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Sample records for ischemic ocular motor

  1. Imaging the ocular motor nerves.

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    Ferreira, T.; Verbist, B.M.; Buchem, M. van; Osch, T. van; Webb, A.

    2010-01-01

    The ocular motor nerves (OMNs) comprise the oculomotor, trochlear and the abducens nerves. According to their course, they are divided into four or five anatomic segments: intra-axial, cisternal, cavernous and intra-orbital and, for the abducens nerve, an additional interdural segment. Magnetic

  2. Vasculopathic Cranial Ocular Motor Neuropathy Following Sudden Emotional Stress

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    Purvin, Valerie

    2010-01-01

    We describe three patients who experienced onset of a microvascular ocular motor nerve palsy in the setting of sudden emotional stress. Such emotional states are accompanied by a marked increase in sympathetic tone in some individuals. Mechanisms by which these autonomic changes might produce an ischemic cranial nerve palsy include intra-cranial vasoconstriction and transient systemic hypotension due to alterations in cardiac function.

  3. Imaging the ocular motor nerves

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    Ferreira, Teresa [Department of Radiology, Leiden University Medical Center (Netherlands)], E-mail: T.A.Ferreira@lumc.nl; Verbist, Berit [Department of Radiology, Leiden University Medical Center (Netherlands)], E-mail: B.M.Verbist@lumc.nl; Buchem, Mark van [Department of Radiology, Leiden University Medical Center (Netherlands)], E-mail: M.A.van_Buchem@lumc.nl; Osch, Thijs van [C.J. Gorter for High-Field MRI, Department of Radiology, Leiden University Medical Center (Netherlands)], E-mail: M.J.P.van_Osch@lumc.nl; Webb, Andrew [C.J. Gorter for High-Field MRI, Department of Radiology, Leiden University Medical Center (Netherlands)], E-mail: A.Webb@lumc.nl

    2010-05-15

    The ocular motor nerves (OMNs) comprise the oculomotor, trochlear and the abducens nerves. According to their course, they are divided into four or five anatomic segments: intra-axial, cisternal, cavernous and intra-orbital and, for the abducens nerve, an additional interdural segment. Magnetic resonance imaging is the imaging method of choice in the evaluation of the normal and pathologic ocular motor nerves. CT still plays a limited but important role in the evaluation of the intraosseous portions at the skull base and bony foramina. We describe for each segment of these cranial nerves, the normal anatomy, the most appropriate image sequences and planes, their imaging appearance and pathologic conditions. Magnetic resonance imaging with high magnetic fields is a developing and promising technique. We describe our initial experience with a Phillips 7.0 T MRI scanner in the evaluation of the brainstem segments of the OMNs. As imaging becomes more refined, an understanding of the detailed anatomy is increasingly necessary, as the demand on radiology to diagnose smaller lesions also increases.

  4. Clinical Analysis of 42 Cases of Ocular Ischemic Syndrome

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    Jingyi Luo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Ocular ischemic syndrome (OIS is a severe ocular disease caused by ocular hypoperfusion due to stenosis or occlusion of the common or internal carotid arteries. OIS is easily misdiagnosed or undiagnosed given its asymptomatic onset and complicated ocular manifestations. The present study reviewed 42 patients with OIS, including 30 males (71.43%, 29 older patients (69.05%, >61 yrs, and 35 patients (83.33% with two or more systemic diseases. Only 6 patients had ocular symptoms as the initial signs upon visiting the Department of Ophthalmology of three hospitals (the First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University; Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, Sun Yat-sen University; and the Second Affiliated Hospital, Guangzhou Medical University. The ocular symptoms varied from visual deterioration to periorbital pain. Thirty-seven patients (88.10% complained of constitutional symptoms. Ocular manifestations were diverse and involved both anterior and posterior segments. We reported a case of corneal edema and corneal epithelium erosion in the ipsilateral eye due to internal carotid artery stenosis. As the clinical manifestations of OIS are complex, ophthalmologists must carefully examine patients to avoid a misdiagnosis or a failure to diagnose. The management of OIS requires cooperation with cardiologists and neurologists.

  5. [Predictive ocular motor control in Parkinson's disease].

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    Ying, Li; Liu, Zhen-Guo; Chen, Wei; Gan, Jing; Wang, Wen-An

    2008-02-19

    To investigate the changes of predictive ocular motor function in the patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), and to discuss its clinical value. Videonystagmography (VNG) was used to examine 24 patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease, 15 males and 9 females, aged 61 +/- 6 (50-69), and 24 sex and age-matched healthy control subjects on random ocular saccade (with the target moving at random intervals to random positions) and predictive ocular saccade (with the 1.25-second light target moving 10 degrees right or left from the center). In the random ocular saccade program, the latency of saccade of the PD patients was 284 ms +/- 58 ms, significantly longer than that of the healthy controls (236 ms +/- 37 ms, P = 0.003). In the predictive ocular saccade pattern, the latency of saccades the PD patients was 150 ms +/- 138 ms, significantly longer than that of the healthy controls (59 ms +/- 102 ms, P = 0.002). The appearance rate of predictive saccades (with the latency of saccade <80 ms) in the PD group was 21%, significantly lower than that in the control group (31%, P = 0.003). There is dysfunction of predictive ocular motor control in the PD patients, and the cognitive function may be impaired at the early stage of PD.

  6. Albinism: particular attention to the ocular motor system.

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    Hertle, Richard W

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to summarize an understanding of the ocular motor system in patients with albinism. Other than the association of vertical eccentric gaze null positions and asymmetric, (a) periodic alternating nystagmus in a large percentage of patients, the ocular motor system in human albinism does not contain unique pathology, rather has "typical" types of infantile ocular oscillations and binocular disorders. Both the ocular motor and afferent visual system are affected to varying degrees in patients with albinism, thus, combined treatment of both systems will maximize visual function.

  7. Ocular Motor Function in Patients with Bilateral Vestibular Weakness

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    Seyyed Amir Hossein Ghazizadeh Hashemi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Patients with bilateral weakness (BW have many difficulties in gaze stability that interfere with their normal function. The aim of this study was to evaluate ocular motor functions in patients with BW to better understand the problem of gaze instability in these patients.   Materials and Methods: Patients were referred from the Otolaryngology Department for Vestibular Assessment to our clinic between November 2014 and March 2015. We assessed ocular motor function (gaze, saccade, and smooth pursuit in patients over the age of 18 years with BW, as verified by a caloric test.   Results: Seventy-eight patients completed all the tests. The mean age of patients was 51.9 (±15.9 years, and 47 (60% were female. Abnormal results were found in five (6.4%, 32 (41%, and seven (9% patients with respect to gaze, smooth pursuit, and saccade, respectively. There were positive but relatively weak relationships between age and ocular motor results.   Conclusion:  Patients with BW suffer from dizziness and unsteadiness. These patients have abnormal function in ocular motor (especially smooth pursuit tests. The ocular motor dysfunction is responsible for gaze instability in static positions such as standing.

  8. Ocular Motor Score (OMS): a clinical tool to evaluating ocular motor functions in children. Intrarater and inter-rater agreement.

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    Olsson, Monica; Teär Fahnehjelm, Kristina; Rydberg, Agneta; Ygge, Jan

    2015-08-01

    Ocular motor score (OMS) is a new clinical test protocol for evaluating ocular motor functions in children and young adults. OMS is a set of 15 important and relevant non-invasive ocular motor function parameters derived from clinical practice. The aim of the study was to evaluate OMS according to intrarater and inter-rater agreement. Forty children aged 4-10 years, 23 girls median age 6.5 (range 4.3-9.3) and 17 boys median age 5.8 (range 4.1-9.8) were included. The ocular motor functions were assessed and scored according to the OMS protocol. The examinations were videotaped. To obtain the intrarater agreement, the first author examined and scored the children twice, first in the clinic and 2 weeks later by watching the videotape. To obtain the inter-rater agreement, three other raters independently scored the ocular motor function of the children by watching the videotapes. The overall observed intrarater agreement was 88%, and the observed inter-rater agreement between the three raters was 80%. For none of the subtests was there an observed intrarater agreement lower than 65%. Three of the subtests had an observed inter-rater agreement of 65% or below. Overall there was high observed intra- and inter-rater agreement for the OMS test protocol. Subtests such as saccades and smooth pursuit were more difficult for raters to score similarly according the clinical OMS test protocol. © 2015 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Rapid motor learning in the translational vestibulo-ocular reflex

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    Zhou, Wu; Weldon, Patrick; Tang, Bingfeng; King, W. M.; Shelhamer, M. J. (Principal Investigator)

    2003-01-01

    Motor learning was induced in the translational vestibulo-ocular reflex (TVOR) when monkeys were repeatedly subjected to a brief (0.5 sec) head translation while they tried to maintain binocular fixation on a visual target for juice rewards. If the target was world-fixed, the initial eye speed of the TVOR gradually increased; if the target was head-fixed, the initial eye speed of the TVOR gradually decreased. The rate of learning acquisition was very rapid, with a time constant of approximately 100 trials, which was equivalent to or=1 d without any reinforcement, indicating induction of long-term synaptic plasticity. Although the learning generalized to targets with different viewing distances and to head translations with different accelerations, it was highly specific for the particular combination of head motion and evoked eye movement associated with the training. For example, it was specific to the modality of the stimulus (translation vs rotation) and the direction of the evoked eye movement in the training. Furthermore, when one eye was aligned with the heading direction so that it remained motionless during training, learning was not expressed in this eye, but only in the other nonaligned eye. These specificities show that the learning sites are neither in the sensory nor the motor limb of the reflex but in the sensory-motor transformation stage of the reflex. The dependence of the learning on both head motion and evoked eye movement suggests that Hebbian learning may be one of the underlying cellular mechanisms.

  10. Retinal protective effects of topically administered agmatine on ischemic ocular injury caused by transient occlusion of the ophthalmic artery

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    S. Hong

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Agmatine, an endogenous polyamine and putative neuromodulator, is known to have neuroprotective effects on various neurons in the central nervous system. We determined whether or not topically administered agmatine could reduce ischemic retinal injury. Transient ocular ischemia was achieved by intraluminal occlusion of the middle cerebral artery of ddY mice (30-35 g for 2 h, which is known to also induce occlusion of the ophthalmic artery. In the agmatine group (N = 6, a 1.0 mM agmatine-containing ophthalmic solution was administered four times daily for 2 weeks before occlusion. In the control group (N = 6, a 0.1% hyaluronic acid ophthalmic solution was instilled at the same times. At 22 h after reperfusion, the eyeballs were enucleated and the retinal sections were stained by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL. Transient ocular ischemia induced apoptosis of retinal cells in the entire retinal layer, and topically administered agmatine can significantly reduce this ischemic retinal injury. The proportion of apoptotic cells was definitely decreased (P < 0.001; Kruskal-Wallis test. Overall, we determined that topical agmatine application effectively decreases retinal damage in an in vivo ocular ischemic injury model. This implies that agmatine is a good candidate as a direct neuroprotective agent for eyes with ocular ischemic diseases.

  11. Retinal protective effects of topically administered agmatine on ischemic ocular injury caused by transient occlusion of the ophthalmic artery

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    Hong, S.; Hara, H.; Shimazawa, M.; Hyakkoku, K.; Kim, C.Y.; Seong, G.J.

    2012-01-01

    Agmatine, an endogenous polyamine and putative neuromodulator, is known to have neuroprotective effects on various neurons in the central nervous system. We determined whether or not topically administered agmatine could reduce ischemic retinal injury. Transient ocular ischemia was achieved by intraluminal occlusion of the middle cerebral artery of ddY mice (30-35 g) for 2 h, which is known to also induce occlusion of the ophthalmic artery. In the agmatine group (N = 6), a 1.0 mM agmatine-containing ophthalmic solution was administered four times daily for 2 weeks before occlusion. In the control group (N = 6), a 0.1% hyaluronic acid ophthalmic solution was instilled at the same times. At 22 h after reperfusion, the eyeballs were enucleated and the retinal sections were stained by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL). Transient ocular ischemia induced apoptosis of retinal cells in the entire retinal layer, and topically administered agmatine can significantly reduce this ischemic retinal injury. The proportion of apoptotic cells was definitely decreased (P agmatine application effectively decreases retinal damage in an in vivo ocular ischemic injury model. This implies that agmatine is a good candidate as a direct neuroprotective agent for eyes with ocular ischemic diseases. PMID:22331138

  12. Relationship of ocular accommodation and motor skills performance in developmental coordination disorder.

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    Rafique, Sara A; Northway, Nadia

    2015-08-01

    Ocular accommodation provides a well-focussed image, feedback for accurate eye movement control, and cues for depth perception. To accurately perform visually guided motor tasks, integration of ocular motor systems is essential. Children with motor coordination impairment are established to be at higher risk of accommodation anomalies. The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship between ocular accommodation and motor tasks, which are often overlooked, in order to better understand the problems experienced by children with motor coordination impairment. Visual function, gross and fine motor skills were assessed in children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) and typically developing control children. Children with DCD had significantly poorer accommodation facility and amplitude dynamics compared to controls. Results indicate a relationship between impaired accommodation and motor skills. Specifically, accommodation anomalies correlated with visual motor, upper limb and fine dexterity task performance. Consequently, we argue accommodation anomalies influence the ineffective coordination of action and perception in DCD. Furthermore, reading disabilities were related to poorer motor performance. We postulate the role of the fastigial nucleus as a common pathway for accommodation and motor deficits. Implications of the findings and recommended visual screening protocols are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. JIGSAW PUZZLE IMPROVE FINE MOTOR ABILITIES OF UPPER EXTREMITIES IN POST-STROKE ISCHEMIC CLIENTS

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    Kusnanto Kusnanto

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Ischemic stroke is a disease caused by focal cerebral ischemia, where is a decline in blood flow that needed for neuronal metabolism, leading to neurologic deficit include motor deficit such as fine motor skills impairment. Therapy of fine motor skills disorders is to improve motor function, prevent contractures and complications. These study aimed to identify the effect of playing Jigsaw Puzzle on muscle strength, extensive motion, and upper extremity fine motor skills in patients with ischemic stroke at Dr. Moewardi Hospital, Surakarta. Methods: Experimental Quasi pre-posttest one group control. The number of samples were 34 respondents selected using purposive sampling technique. The samples were divided into intervention and control groups. The intervention group was 17 respondents who were given standard treatment hospital and played Jigsaw Puzzle 2 times a day for six days. Control group is one respondent given by hospital standard therapy without given additional Jigsaw Puzzle game. Evaluation of these research is done on the first and seventh day for those groups. Result: The results showed that muscle strength, the range of joint motion and fine motor skills of upper extremities increased (p = 0.001 significantly after being given the Jigsaw Puzzle games. These means playing Jigsaw Puzzle increase muscle strength, the range of joint motion and upper extremity fine motor skill of ischemic stroke patients. Discussion and conclusion: Jigsaw puzzle game administration as additional rehabilitation therapy in upper extremity fine motor to minimize the occurrence of contractures and motor disorders in patients with ischemic stroke. Jigsaw puzzle game therapy capable of creating repetitive motion as a key of neurological rehabilitation in Ischemic Stroke. This study recommends using jigsaw puzzle game as one of intervention in the nursing care of Ischemic Stroke patients.

  14. Nonarteritic ischemic optic neuropathy secondary to severe ocular hypertension masked by interface fluid in a post-LASIK eye.

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    Pham, Mai T; Peck, Rachel E; Dobbins, Kendall R B

    2013-06-01

    We report a case of ischemic optic neuropathy arising from elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) masked by interface fluid in a post-laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) eye. A 51-year-old man, who had had LASIK 6 years prior to presentation, sustained blunt trauma to the left eye that resulted in a hyphema and ocular hypertension. Elevated IOP resulted in accumulation of fluid in the stromal bed-LASIK flap interface, leading to underestimation of IOP when measured centrally over the flap. After days of unrecognized ocular hypertension, ischemic optic neuropathy developed. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of ischemic optic neuropathy resulting from underestimated IOP measurements in a post-LASIK patient. It highlights the inaccuracy of IOP measurements in post-LASIK eyes and a vision-threatening potential complication. No author has a financial or proprietary interest in any material or method mentioned. Copyright © 2013 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Ocular Motor Indicators of Executive Dysfunction in Fragile X and Turner Syndromes

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    Lasker, Adrian G.; Mazzocco, Michele M. M.; Zee, David S.

    2007-01-01

    Fragile X and Turner syndromes are two X-chromosome-related disorders associated with executive function and visual spatial deficits. In the present study, we used ocular motor paradigms to examine evidence that disruption to different neurological pathways underlies these deficits. We tested 17 females with fragile X, 19 females with Turner…

  16. A Brief Vestibular/Ocular Motor Screening (VOMS) Assessment to Evaluate Concussions

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    Mucha, Anne; Collins, Michael W.; Elbin, R.J.; Furman, Joseph M.; Troutman-Enseki, Cara; DeWolf, Ryan M.; Marchetti, Greg; Kontos, Anthony P.

    2014-01-01

    Background Vestibular and ocular motor impairments and symptoms have been documented in patients with sport-related concussions. However, there is no current brief clinical screen to assess and monitor these issues. Purpose To describe and provide initial data for the internal consistency and validity of a brief clinical screening tool for vestibular and ocular motor impairments and symptoms after sport-related concussions. Study Design Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 2. Methods Sixty-four patients, aged 13.9 ± 2.5 years and seen approximately 5.5 ± 4.0 days after a sport-related concussion, and 78 controls were administered the Vestibular/Ocular Motor Screening (VOMS) assessment, which included 5 domains: (1) smooth pursuit, (2) horizontal and vertical saccades, (3) near point of convergence (NPC) distance, (4) horizontal vestibular ocular reflex (VOR), and (5) visual motion sensitivity (VMS). Participants were also administered the Post-Concussion Symptom Scale (PCSS). Results Sixty-one percent of patients reported symptom provocation after at least 1 VOMS item. All VOMS items were positively correlated to the PCSS total symptom score. The VOR (odds ratio [OR], 3.89; P concussed group. An NPC distance ≥5 cm and any VOMS item symptom score ≥2 resulted in an increase in the probability of correctly identifying concussed patients of 38% and 50%, respectively. Receiver operating characteristic curves supported a model including the VOR, VMS, NPC distance, and ln(age) that resulted in a high predicted probability (area under the curve = 0.89) for identifying concussed patients. Conclusion The VOMS demonstrated internal consistency as well as sensitivity in identifying patients with concussions. The current findings provide preliminary support for the utility of the VOMS as a brief vestibular/ocular motor screen after sport-related concussions. The VOMS may augment current assessment tools and may serve as a single component of a comprehensive approach

  17. Compensatory cerebral motor control following presumed perinatal ischemic stroke

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    van der Hoorn, Anouk; Potgieser, Adriaan R E; Brouwer, Oebele F; de Jong, Bauke M

    Case: A fifteen year-old left-handed girl presented with right-sided focal motor seizures. Neuroimaging showed a large left hemisphere lesion compatible with a middle cerebral artery stroke of presumed perinatal origin. She was not previously diagnosed with a motor deficit, although neurological

  18. Radiation-induced ocular motor cranial nerve palsies in patients with pituitary tumor.

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    Vaphiades, Michael S; Spencer, Sharon A; Riley, Kristen; Francis, Courtney; Deitz, Luke; Kline, Lanning B

    2011-09-01

    Radiation therapy is often used in the treatment of pituitary tumor. Diplopia due to radiation damage to the ocular motor cranial nerves has been infrequently reported as a complication in this clinical setting. Retrospective case series of 6 patients (3 men and 3 women) with pituitary adenoma, all of whom developed diplopia following transsphenoidal resection of pituitary adenoma with subsequent radiation therapy. None had evidence of tumor involvement of the cavernous sinus. Five patients developed sixth nerve palsies, 3 unilateral and 2 bilateral, and in 1 patient, a sixth nerve palsy was preceded by a fourth cranial nerve palsy. One patient developed third nerve palsy. Five of the 6 patients had a growth hormone-secreting pituitary tumor with acromegaly. Following transsphenoidal surgery in all 6 patients (2 had 2 surgeries), 4 had 2 radiation treatments consisting of either radiosurgery (2 patients) or external beam radiation followed by radiosurgery (2 patients). Patients with pituitary tumors treated multiple times with various forms of radiation therapy are at risk to sustain ocular motor cranial nerve injury. The prevalence of acromegalic patients in this study reflects an aggressive attempt to salvage patients with recalcitrant growth hormone elevation and may place the patient at a greater risk for ocular motor cranial nerve damage.

  19. Effects of motor imagery combined with functional electrical stimulation on upper limb motor function of patients with acute ischemic stroke

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    Shou-feng LIU

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective To explore the effects of motor imagery (MI combined with the third generation functional electrical stimulation (FES on upper limb motor function in acute ischemic stroke patients with hemiplegia.  Methods Forty acute ischemic stroke patients, within 48 h of onset, were randomly divided into FES group (N = 20 and combination group (FES combined with motor imagery, N = 20. All patients received basic routine rehabilitation training, for example, good limb positioning, accepting braces, balance training and training in the activities of daily living (ADL. FES group received the third generation FES therapy and the combination group also received motor imagery for 2 weeks. All of the patients were assessed with Fugl-Meyer Assessment (FMA, Action Research Arm Test (ARAT and active range of motion (AROM of wrist dorsiflexion before and after 2 weeks of treatment.  Results After 2 weeks of treatment, the 2 groups had significantly higher FMA score, ARAT score and AROM of wrist dorsiflexion than that in pre-treatment (P = 0.000, for all. Besides, the FMA score (t = - 2.528, P = 0.016, ARAT score (t = - 2.562, P = 0.014 and AROM of wrist dorsiflexion (t = - 2.469, P = 0.018 in the combination group were significantly higher than that in the FES group. There were interactions of treatment methods with observation time points (P < 0.05, for all.  Conclusions Motor imagery combined with the third generation FES can effectively promote the recovery of upper limb motor function and motion range of wrist dorsiflexion in patients with acute ischemic stroke. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2015.03.008

  20. Early functional MRI activation predicts motor outcome after ischemic stroke: a longitudinal, multimodal study.

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    Du, Juan; Yang, Fang; Zhang, Zhiqiang; Hu, Jingze; Xu, Qiang; Hu, Jianping; Zeng, Fanyong; Lu, Guangming; Liu, Xinfeng

    2018-05-15

    An accurate prediction of long term outcome after stroke is urgently required to provide early individualized neurorehabilitation. This study aimed to examine the added value of early neuroimaging measures and identify the best approaches for predicting motor outcome after stroke. This prospective study involved 34 first-ever ischemic stroke patients (time since stroke: 1-14 days) with upper limb impairment. All patients underwent baseline multimodal assessments that included clinical (age, motor impairment), neurophysiological (motor-evoked potentials, MEP) and neuroimaging (diffusion tensor imaging and motor task-based fMRI) measures, and also underwent reassessment 3 months after stroke. Bivariate analysis and multivariate linear regression models were used to predict the motor scores (Fugl-Meyer assessment, FMA) at 3 months post-stroke. With bivariate analysis, better motor outcome significantly correlated with (1) less initial motor impairment and disability, (2) less corticospinal tract injury, (3) the initial presence of MEPs, (4) stronger baseline motor fMRI activations. In multivariate analysis, incorporating neuroimaging data improved the predictive accuracy relative to only clinical and neurophysiological assessments. Baseline fMRI activation in SMA was an independent predictor of motor outcome after stroke. A multimodal model incorporating fMRI and clinical measures best predicted the motor outcome following stroke. fMRI measures obtained early after stroke provided independent prediction of long-term motor outcome.

  1. Motor transfer from map ocular exploration to locomotion during spatial navigation from memory.

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    Demichelis, Alixia; Olivier, Gérard; Berthoz, Alain

    2013-02-01

    Spatial navigation from memory can rely on two different strategies: a mental simulation of a kinesthetic spatial navigation (egocentric route strategy) or visual-spatial memory using a mental map (allocentric survey strategy). We hypothesized that a previously performed "oculomotor navigation" on a map could be used by the brain to perform a locomotor memory task. Participants were instructed to (1) learn a path on a map through a sequence of vertical and horizontal eyes movements and (2) walk on the slabs of a "magic carpet" to recall this path. The main results showed that the anisotropy of ocular movements (horizontal ones being more efficient than vertical ones) influenced performances of participants when they change direction on the central slab of the magic carpet. These data suggest that, to find their way through locomotor space, subjects mentally repeated their past ocular exploration of the map, and this visuo-motor memory was used as a template for the locomotor performance.

  2. Cognitive alterations in motor imagery process after left hemispheric ischemic stroke.

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    Jing Yan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Motor imagery training is a promising rehabilitation strategy for stroke patients. However, few studies had focused on the neural mechanisms in time course of its cognitive process. This study investigated the cognitive alterations after left hemispheric ischemic stroke during motor imagery task. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Eleven patients with ischemic stroke in left hemisphere and eleven age-matched control subjects participated in mental rotation task (MRT of hand pictures. Behavior performance, event-related potential (ERP and event-related (desynchronization (ERD/ERS in beta band were analyzed to investigate the cortical activation. We found that: (1 The response time increased with orientation angles in both groups, called "angle effect", however, stoke patients' responses were impaired with significantly longer response time and lower accuracy rate; (2 In early visual perceptual cognitive process, stroke patients showed hypo-activations in frontal and central brain areas in aspects of both P200 and ERD; (3 During mental rotation process, P300 amplitude in control subjects decreased while angle increased, called "amplitude modulation effect", which was not observed in stroke patients. Spatially, patients showed significant lateralization of P300 with activation only in contralesional (right parietal cortex while control subjects showed P300 in both parietal lobes. Stroke patients also showed an overall cortical hypo-activation of ERD during this sub-stage; (4 In the response sub-stage, control subjects showed higher ERD values with more activated cortical areas particularly in the right hemisphere while angle increased, named "angle effect", which was not observed in stroke patients. In addition, stroke patients showed significant lower ERD for affected hand (right response than that for unaffected hand. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Cortical activation was altered differently in each cognitive sub-stage of motor imagery after

  3. Enhancement Of Motor Recovery Through Left Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex Stimulation After Acute Ischemic Stroke

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    Shahram Oveisgharan

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Two previous studies, which investigated transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS use in motor recovery after acute ischemic stroke, did not show tDCS to be effective in this regard. We speculated that additional left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex ‎(DLPFC ‎stimulation may enhance post stroke motor recovery.  ‎ Methods: In the present randomized clinical trial, 20 acute ischemic stroke patients were recruited. Patients received real motor cortex (M1 stimulation in both arms of the trial. The two arms differed in terms of real vs. sham stimulation over the left DLPFC‎. Motor component of the Fugl-Meyer upper extremity assessment (FM and Action Research Arm Test (ARAT scores were used to assess primary outcomes, and non-linear mixed effects models were used for data analyses. Results: Primary outcome measures improved more and faster among the real stimulation group. During the first days of stimulations, sham group’s FM scores increased 1.2 scores per day, while real group’s scores increased 1.7 scores per day (P = 0.003. In the following days, FM improvement decelerated in both groups. Based on the derived models, a hypothetical stroke patient with baseline FM score of 15 improves to 32 in the sham stimulation group and to 41 in the real stimulation group within the first month after stroke. Models with ARAT scores yielded nearly similar results. Conclusion: The current study results showed that left DLPFC‎ stimulation in conjunction with M1 stimulation resulted in better motor recovery than M1 stimulation alone.

  4. Histopathology of motor cortex in an experimental focal ischemic stroke in mouse model.

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    de Oliveira, Juçara Loli; Crispin, Pedro di Tárique Barreto; Duarte, Elisa Cristiana Winkelmann; Marloch, Gilberto Domingos; Gargioni, Rogério; Trentin, Andréa Gonçalves; Alvarez-Silva, Marcio

    2014-05-01

    Experimental ischemia results in cortical brain lesion followed by ischemic stroke. In this study, focal cerebral ischemia was induced in mice by occlusion of the middle cerebral artery. We studied cortical layers I, II/III, V and VI in the caudal forelimb area (CFA) and medial agranular cortex (AGm) from control and C57BL/6 mice induced with ischemic stroke. Based on our analysis of CFA and AGm motor cortex, significant differences were observed in the numbers of neurons, astrocytes and microglia in the superficial II/III and deep V cortical layers. Cellular changes were more prominent in layer V of the CFA with nuclear pyknosis, chromatin fragmentation, necrosis and degeneration, as well as, morphological evidence of apoptosis, mainly in neurons. As result, the CFA was more severely impaired than the AGm in this focal cerebral ischemic model, as evidenced by the proliferation of astrocytes, potentially resulting in neuroinflammation by microglia-like cells. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Trajectories of Motor Recovery in the First Year After Pediatric Arterial Ischemic Stroke.

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    Cooper, Anna N; Anderson, Vicki; Hearps, Stephen; Greenham, Mardee; Ditchfield, Michael; Coleman, Lee; Hunt, Rod W; Mackay, Mark T; Monagle, Paul; Gordon, Anne L

    2017-08-01

    Neuromotor impairments are common after pediatric stroke, but little is known about functional motor outcomes. We evaluated motor function and how it changed over the first 12 months after diagnosis. We also examined differences in outcome according to age at diagnosis and whether fine motor (FM) or gross motor (GM) function at 12 months was associated with adaptive behavior. This prospective, longitudinal study recruited children ( N = 64) from The Royal Children's Hospital, Melbourne who were diagnosed with acute arterial ischemic stroke (AIS) between December 2007 and November 2013. Motor assessments were completed at 3 time points after the diagnosis of AIS (1, 6, and 12 months). Children were grouped as follows: neonates ( n = 27), preschool-aged ( n = 19), and school-aged ( n = 18). A larger lesion size was associated with poorer GM outcomes at 12 months ( P = .016). Neonatal AIS was associated with better FM and GM function initially but with a reduction in z scores over time. For the preschool- and school-aged groups, FM remained relatively stable over time. For GM outcomes, the preschool- and the school-aged age groups displayed similar profiles, with gradual recovery over time. Overall, poor FM and GM outcomes at 12 months were associated with poorer adaptive behavior scores. Motor outcomes and the trajectory of recovery post-AIS differed according to a child's age at stroke onset. These findings indicate that an individualized approach to surveillance and intervention may be needed that is informed in part by age at diagnosis. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  6. Postural effects on intraocular pressure and ocular perfusion pressure in patients with non-arteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jee Myung; Park, Sang Woo; Ji, Yong Sok; Kim, Jaeryung; Yoo, Chungkwon; Heo, Hwan

    2017-04-20

    To investigate postural effects on intraocular pressure (IOP) and ocular perfusion pressure (OPP) in patients with non-arteritic ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION). IOP and blood pressure (BP) were measured in 20 patients with unilateral NAION 10 min after changing to each of the following positions sequentially: sitting, supine, right lateral decubitus position (LDP), supine, left LDP, and supine. IOP was measured using a rebound tonometer and OPP was calculated using formulas based on mean BP. The dependent LDP (DLDP) was defined as the position when the eye of interest (affected or unaffected eye) was placed on the dependent side in the LDP. IOPs were significantly higher (P = 0.020) and OPPs were significantly lower (P = 0.041) in the affected eye compare with the unaffected eye, with the affected eye in DLDP. Compared with the mean IOP of the unaffected eyes, the mean IOP of the affected eyes increased significantly (+2.9 ± 4.4 versus +0.7 ± 3.1 mmHg, respectively; P = 0.003) and the mean OPP decreased significantly (-6.7 ± 9.4 versus -4.9 ± 8.0 mmHg, respectively; P = 0.022) after changing positions from supine to DLDP. In addition, changing position from supine to DLDP showed significantly larger absolute changes in IOP (4.13 ± 3.19 mmHg versus 2.51 ± 1.92 mmHg, respectively; P = 0.004) and OPP (9.86 ± 5.69 mmHg versus 7.50 ± 5.49 mmHg, respectively; P = 0.009) in the affected eye compared with the unaffected eye. In the affected eye, there was a significant positive correlation between absolute change in IOP and OPP when changing position from supine to DLDP (Rho = 0.512, P = 0.021). A postural change from supine to DLDP caused significant fluctuations in IOP and OPP of the affected eye, and may significantly increase IOP and decrease OPP. Posture-induced IOP changes may be a predisposing factor for NAION development.

  7. Cerebrolysin and aquaporin 4 inhibition improve pathological and motor recovery after ischemic stroke.

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    Catalin, Bogdan; Rogoveanu, O C; Pirici, Ionica; Balseanu, Tudor Adrian; Stan, Adina; Tudorica, Valerica; Balea, Maria; Mindrila, Ion; Albu, Carmen Valeria; Mohamed, Guleed; Pirici, Daniel; Muresanu, Dafin Fior

    2018-04-25

    Edema represents one of the earliest negative markers of survival and consecutive neurological deficit following stroke. The mixture of cellular and vasogenic edema makes treating this condition complicated, and to date, there is no pathogenically oriented drug treatment for edema, which leaves parenteral administration of a hypertonic solution as the only non-surgical alternative. New insights into water metabolism in the brain have opened the way for molecular targeted treatment, with aquaporin 4 channels (AQP4) taking center stage. We aimed here to assess the effect of inhibiting AQP4 together with the administration of a neurotropic factor (Cerebrolysin) in ischemic stroke. Using a permanent medial cerebral artery occlusion rat model, we administrated a single dose of the AQP4 inhibitor TGN-020 (100 mg/kg) at 15 minutes after ischemia followed by daily Cerebrolysin dosing (5ml/kg) for seven days. Rotarod motor testing and neuropathology examinations were next performed. We showed first that the combination treatment animals have a better motor function preservation at seven days after permanent ischemia. We have also identified distinct cellular contributions that represent the bases of behavior testing, such as less astrocyte scarring and a larger neuronal-survival phenotype rate in animals treated with both compounds than in animals treated with Cerebrolysin alone or untreated animals. Our data shows that water diffusion inhibition and Cerebrolysin administration after focal ischemic stroke reduces infarct size, leading to a higher neuronal survival in the peri-core glial scar region. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  8. Adaptability of the Immature Ocular Motor Control System: Unilateral IGF-1 Medial Rectus Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willoughby, Christy L; Fleuriet, Jérome; Walton, Mark M; Mustari, Michael J; McLoon, Linda K

    2015-06-01

    Unilateral treatment with sustained release IGF-1 to one medial rectus muscle in infant monkeys was performed to test the hypothesis that strabismus would develop as a result of changes in extraocular muscles during the critical period of development of binocularity. Sustained release IGF-1 pellets were implanted unilaterally on one medial rectus muscle in normal infant monkeys during the first 2 weeks of life. Eye position was monitored using standard photographic methods. After 3 months of treatment, myofiber and neuromuscular size, myosin composition, and innervation density were quantified in all rectus muscles and compared to those in age-matched controls. Sustained unilateral IGF-1 treatments resulted in strabismus for all treated subjects; 3 of the 4 subjects had a clinically significant strabismus of more than 10°. Both the treated medial rectus and the untreated ipsilateral antagonist lateral rectus muscles had significantly larger myofibers. No adaptation in myofiber size occurred in the contralateral functionally yoked lateral rectus or in myosin composition, neuromuscular junction size, or nerve density. Sustained unilateral IGF-1 treatment to extraocular muscles during the sensitive period of development of orthotropic eye alignment and binocularity was sufficient to disturb ocular motor development, resulting in strabismus in infant monkeys. This could be due to altering fusion of gaze during the early sensitive period. Serial measurements of eye alignment suggested the IGF-1-treated infants received insufficient coordinated binocular experience, preventing the establishment of normal eye alignment. Our results uniquely suggest that abnormal signaling by the extraocular muscles may be a cause of strabismus.

  9. Combined pharmacological and motor training interventions for recovery of upper limb function in subacute ischemic stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Stanescu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Motor deficit, especially in the upper limb, is the primary contributor in post-stroke disability. Recovery of motor function relies on neural plasticity – cortical plastic reorganization – a spontaneous process, which could be enhanced from early phases by rehabilitative strategies. The subacute stage after stroke is the critical period during which the brain is most receptive to rehabilitation strategies. Based on the recent results of 2 trials in stroke rehabilitation using pharmacological intervention with Cerebrolysin in combination with standardized kinesitherapy, we conducted a pilot study of 4 consecutive patients with acute ischemic stroke, treated with Cerebrolysin for 28 days after stroke, and with intensive task-specific kinesitherapy from day 7 to day 28 after stroke. We assessed stroke severity with NIHSS score, upper limb function with ARAT (Action Research Arm Test score, disability with modified Rankin scale and patient’s autonomy with Barthel Index, at day 0 and day 30 after stroke. After 28 days of combined therapy all 4 patients improved, most significant improvement was seen in upper limb function, measured by ARAT score and in autonomy measured by Barthel Index.

  10. Institutional profile: integrated center for research and treatment of vertigo, balance and ocular motor disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Thomas; Zwergal, Andreas; Jahn, Klaus; Strupp, Michael

    2010-01-01

    In 2009 the German BMBF (German Ministry of Education and Research) established an Integrated Center for Research and Treatment (IFB(LMU)) of Vertigo, Balance and Ocular Motor Disorders in Munich. After the 10-year period of funding by the BMBF, it is envisioned that the (IFB(LMU)) will continue over the long term with the joint support of the University Hospital, the Medical Faculty, and the Bavarian State. Vertigo is one of the most common complaints in medicine. Despite its high prevalence, patients with vertigo generally receive either inappropriate or inadequate treatment. This deplorable situation is internationally well known and its causes are multiple: insufficient interdisciplinary cooperation, no standardized diagnostics and therapy, the failure to translate findings of basic science into clinical applications, and the scarcity of clinical multicenter studies. The (IFB(LMU)) will constitute a suitable tool with which these structural, clinical, and scientific deficits can be overcome. It will also make possible the establishment of an international interdisciplinary referral center. Munich has become the site of a unique concentration of leading experts on vertigo, balance and ocular motor disorders, both in the clinical and basic sciences. Academic structures have paved the way for the creation of an interdisciplinary horizontal network that also allows structured, vertical academic career paths via the Bachelor's and Master's degree programs in Neuroscience, a Graduate School of Systemic Neurosciences, and the Munich Center for Neurosciences - Brain and Mind. The (IFB(LMU)) has the following objectives as regards structure and content: to create an independent patient-oriented clinical research center under the auspices of the Medical Faculty but with autonomous administration and budget; to overcome existing clinical and academic barriers separating the traditional specializations; to establish a standardized interdisciplinary longitudinal and

  11. Axon guidance in the developing ocular motor system and Duane retraction syndrome depends on Semaphorin signaling via alpha2-chimaerin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrario, Juan E.; Baskaran, Pranetha; Clark, Christopher; Hendry, Aenea; Lerner, Oleg; Hintze, Mark; Allen, James; Chilton, John K.; Guthrie, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Eye movements depend on correct patterns of connectivity between cranial motor axons and the extraocular muscles. Despite the clinical importance of the ocular motor system, little is known of the molecular mechanisms underlying its development. We have recently shown that mutations in the Chimaerin-1 gene encoding the signaling protein α2-chimaerin (α2-chn) perturb axon guidance in the ocular motor system and lead to the human eye movement disorder, Duane retraction syndrome (DRS). The axon guidance cues that lie upstream of α2-chn are unknown; here we identify candidates to be the Semaphorins (Sema) 3A and 3C, acting via the PlexinA receptors. Sema3A/C are expressed in and around the developing extraocular muscles and cause growth cone collapse of oculomotor neurons in vitro. Furthermore, RNAi knockdown of α2-chn or PlexinAs in oculomotor neurons abrogates Sema3A/C-dependent growth cone collapse. In vivo knockdown of endogenous PlexinAs or α2-chn function results in stereotypical oculomotor axon guidance defects, which are reminiscent of DRS, whereas expression of α2-chn gain-of-function constructs can rescue PlexinA loss of function. These data suggest that α2-chn mediates Sema3–PlexinA repellent signaling. We further show that α2-chn is required for oculomotor neurons to respond to CXCL12 and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), which are growth promoting and chemoattractant during oculomotor axon guidance. α2-chn is therefore a potential integrator of different types of guidance information to orchestrate ocular motor pathfinding. DRS phenotypes can result from incorrect regulation of this signaling pathway. PMID:22912401

  12. Motor Impairments in Transient Ischemic Attack Increase the Odds of a Subsequent Stroke: A Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neha Lodha

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and purposeTransient ischemic attack (TIA increases the risk for a subsequent stroke. Typical symptoms include motor weakness, gait disturbance, and loss of coordination. The association between the presence of motor impairments during a TIA and the chances of a subsequent stroke has not been examined. In the current meta-analysis, we examine whether the odds of a stroke are greater in TIA individuals who experience motor impairments as compared with those who do not experience motor impairments.MethodsWe conducted a systematic search of electronic databases as well as manual searches of the reference lists of retrieved articles. The meta-analysis included studies that reported an odds ratio relating motor impairments to a subsequent stroke, or the number of individuals with or without motor impairments who experienced a subsequent stroke. We examined these studies using rigorous meta-analysis techniques including random effects model, forest and funnel plots, I2, publication bias, and fail-safe analysis.ResultsTwenty-four studies with 15,129 participants from North America, Australia, Asia, and Europe qualified for inclusion. An odds ratio of 2.11 (95% CI, 1.67–2.65, p = 0.000 suggested that the chances of a subsequent stroke are increased by twofolds in individuals who experience motor impairments during a TIA compared with those individuals who have no motor impairments.ConclusionThe presence of motor impairments during TIA is a significantly high-risk clinical characteristic for a subsequent stroke. The current evidence for motor impairments following TIA relies exclusively on the clinical reports of unilateral motor weakness. A comprehensive examination of motor impairments in TIA will enhance TIA prognosis and restoration of residual motor impairments.

