WorldWideScience

Sample records for isgs reduce depressive

  1. Systematic review on Internet Support Groups (ISGs) and depression (2): What is known about depression ISGs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Kathleen M; Calear, Alison L; Banfield, Michelle; Tam, Ada

    2009-09-30

    Internet support groups (ISGs) are a popular means by which consumers with depression communicate online. A number of studies have evaluated the nature and impact of depression-specific ISGs. However, to date there have been no published systematic reviews of this evidence. The aim was to systematically identify and summarize the available evidence concerning the scope and findings of studies of depression ISGs. Three databases (PubMed, PsycINFO, Cochrane) were searched using over 150 search terms extracted from relevant papers, abstracts, and a thesaurus. Papers were included if they employed an online peer-to-peer depression-specific support group and reported either quantitative or qualitative empirical data. The objective of each study was coded according to a 20-category classification system, which included the effect on depression and other outcomes, including help seeking; user characteristics, activity, satisfaction, perceived benefits, perceived disadvantages; the reason for using the ISG; the nature of ISG posts; characteristics of depression ISGs compared to other ISG types, face-to-face groups, and face-to-face counseling; ISG structure and longitudinal changes; and predictors of ISG adherence. Thirteen papers satisfied the inclusion criteria from an initial pool of 12,692 abstracts. Of these, three collected data using survey questionnaires, nine analyzed samples of posts, and one both collected survey data and analyzed a sample of posts. The quality of most studies was not high, and little data were collected on most key aspects of depression ISGs. The most common objective of the studies was to analyze the nature of the posts (eight studies) and to describe site usage (six studies) and user characteristics (five studies). The most prevalent types of social support were emotional, informational, and social companionship. Given the popularity of depression ISGs and the paucity of available evidence about them, there is a need for high

  2. The effectiveness of an online support group for members of the community with depression: a randomised controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen M Griffiths

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Internet support groups (ISGs are popular, particularly among people with depression, but there is little high quality evidence concerning their effectiveness. AIM: The study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of an ISG for reducing depressive symptoms among community members when used alone and in combination with an automated Internet-based psychotherapy training program. METHOD: Volunteers with elevated psychological distress were identified using a community-based screening postal survey. Participants were randomised to one of four 12-week conditions: depression Internet Support Group (ISG, automated depression Internet Training Program (ITP, combination of the two (ITP+ISG, or a control website with delayed access to e-couch at 6 months. Assessments were conducted at baseline, post-intervention, 6 and 12 months. RESULTS: There was no change in depressive symptoms relative to control after 3 months of exposure to the ISG. However, both the ISG alone and the combined ISG+ITP group showed significantly greater reduction in depressive symptoms at 6 and 12 months follow-up than the control group. The ITP program was effective relative to control at post-intervention but not at 6 months. CONCLUSIONS: ISGs for depression are promising and warrant further empirical investigation. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Controlled-Trials.com ISRCTN65657330.

  3. Sequence and expression analyses of porcine ISG15 and ISG43 genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jiangnan; Zhao, Shuhong; Zhu, Mengjin; Wu, Zhenfang; Yu, Mei

    2009-08-01

    The coding sequences of porcine interferon-stimulated gene 15 (ISG15) and the interferon-stimulated gene (ISG43) were cloned from swine spleen mRNA. The amino acid sequences deduced from porcine ISG15 and ISG43 genes coding sequence shared 24-75% and 29-83% similarity with ISG15s and ISG43s from other vertebrates, respectively. Structural analyses revealed that porcine ISG15 comprises two ubiquitin homologues motifs (UBQ) domain and a conserved C-terminal LRLRGG conjugating motif. Porcine ISG43 contains an ubiquitin-processing proteases-like domain. Phylogenetic analyses showed that porcine ISG15 and ISG43 were mostly related to rat ISG15 and cattle ISG43, respectively. Using quantitative real-time PCR assay, significant increased expression levels of porcine ISG15 and ISG43 genes were detected in porcine kidney endothelial cells (PK15) cells treated with poly I:C. We also observed the enhanced mRNA expression of three members of dsRNA pattern-recognition receptors (PRR), TLR3, DDX58 and IFIH1, which have been reported to act as critical receptors in inducing the mRNA expression of ISG15 and ISG43 genes. However, we did not detect any induced mRNA expression of IFNalpha and IFNbeta, suggesting that transcriptional activations of ISG15 and ISG43 were mediated through IFN-independent signaling pathway in the poly I:C treated PK15 cells. Association analyses in a Landrace pig population revealed that ISG15 c.347T>C (BstUI) polymorphism and the ISG43 c.953T>G (BccI) polymorphism were significantly associated with hematological parameters and immune-related traits.

  4. Covalent protein modification with ISG15 via a conserved cysteine in the hinge region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika N Bade

    Full Text Available The ubiquitin-like protein ISG15 (interferon-stimulated gene of 15 kDa is strongly induced by type I interferons and displays antiviral activity. As other ubiquitin-like proteins (Ubls, ISG15 is post-translationally conjugated to substrate proteins by an isopeptide bond between the C-terminal glycine of ISG15 and the side chains of lysine residues in the substrates (ISGylation. ISG15 consists of two ubiquitin-like domains that are separated by a hinge region. In many orthologs, this region contains a single highly reactive cysteine residue. Several hundred potential substrates for ISGylation have been identified but only a few of them have been rigorously verified. In order to investigate the modification of several ISG15 substrates, we have purified ISG15 conjugates from cell extracts by metal-chelate affinity purification and immunoprecipitations. We found that the levels of proteins modified by human ISG15 can be decreased by the addition of reducing agents. With the help of thiol blocking reagents, a mutational analysis and miRNA mediated knock-down of ISG15 expression, we revealed that this modification occurs in living cells via a disulphide bridge between the substrates and Cys78 in the hinge region of ISG15. While the ISG15 activating enzyme UBE1L is conjugated by ISG15 in the classical way, we show that the ubiquitin conjugating enzyme Ubc13 can either be classically conjugated by ISG15 or can form a disulphide bridge with ISG15 at the active site cysteine 87. The latter modification would interfere with its function as ubiquitin conjugating enzyme. However, we found no evidence for an ISG15 modification of the dynamin-like GTPases MxA and hGBP1. These findings indicate that the analysis of potential substrates for ISG15 conjugation must be performed with great care to distinguish between the two types of modification since many assays such as immunoprecipitation or metal-chelate affinity purification are performed with little or no

  5. Screen for ISG15-crossreactive deubiquitinases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Catic

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The family of ubiquitin-like molecules (UbLs comprises several members, each of which has sequence, structural, or functional similarity to ubiquitin. ISG15 is a homolog of ubiquitin in vertebrates and is strongly upregulated following induction by type I interferon. ISG15 can be covalently attached to proteins, analogous to ubiquitination and with actual support of ubiquitin conjugating factors. Specific proteases are able to reverse modification with ubiquitin or UbLs by hydrolyzing the covalent bond between their C-termini and substrate proteins. The tail regions of ubiquitin and ISG15 are identical and we therefore hypothesized that promiscuous deubiquitinating proteases (DUBs might exist, capable of recognizing both ubiquitin and ISG15.We have cloned and expressed 22 human DUBs, representing the major clades of the USP protease family. Utilizing suicide inhibitors based on ubiquitin and ISG15, we have identified USP2, USP5 (IsoT1, USP13 (IsoT3, and USP14 as ISG15-reactive proteases, in addition to the bona fide ISG15-specific protease USP18 (UBP43. USP14 is a proteasome-associated DUB, and its ISG15 isopeptidase activity increases when complexed with the proteasome.By evolutionary standards, ISG15 is a newcomer among the UbLs and it apparently not only utilizes the conjugating but also the deconjugating machinery of its more established relative ubiquitin. Functional overlap between these two posttranslational modifiers might therefore be more extensive than previously appreciated and explain the rather innocuous phenotype of ISG15 null mice.

  6. ISG15 counteracts Listeria monocytogenes infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radoshevich, Lilliana; Impens, Francis; Ribet, David; Quereda, Juan J; Nam Tham, To; Nahori, Marie-Anne; Bierne, Hélène; Dussurget, Olivier; Pizarro-Cerdá, Javier; Knobeloch, Klaus-Peter; Cossart, Pascale

    2015-01-01

    ISG15 is an interferon-stimulated, linear di-ubiquitin-like protein, with anti-viral activity. The role of ISG15 during bacterial infection remains elusive. We show that ISG15 expression in nonphagocytic cells is dramatically induced upon Listeria infection. Surprisingly this induction can be type I interferon independent and depends on the cytosolic surveillance pathway, which senses bacterial DNA and signals through STING, TBK1, IRF3 and IRF7. Most importantly, we observed that ISG15 expression restricts Listeria infection in vitro and in vivo. We made use of stable isotope labeling in tissue culture (SILAC) to identify ISGylated proteins that could be responsible for the protective effect. Strikingly, infection or overexpression of ISG15 leads to ISGylation of ER and Golgi proteins, which correlates with increased secretion of cytokines known to counteract infection. Together, our data reveal a previously uncharacterized ISG15-dependent restriction of Listeria infection, reinforcing the view that ISG15 is a key component of the innate immune response. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.06848.001 PMID:26259872

  7. Reducing Depression in Pregnancy: Designing Multimodel Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Maddy; Zayas, Luis H.

    2002-01-01

    High levels of stress on low-income, inner-city women from ethnic minority groups often causes both poor maternal functioning and infant development outcomes. This article reviews literature that proposes using several social work treatment options instead a single approach to reduce maternal depression, expand mothers' social networks, and…

  8. Tablet-Based Education to Reduce Depression-Related Stigma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Catherine; Winkelman, Megan; Wong, Shane Shucheng

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: This study investigated the efficacy of a tablet-based multimedia education application, the Project Not Alone Depression Module, in improving depression literacy and reducing depression stigma among a community-based mental health clinic population. Methods: A total of 93 participants completed either a tablet-based multimedia…

  9. ISG15 governs mitochondrial function in macrophages following vaccinia virus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Baldanta

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The interferon (IFN-stimulated gene 15 (ISG15 encodes one of the most abundant proteins induced by interferon, and its expression is associated with antiviral immunity. To identify protein components implicated in IFN and ISG15 signaling, we compared the proteomes of ISG15-/- and ISG15+/+ bone marrow derived macrophages (BMDM after vaccinia virus (VACV infection. The results of this analysis revealed that mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS were pathways altered in ISG15-/- BMDM treated with IFN. Mitochondrial respiration, Adenosine triphosphate (ATP and reactive oxygen species (ROS production was higher in ISG15+/+ BMDM than in ISG15-/- BMDM following IFN treatment, indicating the involvement of ISG15-dependent mechanisms. An additional consequence of ISG15 depletion was a significant change in macrophage polarization. Although infected ISG15-/- macrophages showed a robust proinflammatory cytokine expression pattern typical of an M1 phenotype, a clear blockade of nitric oxide (NO production and arginase-1 activation was detected. Accordingly, following IFN treatment, NO release was higher in ISG15+/+ macrophages than in ISG15-/- macrophages concomitant with a decrease in viral titer. Thus, ISG15-/- macrophages were permissive for VACV replication following IFN treatment. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that ISG15 governs the dynamic functionality of mitochondria, specifically, OXPHOS and mitophagy, broadening its physiological role as an antiviral agent.

  10. Social Skills Training to Reduce Depression in Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Michael K.

    1994-01-01

    Evaluated efficacy of Structured Learning Therapy (SLT), which focuses on developing social competencies, self-evaluation skills, and appropriate affective expression, in treating adolescent depression. Findings from 18 adolescents randomly assigned to either SLT treatment or control group suggest that SLT reliably reduced depression in males and…

  11. ISG15 Inhibits IFN-α-Resistant Liver Cancer Cell Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin-xing Wan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC is one of the most prevalent tumors worldwide. Interferon-α (IFN-α has been widely used in the treatment of HCC, but patients eventually develop resistance. ISG15 ubiquitin-like modifier (ISG15 is a ubiquitin-like protein transcriptionally regulated by IFN-α which shows antivirus and antitumor activities. However, the exact role of ISG15 is unknown. In the present study, we showed that IFN-α significantly induced ISG15 expression but failed to induce HepG2 cell apoptosis, whereas transient overexpression of ISG15 dramatically increased HepG2 cell apoptosis. ISG15 overexpression increased overall protein ubiquitination, which was not observed in cells with IFN-α-induced ISG15 expression, suggesting that IFN-α treatment not only induced the expression of ISG15 but also inhibited ISG15-mediated ubiquitination. The tumor suppressor p53 and p21 proteins are the key regulators of cell survival and death in response to stress signals such as DNA damage. We showed that p53 or p21 is only up regulated in HepG2 cells ectopically expressing ISG15, but not in the presence of IFN-α-induced ISG15. Our results suggest that ISG15 overexpression could be developed into a powerful gene-therapeutic tool for treating IFN-α-resistant HCC.

  12. A nine-nucleotide deletion and splice variation in the coding region of the interferon induced ISG12 gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smidt, Kamille; Hansen, Lise Lotte; Søgaard, T Max M

    2003-01-01

    distributed between ISG12 and ISG12-S in breast carcinoma cells, in cancer cell lines and in cervical cytobrush material with neoplastic lesions. In addition, we have found a nine-nucleotide deletion situated in exon 4 of the ISG12 gene. This deletion leads to a three-amino-acid deletion (AMA) in the putative...... ISG12 gene products, ISG12Δ and ISG12-SΔ. We have determined the prevalence of the deletion ISG12Δ in normal and neoplastic cells. Homozygosity ISG12(0/0) and ISG12(Δ/Δ), and heterozygosity ISG12(0/Δ) were found, although the ISG12(Δ/Δ) genotype was rare. In heterozygous cells from cytobrush material...

  13. Nonmetastatic osteosarcoma of the extremity. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy with methotrexate, cisplatin, doxorubicin and ifosfamide. An Italian Sarcoma Group study (ISG/OS-Oss).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Stefano; Meazza, Cristina; Palmerini, Emanuela; Tamburini, Angela; Fagioli, Franca; Cozza, Raffaele; Ferraresi, Virginia; Bisogno, Gianni; Mascarin, Maurizio; Cefalo, Graziella; Manfrini, Marco; Capanna, Rodolfo; Biagini, Roberto; Donati, Davide; Picci, Piero

    2014-01-01

    Based on the results of the ISG/OS-1 study, the MAP regimen (methotrexate [MTX], doxorubicin [ADM] and cisplatin [CDP] with the addition of ifosfamide [IFO] in poor-responder patients) was investigated in patients with nonmetastatic osteosarcoma of the extremity (ISG/OS-Oss study). Compared with the ISG/OS-1 study (cumulative doses: ADM 420 mg/m(2), MTX 120 g/m(2), CDP 600 mg/m(2), IFO 30 g/m(2)), the ISG/OS-Oss study reduced the number of MTX cycles from 10 to 5 (cumulative MTX dose: 60 g/m(2)) in order to diminish treatment duration and toxicity. From January 2007 to June 2011, 171 patients (median age 16 years, 60% males) were registered. The limb salvage rate was 94% and the good pathologic response rate 51% (these figures were 92% and 48%, respectively, in the ISG/OS-1 study). At a median follow-up of 39 months (range, 4-80), the 5-year overall survival rate was 80% (95% CI, 73%-87%) and the event-free survival was 50% (95% CI, 39%-59%). For comparison, the 5-year overall and event-free survival rates in ISG/OS-1 were 73% (95% CI, 65%-81%) and 64% (95% CI, 56%-73%), respectively. This study confirms that in nonmetastatic osteosarcoma of the extremity, conservative surgery in more than 90% and a good pathologic response rate of 50% can be expected with primary chemotherapy based on the MAP regimen. The response and resection rates in the ISG/OS-Oss study are in the same range as those of the previous study, whereas the event-free survival is lower than that previously achieved. Since the only difference between the two studies was the cumulative dose of postoperatively given MTX, our data support the importance of the cumulative dose of MTX in the MAP regimen.

  14. Can we reduce the burden of depression? The Australian experience with beyondblue: the national depression initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickie, Ian

    2004-01-01

    Throughout the Asia Pacific region, there is an urgent need to reduce the burden of depression by increasing depression awareness, reducing stigma and dismantling those social barriers that prevent full participation by people with depression. This paper describes the development and early achievements of the Australian depression initiative, beyondblue. A review of the key priorities of beyondblue and their impacts during the first three years of operation (2001-03). Key achievements include: the degree of national recognition of beyondblue; size and scope of media impact; growth in website utilisation; increased reporting of the community's recognition of people with depression; genuine reforms in life insurance and income protection; development of a new national consumer and carer organisation; establishment of major population-based preventative and early intervention programs; system-wide reform of primary care-based mental health services; national educational program uptake by general practitioners; and, development of key awareness and intervention programs for use in schools and the workplace. In its first three years of operation, beyondblue has had a major impact on depression awareness in Australia and demonstrable gains have been made in reducing stigma and major social barriers. A pre-existing national mental health policy and implementation plan, a substantial funding base and participation by key political, media and community leaders have been essential elements of its short-term success. Its longer-term impact will now depend on more sustainable community and business partnerships as well as the growth of a more influential consumer and carer voice.

  15. An online intervention for reducing depressive symptoms: secondary benefits for self-esteem, empowerment and quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crisp, Dimity; Griffiths, Kathleen; Mackinnon, Andrew; Bennett, Kylie; Christensen, Helen

    2014-04-30

    Internet-based interventions are increasingly recognized as effective for the treatment and prevention of depression; however, there is a paucity of research investigating potential secondary benefits. From a consumer perspective, improvements in indicators of wellbeing such as perceived quality of life may represent the most important outcomes for evaluating the effectiveness of an intervention. This study investigated the 'secondary' benefits for self-esteem, empowerment, quality of life and perceived social support of two 12-week online depression interventions when delivered alone and in combination. Participants comprised 298 adults displaying elevated psychological distress. Participants were randomised to receive: an Internet Support Group (ISG); an automated Internet psycho-educational training program for depression; a combination of these conditions; or a control website. Analyses were performed on an intent-to-treat basis. Following the automated training program immediate improvements were shown in participants׳ self-esteem and empowerment relative to control participants. Improvements in perceived quality of life were reported 6-months following the completion of the intervention when combined with an ISG. These findings provide initial evidence for the effectiveness of this online intervention for improving individual wellbeing beyond the primary aim of the treatment. However, further research is required to investigate the mechanisms underlying improvement in these secondary outcomes. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Controlling of carrier movement on gamma irradiator ISG-500

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Achmad Suntoro

    2010-01-01

    Gamma irradiator ISG-500 is being designed. One of the design objects in the gamma irradiator is carrier movement and its controlling. Many possibilities of carrier movements can be implemented in the set-up design, such as using discrete or continuous mode. In this paper, selected discrete carriers movement and their controlling for the basic-design of the ISG-500 will be discussed. Nine stopper locations for nineteen carriers in operation will be controlled their carriers movement so that the movements have maximum positive transient load (increasing load) two carriers only. The controlling of the movement uses a train of pulses counting system as a one-dimension coordinate reference of a point on the rotated chain pulling the carrier. Every stopper location has a specific counting number in which will be used by the controlling system to let the carrier in the stopper location moving. By this movement, it is expected to prolong the life-time of the in use carrier mover motor. (author)

  17. 76 FR 60937 - Draft License Renewal Interim Staff Guidance LR-ISG-2011-02; Aging Management Program for Steam...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-30

    ...-2011-02; Aging Management Program for Steam Generators AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION... License Renewal Interim Staff Guidance (LR-ISG), LR-ISG-2011-02, ``Aging Management Program for Steam... using Revision 3 of NEI 97-06 to manage steam generator aging. The Draft LR-ISG revises the NRC staff's...

  18. Major depression in mothers predict reduced ventral striatum activation in adolescent female offspring with and without depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior research has identified reduced reward-related brain activation as a promising endophenotype for the early identification of adolescents with major depressive disorder. However, it is unclear whether reduced reward-related brain activation constitutes a true vulnerability for major depressive ...

  19. Stage-associated overexpression of the ubiquitin-like protein, ISG15, in bladder cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, JB; Jensen, Mads Aaboe; Borden, EC

    2006-01-01

    Bladder cancer is among the most prevalent malignancies, and is characterised by frequent tumour recurrences and localised inflammation, which may promote tissue invasion and metastasis. Microarray analysis was used to compare gene expression in normal bladder urothelium with that in tumours...... at different stages of progression. The innate immune response gene, interferon-stimulated gene 15 kDa (ISG15, GIP2), was highly expressed at all stages of bladder cancer as compared to normal urothelium. Western blotting revealed a tumour-associated expression of ISG15 protein. ISG15 exhibited a stage...... component of bladder cancer-associated gene expression....

  20. Depression reduces perceptual sensitivity for positive words and pictures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atchley, Ruth Ann; Ilardi, Stephen S; Young, Keith M; Stroupe, Natalie N; O'Hare, Aminda J; Bistricky, Steven L; Collison, Elizabeth; Gibson, Linzi; Schuster, Jonathan; Lepping, Rebecca J

    2012-01-01

    There is evidence of maladaptive attentional biases for lexical information (e.g., Atchley, Ilardi, & Enloe, 2003; Atchley, Stringer, Mathias, Ilardi, & Minatrea, 2007) and for pictographic stimuli (e.g., Gotlib, Krasnoperova, Yue, & Joormann, 2004) among patients with depression. The current research looks for depressotypic processing biases among depressed out-patients and non-clinical controls, using both verbal and pictorial stimuli. A d' measure (sensitivity index) was used to examine each participant's perceptual sensitivity threshold. Never-depressed controls evidenced a detection bias for positive picture stimuli, while depressed participants had no such bias. With verbal stimuli, depressed individuals showed specific decrements in the detection of positive person-referent words (WINNER), but not with positive non-person-referent words (SUNSHINE) or with negative words. Never-depressed participants showed no such differences across word types. In the current study, depression is characterised both by an absence of the normal positivistic biases seen in individuals without mood disorders (consistent with McCabe & Gotlib, 1995), and by a specific reduction in sensitivity for person-referent positive information that might be inconsistent with depressotypic self-schemas.

  1. ISG15 in the tumorigenesis and treatment of cancer: An emerging role in malignancies of the digestive system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Chaohui; Sheng, Xinyi; Ma, Min; Xia, Man; Ouyang, Linda

    2016-01-01

    The interferon-stimulated gene 15 ubiquitin-like modifier (ISG15) encodes an IFN-inducible, ubiquitin-like protein. The ISG15 protein forms conjugates with numerous cellular proteins that are involved in a multitude of cellular functions, including interferon-induced immune responses and the regulation of cellular protein turnover. The expression of ISG15 and ISG15-mediated conjugation has been implicated in a wide range of human tumors and cancer cell lines, but the roles of ISG15 in tumorigenesis and responses to anticancer treatments remain largely unknown. In this review, we discuss the findings of recent studies with regard to the role of ISG15 pathways in cancers of the digestive system. PMID:27626310

  2. Major depression in mothers predicts reduced ventral striatum activation in adolescent female offspring with and without depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Carla; Kim, Sohye; Herman, Levi; Pane, Heather; Reuter, Tyson; Strathearn, Lane

    2014-05-01

    Prior research has identified reduced reward-related brain activation as a promising endophenotype for the early identification of adolescents with major depressive disorder (MDD). However, it is unclear whether reduced reward-related brain activation constitutes a true vulnerability for MDD. One way of studying vulnerability is through a high-risk design. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to determine whether reward-related activation of the ventral striatum is reduced in nondepressed daughters of mothers with a history of MDD (high-risk) similarly to currently depressed adolescent girls, compared with healthy controls. By directly comparing groups with a shared risk profile during differing states, we aimed to shed light on the endophenotypic nature of reduced reward processing for adolescent depression. We compared reward-related neural activity through functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) between three groups of female biological offspring (N = 52) of mothers with differential MDD status: (a) currently depressed daughters of mothers with a history of MDD (MDD group; n = 14), (b) age- and socioeconomic status (SES)-matched never-depressed daughters of mothers with a history of MDD (high-risk group; n = 19), and (c) age- and SES-matched control daughters of mothers with no past or current psychopathology in either the mother or the daughter (healthy control group; n = 19). For the outcome phase of the reward task, right-sided ventral striatum activation was reduced for both currently depressed and high-risk girls compared with healthy controls. This ventral striatal activity correlated significantly with maternal depression scores. These findings provide further evidence of aberrant functioning for the United States Department of Health & Human Services, National Institutes of Health, National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) Research Domain Criteria (RDoC)-defined domain of positive valence systems as a vulnerability factor for MDD and a

  3. A Method for Evaluating Information Security Governance (ISG) Components in Banking Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ula, M.; Ula, M.; Fuadi, W.

    2017-02-01

    As modern banking increasingly relies on the internet and computer technologies to operate their businesses and market interactions, the threats and security breaches have highly increased in recent years. Insider and outsider attacks have caused global businesses lost trillions of Dollars a year. Therefore, that is a need for a proper framework to govern the information security in the banking system. The aim of this research is to propose and design an enhanced method to evaluate information security governance (ISG) implementation in banking environment. This research examines and compares the elements from the commonly used information security governance frameworks, standards and best practices. Their strength and weakness are considered in its approaches. The initial framework for governing the information security in banking system was constructed from document review. The framework was categorized into three levels which are Governance level, Managerial level, and technical level. The study further conducts an online survey for banking security professionals to get their professional judgment about the ISG most critical components and the importance for each ISG component that should be implemented in banking environment. Data from the survey was used to construct a mathematical model for ISG evaluation, component importance data used as weighting coefficient for the related component in the mathematical model. The research further develops a method for evaluating ISG implementation in banking based on the mathematical model. The proposed method was tested through real bank case study in an Indonesian local bank. The study evidently proves that the proposed method has sufficient coverage of ISG in banking environment and effectively evaluates the ISG implementation in banking environment.

  4. Identification of a novel gene family that includes the interferon-inducible human genes 6–16 and ISG12

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parker Nadeene

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The human 6–16 and ISG12 genes are transcriptionally upregulated in a variety of cell types in response to type I interferon (IFN. The predicted products of these genes are small (12.9 and 11.5 kDa respectively, hydrophobic proteins that share 36% overall amino acid identity. Gene disruption and over-expression studies have so far failed to reveal any biochemical or cellular roles for these proteins. Results We have used in silico analyses to identify a novel family of genes (the ISG12 gene family related to both the human 6–16 and ISG12 genes. Each ISG12 family member codes for a small hydrophobic protein containing a conserved ~80 amino-acid motif (the ISG12 motif. So far we have detected 46 family members in 25 organisms, ranging from unicellular eukaryotes to humans. Humans have four ISG12 genes: the 6–16 gene at chromosome 1p35 and three genes (ISG12(a, ISG12(b and ISG12(c clustered at chromosome 14q32. Mice have three family members (ISG12(a, ISG12(b1 and ISG12(b2 clustered at chromosome 12F1 (syntenic with human chromosome 14q32. There does not appear to be a murine 6–16 gene. On the basis of phylogenetic analyses, genomic organisation and intron-alignments we suggest that this family has arisen through divergent inter- and intra-chromosomal gene duplication events. The transcripts from human and mouse genes are detectable, all but two (human ISG12(b and ISG12(c being upregulated in response to type I IFN in the cell lines tested. Conclusions Members of the eukaryotic ISG12 gene family encode a small hydrophobic protein with at least one copy of a newly defined motif of ~80 amino-acids (the ISG12 motif. In higher eukaryotes, many of the genes have acquired a responsiveness to type I IFN during evolution suggesting that a role in resisting cellular or environmental stress may be a unifying property of all family members. Analysis of gene-function in higher eukaryotes is complicated by the possibility of

  5. Depression and reduced heart rate variability after cardiac surgery: the mediating role of emotion regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patron, Elisabetta; Messerotti Benvenuti, Simone; Favretto, Giuseppe; Gasparotto, Renata; Palomba, Daniela

    2014-02-01

    Heart rate variability (HRV), as an index of autonomic nervous system (ANS) functioning, is reduced by depression after cardiac surgery, but the underlying mechanisms of this relationship are poorly understood. Poor emotion regulation as a core symptom of depression has also been associated with altered ANS functioning. The present study aimed to examine whether emotion dysregulation could be a mediator of the depression-reduced HRV relationship observed after cardiac surgery. Self-reported emotion regulation and four-minute HRV were measured in 25 depressed and 43 nondepressed patients after cardiac surgery. Mediation analysis was conducted to evaluate emotion regulation as a mediator of the depression-reduced HRV relationship. Compared to nondepressed patients, those with depression showed lower standard deviation of normal-to-normal (NN) intervals (pbehavior partially mediated the effect of depression on LF n.u. and HF n.u. Results confirmed previous findings showing that depression is associated with reduced HRV, especially a reduced vagal tone and a sympathovagal imbalance, after cardiac surgery. This study also provides preliminary evidence that increased trait levels of suppression of emotion-expressive behavior may mediate the depression-related sympathovagal imbalance after cardiac surgery. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Yoga and massage therapy reduce prenatal depression and prematurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Tiffany; Diego, Miguel; Hernandez-Reif, Maria; Medina, Lissette; Delgado, Jeannette; Hernandez, Andrea

    2012-04-01

    Eighty-four prenatally depressed women were randomly assigned to yoga, massage therapy or standard prenatal care control groups to determine the relative effects of yoga and massage therapy on prenatal depression and neonatal outcomes. Following 12 weeks of twice weekly yoga or massage therapy sessions (20 min each) both therapy groups versus the control group had a greater decrease on depression, anxiety and back and leg pain scales and a greater increase on a relationship scale. In addition, the yoga and massage therapy groups did not differ on neonatal outcomes including gestational age and birthweight, and those groups, in turn, had greater gestational age and birthweight than the control group. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Reduced reward anticipation in youth at high-risk for unipolar depression: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olino, Thomas M; McMakin, Dana L; Morgan, Judith K; Silk, Jennifer S; Birmaher, Boris; Axelson, David A; Williamson, Douglas E; Dahl, Ronald E; Ryan, Neal D; Forbes, Erika E

    2014-04-01

    Offspring of depressed parents are at risk for depression and recent evidence suggests that reduced positive affect (PA) may be a marker of risk. We investigated whether self-reports of PA and fMRI-measured striatal response to reward, a neural correlate of PA, are reduced in adolescent youth at high familial risk for depression (HR) relative to youth at low familial risk for depression (LR). Functional magnetic resonance imaging assessments were conducted with 14 HR and 12 LR youth. All youth completed an ecological momentary assessment protocol to measure PA in natural settings and a self-report measure of depression symptomatology. Analyses found that HR youth demonstrated lower striatal response than LR youth during both reward anticipation and outcome. However, after controlling for youth self-reports of depression, HR youth demonstrated lower striatal response than LR youth only during reward anticipation. No significant differences were found between HR and LR youth on subjective ratings of PA or depressive symptoms. Results are consistent with previous findings that reduced reward response is a marker of risk for depression, particularly during reward anticipation, even in the absence of (or accounting for) disrupted subjective mood. Further examinations of prospective associations between reward response and depression onset are needed. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. Reduced reward anticipation in youth at high-risk for unipolar depression: A preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas M. Olino

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Offspring of depressed parents are at risk for depression and recent evidence suggests that reduced positive affect (PA may be a marker of risk. We investigated whether self-reports of PA and fMRI-measured striatal response to reward, a neural correlate of PA, are reduced in adolescent youth at high familial risk for depression (HR relative to youth at low familial risk for depression (LR. Functional magnetic resonance imaging assessments were conducted with 14 HR and 12 LR youth. All youth completed an ecological momentary assessment protocol to measure PA in natural settings and a self-report measure of depression symptomatology. Analyses found that HR youth demonstrated lower striatal response than LR youth during both reward anticipation and outcome. However, after controlling for youth self-reports of depression, HR youth demonstrated lower striatal response than LR youth only during reward anticipation. No significant differences were found between HR and LR youth on subjective ratings of PA or depressive symptoms. Results are consistent with previous findings that reduced reward response is a marker of risk for depression, particularly during reward anticipation, even in the absence of (or accounting for disrupted subjective mood. Further examinations of prospective associations between reward response and depression onset are needed.

  9. Reduced vasopressin receptors activation mediates the anti-depressant effects of fluoxetine and venlafaxine in bulbectomy model of depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poretti, María Belén; Sawant, Rahul S; Rask-Andersen, Mathias; de Cuneo, Marta Fiol; Schiöth, Helgi B; Perez, Mariela F; Carlini, Valeria Paola

    2016-03-01

    In response to stress, corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) and vasopressin (AVP) are released from the hypothalamus, activate their receptors (CRHR1, CRHR2 or AVPr1b), and synergistically act to induce adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) release from the anterior pituitary. Overstimulation of this system has been frequently associated with major depression states. The objective of the study is to assess the role of AVP and CRH receptors in fluoxetine and venlafaxine effects on the expression of depression-related behavior. In an animal model of depression (olfactory bulbectomy in mice, OB), we evaluated the effects of fluoxetine or venlafaxine (both 10 mg/kg/day) chronic administration on depression-related behavior in the tail suspension test. Plasma levels of AVP, CRH, and ACTH were determined as well as participation of their receptors in the expression of depression related-behavior and gene expression of AVP and CRH receptors (AVPr1b, CRHR1, and CRHR2) in the pituitary gland. The expression of depressive-like behavior in OB animals was reversed by treatment with both antidepressants. Surprisingly, OB-saline mice exhibited increased AVP and ACTH plasma levels, with no alterations in CRH levels when compared to sham mice. Chronic fluoxetine or venlafaxine reversed these effects. In addition, a significant increase only in AVPr1b gene expression was found in OB-saline. The antidepressant therapy used seems to be more likely related to a reduced activation of AVP rather than CRH receptors, since a positive correlation between AVP levels and depressive-like behavior was observed in OB animals. Furthermore, a full restoration of depressive behavior was observed in OB-fluoxetine- or venlafaxine-treated mice only when AVP was centrally administered but not CRH.

  10. A "Mental-Health-at-the-Workplace" Educational Workshop Reduces Managers' Stigma Toward Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamann, Johannes; Mendel, Rosmarie; Reichhart, Tatjana; Rummel-Kluge, Christine; Kissling, Werner

    2016-01-01

    Stigma and discrimination are important factors hindering people with mental health conditions to stay employed or successfully make their careers. We surveyed 580 German managers before and after visiting a "mental-health-at-the-workplace" educational workshop using the Depression Stigma Scale. The workshop significantly reduced stigma toward depression. Managers at baseline already exhibited lower stigma toward depression compared with the general population. In addition, female gender and higher education predicted lower stigma, which is in line with findings from other studies. We conclude that an educational workshop giving practical guidance regarding "mental-health-at-the-workplace" reduces managers' stigma toward depression and improves knowledge regarding depression, its course, and its treatment.

  11. Escitalopram reduces increased hippocampal cytogenesis in a genetic rat depression model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersén, Asa; Wörtwein, Gitta; Gruber, Susanne H M

    2008-01-01

    to stressors, but, so far, not in models of depression. Here we report that the number of BrdU positive cells in hippocampus was (1) significantly higher in a rat model of depression, the Flinders Sensitive Line (FSL) compared to control FRL, (2) increased in both FSL and FRL following maternal separation, (3......) reduced by escitalopram treatment in maternally separated animals to the level found in non-separated animals. These results argue against the prevailing hypothesis that adult cytogenesis is reduced in depression and that the common mechanism underlying antidepressant treatments is to increase adult...

  12. Irreversible inactivation of ISG15 by a viral leader protease enables alternative infection detection strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swatek, Kirby N; Aumayr, Martina; Pruneda, Jonathan N; Visser, Linda J; Berryman, Stephen; Kueck, Anja F; Geurink, Paul P; Ovaa, Huib; van Kuppeveld, Frank J M; Tuthill, Tobias J; Skern, Tim; Komander, David

    2018-01-01

    In response to viral infection, cells mount a potent inflammatory response that relies on ISG15 and ubiquitin posttranslational modifications. Many viruses use deubiquitinases and deISGylases that reverse these modifications and antagonize host signaling processes. We here reveal that the leader

  13. Fighting Depression: Action Video Game Play May Reduce Rumination and Increase Subjective and Objective Cognition in Depressed Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühn, Simone; Berna, Fabrice; Lüdtke, Thies; Gallinat, Jürgen; Moritz, Steffen

    2018-01-01

    Cognitive deficits are common in depression and may persist following the resolution of affective symptoms. However, therapeutic strategies that successfully target cognitive impairments are lacking. Recent work has demonstrated that playing action video games leads to improvements in cognition, in particular executive function, in healthy individuals. We therefore set out to test whether playing video games can reduce symptoms associated with depression. We focussed on depressive symptoms and on rumination, since rumination is a good predictor of depression and may contribute to triggering depression. We recruited 68 clinically depressed individuals (mean age: 46 years, 47 females) that were randomized into the training group playing a fast paced action video game for 6 weeks or a waitlist control group. Before and after training participants completed online questionnaires and a neuropsychological test battery. Only participants who actually played the game were included in the analysis. The final sample consisted of n = 21 training group and n = 29 waitlist control group. The training group showed significantly higher subjective cognitive ability, as well as lower self-reported rumination at posttest in contrast to the control group (although these findings do not survive Bonferroni correction). On a subsample with cognitive performance data ( n = 19) we detected an improvement in executive function (Trail Making Task A and B) in the training compared with the control group. The results show that the fast paced action video game employed in the present study improved Trail Making performance and may reduce rumination and enhance subjective cognitive ability. Future research may focus on the investigation of the precise cognitive profile of effects.

  14. Fighting Depression: Action Video Game Play May Reduce Rumination and Increase Subjective and Objective Cognition in Depressed Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Kühn

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive deficits are common in depression and may persist following the resolution of affective symptoms. However, therapeutic strategies that successfully target cognitive impairments are lacking. Recent work has demonstrated that playing action video games leads to improvements in cognition, in particular executive function, in healthy individuals. We therefore set out to test whether playing video games can reduce symptoms associated with depression. We focussed on depressive symptoms and on rumination, since rumination is a good predictor of depression and may contribute to triggering depression. We recruited 68 clinically depressed individuals (mean age: 46 years, 47 females that were randomized into the training group playing a fast paced action video game for 6 weeks or a waitlist control group. Before and after training participants completed online questionnaires and a neuropsychological test battery. Only participants who actually played the game were included in the analysis. The final sample consisted of n = 21 training group and n = 29 waitlist control group. The training group showed significantly higher subjective cognitive ability, as well as lower self-reported rumination at posttest in contrast to the control group (although these findings do not survive Bonferroni correction. On a subsample with cognitive performance data (n = 19 we detected an improvement in executive function (Trail Making Task A and B in the training compared with the control group. The results show that the fast paced action video game employed in the present study improved Trail Making performance and may reduce rumination and enhance subjective cognitive ability. Future research may focus on the investigation of the precise cognitive profile of effects.

  15. Exploring the nature of stigmatising beliefs about depression and help-seeking: Implications for reducing stigma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christensen Helen

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In-depth and structured evaluation of the stigma associated with depression has been lacking. This study aimed to inform the design of interventions to reduce stigma by systematically investigating community perceptions of beliefs about depression according to theorised dimensional components of stigma. Methods Focus group discussions were held with a total of 23 adults with personal experience of depression. The discussions were taped, transcribed and thematically analysed. Results Participants typically reported experiencing considerable stigma, particularly that others believe depressed people are responsible for their own condition, are undesirable to be around, and may be a threat. Participants expressed particular concerns about help-seeking in the workplace and from mental health professionals. Conclusion Findings indicate that interventions to reduce the stigma of depression should target attributions of blame; reduce avoidance of depressed people; label depression as a 'health condition' rather than 'mental illness'; and improve responses of help-sources (i.e. via informing professionals of client fears.

  16. ISG15 inhibits Nedd4 ubiquitin E3 activity and enhances the innate antiviral response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malakhova, Oxana A; Zhang, Dong-Er

    2008-04-04

    Interferons regulate diverse immune functions through the transcriptional activation of hundreds of genes involved in anti-viral responses. The interferon-inducible ubiquitin-like protein ISG15 is expressed in cells in response to a variety of stress conditions like viral or bacterial infection and is present in its free form or is conjugated to cellular proteins. In addition, protein ubiquitination plays a regulatory role in the immune system. Many viruses modulate the ubiquitin (Ub) pathway to alter cellular signaling and the antiviral response. Ubiquitination of retroviral group-specific antigen precursors and matrix proteins of the Ebola, vesicular stomatitis, and rabies viruses by Nedd4 family HECT domain E3 ligases is an important step in facilitating viral release. We found that Nedd4 is negatively regulated by ISG15. Free ISG15 specifically bound to Nedd4 and blocked its interaction with Ub-E2 molecules, thus preventing further Ub transfer from E2 to E3. Furthermore, overexpression of ISG15 diminished the ability of Nedd4 to ubiquitinate viral matrix proteins and led to a decrease in the release of Ebola VP40 virus-like particles from the cells. These results point to a mechanistically novel function of ISG15 in the enhancement of the innate anti-viral response through specific inhibition of Nedd4 Ub-E3 activity. To our knowledge, this is the first example of a Ub-like protein with the ability to interfere with Ub-E2 and E3 interaction to inhibit protein ubiquitination.

  17. Friendships and Family Support Reduce Subsequent Depressive Symptoms in At-Risk Adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Laura van Harmelen

    Full Text Available Early life stress (ELS consists of child family adversities (CFA: negative experiences that happened within the family environment and/or peer bullying. ELS plays an important role in the development of adolescent depressive symptoms and clinical disorders. Identifying factors that may reduce depressive symptoms in adolescents with ELS may have important public mental health implications.We used structural equation modelling and examined the impact of adolescent friendships and/or family support at age 14 on depressive symptoms at age 17 in adolescents exposed to ELS before age 11. To this end, we used structural equation modelling in a community sample of 771 adolescents (322 boys and 477 girls from a 3 year longitudinal study. Significant paths in the model were followed-up to test whether social support mediated or moderated the association between ELS and depressive symptoms at age 17.We found that adolescent social support in adolescence is negatively associated with subsequent depressive symptoms in boys and girls exposed to ELS. Specifically, we found evidence for two mediational pathways: In the first pathway family support mediated the link between CFA and depressive symptoms at age 17. Specifically, CFA was negatively associated with adolescent family support at age 14, which in turn was negatively associated with depressive symptoms at age 17. In the second pathway we found that adolescent friendships mediated the path between peer bullying and depressive symptoms. Specifically, relational bullying was negatively associated with adolescent friendships at age 14, which in turn were negatively associated with depressive symptoms at age 17. In contrast, we did not find a moderating effect of friendships and family support on the association between CFA and depressive symptoms.Friendships and/or family support in adolescence mediate the relationship between ELS and late adolescent depressive symptoms in boys and girls. Therefore

  18. HIV-1 Promotes the Degradation of Components of the Type 1 IFN JAK/STAT Pathway and Blocks Anti-viral ISG Induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gargan, Siobhan; Ahmed, Suaad; Mahony, Rebecca; Bannan, Ciaran; Napoletano, Silvia; O'Farrelly, Cliona; Borrow, Persephone; Bergin, Colm; Stevenson, Nigel J

    2018-04-01

    Anti-retroviral therapy successfully suppresses HIV-1 infection, but fails to provide a cure. During infection Type 1 IFNs normally play an essential role in viral clearance, but in vivo IFN-α only has a modest impact on HIV-1 infection, suggesting its possible targeting by HIV. Here, we report that the HIV protein, Vif, inhibits effective IFN-α signalling via degradation of essential JAK/STAT pathway components. We found that STAT1 and STAT3 are specifically reduced in HEK293T cells expressing Vif and that full length, infectious HIV-1 IIIB strain promotes their degradation in a Vif-dependent manner. HIV-1 IIIB infection of myeloid ThP-1 cells also reduced the IFN-α-mediated induction of the anti-viral gene, ISG15, but not MxA, revealing a functional consequence of this HIV-1-mediated immune evasion strategy. Interestingly, while total STAT levels were not reduced upon in vitro IIIB infection of primary human PBMCs, IFN-α-mediated phosphorylation of STAT1 and STAT3 and ISG induction were starkly reduced, with removal of Vif (IIIBΔVif), partially restoring pSTATs, ISG15 and MxB induction. Similarly, pSTAT1 and pSTAT3 expression and IFN-α-induced ISG15 were reduced in PBMCs from HIV-infected patients, compared to healthy controls. Furthermore, IFN-α pre-treatment of a CEM T lymphoblast cells significantly inhibited HIV infection/replication (measured by cellular p24), only in the absence of Vif (IIIBΔVif), but was unable to suppress full length IIIB infection. When analysing the mechanism by which Vif might target the JAK/STAT pathway, we found Vif interacts with both STAT1 and STAT3, (but not STAT2), and its expression promotes ubiquitination and MG132-sensitive, proteosomal degradation of both proteins. Vif's Elongin-Cullin-SOCS-box binding motif enables the formation of an active E3 ligase complex, which we found to be required for Vif's degradation of STAT1 and STAT3. In fact, the E3 ligase scaffold proteins, Cul5 and Rbx2, were also found to be

  19. Intensive Communicative Therapy Reduces Symptoms of Depression in Chronic Nonfluent Aphasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohr, Bettina; Stahl, Benjamin; Berthier, Marcelo L.; Pulvermüller, Friedemann

    2017-01-01

    Background. Patients with brain lesions and resultant chronic aphasia frequently suffer from depression. However, no effective interventions are available to target neuropsychiatric symptoms in patients with aphasia who have severe language and communication deficits. Objective. The present study aimed to investigate the efficacy of 2 different methods of speech and language therapy in reducing symptoms of depression in aphasia on the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) using secondary analysis (BILAT-1 trial). Methods. In a crossover randomized controlled trial, 18 participants with chronic nonfluent aphasia following left-hemispheric brain lesions were assigned to 2 consecutive treatments: (1) intensive language-action therapy (ILAT), emphasizing communicative language use in social interaction, and (2) intensive naming therapy (INT), an utterance-centered standard method. Patients were randomly assigned to 2 groups, receiving both treatments in counterbalanced order. Both interventions were applied for 3.5 hours daily over a period of 6 consecutive working days. Outcome measures included depression scores on the BDI and a clinical language test (Aachen Aphasia Test). Results. Patients showed a significant decrease in symptoms of depression after ILAT but not after INT, which paralleled changes on clinical language tests. Treatment-induced decreases in depression scores persisted when controlling for individual changes in language performance. Conclusions. Intensive training of behaviorally relevant verbal communication in social interaction might help reduce symptoms of depression in patients with chronic nonfluent aphasia. PMID:29192534

  20. Efficacy of behavioral intervention in reducing anxiety and depression among medical students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Velayudhan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Now a days, college students frequently have more complex problems than they used to have over a decade ago - greater difficulties in relationships; and more severe problems, such as depression, anxiety and thoughts of suicide. Counseling helps students to understand themselves and the world around them, and to adjust themselves more efficiently and appropriately to other fellow beings. Aim: To determine as to what extent the medical students were able to cope up with their anxiety and depression with the help of counseling. Materials and Methods: In the experimental design ′Before-and -after with control design′, Beck Anxiety Inventory and Beck Depression Inventory were administered to 120 medical students who were randomly selected from a private medical college, comprising of 30 males and 30 females in each of the two groups, viz., the experimental group and the control group. Statistical analysis: Means, standard deviations, t test and one-way ANOVA were used to analyze the data. Results: Anxiety and depression among the students were found to be reduced after counseling. Male and female students in the experimental group showed decrease in the levels of anxiety and depression; whereas the control group, which did not get the benefit of counseling, continued to have the same levels of anxiety and depression. Conclusion: Counseling is helpful in building self-confidence and the capacity to adjust, by reducing anxiety and depression among medical college students.

  1. Effectiveness of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Training in Reducing Depression in Visually Impaired Male Students

    OpenAIRE

    Erfan Soleimani Sefat; Seyyed Jalal Younesi; Asghar Dadkhah; Mohammad Rostami

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: According to the prevalence of psychological problems, especially depression in people with visual impairment, this study aimed at investigating the effectiveness of group training of cognitive behavioral therapy in reducing depression in visually impaired male students.  Methods: This study employed a quasi-experimental design, with pre-test and post-test and control group. The study population included 30 students with visual impairment from high school and pre-universit...

  2. The Role of Exercise in Reducing Childhood and Adolescent PTSD, Anxiety, and Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motta, Robert W.; McWilliams, Meredith E.; Schwartz, Jennifer T.; Cavera, Robert S.

    2012-01-01

    The authors review the role of physical exercise in reducing childhood and adolescent posttraumatic stress disorder, anxiety, and depression. A good deal of the existing research on the influence of exercise in reducing negative emotional states and enhancing perceptions of self-efficacy has been conducted with adult samples. Comparatively few…

  3. Intolerance of uncertainty mediates reduced reward anticipation in major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Brady D; Shankman, Stewart A; Proudfit, Greg H

    2014-04-01

    Reduced reward sensitivity has long been considered a fundamental deficit of major depressive disorder (MDD). One way this deficit has been measured is by an asymmetry in electroencephalogram (EEG) activity between left and right frontal brain regions. MDD has been associated with a reduced frontal EEG asymmetry (i.e., decreased left relative to right) while anticipating reward. However, the mechanism (or mediator) of this association is unclear. The present study examined whether intolerance of uncertainty (IU) mediated the association between depression and reduced reward anticipation. Data were obtained from a prior study reporting reduced frontal EEG asymmetry while anticipating reward in early-onset MDD. Participants included 156 individuals with early-onset MDD-only, panic disorder-only, both (comorbids), or controls. Frontal EEG asymmetry was recorded during an uncertain reward anticipation task. Participants completed a self-report measure of IU. All three psychopathology groups reported greater IU relative to controls. Across all participants, greater IU was associated with a reduced frontal EEG asymmetry. Furthermore, IU mediated the relationship between MDD and frontal EEG asymmetry and results remained significant after controlling for neuroticism, suggesting effects were not due to broad negative affectivity. MDD participants were limited to those with early-onset depression. Measures were collected cross-sectionally, precluding causal relationships. IU mediated the relationship between MDD and reduced reward anticipation, independent of neuroticism. Explanations are provided regarding how IU may contribute to reduced reward anticipation in depression. Overall, IU appears to be an important mechanism for the association between depression and reduced reward anticipation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Quality system target on a detail design activity irradiator ISG 500

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinhard Pardede

    2010-01-01

    Currently, an engineering team of Nuclear Equipment Engineering Center PRPN has been beening technology innovation detail design of Irradiator ISG 500, then enter continuing to a construction phase. A schedule detail design still being not finish yet. The installation of Irradiator ISG 500 will be used to preservative the result of agricultural product in Indonesia. It is known as an export commodity and row material for food. However, its quality need some improvements in order to meet internal and foreign consumer standard. To enhance a quality system in detail design phase has already used ISO 9001: 2008 on clausul-7: Product Realization-design. It also needs a radioactive regulation Bapeten-Indonesian Nuclear Energy Surveillance Agency compliance with IAEA GS-R 3: 2006 as well. Scope of activity design is Instrumentation and Control system; Mechanical- Electrical; Radiation and Safety and Dosimetry; Civil Structured; Quality Assurance and Technoeconomic. Technology Innovating be applied to achieved economics through Costumer and Market Focused. Gamma irradiation of Irradiator ISG 500 can be used to improve hygienic quality in terms of technological as well as economical aspects. Technology innovation fit with the state of the arts right now. Assessment should be done base not only internal audit but also monitoring and surveillance as well. By application of a Quality System on detail design activity hopefully to enhance quality on detail design, construction, more over irradiator operation. (author)

  5. Motion and emotion: depression reduces psychomotor performance and alters affective movements in caregiving interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine S Young

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Impaired social functioning is a well-established feature of depression. Evidence to date suggests that disrupted processing of emotional cues may constitute part of this impairment. Beyond processing of emotional cues, fluent social interactions require that people physically move in synchronised, contingent ways. Disruptions to physical movements are a diagnostic feature of depression (psychomotor disturbance but have not previously been assessed in the context of social functioning. Here we investigated the impact of psychomotor disturbance in depression on physical responsive behaviour in both an experimental and observational setting.Methods: In Experiment 1, we examined motor disturbance in depression in response to salient emotional sounds, using a laboratory-based effortful motor task. In Experiment 2, we explored whether psychomotor disturbance was apparent in real-life social interactions. Using mother-infant interactions as a model affective social situation, we compared physical behaviours of mothers with and without postnatal depression (PND.Results: We found impairments in precise, controlled psychomotor performance in adults with depression relative to healthy adults (Experiment 1. Despite this disruption, all adults showed enhanced performance following exposure to highly salient emotional cues (infant cries. Examining real-life interactions, we found differences in physical movements, namely reduced affective touching, in mothers with PND responding to their infants, compared to healthy mothers (Experiment 2.Conclusions: Together, these findings suggest that psychomotor disturbance may be an important feature of depression that can impair social functioning. Future work investigating whether improvements in physical movement in depression could have a positive impact on social interactions would be of much interest.

  6. The Efficacy of Casual Videogame Play in Reducing Clinical Depression: A Randomized Controlled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russoniello, Carmen V; Fish, Matthew; O'Brien, Kevin

    2013-12-01

    Depression is a debilitating illness that is estimated to affect more than 300 million people worldwide. Although there has been some success in treatment of this illness with pharmaceuticals and behavioral techniques like cognitive behavioral therapy, these are often costly and have stigma associated with them. The purpose of this study was to test whether a prescribed regimen of casual videogame (CVG) play could reduce symptoms associated with depression. Participants were screened for depression using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9). They were then randomized into the control (n=29) or experimental (n=30) group. Experimental participants were prescribed to play CVGs three times per week (with 24 hours between each session), for 30 minutes, over a 1-month period. Control participants surfed the National Institute of Mental Health's Web page on depression. The instrument used to test the hypothesis was the PHQ-9. Repeated-measures statistical analyses revealed there was a significant interaction of group and time, supporting the hypothesis that the groups would be different after the intervention. Moreover, when data were compared using tests of within-subjects contrasts between baseline (Time 1) and the end of the 1-month study (Time 3), we found significant decreases in depression symptoms in the experimental group. When this was compared with the control group changes, the results were still significant. We found that a prescribed regimen of playing CVGs significantly reduced symptoms of clinical depression as measured by the PHQ-9. Clinicians should consider these low-cost CVGs as a possible intervention to address psychological and somatic symptoms associated with depression.

  7. Mindfulness significantly reduces self-reported levels of anxiety and depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Würtzen, Hanne; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg; Elsass, Peter

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: As the incidence of and survival from breast cancer continue to raise, interventions to reduce anxiety and depression before, during and after treatment are needed. Previous studies have reported positive effects of a structured 8-week group mindfulness-based stress reduction program...

  8. Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in the winter. Depression is one part of bipolar disorder. There are effective treatments for depression, including antidepressants, talk therapy, or both. NIH: National Institute of Mental Health

  9. Reduced integrity of the uncinate fasciculus and cingulum in depression: A stem-by-stem analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Kartik D; Henderson, Luke A; Hsu, Eugene; Yim, Mark

    2018-04-07

    The subgenual cingulate gyrus (Brodmann's Area 25: BA25) is hypermetabolic in depression and has been targeted successfully with deep brain stimulation. Two of the white matter tracts that play a role in treatment response are the uncinate fasciculus (UF) and the cingulum bundle. The UF has three prefrontal stems, the most medial of which extends from BA25 (which deals with mood regulation) and the most lateral of which extends from the dorso-lateral prefrontal cortex (concerned with executive function). The cingulum bundle has numerous fibers connecting the lobes of the cerebrum, with the longest fibers extending from BA25 to the amygdala. We hypothesize that there is reduced integrity in the UF, specific to the medial prefrontal stems, as well as in the subgenual and amygdaloid fibers of the cingulum bundle. Our secondary hypothesis is that these changes are present from the early stages of depression. Compare the white matter integrity of stems of the UF and components of the cingulum bundle in first-onset depressed, recurrent/chronic depressed, and non-depressed control subjects. Depressed patients (n = 103, first-onset = 57, chronic = 46) and non-depressed control subjects (n = 74) underwent MRI with 32-directional DTI sequences. The uncinate fasciculi and cingulum bundles were seeded, and the fractional anisotropy (FA) measured in each of the three prefrontal stems and the body of the UF, as well as the subgenual, body, and amygdaloid fiber components of the cingulum bundle. FA measurements were compared between groups using ANOVA testing with post-hoc Tukey analysis. There were significant reductions in FA in the subgenual and polar stems of the UF bilaterally, as well as the subgenual and amygdaloid fibers of the cingulum bundle, in depressed patients compared with controls (p lateral UF stem or the main body of the cingulum. No significant difference was demonstrated in any of the tracts between first-onset and chronic depression patients

  10. INDIVIDUALIZED YOGA FOR REDUCING DEPRESSION AND ANXIETY, AND IMPROVING WELL-BEING: A RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Manincor, Michael; Bensoussan, Alan; Smith, Caroline A; Barr, Kylie; Schweickle, Monica; Donoghoe, Lee-Lee; Bourchier, Suzannah; Fahey, Paul

    2016-09-01

    Depression and anxiety are leading causes of disability worldwide. Current treatments are primarily pharmaceutical and psychological. Questions remain about effectiveness and suitability for different people. Previous research suggests potential benefits of yoga for reducing depression and anxiety. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of an individualized yoga intervention. A sample of 101 people with symptoms of depression and/or anxiety participated in a randomized controlled trial comparing a 6-week yoga intervention with waitlist control. Yoga was additional to usual treatment. The control group was offered the yoga following the waitlist period. Measures included Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS-21), Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K10), Short-Form Health Survey (SF12), Scale of Positive and Negative Experience (SPANE), Flourishing Scale (FS), and Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC2). There were statistically significant differences between yoga and control groups on reduction of depression scores (-4.30; 95% CI: -7.70, -0.01; P = .01; ES -.44). Differences in reduced anxiety scores were not statistically significant (-1.91; 95% CI: -4.58, 0.76; P = .16). Statistically significant differences in favor of yoga were also found on total DASS (P = .03), K10, SF12 mental health, SPANE, FS, and resilience scores (P stress and SF12 physical health scores were not statistically significant. Benefits were maintained at 6-week follow-up. Yoga plus regular care was effective in reducing symptoms of depression compared with regular care alone. Further investigation is warranted regarding potential benefits in anxiety. Individualized yoga may be particularly beneficial in mental health care in the broader community. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... reasons why a woman may have depression: Family history . Women with a family history of depression may be more at risk. But depression can also happen in women who don’t have a family history of depression. Brain changes. The brains of people ...

  12. The ANU WellBeing study: a protocol for a quasi-factorial randomised controlled trial of the effectiveness of an Internet support group and an automated Internet intervention for depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mackinnon Andrew J

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent projections suggest that by the year 2030 depression will be the primary cause of disease burden among developed countries. Delivery of accessible consumer-focused evidenced-based services may be an important element in reducing this burden. Many consumers report a preference for self-help modes of delivery. The Internet offers a promising modality for delivering such services and there is now evidence that automated professionally developed self-help psychological interventions can be effective. By contrast, despite their popularity, there is little evidence as to the effectiveness of Internet support groups which provide peer-to-peer mutual support. Methods/Design Members of the community with elevated psychological distress were randomised to receive one of the following: (1 Internet Support Group (ISG intervention, (2 a multi-module automated psychoeducational and skills Internet Training Program (ITP, (3 a combination of the ISG and ITP, or (4 an Internet Attention Control website (IAC comprising health and wellbeing information and question and answer modules. Each intervention was 12 weeks long. Assessments were conducted at baseline, post-intervention, 6 and 12 months to examine depressive symptoms, social support, self-esteem, quality of life, depression literacy, stigma and help-seeking for depression. Participants were recruited through a screening postal survey sent to 70,000 Australians aged 18 to 65 years randomly selected from four rural and four metropolitan regions in Australia. Discussion To our knowledge this study is the first randomised controlled trial of the effectiveness of a depression ISG. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN65657330.

  13. Depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, Lars Veddel; Bukh, Jens Drachmann

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of depression is not clearly established, but estimated to 3-4% in a Danish questionnaire study. Lifetime's prevalences of 12-17% are reported in other community samples. In the current diagnostic system depression is defined categorically and operationally. It has been argued......, that these diagnostic criteria represent an oversimplification, which has blurred the concept of depression. We suggest a greater emphasis on the depressed mood as the core symptom of depression, which may increase the specificity of the diagnosis. Furthermore, basic principles for the treatment of depression...

  14. Conceptual design of gamma irradiator (ISG-500) for preservation of farming product

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    S Budihardjo; Dian F Atmoko; Syamsurijjal Ramja; Sutomo; A Suntoro; Pudjijanto MS; Nada Mamada

    2010-01-01

    A conceptual design of gamma irradiator ISG-500 for a preservation of farming product has been done. The design of gamma irradiator are multi purpose with the activity of radiation source used at 2x250 kCi cobalt-60. This gamma irradiator will be built by using local materials, like as for the building structure construction, the mechanical and electrical systems and for the instrumentation and control systems. The sources of radiation that will be used is Co60 pencil types (C 188 - Nordion), concrete structured building according to BAPETEN rule and the numbers of carriers that will be used are 15 carriers. (author)

  15. Depressants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Teens / Depressants Print en español Depresores del sistema nervioso What They Are: Tranquilizers and other depressants ... of Use Notice of Nondiscrimination Visit the Nemours Web site. Note: All information on TeensHealth® is for ...

  16. Dietary arginine depletion reduces depressive-like responses in male, but not female, mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Workman, Joanna L; Weber, Michael D; Nelson, Randy J

    2011-09-30

    Previous behavioral studies have manipulated nitric oxide (NO) production either by pharmacological inhibition of its synthetic enzyme, nitric oxide synthase (NOS), or by deletion of the genes that code for NOS. However manipulation of dietary intake of the NO precursor, L-arginine, has been understudied in regard to behavioral regulation. L-Arginine is a common amino acid present in many mammalian diets and is essential during development. In the brain L-arginine is converted into NO and citrulline by the enzyme, neuronal NOS (nNOS). In Experiment 1, paired mice were fed a diet comprised either of an L-arginine-depleted, L-arginine-supplemented, or standard level of L-arginine during pregnancy. Offspring were continuously fed the same diets and were tested in adulthood in elevated plus maze, forced swim, and resident-intruder aggression tests. L-Arginine depletion reduced depressive-like responses in male, but not female, mice and failed to significantly alter anxiety-like or aggressive behaviors. Arginine depletion throughout life reduced body mass overall and eliminated the sex difference in body mass. Additionally, arginine depletion significantly increased corticosterone concentrations, which negatively correlated with time spent floating. In Experiment 2, adult mice were fed arginine-defined diets two weeks prior to and during behavioral testing, and again tested in the aforementioned tests. Arginine depletion reduced depressive-like responses in the forced swim test, but did not alter behavior in the elevated plus maze or the resident intruder aggression test. Corticosterone concentrations were not altered by arginine diet manipulation in adulthood. These results indicate that arginine depletion throughout development, as well as during a discrete period during adulthood ameliorates depressive-like responses. These results may yield new insights into the etiology and sex differences of depression. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cizza, G; Ravn, Pernille; Chrousos, G P

    2001-01-01

    Existing studies of the relationship between depression and osteoporosis have been heterogeneous in their design and use of diagnostic instruments for depression, which might have contributed to the different results on the comorbidity of these two conditions. Nevertheless, these studies reveal...... a strong association between depression and osteoporosis. Endocrine factors such as depression-induced hypersecretion of corticotropin-releasing hormone and hypercortisolism, hypogonadism, growth hormone deficiency and increased concentration of circulating interleukin 6, might play a crucial role...... in the bone loss observed in subjects suffering from major depression....

  18. Chronic corticosterone exposure reduces hippocampal glycogen level and induces depression-like behavior in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui-yu; Zhao, Yu-nan; Wang, Zhong-li; Huang, Yu-fang

    2015-01-01

    Long-term exposure to stress or high glucocorticoid levels leads to depression-like behavior in rodents; however, the cause remains unknown. Increasing evidence shows that astrocytes, the most abundant cells in the central nervous system (CNS), are important to the nervous system. Astrocytes nourish and protect the neurons, and serve as glycogen repositories for the brain. The metabolic process of glycogen, which is closely linked to neuronal activity, can supply sufficient energy substrates for neurons. The research team probed into the effects of chronic corticosterone (CORT) exposure on the glycogen level of astrocytes in the hippocampal tissues of male C57BL/6N mice in this study. The results showed that chronic CORT injection reduced hippocampal neurofilament light protein (NF-L) and synaptophysin (SYP) levels, induced depression-like behavior in male mice, reduced hippocampal glycogen level and glycogen synthase activity, and increased glycogen phosphorylase activity. The results suggested that the reduction of the hippocampal glycogen level may be the mechanism by which chronic CORT treatment damages hippocampal neurons and induces depression-like behavior in male mice.

  19. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for PTSD and Depression Symptoms Reduces Risk for Future Intimate Partner Violence among Interpersonal Trauma Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iverson, Katherine M.; Gradus, Jaimie L.; Resick, Patricia A.; Suvak, Michael K.; Smith, Kamala F.; Monson, Candice M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Women who develop symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression subsequent to interpersonal trauma are at heightened risk for future intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization. Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is effective in reducing PTSD and depression symptoms, yet limited research has investigated the…

  20. Depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pouwer, Frans

    2017-01-01

    There is ample evidence that depression is000  a common comorbid health issue in people with type 1 or type 2 diabetes. Reviews have also concluded that depression in diabetes is associated with higher HbA1c levels, less optimal self-care behaviours, lower quality of life, incident vascular...... complications and higher mortality rates. However, longitudinal studies into the course of depression in people with type 1 diabetes remain scarce. In this issue of Diabetologia, Kampling and colleagues (doi: 10.1007/s00125-016-4123-0 ) report the 5 year trajectories of depression in adults with newly diagnosed...... type 1 diabetes (mean age, 28 years). Their baseline results showed that shortly after the diagnosis of type 1 diabetes a major depressive episode was diagnosed in approximately 6% of participants, while 8% suffered from an anxiety disorder. The longitudinal depression data showed that, in a 5 year...

