the island's volcanic peaks is churning the dust back up into the atmosphere, rather than allowing it to settle toward the surface. This true-color image was captured by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra satellite, on January 7, 2002. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  11. Anthropic pressures on Egadi Islands

    Peronaci, Marcello; Luciani, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    The Egadi Islands, like most Mediterranean islets, have radically changed the traditional lifestyle and the economic development model, based for centuries on the almost self-sufficient resources and production activities, mostly related to the sea (fishing and fish processing) and to the land. During the second half of the 1900., the development of transport radically transformed this model to make smaller islands, at least those closest to the coast, more tightly interconnected and dependent on the mainland. In particular, in Favignana, which is the most populous island and very close to the coast, the traditional activities tourism have led to a strong anthropic pressure concentrated in a few months of the year (summer) on the one hand, and a reduction of the resident population during the winter months on the other, with a serious impact on the care of the land [it

  12. Patterns of bird functional diversity on land-bridge island fragments.

    Ding, Zhifeng; Feeley, Kenneth J; Wang, Yanping; Pakeman, Robin J; Ding, Ping

    2013-07-01

    The loss of species diversity due to habitat fragmentation has been extensively studied. In contrast, the impacts of habitat fragmentation on functional diversity remains relatively poorly understood. We conducted bird functional diversity studies on a set of 41 recently isolated land-bridge islands in the Thousand Island Lake, China. We analysed differences in bird species richness and a recently developed suite of complementary functional diversity indices (FRic, volume of functional space occupied; FEve, evenness of abundance distribution in the functional trait space; FDiv, divergence in the distribution of abundance in the trait volume) across different gradients (island area and isolation). We found no correlations between FRic and FEve or FEve and FDiv, but negative correlations between FRic and FDiv. As predicted, island area accounted for most of the variation in bird species richness, whereas isolation explained most of the variation in species evenness (decreasing species evenness with increasing isolation). Functional diversity appears to be more strongly influenced by habitat filtering as opposed to limiting similarity. More specifically, across all islands, both FRic and FEve were significantly lower than expected for randomly assembled communities, but FDiv showed no clear patterns. FRic increased with island area, FEve decreased with island area and FDiv showed no clear patterns. Our finding that FEve decreases with island area at TIL may indicate low functional stability on such islands, and as such large islands and habitat patches may deserve extra attention and/or protection. These results help to demonstrate the importance of considering the effects of fragmentation on functional diversity in habitat management and reserve design plans. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2013 British Ecological Society.

  13. Review of islanding detection methods for distributed generation

    Chen, Zhe; Mahat, Pukar; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of power system islanding and islanding detection techniques. Islanding detection techniques, for a distribution system with distributed generation (DG), can broadly be divided into remote and local techniques. A remote islanding detection technique is associated...

  14. Pacific Islands Regional Climate Assessment: Building a Framework to Track Physical and Social Indicators of Climate Change Across Pacific Islands

    Grecni, Z. N.; Keener, V. W.

    2016-12-01

    Assessments inform regional and local climate change governance and provide the critical scientific basis for U.S. climate policy. Despite the centrality of scientific information to public discourse and decision making, comprehensive assessments of climate change drivers, impacts, and the vulnerability of human and ecological systems at regional or local scales are often conducted on an ad hoc basis. Methods for sustained assessment and communication of scientific information are diverse and nascent. The Pacific Islands Regional Climate Assessment (PIRCA) is a collaborative effort to assess climate change indicators, impacts, and adaptive capacity of the Hawaiian archipelago and the US-Affiliated Pacific Islands (USAPI). In 2012, PIRCA released the first comprehensive report summarizing the state of scientific knowledge about climate change in the region as a technical input to the U.S. National Climate Assessment. A multi-method evaluation of PIRCA outputs and delivery revealed that the vast majority of key stakeholders view the report as extremely credible and use it as a resource. The current study will present PIRCA's approach to establishing physical and social indicators to track on an ongoing basis, starting with the Republic of the Marshall Islands as an initial location of focus for providing a cross-sectoral indicators framework. Identifying and tracking useful indicators is aimed at sustaining the process of knowledge coproduction with decision makers who seek to better understand the climate variability and change and its impacts on Pacific Island communities.

  15. HYDROGEOLOGICAL RELATIONS ON KARSTIFIED ISLANDS - VIS ISLAND CASE STUDY

    Josip Terzić

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available An approach to the hydrogeological investigations on Adriatic islands is presented on the Island of Vis case study. Infiltration, accumulation and discharge of the groundwater occur in karstified rock mass. Hydrogeological relations are mostly a consequence of the geological setting, because of the complete hydrogeologic barrier in Komiža bay, and relative barrier in the area of karst poljes. Significant research was performed in the 1999 – 2000 period aimed of better understanding of hydrogeological relations. These investigations, as well as reinterpretation of some previously known data, included structural geology, hydrogeology, hydrology and hydrochemistry. Approximate rock mass hydraulic conductivity calculation is also shown, as well as level of its usability in such terrain. Based on all these methods, it is possible to conclude that on the Island of Vis there is no saline water present underneath the entire island. There is only a saline water wedge which is formed on the top of relatively impermeable base rock, some few tens of meters under recent sea level. With such a model, and taking in account the hydrological balance, it is possible to conclude that there is possibility of higher amount of groundwater exploitation then it is today (the paper is published in Croatian.

  16. Obesity and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders

    ... Population Profiles > Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander > Obesity Obesity and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders Native Hawaiians/Pacific ... youthonline . [Accessed 08/18/2017] HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY People who are overweight are more likely to ...

  17. Submarine physiography off Lakshadweep Islands, Arabian Sea

    Chauhan, O.S; Chaubey, A

    Analysis of echosoundings, side scan sonar and shallow seismic data, supplementEd. by 152 sediment samples, collected along 150 km around Lakshadweep Islands, Arabian Sea, revealed that the islands have a very narrow shelf, and an abrupt, shelf...

  18. Benthic Mapping in Long Island Sound

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — QTCView is used with an incorporated depthfinder to create a sonar map of the bottom to the west of the Charles Island, in Long Island Sound in Connecticut waters....

  19. Dredged Material Management in Long Island Sound

    Information on Western and Central Long Island Sound Dredged Material Disposal Sites including the Dredged Material Management Plan and Regional Dredging Team. Information regarding the Eastern Long Island Sound Selected Site including public meetings.

  20. Bartolome Island, Galapagos Stable Oxygen Calibration Data

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Galapagos Coral Stable Oxygen Calibration Data. Sites: Bartolome Island: 0 deg, 17'S, 90 deg 33' W. Champion Island: 1 deg, 15'S, 90 deg, 05' W. Urvina Bay (Isabela...

  1. Asthma and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders

    ... Population Profiles > Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander > Asthma Asthma and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders National data for ... very limited. While all of the causes of asthma remain unclear, children exposed to secondhand tobacco smoke ...

  2. Immunizations and Asians and Pacific Islanders

    ... and Data > Minority Population Profiles > Asian American > Immunizations Immunizations and Asians and Pacific Islanders Asian/Pacific Islander ... 35 months reached the Healthy People goal for immunizations for hepatitis B, MMR (measles-mumps-rubella), polio ...

  3. The Support of MPA (Marine Protected Area) in Coral Triangle Area: Evidence from Kei Islands, Indonesia

    Hamid, Syahibul K.; Teniwut, Wellem A.; Teniwut, Roberto M. K.; Rahantoknam, Meyske A.; Hasyim, Cawalinya L.; Hungan, Marselus

    2017-10-01

    Kei Islands located inside the coral triangle. Therefore, the biodiversity level on the sea in this area is considered high. United nation has proposed for water that included in the coral triangle has to apply marine protected area (MPA) to preserve the area. The main problem is most of the community especially in Kei Islands have depended on the sea as their sources of the economy even fisheries commodity like fish play a large part on the inflation rate and other prosperity indicators likes school and housing. Also, Kei Islands practice on form local wisdom for owning areal of the sea which calls “petuanan laut” by certain of villages or group of villages in one area. This study aimed to map the cluster of catching fisheries area based on the quantity of fish supply on a local market in Kei Islands and measure each cluster on their support and perspective on Marine Protected Area (MPA). We conducted a focus group discussion and collecting additional data by questionnaires with descriptive and quantitative analysis with logistic regression. The implication of this study can provide a clear view of coastal communities view on MPA program also to identify an area that has marine resources, human resources, and equipment to provide government an empirical view on catching fisheries in Kei Islands to issued better policy to develop fishing industry in Kei Islands.

  4. 33 CFR 80.717 - Tybee Island, GA to St. Simons Island, GA.

    2010-07-01

    ... Island. (j) An east-west line from the southernmost extremity of Sea Island across Goulds Inlet to St... Tybee Island 255° true across Tybee Inlet to the shore of Little Tybee Island south of the entrance to... shoreline across Cabretta Inlet. (g) A north-south line (longitude 81°16.9′ W.) drawn from the south...

  5. Tuppiap Qeqertaa (Tobias Island): a newly discovered island off northeast Greenland

    Bennike, O.; Mikkelsen, N.; Forsberg, René

    2006-01-01

    The small island of Tuppiap Qeqertaa, formerly known as Tobias circle divide or Tobias Island, is situated 80 km off the northeast Greenland coast. The island was discovered in 1993 and is approximately 2 km long and 1.5 km wide. Most of the island is covered by an ice cap that rises to 35 in abo...

  6. Energy Transition Initiative: Island Energy Snapshot - U.S. Virgin Islands (Fact Sheet)

    2015-03-01

    This profile provides a snapshot of the energy landscape of the U.S. Virgin Islands (USVI) - St. Thomas, St. John, and St. Croix. The Virgin Islands archipelago makes up the northern portion of the Lesser Antilles and the western island group of the Leeward Islands, forming the border between the Atlantic Ocean and the Caribbean Sea.

  7. Community attitudes toward nuclear plants

    Peelle, E.

    1982-01-01

    Among the many effects of the accident at Three Mile Island are impacts upon other communities that currently host nuclear-power reactors. Because studies on communities' reactions not immediately available, this chapter reviews existing studies and speculates about possible effects. The patterns and variations in impacts on and responses of nuclear host communities have been the subject of studies at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (Oak Ridge, Tennessee) since 1972. This essay presents results from four post-licensing studies of host communities - Plymouth, Massachusetts, and Waterford, Connecticut (PL-1), and Brunswick, North Carolina, and Appling-Toombs counties, Georgia (PL-2) - along with case study and attitude survey information from two additional communities in which reactors are under construction: Hartsville, Tennessee, and Cherokee County, South Carolina. Differences and similarities between the sites have been assessed in terms of differences in input and social structure; factors affecting the generally favorable attitudes toward local nuclear plants are discussed

  8. The geology of the Falkland Islands

    Aldiss, D.T.; Edwards, E.J.