  13. Reliability and Normative Reference Values for the Vestibular/Ocular Motor Screening (VOMS) Tool in Youth Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Ryan N; Covassin, Tracey; Elbin, R J; Gould, Dan; Nogle, Sally

    2018-05-01

    The Vestibular/Ocular Motor Screening (VOMS) measure is a newly developed vestibular and ocular motor symptom provocation screening tool for sport-related concussions. Baseline data, psychometric properties, and reliability of the VOMS are needed to further understand the applications of this tool, especially in the youth population, where research is scarce. To establish normative data and document the internal consistency and false-positive rate of the VOMS in a sample of nonconcussed youth athletes. Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. A total of 423 youth athletes (male = 278, female = 145) between the ages of 8 and 14 years completed baseline VOMS screening before the start of their respective sport seasons. Internal consistency was measured with Cronbach α and inter-item correlations. Approximately 60% of youth athletes reported no symptom provocation on baseline VOMS assessment, with 9% to 13% scoring over the cutoff levels (score of ≥2 for any individual VOMS symptom, near point convergence distance of ≥5 cm). The VOMS displayed a high internal consistency (Cronbach α = .97) at baseline among youth athletes. The current findings provide preliminary support for the implementation of VOMS baseline assessment into clinical practice, due to a high internal consistency, strong relationships between VOMS items, and a low false-positive rate at baseline in youth athletes.

  14. Effect of Gabapentin/Memantine on the Infantile Nystagmus Syndrome in the Zebrafish Model: Implications for the Therapy of Ocular Motor Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bögli, Stefan Yu; Afthinos, Maresa; Huang, Melody Ying-Yu

    2017-06-01

    Infantile nystagmus syndrome (INS) is a disorder characterized by typical horizontal eye oscillations. Due to the uncertain etiology of INS, developing specific treatments remains difficult. Single reports demonstrated, on limited measures, alleviating effects of gabapentin and memantine. In the current study, we employed the zebrafish INS model belladonna (bel) to conduct an in-depth study of how gabapentin and memantine interventions alleviate INS signs, which may further restore visual conditions in affected subjects. Moreover, we described the influence of both medications on ocular motor functions in healthy zebrafish, evaluating possible iatrogenic effects. Ocular motor function and INS characteristics were assessed by eliciting optokinetic response, spontaneous nystagmus, and spontaneous saccades in light and in dark, in 5- to 6-day postfertilization bel larvae and heterozygous siblings. Single larvae were recorded before and after a 1-hour drug treatment (200 mM gabapentin/0.2 mM memantine). Both interventions significantly reduced nystagmus intensity (gabapentin: 59.98%, memantine: 39.59%). However, while the application of gabapentin affected all tested ocular motor functions, memantine specifically reduced nystagmus amplitude and intensity, and thus left controls completely unaffected. Finally, both drug treatments resulted in specific changes in nystagmus waveform and velocity. Our study provides deeper insight into gabapentin and memantine treatment effect in the zebrafish INS model. Moreover, this study should establish zebrafish as a pharmacologic animal model for treating nystagmus and ocular motor disease, serving as a basis for future large-scale drug screenings.

  15. REM sleep behavior disorder in Parkinson disease: association with abnormal ocular motor findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young Eun; Yang, Hui June; Yun, Ji Young; Kim, Han-Joon; Lee, Jee-Young; Jeon, Beom S

    2014-04-01

    The anatomical substrates associated with generalized muscle atonia during REM sleep are located on the pontine tegmentum and medial medulla oblongata. We examined whether patients with REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) have abnormal ocular movements suggesting brainstem or cerebellar dysfunction in Parkinson's disease (PD). Cross-sectional survey for the existence of RBD and abnormal ocular movements. Ocular movements were examined by video-oculography (VOG). A total of 202 patients were included in this study. One hundred and sixteen (57.4%) of the 202 patients have clinically probable RBD, and 28 (24.1%) of the 116 with clinically probable RBD patients had abnormal VOG findings suggesting brainstem or cerebellar dysfunction; whereas 86 of the 202 patients did not have clinically probable RBD, and only 7 (8.1%) of the 86 patients had abnormal VOG findings suggesting brainstem or cerebellar dysfunction (P=0.001). This study suggests that the presence of RBD is associated with more severe or extensive brainstem pathology or different distribution of pathology in PD. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. [Effect of heat-reinforcing needling combined with rehabilitation training on the motor function of ischemic stroke patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ning-xia; Liu, Gui-zhen; Huang, Tai-quan; Li, Wei-jiang; Luo, Jia-qi; Liu, Wei-wei; Huang, Yong; Wang, Ai-min

    2009-12-01

    To observe the therapeutic effect of heat-reinforcing needling combined with modem rehabilitation training on the motor function of ischemic stroke patients. Fifty case of ischemic stroke patients were randomly divided into rehabilitation (Rehab, n=40) and acupuncture (Acup) + Rehab (n=40) groups. Heat-reinforcing needling was applied to Jianyu (LI 15), Quchi (LI 11), Hegu (LI 14), Zusanli (ST 36), Yanglingquan (GB 34), Yinlingquan (SP 9) and Sanyinjiao (SP 6), once daily for 3 weeks. Rehabilitation training including healthy limb and joint movement was conducted, once daily for 3 weeks. The patient's neurological impairment degree and the motor function (Fugl-Meyer index) were evaluated before and after the treatment. After the treatment, of the each 40 cases in Rehab and Acup + Rehab groups, 10 (25.0%) and 17 (42.5%) experienced marked improvement in their symptoms, 17 (42.5%) and 18 (45.0%) had improvement, 13 (32.5%) and 5 (12.5%) failed, with the effective rates being 67.5% and 87.5% respectively. The therapeutic effect of Acup + Rehab group was markedly superior to that of Rehab group (P0.05). After the treatment, the scores of neurological impairment degree of two groups both decreased significantly (PRehab group was significantly lower than that of Rehab group (PRehab group were obviously higher than those of Rehab group (Pstroke patients.

  17. Development of Vestibular Stochastic Resonance as a Sensorimotor Countermeasure: Improving Otolith Ocular and Motor Task Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulavara, Ajitkumar; Fiedler, Matthew; DeDios,Yiri E.; Galvan, Raquel; Bloomberg, Jacob; Wood, Scott

    2011-01-01

    Astronauts experience disturbances in sensorimotor function after spaceflight during the initial introduction to a gravitational environment, especially after long-duration missions. Stochastic resonance (SR) is a mechanism by which noise can assist and enhance the response of neural systems to relevant, imperceptible sensory signals. We have previously shown that imperceptible electrical stimulation of the vestibular system enhances balance performance while standing on an unstable surface. The goal of our present study is to develop a countermeasure based on vestibular SR that could improve central interpretation of vestibular input and improve motor task responses to mitigate associated risks.

  18. Updating visual memory across eye movements for ocular and arm motor control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Aidan A; Henriques, Denise Y P

    2008-11-01

    Remembered object locations are stored in an eye-fixed reference frame, so that every time the eyes move, spatial representations must be updated for the arm-motor system to reflect the target's new relative position. To date, studies have not investigated how the brain updates these spatial representations during other types of eye movements, such as smooth-pursuit. Further, it is unclear what information is used in spatial updating. To address these questions we investigated whether remembered locations of pointing targets are updated following smooth-pursuit eye movements, as they are following saccades, and also investigated the role of visual information in estimating eye-movement amplitude for updating spatial memory. Misestimates of eye-movement amplitude were induced when participants visually tracked stimuli presented with a background that moved in either the same or opposite direction of the eye before pointing or looking back to the remembered target location. We found that gaze-dependent pointing errors were similar following saccades and smooth-pursuit and that incongruent background motion did result in a misestimate of eye-movement amplitude. However, the background motion had no effect on spatial updating for pointing, but did when subjects made a return saccade, suggesting that the oculomotor and arm-motor systems may rely on different sources of information for spatial updating.

  19. An Evaluation of Automotive Interior Packages Based on Human Ocular and Joint Motor Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Yoshiyuki; Rakumatsu, Takeshi; Horiue, Masayoshi; Miyazaki, Tooru; Nishikawa, Kazuo; Nouzawa, Takahide; Tsuji, Toshio

    This paper proposes a new evaluation method of an automotive interior package based on human oculomotor and joint-motor properties. Assuming the long-term driving situation in the express high way, the three evaluation indices were designed on i) the ratio of head motion at gazing the driving items; ii) the load torque for maintaining the standard driving posture; and iii) the human force manipulability at the end-point of human extremities. Experiments were carried out for two different interior packages with four subjects who have the special knowledge on the automobile development. Evaluation results demonstrate that the proposed method can quantitatively analyze the driving interior in good agreement with the generally accepted subjective opinion in the automobile industry.

  20. Electroacupunctre improves motor impairment via inhibition of microglia-mediated neuroinflammation in the sensorimotor cortex after ischemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Weilin; Wang, Xian; Yang, Shanli; Huang, Jia; Xue, Xiehua; Zheng, Yi; Shang, Guanhao; Tao, Jing; Chen, Lidian

    2016-04-15

    Electroacupuncture (EA) is one of the safety and effective therapies for improving neurological and sensorimotor impairment via blockade of inappropriate inflammatory responses. However, the mechanisms of anti-inflammation involved is far from been fully elucidated. Focal cerebral ischemic stroke was administered by the middle cerebral artery occlusion and reperfusion (MCAO/R) surgery. The MCAO/R rats were accepted EA treatment at the LI 11 and ST 36 acupoints for consecutive 3days. The neurological outcome, animal behaviors test and molecular biology assays were used to evaluate the MCAO/R model and therapeutic effect of EA. EA treatment for MCAO rats showed a significant reduction in the infarct volumes accompanied by functional recovery in mNSS outcomes, motor function performances. The possible mechanisms that EA treatment attenuated the over-activation of Iba-1 and ED1 positive microglia in the peri-infract sensorimotor cortex. Simultaneously, both tissue and serum protein levels of the tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were decreased by EA treatment in MCAO/R injured rats. The levels of inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6) were decreased in the peri-infract sensorimotor cortex and blood serum of MCAO/R injured rats after EA treatment. Furthermore, we found that EA treatment prevented from the nucleus translocation of NF-κB p65 and suppressed the expression of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) and myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) in the peri-infract sensorimotor cortex. The findings from this study indicated that EA improved the motor impairment via inhibition of microglia-mediated neuroinflammation that invoked NF-κB p65, p38 MAPK and MyD88 produced proinflammatory cytokine in the peri-infract sensorimotor cortex of rats following ischemic stroke. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Ocular Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Ocular Hypertension Sections What Is Ocular Hypertension? Ocular Hypertension Causes ... Hypertension Diagnosis Ocular Hypertension Treatment What Is Ocular Hypertension? Leer en Español: ¿Qué es la hipertensión ocular? ...

  2. Amelioration of cognitive, motor and endogenous defense functions with silymarin, piracetam and protocatechuic acid in the cerebral global ischemic rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muley, Milind M; Thakare, Vishnu N; Patil, Rajesh R; Bafna, Pallavi A; Naik, Suresh R

    2013-07-19

    The neuroprotective activities of silymarin, piracetam and protocatechuic acid ethyl ester (PCA) on cerebral global ischemic/reperfusion were evaluated in a rat model. A midline ventral incision was made in the throat region. The right and left common carotid arteries were located and a bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (BCCAO) was performed for 30min using atraumatic clamps followed by a 24h period of reperfusion. Neurological/behavioral functions (cognitive and motor), endogenous defense systems (lipid peroxidation, glutathione, catalase, and superoxide dismutase), reduced water content and infarct size and histopathological alterations were then studied. Silymarin and PCA treatments significantly improved cognitive, motor and endogenous defense functions, histopathological alterations, and, reduced both water content and infarct size compared to the vehicle-treated ischemic control group. Piracetam treatment improved neurological and histopathological alterations, reduced water content and infarct size, but failed to restore/prevent the impaired endogenous defense functions significantly. Silymarin showed better neuroprotection than piracetam and PCA in experimentally induced global ischemic/reperfusion and was able to facilitate mnemonic performance. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect of Pre-nutrion of Flax Seed Oil (Linum Usitatissimum on the amount of Cerebral ischemic lesion and motor nerve disorders in animal model rat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SV Hosseini

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Stroke is the third death agent (factor in industrial countries after cardiovascular disease and cancer. With regard to high content of antioxidant materials in flax seed oil like &alpha-linolenic acid, lignan as well as phenolic combinations like secoisolarisirsinol (SDG, this study performed for studding relationship between of cerebral ischemic lesion and motor-nerve disorders in model of stroke in rat. Methods: in the study, 35 male mice from strain Wistar divided to 5 groups. The groups included control, sham and 3 experimental groups. They received doses 0.25, 0.5 and 0.75 ml/kg from flax seed oil orally. By gavage for 30 days two control and sham groups received aqua distillate (distil water. Two hours after the last gavaged dose, overly group with 7 pieces operated for measurement of the amount of cerebral lesion and motor-nerve disorders. (Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion Model. Middle cerebral Artery Occlusion by the model resulted in local ischemic stroke in animal. Data analyzed by software SPSS, test ANOVA and disorders by test mann-Whitney. Findings: Average of records of motor-nerve disorders decreased significantly in group with dose 0.5 and 0.75 using flax seed oil (P<0.05. The amount of cerebral ischemic lesion in doses 0.5 and 0.75 than to control group is indicated meaning full different, but percent of the total cerebral lesion in control group in compared group with dose 0.25 is not indicated meaningful different. Percent of the amount of ischemic lesion in region penumbra in group 0.75 and 0.5 than to control group is indicated meaningful different, but percent of the amount of lesion in region penumbra in control group in compared region penumbra in group with dose 0.25 is not indicated meaning full different. Results: Findings of the study indicated that flax seed oil, particular in doses 0.5 and 0.75 resulted to decrease of the amount of cerebral ischemic lesion and decrease of motor-nerve disorders in

  4. Delineation of the working memory profile in female FMR1 premutation carriers: the effect of cognitive load on ocular motor responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Annie L; Cornish, Kim M; Godler, David E; Clough, Meaghan; Kraan, Claudine; Bui, Minh; Fielding, Joanne

    2015-04-01

    Fragile X mental retardation 1 (FMR1) premutation carriers (PM-carriers) are characterised as having mid-sized expansions of between 55 and 200 CGG repeats in the 5' untranslated region of the FMR1 gene. While there is evidence of executive dysfunction in PM-carriers, few studies have explicitly explored working memory capabilities in female PM-carriers. 14 female PM-carriers and 13 age- and IQ-matched healthy controls completed an ocular motor n-back working memory paradigm. This task examined working memory ability and the effect of measured increases in cognitive load. Female PM-carriers were found to have attenuated working memory capabilities. Increasing the cognitive load did not elicit the expected reciprocal increase in the task errors for female PM-carriers, as it did in controls. However female PM-carriers took longer to respond than controls, regardless of the cognitive load. Further, FMR1 mRNA levels were found to significantly predict PM-carrier response time. Although preliminary, these findings provide further evidence of executive dysfunction, specifically disruption to working memory processes, which were found to be associated with increases in FMR1 mRNA expression in female PM-carriers. With future validation, ocular motor paradigms such as the n-back paradigm will be critical to the development of behavioural biomarkers for identification of PM-carrier cognitive-affective phenotypes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Clinical and ocular motor analysis of the infantile nystagmus syndrome in the first 6 months of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertle, R W; Maldanado, V K; Maybodi, M; Yang, D

    2002-06-01

    The infantile nystagmus syndrome (INS) usually begins in infancy and may or may not be associated with visual sensory system abnormalities. Little is known about its specific waveforms in the first 6 months of life or their relation to the developing visual system. This study identifies the clinical and ocular motility characteristics of the INS and establishes the range of waveforms present in the first 6 months of life. 27 infants with involuntary ocular oscillations typical of INS are included in this analysis. They were evaluated both clinically and with motility recordings. Eye movement analysis was performed off line from computer analysis of digitised data. Variables analysed included age, sex, vision, ocular abnormalities, head position, and null zone, neutral zone characteristics, symmetry, conjugacy, waveforms, frequencies, and foveation times. Ages ranged from 3 to 6.5 months (average 4.9 months). 15 patients (56%) had abnormal vision for age, nine (33%) had strabismus, five (19%) had an anomalous head posture, 13 (48%) had oculographic null and neutral positions, nine (33%) had binocular asymmetry, and only two showed consistent dysconjugacy. Average binocular frequency was 3.3 Hz, monocular frequency 6.6 Hz. Average foveation periods were longer and more "jerk" wave forms were observed in those patients with normal vision. Common clinical characteristics and eye movement waveforms of INS begin in the first few months of infancy and waveform analysis at this time may help with both diagnosis and visual status.

  6. Effect of early and late rehabilitation onset in a chronic rat model of ischemic stroke- assessment of motor cortex signaling and gait functionality over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Rasmus K; Samson, Katrine L; Simonsen, Daniel; Jensen, Winnie

    2013-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of ischemic stroke and onset of subsequent rehabilitation of gait function in rats. Nine male Sprague-Dawley rats were instrumented with a 16-channel intracortical (IC) electrode array. An ischemic stroke was induced within the hindlimb area of the left motor cortex. The rehabilitation consisted of a repetitive training paradigm over 28 days, initiated on day one ("Early-onset", 5 rats) and on day seven, ("Late-onset", 4 rats). Data were obtained from IC microstimulation tests, treadmill walking tests, and beam walking tests. Results revealed an expansion of the hindlimb representation within the motor cortex area and an increased amount of cortical firing rate modulation for the "Early-onset" group but not for the "Late-onset" group. Kinematic data revealed a significant change for both intervention groups. However, this difference was larger for the "Early-onset" group. Results from the beam walking test showed functional performance deficits following stroke which returned to pre-stroke level after the rehabilitative training. The results from the present study indicate the existence of a critical time period following stroke where onset of rehabilitative training may be more effective and related to a higher degree of true recovery.

  7. Effect of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation on Severely Affected Arm-Hand Motor Function in Patients After an Acute Ischemic Stroke: A Pilot Randomized Control Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabadi, Meheroz H; Aston, Christopher E

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this article was to determine whether cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation (c-tDCS) to unaffected primary motor cortex (PMC) plus conventional occupational therapy (OT) improves functional motor recovery of the affected arm hand in patients after an acute ischemic stroke compared with sham transcranial direct current stimulation plus conventional OT. In this prospective, randomized, double-blinded, sham-controlled trial of 16 severe, acute ischemic stroke patients with severe arm-hand weakness were randomly assigned to either experimental (c-tDCS plus OT; n = 8) or control (sham transcranial direct current stimulation plus OT; n = 8) groups. All patients received a standard 3-hr in-patient rehabilitation therapy, plus an additional ten 30-min sessions of tDCS. During each session, 1 mA of cathodal stimulation to the unaffected PMC is performed followed by the patient's scheduled OT. The primary outcome measure was change in Action Research Arm Test (ARAT) total and subscores on discharge. Application of c-tDCS to unaffected PMC resulted in a clinically relevant 10-point improvement in the affected arm-hand function based on ARAT total score compared with a 2-point improvement in the control group. Application of 30-min of c-tDCS to the unaffected PMC showed a 10-point improvement in the ARAT score. This corresponds to a large effect size in improvement of affected arm-hand function in patients with severe, acute ischemic stroke. Although not statistically significant, this suggests that larger studies, enrolling at least 25 patients in each group, and with a longer follow-up are warranted.

  8. Ocular Melanoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is Ocular Melanoma? Leer en Español: ¿Qué es el melanoma ocular? Written By: Daniel Porter Reviewed By: Robert H Janigian Jr MD Sep. 01, 2017 Ocular melanoma (melanoma in or around the eye) is a type of cancer that develops in the cells that produce pigment. ...

  9. Protective Effects of N-Acetyl-L-Cysteine in Human Oligodendrocyte Progenitor Cells and Restoration of Motor Function in Neonatal Rats with Hypoxic-Ischemic Encephalopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongsun Park

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Since oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs are the target cells of neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE, the present study was aimed at investigating the protective effects of N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC, a well-known antioxidant and precursor of glutathione, in OPCs as well as in neonatal rats. Methods. In in vitro study, protective effects of NAC on KCN cytotoxicity in F3.Olig2 OPCs were investigated via MTT assay and apoptotic signal analysis. In in vivo study, NAC was administered to rats with HIE induced by hypoxia-ischemia surgery at postnatal day 7, and their motor functions and white matter demyelination were analyzed. Results. NAC decreased KCN cytotoxicity in F3.Olig2 cells and especially suppressed apoptosis by regulating Bcl2 and p-ERK. Administration of NAC recovered motor functions such as the using ratio of forelimb contralateral to the injured brain, locomotor activity, and rotarod performance of neonatal HIE animals. It was also confirmed that NAC attenuated demyelination in the corpus callosum, a white matter region vulnerable to HIE. Conclusion. The results indicate that NAC exerts neuroprotective effects in vitro and in vivo by preserving OPCs, via regulation of antiapoptotic signaling, and that F3.Olig2 human OPCs could be a good tool for screening of candidates for demyelinating diseases.

  10. Constraint-induced movement therapy promotes motor function recovery and downregulates phosphorylated extracellular regulated protein kinase expression in ischemic brain tissue of rats

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    Bei Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Motor function impairment is a common outcome of stroke. Constraint-induced movement therapy (CIMT involving intensive use of the impaired limb while restraining the unaffected limb is widely used to overcome the effects of ′learned non-use′ and improve limb function after stroke. However, the underlying mechanism of CIMT remains unclear. In the present study, rats were randomly divided into a middle cerebral artery occlusion (model group, a CIMT + model (CIMT group, or a sham group. Restriction of the affected limb by plaster cast was performed in the CIMT and sham groups. Compared with the model group, CIMT significantly improved the forelimb functional performance in rats. By western blot assay, the expression of phosphorylated extracellular regulated protein kinase in the bilateral cortex and hippocampi of cerebral ischemic rats in the CIMT group was significantly lower than that in the model group, and was similar to sham group levels. These data suggest that functional recovery after CIMT may be related to decreased expression of phosphorylated extracellular regulated protein kinase in the bilateral cortex and hippocampi.

  11. Ocular Sarcoidosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasadhika, Sirichai; Rosenbaum, James T

    2015-01-01

    Sarcoidosis is one of the leading causes of inflammatory eye disease. Ocular sarcoidosis can involve any part of the eye and its adnexal tissues, and may cause uveitis, episcleritis/scleritis, eyelid abnormalities, conjunctival granuloma, optic neuropathy, lacrimal gland enlargement and orbital inflammation. Glaucoma and cataract can be complications from inflammation itself or adverse effects from therapy. Ophthalmic manifestations can be isolated, or associated with other organ involvement. Patients with ocular sarcoidosis can present with a wide range of clinical presentations and severity. Multi-disciplinary approaches are required to achieve the best treatment outcomes for both ocular and systemic manifestations. PMID:26593141

  12. Traumatismos oculares Ocular traumas

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    Gelen Welch Ruiz

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio descriptivo de tipo retrospectivo longitudinal cuyo universo estuvo constituido por 72 ojos de 72 pacientes con traumatismos oculares mecánicos que fueron hospitalizados en el Hospital Militar Central “Dr. Carlos J. Finlay” desde enero de 1999 hasta enero de 2005. Para el análisis estadístico de la información se utilizó el programa automatizado SPSS versión 11.5 en el cual también se conformó la base de datos y se realizaron los cálculos de acuerdo con el tipo de variable analizada. Se utilizaron medidas de resumen, tendencia central y asociación estadística con un nivel de significación de p A retrospective longitudinal and descriptive study was carried out in 72 eyes from 72 patients with mechanical occular traumas, who had been hospitalized in “Dr. Carlos J. Finlay” Military Hospital from December 1999 to January 2005. For the statistical data analysis, an automated program (SPSS 11.5 version was used to create the database and estimations were made according to the variable types. Summary measures, central tendency measures and statistical association with significance level equal to p < 0.05 were employed. Males prevailed (95.8%, the average age was 30.26 years with a minimum rate of 17 years and maximum rate of 82 years. The most frequent mechanisms of trauma were aggressions (23. 6% and injures from secondary projectiles (13.9%. The anterior segment traumas were more frequent (61, 1% than posterior segment traumas (6.94%. Both segments of the eyeball were affected in 39, 1% of eyes which evinced the worst visual acuity. The most common associated injures were hyphema (54, 2% and vitreous hemorrhage (16.6%. Closed trauma (contusions were more common and most of the eyes had better final visual acuity (45, 2% with vision range of 0.6-1.0 and 26.2% with vision range of 0.59-0.1. On the other hand, eyes affected by open trauma (simple wound, contusion-wound, wound with intraocular foreign body and

  13. Ocular Straylight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigrid Mueller-Schotte OD, MSc

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Intra-ocular straylight can cause decreased visual functioning, and it may cause diminished vision-related quality of life (VRQOL. This cross-sectional population-based study investigates the association between straylight and VRQOL in middle-aged and elderly individuals. Multivariable linear regression analyses were used to assess the association between straylight modeled continuously and cutoff at the recommended fitness-to-drive value, straylight ≥ 1.4 log(s, and VRQOL. The study showed that participants with normal straylight values, straylight ≤ 1.4 log(s, rated their VRQOL slightly better than those with high straylight values (straylight ≥ 1.4 log(s. Furthermore, multivariable regression analysis revealed a borderline statistical significant association ( p = .06 between intra-ocular straylight and self-reported VRQOL in middle-aged and elderly individuals. The association between straylight and self-reported VRQOL was not influenced by the status of the intra-ocular lens (natural vs. artificial intra-ocular lens after cataract extraction or the number of (instrumental activities of daily living that were reported as difficult for the elderly individuals.

  14. Tuberculosis ocular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Infante Barrera

    1950-01-01

    Full Text Available La evolución etiológica de la medicina la podemos dividir en dos grandes períodos: período de la sífilis y período de la tuberculosis. El período de la sífilis, gracias a las armas de combate de que hoy disponemos, ocupa un lugar secundario. El período de la tuberculosis y que no es sino el paralelo de la vida moderna, ocupa en vigencia el primer lugar. Es el período presente. Hasta hace poco tiempo el médico en general, iniciaba la exploración de su paciente con un interrogatorio, una inspección, un tacto y una serología con una obsesión sifilítica. En la época actual el médico y en especial el oftalmólogo debe tener una obsesión tuberculosa en la investigación etiológica. Cuántas veces en una afección ocular que de una manera lenta pero progresiva produce profundas alteraciones oculares, lleva el sello soterrado de una tuberculosis? Cuántos enfermos de una constitución en apariencia envidiable hacen precisamente por un exceso de sus defensas una alergia tuberculosa? Tan traicionera como la sífilis es la tuberculosis. La sífilis quema sus etapas y estalla con una hemorragia cerebral, una locura, una parálisis general, una ataxia locomotriz progresiva, una goma o una meningitis sifilítica. La tuberculosis hace su presentación con una afección ocular, una goma, una granulia, una artritis, una osteítis, o una meningitis óptico-quiasmática. Siendo esto así, es necesario, en la mayoría de las afecciones oculares, tratar de identificarla por los medios de diagnóstico de que hoy disponemos.

  15. OCULAR MANIFESTATIONS OF HEAD INJURIES

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    Kanukollu Venkata Madusudana Rao

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND This prospective study aimed to evaluate the incidence of ocular manifestations in head injury and their correlation with the intracranial lesions. MATERIALS AND METHODS A total of 108 consecutive cases of closed head injury admitted in the neurosurgical ward of a tertiary teaching hospital underwent a thorough ophthalmic assessment. Clinical examination, radiological imaging and Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS were applied to grade the severity of injury. RESULTS Total number of 108 patients of head injury were examined of which 38 patients had ocular manifestations (35.18%. Of these, 85.18% were males, 84% of injuries were due to road traffic accidents and 16% were due to fall from a height. The ocular manifestations were as follows- Orbital complications were seen in 6 patients (15.8%. Anterior segment manifestations included black eyes seen in 10 patients (26.3%, subconjunctival haemorrhage in 10.5% of patients (4 patients, corneal involvement in 21% of patients (8 patients and pupillary involvement in 50% of patients (19 patients. Posterior segment manifestations were seen in 26.3% of patients (10 patients and were as follows- Purtscher’s retinopathy in 2 patients and optic atrophy in 5 patients. Cranial nerve palsies were seen in 15 patients (39.47% and supranuclear movement disorders were seen in 3 patients (8%. CONCLUSION Even though, neurosurgeons perform comprehensive clinical examination including eye examination, the main purpose is limited to aid topical diagnosis of neurological lesions. This study emphasises the importance of a detailed eye examination by an ophthalmologist to prevent irreversible visual loss in addition to aiding in the neurological diagnosis. Pupillary involvement, papilloedema and ocular motor paresis pointed to a more severe head injury. This observational prospective study helped us to correlate the severity of head injuries in association with ocular findings in patients admitted in neurosurgical ward

  16. Ischemic preconditioning protects against ischemic brain injury

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    Xiao-meng Ma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we hypothesized that an increase in integrin αv ß 3 and its co-activator vascular endothelial growth factor play important neuroprotective roles in ischemic injury. We performed ischemic preconditioning with bilateral common carotid artery occlusion for 5 minutes in C57BL/6J mice. This was followed by ischemic injury with bilateral common carotid artery occlusion for 30 minutes. The time interval between ischemic preconditioning and lethal ischemia was 48 hours. Histopathological analysis showed that ischemic preconditioning substantially diminished damage to neurons in the hippocampus 7 days after ischemia. Evans Blue dye assay showed that ischemic preconditioning reduced damage to the blood-brain barrier 24 hours after ischemia. This demonstrates the neuroprotective effect of ischemic preconditioning. Western blot assay revealed a significant reduction in protein levels of integrin αv ß 3, vascular endothelial growth factor and its receptor in mice given ischemic preconditioning compared with mice not given ischemic preconditioning 24 hours after ischemia. These findings suggest that the neuroprotective effect of ischemic preconditioning is associated with lower integrin αv ß 3 and vascular endothelial growth factor levels in the brain following ischemia.

  17. Miopatia ocular descendente

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    Marcos R. G. de Freitas

    1975-06-01

    Full Text Available Os autores apresentam caso de paciente jovem, do sexo feminino, com afecção muscular primária ocular e faríngea sem caráter familial. Foram feitos estudos eletromiográficos e histopatológicos musculares que confirmam o caráter miogênico do processo. É feita comparação entre a miopatia ocular e a miopatia ocular descendente, acreditando os autores que seriam variantes

  18. Cluster bomb ocular injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansour, Ahmad M; Hamade, Haya; Ghaddar, Ayman; Mokadem, Ahmad Samih; El Hajj Ali, Mohamad; Awwad, Shady

    2012-01-01

    To present the visual outcomes and ocular sequelae of victims of cluster bombs. This retrospective, multicenter case series of ocular injury due to cluster bombs was conducted for 3 years after the war in South Lebanon (July 2006). Data were gathered from the reports to the Information Management System for Mine Action. There were 308 victims of clusters bombs; 36 individuals were killed, of which 2 received ocular lacerations and; 272 individuals were injured with 18 receiving ocular injury. These 18 surviving individuals were assessed by the authors. Ocular injury occurred in 6.5% (20/308) of cluster bomb victims. Trauma to multiple organs occurred in 12 of 18 cases (67%) with ocular injury. Ocular findings included corneal or scleral lacerations (16 eyes), corneal foreign bodies (9 eyes), corneal decompensation (2 eyes), ruptured cataract (6 eyes), and intravitreal foreign bodies (10 eyes). The corneas of one patient had extreme attenuation of the endothelium. Ocular injury occurred in 6.5% of cluster bomb victims and 67% of the patients with ocular injury sustained trauma to multiple organs. Visual morbidity in civilians is an additional reason for a global ban on the use of cluster bombs.

  19. Vestibular-ocular accommodation reflex in man

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, B.; Randle, R. J.; Stewart, J. D.

    1975-01-01

    Stimulation of the vestibular system by angular acceleration produces widespread sensory and motor effects. The present paper studies a motor effect which has not been reported in the literature, i.e., the influence of rotary acceleration of the body on ocular accommodation. The accommodation of 10 young men was recorded before and after a high-level deceleration to zero velocity following 30 sec of rotating. Accommodation was recorded continuously on an infrared optometer for 110 sec under two conditions: while the subjects observed a target set at the far point, and while they viewed the same target through a 0.3-mm pinhole. Stimulation by high-level rotary deceleration produced positive accommodation or a pseudomyopia under both conditions, but the positive accommodation was substantially greater and lasted much longer during fixation through the pinhole. It is hypothesized that this increase in accommodation is a result of a vestibular-ocular accommodation reflex.

  20. [Ocular surface system integrity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safonova, T N; Pateyuk, L S

    2015-01-01

    The interplay of different structures belonging to either the anterior segment of the eye or its accessory visual apparatus, which all share common embryological, anatomical, functional, and physiological features, is discussed. Explanation of such terms, as ocular surface, lacrimal functional unit, and ocular surface system, is provided.

  1. [Descending ocular myopathy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Freitas, M R; Nascimento, O J

    1975-06-01

    The case of a 23 years old female patient, with primary involvement of the extraocular and faringeal muscles without familiar history is reported. Electromyographic and muscular biopsy studies proved the myogenic nature of the process. A clinical comparison between the ocular myopathy and the descending ocular myopathy is made, the authors thinking that both of them would be variants of the same muscle disease.

  2. Epidemiology of Ocular Toxoplasmosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petersen, E.; Kijlstra, A.; Stanford, M.

    2012-01-01

    Retinal infection with Toxoplasma gondii is the most important cause of posterior uveitis, whereby prevalence and incidence of ocular symptoms after infection depend on socio-economic factors and the circulating parasite genotypes. Ocular toxoplasmosis is more common in South America, Central

  3. Effects of rehabilitation training on apoptosis of nerve cells and the recovery of neural and motor functions in rats with ischemic stroke through the PI3K/Akt and Nrf2/ARE signaling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xiao-Fei; Wang, Shan; Shen, Min; Wen, Xin; Han, Xin-Rui; Wu, Jun-Chang; Tang, Gao-Zhuo; Wu, Dong-Mei; Lu, Jun; Zheng, Yuan-Lin

    2017-09-01

    This study was designed in order to investigate the effects between rehabilitation training on the apoptosis of nerve cells and the recovery of neural and motor functions of rats with ischemic stroke by way of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B (PI3K/Akt) and nuclear factor E2-related factor 2/antioxidant responsive element (Nrf2/ARE) signaling pathways. In total, 110 healthy adult male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were selected in order to take part in this study. Ninety SD rats were used in order to establish the middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO), among which 80 rats were randomly assigned as part of the natural recovery, natural recovery+Rp-PI3K (the rats injected with PI3K/Akt inhibitor LY294002), rehabilitation training, and rehabilitation training+Rp-PI3K groups. Meanwhile, 20 rats were selected as part of the sham operation group. The neural and motor functions of these rats were evaluated using a balance beam test and the Bederson score. The mRNA expressions of PI3K, Akt, Nrf2 and HO-1 were measured using an RT-qPCR. The protein expressions of PI3K, p-PI3K, Akt, p-Akt, Nrf2 and HO-1 were also detected by using western blotting and the immunohistochemistry process. The cell cycle and cell apoptosis were detected by using a flow cytometry and TUNEL assay. The sham operation group exhibited lower neural and motor function scores than other groups. At the 7, 14, and 21 d marks of this study, the neural and motor function scores were increased in the natural recovery, natural recovery+Rp-PI3K, and rehabilitation training+Rp-PI3K groups in comparison with the rehabilitation training group but found to be decreased in the natural recovery group in comparison with the natural recovery+Rp-PI3K group. In comparison with the sham operation group, expressions of PI3K, Nrf2 and HO-1, and proportions of p-PI3K/PI3K and p-Akt/Akt were all higher in the natural recovery, rehabilitation training, and rehabilitation training+Rp-PI3K groups. Same trends were

  4. The impact of combined oral contraceptives on ocular tissues: a review of ocular effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilita M. Moschos

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this manuscript is to review the action and adverse effects of combined oral contraceptives (COCs on ocular tissues. The percentage of unwanted pregnancies and the subsequent abortions make contraception crucial worldwide. Over 100 million women around the world use common contraceptive methods, including intrauterine devices, combined estrogen and progestin oral contraceptives, as well as progestin only preparations (oral contraceptives, implants or injections. COCs are widely used for contraception, but they are also indicated in menorrhagia, endometriosis, acne and hirsutism, fibroid uterus and premenstrual syndrome. However, they have been associated with high rates of cardiovascular events, venous thromboembolic disease, ischemic strokes and breast cancer. The incidence of COCs-related ocular complications is estimated to be 1 in 230 000, including dry eye symptoms, corneal edema, lens opacities and retinal neuro-ophthalmologic or vascular complications. We may infer that the serious ocular complications of COCs can be prevented by eliminating the estrogen dosage and choosing third-generation progestins. In any case, doctors should take into consideration the systemic and ocular history of the patients before selecting any method of contraception.

  5. Changes of resting cerebral activities in subacute ischemic stroke patients

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    Ping Wu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to detect the difference in resting cerebral activities between ischemic stroke patients and healthy participants, define the abnormal site, and provide new evidence for pathological mechanisms, clinical diagnosis, prognosis prediction and efficacy evaluation of ischemic stroke. At present, the majority of functional magnetic resonance imaging studies focus on the motor dysfunction and the acute stage of ischemic stroke. This study recruited 15 right-handed ischemic stroke patients at subacute stage (15 days to 11.5 weeks and 15 age-matched healthy participants. A resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging scan was performed on each subject to detect cerebral activity. Regional homogeneity analysis was used to investigate the difference in cerebral activities between ischemic stroke patients and healthy participants. The results showed that the ischemic stroke patients had lower regional homogeneity in anterior cingulate and left cerebrum and higher regional homogeneity in cerebellum, left precuneus and left frontal lobe, compared with healthy participants. The experimental findings demonstrate that the areas in which regional homogeneity was different between ischemic stroke patients and healthy participants are in the cerebellum, left precuneus, left triangle inferior frontal gyrus, left inferior temporal gyrus and anterior cingulate. These locations, related to the motor, sensory and emotion areas, are likely potential targets for the neural regeneration of subacute ischemic stroke patients.

  6. Evaluating ocular blood flow

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    Jyotsna Maram

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies have shown that vascular impairment plays an important role in the etiology and pathogenesis of various ocular diseases including glaucoma, age-related macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, and retinal venous occlusive disease. Thus, qualitative and quantitative assessment of ocular blood flow (BF is a topic of interest for early disease detection, diagnosis, and management. Owing to the rapid improvement in technology, there are several invasive and noninvasive techniques available for evaluating ocular BF, with each of these techniques having their own limitations and advantages. This article reviews these important techniques, with a particular focus on Doppler Fourier domain optical coherence tomography (OCT and OCT-angiography.

  7. Ocular fishhook injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ang, C S

    2001-06-01

    Ocular fishhook injuries are rare, yet potentially vision threatening as complications such as corneal scarring, retinal detachment and endophthalmitis may result. The surgical management of these cases is challenging due to the construction of barbed fishhooks.

  8. THERAPY FOR OCULAR TOXOPLASMOSIS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ROTHOVA, A; MEENKEN, C; BRINKMAN, CJ; BAARSMA, GS; BOENTAN, TN; DEJONG, PTVM; KLAASSENBROEKEMA, N; SCHWEITZER, CMC; TIMMERMAN, Z; DEVRIES, J; ZAAL, MJW; KIJLSTRA, A

    1993-01-01

    We conducted a prospective multicenter study of the efficacy of current therapeutic strategies for ocular toxoplasmosis in 149 patients. Treatment consisted of the following three triple-drug combinations: group 1, pyrimethamine, sulfadiazine, and corticosteroids; group 2, clindamycin, sulfadiazine,

  9. Mediators of ocular angiogenesis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-08-26

    Aug 26, 2016 ... Keywords. ocular angiogenesis; corneal neovascularization; retinal neovascularization; diabetic retinopathy; age-related macular degeneration; retinopathy of prematurity; VEGF; PEDF; Flt-1; Flk-1; endostatin; angiopoietin; erythropoietin; Tie2; inflammation; complement; gene therapy; TLR-3; Robo4.

  10. Therapy for ocular toxoplasmosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rothova, A.; Meenken, C.; Buitenhuis, H. J.; Brinkman, C. J.; Baarsma, G. S.; Boen-Tan, T. N.; de Jong, P. T.; Klaassen-Broekema, N.; Schweitzer, C. M.; Timmerman, Z.

    1993-01-01

    We conducted a prospective multicenter study of the efficacy of current therapeutic strategies for ocular toxoplasmosis in 149 patients. Treatment consisted of the following three triple-drug combinations: group 1, pyrimethamine, sulfadiazine, and corticosteroids; group 2, clindamycin, sulfadiazine,

  11. Challenging ocular image recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauca, V. Paúl; Forkin, Michael; Xu, Xiao; Plemmons, Robert; Ross, Arun A.

    2011-06-01

    Ocular recognition is a new area of biometric investigation targeted at overcoming the limitations of iris recognition performance in the presence of non-ideal data. There are several advantages for increasing the area beyond the iris, yet there are also key issues that must be addressed such as size of the ocular region, factors affecting performance, and appropriate corpora to study these factors in isolation. In this paper, we explore and identify some of these issues with the goal of better defining parameters for ocular recognition. An empirical study is performed where iris recognition methods are contrasted with texture and point operators on existing iris and face datasets. The experimental results show a dramatic recognition performance gain when additional features are considered in the presence of poor quality iris data, offering strong evidence for extending interest beyond the iris. The experiments also highlight the need for the direct collection of additional ocular imagery.