  1. Tele-Interpersonal Psychotherapy Acutely Reduces Depressive Symptoms in Depressed HIV-Infected Rural Persons: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckman, Timothy G; Heckman, Bernadette D; Anderson, Timothy; Lovejoy, Travis I; Markowitz, John C; Shen, Ye; Sutton, Mark

    2017-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive rural individuals carry a 1.3-times greater risk of a depressive diagnosis than their urban counterparts. This randomized clinical trial tested whether telephone-administered interpersonal psychotherapy (tele-IPT) acutely relieved depressive symptoms in 132 HIV-infected rural persons from 28 states diagnosed with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV major depressive disorder (MDD), partially remitted MDD, or dysthymic disorder. Patients were randomized to either 9 sessions of one-on-one tele-IPT (n = 70) or standard care (SC; n = 62). A series of intent-to-treat (ITT), therapy completer, and sensitivity analyses assessed changes in depressive symptoms, interpersonal problems, and social support from pre- to postintervention. Across all analyses, tele-IPT patients reported significantly lower depressive symptoms and interpersonal problems than SC controls; 22% of tele-IPT patients were categorized as a priori "responders" who reported 50% or higher reductions in depressive symptoms compared to only 4% of SC controls in ITT analyses. Brief tele-IPT acutely decreased depressive symptoms and interpersonal problems in depressed rural people living with HIV.

  2. Group Reality Therapy in Addicts Rehabilitation Process to Reduce Depression, Anxiety and Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omid Massah

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Substance abuse is one of the most outstanding socio-psychological hazards that can easily wreck one’s personal, family and social life. Reality Therapy is a type of Cognitive rehabilitation (known as psychosocial rehabilitation, and the application of this method in the treatment of different disorders has recently been the topic of research. The objective of this study was to examine the effectiveness of group reality therapy on the reduction of stress, anxiety and depression in addicts. Methods: A quasi-experimental study of pretest-posttest design, with a control group was conducted. The study population consisted of all addicts attending Tehran’s ‘Neda’ Rehab Clinic. First, the DASS-21 questionnaire was administered and then 40 people were selected from those who had scored average and higher. They were then randomly assigned to two test and control groups of 20 each. Analysis of co-variance was used to analyze the data, with which pretest scores were controlled, and the effect of the independent variable on posttest scores was evaluated. Results: Following the intervention, there were significant decreases in the mean scores of all three variables, i.e. stress, anxiety and depression in the test group (P<0.05. Discussion: Psychosocial rehabilitation based on reality therapy can be considered as an effective method for reducing stress, anxiety and depression in addicts and also as an adjunctive therapy in treating other ailments.

  3. Reduced parahippocampal and lateral temporal GABAA-[11C]flumazenil binding in major depression: preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klumpers, Ursula M.H.; Veltman, Dick J.; Drent, Madeleine L.; Boellaard, Ronald; Lammertsma, Adriaan A.; Comans, Emile F.I.; Meynen, Gerben; Hoogendijk, Witte J.G.

    2010-01-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) has been related to both a dysfunctional γ-amino butyric acid (GABA) system and to hyperactivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA). Although GABA has been suggested to inhibit HPA axis activity, their relationship has never been studied at the level of the central GABA A -benzodiazepine receptor in depressed patients or in relation to antidepressant treatment. Eleven depressed outpatients were compared, before and after treatment with citalopram, with nine age-matched healthy controls. The subjects were scanned using the positron emission tomography (PET) tracer [ 11 C]flumazenil ([ 11 C]FMZ). Parametric voxel-by-voxel Logan plots were compared with methods based on regions of interest (ROI), to provide volume of distribution (V T ) and binding potential (BP ND ) values. Plasma GABA levels were determined and a dexamethasone-corticotropin releasing hormone (DEX-CRH) test was performed. In MDD, parametric voxel-by-voxel Logan plots showed bilateral reduced [ 11 C]FMZ binding in the parahippocampal gyrus and right lateral superior temporal gyrus (p uncorrected ≤0.001). In the temporal area, [ 11 C]FMZ binding showed a strong inverse correlation with HPA axis activity. Plasma GABA did not discriminate MDD from controls, but correlated inversely with [ 11 C]FMZ binding in the right insula. Following treatment with citalopram, voxel-based analysis revealed reduced binding in the right lateral temporal gyrus and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. The bilateral reduction in limbic parahippocampal and right temporal [ 11 C]FMZ binding found in MDD indicates decreased GABA A -benzodiazepine receptor complex affinity and/or number. The inverse relationship between GABA A binding in the temporal lobe and HPA axis activity, suggests that HPA axis hyperactivity is partly due to reduced GABA-ergic inhibition. (orig.)

  4. Chronic maternal depression is associated with reduced weight gain in latino infants from birth to 2 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojcicki, Janet M; Holbrook, Katherine; Lustig, Robert H; Epel, Elissa; Caughey, Aaron B; Muñoz, Ricardo F; Shiboski, Stephen C; Heyman, Melvin B

    2011-02-23

    Latino children are at increased risk for mirconutrient deficiencies and problems of overweight and obesity. Exposures in pregnancy and early postpartum may impact future growth trajectories. To evaluate the relationship between prenatal and postnatal maternal depressive symptoms experienced in pregnancy and infant growth from birth to 2 years of age in a cohort of Latino infants. We recruited pregnant Latina mothers at two San Francisco hospitals and followed their healthy infants to 24 months of age. At 6, 12 and 24 months of age, infants were weighed and measured. Maternal depressive symptoms were assessed prenatally and at 4-6 weeks postpartum. Women who had high depressive symptoms at both time periods were defined as having chronic depression. Logistic mixed models were applied to compare growth curves and risk for overweight and underweight based on exposure to maternal depression. We followed 181 infants to 24 months. At 12 and 24 months, respectively, 27.4% and 40.5% were overweight, and 5.6% and 2.2% were underweight. Exposure to chronic maternal depression was associated with underweight (OR = 12.12, 95%CI 1.86-78.78) and with reduced weight gain in the first 2 years of life (Coef = -0.48, 95% CI -0.94-0.01) compared with unexposed infants or infants exposed to episodic depression (depression at one time point). Exposure to chronic depression was also associated with reduced risk for overweight in the first 2 years of life (OR 0.28, 95%CI 0.03-0.92). Exposure to chronic maternal depression in the pre- and postnatal period was associated with reduced weight gain in the first two years of life and greater risk for failure to thrive, in comparison with unexposed infants or those exposed episodically. The infants of mothers with chronic depression may need additional nutritional monitoring and intervention.

  5. Chronic maternal depression is associated with reduced weight gain in latino infants from birth to 2 years of age.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet M Wojcicki

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Latino children are at increased risk for mirconutrient deficiencies and problems of overweight and obesity. Exposures in pregnancy and early postpartum may impact future growth trajectories. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the relationship between prenatal and postnatal maternal depressive symptoms experienced in pregnancy and infant growth from birth to 2 years of age in a cohort of Latino infants. METHODS: We recruited pregnant Latina mothers at two San Francisco hospitals and followed their healthy infants to 24 months of age. At 6, 12 and 24 months of age, infants were weighed and measured. Maternal depressive symptoms were assessed prenatally and at 4-6 weeks postpartum. Women who had high depressive symptoms at both time periods were defined as having chronic depression. Logistic mixed models were applied to compare growth curves and risk for overweight and underweight based on exposure to maternal depression. RESULTS: We followed 181 infants to 24 months. At 12 and 24 months, respectively, 27.4% and 40.5% were overweight, and 5.6% and 2.2% were underweight. Exposure to chronic maternal depression was associated with underweight (OR = 12.12, 95%CI 1.86-78.78 and with reduced weight gain in the first 2 years of life (Coef = -0.48, 95% CI -0.94-0.01 compared with unexposed infants or infants exposed to episodic depression (depression at one time point. Exposure to chronic depression was also associated with reduced risk for overweight in the first 2 years of life (OR 0.28, 95%CI 0.03-0.92. CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to chronic maternal depression in the pre- and postnatal period was associated with reduced weight gain in the first two years of life and greater risk for failure to thrive, in comparison with unexposed infants or those exposed episodically. The infants of mothers with chronic depression may need additional nutritional monitoring and intervention.

  6. The clinical effectiveness of cognitive behavior therapy and an alternative medicine approach in reducing symptoms of depression in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charkhandeh, Mansoureh; Talib, Mansor Abu; Hunt, Caroline Jane

    2016-05-30

    The main aim of the study was to investigate the effectiveness of two psychotherapeutic approaches, cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and a complementary medicine method Reiki, in reducing depression scores in adolescents. We recruited 188 adolescent patients who were 12-17 years old. Participants were randomly assigned to CBT, Reiki or wait-list. Depression scores were assessed before and after the 12 week interventions or wait-list. CBT showed a significantly greater decrease in Child Depression Inventory (CDI) scores across treatment than both Reiki (peffect for Reiki than did female participants. Both CBT and Reiki were effective in reducing the symptoms of depression over the treatment period, with effect for CBT greater than Reiki. These findings highlight the importance of early intervention for treatment of depression using both cognitive and complementary medicine approaches. However, research that tests complementary therapies over a follow-up period and against a placebo treatment is required. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Can exercise increase fitness and reduce weight in patients with schizophrenia and depression?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesper eKrogh

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundPsychiatric patients have a reduced life expectancy of 15 to 20 years compared to the general population. Most years of lost life are due to excess mortality from somatic diseases. Sedentary lifestyle and medication is partly responsible for the high frequency of metabolic syndrome in this patient group and low levels of physical activity is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, diabetes and all-cause mortality. This study aimed to review trials allocating patients with either schizophrenia or depression to exercise interventions for effect on cardiovascular fitness, strength and weight.MethodsWe searched Pubmed, Embase, and Psycinfo including randomized clinical trial allocating patients with either schizophrenia or depression to isolated exercise interventions.ResultsWe identified five trials including patients with schizophrenia and found little evidence that exercise could increase cardiovascular fitness or decrease weight. Nine exercise trials for patients with depression were identified increasing cardiovascular fitness by 11-30% and strength by 33-37%. No evidence in favor of exercise for weight reduction was found.ConclusionBased on the current evidence isolated exercise interventions are unlikely to improve cardiovascular fitness or induce weight loss in patients with schizophrenia. In patients with depression exercise interventions are likely to induce clinically relevant short term effects, however, due to lack of reporting little is known about the effect on cardiovascular fitness beyond the intervention and weight reduction. Future exercise trials regarding patients with mental illness should preferably measure changes in cardiovascular strength, repetition maximum and anthropometric outcomes. Ideally participants should be assessed beyond the intervention

  8. Probiotic treatment reduces depressive-like behaviour in rats independently of diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abildgaard, Anders; Elfving, Betina; Hokland, Marianne; Wegener, Gregers; Lund, Sten

    2017-05-01

    The gut microbiota has recently emerged as an important regulator of brain physiology and behaviour in animals, and ingestion of certain bacteria (probiotics) therefore appear to be a potential treatment for major depressive disorder (MDD). However, some conceptual and mechanistical aspects need further elucidation. We therefore aimed at investigating whether the habitual diet may interact with the effect of probiotics on depression-related behaviour and further examined some potentially involved mechanisms underlying the microbe-mediated behavioural effects. Forty male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a control (CON) or high-fat diet (HFD) for ten weeks and treated with either a multi-species probiotic formulation or vehicle for the last five weeks. Independently of diet, probiotic treatment markedly reduced depressive-like behaviour in the forced swim test by 34% (95% CI: 22-44%). Furthermore, probiotic treatment skewed the cytokine production by stimulated blood mononuclear cells towards IFNγ, IL2 and IL4 at the expense of TNFα and IL6. In addition, probiotics lowered hippocampal transcript levels of factors involved in HPA axis regulation (Crh-r1, Crh-r2 and Mr), whereas HFD increased these levels. A non-targeted plasma metabolomics analysis revealed that probiotics raised the level of indole-3-propionic acid, a potential neuroprotective agent. Our findings clearly support probiotics as a potential treatment strategy in MDD. Importantly, the efficacy was not attenuated by intake of a "Western pattern" diet associated with MDD. Mechanistically, the HPA axis, immune system and microbial tryptophan metabolism could be important in this context. Importantly, our study lend inspiration to clinical trials on probiotics in depressed patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Sleep disturbances and reduced work functioning in depressive or anxiety disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Mill, Josine G; Vogelzangs, Nicole; Hoogendijk, Witte J G; Penninx, Brenda W J H

    2013-11-01

    We aimed to examine the associations between sleep disturbances and work functioning in an epidemiologic cohort study in subjects with or without depressive or anxiety disorders. There were 707 subjects included in our analyses with depressive or anxiety disorders and 728 subjects without current depressive or anxiety disorders. Insomnia was defined as a score ≥9 using the Insomnia Rating Scale. Self-reported sleep duration was categorized in short, normal, and long (≤6, 7-9, and ≥10 h, respectively). Work absenteeism was defined as none, short (≤2 weeks), or long (>2 weeks). Work performance was defined as not impaired, reduced, or impaired. Logistic regression analyses were performed to examine the associations of sleep disturbances with work functioning. In subjects with psychopathology, insomnia and short sleep duration were significantly associated with impaired work performance (odds ratio [OR] for insomnia, 2.20; [95% confidence interval {CI}, 1.50-3.22]; OR for short sleep, 2.54 [95% CI, 1.66-3.88] compared to normal sleep duration). Insomnia (OR, 2.48 [95% CI, 1.67-3.69]) and short sleep duration (OR, 1.85 [95% CI, 1.23-2.78]) also were associated with long-term absenteeism. These findings remained the same after considering clinical characteristics including medication use and symptom severity. In subjects without psychopathology, no significant associations were found between insomnia and short sleep duration on work functioning after considering subthreshold depression symptoms. In subjects with psychopathology, sleep disturbances were negatively associated with work functioning, independent of disorder severity and use of psychotropic medication. Further research is needed to determine if treatment of sleep disturbances in subjects with psychopathology improves work functioning. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Jon O. J.

    2013-01-01

    Nyhederne er fulde af historier om depression. Overskrifter som: ’Danskerne propper sig med lykkepiller’ eller ‘depression er stadigvæk tabu’ går tit igen i dagspressen. Men hvor er nuancerne, og hvorfor gider vi læse de samme historier igen og igen? Måske er det fordi, vores egne forestillinger er...

  11. A verification calculation of drum and pulley overhead travelling crane on gamma irradiator ISG-500

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syamsurrijal Ramdja; Ari Satmoko; Sutomo Budihardjo

    2010-01-01

    It has been verified the calculation of drum and pulleys on cranes as facility the gamma irradiator ISG-500. Drum is a device for rolling steel ropes while the pulley is a circular pieces called disks, and both of which are made from metal or non-metal to transmit motion and force. It has been verified the calculation of forces on the drum, drum diameter and length, and pressuring force occurred on the drums. Likewise to the pulley, the pulley diameter calculations verification, size of disc and shaft power pulleys. From the verification results, it will be obtained whether the data drums and pulley device are safe or not safe to be used. (author)

  12. ISG hybrid powertrain: a rule-based driver model incorporating look-ahead information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Shuiwen; Zhang, Junzhi; Chen, Xiaojiang; Zhong, Qing-Chang; Thornton, Roger

    2010-03-01

    According to European regulations, if the amount of regenerative braking is determined by the travel of the brake pedal, more stringent standards must be applied, otherwise it may adversely affect the existing vehicle safety system. The use of engine or vehicle speed to derive regenerative braking is one way to avoid strict design standards, but this introduces discontinuity in powertrain torque when the driver releases the acceleration pedal or applies the brake pedal. This is shown to cause oscillations in the pedal input and powertrain torque when a conventional driver model is adopted. Look-ahead information, together with other predicted vehicle states, are adopted to control the vehicle speed, in particular, during deceleration, and to improve the driver model so that oscillations can be avoided. The improved driver model makes analysis and validation of the control strategy for an integrated starter generator (ISG) hybrid powertrain possible.

  13. Peer education as a strategy for reducing internalized stigma among depressed older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conner, Kyaien O; McKinnon, Symone A; Ward, Christine J; Reynolds, Charles F; Brown, Charlotte

    2015-06-01

    This article examines the mechanisms through which peer educator (PE) intervention targets and reduces internalized stigma. There is substantial evidence that internalized stigma negatively impacts the lives of those suffering with mental health concerns, and has been identified as 1 of the most significant barriers to seeking professional mental health services. There has been a push toward identifying interventions and programs that effectively reduce and mitigate the impact of internalized stigma. Research suggests that contact with other individuals who share a stigmatized condition may be a promising approach to targeting and reducing internalized stigma. However, there is a dearth of research that has identified the mechanism through which this contact impacts internalized stigma. Study participants (n = 19) completed a 3-month PE intervention. Each participant was matched with an older adult with a history of depression currently in recovery who provided psychoeducation, social support, and motivational interviewing. Participants completed a demographic questionnaire, public stigma (PDD), and internalized stigma (Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness, ISMI) scales pre- and post-PE intervention. They further participated in a brief semistructured qualitative interview to attain in-depth information about their perceptions of stigma and of working with a PE. Overall, internalized stigma scores were significantly reduced after participating in the PE intervention. In addition, participants identified 4 mechanisms through which contact with their PE impacted their stigmatized beliefs: age related concerns, shared understanding, improved mental health literacy, and mutual support. This study suggests that PE is a potentially valuable approach toward reducing internalized stigma among older adults with depression. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Reduced left precentral regional responses in patients with major depressive disorder and history of suicide attempts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujii, Noa; Mikawa, Wakako; Tsujimoto, Emi; Adachi, Toru; Niwa, Atsushi; Ono, Hisae; Shirakawa, Osamu

    2017-01-01

    Previous neuroimaging studies have revealed frontal and temporal functional abnormalities in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) and a history of suicidal behavior. However, it is unknown whether multi-channel near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) signal changes among individuals with MDD are associated with a history of suicide attempts and a diathesis for suicidal behavior (impulsivity, hopelessness, and aggression). Therefore, we aimed to explore frontotemporal hemodynamic responses in depressed patients with a history of suicide attempts using 52-channel NIRS. We recruited 30 patients with MDD and a history of suicidal behavior (suicide attempters; SAs), 38 patient controls without suicidal behavior (non-attempters; NAs), and 40 healthy controls (HCs) matched by age, gender ratio, and estimated IQ. Regional hemodynamic responses during a verbal fluency task (VFT) were monitored using NIRS. Our results showed that severities of depression, impulsivity, aggression, and hopelessness were similar between SAs and NAs. Both patient groups had significantly reduced activation compared with HCs in the bilateral frontotemporal regions. Post hoc analyses revealed that SAs exhibited a smaller hemodynamic response in the left precentral gyrus than NAs and HCs. Furthermore, the reduced response in the left inferior frontal gyrus was negatively correlated with impulsivity level and hemodynamic responses in the right middle frontal gyrus were negatively associated with hopelessness and aggression in SAs but not in NAs and HCs. Our findings suggest that MDD patients with a history of suicide attempts demonstrate patterns of VFT-induced NIRS signal changes different from those demonstrated by individuals without a history of suicidal behaviors, even in cases where clinical symptoms are similar. NIRS has a relatively high time resolution, which may help visually differentiate SAs from NAs.

  15. Ceftriaxone pretreatment reduces the propensity of postpartum depression following stroke during pregnancy in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Yonghong; Liu, Xianying; Su, Yuetian

    2016-10-06

    Ischemic stroke increases the propensity to develop depression in humans and laboratory animals, and we hypothesized that such an incidence during pregnancy may increase the risk for the development of postpartum depression (PPD). To test this hypothesis, we used bilateral common carotid arteries occlusion (BCCAO) to induce transient cerebral ischemia in pregnant rats, and evaluated its effects on subsequent development of PPD in dams. Additionally, we investigated whether ceftriaxone pretreatments before the induction of brain ischemia could alter the propensity of PPD. We found that 15min BCCAO during pregnancy enhanced immobility time and reduced the frequency of swimming or climbing behaviors in the forced swim test, and decreased the sucrose preference in dams at postpartum day 21. Such behavioral alterations were associated with lower level of GLT-1 expression in the medial prefrontal cortical regions (mPFC) of PPD dams. Specifically, mPFC GLT-1 expression levels in dams with ischemia history were correlated with sucrose preference levels at postpartum day 21. Finally, ceftriaxone pretreatment (200mg/kg/day, 5days) before the 15min BCCAO prevented the development of PPD, and prevented the reduction of GLT-1 expression in the mPFC. Taken together, our results suggested that ceftriaxone pretreatment before brain ischemia during pregnancy may reduce the propensity for the development of PPD by preventing the loss of GLT-1 expression in the mPFC. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Maca reduces blood pressure and depression, in a pilot study in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojanovska, L; Law, C; Lai, B; Chung, T; Nelson, K; Day, S; Apostolopoulos, V; Haines, C

    2015-02-01

    Lepidium meyenii (Maca) has been used for centuries for its fertility-enhancing and aphrodisiac properties. In an Australian study, Maca improved anxiety and depressive scores. The effects of Maca on hormones, lipids, glucose, serum cytokines, blood pressure, menopausal symptoms and general well-being in Chinese postmenopausal women were evaluated. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study was conducted in 29 postmenopausal Hong Kong Chinese women. They received 3.3 g/day of Maca or placebo for 6 weeks each, in either order, over 12 weeks. At baseline, week 6 and week 12, estradiol, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), full lipid profiles, glucose and serum cytokines were measured. The Greene Climacteric, SF-36 Version 2, Women's Health Questionnaire and Utian Quality of Life Scales were used to assess the severity of menopausal symptoms and health-related quality of life. There were no differences in estradiol, FSH, TSH, SHBG, glucose, lipid profiles and serum cytokines amongst those who received Maca as compared to the placebo group; however, significant decreases in diastolic blood pressure and depression were apparent after Maca treatment. Maca did not exert hormonal or immune biological action in the small cohort of patients studied; however, it appeared to reduce symptoms of depression and improve diastolic blood pressure in Chinese postmenopausal women. Although results are comparable to previous similar published studies in postmenopausal women, there might be a cultural difference among the Chinese postmenopausal women in terms of symptom reporting.

  17. The Effect of Education to Reduce Depression Rate in Women With a History of Tubal Ligation Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Etefagh

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Mental disorders such as depression are the most common complications after tubal ligation surgery. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of training to reduce depression rate in woman who had undergone tubectomy. Materials and Methods: This quasi-experimental study was performed on 80 women (40 in each of the control and intervention groups who had undergone tubectomy in Kaboudar-Ahang Health Centers. The participants completed a self-administered questionnaire containing demographic characteristics and General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28.The educational plan set was performed during four educational sessions face-to-face and in-group for the individuals. The data was gathered before and two months after the training in the two groups. Data was analyzed by Pearson correlation test, independent T-test and ANCOVA using SPSS-18 software. Results: Educational Program had an impact to reduce depression rate in women in the intervention group, which was statically meaningful (p< 0.05. The mean score of depression was 29.85 before the training and 15.23 after it. Depression was associated with literacy and job status. More educated women had a lower rate of depression and depression in unemployed women was also higher. Conclusion: Result of the present study demonstrated the importance of education to improve mental health in women with a history of tubectomy.

  18. Exogenous ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) reduces synaptic depression during repetitive stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Neus; Santafé, Manel M; Tomàs, Marta; Priego, Mercedes; Obis, Teresa; Lanuza, Maria A; Besalduch, Nuria; Tomàs, Josep

    2012-09-01

    It has been shown that ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) has trophic and maintenance effects on several types of peripheral and central neurons, glia, and cells outside the nervous system. Both CNTF and its receptor, CNTF-Rα, are expressed in the muscle. We use confocal immunocytochemistry to show that the trophic cytokine and its receptor are present in the pre- and post-synaptic sites of the neuromuscular junctions (NMJs). Applied CNTF (7.5-200 ng/ml, 60 min-3 h) does not acutely affect spontaneous potentials (size or frequency) or quantal content of the evoked acetylcholine release from post-natal (in weak or strong axonal inputs on dually innervated end plates or in the most mature singly innervated synapses at P6) or adult (P30) NMJ of Levator auris longus muscle of the mice. However, CNTF reduces roughly 50% the depression produced by repetitive stimulation (40 Hz, 2 min) on the adult NMJs. Our findings indicate that, unlike neurotrophins, exogenous CNTF does not acutely modulate transmitter release locally at the mammalian neuromuscular synapse but can protect mature end plates from activity-induced synaptic depression. © 2012 Peripheral Nerve Society.

  19. Saffron improved depression and reduced homocysteine level in patients with major depression: A Randomized, double-blind study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamali Jelodar

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: A correlation between hyperhomocysteinemia, and depression has been reported. Saffron (Crocus sativus is recommended for treatment of depression; hence, in this study the effect of co-administration of saffron and fluoxetine on plasma homocysteine and depression was evaluated. Material and methods: This was a 4-week randomized and double-blind clinical trial which was conducted from March 2013 to February 2014. In this trial, 40 male and females (20-55 years old diagnosed with severe depression were selected and following filing the Beck form, were randomly divided into two groups.  Experimental group was treated with fluoxetine 20 mg/day and saffron 30 mg /day and the control group received placebo and fluoxetine 20 mg/day for four weeks. Before treatment and at the end of the study, fasting blood samples were collected. For females, blood samples were collected on the third day of their menstrual cycle. Results: A significant reduction of homocysteine levels was observed in both sex in the experimental group compared to before treatment (p

  20. Adult hippocampal neurogenesis reduces memory interference in humans: opposing effects of aerobic exercise and depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas eDéry

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Since the remarkable discovery of adult neurogenesis in the mammalian hippocampus, considerable effort has been devoted to unraveling the functional significance of these new neurons. Our group has proposed that a continual turnover of neurons in the DG could contribute to the development of event-unique memory traces that act to reduce interference between highly similar inputs. To test this theory, we implemented a continuous recognition task containing some objects that were repeated across trials as well as some objects that were highly similar, but not identical, to ones previously observed. The similar objects, termed lures, overlap substantially with previously viewed stimuli, and thus, may require hippocampal neurogenesis in order to avoid catastrophic interference. Lifestyle factors such as aerobic exercise and stress have been shown to impact the local neurogenic microenvironment, leading to enhanced and reduced levels of DG neurogenesis, respectively. Accordingly, we hypothesized that healthy young adults who take part in a long-term aerobic exercise regime would demonstrate enhanced performance on the visual pattern separation task, specifically at correctly categorizing lures as similar. Indeed, those who experienced a proportionally large change in fitness demonstrated a significantly greater improvement in their ability to correctly identify lure stimuli as similar. Conversely, we expected that those who score high on depression scales, an indicator of chronic stress, would exhibit selective deficits at appropriately categorizing lures. As expected, those who scored high on the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI were significantly worse than those with relatively lower BDI scores at correctly identifying lures as similar, while performance on novel and repeated stimuli was identical. Taken together, our results support the hypothesis that adult-born neurons in the DG contribute to the orthogonalization of incoming information.

  1. Reducing depression during the menopausal transition with health coaching: Results from the healthy menopausal transition randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Osvaldo P; Marsh, Kylie; Murray, Karen; Hickey, Martha; Sim, Moira; Ford, Andrew; Flicker, Leon

    2016-10-01

    To determine if health coaching (HC) decreases the incidence of depression, reduces the severity of symptoms, and increases quality of life during the menopausal transition (MT). Parallel, single-blinded, randomised controlled trial of 6 sessions of phone-delivered HC compared with usual care. Participants were 351 community-dwelling women free of major depression going through the MT, of whom 180 were assigned the intervention and 171 usual care. The primary outcome of interest was the incidence of clinically significant depressive symptoms over 52 weeks. Other study measures included the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, quality of life (SF-12), the Menopause Rating Scale (MRS), diet, body mass index, alcohol use, smoking and physical activity. We considered that women with Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) scores between 5 and 14 (inclusive) had sub-threshold depressive symptoms. Nine women developed clinically significant symptoms of depression during the study-2 had been assigned HC (odds ratio, OR=0.26, 95%CI=0.05, 1.29; p=0.099). Intention-to-treat showed that, compared with usual care, the intervention led to a greater decline in depressive scores, most markedly for participants with sub-threshold depressive symptoms. Similar, but less pronounced, benefits were noticed for anxiety scores and the mental component summary of the SF-12. The intervention led to a decline in MRS scores by week 26 and subtle improvements in body mass, consumption of vegetables and smoking. HC addressing relevant risk factors for depression during the MT improves mental health measures. Our findings indicate that women with sub-threshold depressive symptoms may benefit the most from such interventions, and suggest that HC could play a useful role in minimizing mental health disturbance for women going through the MT. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Preventing Adolescent Social Anxiety and Depression and Reducing Peer Victimization: Intervention Development and Open Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Greca, Annette M.; Ehrenreich-May, Jill; Mufson, Laura; Chan, Sherilynn

    2016-01-01

    Background: Social anxiety disorder (SAD) and depression are common among adolescents, frequently comorbid, and resistant to change. Prevention programs for adolescent SAD are scant, and depression prevention programs do not fully address peer-risk factors. One critical peer-risk factor for SAD and depression is peer victimization. We describe the…

  3. Beta blocker therapy is associated with reduced depressive symptoms 12 months post percutaneous coronary intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Battes, Linda C; Pedersen, Susanne S.; Oemrawsingh, Rohit M

    2012-01-01

    Beta blocker therapy may induce depressive symptoms, although current evidence is conflicting. We examined the association between beta blocker therapy and depressive symptoms in percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) patients and the extent to which there is a dose-response relationship between...... beta blocker dose and depressive symptoms....

  4. Effectiveness of a discharge education program in reducing the severity of postpartum depression: a randomized controlled evaluation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Shiao-Ming; Heh, Shu-Shya; Jevitt, Cecilia M; Huang, Lian-Hua; Fu, Yu-Ying; Wang, Li-Lin

    2009-10-01

    The effectiveness of a hospital discharge education program including information on postnatal depression was evaluated to reduce psychological morbidity after childbirth. A randomized controlled trial (RCT) was conducted in a regional hospital in Taipei. Two hundred first-time mothers agreed to take part and were randomly allocated to an intervention group (n=100) or control group (n=100). The intervention group received discharge education on postnatal depression provided by postpartum ward nurses. The control group received general postpartum education. The main outcome measure was the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) administered by postal questionnaire at six weeks and three months after delivery. Women who received discharge education intervention on postnatal depression were less likely to have high depression scores when compared to the control group at three months postpartum. A discharge educational intervention including postnatal depression information given to women during the postpartum stay benefits psychological well-being. A postpartum discharge education program including information on postnatal depression should be integrated into postpartum discharge care in general practice. 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  5. Depression Screening and Education: Options to Reduce Barriers to Treatment (DESEO): protocol for an educational intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Katherine; Eghaneyan, Brittany H; Trivedi, Madhukar H

    2016-07-29

    Barriers to depression treatment among Hispanic populations include persistent stigma, inadequate doctor patient communication (DPC) and resultant sub-optimal use of anti-depressant medications. Stigma is primarily perpetuated due to inadequate disease literacy and cultural factors. Common concerns about depression treatments among Hispanics include fears about the addictive and harmful properties of antidepressants, worries about taking too many pills, and the stigma attached to taking psychotropic medications. The current manuscript presents the study protocol for the Depression Screening and Education: Options to Reduce Barriers to Treatment (DESEO) study funded by the Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) Grants to Support the Hispanic Health Services Research Grant Program. DESEO will implement universal screening with a self-report depression screening tool (the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9)) that is presented through a customized web application and a Depression Education Intervention (DEI) designed to increase disease literacy, and dispel myths about depression and its treatment among Hispanic patients thus reducing stigma and increasing treatment engagement. This project will be conducted at one community health center whose patient population is majority Hispanic. The target enrollment for recruitment is 350 patients over the 24-month study period. A one-group, pretest-posttest design will be used to asses knowledge of depression and its treatment and related stigma before, immediately after, and one month post intervention. Primary care settings often are the gateway to identifying undiagnosed mental health disorders, particularly for people with comorbid physical health conditions. This study is unique in that it aims to examine the specific role of patient education as an intervention to increase engagement in depression treatment. By participating in the DEI, it is expected that patients will have time to understand treatment

  6. Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus Suppresses Innate Immune Responses via a Ubiquitin and ISG15 Specific Protease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florine E.M. Scholte

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Antiviral responses are regulated by conjugation of ubiquitin (Ub and interferon-stimulated gene 15 (ISG15 to proteins. Certain classes of viruses encode Ub- or ISG15-specific proteases belonging to the ovarian tumor (OTU superfamily. Their activity is thought to suppress cellular immune responses, but studies demonstrating the function of viral OTU proteases during infection are lacking. Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV, family Nairoviridae is a highly pathogenic human virus that encodes an OTU with both deubiquitinase and deISGylase activity as part of the viral RNA polymerase. We investigated CCHFV OTU function by inactivating protease catalytic activity or by selectively disrupting its deubiquitinase and deISGylase activity using reverse genetics. CCHFV OTU inactivation blocked viral replication independently of its RNA polymerase activity, while deubiquitinase activity proved critical for suppressing the interferon responses. Our findings provide insights into viral OTU functions and support the development of therapeutics and vaccines.

  7. A Comparative Study of Group Behavioral Activation and Cognitive Therapy in Reducing Subsyndromal Anxiety and Depressive Symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Soleimani

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study compared the effectiveness of two group treatments, behavioral activation (BA and cognitive therapy (CT, in reducing subsyndromal anxiety and depressive symptoms in a sample of Iranian university students.Method: Twenty-seven Iranian university students who scored 18 or higher on the depression subscale and 16 or higher on the anxiety subscale of the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale (DASS-42 were randomly assigned into treatment groups. One group received 8 sessions of BA (n = 14, and the other received 8 sessions of group CT (n = 13.Result: Analysis of covariance revealed that the BA group had a significantly greater reduction in depressive symptoms than the CT group. However, there were no significant differences between the two groups in the levels of anxiety, stress symptoms or functional impairment after treatment.Conclusion: This study found evidence for the effectiveness of BA in reducing anxiety, depressive and stress symptoms and functional impairment compared to CT. BA was more effective than CT in improving depressive symptoms and was as effective as CT in decreasing anxiety, stress and functional impairment. BA is also a cost-effective intervention, particularly in group formats.

  8. Standardization of quantum key distribution and the ETSI standardization initiative ISG-QKD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laenger, Thomas; Lenhart, Gaby

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, quantum key distribution (QKD) has been the object of intensive research activities and of rapid progress, and it is now developing into a competitive industry with commercial products. Once QKD systems are transferred from the controlled environment of physical laboratories into a real-world environment for practical use, a number of practical security, compatibility and connectivity issues need to be resolved. In particular, comprehensive security evaluation and watertight security proofs need to be addressed to increase trust in QKD. System interoperability with existing infrastructures and applications as well as conformance with specific user requirements have to be assured. Finding common solutions to these problems involving all actors can provide an advantage for the commercialization of QKD as well as for further technological development. The ETSI industry specification group for QKD (ISG-QKD) offers a forum for creating such universally accepted standards and will promote significant leverage effects on coordination, cooperation and convergence in research, technical development and business application of QKD.

  9. Standardization of quantum key distribution and the ETSI standardization initiative ISG-QKD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Länger, Thomas; Lenhart, Gaby

    2009-05-01

    In recent years, quantum key distribution (QKD) has been the object of intensive research activities and of rapid progress, and it is now developing into a competitive industry with commercial products. Once QKD systems are transferred from the controlled environment of physical laboratories into a real-world environment for practical use, a number of practical security, compatibility and connectivity issues need to be resolved. In particular, comprehensive security evaluation and watertight security proofs need to be addressed to increase trust in QKD. System interoperability with existing infrastructures and applications as well as conformance with specific user requirements have to be assured. Finding common solutions to these problems involving all actors can provide an advantage for the commercialization of QKD as well as for further technological development. The ETSI industry specification group for QKD (ISG-QKD) offers a forum for creating such universally accepted standards and will promote significant leverage effects on coordination, cooperation and convergence in research, technical development and business application of QKD.

  10. Memory Flexibility training (MemFlex) to reduce depressive symptomatology in individuals with major depressive disorder: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitchcock, Caitlin; Hammond, Emily; Rees, Catrin; Panesar, Inderpal; Watson, Peter; Werner-Seidler, Aliza; Dalgleish, Tim

    2015-11-03

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is associated with chronic biases in the allocation of attention and recollection of personal memories. Impaired flexibility in attention and autobiographical memory retrieval is seen to both maintain current symptoms and predict future depression. Development of innovative interventions to reduce maladaptive cognitive patterns and improve cognitive flexibility in the domain of memory may therefore advance current treatment approaches for depression. Memory specificity training and cognitive bias modification techniques have both shown some promise in improving cognitive flexibility. Here we outline plans for a trial of an innovative memory flexibility training programme, MemFlex, which advances current training techniques with the aim of improving flexibility of autobiographical memory retrieval. This trial seeks to estimate the efficacy of MemFlex, provide data on feasibility, and begin to explore mechanisms of change. We plan a single-blind, randomised, controlled, patient-level trial in which 50 individuals with MDD will complete either psychoeducation (n = 25) or MemFlex (n = 25). After completing pre-treatment measures and an orientation session, participants complete eight workbook-based sessions at home. Participants will then be assessed at post-treatment and at 3 month follow-up. The co-primary outcomes are depressive symptoms and diagnostic status at 3 month follow-up. The secondary outcomes are memory flexibility at post-treatment and number of depression free days at 3 month follow-up. Other process outcomes and mediators of any treatment effects will also be explored. This trial will establish the efficacy of MemFlex in improving memory flexibility, and reducing depressive symptoms. Any effects on process measures related to relapse may also indicate whether MemFlex may be helpful in reducing vulnerability to future depressive episodes. The low-intensity and workbook-based format of the programme may improve

  11. Interferon-stimulated gene of 20 kDa protein (ISG20) degrades RNA of hepatitis B virus to impede the replication of HBV in vitro and in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshiumi, Hiroyuki; Mengao, Deng; Takaki, Hiromi; Matsumoto, Misako; Aly, Hussein H.; Watashi, Koichi; Chayama, Kazuaki; Seya, Tsukasa

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) barely induces host interferon (IFN)-stimulated genes (ISGs), which allows efficient HBV replication in the immortalized mouse hepatocytes as per human hepatocytes. Here we found that transfection of Isg20 plasmid robustly inhibits the HBV replication in HBV-infected hepatocytes irrespective of IRF3 or IFN promoter activation. Transfection of Isg20 is thus effective to eradicate HBV in the infected hepatocytes. Transfection of HBV genome or ε-stem of HBV pgRNA (active pgRNA moiety) failed to induce Isg20 in the hepatocytes, while control polyI:C (a viral dsRNA analogue mimic) activated MAVS pathway leading to production of type I IFN and then ISGsg20 via the IFN-α/β receptor (IFNAR). Consistently, addition of IFN-α induced Isg20 and partially suppressed HBV replication in hepatocytes. Chasing HBV RNA, DNA and proteins by blotting indicated that ISG20 expression decreased HBV RNA and replicative DNA in HBV-transfected cells, which resulted in low HBs antigen production and virus titer. The exonuclease domains of ISG20 mainly participated in HBV-RNA decay. In vivo hydrodynamic injection, ISG20 was crucial for suppressing HBV replication without degrading host RNA in the liver. Taken together, ISG20 acts as an innate anti-HBV effector that selectively degrades HBV RNA and blocks replication of infectious HBV particles. ISG20 would be a critical effector for ameliorating chronic HBV infection in the IFN therapy. PMID:27626689

  12. Beta blocker therapy is associated with reduced depressive symptoms 12 months post percutaneous coronary intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battes, Linda C; Pedersen, Susanne S; Oemrawsingh, Rohit M; van Geuns, Robert J; Al Amri, Ibtihal; Regar, Evelyn; de Jaegere, Peter P T; Serruys, Patrick; van Domburg, Ron T

    2012-02-01

    Beta blocker therapy may induce depressive symptoms, although current evidence is conflicting. We examined the association between beta blocker therapy and depressive symptoms in percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) patients and the extent to which there is a dose-response relationship between beta blocker dose and depressive symptoms. Patients treated with PCI (N=685) completed the depression scale of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale 1 and 12 months post PCI. Information about type and dose of beta blocker use was extracted from medical records. Of all patients, 68% (466/685) were on beta blocker therapy at baseline. In adjusted analysis, beta blocker use at 1 month post PCI (OR: 0.82; 95% CI: 0.53-1.26) was not significantly associated with depressive symptoms. At 12 months post PCI, there was a significant relationship between beta blocker use and depressive symptoms (OR: 0.51; 95% CI: 0.31-0.84), with beta blocker therapy associated with a 49% risk reduction in depressive symptoms. There was a dose-response relationship between beta blocker dose and depressive symptoms 12 months post PCI, with the risk reduction in depressive symptoms in relation to a low dose being 36% (OR: 0.64; 95% CI: 0.37-1.10) and 58% (OR: 0.42; 95% CI: 0.24-0.76) in relation to a high dose. Patients treated with beta blocker therapy were less likely to experience depressive symptoms 12 months post PCI, with there being a dose-response relationship with a higher dose providing a more pronounced protective effect. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Disability, anxiety and depression associated with medication-overuse headache can be considerably reduced by detoxification and prophylactic treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtsen, L; Munksgaard, Sb; Tassorelli, C

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this article is to investigate whether headache-related disability, depression and anxiety can be reduced by detoxification and prophylactic treatment in patients with medication-overuse headache (MOH). METHODS: Patients with MOH were included from six centres in Europ...

  14. Dietary pattern derived by reduced rank regression and depressive symptoms in a multi-ethnic population: the HELIUS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, E.; Stronks, K.; Visser, M.; Brouwer, I. A.; Snijder, M. B.; Mocking, R. J. T.; Derks, E. M.; Schene, A. H.; Nicolaou, M.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: To investigate the association of dietary patterns derived by reduced rank regression (RRR) with depressive symptoms in a multi-ethnic population. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Cross-sectional data from the HELIUS study were used. In total, 4967 men and women (18-70 years) of Dutch,

  15. Dietary pattern derived by reduced rank regression and depressive symptoms in a multi-ethnic population: the HELIUS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, E.; Stronks, K.; Visser, M.; Brouwer, I. A.; Snijder, M. B.; Mocking, R. J.T.; Derks, E. M.; Schene, A. H.; Nicolaou, M.

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: To investigate the association of dietary patterns derived by reduced rank regression (RRR) with depressive symptoms in a multi-ethnic population. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Cross-sectional data from the HELIUS study were used. In total, 4967 men and women (18-70 years) of Dutch,

  16. Reduced connectivity and inter-hemispheric symmetry of the sensory system in a rat model of vulnerability to developing depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Shimol, E; Gass, N; Vollmayr, B; Sartorius, A; Goelman, G

    2015-12-03

    Defining the markers corresponding to a high risk of developing depression in humans would have major clinical significance; however, few studies have been conducted since they are not only complex but also require homogeneous groups. This study compared congenital learned helpless (cLH) rats, selectively bred for high stress sensitivity and learned helplessness (LH) behavior, to congenital non-learned helpless (cNLH) rats that were bred for resistance to uncontrollable stress. Naïve cLH rats show some depression-like behavior but full LH behavior need additional stress, making this model ideal for studying vulnerability to depression. Resting-state functional connectivity obtained from seed correlation analysis was calculated for multiple regions that were selected by anatomy AND by a data-driven approach, independently. Significance was determined by t-statistic AND by permutation analysis, independently. A significant reduction in functional connectivity was observed by both analyses in the cLH rats in the sensory, motor, cingulate, infralimbic, accumbens and the raphe nucleus. These reductions corresponded primarily to reduced inter-hemispheric connectivity. The main reduction however was in the sensory system. It is argued that reduced connectivity and inter-hemispheric connectivity of the sensory system reflects an internal convergence state which may precede other depressive symptomatology and therefore could be used as markers for vulnerability to the development of depression. Copyright © 2015 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Beta blocker therapy is associated with reduced depressive symptoms 12 months post percutaneous coronary intervention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Battes, L.C.; Pedersen, S.S.; Oemrawsingh, R.M.; van Geuns, R.-J.M.; Al Amri, I.; Regar, E.; de Jaegere, P.T.; Serruys, P.W.; van Domburg, R.T.

    2012-01-01

    Background Beta blocker therapy may induce depressive symptoms, although current evidence is conflicting. We examined the association between beta blocker therapy and depressive symptoms in percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) patients and the extent to which there is a dose–response

  18. Increased social anhedonia and reduced helping behaviour in young people with high depressive symptomatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setterfield, Megan; Walsh, Mallory; Frey, Anna-Lena; McCabe, Ciara

    2016-11-15

    Social anhedonia, the decreased enjoyment of pleasant social experiences, is associated with depression. However, whether social anhedonia in depression affects prosocial behaviours is unclear. The current study aimed to examine how high levels of depressive symptomatology in young people affect responses to usually rewarding social situations, including helping behaviour. We recruited 46 females, 16 scoring high on the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI scores>20, M age =19; HD) and 30 scoring low (BDIemotion task (SET), participants were presented with social scenarios and asked to rate their expected emotional responses. Subsequently, participants' helping behaviour was measured by dropping a pile of papers near them and recording their responses. Lastly, participants completed the SET again. The SET at time 1 revealed that HD individuals reported significantly stronger negative (pemotional responses to social situations than LD subjects. Additionally, all participants showed a significant increase in positive responses (pbehaviour than LD participants. Limitations of the study are that only females were tested and that no psychiatric screening interview was conducted. Our results indicate that young females with high levels of depression symptoms expect to respond less positively to social situations and engage less in helping behaviour compared to those with low depressive symptomatology. Social anhedonia in depression may thus contribute to decreased engagement in rewarding social situations. This, in turn, may lead to social withdrawal and might maintain depression symptoms though a lack of exposure to positive social feedback. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Real-Life Validation of Reduced Reward Processing in Emerging Adults With Depressive Symptoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, Jindra Myrthe; Goossens, Liesbet; Lange, Iris; Michielse, Stijn; Schruers, Koen; Lieverse, Ritsaert; Marcelis, Machteld; van Amelsvoort, Therese; van Os, Jim; Myin-Germeys, Inez; Wichers, Marieke

    Subclinical symptoms of depression are common in emerging adults. Anhedonia is one such symptom that specifically puts one at risk for developing clinical depression. Recently, important progress has been made in elucidating the underlying neurobiology of anhedonia. This progress rests on many

  20. Sleep disturbances and reduced work functioning in depressive or anxiety disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Mill, J.G.; Vogelzangs, N.; Hoogendijk, W.J.G.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: We aimed to examine the associations between sleep disturbances and work functioning in an epidemiologic cohort study in subjects with or without depressive or anxiety disorders. Methods: There were 707 subjects included in our analyses with depressive or anxiety disorders and 728

  1. Sleep disturbances and reduced work functioning in depressive or anxiety disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Mill, Josine G.; Vogelzangs, Nicole; Hoogendijk, Witte J. G.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.

    Objectives: We aimed to examine the associations between sleep disturbances and work functioning in an epidemiologic cohort study in subjects with or without depressive or anxiety disorders. Methods: There were 707 subjects included in our analyses with depressive or anxiety disorders and 728

  2. Using a smartphone app to reduce cognitive vulnerability and mild depressive symptoms: Study protocol of an exploratory randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giosan, Cezar; Mogoaşe, Cristina; Cobeanu, Oana; Szentágotai Tătar, Aurora; Mureşan, Vlad; Boian, Rareș

    2016-12-28

    Depression is a major challenge worldwide, with significant increasing personal, economic, and societal costs. Although empirically supported treatments have been developed, they are not always available for patients in routine clinical care. Therefore, we need effective and widely accessible strategies to prevent the onset of the very first depressive symptoms. Mental health apps could prove a valuable solution for this desideratum. Although preliminary research has indicated that such apps can be useful in treating depression, no study has attempted to test their utility in preventing depressive symptoms. The aim of this exploratory study is to contrast the efficacy of a smartphone app in reducing cognitive vulnerability and mild depressive symptoms, as risk factors for the onset of depression, against a wait-list condition. More specifically, we aim to test an app designed to (1) decrease general cognitive vulnerability and (2) promote engagement in protective, adaptive activities, while (3) counteracting (through gamification and customization) the tendency of premature dropout from intervention. Romanian-speaking adults (18 years and older) with access to a computer and the Internet and who own a smartphone are included in the study. Two parallel randomized clinical trials are conducted: in the first one, 50 participants free of depressive symptoms (i.e., who obtain scores ≤4 on the Patient Health Questionnaire, PHQ-9) will be included, while in the second one 50 participants with minimal depressive symptoms (i.e., who obtain PHQ-9 scores between 5 and 9) will be included. Participants undergoing therapy, presenting with substance abuse problems, psychotic symptoms, and organic brain disorders, or serious legal or health issues that would prevent them from using the app, as well as participants reporting suicidal ideation are excluded. Participants randomized to the active intervention will autonomously use the smartphone app for 4 weeks, while the others

  3. Reduced frontal-subcortical white matter connectivity in association with suicidal ideation in major depressive disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myung, W; Han, C E; Fava, M; Mischoulon, D; Papakostas, G I; Heo, J-Y; Kim, K W; Kim, S T; Kim, D J H; Kim, D K; Seo, S W; Seong, J-K; Jeon, H J

    2016-01-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) and suicidal behavior have been associated with structural and functional changes in the brain. However, little is known regarding alterations of brain networks in MDD patients with suicidal ideation. We investigated whether or not MDD patients with suicidal ideation have different topological organizations of white matter networks compared with MDD patients without suicidal ideation. Participants consisted of 24 patients with MDD and suicidal ideation, 25 age- and gender-matched MDD patients without suicidal ideation and 31 healthy subjects. A network-based statistics (NBS) and a graph theoretical analysis were performed to assess differences in the inter-regional connectivity. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) was performed to assess topological changes according to suicidal ideation in MDD patients. The Scale for Suicide Ideation (SSI) and the Korean version of the Barrett Impulsiveness Scale (BIS) were used to assess the severity of suicidal ideation and impulsivity, respectively. Reduced structural connectivity in a characterized subnetwork was found in patients with MDD and suicidal ideation by utilizing NBS analysis. The subnetwork included the regions of the frontosubcortical circuits and the regions involved in executive function in the left hemisphere (rostral middle frontal, pallidum, superior parietal, frontal pole, caudate, putamen and thalamus). The graph theoretical analysis demonstrated that network measures of the left rostral middle frontal had a significant positive correlation with severity of SSI (r=0.59, P=0.02) and BIS (r=0.59, P=0.01). The total edge strength that was significantly associated with suicidal ideation did not differ between MDD patients without suicidal ideation and healthy subjects. Our findings suggest that the reduced frontosubcortical circuit of structural connectivity, which includes regions associated with executive function and impulsivity, appears to have a role in the emergence of suicidal

  4. Integrating Depression Care Management into Medicare Home Health Reduces Risk of 30 and 60 Day Hospitalization: The Depression CAREPATH Cluster-Randomized Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Martha L.; Lohman, Matthew C.; Greenberg, Rebecca L.; Bao, Yuhua; Raue, Patrick J.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To determine whether a depression care management intervention among Medicare home health recipients decreases risks of hospitalization. DESIGN Cluster-randomized trial. Nurse teams were randomized to Intervention (12 teams) or Enhanced Usual Care (EUC; 9 teams). SETTING Six home health agencies from distinct geographic regions. Patients were interviewed at home and by telephone. PARTICIPANTS Patients age>65 who screened positive for depression on nurse assessments (N=755), and a subset who consented to interviews (N=306). INTERVENTION The Depression CAREPATH (CARE for PATients at Home) guides nurses in managing depression during routine home visits. Clinical functions include weekly symptom assessment, medication management, care coordination, patient education, and goal setting. Researchers conducted biweekly telephone conferences with team supervisors. MEASUREMENTS The study examined acute-care hospitalization and days to hospitalization. H1 used data from the home health record to examine hospitalization over 30-day and 60-day periods while a home health patient. H2 used data from both home care record and research assessments to examine 30-day hospitalization from any setting. RESULTS The adjusted hazard ratio (HR) of being admitted to hospital directly from home health within 30 days of start of home health care was 0.65 (p=.013) for CAREPATH compared to EUC patients, and 0.72 (p=.027) within 60 days. In patients referred to home health directly from hospital, the relative hazard of being rehospitalized was approximately 55% lower (HR = 0.45, p=.001) among CAREPATH patients. CONCLUSION Integrating CAREPATH depression care management into routine nursing practice reduces hospitalization and rehospitalization risk among older adults receiving Medicare home health nursing services. PMID:27739067

  5. Integrating Depression Care Management into Medicare Home Health Reduces Risk of 30- and 60-Day Hospitalization: The Depression Care for Patients at Home Cluster-Randomized Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Martha L; Lohman, Matthew C; Greenberg, Rebecca L; Bao, Yuhua; Raue, Patrick J

    2016-11-01

    To determine whether a depression care management intervention in Medicare home health recipients decreases risk of hospitalization. Cluster-randomized trial. Nurse teams were randomized to intervention (12 teams) or enhanced usual care (EUC; 9 teams). Six home health agencies from distinct geographic regions. Home health recipients were interviewed at home and over the telephone. Individuals aged 65 and older who screened positive for depression on nurse assessments (N = 755) and a subset who consented to interviews (n = 306). The Depression CARE for PATients at Home (CAREPATH) guides nurses in managing depression during routine home visits. Clinical functions include weekly symptom assessment, medication management, care coordination, patient education, and goal setting. Researchers conducted telephone conferences with team supervisors every 2 weeks. Hospitalization while receiving home health services was assessed using data from the home health record. Hospitalization within 30 days of starting home health, regardless of how long recipients received home health services, was assessed using data from the home care record and research assessments. The relative hazard of being admitted to the hospital directly from home health was 35% lower within 30 days of starting home health care (hazard ratio (HR) = 0.65, P = .01) and 28% lower within 60 days (HR = 0.72, P = .03) for CAREPATH participants than for participants receiving EUC. In participants referred to home health directly from the hospital, the relative hazard of being rehospitalized was approximately 55% lower (HR = 0.45, P = .001) for CAREPATH participants. Integrating CAREPATH depression care management into routine nursing practice reduces hospitalization and rehospitalization risk in older adults receiving Medicare home health nursing services. © 2016, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2016, The American Geriatrics Society.

  6. Preventing Adolescent Social Anxiety and Depression and Reducing Peer Victimization: Intervention Development and Open Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Greca, Annette M.; Ehrenreich-May, Jill; Mufson, Laura; Chan, Sherilynn

    2016-01-01

    Background Social anxiety disorder (SAD) and depression are common among adolescents, frequently comorbid, and resistant to change. Prevention programs for adolescent SAD are scant, and depression prevention programs do not fully address peer-risk factors. One critical peer-risk factor for SAD and depression is peer victimization. We describe the development and initial evaluation of a transdiagnostic school-based preventive intervention for adolescents with elevated symptoms of social anxiety and/or depression and elevated peer victimization. We modified Interpersonal Psychotherapy-Adolescent Skills Training for depression, incorporating strategies for dealing with social anxiety and peer victimization. Objective Our open trial assessed the feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary benefit of the modified program (called UTalk) for adolescents at risk for SAD or depression and who also reported peer victimization. Method Adolescents (N=14; 13–18 years; 79% girls; 86% Hispanic) were recruited and completed measures of peer victimization, social anxiety, and depression both pre- and post-intervention and provided ratings of treatment satisfaction. Independent evaluators (IEs) rated youths’ clinical severity. The intervention (3 individual and 10 group sessions) was conducted weekly during school. Results Regarding feasibility, 86% of the adolescents completed the intervention (M attendance=11.58 sessions). Satisfaction ratings were uniformly positive. Intention-to-treat analyses revealed significant declines in adolescent- and IE-rated social anxiety and depression and in reports of peer victimization. Additional secondary benefits were observed. Conclusions Although further evaluation is needed, the UTalk intervention appears feasible to administer in schools, with high satisfaction and preliminary benefit. Implications for research on the prevention of adolescent SAD and depression are discussed. PMID:27857509

  7. Silybin supplementation during HCV therapy with pegylated interferon-α plus ribavirin reduces depression and anxiety and increases work ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malaguarnera, Giulia; Bertino, Gaetano; Chisari, Giuseppe; Motta, Massimo; Vecchio, Michele; Vacante, Marco; Caraci, Filippo; Greco, Carmela; Drago, Filippo; Nunnari, Giuseppe; Malaguarnera, Michele

    2016-11-15

    Hepatitis C virus infection and interferon treatment are often associated with anxiety, depressive symptoms and poor health-related quality of life. To evaluate the Silybin-vitamin E-phospholipids complex effect on work ability and whether health related factors (anxiety and depression) were associated with work ability in subjects with chronic hepatitis C treated with Pegylated-Interferon-α2b (Peg-IFN) and Ribavirin (RBV). Thirty-one patients (Group A) with chronic hepatitis and other 31 subjects in Group B were recruited in a randomized, prospective, placebo controlled, double blind clinical trial. Group A received 1.5 mg/kg per week of Peg-IFN plus RBV and placebo, while Group B received the same dosage of Peg-IFN plus RBV plus association of Silybin 94 mg + vitamin E 30 mg + phospholipids 194 mg in pills for 12 months. All subjects underwent to laboratory exams and questionnaires to evaluate depression (Beck Depression Inventory - BDI), anxiety (State-trait anxiety inventory - STAI) and work ability (Work ability Index - WAI). The comparison between group A and group B showed significant differences after 6 months in ALT (P work ability and reduced depression and anxiety in patients treated with Peg-IFN and RBV. NCT01957319 , First received: September 25, 2013. Last updated: September 30, 2013 (retrospectively registered).

  8. Mothers' depressive symptoms predict both increased and reduced negative reactivity: aversion sensitivity and the regulation of emotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dix, Theodore; Moed, Anat; Anderson, Edward R

    2014-07-01

    This study examined whether, as mothers' depressive symptoms increase, their expressions of negative emotion to children increasingly reflect aversion sensitivity and motivation to minimize ongoing stress or discomfort. In multiple interactions over 2 years, negative affect expressed by 319 mothers and their children was observed across variations in mothers' depressive symptoms, the aversiveness of children's immediate behavior, and observed differences in children's general negative reactivity. As expected, depressive symptoms predicted reduced maternal negative reactivity when child behavior was low in aversiveness, particularly with children who were high in negative reactivity. Depressive symptoms predicted high negative reactivity and steep increases in negative reactivity as the aversiveness of child behavior increased, particularly when high and continued aversiveness from the child was expected (i.e., children were high in negative reactivity). The findings are consistent with the proposal that deficits in parenting competence as depressive symptoms increase reflect aversion sensitivity and motivation to avoid conflict and suppress children's aversive behavior. © The Author(s) 2014.

  9. Efficacy of Opioid-free Anesthesia in Reducing Postoperative Respiratory Depression in Children Undergoing Tonsillectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-05-04

    Anesthesia; General Anesthesia; Analgesics, Opioid; Postoperative Complications; Pathologic Processes; Physiologic Effects of Drugs; Narcotics; Analgesics; Sleep Disordered Breathing; Obstructive Sleep Apnea of Child; Tonsillectomy; Respiratory Depression; Dexmedetomidine; Ketamine; Lidocaine; Gabapentin; Pulse Oximetry

  10. A Novel Religious/Spiritual Group Psychotherapy Reduces Depressive Symptoms in a Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chida, Yoichi; Schrempft, Stephanie; Steptoe, Andrew

    2016-10-01

    This randomized controlled trial aimed to examine the effect of the Happy Science doctrine-based group psychotherapy on depressive symptoms in 118 Japanese mental disorder outpatients. The treatment group (n = 58) took part in five 90-min sessions at one-week intervals, while the control group (n = 60) received standard care including medication. Depressive symptoms were assessed before the intervention, 5 weeks after the intervention, and at 3-month follow-up. Compared to the control group, the treatment group showed a significant reduction in depressive symptoms both at post-intervention and at 3-month follow-up. In conclusion, this group psychotherapy might be of benefit in treating depressive symptoms.

  11. Effectiveness of Mindfulness-based Therapy for Reducing Anxiety and Depression in Patients With Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Mei-Fen; Wen, Yong-Shan; Liu, Wei-Yan; Peng, Li-Fen; Wu, Xiao-Dan; Liu, Qian-Wen

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Anxiety and depression are common among patients with cancer, and are often treated with psychological interventions including mindfulness-based therapy. The aim of the study was to perform a meta-analysis of the effectiveness of mindfulness-based interventions for improving anxiety and depression in patients with cancer. Medline, the Cochrane Library, EMBASE, and Google Scholar were searched. The randomized controlled trials designed for patients diagnosed with cancer were included....

  12. Depression Care for the Elderly: Reducing Barriers to Evidence Based Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Ell, Kathleen

    2006-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of five key bodies of evidence identifying: 1) Characteristics of depression among older adults - its prevalence, risk factors and illness course, and impact on functional status, mortality, use of health services, and health care costs; 2) Effective Interventions, including pharmacologic, psychotherapies, care management, and combined intervention models; 3) Known Barriers to depression care including patient, provider and service system barriers; 4) Effective...

  13. The Impact of Correcting Cognitive Distortions in Reducing Depression and the Sense of Insecurity among a Sample of Female Refugee Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mhaidat, Fatin; ALharbi, Bassam H. M.

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed at identifying the level of depression and sense of insecurity among a sample of female refugee adolescents, and the impact of an indicative program for reducing cognitive distortions in reducing depression and their sense of insecurity. The study sample consisted of 220 female refugee adolescents, 7th to 1st secondary stage, at…

  14. Vets prevail online intervention reduces PTSD and depression in veterans with mild-to-moderate symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobfoll, Stevan E; Blais, Rebecca K; Stevens, Natalie R; Walt, Lisa; Gengler, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Despite heightened rates of depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among in Iraq/Afghanistan veterans, the majority of distressed veterans will not receive mental health care. Overcoming barriers to mental health services requires innovative approaches to broaden the reach of evidence-based treatment. The current study examined the efficacy and acceptability of an innovative and dynamic online cognitive-behavioral therapy intervention for PTSD and depression called Vets Prevail. A randomized clinical trial conducted between 2011 and 2013 assessed changes in PTSD and depression in veterans with mild-to-moderate distress. Veterans randomized to Vets Prevail (n = 209) were aged 34.2 ± 7.6 years, mostly male (81.3%), and nonminority (73.7%). Veterans randomized to adjustment as usual (n = 94) were aged 34.7 ± 8.9, mostly male (81.9%), and White (67.0%). Veterans completed the PTSD Checklist-Military Version and the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression scale (10-item version) postintervention and at 12-week follow-up. Veterans in the Vets Prevail condition reported significantly greater reductions in PTSD, t(250) = 3.24, p = .001 (Mreduction = 5.51, SD = 9.63), and depression, t(252) = 4.37, p = .001 (Mreduction = 2.31, SD = 5.34), at 12-week follow-up compared with veterans in the adjustment as usual condition (PTSD Mreduction = 1.00, SD = 7.32; depression Mreduction = 0.48, SD = 4.95), with moderate effect sizes for PTSD (Cohen's d = 0.42) and depression (Cohen's d = 0.56). Exploratory analysis shows that Vets Prevail may be effective regardless of combat trauma exposure, gender, and ethnic minority status. Vets Prevail circumvents many barriers to care and effectively addresses the dire mental health needs of veterans. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Higher levels of depression are associated with reduced global bias in visual processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Fockert, Jan W; Cooper, Andrew

    2014-04-01

    Negative moods have been associated with a tendency to prioritise local details in visual processing. The current study investigated the relation between depression and visual processing using the Navon task, a standard task of local and global processing. In the Navon task, global stimuli are presented that are made up of many local parts, and the participants are instructed to report the identity of either a global or a local target shape. Participants with a low self-reported level of depression showed evidence of the expected global processing bias, and were significantly faster at responding to the global, compared with the local level. By contrast, no such difference was observed in participants with high levels of depression. The reduction of the global bias associated with high levels of depression was only observed in the overall speed of responses to global (versus local) targets, and not in the level of interference produced by the global (versus local) distractors. These results are in line with recent findings of a dissociation between local/global processing bias and interference from local/global distractors, and support the claim that depression is associated with a reduction in the tendency to prioritise global-level processing.