    1999-01-01

    This report is complementary to the 1:250 000 scale geological map of the Falkland Islands compiled in 1998. The report and map are products of the Falkland Islands Geological Mapping Project (1996-1998). Geological observation and research in the Islands date from 1764. The Islands were visited during two pioneering scientific cruises in the 19th century. Subsequently, many scientists visited en route to the Antarctic or Patagonia. Geological affinities to other parts of the sout...

  9. Meeting changing conditoins at the Rhode Island Medical Center cogeneration plant

    Galamaga, D.P.; Bowen, P.T.

    1993-01-01

    The Rhode Island Department of Mental Health, Retardation and Hospitals is one state department in Rhode Island whose basic function is to provide services to seriously disabled individuals throughout the state. Savings in operating expenses from the Rhode Island Medical Center Central Power Plant have accruded to provide operating funds for the major programs. Operating under a Director who reports to the Governor of Rhode Island, the Department has three major divisions, approximately 2500 employees, and a budget of 200 million dollars. Its operations extend throughout the state and the major focus for hospital or institutional levels of care reside in three major locations, the Dr. U.E. Zambarano Memorial Hospital in northern Rhode Island, the Dr. Joseph Ladd Center in southern Rhode Island, and the Rhode Island Medical Center in the middle of the state. Besides these institution-based operations, the Department sponsors a wide range of rehabilitative programming in the community other through direct operations of facilities such as group homes or through contracts with private non-profit providers of service

  10. Transportation Limitation Access to the Small Islands (Case Study: Banggai Laut Regency)

    Sunarti, S.

    2018-02-01

    Indonesia is as an archipelago and maritime country, the large number of Islands owned and scattered in all directions makes a challenge for the Government in equitable development. Development in Indonesia has not been spread evenly and tends to focus on the big island, while the smaller islands are still far behind and lack of government attention. One of them is the lack of infrastructure especially the access to the small islands. Among the small islands in Indonesia with minimal maritime infrastructure or transportation is Banggai Laut Regency, Central Sulawesi Province. This Regency is a new regency that separate itself from its previous regency that is Banggai Kepulauan Regency in about 4 years ago. For the development of the Banggai Laut Regency, access to reach that regency is quite difficult. Therefore, the aim of this research is to find infrastructure development strategy to support the development of Banggai Laut Regency. The research method used was the concurrent model mixed method. Data collection method was done with primary data through field observation and interview, secondary data through literature and document review. Analytical techniques used are qualitative descriptive and Map Overlay techniques using GIS to describe the characteristics of study areas and spatial relationships between islands. The results of this research conclude that the Banggai Laut Regency requires infrastructure development particularly maritime transportation to enhance accessibility of the community headed to Banggi Laut Regency or headed to another island from the Banggai Laut Regency.

  11. Building tobacco cessation capacity in the U.S.-affiliated Pacific Islands.

    David, Annette M; Cruz, Peter J; Mercado, Susan P; Li, Dan

    2013-09-01

    Tobacco control stakeholders in priority populations are searching for culturally appropriate cessation training models to strengthen cessation capacity and infrastructure. We adapted the University of Arizona model for Brief Tobacco Cessation Interventions training for Pacific Islanders and pilot-tested it in four Pacific Islands-Palau, the Federated States of Micronesia, the Northern Mariana Islands and the Marshall Islands. All participants completed a posttraining knowledge assessment exam, pre- and posttraining confidence assessments, and a quality improvement evaluation. Of 70 participants, 65 (93%) completed the training. Forty-one (63%) passed the posttraining knowledge assessment exam at the first attempt; an additional 9 (14%) successfully passed on their second attempt, for a total pass rate of 77%. The pre- and posttraining confidence surveys demonstrated a statistically significant increase in confidence across all competency areas for delivering brief advice. The quality improvement survey revealed high acceptance and approval for the content and delivery of the locally adapted training model. As Pacific Island communities enact tobacco control policies, cessation demand is growing. The Guam cessation training model used culturally relevant data, materials, and training approaches and appeared effective in four different Pacific island countries. This underscores the importance of culturally competent adaptation of cessation training for priority populations such as Pacific Islanders.

  12. Past, Present, Future Erosion at Locke Island

    Bjornstad, Bruce N.

    2006-08-08

    This report describes and documents the erosion that has occurred along the northeast side of Locke Island over the last 10 to 20 years. The principal cause of this erosion is the massive Locke Island landslide complex opposite the Columbia River along the White Bluffs, which constricts the flow of the river and deflects the river's thalweg southward against the island.

  13. Ecology and Evolution: Islands of Change.

    Benz, Richard

    This book was designed for middle and junior high school science classes and focuses on island biogeography, ecology, and evolution. Sections include: (1) "Galapagos: Frame of Reference"; (2) "Ecology and Islands"; and (3) "Evolution." Nineteen standards-based activities use the Galapagos Islands as a running theme…

  14. seal Arctocephaius tropicaiis at Gough Island

    Population increase in the Amsterdam Island fur seal Arctocephaius tropicaiis at Gough Island. M.N. Bester. Mammal Research Institute, University of Pretoria, Pretoria. Population size of Arctocephalus tropicalis on Gough Island was determined by direct censuses of parts of the coast duro ing the summers of 1974 - 1976 ...

  15. The Limacidae of the Canary Islands

    Regteren Altena, van C.O.

    1950-01-01

    CONTENTS Introduction............... 3 Systematic survey of the Limacidae of the central and western Canary Islands 5 Biogeographical notes on the Limacidae of the Canary Islands . . . . 21 Alphabetical list of the persons who collected or observed Limacidae in the Canary Islands.............. 31

  16. Pronounced particularity: a comparison of governance structures on Lord Howe Island and Fernando de Noronha

    Arianne Reis

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper compares and contrasts the management systems and governance structures of two island sites with national and international World Heritage recognition: Lord Howe Island (off the mid-east coast of Australia and Fernando de Noronha (off the north-east coast of Brazil. Using historical and contemporary references, the paper explores the manner in which two distinct approaches to governance are implicated in the daily living of community members, and considers their socioeconomic activities. We use the case of tourism and World Heritage management as examples of the complexities involved in the different forms of governance structures adopted by these two small oceanic islands: similar in nature and official status, but significantly different when the outcomes of their governance practices are analysed. In the final part of the paper, we suggest mechanisms and approaches that can promote sustainable local engagement with island issues.

  17. Biology and impacts of Pacific island invasive species 9. Capra hircus, the feral goat, (Mammalia: Bovidae)

    Chynoweth, Mark W.; Litton, Creighton M.; Lepczyk, Christopher A.; Hess, Steve A.; Cordell, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Domestic goats, Capra hircus, were intentionally introduced to numerous oceanic islands beginning in the sixteenth century. The remarkable ability of C. hircus to survive in a variety of conditions has enabled this animal to become feral and impact native ecosystems on islands throughout the world. Direct ecological impacts include consumption and trampling of native plants, leading to plant community modification and transformation of ecosystem structure. While the negative impacts of feral goats are well-known and effective management strategies have been developed to control this invasive species, large populations persist on many islands. This review summarizes the impacts of feral goats on Pacific island ecosystems, and the management strategies available to control this invasive species.

  18. Extinction debt on oceanic islands

    Triantis, Kostas A.; Borges, Paulo A. V.; Ladle, Richard J.

    2010-01-01

    the magnitude of such future extinction events has been hampered by potentially inaccurate assumptions about the slope of species-area relationships, which are habitat- and taxon-specific. We overcome this challenge by applying a method that uses the historical sequence of deforestation in the Azorean Islands...

  19. Destination: Marshall Islands. Video Guide.

    Legowski, Margaret

    This video guide was developed by the Peace Corps' Office of World Wise Schools. Activities that the guide describes are for use in a 3- to 5-day unit on one of the nations of Oceania, the Republic of the Marshall Islands. The activities are designed to provide students with opportunities to: (1) compare and contrast Marshallese and U.S. culture;…

  20. Parts of the Whole: Quantitative Literacy on a Desert Island

    Dorothy Wallace

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Some of the specific institutional problems faced by quantitative reasoning courses, programs and requirements arise from the fragile intellectual position of “quantitative reasoning” as an idea, or meme. The process of isolation and reintroduction explains both the proliferation of living species and the way in which some difficult ideas take their place in a culture. Using evolutionary explanations as metaphor and the Copernican revolution as an example of a difficult idea, we draw lessons that can be applied to the “quantitative reasoning” meme, including the function of the National Numeracy Network as an island of protected discourse favoring the growth of the QR meme. We conclude that the mission of the National Numeracy Network should focus on attributes of that island, and in particular extend the mission beyond being a network, to being an actual community.

  1. A large foodborne outbreak on a small Pacific island.

    Thein, C C; Trinidad, R M; Pavlin, B I

    2010-04-01

    On March 25, 2009, the Ebeye Leroj Kitlang Memorial Health Center on the island of Ebeye in the Republic of the Marshall Islands was overwhelmed with over 100 patients presenting for vomiting and diarrhea. Epidemiologic investigation revealed that there were 174 cases among 187 attendees at a local funeral earlier in the day. Most cases had eaten served sandwiches containing egg products that had undergone severe time-temperature abuse. While no causal agents were identified, the epidemiology and clinical presentation is compatible with foodborne toxins, most likely enterotoxins of either Staphylococcus aureus or Bacillus cereus. Mitigation measures undertaken by public health centered on education of food preparers and the general public regarding safe food preparation practices. This large outbreak serves to remind us that, while there are simple and highly effective measures to prevent such foodborne disease outbreaks, we in the public health sector have a duty to improve the community's knowledge and understanding of these measures.

  2. Measured data from the Avery Island Site C heater test

    Waldman, H.; Stickney, R.G.

    1984-11-01

    Over the past six years, a comprehensive field testing program was conducted in the Avery Island salt mine. Three single canister heater tests were included in the testing program. Specifically, electric heaters, which simulate canisters of heat-generating nuclear waste, were placed in the floor of the Avery Island salt mine, and measurements were made of the response of the salt to heating. These tests were in operation by June 1978. One of the three heater tests, Site C, operated for a period of 1858 days and was decommissioned during July and August 1983. This data report presents the temperature and displacement data gathered during the operation and decommissioning of the Site C heater test. The purpose of this data report is to transmit the data to the scientific community. Rigorous analysis and interpretation of the data are considered beyond the scope of a data report. 6 references, 21 figures, 1 table

  3. Modeling the distribution of Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus on offshore islands in the Falkland Islands

    Michael A. Tabak

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Non-native rats (Rattus spp. threaten native island species worldwide. Efforts to eradicate them from islands have increased in frequency and become more ambitious in recent years. However, the long-term success of some eradication efforts has been compromised by the ability of rats, particularly Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus which are good swimmers, to recolonize islands following eradications. In the Falkland Islands, an archipelago in the South Atlantic Ocean, the distance of 250 m between islands (once suggested as the minimum separation distance for an effective barrier to recolonization has shown to be insufficient. Norway rats are present on about half of the 503 islands in the Falklands. Bird diversity is lower on islands with rats and two vulnerable passerine species, Troglodytes cobbi (the only endemic Falkland Islands passerine and Cinclodes antarcticus, have greatly reduced abundances and/or are absent on islands with rats. We used logistic regression models to investigate the potential factors that may determine the presence of Norway rats on 158 islands in the Falkland Islands. Our models included island area, distance to the nearest rat-infested island, island location, and the history of island use by humans as driving variables. Models best supported by data included only distance to the nearest potential source of rats and island area, but the relative magnitude of the effect of distance and area on the presence of rats varied depending on whether islands were in the eastern or western sector of the archipelago. The human use of an island was not a significant parameter in any models. A very large fraction (72% of islands within 500 m of the nearest potential rat source had rats, but 97% of islands farther than 1,000 m away from potential rat sources were free of rats.