  12. Prolonged multifocal electroretinographic implicit times in the ocular ischemic syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Peter Kristian; Munch, Inger Christine; Sander, Birgit

    2010-01-01

    .4 +/- 1.7 mm Hg, respectively. Summed mfERG implicit times (N1, P1, N2) were prolonged in eyes with OIS, by 7.6%, 6.2%, and 7.5%, respectively, compared with fellow eyes (P macula, whereas the assessment of responses from...

  13. Clinics of ocular tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Vishali; Shoughy, Samir S; Mahajan, Sarakshi; Khairallah, Moncef; Rosenbaum, James T; Curi, Andre; Tabbara, Khalid F

    2015-02-01

    Ocular tuberculosis is an extrapulmonary tuberculous condition and has variable manifestations. The purpose of this review is to describe the clinical manifestations of ocular tuberculosis affecting the anterior and posterior segments of the eye in both immunocompetent and immunocompromised patients. Review of literature using Pubmed database. Mycobacterium tuberculosis may lead to formation of conjunctival granuloma, nodular scleritis, and interstitial keratitis. Lacrimal gland and orbital caseating granulomas are rare but may occur. The intraocular structures are also a target of insult by M. tuberculosis and may cause anterior granulomatous uveitis, anterior and posterior synechiae, secondary glaucoma, and cataract. The bacillus may involve the ciliary body, resulting in the formation of a localized caseating granuloma. Posterior segment manifestations include vitritis, retinal vasculitis, optic neuritis, serpiginous-like choroiditis, choroidal tubercules, subretinal neovascularization, and, rarely, endophthalmitis. The recognition of clinical signs of ocular tuberculosis is of utmost importance as it can provide clinical pathway toward tailored investigations and decision making for initiating anti-tuberculosis therapy.

  14. Artefactos en ultrasonido ocular

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    Mariana Mayorquín Ruiz

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available El ultrasonido ocular es un estudio dependiente del operador. Un buen estudio ecográfico debe tener como base el conocimiento de la anatomía y fisiología normales y de los cambios producidos en diferentes enfermedades, así como los cambios tras una cirugía ocular o trauma. El conocimiento de los fenómenos físicos producidos por el ultrasonido es la base para entender y reconocer la presencia de artefactos en el ultrasonido ocular. Esta revisión tiene como objetivo hacer un recuento de los artefactos que pueden ocasionar confusión al interpretar una imagen ecográfica, así como explicar la base física en la que se basan, reduciendo de esta manera los errores de interpretación y diagnósticos.

  15. What Is an Ocular Migraine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... When to seek help What is an ocular migraine? Is it a sign of something serious? Answers ... and retinal migraine, which could signal something serious. Migraine aura affecting your vision Ocular migraine sometimes describes ...

  16. Ocular complications of boxing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianco, M; Vaiano, A; Colella, F; Coccimiglio, F; Moscetti, M; Palmieri, V; Focosi, F; Zeppilli, P; Vinger, P

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the prevalence of ocular injuries in a large population of boxers over a period of 16 years, in particular, the most severe lesions that may be vision threatening. Methods: Clinical records of the medical archive of the Italian Boxing Federation were analysed. A total of 1032 boxers were examined from February 1982 to October 1998. A complete ophthalmological history was available for 956, who formed the study population (a total of 10 697 examinations). The following data were collected: age when started boxing; duration of competitive boxing career (from the date of the first bout); weight category; a thorough ocular history. The following investigations were carried out: measurement of visual acuity and visual fields, anterior segment inspection, applanation tonometry, gonioscopy, and examination of ocular fundus. Eighty age matched healthy subjects, who had never boxed, formed the control group. Results: Of the 956 boxers examined, 428 were amateur (44.8%) and 528 professional (55.2%). The median age at first examination was 23.1 (4.3) years (range 15–36). The prevalence of conjunctival, corneal, lenticular, vitreal, ocular papilla, and retinal alterations in the study population was 40.9% compared with 3.1% in the control group (p⩽0.0001). The prevalence of serious ocular findings (angle, lens, macula, and peripheral retina alterations) was 5.6% in boxers and 3.1% in controls (NS). Conclusions: Boxing does not result in a higher prevalence of severe ocular lesions than in the general population. However, the prevalence of milder lesions (in particular with regard to the conjunctiva and cornea) is noteworthy, justifying the need for adequate ophthalmological surveillance. PMID:15665199

  17. Ocular manifestations of leptospirosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rathinam S

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Leptospiral uveitis is a common entity in tropical countries. Ocular manifestations are noted in the second phase of illness, but these remain under-diagnosed mainly because of the prolonged symptom-free period that separates the systemic manifestations from detection of ocular manifestations.Varying ophthalmic presentations and the intrinsic nature of different types of uveitis to mimic one another also challenge the accuracy of the diagnosis. Of the individual ocular signs, the combination of acute, non-granulomatous, panuveitis, hypopyon, vasculitis, optic disc edema, membranous vitreous opacities and absence of choroiditis or retinitis have high predictive value for the clinical diagnosis of leptospiral uveitis. Geographic location of the patient, occupation, socio-economic status, risk factors related to exposure, past history of fever or jaundice also aid in diagnosis.Steroids are the mainstay of treatment for leptospiral uveitis. Depending upon the severity and anatomical location of inflammatory lesion, topical, peri-ocular and/or systemic steroids are given. The prognosis is generally good, even when the inflammation is severe.

  18. Ocular straylight in albinism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruijt, Bastiaan; Franssen, Luuk; Prick, Liesbeth J. J. M.; van Vliet, Johannes M. J.; van den Berg, Thomas J. T. P.

    2011-01-01

    Albinism is an inherited disorder that affects the melanin biosynthesis pathway, which results in reduced or absent pigment formation. This may lead to increased light transmission through the iris and more reflected light from the fundus. Both these effects contribute to the occurrence of ocular

  19. Therapy of ocular toxoplasmosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rothova, A.; Buitenhuis, H. J.; Meenken, C.; Baarsma, G. S.; Boen-Tan, T. N.; de Jong, P. T.; Schweitzer, C. M.; Timmerman, Z.; de Vries, J.; Zaal, M. J.

    1989-01-01

    We performed a prospective multicentre study to evaluate the efficacy of therapeutic strategies currently used for ocular toxoplasmosis in a large number of patients (n = 106). Treatment was given for at least four weeks and consisted of three triple drug combinations: group 1, pyrimethamine,

  20. Hospital-based ocular emergencies: epidemiology, treatment, and visual outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Cindy A; Rogers-Martel, Melanie; Golas, Liliya; Chepurny, Anna; Martel, James B; Martel, Joseph R

    2014-03-01

    Ocular trauma is recognized as the leading cause of unilateral blindness. However, few studies to date have focused on the clinical features of hospital-based ocular emergencies. Effectiveness of trauma centers in treating ocular emergencies was compared with treatment in traditional community hospital emergency departments. Demographics, causes, and nature of ocular emergencies, as well as visual outcome in community hospitals emergency departments and trauma centers, were also examined. Records of 1027 patients with ocular emergencies seen between July 2007 and November 2010 at 3 community hospitals emergency departments and 2 hospitals with level II trauma centers were retrospectively examined. Unpaired t test and Pearson χ(2) test were used to determine statistical significance. The incidence of patients requiring ophthalmic intervention was 77.2 per 100 000 in the community hospitals and 208.9 per 100 000 in the trauma centers. Rates of ocular emergencies were higher in middle-aged, white men. Orbital fractures were found in 86% of all orbital contusion cases in trauma centers, whereas 66.7% of patients with fall injuries and open globe diagnoses resulted in legal blindness. The middle-aged, white men are more vulnerable to ocular injuries caused mainly by motor vehicle accidents. The ability of trauma centers to provide comparable increases in vision outcomes, despite treating more severe ocular emergencies, demonstrates the effectiveness of trauma centers. Patients diagnosed as having orbital contusions or who have fall injuries deserve careful evaluation because they are more likely to have more severe sight-threatening injuries. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Sclerodermatomyositis, ocular manifestations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedroza-Seres, M; Serna-Ojeda, J C; Flores-Suárez, L F

    2017-07-01

    Sclerodermatomyositis is an overlap syndrome of myositis and scleroderma, with dermatological, muscular and joint involvement, but may also present with ocular manifestations. A 57 year-old woman presented with ophthalmological manifestations, including scleral thinning 360°, and the presence of cells in the anterior and posterior chamber. Oriented physical examination and laboratory studies led to the diagnosis, with the need for systemic treatment. Sclerodermatomyositis is a rare disease. Its diagnosis needs thorough clinical and laboratory studies, and its management should be multidisciplinary when inflammatory ocular manifestations may be present. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Ocular findings in MELAS syndrome – a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modrzejewska, Monika; Chrzanowska, Martyna; Modrzejewska, Anna; Romanowska, Hanna; Ostrowska, Iwona; Giżewska, Maria

    We present a case of a child with MELAS syndrome (mitochondrial encephalo-myopathy with lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes), discussing clinical manifestation, ocular findings and diagnostic challenges. Predominant ocular symptom was a transient complete visual loss, while the predominant ocular sign was a visual field defect. The diagnosia was based on clinical manifestation, laboratory tests, brain scans and genetic testing which confirmed the pathognomonic mutation in the MTTL1 gene encoding the mitochondrial tRNA for leucine 3243> G. Ocular examination demonstrated decreased visual acuity (with bilateral best corrected visual acuity of .1). Periodical, transient visual loss and visual field defects were clinically predominant. Specialist investigations were carried out, which demonstrated homonymous hemianopia (kinetic perimetry), bilateral partial optic nerve atrophy (RetCam). Funduscopy and electrophysiology mfERG study did not confirm features of retinitis pigmentosa. The brain scans revealed numerous small cortical ischemic lesions within the frontal, parietal and temporal lobes, post-stroke focal areas within the occipital lobes and diffuse calcifications of the basal ganglia. During several years of follow-up, visual field defects showed progressive concentric narrowing. The patient received a long-term treatment with arginine, coenzyme Q and vitamin D, both oral and intravenous, but no beneficial effect for the improvement of ophthalmic condition was observed. As it is the case in severe MELAS syndrome, the course of disease was fatal and the patientdied at the age of 14.

  3. Human ocular anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kels, Barry D; Grzybowski, Andrzej; Grant-Kels, Jane M

    2015-01-01

    We review the normal anatomy of the human globe, eyelids, and lacrimal system. This contribution explores both the form and function of numerous anatomic features of the human ocular system, which are vital to a comprehensive understanding of the pathophysiology of many oculocutaneous diseases. The review concludes with a reference glossary of selective ophthalmologic terms that are relevant to a thorough understanding of many oculocutaneous disease processes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Miopatia ocular descendente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nunjo Finkel

    1972-06-01

    Full Text Available São relatados 4 casos de miopatia ocular descendente (MOD com história familial levantada em três gerações. Biópsia musculares e eletromiografia em um caso confirmaram o caráter miogênico da doença. A MOD nada mais seria do que uma forma clínica especial de distrofia muscular, de início tardio.

  5. OCULAR ASPECTS OF HYPERTHYROIDISM WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO OCULAR MYOPATHY

    OpenAIRE

    Mallika O. U; Suma Job

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND Hyperthyroidism can result in ocular manifestations even before systemic signs and symptoms develop. It is seen more in females and severe forms are more common in males. Early detection of ocular involvement can prevent vision threatening complications and troublesome discomforts affecting quality of vision. This clinical study highlights the importance of detailed ocular examination in hyperthyroidism. MATERIALS AND METHODS Fifty consecutive patients with ocu...

  6. Ocular injury in hurling.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Flynn, T H

    2012-02-03

    OBJECTIVES: To describe the clinical characteristics of ocular injuries sustained in hurling in the south of Ireland and to investigate reasons for non-use of protective headgear and eye wear. METHODS: Retrospective review of the case notes of 310 patients who attended Cork University Hospital or Waterford Regional Hospital between 1 January 1994 and 31 December 2002 with ocular injuries sustained during a hurling match. A confidential questionnaire on reasons for non-use of protective headgear and eye wear was completed by 130 players. RESULTS: Hurling related eye injuries occurred most commonly in young men. Fifty two patients (17%) required hospital admission, with hyphaema accounting for 71% of admissions. Ten injuries required intraocular surgical INTERVENTION: retinal detachment repair (5); macular hole surgery (1); repair of partial thickness corneal laceration (1); repair of globe perforation (1); enucleation (1); trabeculectomy for post-traumatic glaucoma (1). Fourteen eyes (4.5%) had a final best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) of <6\\/12 and six (2%) had BCVA <3\\/60. In the survey, 63 players (48.5%) reported wearing no protective facemask while playing hurling. Impairment of vision was the most common reason cited for non-use. CONCLUSIONS: Hurling related injury is a significant, and preventable, cause of ocular morbidity in young men in Ireland. The routine use of appropriate protective headgear and faceguards would result in a dramatic reduction in the incidence and severity of these injuries, and should be mandatory.

  7. Ocular candidiasis: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, C P; McKey, J; Spirn, M J; Maguire, J

    2008-04-01

    To review the epidemiology, diagnosis and changing treatment paradigm of ocular candidiasis, and report current prevalence rates and risk factors at one inpatient hospital. Retrospective review; systematic literature review. All Wills Eye Institute inpatient ophthalmology consultations from Thomas Jefferson University Hospital were retrospectively reviewed between June 2006 and November 2006. All consultations for candidaemia were included. The outcome variables included chorioretinitis, endophthalmitis, visual symptoms and Candida speciation. The ophthalmic literature was reviewed using PubMed. Keywords included Candida, candidaemia, chorioretinitis, vitritis and endophthalmitis. Bibliographies were manually searched. Three of the 38 consultations for candidaemia (7.9%) had chorioretinitis. There were no cases of vitritis or endophthalmitis. The presence of symptoms, or the inability to articulate symptoms, was significantly associated with risk of ocular candidiasis (p = 0.003). All three cases of chorioretinitis had positive blood cultures for Candida albicans (p = 0.089) and were treated with oral fluconazole. Various factors have led to the increasing prevalence of inpatient candidaemia. Risk factors for ocular involvement include albicans species and the presence of, or inability to articulate, visual symptoms. For those without abnormal findings on initial examination, a subsequent retinal examination should be performed in 2 weeks, particularly if new symptoms develop or if the patient is unable to relay symptoms. Patients with chorioretinitis should be treated with systemic antifungal agents. For those with vitritis or endophthalmitis, particularly if worsening on systemic therapy alone, intravitreal antifungal medications or early vitrectomy should be considered.

  8. Hyperhomocysteinemia in bilateral anterior ischemic optic neuropathy after conventional coronary artery bypass graft: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niro, A; Sborgia, G; Sborgia, A; Alessio, G

    2018-01-17

    The incidence of anterior ischemic optic neuropathy after coronary artery bypass graft procedures ranges from 1.3 to 0.25%. The mechanisms of anterior ischemic optic neuropathy after cardiovascular procedures remain undefined but many systemic and related-to-surgery risk factors could underlie anterior ischemic optic neuropathy. In this case, we report a rare presentation of a bilateral anterior ischemic optic neuropathy after coronary artery bypass graft and speculate on the preoperative hyperhomocysteinemia as an independent risk factor for anterior ischemic optic neuropathy. A 56-year-old white man, a tobacco smoker with type 2 diabetes and coronary artery disease, underwent a conventional coronary artery bypass graft with extracorporeal circulation. In spite of ongoing anti-aggregation, antithrombotic, and vasodilator therapy, 10 days after the surgery he complained of severe bilateral visual loss. Funduscopy and fluorescein angiography revealed a bilateral anterior ischemic optic neuropathy. Analysis of preoperative laboratory tests revealed hyperhomocysteinemia. Hyperhomocysteinemia could increase the risk of ocular vascular damage and bilateral ocular involvement in patients who have undergone conventional coronary artery bypass graft.

  9. OCULAR ASPECTS OF HYPERTHYROIDISM WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO OCULAR MYOPATHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mallika O. U

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Hyperthyroidism can result in ocular manifestations even before systemic signs and symptoms develop. It is seen more in females and severe forms are more common in males. Early detection of ocular involvement can prevent vision threatening complications and troublesome discomforts affecting quality of vision. This clinical study highlights the importance of detailed ocular examination in hyperthyroidism. MATERIALS AND METHODS Fifty consecutive patients with ocular signs of hyperthyroidism were evaluated and followed up for an average period of 1 year. Detailed ocular examination included exophthalmometric measurements, ocular movements and Worth four-dot test. T3, T4, TSH, CT scan and antimicrosomal antibodies and antithyroglobulin antibodies were done along with routine investigations. Study Design- Prospective cohort study. RESULTS Statistical analysis did not reveal any correlation between the level of serum T3 and severity of ocular findings. Majority of the cases were euthyroid with moderate ocular myopathy having multiple muscle involvement. Inferior rectus was affected most. CONCLUSION The ocular signs of hyperthyroidism in the present study seem to be mild. The severe eye changes like corneal involvement and optic nerve changes were less common.

  10. Involvement of CCR-2 chemokine receptor activation in ischemic preconditioning and postconditioning of brain in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehni, Ashish K; Singh, Thakur Gurjeet

    2012-10-01

    The present study has been designed to investigate the potential role of CCR-2 chemokine receptor in ischemic preconditioning as well as postconditioning induced reversal of ischemia-reperfusion injury in mouse brain. Bilateral carotid artery occlusion of 17 min followed by reperfusion for 24h was employed in present study to produce ischemia and reperfusion induced cerebral injury in mice. Cerebral infarct size was measured using triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining. Memory was evaluated using elevated plus-maze test and Morris water maze test. Rota rod test was employed to assess motor incoordination. Bilateral carotid artery occlusion followed by reperfusion produced cerebral infarction and impaired memory and motor co-ordination. Three preceding episodes of bilateral carotid artery occlusion for 1 min and reperfusion of 1 min were employed to elicit ischemic preconditioning of brain, while three episodes of bilateral carotid artery occlusion for 10s and reperfusion of 10s immediately after the completion of were employed to elicit ischemic postconditioning of brain. Both prior ischemic preconditioning as well as ischemic postconditioning immediately after global cerebral ischemia prevented markedly ischemia-reperfusion-induced cerebral injury as measured in terms of infarct size, loss of memory and motor coordination. RS 102895, a selective CCR-2 chemokine receptor antagonist, attenuated the neuroprotective effect of both the ischemic preconditioning as well as postconditioning. It is concluded that the neuroprotective effect of both ischemic preconditioning as well as ischemic postconditioning may involve the activation of CCR-2 chemokine receptors. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. MRI in ocular drug delivery

    OpenAIRE

    Li, S. Kevin; Lizak, Martin J.; Jeong, Eun-Kee

    2008-01-01

    Conventional pharmacokinetic methods for studying ocular drug delivery are invasive and cannot be conveniently applied to humans. The advancement of MRI technology has provided new opportunities in ocular drug-delivery research. MRI provides a means to non-invasively and continuously monitor ocular drug-delivery systems with a contrast agent or compound labeled with a contrast agent. It is a useful technique in pharmacokinetic studies, evaluation of drug-delivery methods, and drug-delivery de...

  12. Ischemic necrosis and osteochondritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weissman, S.D.

    1989-01-01

    Osteonecrosis indicates that ischemic death of the cellular constituents of bone and marrow has occurred. Historically, this first was thought to be related to sepsis in the osseous segments. However, continued studies led to the use of the term aseptic necrosis. Subsequent observations indicated that the necrotic areas of bone were not only aseptic, but were also avascular. This led to the terms ischemic necrosis, vascular necrosis and bone infarction. Ischemic necrosis of bone is discussed in this chapter. It results from a significant reduction in or obliteration of blood supply to the affected area. The various bone cells, including osteocytes, osteoclasts, and osteoblasts, usually undergo anoxic death in 12 to 48 hours after blood supply is cut off. The infarct that has thus developed in three-dimensional and can be divided into a number of zones: a central zone of cell death; an area of ischemic injury, most severe near the zone of cell death, and lessening as it moves peripherally; an area of active hyperemia and the zone of normal unaffected tissue. Once ischemic necrosis has begun, the cellular damage provokes an initial inflammatory response, which typically is characterized by vasodilatation, transudation of fluid and fibrin, and local infiltration of flammatory cells. This response can be considered the first stage in repair of the necrotic area

  13. Ipsilateral hemiparesis in ischemic stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inatomi, Y; Nakajima, M; Yonehara, T; Ando, Y

    2017-07-01

    To investigate clinical characteristics of ipsilateral hemiparesis in ischemic stroke patients. Patients with acute ischemic stroke were prospectively examined. Ipsilateral hemiparesis was defined as hemiparesis ipsilateral to recent stroke lesions. Patients with ipsilateral hemiparesis were examined with functional neuroimaging studies including transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and functional MRI. Of 8360 patients, ipsilateral hemiparesis was detected in 14 patients (0.17%, mean age 71±6 years, eight men). Lesions responsible for the recent strokes were located in the frontal cortex in three patients, corona radiata in seven, internal capsule in one, and pons in three. These lesions were located along the typical route of the corticospinal tract in all but one patient. Thirteen patients also had a past history of stroke contralateral to the recent lesions; 12 of these had motor deficits contralateral to past stroke lesions. During TMS, ipsilateral magnetic evoked potentials were evoked in two of seven patients and contralateral potentials were evoked in all seven. Functional MRI activated cerebral hemispheres ipsilaterally in eight of nine patients and contralaterally in all nine. Most patients with ipsilateral hemiparesis had a past history of stroke contralateral to the recent one, resulting in motor deficits contralateral to the earlier lesions. Moreover, functional neuroimaging findings indicated an active crossed corticospinal tract in all of the examined patients. Both findings suggest the contribution of the uncrossed corticospinal tract contralateral to stroke lesions as a post-stroke compensatory motor system. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Neuroradiology in the ocular motility disorders : II. nuclear and infranuclear pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyung Jin; Kim, Jae Hyoung; Ha, Choong Gun; Lim, Myung Kwan; Cho, Young Kuk; Suh, Chang Hae

    1999-01-01

    The nuclear and infranuclear pathway of eye movement begins from the ocular motor nuclei situated in the brain stem, where the axons originate and form three ocular motor nerves. Although each of the ocular motor nerves follows a distinct route to reach the end organ, the extraocular muscles, they also have common housings in the cavernous sinus and at the orbital apex, where part or all of them are frequently and simultaneously affected by a common disease process. Since the fine details of normal and diseased structures can frequently be seen on radiologic imaging, especially magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, a knowledge of the basic anatomy involved in nuclear and infranuclear eye movement is important. In this description, in addition to the normal nuclear and infranuclear pathway of eye movement, we have noted the radiologic findings of typical diseases involving each segment of the nuclear and infranuclear pathway, particularly as seen on magnetic resonance images. Brief comments on ocular motor pseudopalsy, which mimics ocular motor palsy, are also included

  15. Patterns of ocular trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babar, T.F.; Khan, M.T.; Marwat, M.; Shah, A.; Murad, Y.; Khan, M.D.

    2007-01-01

    To describe the patterns of ocular trauma, cause of injury and its effects on eye. A retrospective case series. Medical records of 1105 patients admitted with ocular trauma were reviewed. The details of patients regarding age, gender, literacy, cause of injury and its effects on eye were entered into specially-designed performa. Sample selection consisted of all patients with history of ocular trauma and who were admitted to hospital. Population details consisted patients who were referred to the hospital from all parts of N.W.F.P. Thus, the frequency of trauma in the hospital admissions was analysed. Ophthalmic trauma comprised 6.78% of the hospital admission. One thousand one hundred and five patients presented with eye injuries. Out of them, 21 patients suffered from trauma to both eyes. Almost 80% patients were male and 69% patients were below 30 years of age. Delayed presentation was more common and 63.61% patients presented after one week. Open globe injuries were more common (520 eyes (46.18%)) than closed globe injuries (484 eyes (42.98%)). 23.26% of open globe injuries were associated with intraocular and intra-orbital foreign bodies. Superficial non-perforating, eyelid and adnexal and burns were seen in 122 eyes (10.83%). Among the complications, lens damage and hyphema was seen in more than 50% of the patients, 16.60% eyes were infected at the time of admission and 4.88% of eyes needed enucleation or evisceration. The common causes of injury were violence in 37.37%, occupational in 24.43% and domestic accidents in 19.18%. Ophthalmic trauma is a major public health problem. Majority of the involved are male and under 30 years of age. Delayed presentation is more common. Open globe injuries are more frequent. Violence and occupational injuries are the major causes. (author)

  16. Miopatia ocular descendente Descending ocular myopathy: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos R. G. de Freitas

    1975-06-01

    Full Text Available Os autores apresentam caso de paciente jovem, do sexo feminino, com afecção muscular primária ocular e faríngea sem caráter familial. Foram feitos estudos eletromiográficos e histopatológicos musculares que confirmam o caráter miogênico do processo. É feita comparação entre a miopatia ocular e a miopatia ocular descendente, acreditando os autores que seriam variantesThe case of a 23 years old female patient, with primary involvement of the extraocular and faringeal muscles without familiar history is reported. Electromyographic and muscular biopsy studies proved the myogenic nature of the process. A clinical comparison between the ocular myopathy and the descending ocular myopathy is made, the authors thinking that both of them would be variants of the same muscle disease.

  17. Diabetes y enfermedad ocular

    OpenAIRE

    Flores Ojeda, Desireé

    2016-01-01

    En el presente trabajo se lleva a cabo una revisión bibliográfica de la diabetes en relación con las diferentes patologías oculares a las que está asociada. La diabetes, es una enfermedad crónica que comporta un importante problema sanitario y social, que afecta a muchos órganos. De entre todos ellos, el ojo parece afectarse especialmente por los cambios de glucosa en sangre. Una vez entendida la estructura del ojo humano, el trabajo estudia las partes especialmente afectadas en pacientes ...

  18. Ocular Adnexal Follicular Lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Peter K; Coupland, Sarah E; Finger, Paul T

    2014-01-01

    that involved 6 eye cancer centers from January 1, 1980, through December 31, 2010. A total of 105 patients with follicular OAL were identified, of which 7 patients were excluded because of missing clinical data. The median follow-up time was 52 months (range, 13-118 months). MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Overall...... in conjunction with a concurrent systemic lymphoma, and 10 (10%) presented with an ocular adnexal relapse. The lacrimal gland (28%), conjunctiva (28%), and orbit (28%) were the most frequently involved sites. Of the 69 patients with primary follicular lymphoma, 38 (55%) presented with Ann Arbor stage IE lymphoma...

  19. Ocular defects in cerebral palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katoch Sabita

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a high prevalence of ocular defects in children with developmental disabilities. This study evaluated visual disability in a group of 200 cerebral palsy (CP patients and found that 68% of the children had significant visual morbidity. These findings emphasize the need for an early ocular examination in patients with CP.

  20. Ocular leech infestation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee YC

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Yueh-Chang Lee, Cheng-Jen Chiu Department of Ophthalmology, Buddhist Tzu-Chi General Hospital, Hualien, Taiwan, ROC Abstract: This case report describes a female toddler with manifestations of ocular leech infestation. A 2-year-old girl was brought to our outpatient clinic with a complaint of irritable crying after being taken to a stream in Hualien 1 day previous, where she played in the water. The parents noticed that she rubbed her right eye a lot. Upon examination, the girl had good fix and follow in either eye. Slit-lamp examination showed conjunctival injection with a moving dark black–brown foreign body partly attached in the lower conjunctiva. After applying topical anesthetics, the leech, measuring 1 cm in length, was extracted under a microscope. The patient began using topical antibiotic and corticosteroid agents. By 1 week after extraction, the patient had no obvious symptoms or signs, except for a limited subconjunctival hemorrhage, and no corneal/scleral involvement was observed. Keywords: leech, ocular foreign body, conjunctival reaction, pediatric ophthalmology

  1. Ischemic strokes and migraine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bousser, M.G.; Baron, J.C.; Chiras, J.

    1985-11-01

    Lasting neurological deficits, though most infrequent, do occur in migrainous subjects and are well documented by clinical angiographic computed tomographic (CT scan) and even pathological studies. However the mechanism of cerebral ischemia in migraine remains widely unknown and the precise role of migraine in the pathogenesis of ischemic strokes is still debated. (orig./MG).

  2. Bilateral ocular ischemia-induced blindness as a presenting manifestation of Takayasu arteritis: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Pallangyo, Pedro; Epafra, Emmanuel; Nicholaus, Paulina; Lyimo, Frederick; Kazahura, Parvina; Janabi, Mohamed

    2017-01-01

    Background Takayasu arteritis is a granulomatous panarteritis that predominantly affects the aorta and its major branches. The initial manifestations of this large-vessel vasculitis are usually nonspecific; however, as the disease progresses, typical symptoms of arterial occlusion, aneurysmal formation, and vascular pain become evident. Ischemic ocular complications of Takayasu arteritis which could lead to complete loss of vision are not uncommon and depend on the obliterated portion(s) of c...

  3. A STUDY OF OCULAR INJURIES IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Kumar Diddigam

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Worldwide, ocular trauma is an important cause of eye morbidity and a leading cause of non-congenital monocular blindness among children. In general, children are more susceptible to eye injuries because of their immature motor skills, limited common sense, tendency to imitate adult behaviour without evaluating risks, lessened emotional control, relative ignorance, and natural curiosity. Adult supervision is extremely important in preventing accidents. 1 PATIENTS AND METHODS The material for this study consisted of paediatric patients below 15 years of age who presented with history of different types of ocular injuries during the period from March 2007 to February 2010. In all cases, a thorough history was obtained from patients and their parents regarding the circumstances leading to the injury, the exact nature of the event and the object causing the injury. All the patients were also subjected to complete ophthalmic examination and followed up for 6 months. RESULTS 34 (68% were males and 16 (32% were females. The average age was 10.9 years (range 1-15 years. The highest incidence of blunt injuries was seen in age group of 11-15 years (58%. 20 (40% injuries occurred during domestic and leisure activities, 7(14% injuries occurred at work, 13 (26% during sports, 6 (12% were due to assault and 4 (8% from RTAs. CONCLUSION Blunt trauma to the eye causes a wide variety of damage to ocular tissues. Anterior or posterior segments are preferentially involved. Males were observed to be at increased risk for an eye injury necessitating admission to hospital.

  4. Nonmydriatic Ocular Fundus Photography in the Emergency Department: How It Can Benefit Neurologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Beau B

    2015-10-01

    Examination of the ocular fundus is a critical aspect of the neurologic examination. For example, in patients with headache the ocular fundus examination is needed to uncover "red flags" suggestive of secondary etiologies. However, ocular fundus examination is infrequently and poorly performed in clinical practice. Nonmydriatic ocular fundus photography provides an alternative to direct ophthalmoscopy that has been studied as part of the Fundus Photography versus Ophthalmoscopy Trial Outcomes in the Emergency Department (FOTO-ED) Study. Herein, the results of the FOTO-ED study are reviewed with a particular focus on the study's implications for the acute care of patients presenting with headache and focal neurologic deficits. In headache patients, not only optic disc edema and optic disc pallor were observed as would be expected, but also a large number of abnormalities associated with hypertension. Based upon subjects with focal neurologic deficits, the FOTO-ED study suggests that the ocular fundus examination may assist with the triage of patients presenting with suspected transient ischemic attack. Continued advances in the ease and portability of nonmydriatic fundus photography will hopefully help to restore ocular fundus examination as a routinely performed component of all neurologic examinations. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  5. Non-mydriatic ocular fundus photography in the emergency department: how it can benefit neurologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Beau B.

    2016-01-01

    Examination of the ocular fundus is a critical aspect of the neurological examination. For example, in patients with headache the ocular fundus examination is needed to uncover “red flags” suggestive of secondary etiologies. However, ocular fundus examination is infrequently and poorly performed in clinical practice. Non-mydriatic ocular fundus photography provides an alternative to direct ophthalmoscopy that has been studied as part of the Fundus photography vs. Ophthalmoscopy Trial Outcomes in the Emergency Department (FOTO-ED) study. Herein, we review the results of the FOTO-ED study with a particular focus on the study's implications for the acute care of patients presenting with headache and focal neurologic deficits. In headache patients, we not only observed optic disc edema and optic disc pallor as would be expected, but also a large number of abnormalities associated with hypertension. Based upon subjects with focal neurological deficits, the FOTO-ED study suggests that the ocular fundus examination may assist with the triage of patients presenting with suspected transient ischemic attack. Continued advances in the ease and portability of non-mydriatic fundus photography will hopefully help to restore ocular fundus examination as a routinely performed component of all neurological examinations. PMID:26444394

  6. Gene therapy for ocular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Melissa M; Tuo, Jingsheng; Chan, Chi-Chao

    2011-05-01

    The eye is an easily accessible, highly compartmentalised and immune-privileged organ that offers unique advantages as a gene therapy target. Significant advancements have been made in understanding the genetic pathogenesis of ocular diseases, and gene replacement and gene silencing have been implicated as potentially efficacious therapies. Recent improvements have been made in the safety and specificity of vector-based ocular gene transfer methods. Proof-of-concept for vector-based gene therapies has also been established in several experimental models of human ocular diseases. After nearly two decades of ocular gene therapy research, preliminary successes are now being reported in phase 1 clinical trials for the treatment of Leber congenital amaurosis. This review describes current developments and future prospects for ocular gene therapy. Novel methods are being developed to enhance the performance and regulation of recombinant adeno-associated virus- and lentivirus-mediated ocular gene transfer. Gene therapy prospects have advanced for a variety of retinal disorders, including retinitis pigmentosa, retinoschisis, Stargardt disease and age-related macular degeneration. Advances have also been made using experimental models for non-retinal diseases, such as uveitis and glaucoma. These methodological advancements are critical for the implementation of additional gene-based therapies for human ocular diseases in the near future.

  7. Ocular tuberculosis: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakarchi FI

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Faiz I Shakarchi1,21Ibn Al-Haetham Teaching Eye Hospital, 2Department of Opthalmology, Medical College, Al-Mustansiriya University, Baghdad, IraqAbstract: The World Health Organization currently estimates that nearly two billion people, or one-third of the world’s population, are infected by tuberculosis, and that roughly 10% of the infected people are symptomatic. Tuberculosis affects the lungs in 80% of patients, while in the remaining 20% the disease may affect other organs, including the eye. Uveitis can be seen concurrently with tuberculosis, but a direct association is difficult to prove. Ocular tuberculosis is usually not associated with clinical evidence of pulmonary tuberculosis, as up to 60% of extrapulmonary tuberculosis patients may not have pulmonary disease. The diagnosis of tuberculous uveitis is often problematic and in nearly all reported cases, the diagnosis was only presumptive. Tuberculous uveitis is a great mimicker of various uveitis entities and it can be considered in the differential diagnosis of any type of intraocular inflammation. It is still unknown if ocular manifestations result from a direct mycobacterium infection or hypersensitivity reaction and this is reflected on the management of tuberculous uveitis. Prevalence of tuberculosis as an etiology of uveitis may reach up to 10% in endemic areas. Tuberculous uveitis is a vision-threatening disease that inevitably leads to blindness if not properly diagnosed and treated. The aim of this review is to illustrate the various clinical features and management of presumed tuberculous uveitis. The current review focuses on the diagnostic criteria, significance of tuberculin skin test, and use of systemic corticosteroids in the management of tuberculous uveitis as recommended in recent publications.Keywords: tuberculosis, uveitis, choroiditis, tuberculin skin test

  8. Ocular myasthenia gravis: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Akshay Gopinathan; Patil-Chhablani, Preeti; Venkatramani, Devendra V; Gandhi, Rashmin Anilkumar

    2014-01-01

    Myasthenia gravis (MG) is a disease that affects the neuro-muscular junction resulting in classical symptoms of variable muscle weakness and fatigability. It is called the great masquerader owing to its varied clinical presentations. Very often, a patient of MG may present to the ophthalmologist given that a large proportion of patients with systemic myasthenia have ocular involvement either at presentation or during the later course of the disease. The treatment of ocular MG involves both the neurologist and ophthalmologist. Thus, the aim of this review was to highlight the current diagnosis, investigations, and treatment of ocular MG. PMID:25449931

  9. [Genetics of ischemic stroke].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gschwendtner, A; Dichgans, M

    2013-02-01

    Stroke is one of the most widespread causes of mortality und disability worldwide. Around 80 % of strokes are ischemic and different forms of intracranial bleeding account for the remaining cases. Monogenic stroke disorders are rare but the diagnosis may lead to specific therapeutic consequences for the affected patients who are predominantly young. In common sporadic stroke, genetic factors play a role in the form of susceptibility genes. Their discovery may give rise to new therapeutic options in the future.

  10. Ocular Tropism of Respiratory Viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rota, Paul A.; Tumpey, Terrence M.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Respiratory viruses (including adenovirus, influenza virus, respiratory syncytial virus, coronavirus, and rhinovirus) cause a broad spectrum of disease in humans, ranging from mild influenza-like symptoms to acute respiratory failure. While species D adenoviruses and subtype H7 influenza viruses are known to possess an ocular tropism, documented human ocular disease has been reported following infection with all principal respiratory viruses. In this review, we describe the anatomical proximity and cellular receptor distribution between ocular and respiratory tissues. All major respiratory viruses and their association with human ocular disease are discussed. Research utilizing in vitro and in vivo models to study the ability of respiratory viruses to use the eye as a portal of entry as well as a primary site of virus replication is highlighted. Identification of shared receptor-binding preferences, host responses, and laboratory modeling protocols among these viruses provides a needed bridge between clinical and laboratory studies of virus tropism. PMID:23471620

  11. Ocular Effects of Sulfur Mustard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunes Panahi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To review current knowledge about ocular effects of sulfur mustard (SM and the associated histopathologic findings and clinical manifestationsMethods: Literature review of medical articles (human and animal studies was accomplished using PubMed, Scopus and ISI databases. A total of 274 relevant articles in English were retrieved and reviewed thoroughly.Results: Eyes are the most sensitive organs to local toxic effects of mustard gas. Ocular injuries are mediated through different toxic mechanisms including: biochemical damages, biomolecular and gene expression modification, induction of immunologic and inflammatory reactions, disturbing ultrastructural architecture of the cornea, and long-lasting corneal denervation. The resulting ocular injuries can roughly be categorized into acute or chronic complications. Most of the patients recover from acute injuries, but a minority of victims will suffer from chronic ocular complications. Mustard gas keratopathy (MGK is a devastating late complication of SM intoxication that proceeds from limbal stem cell deficiency (LSCD.Conclusion: SM induces several different damaging changes in case of ocular exposure; hence leading to a broad spectrum of ocular manifestations in terms of severity, timing and form. Unfortunately, no effective strategy has been introduced yet to inhibit or restore these damaging changes.

  12. Traumatismos oculares en el deporte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Elizalde

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Los traumatismos oculares durante la práctica deportiva son relativamente frecuentes, pueden acontecer en el contexto de cualquier deporte y son muy variados, tanto en su origen, gravedad y forma de presentación clínica (traumatismos incisos, contusos o inciso-contusos. A pesar de que el diagnóstico precoz y un tratamiento adecuado a cargo de un oftalmólogo especialista suele ayudar a mejorar el pronóstico de estos casos, es cierto que en algunas situaciones las lesiones oculares secundarias al traumatismo son clínicamente irreversibles. El autor revisa la repercusión clínica ocular de los accidentes deportivos con compromiso de la órbita, de los párpados, del segmento anterior y/o posterior del globo ocular, y de las vías ópticas. La mayoría de estas lesiones se pueden evitar optimizando el estado físico (y ocular antes de la práctica deportiva, y utilizando la técnica y el material adecuado para cada situación. Asimismo una buena educación deportiva desde la infancia y la utilización de gafas de protección ocular adaptadas a cada deporte juegan un papel esencial en la prevención de estos accidentes.

  13. Ocular allergy latin american consensus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myrna Serapião dos Santos

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To establish current definition, classification and staging, and to develop diagnosis and treatment recommendations for ocular allergy, by using Delphi approach. METHODS: Ten Latin American experts on ocular allergy participated in a 4-round Delphi panel approach. Four surveys were constructed and answered by panelists. A two-thirds majority was defined as consensus. Definition, classification, staging and diagnosis and treatment recommendations were the main outcomes. RESULTS: "Ocular allergy" was proposed as the general term to describe ocular allergic diseases. Consensus regarding classification was not reached. Signs and symptoms were considered extremely important for the diagnosis. It was consensus that a staging system should be proposed based on the disease severity. Environmental control, avoidance of allergens and the use of artificial tears were recommended as first line treatment. The secondary treatment should include topical anti-histamines, mast cell stabilizers and multi actions drugs. Topical non-steroidal anti-inflammatory and vasoconstrictors were not recommended. Topical corticosteroids were recommended as third line of treatment for the most severe keratoconjunctivitis. Consensus was not reached regarding the use of systemic corticosteroids or immunosuppressant. Surgical approach and unconventional treatments were not recommended as routine. CONCLUSION: The task of creating guidelines for ocular allergies showed to be very complex. Many controversial topics remain unsolved. A larger consensus including experts from different groups around the world may be needed to further improve the current recommendations for several aspects of ocular allergy.