  16. REDUCING SUICIDAL IDEATION AND DEPRESSION IN OLDER PRIMARY CARE PATIENTS: 24-MONTH OUTCOMES OF THE PROSPECT STUDY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexopoulos, George S.; Reynolds, Charles F.; Bruce, Martha L.; Katz, Ira R.; Raue, Patrick J.; Mulsant, Benoit H.; Oslin, David; Have, Thomas Ten

    2010-01-01

    Objective The PROSPECT Study evaluated the impact of a care management intervention on suicidal ideation and depression in older primary care patients. This is the first report of outcomes over a 2-year period. Method The subjects (N=599) were older (>=60 years) patients with major or minor depression selected after screening 9,072 randomly identified patients of 20 primary care practices randomly assigned to the PROSPECT intervention or usual care. The intervention consisted of services of 15 trained care managers, who offered algorithm-based recommendations to physicians and helped patients with treatment adherence over 24 months. Results Intervention patients had a higher likelihood to receive antidepressants and or psychotherapy (84.9–89% vs. 49–59%) and a 2.2 times greater decline in suicidal ideation than usual care patients over 24 months. Treatment response occurred earlier in intervention patients and continued to increase from the 18th to the 24th month, while there was no appreciable increase in usual care patients during the same period. Among patients with major depression, a greater number achieved remission in the intervention than the usual care group at 4 (26.6 vs. 15.2%), 8 (36% vs. 22.5%), and 24 (45.4% vs. 31.5%) months. Patients with minor depression had favorable outcomes regardless of treatment assignment. Conclusions Sustained collaborative care maintains high utilization of antidepressant treatment, reduces suicidal ideation, and improves the outcomes of major depression over two years. These observations suggest that sustained collaborative care increases depression-free days. PMID:19528195

  17. Can exercise increase fitness and reduce weight in patients with schizophrenia and depression?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Jesper; Speyer, Helene; Nørgaard, Hans Christian Brix

    2014-01-01

    in this patient group and low levels of physical activity is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and all-cause mortality. This study aimed to review trials allocating patients with either schizophrenia or depression to exercise interventions for effect on cardiovascular fitness......, strength, and weight. METHODS: We searched PubMed, Embase, and PsycINFO including randomized clinical trial allocating patients with either schizophrenia or depression to isolated exercise interventions. RESULTS: We identified five trials including patients with schizophrenia (n = 94) and found little...... evidence that exercise could increase cardiovascular fitness or decrease weight. Nine exercise trials for patients with depression (n = 892) were identified increasing cardiovascular fitness by 11-30% and strength by 33-37%. No evidence in favor of exercise for weight reduction was found. CONCLUSION: Based...

  18. Reduced Anxiety and Depression in Patients With Advanced Heart Failure After Left Ventricular Assist Device Implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yost, Gardner; Bhat, Geetha; Mahoney, Edward; Tatooles, Antone

    Despite the high prevalence of depression and anxiety in patients with advanced heart failure, the effects of left ventricular assist device (LVAD) implantation on these critically important aspects of mental health are not well understood. We sought to assess changes in depression and anxiety following LVAD implantation. The Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) and Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) were administered to 54 patients by a clinical psychologist at a mean of 12 days before LVAD implantation and 251 days after implantation. Patient demographics and clinical data were collected concurrently to psychologic testing. Changes in BDI-II, BAI, and clinical markers of heart failure were assessed using paired t-tests. A p Psychosomatic Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The Effectiveness of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy Based on Reducing Anxiety and Depression in Students with Social Phobia

    OpenAIRE

    Parviz Molavi; Niloufar Mikaeili; Neda Rahimi; Saeid Mehri

    2014-01-01

    Background & Objectives : Social phobia is one of the common anxiety disorders characterized by fear of social situations, shame and embarrassment in communicating with unfamiliar people. The aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness of acceptance and commitment therapy in reducing anxiety and depression in students with social phobia .   Methods: An experimental pretest-posttest with control group design was used to conduct the study. The population consists of all female students i...

  20. The Parenting to Reduce Adolescent Depression and Anxiety Scale: Assessing parental concordance with parenting guidelines for the prevention of adolescent depression and anxiety disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mairead C. Cardamone-Breen

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Despite substantial evidence demonstrating numerous parental risk and protective factors for the development of adolescent depression and anxiety disorders, there is currently no single measure that assesses these parenting factors. To address this gap, we developed the Parenting to Reduce Adolescent Depression and Anxiety Scale (PRADAS as a criterion-referenced measure of parental concordance with a set of evidence-based parenting guidelines for the prevention of adolescent depression and anxiety disorders. In this paper, we used a sample of Australian parents of adolescents to: (1 validate the PRADAS as a criterion-referenced measure; (2 examine parental concordance with the guidelines in the sample; and (3 examine correlates of parental concordance with the guidelines. Methods Seven hundred eleven parents completed the PRADAS, as well as two established parenting measures, and parent-report measures of adolescent depression and anxiety symptoms. Six hundred sixty adolescent participants (aged 12–15 also completed the symptom measures. Concordance with the guidelines was assessed via nine subscale scores and a total score. Reliability of the scores was assessed with an estimate of the agreement coefficient, as well as 1-month test-retest reliability. Convergent validity was examined via correlations between the scale and two established parenting measures. Results One proposed subscale was removed from the final version of the scale, resulting in a total of eight subscales. Reliability was high for the total score, and acceptable to high for seven of the eight subscales. One-month test-retest reliability was acceptable to high for the total score. Convergent validity was supported by moderate to high correlations with two established measures of parenting. Overall, rates of parental concordance with the guidelines were low in our sample. Higher scores were associated with being female and higher levels of parental education

  1. Hepatic expression of proteasome subunit alpha type-6 is upregulated during viral hepatitis and putatively regulates the expression of ISG15 ubiquitin-like modifier, a proviral host gene in hepatitis C virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broering, R; Trippler, M; Werner, M; Real, C I; Megger, D A; Bracht, T; Schweinsberg, V; Sitek, B; Eisenacher, M; Meyer, H E; Baba, H A; Weber, F; Hoffmann, A-C; Gerken, G; Schlaak, J F

    2016-05-01

    The interferon-stimulated gene 15 (ISG15) plays an important role in the pathogenesis of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. ISG15-regulated proteins have previously been identified that putatively affect this proviral interaction. The present observational study aimed to elucidate the relation between ISG15 and these host factors during HCV infection. Transcriptomic and proteomic analyses were performed using liver samples of HCV-infected (n = 54) and uninfected (n = 10) or HBV-infected controls (n = 23). Primary human hepatocytes (PHH) were treated with Toll-like receptor ligands, interferons and kinase inhibitors. Expression of ISG15 and proteasome subunit alpha type-6 (PSMA6) was suppressed in subgenomic HCV replicon cell lines using specific siRNAs. Comparison of hepatic expression patterns revealed significantly increased signals for ISG15, IFIT1, HNRNPK and PSMA6 on the protein level as well as ISG15, IFIT1 and PSMA6 on the mRNA level in HCV-infected patients. In contrast to interferon-stimulated genes, PSMA6 expression occurred independent of HCV load and genotype. In PHH, the expression of ISG15 and PSMA6 was distinctly induced by poly(I:C), depending on IRF3 activation or PI3K/AKT signalling, respectively. Suppression of PSMA6 in HCV replicon cells led to significant induction of ISG15 expression, thus combined knock-down of both genes abrogated the antiviral effect induced by the separate suppression of ISG15. These data indicate that hepatic expression of PSMA6, which is upregulated during viral hepatitis, likely depends on TLR3 activation. PSMA6 affects the expression of immunoregulatory ISG15, a proviral factor in the pathogenesis of HCV infection. Therefore, the proteasome might be involved in the enigmatic interaction between ISG15 and HCV. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Effectiveness of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Training in Reducing Depression in Visually Impaired Male Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erfan Soleimani Sefat

    2017-06-01

    Discussion: The findings demonstrated that cognitive behavioral therapy was significantly effective in improving depression of male students with visual impairment in experimental group. The group training needs to be adopted by medical practitioners on a cohort for validating its effectiveness on a larger scale.

  3. Associations between Physical Activity and Reduced Rates of Hopelessness, Depression, and Suicidal Behavior among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taliaferro, Lindsay A.; Rienzo, Barbara A.; Pigg, R. Morgan; Miller, M. David; Dodd, Virginia J.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The authors explored associations among types of physical activity and hopelessness, depression, and suicidal behavior among college students. Participants: Participants included 43,499 college students aged 18 to 25 who completed the 2005 National College Health Assessment conducted by the American College Health Association. Methods:…

  4. Reducing Depression, Anxiety, and Trauma of Male Inmates: An HIV/AIDS Psychoeducational Group Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomeroy, Elizabeth C.; Kiam, Risa; Green, Diane L.

    2000-01-01

    Reports on a quasi-experimental research study that found that a 10-session psychoeducational group intervention was effective in increasing knowledge of AIDS and decreasing depression, anxiety, and trauma symptoms among male inmates. The intervention consisted of both AIDS education topics and psychological support. Results indicate significant…

  5. Separation, Motivation, and Depression: Neonatal Isolation Reduces Food-Rewarded Operant Responding in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zellner, Margaret R.; Ranaldi, Robert

    2006-01-01

    One symptom of depression is loss of motivation, which can be defined as responsiveness to response-eliciting stimuli and quantified as reward-related behavioral output. Long-term changes in reward-related behavior have been shown to follow early life stress. Most rodent studies investigating the effects of postnatal separation, an early stress,…

  6. Effectiveness of Mindfulness-based Therapy for Reducing Anxiety and Depression in Patients With Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mei-Fen; Wen, Yong-Shan; Liu, Wei-Yan; Peng, Li-Fen; Wu, Xiao-Dan; Liu, Qian-Wen

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Anxiety and depression are common among patients with cancer, and are often treated with psychological interventions including mindfulness-based therapy. The aim of the study was to perform a meta-analysis of the effectiveness of mindfulness-based interventions for improving anxiety and depression in patients with cancer. Medline, the Cochrane Library, EMBASE, and Google Scholar were searched. The randomized controlled trials designed for patients diagnosed with cancer were included. Mindfulness-based interventions were provided. The outcomes assessed were the changes in anxiety and depression scores from before to after the intervention. The treatment response was determined by calculating the standardized mean difference (SMD) for individual studies and for pooled study results. Subgroup analyses by cancer type, type of therapy, and length of follow-up were performed. Seven studies, involving 469 participants who received mindfulness-based interventions and 419 participants in a control group, were included in the meta-analysis. Mindfulness-based stress reduction and art therapy were the most common interventions (5/7 studies). All studies reported anxiety and depression scores. The pooled SMD of the change in anxiety significantly favored mindfulness-based therapy over control treatment (−0.75, 95% confidence interval −1.28, −0.22, P = 0.005). Likewise, the pooled SMD of the change in depression also significantly favored mindfulness-based therapy over control (−0.90, 95% confidence interval −1.53, −0.26, P = 0.006). During the length of follow-ups less than 12 weeks, mindfulness-based therapy significantly improved anxiety for follow-up ≤12 weeks after the start of therapy, but not >12 weeks after the start of therapy. There was a lack of consistency between the studies in the type of mindfulness-based/control intervention implemented. Patients had different forms of cancer. Subgroup analyses included a relatively small number of

  7. Dietary pattern derived by reduced rank regression and depressive symptoms in a multi-ethnic population: the HELIUS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeulen, E; Stronks, K; Visser, M; Brouwer, I A; Snijder, M B; Mocking, R J T; Derks, E M; Schene, A H; Nicolaou, M

    2017-08-01

    To investigate the association of dietary patterns derived by reduced rank regression (RRR) with depressive symptoms in a multi-ethnic population. Cross-sectional data from the HELIUS study were used. In total, 4967 men and women (18-70 years) of Dutch, South-Asian Surinamese, African Surinamese, Turkish and Moroccan origin living in the Netherlands were included. Diet was measured using ethnic-specific food frequency questionnaires. Depressive symptoms were measured with the nine-item patient health questionnaire. By performing RRR in the whole population and per ethnic group, comparable dietary patterns were identified and therefore the dietary pattern for the whole population was used for subsequent analyses. We identified a dietary pattern that was strongly related to eicosapentaenoic acid+docosahexaenoic acid, folate, magnesium and zinc (response variables) and which was characterized by milk products, cheese, whole grains, vegetables, legumes, nuts, potatoes and red meat. After adjustment for confounders, a statistically significant inverse association was observed in the whole population (B: -0.03, 95% CI: -0.06, -0.00, P=0.046) and among Moroccan (B: -0.09, 95% CI: -0.13, -0.04, P=0.027) and South-Asian Surinamese participants (B: -0.05, 95% CI: -0.09, -0.01, P=dietary pattern and significant depressed mood in any of the ethnic groups. No consistent evidence was found that consumption of a dietary pattern, high in nutrients that are hypothesized to protect against depression, was associated with lower depressive symptoms across different ethnic groups.

  8. A take-home placebo treatment can reduce stress, anxiety and symptoms of depression in a non-patient population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darragh, Margot; Yow, Boris; Kieser, Anel; Booth, Roger J; Kydd, Robert R; Consedine, Nathan S

    2016-09-01

    With a healthcare system burdened by symptomatic and mental-health related conditions, the placebo effect may represent a useful clinical tool. First, however, there is a need to broaden research attention and investigate placebo effects outside laboratories and beyond experimental pain. This study investigated the effectiveness of a take-home placebo treatment in the short-term alleviation of stress, anxiety and symptoms of depression in a non-patient population. A sample of 77 participants was randomized to either the 'oxytocin' treatment group (n = 22), the 'serotonin' treatment group (n = 22) or the wait-list control group (n = 33). The two treatment groups were given an 'anti-stress treatment spray' (placebo) to self-administer for 3 days, and completed online measures of perceived stress (Perceived Stress Scale-10), anxiety (Cognitive Somatic Anxiety Questionnaire) and symptoms of depression (Centre for Epidemiological Studies - Depression) before and after the 3-day protocol. Both the 'serotonin' and 'oxytocin' treatment sprays were effective in reducing symptoms of depression; however, only those in the 'oxytocin' group reported less stress and anxiety as compared with controls. Overall, the 'oxytocin' was perceived as more effective. Placebo effects can be translated to a real-life setting in the short-term reduction of stress, anxiety and symptoms of depression in a non-patient population. In treating psychological distress, placebos may be useful addition to the treatment repertoire. The information given with treatment may also be an important consideration for practitioners. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.

  9. Environmental enrichment reduces innate anxiety with no effect on depression-like behaviour in mice lacking the serotonin transporter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Jake; Li, Shanshan; Lanfumey, Laurence; Hannan, Anthony J; Renoir, Thibault

    2017-08-14

    Along with being the main target of many antidepressant medications, the serotonin transporter (5-HTT) is known to be involved in the pathophysiology of depression and anxiety disorders. In line with this, mice with varying 5-HTT genotypes are invaluable tools to study depression- and anxiety-like behaviours as well as the mechanisms mediating potential therapeutics. There is clear evidence that both genetic and environmental factors play a role in the aetiology of psychiatric disorders. In that regard, housing paradigms which seek to enhance cognitive stimulation and physical activity have been shown to exert beneficial effects in animal models of neuropsychiatric disorders. In the present study, we examined the effects of environmental enrichment on affective-like behaviours and sensorimotor gating function of 5-HTT knock-out (KO) mice. Using the elevated-plus maze and the light-dark box, we found that environmental enrichment ameliorated the abnormal innate anxiety of 5-HTT KO mice on both tests. In contrast, environmental enrichment did not rescue the depression-like behaviour displayed by 5-HTT KO mice in the forced-swim test. Finally, measuring pre-pulse inhibition, we found no effect of genotype or treatment on sensorimotor gating. In conclusion, our data suggest that environmental enrichment specifically reduces innate anxiety of 5-HTT KO mice with no amelioration of the depression-like behaviour. This has implications for the current use of clinical interventions for patients with symptoms of both anxiety and depression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Initial Findings from a Novel School-Based Program, EMPATHY, Which May Help Reduce Depression and Suicidality in Youth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter H Silverstone

    Full Text Available We describe initial pilot findings from a novel school-based approach to reduce youth depression and suicidality, the Empowering a Multimodal Pathway Towards Healthy Youth (EMPATHY program. Here we present the findings from the pilot cohort of 3,244 youth aged 11-18 (Grades 6-12. They were screened for depression, suicidality, anxiety, use of drugs, alcohol, or tobacco (DAT, quality-of-life, and self-esteem. Additionally, all students in Grades 7 and 8 (mean ages 12.3 and 13.3 respectively also received an 8-session cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT based program designed to increase resiliency to depression. Following screening there were rapid interventions for the 125 students (3.9% who were identified as being actively suicidal, as well as for another 378 students (11.7% who were felt to be at higher-risk of self-harm based on a combination of scores from all the scales. The intervention consisted of an interview with the student and their family followed by offering a guided internet-based CBT program. Results from the 2,790 students who completed scales at both baseline and 12-week follow-up showed significant decreases in depression and suicidality. Importantly, there was a marked decrease in the number of students who were actively suicidal (from n=125 at baseline to n=30 at 12-weeks. Of the 503 students offered the CBT program 163 (32% took part, and this group had significantly lower depression scores compared to those who didn't take part. There were no improvements in self-esteem, quality-of-life, or the number of students using DAT. Only 60 students (2% of total screened required external referral during the 24-weeks following study initiation. These results suggest that a multimodal school-based program may provide an effective and pragmatic approach to help reduce youth depression and suicidality. Further research is required to determine longer-term efficacy, reproducibility, and key program elements.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT

  11. Initial Findings from a Novel School-Based Program, EMPATHY, Which May Help Reduce Depression and Suicidality in Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverstone, Peter H; Bercov, Marni; Suen, Victoria Y M; Allen, Andrea; Cribben, Ivor; Goodrick, Jodi; Henry, Stu; Pryce, Catherine; Langstraat, Pieter; Rittenbach, Katherine; Chakraborty, Samprita; Engels, Rutger C; McCabe, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    We describe initial pilot findings from a novel school-based approach to reduce youth depression and suicidality, the Empowering a Multimodal Pathway Towards Healthy Youth (EMPATHY) program. Here we present the findings from the pilot cohort of 3,244 youth aged 11-18 (Grades 6-12). They were screened for depression, suicidality, anxiety, use of drugs, alcohol, or tobacco (DAT), quality-of-life, and self-esteem. Additionally, all students in Grades 7 and 8 (mean ages 12.3 and 13.3 respectively) also received an 8-session cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) based program designed to increase resiliency to depression. Following screening there were rapid interventions for the 125 students (3.9%) who were identified as being actively suicidal, as well as for another 378 students (11.7%) who were felt to be at higher-risk of self-harm based on a combination of scores from all the scales. The intervention consisted of an interview with the student and their family followed by offering a guided internet-based CBT program. Results from the 2,790 students who completed scales at both baseline and 12-week follow-up showed significant decreases in depression and suicidality. Importantly, there was a marked decrease in the number of students who were actively suicidal (from n=125 at baseline to n=30 at 12-weeks). Of the 503 students offered the CBT program 163 (32%) took part, and this group had significantly lower depression scores compared to those who didn't take part. There were no improvements in self-esteem, quality-of-life, or the number of students using DAT. Only 60 students (2% of total screened) required external referral during the 24-weeks following study initiation. These results suggest that a multimodal school-based program may provide an effective and pragmatic approach to help reduce youth depression and suicidality. Further research is required to determine longer-term efficacy, reproducibility, and key program elements. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02169960.

  12. Initial Findings from a Novel School-Based Program, EMPATHY, Which May Help Reduce Depression and Suicidality in Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverstone, Peter H.; Bercov, Marni; Suen, Victoria Y. M.; Allen, Andrea; Cribben, Ivor; Goodrick, Jodi; Henry, Stu; Pryce, Catherine; Langstraat, Pieter; Rittenbach, Katherine; Chakraborty, Samprita; Engels, Rutger C.; McCabe, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    We describe initial pilot findings from a novel school-based approach to reduce youth depression and suicidality, the Empowering a Multimodal Pathway Towards Healthy Youth (EMPATHY) program. Here we present the findings from the pilot cohort of 3,244 youth aged 11–18 (Grades 6-12). They were screened for depression, suicidality, anxiety, use of drugs, alcohol, or tobacco (DAT), quality-of-life, and self-esteem. Additionally, all students in Grades 7 and 8 (mean ages 12.3 and 13.3 respectively) also received an 8-session cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) based program designed to increase resiliency to depression. Following screening there were rapid interventions for the 125 students (3.9%) who were identified as being actively suicidal, as well as for another 378 students (11.7%) who were felt to be at higher-risk of self-harm based on a combination of scores from all the scales. The intervention consisted of an interview with the student and their family followed by offering a guided internet-based CBT program. Results from the 2,790 students who completed scales at both baseline and 12-week follow-up showed significant decreases in depression and suicidality. Importantly, there was a marked decrease in the number of students who were actively suicidal (from n=125 at baseline to n=30 at 12-weeks). Of the 503 students offered the CBT program 163 (32%) took part, and this group had significantly lower depression scores compared to those who didn’t take part. There were no improvements in self-esteem, quality-of-life, or the number of students using DAT. Only 60 students (2% of total screened) required external referral during the 24-weeks following study initiation. These results suggest that a multimodal school-based program may provide an effective and pragmatic approach to help reduce youth depression and suicidality. Further research is required to determine longer-term efficacy, reproducibility, and key program elements. Trial Registration Clinical

  13. Health outcomes in acromegaly: depression and anxiety are promising targets for improving reduced quality of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Jacobus Geraedts

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available IINTRODUCTION. Remission criteria of acromegaly are based on biochemical variables, i.e. normalization of increased hormone levels. However, the established reduction in Quality of Life (QoL is suggested to be independent of biochemical control. The aim of this study was to test which aspects predict Qol best in acromegaly. METHODS/Design. This is a prospective cohort study in 80 acromegalic patients, with a cross-sectional and longitudinal part. The main outcome measure was health-related quality of life (QoL, measured by a generic and a disease-specific questionnaire (the SF-36 and AcroQol. Main predictors were age, gender, biochemical control, disease characteristics, treatment modalities and psychopathology. RESULTS. Our cohort of 80 acromegalics had a mean age 54.7 ± 12.3 years with an average disease duration of 10.8 ± 10.0 years. Ratio macro-/microadenoma was 54/26. In adjusted mixed method models, we found that psychopathology significantly predicts QoL in acromegaly (in models including the variables age, gender, disease duration, tumor size, basal hormone levels, relevant treatment modalities and relevant comorbidities, with a higher degree of psychopathology indicating a lower QoL (depression vs. AcroQoL: B=-1.175, p<0.001, depression vs. SF36: B=-1.648, p<0.001, anxiety vs. AcroQoL: B=-0.399, p<0.001, anxiety vs. SF36: B=-0.661, p<0.001. The explained variances demonstrate superiority of psychopathology over biochemical control and other variables in predicting QoL in our models. DISCUSSION. Superiority of psychopathology over biochemical control calls for a more extensive approach regarding diagnosing depression and anxiety in pituitary adenomas to improve QoL. Depressive symptoms and anxiety are modifiable factors that might provide valuable targets for possible future treatment interventions.

  14. A randomized clinical trial of a telephone depression intervention to reduce employee presenteeism and absenteeism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, Debra; Adler, David A; Rogers, William H; Chang, Hong; Greenhill, Annabel; Cymerman, Elina; Azocar, Francisca

    2015-06-01

    The study tested an intervention aimed at improving work functioning among middle-aged and older adults with depression and work limitations. A randomized clinical trial allocated an initial sample of 431 eligible employed adults (age ≥45) to a work-focused intervention (WFI) or usual care. Inclusion criteria were depression as measured by the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) and at-work limitations indicated by a productivity loss score ≥5% on the Work Limitations Questionnaire (WLQ). Study sites included 19 employers and five related organizations. Telephone-based counseling provided three integrated modalities: care coordination, cognitive-behavioral therapy strategy development, and work coaching and modification. Effectiveness (change in productivity loss scores from preintervention to four months postintervention) was tested with mixed models adjusted for confounders. Secondary outcomes included change in WLQ work performance scales, self-reported absences, and depression. Of 1,227 eligible employees (7% of screened), 431 (35%) enrolled and 380 completed the study (12% attrition). At-work productivity loss improved 44% in the WFI group versus 13% in usual care (difference in change, p<.001). WFI group scores on the four WLQ scales improved 44% to 47%, significantly better than in usual care (p<.001 for each scale). Absence days declined by 53% in the WFI group versus 13% in usual care (difference in change, p<.001). Mean PHQ-9 depression symptom severity scores declined 51% for WFI versus 26% for usual care (difference in change, p<.001). The WFI was more effective than usual care at four-month follow-up. Given increasing efforts to provide more patient-centered, value-based care, the WFI could be an important resource.

  15. Punishment for bedwetting is associated with child depression and reduced quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Zaben, Faten Nabeel; Sehlo, Mohammad Gamal

    2015-05-01

    This study assessed the relationship between parental punishment and depression as well as quality of life in children with primary monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis (PMNE). A consecutive sample of 65 children (7-13 years) with PMNE and 40 healthy children, selected as controls (Group III), were included in the study. The children with PMNE were further sub-classified into two groups: Group I, which included children who received parental punishment for enuresis and Group II, which comprised children who were not punished for bedwetting. Depression and health-related quality of life (HRQL) were assessed among the three groups. The number of wet nights per week was significantly increased in Group I compared with Group II (Pcorporal punishment (B=0.55, P=.008), as well as the frequency (B=0.73, Ppunishment (B=0.33, P=.02) were strong predictors of increased depressive symptom severity. It was also found that prior punishment (B=-0.42, P=.01) and the frequency (B=-0.62, Ppunishment (B=-0.34, P=.02) were strong predictors for poor psychosocial HRQL. Overall, parental punishment has a poor outcome in children with PMNE. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The Effectiveness of Psychodrama in Relapse Prevention and Reducing Depression among Opiate-Dependent Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    s dehnavi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The current study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of psychodrama therapy in relapse prevention (RP and the reduction of depression among opiate-dependent male patients. Method: A quasi-experimental research design along with pre-post tests and follow-up and control group was employed for this study. Using convenience sampling method, the number of 20 opiate-dependent men who had referred to addiction treatment clinics in Kermanshah (Iran and successfully passed detoxification program was randomly selected as the participants of the study. The experimental group participated in a twelve-session therapy plan during six weeks. Beck Depression Inventory (BDI was used for data collection purposes. Results: The results of ANCOVA revealed the existence of a significant difference between the two groups in the post-test and follow-up scores. Conclusion: According to the findings, it can be argued that psychodrama intervention can be used as an effective program in the reduction of depression and relapse prevention among opiate-dependent men.

  17. The other face of depression, reduced positive affect: the role of catecholamines in causation and cure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutt, David; Demyttenaere, Koen; Janka, Zoltan; Aarre, Trond; Bourin, Michel; Canonico, Pier Luigi; Carrasco, Jose Luis; Stahl, Steven

    2007-07-01

    Despite significant advances in pharmacologic therapy of depression over the past two decades, a substantial proportion of patients fail to respond or experience only partial response to serotonin re-uptake inhibitor antidepressants, resulting in chronic functional impairment. There appears to be a pattern of symptoms that are inadequately addressed by serotonergic antidepressants - loss of pleasure, loss of interest, fatigue and loss of energy. These symptoms are key to the maintenance of drive and motivation. Although these symptoms are variously defined, they are consistent with the concept of ;decreased positive affect'. Positive affect subsumes a broad range of positive mood states, including feelings of happiness (joy), interest, energy, enthusiasm, alertness and self-confidence. Although preliminary, there is evidence to suggest that antidepressants that enhance noradrenergic and dopaminergic activity may afford a therapeutic advantage over serotonergic antidepressants in the treatment of symptoms associated with a reduction in positive affect. Dopaminergic and noradrenergic agents, including the dual acting norepinephrine and dopamine re-uptake inhibitors, have demonstrated antidepressant activity in the absence of serotonergic function, showing similar efficacy to both tricyclic and serotonin re-uptake inhibitor antidepressants. Moreover, the norepinephrine and dopamine re-uptake inhibitor bupropion has been shown to significantly improve symptoms of energy, pleasure and interest in patients with depression with predominant baseline symptoms of decreased pleasure, interest and energy. Focusing treatment on the predominant or driving symptomatology for an individual patient with major depression could potentially improve rates of response and remission.

  18. Reducing Eating Disorder Onset in a Very High Risk Sample with Significant Comorbid Depression: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, C. Barr; Kass, Andrea E.; Trockel, Mickey; Cunning, Darby; Weisman, Hannah; Bailey, Jakki; Sinton, Meghan; Aspen, Vandana; Schecthman, Kenneth; Jacobi, Corinna; Wilfley, Denise E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Eating disorders (EDs) are serious problems among college-age women and may be preventable. An indicated on-line eating disorder (ED) intervention, designed to reduce ED and comorbid pathology, was evaluated. Method 206 women (M age = 20 ± 1.8 years; 51% White/Caucasian, 11% African American, 10% Hispanic, 21% Asian/Asian American, 7% other) at very high risk for ED onset (i.e., with high weight/shape concerns plus a history of being teased, current or lifetime depression, and/or non-clinical levels of compensatory behaviors) were randomized to a 10-week, Internet-based, cognitive-behavioral intervention or wait-list control. Assessments included the Eating Disorder Examination (EDE to assess ED onset), EDE-Questionnaire, Structured Clinical Interview for DSM Disorders, and Beck Depression Inventory-II. Results ED attitudes and behaviors improved more in the intervention than control group (p = 0.02, d = 0.31); although ED onset rate was 27% lower, this difference was not significant (p = 0.28, NNT = 15). In the subgroup with highest shape concerns, ED onset rate was significantly lower in the intervention than control group (20% versus 42%, p = 0.025, NNT = 5). For the 27 individuals with depression at baseline, depressive symptomatology improved more in the intervention than control group (p = 0.016, d = 0.96); although ED onset rate was lower in the intervention than control group, this difference was not significant (25% versus 57%, NNT = 4). Conclusions An inexpensive, easily disseminated intervention might reduce ED onset among those at highest risk. Low adoption rates need to be addressed in future research. PMID:26795936

  19. Reducing eating disorder onset in a very high risk sample with significant comorbid depression: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, C Barr; Kass, Andrea E; Trockel, Mickey; Cunning, Darby; Weisman, Hannah; Bailey, Jakki; Sinton, Meghan; Aspen, Vandana; Schecthman, Kenneth; Jacobi, Corinna; Wilfley, Denise E

    2016-05-01

    Eating disorders (EDs) are serious problems among college-age women and may be preventable. An indicated online eating disorder (ED) intervention, designed to reduce ED and comorbid pathology, was evaluated. 206 women (M age = 20 ± 1.8 years; 51% White/Caucasian, 11% African American, 10% Hispanic, 21% Asian/Asian American, 7% other) at very high risk for ED onset (i.e., with high weight/shape concerns plus a history of being teased, current or lifetime depression, and/or nonclinical levels of compensatory behaviors) were randomized to a 10-week, Internet-based, cognitive-behavioral intervention or waitlist control. Assessments included the Eating Disorder Examination (EDE, to assess ED onset), EDE-Questionnaire, Structured Clinical Interview for DSM Disorders, and Beck Depression Inventory-II. ED attitudes and behaviors improved more in the intervention than control group (p = .02, d = 0.31); although ED onset rate was 27% lower, this difference was not significant (p = .28, NNT = 15). In the subgroup with highest shape concerns, ED onset rate was significantly lower in the intervention than control group (20% vs. 42%, p = .025, NNT = 5). For the 27 individuals with depression at baseline, depressive symptomatology improved more in the intervention than control group (p = .016, d = 0.96); although ED onset rate was lower in the intervention than control group, this difference was not significant (25% vs. 57%, NNT = 4). An inexpensive, easily disseminated intervention might reduce ED onset among those at highest risk. Low adoption rates need to be addressed in future research. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Comparing the efficacy of combined Mindfulness Based Cognitive Therapy with Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and Traditional Cognitive Behavior Therapy in reducing dysfunctional attitudes of patients with Major Depressive Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdollah omidi

    2014-02-01

    Results: Dysfunctional attitudes scores and depression symptoms significantly decreased in combined MBCT with CBT group, while in the TAU group, there was no significant difference between pre-test and post-test. Conclusion: MBCT combined with CBT has similar effects to classic CBT and it can lead to reducing dysfunctional attitudes and depression symptoms.

  1. Contact & connect--an intervention to reduce depression stigma and symptoms in construction workers: protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milner, Allison; Witt, Katrina; Burnside, Lewis; Wilson, Caitlyn; LaMontagne, Anthony D

    2015-10-16

    Males employed in the construction industry have high rates of suicide. Although reasons underpinning this risk are multifaceted, poor help-seeking and stigma are represent major contributors. Males in the construction industry are also exposed to other risk factors for mental ill health and suicide, including unemployment. Sigma-reducing interventions that are accessible and attractive to recently unemployed males in the construction industry could therefore improve help-seeking, and address depression and suicidal behaviour in this population. Contact&Connect will use a parallel individual randomized design to evaluate the effectiveness of a multimedia-based intervention aimed at reducing stigma. The intervention consists of a package of 12 brief contact interventions (BCIs) delivered over a six month period. BCIs will direct participants to informational programs and microsites. Content will address three major themes: debunking depression myths and stereotypes, normalisation, and empowerment. Target enrollment is 630 (315 in each arm), each to be followed for 12 months. Eligible participants will be males, between 30 and 64 years, unemployed at the time of recruitment, registered with Incolink (a social welfare trustee company for unemployed members of the construction industry), and own a smart phone with enabled internet connectivity. At present, there are no programs that have been shown to be effective in reducing stigma in the blue-collar male population. Contact&Connect promises to provide a tailored, efficient, and scalable approach to reducing stigma, depressive symptoms and suicidality among unemployed males. Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Register ACTRN12615000792527 (date of registration: 30 July, 2015).

  2. Dissociative symptoms are associated with reduced neuropsychological performance in patients with recurrent depression and a history of trauma exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frewen, Paul A.; Oremus, Carolina; Lanius, Ruth A.; McKinnon, Margaret C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Although preliminary work suggests that dissociative symptoms may impact neuropsychological performance in trauma-exposed populations, the relation between dissociation and cognitive performance has not been explored in patients with depression. Objective The present study examined dissociative symptoms in relation to neuropsychological performance in participants with a primary diagnosis of recurrent major depressive disorder (MDD) and a history of trauma exposure. Method Twenty-three participants with MDD and 20 healthy controls who did not differ in age, sex, education, or IQ were assessed. In addition to a standardized neuropsychological battery assessing frontotemporally mediated cognitive processes, participants completed clinical measures assessing dissociative symptoms, illness severity, and past history of trauma exposure. Results Among participants with MDD, greater severity of derealization was associated with reduced performance on measures of delayed visuospatial recall and recognition on a task of verbal memory recognition. In addition, more severe depersonalization was associated with slower processing speed and a response style lending itself toward better performance in a less active environment. Conclusions These findings point toward dissociative symptoms as a transdiagnostic factor associated with neuropsychological dysfunction in patients with depression and a history of trauma. Limitations and recommendations for future research are discussed. PMID:26927902

  3. Dissociative symptoms are associated with reduced neuropsychological performance in patients with recurrent depression and a history of trauma exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Parlar

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although preliminary work suggests that dissociative symptoms may impact neuropsychological performance in trauma-exposed populations, the relation between dissociation and cognitive performance has not been explored in patients with depression. Objective: The present study examined dissociative symptoms in relation to neuropsychological performance in participants with a primary diagnosis of recurrent major depressive disorder (MDD and a history of trauma exposure. Method: Twenty-three participants with MDD and 20 healthy controls who did not differ in age, sex, education, or IQ were assessed. In addition to a standardized neuropsychological battery assessing frontotemporally mediated cognitive processes, participants completed clinical measures assessing dissociative symptoms, illness severity, and past history of trauma exposure. Results: Among participants with MDD, greater severity of derealization was associated with reduced performance on measures of delayed visuospatial recall and recognition on a task of verbal memory recognition. In addition, more severe depersonalization was associated with slower processing speed and a response style lending itself toward better performance in a less active environment. Conclusions: These findings point toward dissociative symptoms as a transdiagnostic factor associated with neuropsychological dysfunction in patients with depression and a history of trauma. Limitations and recommendations for future research are discussed.

  4. Dim light at night provokes depression-like behaviors and reduces CA1 dendritic spine density in female hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedrosian, Tracy A; Fonken, Laura K; Walton, James C; Haim, Abraham; Nelson, Randy J

    2011-08-01

    The prevalence of major depression has increased in recent decades; however, the underlying causes of this phenomenon remain unspecified. One environmental change that has coincided with elevated rates of depression is increased exposure to artificial light at night. Shift workers and others chronically exposed to light at night are at increased risk of mood disorders, suggesting that nighttime illumination may influence brain mechanisms mediating affect. We tested the hypothesis that exposure to dim light at night may impact affective responses and alter morphology of hippocampal neurons. Ovariectomized adult female Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus) were housed for 8 weeks in either a light/dark cycle (LD) or a light/dim light cycle (DM), and then behavior was assayed. DM-hamsters displayed more depression-like responses in the forced swim and the sucrose anhedonia tests compared with LD-hamsters. Conversely, in the elevated plus maze DM-hamsters reduced anxiety-like behaviors. Brains from the same animals were processed using the Golgi-Cox method and hippocampal neurons within CA1, CA3, and the dentate gyrus were analyzed for morphological characteristics. In CA1, DM-hamsters significantly reduced dendritic spine density on both apical and basilar dendrites, an effect which was not mediated by baseline cortisol, as concentrations were equivalent between groups. These results demonstrate dim light at night is sufficient to reduce synaptic spine connections to CA1. Importantly, the present results suggest that night-time low level illumination, comparable to levels that are pervasive in North America and Europe, may contribute to the increasing prevalence of mood disorders. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Nurse-led group consultation intervention reduces depressive symptoms in men with localised prostate cancer: a cluster randomised controlled trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schofield, Penelope; Gough, Karla; Lotfi-Jam, Kerryann; Bergin, Rebecca; Ugalde, Anna; Dudgeon, Paul; Crellin, Wallace; Schubach, Kathryn; Foroudi, Farshard; Tai, Keen Hun; Duchesne, Gillian; Sanson-Fisher, Rob; Aranda, Sanchia

    2016-01-01

    Radiotherapy for localised prostate cancer has many known and distressing side effects. The efficacy of group interventions for reducing psychological morbidity is lacking. This study investigated the relative benefits of a group nurse-led intervention on psychological morbidity, unmet needs, treatment-related concerns and prostate cancer-specific quality of life in men receiving curative intent radiotherapy for prostate cancer. This phase III, two-arm cluster randomised controlled trial included 331 men (consent rate: 72 %; attrition: 5 %) randomised to the intervention (n = 166) or usual care (n = 165). The intervention comprised four group and one individual consultation all delivered by specialist uro-oncology nurses. Primary outcomes were anxious and depressive symptoms as assessed by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Unmet needs were assessed with the Supportive Care Needs Survey-SF34 Revised, treatment-related concerns with the Cancer Treatment Scale and quality of life with the Expanded Prostate Cancer Index −26. Assessments occurred before, at the end of and 6 months post-radiotherapy. Primary outcome analysis was by intention-to-treat and performed by fitting a linear mixed model to each outcome separately using all observed data. Mixed models analysis indicated that group consultations had a significant beneficial effect on one of two primary endpoints, depressive symptoms (p = 0.009), and one of twelve secondary endpoints, procedural concerns related to cancer treatment (p = 0.049). Group consultations did not have a significant beneficial effect on generalised anxiety, unmet needs and prostate cancer-specific quality of life. Compared with individual consultations offered as part of usual care, the intervention provides a means of delivering patient education and is associated with modest reductions in depressive symptoms and procedural concerns. Future work should seek to confirm the clinical feasibility and cost-effectiveness of group

  6. Kinetics of fast short-term depression are matched to spike train statistics to reduce noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanbabaie, Reza; Nesse, William H; Longtin, Andre; Maler, Leonard

    2010-06-01

    Short-term depression (STD) is observed at many synapses of the CNS and is important for diverse computations. We have discovered a form of fast STD (FSTD) in the synaptic responses of pyramidal cells evoked by stimulation of their electrosensory afferent fibers (P-units). The dynamics of the FSTD are matched to the mean and variance of natural P-unit discharge. FSTD exhibits switch-like behavior in that it is immediately activated with stimulus intervals near the mean interspike interval (ISI) of P-units (approximately 5 ms) and recovers immediately after stimulation with the slightly longer intervals (>7.5 ms) that also occur during P-unit natural and evoked discharge patterns. Remarkably, the magnitude of evoked excitatory postsynaptic potentials appear to depend only on the duration of the previous ISI. Our theoretical analysis suggests that FSTD can serve as a mechanism for noise reduction. Because the kinetics of depression are as fast as the natural spike statistics, this role is distinct from previously ascribed functional roles of STD in gain modulation, synchrony detection or as a temporal filter.

  7. A Qualitative Process Evaluation of Classroom-Based Cognitive Behaviour Therapy to Reduce Adolescent Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John A. Taylor

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Small scale trials indicate that classroom-based Cognitive Behaviour Therapy (CBT for adolescents has good reach and can help prevent depression. However, under more diverse everyday conditions, such programmes tend not to show such positive effects. This study examined the process of implementing a classroom-based CBT depression prevention programme as part of a large (n = 5,030 randomised controlled trial across eight UK secondary schools which was not found to be effective (PROMISE, ISRCTN19083628. The views of young people (n = 42, teachers (n = 12 and facilitators (n = 16 involved in the Resourceful Adolescent Programme (RAP were obtained via focus groups and interviews which were thematically analysed. The programme was considered to be well structured and contain useful content, particularly for younger pupils. However, challenges associated with implementation were its age appropriateness for all year groups, its perceived lack of flexibility, the consistency of quality of delivery, the competing demands for teacher time and a culture where academic targets were prioritised over personal, social and health education. Whilst schools are convenient locations for introducing such programmes and allow good reach, the culture around improving well-being of young people in schools, increasing engagement with teachers and young people and sustaining such programmes are issues that need addressing.

  8. Does a college education reduce depressive symptoms in American young adults?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarland, Michael J; Wagner, Brandon G

    2015-12-01

    Higher levels of educational attainment are consistently associated with better mental health. Whether this association represents an effect of education on mental health, however, is less clear as omitted variable bias remains a pressing concern with education potentially serving as a proxy for unobserved factors including family background and genetics. To combat this threat and come closer to a causal estimate of the effect of education on depressive symptoms, this study uses data on 231 monozygotic twin pairs from The National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health and employs a twin-pair difference-in-difference design to account for both unobserved shared factors between twin pairs (e.g. home, school, and neighborhood environment throughout childhood) and a number of observed non-shared but theoretically relevant factors (e.g. cognitive ability, personality characteristics, adolescent health). We find an inverse association between possessing a college degree and depressive symptoms in both conventional and difference-in-difference models. Results of this study also highlight the potentially overlooked role of personality characteristics in the education and mental health literature. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Reduced Synapse and Axon Numbers in the Prefrontal Cortex of Rats Subjected to a Chronic Stress Model for Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csabai, Dávid; Wiborg, Ove; Czéh, Boldizsár

    2018-01-01

    Stressful experiences can induce structural changes in neurons of the limbic system. These cellular changes contribute to the development of stress-induced psychopathologies like depressive disorders. In the prefrontal cortex of chronically stressed animals, reduced dendritic length and spine loss have been reported. This loss of dendritic material should consequently result in synapse loss as well, because of the reduced dendritic surface. But so far, no one studied synapse numbers in the prefrontal cortex of chronically stressed animals. Here, we examined synaptic contacts in rats subjected to an animal model for depression, where animals are exposed to a chronic stress protocol. Our hypothesis was that long term stress should reduce the number of axo-spinous synapses in the medial prefrontal cortex. Adult male rats were exposed to daily stress for 9 weeks and afterward we did a post mortem quantitative electron microscopic analysis to quantify the number and morphology of synapses in the infralimbic cortex. We analyzed asymmetric (Type I) and symmetric (Type II) synapses in all cortical layers in control and stressed rats. We also quantified axon numbers and measured the volume of the infralimbic cortex. In our systematic unbiased analysis, we examined 21,000 axon terminals in total. We found the following numbers in the infralimbic cortex of control rats: 1.15 × 109 asymmetric synapses, 1.06 × 108 symmetric synapses and 1.00 × 108 myelinated axons. The density of asymmetric synapses was 5.5/μm3 and the density of symmetric synapses was 0.5/μm3. Average synapse membrane length was 207 nm and the average axon terminal membrane length was 489 nm. Stress reduced the number of synapses and myelinated axons in the deeper cortical layers, while synapse membrane lengths were increased. These stress-induced ultrastructural changes indicate that neurons of the infralimbic cortex have reduced cortical network connectivity. Such reduced network connectivity is likely

  10. Reduced Synapse and Axon Numbers in the Prefrontal Cortex of Rats Subjected to a Chronic Stress Model for Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dávid Csabai

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Stressful experiences can induce structural changes in neurons of the limbic system. These cellular changes contribute to the development of stress-induced psychopathologies like depressive disorders. In the prefrontal cortex of chronically stressed animals, reduced dendritic length and spine loss have been reported. This loss of dendritic material should consequently result in synapse loss as well, because of the reduced dendritic surface. But so far, no one studied synapse numbers in the prefrontal cortex of chronically stressed animals. Here, we examined synaptic contacts in rats subjected to an animal model for depression, where animals are exposed to a chronic stress protocol. Our hypothesis was that long term stress should reduce the number of axo-spinous synapses in the medial prefrontal cortex. Adult male rats were exposed to daily stress for 9 weeks and afterward we did a post mortem quantitative electron microscopic analysis to quantify the number and morphology of synapses in the infralimbic cortex. We analyzed asymmetric (Type I and symmetric (Type II synapses in all cortical layers in control and stressed rats. We also quantified axon numbers and measured the volume of the infralimbic cortex. In our systematic unbiased analysis, we examined 21,000 axon terminals in total. We found the following numbers in the infralimbic cortex of control rats: 1.15 × 109 asymmetric synapses, 1.06 × 108 symmetric synapses and 1.00 × 108 myelinated axons. The density of asymmetric synapses was 5.5/μm3 and the density of symmetric synapses was 0.5/μm3. Average synapse membrane length was 207 nm and the average axon terminal membrane length was 489 nm. Stress reduced the number of synapses and myelinated axons in the deeper cortical layers, while synapse membrane lengths were increased. These stress-induced ultrastructural changes indicate that neurons of the infralimbic cortex have reduced cortical network connectivity. Such reduced network

  11. The Effectiveness of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy Based on Reducing Anxiety and Depression in Students with Social Phobia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parviz Molavi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives : Social phobia is one of the common anxiety disorders characterized by fear of social situations, shame and embarrassment in communicating with unfamiliar people. The aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness of acceptance and commitment therapy in reducing anxiety and depression in students with social phobia .   Methods: An experimental pretest-posttest with control group design was used to conduct the study. The population consists of all female students in Ardabil city, 2013-2014 academic years. Using a multiple-stage cluster sampling method, a representative sample consists of 400 students was selected for the study. Then, among the students those with social phobia (based on the cut-off point, 34 participants were randomly selected and divided into two groups of 17 people (one experimental group and one control group . The participants in experimental group received acceptance and commitment therapy for 10 sessions of 90 minutes. The control group did not receive any intervention. Anxiety, depression and social phobia questionnaires were administered to the two groups before and after the intervention. Descriptive statistics and multivariate ANOVA (MANOVA were used for data analysis.   Results: The results of data analysis showed that treatment based on acceptance and commitment therapy reduces anxiety, depression and social phobia of students in the experimental group compared with the control group (p<0.001 .   Conclusion: The present study showed that acceptance and commitment therapy for students with social phobia can be used as a psychological intervention along with other intervention mechanisms.

  12. Reducing symptoms of major depressive disorder through a systematic training of general emotion regulation skills: protocol of a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehret, Anna M; Kowalsky, Judith; Rief, Winfried; Hiller, Wolfgang; Berking, Matthias

    2014-01-27

    Major Depressive Disorder is one of the most challenging mental health problems of our time. Although effective psychotherapeutic treatments are available, many patients fail to demonstrate clinically significant improvements. Difficulties in emotion regulation have been identified as putative risk and maintaining factors for Major Depressive Disorder. Systematically enhancing adaptive emotion regulation skills should thus help reduce depressive symptom severity. However, at this point, no study has systematically evaluated effects of increasing adaptive emotion regulation skills application on symptoms of Major Depressive Disorder. In the intended study, we aim to evaluate stand-alone effects of a group-based training explicitly and exclusively targeting general emotion regulation skills on depressive symptom severity and assess whether this training augments the outcome of subsequent individual cognitive behavioral therapy for depression. In the evaluation of the Affect Regulation Training, we will conduct a prospective randomized-controlled trial. Effects of the Affect Regulation Training on depressive symptom severity and outcomes of subsequent individual therapy for depression will be compared with an active, common factor based treatment and a waitlist control condition. The study sample will include 120 outpatients meeting criteria for Major Depressive Disorder. Depressive symptom severity as assessed by the Hamilton Rating Scale will serve as our primary study outcome. Secondary outcomes will include further indicators of mental health and changes in adaptive emotion regulation skills application. All outcomes will be assessed at intake and at 10 points in time over the course of the 15-month study period. Measures will include self-reports, observer ratings, momentary ecological assessments, and will be complemented in subsamples by experimental investigations and the analysis of hair steroids. If findings should support the hypothesis that enhancing

  13. Can father inclusive practice reduce paternal postnatal anxiety? A repeated measures cohort study using the hospital anxiety and depression scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tohotoa Jenny

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Perinatal research on anxiety and depression has primarily focused on mothers. We have limited knowledge of fathers’ anxiety during the perinatal period yet there is evidence that the parenting capacity of a person can be compromised by anxiety and depression. The purpose of this paper is to identify the impact of a father inclusive intervention on perinatal anxiety and depression. The prime focus of the intervention was to provide education and support to fathers of breastfeeding partners with the aim of increasing both initiation and duration of breastfeeding. Methods A repeated measures cohort study was conducted during a RCT that was implemented across eight public maternity hospitals in Perth, Western Australia between May 2008 and June 2009. A baseline questionnaire which included the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS was administered to all participants on the first night of their hospital based antenatal education program and was repeated at six weeks postnatal. SPSS version 17 was used for reporting descriptive results. Results The mean anxiety levels at baseline for the fathers in the intervention group (n=289 and control group (n=244 were 4.58 and 4.22 respectively. At 6 weeks postnatal (only matched pairs, intervention and control group were 3.93 and 3.79. More intervention group fathers self-rated less anxiety compared to the fathers in the control group from baseline to post test (p=0.048. Depression scores for intervention fathers at baseline (mean =1.09 and at six weeks (mean=1.09 were very similar to fathers in the control group at baseline (mean=1.11 and at six weeks (mean =1.07 with no significant changes. Conclusions Both intervention and control group fathers experienced some anxiety prior to the birth of their baby, but this was rapidly reduced at six weeks. Paternal anxiety is common to new fathers and providing them with information and strategies for problem-solving can increase their

  14. Group antenatal intervention to reduce perinatal stress and depressive symptoms related to intergenerational conflicts: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Sharron S K; Lam, T H

    2012-11-01

    Intergenerational conflicts are a major source of stress, which might lead to depression in new mothers. The conflict is heightened when grandparents are involved in childcare. To examine the effectiveness of an interpersonal psychotherapy oriented group intervention to reduce stress and depressive symptoms in new mothers and enhance happiness and self-efficacy in managing intergenerational conflict in childcare. This study is one of the intervention projects of FAMILY: A Jockey Club Initiative for a Harmonious Society, funded by The Hong Kong Jockey Club Charities Trust. Multisite randomized controlled trial with two arms: an intervention group attended an additional 4-week program and a control group who received usual care only. Six Maternal and Child Health Centres in Hong Kong From September 2009 to January 2010, 156 pregnant women who would have grandparents involved in childcare were recruited at their 14-32 weeks' gestation. Participants were randomized to groups using computer generated random sequences by blinded recruitment staff. Primary outcomes were stress and depressive symptoms immediately after the intervention and 6-8 weeks after delivery. Secondary outcomes were happiness and self-efficacy in managing conflict. After screening 2870 pregnant women, 156 eligible participants were randomized. Intention-to-treat analysis showed that the intervention group (n=78) had significantly lower perceived stress (p=0.017; Cohen d=0.38) and greater happiness (p=0.004; Cohen d=0.41) than the control group (n=78) immediately after the intervention. However, the effects were not sustained at postnatal follow-up. Subgroup analysis showed that participants with depressive symptoms (EPDS>12) at baseline reported significantly lower stress, greater happiness (p=0.035 and 0.037, respectively; both Cohen d=0.61), greater self-efficacy in managing conflict (p=0.012; Cohen d=0.76) than the control group after the intervention. Also, after delivery, they had significantly

  15. Statins Reduces the Risk of Dementia in Patients with Late-Onset Depression: A Retrospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ya-Hsu; Teng, Hao-Wei; Lai, Yen-Ting; Li, Szu-Yuan; Lin, Chih-Ching; Yang, Albert C; Chan, Hsiang-Lin; Hsieh, Yi-Hsuan; Lin, Chiao-Fan; Hsu, Fu-Ying; Liu, Chih-Kuang; Liu, Wen-Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Patients with late-onset depression (LOD) have been reported to run a higher risk of subsequent dementia. The present study was conducted to assess whether statins can reduce the risk of dementia in these patients. We used the data from National Health Insurance of Taiwan during 1996-2009. Standardized Incidence Ratios (SIRs) were calculated for LOD and subsequent dementia. The criteria for LOD diagnoses included age ≥65 years, diagnosis of depression after 65 years of age, at least three service claims, and treatment with antidepressants. The time-dependent Cox proportional hazards model was applied for multivariate analyses. Propensity scores with the one-to-one nearest-neighbor matching model were used to select matching patients for validation studies. Kaplan-Meier curve estimate was used to measure the group of patients with dementia living after diagnosis of LOD. Totally 45,973 patients aged ≥65 years were enrolled. The prevalence of LOD was 12.9% (5,952/45,973). Patients with LOD showed to have a higher incidence of subsequent dementia compared with those without LOD (Odds Ratio: 2.785; 95% CI 2.619-2.958). Among patients with LOD, lipid lowering agent (LLA) users (for at least 3 months) had lower incidence of subsequent dementia than non-users (Hazard Ratio = 0.781, 95% CI 0.685-0.891). Nevertheless, only statins users showed to have reduced risk of dementia (Hazard Ratio = 0.674, 95% CI 0.547-0.832) while other LLAs did not, which was further validated by Kaplan-Meier estimates after we used the propensity scores with the one-to-one nearest-neighbor matching model to control the confounding factors. Statins may reduce the risk of subsequent dementia in patients with LOD.

  16. A cry in the dark: depressed mothers show reduced neural activation to their own infant’s cry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ablow, Jennifer C.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated depression-related differences in primiparous mothers’ neural response to their own infant’s distress cues. Mothers diagnosed with major depressive disorder (n = 11) and comparison mothers with no diagnosable psychopathology (n = 11) were exposed to their own 18-months-old infant’s cry sound, as well as unfamiliar infant’s cry and control sound, during functional neuroimaging. Depressed mothers’ response to own infant cry greater than other sounds was compared to non-depressed mothers’ response in the whole brain [false discovery rate (FDR) corrected]. A continuous measure of self-reported depressive symptoms (CESD) was also tested as a predictor of maternal response. Non-depressed mothers activated to their own infant’s cry greater than control sound in a distributed network of para/limbic and prefrontal regions, whereas depressed mothers as a group failed to show activation. Non-depressed compared to depressed mothers showed significantly greater striatal (caudate, nucleus accumbens) and medial thalamic activation. Additionally, mothers with lower depressive symptoms activated more strongly in left orbitofrontal, dorsal anterior cingulate and medial superior frontal regions. Non-depressed compared to depressed mothers activated uniquely to own infant greater than other infant cry in occipital fusiform areas. Disturbance of these neural networks involved in emotional response and regulation may help to explain parenting deficits in depressed mothers. PMID:21208990

  17. The Use of Massage Therapy for Reducing Pain, Anxiety, and Depression in Oncological Palliative Care Patients: A Narrative Review of the Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Falkensteiner, Maria; Mantovan, Franco; M?ller, Irene; Them, Christa

    2011-01-01

    A considerable number of cancer patients use complementary medicine therapies in order to alleviate different symptoms such as pain, anxiety, and depression, occurring in connection with cancer. This paper explores the question to what extent massage therapies are able to reduce the amount of pain, anxiety, and depression. For this purpose, a systematic literature analysis was carried out in the electronic databases and specialist journals. There is already evidence that massage therapies can...

  18. Engaging with culturally and linguistically diverse communities to reduce the impact of depression and anxiety: a narrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Amy E Z; Procter, Nicholas G; Ferguson, Monika S

    2016-07-01

    Culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) communities in Australia face significant challenges in terms of reducing barriers to information and support for depression and anxiety. Increased stigma surrounding mental ill-health in some cultures and related concerns about trust and confidentiality all impact upon timely access to information, services and support for consumers and carers from CALD backgrounds. For health services, there is a need to understand how to better engage CALD communities in mental healthcare. The objective of this narrative review was to identify examples of evidence-based, best practice for what works effectively for engaging with CALD communities to reduce the impact of depression and anxiety. In January 2014, we searched Academic Search Premier, CINAHL, Health-Source Consumer Edition, PsycARTICLES, PsycINFO (all databases within the EbscoHost platform) and PubMed for peer-reviewed articles published between 1994 and 2014. The search revealed a total of 706 records contained within the EbscoHost platform and 689 records in PubMed; 15 matched the inclusion criteria. Six key themes were identified: (i) setting the scene for engagement; (ii) cultural values and preferences; (iii) language considerations; (iv) 'engagers' in the therapeutic process; (v) opening out engagement to include others; and (vi) engaging through the use of technology and alternative mediums. The literature obtained provides a small body of evidence regarding approaches to engaging CALD communities, with findings highlighting the importance of processes which are tailored to the CALD community of interest and which take into account different cultural explanatory models of mental ill-health. Review findings are also discussed within the framework of intersectionality, in which broader structural inequalities and power imbalances - in areas such as gender and social class - collectively impact on help-seeking and mental health outcomes. This review supports further

  19. Endogenous Retrovirus ev21 Dose Not Recombine with ALV-J and Induces the Expression of ISGs in the Host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Min; Tan, Yan; Dai, Manman; Li, Yuanfang; Xie, Tingting; Li, Hongmei; Shi, Meiqing; Zhang, Xiquan

    2016-01-01

    Avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J) infection can cause tumors and immunosuppression. Endogenous viruses integrate into host genomes and can recombine with exogenous avian leukosis virus (ALV). In this study, we analyzed the interaction of endogenous retrovirus 21 ( ev21 ) with the ALV-J in late-feathering Chinese yellow chicken. Two ALV-J strains M180 and K243 were isolated from late-feathering and fast-feathering Chinese yellow chicken flocks, respectively. The env gene of the two strains showed 94.2-94.8% nucleotide identity with reference ALV-J strains. Compared with the env gene and the LTR of ev21 and M180, the nucleotide identity of LTR was 69.7% and env gene was 58.4%, respectively, especially the amino acid identity of env gene as low as 14.2%. Phylogenetic analysis of the nucleotide sequence of the env gene and the 3'LTR showed that M180 was closely related to ALV-J, and was located in a distinct group with ev21 in the phylogenetic tree. Using co-immunoprecipitation (co-IP), we next demonstrate that the envelope protein of ev21 does not interact with the M180 envelope protein. We further show that the envelope protein of ev21 cannot activate ALV-J LTR promoter activity using luciferase-reporter assays. qPCR and western blot analysis revealed that envelope protein of endogenous ev21 can facilitate the expression of PKR at 6h post ALV-J infection (hpi) and facilitate the expression of ISG12 and CH25H at 24 hpi. However, the expression of the env gene of M180 strain was not significantly at 6 and 24 hpi. We conclude that there is no evidence of recombination between endogenous retrovirus ev21 and ALV-J strain M180 in late-feathering Chinese yellow chicken, and envelope protein of ev21 can affect the expression of host ISGs, but appears not to influence the replication of ALV-J strain M180. This is the first report of interaction among the endogenous retrovirus ev21, ALV-J and the late-feathering chicken.

  20. Can a brief biologically-based psychoeducational intervention reduce stigma and increase help-seeking intentions for depression in young people? A randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Kerry A; Griffiths, Kathleen M; McKetin, Rebecca; Ma, Jennifer

    2018-05-01

    There is disagreement in the literature as to whether biological attribution increases or decreases stigma. This study investigated the effect of an online biological intervention on stigma and help-seeking intentions for depression among adolescents. A three-arm, pre-post test, double-blind randomised controlled trial (RCT) was used to compare the effects of a biological and a psychosocial intervention delivered online. Participants comprised secondary school students (N = 327) aged 16-19 years. Outcome measures included anticipated self-stigma for depression (primary), personal stigma, help-seeking intention for depression, and biological and psychosocial attribution. Neither the biological nor the psychosocial educational intervention significantly reduced anticipated self-stigma or personal stigma for depression relative to the control. However, a small increase in help-seeking intention for depression relative to the control was found for the biological educational condition. The study was undertaken over a single session and it is unknown whether the intervention effect on help-seeking intentions was sustained or would translate into help-seeking behaviour. A brief online biological education intervention did not alter stigma, but did promote a small increase in help-seeking intentions for depression among adolescents. This type of intervention may be a practical means for facilitating help-seeking among adolescents with current or future depression treatment needs.

  1. Compare the effectiveness of Dialectical Behavior Therapy and Cognitive Behavioral Group Therapy in Reducing Depression in Mothers of Children with Disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zamani N

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Depression is on the top list of mental disorders which account for about 25 percent of patients referred to health centers in your world. So, is presented in different ways to treat it. Therefore, the aim of this study is to compare the effectiveness of Dialectical Behavior Therapy and Cognitive Behavioral Group Therapy in reducing depression in mothers of children with disabilities Materials and Methods: This study is quasi-experimental and consists of experimental and control groups. This study population was mothers referred to mobility, occupational therapy and physiotherapy centers who had depressive symptoms. 8 patients in each group were selected by convenience sampling. The research instrument were the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I disorders and the revised Beck Depression Inventory form (1996. Dialectical behavior therapy and cognitive behavior therapy groups were instructured for 2 months (8 sessions of 2 to 2.5 hours. But the control group did not receive intervention. Results: The results showed that there were significant differences between the mean depression scores of dialectical behavior therapy and cognitive therapy group with control group (p<0.001. Also, there is a significant difference between the mean depression scores of dialectical behavior therapy with cognitive therapy (p<0.001. Conclusion: In the area of treatment and working with depressed people and those who are in crisis mode, it seems that dialectical behavior therapy and cognitive therapy group in view of its nature is very efficient and promising.

  2. The Effectiveness of Dialectical Behavior Therapy Skills Training Group Vs. Cognitive Therapy Group on Reducing Depression and Suicide Attempts for Borderline Personality Disorder in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tsung-Jen; Ko, Huei-Chen; Wu, Jo Yung-Wei; Oei, Tian Po; Lane, Hsien-Yuan; Chen, Chung-Hey

    2018-03-12

    Effectiveness of the condensed Dialectical Behavior Therapy Skills Training Group (DBTSTG) was compared to the Cognitive Therapy Group (CTG) in reducing depression and suicide reattempt, and modifying emotion regulation strategies among those with borderline personality disorder (BPD). Eighty-two depressed BPD college students with a suicidal history within the past six-months were randomly allocated to DBTSTG or CTG. Both groups had similar reductions in suicide reattempts and depression after the intervention and 6-month follow-ups. However, the CTG showed improvements in cognitive errors, but the DBTSTG revealed increases in acceptance and decreases in suppression scores. Both groups were effective in decreasing depression and suicide reattempt in BPD college students, probably through increasing adaptive antecedent-focused or response-focused strategies of emotion regulation, respectively.

  3. Aging and depression vulnerability interaction results in decreased serotonin innervation associated with reduced BDNF levels in hippocampus of rats bred for learned helplessness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aznar, Susana; Klein, Anders B; Santini, Martin A

    2010-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have revealed a strong genetic contribution to the risk for depression. Both reduced hippocampal serotonin neurotransmission and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels have been associated with increased depression vulnerability and are also regulated during aging...... density. Hippocampal BDNF protein levels were measured by ELISA. An exacerbated age-related loss of serotonin fiber density specific for the CA1 area was observed in the cLH animals, whereas reduced hippocampal BDNF levels were seen in young and old cLH when compared with age-matched cNLH controls...

  4. Effectiveness and Application of an Online Leadership Intervention to Promote Mental Health and Reduce Depression-Related Stigma in Organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shann, Clare; Martin, Angela; Chester, Andrea; Ruddock, Scott

    2018-01-04

    Addressing the stigma of mental illness and its effect in the workplace is a contemporary issue in occupational health. The role of leaders is a vital but relatively unexplored dimension of this phenomenon. This study examined the effectiveness and application of an online intervention to reduce depression-related stigma in organizational leaders. A randomized controlled, "in the field" study was conducted with 196 leaders. Participants completed an online survey and were randomly assigned to either the experimental or wait-list control group. One week later, participants in the experimental group were given access to a brief online workplace mental health intervention and asked to complete a postsurvey, whereas the control group had to only complete the online postsurvey. Six months later, participants completed a follow-up online survey. Results revealed significant reductions in behavioral and affective depression-related stigma scores among leaders who completed the intervention, compared with the control group. These reductions were similar at 6 months. The factors that enabled or hindered training transfer from the intervention were examined through semistructured interviews with 16 of the participating leaders. Results showed that positive attitudes and high levels of knowledge are not sufficient to ensure leaders apply intervention learning in their work environments. Factors including the nature of the work environment, the collective readiness and capability of the organization to address these issues, the attitudes of others at work, and the broader political context affected the application of learning from the intervention. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Hericium erinaceus Extract Reduces Anxiety and Depressive Behaviors by Promoting Hippocampal Neurogenesis in the Adult Mouse Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Sun; Kim, Hyoun Geun; Kim, Joo Youn; Kim, Seong Yun; Cho, Kyung-Ok

    2018-02-01

    Versatile biological activities of Hericium erinaceus (HE) have been reported in many brain diseases. However, roles of HE in major psychiatric disorders such as depression and anxiety remain to be investigated. Therefore, we evaluated whether HE could reduce anxiety and depressive behaviors in the adult mouse and its underlying mechanisms. Male C57BL/6 mice were administered HE (20 or 60 mg/kg, p.o.) or saline once a day for 4 weeks. Open field and tail suspension tests were performed 30 min after the last administration of HE, followed by forced swim test 2 days later. We found that chronic administration of HE showed anxiolytic and antidepressant-like effects. To elucidate possible mechanisms, proliferative activity of the hippocampal progenitor cells was assessed by immunohistochemistry of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and Ki67. Moreover, to evaluate neuronal survival in the dentate gyrus, 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) (120 mg/kg, i.p.) was given at the first day of HE administration, followed by isolation of the brains 4 weeks later. HE (60 mg/kg) increased the number of PCNA- and Ki67-positive cells in the subgranular zone of the hippocampus, indicating increased proliferation of hippocampal progenitors. In addition, BrdU- and BrdU/NeuN-positive cells in the dentate gyrus were significantly increased when treated with HE (60 mg/kg) compared with the saline-treated group, demonstrating enhanced neurogenesis by HE treatment. Taken together, the results indicate that chronic HE administration can exert anxiolytic and antidepressant-like effects, possibly by enhancing adult hippocampal neurogenesis.