  4. Sociodemographic Factors Influencing Island Food Consumption in the Pacific Islander Health Study

    Baumhofer, Nicole Kau'i

    2016-01-01

    This dissertation explores the relationships between island food consumption, sociodemographic variables, and cardiovascular risk using data from the Pacific Islander Health Study (PIHS). Chapter 1 explores the associations between self-reported level of island food consumption and key covariates. Island food consumption was modeled using Poisson regression and adjusted for demographic, socioeconomic, and cultural characteristics. Increased Pacific Island cultural affinity was the strongest p...

  5. Sustainable energy planning for 27 small Danish Islands. Summary report

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    A methodology has been developed and implemented, whereby detailed assessment of a few model or archetype islands may be used as basis for subsequent estimation of possibilities for other islands of similar kind, provided certain key data for present day energy consumption are available. A consistent interaction with the population on the model islands has been important in that process. The technical-economical results of the study show, that a number of measures seem cost-effective with the aim of contributing to a sustainable energy supply for the small Danish islands. Most prominent are energy savings for both heat and electricity, grid connected wind turbines for electricity production and collective heat supply, in decreasing order of cost-effectiveness. It has become clear, that an organisational structure based on the cooperative idea is essential for realising this potential. In Denmark this is a strong tradition, recently manifesting itself in the fact, that a majority of Danish wind turbines have been installed in the fram work of cooperative idea is essential for realising this potential. In Denmark this is a strong tradition, recently manifesting itself in the fact, that a majority of Danish wind turbines have been installed in the framework of cooperatives. This means that it is a well proven concept, in Denmark well established in the legal and financial structure including the tax laws. Consequently such energy cooperatives represent the organisational structure recommended by the project also for other sustainable energy initiatives on the small Danish islands. The implication on a European level is that the methodology developed in the project, as well as the concrete recommendations of the project including organisational structures, seem well suited to be applied on a European level in the context of local communities with a strong identity. (LN)

  6. Hawai'i Island Health Workforce Assessment 2008.

    Withy, Kelley; Andaya, January; Vitousek, Sharon; Sakamoto, David

    2009-12-01

    Anecdotal reports of a doctor shortage on the Big Island have been circulating for years, but a detailed assessment of the health care workforce had not previously been accomplished. The Hawai'i Island Health Workforce Assessment used licensure data, focus groups, telephone follow up to provider offices, national estimates of average provider supply and analysis of insurance claims data to assess the extent of the existing medical and mental health workforce, approximate how many additional providers might be effectively utilized, develop a population-based estimate of future demand and identify causes and potential solutions for the challenges faced. As of February 2008, the researchers were able to locate 310 practicing physicians, 36 nurse practitioners, 6 physician assistants, 51 psychologists, 57 social workers and 42 other mental health providers. Based on national averages, claims analysis and focus groups, the Island could use approximately 45 additional medical professionals to care for the 85% of the population that is medically insured; a larger number to care for the entire population. Ascertaining a complete roster of mental health professionals was not possible using this methodology. The researchers compared the current supply of physicians with the national average of physicians to population and the number of visits to different specialists for the year 2006 and found specific regional shortages of providers. The focus groups concentrated on solutions to the workforce crisis that include the formation of a well-organized, broad collaboration to coordinate recruitment efforts, expand and strengthen retention and renewal activities, and reinvigorate the health profession pipeline and training opportunities. The researchers recommend collaboration between the community, government, business, health center care providers, hospitals and centers to develop a plan before the tenuous state of healthcare on the Big Island worsens. In addition, continued

  7. Natural islands and habitat islands as refuges of vegetation cover and wild bees. The case of the Lednica Landscape Park in western Poland

    Banaszak Józef

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The study has contributed to the identification of the apifauna of central Wielkopolska. The study identified 161 bee species, accounting for 34.2% of the Polish bee fauna. The highest contribution (28.7% of the fauna comes from four species, namely Andrena haemorrhoa, A. helvola, Evylaeus calceatus and Osmia rufa, while Bombus terrestris and Evylaeus pauxillus are two subdominants. The assemblages of Apiformes in the study area are characterised by a significant contribution of spring-associated species, which is probably an effect of the presence of numerous willow thickets offering abundant host plants (mainly Salix sp. div.. Both the islands and the surroundings of the lake have a unique species composition, and there are differences in the proportions of the individual dominant species. The overall abundance of bees varies greatly, with mean seasonal density figures on Ostrów Lednicki Island being more than twice as high as that on the mainland grassland, with a distinct predominance of bumblebees. The exceptional richness of Apiformes, including bumblebees, on Ostrów Lednicki should be regarded as the basis for treating this island as a life refuge for bumblebees and including it and its environs in the list of sites of Community importance (SCI. A simultaneous study of the vegetation cover contributed significant data on the vascular plant flora and plant communities of the Lednica Landscape Park. For example, it was the first such investigation of Mewia Island. The study revealed the importance of marginal habitats (natural islands and habitat islands for the preservation of protected and endangered plant species and plant communities receding from an agricultural landscape.

  8. Training competent and effective Primary Health Care Workers to fill a void in the outer islands health service delivery of the Marshall Islands of Micronesia

    Keni Bhalachandra H

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human resources for health are non-existent in many parts of the world and the outer islands of Marshall Islands in Micronesia are prime examples. While the more populated islands with hospital facilities are often successful in recruiting qualified health professionals from overseas, the outer islands generally have very limited health resources, and are thus less successful. In an attempt to provide reasonable health services to these islands, indigenous people were trained as Health Assistants (HA to service their local communities. In an effort to remedy the effectiveness of health care delivery to these islands, a program to train mid-level health care workers (Hospital Assistants was developed and implemented by the Ministry of Health in conjunction with the hospital in Majuro, the capital city of the Marshall Islands. Methods A physician instructor with experience and expertise in primary health care in these regions conducted the program. The curriculum included training in basic health science, essentials of endemic disorders and their clinical management appropriate to the outer islands. Emphasis was given to prevention and health promotion as well as to the curative aspects. For clinical observation, the candidates were assigned to clinical departments of the Majuro hospital for 1 year during their training, as assistants to the nursing staff. This paper discusses the details of the training, the modalities used to groom the candidates, and an assessment of the ultimate effectiveness of the program. Results Out of 16 boys who began training, 14 candidates were successful in completing the program. In 1998 a similar program was conducted exclusively for women under the auspices of Asian Development Bank funding, hence women were not part of this program. Conclusion For developing countries of the Pacific, appropriately trained human resources are an essential component of economic progress, and the health workforce

  9. Shape and coarsening dynamics of strained islands

    Schifani, Guido; Frisch, Thomas; Argentina, Mederic

    2016-01-01

    and numerically the formation of an equilibrium island using a two-dimensional continuous model. We have found that these equilibrium island-like solutions have a maximum height h_{0} and they sit on top of a flat wetting layer with a thickness h_{w}. We then consider two islands, and we report that they undergo...... and leads to the shrinkage of the smallest island. Once its height becomes smaller than a minimal equilibrium height h_{0}^{*}, its mass spreads over the entire system. Our results pave the way for a future analysis of coarsening of an assembly of islands....

  10. A quarter of a century of function assignment agreements with the autonomous communities. The

    Montero Sanchez, M. A.; Rodriguez Marti, M.; Urbano Pollato, I.; Zamora Martin, F.

    2010-01-01

    The CSN has the power to commission certain radioactive facility surveillance and inspection functions to the autonomous communities through an agreement between the Council and the regional government in question. The first of these agreements was signed in 1985 with the Regional Government of Catalonia, and during the 25 years that have passed since then similar agreements have been signed with eight other communities: Asturias, the Balearic Islands, the Canary Islands, Galicia, Murcia, Navarra, the Basque Country and the Community of Valencia. (Author)

  11. Islands in the Stream 2001 on NOAA Ship Gordon Gunter in the North Atlantic Ocean and the Gulf of Mexico between 20010510 and 20011004

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Islands in the Stream expedition explored protected and unprotected deep water coral reefs and hard-bottom communities throughout the Gulf of Mexico and South...

  12. The importance of novel and agricultural habitats for the avifauna of an oceanic island

    Dallimer, Martin; Parnell, Mark; Bicknell, Jake E.

    2012-01-01

    Conservation management can no longer rely on protecting pristine habitats, but must consider the wider landscape. This is especially true on oceanic islands where endemic species are believed to be particularly susceptible to the extinction risks that accompany land conversion. Despite this......, there is a paucity of studies examining how endemic communities on oceanic islands may be distributed across such human-modified habitats. Taking Principe Island in West Africa as a case study, we investigate how avian communities vary across the habitats (primary forest, secondary forest, agricultural areas......, more diverse and held higher overall abundances of birds than those within primary forest. This was true for both the entire avian assemblage and the endemic species alone. Nevertheless, two IUCN-listed species were restricted to primary forest, and many other endemics occurred at higher densities...

  13. Oak habitat recovery on California's largest islands: Scenarios for the role of corvid seed dispersal

    Pesendorfer, Mario B.; Baker, Christopher M.; Stringer, Martin; McDonald-Madden, Eve; Bode, Michael; McEachern, A. Kathryn; Morrison, Scott A.; Sillett, T. Scott

    2018-01-01

    Seed dispersal by birds is central to the passive restoration of many tree communities. Reintroduction of extinct seed dispersers can therefore restore degraded forests and woodlands. To test this, we constructed a spatially explicit simulation model, parameterized with field data, to consider the effect of different seed dispersal scenarios on the extent of oak populations. We applied the model to two islands in California's Channel Islands National Park (USA), one of which has lost a key seed disperser.We used an ensemble modelling approach to simulate island scrub oak (Quercus pacifica) demography. The model was developed and trained to recreate known population changes over a 20-year period on 250-km2 Santa Cruz Island, and incorporated acorn dispersal by island scrub-jays (Aphelocoma insularis), deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) and gravity, as well as seed predation. We applied the trained model to 215-km2 Santa Rosa Island to examine how reintroducing island scrub-jays would affect the rate and pattern of oak population expansion. Oak habitat on Santa Rosa Island has been greatly reduced from its historical extent due to past grazing by introduced ungulates, the last of which were removed by 2011.Our simulation model predicts that a seed dispersal scenario including island scrub-jays would increase the extent of the island scrub oak population on Santa Rosa Island by 281% over 100 years, and by 544% over 200 years. Scenarios without jays would result in little expansion. Simulated long-distance seed dispersal by jays also facilitates establishment of discontinuous patches of oaks, and increases their elevational distribution.Synthesis and applications. Scenario planning provides powerful decision support for conservation managers. We used ensemble modelling of plant demographic and seed dispersal processes to investigate whether the reintroduction of seed dispersers could provide cost-effective means of achieving broader ecosystem restoration goals on

  14. Relations between Vegetation and Geologic Framework in Barrier Island

    Smart, N. H.; Ferguson, J. B.; Lehner, J. D.; Taylor, D.; Tuttle, L. F., II; Wernette, P. A.