  14. Ocular TRUST: nationwide antimicrobial susceptibility patterns in ocular isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asbell, Penny A; Colby, Kathryn A; Deng, Sophie; McDonnell, Peter; Meisler, David M; Raizman, Michael B; Sheppard, John D; Sahm, Daniel F

    2008-06-01

    Ocular Tracking Resistance in U.S. Today (TRUST) annually evaluates in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Haemophilus influenzae to ciprofloxacin, gatifloxacin, levofloxacin, moxifloxacin, penicillin, azithromycin, tobramycin, trimethoprim, and polymyxin B in national samples of ocular isolates. Laboratory investigation. Prospectively collected ocular isolates (197 S. aureus, 49 S. pneumoniae, and 32 H. influenzae) from 35 institutions and archived ocular isolates (760 S. pneumoniae and 356 H. influenzae) from 34 institutions were tested by an independent, central laboratory. Mean minimum inhibitory concentrations that would inhibit growth of 90% of the tested isolates (MIC(90)) were interpreted as susceptible, intermediate, or resistant according to standardized breakpoints for systemic treatment. S. aureus isolates were classified as methicillin susceptible (MSSA) or methicillin resistant (MRSA). MSSA or MRSA susceptibility patterns were virtually identical for the fluoroquinolones, that is, MSSA susceptibility was 79.9% to 81.1% and MRSA susceptibility was 15.2%. Trimethoprim was the only agent tested with high activity against MRSA. All S. pneumoniae isolates were susceptible to gatifloxacin, levofloxacin, and moxifloxacin; 89.8% were susceptible to ciprofloxacin. H. influenzae isolates were 100% susceptible to all tested agents but trimethoprim. Ocular TRUST 1 data were consistent with the eight-year longitudinal sample of archived ocular isolates. The fluoroquinolones were consistently active in MSSA, S. pneumoniae, and H. influenzae. After more than a decade of intensive ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin use as systemic therapy, 100% of ocular S. pneumoniae isolates were susceptible to gatifloxacin, levofloxacin, and moxifloxacin; nonsusceptibility to ciprofloxacin was less than 15%. High-level in vitro MRSA resistance suggests the need to consider alternative therapy to fluoroquinolones when MRSA is a

  15. The ischemic perinatal brain damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crisi, G.; Mauri, C.; Canossi, G.; Della Giustina, E.

    1986-01-01

    The term ''hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy'' covers a large part of neonatal neuropathology including the various forms of intracerebral haemorrhage. In the present work the term is confined to ischemic brain edema and actual infarction, be it diffuse or focal. Eighteen newborns with CT evidence of ischemic brain lesions and infarctual necrosis were selected. Emphasis is placed on current data on neuropathology of ischemic brain edema and its CT appearance. Particular entities such as periventricular leukomalacia and multicystic encephalopathy are discussed. Relationship between CT and temporal profile of cerebral damage is emphasized in order to predict the structural sequelae and the longterm prognosis

  16. Radiotherapy in ocular tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinto, J.M.

    1982-01-01

    Ocular tumours at the Tata Memorial Hospital, Bombay, form about 0.14% of all the proved cancer cases. In case of unilateral retinoblastoma with the other eye being not non-seeing for any reason, enucleation is advised, as the diagnosis may sometimes be in doubt. If after enucleation, optic nerve and/or peribulbar tissues are found to be involved, post-operative irradiation is given to the whole orbit. In bilateral retinoblastoma the more affected eye is enucleated and an attempt is made to preserve vision in the other eye. A tumour dose of 3500 to 4000 rad in about 4 weeks is given with a cobalt beam using a direct anterior field. A cataract that may develop has to be taken care of. Lateral and/or medial fields are used with deep X-rays. In certain cases, an implant of cobalt-60 or gold-198 grain is done. For carcinoma of conjuctiva, small lesions or early lesions are excised and a beta radiation dose of 2000 rad weekly for about 4 to 5 weeks is given; larger lesions require enucleation or exenteration followed by irradiation with super-voltage radiation. Post-irradiation sarcomas may develop many years later. Irradiation is repeated for recurrences. (M.G.B.)

  17. Complications of presumed ocular tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamade, Issam H; Tabbara, Khalid F

    2010-12-01

    To determine the effect of steroid treatment on visual outcome and ocular complications in patients with presumed ocular tuberculosis. Retrospective review of patients with presumptive ocular tuberculosis. The clinical diagnosis was made based on ocular findings, positive purified protein derivative (PPD) testing of more than 15 mm induration, exclusion of other causes of uveitis and positive ocular response to anti-tuberculous therapy (ATT) within 4 weeks. Group 1 included patients who had received oral prednisone or subtenon injection of triamcinolone acetonide prior to ATT. Group 2 included patients who did not receive corticosteroid therapy prior to administration of ATT.   Among 500 consecutive new cases of uveitis encountered in 1997-2007 there were 49 (10%) patients with presumed ocular tuberculosis. These comprised 28 (57%) male and 21 (43%) female patients with a mean age of 45 years (range 12-76 years). Four (20%) patients in group 1 had initial visual acuity of 20/40 or better, in comparison to eight (28%) patients in group 2. At 1-year follow-up, six (30%) patients in group 1 had a visual acuity of 20/40 or better compared with 20 (69%) patients in group 2 (p = 0.007). Of 20 eyes (26%) in group 1 that had visual acuity of < 20/50 at 1-year follow up, 14 (70%) eyes developed severe chorioretinal lesion (p = 0.019). Early administration of corticosteroids without anti-tuberculous therapy in presumed ocular tuberculosis may lead to poor visual outcome compared with patients who did not receive corticosteroids prior to presentation. Furthermore, the severity of chorioretinitis lesion in the group of patients given corticosteroid prior to ATT may account for the poor visual outcome. © 2009 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2009 Acta Ophthalmol.

  18. Purinergic Receptors in Ocular Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Guzman-Aranguez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation is a complex process that implies the interaction between cells and molecular mediators, which, when not properly “tuned,” can lead to disease. When inflammation affects the eye, it can produce severe disorders affecting the superficial and internal parts of the visual organ. The nucleoside adenosine and nucleotides including adenine mononucleotides like ADP and ATP and dinucleotides such as P1,P4-diadenosine tetraphosphate (Ap4A, and P1,P5-diadenosine pentaphosphate (Ap5A are present in different ocular locations and therefore they may contribute/modulate inflammatory processes. Adenosine receptors, in particular A2A adenosine receptors, present anti-inflammatory action in acute and chronic retinal inflammation. Regarding the A3 receptor, selective agonists like N6-(3-iodobenzyl-5′-N-methylcarboxamidoadenosine (CF101 have been used for the treatment of inflammatory ophthalmic diseases such as dry eye and uveoretinitis. Sideways, diverse stimuli (sensory stimulation, large intraocular pressure increases can produce a release of ATP from ocular sensory innervation or after injury to ocular tissues. Then, ATP will activate purinergic P2 receptors present in sensory nerve endings, the iris, the ciliary body, or other tissues surrounding the anterior chamber of the eye to produce uveitis/endophthalmitis. In summary, adenosine and nucleotides can activate receptors in ocular structures susceptible to suffer from inflammatory processes. This involvement suggests the possible use of purinergic agonists and antagonists as therapeutic targets for ocular inflammation.

  19. ROCK inhibitors in ocular disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Halasz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Rho kinases (ROCKs have a crucial role in actin-cytoskeletal reorganization and thus are involved in broad aspects of cell motility, from smooth muscle contraction to neurite outgrowth. The first marketed ROCK inhibitor, called fasudil, has been used safely for treatment of cerebral vasospasm since 1995 in Japan. During the succeeding decades ROCK inhibitors have been applied in many pathological conditions from central nervous system disorders to cardiovascular disease as potential therapeutic agents or experimental tools to help understand the underlying (pathomechanisms. In 2014, a fasudil derivate named ripasudil was accepted for clinical use in glaucoma and ocular hypertension. Since ROCK kinases are widely expressed in ocular tissues, they have been implicated in the pathology of many ocular conditions such as corneal dysfunction, glaucoma, cataract, diabetic retinopathy, age-related macular degeneration, and retinal detachment. This paper aims to provide an overview of the most recent status/application of ROCK inhibitors in the field of eye disease.

  20. The Ocular Surface Chemical Burns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medi Eslani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ocular chemical burns are common and serious ocular emergencies that require immediate and intensive evaluation and care. The victims of such incidents are usually young, and therefore loss of vision and disfigurement could dramatically affect their lives. The clinical course can be divided into immediate, acute, early, and late reparative phases. The degree of limbal, corneal, and conjunctival involvement at the time of injury is critically associated with prognosis. The treatment starts with simple but vision saving steps and is continued with complicated surgical procedures later in the course of the disease. The goal of treatment is to restore the normal ocular surface anatomy and function. Limbal stem cell transplantation, amniotic membrane transplantation, and ultimately keratoprosthesis may be indicated depending on the patients’ needs.

  1. 21 CFR 882.1790 - Ocular plethysmograph.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Diagnostic Devices § 882.1790 Ocular plethysmograph. (a) Identification. An ocular plethysmograph is a device used to measure or detect volume changes in the eye produced...

  2. Ocular manifestations of systemic diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Andonegui, J.

    2008-01-01

    Existe un gran número de enfermedades sistémicas que pueden presentar en algún momento de su evolución manifestaciones oculares. Estas alteraciones pueden provocar sintomatología por sí mismas, pueden ayudar a diagnosticar la enfermedad sistémica que las originó o pueden servir para monitorizar el curso evolutivo de la misma. Se destacan las principales características de una serie de enfermedades sistémicas asociadas a patología ocular que serán estudiadas en detalle a lo largo de esta monog...

  3. Method optimization of ocular patches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamalesh Upreti

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The intraocular patches were prepared using gelatin as the polymer. Ocular patch were prepared by solvent casting method. The patches were prepared for six formulations GP1, GP2, GP3, GP4, GP5 and GP6. Petri dishes were used for formulation of ocular patch. Gelatin was used as a polymer of choice. Glutaraldehyde used as cross linking agent and (DMSO dimethylsulfoxide used as solubility enhancer. The elasticity depends upon the concentration of gelatin. 400 mg amount of polymer i.e gelatin gave the required elasticity for the formulation.

  4. Ocular complications of diabetes mellitus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nihat Sayin; Necip Kara; Gokhan Pekel

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a important health problemthat induces ernestful complications and it causessignificant morbidity owing to specific microvascularcomplications such as, retinopathy, nephropathy andneuropathy, and macrovascular complications such as,ischaemic heart disease, and peripheral vasculopathy.It can affect children, young people and adults and isbecoming more common. Ocular complications associatedwith DM are progressive and rapidly becoming theworld's most significant cause of morbidity and arepreventable with early detection and timely treatment.This review provides an overview of five main ocularcomplications associated with DM, diabetic retinopathyand papillopathy, cataract, glaucoma, and ocular surfacediseases.

  5. Tumor ocular metastásico Metastatic ocular tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha G Domínguez Expósito

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available El carcinoma metastásico del ojo es considerado la neoplasia maligna que más frecuente se encuentra de forma intraocular. Solo cerca del 10 % de las personas que tienen una o más lesiones metastásicas intraoculares son detectadas clínicamente antes de la muerte. A menudo, el carcinoma metastásico ocular es diagnosticado por el oftalmólogo ante la presencia de síntomas oculares. Las lesiones están localizadas con preferencia en coroides. Nos motivo a realizar la presentación de este caso la presencia de lesiones intraoculares múltiples tumorales metastásicos en un paciente cuyo síntoma de presentación fue la disminución de la agudeza visualThe eye metastatic carcinoma is considered the most frequently found intraocular malignant neoplasia. Only 10 % of the persons with one or more metastatic intraocular injuries are clinically detected before death. The metastatic ocular carcinoma is often diagnosed by the ophthalmologist in the presence of ocular symptoms. The injuries are preferably located in the choroid. The appearance of multiple metastatic intraaocular tumoral injuries in a patient whose chief complaint was the reduction of visual acuity motivated us to presente this case

  6. Remote Ischemic Conditioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heusch, Gerd; Bøtker, Hans Erik; Przyklenk, Karin; Redington, Andrew; Yellon, Derek

    2014-01-01

    In remote ischemic conditioning (RIC) brief, reversible episodes of ischemia with reperfusion in one vascular bed, tissue or organ confer a global protective phenotype and render remote tissues and organs resistant to ischemia/reperfusion injury. The peripheral stimulus can be chemical, mechanical or electrical and involves activation of peripheral sensory nerves. The signal transfer to the heart or other organs is through neuronal and humoral communications. Protection can be transferred, even across species, with plasma-derived dialysate and involves nitric oxide, stromal derived factor-1α, microRNA-144, but also other, not yet identified factors. Intracardiac signal transduction involves: adenosine, bradykinin, cytokines, and chemokines, which activate specific receptors; intracellular kinases; and mitochondrial function. RIC by repeated brief inflation/deflation of a blood pressure cuff protects against endothelial dysfunction and myocardial injury in percutaneous coronary interventions, coronary artery bypass grafting and reperfused acute myocardial infarction. RIC is safe and effective, noninvasive, easily feasible and inexpensive. PMID:25593060

  7. Hemichorea after ischemic stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadullah Saglam

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The deterioration of the balance between direct and indirect ways in the basal ganglia causes chorea. The lesions of contralateral basal ganglia, thalamus or the connection of them all together are responsible for this. Chorea can be observed during the course of metabolic and vascular diseases, neurodegenerative or hereditary diseases. Hyperkinetic movement disorders after acute ischemic stroke are reported as rare; however, hemichorea is the most frequent developing disorder of hyperkinetic movement as a result of cerebrovascular disease. In this case report, we presented two case who applied us with choreiform movements in his left half of the body after acute thalamic stroke. [Cukurova Med J 2016; 41(0.100: 29-32

  8. The Relationship Between Ocular Itch, Ocular Pain, and Dry Eye Symptoms (An American Ophthalmological Society Thesis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galor, Anat; Small, Leslie; Feuer, William; Levitt, Roy C; Sarantopoulos, Konstantinos D; Yosipovitch, Gil

    2017-08-01

    To evaluate associations between sensations of ocular itch and dry eye (DE) symptoms, including ocular pain, and DE signs. A cross-sectional study of 324 patients seen in the Miami Veterans Affairs eye clinic was performed. The evaluation consisted of questionnaires regarding ocular itch, DE symptoms, descriptors of neuropathic-like ocular pain (NOP), and evoked pain sensitivity testing on the forehead and forearm, followed by a comprehensive ocular surface examination including corneal mechanical sensitivity testing. Analyses were performed to examine for differences between those with and without subjective complaints of ocular itch. The mean age was 62 years with 92% being male. Symptoms of DE and NOP were more frequent in patients with moderate-severe ocular itch compared to those with no or mild ocular itch symptoms. With the exception of ocular surface inflammation (abnormal matrix metalloproteinase 9 testing) which was less common in those with moderate-severe ocular itch symptoms, DE signs were not related to ocular itch. Individuals with moderate-severe ocular itch also demonstrated greater sensitivity to evoked pain on the forearm and had higher non-ocular pain, depression, and post-traumatic stress disorders scores, compared to those with no or mild itch symptoms. Subjects with moderate-severe ocular itch symptoms have more severe symptoms of DE, NOP, non-ocular pain and demonstrate abnormal somatosensory testing in the form of increased sensitivity to evoked pain at a site remote from the eye, consistent with generalized hypersensitivity.

  9. Ocular emergencies presenting to Menelik II Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negussie, Dereje; Bejiga, Abebe

    2011-01-01

    Ocular conditions such as trauma, painful red eye of any cause, painless sudden visual loss and others are commonly seen as ocular emergencies, and can lead to ocular morbidity and visual loss. To determine types and causes of ocular emergencies seen at Menelik II hospital. A cross-sectional study was conducted from April to October, 2007. Consecutive patients who presented with ocular emergencies at any time of the day were prospectively evaluated and registered on a formatted questionnaire. Evaluation of the patients included history of presenting illness, visual acuity testing intraocular pressure measurement on non-perforated and non-infected eyes, and complete eye examination in order to arrive at the diagnosis. A total of 26,400 patients attended Menelik II hospital during the study period. Of these, 758 (3%) were persons with an ocular emergency. The majority of patients (n=551; 72.7%) were male, with a male to female ratio of 2.7:1. The age group of 16 to 30 years was the most affected (47.9%), followed by those aged 15 years or younger (27.3%). Ocular trauma and ocular infections accounted for 75.6% and 13.1% of cases, respectively. Of the total ocular emergencies, open globe injuries constituted 171 (22.6%), corneal foreign bodies and abrasion 125 (16.5%), and open adnexal injuries 119 (15.7%). Metal and wood were the commonest work-related causes of ocular injuries in adults, with both together accounting for 60% of all ocular injuries. Children, on the other hand, sustained ocular injury while playing with others in 128 (22.3%) of cases. This study was able to provide a more complete picture to improve understanding of the nature and circumstances of ocular emergencies in Ethiopia. Ocular emergencies were dominated by ocular trauma, particularly affecting males and working-age adults. Public education and use of protective safety measures are recommended to alleviate the problem.

  10. Saccular impact on ocular torsion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaf, B. de; Bos, J.E.; Groen, E.L.

    1996-01-01

    When someone is tilted laterally the sheer force on the maculae of the utriculus and the sacculus is described by the sine and the cosine of the angle of tilt, respectively. So both the sacculus and the utriculus are stimulated, but in the litera-ture ocular torsion is normally attributed to

  11. haematological changes accompanying prolonged ocular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Olaleye

    oral chloramphenicol provided the basis for comparison. 20 adult male rabbits were randomly but equally divided into two main groups based on the route of administration of the drug (i.e ocular or oral). In each group of ten rabbits equal number of rabbits were randomly divided into test (n=5) and control (n=5) subgroups.

  12. Ocular Toxoplasmosis: Lessons from Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    • A new attention to post-natally acquired infections. Previously, most attention was focused on infection during pregnancy, and the risk of congenital disease, with the feeling that infection in older individuals was benign, without a substantial risk of disease morbidity, such as ocular involvemen...

  13. The ocular complications of boxing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovinazzo, V J; Yannuzzi, L A; Sorenson, J A; Delrowe, D J; Cambell, E A

    1987-06-01

    In cooperation with the New York State Athletic Commission, 74 boxers applying for a new or yearly renewal license were sequentially referred over a 2-year period for a complete dilated ocular examination at the Sports Vision Institute of the Manhattan Eye, Ear and Throat Hospital. At least one ocular injury was found in 66% of boxers. Vision-threatening injuries, defined as significant damage to the angle, lens, macula, or peripheral retina occurred in 58% of boxers. Nineteen percent of boxers had angle abnormalities. Nineteen percent of boxers had pathologic cataracts, over 70% of these were posterior subcapsular. Six boxers had macular lesions. A total of 24% of boxers had retinal tears. Standardized photographs were used to distinguish pathologic cataracts from congenital opacities and pathologic retinal tears from atrophic holes. Attempts were made to identify risk factors in boxing that might be predictive for ocular injury. Variables included age, weight division, left- or right-handedness, total number of losses, and total number of bouts. Significant correlations were found between the total number of bouts and the total number of losses, and the presence of retinal tears. College varsity athletes were selected as controls. Significant differences were found between boxers and controls for the total number of injuries, total vision-threatening injuries, and the number of retinal tears. A series of recommendations are proposed to aide in the early detection and prevention of serious ocular injuries.

  14. Adverse ocular reactions to drugs.

    OpenAIRE

    Spiteri, M. A.; James, D. G.

    1983-01-01

    Drugs acting on various parts of the body may also affect the eye insidiously. Increased awareness of such drug toxicity by the prescribing doctor should encourage him to consider effects on the cornea, lens, retina, optic nerve and elsewhere when checking the patient's progress. The following review concerns adverse ocular effects of systemic drug administration.

  15. Surfing-related ocular injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J W; McDonald, H R; Rubsamen, P E; Luttrull, J K; Drouilhet, J H; Frambach, D A; Boyer, D S; Lambrou, F H; Hendrick, A; Weiss, J N; Engstrom, R E; Ing, M

    1998-01-01

    This report evaluates the clinical characteristics of surfing-related ocular trauma to learn the nature of such injuries and propose possible preventive measures. The authors reviewed 11 cases of surfing-related eye injuries caused by direct trauma from the surfboard, studying their mechanism of injury, the associated ocular complications, and the anatomic and visual outcomes of surgical repair. Surfing-related ocular injuries occurred exclusively in young males (mean age, 24.8 years; range, 14-37 years). The mechanism of injury most frequently responsible was impact with the sharp nose of the surfboard following a fall. Serious posterior segment complications were observed in all 11 patients, with nine patients suffering ruptured globes. Despite immediate medical attention, five patients did not recover ambulatory levels of visual acuity (>5/200). Surfing-related ocular trauma presenting to the retinal specialist typically leaves the patient with a permanent visual disability. Important factors contributing to these high-velocity injuries include the sharply pointed nose of the surfboard and the leash keeping the surfer in close proximity to the board following a fall. A simple modification in surfboard design such as blunting the sharp nose of the surfboard, or appropriate protective guards fitted over the surfboard nose, should lessen the severity of such injuries.

  16. Motor Neurons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hounsgaard, Jorn

    2017-01-01

    Motor neurons translate synaptic input from widely distributed premotor networks into patterns of action potentials that orchestrate motor unit force and motor behavior. Intercalated between the CNS and muscles, motor neurons add to and adjust the final motor command. The identity and functional...... in in vitro preparations is far from complete. Nevertheless, a foundation has been provided for pursuing functional significance of intrinsic response properties in motoneurons in vivo during motor behavior at levels from molecules to systems....

  17. Control of Cross Talk between Angiogenesis and Inflammation by Mesenchymal Stem Cells for the Treatment of Ocular Surface Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Angiogenesis is beneficial in the treatment of ischemic heart disease and peripheral artery disease. However, it facilitates inflammatory cell filtration and inflammation cascade that disrupt the immune and angiogenesis privilege of the avascular cornea, resulting in ocular surface diseases and even vision loss. Although great progress has been achieved, healing of severe ocular surface injury and immunosuppression of corneal transplantation are the most difficult and challenging step in the treatment of ocular surface disorders. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs, derived from various adult tissues, are able to differentiate into different cell types such as endothelial cells and fat cells. Although it is still under debate whether MSCs could give rise to functional corneal cells, recent results from different study groups showed that MSCs could improve corneal disease recovery through suppression of inflammation and modulation of immune cells. Thus, MSCs could become a promising tool for ocular surface disorders. In this review, we discussed how angiogenesis and inflammation are orchestrated in the pathogenesis of ocular surface disease. We overviewed and updated the knowledge of MSCs and then summarized the therapeutic potential of MSCs via control of angiogenesis, inflammation, and immune response in the treatment of ocular surface disease.

  18. Methotrexate for ocular inflammatory diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangaputra, Sapna; Newcomb, Craig W; Liesegang, Teresa L; Kaçmaz, R Oktay; Jabs, Douglas A; Levy-Clarke, Grace A; Nussenblatt, Robert B; Rosenbaum, James T; Suhler, Eric B; Thorne, Jennifer E; Foster, C Stephen; Kempen, John H

    2009-11-01

    To evaluate the outcome of treatment with methotrexate for noninfectious ocular inflammation. Retrospective cohort study. Patients with noninfectious ocular inflammation managed at 4 tertiary ocular inflammation clinics in the United States observed to add methotrexate as a single, noncorticosteroid immunosuppressive agent to their treatment regimen, between 1979 and 2007, inclusive. Participants were identified from the Systemic Immunosuppressive Therapy for Eye Diseases Cohort Study. Demographic and clinical characteristics, including dosage, route of administration of methotrexate, and main outcome measures, were obtained for every eye of every patient at every visit via medical record review by trained expert reviewers. Control of inflammation, corticosteroid-sparing effects, and incidence of and reason for discontinuation of therapy. Among 384 patients (639 eyes) observed from the point of addition of methotrexate to an anti-inflammatory regimen, 32.8%, 9.9%, 21.4%, 14.6%, 15.1%, and 6.3%, respectively, had anterior uveitis, intermediate uveitis, posterior or panuveitis, scleritis, ocular mucous membrane pemphigoid, and other forms of ocular inflammation. In these groups, complete suppression of inflammation sustained for >or=28 days was achieved within 6 months in 55.6%, 47.4%, 38.6%, 56.4%, 39.5%, and 76.7%, respectively. Corticosteroid-sparing success (sustained suppression of inflammation with prednisone Methotrexate was discontinued within 1 year by 42% of patients. It was discontinued owing to ineffectiveness in 50 patients (13%); 60 patients (16%) discontinued because of side effects, which typically were reversible with dose reduction or discontinuation. Remission was seen in 43 patients, with 7.7% remitting within 1 year of treatment. Our data suggest that adding methotrexate to an anti-inflammatory regimen not involving other noncorticosteroid immunosuppressive drugs is moderately effective for management of inflammatory activity and for achieving

  19. Association of Leukoaraiosis With Convalescent Rehabilitation Outcome in Patients With Ischemic Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senda, Joe; Ito, Keiichi; Kotake, Tomomitsu; Kanamori, Masahiko; Kishimoto, Hideo; Kadono, Izumi; Suzuki, Yoshiro; Katsuno, Masahisa; Nishida, Yoshihiro; Ishiguro, Naoki; Sobue, Gen

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the factors influencing inpatient convalescent rehabilitation outcomes in patients with ischemic stroke, particularly severity of leukoaraiosis on magnetic resonance imaging. Participants included 520 patients with ischemic stroke (317 men and 203 women; mean age, 72.8±8.4 years) who were transferred from acute care hospitals for inpatient convalescent rehabilitation. Ischemic stroke subtypes included lacunar infarction (n=41), atherothrombosis (n=223), artery-to-artery embolism (n=67), cardiogenic embolism (n=97), undetermined embolism (n=76), and uncategorized ischemic stroke (n=16). Leukoaraiosis was graded according to periventricular hyperintensity (PVH) and deep white matter hyperintensity on magnetic resonance imaging. Functional Independence Measure scores were assessed on admission and at discharge. Multiple regression analysis revealed that rehabilitation outcomes, measured as total Functional Independence Measure scores, were significantly associated with leukoaraiosis estimated by PVH grade. This association was observed after adjustment for factors such as severity, age, and poststroke history. In all patients, PVH grades were associated with Functional Independence Measure motor scores (Prehabilitation outcome in patients with ischemic stroke. Furthermore, the PVH grade was associated with motor function outcome, whereas the deep white matter hyperintensity grade correlated with cognitive function outcome, likely because the progression patterns and anatomic backgrounds of PVH and deep white matter hyperintensity differ according to ischemic stroke subtype. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  20. Robotic exoskeleton assessment of transient ischemic attack.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leif Simmatis

    Full Text Available We used a robotic exoskeleton to quantify specific patterns of abnormal upper limb motor behaviour in people who have had transient ischemic attack (TIA. A cohort of people with TIA was recruited within two weeks of symptom onset. All individuals completed a robotic-based assessment of 8 behavioural tasks related to upper limb motor and proprioceptive function, as well as cognitive function. Robotic task performance was compared to a large cohort of controls without neurological impairments corrected for the influence of age. Impairment in people with TIA was defined as performance below the 5th percentile of controls. Participants with TIA were also assessed with the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS score, Chedoke-McMaster Stroke Assessment (CMSA of the arm, the Behavioural Inattention Test (BIT, the Purdue pegboard test (PPB, and the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA. Age-related white matter change (ARWMC, prior infarction and cella-media index (CMI were assessed from baseline CT scan that was performed within 24 hours of TIA. Acute infarction was assessed from diffusion-weighted imaging in a subset of people with TIA. Twenty-two people with TIA were assessed. Robotic assessment showed impaired upper limb motor function in 7/22 people with TIA patients and upper limb sensory impairment in 4/22 individuals. Cognitive tasks involving robotic assessment of the upper limb were completed in 13 participants, of whom 8 (61.5% showed significant impairment. Abnormal performance in the CMSA arm inventory was present in 12/22 (54.5% participants. ARWMC was 11.8 ± 6.4 and CMI was 5.4 ± 1.5. DWI was positive in 0 participants. Quantitative robotic assessment showed that people who have had a TIA display a spectrum of upper limb motor and sensory performance deficits as well as cognitive function deficits despite resolution of symptoms and no evidence of tissue infarction.

  1. Robotic exoskeleton assessment of transient ischemic attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmatis, Leif; Krett, Jonathan; Scott, Stephen H; Jin, Albert Y

    2017-01-01

    We used a robotic exoskeleton to quantify specific patterns of abnormal upper limb motor behaviour in people who have had transient ischemic attack (TIA). A cohort of people with TIA was recruited within two weeks of symptom onset. All individuals completed a robotic-based assessment of 8 behavioural tasks related to upper limb motor and proprioceptive function, as well as cognitive function. Robotic task performance was compared to a large cohort of controls without neurological impairments corrected for the influence of age. Impairment in people with TIA was defined as performance below the 5th percentile of controls. Participants with TIA were also assessed with the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score, Chedoke-McMaster Stroke Assessment (CMSA) of the arm, the Behavioural Inattention Test (BIT), the Purdue pegboard test (PPB), and the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA). Age-related white matter change (ARWMC), prior infarction and cella-media index (CMI) were assessed from baseline CT scan that was performed within 24 hours of TIA. Acute infarction was assessed from diffusion-weighted imaging in a subset of people with TIA. Twenty-two people with TIA were assessed. Robotic assessment showed impaired upper limb motor function in 7/22 people with TIA patients and upper limb sensory impairment in 4/22 individuals. Cognitive tasks involving robotic assessment of the upper limb were completed in 13 participants, of whom 8 (61.5%) showed significant impairment. Abnormal performance in the CMSA arm inventory was present in 12/22 (54.5%) participants. ARWMC was 11.8 ± 6.4 and CMI was 5.4 ± 1.5. DWI was positive in 0 participants. Quantitative robotic assessment showed that people who have had a TIA display a spectrum of upper limb motor and sensory performance deficits as well as cognitive function deficits despite resolution of symptoms and no evidence of tissue infarction.

  2. The anatomy and physiology of the ocular motor system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Anja K E; Leigh, R John

    2011-01-01

    Accurate diagnosis of abnormal eye movements depends upon knowledge of the purpose, properties, and neural substrate of distinct functional classes of eye movement. Here, we summarize current concepts of the anatomy of eye movement control. Our approach is bottom-up, starting with the extraocular muscles and their innervation by the cranial nerves. Second, we summarize the neural circuits in the pons underlying horizontal gaze control, and the midbrain connections that coordinate vertical and torsional movements. Third, the role of the cerebellum in governing and optimizing eye movements is presented. Fourth, each area of cerebral cortex contributing to eye movements is discussed. Last, descending projections from cerebral cortex, including basal ganglionic circuits that govern different components of gaze, and the superior colliculus, are summarized. At each stage of this review, the anatomical scheme is used to predict the effects of lesions on the control of eye movements, providing clinical-anatomical correlation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Ischemic Retinopathy and Neovascular Proliferation Secondary to Severe Head Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muge Coban-Karatas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case with severe head trauma and perforating globe injury in one eye and ischemic retinopathy and neovascular proliferation in the other eye. A 37-year-old male was brought to the emergency department after a motor vehicle accident with severe maxillofacial trauma. Ophthalmic examination revealed hematoma of the left eyelids as well as traumatic rupture and disorganization of the left globe. On the right eye, anterior segment and fundoscopic examination were normal. Primary globe repair was performed. At postoperative one-month visit, the right eye revealed no pathology of the optic disc and macula but severe neovascularization in the temporal peripheral retina. The patient was diagnosed as ischemic retinopathy and neovascular proliferation due to head trauma.

  4. Oxaliplatin-Related Ocular Toxicity

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    Marina Mesquida

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of a 52-year-old woman with advanced colorectal cancer who was treated with oxaliplatin on a FOLFOX schedule. After 3 cycles of chemotherapy, she started to complain of visual loss, altered color vision and neurological symptoms. Due to the suspicion of ocular and neurological toxicity, antineoplastic treatment was stopped. Her visual field showed a concentric bilateral scotoma and the electrooculogram test revealed severe impairment of the retinal pigment epithelium. Visual acuity, color vision and visual field recovered completely 8 months later, although electrooculogram remained abnormal. Ocular toxicity has been reported as an infrequent adverse event of oxaliplatin. Findings in this case indicate toxicity of this chemotherapeutic agent on the retinal pigment epithelium, which has not been reported before. This damage could be permanent, and it thus differs from previously described oxaliplatin-induced ocular toxicities, which are usually transient and reversible. With increasing use of oxaliplatin as first-line treatment in advanced colorectal cancer, we have to be aware of this possible toxicity.

  5. Perioperative visual loss with non-ocular surgery: Case report and review of literature

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    Nidhi Pandey

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Perioperative visual loss (POVL, a rare but devastating complication, has been reported after spine, cardiac, and head-neck surgeries.The various causes include ischemic optic neuropathy, central or branch retinal artery occlusion, and cortical blindness. The contributory factors described are microvascular diseases and intraoperative hemodynamic compromise. However, the exact association of these factors with post-operative blindness has not yet been confirmed. A case of POVL with caesarian section surgery is being presented. The visual loss occurred due to a combined occlusion of central retinal artery and vein.The causes, presentation, and risk factors of POVL after non-ocular surgery are being discussed.

  6. Follicular lymphoma of the ocular adnexal region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Peter Kristian; Ralfkiaer, E.; Prause, J.U.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To characterize the clinicopathological features of follicular lymphoma of the ocular adnexal region. Methods Retrospective nation-based study of Danish patients with ocular adnexal follicular lymphoma from January 1st 1980 through December 31st 2009. Results Twenty-four patients...... with ocular adnexal follicular lymphoma were identified. Fourteen (58%) of the patients were females. The median age was 63 years (range: 42–96 years). Eleven (46%) of the patients had primary ocular adnexal lymphoma, seven (29%) had an ocular adnexal lesion in conjunction with a concurrent systemic lymphoma...... and six patients (25%) presented with an ocular adnexal relapse. The most frequently affected sites were the lacrimal gland (38%) and the orbit (33%). Thirteen patients (54%) presented with Ann Arbor stage IE lymphoma, four (17%) had stage IIE, two patients (8%) stage IIIE, and five patients (21%) had...

  7. Protein Synthesis Inhibition in the Peri-Infarct Cortex Slows Motor Recovery in Rats.

    OpenAIRE

    Schubring-Giese Maximilian; Leemburg Susan; Luft Andreas Rüdiger; Hosp Jonas Aurel

    2016-01-01

    Neuroplasticity and reorganization of brain motor networks are thought to enable recovery of motor function after ischemic stroke. Especially in the cortex surrounding the ischemic scar (i.e., peri-infarct cortex), evidence for lasting reorganization has been found at the level of neurons and networks. This reorganization depends on expression of specific genes and subsequent protein synthesis. To test the functional relevance of the peri-infarct cortex for recovery we assessed the effect of ...

  8. Ocular findings in systemic lupus erythemato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samir S. Shoughy

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE is a chronic multisystem autoimmune disease. Ocular complications occur in up to one-third of patients with SLE. The ocular findings may represent the initial manifestation of the disease and may lead to severe ocular morbidity and loss of vision. Early diagnosis and prompt management of patients with SLE are mandatory and require collaboration between the ophthalmologist and the rheumatologist.

  9. Ocular findings in systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoughy, Samir S; Tabbara, Khalid F

    2016-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic multisystem autoimmune disease. Ocular complications occur in up to one-third of patients with SLE. The ocular findings may represent the initial manifestation of the disease and may lead to severe ocular morbidity and loss of vision. Early diagnosis and prompt management of patients with SLE are mandatory and require collaboration between the ophthalmologist and the rheumatologist.

  10. Ocular myasthenia gravis: Side effect of urografin

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    Nitin Modi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ocular myasthenia gravis is an autoimmune disorder of the neuromuscular junction. Diplopia and ptosis are common symptoms at the onset of ocular myasthenia gravis. It may occur due to the antibodies developed against various drugs. We are reporting a case of ocular myasthenia gravis which was developed in a patient post angiography which may be due to antibody developed against the dye used in angiography.

  11. Unusual ocular manifestations of silent sinus syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Fonseca, Fabricio Lopes da; Mazoti, Luciana; Polati, Mariza

    2014-01-01

    Silent sinus syndrome is an acquired condition in which there is a gradual collapse of the orbital floor and inward retraction of the maxillary sinus (atelectasis of the maxillary sinus). This in turn may cause associated ocular occurrences of enophthalmos and hypotropia. This is a report of an 8 year-old boy with silent sinus syndrome and associated ocular motility disorders. The association between silent sinus syndrome and ocular motility disturbance has been recently described in the lite...

  12. Medicina regenerativa y superficie ocular Regenerative medicine and ocular surface

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    Taimi Cárdenas Díaz

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available En los últimos años se ha producido un extraordinario avance en los conocimientos relacionados con diferentes ramas biomédicas, entre ellas, la biología celular. Esto ha dado un notable impulso a una nueva rama de la medicina denominada medicina regenerativa. Esta nueva disciplina médica se basa fundamentalmente en los nuevos conocimientos sobre las células madre y en su capacidad de convertirse en células de diferentes tejidos. Una de las estructuras que tiene más interés, desde el punto de vista de la medicina regenerativa, es la superficie ocular. Por esto, se ha logrado notables progresos en la reconstrucción de la superficie ocular mediante la aplicación de procederes regenerativos. Los cultivos de células del epitelio corneal humano están siendo utilizados en el tratamiento de la insuficiencia limbar. Esto permite disminuir la incidencia de opacidades tipo Haze tras queratectomía fotorrefractiva, acelerar la curación y evitar la aparición de leucomas en pacientes con defectos epiteliares persistentes e intentar disminuir la incidencia de opacidades corneales en pacientes sometidos a queratectomía fototerapéutica por diferentes distrofias corneales.In the last few years, an extraordinary advance has taken place in the knowledge about several biomedical branches as is the case of cellular biology, which has remarkably encouraged the development of a new medical branch called regenerative medicine. This medical discipline is fundamentally based on the new knowledge on the stem cells and their capacity to become cells for different tissues. One of the most interesting structures for the regenerative medicine is the ocular surface. In the last few years, significant advances have been achieved in the field of the ocular surface reconstruction with regenerative procedures. Some cell cultures of the human corneal epithelium are being used to treat limber insufficiency, to reduce the incidence of haze-type opacities after

  13. Bilateral Ischemic Optic Neuropathy Developed under Interferon Therapy

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    Fatih Selcukbiricik

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Interferon is a glycoprotein produced by assigned cells of immune system. It has been used in many different diseases. Although flu-like syndrome, myalgia, rash, hypotension, thrombocytopenia and peripheral neuropathy due to interferon use are encountered frequently, ocular side effects are rare, generally mild and transient. Case Report. 47-year-old female patient, presented with a mass lesion in right renal pelvis. Right radical nephrectomy was applied and the histopathological examination was consistent with papillary renal cell carcinoma. Interferon alpha treatment was started subcutaneously at the dose of 5 MIU/3 times in a week. Four weeks after the interferon therapy, suddenly bilateral visual loss developed. We discussed the diagnosis, followup, and treatment of the patient who developed irreversible ischemic optic neuropathy and had no previous known primary systemic disease to cause this condition. Conclusion. We suggest that patients should be screened for risk factors causing optic ischemic neuropathy, before interferon therapy. Although there was no adequate information in the literature for the followup, patients should be monitorized before, 1 month after, and 2 months after the treatment. And if there is no complication, we suggest that they should be followed up at 3-month intervals.

  14. A case of anterior ischemic optic neuropathy associated with uveitis

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    Sugahara M

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Michitaka Sugahara, Takayuki Fujimoto, Kyoko Shidara, Kenji Inoue, Masato Wakakura Inouye Eye Hospital, Tokyo, Japan Introduction: Here, we describe a patient who presented with anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (AION and subsequently developed uveitis. Case: A 69-year-old man was referred to our hospital and initially presented with best-corrected visual acuities (BCVA of 20/40 (right eye and 20/1000 (left eye and relative afferent pupillary defect. Slit-lamp examination revealed no signs of ocular inflammation in either eye. Fundus examination revealed left-eye swelling and a pale superior optic disc, and Goldmann perimetry revealed left-eye inferior hemianopia. The patient was diagnosed with nonarteritic AION in the left eye. One week later, the patient returned to the hospital because of vision loss. The BCVA of the left eye was so poor that the patient could only count fingers. Slit-lamp examination revealed 1+ cells in the anterior chamber and the anterior vitreous in both eyes. Funduscopic examination revealed vasculitis and exudates in both eyes. The patient was diagnosed with bilateral panuveitis, and treatment with topical betamethasone was started. No other physical findings resulting from other autoimmune or infectious diseases were found. No additional treatments were administered, and optic disc edema in the left eye improved, and the retinal exudates disappeared in 3 months. The patient's BCVA improved after cataract surgery was performed. Conclusion: Panuveitis most likely manifests after the development of AION. Keywords: anterior ischemic optic neuropathy, uveitis

  15. MRI in ischemic heart disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazirolan, T.

    2012-01-01

    Full text: The role of magnetic resonance imaging in the evaluation of ischemic heart disease has increased over the last years. Cardiac MRI is the only imaging modality that provides 'one stop shop' assessment. Information about ventricular function, myocardial ischemia and myocardial viability can be obtained in a single cardiac MRI session. Additionally, Cardiac MRI has become a gold standard method in evaluation of myocardial viability and in assessment of ventricular mass and function. As a result, cardiac MRI enable radiologist to comprehensively assess ischemic heart disease. The aim of this presentation is to provide the reader a state-of-the art on how the newest cardiac MRI techniques can be used to study ischemic heart disease patients.