  6. C'mon get happy: reduced magnitude and duration of response during a positive-affect induction in depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, Michelle S; Siegle, Greg J; Schwartz, Robert M; Price, Rebecca B; Haggerty, Agnes E; Collier, Amanda; Friedman, Edward S

    2014-11-01

    Depression involves decreased positive affect. Whether this is due to a failure to achieve or maintain positive emotion in response to discrete stimuli is unclear. Understanding the nature of decreased positive affect could help to address how to intervene in the phenomenon, for example, how to structure interventions using positive and rewarding stimuli in depression. Thus, we examined the time course of affect following exposure to positive stimuli in depressed and healthy individuals. Seventy-one adults with major depressive disorder and thirty-four never-depressed controls read a self-generated highly positive script and continuously rated their affect for 7 min. Both groups quickly achieved increased positive affect, however, compared to controls, depressed participants did not achieve the same level of positive affect, did not maintain their positive affect, spent less time rating their affect as happy, and demonstrated larger drops in mood. These data indicate that depressed and nondepressed individuals can generate positive reactions to happy scripts, but depressed individuals cannot achieve or sustain equivalent levels of positive affect. Interventions for depression might fruitfully focus on increasing depressed individuals' ability to maintain initial engagement with positive stimuli over a sustained period of time. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Incensole acetate reduces depressive-like behavior and modulates hippocampal BDNF and CRF expression of submissive animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moussaieff, Arieh; Gross, Moshe; Nesher, Elimelech; Tikhonov, Tatiana; Yadid, Gal; Pinhasov, Albert

    2012-12-01

    Incensole acetate (IA), a constituent of Boswellia resin ('frankincense'), was previously demonstrated to exhibit an antidepressive-like effect in the Forced Swim Test (FST) in mice following single dose administration (50 mg/kg). Here, we show that acute administration of considerably lower dose (10 mg/kg) IA to selectively bred mice, showing prominent submissive behavior, exerted significant antidepressant-like effects in the FST. Furthermore, chronic administration of 1 or 5 mg/kg per day of IA for three consecutive weeks dose- and time-dependently reduced the submissiveness of the mice in the Dominant-Submissive Relationship test, developed to screen the chronic effect of antidepressants. This behavioral effect was concomitant to reduced serum corticosterone levels, dose-dependent down-regulation of corticotropin releasing factor and up-regulation of brain derived neurotrophic factor transcripts IV and VI expression in the hippocampus. These data suggest that IA modulates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and influences hippocampal gene expression, leading to beneficial behavioral effects supporting its potential as a novel treatment of depressive-like disorders.

  8. Reduced post-synaptic serotonin type 1A receptor binding in bipolar depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugent, Allison C.; Bain, Earle E.; Carlson, Paul J.; Neumeister, Alexander; Bonne, Omer; Carson, Richard E.; Eckelman, William; Herscovitch, Peter; Zarate, Carlos A.; Charney, Dennis S.; Drevets, Wayne C.

    2013-01-01

    Multiple lines of evidence suggest that serotonin type 1A (5-HT1A) receptor dysfunction is involved in the pathophysiology of mood disorders, and that alterations in 5-HT1A receptor function play a role in the mechanisms of antidepressant and mood stabilizer treatment. The literature is in disagreement, however, as to whether 5-HT1A receptor binding abnormalities exist in bipolar disorder (BD). We acquired PET images of 5-HT1A receptor binding in 26 unmedicated BD subjects and 37 healthy controls using [18F]FCWAY, a highly selective 5-HT1A receptor radio-ligand. The mean 5-HT1A receptor binding potential (BPP) was significantly lower in BD subjects compared to controls in cortical regions where 5-HT1A receptors are expressed post-synaptically, most prominently in the mesiotemporal cortex. Post-hoc assessments involving other receptor specific binding parameters suggested that this difference particularly affected the females with BD. The mean BPP did not differ between groups in the raphe nucleus, however, where 5-HT1A receptors are predominantly expressed pre-synaptically. Across subjects the BPP in the mesiotemporal cortex was inversely correlated with trough plasma cortisol levels, consistent with preclinical literature indicating that hippocampal 5-HT1A receptor expression is inhibited by glucocorticoid receptor stimulation. These findings suggest that 5-HT1A receptor binding is abnormally reduced in BD, and this abnormality may particularly involve the postsynaptic 5-HT1A receptor system of individuals with a tendency toward cortisol hypersecretion. PMID:23434290

  9. Reducing depression in older home care clients: design of a prospective study of a nurse-led interprofessional mental health promotion intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoch Jeffrey S

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Very little research has been conducted in the area of depression among older home care clients using personal support services. These older adults are particularly vulnerable to depression because of decreased cognition, comorbid chronic conditions, functional limitations, lack of social support, and reduced access to health services. To date, research has focused on collaborative, nurse-led depression care programs among older adults in primary care settings. Optimal management of depression among older home care clients is not currently known. The objective of this study is to evaluate the feasibility, acceptability and effectiveness of a 6-month nurse-led, interprofessional mental health promotion intervention aimed at older home care clients with depressive symptoms using personal support services. Methods/Design This one-group pre-test post-test study aims to recruit a total of 250 long-stay (> 60 days home care clients, 70 years or older, with depressive symptoms who are receiving personal support services through a home care program in Ontario, Canada. The nurse-led intervention is a multi-faceted 6-month program led by a Registered Nurse that involves regular home visits, monthly case conferences, and evidence-based assessment and management of depression using an interprofessional approach. The primary outcome is the change in severity of depressive symptoms from baseline to 6 months using the Centre for Epidemiological Studies in Depression Scale. Secondary outcomes include changes in the prevalence of depressive symptoms and anxiety, health-related quality of life, cognitive function, and the rate and appropriateness of depression treatment from baseline to 12 months. Changes in the costs of use of health services will be assessed from a societal perspective. Descriptive and qualitative data will be collected to examine the feasibility and acceptability of the intervention and identify barriers and facilitators to

  10. Reducing depression in older home care clients: design of a prospective study of a nurse-led interprofessional mental health promotion intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markle-Reid, Maureen F; McAiney, Carrie; Forbes, Dorothy; Thabane, Lehana; Gibson, Maggie; Hoch, Jeffrey S; Browne, Gina; Peirce, Thomas; Busing, Barbara

    2011-08-25

    Very little research has been conducted in the area of depression among older home care clients using personal support services. These older adults are particularly vulnerable to depression because of decreased cognition, comorbid chronic conditions, functional limitations, lack of social support, and reduced access to health services. To date, research has focused on collaborative, nurse-led depression care programs among older adults in primary care settings. Optimal management of depression among older home care clients is not currently known. The objective of this study is to evaluate the feasibility, acceptability and effectiveness of a 6-month nurse-led, interprofessional mental health promotion intervention aimed at older home care clients with depressive symptoms using personal support services. This one-group pre-test post-test study aims to recruit a total of 250 long-stay (> 60 days) home care clients, 70 years or older, with depressive symptoms who are receiving personal support services through a home care program in Ontario, Canada. The nurse-led intervention is a multi-faceted 6-month program led by a Registered Nurse that involves regular home visits, monthly case conferences, and evidence-based assessment and management of depression using an interprofessional approach. The primary outcome is the change in severity of depressive symptoms from baseline to 6 months using the Centre for Epidemiological Studies in Depression Scale. Secondary outcomes include changes in the prevalence of depressive symptoms and anxiety, health-related quality of life, cognitive function, and the rate and appropriateness of depression treatment from baseline to 12 months. Changes in the costs of use of health services will be assessed from a societal perspective. Descriptive and qualitative data will be collected to examine the feasibility and acceptability of the intervention and identify barriers and facilitators to implementation. Data collection began in May 2010 and

  11. Cognitive behavioural therapy and mindfulness based stress reduction may be equally effective in reducing anxiety and depression in adults with autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sizoo, Bram B; Kuiper, Erik

    2017-05-01

    Anxiety and depression co-occur in 50-70% of adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) but treatment methods for these comorbid problems have not been systematically studied. Recently, two ASD-tailored protocols were published: mindfulness based stress reduction (MBSR) and cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT). We wanted to investigate if both methods are equally effective in reducing anxiety and depression symptoms among adults with ASD. 59 adults with ASD and anxiety or depression scores above 7 on the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, gave informed consent to participate; 27 followed the CBT protocol, and 32 the MBSR treatment protocol. Anxiety and depression scores, autism symptoms, rumination, and global mood were registered at the start, at the end of the 13-week treatment period, and at 3-months follow-up. Irrational beliefs and mindful attention awareness were used as process measures during treatment and at follow-up. Results indicate that both MBSR and CBT are associated with a reduction in anxiety and depressive symptoms among adults with ASD, with a sustained effect at follow-up, but without a main effect for treatment group. A similar pattern was seen for the reduction of autistic symptoms, rumination and the improvement in global mood. There are some indications that MBSR may be preferred over CBT with respect to the treatment effect on anxiety when the scores on measures of irrational beliefs or positive global mood at baseline are high. Mindfulness and cognitive behavioral therapies are both promising treatment methods for reducing comorbid anxiety and depression in adults with ASD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The association between dietary patterns derived by reduced rank regression and depressive symptoms over time: the Invecchiare in Chianti (InCHIANTI) study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, E.; Stronks, K.; Visser, M de; Brouwer, I.A.; Schene, A.H.; Mocking, R.J.T.; Colpo, M.; Bandinelli, S.; Ferrucci, L.; Nicolaou, M.

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to identify dietary patterns using reduced rank regression (RRR) and to explore their associations with depressive symptoms over 9 years in the Invecchiare in Chianti study. At baseline, 1362 participants (55.4 % women) aged 18-102 years (mean age 68 (sd 15.5) years) were included

  13. The association between dietary patterns derived by reduced rank regression and depressive symptoms over time : the Invecchiare in Chianti (InCHIANTI) study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, Esther; Stronks, Karien; Visser, Marjolein; Brouwer, Ingeborg A; Schene, Aart H; Mocking, Roel J T; Colpo, Marco; Bandinelli, Stefania; Ferrucci, Luigi; Nicolaou, Mary

    This study aimed to identify dietary patterns using reduced rank regression (RRR) and to explore their associations with depressive symptoms over 9 years in the Invecchiare in Chianti study. At baseline, 1362 participants (55·4 % women) aged 18-102 years (mean age 68 (sd 15·5) years) were included

  14. Effects of an Infant-Focused Relationship-Based Hospital and Home Visiting Intervention on Reducing Symptoms of Postpartum Maternal Depression: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugent, J. Kevin; Bartlett, Jessica Dym; Valim, Clarissa

    2014-01-01

    Relationship-based interventions are an effective means for reducing postpartum depression (PPD), but few cost-effective tools that can be administered efficiently in medical and home settings are available or well-studied. This study examines the efficacy of the Newborn Behavioral Observations (NBO), an infant-centered relationship-based…

  15. Postactivation depression of the Ia EPSP in motoneurons is reduced in both the G127X SOD1 model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and in aged mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Anne; Lehnhoff, Janna; Moldovan, Mihai

    2015-01-01

    Post Activation Depression (PActD) of Ia afferent EPSPs in spinal motoneurons results in a long lasting depression of the stretch reflex. PActD is of clinical interest as it has been shown to be reduced in a number of spastic disorders. Using in vivo intracellular recordings of Ia EPSPs in adult...... mice, we demonstrate that PActD in adult (100-220 days) C57BL/6J mice is both qualitatively and quantitatively similar to that which has been observed in larger animals with respect to both magnitude (approximately 20% depression of EPSPs at 0.5 ms after a stimuli train) and time course (returning...... Sclerosis (ALS). Using the G127X SOD1 mutant mouse, an ALS model with a prolonged asymptomatic phase and fulminant symptom onset, we observed that PActD is significantly reduced at both pre-symptomatic (16% depression) and symptomatic (17.3% depression) time points compared to aged-matched controls (22...

  16. Prescription for antidepressant in reducing future alcohol-related readmission in patients suffering from depression and alcohol use disorder: a retrospective medical record review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Patrick; Yomen, Katie; Turcios, Jennifer; Richman, Mark

    2015-12-21

    Patients suffering from major depressive disorder are more likely to suffer from alcohol use disorder. The data is inconclusive for the effectiveness of antidepressant treatment of patients suffering from both illnesses in regards to improving sobriety and reducing alcohol-related healthcare expenses such as hospitalizations. The objective of this study is to determine if a new prescription of an antidepressant upon inpatient discharge is associated with a reduction in the number of future acute alcohol-related hospital readmissions to the same institution in patients suffering from major depressive disorder and alcohol-use disorder. A retrospective, medical record review study was conducted at a publicly-supported hospital in Sylmar, CA. A query was performed for adult patients admitted between 1/1/2005-12/31/2013 who had ICD-9 codes for both alcohol-use disorder and depression. Index admission was the first hospitalization in which the patient was currently consuming alcohol and had depression as identified by physician documentation as a problem. Acute alcohol-related admissions were those for alcohol intoxication or withdrawal (indicating current alcohol use). Patients were excluded if they were receiving an antidepressant on index admission, depressive disorder with a prescription for an antidepressant is not associated with a reduction in future readmissions, nor significantly increase the number of days to readmission. The study does not support the concept of antidepressants in reducing acute alcohol-related readmissions.

  17. Reducing depressive or anxiety symptoms in post-stroke patients: Pilot trial of a constructive integrative psychosocial intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yihong; Mpofu, Elias; Athanasou, James

    2017-01-01

    Background: About 30% of stroke survivors clinically have depressive symptoms at some point following stroke and anxiety prevalence is around 20-25%. Objective: The purpose of this brief report is to evaluate a pilot trial of a constructive integrative psychosocial intervention (CIPI) over standard care in post-stroke depression or anxiety. Methods: Patients were randomly assigned to either CIPI (n = 23) or standard care (n = 19). Patients were assessed using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale at the 1st, 3rd, and 6th months to monitor changes of mood. Results: A Wilcoxon signed-rank test indicated that compared to admission baseline, patients with the intervention had significantly normal post-stroke depression symptom levels at the 1st, 3rd, and 6th months (P < 0.005). Conclusion: CIPI appears to be of incremental value in treating depression as well as anxiety in subacute care. PMID:29085269

  18. Web-Based Intervention to Reduce Substance Abuse and Depressive Symptoms in Mexico: Development and Usability Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiburcio, Marcela; Lara, Ma Asunción; Aguilar Abrego, Araceli; Fernández, Morise; Martínez Vélez, Nora; Sánchez, Alejandro

    2016-09-29

    The development of Web-based interventions for substance abuse in Latin America is a new field of interest with great potential for expansion to other Spanish-speaking countries. This paper describes a project aimed to develop and evaluate the usability of the Web-based Help Program for Drug Abuse and Depression (Programa de Ayuda para Abuso de Drogas y Depresión, PAADD, in Spanish) and also to construct a systematic frame of reference for the development of future Web-based programs. The PAADD aims to reduce substance use and depressive symptoms with cognitive behavioral techniques translated into Web applications, aided by the participation of a counselor to provide support and guidance. This Web-based intervention includes 4 steps: (1) My Starting Point, (2) Where Do I Want to Be? (3) Strategies for Change, and (4) Maintaining Change. The development of the program was an interactive multistage process. The first stage defined the core structure and contents, which were validated in stage 2 by a group of 8 experts in addiction treatment. Programming of the applications took place in stage 3, taking into account 3 types of end users: administrators, counselors, and substance users. Stage 4 consisted of functionality testing. In stage 5, a total of 9 health professionals and 20 drug users currently in treatment voluntarily interacted with the program in a usability test, providing feedback about adjustments needed to improve users' experience. The main finding of stage 2 was the consensus of the health professionals about the cognitive behavioral strategies and techniques included in PAADD being appropriate for changing substance use behaviors. In stage 5, the health professionals found the functionalities easy to learn; their suggestions were related to the page layout, inclusion of confirmation messages at the end of activities, avoiding "read more" links, and providing feedback about every activity. On the other hand, the users said the information presented

  19. Depression After Heart Attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Can Be Done to Reduce the Impact of Depression on My Mental and Physical Health? There is some good news here. Depression is ... Can Be Done to Reduce the Impact of Depression on My Mental and Physical Health? What Can I Do About the Depression I’ ...

  20. Major depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depression - major; Depression - clinical; Clinical depression; Unipolar depression; Major depressive disorder ... providers do not know the exact causes of depression. It is believed that chemical changes in the ...

  1. A Tele-Behavioral Health Intervention to Reduce Depression, Anxiety, and Stress and Improve Diabetes Self-Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochari-Greenberger, Heidi; Vue, Lee; Luka, Andi; Peters, Aimee; Pande, Reena L

    2016-08-01

    Depression is prevalent among individuals with diabetes and associated with suboptimal self-management. Little is known about the feasibility and potential impact of tele-behavioral therapy to improve depressive symptoms and self-management among diabetes patients. This was a retrospective observational study of consecutive graduates enrolled in a national 8-week diabetes behavioral telehealth program between August 1, 2014, and January 31, 2015 (N = 466; mean age 56.8 ± 5.0 years; 56% female). Participant characteristics (demographics, comorbidities) were obtained by standardized questionnaire. Depression, anxiety, and stress symptoms (DASS; validated Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale 21 survey), and glucose self-testing frequency and values (point-of-care monitor) were measured at program start and completion. Changes in DASS severity and glucose self-testing frequency were assessed by chi-square tests. Changes in DASS and blood glucose levels were evaluated by paired t-tests. At baseline, approximately one in three participants had elevated depression (32%), anxiety (33%), or stress (31%) scores. Significant reductions in average DASS, depression (-8.8), anxiety (-6.9), and stress (-9.9), scores were observed at graduation among those with elevated baseline scores (p depression, anxiety, or stress categories. Improved glucose self-testing frequency (69% vs. 60% tested ≥once per week; p = 0.0005) and significant reductions in mean morning glucose levels (-12.3 mg/dL; p = 0.0002) were observed from baseline to graduation. Participants with normal versus non-normal depression scores were more likely to have lower (depression, anxiety, stress, and glucose levels, as well as increased frequency of glucose self-testing, among participants in a diabetes behavioral telehealth program.

  2. Minocycline Hydrochloride in Reducing Chemotherapy Induced Depression and Anxiety in Patients With Stage I-III Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-07

    Anxiety Disorder; Depression; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  3. Comprehensive eight-month intervention reduces weight and improves depression and anxiety levels in severe and morbid obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Cofre-Lizama

    2017-04-01

    Conclusion: The comprehensive eight-month intervention had significant benefits for participants in weight loss and improved levels of anxiety and depression. For this reason, the intervention performed may be recommended for the treatment of this condition.

  4. Improvement in Depressive Symptoms Is Associated with Reduced Oxidative Damage and Inflammatory Response in Type 2 Diabetic Patients with Subsyndromal Depression: The Results of a Randomized Controlled Trial Comparing Psychoeducation, Physical Exercise, and Enhanced Treatment as Usual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marijana Vučić Lovrenčić

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. To examine one-year changes in oxidative damage and inflammation level in type 2 diabetic patients undergoing behavioral treatment for subsyndromal depression. Materials and Methods. A randomized controlled comparison of psychoeducation (A, physical exercise (B, and enhanced treatment as usual (C was performed in 209 eligible subjects in a tertiary diabetes care setting. Depressive symptoms (primary outcome and selected biomarkers of oxidative damage and inflammation (secondary outcomes were assessed at baseline and six- and twelve-month follow-up. Results. Out of the 74, 67, and 68 patients randomised into groups A, B, and C, respectively, 201 completed the interventions, and 179 were analysed. Participants in all three groups equally improved in depressive symptoms from baseline to one-year follow-up (repeated measures ANOVA; F=12.51, p<0.0001, η2=0.07. Urinary 8-oxo-deoxyguanosine (u-8-oxodG decreased (F=10.66, p<0.0001, η2=0.06, as did sialic acid and leukocytes (F=84.57, η2=0.32 and F=12.61, η2=0.07, resp.; p<0.0001, while uric acid increased (F=12.53, p<0.0001, η2=0.07 in all subjects during one year. Improvement of depressive symptoms at 6 months significantly predicted one-year reduction in u-8-oxodG (β=0.15, p=0.044. Conclusion. Simple behavioral interventions are capable not only of alleviating depressive symptoms, but also of reducing the intensity of damaging oxidative/inflammatory processes in type 2 diabetic patients with subsyndromal depression. This trial is registered with ISRCTN05673017.

  5. Aging and depression vulnerability interaction results in decreased serotonin innervation associated with reduced BDNF levels in hippocampus of rats bred for learned helplessness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aznar, Susana; Klein, Anders B; Santini, Martin A; Knudsen, Gitte M; Henn, Fritz; Gass, Peter; Vollmayr, Barbara

    2010-07-01

    Epidemiological studies have revealed a strong genetic contribution to the risk for depression. Both reduced hippocampal serotonin neurotransmission and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels have been associated with increased depression vulnerability and are also regulated during aging. Brains from young (5 months old) and old (13 months old) congenital Learned Helplessness rats (cLH), and congenital Non Learned Helplessness rats (cNLH) were immunohistochemically stained for the serotonin transporter and subsequently stereologically quantified for estimating hippocampal serotonin fiber density. Hippocampal BDNF protein levels were measured by ELISA. An exacerbated age-related loss of serotonin fiber density specific for the CA1 area was observed in the cLH animals, whereas reduced hippocampal BDNF levels were seen in young and old cLH when compared with age-matched cNLH controls. These observations indicate that aging should be taken into account when studying the neurobiological factors behind the vulnerability for depression and that understanding the effect of aging on genetically predisposed individuals may contribute to a better understanding of the pathophysiology behind depression, particularly in the elderly.

  6. The potential for military diets to reduce depression, suicide, and impulsive aggression: a review of current evidence for omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibbeln, Joseph R; Gow, Rachel V

    2014-11-01

    The current burden of psychological distress and illness poses as a significant barrier to optimal force efficacy. Here we assess nutrients in military diets, specifically highly unsaturated essential fatty acids, in the reduction of risk or treatment of psychiatric distress. Moderate to strong evidence from several meta-analyses of prospective cohort trials indicate that Mediterranean diet patterns reduce risk of clinical depressions. Specific nutrients and foods of biological interest in relation to mental health outcomes are then discussed and evaluated. Moderate evidence indicates that when fish consumption decreases and simultaneously omega-6 increases, the risk of clinical depressive symptoms are elevated. One meta-analysis examining tissue compositions provides moderate to strong evidence that higher levels of omega-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFAs) (eicosapentaenoic acid, docosapentaenoic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid) are associated with decreased risk of clinical depressions. Other meta-analytic reviews of randomized placebo-controlled trials provide moderate to strong evidence of significantly improving clinically depressive symptoms when the formulation given was >50% in eicosapentaenoic acid. Finally, a meta-analysis of omega-3 HUFAs provides modest evidence of clinical efficacy for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. This article recommends that a rebalancing of the essential fatty acid composition of U.S. military diets, achieve tissue compositions of HUFAs consistent with traditional Mediterranean diets, may help reduce military psychiatric distress and simultaneously increase force efficacy substantially. Reprint & Copyright © 2014 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  7. Co-infection with HIV associated with reduced vulnerability to symptoms of depression during antiviral treatment for hepatitis C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fialho, Renata; Pereira, Marco; Harrison, Neil; Rusted, Jennifer; Whale, Richard

    2017-07-01

    In this prospective study, we examined new-onset major depressive disorder (MDD) and the differential expression of depressive symptoms in a sample of 132 HCV mono-infected and 40 HIV/HCV co-infected patients initiating pegylated interferon-based treatment, including protease inhibitor therapy. The semi-structured clinical interview (SCID-I) was used to assess MDD. Severity of depressive symptoms was assessed using the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale. Of the total sample, 60 patients (34.9%) developed SCID-I defined MDD during antiviral treatment. The proportion of HCV mono- and HIV/HCV patients developing MDD during treatment was not significantly different (37.9% vs. 25%; p=0.185). In both groups, there was a significant increase in HAMD total score from baseline to week 4, and a significant decrease between week 24 and 6 months post-treatment cessation. The greatest increase was observed in the symptoms of the neurovegetative syndrome. HCV mono-infected patients reported higher scores than co-infected patients, particularly impaired activity and somatic symptoms, but the differences were only significant at week 12. The finding that co-infected patients appear less vulnerable to the development of depressive symptoms during HCV treatment than HCV mono-infected patients warrants further exploration, including a thorough analysis of the biological and psychosocial factors associated with this emergence. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Intranasal cotinine improves memory, and reduces depressive-like behavior, and GFAP+ cells loss induced by restraint stress in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Urrutia, Nelson; Mendoza, Cristhian; Alvarez-Ricartes, Nathalie; Oliveros-Matus, Patricia; Echeverria, Florencia; Grizzell, J Alex; Barreto, George E; Iarkov, Alexandre; Echeverria, Valentina

    2017-09-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), chronic psychological stress, and major depressive disorder have been found to be associated with a significant decrease in glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) immunoreactivity in the hippocampus of rodents. Cotinine is an alkaloid that prevents memory impairment, depressive-like behavior and synaptic loss when co-administered during restraint stress, a model of PTSD and stress-induced depression, in mice. Here, we investigated the effects of post-treatment with intranasal cotinine on depressive- and anxiety-like behaviors, visual recognition memory as well as the number and morphology of GFAP+ immunoreactive cells, in the hippocampus and frontal cortex of mice subjected to prolonged restraint stress. The results revealed that in addition to the mood and cognitive impairments, restraint stress induced a significant decrease in the number and arborization of GFAP+ cells in the brain of mice. Intranasal cotinine prevented these stress-derived symptoms and the morphological abnormalities GFAP+ cells in both of these brain regions which are critical to resilience to stress. The significance of these findings for the therapy of PTSD and depression is discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Depression and Anxiety in Traumatic Brachial Plexus Injury Patients Are Associated With Reduced Motor Outcome After Surgical Intervention for Restoration of Elbow Flexion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Thomas J; Chang, Kate W C; Yang, Lynda J-S

    2016-06-01

    Depression has been associated with poor outcomes in neurosurgical patients, including increased pain, poorer functional recovery, delayed return to work, and decreased patient satisfaction. No reports exist regarding an association of psychiatric diagnoses with outcomes after brachial plexus reconstruction. As outcomes and patient satisfaction become increasingly important to payers and physician reimbursement, assessing modifiable preoperative risk factors for their association with poor outcome and patient satisfaction is imperative. To analyze patients undergoing brachial plexus reconstruction to assess the relationship of depression/anxiety with functional outcome. Data were collected retrospectively on all patients who underwent brachial plexus reconstruction to restore elbow flexion between 2005 and 2013. Elbow flexion, graded via the Medical Research Council scale, was assessed at latest follow-up. Multiple variables, including the presence of Axis I psychiatric diagnoses, were assessed for their association with the dichotomous outcome of Medical Research Council scale score ≥3 (antigravity) vs <3 elbow flexion. Standard statistical methods were used. Thirty-seven patients met inclusion criteria. The median postsurgical follow-up time was 21 months. Operations included neurolysis (n = 3), nerve graft repair (n = 6), and nerve transfer (n = 28). Depression was present in 10 of 37 patients (27%). Of variables tested, only depression was associated with poor elbow flexion outcome (odds ratio: 6.038; P = .04). Preoperative depression is common after brachial plexus injury. The presence of depression is associated with reduced elbow flexion recovery after reconstruction. Our data suggest assessment and treatment of preoperative mental health is important in designing a comprehensive postoperative management plan to optimize outcomes and patient satisfaction. MRC, Medical Research CouncilTBI, traumatic brain injury.

  10. Do depression and anxiety reduce the likelihood of remission in rheumatoid arthritis and psoriatic arthritis? Data from the prospective multicentre NOR-DMARD study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelsen, Brigitte; Kristianslund, Eirik Klami; Sexton, Joseph; Hammer, Hilde Berner; Fagerli, Karen Minde; Lie, Elisabeth; Wierød, Ada; Kalstad, Synøve; Rødevand, Erik; Krøll, Frode; Haugeberg, Glenn; Kvien, Tore K

    2017-11-01

    To investigate the predictive value of baseline depression/anxiety on the likelihood of achieving joint remission in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and psoriatic arthritis (PsA) as well as the associations between baseline depression/anxiety and the components of the remission criteria at follow-up. We included 1326 patients with RA and 728 patients with PsA from the prospective observational NOR-DMARD study starting first-time tumour necrosis factor inhibitors or methotrexate. The predictive value of depression/anxiety on remission was explored in prespecified logistic regression models and the associations between baseline depression/anxiety and the components of the remission criteria in prespecified multiple linear regression models. Baseline depression/anxiety according to EuroQoL-5D-3L, Short Form-36 (SF-36) Mental Health subscale ≤56 and SF-36 Mental Component Summary ≤38 negatively predicted 28-joint Disease Activity Score anxiety was associated with increased patient's and evaluator's global assessment, tender joint count and joint pain in RA at follow-up, but not with swollen joint count and acute phase reactants. Depression and anxiety may reduce likelihood of joint remission based on composite scores in RA and PsA and should be taken into account in individual patients when making a shared decision on a treatment target. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  11. "She Finally Smiles … for Real": Reducing Depressive Symptoms and Bolstering Resilience Through a Camp Intervention for LGBTQ Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillig, Traci K; Miller, Lynn C; Cox, Courtney M

    2017-11-29

    While summer camps are a recognized evidence-based strategy for building social and emotional skills among youth (U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC], 2009), no known studies have evaluated the effects of camp programming for LGBTQ youth in the United States. This pilot study evaluates a novel program (Brave Trails) for LGBTQ youth ages 12 to 20, using a pre-post camper survey (N = 56) and a post-camp parent survey (N = 54). Results show campers experienced increases in identity affirmation and hope and a reduction in depressive symptoms. Regression analyses found changes in identity affirmation predicted reductions in depressive symptoms and increases in resilience. Additionally, campers' experience of key camp programming features predicted changes in depressive symptoms. Findings from the parent survey were consistent with camper survey results. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

  12. Effectiveness of a Combined Dance and Relaxation Intervention on Reducing Anxiety and Depression and Improving Quality of Life among the Cognitively Impaired Elderly

    OpenAIRE

    Dina Adam; Ayiesah Ramli; Suzana Shahar

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Cognitive impairment is a common problem among the elderly and is believed to be a precursor to dementia. This study aimed to explore the effectiveness of a combined dance and relaxation intervention as compared to relaxation alone in reducing anxiety and depression levels and improving quality of life (QOL) and cognitive function among the cognitively impaired elderly. Methods: This quasi-experimental study was conducted between May and December 2013 in Peninsular Mal...

  13. Genetically reduced FAAH activity may be a risk for the development of anxiety and depression in persons with repetitive childhood trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazary, Judit; Eszlari, Nora; Juhasz, Gabriella; Bagdy, Gyorgy

    2016-06-01

    Fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) inhibitors are addressed for promising anxiolytics, but human studies on genetically reduced FAAH activity, stress and affective phenotypes are scarce. We investigated the effect of a functional polymorphism of FAAH (FAAH C385A or rs324420; low FAAH activity and high anandamide concentration are associated with the A allele) together with childhood adversity on the anxious and depressive phenotypes in 858 subjects from the general population. Phenotypes were measured by the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale (ZSDS), the depression and anxiety subscales of the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI-DEP, BSI-ANX) and the State-Trait Anxiety scales (STAI-S, STAI-T). Childhood Adversity Questionnaire (CHA) was used to assess early life traumas. Frequency of the A allele was greater among subjects with high ZSDS scores compared to the CC genotype. Furthermore, FAAH C385A and the CHA have shown a robust gene-environment interaction, namely, significantly higher anxiety and depression scores were exhibited by individuals carrying the A allele if they had high CHA scores compared to CC carriers. These data provided preliminary evidence that genetically reduced FAAH activity and repetitive stress in the childhood are associated with increased vulnerability for anxiety and depression in later life. Our results together with earlier experimental data suggest that permanently elevated anandamide level together with early life stress may cause a lifelong damage on stress response probably via the downregulation of CB1R during the neurodevelopment in the brain. It may also point to pharmacogenomic consequences, namely ineffectiveness or adverse effects of FAAH inhibitors in this subpopulation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  14. Effectiveness of a Combined Dance and Relaxation Intervention on Reducing Anxiety and Depression and Improving Quality of Life among the Cognitively Impaired Elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina Adam

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Cognitive impairment is a common problem among the elderly and is believed to be a precursor to dementia. This study aimed to explore the effectiveness of a combined dance and relaxation intervention as compared to relaxation alone in reducing anxiety and depression levels and improving quality of life (QOL and cognitive function among the cognitively impaired elderly. Methods: This quasi-experimental study was conducted between May and December 2013 in Peninsular Malaysia. Subjects from four government residential homes for older adults aged ≥60 years with mild to moderate cognitive function as assessed by the Mini-Mental State Examination were included in the study. Subjects were divided into an intervention group and a control group; the former participated in a combined poco-poco dance and relaxation intervention whilst the latter participated in relaxation exercises only. Both groups participated in two sessions per week for six weeks. Anxiety and depression were self-assessed using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and QOL was self-assessed using the Quality of Life in Alzheimer’s Disease questionnaire. Results: A total of 84 elderly subjects were included in the study; 44 were in the intervention group and 40 were in the control group. When compared to control subjects, those in the intervention group showed significantly decreased anxiety (P <0.001 and depression (P <0.001 levels as well as improved QOL (P <0.001 and cognitive impairment (P <0.001. Conclusion: Dance as a form of participationbased physical exercise was found to reduce anxiety and depression levels and improve QOL and cognitive function among the studied sample of cognitively impaired elderly subjects in Malaysia.

  15. Reduced frontal brain volume in non-treatment-seeking cocaine-dependent individuals: exploring the role of impulsivity, depression, and smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crunelle, Cleo L; Kaag, Anne Marije; van Wingen, Guido; van den Munkhof, Hanna E; Homberg, Judith R; Reneman, Liesbeth; van den Brink, Wim

    2014-01-01

    In cocaine-dependent patients, gray matter (GM) volume reductions have been observed in the frontal lobes that are associated with the duration of cocaine use. Studies are mostly restricted to treatment-seekers and studies in non-treatment-seeking cocaine abusers are sparse. Here, we assessed GM volume differences between 30 non-treatment-seeking cocaine-dependent individuals and 33 non-drug using controls using voxel-based morphometry. Additionally, within the group of non-treatment-seeking cocaine-dependent individuals, we explored the role of frequently co-occurring features such as trait impulsivity (Barratt Impulsivity Scale, BIS), smoking, and depressive symptoms (Beck Depression Inventory), as well as the role of cocaine use duration, on frontal GM volume. Smaller GM volumes in non-treatment-seeking cocaine-dependent individuals were observed in the left middle frontal gyrus. Moreover, within the group of cocaine users, trait impulsivity was associated with reduced GM volume in the right orbitofrontal cortex, the left precentral gyrus, and the right superior frontal gyrus, whereas no effect of smoking severity, depressive symptoms, or duration of cocaine use was observed on regional GM volumes. Our data show an important association between trait impulsivity and frontal GM volumes in cocaine-dependent individuals. In contrast to previous studies with treatment-seeking cocaine-dependent patients, no significant effects of smoking severity, depressive symptoms, or duration of cocaine use on frontal GM volume were observed. Reduced frontal GM volumes in non-treatment-seeking cocaine-dependent subjects are associated with trait impulsivity and are not associated with co-occurring nicotine dependence or depression.

  16. Cervical flexor muscle training reduces pain, anxiety, and depression levels in patients with chronic neck pain by a clinically important amount: A prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazari, Goris; Bobos, Pavlos; Billis, Evdokia; MacDermid, Joy C

    2018-03-14

    Neck pain is the fourth leading cause of disability in the United States and exerts an important socio-economic burden around the world. The aims of this study were to determine the effectiveness of deep and superficial flexor muscle training in addition to home-based exercises in reducing chronic neck pain and anxiety/depression levels. This was a prospective cohort study. Patients between 18 and 65 years old with chronic neck pain were eligible to participate if they had disability levels at least 5 out of 50 on the Neck Disability Index. Patients were divided into three groups: Group A received deep neck flexor and home-based exercises; Group B received superficial muscle and home-based exercises; and Group C received home-based exercises only. The Numeric Pain Rating Scale (NPRS), Neck Disability Index, and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale were administered at baseline and 7 weeks later. The highest improvements in pain intensity levels were observed in Group A with 4.75 (1.74) NPRS points, and the lowest were in Group C with 1.00 (1.10). The highest reductions in anxiety and depression levels were noted in Group A (2.80) and Group B (1.65), respectively. The highest improvements in pain intensity levels were observed among Groups A versus C with 2.80 (0.52) NPRS. The highest reductions in anxiety and depression levels were noted among Groups A versus C with 1.75 (1.10) points and Groups B versus C with 1.60 (0.90) points, respectively. Deep and superficial flexor muscle training along with home-based exercises is likely to reduce chronic neck pain and anxiety/depression levels by a clinically relevant amount. Future larger scaled randomized controlled trials are warranted to further support these findings. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Does Coping With Music as an Art Reduce Anxiety and Depression Symptoms? A Comparison of Conservatoire and Other Faculty Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazan Karaoglu

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: Art is known to be a tool which provides relaxation and helps therapy especially in psychiatric diseases and in many other health problems. But the effect of art in artists is not known well. The aim of this study was to ascertain if there is a difference in anxiety and depression symptom scores between students of conservatoire and the other faculties. METHOD: In this study, anxiety and depression scores of volunteer students in conservatoire and other faculties were determined via a self administered questionnaire consisting of socio-demographic questions and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS. Percentages, chi-square, student-t test and one-way ANOVA tests were used in statistical analyses. RESULTS: Study population was composed of 171 students in the ages of 17–29 (mean=21.36±2.31 years and 89 (52% were female. Among 55 (32.2% conservatoire students and 116(67.8% other faculties’ students 104(60.8% were living in a hostel. Mean anxiety and depression scores were 7.21±3.37, 5.80±3.49 for conservatoire students and 7.56 ±3.62, 5.81±3.41 for the comparisons, respectively. There were symptoms above the cut– off levels for anxiety in 28 students (16.4% and for depression in 47 students (27.5% in the whole group. While anxiety and depression symptoms percentages were 18.2 %( n=10 and 15.5 %( n=18 in conservatoire students, that were 32.7 %( n=18 and 25.0 %( n=29 in other students. The difference was not statistically significant for both anxiety and depression symptoms (p>0.05. CONCLUSION: We found that dealing with music as an art didn’t made difference in anxiety and depression symptoms in this study population. Art is always accepted as a relaxation tool but individuals making art as a lesson, as a job or as a way to gain money can feel different. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2009; 8(6.000: 465-472

  18. Are rehabilitation and/or care co-ordination interventions delivered in the community effective in reducing depression, facilitating participation and improving quality of life after stroke?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graven, Christine; Brock, Kim; Hill, Keith; Joubert, Lynette

    2011-01-01

    To conduct a systematic review to explore the effectiveness of community-based rehabilitation interventions delivered by allied health professionals and/or nursing staff in reducing depression, facilitating participation and improving health-related quality of life (HRQoL) post-inpatient stroke rehabilitation. A search was conducted in the databases of MEDLINE, PEDro, CINAHL and the Cochrane Library. Publications were classified into categories based on the type of the interventions. Best evidence synthesis and meta-analysis were utilised to determine the level of evidence. Fifty-four studies were included in the review, and divided into nine broad intervention categories. Meta-analysis demonstrated significant reduction in depression with exercise interventions (n = 137; effect estimate SMD: -2.03, 95%CI: -3.22, -0.85). Community-based interventions targeting participation and leisure domains showed moderate evidence for improvement in global participation measures and HRQoL. Comprehensive rehabilitation demonstrated limited evidence for depression and participation, and strong evidence for HRQoL. There is limited to moderate evidence supporting some rehabilitation interventions in affecting the outcomes of depression, participation and HRQoL post-stroke. Heterogeneity of the studies made evidence synthesis difficult. Further consideration needs to be given to the type and timing of outcome measures selected to represent the domains of participation and HRQoL.

  19. Impairment of Release Site Clearance within the Active Zone by Reduced SCAMP5 Expression Causes Short-Term Depression of Synaptic Release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daehun Park

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Despite being a highly enriched synaptic vesicle (SV protein and a candidate gene for autism, the physiological function of SCAMP5 remains mostly enigmatic. Here, using optical imaging and electrophysiological experiments, we demonstrate that SCAMP5 plays a critical role in release site clearance at the active zone. Truncation analysis revealed that the 2/3 loop domain of SCAMP5 directly interacts with adaptor protein 2, and this interaction is critical for its role in release site clearance. Knockdown (KD of SCAMP5 exhibited pronounced synaptic depression accompanied by a slower recovery of the SV pool. Moreover, it induced a strong frequency-dependent short-term depression of synaptic release, even under the condition of sufficient release-ready SVs. Super-resolution microscopy further proved the defects in SV protein clearance induced by KD. Thus, reduced expression of SCAMP5 may impair the efficiency of SV clearance at the active zone, and this might relate to the synaptic dysfunction observed in autism. : Park et al. show that SCAMP5 plays an important role in release site clearance during intense neuronal activity. Loss of SCAMP5 results in a traffic jam at release sites, causing aberrant short-term synaptic depression that might be associated with the synaptic dysfunction observed in autism. Keywords: secretory carrier membrane protein, SCAMP5, autism spectrum disorder, adaptor protein 2, release site clearance, presynaptic active zone, short-term depression, endocytosis, super-resolution microscopy

  20. Group Cognitive Behavioural Therapy Program Shows Potential in Reducing Symptoms of Depression and Stress among Young People with ASD

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGillivray, J. A.; Evert, H. T.

    2014-01-01

    We examined the efficacy of cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) delivered in groups on the reduction of symptoms of depression, anxiety and stress in young people on the autism spectrum. Utilising a quasi-experimental design, comparisons were made between individuals allocated to a group intervention program and individuals allocated to a…

  1. An early intervention to promote well-being and flourishing and reduce anxiety and depression: A randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marijke Schotanus-Dijkstra

    2017-09-01

    Conclusion: A guided positive self-help intervention might be considered as a new mental health promotion strategy because it has the potential to improve well-being up to the status of flourishing mental health, and to decrease anxiety and depressive symptomatology.

  2. Effectiveness of Mindfulness-based Therapy for Reducing Anxiety and Depression in Patients With Cancer: A Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mei-Fen; Wen, Yong-Shan; Liu, Wei-Yan; Peng, Li-Fen; Wu, Xiao-Dan; Liu, Qian-Wen

    2015-11-01

    Anxiety and depression are common among patients with cancer, and are often treated with psychological interventions including mindfulness-based therapy.The aim of the study was to perform a meta-analysis of the effectiveness of mindfulness-based interventions for improving anxiety and depression in patients with cancer.Medline, the Cochrane Library, EMBASE, and Google Scholar were searched. The randomized controlled trials designed for patients diagnosed with cancer were included. Mindfulness-based interventions were provided.The outcomes assessed were the changes in anxiety and depression scores from before to after the intervention. The treatment response was determined by calculating the standardized mean difference (SMD) for individual studies and for pooled study results. Subgroup analyses by cancer type, type of therapy, and length of follow-up were performed.Seven studies, involving 469 participants who received mindfulness-based interventions and 419 participants in a control group, were included in the meta-analysis. Mindfulness-based stress reduction and art therapy were the most common interventions (5/7 studies). All studies reported anxiety and depression scores. The pooled SMD of the change in anxiety significantly favored mindfulness-based therapy over control treatment (-0.75, 95% confidence interval -1.28, -0.22, P = 0.005). Likewise, the pooled SMD of the change in depression also significantly favored mindfulness-based therapy over control (-0.90, 95% confidence interval -1.53, -0.26, P = 0.006). During the length of follow-ups less than 12 weeks, mindfulness-based therapy significantly improved anxiety for follow-up ≤12 weeks after the start of therapy, but not >12 weeks after the start of therapy.There was a lack of consistency between the studies in the type of mindfulness-based/control intervention implemented. Patients had different forms of cancer. Subgroup analyses included a relatively small number of studies and did not

  3. Antioxidant treatment ameliorates experimental diabetes-induced depressive-like behaviour and reduces oxidative stress in brain and pancreas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Réus, Gislaine Z; Dos Santos, Maria Augusta B; Abelaira, Helena M; Titus, Stephanie E; Carlessi, Anelise S; Matias, Beatriz I; Bruchchen, Livia; Florentino, Drielly; Vieira, Andriele; Petronilho, Fabricia; Ceretta, Luciane B; Zugno, Alexandra I; Quevedo, João

    2016-03-01

    Studies have shown a relationship between diabetes mellitus (DM) and the development of major depressive disorder. Alterations in oxidative stress are associated with the pathophysiology of both diabetes mellitus and major depressive disorder. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of antioxidants N-acetylcysteine and deferoxamine on behaviour and oxidative stress parameters in diabetic rats. To this aim, after induction of diabetes by a single dose of alloxan, Wistar rats were treated with N-acetylcysteine or deferoxamine for 14 days, and then depressive-like behaviour was evaluated. Oxidative stress parameters were assessed in the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, amygdala, nucleus accumbens and pancreas. Diabetic rats displayed depressive-like behaviour, and treatment with N-acetylcysteine reversed this alteration. Carbonyl protein levels were increased in the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus and pancreas of diabetic rats, and both N-acetylcysteine and deferoxamine reversed these alterations. Lipid damage was increased in the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, amygdala and pancreas; however, treatment with N-acetylcysteine or deferoxamine reversed lipid damage only in the hippocampus and pancreas. Superoxide dismutase activity was decreased in the amygdala, nucleus accumbens and pancreas of diabetic rats. In diabetic rats, there was a decrease in catalase enzyme activity in the prefrontal cortex, amygdala, nucleus accumbens and pancreas, but an increase in the hippocampus. Treatment with antioxidants did not have an effect on the activity of antioxidant enzymes. In conclusion, animal model of diabetes produced depressive-like behaviour and oxidative stress in the brain and periphery. Treatment with antioxidants could be a viable alternative to treat behavioural and biochemical alterations induced by diabetes. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. A novel herbal treatment reduces depressive-like behaviors and increases brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels in the brain of type 2 diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luo C

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Chun Luo,1,* Yuting Ke,1,* Yanyan Yuan,1 Ming Zhao,1 Fuyan Wang,1 Yisheng Zhang,2 Shizhong Bu1 1Runliang Diabetes Laboratory, Diabetes Research Center, Ningbo University, 2Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Ningbo Medical Center, Li Huili Eastern Hospital, Ningbo, Zhejiang, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Radix Puerariae and hawthorn fruit have been demonstrated to treat diabetes. They offer potential benefits for preventing depression in diabetes. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate whether the combination of Radix Puerariae and hawthorn fruit (CRPHF could prevent depression in a diabetic rat model generated by feeding the rats with a high-fat diet and a low-dose streptozotocin (STZ. Methods: The CRPHF was provided by the Shanghai Chinese Traditional Medical University. Twenty-four rats were randomly divided into four groups: normal control, normal-given-CRPHF (NC, diabetic control, and diabetic-given-CRPHF (DC groups. The type 2 diabetic model was created by feeding the rats with a high-fat diet for 4 weeks followed by injection of 25 mg/kg STZ. CRPHF was given at 2 g/kg/d to the rats of NC and DC groups by intragastric gavage daily for 4 weeks after the type 2 diabetic model was successfully created. Body weight, random blood glucose (RBG, oral glucose tolerance test, total cholesterol (TC, triglyceride (TG, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C were measured during the study. Depressive-like behavior was evaluated at the end of the treatment by using the open field test (OFT, the elevated plus-maze test (EPMT, locomotor activity test (LAT, and forced swimming test (FST. Levels of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF in the prefrontal cortex were evaluated by using Western blot. Results: 1 CRPHF reduced RBG and improved glucose tolerance in diabetic rats

  5. A Self-Paced, Web-Based, Positive Emotion Skills Intervention for Reducing Symptoms of Depression: Protocol for Development and Pilot Testing of MARIGOLD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Elaine O; Addington, Elizabeth L; Bassett, Sarah M; Schuette, Stephanie A; Shiu, Eva W; Cohn, Michael A; Leykin, Yan; Saslow, Laura R; Moskowitz, Judith T

    2018-06-05

    Living with elevated symptoms of depression can have debilitating consequences for an individual's psychosocial and physical functioning, quality of life, and health care utilization. A growing body of evidence demonstrates that skills for increasing positive emotion can be helpful to individuals with depression. Although Web-based interventions to reduce negative emotion in individuals with depression are available, these interventions frequently suffer from poor retention and adherence and do not capitalize on the potential benefits of increasing positive emotion. The aim of this study was to develop and test a Web-based positive emotion skills intervention tailored for individuals living with elevated depressive symptoms, as well as to develop and test enhancement strategies for increasing retention and adherence to that intervention. This study protocol describes the development and testing for Mobile Affect Regulation Intervention with the Goal of Lowering Depression (MARIGOLD), a Web-based positive emotion skills intervention, adapted for individuals with elevated depressive symptomatology. The intervention development is taking place in three phases. In phase 1, we are tailoring an existing positive emotion skills intervention for individuals with elevated symptoms of depression and are pilot testing the tailored version of the intervention in a randomized controlled trial with two control conditions (N=60). In phase 2, we are developing and testing three enhancements aimed at boosting retention and adherence to the Web-based intervention (N=75): facilitator contact, an online discussion board, and virtual badges. In phase 3, we are conducting a multifactorial, nine-arm pilot trial (N=600) to systematically test these enhancement strategies, individually and in combination. The primary outcome is depressive symptom severity. Secondary outcomes include positive and negative emotion, psychological well-being, and coping resources. The project was funded in

  6. Depression-like behavior and mechanical allodynia are reduced by bis selenide treatment in mice with chronic constriction injury: a comparison with fluoxetine, amitriptyline, and bupropion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesse, Cristiano R; Wilhelm, Ethel A; Nogueira, Cristina W

    2010-12-01

    Neuropathic pain is associated with significant co-morbidities, including depression, which impact considerably on the overall patient experience. Pain co-morbidity symptoms are rarely assessed in animal models of neuropathic pain. Neuropathic pain is characterized by hyperexcitability within nociceptive pathways and remains difficult to treat with standard analgesics. The present study determined the effect of bis selenide and conventional antidepressants (fluoxetine, amitriptyline, and bupropion) on neuropathic pain using mechanical allodynic and on depressive-like behavior. Male mice were subjected to chronic constriction injury (CCI) or sham surgery and were assessed on day 14 after operation. Mice received oral treatment with bis selenide (1-5 mg/kg), fluoxetine, amitriptyline, or bupropion (10-30 mg/kg). The response frequency to mechanical allodynia in mice was measured with von Frey hairs. Mice were evaluated in the forced swimming test (FST) test for depression-like behavior. The CCI procedure produced mechanical allodynia and increased depressive-like behavior in the FST. All of the drugs produced antiallodynic effects in CCI mice and produced antidepressant effects in control mice without altering locomotor activity. In CCI animals, however, only the amitriptyline and bis selenide treatments significantly reduced immobility in the FST. These data demonstrate an important dissociation between the antiallodynic and antidepressant effects in mice when tested in a model of neuropathic pain. Depressive behavior in CCI mice was reversed by bis selenide and amitriptyline but not by the conventional antidepressants fluoxetine and buproprion. Bis selenide was more potent than the other drugs tested for antidepressant-like and antiallodynic effects in mice.

  7. Brief training in mindfulness meditation reduces symptoms in patients with a chronic or recurrent lifetime history of depression: A randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winnebeck, Emilia; Fissler, Maria; Gärtner, Matti; Chadwick, Paul; Barnhofer, Thorsten

    2017-12-01

    Training in mindfulness has been introduced to the treatment of depression as a means of relapse prevention. However, given its buffering effects on maladaptive responses to negative mood, mindfulness training would be expected to be particularly helpful in those who are currently suffering from symptoms. This study investigated whether a brief and targeted mindfulness-based intervention can reduce symptoms in acutely depressed patients. Seventy-four patients with a chronic or recurrent lifetime history were randomly allocated to receive either a brief mindfulness-based intervention (MBI) encompassing three individual sessions and regular home practice or a control condition that combined psycho-educational components and regular rest periods using the same format as the MBI. Self-reported severity of symptoms, mindfulness in every day life, ruminative tendencies and cognitive reactivity were assessed before and after intervention. Treatment completers in the MBI condition showed pronounced and significantly stronger reductions in symptoms than those in the control condition. In the MBI group only, patients showed significant increases in mindfulness, and significant reductions in ruminative tendencies and cognitive reactivity. Brief targeted mindfulness interventions can help to reduce symptoms and buffer maladaptive responses to negative mood in acutely depressed patients with chronic or recurrent lifetime history. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. On the Effectiveness of Group Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy and Logotherapy in Reducing Depression and Increasing Life Expectancy in Drug Addicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Khaledian

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study was an attempt to compare the effectiveness of group cognitive-behavioral therapy and logotherapy therapy in Reducing Depression and Increasing Life Expectancy in Drug Addicts. Method: This was an experimental study along with pretest/posttest and control group. All the addicts referring to one of the methadone addiction treatment centers in Qorveh City (Naikoo Salamat Center in 2013 constituted the population of the study. Initially, 60 students were selected by simple random sampling. Then, 30 participants were randomly divided into two experimental groups and one control group based on their scores on Beck Depression Inventory and Snyder’s Life Expectancy Test. One of the experimental groups received 10 logotherapy sessions and the second experimental group received 13 sessions of group cognitive-behavioral therapy. This is so while the control group received no intervention. Results: The results showed that there was not any significant difference between group cognitive behavioral therapy and logotherapy in reducing depression. However, group cognitive behavioral therapy was found to be more effective in increased life expectancy than logotherapy. Conclusion: The results contain practical implications.

  9. PRISM (Program of Resources, Information and Support for Mothers: a community-randomised trial to reduce depression and improve women's physical health six months after birth [ISRCTN03464021

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitchell Creina

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the year after birth one in six women has a depressive illness, 94% experience at least one major health problem (e.g. back pain, perineal pain, mastitis, urinary or faecal incontinence, 26% experience sexual problems and almost 20% have relationship problems with partners. Women with depression report less practical and emotional support from partners, less social support, more negative life events, and poorer physical health and see factors contributing to depression as lack of support, isolation, exhaustion and physical health problems. Fewer than one in three seek help in primary care despite frequent health care contacts. Methods Primary care and community-based strategies embedded in existing services were implemented in a cluster-randomised trial involving 16 rural and metropolitan communities, pair-matched, within the State of Victoria, Australia. Intervention areas were also provided with a community development officer for two years. The primary aim was to reduce the relative risk of depression by 20% in mothers six months after birth and to improve their physical health. Primary outcomes were obtained by postal questionnaires. The analysis was by intention-to-treat, unmatched, adjusting for the correlated nature of the data. Results 6,248 of 10,144 women (61.6% in the intervention arm and 5057/ 8,411 (60.1% in the comparison arm responded at six months, and there was no imbalance in major covariates between the two arms. Women's mental health scores were not significantly different in the intervention arm and the comparison arm (MCS mean score 45.98 and 46.30, mean EPDS score 6.91 and 6.82, EPDS ≥ 13 ('probable depression' 15.7% vs. 14.9%, Odds ratioadj 1.06 (95%CI 0.91–1.24. Women's physical health scores were not significantly different in intervention and comparison arms (PCS mean scores 52.86 and 52.88. Conclusion The combined community and primary care interventions were not effective in reducing

  10. Chronic Maternal Depression Is Associated with Reduced Weight Gain in Latino Infants from Birth to 2 Years of Age

    OpenAIRE

    Wojcicki, Janet M.; Holbrook, Katherine; Lustig, Robert H.; Epel, Elissa; Caughey, Aaron B.; Muñoz, Ricardo F.; Shiboski, Stephen C.; Heyman, Melvin B.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Latino children are at increased risk for mirconutrient deficiencies and problems of overweight and obesity. Exposures in pregnancy and early postpartum may impact future growth trajectories. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the relationship between prenatal and postnatal maternal depressive symptoms experienced in pregnancy and infant growth from birth to 2 years of age in a cohort of Latino infants. METHODS: We recruited pregnant Latina mothers at two San Francisco hospitals and followed...

  11. Minocycline reduces mechanical allodynia and depressive-like behaviour in type-1 diabetes mellitus in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amorim, Diana; Puga, Sónia; Bragança, Rui; Braga, António; Pertovaara, Antti; Almeida, Armando; Pinto-Ribeiro, Filipa

    2017-06-01

    A common and devastating complication of diabetes mellitus is painful diabetic neuropathy (PDN) that can be accompanied by emotional disorders such as depression. A few studies have suggested that minocycline that inhibits microglia may attenuate pain hypersensitivity in PDN. Moreover, a recent study reported that minocycline has an acute antidepressive-like effect in diabetic animals. Here we studied whether (i) prolonged minocycline treatment suppresses pain behaviour in PDN, (ii) the minocycline effect varies with submodality of pain, and (iii) the suppression of pain behaviour by prolonged minocycline treatment is associated with antidepressive-like effect. The experiments were performed in streptozotocin-induced rat model of type-1 diabetes. Pain behaviour was evoked by innocuous (monofilaments) and noxious (paw pressure) mechanical stimulation, innocuous cold (acetone drops) and noxious heat (radiant heat). Depression-like behaviour was assessed using forced swimming test. Minocycline treatment (daily 80mg/kg per os) of three-week duration started four weeks after induction of diabetes. Diabetes induced mechanical allodynia and hyperalgesia, cold allodynia, heat hypoalgesia, and depression-like behaviour. Minocycline treatment significantly attenuated mechanical allodynia and depression-like behaviour, while it failed to produce significant changes in mechanical hyperalgesia, cold allodynia or heat hypoalgesia. The results indicate that prolonged per oral treatment with minocycline has a sustained mechanical antiallodynic and antidepressive-like effect in PDN. These results support the proposal that minocycline might provide a treatment option for attenuating sensory and comorbid emotional symptoms in chronic PDN. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. The Community Navigator Study: a feasibility randomised controlled trial of an intervention to increase community connections and reduce loneliness for people with complex anxiety or depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd-Evans, Brynmor; Bone, Jessica K; Pinfold, Vanessa; Lewis, Glyn; Billings, Jo; Frerichs, Johanna; Fullarton, Kate; Jones, Rebecca; Johnson, Sonia

    2017-10-23

    Loneliness is associated with poor health outcomes at all ages, including shorter life expectancy and greater risk of developing depression. People with mental health problems are particularly vulnerable to loneliness and, for those with anxiety or depression, loneliness is associated with poorer outcomes. Interventions which support people to utilise existing networks and access new social contact are advocated in policy but there is little evidence regarding their effectiveness. People with mental health problems have potential to benefit from interventions to reduce loneliness, but evidence is needed regarding their feasibility, acceptability and outcomes. An intervention to reduce loneliness for people with anxiety or depression treated in secondary mental health services was developed for this study, which will test the feasibility and acceptability of delivering and evaluating it through a randomised controlled trial. In this feasibility trial, 40 participants with anxiety or depression will be recruited through two secondary mental health services in London and randomised to an intervention (n = 30) or control group (n = 10). The control group will receive standard care and written information about local community resources. The coproduced intervention, developed in this study, includes up to ten sessions with a 'Community Navigator' over a 6-month period. Community Navigators will work with people individually to increase involvement in social activities, with the aim of reducing feelings of loneliness. Data will be collected at baseline and at 6-month follow-up - the end of the intervention period. The acceptability of the intervention and feasibility of participant recruitment and retention will be assessed. Potential primary and secondary outcomes for a future definitive trial will be completed to assess response and completeness, including measures of loneliness, depression and anxiety. Qualitative interviews with participants, staff and other

  13. Depression (Major Depressive Disorder)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... generally miserable or unhappy without really knowing why. Depression symptoms in children and teens Common signs and ... in normal activities, and avoidance of social interaction. Depression symptoms in older adults Depression is not a ...

  14. Comparison of depression symptoms between primary depression and secondary-to-schizophrenia depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahim, Twana; Rashid, Roshe

    2017-11-01

    This study exclusively aimed to clinically assess which symptom pattern discriminates primary depression from depression-secondary to-schizophrenia. A total of 98 patients with primary depression and 71 patients with secondary-to-schizophrenia depression were assessed for identifying the clinical phenomena of depression. Diagnosis of schizophrenia was confirmed by Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview. Each participant was, however, assessed by Patient Health Questionnaire-9 as well as Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia (CDSS) for possible concurrent depressive symptoms. Depressed mood, loss of interest, reduced energy and pathological guilt were more common in primary depression, whereas sleep disturbance and guilty ideas of reference were more amounting towards the diagnosis of depression secondary-to-schizophrenia. It is clinically hard to differentiate primary from secondary-to-schizophrenia depression, especially in the absence of obvious psychotic symptoms. However, the classical symptoms of depression like subjective depressed mood, anhedonia, reduced energy and pathological guilt are more prominent in the primary depression.

  15. Antenatal psychosomatic programming to reduce postpartum depression risk and improve childbirth outcomes: a randomized controlled trial in Spain and France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz Collado, Maria Assumpta; Saez, Marc; Favrod, Jérôme; Hatem, Marie

    2014-01-15

    Postpartum depression (PPD) and poor childbirth outcomes are associated with poverty; these variables should be addressed by an adapted approach. The aim of this research was to evaluate the impact of an antenatal programme based on a novel psychosomatic approach to pregnancy and delivery, regarding the risk of PPD and childbirth outcomes in disadvantaged women. A multi-centre, randomized, controlled trial comparing a novel to standard antenatal programme. Primary outcome was depressive symptoms (using EPDS) and secondary outcome was preterm childbirth (fewer 37 weeks). The sample comprised 184 couples in which the women were identified to be at PPD risk by validated interview. The study was conducted in three public hospitals with comparable standards of perinatal care. Women were randomly distributed in to an experimental group (EG) or a control group (CG), and evaluated twice: during pregnancy (T1) and four weeks post-partum (T2). At T2, the variables were compared using the chi square test. Data analysis was based on intention to treat. The novel programme used the Tourné psychosomatic approach focusing on body awareness sensations, construction of an individualized childbirth model, and attachment. The 10 group antenatal sessions each lasted two hours, with one telephone conversation between sessions. In the control group, the participants choose the standard model of antenatal education, i.e., 8 to 10 two-hour sessions focused on childbirth by obstetrical prophylaxis. A difference of 11.2% was noted in postpartum percentages of PPD risk (EPDS ≥ 12): 34.3% (24) in EG and 45.5% (27) in CG (p = 0.26). The number of depressive symptoms among EG women decreased at T2 (intragroup p = 0.01). Premature childbirth was four times less in EG women: three (4.4%) compared to 13 (22.4%) among CG women (p = 0.003). Birth weight was higher in EG women (p = 0.01). The decrease of depressive symptoms in women was not conclusive. However, because birth weight was higher and

  16. Reduced levels of NR1 and NR2A with depression-like behavior in different brain regions in prenatally stressed juvenile offspring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongli Sun

    Full Text Available Adolescence is a time of continued brain maturation, particularly in limbic and cortical regions, which undoubtedly plays a role in the physiological and emotional changes. Juvenile rats repeatedly exposed to prenatal stress (PS exhibit behavioral features often observed in neuropsychiatric disorders including depression. However, to date the underlying neurological mechanisms are still unclear. In the current study, juvenile offspring rats whose mothers were exposed to PS were evaluated for depression-related behaviors in open field and sucrose preference test. NMDA receptor subunits NR1 and NR2A in the hippocampus, frontal cortex and striatum were assayed by western blotting. The results indicated that PS resulted in several behavioral anomalies in the OFT and sucrose preference test. Moreover, reduced levels of NMDA receptor subunits NR1 and NR2A in the hippocampus, and NR1 in prefrontal cortex and striatum of prenatally stressed juvenile offspring were found. Treatment with MK-801 to pregnant dams could prevent all those changes in the juvenile offspring. Collectivity, these data support the argument that PS to pregnant dams could induce depression-like behavior, which may be involved with abnormal expression of NR1 and NR2A in specific brain regions, and MK-801 may have antidepressant-like effects on the juvenile offspring.