    2017-12-01

    Barrier islands provide valuable ecosystems and protective services to coastal communities. The longevity of barrier islands is threatened by sea-level rise, human impacts, and extreme storms. The purpose of this research is to evaluate how vegetation dynamics interact with the subsurface and offshore framework geology to influence the beach and dune morphology. Beach and dune morphology can be viewed as free and/or forced behavior, where free systems are stochastic and the morphology is dependent on variations in the storm surge run-up, aeolian sediment supply and transport potential, and vegetation dynamics and persistence. Forced systems are those where patterns in the coastal morphology are determined by some other structural control, such as the underlying and offshore framework geology. Previous studies have documented the effects of geologic framework or vegetation dynamics on the beach and dunes, although none have examined possible control by vegetation dynamics in context of the geologic framework (i.e. combined free and forced behavior). Padre Island National Seashore (PAIS) was used to examine the interaction of free and forced morphology because the subsurface framework geology and surface beach and dune morphology are variable along the island. Vegetation dynamics were assessed by classifying geographically referenced historical aerial imagery into areas with vegetation and areas without vegetation, as well as LiDAR data to verify this imagery. The subsurface geologic structure was assessed using a combination of geophysical surveys (i.e. electromagnetic induction, ground-penetrating radar, and offshore seismic surveys). Comparison of the observed vegetation patterns and geologic framework leads to a series of questions surrounding how mechanistically these two drivers of coastal morphology are related. Upcoming coring and geophysical surveys will enable us to validate new and existing geophysical data. Results of this paper will help us better

  15. A Comprehensive Approach to Risk Reduction for Asian and Pacific Islander American Women With HIV/AIDS.

    Sabato, Todd M

    2014-07-01

    As HIV incidence rises globally, Asian and Pacific Islander communities are increasingly affected. While often overlooked, Asian and Pacific Islander American women have shown the greatest percentage increase in HIV diagnosis rates. The development of a multilevel and multistrategy approach to HIV/AIDS education, prevention, and treatment among Asian and Pacific Islander females requires health care providers to identify personal and cultural barriers to prevention and treatment and implement culturally sensitive and specific measures. The purpose of this article is to illuminate barriers to HIV-related prevention, treatment, and care among Asian and Pacific Islander American females and provide practical application-based suggestions for providers, which may enhance Asian and Pacific Islander female inclusion in comprehensive HIV prevention. © The Author(s) 2014.

  16. Lessons of Three Mile Island for the health care community

    Wald, N.

    1986-01-01

    The author discusses the key points that we should have learned from the TMI accident. There has to be one responsible decision maker; otherwise conflicting decision increase the stress and anxiety levels. There has to be a realistic appraisal and clear communication of the situation with all of the people involved. Both overoptimistic and overpessimistic views are deleterious in promoting realistic responses from the population at risk. There has to be an action plan on paper that is credible, one which people can believe will work. Adequate time, thought, and resources have to be dedicated to the plan. It is not simply a matter of putting words on paper. Education for radiation emergencies is critically important. All professional (including governors, their staffs, and health care personnel) and the general public must know something about radiation before they are caught in the middle of a crisis

  17. Island of Mayotte on its way to the international community

    Ivan Victorovich Nezhentsev; Lyudmila Vasil’evna Ponomarenko

    2017-01-01

    The article devoted to the analysis of change of status of Mayotte with signing of the Treaty on the possession of Mayotte to France in 1841 continuing until Mayotte’s departmentalization in 2011. Relations between France and Mayotte are essentially different from traditional cooperation “Metropolitan-colony”, due the fact that Mayotte was an important strategic territory of France in the Indian Ocean since 19th century. The article contains the detail analysis of specifics features of French...

  18. Structure and ecology of freshwater benthic diatom communities from Byers Peninsula, Livingston Island, South Shetland Islands

    Kopalová, Kateřina; Van de Vijver, B.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 2 (2013), s. 239-253 ISSN 0954-1020 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : Bacillariophyta * lakes * Maritime Antarctic Region Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.417, year: 2013

  19. Acceptability of Mental Health Apps for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians: A Qualitative Study.

    Povey, Josie; Mills, Patj Patj Janama Robert; Dingwall, Kylie Maree; Lowell, Anne; Singer, Judy; Rotumah, Darlene; Bennett-Levy, James; Nagel, Tricia

    2016-03-11

    Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians experience high rates of mental illness and psychological distress compared to their non-Indigenous counterparts. E-mental health tools offer an opportunity for accessible, effective, and acceptable treatment. The AIMhi Stay Strong app and the ibobbly suicide prevention app are treatment tools designed to combat the disproportionately high levels of mental illness and stress experienced within the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander community. This study aimed to explore Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander community members' experiences of using two culturally responsive e-mental health apps and identify factors that influence the acceptability of these approaches. Using qualitative methods aligned with a phenomenological approach, we explored the acceptability of two culturally responsive e-mental health apps through a series of three 3-hour focus groups with nine Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander community members. Thematic analysis was conducted and coresearcher and member checking were used to verify findings. Findings suggest strong support for the concept of e-mental health apps and optimism for their potential. Factors that influenced acceptability related to three key themes: personal factors (eg, motivation, severity and awareness of illness, technological competence, and literacy and language differences), environmental factors (eg, community awareness, stigma, and availability of support), and app characteristics (eg, ease of use, content, graphics, access, and security and information sharing). Specific adaptations, such as local production, culturally relevant content and graphics, a purposeful journey, clear navigation, meaningful language, options to assist people with language differences, offline use, and password protection may aid uptake. When designed to meet the needs of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians, e-mental health tools add an important element to public health

  20. “The Lost Princess (putri duyung” of the Small Islands: Dugongs around Sulawesi in the Anthropocene

    Abigail M. Moore

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In the Spermonde as in the other main island groups around Sulawesi, seagrass and coral ecosystems are intimately linked ecologically and overlap extensively on the shallow water shelves surrounding most islands. One keystone species living in these shallow waters is the dugong (Dugong dugon. Officially fully protected under Indonesian Law (PP7/1999, published data on dugongs in the islands around Sulawesi are extremely limited. In this research, we collected, compiled and evaluated data and information (mostly unpublished on the distribution, exploitation and community perceptions of dugongs around Sulawesi, including the Togean, Banggai, Spermonde, Taka Bone Rate/Selayar, and Tanakeke Islands. Opportunities for dugong conservation, and potential benefits for coral reef ecosystems in a small island socio-ecological context, were considered. Once common within living memory, socio-economic data indicate that Sulawesi dugongs are now rare and under severe threat. Many fishing communities consider dugong meat superior to beef, and see it as a welcome change from fish, while certain body parts fetch a high price, as do dugong tears. In the Spermonde Islands, dugongs may already have been extirpated; the most recent reported sighting was in 1993 when the capture of an adult dugong by fishermen of Barranglompo Island resulted in an impromptu festival. All these Sulawesi small islands communities have dugong princess (putri duyung legends with potential as an entry-point to hearts and minds. Preventing further extirpations and striving to bring back the “lost princess” could be an iconic component of moving toward sustainability in small-island socio-ecological systems.

  1. Barrier island morphology and sediment characteristics affect the recovery of dune building grasses following storm-induced overwash.

    Brantley, Steven T; Bissett, Spencer N; Young, Donald R; Wolner, Catherine W V; Moore, Laura J

    2014-01-01

    Barrier islands are complex and dynamic systems that provide critical ecosystem services to coastal populations. Stability of these systems is threatened by rising sea level and the potential for coastal storms to increase in frequency and intensity. Recovery of dune-building grasses following storms is an important process that promotes topographic heterogeneity and long-term stability of barrier islands, yet factors that drive dune recovery are poorly understood. We examined vegetation recovery in overwash zones on two geomorphically distinct (undisturbed vs. frequently overwashed) barrier islands on the Virginia coast, USA. We hypothesized that vegetation recovery in overwash zones would be driven primarily by environmental characteristics, especially elevation and beach width. We sampled species composition and environmental characteristics along a continuum of disturbance from active overwash zones to relict overwash zones and in adjacent undisturbed environments. We compared species assemblages along the disturbance chronosequence and between islands and we analyzed species composition data and environmental measurements with Canonical Correspondence Analysis to link community composition with environmental characteristics. Recovering and geomorphically stable dunes were dominated by Ammophila breviligulata Fernaud (Poaceae) on both islands while active overwash zones were dominated by Spartina patens (Aiton) Muhl. (Poaceae) on the frequently disturbed island and bare sand on the less disturbed island. Species composition was associated with environmental characteristics only on the frequently disturbed island (p = 0.005) where A. breviligulata was associated with higher elevation and greater beach width. Spartina patens, the second most abundant species, was associated with larger sediment grain size and greater sediment size distribution. On the less frequently disturbed island, time since disturbance was the only factor that affected community

  2. Barrier island morphology and sediment characteristics affect the recovery of dune building grasses following storm-induced overwash.

    Steven T Brantley

    Full Text Available Barrier islands are complex and dynamic systems that provide critical ecosystem services to coastal populations. Stability of these systems is threatened by rising sea level and the potential for coastal storms to increase in frequency and intensity. Recovery of dune-building grasses following storms is an important process that promotes topographic heterogeneity and long-term stability of barrier islands, yet factors that drive dune recovery are poorly understood. We examined vegetation recovery in overwash zones on two geomorphically distinct (undisturbed vs. frequently overwashed barrier islands on the Virginia coast, USA. We hypothesized that vegetation recovery in overwash zones would be driven primarily by environmental characteristics, especially elevation and beach width. We sampled species composition and environmental characteristics along a continuum of disturbance from active overwash zones to relict overwash zones and in adjacent undisturbed environments. We compared species assemblages along the disturbance chronosequence and between islands and we analyzed species composition data and environmental measurements with Canonical Correspondence Analysis to link community composition with environmental characteristics. Recovering and geomorphically stable dunes were dominated by Ammophila breviligulata Fernaud (Poaceae on both islands while active overwash zones were dominated by Spartina patens (Aiton Muhl. (Poaceae on the frequently disturbed island and bare sand on the less disturbed island. Species composition was associated with environmental characteristics only on the frequently disturbed island (p = 0.005 where A. breviligulata was associated with higher elevation and greater beach width. Spartina patens, the second most abundant species, was associated with larger sediment grain size and greater sediment size distribution. On the less frequently disturbed island, time since disturbance was the only factor that affected

  3. Factors Influencing Student Achievement in Different Asian American Pacific Islander Cultures

    Marsing, Deborah J.