  16. MR imaging of ischemic penumbra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Osamu; Aoki, Shigeki; Shirouzu, Ichiro; Kunimatsu, Akira; Hayashi, Naoto; Masumoto, Tomohiko; Mori, Harushi; Yamada, Haruyasu; Watanabe, Makoto; Masutani, Yoshitaka; Ohtomo, Kuni

    2003-01-01

    Cerebral ischemic stroke is one of the most fatal diseases despite current advances in medical science. Recent demonstration of efficacy using intravenous and intra-arterial thrombolysis demands therapeutic intervention tailored to the physiologic state of the individual tissue and stratification of patients according to the potential risks for therapies. In such an era, the role of the neuroimaging becomes increasingly important to evaluate the extent and location of tissues at risk of infarction (ischemic penumbra), to distinguish it from unsalvageable infarcted tissues or doomed hemorrhagic parenchyma. In this review, we present briefly the current role and limitation of computed tomography and conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We also present the possible applications of advanced MR techniques, such as diffusion and perfusion imaging, concentrating on the delineation or detection of ischemic penumbra

  17. Relationship between the Direction of Ophthalmic Artery Blood Flow and Ocular Microcirculation before and after Carotid Artery Stenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Masashi; Hayashi, Morito; Yagi, Fumihiko; Sato, Kenichiro; Tomita, Goji; Iwabuchi, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    When internal carotid artery stenosis is accompanied by ocular ischemic syndrome, intervention is recommended to prevent irreversible visual loss. In this study, we used laser speckle flowgraphy to measure the ocular microcirculation in the optic nerve head before and after carotid artery stenting (CAS) of 40 advanced internal carotid stenosis lesions from 37 patients. The aim was to investigate the relationship between ocular microcirculation and the direction of ophthalmic artery blood flow obtained by angiography. We found that there was a significant increase in blood flow after CAS ( P = 0.003). Peak systolic velocity as an indicator of the rate of stenosis was also significantly higher in the group with retrograde/undetected flow of the ophthalmic artery than in the group with antegrade flow ( P = 0.002). In all cases where retrograde flow of the ophthalmic artery was observed before stenting, the flow changed to antegrade after stenting. Through the use of laser speckle flowgraphy, this study found that CAS can improve ocular microcirculation. Furthermore, while patients displaying retrograde flow of the ophthalmic artery before stenting have a poor prognosis, CAS corrected the flow to antegrade, suggesting that visual loss can be prevented by improving the ocular microcirculation.

  18. Neuropsychological evaluation of children after ischemic cerebrovascular disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guimarães Inês Elcione

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to associate neuropsychological evaluation with neuroimaging results in children with cerebral tomography indicating ischemic cerebrovascular disease (ICVD. Neuroimaging, neurological exams and neuropsychological instruments were used to evaluate five children. The study revealed that the cognitive and perceptive skills in two children were normal and motor sequele in four cases. The rhythm, visual and speech receptive skills remained unchanged. In four cases the SPECT exam showed regions with hypoperfusion and in four cases the EEG was normal. Neuropsychological, neurological and image indication some degree of sequele demonstrating the importance of follow up of children who had suffered cerebrovascular disease.

  19. Ocular dirofilariasis in Dubai, UAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mittal Mamta

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A rare occurrence of ocular subconjunctival dirofilariasis in a 53-year-old healthy Indian male working in Dubai, UAE presenting with an acute red eye is reported. Surgical excision under topical anesthesia was carried out uneventfully in the outpatient clinic. The live worm removed from the subconjunctival space was identified as Dirofilaria repens on the basis of microscopic examination and histopathology. Surgical excision of subconjunctival dirofilariasis is safe in an outpatient setting and curative precluding the need for further systemic antihelminthics.

  20. Miasis ocular por Oestrus ovis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Beltrán F

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presentan tres casos de miasis ocular (dos adultos y un niñoprocedentes de zonas ganaderas de la provincia de Huaura,departamento de Lima,que acudieron al Hospital Regional de Huacho por presentar el ojo rojo,fotofobia, edema palpebral y sensación de cuerpo extraño;se extrajeron larvas adheridas al canto interno del ojo,las cuales se recibieron en el Instituto Nacional de Salud y fueron identificadas como Oestrus ovis .

  1. Raman Spectroscopy of Ocular Tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermakov, Igor V.; Sharifzadeh, Mohsen; Gellermann, Warner

    The optically transparent nature of the human eye has motivated numerous Raman studies aimed at the non-invasive optical probing of ocular tissue components critical to healthy vision. Investigations include the qualitative and quantitative detection of tissue-specific molecular constituents, compositional changes occurring with development of ocular pathology, and the detection and tracking of ocular drugs and nutritional supplements. Motivated by a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms leading to cataract formation in the aging human lens, a great deal of work has centered on the Raman detection of proteins and water content in the lens. Several protein groups and the hydroxyl response are readily detectable. Changes of protein compositions can be studied in excised noncataractous tissue versus aged tissue preparations as well as in tissue samples with artificially induced cataracts. Most of these studies are carried out in vitro using suitable animal models and conventional Raman techniques. Tissue water content plays an important role in optimum light transmission of the outermost transparent ocular structure, the cornea. Using confocal Raman spectroscopy techniques, it has been possible to non-invasively measure the water to protein ratio as a measure of hydration status and to track drug-induced changes of the hydration levels in the rabbit cornea at various depths. The aqueous humor, normally supplying nutrients to cornea and lens, has an advantageous anterior location for Raman studies. Increasing efforts are pursued to non-invasively detect the presence of glucose and therapeutic concentrations of antibiotic drugs in this medium. In retinal tissue, Raman spectroscopy proves to be an important tool for research into the causes of macular degeneration, the leading cause of irreversible vision disorders and blindness in the elderly. It has been possible to detect the spectral features of advanced glycation and advanced lipooxydation end products in

  2. Blood-brain barrier alterations provide evidence of subacute diaschisis in an ischemic stroke rat model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svitlana Garbuzova-Davis

    Full Text Available Comprehensive stroke studies reveal diaschisis, a loss of function due to pathological deficits in brain areas remote from initial ischemic lesion. However, blood-brain barrier (BBB competence in subacute diaschisis is uncertain. The present study investigated subacute diaschisis in a focal ischemic stroke rat model. Specific focuses were BBB integrity and related pathogenic processes in contralateral brain areas.In ipsilateral hemisphere 7 days after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO, significant BBB alterations characterized by large Evans Blue (EB parenchymal extravasation, autophagosome accumulation, increased reactive astrocytes and activated microglia, demyelinization, and neuronal damage were detected in the striatum, motor and somatosensory cortices. Vascular damage identified by ultrastuctural and immunohistochemical analyses also occurred in the contralateral hemisphere. In contralateral striatum and motor cortex, major ultrastructural BBB changes included: swollen and vacuolated endothelial cells containing numerous autophagosomes, pericyte degeneration, and perivascular edema. Additionally, prominent EB extravasation, increased endothelial autophagosome formation, rampant astrogliosis, activated microglia, widespread neuronal pyknosis and decreased myelin were observed in contralateral striatum, and motor and somatosensory cortices.These results demonstrate focal ischemic stroke-induced pathological disturbances in ipsilateral, as well as in contralateral brain areas, which were shown to be closely associated with BBB breakdown in remote brain microvessels and endothelial autophagosome accumulation. This microvascular damage in subacute phase likely revealed ischemic diaschisis and should be considered in development of treatment strategies for stroke.

  3. Behavior outcome after ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke, with similar brain damage, in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mestriner, Régis Gemerasca; Miguel, Patrícia Maidana; Bagatini, Pamela Brambilla; Saur, Lisiani; Boisserand, Lígia Simões Braga; Baptista, Pedro Porto Alegre; Xavier, Léder Leal; Netto, Carlos Alexandre

    2013-05-01

    Stroke causes disability and mortality worldwide and is divided into ischemic and hemorrhagic subtypes. Although clinical trials suggest distinct recovery profiles for ischemic and hemorrhagic events, this is not conclusive due to stroke heterogeneity. The aim of this study was to produce similar brain damage, using experimental models of ischemic (IS) and hemorrhagic (HS) stroke and evaluate the motor spontaneous recovery profile. We used 31 Wistar rats divided into the following groups: Sham (n=7), ischemic (IS) (n=12) or hemorrhagic (HS) (n=12). Brain ischemia or hemorrhage was induced by endotelin-1 (ET-1) and collagenase type IV-S (collagenase) microinjections, respectively. All groups were evaluated in the open field, cylinder and ladder walk behavioral tests at distinct time points as from baseline to 30 days post-surgery (30 PS). Histological and morphometric analyses were used to assess the volume of lost tissue and lesion length. Present results reveal that both forms of experimental stroke had a comparable long-term pattern of damage, since no differences were found in volume of tissue lost or lesion size 30 days after surgery. However, behavioral data showed that hemorrhagic rats were less impaired at skilled walking than ischemic ones at 15 and 30 days post-surgery. We suggest that experimentally comparable stroke design is useful because it reduces heterogeneity and facilitates the assessment of neurobiological differences related to stroke subtypes; and that spontaneous skilled walking recovery differs between experimental ischemic and hemorrhagic insults. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Ocular morbidity among porters at high altitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnyawali, Subodh; Shrestha, Gauri Shankar; Khanal, Safal; Dennis, Talisa; Spencer, John C

    2017-01-01

    High altitude, often characterized by settings over 2400m, can be detrimental to the human body and pose a significant risk to ocular health. Reports concerning various ocular morbidities occurring as a consequence of high altitude are limited in the current literature. This study was aimed at evaluating the ocular health of porters working at high altitudesof Himalayas in Nepal. A mobile eye clinic was set up in Ghat and patient data were collected from its out- patient unit by a team of seven optometrists which was run for five days. Ghat is a small village in north-eastern Nepal, located at 2860 m altitude. Travellers walking through the trekking route were invited to get their eyes checked at the clinic. Comprehensive ocular examinations were performed, including visual acuities, objective and subjective refraction, anterior and posterior segment evaluations, and intraocular pressure measurements; blood pressure and blood glucose levels were also measured as required. Ocular therapeutics, prescription glasses, sunglasses and ocular health referrals were provided free of cost as necessary. A total of 1890 people visited the eye clinic, among which 57.4% (n=1084) were porters. Almost half of the porters had an ocular morbidity. Correctable refractive error was most prevalent, with other ocular health-related complications, including dry eye disease, infectious disorders, glaucoma and cataract. Proper provision of regular and effective eye care services should be made more available for those residing at these high altitudes in Nepal. © NEPjOPH.

  5. Sonographic measurements of ocular biometry of indigenous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was aimed at conducting ophthalmic sonographic examination of Nigerian indigenous dogs to provide baseline information on some major ocular parameters. Healthy eyes of eighty (80) indigenous dogs were used for the study. The dogs were adequately restrained physically and the structure of the ocular ...

  6. OCULAR FINDINGS IN CHILDREN WITH CEREBRAL PALSY ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cerebral palsy is commonly associated with ocular abnormalities which often impact on their development and education. There is paucity of studies on this in Nigeria. We decided to study/ determine the prevalence of ocular abnormalities among children with cerebral palsy that attended the neurology clinic of University of ...

  7. 21 CFR 886.1040 - Ocular esthesiometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ocular esthesiometer. 886.1040 Section 886.1040 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED.... An ocular esthesiometer is a device, such as a single-hair brush, intended to touch the cornea to...

  8. Unilateral anterior ischemic optic neuropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herbst, Kristina; Sander, Birgit; Lund-Andersen, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    of this study was to investigate the ipRGC mediated pupil response in patients with a unilateral non-arteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION). Consensual pupil responses during and after exposure to continuous 20 s blue (470 nm) or red (660 nm) light of high intensity (300 cd/m(2)) were recorded...

  9. [Ischemic stroke in young women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ekker, M.S.; Wermer, M.J.; Riksen, N.P.; Klijn, C.J.; Leeuw, F.E. de

    2016-01-01

    - In virtually all age groups, the incidence of ischemic stroke is higher in men. However, in women aged between 25-49 years the prevalence is higher than in men. Female-specific risk factors and disorders may explain this peak.- Pregnancy and the post-partum period are associated with physiological

  10. Diabetes and ischemic heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergmann, Natasha; Ballegaard, Søren; Holmager, Pernille

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test i) whether patients having diabetes and ischemic heart disease (IHD), i.e., patients suffering from two chronic diseases, demonstrate a higher degree of chronic stress when compared with patients suffering from IHD alone, and ii) whether suffering from the two...

  11. Olanzapine-induced ischemic colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esteban Sáez-González

    Full Text Available Background: Ischemic colitis (IC is an uncommon adverse event associated with antipsychotic agents, more commonly found with phenothiazine drugs and atypical neuroleptics such as clozapine. The risk of developing ischemic colitis increases when anticholinergic drugs are associated. Case report: We report the case of a 38-year-old woman with a history of schizoaffective disorder who had been on chronic quetiapine for 3 years, and presented to the ER because of diarrhea for 5 days. Four months previously, olanzapine had been added to her psychiatric drug regimen. Physical examination revealed abdominal distension with abdominal tympanic sounds and tenderness. Emergency laboratory tests were notable for increased acute phase reagents. Tomography revealed a concentric thickening of the colonic wall in the transverse, descending and sigmoid segments, with no signs of intestinal perforation. Colonoscopy demonstrated severe mucosal involvement from the sigmoid to the hepatic flexure, with ulcerations and fibrinoid exudate. Biopsies confirmed the diagnosis of ischemic colitis. The only relevant finding in her history was the newly added drug to her baseline regimen. An adverse effect was suspected because of its anticholinergic action at the intestinal level, and the drug was withdrawn. After 6 months of follow-up clinical, laboratory and endoscopic recovery was achieved. Discussion: Antipsychotic medication should be considered as a potential cause of ischemic colitis, particularly atypical antipsychotics such as clozapine and olanzapine; despite being uncommon, this adverse event may result in high morbidity and mortality.

  12. Ocular Surface Reconstruction: Recent Innovations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhavan HN

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The ocular surface is exceptionally rich in complexity and functionality. Severe ocular surface disorders/conditions, such as chemical or thermal injuries, Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS, ocular cicatricial pemphigoid, neurotrophic keratopathy, chronic limbitis, and severe microbial keratitis cause significant morbidities and even corneal blindness. Hypofunction may be caused by Aniridia, Neurotrophy, Endocrine, Pterygium and Chronic limbitis Approximately 6000 patients are seen in Ocular Surface Clinic every year; almost 80% have some form of dry eyes. About 125 new patients of Stevens Johnson Syndrome are seen in a year of which approximately 25% may benefit from Cultured Epithelial Transplant and 75 new patients of thermal/chemical injury in a year of which almost 80% will benefit from Stem Cell Transplantation. Of the 128 severe vernal keratoconjunctivitis which were seen in the ocular surface clinic, 10% require stem cell transplantation. Nearly 30 new cases of Ocular cicatrical pemphigoid every year are seen and they may need stem cell transplantation. In addition, several patients with persistent epithelial defects may benefit from limbal stem cell transplantation to alleviate, maintain conjunctivalization regression and corneal avascularity limbal deficiency, and restore vision. Even if granted that this statistics is for a single large ophthalmic hospital, for a large country as India with 1.1 billion populations, the number of patients requiring corneal stem cell transplantation is enormous. Stem cells in the palisades of Vogt participate in regeneration and preservation of corneal transparency and avascularity. The diminished regenerative capacity seen in LSCD is characterized by persistent epithelial defects, erosion and ulceration, conjunctivalization and neovascularization, and chronic inflammation. Standard corneal transplantation for restoration of corneal clarity and avascularity is a contraindication in the surgical management

  13. Ocular and non-ocular manifestations of hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyagi, Pallavi; Tyagi, Vipin; Hashim, Adnan A

    2011-01-01

    Hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (HED) is a group of rare multisystemic genetic syndromes that affects ectodermal structures such as skin, hair, nails, teeth and sweat glands. The authors present a case of a child with ocular and dermatological signs of HED along with severe involvement of other multiple organ systems. The family history could be traced to four generations and there was an observed trend of increase in severity of signs and symptoms occurring at younger age. The purpose of this case report is to create awareness in ophthalmic community of its diagnosis and clinical manifestations. This case highlights the role of multidisciplinary approach for management of systemic disease, genetic evaluation of affected individuals and carriers and genetic counselling. PMID:22700604

  14. Componentes oculares em anisometropia The ocular components in anisometropia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Tayah

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Comparar as correlações dos componentes oculares (comprimento axial, comprimento do segmento anterior, poder médio da córnea, profundidade da câmara vítrea e poder refrativo equivalente com o erro refrativo total do olho portador da menor e da maior ametropia em anisométropes. MÉTODOS: Foi realizado um "survey" analítico conduzido em população de 68 anisométropes de duas ou mais dioptrias atendida no Ambulatório da Clinica Oftalmológica do Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo Os anisométropes foram submetidos à refração estática objetiva e subjetiva, ceratometria e biometria ultra-sônica. RESULTADOS: Não houve diferença significativa entre os valores dos componentes oculares medidos dos olhos portadores da menor e da maior ametropia. Os olhos portadores da menor ametropia apresentaram as mesmas correlações significantes observadas em olhos emétropes, ou seja, correlação da refração com comprimento do segmento anterior e comprimento axial, e correlação do comprimento axial com poder corneano e profundidade da câmara vítrea. Os olhos portadores da maior ametropia apresentaram correlação significante da refração com o comprimento axial e do comprimento axial com a profundidade da câmara vítrea. Ainda em ambos os olhos observou-se correlação significante do poder do cristalino com a profundidade da câmara anterior. CONCLUSÃO: Os olhos portadores da menor ametropia desenvolveram as correlações mais freqüentemente observadas nos olhos emétropes. Os olhos portadores da maior ametropia não desenvolveram as mesmas correlações dos emétropes.PURPOSE: To asses the correlation between ocular components (axial length, anterior segment length, corneal power, vitreous length and equivalent power of the eye and refractive error in eyes with higher and lower ametropia of subjects with anisometropia. METHODS: An analytical survey was carried out in 68 patients

  15. Republished review: Gene therapy for ocular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Melissa M; Tuo, Jingsheng; Chan, Chi-Chao

    2011-07-01

    The eye is an easily accessible, highly compartmentalised and immune-privileged organ that offers unique advantages as a gene therapy target. Significant advancements have been made in understanding the genetic pathogenesis of ocular diseases, and gene replacement and gene silencing have been implicated as potentially efficacious therapies. Recent improvements have been made in the safety and specificity of vector-based ocular gene transfer methods. Proof-of-concept for vector-based gene therapies has also been established in several experimental models of human ocular diseases. After nearly two decades of ocular gene therapy research, preliminary successes are now being reported in phase 1 clinical trials for the treatment of Leber congenital amaurosis. This review describes current developments and future prospects for ocular gene therapy. Novel methods are being developed to enhance the performance and regulation of recombinant adeno-associated virus- and lentivirus-mediated ocular gene transfer. Gene therapy prospects have advanced for a variety of retinal disorders, including retinitis pigmentosa, retinoschisis, Stargardt disease and age-related macular degeneration. Advances have also been made using experimental models for non-retinal diseases, such as uveitis and glaucoma. These methodological advancements are critical for the implementation of additional gene-based therapies for human ocular diseases in the near future.

  16. Combat ocular trauma and systemic injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weichel, Eric D; Colyer, Marcus H

    2008-11-01

    To review the recent literature regarding combat ocular trauma during hostilities in Operations Iraqi Freedom and Enduring Freedom, describe the classification of combat ocular trauma, and offer strategies that may assist in the management of eye injuries. Several recent publications have highlighted features of combat ocular trauma from Operation Iraqi Freedom. The most common cause of today's combat ocular injuries is unconventional fragmentary munitions causing significant blast injuries. These explosive munitions cause high rates of concomitant nonocular injuries such as traumatic brain injury, amputation, and other organ injuries. The most frequent ocular injuries include open-globe and adnexal lacerations. The extreme severity of combat-related open-globe injuries leads to high rates of primary enucleation and retained intraocular foreign bodies. Visual outcomes of intraocular foreign body injuries are similar to other series despite delayed removal, and no cases of endophthalmitis have occurred. Despite these advances, however, significant vision loss persists in cases of perforating globe injuries as well as open and closed-globe trauma involving the posterior segment. This review summarizes the recent literature describing ocular and systemic injuries sustained during Operations Iraqi and Enduring Freedom. An emphasis on classification of ocular injuries as well as a discussion of main outcome measures and complications is discussed.

  17. The role of herpesviruses in ocular infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asim V Farooq

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Asim V Farooq1, Arpeet Shah1, Deepak Shukla21Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, 2Department of Microbiology and Immunology, College of Medicine, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL, USAAbstract: Ocular infections caused by herpesviruses are an important cause of morbidity. The majority of cases are believed to be associated with herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1, although HSV-2, varicella zoster virus (VZV, cytomegalovirus (CMV and Epstein–Barr virus (EBV are also associated with various ocular diseases. The ability of some herpes viruses to infect various anatomic regions of the eye may be facilitated by entry processes that are cell-type specific, and in many cases may occur more frequently in the immunocompromised. The elimination of the role of herpesviruses in ocular disease remains elusive, as they often develop life-long latency in a large proportion of humans. Experimental vaccines for ocular HSV have shown some benefit in animal models, a result that has not been adequately demonstrated in clinical trials. Meanwhile, ocular involvement in VZV remains unpredictable, and CMV retinitis continues to be an important cause of blindness in those infected by HIV.Keywords: ocular herpes, viral entry, antivirals, epidemiology, seroprevalence, ocular lymphomas, viral vaccine

  18. Ocular involvement in paediatric haemolytic uraemic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturm, Veit; Menke, Marcel N; Landau, Klara; Laube, Guido F; Neuhaus, Thomas J

    2010-11-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the frequency and severity of ocular involvement in paediatric patients with haemolytic uraemic syndrome (HUS). The study was designed as an institutional, retrospective, observational case series. Charts for all 87 paediatric patients with HUS treated at the University Children's Hospital Zurich between 1995 and 2007 were reviewed. Patients with ocular involvement were identified and clinical findings presented. Three of 69 examined patients with HUS showed ocular involvement. Ophthalmic findings in two children were consistent with bilateral Purtscher retinopathy, showing multiple haemorrhages, exudations and superficial retinal whitening. The third child presented with bilateral isolated central intraretinal haemorrhages as a milder form of ocular involvement. In one of the children with Purtscher retinopathy, laser photocoagulation was required for bilateral rubeosis irides and development of disc neovascularization. Longterm outcomes in the two severely affected children showed decreased visual acuity caused by partial atrophy of the optic nerves. In the milder case visual acuity was not impaired at any time. A minority of paediatric patients with HUS developed ocular involvement. Acute ocular findings varied in severity from isolated intraretinal haemorrhages to Purtscher-like retinopathy with retinal ischaemia. Longterm complications included the development of neovascularizations and consecutive optic nerve atrophy. Although ocular involvement in HUS seems to be rare, physicians should be aware of this complication because of its possible vision-endangering consequences. © 2009 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2009 Acta Ophthalmol.

  19. Human ocular Thelaziasis in Karnataka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabhakar S Krishnachary

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Thelaziasis is an Arthropod-born disease of the eye and adnexa caused by Thelazia callipaeda, a nematode parasite transmitted by drosophilid flies to carnivores and humans. Because of its distribution mainly confined to South Asian countries and Russia, it is commonly known as Oriental Eye worm. It is often under-reported and not been given its due clinical importance. We report first case of human Thelaziasis from Hassan District, Karnataka. Five creamy-white, translucent worms were removed from the conjunctival sac of a 74-year-old male patient. Based on morphological characters, the worms were identified as nematodes belonging to the genus Thelazia and speciation was confirmed by CDC, Atlanta as callipaeda. Rarity of the disease and its ability to cause both extra and intraocular manifestations leading to ocular morbidity is the reason for presenting this case. From the available data, this is the first case report from Karnataka, India.

  20. Dysfunctional regulation of ocular blood flow: A risk factor for glaucoma?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danny Moore

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Danny Moore, Alon Harris, Darrell WuDunn, Nisha Kheradiya, Brent Siesky1Department of Ophthalmology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN, USAAbstract: Primary open angle glaucoma (OAG is a multifactorial optic neuropathy characterized by progressive retinal ganglion cell death and associated visual field loss. OAG is an emerging disease with increasing costs and negative outcomes, yet its fundamental pathophysiology remains largely undetermined. A major treatable risk factor for glaucoma is elevated intraocular pressure (IOP. Despite the medical lowering of IOP, however, some glaucoma patients continue to experience disease progression and subsequent irreversible vision loss. The scientific community continues to accrue evidence suggesting that alterations in ocular blood flow play a prominent role in OAG disease processes. This article develops the thesis that dysfunctional regulation of ocular blood flow may contribute to glaucomatous optic neuropathy. Evidence suggests that impaired vascular autoregulation renders the optic nerve head susceptible to decreases in ocular perfusion pressure, increases in IOP, and/or increased local metabolic demands. Ischemic damage, which likely contributes to further impairment in autoregulation, results in changes to the optic nerve head consistent with glaucoma. Included in this review are discussions of conditions thought to contribute to vascular regulatory dysfunction in OAG, including atherosclerosis, vasospasm, and endothelial dysfunction.Keywords: glaucoma, autoregulation, blood flow, atherosclerosis, vasospasm, endothelial dysfunction

  1. Ocular anatomy in medieval arabic medicine. A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laios, Konstantinos; Moschos, Marilita M; George, Androutsos

    2016-01-01

    In medieval Arabic medicine Ophthalmology had a central role. Ocular anatomy was described in many ophthalmological treatises of the physicians of the time. These physicians followed the doctrines of Galen according ocular anatomy, nevertheless their contribution to the history of ocular anatomy was the presentation of ocular anatomical sketches in their manuscripts for the fist time in medical history.

  2. Tear clearance implications for ocular surface health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Paiva, Cintia Sade; Pflugfelder, Stephen C

    2004-03-01

    Tear clearance/turnover provides a global assessment of the function of the lacrimal functional unit and of tear exchange on the ocular surface. It is an indirect measure of dry eye induced inflammation on the ocular surface. It shows better correlation with the severity of ocular irritation symptoms and corneal epithelial disease in dry eye than the Schirmer 1 test. Delayed tear clearance may prove to be the best measure for identifying patients with tear film disorders who may respond to anti-inflammatory therapy.

  3. Unusual ocular manifestations of silent sinus syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabricio Lopes da Fonseca

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Silent sinus syndrome is an acquired condition in which there is a gradual collapse of the orbital floor and inward retraction of the maxillary sinus (atelectasis of the maxillary sinus. This in turn may cause associated ocular occurrences of enophthalmos and hypotropia. This is a report of an 8 year-old boy with silent sinus syndrome and associated ocular motility disorders. The association between silent sinus syndrome and ocular motility disturbance has been recently described in the literature. However, this is an infrequent association, mainly in childhood.

  4. OCULAR SYPHILIS IN A KIDNEY TRANSPLANT RECIPIENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    ROMAO, Elen A.; BOLELLA, Valdes R.; NARDIN, Maria Estela P.; HABIB-SIMAO, Maria Lucia; FURTADO, João Marcelo; MOYSES-NETO, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    We present a case of ocular syphilis after a renal transplantation involving progressive vision loss without clinically identifiable ocular disease. Electroretinography showed signs of ischemia, especially in the internal retina. A serological test was positive for syphilis. Lumbar puncture revealed lymphocytic meningitis and a positive serologic test for syphilis in the cerebrospinal fluid. The patient was treated with penicillin, and had a quick vision improvement. In the case of transplant recipients, clinicians should always consider the diagnosis of ocular syphilis in cases with unexplained visual acuity decrement, as this condition may cause serious complications if not treated. PMID:27253748

  5. [Modern technologies and prospects of rehabilitation of patients after ischemic stroke].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekusheva, E V

    Despite the great achievements in the field of neurorehabilitation, a significant proportion of patients after an ischemic stroke have persistent motor disturbances even after timely and adequately carried out restorative measures. The article discusses the issues of neuroplasticity, modern diagnostic technologies for studying this phenomenon; prognostic factors for recovery deficit following stroke and determining the effectiveness of ongoing treatment. The principles of neuroprotective therapy in ischemic stroke are considered, which is a pathogenetically justified direction at all stages of restorative treatment after cerebral circulation disorders. One of the most studied original cytoprotectors, demonstrating safety, efficacy and good tolerability, is cytoflavin. The results of numerous clinical trials have revealed a significant positive clinical and morphological dynamics when taking cytoflavin in patients after ischemic stroke.

  6. X-linked ocular albinism in Blacks. Ocular albinism cum pigmento.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, F E; Green, W R; Fleischman, J A; Hambrick, G W

    1978-07-01

    X-linked ocular albinism can be an unsuspected cause of congenital nystagmus in blacks. In this study, eight of ten black ocular albinos from two kindreds had nonalbinotic, moderately pigmented fundi and no transillumination of the iris. We refer to this paradoxical condition as "ocular albinism cum pigmento." The only constant ophthalmoscopic feature was a foveal hypoplasia. Biopsy of clinically normal skin to demonstrate giant pigment granules is the most accurate means of diagnosis.

  7. The electric motor handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurst, R.W.; Feltham, P. (eds.)

    2004-05-01

    This handbook outlines the important role that electric motors play in modern society. It covers the field of motor applications from various motor types to their use and repair. It also presents practical applications of electric motors and methods on motor efficiency. More than half of all electricity generated, and 75 per cent of all industrial electricity consumption is consumed by electric motors. Electrical personnel must be aware of all factors involved in electric motors in order to choose and apply the appropriate size of electric motor. These factors include efficiency, sizing and proper application. The efficient use and maximum life expectancy of electric motors depends on proper motor protection, control and maintenance. This handbook includes articles from leading experts on electric motors in modern electrical systems. The content includes: design considerations; proper electric motor sizing techniques; optimal electric motor application; electric motor protection technology; electric motor control principles; electric motor maintenance and troubleshooting; induction electric motors; electric motor bearing currents; electric motor bearing lubrication; electromagnetism; electric motor enclosures; electric motor testing; electric motor repair; DC electric motor; electric motor starters; electric motor brushes; industrial electric motors; electric motor diagrams; AC electric motors; electric motor wiring; electric motor service; electric motor rewinding; electric motor winding; diagram of electric motor wiring; electric motor kit; and, troubleshooting electric motors. A directory of motor manufacturers and suppliers was also included. refs., tabs., figs.

  8. Gene Expression Changes in the Motor Cortex Mediating Motor Skill Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Vincent C. K.; DeBoer, Caroline; Hanson, Elizabeth; Tunesi, Marta; D'Onofrio, Mara; Arisi, Ivan; Brandi, Rossella; Cattaneo, Antonino; Goosens, Ki A.

    2013-01-01

    The primary motor cortex (M1) supports motor skill learning, yet little is known about the genes that contribute to motor cortical plasticity. Such knowledge could identify candidate molecules whose targeting might enable a new understanding of motor cortical functions, and provide new drug targets for the treatment of diseases which impair motor function, such as ischemic stroke. Here, we assess changes in the motor-cortical transcriptome across different stages of motor skill acquisition. Adult rats were trained on a gradually acquired appetitive reach and grasp task that required different strategies for successful pellet retrieval, or a sham version of the task in which the rats received pellet reward without needing to develop the reach and grasp skill. Tissue was harvested from the forelimb motor-cortical area either before training commenced, prior to the initial rise in task performance, or at peak performance. Differential classes of gene expression were observed at the time point immediately preceding motor task improvement. Functional clustering revealed that gene expression changes were related to the synapse, development, intracellular signaling, and the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family, with many modulated genes known to regulate synaptic plasticity, synaptogenesis, and cytoskeletal dynamics. The modulated expression of synaptic genes likely reflects ongoing network reorganization from commencement of training till the point of task improvement, suggesting that motor performance improves only after sufficient modifications in the cortical circuitry have accumulated. The regulated FGF-related genes may together contribute to M1 remodeling through their roles in synaptic growth and maturation. PMID:23637843

  9. Update on ocular toxicity of ethambutol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscilla Makunyane

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this review is to update clinicians on available literature on the ocular toxicity of ethambutol and the type of eye care to be provided to patients treated with these medications. Ethambutol is a commonly used first-line anti-tuberculosis drug. Since its first use in the 1960s, ocular toxicity is described as related to dose and duration, and it is reversible on therapy discontinuation. However, the reversibility of the toxic optic neuropathy remains controversial. The mechanism of ocular toxicity owing to ethambutol is still under investigation. Other than discontinuing the drug, no specific treatment is available for the optic neuropathy caused by ethambutol. Doctors prescribing ethambutol should be aware of the ocular toxicity, and the drug should be used with proper patient education and ophthalmic monitoring.

  10. Nanotherapies for the treatment of ocular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimondez-Troitiño, S; Csaba, N; Alonso, M J; de la Fuente, M

    2015-09-01

    The topical route is the most frequent and preferred way to deliver drugs to the eye. Unfortunately, the very low ocular drug bioavailability (less than 5%) associated with this modality of administration, makes the efficient treatment of several ocular diseases a significant challenge. In the last decades, it has been shown that specific nanocarriers can interact with the ocular mucosa, thereby increasing the retention time of the associated drug onto the eye, as well as its permeability across the corneal and conjunctival epithelium. In this review, we comparatively analyze the mechanism of action and specific potential of the most studied nano-drug delivery carriers. In addition, we present the success achieved until now using a number of nanotherapies for the treatment of the most prevalent ocular pathologies, such as infections, inflammation, dry eye, glaucoma, and retinopathies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Ocular Complications of Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rana Mady

    2015-01-01

    the usual intestinal manifestations, leading to an earlier diagnosis. Thus, it is important to understand the clinical presentation of possible ocular manifestations in order to initiate appropriate treatment and to help prevent significant visual morbidity.

  12. A challenging case of ocular melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costache, Mariana; Dumitru, Adrian Vasile; Pătraşcu, Oana Maria; Popa-Cherecheanu, Daniela Alina; Bădilă, Patricia; Miu, Jeni Cătălina; Procop, Alexandru; Popa, Manuela; Tampa, Mircea Ştefan; Sajin, Maria; Simionescu, Olga; Cîrstoiu, Monica Mihaela

    2015-01-01

    Ocular melanoma is a rare malignancy found in clinical practice. In this paper, we present a case of highly aggressive ocular melanoma, which was surgically removed at the Department of Ophthalmology and diagnosed at the Department of Pathology, Emergency University Hospital, Bucharest, Romania, using conventional histopathological techniques. Uveal melanoma, a subset of ocular melanoma, has a distinct behavior in comparison to cutaneous melanoma and has a widely divergent prognosis. Approximately half of patients with ocular melanoma will develop metastatic disease, predominantly with hepatic, pulmonary or cerebral location, over a 10 to 15 years period. No systemic therapy was associated with an evident clinical outcome for patients with advanced disease and overall survival rate remains poor.

  13. Rehabilitation Outcomes: Ischemic versus Hemorrhagic Strokes

    OpenAIRE

    Perna, Robert; Temple, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    Background. Ischemic and hemorrhagic strokes have different pathophysiologies and possibly different long-term cerebral and functional implications. Hemorrhagic strokes expose the brain to irritating effects of blood and ischemic strokes reflect localized or diffuse cerebral vascular pathology. Methods. Participants were individuals who suffered either an ischemic (n = 172) or hemorrhagic stroke (n = 112) within the past six months and were involved in a postacute neurorehabilitation program....

  14. Prosthetic management of an ocular defect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddesh Kumar Chintal

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The disfigurement associated with the loss of an eye can cause significant physical and emotional problems. Various treatment modalities are available, one of which is implants. Although implant has a superior outcome, it may not be advisable in all patients due to economic factors. The present article describes the prosthetic management of an ocular defect with a custom-made ocular prosthesis.

  15. Ocular Surface Squamous Neoplasia in Xeroderma Pigmentosum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh R Nayak

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP is a rare genetic disorder associated with multiple oculocutaneous and neurological manifestations. It occurs due to deficiency of the enzymes responsible for repairing ultraviolet radiation-induced DNA damage. Persistence of un-repaired DNA results in somatic mutations, leading to neoplasia of the skin and ocular surface. As this condition is rare, only isolated case reports of XP with ocular surface squamous neoplasia (OSSN are found in literature.

  16. Ocular Problems of the Aging Military Aviator

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-08-01

    neuropathy 3 these ocular conditions seen in the older aviator and on Ocular trauma/angle recession 3 his flight status? Branch retinal vein occlusion 2...bifocals, Nutritional amblyopia (RPW) 1 trifocals, double segs, newer progressive lenses, contact Fuch’s heterochromic iridocyclitis 1 lenses, and...In the Surveillance Only part of the program no drug therapy is DISCUSSION: Under present FAA regulations, the used but the flight surgeon must

  17. Ischemic cardiovascular disease in workers occupationally exposed to urban air pollution - A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Marchis, Paola; Verso, Maria Gabriella; Tramuto, Fabio; Amodio, Emanuele; Picciotto, Diego

    2018-03-14

    Cardiovascular disease is the first cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Among several known risk factors, researchers also focus their attention on the chronic exposure to air pollution. There is much evidence that exposure to air pollution, especially to ultrafine particles, can damage the endothelium and can favour cardiovascular diseases in the general population. Occupational exposition could be an additive risk factor for the cardiovascular system. This article presents a scientific review of the linkage between occupational exposure to air pollution and ischemic heart disease. A scientific review was undertaken, followed by PRISMA Statements. Observational studies were selected from several scientific databases, likesuch as Pubmed, Google Scholar, Nioshtic-2 and Reserchgate, searching for selected key words: police workers, professional drivers, mail carriers, filling station attendants, road cleaners, garage workers, motor vehicles and engine maintenance. All the key words were combined with "Boolean Operators" with the following words: cardiovascular (or cardiac) disease, cardiovascular function, cardiovascular system, ischemic heart disease, coronary disease, myocardial infarction. During the systematic research, the focus was on retrospective and prospective studies from January 1990 - December 2014. Both the retrospective and prospective studies showed an increased risk of ischemic heart disease in occupationally occupied people exposed to air pollution. Only one study presented a ly minor risk. The findings of this systematic review suggest a possible linkage between occupational exposure to urban air pollution, especially to motor exhaust and particulate, and ischemic heart disease.

  18. Ocular Manifestations of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young Shin; Sun, Hae Jung; Kim, Tae Hyong; Kang, Kui Dong; Lee, Sung Jin

    2015-08-01

    To investigate the patterns and risk factors of the ocular manifestations of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and their correlation with CD4+ count in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). This retrospective study examined 127 AIDS patients who presented to Soonchunhyang University Hospital. Data were collected from patient interviews, clinical examinations, and laboratory investigations. Ophthalmologic examinations included the best-corrected visual acuity, intraocular pressure, anterior segment and adnexal examination, and dilated fundus examination. Of the 127 patients with AIDS, 118 were on HAART and 9 were not. The mean CD4+ count was 266.7 ± 209.1 cells/µL. There were ocular manifestations in 61 patients (48.0%). The incidence of anterior segment manifestations was higher than posterior segment manifestations at 28.3% and 19.7%, respectively. The mean CD4+ count was significantly (p AIDS. In this study, anterior segment and external ocular manifestations occurred more frequently than posterior segment manifestations. Also, the mean CD4+ count was significantly lower in patients with posterior segment ocular manifestations versus anterior segment ocular manifestations. We found that CD4+ count and age >35 years were independent risk factors for developing ocular manifestations.

  19. Pioglitazone after Ischemic Stroke or Transient Ischemic Attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kernan, Walter N; Viscoli, Catherine M; Furie, Karen L; Young, Lawrence H; Inzucchi, Silvio E; Gorman, Mark; Guarino, Peter D; Lovejoy, Anne M; Peduzzi, Peter N; Conwit, Robin; Brass, Lawrence M; Schwartz, Gregory G; Adams, Harold P; Berger, Leo; Carolei, Antonio; Clark, Wayne; Coull, Bruce; Ford, Gary A; Kleindorfer, Dawn; O'Leary, John R; Parsons, Mark W; Ringleb, Peter; Sen, Souvik; Spence, J David; Tanne, David; Wang, David; Winder, Toni R

    2016-04-07

    Patients with ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA) are at increased risk for future cardiovascular events despite current preventive therapies. The identification of insulin resistance as a risk factor for stroke and myocardial infarction raised the possibility that pioglitazone, which improves insulin sensitivity, might benefit patients with cerebrovascular disease. In this multicenter, double-blind trial, we randomly assigned 3876 patients who had had a recent ischemic stroke or TIA to receive either pioglitazone (target dose, 45 mg daily) or placebo. Eligible patients did not have diabetes but were found to have insulin resistance on the basis of a score of more than 3.0 on the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index. The primary outcome was fatal or nonfatal stroke or myocardial infarction. By 4.8 years, a primary outcome had occurred in 175 of 1939 patients (9.0%) in the pioglitazone group and in 228 of 1937 (11.8%) in the placebo group (hazard ratio in the pioglitazone group, 0.76; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.62 to 0.93; P=0.007). Diabetes developed in 73 patients (3.8%) and 149 patients (7.7%), respectively (hazard ratio, 0.48; 95% CI, 0.33 to 0.69; Pischemic stroke or TIA, the risk of stroke or myocardial infarction was lower among patients who received pioglitazone than among those who received placebo. Pioglitazone was also associated with a lower risk of diabetes but with higher risks of weight gain, edema, and fracture. (Funded by the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00091949.).