  17. Post activation depression of the Ia EPSP in motoneurones is reduced in both aged mice and in the G127X SOD1 model of Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Anne; Lehnhoff, Janna; Moldovan, Mihai

    2014-01-01

    Post Activation Depression (PActD) is a long lasting depression of Ia afferent EPSPs in response to repetitive activation. This is of clinical relevance given its consistent reduction across a range of spastic disorders. We used in vivo intracellular recording in mice to explore changes in PAct...... or tibial nerves. The stimulation was then reduced to below spike threshold to visualise the monosynaptic EPSP. A 20Hz train of 4 EPSPs was followed by a test EPSP with a varied time delay with respect to the train. Depression was expressed as the size of the test EPSP with respect to the first EPSP...... of the train. PActD in mice was similar to that observed in larger animals by Hultborn et al. (1996) with respect to both the magnitude and the time course (~79% at the 0.5sec time interval gradually diminishing to 100% by the 4sec interval). The following values are means±SD at the 0.5sec interval...

  18. Paliperidone palmitate once-monthly reduces risk of relapse of psychotic, depressive, and manic symptoms and maintains functioning in a double-blind, randomized study of schizoaffective disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Dong-Jing; Turkoz, Ibrahim; Simonson, R Bruce; Walling, David P; Schooler, Nina R; Lindenmayer, Jean-Pierre; Canuso, Carla M; Alphs, Larry

    2015-03-01

    Schizoaffective disorder is a complex illness for which optimal treatment is not well established. Results of the first controlled, relapse-prevention study of paliperidone palmitate once-monthly injectable (paliperidone monthly) in schizoaffective disorder are presented. The study was conducted between September 20, 2010, and October 22, 2013. Patients with schizoaffective disorder (confirmed by the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders) experiencing acute exacerbation of psychotic and depressive/manic symptoms were stabilized with paliperidone monthly as monotherapy or as adjunctive therapy to mood stabilizers or antidepressants and randomly assigned (1:1) to paliperidone monthly or placebo in a 15-month, double-blind, relapse-prevention phase. Randomization was stratified by administration as monotherapy or adjunctive therapy and by study center. The primary endpoint was time to relapse. 334 patients were evaluated. Paliperidone monthly significantly delayed time to relapse for psychotic, depressive, and manic symptoms compared with placebo (P schizoaffective disorder (5.9%, 3.0%), headache (3.5%, 5.5%), and nasopharyngitis (3.5%, 5.5%). Incidence of any extrapyramidal-related adverse event was 7.1% for placebo and 8.5% for paliperidone monthly. Paliperidone monthly as monotherapy or adjunctive therapy significantly delayed psychotic, depressive, and/or manic relapses; reduced their risk; and better maintained functioning in patients with schizoaffective disorder. Results support the value of maintenance treatment with paliperidone monthly in schizoaffective disorder. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01193153. © Copyright 2015 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  19. Reduced parahippocampal and lateral temporal GABA{sub A}-[{sup 11}C]flumazenil binding in major depression: preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klumpers, Ursula M.H. [VU University Medical Center, Department of Psychiatry, Amsterdam (Netherlands); GGZ inGeest, partner of VUmc, Department of Psychiatry, Amsterdam (Netherlands); VU University Medical Center, Neuroscience Campus Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Veltman, Dick J. [VU University Medical Center, Department of Psychiatry, Amsterdam (Netherlands); VU University Medical Center, Neuroscience Campus Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Drent, Madeleine L. [VU University Medical Center, Department of Endocrinology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Boellaard, Ronald; Lammertsma, Adriaan A. [VU University Medical Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine and PET Research, Amsterdam (Netherlands); VU University Medical Center, Neuroscience Campus Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Comans, Emile F.I. [VU University Medical Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine and PET Research, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Meynen, Gerben [VU University Medical Center, Department of Psychiatry, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Hoogendijk, Witte J.G. [VU University Medical Center, Department of Psychiatry, Amsterdam (Netherlands); VU University Medical Center, Center for Neurogenomics and Cognitive Research, Amsterdam (Netherlands); VU University Medical Center, Neuroscience Campus Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2010-03-15

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) has been related to both a dysfunctional {gamma}-amino butyric acid (GABA) system and to hyperactivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA). Although GABA has been suggested to inhibit HPA axis activity, their relationship has never been studied at the level of the central GABA{sub A}-benzodiazepine receptor in depressed patients or in relation to antidepressant treatment. Eleven depressed outpatients were compared, before and after treatment with citalopram, with nine age-matched healthy controls. The subjects were scanned using the positron emission tomography (PET) tracer [{sup 11}C]flumazenil ([{sup 11}C]FMZ). Parametric voxel-by-voxel Logan plots were compared with methods based on regions of interest (ROI), to provide volume of distribution (V{sub T}) and binding potential (BP{sub ND}) values. Plasma GABA levels were determined and a dexamethasone-corticotropin releasing hormone (DEX-CRH) test was performed. In MDD, parametric voxel-by-voxel Logan plots showed bilateral reduced [{sup 11}C]FMZ binding in the parahippocampal gyrus and right lateral superior temporal gyrus (p uncorrected {<=}0.001). In the temporal area, [{sup 11}C]FMZ binding showed a strong inverse correlation with HPA axis activity. Plasma GABA did not discriminate MDD from controls, but correlated inversely with [{sup 11}C]FMZ binding in the right insula. Following treatment with citalopram, voxel-based analysis revealed reduced binding in the right lateral temporal gyrus and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. The bilateral reduction in limbic parahippocampal and right temporal [{sup 11}C]FMZ binding found in MDD indicates decreased GABA{sub A}-benzodiazepine receptor complex affinity and/or number. The inverse relationship between GABA{sub A} binding in the temporal lobe and HPA axis activity, suggests that HPA axis hyperactivity is partly due to reduced GABA-ergic inhibition. (orig.)

  20. Increased 20-HETE synthesis explains reduced cerebral blood flow but not impaired neurovascular coupling after cortical spreading depression in rat cerebral cortex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fordsmann, Jonas Christoffer; ko, Rebecca; Choi, Hyun B

    2013-01-01

    Cortical spreading depression (CSD) is associated with release of arachidonic acid (AA), impaired neurovascular coupling, and reduced cerebral blood flow (CBF), caused by cortical vasoconstriction. We tested the hypothesis that the released AA is metabolized by the cytochrome P450 enzyme to produce...... neurovascular coupling after CSD. These findings suggest that CSD-induced increments in 20-HETE cause the reduction in CBF after CSD, and that the attenuation of stimulation-induced CBF responses after CSD has a different mechanism. We suggest that blockade of 20-HETE synthesis may be clinically relevant...

  1. "Just Take a Moment and Breathe and Think": Young Women with Depression Talk about the Development of an Ecological Momentary Intervention to Reduce Their Sexual Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrier, Lydia A; Spalding, Allegra

    2017-02-01

    Depressed young women are at increased risk for adverse outcomes related to sexual behavior, including unintended pregnancy, HIV, and other sexually transmitted infections. Brief sexual risk reduction interventions have not targeted depressed young women's specific needs for affect management and impulse control. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, INTERVENTIONS, AND MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: We interviewed depressed young women ages 15-23 years engaging in sexual risk behavior about a proposed intervention approach. The approach was described as in-person counseling and cognitive-behavioral skills training, followed by an ecological momentary intervention (EMI) delivered via smartphone application for 4 weeks. The EMI would include reporting multiple times a day on affective states, self-efficacy for safer sex behavior, and sexual behavior, and receiving responsive messages to provide support and prompt use of cognitive-behavioral skills. Participants provided their perspectives on comfort, usability, burden, confidentiality, and potential efficacy of the EMI and recommended message content. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed, and analyzed using thematic analysis. Thematic saturation was reached with 16 interviews. Participants expressed positive opinions about the EMI. They believed that reporting at random times would help them to recognize their feelings, receiving the messages would be reassuring, and overall the smartphone application would be experienced as therapeutic. They desired a high degree of personalization of the message quality, style, and voice, and provided a wide variety of message content. Depressed young women believed that a flexible, personalized approach to mobile momentary intervention for addressing the link between their symptoms and behavior would be acceptable, supportive, and effective in reducing sexual risk. Copyright © 2016 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights

  2. Maternal neglect with reduced depressive-like behavior and blunted c-fos activation in Brattleboro mothers, the role of central vasopressin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fodor, Anna; Klausz, Barbara; Pintér, Ottó; Daviu, Nuria; Rabasa, Cristina; Rotllant, David; Balazsfi, Diana; Kovacs, Krisztina B; Nadal, Roser; Zelena, Dóra

    2012-09-01

    Early mother-infant relationships exert important long-term effects in offspring and are disturbed by factors such as postpartum depression. We aimed to clarify if lack of vasopressin influences maternal behavior paralleled by the development of a depressive-like phenotype. We compared vasopressin-deficient Brattleboro mothers with heterozygous and homozygous normal ones. The following parameters were measured: maternal behavior (undisturbed and separation-induced); anxiety by the elevated plus maze; sucrose and saccharin preference and forced swim behavior. Underlying brain areas were examined by c-fos immunocytochemistry among rest and after swim-stress. In another group of rats, vasopressin 2 receptor agonist was used peripherally to exclude secondary changes due to diabetes insipidus. Results showed that vasopressin-deficient rats spend less time licking-grooming their pups through a centrally driven mechanism. There was no difference between genotypes during the pup retrieval test. Vasopressin-deficient mothers tended to explore more the open arms of the plus maze, showed more preference for sucrose and saccharin and struggled more in the forced swim test, suggesting that they act as less depressive. Under basal conditions, vasopressin-deficient mothers had more c-fos expression in the medial preoptic area, shell of nucleus accumbens, paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus and amygdala, but not in other structures. In these areas the swim-stress-induced activation was smaller. In conclusion, vasopressin-deficiency resulted in maternal neglect due to a central effect and was protective against depressive-like behavior probably as a consequence of reduced activation of some stress-related brain structures. The conflicting behavioral data underscores the need for more sex specific studies. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Reduced expression of glucocorticoid-inducible genes GILZ and SGK-1: high IL-6 levels are associated with reduced hippocampal volumes in major depressive disorder.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Frodl, T

    2012-01-01

    Neuroplasticity may have a core role in the pathophysiology of major depressive disorder (MDD), a concept supported by experimental studies that found that excessive cortisol secretion and\\/or excessive production of inflammatory cytokines impairs neuronal plasticity and neurogenesis in the hippocampus. The objective of this study was to examine how changes in the glucocorticoid and inflammatory systems may affect hippocampal volumes in MDD. A multimodal approach with structural neuroimaging of hippocampus and amygdala, measurement of peripheral inflammatory proteins interleukin (IL)-6 and C-reactive protein (CRP), glucocorticoid receptor (GR) mRNA expression, and expression of glucocorticoid-inducible genes (glucocorticoid-inducible genes Leucin Zipper (GILZ) and glucocorticoid-inducible kinase-1 (SGK-1)) was used in 40 patients with MDD and 43 healthy controls (HC). Patients with MDD showed smaller hippocampal volumes and increased inflammatory proteins IL-6 and CRP compared with HC. Childhood maltreatment was associated with increased CRP. Patients with MDD, who had less expression of the glucocorticoid-inducible genes GILZ or SGK-1 had smaller hippocampal volumes. Regression analysis showed a strong positive effect of GILZ and SGK-1 mRNA expression, and further inverse effects of IL-6 concentration, on hippocampal volumes. These findings suggest that childhood maltreatment, peripheral inflammatory and glucocorticoid markers and hippocampal volume are interrelated factors in the pathophysiology of MDD. Glucocorticoid-inducible genes GILZ and SGK-1 might be promising candidate markers for hippocampal volume changes relevant for diseases like MDD. Further studies need to explore the possible clinical usefulness of such a blood biomarker, for example, for diagnosis or prediction of therapy response.

  4. Depression associated with dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutzmann, H; Qazi, A

    2015-06-01

    Depression and cognitive disorders, including dementia and mild cognitive impairment, are common disorders in old age. Depression is frequent in dementia, causing distress, reducing the quality of life, exacerbating cognitive and functional impairment and increasing caregiver stress. Even mild levels of depression can significantly add to the functional impairment of dementia patients and the severity of psychopathological and neurological impairments increases with increasing severity of depression. Depressive symptoms may be both a risk factor for, as well as a prodrome of dementia. Major depressive syndrome of Alzheimer's disease may be among the most common mood disorders of older adults. Treating depression is therefore a key clinical priority to improve the quality of life both of people with dementia as well as their carergivers. Nonpharmacological approaches and watchful waiting should be attempted first in patients who present with mild to moderate depression and dementia. In cases of severe depression or depression not able to be managed through nonpharmacological means, antidepressant therapy should be considered.

  5. Telephone versus internet administration of self-report measures of social anxiety, depressive symptoms, and insomnia: psychometric evaluation of a method to reduce the impact of missing data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedman, Erik; Ljótsson, Brjánn; Blom, Kerstin; El Alaoui, Samir; Kraepelien, Martin; Rück, Christian; Andersson, Gerhard; Svanborg, Cecilia; Lindefors, Nils; Kaldo, Viktor

    2013-10-18

    Internet-administered self-report measures of social anxiety, depressive symptoms, and sleep difficulties are widely used in clinical trials and in clinical routine care, but data loss is a common problem that could render skewed estimates of symptom levels and treatment effects. One way of reducing the negative impact of missing data could be to use telephone administration of self-report measures as a means to complete the data missing from the online data collection. The aim of the study was to compare the convergence of telephone and Internet administration of self-report measures of social anxiety, depressive symptoms, and sleep difficulties. The Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale-Self-Report (LSAS-SR), Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale-Self-Rated (MADRS-S), and the Insomnia Severity Index (ISI) were administered over the telephone and via the Internet to a clinical sample (N=82) of psychiatric patients at a clinic specializing in Internet-delivered treatment. Shortened versions of the LSAS-SR and the ISI were used when administered via telephone. As predicted, the results showed that the estimates produced by the two administration formats were highly correlated (r=.82-.91; PInternet: Cronbach alpha=.79-.93). The correlation coefficients were similar across questionnaires and the shorter versions of the questionnaires used in the telephone administration of the LSAS-SR and ISI performed in general equally well compared to when the full scale was used, as was the case with the MADRS-S. Telephone administration of self-report questionnaires is a valid method that can be used to reduce data loss in routine psychiatric practice as well as in clinical trials, thereby contributing to more accurate symptom estimates.

  6. Reduced activation in lateral prefrontal cortex and anterior cingulate during attention and cognitive control functions in medication-naïve adolescents with depression compared to controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halari, Rozmin; Simic, Mima; Pariante, Carmine M; Papadopoulos, Andrew; Cleare, Anthony; Brammer, Michael; Fombonne, Eric; Rubia, Katya

    2009-03-01

    There is increasing recognition of major depressive disorder (MDD) in adolescence. In adult MDD, abnormalities of fronto-striatal and fronto-cingulate circuitries mediating cognitive control functions have been implicated in the pathogenesis and been related to problems with controlling negative thoughts. No neuroimaging studies of cognitive control functions, however, exist in paediatric depression. This study investigated whether medication-naïve adolescents with MDD show abnormal brain activation of fronto-striatal and fronto-cingulate networks when performing tasks of attentional and cognitive control. Event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to compare brain activation between 21 medication-naïve adolescents with a first-episode of MDD aged 14-17 years and 21 healthy adolescents, matched for handedness, age, sex, demographics and IQ. Activation paradigms were tasks of selective attention (Simon task), attentional switching (Switch task), and motor response inhibition and error detection (Stop task). In all three tasks, adolescents with depression compared to healthy controls demonstrated reduced activation in task-relevant right dorsolateral (DLPFC), inferior prefrontal cortex (IFC) and anterior cingulate gyrus (ACG). Additional areas of relatively reduced activation were in the parietal lobes during the Stop and Switch tasks, putamen, insula and temporal lobes during the Switch task and precuneus during the Simon task. This study shows first evidence that medication-naïve adolescents with MDD are characterised by abnormal function in ACG and right lateral prefrontal cortex during tasks of attention and performance monitoring, suggesting an early pathogenesis of these functional abnormalities attributed to MDD.

  7. Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for adults with intellectual disabilities: an evaluation of the effectiveness of mindfulness in reducing symptoms of depression and anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idusohan-Moizer, H; Sawicka, A; Dendle, J; Albany, M

    2015-02-01

    Mindfulness-based interventions have been shown to be effective in the treatment of a range of health and psychological disorders in adults and young people without intellectual disabilities (ID). Clinical studies are emerging reporting on the efficacy of mindfulness-based interventions as a stand-alone treatment for common clinical disorders in adults with ID. This paper aims to evaluate the efficacy of an innovative structured mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) group programme adapted for adults with ID with a diagnosis of either recurrent depression, anxiety or both clinical conditions and a history of deliberate self-harm behaviour. Two groups ran consecutively consisting of a total of fifteen participants and seven carers. All participants were recorded as having either a borderline, mild, or moderate ID. The group programme ran over a period of 9 weeks with a follow-up session at 6 weeks post group intervention. Outcome measures included the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and two sub-scales from the Self-Compassion Scale administered at baseline, post therapy and at 6-week follow-up. The evaluation showed that participants reported an improvement in their experience of depression, anxiety, self-compassion and compassion for others. The most significant impact was in the reduced levels of anxiety reported. Improvements across all outcomes were maintained at 6-week follow-up. The results of the evaluation suggest that people with intellectual disabilities benefit from a structured MBCT group intervention and the results are maintained at 6-week follow-up. © 2013 MENCAP and International Association of the Scientific Study of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Synthetic cathinones and stereochemistry: S enantiomer of mephedrone reduces anxiety- and depressant-like effects in cocaine- or MDPV-abstinent rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philogene-Khalid, Helene L; Hicks, Callum; Reitz, Allen B; Liu-Chen, Lee-Yuan; Rawls, Scott M

    2017-09-01

    The neuropharmacological profile of the synthetic cathinone mephedrone (MEPH) is influenced by stereochemistry. Both MEPH enantiomers are monoamine transporter substrates, but R-MEPH is primarily responsible for rewarding effects of MEPH as it produces greater locomotor activation and intracranial self-stimulation than S-MEPH. S-MEPH is a 50-fold more potent 5-HT releaser than R-MEPH and does not place preference in rats. MEPH is also structurally similar to the cathinone derivative bupropion, an antidepressant and smoking cessation medication, suggesting MEPH has therapeutic and addictive properties. We tested the hypothesis that S-MEPH reduces anxiety- and depression-like behaviors in rats withdrawn from chronic cocaine or methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) using the elevated plus maze (EPM) and forced swim test (FST), respectively. Rats were tested 48-h after a binge-like paradigm (3×/day for 10days in 1-h intervals) of cocaine (10mg/kg), MDPV (1mg/kg) or saline. In vitro studies assessed the receptor binding and activity of S-MEPH. Rats withdrawn from chronic cocaine or MDPV displayed an increase in anxiety- and depression-like behaviors that was antagonized by treatment with S-MEPH (10, 30mg/kg). S-MEPH displayed affinity, but not agonist activity, for 5-HT 2 receptors (2A-2C) and showed negligible affinity for dopaminergic, adrenergic and nicotinic receptors. S-MEPH attenuated withdrawal behaviors following chronic cocaine or MDPV, perhaps through 5-HT release and/or 5-HT 2 receptor interactions. The present data suggest S-MEPH may be a possible structural and pharmacological template to develop maintenance therapy for acute anxiety and depression during early withdrawal from psychostimulant abuse. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Depression - resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resources - depression ... Depression is a medical condition. If you think you may be depressed, see a health care provider. ... following organizations are good sources of information on depression : American Psychological Association -- www.apa.org/topics/depression/ ...

  10. Supportive text messages to reduce mood symptoms and problem drinking in patients with primary depression or alcohol use disorder: protocol for an implementation research study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agyapong, Vincent Israel Opoku; Mrklas, Kelly; Suen, Victoria Yung Mei; Rose, Marianne Sarah; Jahn, Megan; Gladue, Irene; Kozak, Jody; Leslie, Maureen; Dursun, Serdar; Ohinmaa, Arto; Greenshaw, Andrew

    2015-05-15

    Depression and Alcohol Use Disorders (AUDs) are two leading causes of disability worldwide and are associated with significant treatment challenges requiring new, innovative, cost-effective and technologically-based therapies including the use of supportive text messages. To determine the feasibility and effectiveness of supportive text messages in long-term follow-up to reduce mood symptoms and problem drinking in patients with Depression or AUD respectively and to explore the usefulness of self-reports of health services utilization as an outcomes measure. This will be a longitudinal, prospective, parallel-design, two-arm, placebo-controlled single-rater-blinded randomized clinical trial with a recruitment period of 6 months and an observation period of 12 months for each participant, with two strata based on primary diagnosis of Major Depressive Disorder or AUD. The sample size will be 120, with about 60 patients randomized from each primary diagnostic grouping. Patients in all intervention groups will receive twice-daily supportive SMS text messages for 3 months and then daily supportive text messages for the next three months. Patients will also receive a phone call every two weeks from the research assistant assigning treatment allocation to confirm that they are still receiving the text messages and to thank them for taking part in the study. Patients in the control group will receive no text messages but will also receive a phone call from the same research assistant every two weeks to thank them for taking part in the study. The study starts in April 2015 and ends in September 2016. It is envisaged that both qualitative and quantitative primary and secondary outcomes, including patient perceptions of the intervention, will shed light on the feasibility of using automated supportive text message interventions in long term for patients with Depression and AUD. This will inform a full-scale clinical trial. The paradigm for behavior change using text messages

  11. Depression (Major Depressive Disorder)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your mood. Chronic pain causes a number of problems that can lead to depression, such as trouble sleeping and stress. Disabling pain can cause low self-esteem due to work, legal or financial issues. Depression ...

  12. Oral antibody to interleukin-10 reduces growth rate depression due to Eimeria spp. infection in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sand, Jordan M; Arendt, Maria K; Repasy, Alec; Deniz, Gűlay; Cook, Mark E

    2016-02-01

    Eimeria spp. must be controlled in floor-reared poultry to prevent the onset of coccidiosis. Here we use an oral antibody to chicken IL-10 to prevent growth depression due to Eimeria spp. infection. Egg antibody directed against an antigenic peptide of IL-10 was produced in laying hens and measured using an ELISA. In the first experiment, egg yolk powder containing antibody to chicken IL-10 (vlpramqt conjugate) (anti-IL-10 yolk powder) was fed at 3.4 g/kg feed to determine growth response following mixed Eimeria spp. challenge. Chicks were fed either anti-IL-10 antibodies or control antibodies and challenged (d3) with either sterile saline or a 10× attenuated Eimeria spp. vaccine. Control-fed and Eimeria-challenged chicks grew 8.8% slower than those challenged with saline (P < 0.04), whereas anti-IL-10-fed Eimeria challenged chicks were not different from untreated controls. In the second trial a dose response was performed with doses of either 0 (control antibody), 0.34-, or 3.4-g anti-IL-10 yolk powder/kg feed. Control-fed, Eimeria-challenged chicks grew 10.6% slower than control saline-challenged chicks (P < 0.05); however, anti-IL-10-fed chicks fed either dose of anti-IL-10 were not different from saline-challenged chicks. Finally, the effect of anti-IL-10 on acquired immunity was investigated. Chicks were fed control or anti-IL-10 yolk powder and vaccinated with a 1× dose of Eimeria vaccine at d 3. After 14 d, antibody was removed from the diet. Chicks were either saline or 10× Eimeria challenged at d 17. We found that the anti-IL-10-fed chickens did not show a reduction in growth due to challenge; hence anti-IL-10 does not appear to affect adaptive immunity during the primary immunization. Overall, use of an antibody to IL-10 is a novel method in preventing adverse effects of Eimeria spp. infection in poultry. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  13. Psychological and support interventions to reduce levels of stress, anxiety or depression on women's subsequent pregnancy with a history of miscarriage: an empty systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Lazaro Campillo, Indra; Meaney, Sarah; McNamara, Karen; O'Donoghue, Keelin

    2017-09-07

    The aim of this systematic review was to assess the effect of interventions to reduce stress in pregnant women with a history of miscarriage. A systematic review of randomised controlled trials (RCTs). A total of 13 medical, psychological and social electronic databases were searched from January 1995 to April 2016 including PUBMED, CENTRAL, Web of Science and EMBASE. This review focused on women in their subsequent pregnancy following miscarriage. All published RCTs which assessed the effect of non-medical interventions such as counselling or support interventions on psychological and mental health outcomes such as stress, anxiety or depression when compared with a control group were included. Stress, anxiety or depression had to be measured at least preintervention and postintervention. This systematic review found no RCT which met our initial inclusion criteria. Of the 4140 titles screened, 17 RCTs were identified. All of them were excluded. One RCT, which implemented a caring-based intervention, included pregnant women in their subsequent pregnancy; however, miscarriage was analysed as a composite variable among other pregnancy losses such as stillbirth and neonatal death. Levels of perceived stress were measured by four RCTs. Different types of non-medical interventions, time of follow-up and small sample sizes were found. Cohort studies and RCTs in non-pregnant women suggest that support and psychological interventions may improve pregnant women's psychological well-being after miscarriage. This improvement may reduce adverse pregnancy-related outcomes in subsequent pregnancies. However, this review found no RCTs which met our criteria. There is a need for targeted RCTs that can provide reliable and conclusive results to determine effective interventions for this vulnerable group. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly

  14. From rehabilitation to recovery: protocol for a randomised controlled trial evaluating a goal-based intervention to reduce depression and facilitate participation post-stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graven, Christine; Brock, Kim; Hill, Keith; Ames, David; Cotton, Susan; Joubert, Lynette

    2011-06-18

    There is much discourse in healthcare about the importance of client-centred rehabilitation, however in the realm of community-based therapy post-stroke there has been little investigation into the efficacy of goal-directed practice that reflects patients' valued activities. In addition, the effect of active involvement of carers in such a rehabilitation process and their subsequent contribution to functional and emotional recovery post-stroke is unclear. In community based rehabilitation, interventions based on patients' perceived needs may be more likely to alter such outcomes. In this paper, we describe the methodology of a randomised controlled trial of an integrated approach to facilitating patient goal achievement in the first year post-stroke. The effectiveness of this intervention in reducing the severity of post-stroke depression, improving participation status and health-related quality of life is examined. The impact on carers is also examined. Patients (and their primary carers, if available) are randomly allocated to an intervention or control arm of the study. The intervention is multimodal and aims to screen for adverse stroke sequelae and address ways to enhance participation in patient-valued activities. Intervention methods include: telephone contacts, written information provision, home visitation, and contact with treating health professionals, with further relevant health service referrals as required. The control involves treatment as usual, as determined by inpatient and community rehabilitation treating teams. Formal blinded assessments are conducted at discharge from inpatient rehabilitation, and at six and twelve months post-stroke. The primary outcome is depression. Secondary outcome measures include participation and activity status, health-related quality of life, and self-efficacy. The results of this trial will assist with the development of a model for community-based rehabilitation management for stroke patients and their carers

  15. From rehabilitation to recovery: protocol for a randomised controlled trial evaluating a goal-based intervention to reduce depression and facilitate participation post-stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hill Keith

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is much discourse in healthcare about the importance of client-centred rehabilitation, however in the realm of community-based therapy post-stroke there has been little investigation into the efficacy of goal-directed practice that reflects patients' valued activities. In addition, the effect of active involvement of carers in such a rehabilitation process and their subsequent contribution to functional and emotional recovery post-stroke is unclear. In community based rehabilitation, interventions based on patients' perceived needs may be more likely to alter such outcomes. In this paper, we describe the methodology of a randomised controlled trial of an integrated approach to facilitating patient goal achievement in the first year post-stroke. The effectiveness of this intervention in reducing the severity of post-stroke depression, improving participation status and health-related quality of life is examined. The impact on carers is also examined. Methods/Design Patients (and their primary carers, if available are randomly allocated to an intervention or control arm of the study. The intervention is multimodal and aims to screen for adverse stroke sequelae and address ways to enhance participation in patient-valued activities. Intervention methods include: telephone contacts, written information provision, home visitation, and contact with treating health professionals, with further relevant health service referrals as required. The control involves treatment as usual, as determined by inpatient and community rehabilitation treating teams. Formal blinded assessments are conducted at discharge from inpatient rehabilitation, and at six and twelve months post-stroke. The primary outcome is depression. Secondary outcome measures include participation and activity status, health-related quality of life, and self-efficacy. Discussion The results of this trial will assist with the development of a model for community

  16. Reduced juvenile long-term depression in tuberous sclerosis complex is mitigated in adults by compensatory recruitment of mGluR5 and Erk signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wyatt B Potter

    Full Text Available Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC is a multisystem genetic disease that manifests with mental retardation, tumor formation, autism, and epilepsy. Heightened signaling through the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR pathway is involved in TSC pathology, however it remains unclear how other signaling pathways are perturbed and contribute to disease symptoms. Reduced long-term depression (LTD was recently reported in TSC mutant mice. We find that although reduced LTD is a feature of the juvenile mutant hippocampus, heightened expression of metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 and constitutively activated Erk signaling in the adult hippocampus drives wild-type levels of LTD. Increased mGluR5 and Erk results in a novel mTOR-independent LTD in CA1 hippocampus of adult mice, and contributes to the development of epileptiform bursting activity in the TSC2(+/- CA3 region of the hippocampus. Inhibition of mGluR5 or Erk signaling restores appropriate mTOR-dependence to LTD, and significantly reduces epileptiform bursting in TSC2(+/- hippocampal slices. We also report that adult TSC2(+/- mice exhibit a subtle perseverative behavioral phenotype that is eliminated by mGluR5 antagonism. These findings highlight the potential of modulating the mGluR5-Erk pathway in a developmental stage-specific manner to treat TSC.

  17. Remnant Pachira quinata pasture trees have greater opportunities to self and suffer reduced reproductive success due to inbreeding depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rymer, P D; Sandiford, M; Harris, S A; Billingham, M R; Boshier, D H

    2015-08-01

    Habitat fragmentation is extensive throughout the world, converting natural ecosystems into fragments of varying size, density and connectivity. The potential value of remnant trees in agricultural landscapes as seed sources and in connecting fragments has formed a fertile area of debate. This study contrasted the mating patterns of bat-pollinated Pachira quinata trees in a continuous forest to those in pasture through microsatellite-based paternity analysis of progeny. The breeding system was determined by analysis of pollen tube growth and seed production from controlled pollinations. Fitness of selfed and outcrossed seed was compared by germination and seedling growth. There was more inbreeding within pasture trees (outcrossing=0.828±0.015) compared with forest trees (0.926±0.005). Pasture trees had fewer sires contributing to mating events, but pollen dispersal distances were greater than those in the forest. Paternity analysis showed variation in outcrossing rates among pasture trees with high proportions of external and self pollen sources detected. A leaky self-incompatibility system was found, with self pollen having reduced germination on stigmas and slower growth rate through the style. Controlled pollinations also showed a varied ability to self among trees, which was reflected in the selfing rates among pasture trees shown by the paternity analysis (0-80% selfing). Self pollination resulted in lower seed set, germination and seedling growth compared with outcrossing. While remnant trees in agricultural landscapes are involved in broader mating patterns, they show increased but varied levels of inbreeding, which result in reduced fitness.

  18. Effectiveness of Hope Therapy on Reducing Depressive Symptoms and Preventing of Relapse in Cure-Seeker Women with Dependency to Narcotic Drugs

    OpenAIRE

    Akram S Raesian; Mahmood Golzari; Ahmad Borjali

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of the present research was the investigation of the effectiveness of hope therapy on reduction of the degree of depression symptoms and prevention of relapse in cure-seeker women with dependency to narcotic drugs. Method: In semi-experimental research method 20 clients who diagnosed as substance abuse disorder that completed detoxification period successfully, and they were scored more than 14 in depression symptoms (Beck depression questionnaire, second edition) select...

  19. Blueberry Phenolics Reduce Gastrointestinal Infection of Patients with Cerebral Venous Thrombosis by Improving Depressant-Induced Autoimmune Disorder via miR-155-Mediated Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ning; Meng, Hao; Liu, Tianyi; Feng, Yingli; Qi, Yuan; Zhang, Donghuan; Wang, Honglei

    2017-01-01

    Cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) often causes human depression, whereas depression-induced low immunity makes the patients susceptible to gastrointestinal infection. Blueberry possesses antidepressant properties which may improve autoimmunity and reduce gastrointestinal infection. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) performs antidepressant function and can be regulated by miR-155, which may be affected by blueberry. To explore the possible molecular mechanism, blueberry compounds were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Activity of compounds was tested by using HT22 cells. The present study tested 124 patients with CVT-induced mild-to-moderate depressive symptoms (Center for Epidemiologic Studies—Depression Scale [CES-D] ≥16) and gastrointestinal infection. Patients were randomly assigned to blueberry extract group (BG, received 10 mg blueberry extract daily) and placebo group (PG, received 10 mg placebo daily). After 3 months, depression, gastrointestinal infection and lipid profiles were investigated. Serum miR-155 and BDNF were measured using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction and or Western Blot. Blueberry treatment improved depressive symptoms and lipid profiles, and also reduced gastrointestinal infection in the BG group (P blueberry extracts were the main phenolic acids with 0.18, 0.85, 0.26, 0.72, 0.66, 0.4,1, and 1.92 mg/g of gentisic acid, chlorogenic acid, [2]-epicatechin, p-coumaric acid, benzoic acid, p-anisic acid, and quercetin in blueberry extracts, respectively. Phenolics in blueberry are possible causal agents in improving antidepressant activity and reducing gastrointestinal infection. Administration of blueberry increased BDNF expression and miR-155. Blueberry cannot affect BDNF level when miR-155 is overexpressed or inhibited. Phenolics from blueberry reduced gastrointestinal infection of patients with CVT by improving antidepressant activity via upregulation of miR-155-mediated BDNF. PMID:29230173

  20. Therapeutics of postpartum depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Michael; Sharma, Verinder

    2017-05-01

    Postpartum depression is a prevalent disorder affecting many women of reproductive age. Despite increasing public awareness, it is frequently underdiagnosed and undertreated leading to significant maternal morbidity and adverse child outcomes. When identified, postpartum depression is usually treated as major depressive disorder. Many studies have identified the postpartum as a period of high risk for first presentations and relapses of bipolar disorder. Areas covered: This article reviews the acute and prophylactic treatment of postpartum major depressive disorder, bipolar depression and major depressive disorder with mixed features. The safety of antidepressant and mood stabilizing medications in pregnancy and breastfeeding will also be reviewed. Expert commentary: Differentiating postpartum major depressive disorder and postpartum bipolar depression can be difficult given their clinical similarities but accurate identification is vital for initiating proper treatment. Antidepressants are the mainstay of drug treatment for postpartum major depressive disorder, yet randomized controlled trials have shown conflicting results. A paucity of evidence exists for the effectiveness of antidepressant prophylaxis in the prevention of recurrences of major depressive disorder. Mood stabilizing medications reduce the risk of postpartum bipolar depression relapse but no randomized controlled trials have examined their use in the acute or prophylactic treatment of postpartum bipolar depression.

  1. Introduction of a National Minimum Wage Reduced Depressive Symptoms in Low-Wage Workers: A Quasi-Natural Experiment in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Aaron; McKee, Martin; Mackenbach, Johan; Whitehead, Margaret; Stuckler, David

    2017-05-01

    Does increasing incomes improve health? In 1999, the UK government implemented minimum wage legislation, increasing hourly wages to at least £3.60. This policy experiment created intervention and control groups that can be used to assess the effects of increasing wages on health. Longitudinal data were taken from the British Household Panel Survey. We compared the health effects of higher wages on recipients of the minimum wage with otherwise similar persons who were likely unaffected because (1) their wages were between 100 and 110% of the eligibility threshold or (2) their firms did not increase wages to meet the threshold. We assessed the probability of mental ill health using the 12-item General Health Questionnaire. We also assessed changes in smoking, blood pressure, as well as hearing ability (control condition). The intervention group, whose wages rose above the minimum wage, experienced lower probability of mental ill health compared with both control group 1 and control group 2. This improvement represents 0.37 of a standard deviation, comparable with the effect of antidepressants (0.39 of a standard deviation) on depressive symptoms. The intervention group experienced no change in blood pressure, hearing ability, or smoking. Increasing wages significantly improves mental health by reducing financial strain in low-wage workers. © 2016 The Authors. Health Economics published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. © 2016 The Authors. Health Economics published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Exercise may reduce depression but not anxiety in self-referred cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. Post-hoc analysis of data from the 'Body & Cancer' trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Midtgaard, Julie; Stage, Maria; Møller, Tom

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background. The diagnosis and treatment of cancer may cause clinically significant and persistent psychological morbidity. The objective of this study was to determine the short-term effect of a six week exercise intervention on anxiety and depression in cancer patients undergoing.......021). Conclusion. Anti-depressant effects could be caused by exercise in self-referred cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. Dedicated trials and follow-up studies are needed to clarify the optimal duration and content of exercise interventions to meet the needs of clinically depressive or anxious patients....... chemotherapy (The 'Body & Cancer' trial). Methods. Two hundred and nine self-referred patients (52 males, 157 females, mean age 47 years) were randomised into an intervention group and a waiting-list control group. Anxiety and depression was measured by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Results...

  3. Personality characteristics of depressed and non-depressed patients with Parkinson's Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damholdt, Malene Flensborg; Callesen, Mette Buhl; Møller, Arne

    2014-01-01

    traits as risk factors for depression. The personality profiles of 290 non-depressed and 119 depressed patients with PD were compared. The depressed patients were characterized by elevated neuroticism, reduced extroversion, and reduced conscientiousness and less convincing findings of reduced openness......Depression and a specific personality profile are often outlined as premorbid characteristics of Parkinson's disease (PD). However, few studies have explored possible relations between personality and depression in PD despite research in non-parkinsonian samples identifying specific personality...

  4. Duloxetine and 8-OH-DPAT, but not fluoxetine, reduce depression-like behaviour in an animal model of chronic neuropathic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Bing; Doods, Henri; Treede, Rolf-Detlef; Ceci, Angelo

    2016-04-21

    The current study assessed whether antidepressant and/or antinociceptive drugs, duloxetine, fluoxetine as well as (±)-8-hydroxy-2-[di-n-propylamino] tetralin (8-OH-DPAT), are able to reverse depression-like behaviour in animals with chronic neuropathic pain. Chronic constriction injury (CCI) of the sciatic nerve in rats was selected as neuropathic pain model. Mechanical hypersensitivity and depression-like behaviour were evaluated 4 weeks after surgery by "electronic algometer" and forced swimming test (FST), which measured the time of immobility, and active behaviours climbing and swimming. The selective noradrenergic and serotonergic uptake blocker duloxetine (20mg/kg) and the selective 5-HT1A agonist 8-OH-DPAT (0.5mg/kg) significantly reversed both mechanical hypersensitivity and depression-like behaviour in CCI animals. Duloxetine significantly reversed depression-like behaviour in CCI rats by increasing the time of climbing and swimming, while 8-OH-DPAT attenuated depression-like behaviour mainly by increasing the time of swimming. However, the selective serotonergic uptake blocker fluoxetine (20mg/kg) failed to attenuate mechanical hypersensitivity and depression-like behaviour, possibly due to confounding pro-nociceptive actions at 5-HT3 receptors. These data suggest to target noradrenergic and 5-HT1A receptors for treatment of chronic pain and its comorbidity depression. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Somatic-Affective, But Not Cognitive-Depressive Symptoms are Associated With Reduced Health-Related Quality of Life in Patients With Congestive Heart Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patron, Elisabetta; Messerotti Benvenuti, Simone; Lopriore, Vincenzo; Aratari, Jenny; Palomba, Daniela

    Depression has been associated with poor health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in patients with congestive heart failure (CHF). However, to date, whether somatic-affective and cognitive-depressive symptoms differently contribute to poor HRQoL and behavioral functional capacity in patients with CHF has yet to be investigated. To examine the differential influence of somatic-affective vs cognitive-depressive symptoms on HRQoL and behavioral functional capacity in CHF patients. Overall, 55 patients with CHF completed a psychologic evaluation, including the Minnesota Living with Heart Failure Questionnaire, the Beck Depression Inventory-II, and the Beck Anxiety Inventory for HRQoL, depressive, and anxiety symptoms, respectively. The patients completed the Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Questionnaire and the 6-minute walk test for behavioral functional capacity. Hierarchical regression analyses were used to predict HRQoL and behavioral functional capacity from Beck Depression Inventory-II and Beck Anxiety Inventory scores. Somatic-affective depressive symptoms were associated with physical (β = 0.37, p = 0.005) and emotional (β = 0.39, p = 0.008) Minnesota Living with Heart Failure Questionnaire subscale scores. Likewise, somatic-affective depressive symptoms predicted Instrumental Activities of Daily Livings Scores (β = 0.43, p = 0.004) and distance ambulated during the 6-minute walk test (β = -0.36, p = 0.029). By contrast, cognitive-depressive symptoms and anxiety were unrelated to HRQoL and behavioral functional capacity (all p > 0.05). These findings showed that somatic-affective depressive symptoms, but not cognitive-depressive symptoms and anxiety, are associated with poor HRQoL and behavioral functional capacity independent of age, clinical functional status, and medical comorbidities. This study suggests that patients with CHF with somatic-affective rather than cognitive-depressive symptoms or anxiety may be at greater risk of poor HRQoL and

  6. Effectiveness of Hope Therapy on Reducing Depressive Symptoms and Preventing of Relapse in Cure-Seeker Women with Dependency to Narcotic Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akram S Raesian

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of the present research was the investigation of the effectiveness of hope therapy on reduction of the degree of depression symptoms and prevention of relapse in cure-seeker women with dependency to narcotic drugs. Method: In semi-experimental research method 20 clients who diagnosed as substance abuse disorder that completed detoxification period successfully, and they were scored more than 14 in depression symptoms (Beck depression questionnaire, second edition selected by available sampling and assigned to two experimental (n=10 and witness (n=10 groups randomly. Experimental group was trained for 8 sessions under training of hope therapy and witness group was not under any training. The experimental peple were evaluated by Snyder Hope scale and Beck depression questionnaire and morphine test before beginning of therapy. After it and after the completition of the two months follow-up period. For analyzing of data chi square test, Z test, and ANCOVA were applied. Results: The results showed that hope therapy education could create considerable reduction in degree of depression symptoms of women suffering from addiction. In addition, results of chi square test indicated significant difference between the number of relapsed women in experimental and witness groups. Conclusion: in general, results of this survey show that hope therapy education is effective in reduction of degree of depression symptoms and prediction of relapse in cure-seeker women suffering from addiction.

  7. Preventing Depression in Adults With Subthreshold Depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buntrock, Claudia; Berking, Matthias; Smit, Filip

    2017-01-01

    -based guided self-help intervention (ie, cognitive-behavioral therapy and problem-solving therapy assisted by supervised graduate students or health care professionals) in addition to usual care or to usual care supplemented with Web-based psycho-education (enhanced usual care). Depression-free years (DFYs......BACKGROUND: Psychological interventions for the prevention of depression might be a cost-effective way to reduce the burden associated with depressive disorders. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of a Web-based guided self-help intervention to prevent major depressive disorder (MDD......) in people with subthreshold depression (sD). METHODS: A pragmatic randomized controlled trial was conducted with follow-up at 12 months. Participants were recruited from the general population via a large statutory health insurance company and an open access website. Participants were randomized to a Web...

  8. Caregiver Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... will not sell or share your name. Caregiver Depression Tweet Bookmark this page | Email | Print Many caregivers ... depression See your doctor Treatment Coping Symptoms of depression Caregiving is hard — and can lead to feelings ...

  9. Depression FAQs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depression affects about 15 million American adults every year. Women are more likely to get depression than men. In general, about one out of every four women will get depression at some point in her life.

  10. Depression Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Depression Screening Substance Abuse Screening Alcohol Use Screening Depression Screening (PHQ-9) - Instructions The following questions are ... this tool, there is also text-only version . Depression Screening - Manual Instructions The following questions are a ...

  11. Reminiscence Therapy Improves Cognitive Functions and Reduces Depressive Symptoms in Elderly People With Dementia: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hui-Chuan; Chen, Yu-Ting; Chen, Pin-Yuan; Huey-Lan Hu, Sophia; Liu, Fang; Kuo, Ying-Ling; Chiu, Hsiao-Yean

    2015-12-01

    Cognitive function impairments and depressive symptoms are common in elderly people with dementia. Previous meta-analyses of outdated and small-scale studies have reported inconsistent results regarding the effects of reminiscence therapy on cognitive functions and depressive symptoms; therefore, we conducted a meta-analysis by including more recent randomized controlled trials (RCTs) with large sample sizes to investigate the immediate and long-term (6-10 months) effects of reminiscence therapy on cognitive functions and depressive symptoms in elderly people with dementia. Electronic databases, including PubMed, Medline, CINAHL, PsycINFO, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, ProQuest, Google Scholar, and Chinese databases were searched to select eligible articles. Primary outcome measures included the scores of cognitive functions and depressive symptoms. In total, 12 RCT studies investigating the effects of reminiscence therapy on cognitive functions and depressive symptoms in elderly people with dementia were included. Two reviewers independently extracted data. All analyses were performed using a random-effects model. Reminiscence therapy had a small-size effect on cognitive functions (g = 0.18, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.05-0.30) and a moderate-size effect on depressive symptoms (g = -0.49, 95% CI -0.70 to -0.28) in elderly people with dementia. Long-term effects of reminiscence therapy on cognitive functions and depressive symptoms were not confirmed. Moderator analysis revealed that institutionalized elderly people with dementia exhibited greater improvement in depressive symptoms than community-dwelling people with dementia did (g = -0.59 vs. -0.16, P = .003). This meta-analysis confirms that reminiscence therapy is effective in improving cognitive functions and depressive symptoms in elderly people with dementia. Our findings suggest that regular reminiscence therapy should be considered for inclusion as routine care for the improvement

  12. Vision in depressive disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bubl, E.; Tebartz Van Elst, L.; Ebert, D.

    2009-01-01

    Background. Reduced dopaminergic transmission has been implicated in the pathophysiology of major depression. Furthermore, dopaminergic neurotransmission plays an important role in the physiology of visual contrast sensitivity (CS). To test the hypothesis that altered dopaminergic neurotransmissi...

  13. Aging and depression vulnerability interaction results in decreased serotonin innervation associated with reduced BDNF levels in hippocampus of rats bred for learned helplessness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aznar, Susana; Klein, Anders B; Santini, Martin A

    2010-01-01

    . These observations indicate that aging should be taken into account when studying the neurobiological factors behind the vulnerability for depression and that understanding the effect of aging on genetically predisposed individuals may contribute to a better understanding of the pathophysiology behind depression....... Brains from young (5 months old) and old (13 months old) congenital Learned Helplessness rats (cLH), and congenital Non Learned Helplessness rats (cNLH) were immunohistochemically stained for the serotonin transporter and subsequently stereologically quantified for estimating hippocampal serotonin fiber...

  14. Recruitment and retention of low-income minority women in a behavioral intervention to reduce smoking, depression, and intimate partner violence during pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murray Kennan B

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Researchers have frequently encountered difficulties in the recruitment and retention of minorities resulting in their under-representation in clinical trials. This report describes the successful strategies of recruitment and retention of African Americans and Latinos in a randomized clinical trial to reduce smoking, depression and intimate partner violence during pregnancy. Socio-demographic characteristics and risk profiles of retained vs. non-retained women and lost to follow-up vs. dropped-out women are presented. In addition, subgroups of pregnant women who are less (more likely to be retained are identified. Methods Pregnant African American women and Latinas who were Washington, DC residents, aged 18 years or more, and of 28 weeks gestational age or less were recruited at six prenatal care clinics. Potentially eligible women were screened for socio-demographic eligibility and the presence of the selected behavioral and psychological risks using an Audio Computer-Assisted Self-Interview. Eligible women who consented to participate completed a baseline telephone evaluation after which they were enrolled in the study and randomly assigned to either the intervention or the usual care group. Results Of the 1,398 eligible women, 1,191 (85% agreed to participate in the study. Of the 1,191 women agreeing to participate, 1,070 completed the baseline evaluation and were enrolled in the study and randomized, for a recruitment rate of 90%. Of those enrolled, 1,044 were African American women. A total of 849 women completed the study, for a retention rate of 79%. Five percent dropped out and 12% were lost-to-follow up. Women retained in the study and those not retained were not statistically different with regard to socio-demographic characteristics and the targeted risks. Retention strategies included financial and other incentives, regular updates of contact information which was tracked and monitored by a computerized data

  15. Can a Targeted, Group-Based CBT Intervention Reduce Depression and Anxiety and Improve Self-Concept in Primary-Age Children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Callaghan, Paul; Cunningham, Enda

    2015-01-01

    This pilot study examined the impact of a 10 session, group-based, early-intervention cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) programme (Cool Connections) on anxiety, depression and self-concept in nine 8-11 year old pupils in Northern Ireland. The intervention was facilitated by a teacher, education welfare officer and two classroom assistants, with…

  16. Cost-Effectiveness of Classroom-Based Cognitive Behaviour Therapy in Reducing Symptoms of Depression in Adolescents: A Trial-Based Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Rob; Ukoumunne, Obioha C.; Sayal, Kapil; Phillips, Rhiannon; Taylor, John A.; Spears, Melissa; Araya, Ricardo; Lewis, Glyn; Millings, Abigail; Montgomery, Alan A.; Stallard, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Background: A substantial minority of adolescents suffer from depression and it is associated with increased risk of suicide, social and educational impairment, and mental health problems in adulthood. A recently conducted randomized controlled trial in England evaluated the effectiveness of a manualized universally delivered age-appropriate CBT…

  17. Randomized Controlled Trial of SuperBetter, a Smartphone-Based/Internet-Based Self-Help Tool to Reduce Depressive Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roepke, Ann Marie; Jaffee, Sara R; Riffle, Olivia M; McGonigal, Jane; Broome, Rose; Maxwell, Bez

    2015-06-01

    Technological advances have sparked the development of computer- and smartphone-based self-help programs for depressed people, but these programs' efficacy is uncertain. This randomized controlled trial evaluated an intervention called SuperBetter (SB), which is accessed via smartphone and/or the SB Web site. Online, we recruited 283 adult iPhone(®) (Apple, Cupertino, CA) users with significant depression symptoms according to the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression questionnaire (CES-D). They were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: (a) a version of SB using cognitive-behavioral therapy and positive psychotherapy strategies to target depression (CBT-PPT SB); (b) a general SB version focused on self-esteem and acceptance (General SB); or (c) a waiting list control group (WL). The two SB groups were instructed to use SB for 10 minutes daily for 1 month. All participants completed psychological distress and well-being measures online every 2 weeks through follow-up. An intent-to-treat analysis was conducted using hierarchical linear modeling. As hypothesized, SB participants achieved greater reductions in CES-D scores than WL participants by posttest (Cohen's d=0.67) and by follow-up (d=1.05). Contrary to prediction, CBT-PPT SB did not perform better than General SB; both versions of SB were more effective than the WL control. Differences between SB versions favored General SB but were not statistically significant. These large effect sizes should be interpreted cautiously in light of high attrition rates and the motivated, self-selected sample. Nonetheless, smartphone-based/Internet-based self-help may play an important role in treating depression.

  18. Reposição de vitamina B12 reduz comportamento depressivo induzido em ratos jovens = Vitamin B12 replacement therapy reduces induced depressive behavior in young rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brito, Adriana Maria de Oliveira

    2016-01-01

    Conclusões: A depleção suave de vitamina B12 na dieta, em nível não indutor de anemia, favoreceu o estado depressivo em ratos jovens, enquanto a sua suplementação na situação de depleção reverteu esse quadro. Em condições de nutrição adequada, entretanto, a suplementação dessa vitamina não exerceu efeito sobre o estado depressivo. Estes resultados estimulam a realização de mais estudos que aprofundem a avaliação das relações entre vitamina B12 e depressão em jovens. Além disso, este estudo também abre perspectivas para um novo modelo experimental de depressão, induzida por depleção de vitamina B12

  19. NREM sleep hypersomnia and reduced sleep/wake continuity in a neuroendocrine mouse model of anxiety/depression based on chronic corticosterone administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Dantec, Y; Hache, G; Guilloux, J P; Guiard, B P; David, D J; Adrien, J; Escourrou, P

    2014-08-22

    Sleep/wake disorders are frequently associated with anxiety and depression and to elevated levels of cortisol. Even though these alterations are increasingly sought in animal models, no study has investigated the specific effects of chronic corticosterone (CORT) administration on sleep. We characterized sleep/wake disorders in a neuroendocrine mouse model of anxiety/depression, based on chronic CORT administration in the drinking water (35 μg/ml for 4 weeks, "CORT model"). The CORT model was markedly affected during the dark phase by non-rapid eye movement sleep (NREM) increase without consistent alteration of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. Total sleep duration (SD) and sleep efficiency (SE) increased concomitantly during both the 24h and the dark phase, due to the increase in the number of NREM sleep episodes without a change in their mean duration. Conversely, the total duration of wake decreased due to a decrease in the mean duration of wake episodes despite an increase in their number. These results reflect hypersomnia by intrusion of NREM sleep during the active period as well as a decrease in sleep/wake continuity. In addition, NREM sleep was lighter, with an increased electroencephalogram (EEG) theta activity. With regard to REM sleep, the number and the duration of episodes decreased, specifically during the first part of the light period. REM and NREM sleep changes correlated respectively with the anxiety and the anxiety/depressive-like phenotypes, supporting the notion that studying sleep could be of predictive value for altered emotional behavior. The chronic CORT model in mice that displays hallmark characteristics of anxiety and depression provides an insight into understanding the changes in overall sleep architecture that occur under pathological conditions. Copyright © 2014 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. A semi-automated tool for reducing the creation of false closed depressions from a filled LIDAR-derived digital elevation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, John S.; Doctor, Daniel H.; Terziotti, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    Closed depressions on the land surface can be identified by ‘filling’ a digital elevation model (DEM) and subtracting the filled model from the original DEM. However, automated methods suffer from artificial ‘dams’ where surface streams cross under bridges and through culverts. Removal of these false depressions from an elevation model is difficult due to the lack of bridge and culvert inventories; thus, another method is needed to breach these artificial dams. Here, we present a semi-automated workflow and toolbox to remove falsely detected closed depressions created by artificial dams in a DEM. The approach finds the intersections between transportation routes (e.g., roads) and streams, and then lowers the elevation surface across the roads to stream level allowing flow to be routed under the road. Once the surface is corrected to match the approximate location of the National Hydrologic Dataset stream lines, the procedure is repeated with sequentially smaller flow accumulation thresholds in order to generate stream lines with less contributing area within the watershed. Through multiple iterations, artificial depressions that may arise due to ephemeral flow paths can also be removed. Preliminary results reveal that this new technique provides significant improvements for flow routing across a DEM and minimizes artifacts within the elevation surface. Slight changes in the stream flow lines generally improve the quality of flow routes; however some artificial dams may persist. Problematic areas include extensive road ditches, particularly along divided highways, and where surface flow crosses beneath road intersections. Limitations do exist, and the results partially depend on the quality of data being input. Of 166 manually identified culverts from a previous study by Doctor and Young in 2013, 125 are within 25 m of culverts identified by this tool. After three iterations, 1,735 culverts were identified and cataloged. The result is a reconditioned

  1. Disruption of the HPA-axis through corticosterone-release pellets induces robust depressive-like behavior and reduced BDNF levels in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demuyser, Thomas; Bentea, Eduard; Deneyer, Lauren; Albertini, Giulia; Massie, Ann; Smolders, Ilse

    2016-07-28

    The corticosterone mouse model is widely used in preclinical research towards a better understanding of mechanisms of major depression. One particular administration procedure is the subcutaneous implantation of corticosterone slow-release pellets. In this report we want to provide basic evidence, regarding behavioral changes, neurotransmitter and -modulator levels and some other relevant biomolecules after hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis distortion. We show that three weeks of corticosterone pellet exposure robustly induces depressive-like but not anxiety-like behavior in mice, accompanied by a significant decrease in hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels, at five weeks after the start of treatment. Furthermore there is an overall decrease in plasma corticosterone levels after three weeks of treatment that lasts up until the five weeks' time point. On the other hand, no differences are observed in total monoamine, glutamate or d-serine levels, nor in glucocorticoid receptor expression, in various depression-related brain areas. Altogether this characterization delivers vital information, supplementary to existing literature, regarding the phenotyping of pellet-induced hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis disruption in mice following three weeks of continuous corticosterone exposure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Tramadol reduces anxiety-related and depression-associated behaviors presumably induced by pain in the chronic constriction injury model of neuropathic pain in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caspani, Ombretta; Reitz, Marie-Céline; Ceci, Angelo; Kremer, Andreas; Treede, Rolf-Detlef

    2014-09-01

    Depression and anxiety are common comorbidities of neuropathic pain (NP). Pharmacological preclinical studies on NP have given abundant information on the effects of drugs on reflex measures of stimulus-evoked pain. However, few preclinical studies focus on relief of comorbidities evoked by NP. In this study, we investigated the effects of tramadol on nociceptive reflex, depression-associated and anxiety-related behaviors in a NP model in rats. We used chronic constriction injury (CCI) of the sciatic nerve as an animal model of neuropathic pain. We performed electronic von Frey tests (evF) to measure mechanical sensitivity, elevated plus maze tests (EPM) to record anxiety-related behaviors and forced swimming tests (FST) to evaluate depression-associated behaviors. In the evF, CCI rats showed a decrease of 82% of the paw withdrawal threshold (PWT) compared to sham (Ppain and its indirect consequences and comorbidities, and that this study also is a model for pharmacological studies seeking to investigate the effect of drugs on the major disabling symptoms of NP. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Psychiatric profiles of mothers who take Ecstasy/MDMA during pregnancy: reduced depression 1 year after giving birth and quitting Ecstasy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, John J D; Parrott, Andrew C; Goodwin, Julia; Moore, Derek G; Fulton, Sarah; Min, Meeyoung O; Singer, Lynn T

    2014-01-01

    The recreational drug MDMA (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine) or 'Ecstasy' is associated with heightened psychiatric distress and feelings of depression. The Drugs and Infancy Study (DAISY) monitored the psychiatric symptom profiles of mothers who used Ecstasy/MDMA while pregnant, and followed them over the first year post-partum. We compared 28 young women whom took MDMA during their pregnancy with a polydrug control group of 68 women who took other psychoactive drugs while pregnant. The Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI) was completed for several periods: The first trimester of pregnancy; and 1, 4 and 12 months after childbirth. Recreational drug use was monitored at each time point. During the first trimester of pregnancy, MDMA-using mothers reported higher depression scores than the polydrug controls. At 1 year after childbirth, their BSI depression scores were significantly lower, now closer to the control group values. At the same time point, their self-reported use of MDMA became nearly zero, in contrast to their continued use of Cannabis/marijuana, nicotine and alcohol. We found significant symptom reductions in those with BSI obsessive-compulsive and interpersonal sensitivity, following Ecstasy/MDMA cessation. The findings from this unique prospective study of young recreational drug-using mothers are consistent with previous reports of improved psychiatric health after quitting MDMA.

  4. Impact of in-home behavioral management versus telephone support to reduce depressive symptoms and perceived stress in Chinese caregivers: results of a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher-Thompson, Dolores; Gray, Heather L; Tang, Paulette C Y; Pu, Chun Yu; Leung, Laurie Y L; Wang, Peng-Chih; Tse, Collins; Hsu, Shannon; Kwo, Elizabeth; Tong, Hui-Qi; Long, James; Thompson, Larry W

    2007-05-01

    Recent work has shown that Chinese Americans caring for a family member with dementia experience considerable psychological distress. However, few studies evaluate treatments for them. This study evaluated the efficacy of in-home intervention, based on cognitive behavior therapy principles, to relieve stress and depression in female Chinese American caregivers (CGs). Fifty-five CGs who met inclusion criteria were randomly assigned to a telephone support condition (TSC) or to an in-home behavioral management program (IHBMP) for 4 months. In the TSC, biweekly calls were made and relevant material was mailed. In the IHBMP, specific psychological skills were taught to deal with caregiving stress. CGs were assessed before and after treatment. Outcome measures evaluated overall perceived stress, caregiving-specific stress, and depressive symptoms. CGs in IHBMP were less bothered by caregiving-specific stressors and had lower depression levels than CGs in TSC. There was no difference in overall stress. CGs with low baseline level of self-efficacy for obtaining respite benefited from IHBMP, but showed little improvement in the TSC. CGs with higher self-efficacy benefited from both treatments. This intervention is promising and warrants replication in future studies. Additional research is needed to evaluate longer-term effects and to identify individual differences associated with improvement.

  5. Depression (PDQ)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Data Conducting Clinical Trials Statistical Tools and Data Terminology Resources NCI Data Catalog Cryo-EM NCI's Role ... that may also cause depression. There are many medical conditions that can cause depression. Medical conditions that ...

  6. Postpartum Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... do not need treatment. The symptoms of postpartum depression last longer and are more severe. You may ... treatment right away, often in the hospital. Postpartum depression can begin anytime within the first year after ...

  7. Depression Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 3286 After hours (404) 639-2888 Contact Media Depression Treatment Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On ... How Do I Know if I Am Experiencing Depression? The following questions may help you determine if ...

  8. Teen Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    What is depression in teens? Teen depression is a serious medical illness. It's more than just a feeling of being sad or "blue" for a few days. It is ... trouble focusing and have no motivation or energy. Depression can make you feel like it is hard ...

  9. Neonatal treatment with fluoxetine reduces depressive behavior induced by forced swim in adult rats Tratamento neonatal com fluoxetina reduz o comportameto depressivo induzido pelo nado forçado em ratos adultos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Mendes-da-Silva

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Serotonin plays a role at the pathophysiology of depression in humans and in experimental models. The present study investigated the depressive behavior and the weigh evolution in adult rats (60 days treated from the 1st to the 21st postnatal day with fluoxetine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (10 mg/kg, sc, daily. The depressive behavior was induced by the forced swim test (FST. The animals were submitted to two sessions of FST: 1st session for 15 min and the 2nd session 24h later, for 5 min. During the 2nd session the Latency of the Attempt of Escape (LAE and Behavioral Immobility (BI were appraised. The Fluoxetine group when compared to the Control group, showed an increase in LAE and a decrease in BI. The neonatal administration of fluoxetine reduced the depressive behavior in adult rats, possibly by increase in the brain serotonergic activity. This alteration can be associated to process of neuroadaptation.Estudos em humanos e em modelos experimentais demonstram que a serotonina (5-HT participa da fisiopatologia da depressão. O presente estudo investigou o comportamento depressivo e a evolução ponderal de ratos adultos jovens (60 dias tratados do 1º ao 21º dia pós-natal com fluoxetina, um inibidor seletivo de recaptação da serotonina, (10 mg/kg, sc, diariamente. A depressão experimental foi induzida através do teste de nado forçado (NF. Os animais foram submetidos a duas sessões de NF, a primeira por 15 min e a segunda após 24 h, por 5 min. Durante os 5 min de NF a latência da tentativa de fuga (LTF e o tempo de imobilidade (TI foram avaliados. O grupo tratado com fluoxetina apresentou aumento da LTF e redução do TI comparado ao controle. A administração neonatal de fluoxetina reduziu o comportamento depressivo em ratos adultos, possivelmente em função do aumento da atividade serotoninérgica cerebral. Esta alteração poderá estar relacionada a processos neuroadaptativos.

  10. Increasing salinity drastically reduces hatching success of crustaceans from depression wetlands of the semi-arid Eastern Cape Karoo region, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabidi, Annah; Bird, Matthew S; Perissinotto, Renzo

    2018-04-13

    Salinity is an important factor affecting freshwater aquatic species distribution and diversity. The semi-arid Eastern Cape Karoo region of South Africa has been earmarked for shale gas development through hydraulic fracturing. The process uses large amounts of water and produces briny wastewater. When not managed properly, these wastewaters may lead to salinisation of surface freshwater bodies in the region. Therefore, the effect of salinity on the hatching success of crustacean resting eggs was examined using sediments from four depression wetlands found in the region. The sediments were exposed for 28 days to salinity levels of 0.5 g L -1 , 2.5 g L -1 , 5 g L -1 and 10 g L -1 . Control aquaria in which no salt was added were also set up. There was a significant decrease in the emerged taxa richness and abundances at salinities of 2.5 g L -1 and above. Anostraca, Notostraca and Spinicaudata hatchlings were abundant at salinities of 0.5 g L -1 and below, while Copepoda, Daphniidae (Cladocera) and Ostracoda were observed in the highest salinity, but their densities were still lower with increased salinities. Given the importance of large branchiopods in the trophic balance of depression wetlands, their loss may alter the ecological balance and function of these ecosystems.

  11. [Programmes against depression].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taleb, M; Rouillon, F; Hegerl, U; Hamdani, N; Gorwood, Ph

    2006-01-01

    frequently criticized, as this may reduce efficacy. A multilevel approach is crucial for the success of action programmes against depression, because synergistic effects can be expected. In Germany, the "Nürnberger Bündnis gegen Depression" project was based on four levels, and effectively reduced the suicide rate. These levels of action included "cooperation with GPs", such as training sessions based on video, and presence of a phone hotline, "public relations activities", "training sessions for multipliers", such as priests, social workers and media, and "special offers for high risk groups and self-help activities". In France, such a program is clearly required.