    2017-01-01

    Asian American Pacific Islander (AAPI) students are often characterized as model minorities. However, AAPI students represent many diverse communities and a wide spectrum of achievement. Each AAPI culture may experience varying levels of biculturalism and acculturation that can influence students' academic success. This quantitative study…

  4. Ocean PHILLS Data Collection and Processing: May 2000 Deployment, Lee Stocking Island, Bahamas

    Leathers, Robert

    2002-01-01

    .... It was deployed in a region near Lee Stocking Island (LSI), Bahamas in May 2000. This document describes the LSI 2000 PHILLS data set and the manner in which it was processed to obtain remote-sensing reflectance images for use by the scientific community...

  5. Technical and Vocational Education and Training in Peace Education: Solomon Islands

    Maebuta, Jack

    2011-01-01

    Technical and vocational education and training programs as a form of peace education are examined in this paper. It explores the notion of educating for a culture of peace through refocusing technical and vocational education and training programs on sustainable community development in the Solomon Islands. It further highlights the policy and…

  6. 76 FR 11227 - President's Advisory Commission on Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders

    2011-03-01

    ... improve the economic and community development of AAPI businesses; and (iv) strategies to increase public... White House Initiative on Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders; and determine key strategies to help..., assistive listening devices, or material in alternative format) should notify Shelly Coles at (202) 453-7277...

  7. 77 FR 22771 - President's Advisory Commission on Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders

    2012-04-17

    ... businesses; and (iv) strategies to increase public and private-sector collaboration, and community... Islanders; and determine key strategies to help meet the Commission's charge as outlined in E.O. 13515..., assistive listening devices, or material in alternative format) should notify Shelly Coles at (202) 453-7277...

  8. 76 FR 61348 - President's Advisory Commission on Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders

    2011-10-04

    ... businesses; and (iv) strategies to increase public and private-sector collaboration, and community... Americans and Pacific Islanders; and determine key strategies to help meet the Commission's charge as... order to attend the meeting (e.g., interpreting services, assistive listening devices, or material in...

  9. Investing in Low-Wage Workers: Lessons from Family Child Care in Rhode Island

    Roder, Anne; Seavey, Dorie

    2006-01-01

    While child care is one of the fastest growing occupations in the country, most employment in this field is precarious and low-wage. Investing in Low-Wage Workers profiles the Day Care Justice Co-op, a group of largely Latina and African American women living and working in some of Rhode Island's poorest communities. Determined to improve family…

  10. A new species of Sarcodictyon (Anthozoa: Stolonifera) from Tenerife, Canary Islands

    Ocaña, O.; Brito, A.; Nuñez, J.

    1992-01-01

    A new species of Stolonifera, Sarcodictyon canariensis, from Tenerife, Canary Islands, is described and illustrated. It is characterized by its large size, the form of its sclerites and internal anatomy. The material was collected at a depth of 95-130 m in the community of Dendrophyllia ramea

  11. Reimaanlok: A National Framework for Conservation Area Planning in the Marshall Islands

    Nicole Baker

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of Reimaanlok, a national framework for the planning and establishment of community-based conservation areas in the Marshall Islands, is outlined. A team composed of international experts and local resource management professionals selected and modified an ecoregional planning approach, defined key concepts, selected conservation features and targets, compiled biogeographical information from scientific and local knowledge and carried out a national-level ecological gap assessment. Past development of community-based fisheries and conservation plans was reviewed and the lessons learned informed the development of a robust community-based planning process for the design and establishment of conservation areas on individual atolls, integrating ecosystem based management (EBM theory, traditional knowledge and management, and the particular socio-economic needs of island communities. While specific geographic, historical, cultural and economic characteristics of the Marshall Islands have created a framework that is unique, several aspects of this process offer ideas for national strategic conservation planning in other Small Island Developing States where there is a paucity of scientific data, significant and increasing threats, and where decision-making about the use of natural resources occurs primarily at the local level.

  12. 75 FR 59687 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Alaska Region Bering Sea & Aleutian Islands...

    2010-09-28

    ... among harvesters, processors, and coastal communities and monitors the ``economic stability for... Collection; Comment Request; Alaska Region Bering Sea & Aleutian Islands (BSAI) Crab Economic Data Reports... CR Program's mandatory economic data collection report (EDR) used to assess the efficacy of the CR...

  13. Asian American and Pacific Islander Serving Institutions: The Motivations and Challenges behind Seeking a Federal Designation

    Park, Julie J.; Chang, Mitchell J.

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the development of legislation to create a Minority Serving Institution federal designation for Asian American and Pacific Islander (AAPI) serving institutions. Specifically, the article draws from interviews with nineteen policy makers, congressional staffers, and community advocates in order to address their motivations for…

  14. Aleutian Pribilof Islands Wind Energy Feasibility Study

    Bruce A. Wright

    2012-03-27

    Under this project, the Aleutian Pribilof Islands Association (APIA) conducted wind feasibility studies for Adak, False Pass, Nikolski, Sand Point and St. George. The DOE funds were also be used to continue APIA's role as project coordinator, to expand the communication network quality between all participants and with other wind interest groups in the state and to provide continued education and training opportunities for regional participants. This DOE project began 09/01/2005. We completed the economic and technical feasibility studies for Adak. These were funded by the Alaska Energy Authority. Both wind and hydro appear to be viable renewable energy options for Adak. In False Pass the wind resource is generally good but the site has high turbulence. This would require special care with turbine selection and operations. False Pass may be more suitable for a tidal project. APIA is funded to complete a False Pass tidal feasibility study in 2012. Nikolski has superb potential for wind power development with Class 7 wind power density, moderate wind shear, bi-directional winds and low turbulence. APIA secured nearly $1M from the United States Department of Agriculture Rural Utilities Service Assistance to Rural Communities with Extremely High Energy Costs to install a 65kW wind turbine. The measured average power density and wind speed at Sand Point measured at 20m (66ft), are 424 W/m2 and 6.7 m/s (14.9 mph) respectively. Two 500kW Vestas turbines were installed and when fully integrated in 2012 are expected to provide a cost effective and clean source of electricity, reduce overall diesel fuel consumption estimated at 130,000 gallons/year and decrease air emissions associated with the consumption of diesel fuel. St. George Island has a Class 7 wind resource, which is superior for wind power development. The current strategy, led by Alaska Energy Authority, is to upgrade the St. George electrical distribution system and power plant. Avian studies in Nikolski

  15. The Kattegat Island of Anholt

    Schrøder, Niels

    2015-01-01

    relatively simple models can describe the processes that take place. New data are presented which provide a detailed description of the last 16,000 years of climate and sea level change influence on the forces that have formed the island. This geological history can be used to provide information...... on the history of groundwater recharge and drainage, and the development of the salt-fresh groundwater interface under a sand island. The fact that the center of Anholt was covered by the sea 6,000 years ago, and consequently the freshwater lens, over 100 m below sea level, did not exist means that the present......Fluctuations in sea level influence the condition of many coastal groundwater aquifers. A rise in sea level can result in seawater intrusion in areas where the groundwater level is near the present sea level, and it may take a long time for the boundary between salt and fresh groundwater to reach...

  16. Tsunami Forecast for Galapagos Islands

    Renteria, W.

    2012-04-01

    The objective of this study is to present a model for the short-term and long-term tsunami forecast for Galapagos Islands. For both cases the ComMIT/MOST(Titov,et al 2011) numerical model and methodology have been used. The results for the short-term model has been compared with the data from Lynett et al, 2011 surveyed from the impacts of the March/11 in the Galapagos Islands. For the case of long-term forecast, several scenarios have run along the Pacific, an extreme flooding map is obtained, the method is considered suitable for places with poor or without tsunami impact information, but under tsunami risk geographic location.

  17. Nuclear treasure island [superheavy nuclei

    CERN. Geneva

    1999-01-01

    Summary form only given. Soon after the experiments at Dubna, which synthesized element 114 and made the first footprints on the beach of the "island of nuclear stability", two new superheavy elements have been discovered at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Element 118 and its immediate decay product, element 116, were manufactured at Berkeley's 88 inch cyclotron by fusing targets of lead-208 with an intense beam of 449 MeV krypton-86 ions. Although both new nuclei almost instantly decay into lighter ones, the decay sequence is consistent with theories that have long predicted the island of stability for nuclei with approximately 114 protons and 184 neutrons. Theorist Robert Smolanczuk, visiting from the Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies in Poland, had calculated that this reaction should have particularly favourable production rates. Now that this route has been signposted, similar reactions could be possible: new elements and isotopes, tests of nuclear stability and mass models, and a new under...

  18. Eliminating tobacco-related disparities among Pacific Islanders through leadership and capacity building: promising practices and lessons learned.

    David, Annette M; Lew, Rod; Lyman, Annabel K; Otto, Caleb; Robles, Rebecca; Cruz, George J

    2013-09-01

    Tobacco remains a major risk factor for premature death and ill health among Pacific Islanders, and tobacco-related disparities persist. Eliminating these disparities requires a comprehensive approach to transform community norms about tobacco use through policy change, as contained in the World Health Organization international Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. Three of the six U.S.-affiliated Pacific Islands-the Federated States of Micronesia, Palau, and the Marshall Islands-are Parties to the Framework; the remaining three territories-American Samoa, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, and Guam-are excluded from the treaty by virtue of U.S. nonratification. Capacity building and leadership development are essential in achieving policy change and health equity within Pacific Islander communities. We describe promising practices from American Samoa, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, the Federated States of Micronesia, Guam, and Palau and highlight some of the key lessons learned in supporting and sustaining the reduction in tobacco use among Pacific Islanders as the first step toward eliminating tobacco-related disparities in these populations.

  19. Wake Island Supplemental Environmental Assessment

    2007-02-01

    During the 1998 marine biological survey, a total of 122 species of reef fish, 41 species of corals, 39 species of other macroinvertebrates , and 19...The lagoon supports a large population of fish and the surrounding reefs host a diverse assemblage of reef fish. Nearshore fish important for food...found at Wake Island. The Federally threatened Green sea turtle (Chelonia mydas) was observed multiple times in the near shore ocean and lagoon

  20. Dauphin Island natural gas project

    Layfield, R.P.; Elser, K.L.; Ostler, R.H.

    1994-01-01

    Arco Oil and Gas Co. installed the Dauphin Island production facility in a fragile Alabama marine environment supporting important fisheries and tourist facilities. The authors used proactive communication with governmental agencies, area industry, and the public; innovative construction technologies; and unique platform design to minimize the environmental and aesthetic impacts and to develop an economically successful gas field. The innovative equipment used in the offshore pipeline installation is a model approach for solving certain turbidity problems. The project has received numerous environmental awards

  1. The Three Mile Island crisis

    Houts, P.S.; Cleary, P.D.; Hu, T.W.