  20. Acute retinal ischemia caused by controlled low ocular perfusion pressure in a porcine model. Electrophysiological and histological characterisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyhn, Maria Voss; Warfvinge, Karin; Scherfig, Erik

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish, and characterize a porcine model of acute, controlled retinal ischemia. The controlled retinal ischemia was produced by clamping the ocular perfusion pressure (OPP) in the left eye to 5 mm Hg for 2 h. The OPP was defined as mean arterial blood pressure...... of the amplitudes obtained in the experimental, left eye, and the control, right eye. Quantitative histology was performed to measure the survival of ganglion cells, amacrine cells and horizontal cells 2-6 weeks after the ischemic insult. An OPP of 5 mm Hg for 2h induced significant reductions in the amplitudes...... the ischemic insult. This model seems to be suitable for investigations of therapeutic initiatives in diseases involving acute retinal ischemia....

  1. [An assessment of the functional status in the neurorehabilitation of patients after ischemic stroke].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimkiewicz, Paulina; Klimkiewicz, Robert; Jankowska, Agnieszka; Kubsik, Anna; Widłak, Patrycja; Łukasiak, Adam; Janczewska, Katarzyna; Kociuga, Natalia; Nowakowski, Tomasz; Woldańska-Okońska, Marta

    2018-01-01

    Introduction: In this article, the authors focused on the symptoms of ischemic stroke and the effect of neurorehabilitation methods on the functional status of patients after ischemic stroke. The aim of the study was to evaluate and compare the functional status of patients after ischemic stroke with improved classic kinesiotherapy, classic kinesiotherapy and NDT-Bobath and classic kinesiotherapy and PNF. Materials and methods: The study involved 120 patients after ischemic stroke. Patients were treated in the Department of Rehabilitation and Physical Medicine USK of Medical University in Lodz. Patients were divided into 3 groups of 40 people. Group 1 was rehabilitated by classical kinesiotherapy. Group 2 was rehabilitated by classic kinesiotherapy and NTD-Bobath. Group 3 was rehabilitated by classical kinesiotherapy and PNF. In all patient groups, magnetostimulation was performed using the Viofor JPS System. The study was conducted twice: before treatment and immediately after 5 weeks after the therapy. The effects of applied neurorehabilitation methods were assessed on the basis of the Rivermead Motor Assessment (RMA). Results: In all three patient groups, functional improvement was achieved. However, a significantly higher improvement was observed in patients in the second group, enhanced with classical kinesitherapy and NDT-Bobath. Conclusions: The use of classical kinesiotherapy combined with the NDT-Bobath method is noticeably more effective in improving functional status than the use only classical kinesiotherapy or combination of classical kinesiotherapy and PNF patients after ischemic stroke.

  2. Ocular changes in primary hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozturk, Banu T; Kerimoglu, Hurkan; Dikbas, Oguz; Pekel, Hamiyet; Gonen, Mustafa S

    2009-12-29

    To determine the ocular changes related to hypothyrodism in newly diagnosed patients without orbitopathy. Thirty-three patients diagnosed to have primary overt hypothyroidism were enrolled in the study. All subjects were assigned to underwent central corneal thickness (CCT), anterior chamber volume, depth and angle measurements with the Scheimpflug camera (Pentacam, Oculus) and cup to disc ratio (C/D), mean retinal thickness and mean retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness measurements with optical coherence tomography (OCT) in addition to ophthalmological examination preceeding the replacement therapy and at the 1(st), 3(rd )and 6(th )months of treatment. The mean age of the patients included in the study were 40.58 +/- 1.32 years. The thyroid hormone levels return to normal levels in all patients during the follow-up period, however the mean intraocular pressure (IOP) revealed no significant change. The mean CCT was 538.05 +/- 3.85 mu initially and demonstrated no statistically significant change as the anterior chamber volume, depth and angle measurements did. The mean C/D ratio was 0.29 +/- 0.03 and the mean retinal thickness was 255.83 +/- 19.49 mu initially and the treatment did not give rise to any significant change. The mean RNFL thickness was also stable during the control visits, so no statistically significant change was encountered. Neither hypothyroidism, nor its replacement therapy gave rise to any change of IOP, CCT, anterior chamber parameters, RNFL, retinal thickness and C/D ratio.

  3. Diagnostic tools in ocular allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonardi, A; Doan, S; Fauquert, J L; Bozkurt, B; Allegri, P; Marmouz, F; Rondon, C; Jedrzejczak, M; Hellings, P; Delgado, L; Calder, V

    2017-10-01

    Ocular allergy (OA) includes a group of common and less frequent hypersensitivity disorders frequently misdiagnosed and not properly managed. The diagnosis of OA is usually based on clinical history and signs and symptoms, with the support of in vivo and in vitro tests when identification of the specific allergen is required. To date, no specific test is available for the diagnosis of the whole spectrum of the different forms of OA. The lack of recommendations on diagnosis of OA is considered a medical need not only for allergists but also for ophthalmologists. This position paper aims to provide a comprehensive overview of the currently available tools for diagnosing OA to promote a common nomenclature and procedures to be used by different specialists. Questionnaires, sign and symptom grading scales, tests, and potential biomarkers for OA are reviewed. We also identified several unmet needs in the diagnostic tools to generate interest, increase understanding, and inspire further investigations. Tools, recommendations, and algorithms for the diagnosis of OA are proposed for use by both allergists and ophthalmologists. Several unmet needs in the diagnostic tools should be further improved by specific clinical research in OA. © 2017 EAACI and John Wiley and Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley and Sons Ltd.

  4. Adenosine A1 receptors contribute to immune regulation after neonatal hypoxic ischemic brain injury

    OpenAIRE

    Winerdal, Max; Winerdal, Malin E.; Wang, Ying-Qing; Fredholm, Bertil B.; Winqvist, Ola; Ådén, Ulrika

    2015-01-01

    Neonatal brain hypoxic ischemia (HI) often results in long-term motor and cognitive impairments. Post-ischemic inflammation greatly effects outcome and adenosine receptor signaling modulates both HI and immune cell function. Here, we investigated the influence of adenosine A1 receptor deficiency (A1R−/−) on key immune cell populations in a neonatal brain HI model. Ten-day-old mice were subjected to HI. Functional outcome was assessed by open locomotion and beam walking test and infarction siz...

  5. Motor homopolar

    OpenAIRE

    Martín Muñoz, Agustín

    2007-01-01

    Mostramos la construcción de un modelo de motor homopolar, uno de los más antiguos tipos de motores eléctricos. Se caracterizan porque el campo magnético del imán mantiene siempre la misma polaridad (de ahí su nombre, del griego homos, igual), de modo que, cuando una corriente eléctrica atraviesa el campo magnético, aparece una fuerza que hace girar los elementos no fijados mecánicamente. En el sencillísimo motor homopolar colgado (Schlichting y Ucke 2004), el imán puede girar ...

  6. Peripheral Mechanisms of Ischemic Myalgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis F. Queme

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Musculoskeletal pain due to ischemia is present in a variety of clinical conditions including peripheral vascular disease (PVD, sickle cell disease (SCD, complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS, and even fibromyalgia (FM. The clinical features associated with deep tissue ischemia are unique because although the subjective description of pain is common to other forms of myalgia, patients with ischemic muscle pain often respond poorly to conventional analgesic therapies. Moreover, these patients also display increased cardiovascular responses to muscle contraction, which often leads to exercise intolerance or exacerbation of underlying cardiovascular conditions. This suggests that the mechanisms of myalgia development and the role of altered cardiovascular function under conditions of ischemia may be distinct compared to other injuries/diseases of the muscles. It is widely accepted that group III and IV muscle afferents play an important role in the development of pain due to ischemia. These same muscle afferents also form the sensory component of the exercise pressor reflex (EPR, which is the increase in heart rate and blood pressure (BP experienced after muscle contraction. Studies suggest that afferent sensitization after ischemia depends on interactions between purinergic (P2X and P2Y receptors, transient receptor potential (TRP channels, and acid sensing ion channels (ASICs in individual populations of peripheral sensory neurons. Specific alterations in primary afferent function through these receptor mechanisms correlate with increased pain related behaviors and altered EPRs. Recent evidence suggests that factors within the muscles during ischemic conditions including upregulation of growth factors and cytokines, and microvascular changes may be linked to the overexpression of these different receptor molecules in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG that in turn modulate pain and sympathetic reflexes. In this review article, we will discuss the

  7. Sex Hormones and Ischemic Stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmegard, Haya N; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Jensen, Gorm B

    2016-01-01

    CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Whether endogenous sex hormones are associated with ischemic stroke (IS) is unclear. We tested the hypothesis that extreme concentrations of endogenous sex hormones are associated with risk of IS in the general population. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Adult men (n...... = 4615) and women (n = 4724) with measurements of endogenous sex hormones during the 1981-1983 examination of the Copenhagen City Heart Study, Denmark, were followed for up to 29 years for incident IS, with no loss to follow-up. Mediation analyses assessed whether risk of IS was mediated through...

  8. Application of stepping motor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-10-01

    This book is divided into three parts, which is about practical using of stepping motor. The first part has six chapters. The contents of the first part are about stepping motor, classification of stepping motor, basic theory og stepping motor, characteristic and basic words, types and characteristic of stepping motor in hybrid type and basic control of stepping motor. The second part deals with application of stepping motor with hardware of stepping motor control, stepping motor control by microcomputer and software of stepping motor control. The last part mentions choice of stepping motor system, examples of stepping motor, measurement of stepping motor and practical cases of application of stepping motor.

  9. Ocularity Feature Contrast Attracts Attention Exogenously

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Zhaoping

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available An eye-of-origin singleton, e.g., a bar shown to the left eye among many other bars shown to the right eye, can capture attention and gaze exogenously or reflexively, even when it appears identical to other visual input items in the scene and when the eye-of-origin feature is irrelevant to the observer’s task. Defining saliency as the strength of exogenous attraction to attention, we say that this eye-of-origin singleton, or its visual location, is salient. Defining the ocularity of a visual input item as the relative difference between its left-eye input and its right-eye input, this paper shows the general case that an ocularity singleton is also salient. For example, a binocular input item among monocular input items is salient, so is a left-eye-dominant input item (e.g., a bar with a higher input contrast to the left eye than to the right eye among right-eye-dominant items. Saliency by unique input ocularity is analogous to saliency by unique input colour (e.g., a red item among green ones, as colour is determined by the relative difference(s between visual inputs to different photoreceptor cones. Just as a smaller colour difference between a colour singleton and background items makes this singleton less salient, so does a smaller ocularity difference between an ocularity singleton and background items. While a salient colour difference is highly visible, a salient ocularity difference is often perceptually invisible in some cases and discouraging gaze shifts towards it in other cases, making its behavioural manifestation not as apparent. Saliency by ocularity contrast provides another support to the idea that the primary visual cortex creates a bottom-up saliency map to guide attention exogenously.

  10. 25-Hydroxyvitamin D and symptomatic ischemic stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøndum-Jacobsen, Peter; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Schnohr, Peter

    2013-01-01

    City Heart Study. During 21 years of follow-up, 1,256 and 164 persons developed ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke, respectively. In a meta-analysis of ischemic stroke, we included 10 studies, 58,384 participants, and 2,644 events. RESULTS: Stepwise decreasing plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations...

  11. Cerebral ischemic stroke: is gender important?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Claire L

    2013-09-01

    Cerebral stroke continues to be a major cause of death and the leading cause of long-term disability in developed countries. Evidence reviewed here suggests that gender influences various aspects of the clinical spectrum of ischemic stroke, in terms of influencing how a patients present with ischemic stroke through to how they respond to treatment. In addition, this review focuses on discussing the various pathologic mechanisms of ischemic stroke that may differ according to gender and compares how intrinsic and hormonal mechanisms may account for such gender differences. All clinical trials to date investigating putative neuroprotective treatments for ischemic stroke have failed, and it may be that our understanding of the injury cascade initiated after ischemic injury is incomplete. Revealing aspects of the pathophysiological consequences of ischemic stroke that are gender specific may enable gender relevant and effective neuroprotective strategies to be identified. Thus, it is possible to conclude that gender does, in fact, have an important role in ischemic stroke and must be factored into experimental and clinical investigations of ischemic stroke.

  12. Molecular Mechanisms of Renal Ischemic Conditioning Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kierulf-Lassen, Casper; Nieuwenhuijs-Moeke, Gertrude J; Krogstrup, Nicoline V

    2015-01-01

    summarizes research on the molecular mechanisms underlying both local and remote ischemic pre-, per- and postconditioning of the kidney. The different types of conditioning strategies in the kidney recruit similar powerful pro-survival mechanisms. Likewise, renal ischemic conditioning mobilizes many...

  13. Genetic variation in WRN and ischemic stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Mette; Frikke-Schmidt, Ruth; Nordestgaard, Børge G.

    2017-01-01

    trends for ischemic cerebrovascular disease (P = 0.06). In meta-analyses including 59,190 individuals in 5 studies, the hazard ratio for ischemic stroke for C1367R TT homozygotes versus CC/CT was 1.14 (1.04–1.25; P = 0.008). Conclusions This study suggests that common genetic variation in WRN......Background Werner syndrome, a premature genetic aging syndrome, shares many clinical features reminiscent of normal physiological aging, and ischemic vascular disease is a frequent cause of death. We tested the hypothesis that genetic variation in the WRN gene was associated with risk of ischemic...... vascular disease in the general population. Methods We included 58,284 participants from two general population cohorts, the Copenhagen City Heart Study (CCHS) and the Copenhagen General Population Study (CGPS). Of these, 6,312 developed ischemic vascular disease during follow-up. In the CCHS (n = 10...

  14. Ocular changes in primary hypothyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pekel Hamiyet

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To determine the ocular changes related to hypothyrodism in newly diagnosed patients without orbitopathy. Findings Thirty-three patients diagnosed to have primary overt hypothyroidism were enrolled in the study. All subjects were assigned to underwent central corneal thickness (CCT, anterior chamber volume, depth and angle measurements with the Scheimpflug camera (Pentacam, Oculus and cup to disc ratio (C/D, mean retinal thickness and mean retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL thickness measurements with optical coherence tomography (OCT in addition to ophthalmological examination preceeding the replacement therapy and at the 1st, 3rd and 6th months of treatment. The mean age of the patients included in the study were 40.58 ± 1.32 years. The thyroid hormone levels return to normal levels in all patients during the follow-up period, however the mean intraocular pressure (IOP revealed no significant change. The mean CCT was 538.05 ± 3.85 μ initially and demonstrated no statistically significant change as the anterior chamber volume, depth and angle measurements did. The mean C/D ratio was 0.29 ± 0.03 and the mean retinal thickness was 255.83 ± 19.49 μ initially and the treatment did not give rise to any significant change. The mean RNFL thickness was also stable during the control visits, so no statistically significant change was encountered. Conclusions Neither hypothyroidism, nor its replacement therapy gave rise to any change of IOP, CCT, anterior chamber parameters, RNFL, retinal thickness and C/D ratio.

  15. Swallowing disorders after ischemic stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Camargo Remesso

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate occurrences of swallowing disorders after ischemic stroke. METHOD: This was a retrospective study on 596 medical files. The inclusion criterion was that the patients needed to have been hospitalized with a diagnosis of ischemic stroke; the exclusion criteria were the presence of associated cardiac problems and hospital stay already more than 14 days. RESULTS: 50.5% were men and 49.5% women; mean age 65.3 years (SD=±11.7 (p<0.001. Among the risk factors, 79.4% had hypertension, 36.7% had diabetes (p<0.001 and 42.7% were smokers. 13.3% of the patients died. Swallowing disorders occurred in 19.6%, among whom 91.5% had mild difficulty and 8.5% had severe difficulty. 87.1% had spontaneous recovery after a mean of 2.4 months. A lesion in the brainstem region occurred in 6.8% (p<0.001. CONCLUSION: Swallowing disorders occurred in almost 20% of the population and most of the difficulty in swallowing found was mild. The predictors for swallowing disorders were older age, diabetes mellitus and lesions in the brainstem region.

  16. Ocular lesions and experimental choline deficiency Lesiones oculares y deficiencia experimental de colina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgina P. Ossani

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown ocular haemorrhages in choline-deficient rats. The aim of this paper is to study further the relationship between ocular and renal lesions and biochemical alterations in rats fed a choline-deficient diet. Fifty one weanling male Wistar rats, were divided into two groups. Thirty one of them were fed a choline-deficient diet and the rest was fed a choline-supplemented diet ad libitum. Animals from both groups were killed between the fifth and the eighth day. Urea, creatinine and homocysteine concentrations in blood were determined. Eyes were used for light microscopy study; high resolution light microscopy and the study of the retina as "rétine a plat". Kidneys were studied by light microscopy. Choline-supplemented rats did not show ocular or renal lesion. Choline-deficient rats that showed renal lesions, tubular or cortical necrosis, did not always have ocular changes. There were no ocular changes in the only choline-deficient rat without renal lesion. The ocular changes consisted mainly in haemorrhage in both cameras and ciliary and vitreous bodies. Correlations between ocular and renal lesion (r=0.72, pEstudios previos han demostrado hemorragia ocular en ratas deficientes en colina. El objetivo de este trabajo es profundizar en la relación entre las alteraciones oculares, renales y bioquímicas en ratas deficientes en colina. Cincuenta y una ratas Wistar macho recién destetadas fueron divididas en dos grupos: treinta y una fueron alimentadas con una dieta colino deficiente y el resto con colina suplementada ad-libitum. Los animales de ambos grupos fueron sacrificados entre el quinto y el octavo día. Se midió la concentración de urea, creatinina y homocisteína en sangre. Los ojos fueron estudiados por microscopía de luz, microscopía óptica de alta resolución y para el estudio de la retina como retina plana. Los riñones fueron estudiados por microscopía de luz. Las ratas suplementadas con colina no

  17. Ocular toxicity of authentic lunar dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, Valerie E; Garcìa, Hector D; Monds, Kathryn; Cooper, Bonnie L; James, John T

    2012-07-20

    Dust exposure is a well-known occupational hazard for terrestrial workers and astronauts alike and will continue to be a concern as humankind pursues exploration and habitation of objects beyond Earth. Humankind's limited exploration experience with the Apollo Program indicates that exposure to dust will be unavoidable. Therefore, NASA must assess potential toxicity and recommend appropriate mitigation measures to ensure that explorers are adequately protected. Visual acuity is critical during exploration activities and operations aboard spacecraft. Therefore, the present research was performed to ascertain the ocular toxicity of authentic lunar dust. Small (mean particle diameter = 2.9 ± 1.0 μm), reactive lunar dust particles were produced by grinding bulk dust under ultrapure nitrogen conditions. Chemical reactivity and cytotoxicity testing were performed using the commercially available EpiOcularTM assay. Subsequent in vivo Draize testing utilized a larger size fraction of unground lunar dust that is more relevant to ocular exposures (particles lunar dust was minimally irritating. Minor irritation of the upper eyelids was noted at the 1-hour observation point, but these effects resolved within 24 hours. In addition, no corneal scratching was observed using fluorescein stain. Low-titanium mare lunar dust is minimally irritating to the eyes and is considered a nuisance dust for ocular exposure. No special precautions are recommended to protect against ocular exposures, but fully shielded goggles may be used if dust becomes a nuisance.

  18. Irritación ocular: Modelos alternativos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raiza Vega Montalvo

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available El ojo puede ser dañado accidentalmente por el uso de muchos productos de uso rutinario. Para facilitar la seguridad de los consumidores es necesario estimar el potencial de irritación ocular de estas sustancias químicas. Esta estimación está basada en los resultados obtenidos en el ensayo de Draize llevado a cabo en conejos. Sin embargo, avances en el desarrollo de la toxicología in vitro han permitido el uso de algunas alternativas para la evaluación del riesgo ocular; por lo que se presenta una revisión acerca de los diferentes métodos alternativos disponibles hasta el momento que permiten evaluar de una forma u otra los efectos tóxicos a nivel ocular.The eye may be accidentally damaged by many products of daily use. To guarantee the consumers’ safety it is necessary to estimate the eye irritation potential of these chemical substances. This estimation is based on the results obtained in the Draize rabbit eye irritation test. However, the advances attained in the development of in vitro toxicology have allowed the use of some alternatives to evaluate the ocular risk. Therefore, a review is made on the different alternative methods available up to now that make possible the evaluation in one way or another of the toxic effects at the ocular level.

  19. Ocular trauma injuries: a 1-year surveillance study in the University of Malaya Medical Centre, Malaysia. 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soong, Terrence Kwong-Weng; Koh, Alan; Subrayan, Visvaraja; Loo, Angela Voon Pei

    2011-12-01

    To describe the epidemiology of ocular injuries presenting to the University Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Prospective analysis of all ocular trauma injuries presenting to the Department of Ophthalmology in UMMC from 1 January 2008 to 31 December 2008. A total of 603 eyes of 546 patients were recruited for the study. All patients presenting to the department with ocular trauma injuries were assessed by an ophthalmologist. Data on the type and source of injury, demographic profile of the patients, and clinical presentation were documented using a uniform and validated datasheet. Among eye injury cases, 481 patients (88.1%) were male, with a male-to-female ratio of 7.4:1. Of the patients, 412 (75.5%) were Malaysian while the remaining 134 (24.5%) were of non-Malaysian nationality. The average age was 31.5 years (range 1-81 years). A total of 238 injured eyes (43.6%) were work-related. The common sources of eye trauma include the use of high-powered tools (30.8%), motor vehicle accident (23.1%), and domestic accidents (17.7%). Only six patients (2.5%) reported to having used eye protective device (EPD) at time of their work-related injuries. A major cause of preventable ocular injuries in Malaysia was work-related trauma. Ocular injuries can be reduced by the use of eye protection devices and the implementation of appropriate preventive strategies to address each risk factor. Effective training is an integral part of occupational safety and health, which should be made mandatory at the workplace. In addition, there should be a continual assessment of safety and health issues at the workplace. A long-term database of all ocular injuries in Malaysia is recommended, to aid research on a larger scale and the development of new preventive strategies for ocular injuries.

  20. Role of phosphoinositide 3-kinase in ischemic postconditioning-induced attenuation of cerebral ischemia-evoked behavioral deficits in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehni, Ashish K; Singh, Nirmal

    2007-01-01

    The present study has been designed to pharmacologically investigate the role of phosphoinositide 3-kinase in ischemic postconditioning-induced reversal of global cerebral ischemia and reperfusion-induced behavioral dysfunction in mice. Bilateral carotid artery occlusion for 10 min followed by reperfusion for 24 h was employed in the present study to produce ischemia and reperfusion-induced cerebral injury in mice. Short-term memory was evaluated using the elevated plus maze test. The inclined beam walking test was employed to assess motor incoordination. Bilateral carotid artery occlusion followed by reperfusion produced impaired short-term memory, motor co-ordination and lateral push response. Three episodes of carotid artery occlusion for a period of 10 s and reperfusion of 10 s (ischemic postconditioning) significantly prevented ischemia-reperfusion-induced behavioral deficit measured in terms of loss of short-term memory, motor coordination and lateral push response. Wortmannin (2 mg/kg, iv), a phosphoinositide 3-kinase inhibitor given 10 min before ischemia attenuated the beneficial effects of ischemic postconditioning. It may be concluded that beneficial effects of ischemic postconditioning on global cerebral ischemia and reperfusion-induced behavioral deficits may involve activation of phosphoinositide 3-kinase-linked pathway.

  1. Blunt Traumatic Extracranial Cerebrovascular Injury and Ischemic Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul M. Foreman

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ischemic stroke occurs in a significant subset of patients with blunt traumatic cerebrovascular injury (TCVI. The patients are victims of motor vehicle crashes, assaults or other high-energy collisions, and suffer ischemic stroke due to injury to the extracranial carotid or vertebral arteries. Summary: An increasing number of patients with TCVI are being identified, largely because of the expanding use of computed tomography angiography for screening patients with blunt trauma. Patients with TCVI are particularly challenging to manage because they often suffer polytrauma, that is, numerous additional injuries including orthopedic, chest, abdominal, and head injuries. Presently, there is no consensus about optimal management. Key Messages: Most literature about TCVI and stroke has been published in trauma, general surgery, and neurosurgery journals; because of this, and because these patients are managed primarily by trauma surgeons, patients with stroke due to TCVI have been essentially hidden from view of neurologists. This review is intended to bring this clinical entity to the attention of clinicians and investigators with specific expertise in neurology and stroke.

  2. Ocular Manifestations of Mosquito-Transmitted Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karesh, James W; Mazzoli, Robert A; Heintz, Shannon K

    2018-03-01

    Of the 3,548 known mosquito species, about 100 transmit human diseases. Mosquitoes are distributed globally throughout tropical and temperate regions where standing water sources are available for egg laying and the maturation of larva. Female mosquitoes require blood meals for egg production. This is the main pathway for disease transmission. Mosquitoes carry several pathogenic organisms responsible for significant ocular pathology and vision loss including West Nile, Rift Valley, chikungunya, dengue viruses, various encephalitis viruses, malarial parasites, Francisella tularensis, microfilarial parasites, including Dirofilaria, Wuchereria, and Brugia spp., and human botfly larvae. Health care providers may not be familiar with many of these mosquito-transmitted diseases or their associated ocular findings delaying diagnosis, treatment, and recovery of visual function. This article aims to provide an overview of the ocular manifestations associated with mosquito-transmitted diseases.

  3. Ocular volume measured by CT scans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, F.J.; Wei-Kom Chu

    1984-01-01

    Newer CT scans have greatly enhanced oculometric research and made it possible to measure ocular dimensions. With these measurements, ocular volume can be more accurately estimated to understand its relationship with age and sex. One hundred CT orbit scans with presumed normal eyes were used for the data base. The mean values and normal variations of ocular volumes at various ages in both sexes are presented. Rapid growth of the eyeball was noted during the first 24 months of age. It reached its peak between the ages of 18 and 30 years of age, after which there was a reduction. Results may be of help in recognizing eye abnormalities such as microophthalmus and macrophthalmia. (orig.)

  4. Ocular fibropapillomas of green turtles (Chelonia mydas).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, D E; Ginn, P E; Miller, T R; Bramson, L; Jacobson, E R

    1994-05-01

    Histologic evaluation of four eyes from three stranded juvenile green turtles (Chelonia mydas) from Florida, USA revealed ocular fibropapillomas composed of an overlying hyperplastic epithelium, various amounts of a thickened, well vascularized, collagenous stroma, and a moderate-to-dense population of reactive fibroblasts. The histologic morphology of the ocular fibropapillomas varied depending on whether the eyelid, conjunctiva, limbus, or cornea was the primary site of tumor origin. Fibropapillomas arising from the limbus, conjunctiva, or eyelid tended to be polyploid or pedunculated with a high degree of arborization. They often filled the conjunctival fornices and extended externally to be ulcerated on the distal aspects. Corneal fibropapillomas were more sessile and multinodular with less arborization. Some corneal tumors consisted primarily of a broad fibrovascular stroma and mild epithelial hyperplasia, whereas others had a markedly hyperplastic epithelium supported by stalks of fibrovascular stromal tissue. In green turtles ocular fibropapillomas may be locally invasive and associated with severe blindness and systemic debilitation.

  5. Treatment options for ocular adnexal lymphoma (OAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Mary Lendrum Cohen

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Victoria Mary Lendrum CohenSt. Bartholomew’s and Moorfields Eye Hospital, London UKAbstract: Most lymphomas that involve the ocular adnexal structure are low grade, B cell, non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas. The treatment depends upon the grade and stage of the disease. High grade lymhoma requires treatment with systemic chemotherapy whereas the localized low grade (extranodal marginal zone lymphoma can be successfully managed with local radiotherapy. Chlamydia psittaci infection is associated with low grade ocular lymphoma; however there is wide geographic variation in the strength of this association. Blanket antibiotic therapy is not advised unless there is proof of an infective agent. The monoclonal antibody, rituximab, may be successful for CD20 positive lymphoma, although it is likely that rituximab will have better long-term results when used in combination with systemic chemotherapy.Keywords: ocular adnexal lymphoma, mucosa associated lymphoid tissue, extranodal marginal zone lymphoma, Chlamydia psittaci, rituximab, radiotherapy, chemotherapy

  6. Ocular Fundus Photography as an Educational Tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackay, Devin D; Garza, Philip S

    2015-10-01

    The proficiency of nonophthalmologists with direct ophthalmoscopy is poor, which has prompted a search for alternative technologies to examine the ocular fundus. Although ocular fundus photography has existed for decades, its use has been traditionally restricted to ophthalmology clinical care settings and textbooks. Recent research has shown a role for nonmydriatic fundus photography in nonophthalmic settings, encouraging more widespread adoption of fundus photography technology. Recent studies have also affirmed the role of fundus photography as an adjunct or alternative to direct ophthalmoscopy in undergraduate medical education. In this review, the authors examine the use of ocular fundus photography as an educational tool and suggest future applications for this important technology. Novel applications of fundus photography as an educational tool have the potential to resurrect the dying art of funduscopy. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  7. Recent Advances in Ocular Drug Delivery Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinobu Fujii

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Transport of drugs applied by traditional dosage forms is restricted to the eye, and therapeutic drug concentrations in the target tissues are not maintained for a long duration since the eyes are protected by a unique anatomy and physiology. For the treatment of the anterior segment of the eye, various droppable products to prolong the retention time on the ocular surface have been introduced in the market. On the other hand, direct intravitreal implants, using biodegradable or non-biodegradable polymer technology, have been widely investigated for the treatment of chronic vitreoretinal diseases. There is urgent need to develop ocular drug delivery systems which provide controlled release for the treatment of chronic diseases, and increase patient’s and doctor’s convenience to reduce the dosing frequency and invasive treatment. In this article, progress of ocular drug delivery systems under clinical trials and in late experimental stage is reviewed.

  8. Ocular trauma: A tertiary hospital experience from Oman

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    Haitham H Al-Mahrouqi

    2017-01-01

    CONCLUSION: Ocular trauma is a common presentation at Al-Nahdha Hospital. Although the majority of trauma cases were minor without any resultant visual disability, OGI could have been prevented with better ocular protection in the workplace.

  9. Eye cosmetic usage and associated ocular comfort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Alison; Evans, Katharine; North, Rachel; Purslow, Christine

    2012-11-01

    Eye cosmetics usage is commonplace and whilst some products such as eyeliner are applied with close proximity to the ocular surface, there is little knowledge of the short- and long-term ocular effects of eye cosmetic formulations. This study aimed to investigate the use of eye cosmetics and identify any relationships between ocular comfort and cosmetic usage. Results were collated from an online survey comprising 23 questions that recorded demographics, Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) score, extent and range of eye cosmetic use and perceived comfort differences with and without eye cosmetics. The 1360 female respondents (median age 25, interquartile range 20-34 years) completed the survey; 83% reported using eye cosmetics regularly (≥ 3 times per week) with mascara being most commonly used. Fifty three per cent used at least three different eye cosmetics products regularly. OSDI scores of cosmetics users were similar to non-users (p = 0.083), but perceived comfort was greater when cosmetics were not used (p cosmetics users (use of products cosmetics were used. Median OSDI scores suggested a trend towards reduced comfort amongst eyeliner users (p = 0.07) although frequency and type of cosmetic products used did not appear to influence OSDI scores. This study shows the use of multiple eye cosmetics is extensive and associated with the perception of ocular discomfort. With such widespread use of these products, more research is required to assess the effect on the ocular surface and tear film, which may be underestimated. Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics © 2012 The College of Optometrists.

  10. Management of Ocular Diseases Using Lutein and Zeaxanthin: What Have We Learned from Experimental Animal Studies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunyan Xue

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Zeaxanthin and lutein are two carotenoid pigments that concentrated in the retina, especially in the macula. The effects of lutein and zeaxanthin on the prevention and treatment of various eye diseases, including age-related macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy and cataract, ischemic/hypoxia induced retinopathy, light damage of the retina, retinitis pigmentosa, retinal detachment, and uveitis, have been studied in different experimental animal models. In these animal models, lutein and zeaxanthin have been reported to have beneficial effects in protecting ocular tissues and cells (especially the retinal neurons against damage caused by different etiological factors. The mechanisms responsible for these effects of lutein and zeaxanthin include prevention of phototoxic damage by absorption of blue light, reduction of oxidative stress through antioxidant activity and free radical scavenging, and their anti-inflammatory and antiangiogenic properties. The results of these experimental animal studies may provide new preventive and therapeutic procedures for clinical management of various vision-threatening diseases.

  11. Functional reconstruction of ischemic contracture in the

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    TANG Hao

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Objective: To discuss the method of functional reconstruction of ischemic contracture in the lower limb and propose a classification protocol for ischemic contracture in the lower limb based on its severity and prognosis. Methods: A total of 42 patients with ischemic contracture in the lower limb were included in this study. According to different types of disturbance and degrees of severity, surgical reconstructions consisting of nerve decompression, tendon lengthening or transfer, intrinsic foot muscle release and sural-tibial nerve anastomosis were performed in every patient. Results: Postoperatively, all patients were able to walk on flat ground. Drop foot was corrected in 10 patients, and 5 patients still felt some difficulty during stair activity. Split Achilles tendon transfer to flexor hallucis longus tendon was performed in 12 patients, and their walking stability was improved. Seven patients accepted ipsilateral suraltibial nerve anastomosis, and sensitivity recovery reached to S2 in 2 patients and S3 in 5 patients. Conclusions: Ischemic contracture in the lower limb is a devastating complication after lower limb trauma. The prevention of contracture is much more important than the treatment of an established contracture. Split Achilles tendon transfer to flexor hallucis longus tendon and sural-tibial nerve anastomosis, which was initially implemented by us, could improve the functional recovery of ischemic contracture in lower limbs, and thus provides a new alternative for functional reconstruction of ischemic contracture in the lower limb. Key words: Ischemic contracture; Classification; Recovery of function

  12. Dry Eye: an Inflammatory Ocular Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hessen, Michelle; Akpek, Esen Karamursel

    2014-01-01

    Keratoconjunctivitis sicca, or dry eye, is a common ocular disease prompting millions of individuals to seek ophthalmological care. Regardless of the underlying etiology, dry eye has been shown to be associated with abnormalities in the pre-corneal tear film and subsequent inflammatory changes in the entire ocular surface including the adnexa, conjunctiva and cornea. Since the recognition of the role of inflammation in dry eye, a number of novel treatments have been investigated designed to inhibit various inflammatory pathways. Current medications that are used, including cyclosporine A, corticosteroids, tacrolimus, tetracycline derivatives and autologous serum, have been effective for management of dry eye and lead to measurable clinical improvement. PMID:25279127

  13. Ocular presentation of sarcoidosis in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataria, S; Trevathan, G E; Holland, J E; Kataria, Y P

    1983-12-01

    Ocular manifestations of sarcoidosis in children are the second most common occurrence after hilar adenopathy and pulmonary abnormalities. We present the case history of a 14-year-old black boy who presented with redness of the left eye, blurred vision, and decreased visual acuity. He was subsequently diagnosed as having sarcoidosis. All patients with uveitis or ocular findings suggestive of sarcoidosis should have a through medical examination and a chest x-ray. Those suspected of or proven to have sarcoidosis should have a complete ophthalmological examination. Sarcoidosis in children appears to be more frequent than previously estimated.

  14. New Developments in Ocular Surface Squamous Neoplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayşe Yağcı

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Ocular surface squamous neoplasia originates from conjunctiva epithelium and covers a broad spectrum of disease ranging from dysplasia to squamous cell carcinoma. Clinical features may vary from case to case. Traditional treatment of excision with no-touch technique combined with adjuvant therapies because of high recurrence rate. Main adjuvant treatments are cryotherapy and chemotherapy. In this review, clinical forms, differential diagnosis, American Joint Committee on Cancer classification and recent approaches to the management of ocular surface squamous dysplasia were described. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2014; 44: Supplement 8-14

  15. Clinical Profile and Visual Outcome of Ocular Bartonellosis in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Tan, Chai Lee; Fhun, Lai Chan; Tai, Evelyn Li Min; Abdul Gani, Nor Hasnida; Muhammed, Julieana; Tuan Jaafar, Tengku Norina; Ahmad Tajudin, Liza Sharmini; Wan Hitam, Wan-Hazabbah

    2017-01-01

    Background. Ocular bartonellosis can present in various ways, with variable visual outcome. There is limited data on ocular bartonellosis in Malaysia. Objective. We aim to describe the clinical presentation and visual outcome of ocular bartonellosis in Malaysia. Materials and Methods. This was a retrospective review of patients treated for ocular bartonellosis in two ophthalmology centers in Malaysia between January 2013 and December 2015. The diagnosis was based on clinical features, support...

  16. A pathophysiological role of TRPV1 in ischemic injury after transient focal cerebral ischemia in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyanohara, Jun [Department of Molecular Pharmacology, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyoto University (Japan); Shirakawa, Hisashi, E-mail: shirakaw@pharm.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Molecular Pharmacology, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyoto University (Japan); Sanpei, Kazuaki [Department of Molecular Pharmacology, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyoto University (Japan); Nakagawa, Takayuki [Department of Molecular Pharmacology, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyoto University (Japan); Department of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Kyoto University Hospital (Japan); Kaneko, Shuji [Department of Molecular Pharmacology, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyoto University (Japan)

    2015-11-20

    Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) is a non-selective cation channel with high Ca{sup 2+} permeability, which functions as a polymodal nociceptor activated by heat, protons and several vanilloids, including capsaicin and anandamide. Although TRPV1 channels are widely distributed in the mammalian brain, their pathophysiological roles in the brain remain to be elucidated. In this study, we investigated whether TRPV1 is involved in cerebral ischemic injury using a middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion model in wild-type (WT) and TRPV1-knockout (KO) mice. For transient ischemia, the left MCA of C57BL/6 mice was occluded for 60 min and reperfused at 1 and 2 days after ischemia. We found that neurological and motor deficits, and infarct volumes in TRPV1-KO mice were lower than those of WT mice. Consistent with these results, intracerebroventricular injection of a TRPV1 antagonist, capsazepine (20 nmol), 30 min before the onset of ischemia attenuated neurological and motor deficits and improved infarct size without influencing cerebral blood flow in the occluded MCA territory. The protective effect of capsazepine on ischemic brain damage was not observed in TRPV1-KO mice. WT and TRPV1-KO mice did not show any differences with respect to the increased number of Iba1-positive microglia/macrophages, GFAP-positive astrocytes, and Gr1-positive neutrophils at 1 and 2 days after cerebral ischemia. Taken together, we conclude that brain TRPV1 channels are activated by ischemic stroke and cause neurological and motor deficits and infarction after brain ischemia. - Highlights: • We investigated whether TRPV1 is involved in transient ischemic brain damage in mice. • Neurological deficits and infarct volumes were lower in TRPV1-KO mice than in WT mice. • Injection of a TRPV1 antagonist, capsazepine, attenuated neurological deficits and improved infarct size. • No differences in astrocytic or microglial activation were observed between WT and TRPV1-KO mice.

  17. A pathophysiological role of TRPV1 in ischemic injury after transient focal cerebral ischemia in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyanohara, Jun; Shirakawa, Hisashi; Sanpei, Kazuaki; Nakagawa, Takayuki; Kaneko, Shuji

    2015-01-01

    Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) is a non-selective cation channel with high Ca"2"+ permeability, which functions as a polymodal nociceptor activated by heat, protons and several vanilloids, including capsaicin and anandamide. Although TRPV1 channels are widely distributed in the mammalian brain, their pathophysiological roles in the brain remain to be elucidated. In this study, we investigated whether TRPV1 is involved in cerebral ischemic injury using a middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion model in wild-type (WT) and TRPV1-knockout (KO) mice. For transient ischemia, the left MCA of C57BL/6 mice was occluded for 60 min and reperfused at 1 and 2 days after ischemia. We found that neurological and motor deficits, and infarct volumes in TRPV1-KO mice were lower than those of WT mice. Consistent with these results, intracerebroventricular injection of a TRPV1 antagonist, capsazepine (20 nmol), 30 min before the onset of ischemia attenuated neurological and motor deficits and improved infarct size without influencing cerebral blood flow in the occluded MCA territory. The protective effect of capsazepine on ischemic brain damage was not observed in TRPV1-KO mice. WT and TRPV1-KO mice did not show any differences with respect to the increased number of Iba1-positive microglia/macrophages, GFAP-positive astrocytes, and Gr1-positive neutrophils at 1 and 2 days after cerebral ischemia. Taken together, we conclude that brain TRPV1 channels are activated by ischemic stroke and cause neurological and motor deficits and infarction after brain ischemia. - Highlights: • We investigated whether TRPV1 is involved in transient ischemic brain damage in mice. • Neurological deficits and infarct volumes were lower in TRPV1-KO mice than in WT mice. • Injection of a TRPV1 antagonist, capsazepine, attenuated neurological deficits and improved infarct size. • No differences in astrocytic or microglial activation were observed between WT and TRPV1-KO mice.