  12. Depression and cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elderon, Larkin; Whooley, Mary A

    2013-01-01

    Approximately one out of every five patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD) suffers from major depressive disorder (MDD). Both MDD and depressive symptoms are risk factors for CVD incidence, severity and outcomes. Great progress has been made in understanding potential mediators between MDD and CVD, particularly focusing on health behaviors. Investigators have also made considerable strides in the diagnosis and treatment of depression among patients with CVD. At the same time, many research questions remain. In what settings is depression screening most effective for patients with CVD? What is the optimal screening frequency? Which therapies are safe and effective? How can we better integrate the care of mental health conditions with that of CVD? How do we motivate depressed patients to change health behaviors? What technological tools can we use to improve care for depression? Gaining a more thorough understanding of the links between MDD and heart disease, and how best to diagnose and treat depression among these patients, has the potential to substantially reduce morbidity and mortality from CVD. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Vågenterapi mod depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh, Mette; Videbech, Poul

    2015-01-01

    Patients admitted with depression are highly tormented and many are suicidal. Standard treatment does not offer full effect until after several weeks. Wake therapy is a method that may reduce depressive symptoms within days. In this paper, the literature regarding wake therapy is reviewed...

  14. Depressive Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jacqueline A.; Russell, Samantha; Rasor, Kaitlin

    2017-01-01

    Depression is among the most common mental disorders in the United States. Its diagnosis is often related to impairment of functioning across several domains, including how an individual thinks, feels, and participates in daily activities. Although depression has a relatively high prevalence among adults, the rate is alarmingly higher among…

  15. Postpartum Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... professionals for help. With support and treatment, new mothers with depression can go on to be healthy, happy parents. ... or two, talk to your doctor. A new mother who feels like giving up, who feels that life is not ... depression can last for several months or even longer ...

  16. Reduced hippocampal IL-10 expression, altered monoaminergic activity and anxiety and depressive-like behavior in female mice subjected to chronic social instability stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labaka, Ainitze; Gómez-Lázaro, Eneritz; Vegas, Oscar; Pérez-Tejada, Joana; Arregi, Amaia; Garmendia, Larraitz

    2017-09-29

    Evidence indicates that release of pro-inflammatory cytokines induced by social stress contributes to affective disorders. Additionally, there are known sex differences in both the stress response and the stressors that can elicit this response. In this regard, the chronic social instability (CSI) rodent model of stress appears to be the best fit for the social nature of females. This study analyzed the effects of CSI on female mouse behavior, hippocampal cytokine expression, tryptophan metabolism and monoaminergic activity. The activity of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) and hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axes were also measured. Results showed a decrease in sucrose consumption in stressed subjects, indicative of anhedonic behavior and an increase in climbing activity in the forced swimming test (FST) and in whisking behavior, which have been associated with anxiety. Decreased interleukin-10 (IL-10) expression was found in the hippocampus of the stressed mice, while no differences in pro-inflammatory cytokine expression and tryptophan (TRYP), kynurenine (KYN) or 3-hydroxy kynurenine (3-HK) levels were found. Increased hippocampal serotoninergic and noradrenergic activity was observed in stressed mice. The higher plasma corticosterone and lower hypothalamic glucocorticoid receptor (GR) expression levels showed an increase in HPA activity after CSI. No differences were found in the plasma estradiol levels or the central estrogen receptors (ERα and ERβ) expression levels. These data indicate that the CSI stress-induced behavioral and physiological changes associated with anxiety and depressive disorders. Although additional studies are warranted, the results suggest an involvement of anti-inflammatory cytokines in the biobehavioral effects of social stress in female mice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Mothers' AdvocateS In the Community (MOSAIC- non-professional mentor support to reduce intimate partner violence and depression in mothers: a cluster randomised trial in primary care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gold Lisa

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Effective interventions to increase safety and wellbeing of mothers experiencing intimate partner violence (IPV are scarce. As much attention is focussed on professional intervention, this study aimed to determine the effectiveness of non-professional mentor support in reducing IPV and depression among pregnant and recent mothers experiencing, or at risk of IPV. Methods MOSAIC was a cluster randomised trial in 106 primary care (maternal and child health nurse and general practitioner clinics in Melbourne, Australia. 63/106 clinics referred 215 eligible culturally and linguistically diverse women between January 2006 and December 2007. 167 in the intervention (I arm, and 91 in the comparison (C arm. 174 (80.9% were recruited. 133 (76.4% women (90 I and 43 C completed follow-up at 12 months. Intervention: 12 months of weekly home visiting from trained and supervised local mothers, (English & Vietnamese speaking offering non-professional befriending, advocacy, parenting support and referrals. Main outcome measures: Primary outcomes; IPV (Composite Abuse Scale CAS and depression (Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale EPDS; secondary measures included wellbeing (SF-36, parenting stress (PSI-SF and social support (MOS-SF at baseline and follow-up. Analysis: Intention-to-treat using multivariable logistic regression and propensity scoring. Results There was evidence of a true difference in mean abuse scores at follow-up in the intervention compared with the comparison arm (15.9 vs 21.8, AdjDiff -8.67, CI -16.2 to -1.15. There was weak evidence for other outcomes, but a trend was evident favouring the intervention: proportions of women with CAS scores ≥7, 51/88 (58.4% vs 27/42 (64.3% AdjOR 0.47, CI 0.21 to 1.05; depression (EPDS score ≥13 (19/85, 22% (I vs 14/43, 33% (C; AdjOR 0.42, CI 0.17 to 1.06; physical wellbeing mean scores (PCS-SF36: AdjDiff 2.79; CI -0.40 to 5.99; mental wellbeing mean scores (MCS-SF36: AdjDiff 2.26; CI -1

  18. Online Support Groups for Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Breuer

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This mixed-methods study aimed to explore the initial process of engagement with an online support group (OSG for depression. Fifteen British National Health Service patients experiencing depression who had not previously used an OSG for depression were offered facilitated access to an existing peer-to-peer OSG for 10 weeks. Pre- and post-measures of depression, social support, and self-stigma were taken in addition to a weekly measure of OSG usage. A follow-up qualitative interview was conducted with a subsample of nine participants. Depression and self-stigma reduced over the 10-week period, but perceived social support did not change. There was no evidence of adverse outcomes. Perceived benefits of OSG participation included connection to others, normalization of depression, and stigma reduction. However, engagement with the OSG was generally low. Barriers included concerns over causing harm to others or being harmed oneself, feeling different from others in the group, and fears of being judged by others. OSGs may potentially reduce depressive symptoms and perceived self-stigma. However, considerable barriers may hinder people with depression from engaging with OSGs. Further work is needed to determine who will benefit most from participating in OSGs for depression and how best to facilitate engagement.

  19. Depressive realism and clinical depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, Richard C; Hollon, Steven D; Shelton, Richard C

    2010-04-01

    Depressive realism suggests that depressed individuals make more accurate judgments of control than their nondepressed counterparts. However, most studies demonstrating this phenomenon were conducted in nonclinical samples. In this study, psychiatric patients who met criteria for major depressive disorder underestimated control in a contingent situation and were consistently more negative in their judgments than were nondepressed controls. Depressed patients were less likely than their nondepressed counterparts to overestimate control in a noncontingent situation, but largely because they perceived receiving less reinforcement. Depressed patients were no more likely to use the appropriate logical heuristic to generate their judgments of control than their nondepressed counterparts and each appeared to rely on different primitive heuristics. Depressed patients were consistently more negative than their nondepressed counterparts and when they did appear to be more "accurate" in their judgments of control (as in the noncontingent situation) it was largely because they applied the wrong heuristic to less accurate information. These findings do not support the notion of depressive realism and suggest that depressed patients distort their judgments in a characteristically negative fashion. 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Depression in the Workplace

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... You are here Home » Depression In The Workplace Depression In The Workplace Clinical depression has become one ... will die by suicide vi . Employees' Attitudes Towards Depression Often times a depressed employee will not seek ...

  1. Genetics Home Reference: depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Share: Email Facebook Twitter Home Health Conditions Depression Depression Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Depression (also known as major depression or major depressive ...

  2. A cluster randomised controlled trial to determine the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of classroom-based cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) in reducing symptoms of depression in high-risk adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stallard, P; Phillips, R; Montgomery, A A; Spears, M; Anderson, R; Taylor, J; Araya, R; Lewis, G; Ukoumunne, O C; Millings, A; Georgiou, L; Cook, E; Sayal, K

    2013-10-01

    Depression in adolescents is a significant problem that impairs everyday functioning and increases the risk of severe mental health disorders in adulthood. Although this is a major problem, relatively few adolescents with, or at risk of developing, depression are identified and referred for treatment. This suggests the need to investigate alternative approaches whereby preventative interventions are made widely available in schools. To investigate the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of classroom-based cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) in reducing symptoms of depression in high-risk adolescents. Cluster randomised controlled trial. Year groups ( n = 28) randomly allocated on a 1 : 1 : 1 basis to one of three trial arms once all schools were recruited and balanced for number of classes, number of students, Personal, Social and Health Education (PSHE) lesson frequency, and scheduling of PSHE. Year groups 8 to 11 (ages 12-16 years) in mixed-sex secondary schools in the UK. Data were collected between 2009 and 2011. Young people who attended PSHE at participating schools were eligible ( n = 5503). Of the 5030 who agreed to participate, 1064 (21.2%) were classified as 'high risk': 392 in the classroom-based CBT arm, 374 in the attention control PSHE arm and 298 in the usual PSHE arm. Primary outcome data on the high-risk group at 12 months were available for classroom-based CBT ( n = 296), attention control PSHE ( n = 308) and usual PSHE ( n = 242). The Resourceful Adolescent Programme (RAP) is a focused CBT-based intervention adapted for the UK (RAP-UK) and delivered by two facilitators external to the school. Control groups were usual PSHE (usual school curriculum delivered by teachers) and attention control (usual school PSHE with additional support from two facilitators). Interventions were delivered universally to whole classes. Clinical effectiveness: symptoms of depression [Short Mood and Feelings Questionnaire (SMFQ)] in adolescents at high risk

  3. Predictors of incident major depression in diabetic outpatients with subthreshold depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bot, Mariska; Pouwer, Francois; Ormel, Johan

    2010-01-01

    AIMS: The objective of the study was to determine rates and risks of major depression in diabetes outpatients with subthreshold depression. METHODS: This study is based on data of a stepped care-based intervention study in which diabetic patients with subthreshold depression were randomly allocated...... to low-intensity stepped care, aimed at reducing depressive symptoms, or to care as usual. Patients had a baseline Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) score ≥ 16, but no baseline major depression according to the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI). Demographic...... major depression. Stepped care allocation was not related to incident major depression. In multivariable models, similar results were found. CONCLUSIONS: Having a higher baseline level of anxiety and depression appeared to be related to incident major depression during 2-year follow-up in diabetic...

  4. Postpartum Depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith-Nielsen, Johanne

    Background: In three academic articles, this PhD thesis investigates maternal postpartum depression (PPD) as a risk factor for the infant-mother attachment and infant development. Previous studies have been contradictory with respect to the question of whether PPD can have long term effects...... on offspring. This may be due to not differing between when PPD is only occurring in the postpartum period and when effects are also due to ongoing or recurrent depression. However, it may also be due to viewing maternal depression as a unitary construct, and not considering underlying maternal psychological...... difficulties which may moderate potential adverse effects. The present thesis investigates two potential maternal moderators of risk:. Comorbid personality disorder and adult attachment insecurity. Moreover, the question of early environmental effects of PPD versus effects of later or ongoing depression...

  5. Depressive vulnerabilities predict depression status and trajectories of depression over 1 year in persons with acute coronary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Frank; McGee, Hannah; Delaney, Mary; Motterlini, Nicola; Conroy, Ronán

    2011-01-01

    Depression is prevalent in patients hospitalized with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). We determined whether theoretical vulnerabilities for depression (interpersonal life events, reinforcing events, cognitive distortions, Type D personality) predicted depression, or depression trajectories, post-hospitalization. We followed 375 ACS patients who completed depression scales during hospital admission and at least once during three follow-up intervals over 1 year (949 observations). Questionnaires assessing vulnerabilities were completed at baseline. Logistic regression for panel/longitudinal data predicted depression status during follow-up. Latent class analysis determined depression trajectories. Multinomial logistic regression modeled the relationship between vulnerabilities and trajectories. Vulnerabilities predicted depression status over time in univariate and multivariate analysis, even when controlling for baseline depression. Proportions in each depression trajectory category were as follows: persistent (15%), subthreshold (37%), never depressed (48%). Vulnerabilities independently predicted each of these trajectories, with effect sizes significantly highest for the persistent depression group. Self-reported vulnerabilities - stressful life events, reduced reinforcing events, cognitive distortions, personality - measured during hospitalization can identify those at risk for depression post-ACS and especially those with persistent depressive episodes. Interventions should focus on these vulnerabilities. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. A Stepwise Psychotherapy Intervention for Reducing Risk in Coronary Artery Disease (SPIRR-CAD): Results of an Observer-Blinded, Multicenter, Randomized Trial in Depressed Patients With Coronary Artery Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann-Lingen, Christoph; Beutel, Manfred E; Bosbach, Alexandra; Deter, Hans-Christian; Fritzsche, Kurt; Hellmich, Martin; Jordan, Jochen; Jünger, Jana; Ladwig, Karl-Heinz; Michal, Matthias; Petrowski, Katja; Pieske, Burkert; Ronel, Joram; Söllner, Wolfgang; Stöhr, Andreas; Weber, Cora; de Zwaan, Martina; Albus, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Depression predicts adverse prognosis in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD), but previous treatment trials yielded mixed results. We tested the hypothesis that stepwise psychotherapy improves depressive symptoms more than simple information. In a multicenter trial, we randomized 570 CAD patients scoring higher than 7 on the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale-depression subscale to usual care plus either one information session (UC-IS) or stepwise psychotherapy (UC-PT). UC-PT patients received three individual psychotherapy sessions. Those still depressed were offered group psychotherapy (25 sessions). The primary outcome was changed in the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale-depression scores from baseline to 18 months. Preplanned subgroup analyses examined whether treatment responses differed by patients' sex and personality factors (Type D). The mean (standard deviation) depression scores declined from 10.4 (2.5) to 8.7 (4.1) at 18 months in UC-PT and from 10.4 (2.5) to 8.9 (3.9) in UC-IS (both p psychotherapy failed to improve depressive symptoms in CAD patients more than UC-IS. The intervention might be beneficial for depressed CAD patients with Type D personality. However, this finding requires further study. www.clinicaltrials.gov NCT00705965; www.isrctn.com ISRCTN76240576.

  7. Sleep disorders as core symptoms of depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutt, David; Wilson, Sue; Paterson, Louise

    2008-01-01

    Links between sleep and depression are strong. About three quarters of depressed patients have insomnia symptoms, and hypersomnia is present in about 40% of young depressed adults and 10% of older patients, with a preponderance in females. The symptoms cause huge distress, have a major impact on quality of life, and are a strong risk factor for suicide. As well as the subjective experience of sleep symptoms, there are well-documented changes in objective sleep architecture in depression. Mechanisms of sleep regulation and how they might be disturbed in depression are discussed. The sleep symptoms are often unresolved by treatment, and confer a greater risk of relapse and recurrence. Epidemiological studies have pointed out that insomnia in nondepressed subjects is a risk factor for later development of depression. There is therefore a need for more successful management of sleep disturbance in depression, in order to improve quality of life in these patients and reduce an important factor in depressive relapse and recurrence.

  8. PRIMIPARA POST PARTUM DEPRESSION DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esha Pradnyana

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Pregnancy and the first child birth is an influential complex event for a mother, which is where everything including phsycal and psyological aspects. This change can make mother psyological disorder, that can lead into depression after childbearing that call post childbearing depression or post partum depression. A wide review at 59 study make a result that 13% among primipara can suffer post partum depression 12 weeks after childbearing. Estabilishmet of this diagnosis, besides from history and symptoms, and can be supported through test Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale( EPDS . Patient with post partum depression, given treatment with antidepressant drug. Breastfeeding is not only to reduce stress for the mother, but also reduce the level of stress on a baby when his mother suffered depression

  9. Depression and Multiple Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Symptoms Depression Share this page Facebook Twitter Email Depression Depression Fatigue Walking (Gait) Difficulties Numbness or Tingling ... away from addictive substances such as alcohol. Clinical depression It’s important to distinguish between mild, everyday “blues” — ...

  10. Depression in Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... here Home » Depression In Older Adults: More Facts Depression In Older Adults: More Facts Depression affects more ... combination of both. [8] Older Adult Attitudes Toward Depression: According to a Mental Health America survey [9] ...

  11. Older Adults and Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... find more information? Reprints Share Older Adults and Depression Download PDF Download ePub Order a free hardcopy ... depression need treatment to feel better. Types of Depression There are several types of depression. The most ...

  12. Depression and Caregiving

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... FCA - A A + A You are here Home Depression and Caregiving Order this publication Printer-friendly version ... a more serious depression over time. Symptoms of Depression People experience depression in different ways. Some may ...

  13. Depression and Suicide Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... due to another medical disorder Relationship Between Depression & Suicide: 1. Depression is the psychiatric diagnosis most commonly associated with ... of patients with treated depression eventually die by suicide. xiv 4. Depression is present in at least 50 percent of ...

  14. [Autobiographical memory in depressive disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Żuchowicz, Paulina; Jasionowska, Justyna; Gałecki, Piotr; Talarowska, Monika

    2017-08-21

    Contemporary research studies regarding autobiographical memory (AM) indicate that its deficits have a significant impact on the development of mental disorders. We find particularly many reports regarding the comorbidity of AM deficits and depressive disorders. The characteristic feature of AM in the people suffering from depressive disorders is the presence of overgeneral autobiographical memory (OGM), i.e. the reminiscences which contain a summary of many emotion-laden situations, yet without significant detail. This type of reminiscences is observed in the patients with depressive disorders and the ones susceptible to the disease but not experiencing presently an episode of depression, as well as the ones being in the phase of disease remission. In recent years, the interest in the significance of negative thinking processes, such as ruminations, as risk factors in the development of depression has been growing. It is emphasized that they are significantly associated with the occurrence of OGM. Research shows that people suffering from OGM and characterised by a rumination-based style of processing experience a greater number of depressive episodes. There are also research studies which confirm that the activities aimed at reducing the number of ruminations influence an improvement of the detail level of reminiscences. These data may serve as valuable therapeutic advice in depression disorders. The aim of the paper is to present results of contemporary research regarding mutual interrelations between autobiographical memory dysfunctions and the occurrence of symptoms of depression and its course.

  15. Tumoral immune-infiltrate (IF), PD-L1 expression and role of CD8/TIA-1 lymphocytes in localized osteosarcoma patients treated within protocol ISG-OS1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmerini, Emanuela; Agostinelli, Claudio; Picci, Piero; Pileri, Stefano; Marafioti, Teresa; Lollini, Pier-Luigi; Scotlandi, Katia; Longhi, Alessandra; Benassi, Maria Serena; Ferrari, Stefano

    2017-12-19

    We hypothesized that immune-infiltrates were associated with superior survival, and examined a primary osteosarcoma tissue microarrays (TMAs) to test this hypothesis. 129 patients (pts) with localized osteosarcoma treated within protocol ISG-OS1 were included in the study. Clinical characteristics, expression of CD8, CD3, FOXP3, CD20, CD68/CD163 (tumor associated macrophage, TAM), Tia-1 (cytotoxic T cell), CD303 (plasmacytoid dendritic cells: pDC), Arginase-1 (myeloid derived suppressor cells: MDSC), PD-1 on immune-cells (IC), and PD-L1 on tumoral cells (TC) and IC were analysed and correlated with outcome. Most of the cases presented tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) (CD3+ 90%; CD8+ 86%). Tia-1 was detected in 73% of the samples. PD-L1 expression was found in 14% patients in IC and 0% in TC; 22% showed PD-1 expression in IC.With a median follow-up of 8 years (range 1-13), the 5-year overall survival (5-year OS) was 74% (95% CI 64-85). Univariate analysis showed better 5-year OS for: a) pts with a good histologic response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (p = 0.0001); b) pts with CD8/Tia1 tumoral infiltrates (p = 0.002); c) pts with normal alkaline phosphatas (sALP) (p = 0.04). After multivariate analysis, histologic response (p = 0.007) and CD8/Tia1 infiltration (p = 0.01) were independently correlated with survival. In the subset of pts with CD8+ infiltrate, worse (p 0.02) OS was observed for PD-L1(IC)+ cases. Our findings support the hypothesis that CD8/Tia1 infiltrate in tumor microenvironment at diagnosis confers superior survival for pts with localized osteosarcoma, while PD-L1 expression is associated with worse survival.

  16. Depression and Liver Transplant Survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meller, William; Welle, Nicole; Sutley, Kristen; Thurber, Steven

    Patients who underwent liver transplantation and experienced clinical depression have heretofore evinced lower survival rates when compared to nondepressed counterparts. To investigate the hypothesis that transplant patients who seek and obtain medical treatment for depression would circumvent the prior reduced survival findings. A total of 765 patients with liver transplants were scrutinized for complications following transplantation. Further, 104 patients experienced posttransplant depression as manifested by diagnosis and treatment by medical personnel. Survival analyses were conducted comparing hazard and survival curves for these selected individuals and the remainder of transplant patients. Contrary to prior data and consistent with the aforementioned hypothesis, median survival durations, survival curves, and hazard functions (controlling for age and prolonged posttransplant survival for the depressed patients were better. The improved survival for the depressed patients may simply be related to an amelioration of depressed symptoms via antidepressant medications. However, this interpretation would only be congruent with reduced hazard, not elevated survival, beyond the norm (median) for other transplant participants. Assuming the reliability and generalization of our findings, perhaps a reasonable and compelling interpretation is that combined with the effectiveness of antidepressant medications, the seeking and receiving treatment for depression is a type of proxy measure of a more global pattern of adherence to recommended posttransplant medical regimens. Copyright © 2017 The Academy of Psychosomatic Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Postpartum Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or guilty. These emotions can affect a woman’s self-esteem and how she deals with stress. Fatigue—Many ... FAQs Exercise After Pregnancy (FAQ131) Depression (FAQ106) Patient Education FAQs Resources & Publications Committee Opinions Practice Bulletins Patient ...

  18. Acupuncture for depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Caroline A; Armour, Mike; Lee, Myeong Soo; Wang, Li-Qiong; Hay, Phillipa J

    2018-03-04

    . Review criteria called for inclusion of all published and unpublished randomised controlled trials comparing acupuncture versus control acupuncture, no treatment, medication, other structured psychotherapies (cognitive-behavioural therapy, psychotherapy, or counselling), or standard care. Modes of treatment included acupuncture, electro-acupuncture, and laser acupuncture. Participants included adult men and women with depression diagnosed by Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Fourth Edition (DSM-IV), Research Diagnostic Criteria (RDC), International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD), or Chinese Classification of Mental Disorders Third Edition Revised (CCMD-3-R). If necessary, we used trial authors' definitions of depressive disorder. We performed meta-analyses using risk ratios (RRs) for dichotomous outcomes and standardised mean differences (SMDs) for continuous outcomes, with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Primary outcomes were reduction in the severity of depression, measured by self-rating scales or by clinician-rated scales, and improvement in depression, defined as remission versus no remission. We assessed evidence quality using the GRADE method. This review is an update of previous versions and includes 64 studies (7104 participants). Most studies were at high risk of performance bias, at high or unclear risk of detection bias, and at low or unclear risk of selection bias, attrition bias, reporting bias, and other bias.Acupuncture versus no treatment/wait list/treatment as usualWe found low-quality evidence suggesting that acupuncture (manual and electro-) may moderately reduce the severity of depression by end of treatment (SMD -0.66, 95% CI -1.06 to -0.25, five trials, 488 participants). It is unclear whether data show differences between groups in the risk of adverse events (RR 0.89, 95% CI 0.35 to 2.24, one trial, 302 participants; low-quality evidence).Acupuncture versus control acupuncture (invasive

  19. Association between endothelial dysfunction and depression-like symptoms in chronic mild stress model of depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouzinova, Elena; Bødtkjer, Donna Marie Briggs; Kudryavtseva, Olga

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Cardiovascular diseases have high comorbidity with major depression. Endothelial dysfunction may explain the adverse cardiovascular outcome in depression; therefore, we analyzed it in vitro. In the chronic mild stress model, some rats develop depression-like symptoms (including...... "anhedonia"), whereas others are stress resilient. METHODS: After 8 weeks of chronic mild stress, anhedonic rats reduced their sucrose intake by 55% (7%), whereas resilient rats did not. Acetylcholine-induced endothelium-dependent relaxation of norepinephrine-preconstricted mesenteric arteries was analyzed......-like response) was reduced in anhedonic rats (p depression-like symptoms are associated with reduced endothelium-dependent relaxation due to suppressed...

  20. Music therapy for depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aalbers, Sonja; Fusar-Poli, Laura; Freeman, Ruth E; Spreen, Marinus; Ket, Johannes Cf; Vink, Annemiek C; Maratos, Anna; Crawford, Mike; Chen, Xi-Jing; Gold, Christian

    2017-11-16

    Depression is a highly prevalent mood disorder that is characterised by persistent low mood, diminished interest, and loss of pleasure. Music therapy may be helpful in modulating moods and emotions. An update of the 2008 Cochrane review was needed to improve knowledge on effects of music therapy for depression. 1. To assess effects of music therapy for depression in people of any age compared with treatment as usual (TAU) and psychological, pharmacological, and/or other therapies.2. To compare effects of different forms of music therapy for people of any age with a diagnosis of depression. We searched the following databases: the Cochrane Common Mental Disorders Controlled Trials Register (CCMD-CTR; from inception to 6 May 2016); the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; to 17 June 2016); Thomson Reuters/Web of Science (to 21 June 2016); Ebsco/PsycInfo, the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Embase, and PubMed (to 5 July 2016); the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (WHO ICTRP), ClinicalTrials.gov, the National Guideline Clearing House, and OpenGrey (to 6 September 2016); and the Digital Access to Research Theses (DART)-Europe E-theses Portal, Open Access Theses and Dissertations, and ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Database (to 7 September 2016). We checked reference lists of retrieved articles and relevant systematic reviews and contacted trialists and subject experts for additional information when needed. We updated this search in August 2017 and placed potentially relevant studies in the "Awaiting classification" section; we will incorporate these into the next version of this review as appropriate. All randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and controlled clinical trials (CCTs) comparing music therapy versus treatment as usual (TAU), psychological therapies, pharmacological therapies, other therapies, or different forms of music therapy for reducing depression. Two review

  1. Helping your teen with depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teen depression - helping; Teen depression - talk therapy; Teen depression - medicine ... teen the most. The most effective treatments for depression are: Talk therapy Antidepressant medicines If your teen ...

  2. "Subthreshold" depression: is the distinction between depressive disorder not otherwise specified and adjustment disorder valid?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Mark; Martinez, Jennifer H; Dalrymple, Kristy; Chelminski, Iwona; Young, Diane

    2013-05-01

    Patients with clinically significant symptoms of depression who do not meet the criteria for major depressive disorder or dysthymic disorder are considered to have subthreshold depression. According to DSM-IV, such patients should be diagnosed with depressive disorder not otherwise specified (NOS) if the development of the symptoms is not attributable to a stressful event or with adjustment disorder if the symptoms follow a stressor. Research on the treatment of subthreshold depression rarely addresses the distinction between depressive disorder NOS and adjustment disorder. In the present report from the Rhode Island Methods to Improve Diagnostic Assessment and Services (MIDAS) project, we examined the validity of this distinction. From December 1995 to June 2011, 3,400 psychiatric patients presenting to the Rhode Island Hospital outpatient practice were evaluated with semistructured diagnostic interviews for DSM-IV Axis I and Axis II disorders and measures of psychosocial morbidity. Slightly less than 10% (n = 300) of the 3,400 patients were diagnosed with depressive disorder NOS or adjustment disorder with depressed mood. The patients with depressive disorder NOS were significantly more often diagnosed with social phobia (P depressive disorder NOS reported more anhedonia, increased appetite, increased sleep, and indecisiveness, whereas the patients with adjustment disorder reported more weight loss, reduced appetite, and insomnia. There was no significant difference between the groups in overall level of severity of depression or impaired functioning. The patients with depressive disorder NOS had a nonsignificantly elevated morbid risk of depression in their first-degree relatives. Clinically significant subthreshold depression was common in psychiatric outpatients, and the present results support the validity of distinguishing between depressive disorder NOS and adjustment disorder with depressed mood. Future studies of the treatment of subthreshold depression

  3. ISGE statement on oral emergency contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasier, Anna; Gemzell-Danielsson, Kristina; Bouchard, Philippe; Genazzani, Andrea R; Al-Azzawi, Farook; Berga, Sarah; Birkhaeuser, Martin; Brincat, Mark; De Melo, Nilson R; Foidart, Jean Michel; Kenemans, Peter; Lunenfeld, Bruno; Maruo, Takeshi; Milewicz, Andrzej; Naftolin, Frederick; Ng, Ernest H Y; Schindler, Adolf; Simon, Carlos; Simoncini, Tommaso; Simpson, Evan; Siseles, Nestor; Smetnik, Vera; Tarlatzis, Basil; von Schoultz, Bo

    2014-10-01

    Unintended pregnancy is an important public health problem worldwide. Unwanted pregnancies may end in induced abortion (legal or illegal, safe or unsafe) or in childbirth. In many parts of the world both can be life threatening. Even where both are safe, abortion is distressing for all concerned while unwanted births often lead to poor health and social outcomes for both the mother and her child.

  4. Exercise and depression: a treatment manual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I van der Merwe

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Increased frequencies in unipolar major depression and dysthymia evolve into chronic depression (Gotlib & Hammen, 1992:11. Opsomming ‘n Toename in die voorkoms van unipolêre major depressie en distimie kan tot chroniese depressie ontwikkel (Gotlib & Hammen, 1992:11 *Please note: This is a reduced version of the abstract. Please refer to PDF for full text.

  5. Costs and Benefits of Treating Maternal Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sontag-Padilla, Lisa; Lavelle, Tara; Schultz, Dana

    2014-01-01

    An estimated 15 million mothers with young children in the U.S. suffer from depression. Untreated maternal depression has serious consequences for the mother's long-term health and for her child's development and functioning. it can also be costly, driving up health care use, reducing employment, and creating the need for early childhood…

  6. Postpartum Depression - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Русский (Russian) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Postpartum Depression - English PDF Postpartum Depression - Русский (Russian) PDF Postpartum Depression - English MP3 ...

  7. Major Depression Among Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Depressive Episode Among Adolescents Data Sources Share Major Depression Definitions Major depression is one of the most ... Bethesda, MD 20892-9663 Follow Us Facebook Twitter YouTube Google Plus NIMH Newsletter NIMH RSS Feed NIMH ...

  8. Recognizing teen depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000648.htm Recognizing teen depression To use the sharing features on this page, ... life. Be Aware of the Risk for Teen Depression Your teen is more at risk for depression ...

  9. Sadness and Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Videos for Educators Search English Español Sadness and Depression KidsHealth / For Kids / Sadness and Depression Print en ... big difference in your life. When Sadness Is Depression When you're in a sad mood, it ...

  10. Postpartum Depression Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Where can I find more information? Share Postpartum Depression Facts Download PDF Download ePub Download Mobi Order ... for herself or her family. What is postpartum depression? Postpartum depression is a mood disorder that can ...

  11. Depression and College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... depression and other mental health issues? Reference Share Depression and College Students Download PDF Download ePub Order ... Answers to college students’ frequently asked questions about depression Feeling moody, sad, or grouchy? Who doesn’t ...

  12. Depression and Suicidal Ideation During Two Psychosocial Treatments in Older Adults with Major Depression and Dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiosses, Dimitris N; Rosenberg, Paul B; McGovern, Amanda; Fonzetti, Pasquale; Zaydens, Hana; Alexopoulos, George S

    2015-01-01

    Depression is prevalent in dementia and contributes to poor outcomes for patients and their families. Antidepressants have limited efficacy in older adults with major depression and dementia, and psychosocial interventions are under-investigated. To examine the course, predictors and moderators of depression and suicidal ideation during 12 weeks of home-delivered Problem Adaptation Therapy (PATH) versus Supportive Therapy for Cognitively Impaired Older Adults (ST-CI) in 39 older adults with major depression and dementia. Thirty-nine older adults with major depression, mild or moderate dementia, and disability participated in a randomized controlled trial that compared the efficacy of PATH versus ST-CI. Depression and suicidal ideation were assessed with Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia Total Score and Suicide Item. PATH participants had significantly greater reduction in depression than ST-CI participants over 12 weeks of treatment. PATH participants with high social support had the greatest reduction in depression. Both treatments had comparable reduction in suicidal ideation. PATH is more effective in reducing depression in older adults with major depression and dementia compared to ST-CI. These results are clinically significant as antidepressants have limited efficacy in this population. Home-delivered psychosocial treatments may reduce suicidal ideation in this population.

  13. Exploring the relationship between physical health, depressive symptoms, and depression diagnoses in Hispanic dementia caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucciare, Michael A; Gray, Heather; Azar, Armin; Jimenez, Daniel; Gallagher-Thompson, Dolores

    2010-04-01

    The present study examined the relationship between self-reported physical health, depressive symptoms, and the occurrence of depression diagnosis in Hispanic female dementia caregivers. Participants were 89 Hispanic female dementia caregivers. This study used a cross-sectional design. Baseline depression and physical health data were collected from participants enrolled in the 'Reducing Stress in Hispanic Anglo Dementia Caregivers' study sponsored by the National Institute on Aging. Physical health was assessed using the Medical Outcome Study Short Form-36 (SF-36), a one-item self-report health rating, body mass index, and the presence or history of self-reported physical illness. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D). The occurrence of depression diagnosis was assessed using the Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders (SCID). Multiple linear and logistic regression analysis was used to examine the extent to which indices of physical health and depressive symptoms accounted for variance in participants' depressive symptoms and depressive diagnoses. Self-reported indices of health (e.g., SF-36) accounted for a significant portion of variance in both CES-D scores and SCID diagnoses. Caregivers who reported worsened health tended to report increased symptoms of depression on the CES-D and increased likelihood of an SCID diagnosis of a depressive disorder. Self-reported health indices are helpful in identifying Hispanic dementia caregivers at risk for clinical levels of depression.

  14. Comparison of Efficacy of Eye Movement, Desensitization and Reprocessing and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Therapeutic Methods for Reducing Anxiety and Depression of Iranian Combatant Afflicted by Post Traumatic Stress Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narimani, M.; Sadeghieh Ahari, S.; Rajabi, S.

    This research aims to determine efficacy of two therapeutic methods and compare them; Eye Movement, Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) for reduction of anxiety and depression of Iranian combatant afflicted with Post traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) after imposed war. Statistical population of current study includes combatants afflicted with PTSD that were hospitalized in Isar Hospital of Ardabil province or were inhabited in Ardabil. These persons were selected through simple random sampling and were randomly located in three groups. The method was extended test method and study design was multi-group test-retest. Used tools include hospital anxiety and depression scale. This survey showed that exercise of EMDR and CBT has caused significant reduction of anxiety and depression.

  15. Maternal supplementation with small-quantity lipid-based nutrient supplements during pregnancy and lactation does not reduce depressive symptoms at 6 months postpartum in Ghanaian women: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okronipa, Harriet; Adu-Afarwuah, Seth; Lartey, Anna; Ashorn, Per; Vosti, Stephen A; Young, Rebecca R; Dewey, Kathryn G

    2018-02-01

    We examined the impact on depression at 6 months postpartum of maternal supplementation with small-quantity lipid-based nutrient supplement (SQ-LNS) compared to supplementation with iron and folic acid (IFA) or multiple micronutrients (MMN). In this partially double-blinded randomized controlled trial, pregnant women ≤20 weeks gestation (n = 1320) were recruited from antenatal clinics and randomly assigned to receive either (1) SQ-LNS during pregnancy and for 6 months postpartum, or (2) IFA during pregnancy only, or (3) MMN during pregnancy and for 6 months postpartum. Maternal depressive symptoms were measured at 6 months postpartum using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS). Women who scored 12 or more on the EPDS were considered to show symptoms of depression. One thousand one hundred fifty-one women were included in this analysis (LNS = 382, IFA = 387 and MMN = 382). Characteristics of the three groups were similar at baseline, and there were no significant differences between women who were included in the analysis (n = 1151) and those who were not (n = 169). At 6 months postpartum, 13% of the women overall showed symptoms of depression, and this did not differ by group (LNS = 13.1%, IFA = 11.2% and MMN = 14.7%. P = 0.36). The median (25, 75 percentile) EPDS score did not differ by group (LNS 4.0 (1.0, 8.0), IFA 4.0 (1.0, 8.0), MMN 5.0 (2.0, 9.0), P transformed  = 0.13). Adjustment for covariates did not alter these findings. Maternal supplementation with SQ-LNS compared to MMN or IFA did not affect postnatal depressive symptoms in this sample of Ghanaian women.

  16. Cost of depression in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobocki, Patrik; Jönsson, Bengt; Angst, Jules; Rehnberg, Clas

    2006-06-01

    there is no earlier cost-of-illness study conducted on depression in Europe, it is, however, difficult to evaluate the validity of our results for individual countries and thus further research is needed. The cost of depression poses a significant economic burden to European society. The simulation model employed shows good predictability of the cost of depression in Europe and is a novel approach to estimate the cost-of-illness in Europe. IMPLICATIONS FOR HEALTH CARE PROVISION AND POLICIES: Health and social care policy and commissioning must be evidence-based. The empirical results from this study confirm previous findings, that depression is a major concern to the economic welfare in Europe which has consequences to both healthcare providers and policy makers. One important way to stop this explosion in cost is through increased research efforts in the field. Moreover, better detection, prevention, treatment and patient management are imperatives to reduce the burden of depression and its costs. Mental healthcare policies and better access to healthcare for mentally ill are other challenges to improve for Europe. This study has identified several research gaps which are of interest for future research. In order to better understand the impact of depression to European society long-term prospective epidemiology and cost-of-illness studies are needed. In particular data is lacking for Central European countries. On the basis of our findings, further economic evaluations of treatments for depression are necessary in order to ensure a cost-effective use of European healthcare budgets.

  17. Effect of Anti-inflammatory Treatment on Depression, Depressive Symptoms, and Adverse Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Köhler, Ole; Benros, Michael E; Nordentoft, Merete

    2014-01-01

    -controlled trials assessing the efficacy and adverse effects of pharmacologic anti-inflammatory treatment in adults with depressive symptoms, including those who fulfilled the criteria for depression. DATA EXTRACTION AND SYNTHESIS: Data were extracted by 2 independent reviewers. Pooled standard mean difference (SMD...... investigated cytokine inhibitors (n=2,004). The pooled effect estimate suggested that anti-inflammatory treatment reduced depressive symptoms (SMD, -0.34; 95% CI, -0.57 to -0.11; I2=90%) compared with placebo. This effect was observed in studies including patients with depression (SMD, -0.54; 95% CI, -1.......08 to -0.01; I2=68%) and depressive symptoms (SMD, -0.27; 95% CI, -0.53 to -0.01; I2=68%). The heterogeneity of the studies was not explained by differences in inclusion of clinical depression vs depressive symptoms or use of NSAIDs vs cytokine inhibitors. Subanalyses emphasized the antidepressant...

  18. Acute Unstable Depressive Syndrome (AUDS) is associated more frequently with epilepsy than major depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaaler, Arne E; Morken, Gunnar; Iversen, Valentina C

    2010-01-01

    present with an Acute Unstable Depressive Syndrome (AUDS) that does not meet DSM-IV criteria of a Major Depressive Episode (MDE). In a previous publication we have documented that AUDS patients indeed have more often a history of epileptic seizures and abnormal EEG recordings than MDE patients (Vaaler et......Depressive disorders are frequent in epilepsy and associated with reduced seizure control. Almost 50% of interictal depressive disorders have to be classified as atypical depressions according to DSM-4 criteria. Research has mainly focused on depressive symptoms in defined populations with epilepsy...... al. 2009). This study aimed to further classify the differences of depressive symptoms at admittance and follow-up of patients with AUDS and MDE....

  19. Intimate partner violence against adult women and its association with major depressive disorder, depressive symptoms and postpartum depression: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beydoun, Hind A; Beydoun, May A; Kaufman, Jay S; Lo, Bruce; Zonderman, Alan B

    2012-09-01

    To date, few systematic reviews of observational studies have been conducted to comprehensively evaluate the co-morbidity of intimate partner violence (IPV) and specific depression outcomes in women. In this systematic review and meta-analysis, we summarize the extant literature and estimate the magnitude of the association between IPV and key depressive outcomes (elevated depressive symptoms, diagnosed major depressive disorder and postpartum depression). PubMed (January 1, 1980-December 31, 2010) searches of English-language observational studies were conducted. Most of the selected 37 studies had cross-sectional population-based designs, focused on elevated depressive symptoms and were conducted in the United States. Most studies suggested moderate or strong positive associations between IPV and depression. Our meta-analysis suggested two to three-fold increased risk of major depressive disorder and 1.5-2-fold increased risk of elevated depressive symptoms and postpartum depression among women exposed to intimate partner violence relative to non-exposed women. A sizable proportion (9%-28%) of major depressive disorder, elevated depressive symptoms, and postpartum depression can be attributed to lifetime exposure to IPV. In an effort to reduce the burden of depression, continued research is recommended for evaluating IPV preventive strategies. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Antioxidant status and endocannabinoid concentration in postpartum depressive women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina Ranjbaran

    2015-02-01

    Conclusion: Women’s Job, husband’s job, wanted or unwanted pregnancy from husbands and marital period are associated to postpartum depression. In postpartum depression, TAC, AEA and 2-AG are reduced. So it can be concluded that both antioxidant system and endocannabinoid concentration involved in the development of postpartum depression.

  1. prevalence and patterns of depression among post myocardial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT. Back ground: Depression often affects the clinical outcome of Myocardial Infarction. Depression reduces the recovery rate of the individual and often deteriorates the condition. Knowledge regarding the prevalence of depression after myocardial infarction is necessary for treatment purposes. The present study ...

  2. "Tell me, how bright your hypomania is, and I tell you, if you are happily in love!"--among young adults in love, bright side hypomania is related to reduced depression and anxiety, and better sleep quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Serge; Foell, Stephan; Bajoghli, Hafez; Keshavarzi, Zahra; Kalak, Nadeem; Gerber, Markus; Schmidt, Norman B; Norton, Peter J; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith

    2015-03-01

    Studies on adolescents and adults show that romantic love (RL) is associated with favorable emotional states. However, data on these associations are scarce for adults. The aim of the present study was, therefore, to explore the associations between RL, symptoms of depression, anxiety, hypomania (bright side and dark side), and sleep in a sample of adults. A total of 844 participants currently in love (M = 24.79 years, 75.8% females) took part in the study. They completed a series of questionnaires related to RL, symptoms of depression, anxiety, hypomania (bright side and dark side), and sleep. An increased state of RL was associated both with the bright and the dark side of hypomania (BRHYP and DAHYP). Relative to participants with BRHYP, participants with DAHYP reported stronger symptoms of depression and state anxiety, and poor sleep quality. The pattern of results adds to our knowledge that in adults RL is not entirely a joyful and happy period of life. Rather, data suggest that for young adults in love, bright versus dark side of hypomania was associated with a different quality of psychological functioning and sleep. We conclude that experiencing RL might be a critical life event associated with symptoms of depression and anxiety, and poor sleep.

  3. The prospective association between sleep deprivation and depression among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Robert E; Duong, Hao T

    2014-02-01

    To examine the prospective, reciprocal association between sleep deprivation and depression among adolescents. A community-based two-wave cohort study. A metropolitan area with a population of over 4 million. 4,175 youths 11-17 at baseline, and 3,134 of these followed up a year later. Depression is measured using both symptoms of depression and DSM-IV major depression. Sleep deprivation is defined as ≤ 6 h of sleep per night. Sleep deprivation at baseline predicted both measures of depression at follow-up, controlling for depression at baseline. Examining the reciprocal association, major depression at baseline, but not symptoms predicted sleep deprivation at follow-up. These results are the first to document reciprocal effects for major depression and sleep deprivation among adolescents using prospective data. The data suggest reduced quantity of sleep increases risk for major depression, which in turn increases risk for decreased sleep.

  4. Clinical risk and depression (continuing education credit).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharkey, S

    1997-01-22

    This article provides information and guidance to nurses on clinical risks in mental health, particularly that of depression. It relates to UKCC professional development category: Reducing risk and Care enhancement.

  5. Postnatal Depression Prevention Through Prenatal Intervention: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-03-17

    Healthy People 2010 is to reduce the rate of post - partum depression . One method to reach this goal is to prevent post -partun depression (PPD) by providing...20060505147 04/17/2006 06:59 13036779673 BUCKLEY AFB ITT PAGE 07 Introduction Depression during pregnancy is associated with "higher incidence of post ... partum depression , maternal psychosocial and lifestyle risks, death by suicide, and adverse fetal outcomes" (Jesse and Graham, 2005). According to

  6. Physical Exercise as an Adjunct Treatment for Adolescent Depression

    OpenAIRE

    SARA RADOVIC

    2017-01-01

    There is evidence that exercise is effective in the treatment of depression amongst adults, however limited research has explored the role of exercise in the treatment of adolescent depression. This thesis demonstrated that an individualised, self-directed exercise intervention is feasible and effective in reducing depressive symptoms amongst depressed adolescents. Additionally, this thesis demonstrated that mental health clinicians hold favourable attitudes towards the use of exercise in the...

  7. Fractalkine depresses cardiomyocyte contractility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Taube

    Full Text Available Our laboratory reported that male mice with cardiomyocyte-selective knockout of the prostaglandin E2 EP4 receptor sub-type (EP4 KO exhibit reduced cardiac function. Gene array on left ventricles (LV showed increased fractalkine, a chemokine implicated in heart failure. We therefore hypothesized that fractalkine is regulated by PGE2 and contributes to depressed contractility via alterations in intracellular calcium.Fractalkine was measured in LV of 28-32 week old male EP4 KO and wild type controls (WT by ELISA and the effect of PGE2 on fractalkine secretion was measured in cultured neonatal cardiomyocytes and fibroblasts. The effect of fractalkine on contractility and intracellular calcium was determined in Fura-2 AM-loaded, electrical field-paced cardiomyocytes. Cardiomyocytes (AVM from male C57Bl/6 mice were treated with fractalkine and responses measured under basal conditions and after isoproterenol (Iso stimulation.LV fractalkine was increased in EP4 KO mice but surprisingly, PGE2 regulated fractalkine secretion only in fibroblasts. Fractalkine treatment of AVM decreased both the speed of contraction and relaxation under basal conditions and after Iso stimulation. Despite reducing contractility after Iso stimulation, fractalkine increased the Ca(2+ transient amplitude but decreased phosphorylation of cardiac troponin I, suggesting direct effects on the contractile machinery.Fractalkine depresses myocyte contractility by mechanisms downstream of intracellular calcium.

  8. An Integrated Web-Based Mental Health Intervention of Assessment-Referral-Care to Reduce Stress, Anxiety, and Depression in Hospitalized Pregnant Women With Medically High-Risk Pregnancies: A Feasibility Study Protocol of Hospital-Based Implementation

    OpenAIRE

    Kingston, Dawn; Janes-Kelley, Selikke; Tyrrell, Janie; Clark, Lorna; Hamza, Deena; Holmes, Penny; Parkes, Cheryl; Moyo, Nomagugu; McDonald, Sheila; Austin, Marie-Paule

    2015-01-01

    Background At prevalence rates of up to 40%, rates of depression and anxiety among women with medically complex pregnancies are 3 times greater than those in community-based samples of pregnant women. However, mental health care is not a component of routine hospital-based antenatal care for medically high-risk pregnant women. Objective The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness and feasibility of the hospital-based implementation of a Web-based integrated mental health interv...

  9. Enhancement of BDNF Concentration and Restoration of the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis Accompany Reduced Depressive-Like Behaviour in Stressed Ovariectomised Rats Treated with Either Tualang Honey or Estrogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badriya Al-Rahbi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A possible interaction between glucocorticoids and estrogen-induced increases in brain-derived-neurotrophic factor (BDNF expression in enhancing depressive-like behaviour has been documented. Here we evaluated the effects of Tualang honey, a phytoestrogen, and 17β-estradiol (E2 on the depressive-like behaviour, stress hormones, and BDNF concentration in stressed ovariectomised (OVX rats. The animals were divided into six groups: (i nonstressed sham-operated control, (ii stressed sham-operated control, (iii nonstressed OVX, (iv stressed OVX, (v stressed OVX treated with E2 (20 μg daily, sc, and (vi stressed OVX treated with Tualang honey (0.2 g/kg body weight daily, orally. Two months after surgery, the animals were subjected to social instability stress procedure followed by forced swimming test. Struggling time, immobility time, and swimming time were scored. Serum adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH and corticosterone levels, and the BDNF concentration were determined using commercially available ELISA kits. Stressed OVX rats displayed increased depressive-like behaviour with significantly increased serum ACTH and corticosterone levels, while the BDNF concentration was significantly decreased compared to other experimental groups. These changes were notably reversed by both E2 and Tualang honey. In conclusion, both Tualang honey and E2 mediate antidepressive-like effects in stressed OVX rats, possibly acting via restoration of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and enhancement of the BDNF concentration.

  10. Depressed and absent from work: Predicting prolonged depressive symptomatology among employees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brenninkmeijer, V.; Houtman, I.; Blonk, R.

    2008-01-01

    Background: The World Health Organization considers depression a major health problem and a leading cause of disability. Aim To identify factors which may help to reduce depressive symptoms in a sample of employees sick listed due to mental health problems. Methods: Longitudinal cohort study of

  11. COGNITIVE THERAPY DECREASE THE LEVEL OF DEPRESSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ah. Yusuf

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Aging is a natural process in individuals. Most of the elderly have problems in dealing with this natural process. Lost of occupation, friends and loneliness may result in depression in this age group. Cognitive therapy changes pessimistic idea, unrealistic hopes and excessive self evaluation may result and justify depression. Cognitive therapy may help elderly to recognize the problem in life, to develop positive objective of life and to create more positive personality. The aimed of this study was to analyze the effect of cognitive therapy to reduce the level of depression. Method: This study was used a pre experimental pre post test design. Sample were 10 elderly people who met to the inclusion criteria. The independent variable was cognitive therapy and dependent variable was the level of depression in elderly. Data were collected by using Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS 15, then analyzed by using Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test with significance levelα≤0.05. Result: The result showed that cognitive therapy has an effect on reducing depression with significance level p=0.005. Discussion: It can be concluded that cognitive therapy was effective in reducing depression level in elderly. Further studies are recommended to analyze the effect of cognitive therapy on decreasing anxiety in elderly by measuring cathecolamin.

  12. Depression-dementia medius: between depression and the manifestation of dementia symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Toshiyuki; Kato, Satoshi

    2011-09-01

    Depression and dementia, among the most common conditions in clinical practice, sometimes coexist, sometimes succeed each other, and often confuse clinicians. In the present paper, the clinical concept of 'depression-dementia medius' (which includes pseudodementia and depression in Alzheimer's disease as exemplars) is proposed, in reference to Janet's concept of psychological tension. Because psychosomatically complex human lives are always in a state of dynamic equilibrium, it seems sensible to propose that pseudodementia and depression in Alzheimer's disease are located within a spectrum extending from depression without dementia symptoms to dementia without depression. From the Janetian viewpoint, pseudodementia is regarded as uncovered latent dementia as a result of reduced psychological tension. Dementia is more than a fixed progressive condition under this view, and is a manifestation of dynamic mental activities. Characterizing these entities through perspectives such as psychological tension may yield deep insights in clinical practice. © 2011 The Authors. Psychogeriatrics © 2011 Japanese Psychogeriatric Society.

  13. Acute Unstable Depressive Syndrome (AUDS) is associated more frequently with epilepsy than major depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaaler, Arne E; Morken, Gunnar; Iversen, Valentina C

    2010-01-01

    Depressive disorders are frequent in epilepsy and associated with reduced seizure control. Almost 50% of interictal depressive disorders have to be classified as atypical depressions according to DSM-4 criteria. Research has mainly focused on depressive symptoms in defined populations with epilepsy...... (e.g., patients admitted to tertiary epilepsy centers). We have chosen the opposite approach. We hypothesized that it is possible to define by clinical means a subgroup of psychiatric patients with higher than expected prevalence of epilepsy and seizures. We hypothesized further that these patients...... present with an Acute Unstable Depressive Syndrome (AUDS) that does not meet DSM-IV criteria of a Major Depressive Episode (MDE). In a previous publication we have documented that AUDS patients indeed have more often a history of epileptic seizures and abnormal EEG recordings than MDE patients (Vaaler et...

  14. Update of sleep alterations in depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Barrera Medina

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Sleep disturbances in depression are up to 70%. Patients frequently have difficulty in falling asleep, frequent awakenings during the night and non-restorative sleep. Sleep abnormalities in depression are mainly characterized by increased rapid eye movement (REM sleep and reduced slow wave sleep. Among the mechanisms of sleep disturbances in depression are hyperactivation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, CLOCK gene polymorphism and primary sleep disorders. The habenula is a structure regulating the activities of monoaminergic neurons in the brain. The hyperactivation of the habenula has also been implicated, together with sleep disturbances, in depression. The presence of depression in primary sleep disorders is common. Sleep disturbances treatment include pharmacotherapy or Cognitive Behavioral Therapy.

  15. Update of sleep alterations in depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Andrés Barrera; Lechuga, DeboraYoaly Arana; Escandón, Oscar Sánchez; Moctezuma, Javier Velázquez

    2014-01-01

    Sleep disturbances in depression are up to 70%. Patients frequently have difficulty in falling asleep, frequent awakenings during the night and non-restorative sleep. Sleep abnormalities in depression are mainly characterized by increased rapid eye movement (REM) sleep and reduced slow wave sleep. Among the mechanisms of sleep disturbances in depression are hyperactivation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, CLOCK gene polymorphism and primary sleep disorders. The habenula is a structure regulating the activities of monoaminergic neurons in the brain. The hyperactivation of the habenula has also been implicated, together with sleep disturbances, in depression. The presence of depression in primary sleep disorders is common. Sleep disturbances treatment include pharmacotherapy or Cognitive Behavioral Therapy. PMID:26483922

  16. CONSIDERATIONS ON DEPRESSION AND STRESS KINETOPROPHILAXY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica Dan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available All sports activities induce a state of psychological well-being, reduce anxiety, depression and psychosocial stress.Purpose. We set investigation level of depression, energy and stress compared to a lot of male fitness practitioners from the non-practicing. Materials and methods. Research was conducted on 20 male subjects, 10 fitness practitioners and 10 sedentary who have completed 20 questionnaires containing 12 items each for three scales (depression, stress and energy, adapted to the two categories.Results. Exercicers have a lower level of depression, perceive themselves as less stressed and feel more energetic compared with nonathletes. Conclusions. The results suggest the possibility possibility of kinetic prophylaxis of depression, due to induction of testosterone secretion through exercise, hormone endowed with antidepressant effect.

  17. Preventing postpartum depression: A meta-analytic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sockol, Laura E.; Epperson, C. Neill; Barber, Jacques P.

    2014-01-01

    This meta-analysis assessed the efficacy of a wide range of preventive interventions designed to reduce the severity of postpartum depressive symptoms or decrease the prevalence of postpartum depressive episodes. A systematic review identified 37 randomized or quasi-randomized controlled trials in which an intervention was compared to a control condition. Differences between treatment and control conditions in the level of depressive symptoms and prevalence of depressive episodes by 6 months postpartum were assessed in separate analyses. Depressive symptoms were significantly lower at post-treatment in intervention conditions, with an overall effect size in the small range after exclusion of outliers (Hedges' g = 0.18). There was a 27% reduction in the prevalence of depressive episodes in intervention conditions by 6 months postpartum after removal of outliers and correction for publication bias. Later timing of the postpartum assessment was associated with smaller differences between intervention and control conditions in both analyses. Among studies that assessed depressive symptoms using the EPDS, higher levels of depressive symptoms at pre-treatment were associated with smaller differences in depressive symptoms by 6 months postpartum. These findings suggest that interventions designed to prevent postpartum depression effectively reduce levels of postpartum depressive symptoms and decrease risk for postpartum depressive episodes. PMID:24211712

  18. The Experience of Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina Weitkamp

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available There is a lack of research in health psychology on the subjective experience of adolescents with mental health disorders. The aim of this study was to explore the experience of depression and the journey into therapy of young people (YP diagnosed with depression. Semi-structured interviews were carried out with six YP (5 female, aged 15–19. Interviews were analyzed using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. The following four key themes were identified: “Suffering is experienced as overwhelming,” “An experience of loneliness and isolation,” “Struggling to understand the suffering,” and “Therapy as a last resort.” Reasons for a delay in accessing treatment were not knowing what is “normal,” the feeling that they have to deal with it by themselves, and/or the lack of a caring adult who supports the YP in getting help. The findings suggest the ongoing importance of reducing stigma and promoting mental health education for YP as well as parents, school staff, and health professionals.

  19. Reiki for depression and anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, Janine; Herbison, G Peter

    2015-04-03

    anxiety and 17 with depression and 20 more with either anxiety or depression, but which was not specified, the results could only be reported narratively. They show no evidence that Reiki is either beneficial or harmful in this population. The risk of bias for the included studies was generally rated as unclear or high for most domains, which reduces the certainty of the evidence. There is insufficient evidence to say whether or not Reiki is useful for people over 16 years of age with anxiety or depression or both.

  20. Moderators of the Effects of Indicated Group and Bibliotherapy Cognitive Behavioral Depression Prevention Programs on Adolescents’ Depressive Symptoms and Depressive Disorder Onset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Sina; Rohde, Paul; Gau, Jeff M.; Stice, Eric

    2015-01-01

    We investigated factors hypothesized to moderate the effects of cognitive behavioral group-based (CB group) and bibliotherapy depression prevention programs. Using data from two trials (N = 631) wherein adolescents (M age = 15.5, 62% female, 61% Caucasian) with depressive symptoms were randomized into CB group, CB bibliotherapy, or an educational brochure control condition, we evaluated the moderating effects of individual, demographic, and environmental factors on depressive symptom reductions and major depressive disorder (MDD) onset over 2-year follow-up. CB group and bibliotherapy participants had lower depressive symptoms than controls at posttest but these effects did not persist. No MDD prevention effects were present in the merged data. Relative to controls, elevated depressive symptoms and motivation to reduce depression amplified posttest depressive symptom reduction for CB group, and elevated baseline symptoms amplified posttest symptom reduction effects of CB bibliotherapy. Conversely, elevated substance use mitigated the effectiveness of CB group relative to controls on MDD onset over follow-up. Findings suggest that both CB prevention programs are more beneficial for youth with at least moderate depressive symptoms, and that CB group is more effective for youth motivated to reduce their symptoms. Results also imply that substance use reduces the effectiveness of CB group-based depression prevention. PMID:26480199

  1. Adolescent attachment, family functioning and depressive symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishola Rawatlal

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. Adolescence represents a challenging transitional period where changes in biological, emotional, cognitive and social domains can increase the risk of developing internalised problems including subthreshold depression. Adolescent-parent attachment style, perceived support and family functioning may increase risk for depressive symptoms or may reduce such risk. Adolescent-parent attachment, adolescent-perceived support from parents and family functioning were examined as correlates of depressive symptom presentation within this age group. Methods. Participants included a maternal parent and an adolescent (65.5% female from each family. Adolescents were in Grade 7 (n=175 or Grade 10 (n=31. Data were collected through home interviews. The Self-Report of Family Inventory (SFI, Experiences of Close Relationships Scale (ECR, Network of Relationships Inventory (NRI, Children’s Depression Inventory (CDI and Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL were used to assess depression, parental support and attachment.  Results. Two models were examined: one with adolescent report of depressive symptoms as the outcome and a second with parent report of adolescent internalising symptoms as the outcome. The model predicting adolescent-reported depressive symptoms was significant with older age, higher levels of avoidant attachment, and higher levels of youth-reported dysfunctional family interaction associated with more depressive symptomatology. In the model predicting parent report of adolescent internalising symptoms only higher levels of dysfunctional family interaction, as reported by the parent, were associated with higher levels of internalising symptoms. Conclusion. Positive family communication, cohesion and support predictive of a secure parent-adolescent attachment relationship reduced the risk of a depressive symptom outcome. Secure adolescents were able to regulate their emotions, knowing that they could seek out secure base attachment relations

  2. Personal and Perceived Depression Stigma among Arab Adolescents: Associations with Depression Severity and Personal Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dardas, Latefa Ali; Silva, Susan G; Smoski, Moria J; Noonan, Devon; Simmons, Leigh Ann

    2017-10-01

    In Arab communities, the selection, utilization, and attitudes towards mental health services are substantially affected by existing mental illness stigma. However, little is known about how the stigma of depression manifests among Arab adolescents, which makes it difficult to design, implement, and disseminate effective anti-stigma interventions for this vulnerable population. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine levels of depression stigma among Arab adolescents. The specific aims were to (1) describe the severity of personal and perceived depression stigma among Arab adolescents and its relationship to severity of depression, and (2) determine characteristics associated with severity of depression stigma among Arab adolescents. This study was conducted in Jordan, a Middle Eastern Arab country. A nationally representative, school-based survey was utilized. A total of 2349 Jordanian adolescents aged 12-17 completed and returned the survey packets, which included measures on individual characteristics, depression severity, and depression stigma. The majority of the adolescents (88%) reported scores indicating moderate to high depression stigma. Adolescents reported higher rates of perceived stigma than personal stigma. Depression stigma was not significantly associated with severity of depression, but with adolescent's sex, age, region of residence, parents' education, and history of mental health problem. This is the first Arab study to isolate the influence of adolescent depression and personal characteristics on personal and perceived depression stigmas, and highlight the presence of these distinctions early in adolescence. Such distinction can inform the design and implementation of policies and interventions to reduce both personal and perceived stigma. The study provides important recommendations on when, how, and why to utilize school settings for anti-depression stigma interventions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Decreased Prostaglandin D2 Levels in Major Depressive Disorder Are Associated with Depression-Like Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Cuilin; Wei, Hui; Zhu, Wanwan; Shen, Yan; Xu, Qi

    2017-09-01

    Prostaglandin (PG) D2 is the most abundant prostaglandin in the mammalian brain. The physiological and pharmacological actions of PGD2 in the central nervous system seem to be associated with some of the symptoms exhibited by patients with major depressive disorder. Previous studies have found that PGD2 synthase was decreased in the cerebrospinal fluid of major depressive disorder patients. We speculated that there may be a dysregulation of PGD2 levels in major depressive disorder. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry coupled with a stable isotopic-labeled internal standard was used to determine PGD2 levels in the plasma of major depressive disorder patients and in the brains of depressive mice. A total of 32 drug-free major depressive disorder patients and 30 healthy controls were recruited. An animal model of depression was constructed by exposing mice to 5 weeks of chronic unpredictable mild stress. To explore the role of PGD2 in major depressive disorder, selenium tetrachloride was administered to simulate the change in PGD2 levels in mice. Mice exposed to chronic unpredictable mild stress exhibited depression-like behaviors, as indicated by reduced sucrose preference and increased immobility time in the forced swimming test. PGD2 levels in the plasma of major depressive disorder patients and in the brains of depressive mice were both decreased compared with their corresponding controls. Further inhibiting PGD2 production in mice resulted in an increased immobility time in the forced swimming test that could be reversed by imipramine. Decreased PGD2 levels in major depressive disorder are associated with depression-like behaviors. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of CINP.

  4. Behandlingsresistent depression kan behandles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinberg, Maj; Levinsen, Mette Frandsen; Kessing, Lars Vedel

    2011-01-01

    Depression is considered resistant when two treatment attempts with antidepressants from different classes fail to produce significant clinical improvement. In cases of treatment-resistant depression, it is recommended to reevaluate the diagnosis, clarify comorbidity, substance abuse and lack of ...

  5. Learning about depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000325.htm Learning about depression To use the sharing features on this page, ... trigger or reason. What are the Signs of Depression? You may notice some or all of the ...

  6. Signs of Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everyone has down days and times when they feel sad. But depression is more than feeling sad or having a bad day. You may have depression if you feel sad every day (or most days) for at least two weeks.

  7. Men and Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... crisis? For More Information Reprints Share Men and Depression Download PDF Download ePub Order a free hardcopy ... affects a large number of men. What is depression? Everyone feels sad or irritable and has trouble ...

  8. Heart disease and depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/ency/patientinstructions/000790.htm Heart disease and depression To use the sharing features on this page, ... a heart attack or heart surgery Signs of Depression It is pretty common to feel down or ...

  9. Depression - stopping your medicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000570.htm Depression - stopping your medicines To use the sharing features ... prescription medicines you may take to help with depression, anxiety, or pain. Like any medicine, there are ...

  10. Depression Disturbs Germany

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The suicide of Robert Enke,the goalkeeper of the Germany national football team who had battled depression for years,stunned the country and cast depression into the national spotlight as a disturbing disease.

  11. MEMORY SONGS DECREASE DEPRESSION FOR STROKE PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harmayetty Harmayetty

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Biological, physical and phsycosocial changes in stroke patient could be a stressor that induced a depression state. There would be an emotional disturbance in stroke patient and stroke attack would be recurrent, if it was not treated. One of the alternative techniques to reduce depression is musical therapy especially memory songs. Method: This study was used a quasy experimental pre-post test purposive sampling design. The population was stroke patients who treated in Neurological Ward A and Stroke Unit Dr Soetomo Hospital Surabaya. There were 12 respondents divided into 6 respondents for treatment group and 6 respondents for control group. The independent variable was music (memory song and dependent variable was depression. Data were collected by using questionnaire which adapted from Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and Geriatric Depression Rating Scale, then analyzed by using Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test and Mann Whitney U Test with significance level α≤0.05. Result: The result showed that there was a difference between pre test and post test in depression (p=0.0196 and there was a difference in the depression between treatment group and control group (p=0.002. Discussion: It can be concluded that music (memory songs has an effect to the depression of stroke patient. Further studies are needed to concerning other factors that may affect the relaxation technique especially in listening music.