    1988-01-01

    Since the March 1979 accident at the Three Mile Island (TMI) nuclear power plant, many studies have assessed its impacts. Compiled and summarized in this book are the results of five related surveys, all aimed at the scientific assessment of the psycho-socio-economic behavior of the residents around the TMI facility. These studies are based on a randomly selected, large sample of the population (with telephones) around TMI

  2. Dauphin Island natural gas project

    Layfield, R.P. (Arco International Oil and Gas Co., Plano, TX (United States)); Elser, K.L.; Ostler, R.H. (Arco Oil and Gas Co., Houston, TX (United States))

    1994-01-01

    Arco Oil and Gas Co. installed the Dauphin Island production facility in a fragile Alabama marine environment supporting important fisheries and tourist facilities. The authors used proactive communication with governmental agencies, area industry, and the public; innovative construction technologies; and unique platform design to minimize the environmental and aesthetic impacts and to develop an economically successful gas field. The innovative equipment used in the offshore pipeline installation is a model approach for solving certain turbidity problems. The project has received numerous environmental awards.

  3. Lodging Update: Providence, Rhode Island

    Ragel Roginsky

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Each quarter, Pinnacle Advisory Group prepares an analysis of the New England lodging industry, which provides a regional summary and then focuses in depth on a particular market. These reviews look at recent and proposed supply changes, factors affecting demand and growth rates, and the effects of interactions between such supply and demand trends. In this issue, the authors spotlight the lodging market in Providence, Rhode Island.

  4. Tilt measurements at Vulcano Island

    B. Saraceno; G. Laudani; F. Guglielmino; A. Ferro; G. Falzone; O. Campisi; S. Gambino

    2007-01-01

    A network of tiltmeters has been operational on Vulcano Island for numerous years. At present, the network comprises five functioning borehole stations, four of which are installed at 8-10 m and allow recording very stable, high precision signals with very low noise. We report observations over the last 12 years that illustrate impulsive variations linked to seismicity and long-term (several years) trends in the signals. We suggest a relationship between tilt changes correlated to the stro...

  5. First record of the mycoheterotrophic orchid Gastrodia fontinalis (Orchidaceae from Takeshima Island, the Ryukyu Islands, Japan

    Kenji Suetsugu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We found Gastrodia fontinalis T. P. Lin in a bamboo forest from Takeshima Island, which is the northernmost island of the Ryukyu Islands in Japan. This species is apparently rare and was previously considered to be an endemic Taiwanese species. Because there are a few minor differences between the original description and our specimens collected in Takeshima Island, here we report Gastrodia fontinalis from Takeshima Island as the first record outside of Taiwan, with a description of the specimens from Takeshima Island.

  6. 78 FR 63860 - Amendment of Class D Airspace; Kwajalein Island, Marshall Islands, RMI

    2013-10-25

    ...This action amends the Kwajalein Island Class D airspace description by amending the geographic coordinates for Bucholz Army Airfield (AAF), Kwajalein Island, Marshall Islands, RMI. The Bucholz AAF geographic coordinates information was updated in the Kwajalein Island Class E airspace descriptions in 2011, but was inadvertently overlooked in the Kwajalein Island Class D airspace description. This action ensures the safety of aircraft operating in the Kwajalein Island airspace area. This is an administrative action and does not affect the operating requirements of the airspace.

  7. Depopulation of Vis Island, Croatia

    Ivo Nejašmić

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses population dynamics of Vis Island along with geographic, demographic and social features related to this process. Data from demographic statistics and research results show that Vis Island has been affected by strong populational regression. This process originated at the beginning of the 20th century, and intensified after the Second World War. Depopulation was generated by retardation in socio-economic development, but it was directly caused by centennial emigration. At the beginning of 1960s, natural decrease occurred as another important cause of depopulation. It was the result of postponed effect of emigration, demographic losses in world wars and birth rate transition (changes in number of children per family. Long-term unfavorable demographic processes (emigration, depopulation, demographic aging, reduced birth rates have led to weakening of (bioreproduction and vital potential. The above-mentioned fact has also influencedthe age structure of the population. Population of Vis Island has aged and belongs to a particular demographic type named very old population. However, depopulation, that used to be the result of social phenomena, has become an important factor of social and spatial processes.

  8. Census Snapshot: California's Asian/Pacific Islander LGB Population

    Ramos, Christopher; Gates, Gary J

    2008-01-01

    This report provides a general overview of Asian and Pacific Islanders (API) in same-sex couples as well as the broader API lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) population in California. We use data from the 2005/2006 American Community Survey (ACS), conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau, to compare the characteristics of APIs in same-sex couples to their different-sex married counterparts. In all cases, when this report describes characteristics of couples, the data source is the ACS. Whi...

  9. Pathogenicity island mobility and gene content.

    Williams, Kelly Porter

    2013-10-01

    Key goals towards national biosecurity include methods for analyzing pathogens, predicting their emergence, and developing countermeasures. These goals are served by studying bacterial genes that promote pathogenicity and the pathogenicity islands that mobilize them. Cyberinfrastructure promoting an island database advances this field and enables deeper bioinformatic analysis that may identify novel pathogenicity genes. New automated methods and rich visualizations were developed for identifying pathogenicity islands, based on the principle that islands occur sporadically among closely related strains. The chromosomally-ordered pan-genome organizes all genes from a clade of strains; gaps in this visualization indicate islands, and decorations of the gene matrix facilitate exploration of island gene functions. A %E2%80%9Clearned phyloblocks%E2%80%9D method was developed for automated island identification, that trains on the phylogenetic patterns of islands identified by other methods. Learned phyloblocks better defined termini of previously identified islands in multidrug-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae ATCC BAA-2146, and found its only antibiotic resistance island.

  10. Diversity, habitat distribution, and indigenous hunting of marine turtles in the Calamian Islands, Palawan, Republic of the Philippines

    Christopher N.S. Poonian

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available All of the world’s seven species of marine turtle are threatened by a multitude of anthropogenic pressures across all stages of their life history. The Calamian Islands, Palawan, Philippines provide important foraging and nesting grounds for four species: green turtles (Chelonia mydas, hawksbill turtles (Eretmochelys imbricata, loggerheads (Caretta caretta, and leatherbacks (Dermochelys coriacea. This work aimed to assess the relative importance of turtle nesting beaches and local threats using a combination of social science and ecological research approaches. Endangered green turtles and critically endangered hawksbills were found to nest in the Calamianes. The most important nesting sites were located on the islands off the west of Busuanga and Culion, particularly Pamalican and Galoc and along the north coast of Coron, particularly Linamodio Island. Opportunistic hunting and egg collection, conducted legally by indigenous communities, is the most significant threat to sea turtles in the area. Sites particularly vulnerable to hunting were found to be Galoc Island, Pamalican Island, and Panlaitan Island. Raising awareness, community engagement, and understanding of socio-cultural drivers of sea turtle exploitation, particularly among indigenous communities, are essential to gain support for any effective conservation program. Additionally, more effective enforcement of laws related to the trade in sea turtle products is required to close the commercial and export markets.

  11. Biogeochemical processes on tree islands in the greater everglades: Initiating a new paradigm

    Wetzel, P.R.; Sklar, Fred H.; Coronado, C.A.; Troxler, T.G.; Krupa, S.L.; Sullivan, P.L.; Ewe, S.; Price, R.M.; Newman, S.; Orem, W.H.

    2011-01-01

    Scientists' understanding of the role of tree islands in the Everglades has evolved from a plant community of minor biogeochemical importance to a plant community recognized as the driving force for localized phosphorus accumulation within the landscape. Results from this review suggest that tree transpiration, nutrient infiltration from the soil surface, and groundwater flow create a soil zone of confluence where nutrients and salts accumulate under the head of a tree island during dry periods. Results also suggest accumulated salts and nutrients are flushed downstream by regional water flows during wet periods. That trees modulate their environment to create biogeochemical hot spots and strong nutrient gradients is a significant ecological paradigm shift in the understanding of the biogeochemical processes in the Everglades. In terms of island sustainability, this new paradigm suggests the need for distinct dry-wet cycles as well as a hydrologic regime that supports tree survival. Restoration of historic tree islands needs further investigation but the creation of functional tree islands is promising. Copyright ?? 2011 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

  12. Remuneration disparities in Oceania: Papua New Guinea and Solomon Islands.

    Marai, Leo; Kewibu, Vincent; Kinkin, Elly; Peter Peniop, John; Salini, Christian; Kofana, Genesis

    2010-10-01

    This paper explores the impact of remuneration differences on workers in the Solomon Islands and Papua New Guinea. In these countries remunerative differences are linked to government policy (in Papua New Guinea) and job contracts (in the Solomon Islands), and have impacted on industrial relations in both settings (strike action). A total of N = 350 professionals (n = 60 expatriates) from 54 organizations in aid, government, higher education and industry (mean response rate = 36%) responded to an organizational survey form. Remuneration ratios between international and local respondents based on the World Bank's index of purchasing power parity approached 9:1. In both sites staff compared pay and benefits (remuneration) packages: Internationally remunerated staff rated their ability higher than their local counterparts did; locally remunerated groups reported more injustice in remuneration, were more demotivated by the gaps, and were more likely to be thinking about leaving the organization. In-country workshops of N = 40 largely local stakeholders from aid and community organizations plus government ministries considered the survey's findings and recommended: in Solomon Islands, (a) introducing a policy of localization, (b) establishing a remuneration commission (already existent in Papua New Guinea), and (c) reducing the remunerative gap; in Papua New Guinea, (d) reversing the post-Independence "dual pay system" (currently official policy), (e) instituting pay-for-performance, and (f) ensuring the existent localization policy is applied to recruitment, selection, and staff career planning and management.

  13. Present situation and future prospects of electricity generation in Aegean Archipelago islands

    Kaldellis, J.K.; Zafirakis, D.

    2007-01-01

    The Aegean Archipelago is a remote Hellenic area, including several hundreds of scattered islands of various sizes. In these islands more than 600,000 people are living mainly in small remote communities. The main economical activities of the islanders are apart from tourism, seafaring, fishery, agriculture and stock farming. One of the major problems of the area is the insufficient infrastructure, strongly related with the absence of an integrated and cost-effective electrification plan. In this context, the present work is concentrated on analyzing the present situation and demonstrating the future prospects of electricity generation in the Aegean Archipelago islands. For this purpose, one should first investigate the time evolution of the corresponding electricity generation parameters (i.e. annual electricity consumption, peak power demand, capacity factor, specific fuel consumption) for the last 30 years. Subsequently, the corresponding diesel and heavy-oil consumption along with the electricity production cost for every specific autonomous power station of the area are investigated. Special attention is paid in order to estimate the contribution of renewable energy sources (RES) in the energy balance of each island. Finally, an attempt is made to describe in brief the most realistic electricity production solutions available, including the operation of hybrid RES-based power plants in collaboration with appropriate energy storage facilities. Additionally, the idea of connecting the islands of the area with the mainland and interconnecting them is also taken into consideration

  14. A new biogeographically disjunct giant gecko (Gehyra: Gekkonidae: Reptilia) from the East Melanesian Islands

    Oliver, Paul M.; Clegg, Jonathan R.; Fisher, Robert N.; Richards, Stephen J.; Taylor, Peter N.; Jocque, Merlijn M. T.