  18. Characteristics of Misclassified CT Perfusion Ischemic Core in Patients with Acute Ischemic Stroke.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralph R E G Geuskens

    Full Text Available CT perfusion (CTP is used to estimate the extent of ischemic core and penumbra in patients with acute ischemic stroke. CTP reliability, however, is limited. This study aims to identify regions misclassified as ischemic core on CTP, using infarct on follow-up noncontrast CT. We aim to assess differences in volumetric and perfusion characteristics in these regions compared to areas that ended up as infarct on follow-up.This study included 35 patients with >100 mm brain coverage CTP. CTP processing was performed using Philips software (IntelliSpace 7.0. Final infarct was automatically segmented on follow-up noncontrast CT and used as reference. CTP and follow-up noncontrast CT image data were registered. This allowed classification of ischemic lesion agreement (core on CTP: rMTT≥145%, aCBV<2.0 ml/100g and infarct on follow-up noncontrast CT and misclassified ischemic core (core on CTP, not identified on follow-up noncontrast CT regions. False discovery ratio (FDR, defined as misclassified ischemic core volume divided by total CTP ischemic core volume, was calculated. Absolute and relative CTP parameters (CBV, CBF, and MTT were calculated for both misclassified CTP ischemic core and ischemic lesion agreement regions and compared using paired rank-sum tests.Median total CTP ischemic core volume was 49.7ml (IQR:29.9ml-132ml; median misclassified ischemic core volume was 30.4ml (IQR:20.9ml-77.0ml. Median FDR between patients was 62% (IQR:49%-80%. Median relative mean transit time was 243% (IQR:198%-289% and 342% (IQR:249%-432% for misclassified and ischemic lesion agreement regions, respectively. Median absolute cerebral blood volume was 1.59 (IQR:1.43-1.79 ml/100g (P<0.01 and 1.38 (IQR:1.15-1.49 ml/100g (P<0.01 for misclassified ischemic core and ischemic lesion agreement, respectively. All CTP parameter values differed significantly.For all patients a considerable region of the CTP ischemic core is misclassified. CTP parameters significantly

  19. Transient ischemic attack: diagnostic evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messé, Steven R; Jauch, Edward C

    2008-08-01

    A transient ischemic attack portends significant risk of a stroke. Consequently, the diagnostic evaluation in the emergency department is focused on identifying high-risk causes so that preventive strategies can be implemented. The evaluation consists of a facilitated evaluation of the patient's metabolic, cardiac, and neurovascular systems. At a minimum, the following tests are recommended: fingerstick glucose level, electrolyte levels, CBC count, urinalysis, and coagulation studies; noncontrast computed tomography (CT) of the head; electrocardiography; and continuous telemetry monitoring. Vascular imaging studies, such as carotid ultrasonography, CT angiography, or magnetic resonance angiography, should be performed on an urgent basis and prioritized according to the patient's risk stratification for disease. Consideration should be given for echocardiography if no large vessel abnormality is identified.

  20. Bilateral ocular ischemia-induced blindness as a presenting manifestation of Takayasu arteritis: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallangyo, Pedro; Epafra, Emmanuel; Nicholaus, Paulina; Lyimo, Frederick; Kazahura, Parvina; Janabi, Mohamed

    2017-06-10

    Takayasu arteritis is a granulomatous panarteritis that predominantly affects the aorta and its major branches. The initial manifestations of this large-vessel vasculitis are usually nonspecific; however, as the disease progresses, typical symptoms of arterial occlusion, aneurysmal formation, and vascular pain become evident. Ischemic ocular complications of Takayasu arteritis which could lead to complete loss of vision are not uncommon and depend on the obliterated portion(s) of carotid(s), the intensity and rate of progression of ocular vascular insufficiency, and sufficiency of the collateral blood supply to the eye. A 24-year-old woman of African descent with prior normal vision was referred to us with a 3-year history of gradual decline in visual acuity in both eyes and unintentional weight loss (17 kg) within the past 1 year. A physical examination revealed feeble brachial and radial arterial pulses on her left side. She had sinus tachycardia (136 beats/minute) and her blood pressure was 85/59 mmHg on her left and 134/82 mmHg on her right side. Bilateral microaneurysms, dot and blot hemorrhages, and multiple ischemic areas of retina together with neovascularization in her right eye were noted during a funduscopic examination. Computed tomography angiography of her thoracic and abdominal aorta revealed irregular narrowing with variable degrees of stenosis, tapering, and corrugated appearance. Despite its rarity, Takayasu arteritis significantly impairs a patient's quality of life and has a life-threatening potential. Early initiation of appropriate therapy could delay disease progression and reduce the associated complications.

  1. Measurement of normal ocular volume by the use of computed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Reduction or increase in ocular volume may indicate ocular pathology. Unfortunately the reference values utilized for ocular volume had been that of non-Africans. It is therefore pertinent to have a reference value of normal for Africans. Objective: To document the computer tomography (CT) scan measured ...

  2. Therapeutic targets of renin-angiotensin system in ocular disorders

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    Rajesh Choudhary

    2017-03-01

    Conclusions: The RAS components are present in the extrarenal tissues including ocular tissue and have an imperative role in the ocular pathophysiology. The clinical studies are needed to show the role of therapeutic modalities targeting RAS in the treatment of different ocular disorders.

  3. Computed Tomography: Ocular Manifestations In Acute Head Injury

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    Methods: We reviewed 98 brain computed tomographic results retrospectively. ... was also performed to compare the difference of the ocular findings and sexes. ... Ocular findings were more in males and the severity of the ocular findings was .... Male. Female. Indications. Acute mild closed head injury. 12(15.0). 1(5.6).

  4. Pattern of Ocular Diseases among Computer users in Enugu, Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    7 subjects (1.3%) had monocular blindness with VA<3/60. 37 (3.3%) subjects had low vision with VA < 6/18-3/60. Conclusion: Most of the subjects were young people. Ocular disorders were encountered in computer users. Ocular health status of computer users can be improved through periodic ocular examination and ...

  5. Ocular pulsation correlates with ocular tension: the choroid as piston for an aqueous pump?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, C I; Tsukahara, S; Hosaka, O; Adams, W

    1992-01-01

    In 26 random out-patients, including 13 treated glaucoma patients and ocular hypertensives, the higher the ocular tension, the greater the pulse amplitude, by Alcon pneumotonometry, at a statistically significant level. In a single untreated hypertensive, when 2-hourly pneumotonometry was done for 24 h, the correlation was similar and significant. The higher the diastolic blood pressure, the higher the ocular pulsation, also significantly. Pulsation is suggested to be a pump, the choroid being the piston, contributing (1) to an increase in the outflow of aqueous humour and (2) to a homeostatic mechanism contributing to normalization of the intra-ocular pressure, wherein pulsation increases or decreases, as the intraocular pressure increases or decreases, respectively.

  6. Ocular malignant lymphoma. A clinical pathological study

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    Panda A

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available Eleven histologically proved cases of ocular malignant lymphoma diagnosed and managed during the year 1974-81 are reported. The follow-up period ranges from 2-7 years. The difficulties in diagnosis, treatment and prognosis are discussed.

  7. Candidate genes in ocular dominance plasticity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rietman, M.L.; Sommeijer, J.-P.; Levelt, C.N.; Heimel, J.A.; Brussaard, A.B.; Borst, J.G.G.; Elgersma, Y.; Galjart, N.; van der Horst, G.T.; Pennartz, C.M.; Smit, A.B.; Spruijt, B.M.; Verhage, M.; de Zeeuw, C.I.

    2012-01-01

    Many studies have been devoted to the identification of genes involved in experience-dependent plasticity in the visual cortex. To discover new candidate genes, we have reexamined data from one such study on ocular dominance (OD) plasticity in recombinant inbred BXD mouse strains. We have correlated

  8. Ocular findings in the chronic renal failure

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    P Dahal

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The aim of the study was to evaluate the ocular signs in chronic renal failure (CRF in diabetes and hypertensive patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS Two hundred and thirty eight cases were enrolled in the study from the nephrology unit of College Of Medical Science, Bharatpur, Nepal and examined in the department of Ophthalmology. The study duration was carried out over 2 years from January 2011 to December 2012. RESULT The number of cases in each grade of CRF were mild 80 (26.67%, moderate 84 (28%, severe 75 (25%, end stage renal disease 61 (20.33%. In all the groups the commonest cause of CRF were Hypertension (HTN 123 out of 300(41% and diabetes 98(32.67%. The commonest ocular symptoms in CRF was blurring of vision 68%. CONCLUSION Many important ocular findings like vitreous haemorrage, retinal detachment, neovascular glaucoma and cataract are the presentation in chronic renal failure, which can cause marked vision loss. Hence proper awareness should be provided to the people in time to prevent these ocular complications.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/jcmsn.v10i2.12949 Journal of College of Medical Sciences-Nepal, 2014, Vol.10(2; 18-26

  9. Pattern of Ocular Injuries in Owo, Nigeria

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    Charles Oluwole Omolase

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To determine the pattern of ocular injuries in patients presenting to the eye clinic and the accident and emergency department of Federal Medical Center, Owo, Ondo State, Nigeria. Methods: This prospective study was conducted between January and December 2009. Federal Medical Center, Owo is the only tertiary hospital in Ondo State, Nigeria. The eye center located at this medical center was the only eye care facility in the community at the time of this study. All patients were interviewed with the aid of an interviewer-administered questionnaire and underwent a detailed ocular examination. Results: Of 132 patients included in the study, most (84.1% sustained blunt eye injury while (12.1% had penetrating eye injury. A considerable proportion of patients (37.9% presented within 24 hours of injury. Vegetative materials were the most common (42.4% offending agent, a minority of patients (22% was admitted and none of the patients had used eye protection at the time of injury. Conclusion: In the current series, blunt eye injury was the most common type of ocular trauma. The community should be educated and informed about the importance of preventive measures including protective eye devices during high risk activities. Patients should be encouraged to present early following ocular injury.

  10. Ocular firework injuries at New Year's eve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacu, Stefan; Ségur-Eltz, Nikolaus; Stenng, Karin; Zehetmayer, Martin

    2002-01-01

    To prospectively study mechanisms and injury characteristics of ocular firework burns. A prospective analysis of all patients with firework injuries attending the Department of Ophthalmology, University of Vienna, between 1994 and 2001. We looked for classes of fireworks and mechanisms of injuries. The number of diagnoses was established and their severity classified. During this period (8 years) we identified 116 eyes of 102 patients. 67/102 (66%) of all injuries were caused by class II and III fireworks. Patients ranged between 4 and 83 years. Ocular injuries occurred more frequently in males (69, 68%) and affected the right eye in 53 patients (52.5%). Ocular firework injuries to minors (under the age of 18 years) occurred in 48 (49%). The most common types of injury were skin and corneal erosions and abrasions (32/116, 28%). 11/116 eyes (10%) had severe injuries. 8 of 11 severe injuries (72%) occurred in minors (<18 years). 2 patients (1.7%) developed permanent blindness. In 32/116 patients (28%), the ocular trauma resulted in visual impairment, mainly due to corneal scars or retinal pathologies. In all patients, the severity index was 1.4 +/- 0.8. In minors the severity index was 1.6 +/- 1.0, in adults 1.2 +/- 0.5 (p = 0.013). Injuries in minors were significantly more severe than those in adults. Possible preventive measures include legislation, education of minors and eye protection. Copyright 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

  11. Systematic analysis of ocular trauma by a new proposed ocular trauma classification

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    Bhartendu Shukla

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The current classification of ocular trauma does not incorporate adnexal trauma, injuries that are attributable to a nonmechanical cause and destructive globe injuries. This study proposes a new classification system of ocular trauma which is broader-based to allow for the classification of a wider range of ocular injuries not covered by the current classification. Methods: A clinic-based cross-sectional study to validate the proposed classification. We analyzed 535 cases of ocular injury from January 1, 2012 to February 28, 2012 over a 4-year period in an eye hospital in central India using our proposed classification system and compared it with conventional classification. Results: The new classification system allowed for classification of all 535 cases of ocular injury. The conventional classification was only able to classify 364 of the 535 trauma cases. Injuries involving the adnexa, nonmechanical injuries and destructive globe injuries could not be classified by the conventional classification, thus missing about 33% of cases. Conclusions: Our classification system shows an improvement over existing ocular trauma classification as it allows for the classification of all type of ocular injuries and will allow for better and specific prognostication. This system has the potential to aid communication between physicians and result in better patient care. It can also provide a more authentic, wide spectrum of ocular injuries in correlation with etiology. By including adnexal injuries and nonmechanical injuries, we have been able to classify all 535 cases of trauma. Otherwise, about 30% of cases would have been excluded from the study.

  12. Hyphema as a Complication of Blunt Ocular Trauma and Additional Ocular Findings

    OpenAIRE

    Mehmet Giray Ersöz; Seda Adıyeke; Gamze Türe; Ekrem Talay; Hakkı Özgür Konya

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the frequency of angle recession, commotio retinae, and other ocular findings in patients with hyphema due to blunt ocular trauma. Materials and Methods: The medical records of 66 patients hospitalized between July 2010 and May 2012 with a diagnosis of traumatic hyphema were retrospectively reviewed. The age, gender, period between injury and the first examination, visual acuity at presentation, intraocular pressure (IOP), time of disappearance of hyphem...

  13. Genetics of ischemic stroke: future clinical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Michael M

    2006-11-01

    Ischemic stroke has long been thought to have a genetic component that is independent of conventional vascular risk factors. It has been estimated that over one half of stroke risk is determined by inherited genes. However, until recently, strong evidence of genetic influence on ischemic stroke has been subject to criticism because the risk factors for stroke are also inherited and because previous studies suffered from limitations imposed by this highly heterogeneous neurological disorder. Recent advances in molecular genetics have led to the identification of specific genetic loci that impart susceptibility to ischemic stroke. We review the studies of these genes and discuss the future potential applications of genetic markers on the management of ischemic stroke patients.

  14. Prognostic Factors in Ischemic Arterial Stroke

    OpenAIRE

    J Gordon Millichap

    2001-01-01

    The predictive value of presenting symptoms, MRI and CT findings, and etiology in the outcome of ischemic arterial childhood stroke was determined in a consecutive series of 31 patients followed at the University Hospital, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

  15. [Primary emergencies: management of acute ischemic stroke].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leys, Didier; Goldstein, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    The emergency diagnostic strategy for acute ischemic stroke consists of:--identification of stroke, based on clinical examination (sudden onset of a focal neurological deficit);--identification of the ischemic or hemorrhagic nature by MRI or CT;--determination of the early time-course (clinical examination) and the cause. In all strokes (ischemic or hemorrhagic), treatment consists of:--the same general management (treatment of a life-threatening emergency, ensuring normal biological parameters except for blood pressure, and prevention of complications);--decompressive surgery in the rare cases of intracranial hypertension. For proven ischemic stroke, other therapies consist of: rt-PA for patients admitted with 4.5 hours of stroke onset who have no contraindications, and aspirin (160 to 300 mg) for patients who are not eligible for rt-PA. These treatments should be administered within a few hours. A centralized emergency call system (phone number 15 in France) is the most effective way of achieving this objective.

  16. Acute ischemic stroke prognostication, comparison between ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ossama Y. Mansour

    2014-11-20

    Nov 20, 2014 ... patients with acute ischemic stroke in comparison with the NIHSS and the GCS. Methods: .... All patients received a CT scan of the brain on admission. Diagnostic ... adjusted for age, sex, Charlson Index and Oxfordshire. 248.

  17. Ischemic Stroke: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Spanish Thrombolytic therapy (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in Spanish Topic Image MedlinePlus Email Updates Get Ischemic Stroke updates ... cardiogenic embolism Stroke - slideshow Thrombolytic therapy Related Health Topics Hemorrhagic Stroke Stroke Stroke Rehabilitation National Institutes of ...

  18. Paraneoplastic Ischemic Stroke: Case Report and Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Sumer

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Paraneoplastic etiology is not frequent among cerebrovascular disorders. This rare disorder is interesting with different mechanisms, clinical manifestations and treatment options. Diagnosis may be overlooked for its rarity. We present a paraneoplastic ischemic stroke patient with its clinical and imaging characteristics for recalling this rare disease. CASE: A sixty years old woman with a history of ovarian and colon cancer and liver metastasis admitted with acute left sided hemiplegia. Brain magnetic resonance imaging showed multiple ischemic lesions at the same age. Laboratory findings were compatible with chronic disseminated intravascular coagulopathy. She was anticoagulated but the clinical findings were not changed. She died one month after her discharge from the hospital. CONCLUSIONS: Paraneoplastic ischemic stroke is rare and it should be recognized by the clinician to differentiate from other ischemic strokes by its different mechanisms, imaging characteristics and treatment modalities. Prognosis depends on the characteristics of the primary tumor

  19. Regional brain structural abnormality in ischemic stroke patients: a voxel-based morphometry study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Wu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Our previous study used regional homogeneity analysis and found that activity in some brain areas of patients with ischemic stroke changed significantly. In the current study, we examined structural changes in these brain regions by taking structural magnetic resonance imaging scans of 11 ischemic stroke patients and 15 healthy participants, and analyzing the data using voxel-based morphometry. Compared with healthy participants, patients exhibited higher gray matter density in the left inferior occipital gyrus and right anterior white matter tract. In contrast, gray matter density in the right cerebellum, left precentral gyrus, right middle frontal gyrus, and left middle temporal gyrus was less in ischemic stroke patients. The changes of gray matter density in the middle frontal gyrus were negatively associated with the clinical rating scales of the Fugl-Meyer Motor Assessment (r = -0.609, P = 0.047 and the left middle temporal gyrus was negatively correlated with the clinical rating scales of the nervous functional deficiency scale (r = -0.737, P = 0.010. Our findings can objectively identify the functional abnormality in some brain regions of ischemic stroke patients.

  20. Role of neuroinflammation in ischemic stroke

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rui Liu; Meng-Xian Pan; Jun-Chun Tang; Ya Zhang; Hua-Bao Liao; Yang Zhuang; Dan Zhao; Qi Wan

    2017-01-01

    Ischemic stroke causes the depletion of energy and induce excitotoxicity and neuroinflammation in the brain that results from thrombotic blockage. Neuroinflammation occurs initially depending on activated resident microglia that has the same function as the macrophage. Activated microglia participates in the neuroinflammatory process by phagocytosing the injured brain cells and producing the pro- and anti-inflammatory mediators. In this review, the authors present an overview of the role of microglia in mediating neuroinflammation in ischemic stroke.

  1. Transient central diabetes insipidus following ischemic stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muthukrishnan Jayaraman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Central Diabetes Insipidus (CDI following ischemic infarction of the brain has been described as a rare presentation. Posterior pituitary ischemia has also been postulated as a possible cause of idiopathic CDI. We encountered a young male with bilateral extensive ischemic infarction sustained at high altitude, who had transient polyuria due to central diabetes insipidus, requiring desmopressin therapy. DI completely resolved during the course of his neurological recovery.

  2. Epidemiological aspects of ocular superglue injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Ali Tabatabaei

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To report the frequency, associated risk factors and characteristics of cases referred to Farabi Eye Hospital with ocular superglue injuries. METHODS: In a descriptive cross-sectional study conducted between December 2012 and February 2013, patients with ocular superglue injuries were evaluated. Age, sex, educational level, location, time, mechanism, type, site and time of eye injury were gathered through interview using a customized questionnaire. All participants had given consent to undergo thorough eye examination. RESULTS: Over the course of three months, 105 patients with ocular superglue injuries enrolled in the study, including 56(53.3% men and 49(46.7% women with the mean age of 24.7±11.6 (range, 2 to 53y. The right eye, left eye and both eyes were involved in 52%, 42% and 6% of the patients, respectively. Most of injuries had occurred at home (72.4% and at night (55%. More than half of patients (52.4% did not take any primary aids following the ocular injury. Patient carelessness (78.1%, childhood curiosity and lack of parental supervision (11.4%, storing superglue in inappropriate places and inadvertently using superglue as eye drops due to poor vision (2.9%, inadequate awareness of superglue applications [used to stick on artificial nails (3.8%, artificial eyelashes (1.9% and broken tooth (1%] and being assaulted with glue (1% were common risk factors. CONCLUSION: The frequency of ocular superglue injuries in patients referred to Farabi Eye Hospital is relatively high. This finding underlines the importance of public education and awareness about superglue injuries to the eye and taking protective measures and safety strategies in order to prevent these injures.

  3. Ocular Injury due to Potassium Permanganate Granules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chareenun Chirapapaisan

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: We report a rare case of ocular injury due to potassium permanganate (KMnO4 granules in a child. Methods: This is a retrospective case report. Results: A 2-year-old boy was transferred to our emergency room with severe pain in his right eye, inflamed eyelids, and brownish stains on his fingers. Chemical injury was suspected. Copious eye irrigation was immediately performed. Diffuse brownish splotches were then observed at the inferior bulbar conjunctiva. Otherwise, systemic organs were intact. Complete eye exam under general anesthesia revealed a 5-mm epithelial defect at the central cornea, along with generalized conjunctival injection and limbal ischemia, inferiorly. Multiple semi-dissolved granules of KMnO4 trapped in the inferior fornix were identified. The chemical particles were gradually washed out and removed; however, the brownish stains remained. The patient received preservative-free steroid, antibiotic eye drops, and lubricants as regular management for mild to moderate degree of ocular burn. Pseudomembrane developed early and transformed into symblepharon within a few days after the injury. Membrane adhesion was lysed, and more aggressive medications were then substituted. Commercial amniotic membrane (PROKERA® was also applied to promote wound healing and to prevent recurrence of symblepharon. The ocular surface was eventually restored, and corneal transparency was preserved. Conclusion: Ocular injury with the granular form of KMnO4 is rare. Its toxicity is comparable to concentrated KMnO4 solution. However, the dissolved particles that had been absorbed in the stained conjunctiva were continuously released and damaged the ocular surface more than we primarily anticipated. Awareness of this condition and prompt management yield a good treatment outcome.

  4. Limb Shaking as a Manifestation of Low-flow Transient Ischemic Attacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohana P. Maddula

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Limb shaking presenting as rhythmic involuntary hyperkinetic movements may represent as severe bilateral occlusive carotid disease. This unusual form of transient ischemic attack is often misdiagnosed as focal motor seizures. However, careful assessment reveals a lack of usual seizure characteristics such as a jacksonian march or facial involvement. The movements also appear to be precipitated by activities that lower blood pressure. We present two cases of patients with severe bilateral carotid stenosis leading to limb-shaking transient ischemic attacks. There was complete stenosis in the internal carotid artery (ICA contralateral to the jerking limb, combined with significant stenosis in the ipsilateral ICA. Cerebral perfusion on the occluded ICA side was maintained through collateral circulation from the opposite ICA and posterior circulation. When blood pressure was lowered orthostatically or by medication, the resulting cerebral hypoperfusion manifested as limb jerking. Recognition of limb shaking as a rare form of transient ischemic attack and differentiating it from focal motor epilepsy can facilitate early identification of critical carotid stenosis, allowing for appropriate interventions and thus reducing the risk of a disabling stroke. We recommend that clinicians should consider carotid disease in elderly patients presenting with orthostatic or episodic movement disorders.

  5. Ocular hemodynamics and glaucoma: the role of mathematical modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Alon; Guidoboni, Giovanna; Arciero, Julia C; Amireskandari, Annahita; Tobe, Leslie A; Siesky, Brent A

    2013-01-01

    To discuss the role of mathematical modeling in studying ocular hemodynamics, with a focus on glaucoma. We reviewed recent literature on glaucoma, ocular blood flow, autoregulation, the optic nerve head, and the use of mathematical modeling in ocular circulation. Many studies suggest that alterations in ocular hemodynamics play a significant role in the development, progression, and incidence of glaucoma. Although there is currently a limited number of studies involving mathematical modeling of ocular blood flow, regulation, and diseases (such as glaucoma), preliminary modeling work shows the potential of mathematical models to elucidate the mechanisms that contribute most significantly to glaucoma progression. Mathematical modeling is a useful tool when used synergistically with clinical and laboratory data in the study of ocular blood flow and glaucoma. The development of models to investigate the relationship between ocular hemodynamic alterations and glaucoma progression will provide a unique and useful method for studying the pathophysiology of glaucoma.

  6. Alergia ocular: un reto diagnóstico Ocular allergy: a diagnostic challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Cardona Villa

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available El ojo es uno de los órganos más sensibles y está permanentemente expuesto a diversos agentes ambientales. Dado que la conjuntiva es un tejido inmunológicamente activo, no es sorprendente que sea un sitio común de respuestas alérgicas. Las alergias oculares son un grupo de enfermedades que afectan la superficie conjuntival y están asociadas usualmente a reacciones de hipersensibilidad tipo 1. Pueden ser divididas en varias categorías: conjuntivitis alérgica estacional, conjuntivitis alérgica perenne, queratoconjuntivitis vernal y queratoconjuntivitis atópica. La inflamación de la superficie ocular produce prurito, lagrimeo, edema conjuntival y fotofobia. Como en otras enfermedades alérgicas, se puede desarrollar una condición crónica, acompañada de remodelación de los tejidos oculares. Las estrategias para el tratamiento de la alergia ocular han aumentado exponencialmente y los clínicos disponen de un inventario cada vez mayor de agentes dirigidos a la protección del ojo contra la inflamación. En este trabajo presentamos una revisión sobre las principales formas de alergia ocular, haciendo énfasis en el cuadro clínico, el diagnóstico y las nuevas opciones terapéuticas disponibles en la actualidad. The eye, one of the most sensitive organs, is permanently exposed to different environmental agents. Since the conjunctiva is an immunologically active tissue, it is not surprising for it to be a common site for allergic responses. Ocular allergies constitute a group of diseases affecting the conjunctival surface; they are usually associated with type 1 hypersensitivity reactions. This disorder can be divided into several categories: seasonal allergic conjunctivitis, perennial allergic conjunctivitis, vernal keratoconjunctivitis and atopic keratoconjunctivitis. Ocular surface inflammation results in itching, tearing, conjunctival edema, and photophobia. As is the case with other allergic diseases, a chronic situation can also

  7. Genetically elevated C-reactive protein and ischemic vascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zacho, J.; Tybjaerg-Hansen, A.; Jensen, J.S.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Elevated levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) are associated with increased risks of ischemic heart disease and ischemic cerebrovascular disease. We tested whether this is a causal association. Methods: We studied 10,276 persons from a general population cohort, including 1786 in whom...... ischemic heart disease developed and 741 in whom ischemic cerebrovascular disease developed. We examined another 31,992 persons from a cross-sectional general population study, of whom 2521 had ischemic heart disease and 1483 had ischemic cerebrovascular disease. Finally, we compared 2238 patients...... with ischemic heart disease with 4474 control subjects and 612 patients with ischemic cerebrovascular disease with 1224 control subjects. We measured levels of high-sensitivity CRP and conducted genotyping for four CRP polymorphisms and two apolipoprotein E polymorphisms. Results: The risk of ischemic heart...

  8. Jidosha's Motors

    OpenAIRE

    Shirakawa Okuma, Rosely; Calderón Orejuela, Javier

    2016-01-01

    La tesis narra la situación de una empresa concesionaria de vehículos nuevos, Jidosha's Motors, perteneciente a una corporación japonesa que cuenta con una cultura muy arraigada de ética y de cumplimiento. Se plantean respuestas, se identifican problemas y sus alternativas de solución para una toma adecuada de decisiones por parte de los directivos, siguiendo una estructura de análisis de situaciones de negocios (ASN). Tesis

  9. Papel funcional del óxido nítrico en el control de los movimientos oculares en el gato despierto

    OpenAIRE

    Moreno López, Bernardo

    1997-01-01

    La presencia del enzima nNOS en algunos núcleos sensoriales o premotores sugiere que el NO está implicado en procesos sensorio-motores, aunque hasta el momento no existen evidencias directas. El objetivo principal de este estudio ha sido analizar el papel del NO en el control de los movimientos oculares en el animal alerta. El sistema oculomotor se ha elegido por varios motivos: a) la existencia de neuronas nitrérgicas en diversos núcleos implicados en el control de los movimientos oculares h...

  10. MRI in ischemic brain diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinbrich, W.; Friedmann, G.; Pawlik, G.; Boecher-Schwarz, H.G.; Heiss, W.D.

    1986-01-01

    The results of MRI and CT in 55 patients with brain infarcts were compared; in 26 of these cases an additional PET examination was obtained in order to study the regional glucose utilisation. MRI was superior to CT, demonstrating 11% more of the infarcts, particularly during the first 24 hours, in small lesions confined to the grey or subcortical white matter and in infratentorial ischemic lesion. On the other hand, only CT was able to show fresh hemorrhage, although MRI was the method of choice to demonstrate old blood collections. To characterise the follow up of an infarct, CT and MRI were similar, except the marginal contrast enhancement sometimes demonstrated by CT studies between the 2nd and 4th week after stroke event. PET was inferior to show details because of its poorer spatial resolution, but anyhow had a high sensitivity and provided additional informations concerning secondary inactivations of brain areas not directly damaged. Additionally PET was able to demonstrate areas of anaerobic glycolysis and lesions of diminished glucose utilisation in TIAs. Small areas of gliosis in the white matter of the cerebral hemispheres were frequently found in patients with cerebro-vascular diseases; they were best shown by MRI, but do not correlate with the extent of vascular stenoses or occlusions, shown by angiography. (orig) [de

  11. Imaging of ischemic heart disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipton, Martin J.; Reba, Richard C.; Bogaert, Jan; Boxt, Larry M.

    2002-01-01

    Despite advances in the understanding and treatment of ischemic cardiomyopathy, characterized by extensive coronary artery disease and left ventricular (LV) dysfunction, the prognosis remains poor with only a 50-60% 5-year survival rate. The composition of atherosclerotic lesions is currently regarded as being more important than the degree of stenosis in determining acute events. If imaging techniques could distinguish vulnerable from stable plaques, then high-risk patient subgroups could be identified. Another important concept is that LV dysfunction may be the result of either scarring due to necrosis or to the presence of myocardial hibernation, in which there is sufficient blood flow to sustain viable myocytes, but insufficient to maintain systolic contraction. This concept of myocardial viability is critical for making optimal clinical management decisions. This review describes how noninvasive imaging methods can be used to distinguish regions of irreversibly injured myocardium from viable but hibernating segments. Technical advances in CT and MR have made imaging of the beating heart possible. Considerable clinical progress has already been made and further cardiac applications are expected. Radiologists therefore have new opportunities for involvement in cardiac imaging but must recognize the political implications as well as the diagnostic potential of these modalities not only for the heart, but also for the whole vascular system. This review focuses on imaging myocardial injury. It compares state-of-the-art CT and MR with more established yet contemporary echocardiography and nuclear scintigraphy. (orig.)

  12. Anterior ischemic optic neuropathy in a patient with Churg-Strauss syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji Eun; Lee, Seung Uk; Kim, Soo Young; Jang, Tae Won; Lee, Sang Joon

    2012-12-01

    We describe a patient with Churg-Strauss syndrome who developed unilateral anterior ischemic optic neuropathy. A 54-year-old man with a history of bronchial asthma, allergic rhinitis, and sinusitis presented with sudden decreased visual acuity in his right eye that had begun 2 weeks previously. The visual acuity of his right eye was 20 / 50. Ophthalmoscopic examination revealed a diffusely swollen right optic disc and splinter hemorrhages at its margin. Goldmann perimetry showed central scotomas in the right eye and fluorescein angiography showed remarkable hyperfluorescence of the right optic nerve head. Marked peripheral eosinphilia, extravascular eosinophils in a bronchial biopsy specimen, and an increased sedimentation rate supported the diagnosis of Churg-Strauss syndrome. Therapy with methylprednisolone corrected the laboratory abnormalities, improved clinical features, and preserved vision, except for the right central visual field defect. Early recognition of this systemic disease by ophthalmologists may help in preventing severe ocular complications.

  13. Transient ischemic attack presenting in an elderly patient with transient ophthalmic manifestations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sparshi Jain

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Transient ischemic attack (TIA is a transient neurological deficit of cerebrovascular origin without infarction which may last only for a short period and can have varying presentations. We report a case of 58-year-old male with presenting features of sudden onset transient vertical diplopia and transient rotatory nystagmus which self-resolved within 12 h. Patient had no history of any systemic illness. On investigating, hematological investigations and neuroimaging could not explain these sudden and transient findings. A TIA could possibly explain these sudden and transient ocular findings in our patient. This case report aims to highlight the importance of TIA for ophthalmologists. We must not ignore these findings as these could be warning signs of an impending stroke which may or may not be detected on neuroimaging. Thus, early recognition, primary prevention strategies, and timely intervention are needed.

  14. Smoking Cessation Intervention After Ischemic Stroke or Transient Ischemic Attack. A Randomized Controlled Pilot Trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunner Frandsen, Nicole; Sørensen, Margit; Hyldahl, Tanja Kirstine

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Smoking cessation is widely recommended for secondary stroke prevention. However, little is known about the efficacy of smoking cessation intervention after stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA). METHODS: Ninety-four smokers under age 76, admitted with ischemic stroke or TIA were ...

  15. Quantitative Measurement of Physical Activity in Acute Ischemic Stroke and Transient Ischemic Attack

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strømmen, Anna Maria; Christensen, Thomas; Jensen, Kai

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to quantitatively measure and describe the amount and pattern of physical activity in patients within the first week after acute ischemic stroke and transient ischemic attack using accelerometers. METHODS: A total of 100 patients with acute is...

  16. Occurrence and predictors of persistent impaired glucose tolerance after acute ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Fonville (Susanne); H.M. den Hertog (Heleen); A.A.M. Zandbergen (Adrienne); P.J. Koudstaal (Peter Jan); H.F. Lingsma (Hester)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractBackground Impaired glucose tolerance is often present in patients with a transient ischemic attack (TIA) or ischemic stroke and doubles the risk of recurrent stroke. This impaired glucose tolerance can be transient, reflecting an acute stress response, or persistent, representing

  17. OCULAR DISORDERS IN CHILDREN WITH DEVELOPMENTAL DELAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meera Suresh Joshi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND In India, an estimated 1.5-2.5% children below 2 years of age are developmentally delayed. A higher incidence of ocular disability is seen in these children, refractive errors and strabismus being most common. These can add to the overall burden of health as most of them have developmental comorbidities. The aim of the study is to study the ocular disorders in children with developmental delay. MATERIALS AND METHODS We studied 112 children between the 2-12 years of age diagnosed to have developmental delay. All the subjects underwent a detailed ophthalmic evaluation including visual acuity testing using Snellen’s charts (3m and 6m and Log MAR charts (recorded as per Snellen’s vision testing to maintain uniformity, cycloplegic refraction, torchlight and slit-lamp evaluation and dilated fundus examination. The data was tabulated and represented using bar diagrams, Pie charts and graphs. The results were expressed as percentages. Design-Cross-sectional, observational study. RESULTS 66 boys and 46 girls (total 112 were evaluated. The mean age of the study population was 7.8 years ± 2.4 SD. The aetiology of developmental delay was cerebral palsy (64%, Down syndrome (22%, autism (7%, intellectual disability (4.5% and 1 case each of congenital hypothyroidism and ataxia telangiectasia. The prevalence of ocular disorders was found to be 84.8%, which was slightly higher in girls (87% as compared to boys (83%. Refractive error (79.5% was the commonest ocular disorder followed by strabismus (46.4%. Astigmatism (44.6% was the commonest refractive error, which was divided into myopic astigmatism (19.6%, hyperopic astigmatism (13.8% and mixed astigmatism (11.2%. Simple hyperopia was seen in 21.9% subjects and simple myopia in 12.1%. Exotropia (52% was commoner than esotropia (48%. Other ocular abnormalities included optic atrophy, nystagmus, epicanthal folds, cataract, mongoloid slant, ptosis, telecanthus, conjunctival telangiectasia and

  18. Timing of surgery for infantile esotropia: sensory and motor outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, Agnes M.F.

    2008-01-01

    Infantile esotropia is a common ophthalmic disorder in childhood. It is often accompanied by profound maldevelopment of stereopsis, motion processing, and eye movements, despite successful surgical realignment of the eyes. The proper timing of surgery has been debated for decades. There is growing evidence from clinical and animal studies that surgery during the early critical periods enhances sensory and ocular motor development. The Congenital Esotropia Observational Study has defined a cli...

  19. Kmeans-ICA based automatic method for ocular artifacts removal in a motorimagery classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bou Assi, Elie; Rihana, Sandy; Sawan, Mohamad

    2014-01-01

    Electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings aroused as inputs of a motor imagery based BCI system. Eye blinks contaminate the spectral frequency of the EEG signals. Independent Component Analysis (ICA) has been already proved for removing these artifacts whose frequency band overlap with the EEG of interest. However, already ICA developed methods, use a reference lead such as the ElectroOculoGram (EOG) to identify the ocular artifact components. In this study, artifactual components were identified using an adaptive thresholding by means of Kmeans clustering. The denoised EEG signals have been fed into a feature extraction algorithm extracting the band power, the coherence and the phase locking value and inserted into a linear discriminant analysis classifier for a motor imagery classification.

  20. Electroacupuncture preconditioning reduces cerebral ischemic injury via BDNF and SDF-1α in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Ji Hyun

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study was designed to determine if electroacupuncture (EA preconditioning improves tissue outcome and functional outcome following experimentally induced cerebral ischemia in mice. In addition, we investigated whether the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF and stromal cell derived factor-1α (SDF-1α and infarct volume were related with improvement in neurological and motor function by interventions in this study. Methods After treatment with EA at the acupoints ‘Baihui (GV20’ and ‘Dazhui (GV14’ for 20 min, BDNF was assessed in the cortical tissues based on Western blot and the SDF-1α and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF levels in the plasma determined by ELISA. To assess the protective effects of EA against ischemic injury, the mice received once a day 20 min EA preconditioning for three days prior to the ischemic event. Focal cerebral ischemia was then induced by photothrombotic cortical ischemia. Infarct volumes, neurobehavioral deficit and motor deficit were evaluated 24 h after focal cerebral ischemia. Results The expression of BDNF protein increased significantly from 6 h, reaching a plateau at 12 h after the end of EA treatment in the cerebral cortex. Furthermore, SDF-1α, not VEGF, increased singnificantly from 12 h to 48 h after EA stimulation in the plasma. Moreover, EA preconditioning reduced the infarct volume by 43.5% when compared to control mice at 24 h after photothrombotic cortical ischemia. Consistent with a smaller infarct size, EA preconditioning showed prominent improvement of neurological function and motor function such as vestibule-motor function, sensori-motor function and asymmetric forelimb use. The expression of BDNF colocalized within neurons and SDF-1α colocalized within the cerebral vascular endothelium was observed throughout the ischemic cortex by EA. Conclusions Pretreatment with EA increased the production of BDNF and SDF-1α, which elicited

  1. Ocular Perfusion Pressure and Pulsatile Ocular Blood Flow in Normal and Systemic Hypertensive Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanadani, Fabio N; Figueiredo, Carlos R; Miranda, Rafaela Morais; Cunha, Patricia Lt; M Kanadani, Tereza Cristina; Dorairaj, Syril

    2015-01-01

    Glaucomatous neuropathy can be a consequence of insufficient blood supply, increase in intraocular pressure (IOP), or other risk factors that diminish the ocular blood flow. To determine the ocular perfusion pressure (OPP) in normal and systemic hypertensive patients. One hundred and twenty-one patients were enrolled in this prospective and comparative study and underwent a complete ophthalmologic examination including slit lamp examination, Goldmann applanation tonometry, stereoscopic fundus examination, and pulsatile ocular blood flow (POBF) measurements. The OPP was calculated as being the medium systemic arterial pressure (MAP) less the IOP. Only right eye values were considered for calculations using Student's t-test. The mean age of the patients was 57.5 years (36-78), and 68.5% were women. There was a statistically significant difference in the OPP of the normal and systemic hypertensive patients (p cite this article: Kanadani FN, Figueiredo CR, Miranda RM, Cunha PLT, Kanadani TCM, Dorairaj S. Ocular Perfusion Pressure and Pulsatile Ocular Blood Flow in Normal and Systemic Hypertensive Patients. J Curr Glaucoma Pract 2015;9(1):16-19.

  2. Outbreak of ocular toxoplasmosis in Coimbatore, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palanisamy Manikandan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii is a protozoan parasite that infects up to a third of the world′s population. Infection is mainly acquired by ingestion of food that is contaminated with oocysts. We report an outbreak of ocular toxoplasmosis, which is an acute acquired type rather than reactivation of congenital toxoplasmosis. Our preliminary investigation points to municipal water contamination. This outbreak only proves the need of an effective public health system and health education in curtailing any outbreak.

  3. Ocular manifestations of injection drug use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Rubin W; Juzych, Mark S; Eliott, Dean

    2002-09-01

    Injection drug use can result in a variety of severe ocular conditions. Hematogenous dissemination of various fungi and bacteria may produce endophthalmitis with resultant severe visual loss. Retinal arterial occlusive disease may result from talc and other particulate emboli. Most commonly, life-threatening systemic diseases such as endocarditis and HIV infection secondarily affect the eye. Because many of these conditions may result in blindness if untreated, accurate diagnosis and prompt initiation of therapy are essential.

  4. Preparation and ocular pharmacokinetics of ganciclovir liposomes

    OpenAIRE

    Shen, Yan; Tu, Jiasheng

    2007-01-01

    Ophthalmic liposomes of ganciclovir (GCV) were prepared by the reverse phase evaporation method, and their ocular pharmacokinetics in albino rabbits were compared with those obtained after dosing with GCV solution. The in vitro transcorneal permeability of GCV liposomes was found to be 3.9-fold higher than that of the solution. After in vivo instillation in albino rabbits, no difference was found in the precorneal elimination rate of GCV from liposome vs solution dosing. The aqueous humor con...

  5. [Larva migrans syndrome or ocular toxocariasis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzi, D R; Maffrand, R A; De Lisa, I S; Pizzi, H L; Plaza Ontiveros, R G

    2001-01-01

    Thirteen cases of ocular toxocariasis attended in the Oftalmology Service of the Pediatric Hospital "Niño Jesús", from Córdoba; and in the Parasitology and Micology Cathedra of the Medicine Collegue of the University of Córdoba were studied from July 1993 till July 1995. The authors determine the needs of taking into account this parasitosis; above all in children and with the antecedent of contact with pets.