  12. A multicenter randomized controlled trial of a nutrition intervention program in a multiethnic adult population in the corporate setting reduces depression and anxiety and improves quality of life: the GEICO study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Ulka; Mishra, Suruchi; Xu, Jia; Levin, Susan; Gonzales, Joseph; Barnard, Neal D

    2015-01-01

    To determine whether a plant-based nutrition program in a multicenter, corporate setting improves depression, anxiety, and productivity. A quasi-experimental study examined the impact of diet on emotional well-being and productivity. The study was conducted in 10 corporate sites of a major U.S. insurance company. There were 292 participants (79.8% women, 20.2% men), with body mass index ≥25 kg/m(2) and/or previous diagnosis of type 2 diabetes. Either weekly instruction in following a vegan diet or no instruction was given for 18 weeks. Depression and anxiety were measured using the Short Form-36 questionnaire. Work productivity was measured using the Work Productivity and Activity Impairment questionnaire. Baseline characteristics were examined by t-test for continuous variables and χ(2) test for categorical variables. Analysis of covariance models were adjusted for baseline covariates. Paired t-tests were used to determine within-group changes and t-tests for between-group differences. In an intention-to-treat analysis, improvements in impairment because of health (p corporate setting.

  13. Method of treating depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henn, Fritz [East Patchogue, NY

    2012-01-24

    Methods for treatment of depression-related mood disorders in mammals, particularly humans are disclosed. The methods of the invention include administration of compounds capable of enhancing glutamate transporter activity in the brain of mammals suffering from depression. ATP-sensitive K.sup.+ channel openers and .beta.-lactam antibiotics are used to enhance glutamate transport and to treat depression-related mood disorders and depressive symptoms.

  14. Depression in dementia: epidemiology, mechanisms, and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enache, Daniela; Winblad, Bengt; Aarsland, Dag

    2011-11-01

    Depression in people with dementia has important implications, such as reduced quality of life of patients and carers, and is associated with increased costs and reduced cognition. Here, we review recent studies of the epidemiology, course, mechanisms and treatment of depression in people with dementia. Depression is both a risk factor and a prodrome of Alzheimer's disease. Depression is a common occurrence in all types of dementias and at all disease stages, including in mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Many studies have explored whether depression in MCI increased the conversion rate to dementia, but findings are inconsistent. Studies of the mechanisms are relatively few and findings inconsistent, but inflammatory, trophic and cerebrovascular factors may contribute, in addition to monoamine deficiency and severity of plaques and tangle pathology. Studies of antidepressants for depression in dementia are inconclusive, with several negative findings reported in recent large studies, suggesting that antidepressant may not confer benefit over placebo. Depression is a common risk factor, prodrome, and accompanying symptom of people with Alzheimer's dementia. The mechanisms are unknown, and there is little evidence of effective therapies.

  15. Cardiovascular risk in individuals with depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Bivanco-Lima

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Depression and cardiovascular diseases (CVD are both common illnesses. Several studies demonstrated that depressed individuals have higher mortality compared to age-and gender-matched population, with an excess of cardiovascular deaths. There is a bidirectional association between depression and CVD. Several factors can interact and influence this relationship: poverty and social inequality, reduced accessibility to health care, biological alterations (as reduced heart rate variability, endothelial dysfunction, increased inflammation and platelet function, and hyperactivity of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, side effects of psychiatric medication, lower adherence to medical treatments, and higher frequency of cardiovascular risk factors (higher tobacco use, physical inactivity, obesity, diabetes mellitus. This article aims to update the current evidence of the possible mechanisms involved in the association between depression and CVD.

  16. Treating depression in HIV/AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Y H Moosa

    2007-08-01

    Currently available antidepressant medications are equally effective in treating HIV/AIDS patients and the general population. Furthermore, intervention studies have shown that psychotherapy reduces depressive symptoms and is well tolerated. Interpersonal psychotherapy is more successful than supportive psychotherapy in lessening depression, and patients experience improved functioning physically and emotionally. Untreated depression may be associated with reduced adherence to ART, immunosuppression, and more rapid HIV illness progression. In South Africa, HIV/AIDS patients may be at greater risk for psychiatric disorder given the potentially stressful living conditions including high rates of unemployment and poverty, poor and unstable housing, inadequate social services, and high rates of crime and domestic violence. A lack of data on depression in South Africa underscores the need for further research.

  17. Quantitative FDG in depression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chua, P.; O`Keefe, G.J.; Egan, G.F.; Berlangieri, S.U.; Tochon-Danguy, H.J.; Mckay, W.J.; Morris, P.L.P.; Burrows, G.D. [Austin Hospital, Melbourne, VIC (Australia). Dept of Psychiatry and Centre for PET

    1998-03-01

    Full text: Studies of regional cerebral glucose metabolism (rCMRGlu) using positron emission tomography (PET) in patients with affective disorders have consistently demonstrated reduced metabolism in the frontal regions. Different quantitative and semi-quantitative rCMRGlu regions of interest (ROI) comparisons, e.g. absolute metabolic rates, ratios of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) to ipsilateral hemisphere cortex, have been reported. These studies suffered from the use of a standard brain atlas to define ROls, whereas in this case study, the individual``s magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan was registered with the PET scan to enable accurate neuroanatomical ROI definition for the subject. The patient is a 36-year-old female with a six-week history of major depression (HAM-D = 34, MMSE = 28). A quantitative FDG PET study and an MRI scan were performed. Six MRI-guided ROls (DLPFC, PFC, whole hemisphere) were defined. The average rCMRGlu in the DLPFC (left = 28.8 + 5.8 mol/100g/min; right = 25.6 7.0 mol/100g/min) were slightly reduced compared to the ipsilateral hemispherical rate (left = 30.4 6.8 mol/100g/min; right = 29.5 7.2 mol/100g/min). The ratios of DLPFC to ipsilateral hemispheric rate were close to unity (left = 0.95 0.29; right 0.87 0.32). The right to left DLPFC ratio did not show any significant asymmetry (0.91 0.30). These results do not correlate with earlier published results reporting decreased left DLPFC rates compared to right DLPFC, although our results will need to be replicated with a group of depressed patients. Registration of PET and MRI studies is necessary in ROI-based quantitative FDG PET studies to allow for the normal anatomical variation among individuals, and thus is essential for accurate comparison of rCMRGlu between individuals.

  18. Quantitative FDG in depression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chua, P.; O'Keefe, G.J.; Egan, G.F.; Berlangieri, S.U.; Tochon-Danguy, H.J.; Mckay, W.J.; Morris, P.L.P.; Burrows, G.D.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: Studies of regional cerebral glucose metabolism (rCMRGlu) using positron emission tomography (PET) in patients with affective disorders have consistently demonstrated reduced metabolism in the frontal regions. Different quantitative and semi-quantitative rCMRGlu regions of interest (ROI) comparisons, e.g. absolute metabolic rates, ratios of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) to ipsilateral hemisphere cortex, have been reported. These studies suffered from the use of a standard brain atlas to define ROls, whereas in this case study, the individual''s magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan was registered with the PET scan to enable accurate neuroanatomical ROI definition for the subject. The patient is a 36-year-old female with a six-week history of major depression (HAM-D = 34, MMSE = 28). A quantitative FDG PET study and an MRI scan were performed. Six MRI-guided ROls (DLPFC, PFC, whole hemisphere) were defined. The average rCMRGlu in the DLPFC (left = 28.8 + 5.8 mol/100g/min; right = 25.6 7.0 mol/100g/min) were slightly reduced compared to the ipsilateral hemispherical rate (left = 30.4 6.8 mol/100g/min; right = 29.5 7.2 mol/100g/min). The ratios of DLPFC to ipsilateral hemispheric rate were close to unity (left = 0.95 0.29; right 0.87 0.32). The right to left DLPFC ratio did not show any significant asymmetry (0.91 0.30). These results do not correlate with earlier published results reporting decreased left DLPFC rates compared to right DLPFC, although our results will need to be replicated with a group of depressed patients. Registration of PET and MRI studies is necessary in ROI-based quantitative FDG PET studies to allow for the normal anatomical variation among individuals, and thus is essential for accurate comparison of rCMRGlu between individuals

  19. Measuring psychotic depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Søren Dinesen; Meyers, B S; Flint, A J

    Psychotic depression (PD) is a highly debilitating condition, which needs intensive monitoring. However, there is no established rating scale for evaluating the severity of PD. The aim of this analysis was to assess the psychometric properties of established depression rating scales and a number...... of new composite rating scales, covering both depressive and psychotic symptoms, in relation to PD....

  20. Depression (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Depression KidsHealth / For Parents / Depression What's in this article? ... Ways to Help Print en español Depresión About Depression It's normal for kids to feel sad, down, ...

  1. Handling Depression | Smokefree 60+

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everyone feels blue now and then. It's a part of life. But if your feelings last more than few days and interfere with your normal daily activities, you may be suffering from depression. On this page: Symptoms of depression Who gets depressed and why?

  2. Depression (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Depression KidsHealth / For Teens / Depression What's in this article? ... Yourself Print en español Depresión Regular Sadness vs. Depression It's natural to feel sad, down, or discouraged ...

  3. Ecological momentary interventions for depression and anxiety

    OpenAIRE

    Schueller, SM; Aguilera, A; Mohr, DC

    2017-01-01

    © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Ecological momentary interventions (EMIs) are becoming more popular and more powerful resources for the treatment and prevention of depression and anxiety due to advances in technological capacity and analytic sophistication. Previous work has demonstrated that EMIs can be effective at reducing symptoms of depression and anxiety as well as related outcomes of stress and at increasing positive psychological functioning. In this review, we highlight the difference...

  4. An integrated web-based mental health intervention of assessment-referral-care to reduce stress, anxiety, and depression in hospitalized pregnant women with medically high-risk pregnancies: a feasibility study protocol of hospital-based implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingston, Dawn; Janes-Kelley, Selikke; Tyrrell, Janie; Clark, Lorna; Hamza, Deena; Holmes, Penny; Parkes, Cheryl; Moyo, Nomagugu; McDonald, Sheila; Austin, Marie-Paule

    2015-01-16

    At prevalence rates of up to 40%, rates of depression and anxiety among women with medically complex pregnancies are 3 times greater than those in community-based samples of pregnant women. However, mental health care is not a component of routine hospital-based antenatal care for medically high-risk pregnant women. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness and feasibility of the hospital-based implementation of a Web-based integrated mental health intervention comprising psychosocial assessment, referral, and cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for antenatal inpatients. This study is a quasi-experimental design. Pregnant women are eligible to participate if they are (1) 72 hours, (3) able to speak and read English or be willing to use a translation service to assist with completion of the questionnaires and intervention, (4) able to complete follow-up email questionnaires, (5) >16 years of age, and (6) not actively suicidal. Women admitted to the unit for induction (eg, care hospital. All women will complete a Web-based psychosocial assessment and 6 Web-based CBT modules. Results of the psychosocial assessment will be used by a Web-based clinical decision support system to generate a clinical risk score and clinician prompts to provide recommendations for the best treatment and referral options. The primary outcome is self-reported prenatal depression, anxiety, and stress symptoms at 6-8 weeks postrecruitment. Secondary outcomes are postpartum depression, anxiety, and stress symptoms; self-efficacy; mastery; self-esteem; sleep; relationship quality; coping; resilience; Apgar score; gestational age; birth weight; maternal-infant attachment; infant behavior and development; parenting stress/competence at 3-months postpartum; and intervention cost-effectiveness, efficiency, feasibility, and acceptability. All women will complete email questionnaires at 6-8 weeks postrecruitment and 3-months postpartum. Qualitative interviews with 10-15 health care

  5. Public Attitudes and Feelings of Warmth Toward Women and Men Experiencing Depression During the Perinatal Period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felder, Jennifer N; Banchefsky, Sarah; Park, Bernadette; Dimidjian, Sona

    2017-08-01

    Depression is a major public health concern and often goes untreated. In response to a growing body of research documenting stigma as a barrier to depression care, this study focused on examining public stigma toward potentially vulnerable subpopulations. Participants (N=241) were recruited from Amazon's Mechanical Turk and randomly assigned to provide anonymous ratings on attitudes and feelings of warmth toward pregnant women and expectant fathers experiencing depression, mothers and fathers experiencing postpartum depression, or women and men experiencing depression during nonperinatal periods. Participants reported significantly more negative attitudes about depressed men than women, and male participants reported significantly more negative attitudes than female participants toward depressed individuals. Similarly, participants felt significantly less warmth toward depressed men than women, and male participants expressed significantly less warmth than female participants toward depressed individuals. Male participants felt equally warm toward men and women who experienced depression during nonperinatal periods, whereas female participants felt significantly warmer toward women who experienced depression during nonperinatal periods compared with men. Results indicate that the public views depressed men more negatively than depressed women and that males are more likely to hold stigmatizing attitudes toward depression, suggesting the importance of reducing stigma directed toward men with depression and stigma held by men toward persons with depression. Attitudes and feelings toward depressed individuals did not consistently vary by perinatal status. These findings are an initial step in improving depression treatment engagement strategies and in identifying those who would benefit most from stigma reduction programs.

  6. Hippocampal multimodal structural changes and subclinical depression in healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spalletta, Gianfranco; Piras, Fabrizio; Caltagirone, Carlo; Fagioli, Sabrina

    2014-01-01

    Several neuroimaging studies report reduced hippocampal volume in depressed patients. However, it is still unclear if hippocampal changes in healthy individuals can be considered a risk factor for progression to clinical depression. Here, we investigated subclinical depression and its hippocampal correlates in a non-clinical sample of healthy individuals, with particular regard to gender differences. One-hundred-two participants underwent a comprehensive clinical assessment, a high-resolution T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion tensor imaging protocol using a 3T MRI scanner. Data of macro-(volume) and micro-(mean diffusivity, MD) structural changes of the hippocampus were analyzed with reference to the Beck Depression Inventory score. Results of multivariate regression analyses revealed reduced bilateral volume, along with increased bilateral MD in hippocampal formation predicting subclinical depressive phenomenology only in healthy males. Conversely, subclinical depressive phenomenology in healthy female was accounted for by only lower educational level, in the absence of any hippocampal structure variations. To date, this is the only evidence reporting a relationship between subclinical depressive phenomenology and changes in hippocampal formation in healthy individuals. Our findings demonstrated that reduced volume, along with increased MD in hippocampal formation, is significantly associated with subclinical depressive phenomenology in healthy males. This encourages to study the hypothesis that early macro- and microstructural changes in hippocampi associated with subclinical depression may constitute a risk factor of developing depressive disorders in males. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Structure of the clinical and geriatric depression: Similarities and differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novović Zdenka

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies demonstrating the uniqueness of depression in old age are numerous, but conclusions on the fact if the problems of the elderly people cause depression or if they are a part of depression are not unique. The aim of this paper is to compare the structure of depression of old people without the history of mental illness and middle-aged people treated for depression. The sample consists of 82 healthy inmates of different Homes for the Aged and 78 patients diagnosed with some sort of affective disorder. A depression has been assessed with the shorten version of the MMPI D-scale. The structure of the geriatric and clinical depression has been compared with the method of maximum likelihood, over the matrix of co-variances of answers on the items on the depression scale. The results point out to the statistically significant difference in the structure of depression of the old and clinically depressed individuals. However, half of the items of the D-scale have significant loadings on the factor of depression in both groups. The essence of the depression in both samples is made of cognitive subject matters, depressive affect, decline of motivation and a negative estimate of one's basic abilities. Symptoms concerning low self-esteem, experiencing cognitive deficit, energy and impaired physical health have been significant in describing the clinical depression, while a feeling of reduced positive stimulation and the affective liability is typical for the depression of geriatric sample. The conclusion is that, despite the differences, there is a common core of symptoms that makes the essence of depression, apart from the samples.

  8. Depression in Hemodialysis Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badema Čengić

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Depression is the most frequent psychological complication of haemodialysis (HD patients (pts and has been associated with impaired Quality of Life (QoL. The aim of our study was to investigate the prevalence of depression in HD pts in relation to sociodemographic factors and the relationship between depression and QoL.200 pts from Clinic for haemodialysis in Sarajevo, B&H were participating in the study. Mean age was S7,26±13,78 years and mean HD duration was 64’26±58,18 months. From the test material we applied BDI and SF-36.51% of our pts have shown depression (BDI>11 in various degrees (30%-mild depression, 8,5%-moderate depression and 12,5%-severe depression. As we could expect, the most emphasized symptoms of depression were somatic symptoms. 55,5% of pts have shown QoL lower then average. Sociodemographic data such as gender, marital status and HD duration did not influence significantly on pt’s QoL and occurrence of depression (p>0,05. As the age of the pts increased, level of depression increased too and QoL significantly decreased (p<0,05. Employed pts have shown significantly better QoL and lower level of depression in relation to unemployed pts (p<0,05. As the educational level of pts increased, QoL increased too and level of depression significantly decreased (p<0,05. Pts in 1st HD shift were significantly more depressed and have significantly worse mental health in compare to pts in 3rd HD shift (p<0,05. Our results showed a high prevalence of depressive symptoms among the study group that was linked to trend of poor QoL.

  9. Self-help interventions for depressive disorders and depressive symptoms: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorm Anthony F

    2008-08-01

    for helpful longer-term effects was found for autogenic training, light therapy, omega 3 fatty acids, pets, and prayer. Many of the trials were poor quality and may not generalise to self-help without professional guidance. Conclusion A number of self-help interventions have promising evidence for reducing subthreshold depressive symptoms. Other forms of evidence such as expert consensus may be more appropriate for interventions that are not feasible to evaluate in randomised controlled trials. There needs to be evaluation of whether promotion to the public of effective self-help strategies for subthreshold depressive symptoms could delay or prevent onset of depressive illness, reduce functional impairment, and prevent progression to other undesirable outcomes such as harmful use of substances.

  10. Major depression in primary care: making the diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Chung Wai Mark; How, Choon How; Ng, Yin Ping

    2016-01-01

    Major depression is a common condition seen in the primary care setting, often presenting with somatic symptoms. It is potentially a chronic illness with considerable morbidity, and a high rate of relapse and recurrence. Major depression has a bidirectional relationship with chronic diseases, and a strong association with increased age and coexisting mental illnesses (e.g. anxiety disorders). Screening can be performed using clinical tools for major depression, such as the Patient Health Questionaire-2, Patient Health Questionaire-9 and Beck Depression Inventory, so that timely treatment can be initiated. An accurate diagnosis of major depression and its severity is essential for prompt treatment to reduce morbidity and mortality. This is the first of a series of articles that illustrates the approach to the management of major depression in primary care. Our next articles will cover suicide risk assessment in a depressed patient and outline the basic principles of management and treatment modalities. PMID:27872937

  11. Age-related cognitive effects of ECT and ECT-induced mood improvement in depressive patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    bosboom, P.R.; Deijen, J.B.

    2006-01-01

    This explorative study investigated the interaction between electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) treatment-effect, reduced depression, and neuropsychological outcome in relation to age. Follow-up neuropsychological assessment was conducted with depressive patients treated with ECT. From a potential

  12. Psychotherapies for adult depression: recent developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuijpers, Pim

    2015-01-01

    Much has been learned from the 400 randomized trials on psychotherapies for adult depression that have been conducted, but much is also still unknown. In this study some recent attempts to further reduce the disease burden of depression through psychotherapies are reviewed. In the past, many new psychotherapies have promised to be more effective than existing treatments, usually without success. We describe recent research on two new therapies, acceptance and commitment therapy and cognitive bias modification, and conclude that both have also not shown to be more effective than existing therapies. A growing number of studies have also focused on therapies that may be successful in further reducing the disease burden, such as treatments for chronic depression and relapse prevention. Other studies are aimed at scaling up psychological services, such as the training of lay health counselors in low-income and middle-income countries, telephone-based, and internet-based therapies. Psychotherapies are essential tools in the treatment of adult depression. Randomized trials have shown that these treatments are effective, and by focusing on key issues, such as chronic depression, relapse, and scaling them up, psychotherapies contribute more and more to the reduction of the disease burden of depression.

  13. Cognitive Distortions, Humor Styles, and Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rnic, Katerina; Dozois, David J A; Martin, Rod A

    2016-08-01

    Cognitive distortions are negative biases in thinking that are theorized to represent vulnerability factors for depression and dysphoria. Despite the emphasis placed on cognitive distortions in the context of cognitive behavioural theory and practice, a paucity of research has examined the mechanisms through which they impact depressive symptomatology. Both adaptive and maladaptive styles of humor represent coping strategies that may mediate the relation between cognitive distortions and depressive symptoms. The current study examined the correlations between the frequency and impact of cognitive distortions across both social and achievement-related contexts and types of humor. Cognitive distortions were associated with reduced use of adaptive Affiliative and Self-Enhancing humor styles and increased use of maladaptive Aggressive and Self-Defeating humor. Reduced use of Self-Enhancing humor mediated the relationship between most types of cognitive distortions and depressed mood, indicating that distorted negative thinking may interfere with an individual's ability to adopt a humorous and cheerful outlook on life (i.e., use Self-Enhancing humor) as a way of regulating emotions and coping with stress, thereby resulting in elevated depressive symptoms. Similarly, Self-Defeating humor mediated the association of the social impact of cognitive distortions with depression, such that this humor style may be used as a coping strategy for dealing with distorted thinking that ultimately backfires and results in increased dysphoria.

  14. Hypothyroidism and depression: Are cytokines the link?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parimal S Tayde

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Primary hypothyroidism has been thought of as an inflammatory condition characterized by raised levels of cytokines such as C-reactive protein (CRP, interleukin-6 (IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α. Depression is also well known to occur in hypothyroidism. Depression is also characterized by elevated inflammatory cytokines. We planned to study whether cytokines play an important part in linking these two conditions. Objectives: (1 To know the prevalence of depression in overt hypothyroidism due to autoimmune thyroid disease. (2 To correlate the levels of inflammatory markers with the occurrence of depression. (3 To study the effect of levothyroxine on inflammatory markers and depression. Materials and Methods: In this longitudinal, case–controlled study, 33 patients with autoimmune hypothyroidism (thyroid-stimulating hormone >10 uIU/ml were included with 33 age-, sex-, and body max index-matched healthy controls. Individuals were tested for Serum TNF-α, IL-6, high-sensitivity-CRP (hs-CRP. They were assessed for depression using Montgomery Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS and World Health Organization Quality of Life (QOL Scale. Patients received L Thyroxine titrated to achieve euthyroidism and were reassessed for inflammatory markers and cognitive dysfunction. Results: Nineteen patients (57% had mild to moderate depression (MADRS >11. After 6 months of treatment, eight patients (42% had remission of depression with significant improvement in QOL scores (P < 0.05. TNF-α, IL-6, and hs-CRP were significantly elevated in patients compared with controls and reduced with therapy but did not reach baseline as controls. The change in inflammatory markers correlated with improvement in QOL scores in social and environmental domains (P < 0.01. Conclusions: Primary autoimmune hypothyroidism is an inflammatory state characterized by elevated cytokines which decline with LT4 therapy. It is associated with depression and poor

  15. Depression, diet and exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacka, Felice N; Berk, Michael

    2013-09-16

    Unhealthy lifestyle behaviour is driving an increase in the burden of chronic non-communicable diseases worldwide. Recent evidence suggests that poor diet and a lack of exercise contribute to the genesis and course of depression. While studies examining dietary improvement as a treatment strategy in depression are lacking, epidemiological evidence clearly points to diet quality being of importance to the risk of depression. Exercise has been shown to be an effective treatment strategy for depression, but this is not reflected in treatment guidelines, and increased physical activity is not routinely encouraged when managing depression in clinical practice. Recommendations regarding dietary improvement, increases in physical activity and smoking cessation should be routinely given to patients with depression. Specialised and detailed advice may not be necessary. Recommendations should focus on following national guidelines for healthy eating and physical activity.

  16. Standardization of depression measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahl, Inka; Löwe, Bernd; Bjørner, Jakob

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To provide a standardized metric for the assessment of depression severity to enable comparability among results of established depression measures. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: A common metric for 11 depression questionnaires was developed applying item response theory (IRT) methods. Data...... of 33,844 adults were used for secondary analysis including routine assessments of 23,817 in- and outpatients with mental and/or medical conditions (46% with depressive disorders) and a general population sample of 10,027 randomly selected participants from three representative German household surveys....... RESULTS: A standardized metric for depression severity was defined by 143 items, and scores were normed to a general population mean of 50 (standard deviation = 10) for easy interpretability. It covers the entire range of depression severity assessed by established instruments. The metric allows...

  17. Male depression and suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wålinder, J; Rutzt, W

    2001-03-01

    Based on the experiences of the Gotland Study that education of general practitioners about depressive illness resulted in a statistically significant reduction in the number of female suicides, leaving the rate of male suicides almost unaffected, we propose the concept of a male depressive syndrome. This syndrome comprises a low stress tolerance, an acting-out behavior, a low impulse control, substance abuse and a hereditary loading of depressive illness, alcoholism and suicide. This notion is supported by data from The Amish study as well as the concept of van Praag of a stress-precipitated, cortisol-induced, serotonin-related and anxiety-driven depressive illness most often seen in males. In order to identify depressed males, the Gotland Male Depression Scale has been developed. Some preliminary data using the scale in a group of alcohol-dependant patients are presented.

  18. What is depression?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Annette Sofie; Fosgerau, Christina Fogtmann

    2014-01-01

    of depression is insufficient and a collaborative care (CC) model between general practice and psychiatry has been proposed to overcome this. However, for successful implementation, a CC model demands shared agreement about the concept of depression and the diagnostic process in the two sectors. We aimed......The diagnosis of depression is defined by psychiatrists, and guidelines for treatment of patients with depression are created in psychiatry. However, most patients with depression are treated exclusively in general practice. Psychiatrists point out that general practitioners' (GPs') treatment...... to explore how depression is understood by GPs and clinical psychiatrists. We carried out qualitative in-depth interviews with 11 psychiatrists and 12 GPs. Analysis was made by Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. We found that the two groups of physicians differed considerably in their views...

  19. Gender, Social Support, and Depression in Criminal Justice Involved Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Jennifer E.; Esposito-Smythers, Christianne; Miranda, Robert; Rizzo, Christie J.; Justus, Alicia N.; Clum, George

    2010-01-01

    Knowing where criminal justice involved teens look for support and whether those supports reduce depression has important and possibly gender-specific treatment implications for this vulnerable population. This study examines the relationships between social support and depression in a mixed-gender sample of 198 incarcerated adolescents. Greater support from families and overall and greater satisfaction with supports predicted lower depression for boys and girls. Support from siblings and ext...

  20. Association of depressive disorders, depression characteristics and antidepressant medication with inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogelzangs, N; Duivis, H E; Beekman, A T F; Kluft, C; Neuteboom, J; Hoogendijk, W; Smit, J H; de Jonge, P; Penninx, B W J H

    2012-02-21

    Growing evidence suggests that immune dysregulation may be involved in depressive disorders, but the exact nature of this association is still unknown and may be restricted to specific subgroups. This study examines the association between depressive disorders, depression characteristics and antidepressant medication with inflammation in a large cohort of controls and depressed persons, taking possible sex differences and important confounding factors into account. Persons (18-65 years) with a current (N = 1132) or remitted (N = 789) depressive disorder according to DSM-IV criteria and healthy controls (N = 494) were selected from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety. Assessments included clinical characteristics (severity, duration and age of onset), use of antidepressant medication and inflammatory markers (C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α)). After adjustment for sociodemographics, currently depressed men, but not women, had higher levels of CRP (1.33 versus 0.92 mg l(-1), Pdepressed peers. Associations reduced after considering lifestyle and disease indicators--especially body mass index--but remained significant for CRP. After full adjustment, highest inflammation levels were found in depressed men with an older age of depression onset (CRP, TNF-α). Furthermore, inflammation was increased in men using serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (CRP, IL-6) and in men and women using tri- or tetracyclic antidepressants (CRP), but decreased among men using selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (IL-6). In conclusion, elevated inflammation was confirmed in depressed men, especially those with a late-onset depression. Specific antidepressants may differ in their effects on inflammation.

  1. Interwar Deflation and Depression

    OpenAIRE

    Dorval, Bill; Smith, Gregor W.

    2013-01-01

    Interwar macroeconomic history is a natural place to look for evidence on the correlations between (a) deflation and depression and (b) unexpected deflation and depression. We apply time-series methods to measure unexpected deflation or inflation for 26 countries from 1922 to 1939. The results suggest much variation across countries in the degree to which the ongoing deflation of the 1930s was unexpected. There is a significant, positive correlation between deflation and depression for the en...

  2. Depression in Old Age

    OpenAIRE

    MAŠTEROVÁ, Monika

    2008-01-01

    This thesis is theoretical and it engage in problems of the depression, in particular depression in old age. It divide in four chapters. In first chapter mentioned a characteristic deppresion. Here is a description, what is the depression and that exit some questionnaires, what make find, whether is a man it distress. Further here is mentioned it occurrence, history, mythes, causes, symptoms, types, treatment and consequences. In second chapter talk about age and growing old and their concomi...

  3. Nedley Depression Hit Hypothesis

    OpenAIRE

    Nedley, Neil; Ramirez, Francisco E.

    2014-01-01

    Depression is often diagnosed using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Fifth Edition (DSM-5) criteria. We propose how certain lifestyle choices and non-modifiable factors can predict the development of depression. We identified 10 cause categories (hits or ?blows? to the brain) and theorize that four or more active hits could trigger a depression episode. Methods. A sample of 4271 participants from our community-based program (70% female; ages 17-94 years) was assessed ...

  4. The lived experience of depression among culturally Deaf adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheppard, K; Badger, T

    2010-11-01

    Culturally Deaf adults lost hearing at early ages, communicate primarily in American Sign Language (ASL), and self-identify as culturally Deaf. Communication barriers lead to isolation, low self-esteem, abuse, and inadequate health care. Screening Deaf patients for depressive symptoms poses challenge. Nurses are rarely familiar with ASL, and depression screening tools aren't easily translated from English to ASL. Consequently, Deaf adults are not adequately screened for depression. Qualitative interviews were conducted with culturally Deaf adults, and certified interpreters helped to enhance understanding. Text was generated from interview transcriptions and researcher observations. No novel depressive symptoms were described. Various ASL signs were used to represent depression; two participants used a unique gesture that had no meaning to others. Childhood experiences leading to depression included sexual or physical abuse, feeling ostracized from family and like a burden. Suicidal gestures communicated severity of depression. Adults felt interpreters were unwelcome during mental health encounters. No participants were asked about depressive symptoms despite frank manifestations of depression. Study describes antecedents and consequences of depressive symptoms among Deaf adults. Understanding symptom manifestations and challenges experienced by Deaf patients helps identify those at risk for depression, thereby reducing morbidity and mortality. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing.

  5. Remarriage after divorce and depression risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiyoshi, A; Fall, K; Netuveli, G; Montgomery, S

    2015-09-01

    As marriage is associated with lower depression rates compared with being single in men, we aimed to examine if remarriage compared with remaining divorced is also associated with a reduced depression risk. Swedish register data were used to define a cohort of men who were born between 1952 and 1956 and underwent a compulsory military conscription assessment in adolescence. This study population comprised men who were divorced in 1985 (n = 72,246). The risk of pharmaceutically treated depression from 2005 to 2009 was compared for those who remarried or remained divorced between 1986 and 2004. Cox proportional hazards analysis was used to estimate hazard ratios for the risk of depression identified by pharmaceutical treatment, with adjustment for a range of potential confounding factors including childhood and adulthood socioeconomic circumstances, cognitive, physical, psychological and medical characteristics at the conscription assessment. The results showed that, even though divorced men who remarried had markers of lower depression risk in earlier life such as higher cognitive and physical function, higher stress resilience and socioeconomic advantages than men who remained divorced, remarriage was associated with a statistically significant elevated risk of depression with an adjusted hazard ratio (and 95% confidence interval) of 1.27(1.03 1.55), compared with men who remained divorced. Remarriage following divorce is not associated with a reduced risk of depression identified by pharmaceutical treatment, compared with remaining divorced. Interpersonal or financial difficulties resulting from remarriage may outweigh the benefits of marriage in terms of depression risk. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Experiences of depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rønberg, Mette

    In this thesis, I examine the complex experiences of what we call depression in everyday life, the multifaceted and ambiguous experiences of getting a depression diagnosis, and the in-depth processes involved in learning to live under the description of depression. The thesis is based......-and-for-all-dealt-with matters but rather messy and complicated processes, that involve several actors and multiple relations to the diagnosis. The thesis furthermore challenges the dominant diagnostic understanding depression as a neurobiological, and individual disorder in present-day diagnostic cultures, by arguing...

  7. 'I am not a depressed person': how identity conflict affects help-seeking rates for major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Caroline; Farrand, Paul; O'Mahen, Heather

    2012-10-02

    There is a significant treatment gap for patients with depression. A third of sufferers never seek help, and the vast majority of those who do only do so after considerable delay. Little is understood regarding poor help-seeking rates amongst people with depression, with existing research mainly focussed on the impact of barriers to treatment. The current study explored psychological factors affecting help-seeking behaviour in clinically depressed individuals. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 20 current or previously clinically depressed participants who either had or had not sought professional help. Thematic analysis was used to analyse results. The onset of depressive symptoms created conflict with participants' identity and personal goals. Delays in seeking help were primarily attributed to the desire to protect identity and goals from the threat of depressive symptoms. Participants used avoidance strategies to reduce the perceived threat of depressive symptoms on identity. These strategies interfered with help-seeking. Help-seeking was only undertaken once participants reached a point of acceptance and began to make concessions in their identity and goals, at which time they reduced their use of avoidance. Difficulties resolving conflict between identity and depressive symptoms may account for significant delays in seeking help for depression. The results have implications for predicting health behaviour and improving treatment uptake for depression, and may inform existing help-seeking models.

  8. Anhedonia in depressed patients on treatment with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor anti-depressant--A two-centered study in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Anne; Chin, Soo Cheng; Hashim, Aili Hanim bt; Harbajan Singh, Manveen Kaur A P; Loh, Huai Seng; Sulaiman, Ahmad Hatim; Ng, Chong Guan

    2015-01-01

    Anhedonia is the reduced ability to experience pleasure. It is a core symptom of depression and is particularly difficult to treat. This study aims to compare the level of anhedonia between depressed patients on anti-depressants and healthy subjects. A total of 111 depressed patients on selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) and 82 healthy subjects were recruited from the outpatient psychiatric services at two major general hospitals in a cross-sectional study. Subjects were assessed using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview 5.0.0 or MINI, Beck's Depression Index (BDI), and Snaith-Hamilton Pleasure Scale (SHAPS). Relevant personal and sociodemographic information were also collected. There was a significant association between educational level and SHAPS-M scores (P depressed subjects treated with anti-depressant compared with the healthy subjects, after adjusting the confounding factors, BDI score, and educational level. Anhedonia often persists in depressed patients despite on SSRI anti-depressant treatment.

  9. Avatar-based depression self-management technology: promising approach to improve depressive symptoms among young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Melissa D; Hickman, Ronald L; Clochesy, John; Buchner, Marc

    2013-02-01

    Major depressive disorder is prevalent among American young adults and predisposes young adults to serious impairments in psychosocial functioning. Without intervention, young adults with depressive symptoms are at high risk for worsening of depressive symptoms and developing major depressive disorder. Young adults are not routinely taught effective depression self management skills to reduce depressive symptoms and preempt future illness. This study reports initial results of a randomized controlled trial among young adults (18-25 years of age) with depressive symptoms who were exposed to an avatar-based depression self-management intervention, eSMART-MH. Participants completed self-report measures of depressive symptoms at baseline and at 4, 8, and 12 weeks follow-up. Participants who received eSMART-MH had a significant reduction in depressive symptoms over 3 months, while individuals in the attention-control condition had no change in symptoms. In this study, eSMART-MH demonstrated initial efficacy and is a promising developmentally appropriate depression self-management intervention for young adults. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Longitudinal associations between depression and problematic substance use in the Youth Partners in Care study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKowen, James W; Tompson, Martha C; Brown, Timothy A; Asarnow, Joan R

    2013-01-01

    Large-scale treatment studies suggest that effective depression treatment and reduced depression are associated with improved substance use outcomes. Yet information is limited regarding the longitudinal association between depressive symptoms and problematic substance use and its predictors, particularly in real-world practice settings. Using latent growth modeling, we examined the (a) longitudinal association between depressive symptoms and problematic substance use, (b) impact of depressive symptoms on problematic substance use, (c) impact of problematic substance use on depressive symptoms, and (d) role of co-occurring symptoms on depression and problematic substance use. Participants were part of the Youth Partners in Care study, an effectiveness trial evaluating a quality improvement intervention for youth depression through primary care. This ethnically diverse sample included youths aged 13 to 21 years screening positive for depression from 5 health care organizations. Participants were followed 4 times over an 18-month period and assessed for both depressive symptoms and problematic substance use. Both depressive symptoms and problematic substance use declined over time. Higher baseline depressive symptoms predicted a slower decline in problematic substance use, but baseline problematic substance use did not predict changes in depressive symptoms. These prospective associations remained robust controlling for co-occurring symptoms. Results support prior large-scale depression studies indicating depression burden negatively impacts substance use outcome and extends these findings to real-world practice settings. Findings underscore the importance of addressing depression severity in youth with concurrent substance use problems, even in the context of comorbid symptoms of anxiety, delinquency, and aggression.

  11. [Primary headache and depression].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gesztelyi, Gyöngyi

    2004-11-28

    Primary headaches--mainly tension-type headache and migraine--affect a significant portion of the population. Depression is also highly prevalent. The co-existence of a primary headache and depression in the same patient therefore might be a coincidence due to the high prevalence of these conditions, but there might be a causal relationship between them, or headaches and depression might have a common background. This review of the literature summarizes the features of the relationship between primary headaches and depression. Depression is more prevalent in headache patients than in the headache-free population. Prospective epidemiological studies suggest a common genetic, biochemical or environmental background behind primary headaches and depression. This theory is supported by the role of the same neurotransmitter systems (mostly serotonin and dopamine) in headaches as well as in depression. Comorbid depression is associated with female gender, higher age, and higher frequency of headaches. Most depression inventories--questionnaires used to screen for the severity of depressive symptoms--contain transdiagnostic items, therefore their use in their original form is limited in organic diseases: due to the somatic items they might overestimate the severity of depression. When examining a headache patient special attention should be paid to the recognition of comorbid depression. The diagnosis of suspected mood disorder could be supported by using simple screening methods, such as the original or the abbreviated versions of standard depression inventories, but the final diagnosis of major depression needs psychiatric evaluation. Quality of life of the headache patient is affected not only by the characteristics of pain (frequency, duration, severity) but also by the disability caused by headache and the associating mood disorder. Recognizing coexisting mood disorder and disability helps to make the best treatment choice for the acute and preventive treatment of

  12. Nutritional Aspects of Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Undine E. Lang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Several nutrition, food and dietary compounds have been suggested to be involved in the onset and maintenance of depressive disorders and in the severity of depressive symptoms. Nutritional compounds might modulate depression associated biomarkers and parallel the development of depression, obesity and diabetes. In this context, recent studies revealed new mediators of both energy homeostasis and mood changes (i.e. IGF-1, NPY, BDNF, ghrelin, leptin, CCK, GLP-1, AGE, glucose metabolism and microbiota acting in gut brain circuits. In this context several healthy foods such as olive oil, fish, fruits, vegetables, nuts, legumes, poultry, dairy and unprocessed meat have been inversely associated with depression risk and even have been postulated to improve depressive symptoms. In contrast, unhealthy western dietary patterns including the consumption of sweetened beverage, refined food, fried food, processed meat, refined grain, and high fat diary, biscuits, snacking and pastries have been shown to be associated with an increased risk of depression in longitudinal studies. However, it is always difficult to conclude a real prospective causal relationship from these mostly retrospective studies as depressed individuals might also change their eating habits secondarily to their depression. Additionally specific selected nutritional compounds, e.g. calcium, chromium, folate, PUFAs, vitamin D, B12, zinc, magnesium and D-serine have been postulated to be used as ad-on strategies in antidepressant treatment. In this context, dietary and lifestyle interventions may be a desirable, effective, pragmatical and non-stigmatizing prevention and treatment strategy for depression. At last, several medications (pioglitazone, metformin, exenatide, atorvastatin, gram-negative antibiotics, which have traditionally been used to treat metabolic disorders showed a certain potential to treat depression in first randomized controlled clinical trials.

  13. Nutritional aspects of depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Undine E; Beglinger, Christoph; Schweinfurth, Nina; Walter, Marc; Borgwardt, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Several nutrition, food and dietary compounds have been suggested to be involved in the onset and maintenance of depressive disorders and in the severity of depressive symptoms. Nutritional compounds might modulate depression associated biomarkers and parallel the development of depression, obesity and diabetes. In this context, recent studies revealed new mediators of both energy homeostasis and mood changes (i.e. IGF-1, NPY, BDNF, ghrelin, leptin, CCK, GLP-1, AGE, glucose metabolism and microbiota) acting in gut brain circuits. In this context several healthy foods such as olive oil, fish, fruits, vegetables, nuts, legumes, poultry, dairy and unprocessed meat have been inversely associated with depression risk and even have been postulated to improve depressive symptoms. In contrast, unhealthy western dietary patterns including the consumption of sweetened beverage, refined food, fried food, processed meat, refined grain, and high fat diary, biscuits, snacking and pastries have been shown to be associated with an increased risk of depression in longitudinal studies. However, it is always difficult to conclude a real prospective causal relationship from these mostly retrospective studies as depressed individuals might also change their eating habits secondarily to their depression. Additionally specific selected nutritional compounds, e.g. calcium, chromium, folate, PUFAs, vitamin D, B12, zinc, magnesium and D-serine have been postulated to be used as ad-on strategies in antidepressant treatment. In this context, dietary and lifestyle interventions may be a desirable, effective, pragmatical and non-stigmatizing prevention and treatment strategy for depression. At last, several medications (pioglitazone, metformin, exenatide, atorvastatin, gram-negative antibiotics), which have traditionally been used to treat metabolic disorders showed a certain potential to treat depression in first randomized controlled clinical trials. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by S

  14. Towards a mouse model of depression : a psychoneuroendocrine approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dalm, Sergiu

    2012-01-01

    Chronic stress is considered a vulnerability factor for depression. A key symptom is anhedonia; a reduced response to positive stimuli. Drugs are effective for only 20-40% of the patients and new drugs are urgently needed. The objective of the research was to develop a mouse model of depression that

  15. Interventions to improve return to work in depressed people

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenhuijsen, Karen; Faber, Babs; Verbeek, Jos H.; Neumeyer-Gromen, Angela; Hees, Hiske L.; Verhoeven, Arco C.; van der Feltz-Cornelis, Christina M.; Bültmann, Ute

    2014-01-01

    Work disability such as sickness absence is common in people with depression. To evaluate the effectiveness of interventions aimed at reducing work disability in employees with depressive disorders. We searched CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library), MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and PsycINFO until January 2014.

  16. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... few days. It is a serious illness that affects many people. Symptoms can vary, but many depressed ... suffer from depression trying to learn why it affects some people but not others. Treatments for depression ...

  17. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 3 items) Institute Announcements (24 items) Symptoms and Treatment of Depression February 1, 2010 People with depression ... why it affects some people but not others. Treatments for depression do work. One type of effective ...

  18. Depression and auto-aggressiveness in adolescents in Zagreb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripković, Mara; Vuković, Iris Sarajlić; Frančišković, Tanja; Pisk, Sandra Vuk; Krnić, Silvana

    2014-12-01

    The aim of the study was to explore the frequency of depression among the general population of adolescents who were high school students in the city of Zagreb. As depression is associated with increased suicidal risk we wanted to check to what extent depression, as an emotional problem among youth, is associated with auto-aggression in the general population of adolescents. The study was conducted on a sample of high school students in Zagreb and it included 701 students of both genders aged from 14-19 years of age. To test the depression a Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) was administered for youth between 11-18 years of age (Youth Self Report for ages 11-18). To test auto-aggression a Scale of Auto-destructiveness (SAD) was used. Results obtained by this study show that about 20.7% of high school students have mild and borderline depressive disorders while moderate or severe depression shows about 5% of them, whereby depression is statistically significant among girls who, on average, report more symptoms of depression. It has also been proven a significant impact of depression levels (F (2,423)=35.860, p<0.001) on auto-aggression in subjects of both genders. In both genders, moderately depressed show more auto destructiveness than those without depression symptoms (p<0.01). In the group of heavily depressed (n=30), significantly higher self-destructiveness is shown by girls (p<0.01). The data suggest the importance of early recognition, understanding and treatment of depressive symptoms in adolescents in order to reduce the risk of subsequent chronic psychosocial damage.

  19. The Depression Coping Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinke, Chris L.

    College students (N=396), chronic pain patients (N=319), and schizophrenic veterans (N=43) completed the Depression Coping Questionnaire (DCQ) and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Factor analysis of the DCQ identified eleven coping responses: social support, problem solving, self-blame/escape, aggression, indulgence, activities, medication,…

  20. Postpartum Depression: An Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albright, Angela

    1993-01-01

    Occurring in about 12 percent of postpartum women, postpartum depression has been focus of considerable research. Variables that have been correlated with postpartum depression range from biological causes, to lack of social support, to relationship with husband, to attributional styles, to psychodynamic explanations. There is need for more…

  1. Testosterone and Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şükrü Kartalcı

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Androgens have various effects on human body and mood. Testosterone, a hormone mainly secreted from testes and adrenals, is one of the most potent androgens. Multiple studies have found that testosterone plays a role in regulating sexual activity, libido, social behaviors, aggression, cognitive functions, sleep control and well-being in men and women. Testosterone deficiency in hypogonadic or elderly men leads to neuropsychiatric problems, such as fatigue, loss of libido, irritability, insomnia and depressive mood. Testosterone replacement therapy consistently reverses these sequel in men. On the other hand, hyperandrogenic states in women are related to aggression and antisocial behavior, which might lead to depressive mood. Low testosterone levels may also result in depression among oophorectomized women. Because of such effects, a relationship between testosterone and depression has long been an issue of speculation, but yet very few studies have addressed this relation. Along with clinical studies, experimental and epidemiological studies show that testosterone is related to depression in men and women. But studies of testosterone concentrations in depression have yielded inconsistent results reporting low as well as high testosterone levels associated with depression. In this article, the physiological and psychological effects of testosterone and evidence regarding its relationship to depressive disorders and possible gender differences have been reviewed.

  2. Depression in nursing homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snowdon, John

    2010-11-01

    Although studies have shown the prevalence of depression in nursing homes to be high, under-recognition of depression in these facilities is widespread. Use of screening tests to enhance detection of depressive symptoms has been recommended. This paper aims to provoke discussion about optimal management of depression in nursing homes. The utility of the Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia (CSDD) is considered. CSDD data relating to residents assessed in 2008-2009 were collected from three Sydney nursing homes. CSDD scores were available from 162 residents, though raters stated they were unable to score participants on at least one item in 47 cases. Scores of 13 or more were recorded for 23% of residents in these facilities, but in most of these cases little was documented in case files to show that the results had been discussed by staff, or that they led to interventions, or that follow-up testing was arranged. Results of CSDD testing should prompt care staff (including doctors) to consider causation of depression in cases where residents are identified as possibly depressed. In particular, there needs to be discussion of how to help residents to cope with disability, losses, and feelings of powerlessness. Research is needed, examining factors that might predict response to antidepressants, and what else helps. Accreditation of nursing homes could be made to depend partly on evidence that staff regularly search for, and (if found) ensure appropriate responses to, depression.

  3. Sleep deprivation and depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elsenga, Simon

    1992-01-01

    The association between depression and sleep disturbances is perhaps as old as makind. In view of the longstanding experience with this association it is amazing that only some 20 years ago, a few depressed patients attracted attention to the fact that Total Sleep Deprivation (TSD) had

  4. Management of recurrent depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Cate; Marshall, Charlotte; Opolski, Melissa; Newbury, Wendy

    2008-09-01

    Depression is a potentially recurring or chronic disorder. The provision of evidence based treatment and effective practice organisation is central to chronic disease management, and these principles can be applied to managing depression. This article outlines the principles of chronic disease management, including the use of management plans and a team care approach, and their application to the management of depression. Treatment approaches that systematically assist patients in managing their chronic disease are more effective than those based on acute care. Depression treatment guidelines are available, as well as primary care initiatives which facilitate comprehensive and long term mental health care, including relapse prevention strategies. A number of risk factors for depression relapse have been identified, and research has recommended that novel intensive relapse prevention programs need to be developed.

  5. Measuring psychotic depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, S D; Meyers, B S; Flint, A J

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Psychotic depression (PD) is a highly debilitating condition, which needs intensive monitoring. However, there is no established rating scale for evaluating the severity of PD. The aim of this analysis was to assess the psychometric properties of established depression rating scales...... and a number of new composite rating scales, covering both depressive and psychotic symptoms, in relation to PD. METHOD: The psychometric properties of the rating scales were evaluated based on data from the Study of Pharmacotherapy of Psychotic Depression. RESULTS: A rating scale consisting of the 6-item......'s correlation coefficient between change in HAMD-BPRS11 and Clinical Global Impression - Improvement (CGI-I) scores = -0.74--0.78) and unidimensionality (Loevinger's coefficient of homogeneity = 0.41) in the evaluation of PD. The HAM-D6 fulfilled the same criteria, whereas the full 17-item Hamilton Depression...

  6. Depression following myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Karen Kjær

    2013-01-01

    whether the mental burden of MI is so heavy that it increases the risk of suicide. Although post-MI depression is common and burdensome, the condition remains under-recognised and under-treated. The development of new strategies to improve the quality of care for people with post-MI depression requires...... between post-MI depression and new cardiovascular events or death, taking potential mediators into account (Paper III); 4. To examine the association between MI and suicide (Paper IV). Two different study designs were employed: a population-based cohort study using data obtained from registers......Myocardial infarction (MI) is a severe life event that is accompanied by an increased risk of depression. Mounting evidence suggests that post-MI depression is associated with adverse outcomes, but the underlying mechanisms of this association remain unclear, and no previous studies have examined...

  7. Severity of anxiety- but not depression- is associated with oxidative stress in Major Depressive Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenkamp, Lisa R; Hough, Christina M; Reus, Victor I; Jain, Felipe A; Epel, Elissa S; James, S Jill; Morford, Alexandra E; Mellon, Synthia H; Wolkowitz, Owen M; Lindqvist, Daniel

    2017-09-01

    Oxidative stress is implicated in both depression and anxiety, but it is currently unclear whether this relates to syndromal diagnoses or trans-diagnostic dimensional symptoms. We examined the relationship between oxidative stress and severity of depression and anxiety symptoms in individuals with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). Plasma oxidative stress markers F2-isoprostanes and oxidized glutathione (GSSG), and the antioxidant reduced glutathione (GSH), were assessed in 69 physically healthy, medication-free MDD subjects. Symptoms of anxiety and depression were assessed using the Hamilton Anxiety (HAM-A) and Hamilton Depression (HAM-D) Rating Scales. Total HAM-A and HAM-D scores, along with "core" anxiety and depression subscales, and individual HAM-D items "psychic anxiety" and "depressed mood," were related to oxidative stress markers. Analyses controlled for age, sex, BMI, and smoking. Total HAM-A ratings were positively associated with F2-isoprostanes (β=.26, p=.042) and GSSG (β=.25, p=.049), but not GSH (β=.05, p=.711). Core anxiety severity was positively associated with F2-isoprostanes (β=.34, p=.012) and GSSG, although this did not reach significance (β=.24, p=.074). None of the biological markers were significantly associated with total HAM-D or core depression ratings (all p>.13). Subjects scoring high on "psychic anxiety" had elevated F2-isoprostanes (p=.030) and GSSG (p=.020). This was not seen with "depressed mood" scores (all p>.12). We assessed peripheral oxidative markers, but their relationship to the brain is unclear. Oxidative stress is more closely related to anxiety than depression symptoms in MDD. This highlights the importance of relating oxidative stress to specific symptoms and could provide new insights into the biological correlates of affective disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Influence of Exercise Intensity for Improving Depressed Mood in Depression: A Dose-Response Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Jacob D; Koltyn, Kelli F; Stegner, Aaron J; Kim, Jee-Seon; Cook, Dane B

    2016-07-01

    Exercise effectively improves mood in major depressive disorder (MDD), but the optimal exercise stimulus to improve depressed mood is unknown. To determine the dose-response relationship of acute exercise intensity with depressed mood responses to exercise in MDD. We hypothesized that the acute response to exercise would differ between light, moderate, and hard intensity exercise with higher intensities yielding more beneficial responses. Once weekly, 24 women (age: 38.6±14.0) diagnosed with MDD underwent a 30-minute session at one of three steady-state exercise intensities (light, moderate, hard; rating of perceived exertion 11, 13 or 15) or quiet rest on a stationary bicycle. Depressed mood was evaluated with the Profile of Mood States before, 10 and 30 minutes post-exercise. Exercise reduced depressed mood 10 and 30 minutes following exercise, but this effect was not influenced by exercise intensity. Participants not currently taking antidepressants (n=10) had higher baseline depression scores, but did not demonstrate a different antidepressant response to exercise compared to those taking antidepressants. To acutely improve depressed mood, exercise of any intensity significantly improved feelings of depression with no differential effect following light, moderate, or hard exercise. Pharmacological antidepressant usage did not limit the mood-enhancing effect of acute exercise. Acute exercise should be used as a symptom management tool to improve mood in depression, with even light exercise an effective recommendation. These results need to be replicated and extended to other components of exercise prescription (e.g., duration, frequency, mode) to optimize exercise guidelines for improving depression. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Depression following a spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boekamp, J R; Overholser, J C; Schubert, D S

    1996-01-01

    Depression is a common problem following a spinal cord injury (SCI) and can greatly interfere with the rehabilitation process because of reduced energy, negative expectations, and social withdrawal. Understanding various factors which influence a vulnerability to depression may improve the diagnosis and treatment of depressive disorders and can improve rehabilitation outcome. A thorough literature search was conducted using Medline, PsychLit, Pyschinfo, and Social Science Citation Index to identify relevant articles published between 1967 and 1995. A diathesis-stress model is proposed to explain the increased risk of depressive symptoms after a SCI. Biological changes associated with SCI and pre-existing cognitive biases may influence the individual's vulnerability to stressful life events following the injury. The nature and frequency of stressful life events following the injury can tax the individual's coping resources. Furthermore, the perceived quality of social support and the severity of conflict within the family can influence the individual's adaptation. Social support and recent stressors should be assessed to identify patients at high risk for depression. Patients are less likely to become depressed if their independence is fostered and they are encouraged to develop new sources of self-esteem. Relatives can be counseled to help maintain supportive relationships within the family.

  10. Depression and dementia: cause, consequence or coincidence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Sophia; Thomas, Alan J

    2014-10-01

    The relationship between depression and dementia is complex and still not well understood. A number of different views exist regarding how the two conditions are linked as well as the underlying neurobiological mechanisms at work. This narrative review examined longitudinal and cross sectional studies in the existing literature and determined the evidence supporting depression being a risk factor, a prodrome, a consequence, or an independent comorbidity in dementia. Overall there is convincing evidence to support both the notion that early life depression can act as a risk factor for later life dementia, and that later life depression can be seen as a prodrome to dementia. There is also evidence to support both conditions showing similar neurobiological changes, particularly white matter disease, either indicating shared risk factors or a shared pattern of neuronal damage. These findings highlight the need to examine if effective treatment of depressive episodes has any effect in reducing the prevalence of dementia, as well as clinicians being vigilant for late life depression indicating the incipient development of dementia, and therefore carefully following up these individuals for future cognitive impairment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Depression and anxiety in patients with COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abebaw M. Yohannes

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Under-recognised and untreated depression and anxiety symptoms have deleterious effects on physical functioning and social interaction increasing fatigue and healthcare utilisation in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Depression and anxiety are challenging to identify and treat because their symptoms often overlap with those of COPD. The cause(s of depression and anxiety symptoms are multifactorial and include behavioural, social and biological factors. Less than one-third of COPD patients with comorbid depression or anxiety symptoms are receiving appropriate treatment. Factors that contribute to the lack of provision of treatment are varied, they include patient perceived barriers, for example lack of knowledge and reluctance to receive antidepressant drug therapy; poor treatment compliance and lack of a standardised diagnostic approach; and scarcity of adequate resources for mental health treatment. The evidence for the efficacy of antidepressant drug therapy in patients with COPD with comorbid depression and anxiety is inconclusive. There are some promising findings regarding pulmonary rehabilitation, psychological therapy and the collaborative care model in reducing depression and anxiety symptoms in patients with COPD, but these findings are limited by short-term follow-up periods. Further work is required to examine the efficacy of these interventions in randomised controlled trials with larger samples and long-term follow-up.

  12. Emotions in Depression: What Do We Really Know?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rottenberg, Jonathan

    2017-05-08

    Major depressive disorder is among the most common and costly of all mental health conditions, and in the last 20 years, emotional dysfunction has been increasingly seen as central to depression. Accordingly, research on emotions in depression has proceeded with fury. The urgency of the work has tempted investigators to issue premature declarations and to sometimes overlook theoretical and methodological challenges entailed in studying emotion. I report on what we have learned thus far about how depression influences emotional reactivity and emotion regulation, and also carefully demarcate the vast terrain of what we do not yet know. Ironically, an attitude of humility may enable the field to achieve the ambitious but elusive goal of developing a rich, contextually specific account of depression-related changes in emotional reactivity and regulation. Such an account is a precondition for using knowledge about emotion to intervene more effectively to reduce depression's worldwide burden.

  13. Prosocial Behavior and Depression: a Case for Developmental Gender Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alarcón, Gabriela; Forbes, Erika E

    2017-06-01

    Prosocial behavior and depression are related constructs that both increase during adolescence and display gender-specific effects. The current review surveys literature examining the association between depressive symptoms and prosociality, measured with behavioral economic paradigms, across development and proposes a theoretical model explaining a mechanism through which adolescent girls have higher risk for depression than boys. Relative to healthy controls, prosocial behavior is reduced in adults with major depressive disorder (MDD) but may be increased in adolescents with MDD. The relationship between non-clinical levels of depressive symptoms and prosocial behavior remains to be studied experimentally; however, self-reported prosocial behavior is negatively associated with depressive symptoms in non-clinical adolescents, which may suggest a shift in the relation of prosocial behavior and depressive symptoms across the non-clinical (i.e., negative) to clinical range (i.e., positive). The effect of gender on these developmental and clinical status shifts has not been studied but could have important implications for understanding the emergence of higher rates of depression in girls than boys during adolescence. We propose that girls are at heightened risk for depression due to higher social-evaluative concern and other-oriented prosocial motivation that emphasize the needs of others over the self, leading to more altruistic prosocial behavior (despite personal cost) and a higher burden that enables depressive symptoms.

  14. Inferential Style, School Teachers, and Depressive Symptoms in College Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline M. Pittard,

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Depressive symptoms affect around half of students at some point during college. According to the hopelessness theory of depression, making negative inferences about stressful events is a vulnerability for developing depression. Negative and socioemotional teaching behavior can be stressors that are associated with depression in school students. First-time college freshmen completed the Cognitive Style Questionnaire (CSQ, Teaching Behavior Questionnaire (TBQ, and Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D. While completing the TBQ, participants reported on a teacher from prior education to college. Multiple regression analysis found significant effects of the independent variables (four teaching behavior types, inferential style, and interactions between the four teaching behavior types and inferential style on the dependent variable (depressive symptoms. More specifically, negative and socio-emotional teaching behavior were positively associated with depressive symptoms and instructional and organizational teaching behavior were negatively associated with depressive symptoms. Both organizational and negative teaching behavior interacted significantly with inferential style. Organizational and negative teaching behavior shared different relationships with depressive symptoms depending upon an individual‟s level of inferential style. Promotion of instructional and organizational teaching behavior in school as well as the reduction of negative teaching behavior may be useful in reducing students‟ depressive symptoms.

  15. Prevalence & factors associated with depression among schoolgoing adolescents in Chandigarh, north India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Man Mohan Singh

    2017-01-01

    Interpretation & conclusions: Our study showed that a significant proportion of schoolgoing adolescents suffered from depression. The presence of depression was associated with a large number of modifiable risk factors. There is a need to modify the home as well as school environment to reduce the risk of depression.

  16. Prevalence and Risk Factors for Depressive Disorders in Adults with Intellectual Disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meins, Wolfgang

    1993-01-01

    Evaluation of 798 adults with intellectual disability in German residential facilities and group homes revealed that subjects did not seem especially vulnerable to depressive disorders. Almost 5% were identified with depressive disorder. Those with depressive disorders experienced reduced social support. Age, epilepsy, and etiology did not show…

  17. Predictors of depression stigma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorm Anthony F

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To investigate and compare the predictors of personal and perceived stigma associated with depression. Method Three samples were surveyed to investigate the predictors: a national sample of 1,001 Australian adults; a local community sample of 5,572 residents of the Australian Capital Territory and Queanbeyan aged 18 to 50 years; and a psychologically distressed subset (n = 487 of the latter sample. Personal and Perceived Stigma were measured using the two subscales of the Depression Stigma Scale. Potential predictors included demographic variables (age, gender, education, country of birth, remoteness of residence, psychological distress, awareness of Australia's national depression initiative beyondblue, depression literacy and level of exposure to depression. Not all predictors were used for all samples. Results Personal stigma was consistently higher among men, those with less education and those born overseas. It was also associated with greater current psychological distress, lower prior contact with depression, not having heard of a national awareness raising initiative, and lower depression literacy. These findings differed from those for perceived stigma except for psychological distress which was associated with both higher personal and higher perceived stigma. Remoteness of residence was not associated with either type of stigma. Conclusion The findings highlight the importance of treating the concepts of personal and perceived stigma separately in designing measures of stigma, in interpreting the pattern of findings in studies of the predictors of stigma, and in designing, interpreting the impact of and disseminating interventions for stigma.

  18. Functional and structural brain correlates of risk for major depression in children with familial depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoqian J. Chai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite growing evidence for atypical amygdala function and structure in major depression, it remains uncertain as to whether these brain differences reflect the clinical state of depression or neurobiological traits that predispose individuals to major depression. We examined function and structure of the amygdala and associated areas in a group of unaffected children of depressed parents (at-risk group and a group of children of parents without a history of major depression (control group. Compared to the control group, the at-risk group showed increased activation to fearful relative to neutral facial expressions in the amygdala and multiple cortical regions, and decreased activation to happy relative to neutral facial expressions in the anterior cingulate cortex and supramarginal gyrus. At-risk children also exhibited reduced amygdala volume. The extensive hyperactivation to negative facial expressions and hypoactivation to positive facial expressions in at-risk children are consistent with behavioral evidence that risk for major depression involves a bias to attend to negative information. These functional and structural brain differences between at-risk children and controls suggest that there are trait neurobiological underpinnings of risk for major depression.

  19. Get Your Teen Screened for Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Topic En español Get Your Teen Screened for Depression Browse Sections The Basics Overview What Is Depression? ... 1 of 9 sections The Basics: What Is Depression? What is depression? Teen depression can be a ...

  20. Depression in African women presenting for psychological services ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    one in five women.2 Depression in women, world wide, seems to manifest mostly as .... Results. Demographic distribution. A total of 54 clinical files were analyzed. The patients' .... business can help and will reduce the stigma associated with.

  1. Behandlingsresistent depression kan behandles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinberg, Maj; Levinsen, Mette Frandsen; Kessing, Lars Vedel

    2011-01-01

    Depression is considered resistant when two treatment attempts with antidepressants from different classes fail to produce significant clinical improvement. In cases of treatment-resistant depression, it is recommended to reevaluate the diagnosis, clarify comorbidity, substance abuse and lack...... of compliance. Regarding treatment, evidence is sparse, but switching to a different antidepressant, and combination or augmentation with another agent, admission and treatment with ECT are the options. The choice of treatment must be based on the characteristics of the depression, the severity of treatment...