    2016-01-01

    The East Melanesian Islands have been a focal area for research into island biogeography and community ecology. However, previously undescribed and biogeographically significant new species endemic to this region continue to be discovered. Here we describe a phylogenetically distinct (~20% divergence at the mitochondrial ND2 gene) and biogeographically disjunct new species of gecko in the genus Gehyra, from the Admiralty and St Matthias Islands. Gehyra rohan sp. nov. can be distinguished from all congeners by the combination of its very large size, ring of bright orange scales around the eye, moderate degree of lateral folding on the limbs and body, and aspects of head, body and tail scalation. Molecular data indicate mid to late Miocene divergence of the new species from nearest relatives occurring nearly 2000 kilometres away in Vanuatu and Fiji. Large Gehyra have not been recorded on the intervening large islands of the Bismark Archipelago (New Britain and New Ireland) and the Solomon Islands, suggesting this dispersal pre-dated the current configuration of these islands, extinction in intervening regions, or potentially elements of both. Conversely, low genetic divergence between disjunct samples on Manus and Mussau implies recent overseas dispersal via either natural or anthropogenic means.

  15. Native plant recovery in study plots after fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) control on Santa Cruz Island

    Power, Paula; Stanley, Thomas R.; Cowan, Clark; Robertson, James R.

    2014-01-01

    Santa Cruz Island is the largest of the California Channel Islands and supports a diverse and unique flora which includes 9 federally listed species. Sheep, cattle, and pigs, introduced to the island in the mid-1800s, disturbed the soil, browsed native vegetation, and facilitated the spread of exotic invasive plants. Recent removal of introduced herbivores on the island led to the release of invasive fennel (Foeniculum vulgare), which expanded to become the dominant vegetation in some areas and has impeded the recovery of some native plant communities. In 2007, Channel Islands National Park initiated a program to control fennel using triclopyr on the eastern 10% of the island. We established replicate paired plots (seeded and nonseeded) at Scorpion Anchorage and Smugglers Cove, where notably dense fennel infestations (>10% cover) occurred, to evaluate the effectiveness of native seed augmentation following fennel removal. Five years after fennel removal, vegetative cover increased as litter and bare ground cover decreased significantly (P species increased at Scorpion Anchorage in both seeded and nonseeded plots. At Smugglers Cove, exotic cover decreased significantly (P = 0.0001) as native cover comprised of Eriogonum arborescensand Leptosyne gigantea increased significantly (P < 0.0001) in seeded plots only. Nonseeded plots at Smugglers Cove were dominated by exotic annual grasses, primarily Avena barbata. The data indicate that seeding with appropriate native seed is a critical step in restoration following fennel control in areas where the native seed bank is depauperate.

  16. Mosquito Surveys Carried out On Green Island, Orchid Island, and Penghu Island, Taiwan, in 2003

    Hwa-Jen Teng

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Field surveys of mosquitoes were carried out on Green, Orchid, and Penghu Islands in 2003 to ascertain the status of mosquito vectors. Eighteen species of mosquitoes were collected, including three species of Anopheles, four species of Aedes, eight species of Culex, two species of Armigeres, and one species of Malaya. Seventeen previously recorded species were not collected in this study but 11 species collected had not previously been recorded. Ten newly recorded species, An. maculatus, An. takasagoensis, Ae. alcasidi, Ae. lineatopennis, Ae. vexans vexans, Ar. omissus, Cx. vishnui, Cx. halifaxii, Cx. hayashii, and Cx. neomimulus, were collected on Green Island and one previously unrecorded species, Ar. subalbatus, was collected on Orchid Island. Potential vectors An. maculatus and An. sinensis, malaria vectors in Korea and Mainland China, Ae. albopictus, a vector of dengue in Taiwan and West Nile virus in the USA, Cx. vishnui and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus, Japanese encephalitis vectors in Taiwan, Ae. vexans vexans, an eastern equine encephalitis vector in the USA, and Cx. quinquefasciatus, a vector of filariasis in Taiwan and West Nile virus in the USA, were among the mosquito species collected.

  17. Sedimentary Fatty Alcohols in Kapas Island, Terengganu

    Noor Farahin Amiruddin; Mohamad Iznul Muazim Mohamad Zabidi; Nurul Fathihah Mt Nanyan; Masni Mohd Ali; Masni Mohd Ali

    2015-01-01

    A geochemical study was carried out to identify the composition and sources of fatty alcohols in Kapas Island, Terengganu, Malaysia. Fatty alcohols in surface sediments were extracted and analyzed using Gas Chromatography - Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). A total of 23 fatty alcohol compounds were identified in the Kapas Island sediment. Total concentrations of fatty alcohols ranged from 0.53 to 21.31 ng/ g dry weight and the highest total concentration was found at S2, which is probably due to its location profile that is located north of Kapas Island which is close to several small islands. The short chain/ long chain fatty alcohol ratio and alcohol source index (ASI) were used together to identify the dominant input in Kapas Island. Kapas Island sediments contained a mixture of organic sources, of which terrestrial sources were indicated to be the most abundant sources in these marine sediments. (author)

  18. Temporal and geographic variation in fish communities of lower Cook Inlet, Alaska

    Robards, Martin D.; Piatt, John F.; Kettle, Arthur B.; Abookire, Alisa A.

    1999-01-01

    Nearshore and shelf fish communities were studied in three areas of lower Cook Inlet, Alaska: the Barren Islands (oceanic and well-mixed waters), Kachemak Bay (mixed oceanic waters with significant freshwater runoff), and Chisik Island (estuarine waters). Fish were sampled with beach seines (n=413 sets) and midwater trawls (n=39 sets). We found that lower Cook Inlet supported a diverse nearshore fish community of at least 52 species. Fifty of these species were caught in Kachemak Bay, 24 at Chisik Island, and 12 at the Barren Islands. Pacific sand lance dominated Barren Islands and Kachemak Bay nearshore habitats, comprising 99% and 71% of total individuals, respectively. The nearshore Chisik Island fish community was not dominated by any one species; instead it exhibited higher diversity. These spatial differences appeared linked to local oceanographic regimes and sediment influx. Analysis of historical data revealed that the nearshore Kachemak Bay fish community changed significantly between 1976 and 1996, showing increased diversity and abundance in several taxa, notably gadids, salmonids, pleuronectids, and sculpins. Decadal differences appeared to be related to large-scale climate changes in the North Pacific. Catches of most taxa peaked in May-August, and were low during other months of the year. Several species were present for only part of the summer. Species composition of seine catches differed significantly between consecutive high and low tides, but not between consecutive sets or years. Midwater trawls took 26 species, 14 of which were present in Kachemak Bay, 19 near Chisik Island, and 7 at the Barren Islands. Community structures in shelf and nearshore waters were similar: diversity was high and abundance low at Chisik Island, whereas a few abundant species dominated at both Kachemak Bay and the Barren Islands. In addition, the low fish abundance near Chisik Island appeared to be related to declining seabird numbers at this colony.

  19. Energy Transition Initiative, Island Energy Snapshot - British Virgin Islands (Fact Sheet)

    2015-03-01

    This profile provides a snapshot of the energy landscape of the British Virgin Islands (BVI), one of three sets of the Virgin Island territories in an archipelago making up the northern portion of the Lesser Antilles.

  20. Gridded multibeam bathymetry of Baker Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded bathymetry at 40m resolution surrounding Baker Island, within the Pacific Remote Island Areas - Central Pacific Ocean. Bottom coverage was achieved in depths...

  1. Gridded multibeam bathymetry of Howland Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded bathymetry at 40m resolution surrounding Howland Island, within the Pacific Remote Island Areas - Central Pacific Ocean. Bottom coverage was achieved in...

  2. Backscatter 0.5m TIFF Mosaic of St. Croix (Buck Island), US Virgin Islands, 2004

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This image represents a 0.5 meter resolution backscatter mosaic of the north shore of Buck Island, St. Croix, US Virgin Islands. NOAA's NOS/NCCOS/CCMA Biogeography...

  3. Functional food availability, a limitation to peoples’ health on Islands

    Patrick Ndungu

    2011-07-01

    problem through public health actions to lower the incidence of the chronic degenerative diseases in the area: 1. Educate the community about the ways to improve their nutrition and life styles, 2. Make available health and nutrition promoting foods to all the people living in the islands, 3. Strengthen health services to tackle chronic degenerative diseases in the region.

  4. Deer Island Aquatic Ecosystem Restoration Project

    2015-07-01

    across the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) requires that a broad base of EWN understanding and support be built . The Deer Island Aquatic...USACE) requires that a broad base of EWN understanding and support be built . The Deer Island Aquatic Ecosystem Restoration Project (Deer Island AERP...Mississippi Wetlands Restoration Projects). The project received additional funding through several public laws in response to hurricane damages

  5. Hydrogeology and management of freshwater lenses on atoll islands: Review of current knowledge and research needs

    Werner, Adrian D.; Sharp, Hannah K.; Galvis, Sandra C.; Post, Vincent E. A.; Sinclair, Peter

    2017-08-01

    On atoll islands, fresh groundwater occurs as a buoyant lens-shaped body surrounded by saltwater derived from the sea, forming the main freshwater source for many island communities. A review of the state of knowledge of atoll island groundwater is overdue given their susceptibility to adverse impacts, and the task to address water access and sanitation issues within the United Nations' Sustainable Development Goals framework before the year 2030. In this article, we review available literature to summarise the key processes, investigation techniques and management approaches of atoll island groundwater systems. Over fifty years of investigation has led to important advancements in the understanding of atoll hydrogeology, but a paucity of hydrogeological data persists on all but a small number of atoll islands. We find that the combined effects of buoyancy forces, complex geology, tides, episodic ocean events, strong climatic variability and human impacts create highly dynamic fresh groundwater lenses. Methods used to quantify freshwater availability range from simple empirical relationships to three-dimensional density-dependent models. Generic atoll island numerical models have proven popular in trying to unravel the individual factors controlling fresh groundwater lens behaviour. Major challenges face the inhabitants and custodians of atoll island aquifers, with rising anthropogenic stresses compounded by the threats of climate variability and change, sea-level rise, and some atolls already extracting freshwater at or above sustainability limits. We find that the study of atoll groundwater systems remains a critical area for further research effort to address persistent knowledge gaps, which lead to high uncertainties in water security issues for both island residents and surrounding environs.

  6. 46 CFR 7.70 - Folly Island, SC to Hilton Head Island, SC.

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Folly Island, SC to Hilton Head Island, SC. 7.70 Section... BOUNDARY LINES Atlantic Coast § 7.70 Folly Island, SC to Hilton Head Island, SC. (a) A line drawn from the...′ W. (Port Royal Sound Lighted Whistle Buoy “2PR”); thence to the easternmost extremity of Hilton Head...

  7. 46 CFR 7.85 - St. Simons Island, GA to Little Talbot Island, FL.

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false St. Simons Island, GA to Little Talbot Island, FL. 7.85... BOUNDARY LINES Atlantic Coast § 7.85 St. Simons Island, GA to Little Talbot Island, FL. (a) A line drawn from latitude 31°04.1′ N. longitude 81°16.7′ W. (St. Simons Lighted Whistle Buoy “ST S”) to latitude 30...

  8. Renewable technologies for generation systems in islands and their application to Cozumel Island, Mexico

    Mendoza Vizcaino, Javier; Sumper, Andreas; Sudrià Andreu, Antoni; Ramirez, J.M.

    2016-01-01

    The electric generation systems on islands are based generally on fossil fuel. This fact and its supply make the electricity cost higher than in systems used in the continent. In this article, we present a review of the renewable energy generation systems on islands. To do it we analysed 77 islands from 45 different countries. This work will allow us to know how the implementation of renewable energy sources could help these islands in developing a renewable and sustainable energy sector, inc...

  9. Dendrochronology of Strain-Relaxed Islands

    Merdzhanova, T.; Kiravittaya, S.; Rastelli, A.; Stoffel, M.; Denker, U.; Schmidt, O.G.

    2006-01-01

    We report on the observation and study of tree-ring structures below dislocated SiGe islands (superdomes) grown on Si(001) substrates. Analogous to the study of tree rings (dendrochronology), these footprints enable us to gain unambiguous information on the growth and evolution of superdomes and their neighboring islands. The temperature dependence of the critical volume for dislocation introduction is measured and related to the composition of the islands. We show clearly that island coalescence is the dominant pathway towards dislocation nucleation at low temperatures, while at higher temperatures anomalous coarsening is effective and leads to the formation of a depletion region around superdomes

  10. Dendrochronology of strain-relaxed islands.

    Merdzhanova, T; Kiravittaya, S; Rastelli, A; Stoffel, M; Denker, U; Schmidt, O G

    2006-06-09

    We report on the observation and study of tree-ring structures below dislocated SiGe islands (superdomes) grown on Si(001) substrates. Analogous to the study of tree rings (dendrochronology), these footprints enable us to gain unambiguous information on the growth and evolution of superdomes and their neighboring islands. The temperature dependence of the critical volume for dislocation introduction is measured and related to the composition of the islands. We show clearly that island coalescence is the dominant pathway towards dislocation nucleation at low temperatures, while at higher temperatures anomalous coarsening is effective and leads to the formation of a depletion region around superdomes.

  11. Simple method for calculating island widths

    Cary, J.R.; Hanson, J.D.; Carreras, B.A.; Lynch, V.E.

    1989-01-01

    A simple method for calculating magnetic island widths has been developed. This method uses only information obtained from integrating along the closed field line at the island center. Thus, this method is computationally less intensive than the usual method of producing surfaces of section of sufficient detail to locate and resolve the island separatrix. This method has been implemented numerically and used to analyze the buss work islands of ATF. In this case the method proves to be accurate to at least within 30%. 7 refs

  12. RAINDROP DISTRIBUTIONS AT MAJURO ATOLL, MARSHALL ISLANDS.

    RAINDROPS, MARSHALL ISLANDS ), (*ATMOSPHERIC PRECIPITATION, TROPICAL REGIONS), PARTICLE SIZE, SAMPLING, TABLES(DATA), WATER, ATTENUATION, DISTRIBUTION, VOLUME, RADAR REFLECTIONS, RAINFALL, PHOTOGRAPHIC ANALYSIS, COMPUTERS

  13. Total dietary intake of mercury in the Canary Islands, Spain.

    Rubio, C; Gutiérrez, A; Burgos, A; Hardisson, A

    2008-08-01

    Estimating the risk associated with dietary intake of heavy metals by consumers is a vital and integral part of regulatory processes. The assessment of exposure to mercury shown in this paper has been performed by means of a study on the whole diet. Total mercury (Hg) levels were determined by cold vapour atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) in 420 samples of regularly consumed food and drink. The total Hg concentrations measured in the different groups of food ranged from non-detectable to 119 microg kg(-1) w/w. The fish group had the highest concentrations of total Hg. All groups of food with regulated Hg content showed levels that were lower than the legally set values. The food consumption data used in the analysis were taken from the latest nutritional survey made in the Canary Islands, Spain. The estimated total Hg intake of local population (5.7 microg/person day(-1)) did not exceed the provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) limit of 0.3 mg week(-1) of total mercury (43 microg/person day(-1)) fixed by the Joint Food and Agricultural Organization/World Health Organization (FAO/WHO) Expert Committee on Food Additives. Fishery products contributed 96% of the total Hg intake. The mean Hg intake for each island in this archipelago, formed by seven, has also been calculated. Fuerteventura, Lanzarote and El Hierro are the islands with the highest level of Hg intake (7.0, 7,0 and 6.1 microg/person day(-1), respectively). La Palma Island, due to its low fish consumption, had the lowest level of Hg intake (4.5 microg/person day(-1)), followed by La Gomera (5.4 microg/person day(-1)), Tenerife (5.5 microg/person day(-1)) and Gran Canaria (5.6 microg/person day(-1)). A comparison has been made of the results obtained in this study with those found for other national and international communities.

  14. Introduction to the Arizona Sky Island Arthropod Project (ASAP): Systematics, Biogeography, Ecology, and Population Genetics of Arthropods of the Madrean Sky Islands.

    Moore, Wendy; Meyer, Wallace M; Eble, Jeffrey A; Franklin, Kimberly; Wiens, John F; Brusca, Richard C

    2013-01-01

    The Arizona Sky Island Arthropod Project (ASAP) is a new multi-disciplinary research program at the University of Arizona that combines systematics, biogeography, ecology, and population genetics to study origins and patterns of arthropod diversity along elevation gradients and among mountain ranges in the Madrean Sky Island Region. Arthropods represent taxonomically and ecologically diverse organisms that drive key ecosystem processes in this mountain archipelago. Using data from museum specimens and specimens we obtain during long-term collecting and monitoring programs, ASAP will document arthropod species across Arizona's Sky Islands to address a number of fundamental questions about arthropods of this region. Baseline data will be used to determine climatic boundaries for target species, which will then be integrated with climatological models to predict future changes in arthropod communities and distributions in the wake of rapid climate change. ASAP also makes use of the natural laboratory provided by the Sky Islands to investigate ecological and genetic factors that influence diversification and patterns of community assembly. Here, we introduce the project, outline overarching goals, and describe preliminary data from the first year of sampling ground-dwelling beetles and ants in the Santa Catalina Mountains.

  15. Job and life satisfaction and preference of future practice locations of physicians on remote islands in Japan.

    Nojima, Yoshiaki; Kumakura, Shunichi; Onoda, Keiichi; Hamano, Tsuyoshi; Kimura, Kiyoshi

    2015-05-26

    The objective of this research is to investigate job and life satisfaction and preference of future practice locations of physicians in rural and remote islands in Japan. A cross-sectional study was conducted for physicians who reside or resided on the Oki islands: isolated islands situated in the Sea of Japan between the Eurasian continent and the mainland of Japan. A questionnaire was sent to physicians on the Oki islands to evaluate physician satisfaction regarding job environment, career development, living conditions, salary, and support by local government. Data was analysed for 49 physicians; 47 were male and 2 were female, and the mean ± SD age was 44.3 ± 10.9 years. Among the variables related to physicians' satisfaction, most of the physicians (>90%) were satisfied with "team work" and "salary". On the other hand, the majority of physicians (approximately 70%) were not satisfied with the "opportunity to continue professional development". Age ≥ 50 years, graduates of medical schools other than Jichi Medical University (established in 1972 with the aim to produce rural physicians), self-selected the Oki islands as a practice location, and satisfaction in "work as a doctor", "opportunity to consult with peers about patients", "relationship with people in the community", and "acceptance by community" were found to be significant factors influencing the choice of the Oki islands as a future practice location. Factors influencing future practice locations on the remote islands were included in a self-reported questionnaire which illustrated the importance of factors that impact both the spouses and children of physicians. Improving work satisfaction, providing outreach support programmes for career development and professional support in rural practice, and building appropriate relationships between physicians and people in the community, which can in turn improve work satisfaction, may contribute to physicians' choices of practising medicine on rural and

  16. Some data on the avifauna of the Island of Roti, Lesser Sunda Islands, Indonesia

    Verheijen, J.A.J.

    1976-01-01

    INTRODUCTION For several years I had been looking for an opportunity to visit the island of Roti (Rotti, Roté, Loté). Junge (1954) mentions that only once an ornithological collection was made in the island, namely by Dr. H. F. C. ten Kate, an ethnologist who visited the island in 1891. Büttikofer

  17. 75 FR 61993 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Kwajalein Island, Marshall Islands, RMI

    2010-10-07

    ...This action removes the reference to the Kwajalein Tactacial Air Navigation (TACAN) System from the legal description of the Class E airspace areas for Kwajalein Island, Bucholz AAF, Marshall Islands, RMI. The U.S. Army notified the FAA that the Kwajalein TACAN was decommissioned. This action corrects the legal descriptions for the Class E airspace areas in the vicinity of the Marshall Islands.

  18. Exploring the potential impacts of tourism development on social and ecological change in the Solomon Islands.

    Diedrich, Amy; Aswani, Shankar

    2016-11-01

    Pacific Island communities may be vulnerable to negative impacts of economic development, which is often considered a strategy for reducing vulnerability to environmental change. Studies that evaluate potential impacts of economic development in isolated communities may be inaccurate to only focus on asking people to anticipate impacts of phenomena they have had minimal exposure to. We used an open-ended approach to evaluate how communities in the Solomon Islands perceived change, and used this information to anticipate potential impacts of the government's plans to develop tourism. Our results showed mostly negative expectations of change, particularly socio-cultural, which was perceived as being driven by diminishing social capital, foreign influence, and economic development. Despite minimal exposure, locals supported tourism and had more positive expectations of change associated with this activity. Our findings emphasize the need for locally appropriate planning to ensure intended positive impacts of tourism and other forms of economic development.

  19. A simple mathematical model of society collapse applied to Easter Island

    Bologna, M.; Flores, J. C.

    2008-02-01

    In this paper we consider a mathematical model for the evolution and collapse of the Easter Island society. Based on historical reports, the available primary resources consisted almost exclusively in the trees, then we describe the inhabitants and the resources as an isolated dynamical system. A mathematical, and numerical, analysis about the Easter Island community collapse is performed. In particular, we analyze the critical values of the fundamental parameters and a demographic curve is presented. The technological parameter, quantifying the exploitation of the resources, is calculated and applied to the case of another extinguished civilization (Copán Maya) confirming the consistency of the adopted model.

  20. Where's the Chicken? Virtual Reality Brings Poultry Science to the Community College

    Kloepper, Marcia Owens; Zweiacher, Ed; Curtis, Pat; Evert, Amanda

    2010-01-01

    This article highlights how two institutions--Redlands Community College (RCC) and Auburn University--teamed up to create a virtual world called Eagle Island, where learners enter to learn all they need to know about poultry science. Eagle Island, located in Second Life, provides an opportunity to tour a real-life food processing…