  2. Associations among smoking, anhedonia, and reward learning in depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liverant, Gabrielle I; Sloan, Denise M; Pizzagalli, Diego A; Harte, Christopher B; Kamholz, Barbara W; Rosebrock, Laina E; Cohen, Andrew L; Fava, Maurizio; Kaplan, Gary B

    2014-09-01

    Depression and cigarette smoking co-occur at high rates. However, the etiological mechanisms that contribute to this relationship remain unclear. Anhedonia and associated impairments in reward learning are key features of depression, which also have been linked to the onset and maintenance of cigarette smoking. However, few studies have investigated differences in anhedonia and reward learning among depressed smokers and depressed nonsmokers. The goal of this study was to examine putative differences in anhedonia and reward learning in depressed smokers (n=36) and depressed nonsmokers (n=44). To this end, participants completed self-report measures of anhedonia and behavioral activation (BAS reward responsiveness scores) and as well as a probabilistic reward task rooted in signal detection theory, which measures reward learning (Pizzagalli, Jahn, & O'Shea, 2005). When considering self-report measures, depressed smokers reported higher trait anhedonia and reduced BAS reward responsiveness scores compared to depressed nonsmokers. In contrast to self-report measures, nicotine-satiated depressed smokers demonstrated greater acquisition of reward-based learning compared to depressed nonsmokers as indexed by the probabilistic reward task. Findings may point to a potential mechanism underlying the frequent co-occurrence of smoking and depression. These results highlight the importance of continued investigation of the role of anhedonia and reward system functioning in the co-occurrence of depression and nicotine abuse. Results also may support the use of treatments targeting reward learning (e.g., behavioral activation) to enhance smoking cessation among individuals with depression. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Abnormal functional brain asymmetry in depression: evidence of biologic commonality between major depression and dysthymia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruder, Gerard E; Stewart, Jonathan W; Hellerstein, David; Alvarenga, Jorge E; Alschuler, Daniel; McGrath, Patrick J

    2012-04-30

    Prior studies have found abnormalities of functional brain asymmetry in patients having a major depressive disorder (MDD). This study aimed to replicate findings of reduced right hemisphere advantage for perceiving dichotic complex tones in depressed patients, and to determine whether patients having "pure" dysthymia show the same abnormality of perceptual asymmetry as MDD. It also examined gender differences in lateralization, and the extent to which abnormalities of perceptual asymmetry in depressed patients are dependent on gender. Unmedicated patients having either a MDD (n=96) or "pure" dysthymic disorder (n=42) and healthy controls (n=114) were tested on dichotic fused-words and complex-tone tests. Patient and control groups differed in right hemisphere advantage for complex tones, but not left hemisphere advantage for words. Reduced right hemisphere advantage for tones was equally present in MDD and dysthymia, but was more evident among depressed men than depressed women. Also, healthy men had greater hemispheric asymmetry than healthy women for both words and tones, whereas this gender difference was not seen for depressed patients. Dysthymia and MDD share a common abnormality of hemispheric asymmetry for dichotic listening. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Perspectives on depressive realism: implications for cognitive theory of depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haaga, D A; Beck, A T

    1995-01-01

    Beck's cognitive theory of depression has provided a successful description of depressive thinking, with one major exception. The hypothesis that depressed people show biased negative thinking seems contradicted by research indicating that Ss scoring 9 or above on the Beck Depression Inventory were more accurate than their nondepressed counterparts in judging contingencies between their responses and outcomes, seemingly showing "depressive realism". Depressive realism research has attracted attention in numerous areas of psychology, along with critical commentary focused on such issues as whether realism is limited to mild depressive states, whether laboratory tasks are sufficient to document realism, and whether realism is a general characteristic of either depressed or nondepressed people. We analyze the main critiques and show how debates about depressive realism can be heuristic for refinement of cognitive theory of depression.

  5. The effect of problem solving and decision making skills on tendency to depression and anxiety in patients with type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaheh Abazarian

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: The results showed that teaching problem solving and decision making skills was very effective in reducing diabetic patients′ depression and anxiety and resulted in reducing their depression and anxiety.

  6. Do You Have Major Depression?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Depression Do You Have Major Depression? Past Issues / Fall 2009 Table of Contents Simple ... member may have major depression. —NIMH Types of Depression Just like other illnesses, such as heart disease, ...

  7. Depression, Dementia, and Social Supports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esser, Sally R.; Vitaliano, Peter P.

    1988-01-01

    Reviews recent literature on the relationships among dementia, depression, and social support, emphasizing the diagnostic differentiation of dementia and depression, and the role of these three entities in elderly with cognitive impairment. Discusses dementia-like symptoms arising in depression and the coexistence of dementia and depression.…

  8. Walk on the Bright Side: Physical Activity and Affect in Major Depressive Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Mata, Jutta; Thompson, Renee J.; Jaeggi, Susanne M.; Buschkuehl, Martin; Jonides, John; Gotlib, Ian H.

    2011-01-01

    Although prescribed exercise has been found to improve affect and reduce levels of depression, we do not know how self-initiated everyday physical activity influences levels of positive affect (PA) and negative affect (NA) in depressed persons. Fifty-three individuals diagnosed with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) and 53 never-depressed controls participated in a seven-day experience sampling study. Participants were prompted randomly eight times per day and answered questions about their phy...

  9. Self-stigma in depressive patients: Association of cognitive schemata, depression, and self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimotsu, Sakie; Horikawa, Naoshi

    2016-12-01

    Many empirical studies have indicated that various psychosocial and psychiatric variables are correlated with levels of self-stigma. Treatment methods for reducing self-stigma have been investigated in recent years, especially those examining the relationship between negative cognitive schemata and self-stigma. This study examined the relationship of self-stigma with cognitive schemata, depression, and self-esteem in depressive patients. Furthermore, structural equation modeling (SEM) was conducted to evaluate three hypothetical models. Study participants were 110 patients with depression (54 men, 56 women; mean age=45.65years, SD=12.68; 83 diagnosed with mood disorders; 22 with neurotic, stress-related, or somatoform disorders; and 5 with other disorders) attending a psychiatric service. Outcomes were measured using the Japanese versions of the Devaluation-Discrimination Scale, Dysfunctional Attitude Scale, Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, and Rosenberg's Self Esteem Scale. The analysis indicated a better fit of the model that assumed self-stigma as mediator, suggesting that cognitive schemata influence self-stigma, while self-stigma affects depression and self-esteem. The tested models using SEM indicated that (1) self-stigma has the potential to mediate the relationship between cognitive schemata and depression, and (2) depression and self-stigma have a similar influence on self-esteem. Although low self-esteem is considered one of the symptoms of depression, when we aim to recover self-esteem, we do not only observe improvement in depressive symptoms; thus, approaches that focus on the reduction of self-stigma are probably valid. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Help With Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Registry Residents & Medical Students Residents Medical Students Patients & Families Mental Health Disorders/Substance Use Find a Psychiatrist Addiction and Substance Use Disorders ADHD Anxiety Disorders Autism Spectrum Disorder Bipolar Disorders Depression Eating Disorders Obsessive-Compulsive ...

  11. Treatment-Resistant Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on your own, talk to your doctor or mental health professional. Depression treatment may be unsuccessful until you address your substance use. Manage stress. Relationship issues, financial problems, an unhappy work life and many other issues can all contribute ...

  12. UNDERSTANDING REACTIVE DEPRESSION*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1971-01-02

    Jan 2, 1971 ... ... repressed, internalized, tumed against the self and causes the patient to suffer. ... depression, and suicide) and analysed the Szondi profiles obtained upon a first ... causes resentment and loss of dependency and esteem."".

  13. Depression and Alzheimer's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... editorial staff Categories: Emotional Well-Being, Family Health, Men, Mental Health, Prevention and Wellness, Seniors, WomenTags: adult, antidepressants, dementia, depression, Disorientation, elderly, older adults, Psychiatric and Psychologic, senior ...

  14. Predictors of postpartum depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katon, Wayne; Russo, Joan; Gavin, Amelia

    2014-09-01

    To examine sociodemographic factors, pregnancy-associated psychosocial stress and depression, health risk behaviors, prepregnancy medical and psychiatric illness, pregnancy-related illnesses, and birth outcomes as risk factors for post-partum depression (PPD). A prospective cohort study screened women at 4 and 8 months of pregnancy and used hierarchical logistic regression analyses to examine predictors of PPD. The study sample include 1,423 pregnant women at a university-based high risk obstetrics clinic. A score of ≥10 on the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) indicated clinically significant depressive symptoms. Compared with women without significant postpartum depressive symptoms, women with PPD were significantly younger (pdepressive symptoms (pdepression case finding for pregnant women.

  15. Clock genes in depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Sofie Laage; Bouzinova, Elena

    2017-01-01

    Data demonstrate that abnormal regulation of the circadian system can result in cardiovascular disease, metabolic syndrome, obesity, immune dysfunction, increased risk for cancer, reproductive complications, etc. It is highly individual among depressed patients and may be expressed as a phase...... in the brain and liver: expression of Per2 is sensitive to stress and changes in Bmal1 mostly associated with depressive behavior. The Per1 expression is sustainable in maintaining the circadian rhythm. A normalization of the expression patterns is likely to be essential for the recovery from the pathological...... state. Depression is a high prevalent disorder. The number of incidents is rising due to changes in lifestyle. The symptomatology is inconsistent and it is difficult to agree on one hypothesis. The disturbances of the 24 h circadian rhythm may be a factor in the development of major depressive disorder...

  16. Telomere length and depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wium-Andersen, Marie Kim; Ørsted, David Dynnes; Rode, Line

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Depression has been cross-sectionally associated with short telomeres as a measure of biological age. However, the direction and nature of the association is currently unclear. AIMS: We examined whether short telomere length is associated with depression cross-sectionally as well...... as prospectively and genetically. METHOD: Telomere length and three polymorphisms, TERT, TERC and OBFC1, were measured in 67 306 individuals aged 20-100 years from the Danish general population and associated with register-based attendance at hospital for depression and purchase of antidepressant medication....... RESULTS: Attendance at hospital for depression was associated with short telomere length cross-sectionally, but not prospectively. Further, purchase of antidepressant medication was not associated with short telomere length cross-sectionally or prospectively. Mean follow-up was 7.6 years (range 0...

  17. Major Depressive Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Grobler

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The treatment guideline draws on several international guidelines: (iPractice Guidelines of the American Psychiatric Association (APAfor the Treatment of Patients with Major Depressive Disorder, SecondEdition;[1](ii Clinical Guidelines for the Treatment of DepressiveDisorders by the Canadian Psychiatric Association and the CanadianNetwork for Mood and Anxiety Treatments (CANMAT;[2](iiiNational Institute for Clinical Excellence (NICE guidelines;[3](iv RoyalAustralian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists Clinical PracticeGuidelines Team for Depression (RANZCAP;[4](v Texas MedicationAlgorithm Project (TMAP Guidelines;[5](vi World Federation ofSocieties of Biological Psychiatry (WFSBP Treatment Guideline forUnipolar Depressive Disorder;[6]and (vii British Association forPsychopharmacology Guidelines.[7

  18. Male depression in females?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möller-Leimkühler, Anne Maria; Yücel, Mete

    2010-02-01

    Scientific evidence for a male-typed depression ("male depression") is still limited, but mainly supports this concept with respect to single externalizing symptoms or symptom clusters. In particular, studies on non-clinical populations including males and females are lacking. The present study aims at assessing general well-being, the risk and the symptoms of male depression dependent on biological sex and gender-role orientation on instrumental (masculine) and expressive (feminine) personality traits in an unselected community sample of males and females. Students (518 males, 500 females) of the Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich, Germany, were asked to participate in a "stress study" and complete the following self-report questionnaires: the WHO-5 Well-being Index [Bech, P., 1998. Quality of Life in the Psychiatric Patient. Mosby-Wolfe, London], the Gotland Scale for Male Depression [Walinder, J., Rutz, W., 2001. Male depression and suicide. International Clinical Psychopharmacology 16 (suppl 2), 21-24] and the German Extended Personal Attribute Questionnaire [Runge, T.E., Frey, D., Gollwitzer, P.M., et al., 1981. Masculine (instrumental) and feminine (expressive) traits. A comparison between students in the United States and West Germany. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology 12, 142-162]. General well-being of the students was significantly lower compared to population norms. Contrary to expectations, female students had a greater risk of male depression than male students (28.9% vs. 22.4%; p<0.05). Overall, prototypic depressive symptoms as well as externalizing symptoms were more pronounced in females. In the subgroup of those at risk for male depression, biological sex and kind of symptoms were unrelated. Principal component analyses revealed a similar symptom structure for males and females. Low scores on masculinity/instrumentality significantly predicted higher risk of male depression, independent of biological sex. The study sample is not

  19. Identifying Depression on Twitter

    OpenAIRE

    Nadeem, Moin

    2016-01-01

    Social media has recently emerged as a premier method to disseminate information online. Through these online networks, tens of millions of individuals communicate their thoughts, personal experiences, and social ideals. We therefore explore the potential of social media to predict, even prior to onset, Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) in online personas. We employ a crowdsourced method to compile a list of Twitter users who profess to being diagnosed with depression. Using up to a year of pri...

  20. Genetic risk of major depressive disorder: the moderating and mediating effects of neuroticism and psychological resilience on clinical and self-reported depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navrady, L B; Adams, M J; Chan, S W Y; Ritchie, S J; McIntosh, A M

    2017-11-29

    Polygenic risk scores (PRS) for depression correlate with depression status and chronicity, and provide causal anchors to identify depressive mechanisms. Neuroticism is phenotypically and genetically positively associated with depression, whereas psychological resilience demonstrates negative phenotypic associations. Whether increased neuroticism and reduced resilience are downstream mediators of genetic risk for depression, and whether they contribute independently to risk remains unknown. Moderating and mediating relationships between depression PRS, neuroticism, resilience and both clinical and self-reported depression were examined in a large, population-based cohort, Generation Scotland: Scottish Family Health Study (N = 4166), using linear regression and structural equation modelling. Neuroticism and resilience were measured by the Eysenck Personality Scale Short Form Revised and the Brief Resilience Scale, respectively. PRS for depression was associated with increased likelihood of self-reported and clinical depression. No interaction was found between PRS and neuroticism, or between PRS and resilience. Neuroticism was associated with increased likelihood of self-reported and clinical depression, whereas resilience was associated with reduced risk. Structural equation modelling suggested the association between PRS and self-reported and clinical depression was mediated by neuroticism (43-57%), while resilience mediated the association in the opposite direction (37-40%). For both self-reported and clinical diagnoses, the genetic risk for depression was independently mediated by neuroticism and resilience. Findings suggest polygenic risk for depression increases vulnerability for self-reported and clinical depression through independent effects on increased neuroticism and reduced psychological resilience. In addition, two partially independent mechanisms - neuroticism and resilience - may form part of the pathway of vulnerability to depression.

  1. The effects of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy on affective memory recall dynamics in depression : A mechanistic model of rumination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vugt, Marieke K.; Hitchcock, Peter; Shahar, Ben; Britton, Willoughby

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Converging research suggests that mindfulness training exerts its therapeutic effects on depression by reducing rumination. Theoretically, rumination is a multifaceted construct that aggregates multiple neurocognitive aspects of depression, including poor executive control, negative and

  2. The effects of psychotherapy for adult depression on suicidality and hopelessness: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuijpers, P.; de Beurs, D.P.; van Spijker, B.A.J.; Berking, M.; Andersson, G.; Kerkhof, A.J.F.M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Although treatment guidelines suggest that suicidal patients with depression should be treated for depression with psychotherapy, it is not clear whether these psychological treatments actually reduce suicidal ideation or suicide risk. Methods: We conducted a systematic review and

  3. [Music therapy and depression].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Assche, E; De Backer, J; Vermote, R

    2015-01-01

    Music therapy is a predominantly non-verbal psychotherapy based on music improvisation, embedded in a therapeutic relationship. This is the reason why music therapy is also used to treat depression. To examine the efficacy of music therapy and to report on the results of recent research into the value of music therapy as a treatment for depression. We reviewed the literature on recent research into music therapy and depression, reporting on the methods used and the results achieved, and we assessed the current position of music therapy for depression in the context of evidence-based scientific research. A wide variety of research methods was used to investigate the effects of using music therapy as a psychotherapy. Most studies focused usually on the added value that music therapy brings to the standard form of psychiatric treatment, when administered with or without psychopharmacological support. Music therapy produced particularly significant and favourable results when used to treat patients with depression. Current research into music therapy and depression points to a significant and persistent reduction in patients' symptoms and to improvements in their quality of life. However, further research is needed with regard to the best methods of illustrating the effects of music therapy.

  4. Emerging from Depression: Treatment of Adolescent Depression Using the Major Treatment Models of Adult Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Kathleen M.

    Noting that adolescents who commit suicide are often clinically depressed, this paper examines various approaches in the treatment of depression. Major treatment models of adult depression, which can be directly applied to the treatment of the depressed adolescent, are described. Major treatment models and selected research studies are reviewed in…

  5. Sexual Orientation and Depressive Symptoms in Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luk, Jeremy W; Gilman, Stephen E; Haynie, Denise L; Simons-Morton, Bruce G

    2018-05-01

    Sexual orientation disparities in adolescent depressive symptoms are well established, but reasons for these disparities are less well understood. We modeled sexual orientation disparities in depressive symptoms from late adolescence into young adulthood and evaluated family satisfaction, peer support, cyberbullying victimization, and unmet medical needs as potential mediators. Data were from waves 2 to 6 of the NEXT Generation Health Study ( n = 2396), a population-based cohort of US adolescents. We used latent growth models to examine sexual orientation disparities in depressive symptoms in participants aged 17 to 21 years, conduct mediation analyses, and examine sex differences. Relative to heterosexual adolescents, sexual minority adolescents (those who are attracted to the same or both sexes or are questioning; 6.3% of the weighted sample) consistently reported higher depressive symptoms from 11th grade to 3 years after high school. Mediation analyses indicated that sexual minority adolescents reported lower family satisfaction, greater cyberbullying victimization, and increased likelihood of unmet medical needs, all of which were associated with higher depressive symptoms. The mediating role of cyberbullying victimization was more pronounced among male than female participants. Sexual minority adolescents reported higher depressive symptoms than heterosexual adolescents from late adolescence into young adulthood. Collectively, low family satisfaction, cyberbullying victimization, and unmet medical needs accounted for >45% of differences by sexual orientation. Future clinical research is needed to determine if interventions targeting these psychosocial and health care-related factors would reduce sexual orientation disparities in depressive symptoms and the optimal timing of such interventions. Copyright © 2018 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  6. Do sex differences in rumination explain sex differences in depression?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shors, Tracey J; Millon, Emma M; Chang, Han Yan M; Olson, Ryan L; Alderman, Brandon L

    2017-01-02

    It is generally accepted that women tend to ruminate more than men do and these thought patterns are often associated with depressive symptoms (Nolen-Hoeksema et al., ). Based on these findings, we considered whether the relationship between rumination and depression is stronger in women than in men and if so, whether this might explain the higher prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD) in women and finally, whether the association can be disrupted through a mind/body intervention. Adult men and women, most of whom were clinically depressed, participated in an intervention known as MAP Training, which combines "mental" training with silent meditation and "physical" training with aerobic exercise (Shors et al., ). After eight weeks of training, both men and women reported significantly fewer symptoms of depression and fewer ruminative thoughts (Alderman et al., ). Statistical correlations between depressive symptoms and ruminative thoughts were strong and significant (rho > 0.50; p depressive symptoms relate to "reflective" ruminations, which involve analyses of past events, feelings, and behaviors. This is also the only relationship that dissipated after the intervention. In general, these analyses suggest that the strength of the relationship between depressive symptoms and rumination does not necessarily explain sex differences in depression; but because the relationship is strong, targeting rumination through intervention can reduce the incidence of MDD, which is more prevalent among women. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Negative Experiences on Facebook and Depressive Symptoms Among Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, Samantha R; Buka, Stephen L; Marshall, Brandon D L; Carey, Kate B; Clark, Melissa A

    2016-11-01

    To examine whether negative Facebook (FB) experiences were independently associated with depressive symptoms among young adults in a longitudinal family cohort. Negative FB experiences were measured by type (e.g., bullying or meanness, unwanted contact, misunderstandings, or any), recency, number of experiences, and severity of upset. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the 10-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. Generalized estimating equations were used to account for sibling correlation; adjusted models were constructed for each negative FB experience measure accounting for sex, race/ethnicity, social support, adolescent depressive symptoms, parental psychological distress, average monthly income, educational attainment, and employment. In a sample of 264 young adults, all negative FB experience measures were significantly associated with depressive symptoms. There is a clear association between negative FB experience and depressive symptoms. Future work should examine: (1) whether negative FB experiences cause incident depression or exacerbate preexisting depression; and (2) who is most prone to being upset by negative FB experiences. With further research, recommendations for limiting or altering FB use among high-risk subpopulations could be useful in reducing depressive symptoms. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Inflammatory dietary pattern and risk of depression among women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Michel; Chocano-Bedoya, Patricia; Schulze, Matthias B; Shulze, Mathias B; Mirzaei, Fariba; O'Reilly, Éilis J; Okereke, Olivia I; Hu, Frank B; Willett, Walter C; Ascherio, Alberto

    2014-02-01

    Inflammation is considered as a mechanism leading to depression, but the association between inflammatory dietary pattern and depression risk is unknown. Using reduced-rank regression, we identified a dietary pattern that was related to plasma levels of inflammatory markers (C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor α receptor 2), and we conducted a prospective analysis of the relationship of this pattern and depression risk among participants in the Nurses' Health Study. A total of 43,685 women (aged 50-77) without depression at baseline (1996) were included and followed up until 2008. Diet information was obtained from food frequency questionnaires completed between 1984 through 2002 and computed as cumulative average of dietary intakes with a 2-year latency applied. We used a strict definition of depression that required both self-reported physician-diagnosed depression and use of antidepressants, and a broader definition that included women who reported either clinical diagnosis or antidepressant use. During the 12-year follow-up, we documented 2594 incident cases of depression using the stricter definition and 6446 using the broader definition. After adjustment for body mass index and other potential confounders, relative risks comparing extreme quintiles of the inflammatory dietary pattern were 1.41 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.22, 1.63; P-trenddietary pattern is associated with a higher depression risk. This finding suggests that chronic inflammation may underlie the association between diet and depression. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Depression and social phobia secondary to alcohol dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olgiati, Paolo; Liappas, Ioannis; Malitas, Petros; Piperi, Christina; Politis, Antonis; Tzavellas, Elias O; Zisaki, Aikaterini; Ferrari, Barbara; De Ronchi, Diana; Kalofoutis, Anastasios; Serretti, Alessandro

    2007-01-01

    According to the self-medication hypothesis, individuals with depression and anxiety disorders use alcohol to control their symptoms and subsequently become dependent. Conversely, alcohol dependence disorder (ADD) can cause or exacerbate psychiatric disorders. This study analyzed the characteristics of depression and social phobia secondary to ADD. (1) What is their functional impact? (2) Are they independent or associated conditions? (3) Do they completely remit in abstinent individuals? (4) Is the remission of one disorder associated with the remission of the other disorder? Sixty-four inpatients with ADD were evaluated with depression and anxiety disorder scales upon admission to hospital and after 5 weeks of detoxification. Baseline comparisons differentiated patients with a Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HDRS) score > 35 (n = 50; 78%) from those with an HDRS score social phobia [Leibowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS) score > 60: n = 20; 31.2%] were not distinguishable from those with an LSAS score depressive and anxiety disorder symptoms. In postdetoxification assessment, patients who remitted from depression (HDRS score or = 7). Patients who remitted from social phobia (LSAS score depressive and anxiety disorder symptoms. Generalized anxiety (Hamilton Rating Scale for Anxiety) and hypochondriasis (Whiteley Index) were the significant predictors of global functioning (Global Assessment Scale). Depression and social phobia secondary to ADD are independent conditions that do not completely remit after cessation of drinking. Specific treatments are needed to reduce residual depressive and anxiety symptoms in abstinent alcoholics. 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel

  10. The Bidirectional Relationship between Diabetes and Depression: A Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzoubi, Abdallah; Abunaser, Rnad; Khassawneh, Adi; Alfaqih, Mahmoud; Khasawneh, Aws; Abdo, Nour

    2018-05-01

    Diabetes is a major public health problem worldwide. Depression is a serious mental condition that decreases mental and physical functioning and reduces the quality of life. Several lines of evidence suggest a bidirectional relationship between diabetes and depression: diabetes patients are twice as likely to experience depression than nondiabetic individuals. In contrast, depression increases the risk of diabetes and interferes with its daily self-management. Diabetes patients with depression have poor glycemic control, reduced quality of life, and an increased risk of diabetes complications, consequently having an increased mortality rate. Conflicting evidence exists on the potential role of factors that may account for or modulate the relationship between diabetes and depression. Therefore, this review aims to highlight the most notable body of literature that dissects the various facets of the bidirectional relationship between diabetes and depression. A focused discussion of the proposed mechanisms underlying this relationship is also provided. We systematically reviewed the relevant literature in the PubMed database, using the keywords "Diabetes AND Depression". After exclusion of duplicate and irrelevant material, literature eligible for inclusion in this review was based on meta-analysis studies, clinical trials with large sample sizes (n≥1,000), randomized clinical trials, and comprehensive national and cross-country clinical studies. The evidence we present in this review supports the pressing need for long, outcome-oriented, randomized clinical trials to determine whether the identification and treatment of patients with these comorbid conditions will improve their medical outcomes and quality of life.

  11. Depressive prototype narrative. A convergent validation in depressive patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Yovany Álvarez Ramírez

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study has the intention of establishing the identification that a group of depressed male subjects does with the narrative prototype of depression compared to a group of depressed female subjects. The sample was made of 65 depressive subjects and 65non depressive subjects for every group according to the genderwith ages between 16 and 40 years. The participants were derived from different centers of psychological attention of the city of Bucaramanga. An additional inclusion criterion was not applied except reading comprehension, which facilitates them the handling of the applied psychological instruments. The study followed a transverse correlational design. The procedure included the application ofthe SCID structured interview, the Hamilton test and the narrative prototype of depression of Gonçalves. The Ji squared statistic wasapplied to confirm the hypotheses of identification with the narrative prototype of depression in the depressive subjects and the opposite in those not depressed in every group according to the gender by means of a study of cases and controls. The findings demonstrate that the male and female group of depressed subjects, in comparison, identify with the narrative prototype of depression, while those not depressed don’t. It is concluded that both, depressed males and females of the study identify with the narrative prototype of depression unless in top grades in the second group.

  12. Subthreshold depression in adolescence: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertha, Eszter A; Balázs, Judit

    2013-10-01

    In adolescence, the number of depressive symptoms is rising notably. Individuals may have relevant depressive symptoms without meeting the full criteria of a major depressive episode (MDE), a condition referred to as subthreshold depression (sD). This article presents a review on adolescent sD examining the prevalence, the quality of life (QoL), the risk of developing MDE, and preventive programs available for adolescents living with sD. A systematic literature search from the year of the introduction of Diagnostic and Statistic Manual for Mental Disorders Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) until 2012 (18 years) was conducted with a special focus on adolescent sD. Data from 27 studies were included into this review. The results show high prevalence of sD among adolescents, with a negative impact on QoL, and provide evidence that sD is a significant risk indicator of later MDE; therefore, individuals with sD represent good targets for preventive interventions. Our review highlights the fact that sD is a significant health problem among adolescents indeed, and adolescents with sD could be a subgroup of youth, who need further help to reduce their clinically significant depressive symptoms for the successful prevention of a later MDE.

  13. Depression in hemodialysis patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anees, M.; Barki, H.; Masood, M.

    2008-01-01

    To measure the frequency of depression and its risk factors in patients under going hemodialysis. It is a cross-sectional prospective study conducted at Hemodialysis unit of Shalamar Hospital and Shaikh Zayed Hospital, Lahore from 1/sup st/ January 2006 to 30/sup th/ April 2006. All patients getting regular hemodialysis for more than three months were included. Beck's Depression Inventory- II (BDI-II; adapted in Urdu) was administered on all the patients who were able to read or understand it. Blood sample were drawn at the same time for routine hematological, biochemical parameters and viral markers (Anti HCV and HbsAg). Diagnosis was made as per Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition (DSM IV) for correlation of psychological variables with clinical, hematological and biochemical parameters. Eighty nine patients were enrolled which included fifty two (58.4%) were male and seventy seven (86.5%) were married. Major causes of renal failure were diabetes, hypertension and chronic glomerulonephrotis. Duration of dialysis was from 03 to 49 months with mean of 19.64 +- 11.7 months. Severity of depression was categorized in to mild, moderate and severe on the basis of BDI score. Majority of the patients fifty (56.1%) were moderately to severely depressed and there was no gender difference in the prevalence of depression. Majority of patients undergoing hemodialysis were depressed. Major risk factors for depression were marital status, illiteracy, number of children, socioeconomic factors, gender, hypertension and hypoalbuminemia. Patients with anemia, hyponatremia and hyperkalemia had suicidal tendency. Patients with hepatitis C and disturbed liver function have strong correlation with psychological parameters. (author)

  14. Change in self-esteem predicts depressive symptoms at follow-up after intensive multimodal psychotherapy for major depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinger, Ulrike; Ehrenthal, Johannes C; Nikendei, Christoph; Schauenburg, Henning

    2017-09-01

    Reduced self-esteem is a core symptom of depression, but few studies have investigated within-treatment change of self-esteem as a predictor of long-term outcome in depression. This study investigated change in self-esteem during 8 weeks of multimodal, psychodynamically oriented psychotherapy for 40 depressed patients and tested whether it would predict outcome 6 months after termination. Data was drawn from a randomized clinical pilot trial on day-clinic versus inpatient psychotherapy for depression. Findings supported the association between change in self-esteem and follow-up depression severity, even when controlling for within-treatment symptom change. Change in self-esteem was not related to overall symptoms and interpersonal problems at follow-up. Thus, change in self-esteem may be an important variable in preventing relapse for depression. Self-esteem is related to depressive symptoms and interpersonal problems. Improvement of self-esteem during psychotherapy correlates with improvements of symptoms and interpersonal problems. Change of self-esteem during psychotherapy predicts depressive symptoms 6 months after termination of therapy. When treating depressed patients, psychotherapists should work towards an improvement of self-esteem in order to prevent relapse. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Motivational deficits in effort-based decision making in individuals with subsyndromal depression, first-episode and remitted depression patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xin-Hua; Huang, Jia; Zhu, Cui-Ying; Wang, Ye-Fei; Cheung, Eric F C; Chan, Raymond C K; Xie, Guang-Rong

    2014-12-30

    Anhedonia is a hallmark symptom of major depressive disorder (MDD). Preliminary findings suggest that anhedonia is characterized by reduced reward anticipation and motivation of obtaining reward. However, relatively little is known about reward-based decision-making in depression. We tested the hypothesis that anhedonia in MDD may reflect specific impairments in motivation on reward-based decision-making and the deficits might be associated with depressive symptoms severity. In study 1, individuals with and without depressive symptoms performed the modified version of the Effort Expenditure for Rewards Task (EEfRT), a behavioral measure of cost/benefit decision-making. In study 2, MDD patients, remitted MDD patients and healthy controls were recruited for the same procedures. We found evidence for decreased willingness to make effort for rewards among individuals with subsyndromal depression; the effect was amplified in MDD patients, but dissipated in patients with remitted depression. We also found that reduced anticipatory and consummatory pleasure predicted decreased willingness to expend efforts to obtain rewards in MDD patients. For individuals with subsyndromal depression, the impairments were correlated with anticipatory anhedonia but not consummatory anhedonia. These data offer novel evidence that motivational deficits in MDD are correlated with depression severity and predicted by self-reported anhedonia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. An Online, Moderated Peer-to-Peer Support Bulletin Board for Depression: User-Perceived Advantages and Disadvantages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Kathleen Margaret; Reynolds, Julia; Vassallo, Sara

    2015-01-01

    Online, peer-to-peer support groups for depression are common on the World Wide Web and there is some evidence of their effectiveness. However, little is known about the mechanisms by which Internet support groups (ISGs) might work. This study aimed to investigate consumer perceptions of the benefits and disadvantages of online peer-to-peer support by undertaking a content analysis of the spontaneous posts on BlueBoard, a well-established, moderated, online depression bulletin board. The research set comprised all posts on the board (n=3645) for each of 3 months selected at 4 monthly intervals over 2011. The data were analyzed using content analysis and multiple coders. A total of 586 relevant posts were identified, 453 (77.3%) reporting advantages and 133 (22.7%) reporting disadvantages. Positive personal change (335/453, 74.0%) and valued social interactions and support (296/453, 65.3%) emerged as perceived advantages. Other identified benefits were valued opportunities to disclose/express feelings or views (29/453, 6.4%) and advantages of the BlueBoard environment (45/453, 9.9%). Disadvantages were negative personal change (50/133, 37.6%), perceived disadvantages of board rules/moderation (42/133, 31.6%), unhelpful social interactions/contact with other members (40/133, 30.1%), and technical obstacles to using the board (14/133, 10.5%). Consumers value the opportunity to participate in an online mutual support group for mental health concerns. Further research is required to better understand how and if these perceived advantages translate into positive outcomes for consumers, and whether the perceived disadvantages of such boards can be addressed without compromising the safety and positive outcomes of the board.

  17. Epidemiology of subtypes of depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, L V

    2007-01-01

    depression, dysthymia, and subsyndromal states; the association between stressful life events and depression appears to diminish with the number of depressive episodes. Finally, recent genetic findings are congruent with a model indicating that the majority of depressions develop in the interplay between...... genes and stressful experiences, whereas 'reactive' depressions and 'endogenous' depressions apparently exist at a lower prevalence. CONCLUSION: Further longitudinal, analytical, and genetic epidemiologic studies are needed to reveal which conditions are mild and transient, and which may be precursors......OBJECTIVE: There is a general clinical impression that depression differs qualitatively from non-depressive conditions, and that it can be identified as a categorical entity. In contrast, epidemiological studies support the view that depression is dynamic in nature and develops on a continuous...

  18. Prospective Longitudinal Study of Predictors of Postpartum-Onset Depression in Women With a History of Major Depressive Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suri, Rita; Stowe, Zachary N; Cohen, Lee S; Newport, D Jeffrey; Burt, Vivien K; Aquino-Elias, Ana R; Knight, Bettina T; Mintz, Jim; Altshuler, Lori L

    Risk factors for postpartum depression in euthymic pregnant women with histories of major depressive disorder (MDD) were evaluated. From April 2003 to March 2009, 343 pregnant women with a history of Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID)-diagnosed major depressive disorder were prospectively assessed from the third trimester into the postpartum period using the SCID mood module and 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS). Data from 300 subjects who completed at least 2 mood module assessments (1 within 60 days before and the other within 60 days after delivery) were analyzed for predictive associations between variables assessed in the third trimester and the development of a postpartum depression. The majority of women were euthymic in pregnancy by SCID criteria. Women with third trimester SCID-diagnosed depression (n = 45) versus euthymia (n = 255) had a significantly higher risk for having depression after delivery (24% vs 11%, P = .013). For pregnant euthymic women, third trimester total HDRS scores significantly predicted postpartum depression (P postpartum depression. Antidepressant use in the third trimester in euthymic women did not confer protection against the onset of postpartum depression. Among women with a history of MDD who are euthymic in the third trimester, 3 HDRS items-work activities, early insomnia, and suicidality-may be useful as screening items for clinicians working with pregnant women with histories of MDD to identify a group at risk for developing postpartum depression. Additionally, in euthymic women with a history of MDD, antidepressant use in the third trimester may not reduce the risk of developing postpartum depression. © Copyright 2017 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  19. Psychometric properties of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS) in depressed clinical samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Andrew C; Hooke, Geoffrey R; Morrison, David L

    2007-09-01

    The psychometric properties of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS; Lovibond & Lovibond, 1995a) were examined in depressed psychiatric hospital samples. Three studies administered the DASS and other symptom measures at admission and discharge to consecutive adult hospital patients with a primary diagnosis of depression. Study 3 aimed to address problems with the DASS by extending the response options. Study 1 found that the DASS had good reliability and validity, was moderately sensitive to change, but the Depression Scale exhibited a ceiling effect. In Study 2, confirmatory factor analysis supported a three-factor structure and the DASS continued to demonstrate good psychometric properties, but the ceiling effect was replicated. Study 3 found that by extending the response scale to include an additional option, the factor structure of the instrument as a whole was maintained, the sensitivity to treatment was increased, but the ceiling effect was only marginally reduced. The psychometric properties of the DASS were sound in clinically depressed samples, but the Depression Scale exhibited a ceiling effect that could not be resolved with minor changes to the scale. Suggestions for revisions of the DASS are made.

  20. [Severe depression : psychoanalysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouvet de la Maisonneuve, O

    2009-12-01

    The indication for psychoanalysis in severe depression is not clear. And yet, demands for this type of intervention are increasing, despite the absence of any form of consensus on the subject. Freud considered depression as a failure of analytical efforts and, based on this observation, revised his theory, in particular to include the notions of narcissism and the death drive. Many analysts have been reluctant to follow his teachings on this last point and provide depressed patients with analytical-type therapies aimed at restoring narcissism. Melanie Klein pushed Freud's ideas about depression even further and brought such therapies back to the heart of analytical practice. Jacques Lacan took the debate to another level by proposing an overhaul of the principles on which analysis has been based. Today, while following certain precautionary rules, true psychoanalyses can be proposed to patients with severe depression, whether of the bipolar, recurring or even neurotic type that can reach this level of severity. Copyright 2009 L'Encéphale. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.. All rights reserved.

  1. Telmisartan attenuates diabetes induced depression in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aswar, Urmila; Chepurwar, Shilpa; Shintre, Sumit; Aswar, Manoj

    2017-04-01

    Role of brain renin angiotensin system (RAS) is well understood and various clinical studies have proposed neuroprotective effects of ARB's. It is also assumed that diabetic depression is associated with activation of brain RAS, HPA axis dysregulation and brain inflammatory events. Therefore, the present study was designed to investigate the antidepressant effect of low dose telmisartan (TMS) in diabetes induced depression (DID) in rats. Diabetes was induced by injecting streptozotocin. After 21days of treatment the rats were subjected to forced swim test (FST). The rats, with increased immobility time, were considered depressed and were treated with vehicle or TMS (0.05mg/kg, po) or metformin (200mg/kg, po) or fluoxetine (20mg/kg, po). A separate group was also maintained to study the combination of metformin and TMS. At the end of 21days of treatments, FST, open field test (OFT) and elevated plus maze (EPM) paradigm were performed. Blood was drawn to estimate serum cortisol, nitric oxide (NO), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β). Persistent hyperglycemia resulted in depression and anxiety in rats as observed by increased immobility, reduced latency for immobility, reduced open arm entries and time spent. The depressed rats showed a significant rise in serum cortisol, NO, IL-6 and IL-1β (pdepression and anxiety. It also significantly attenuated serum cortisol, NO, IL-6 and IL-1β (pdepressive mood, reduces pro-inflammatory mediators and ameliorates the HPA axis function; thereby providing beneficial effects in DID. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o.

  2. Social Support, Stigma and Antenatal Depression Among HIV-Infected Pregnant Women in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brittain, Kirsty; Mellins, Claude A; Phillips, Tamsin; Zerbe, Allison; Abrams, Elaine J; Myer, Landon; Remien, Robert H

    2017-01-01

    Depression, HIV-related stigma and low levels of social support may be particularly prevalent and adversely affect health and treatment outcomes among HIV-infected pregnant women. We examined factors associated with social support and stigma among pregnant women initiating antiretroviral therapy in the Western Cape, South Africa; and explored associations with depressive symptoms (Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale; EPDS) in linear regression models. Among 623 participants, 11 and 19 % had elevated EPDS scores using thresholds described in the original development of the scale (scores ≥13 and ≥10, respectively). Social support and stigma were highly interrelated and were associated with depressive symptoms. Stigma was observed to moderate the association between social support and depression scores; when levels of stigma were high, no association between social support and depression scores was observed. Elevated depression scores are prevalent in this setting, and interventions to reduce stigma and to address risk factors for depressive symptoms are needed.

  3. Depression in patients with HIV is under-diagnosed: a cross-sectional study in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodkjaer, L; Laursen, T; Balle, N

    2009-01-01

    and to detect factors of importance for the development of depression. Methods In 2005, a population of 205 HIV-positive patients was included in a questionnaire-based study. The Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI-II) was used to assess the prevalence and severity of depressive symptoms. Patients with a BDI......Background International studies suggesting that 20-37% of HIV-positive patients have diagnosable depression may underestimate the prevalence of this condition. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of depression among HIV-positive patients in an out-patient clinic in Denmark...... score of 20 or above were offered a clinical evaluation by a consultant psychiatrist. Results Symptoms of depression (BDI>14) were observed in 77 (38%) patients and symptoms of major depression (BDI>/=20) in 53 (26%). Eighteen patients subsequently started treatment with anti-depressants. In a reduced...

  4. Fluvoxamine monotherapy for psychotic depression: the potential role of sigma-1 receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hashimoto Kenji

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Psychotic depression is a clinical subtype of major depressive disorder. A number of clinical studies have demonstrated the efficacy of the combination of an antidepressant (for example, a tricyclic antidepressant or selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI and an atypical antipsychotic or electroconvulsive therapy in treating psychotic depression. In some cases, the clinician or patient may prefer to avoid antipsychotic drugs altogether because of the risk of extrapyramidal side effects (EPS in patients with psychotic depression treated with these drugs. Methods We report five cases where fluvoxamine monotherapy was effective in the patients with psychotic depression. Results The scores on the Hamilton Depression (HAM-D scale and the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS in the five patients with psychotic depression were reduced after fluvoxamine monotherapy. Conclusion Doctors should consider fluvoxamine monotherapy as an alternative approach in treating psychotic depression because it avoids the risk of EPS from antipsychotic drugs.

  5. The Danish Depression Database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Videbech, Poul Bror Hemming; Deleuran, Anette

    2016-01-01

    AIM OF DATABASE: The purpose of the Danish Depression Database (DDD) is to monitor and facilitate the improvement of the quality of the treatment of depression in Denmark. Furthermore, the DDD has been designed to facilitate research. STUDY POPULATION: Inpatients as well as outpatients...... with depression, aged above 18 years, and treated in the public psychiatric hospital system were enrolled. MAIN VARIABLES: Variables include whether the patient has been thoroughly somatically examined and has been interviewed about the psychopathology by a specialist in psychiatry. The Hamilton score as well...... as an evaluation of the risk of suicide are measured before and after treatment. Whether psychiatric aftercare has been scheduled for inpatients and the rate of rehospitalization are also registered. DESCRIPTIVE DATA: The database was launched in 2011. Every year since then ~5,500 inpatients and 7,500 outpatients...

  6. Depressive realism: effects of depression severity and interpretation time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKendree-Smith, N; Scogin, F

    2000-12-01

    This study examined the theory of depressive realism, which posits that depressed people often are more accurate in perceptions and judgments than nondepressed people. Two possible qualifications to this theory were examined: (1) severity of depression moderates the effect, and (2) length of processing time will impact the presence of bias in depressed people, that is, negative bias will develop over time. College students were presented with a bogus personality profile that actually consisted of items previously rated as neutral in desirability. Participants rated these profiles for desirability initially and then again three days later. Results indicated a significant effect of depression severity on desirability rating. Nondepressed and mildly depressed students found their profiles to be more positive than the moderately/severely depressed students, with both groups having scores in the positive range. However, those participants who were moderately/severely depressed showed a negative bias in their ratings. No support was found for the effect of different times of interpretation.

  7. Risk factors for antenatal depression, postnatal depression and parenting stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milgrom Jeannette

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Given that the prevalence of antenatal and postnatal depression is high, with estimates around 13%, and the consequences serious, efforts have been made to identify risk factors to assist in prevention, identification and treatment. Most risk factors associated with postnatal depression have been well researched, whereas predictors of antenatal depression have been less researched. Risk factors associated with early parenting stress have not been widely researched, despite the strong link with depression. The aim of this study was to further elucidate which of some previously identified risk factors are most predictive of three outcome measures: antenatal depression, postnatal depression and parenting stress and to examine the relationship between them. Methods Primipara and multiparae women were recruited antenatally from two major hoitals as part of the beyondblue National Postnatal Depression Program 1. In this subsidiary study, 367 women completed an additional large battery of validated questionnaires to identify risk factors in the antenatal period at 26–32 weeks gestation. A subsample of these women (N = 161 also completed questionnaires at 10–12 weeks postnatally. Depression level was measured by the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI. Results Regression analyses identified significant risk factors for the three outcome measures. (1. Significant predictors for antenatal depression: low self-esteem, antenatal anxiety, low social support, negative cognitive style, major life events, low income and history of abuse. (2. Significant predictors for postnatal depression: antenatal depression and a history of depression while also controlling for concurrent parenting stress, which was a significant variable. Antenatal depression was identified as a mediator between seven of the risk factors and postnatal depression. (3. Postnatal depression was the only significant predictor for parenting stress and also acted as a mediator

  8. Risk factors for antenatal depression, postnatal depression and parenting stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leigh, Bronwyn; Milgrom, Jeannette

    2008-04-16

    Given that the prevalence of antenatal and postnatal depression is high, with estimates around 13%, and the consequences serious, efforts have been made to identify risk factors to assist in prevention, identification and treatment. Most risk factors associated with postnatal depression have been well researched, whereas predictors of antenatal depression have been less researched. Risk factors associated with early parenting stress have not been widely researched, despite the strong link with depression. The aim of this study was to further elucidate which of some previously identified risk factors are most predictive of three outcome measures: antenatal depression, postnatal depression and parenting stress and to examine the relationship between them. Primipara and multiparae women were recruited antenatally from two major hoitals as part of the beyondblue National Postnatal Depression Program 1. In this subsidiary study, 367 women completed an additional large battery of validated questionnaires to identify risk factors in the antenatal period at 26-32 weeks gestation. A subsample of these women (N = 161) also completed questionnaires at 10-12 weeks postnatally. Depression level was measured by the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Regression analyses identified significant risk factors for the three outcome measures. (1). Significant predictors for antenatal depression: low self-esteem, antenatal anxiety, low social support, negative cognitive style, major life events, low income and history of abuse. (2). Significant predictors for postnatal depression: antenatal depression and a history of depression while also controlling for concurrent parenting stress, which was a significant variable. Antenatal depression was identified as a mediator between seven of the risk factors and postnatal depression. (3). Postnatal depression was the only significant predictor for parenting stress and also acted as a mediator for other risk factors. Risk factor profiles for

  9. Depression and HIV risk among men who have sex with men in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahaneku, Hycienth; Ross, Michael W; Nyoni, Joyce E; Selwyn, Beatrice; Troisi, Catherine; Mbwambo, Jessie; Adeboye, Adeniyi; McCurdy, Sheryl

    2016-01-01

    Studies have shown high rates of depression among men who have sex with men (MSM) in developed countries. Studies have also shown association between depression and HIV risk among MSM. However, very little research has been done on depression among African MSM. We assessed depression and HIV risk among a sample of MSM in Tanzania. We reviewed data on 205 MSM who were recruited from two Tanzanian cities using the respondent driven sampling method. Demographic and behavioral data were collected using a structured questionnaire. HIV and sexually transmitted infections data were determined from biological tests. Depression scores were assessed using the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). For the analysis, depression scores were dichotomized as depressed (PHQ > 4) and not depressed (PHQ ≤ 4). Bivariate and multivariable Poisson regression analyses were conducted to assess factors associated with depression. The prevalence of depression in the sample was 46.3%. The mean (±SD) age of the sample was 25 (±5) years. In bivariate analysis, depression was associated with self-identifying as gay (p = .001), being HIV positive (p Depression was also associated with sexual (p = .007), physical (p = .003) and verbal (p depression was associated with verbal abuse (APR = 1.91, CI = 1.30-2.81). Depression rates were high among MSM in Tanzania. It is also associated with abuse, HIV and HIV risk behaviors. Thus, reducing the risk of depression may be helpful in reducing the risk of HIV among MSM in Africa. We recommend the colocation of mental health and HIV preventive services as a cost-effective means of addressing both depression and HIV risk among MSM in Africa.

  10. State-dependent alteration in face emotion recognition in depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Ian M; Shippen, Clare; Juhasz, Gabriella; Chase, Diana; Thomas, Emma; Downey, Darragh; Toth, Zoltan G; Lloyd-Williams, Kathryn; Elliott, Rebecca; Deakin, J F William

    2011-04-01

    Negative biases in emotional processing are well recognised in people who are currently depressed but are less well described in those with a history of depression, where such biases may contribute to vulnerability to relapse. To compare accuracy, discrimination and bias in face emotion recognition in those with current and remitted depression. The sample comprised a control group (n = 101), a currently depressed group (n = 30) and a remitted depression group (n = 99). Participants provided valid data after receiving a computerised face emotion recognition task following standardised assessment of diagnosis and mood symptoms. In the control group women were more accurate in recognising emotions than men owing to greater discrimination. Among participants with depression, those in remission correctly identified more emotions than controls owing to increased response bias, whereas those currently depressed recognised fewer emotions owing to decreased discrimination. These effects were most marked for anger, fear and sadness but there was no significant emotion × group interaction, and a similar pattern tended to be seen for happiness although not for surprise or disgust. These differences were confined to participants who were antidepressant-free, with those taking antidepressants having similar results to the control group. Abnormalities in face emotion recognition differ between people with current depression and those in remission. Reduced discrimination in depressed participants may reflect withdrawal from the emotions of others, whereas the increased bias in those with a history of depression could contribute to vulnerability to relapse. The normal face emotion recognition seen in those taking medication may relate to the known effects of antidepressants on emotional processing and could contribute to their ability to protect against depressive relapse.

  11. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Information Health Information Home Mental Health Information Statistics Consumer Health Publications Help for Mental Illnesses Clinical Trials ... Symptoms and Treatment of Depression February 1, 2010 People with depression discuss how they got help. & ...

  12. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Disorder (3 items) Depression (32 items) Eating Disorders (9 items) Panic Disorder (1 item) Post-Traumatic Stress ... Disorder (3 items) Depression (32 items) Eating Disorders (9 items) Panic Disorder (1 item) Post-Traumatic Stress ...

  13. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... reason for me to do anything for myself. NARRATOR : Depression is more than just a feeling of ... at all. I gained a lot of weight. NARRATOR : A person with depression can feel irritable and ...

  14. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) (3 items) Autism (13 items) Bipolar Disorder (2 items) Borderline Personality Disorder (3 items) Depression ( ... Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) (3 items) Autism (13 items) Bipolar Disorder (2 items) Borderline Personality Disorder (3 items) Depression ( ...

  15. Depression and Bipolar Support Alliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depression and Bipolar Support Alliance Crisis Hotline Information Coping with a Crisis Suicide Prevention Information Psychiatric Hospitalization ... sign-up Education info, training, events Mood Disorders Depression Bipolar Disorder Anxiety Screening Center Co-occurring Illnesses/ ...

  16. Postpartum Depression: An Interactional View.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Mary Ann; Redman, E. Scott

    1986-01-01

    Postpartum depression is conceptualized as a predictable developmental, family crisis, which occurs when the natural difficulties of childbirth are benignly mishandled. Tactics are illustrated for interdicting maladaptive interpersonal spirals, including normalizing conflicting complaints; reframing depression as positive but costly; regulating…

  17. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Autism (13 items) Bipolar Disorder (2 items) Borderline Personality Disorder (3 items) Depression (32 items) Eating Disorders (9 ... Autism (13 items) Bipolar Disorder (2 items) Borderline Personality Disorder (3 items) Depression (32 items) Eating Disorders (9 ...

  18. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Symptoms and Treatment of Depression February 1, 2010 People with depression discuss how they got help. & ... I felt like I was such an awful person that there was no real reason for me ...

  19. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... suffer from depression trying to learn why it affects some people but not others. Treatments for depression do work. One type of effective psychotherapy is called cognitive ...

  20. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for depression do work. One type of effective psychotherapy is called cognitive behavioral therapy or CBT. CBT ... For many people, a combination of medication and psychotherapy may be the best choice. Depression can be ...

  1. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... a serious illness that affects many people. Symptoms can vary, but many depressed people lose interest in ... lot of weight. NARRATOR : A person with depression can feel irritable and restless, and have sleep problems. ...

  2. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Autism (13 items) Bipolar Disorder (2 items) Borderline Personality Disorder (3 items) Depression (32 items) Eating Disorders ( ... Autism (13 items) Bipolar Disorder (2 items) Borderline Personality Disorder (3 items) Depression (32 items) Eating Disorders ( ...

  3. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... items) Training (1 item) Other Treatments (15 items) Alzheimer’s Disease (2 items) Coping with Traumatic Events (3 items) Institute Announcements (24 items) Symptoms and Treatment of Depression February 1, 2010 People with depression discuss how ...

  4. Depression following acute coronary syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joergensen, Terese Sara Hoej; Maartensson, Solvej; Ibfelt, Else Helene

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: Depression is common following acute coronary syndrome, and thus, it is important to provide knowledge to improve prevention and detection of depression in this patient group. The objectives of this study were to examine: (1) whether indicators of stressors and coping resources were risk...... factors for developing depression early and later after an acute coronary syndrome and (2) whether prior depression modified these associations. METHODS: The study was a register-based cohort study, which includes 87,118 patients with a first time diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome during the period...... 2001-2009 in Denmark. Cox regression models were used to analyse hazard ratios (HRs) for depression. RESULTS: 1.5 and 9.5 % develop early (≤30 days) and later (31 days-2 years) depression after the acute coronary syndrome. Among all patients with depression, 69.2 % had first onset depression, while 30...

  5. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Borderline Personality Disorder (3 items) Depression (32 items) Eating Disorders (9 items) Panic Disorder (1 item) Post- ... Borderline Personality Disorder (3 items) Depression (32 items) Eating Disorders (9 items) Panic Disorder (1 item) Post- ...

  6. Depression and coronary artery disease -real heart attack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farooqi, S.; Ahmed, B.

    2001-01-01

    Both depression and ischaemic heart disease are said to become the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in developing countries during the next two decades. The relationship between these two disorders has long been speculated but only recently addressed scientifically. A Medline search was conducted to obtain the articles that address the association between depressive disorders and coronary artery disease (CAD). Most studies following large cohorts over a period ranging from 4.5 to 27 years have shown that depression is associated with a significantly high risk of developing CAD. These studies also show that patients who have depression following myocardial infarction hat poorer prognosis on major cardiac end points like reoccurrence of myocardial infarction and death as compared to the non-depressed group. The psychosocial variables associated with depression like social isolation, acute and chronic stressful life events are also associated with increased risk of developing CAD. The mechanisms underlying this association between depression and CAD are unknown at present. The effectiveness of psychosocial interventions in reducing this increased risks have been demonstrated while the trials assessing the efficacy and safety of anti depressed drugs are underway. The implications of these finding are discussed in the context of developing countries. (author)

  7. Social Support and Social Conflict as Predictors of Prenatal Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westdahl, Claire; Milan, Stephanie; Magriples, Urania; Kershaw, Trace S.; Rising, Sharon Schindler; Ickovics, Jeannette R.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To estimate how social support and social conflict relate to prenatal depressive symptoms and to generate a brief clinical tool to identify women at increased psychosocial risk. METHODS This is a prospective study following 1,047 pregnant women receiving care at two university-affiliated clinics from early pregnancy through 1 year postpartum. Structured interviews were conducted in the second trimester of pregnancy. Hierarchical and logistic regressions were used to examine potential direct and interactive effects of social support and conflict on prenatal depressive symptoms measured by the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale. RESULTS Thirty-three percent of the sample reported elevated levels of depressive symptoms predicted from sociodemographic factors, social support, and social conflict. Social support and conflict had independent effects on depressive symptoms although social conflict was a stronger predictor. There was a “dose–response,” with each increase in interpersonal risk factor resulting in consequent risk for probable depression based on symptom reports (Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Scale greater than or equal to 16). A composite of one social support and three conflict items were identified to be used by clinicians to identify interpersonal risk factors for depression in pregnancy. Seventy-six percent of women with a composite score of three or more high-risk responses reported depressive symptoms. CONCLUSION Increased assessment of social support and social conflict by clinicians during pregnancy can identify women who could benefit from group or individual interventions to enhance supportive and reduce negative social interactions. PMID:17601908

  8. Depressive Symptoms Moderate Dating Violence Prevention Outcomes Among Adolescent Girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collibee, Charlene; Rizzo, Christie J; Kemp, Kathleen; Hood, Erik; Doucette, Hannah; Gittins Stone, Daniel I; DeJesus, Brett

    2018-04-01

    Few dating violence prevention programs assess how variations in initial violence risk affects responsiveness. This study examines the efficacy of Date SMART, a dating violence and sexual risk prevention program designed to target high-risk adolescent girls, in preventing dating violence in the context of varying initial levels of depressive symptoms. A diverse sample of N = 109 female adolescents with a history of physical dating violence participated in a randomized controlled trial of the Date SMART program and a knowledge only (KO) comparison. Using baseline depression level as a primary risk factor, a series of multilevel models revealed significant main effects of baseline depression such that higher baseline depression was associated with greater physical dating violence perpetration and victimization. Results also showed a three-way interaction for assessment point, depressive symptoms, and condition for physical dating violence perpetration. Specifically, those with higher baseline depression in Date SMART showed significantly less physical dating violence perpetration at follow-ups compared with those with higher baseline depression in the KO group. This difference in violence reduction between conditions was not observed for those with lower baseline depression. Date SMART appears to effectively reduce physical dating violence perpetration in those with higher levels of initial risk. Current findings support that adolescents with different risk profiles respond differently to violence prevention programs.

  9. Self-compassion in depression: associations with depressive symptoms, rumination, and avoidance in depressed outpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieger, Tobias; Altenstein, David; Baettig, Isabelle; Doerig, Nadja; Holtforth, Martin Grosse

    2013-09-01

    Self-compassion involves being kind to oneself when challenged with personal weaknesses or hardship and has been claimed to be associated with resilience in various areas. So far, there are only a handful of studies that investigate self-compassion and its relation to clinical depression. Therefore, the principal goals of the present study were (a) to compare self-compassion in clinically depressed patients and never-depressed subjects, (b) to investigate self-compassion and its relation to cognitive-behavioral avoidance and rumination in depressed outpatients, and (c) to investigate rumination and avoidance as mediators of the relationship between self-compassion and depressive symptoms. One hundred and forty-two depressed outpatients and 120 never-depressed individuals from a community sample completed a self-report measure of self-compassion along with other measures. Results indicate that depressed patients showed lower levels of self-compassion than never-depressed individuals, even when controlled for depressive symptoms. In depressed outpatients, self-compassion was negatively related to depressive symptoms, symptom-focused rumination, as well as cognitive and behavioral avoidance. Additionally, symptom-focused rumination and cognitive and behavioral avoidance mediated the relationship between self-compassion and depressive symptoms. These findings extend previous research on self-compassion, its relation to depression, as well as processes mediating this relationship, and highlight the importance of self-compassion in clinically depressed patients. Since depressed patients seem to have difficulties adopting a self-compassionate attitude, psychotherapists are well advised to explore and address how depressed patients treat themselves. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Depressive symptoms, depression, and the effect of biologic therapy among patients in Psoriasis Longitudinal Assessment and Registry (PSOLAR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strober, Bruce; Gooderham, Melinda; de Jong, Elke M G J; Kimball, Alexa B; Langley, Richard G; Lakdawala, Nikita; Goyal, Kavitha; Lawson, Fabio; Langholff, Wayne; Hopkins, Lori; Fakharzadeh, Steve; Srivastava, Bhaskar; Menter, Alan

    2018-01-01

    Patients with psoriasis are at an increased risk for depression. However, the impact of treatment on this risk is unclear. Evaluate the incidence and impact of treatment on depression among patients with moderate-to-severe psoriasis. We defined a study population within the Psoriasis Longitudinal Assessment and Registry and measured the incidence of depressive symptoms (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale-Depression score ≥8) and adverse events (AEs) of depression within cohorts receiving biologics, conventional systemic therapies, or phototherapy. Patients were evaluated at approximately 6-month intervals. Multivariate modeling determined the impact of treatment on risk. The incidence rates of depressive symptoms were 3.01 per 100 patient-years (PYs) (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.73-3.32), 5.85 per 100 PYs (95% CI, 4.29-7.97), and 5.70 per 100 PYs (95% CI, 4.58-7.10) for biologics, phototherapy, and conventional therapy, respectively. Compared with conventional therapy, biologics reduced the risk for depressive symptoms (hazard ratio, 0.76; 95% CI, 0.59-0.98), whereas phototherapy did not (hazard ratio, 1.05; 95% CI, 0.71-1.54). The incidence rates for AEs of depression were 0.21 per 100 PYs (95% CI, 0.15-0.31) for biologics, 0.55 per 100 PYs (95% CI, 0.21-1.47) for phototherapy, and 0.14 per 100 PYs (95% CI, 0.03-0.55) for conventional therapy; the fact that there were too few events (37 AEs) precluded modeling. Incomplete capture of depression and confounders in the patients on registry. Compared with conventional therapy, biologics appear to be associated with a lower incidence of depressive symptoms among patients with psoriasis. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Serotonin type-1A receptor imaging in depression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drevets, Wayne C.; Frank, Ellen; Price, Julie C.; Kupfer, David J.; Greer, Phil J.; Mathis, Chester

    2000-01-01

    Regional 5-hydroxytryptamine 1A (5-HT 1A ) receptor binding potential (BP) of depressed subjects with primary, recurrent, familial mood disorders was compared to that of healthy controls by using positron emission tomography and [carbonyl- 11 C]WAY-100635 {[ 11 C]N-(2-(4-(2-methoxyphenyl)-1-piperazin-1-yl)ethyl)-N-(2-pyridyl) cyclohexanecarboxamide}. The mean 5-HT 1A receptor BP was reduced 42% in the midbrain raphe and 25-33% in limbic and neocortical areas in the mesiotemporal, occipital, and parietal cortex. The magnitude of these abnormalities was most prominent in bipolar depressives and unipolar depressives who had bipolar relatives. These abnormal reductions in 5-HT 1A receptor BP are consistent with in vivo evidence that 5-HT 1A receptor sensitivity is reduced in major depressive disorder and postmortem data showing a widespread deficit of 5-HT 1A receptor expression in primary mood disorders

  12. Depression in general practice

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Most persons with emotional disorders are evaluated and treated by primary health ... the full clinical picture has emerged, and in most of their patients the .... Depression is common in attention deficit disorder where hyperactivity ... tncyclic antidepressants, SSRls ; selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors; SNRls ; serotonin ...

  13. [Gender differences in depression].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karger, A

    2014-09-01

    Depression is one of the most prevalent and debilitating diseases. In recent years there has been increased awareness of sex- and gender-specific issues in depression. This narrative review presents and discusses differences in prevalence, symptom profile, age at onset and course, comorbidity, biological and psychosocial factors, the impact of sexual stereotyping, help-seeking, emotion regulation and doctor-patient communication. Typically, women are diagnosed with depression twice as often as men, and their disease follows a more chronic course. Comorbid anxiety is more prevalent in women, whereas comorbid alcohol abuse is a major concern in men. Sucide rates for men are between three and five times higher compared with women. Although there are different symptom profiles in men and women, it is difficult to define a gender-specific symptom profile. Socially mediated gender roles have a significant impact on psychosocial factors associated with risk, sickness behavior and coping strategies. In general, too little attention has been paid to the definition and handling of depression and the gender-related requirements it makes on the healthcare system.

  14. Sex, Anger and Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Robin W.; Lively, Kathryn

    2010-01-01

    A social problem that has preoccupied sociologists of gender and mental health is the higher rate of depression found among women. Although a number of hypotheses about this health disparity between men and women have been advanced, none consider the importance of subjectively experienced anger. Drawing on theoretical and empirical insights from…

  15. Depression in CADASIL patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lačković Maja

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL is a hereditary neurological disease accompanied by recurrent ischemic events, characterized by the presence of psychiatric disorders. The aim of this study was to examine the occurrence of depression and its severity among patients with CADASIL. Sixteen patients with diffuse white matter changes on MRI and clinical signs suggesting CADASIL were included in the study. Definitive diagnosis of CADASIL was obtained by electron microscopic analysis of skin biopsies. Testing of the patients’ affective status was primarily devoted to detecting depression. Electron microscopic examinations of all skin biopsies revealed numerous granular osmiophilic material (GOM deposits embedded into the basal lamina around altered or degenerated vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs. Clinical symptoms of depression were present in a great number of examined CADASIL patients. The frequency of depression was higher than previously reported. Psychiatric disturbances might also represent the onset of CADASIL, especially in young patients, and should be evaluated by differential diagnosis. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 41002

  16. Music therapy for depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aalbers, Sonja; Fusar-Poli, Laura; Freeman, Ruth E.; Spreen, Marinus; Ket, Johannes C.F.; Vink, Annemiek C.; Maratos, Anna; Crawford, Mike; Chen, Xi Jing; Gold, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Background: Depression is a highly prevalent mood disorder that is characterised by persistent low mood, diminished interest, and loss of pleasure. Music therapy may be helpful in modulating moods and emotions. An update of the 2008 Cochrane review was needed to improve knowledge on effects of music

  17. Continued antidepressant treatment and suicide in patients with depressive disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergård, Lars; Lopez, Ana Garcia; Andersen, Per Kragh

    2007-01-01

    1995 to 2000, we investigated the relation between continued treatment with antidepressants and suicide in a population of all patients discharged from hospital psychiatry with a diagnosis of depressive disorder. Patients discharged from hospital psychiatry with a diagnosis of depressive disorder had...... of prescriptions. On individualized data from a cohort of patients with a known history of depressive disorder, continued antidepressant treatment was associated with reduced risk of suicide.......Antidepressant use in Denmark, as in many developed countries, has substantially increased during recent years, coinciding with a decreasing suicide rate. In a nationwide observational cohort study with linkage of registers of all prescribed antidepressants and recorded suicides in Denmark from...

  18. Depressive Realism: Wiser or Quieter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Fernando; Matute, Helena; Vadillo, Miguel A.

    2009-01-01

    Depressive realism consists of the lower personal control over uncontrollable events perceived by depressed as compared to nondepressed individuals. In this article, we propose that the realism of depressed individuals is caused not by an increased accuracy in perception, but by their more comprehensive exposure to the actual environmental…

  19. Postpartum Depression and Child Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Lynne, Ed.; Cooper, Peter J., Ed.

    Only recently has the research on postpartum depression dealt with the disorder's effects on child development. This book explores the impact of postpartum depression on mother-infant interaction and child development, its treatment, and postpartum psychosis. The chapters are: (1) "The Nature of Postpartum Depressive Disorders" (Michael…

  20. Plain Talk about Depression. Plain Talk Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargent, Marilyn

    Depression is defined as a "whole-body" illness, involving the body, mood, and thoughts. Three of the most prevalent types of depressive disorders are described: major depression, dysthymia, and bipolar disorders (formerly called manic-depressive illness). Eleven symptoms of depression and 10 symptoms of mania are listed. Causes of depression are…