  6. Gender specific issues in hereditary ocular disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iragavarapu, Saradha; Gorin, Michael B

    2015-02-01

    This review is intended to summarize the current knowledge from basic science and clinical medical literature cited within PubMed that pertain to gender-related factors and affect those individuals with hereditary ocular disorders. We consider gender-related biological factors that (a) affect disease onset and progression, (b) gender differences for major X-linked ocular disorders, (c) gender-specific conditions, (d) medications that may influence genetic eye disorders, and finally, (e) gender-related issues that influence the management and quality of life of these patients. Several studies have demonstrated the manner in which sex-related hormones in animal models are capable of influencing cell pathway and survival that are likely to affect hereditary eye disorders. There are very few clinical studies that provide compelling evidence for gender differences in human ocular conditions, other than for a number of X-linked disorders. Disease expression for X-linked disorders may be impacted by genetic mechanisms such as lyonization or uniparental disomy. Clinical evidence regarding the impact of gender-related medical conditions and therapies on eye conditions is extremely limited and primarily based on anecdotal evidence. Gender-specific factors may play a major role in the underlying biological pathways that influence the onset, rate of progression, and clinical findings associated with ocular genetic conditions. Clinicians need to be aware of the variable phenotypes observed in female carriers of X-linked disorders of gender specific issues, many of which are inadequately addressed in the current literature. Clinicians need to be sensitive to gender differences in social, cultural, and religious systems and they should also be aware of how their own gender biases may influence how they counsel patients. Finally, it is clear that the lack of effective clinical studies in this area creates an opportunity for future research that will have real benefits for these

  7. [Surgery of refractory ischemic arrhythmia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viganò, M; Graffigna, A; Salerno, G

    1992-03-01

    Since June 1980, 138 patients have undergone surgical treatment for refractory ventricular tachycardia due to ischemic heart disease. Electrically guided surgical ablation (EGSA) of the focus was performed in 117 patients, while 14 patients underwent application of automatic implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (AICD), and 8 patients underwent heart transplantation. During the whole period considered, among the EGSA patients an operative mortality of 13 patients was observed (11.4%), with a late mortality of another 14 patients (13.4%). Two early and six late recurrences were described, and 4 cases of sudden or unexplained death, with 2 cases clearly due to an arrhythmic event. Multivariate analysis showed preoperative ejection fraction lower than 25% as a powerful predictor of early mortality (32% vs 0%). Actuarial survival rate of patients with LVEF lower than 25% was 67 +/- 12% vs 95 +/- 2% at one year and 37 +/- 25% vs 94 +/- 8% at 8 years. A high operative mortality was then observed in patients who underwent aneurysmectomy alone or visually guided procedures as compared to electrically guided procedures (75% or 3 deaths out of 4 patients vs 8.5% or 10 out of 113 patients, respectively). Patients who received an AICD with or without associated procedures showed 1 case of in-hospital mortality and no late mortality; in 6 patients at least one shock was delivered; in two patients the AICD was implanted during an EGSA procedure, due to multiple or difficult origins of the arrhythmias. Of patients who underwent heart transplantation one case of later mortality was observed due to malignancy.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  8. Ischemic Tolerance of the Brain and Spinal Cord: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunoki, Masatoshi; Kanda, Takahiro; Suzuki, Kenta; Uneda, Atsuhito; Hirashita, Koji; Yoshino, Kimihiro

    2017-11-15

    Ischemic tolerance is an endogenous neuroprotective phenomenon induced by sublethal ischemia. Ischemic preconditioning (IPC), the first discovered form of ischemic tolerance, is widely seen in many species and in various organs including the brain and the spinal cord. Ischemic tolerance of the spinal cord is less familiar among neurosurgeons, although it has been reported from the viewpoint of preventing ischemic spinal cord injury during aortic surgery. It is important for neurosurgeons to have opportunities to see patients with spinal cord ischemia, and to understand ischemic tolerance of the spinal cord as well as the brain. IPC has a strong neuroprotective effect in animal models of ischemia; however, clinical application of IPC for ischemic brain and spinal diseases is difficult because they cannot be predicted. In addition, one drawback of preconditioning stimuli is that they are also capable of producing injury with only minor changes to their intensity or duration. Numerous methods to induce ischemic tolerance have been discovered that vary in their timing and the site at which short-term ischemia occurs. These methods include ischemic postconditioning (IPoC), remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC), remote ischemic perconditioning (RIPerC) and remote ischemic postconditioning (RIPoC), which has had a great impact on clinical approaches to treatment of ischemic brain and spinal cord injury. Especially RIPerC and RIPoC to induce spinal cord tolerance are considered clinically useful, however the evidence supporting these methods is currently insufficient; further experimental or clinical research in this area is thus necessary.

  9. Experimental models of autoimmune inflammatory ocular diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Gasparin

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Ocular inflammation is one of the leading causes of blindness and loss of vision. Human uveitis is a complex and heterogeneous group of diseases characterized by inflammation of intraocular tissues. The eye may be the only organ involved, or uveitis may be part of a systemic disease. A significant number of cases are of unknown etiology and are labeled idiopathic. Animal models have been developed to the study of the physiopathogenesis of autoimmune uveitis due to the difficulty in obtaining human eye inflamed tissues for experiments. Most of those models are induced by injection of specific photoreceptors proteins (e.g., S-antigen, interphotoreceptor retinoid-binding protein, rhodopsin, recoverin, phosducin. Non-retinal antigens, including melanin-associated proteins and myelin basic protein, are also good inducers of uveitis in animals. Understanding the basic mechanisms and pathogenesis of autoimmune ocular diseases are essential for the development of new treatment approaches and therapeutic agents. The present review describes the main experimental models of autoimmune ocular inflammatory diseases.

  10. Miastenia grave y miastenia grave ocular

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    Rosa María Naranjo Fernández

    Full Text Available La miastenia grave es una enfermedad caracterizada por debilidad y fatiga de los músculos voluntarios debido a una trasmisión anómala a nivel de la unión neuromuscular. La prevalencia es aproximadamente de 5 casos/100 000 personas. La miastenia grave puede ser bulbar, ocular o generalizada.Existen formas clínicas en la infancia como son la miastenia neonatal transitoria, la miastenia congénita y la miastenia juvenil. Los músculos oculares, faciales y bulbares son los más frecuentes afectados por la enfermedad. Cuando los síntomas se limitan a la musculatura cercana al ojo se denomina miastenia grave ocular. Una vez el oftalmólogo diagnostica o sospecha la miastenia grave, un neurólogo generalmente dirige la comprobación y tratamiento. El papel del oftalmólogo continúa siendo importante, además de chequear la motilidad y disfunción palpebral y proporcionar el alivio sintomático para estos desórdenes, debe estar alerta a la posibilidad de ambliopía.

  11. Choroidal osteoma secondary to ocular trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rua Martinez, Raul; Perez Garcia, Diley; Alemanny Rubio, Ernesto

    2012-01-01

    The choroidal osteoma is a benign bony tumor described for the first time in 1978 by Gass and collaborators. It is generally unilateral, with juxtapapillary localization and more frequent in young adult females. It presents unknown etiology, but it is associated to different factors as inflammatory processes, congenital malformations, hormonal alterations and ocular traumas among others. The patient was a 54 year-old woman with a personal history of rheumatic fibromyalgia (osteoarthrosis and osteoporosis) and hypertension. Her ophthalmological antecedent showed myopia and arteriolosclerotic retinopathy. At the beginning of the year, she suffered a traffic accident and was injured in her limbs and periocular region. After this, she began feeling blurred vision of the right eye and she went to our service 6 months later. She was performed an ophthalmologic exam. It was found that the right eye had visual acuity of 0.4, and after correction it reached 1.0. Funduscopy revealed vascular thinness, incomplete posterior vitreous detachment, and a white-orange lesion of 3 papillary diameters that involved inferior temporary arcade with well-defined borders. An angiography was performed, which showed sustained hyperfluorescence and non neovascularization; and the optic coherence tomography revealed a halo of serous retinal detachment. Additionally, the ocular ultrasound yielded a high reflectivity echogenic image that involves choroids with posterior acoustic shadow. It is for this reason that we affirm the traumatic etiology of the lesion. This is a rare pathology that should be diagnosed by imaging techniques. Notably, it is secondary to an ocular trauma

  12. Preparation and ocular pharmacokinetics of ganciclovir liposomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yan; Tu, Jiasheng

    2007-12-07

    Ophthalmic liposomes of ganciclovir (GCV) were prepared by the reverse phase evaporation method, and their ocular pharmacokinetics in albino rabbits were compared with those obtained after dosing with GCV solution. The in vitro transcorneal permeability of GCV liposomes was found to be 3.9-fold higher than that of the solution. After in vivo instillation in albino rabbits, no difference was found in the precorneal elimination rate of GCV from liposome vs solution dosing. The aqueous humor concentration-time profiles of both liposomes and solution were well described by 2-compartmental pharmacokinetics with first-order absorption. The area under the curve of the aqueous humor concentration-time profiles of GCV liposomes was found to be 1.7-fold higher than that of GCV solution. Ocular tissue distribution of GCV from liposomes was 2 to 10 times higher in the sclera, cornea, iris, lens, and vitreous humor when compared with those observed after solution dosing. These results suggested that liposomes may hold some promise in ocular GCV delivery.

  13. Spectrum of ocular surface squamous neoplasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babar, T.F.; Khan, M.N.; Hussain, M.; Shah, S.A.

    2007-01-01

    To describe the pattern of ocular surface squamous neoplasia (OSSN), clinical presentations, the risk factors and treatment options. The study included 36 eyes of 35 patients with biopsy-proven ocular surface neoplasia. The details of patients regarding age, gender, laterality and risk factors were entered into a specially-designed proforma. Each patient was also assessed biomicroscopically for type and complications of ocular surface neoplasia. The frequency of OSSN was 0.37 among admitted hospital patients. Among 36 cases of OSSN, squamous cell carcinoma of the conjunctiva was the most common type of OSSN seen in 63.9%, followed by carcinoma in situ of conjunctiva in 25% and carcinoma in situ of cornea in 11.1%. Male patients outnumbered female (65.7% vs 34.3%) with 71.42% of patients above 60 years of age. The risk factors identified were: old age, ultraviolet B exposure and xeroderma pigmentosa. Treatment consisted of local resection with or without adjuvant therapy in 61.1%, exenteration in 30.5%, enucleation in 5.5% and chemo/radiotherapy in 2.7%. Intraocular invasion was seen in 5.5% and orbital spread in 30.5%. The frequency of OSSN was 0.37% among admitted patients. Identification of exact etiological factors will enable to formulate strategies that are likely to decrease the incidence of this disease and the associated morbidity and mortality. (author)

  14. Indirect carotid cavernous fistula mimicking ocular myasthenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leishangthem, Lakshmi; Satti, Sudhakar Reddy

    2017-10-19

    71-year-old woman with progressive left-sided, monocular diplopia and ptosis. Her symptoms mimicked ocular myasthenia, but she had an indirect carotid cavernous fistula (CCF). She was diagnosed with monocular myasthenia gravis (negative acetylcholinesterase antibody) after a positive ice test and started on Mestinon and underwent a thymectomy complicated by a brachial plexus injury. Months later, she developed left-sided proptosis and ocular bruit. She was urgently referred to neuro-interventional surgery and was diagnosed with an indirect high-flow left CCF, which was treated with Onyx liquid and platinum coil embolisation. Mestinon was discontinued. Her ophthalmic symptoms resolved. However, she was left with a residual left arm and hand hemiparesis and dysmetria secondary to a brachial plexus injury. Indirect CCF usually can present with subtle and progressive symptoms leading to delayed diagnosis or misdiagnosis. It is important for ophthalmologists to consider this differential in a patient with progressive ocular symptoms. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  15. PAEDIATRIC OCULAR TRAUMA IN KUCHING, SARAWAK, MALAYSIA

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    INTAN G

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate the demography, aetiology, type and outcome of paediatric ocular trauma in tertiary centre in Malaysia. Method: We retrospectively studied 118 eyes from 117 patients over a period of 36 months (January 2006 to December 2008. All ocular injuries in patients aged 12 and below seen in the Ophthalmology Department for the first time were included in thisstudy. Results: Mean age of patients was 6.1±3.0 years. 68 cases (58.2% occurred in pre-school children, whereas 49 (41.9% in school-aged children. Boys accounted for 65.8% of cases. There was no predilection for either right or the left eye. 47% of cases (56 patients occurred in Malay. Most of the injuries took place at home when the children were alone (p<0.05. Sharp objects were the commonest cause (45 cases, 38.1%. The majority of cases (103, 87.3% were considered preventable. The frequency of open and closed globe injury was similar. Hyphema was more common in closed globe injury compared to open globe injury (p<0.05. Other associated injuries such as cataract, vitreous hemorrhage and retinal hemorrhage are similar between the two groups. Visual outcome is generally poor with only 34 eyes (28.8% had no visual impairment. Conclusion: Ocular trauma in children is an important cause of visual loss. Most cases occurred at home and were preventable. Prevention through education is the best approach.

  16. Oculomotricidade e seus fundamentos Ocular motility: foundations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harley E. A. Bicas

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Partindo-se de um circuito esquemático relacionando os sistemas sensorial (visual binocular e oculomotor, cujos defeitos em vias aferentes ou eferentes, ou de suas interações, explicam o aparecimento dos estrabismos e suas conseqüências, são examinados os fundamentos e referenciais da movimentação ocular. Apresentam-se os conceitos de eixos e planos, centro de massa e de rotação, definem-se os movimentos monoculares de translação e de rotação e os binoculares de versões e vergências. É também referida a função dos centros de comando para movimentos voluntários e reflexos, a dos núcleos oculomotores e a respectiva inervação aos músculos oculares externos. Numa segunda parte (fisiologia da musculatura ocular extrínseca são comentadas as atividades de contração e relaxamento e a importância da lei de Sherrington. Voltando-se ao conceito de posição primária do olhar e dos referenciais das rotações, menciona-se a diversidade de vários sistemas de medidas. Em seguida, são analisadas as ações musculares rotacionais com bases no plano de ação muscular e na distribuição anatômica dos músculos, levando a resultados em posição primária do olhar e nas outras. Os efeitos de fáscias e membranas intermusculares são também comentados, terminando-se com a concepção moderna sobre as ações musculares (ação simultânea de todos os músculos em quaisquer das posições oculares. Com os condicionantes da lei de Hering, desenvolve-se o conceito de posições diagnósticas (das disfunções oculomotoras, diferentemente do clássico: os músculos são considerados em pares, de acordo às suas ações predominantes ___ horizontais (retos horizontais, verticais (retos verticais ou torcionais (oblíquos. Em cada qual devem ser comparadas as ações em condições diametralmente opostas de fixação ocular e posições do olhar (por exemplo, supradextroversão na fixação com o olho direito e infralevoversão na fixa

  17. Ocular Blood Flow and Normal Tension Glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Fan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Normal tension glaucoma (NTG is known as a multifactorial optic neuropathy characterized by progressive retinal ganglion cell death and glaucomatous visual field loss, even though the intraocular pressure (IOP does not exceed the normal range. The pathophysiology of NTG remains largely undetermined. It is hypothesized that the abnormal ocular blood flow is involved in the pathogenesis of this disease. A number of evidences suggested that the vascular factors played a significant role in the development of NTG. In recent years, the new imaging techniques, fluorescein angiography, color Doppler imaging (CDI, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, and laser speckle flowgraphy (LSFG, have been used to evaluate the ocular blood flow and blood vessels, and the impaired vascular autoregulation was found in patients with NTG. Previous studies showed that NTG was associated with a variety of systemic diseases, including migraine, Alzheimer’s disease, primary vascular dysregulation, and Flammer syndrome. The vascular factors were involved in these diseases. The mechanisms underlying the abnormal ocular blood flow in NTG are still not clear, but the risk factors for glaucomatous optic neuropathy likely included oxidative stress, vasospasm, and endothelial dysfunction.

  18. Vitamin D in ocular and systemic health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solani D. Mathebula

    2015-06-01

    Vitamin D is produced in skin exposed to sunlight UVB radiation and is then metabolised by the kidney into calciferol, which is an active form. The main function of vitamin D is to promote calcium and phosphorus absorption, and studies have shown that a lack of itplays an important role in ocular conditions, such as age-related macular degeneration and diabetic retinopathy. Recent studies have suggested that vitamin D may protect the diabetic retina; however, other vitamin D-associated conditions (diabetes, hypertension and cardiovascular diseases may result in secondary ocular manifestations and the potential forsight-threatening complications. The purpose of this review is to describe the current literature on the role of vitamin D in ocular and systemic wellness. However, more research is needed to determine if increasing levels of this vitamin can assist in preventing age-related macular degeneration or diabetic retinopathy. Since vitamin D is a circulating steroid hormone, its receptors are found in almost every cell in the human body, and this suggests that vitamin D might have a very broad role for overall health. However, there is still demand for further research to clarify the clinical use of vitamin D in the prevention and treatment of various chronic diseases.

  19. Dry Eye Management: Targeting the Ocular Surface Microenvironment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaobo; M, Vimalin Jeyalatha; Qu, Yangluowa; He, Xin; Ou, Shangkun; Bu, Jinghua; Jia, Changkai; Wang, Junqi; Wu, Han; Liu, Zuguo; Li, Wei

    2017-06-29

    Dry eye can damage the ocular surface and result in mild corneal epithelial defect to blinding corneal pannus formation and squamous metaplasia. Significant progress in the treatment of dry eye has been made in the last two decades; progressing from lubricating and hydrating the ocular surface with artificial tear to stimulating tear secretion; anti-inflammation and immune regulation. With the increase in knowledge regarding the pathophysiology of dry eye, we propose in this review the concept of ocular surface microenvironment. Various components of the microenvironment contribute to the homeostasis of ocular surface. Compromise in one or more components can result in homeostasis disruption of ocular surface leading to dry eye disease. Complete evaluation of the microenvironment component changes in dry eye patients will not only lead to appropriate diagnosis, but also guide in timely and effective clinical management. Successful treatment of dry eye should be aimed to restore the homeostasis of the ocular surface microenvironment.

  20. Dry Eye Management: Targeting the Ocular Surface Microenvironment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaobo; Jeyalatha M, Vimalin; Qu, Yangluowa; He, Xin; Ou, Shangkun; Bu, Jinghua; Jia, Changkai; Wang, Junqi; Wu, Han; Liu, Zuguo

    2017-01-01

    Dry eye can damage the ocular surface and result in mild corneal epithelial defect to blinding corneal pannus formation and squamous metaplasia. Significant progress in the treatment of dry eye has been made in the last two decades; progressing from lubricating and hydrating the ocular surface with artificial tear to stimulating tear secretion; anti-inflammation and immune regulation. With the increase in knowledge regarding the pathophysiology of dry eye, we propose in this review the concept of ocular surface microenvironment. Various components of the microenvironment contribute to the homeostasis of ocular surface. Compromise in one or more components can result in homeostasis disruption of ocular surface leading to dry eye disease. Complete evaluation of the microenvironment component changes in dry eye patients will not only lead to appropriate diagnosis, but also guide in timely and effective clinical management. Successful treatment of dry eye should be aimed to restore the homeostasis of the ocular surface microenvironment. PMID:28661456

  1. [Post-marketing re-evaluation of Kudiezi injection study on early treatment in patients with ischemic stroke].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Xiaoqin; Wei, Xu; Xie, Yanming; Zou, Yihuai; Zhao, Xingquan; Han, Jianhua; Wang, Xinzhi; Ma, Yunzhi; Bi, Qi; Xie, Qingfan; Zhao, Jianjun; Cao, Xiaolan; Chen, Hongxia; Wang, Shizhong; Yan, Rongmei; Han, Zucheng; Yi, Danhui; Wang, Yongyan

    2011-10-01

    To study the effect and safety of Kudiezi injection on patients with acute ischemic stroke. Seven hundreds patients were divided into two groups by central randomization system. The study group, 346 cases, was treated with kudiezi injection plus traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) synthesis rehabilitation project, and the control group, 354 cases, was treated with synthetic rehabilitation project. The patients were treated for 10 to 21 days. Before treatment and at the 7th, 14th and 21th day of treatment, the indexes include NIHSS used for evaluating the neurological deficit degree and the motor function score (Fugl-Meyer) for evaluating motor function were observed. The safety index is defined by adverse observation event and laboratory test. The incidence of adverse events and laboratory tests results were observed before and after treatment at the same time. Application of generalized estimating equation model, we found that as the treatment time, NIHSS score and FMI score of the two groups showed a trend of improvement. And at the 14th days and 21th days of treatment, compared to the control group the treatment group showed significant statistical difference on the impact of NIHSS and FMI (Pinjection plus TCM rehabilitation project of ischemic stroke showed some superiority to western medicine rehabilitation program on improving the neurological deficit and motor function. Kudiezi injection is safe and effective in the treatment of acute ischemic stroke.

  2. Anterior ischemic optic neuropathy after conventional coronary artery bypass graft surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorecka, Mariola; Miniewicz-Kurkowska, Joanna; Romaniuk, Dorota; Gajdzik-Gajdecka, Urszula; Wójcik-Niklewska, Bogumiła

    2011-06-01

    Perioperative optic neuropathy is a disease which can lead to serious, irreversible damage of vision. This complication could be the result of non-ocular surgery, for example, cardiac or spinal procedures. We present a case of anterior ischemic neuropathy (AION) which occurred following a conventional coronary artery bypass graft procedure. A 57-year-old man, 4 days after Conventional Coronary Artery Bypass Graft surgery as result of multi-vessel stabile coronary artery disease and history of anterolateral wall myocardial infarction, was admitted to the Eye Clinic due to significant loss of vision in his right eye. The patient had hypertension and was a heavy smoker. On admission, the slit lamp examination revealed a relative afferent pupillary defect in the right eye. The fundus examination showed optic disc edema with the presence of flame hemorrhages. Best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was 0.02. The results of eye examination and fluorescein angiography confirmed the diagnosis of AION. Anti-aggregation and antithrombotic treatment was continued with steroids and vasodilators. After 7 days of this treatment we noticed the improvement of BCVA to 0.2. At 6-month follow-up, the vision was stable, and fundus examination revealed optic disc atrophy. After cardiac surgical operations, such as coronary artery bypass graft procedures, anterior ischemic optic neuropathy may occur. In those cases, close cooperation between the various specialists is necessary.

  3. Infection in the ischemic lower extremity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, D E; Marek, J M; Langsfeld, M

    1998-06-01

    Infections in the lower extremity of the patient with ischemia can cover a broad spectrum of different diseases. An understanding of the particular pathophysiologic circumstances in the ischemic extremity can be of great value in understanding the natural history of the disease and the potential complications that may occur. Optimizing blood flow to the extremity by using revascularization techniques is important for any patient with an ischemic lower extremity complicated by infection or ulceration. Infections in the ischemic lower extremity require local débridement and systemic antibiotics. For severe infections, such as necrotizing fasciitis or the fetid foot, more extensive local débridement and even amputation may be required. Fundamentals of managing prosthetic graft infection require removing the infected prosthesis, local wound débridement, and systemic antibiotics while attempting to preserve viability of the lower extremity using autogenous graft reconstruction.

  4. Motor areas of the frontal cortex in patients with motor eloquent brain lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulubas, Lucia; Sabih, Jamil; Wohlschlaeger, Afra; Sollmann, Nico; Hauck, Theresa; Ille, Sebastian; Ringel, Florian; Meyer, Bernhard; Krieg, Sandro M

    2016-12-01

    OBJECTIVE Because of its huge clinical potential, the importance of premotor areas for motor function itself and plastic reshaping due to tumors or ischemic brain lesions has received increased attention. Thus, in this study the authors used navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (nTMS) to investigate whether tumorous brain lesions induce a change in motor cortex localization in the human brain. METHODS Between 2010 and 2013, nTMS motor mapping was performed in a prospective cohort of 100 patients with brain tumors in or adjacent to the rolandic cortex. Spatial data analysis was performed by normalization of the individual motor maps and creation of overlays according to tumor location. Analysis of motor evoked potential (MEP) latencies was performed regarding mean overall latencies and potentially polysynaptic latencies, defined as latencies longer than 1 SD above the mean value. Hemispheric dominance, lesion location, and motor-function deficits were also considered. RESULTS Graphical analysis showed that motor areas were not restricted to the precentral gyrus. Instead, they spread widely in the anterior-posterior direction. An analysis of MEP latency showed that mean MEP latencies were shortest in the precentral gyrus and longest in the superior and middle frontal gyri. The percentage of latencies longer than 1 SD differed widely across gyri. The dominant hemisphere showed a greater number of longer latencies than the nondominant hemisphere (p < 0.0001). Moreover, tumor location-dependent changes in distribution of polysynaptic latencies were observed (p = 0.0002). Motor-function deficit did not show any statistically significant effect. CONCLUSIONS The distribution of primary and polysynaptic motor areas changes in patients with brain tumors and highly depends on tumor location. Thus, these data should be considered for resection planning.

  5. Interactions of Bacteria and Amoebae with Ocular Biomaterials

    OpenAIRE

    John, Thomas

    1991-01-01

    The use of biomaterials in periocular and intraocular sites has resulted in some ocular inflammations and infections which can result in vision-threatening ocular disease. This review addresses bacterial interactions with, and adherence to ocular biomaterials such as soft contact lenses, surgical suture materials, and intraocular lenses. In addition, adherence of Acanthamoeba to soft contact lenses is described, and the role of these lenses in the development of Acanthamoeba keratitis is disc...

  6. Quality of life in purely ocular myasthenia in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Since there has been no conclusive evidence regarding the treatment of ocular myasthenia, treatment guidelines were recently issued by the European Federation of Neurological Societies/European Neurological Society (EFNS/ENS). However, the therapeutic outcomes concerning the quality-of-life (QOL) of patients with ocular myasthenia are not yet fully understood. Methods We investigated the therapeutic outcomes of patients with purely ocular myasthenia in a multicenter cross-sectional survey in Japan. To evaluate the severity of ocular symptoms, we used the ocular-quantitative MG (QMG) score advocated by Myasthenia Gravis Foundation of America. We used the Japanese translated version of the MG-QOL15, a self-appraised scoring system. Results Of 607 myasthenia gravis (MG) patients with an observation-duration of illness ≥ 2 years, the cases of 123 patients (20%) were limited to ocular muscles (purely ocular myasthenia). During the entire clinical course, 81 patients experienced both ptosis and diplopia, 36 had ptosis alone, and six had diplopia alone. Acetyl-cholinesterase inhibitors and prednisolone were used in 98 and 52 patients, respectively. Treatment improved ocular symptoms, with the mean reduction in ocular-QMG score of 2.3 ± 1.8 points. However, 47 patients (38%) failed to gain minimal manifestation or a better status. Patients with unfavorable outcomes also self-reported severe QOL impairment. Multivariate analyses showed that the pretreatment ocular-QMG score was associated with unfavorable outcomes, but not associated with the patient’s QOL. Conclusion A treatment strategy designed in accord with a patient's ocular presentation must be considered in order to improve ocular symptoms and the patient's QOL. PMID:24996227

  7. Motor activation SPECT for the neurosurgical diseases. Clinical application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noguchi, Hiroshi; Kawaguchi, Shoichiro; Sakaki, Toshisuke; Imai, Teruhiko; Ohishi, Hajime

    1999-01-01

    We evaluated and analyzed the motor activation single photon emission computed tomography (M-SPECT) findings on patients with ischemic cerebrovascular diseases (CVD). The M-SPECT studies were carried out on 91 patients with ischemic cerebrovascular diseases. The M-SPECT study was performed using the finger opposition task in each case. The SPECT images were superimposed on the magnetic resonance images (MRIs) for each case using Image Fusion Software. The result of the M-SPECT was expressed as positive or negative. The cases with a marked increase of blood flow in the sensorio-motor cortex after the finger opposition task were categorized as positive, and those cases showing no marked increase of blood flow were categorized as negative. Among the 91 cases examined, 53 (58%) were categorized as positive in the M-SPECT study. Among the negative M-SPECT cases treated with revascularization surgery, there were some cases showing positive M-SPECT results postoperatively. The cases without any revascularization surgery did not change the M-SPECT findings in each during the follow-up period. The M-SPECT procedure for examining intracranial lesions could provide the cortical localization of the motor function. The M-SPECT procedure in the ischemic CVDs contributes to knowledge about the choices of treatment and the evaluation of the treatment result. (author)

  8. Motor activation SPECT for the neurosurgical diseases. Clinical application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noguchi, Hiroshi; Kawaguchi, Shoichiro; Sakaki, Toshisuke; Imai, Teruhiko; Ohishi, Hajime [Nara Medical Univ., Kashihara (Japan)

    1999-08-01

    We evaluated and analyzed the motor activation single photon emission computed tomography (M-SPECT) findings on patients with ischemic cerebrovascular diseases (CVD). The M-SPECT studies were carried out on 91 patients with ischemic cerebrovascular diseases. The M-SPECT study was performed using the finger opposition task in each case. The SPECT images were superimposed on the magnetic resonance images (MRIs) for each case using Image Fusion Software. The result of the M-SPECT was expressed as positive or negative. The cases with a marked increase of blood flow in the sensorio-motor cortex after the finger opposition task were categorized as positive, and those cases showing no marked increase of blood flow were categorized as negative. Among the 91 cases examined, 53 (58%) were categorized as positive in the M-SPECT study. Among the negative M-SPECT cases treated with revascularization surgery, there were some cases showing positive M-SPECT results postoperatively. The cases without any revascularization surgery did not change the M-SPECT findings in each during the follow-up period. The M-SPECT procedure for examining intracranial lesions could provide the cortical localization of the motor function. The M-SPECT procedure in the ischemic CVDs contributes to knowledge about the choices of treatment and the evaluation of the treatment result. (author)

  9. Drug Delivery to the Ischemic Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Brandon J.; Ronaldson, Patrick T.

    2014-01-01

    Cerebral ischemia occurs when blood flow to the brain is insufficient to meet metabolic demand. This can result from cerebral artery occlusion that interrupts blood flow, limits CNS supply of oxygen and glucose, and causes an infarction/ischemic stroke. Ischemia initiates a cascade of molecular events inneurons and cerebrovascular endothelial cells including energy depletion, dissipation of ion gradients, calcium overload, excitotoxicity, oxidative stress, and accumulation of ions and fluid. Blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption is associated with cerebral ischemia and leads to vasogenic edema, a primary cause of stroke-associated mortality. To date, only a single drug has received US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval for acute ischemic stroke treatment, recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA). While rt-PA therapy restores perfusion to ischemic brain, considerable tissue damage occurs when cerebral blood flow is re-established. Therefore, there is a critical need for novel therapeutic approaches that can “rescue” salvageable brain tissue and/or protect BBB integrity during ischemic stroke. One class of drugs that may enable neural cell rescue following cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury is the HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (i.e., statins). Understanding potential CNS drug delivery pathways for statins is critical to their utility in ischemic stroke. Here, we review molecular pathways associated with cerebral ischemia and novel approaches for delivering drugs to treat ischemic disease. Specifically, we discuss utility of endogenous BBB drug uptake transporters such as organic anion transporting polypeptides (OATPs/Oatps) and nanotechnology-based carriers for optimization of CNS drug delivery. Overall, this chapter highlights state-of-the-art technologies that may improve pharmacotherapy of cerebral ischemia. PMID:25307217

  10. Impaired mitochondrial function in chronically ischemic human heart

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stride, Nis Ottesen; Larsen, Steen; Hey-Mogensen, Martin

    2013-01-01

    , and finally to assess myocardial antioxidant levels. Mitochondrial respiration in biopsies from ischemic and nonischemic regions from the left ventricle of the same heart was compared in nine human subjects. Maximal oxidative phosphorylation capacity in fresh muscle fibers was lower in ischemic compared.......05), and the levels of antioxidant protein expression was lower. Diminished mitochondrial respiration capacity and excessive ROS production demonstrate an impaired mitochondrial function in ischemic human heart muscle. No chronic ischemic preconditioning effect was found....

  11. Polymorphisms in apolipoprotein B and risk of ischemic stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benn, Marianne; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Jensen, Jan Skov

    2007-01-01

    Apolipoprotein B levels associate with risk of ischemic stroke. APOB polymorphisms may influence levels of apolipoprotein B and low-density lipoprotein (LDL), but whether they associate with risk of ischemic stroke is unknown.......Apolipoprotein B levels associate with risk of ischemic stroke. APOB polymorphisms may influence levels of apolipoprotein B and low-density lipoprotein (LDL), but whether they associate with risk of ischemic stroke is unknown....

  12. [Nonfasting triglycerides and risk of ischemic stroke--secondary publication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Freiberg, J.J.; Tybjaerg-Hansen, A.; Jensen, J.S.

    2009-01-01

    The role of triglycerides in the risk of ischemic stroke remains controversial. We tested the hypothesis that increased levels of nonfasting triglycerides are associated with ischemic stroke in the general population. Men with a nonfasting triglyceride level 5 mmol/l had a multivariable, adjusted...... hazard ratio for ischemic stroke of 2.5 (95% confidence interval: 1.3-4.8) compared with men with a nonfasting triglyceride level triglycerides is associated with risk of ischemic stroke Udgivelsesdato...

  13. Ischemic stroke destabilizes circadian rhythms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borjigin Jimo

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The central circadian pacemaker is a remarkably robust regulator of daily rhythmic variations of cardiovascular, endocrine, and neural physiology. Environmental lighting conditions are powerful modulators of circadian rhythms, but regulation of circadian rhythms by disease states is less clear. Here, we examine the effect of ischemic stroke on circadian rhythms in rats using high-resolution pineal microdialysis. Methods Rats were housed in LD 12:12 h conditions and monitored by pineal microdialysis to determine baseline melatonin timing profiles. After demonstration that the circadian expression of melatonin was at steady state, rats were subjected to experimental stroke using two-hour intralumenal filament occlusion of the middle cerebral artery. The animals were returned to their cages, and melatonin monitoring was resumed. The timing of onset, offset, and duration of melatonin secretion were calculated before and after stroke to determine changes in circadian rhythms of melatonin secretion. At the end of the monitoring period, brains were analyzed to determine infarct volume. Results Rats demonstrated immediate shifts in melatonin timing after stroke. We observed a broad range of perturbations in melatonin timing in subsequent days, with rats exhibiting onset/offset patterns which included: advance/advance, advance/delay, delay/advance, and delay/delay. Melatonin rhythms displayed prolonged instability several days after stroke, with a majority of rats showing a day-to-day alternation between advance and delay in melatonin onset and duration. Duration of melatonin secretion changed in response to stroke, and this change was strongly determined by the shift in melatonin onset time. There was no correlation between infarct size and the direction or amplitude of melatonin phase shifting. Conclusion This is the first demonstration that stroke induces immediate changes in the timing of pineal melatonin secretion, indicating

  14. Plasticity of the human otolith-ocular reflex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, C. 3rd; Smith, T. R.; Furman, J. M.

    1992-01-01

    The eye movement response to earth vertical axis rotation in the dark, a semicircular canal stimulus, can be altered by prior exposure to combined visual-vestibular stimuli. Such plasticity of the vestibulo-ocular reflex has not been described for earth horizontal axis rotation, a dynamic otolith stimulus. Twenty normal human subjects underwent one of two types of adaptation paradigms designed either to attenuate or enhance the gain of the semicircular canal-ocular reflex prior to undergoing otolith-ocular reflex testing with horizontal axis rotation. The adaptation paradigm paired a 0.2 Hz sinusoidal rotation about a vertical axis with a 0.2 Hz optokinetic stripe pattern that was deliberately mismatched in peak velocity. Pre- and post-adaptation horizontal axis rotations were at 60 degrees/s in the dark and produced a modulation in the slow component velocity of nystagmus having a frequency of 0.17 Hz due to putative stimulation of the otolith organs. Results showed that the magnitude of this modulation component response was altered in a manner similar to the alteration in semicircular canal-ocular responses. These results suggest that physiologic alteration of the vestibulo-ocular reflex using deliberately mismatched visual and semicircular canal stimuli induces changes in both canal-ocular and otolith-ocular responses. We postulate, therefore, that central nervous system pathways responsible for controlling the gains of canal-ocular and otolith-ocular reflexes are shared.

  15. Association between Exposure to Smartphones and Ocular Health in Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Joowon; Hwang, Yunji; Kang, Seungheon; Kim, Minhye; Kim, Tae-Shin; Kim, Jay; Seo, Jeongmin; Ahn, Hyojeong; Yoon, Sungjoon; Yun, Jun Pil; Lee, Yae Lim; Ham, Hyunsoo; Yu, Hyeong Gon; Park, Sue K

    2016-08-01

    Smartphone use has dramatically increased in recent years. Smartphones may have adverse health effects, particularly on the eyes, because users stare at the screen for a much longer time than they do with ordinary mobile phones. The objective of this study was to elucidate the relationship between smartphone use and ocular symptoms among adolescents. Information on smartphone use and ocular symptoms (blurring, redness, visual disturbance, secretion, inflammation, lacrimation and dryness) related to eye fatigue and strain from 715 adolescent subjects from three cities in Korea was obtained using a structured questionnaire. Ocular health was scored using number of ocular symptoms. Odds ratios (ORs), 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) and p-values for ocular symptoms were calculated with binomial and multinomial logistic regression models. Higher prevalence rates for ocular symptoms were observed in groups with greater exposure to smartphones (p 2 hours daily and ≤2 hours continuously) and excessive/persistent use (>2 hours daily and >2 hours continuously) compared to shorter use (<2 hours daily) were associated with multiple ocular symptoms (OR 2.18, 95% CI 1.09-4.39; OR 2.26, 95% CI 1.11-4.57, respectively). A higher lifetime exposure to smartphones was associated with a higher likelihood of having multiple ocular symptoms (OR 3.05, 95% CI 1.51-6.19; p = 0.001). Increasing exposure to smartphones can have a negative impact on ocular health in adolescents.

  16. Accelerated physical deterioration of in vitro ocular prostheses

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez González, Linda N; Barceló Santana, Federico H; Jiménez Castillo, René; Benavides Ríos, Alejandro

    2012-01-01

    La prótesis ocular es una modalidad de prótesis facial que va a reparar aloplásticamente las pérdidas parciales o totales y deformaciones diversas del globo ocular. Está claro que la mejor rehabilitación protésica se ha logrado con las prótesis oculares de resina acrílica. El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar la absorción acuosa y solubilidad así como el grado de deterioro físico acelerado determinado como cambio de color de prótesis oculares caracterizadas y sin caracterizar. Se fabric...

  17. Neonatal ischemic brain injury: what every radiologist needs to know

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badve, Chaitra A.; Khanna, Paritosh C.; Ishak, Gisele E.

    2012-01-01

    We present a pictorial review of neonatal ischemic brain injury and look at its pathophysiology, imaging features and differential diagnoses from a radiologist's perspective. The concept of perinatal stroke is defined and its distinction from hypoxic-ischemic injury is emphasized. A brief review of recent imaging advances is included and a diagnostic approach to neonatal ischemic brain injury is suggested. (orig.)

  18. The Neuroprotective Effect Of Electro-Acupuncture Against Ischemic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Neuroprotective Effect Of Electro-Acupuncture Against Ischemic Stroke In Animal Model: A Review. ... Conclusion: An awareness of the benefits of acupuncture might lead more patients into accepting acupuncture therapy for the management of patients with ischemic stroke and patients with high risk of ischemic stroke.

  19. Protein Synthesis Inhibition in the Peri-Infarct Cortex Slows Motor Recovery in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubring-Giese, Maximilian; Leemburg, Susan; Luft, Andreas Rüdiger; Hosp, Jonas Aurel

    2016-01-01

    Neuroplasticity and reorganization of brain motor networks are thought to enable recovery of motor function after ischemic stroke. Especially in the cortex surrounding the ischemic scar (i.e., peri-infarct cortex), evidence for lasting reorganization has been found at the level of neurons and networks. This reorganization depends on expression of specific genes and subsequent protein synthesis. To test the functional relevance of the peri-infarct cortex for recovery we assessed the effect of protein synthesis inhibition within this region after experimental stroke. Long-Evans rats were trained to perform a skilled-reaching task (SRT) until they reached plateau performance. A photothrombotic stroke was induced in the forelimb representation of the primary motor cortex (M1) contralateral to the trained paw. The SRT was re-trained after stroke while the protein synthesis inhibitor anisomycin (ANI) or saline were injected into the peri-infarct cortex through implanted cannulas. ANI injections reduced protein synthesis within the peri-infarct cortex by 69% and significantly impaired recovery of reaching performance through re-training. Improvement of motor performance within a single training session remained intact, while improvement between training sessions was impaired. ANI injections did not affect infarct size. Thus, protein synthesis inhibition within the peri-infarct cortex impairs recovery of motor deficits after ischemic stroke by interfering with consolidation of motor memory between training sessions but not short-term improvements within one session.

  20. Blood pressure, risk of ischemic cerebrovascular and ischemic heart disease, and longevity in alpha(1)-antitrypsin deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Morten; Tybjaerg-Hansen, Anne; Sillesen, Henrik

    2003-01-01

    Because elastase in alpha(1)-antitrypsin deficiency may attack elastin in the arterial wall, we tested whether alpha(1)-antitrypsin deficiency is associated with reduced blood pressure, risk of ischemic cerebrovascular (ICVD) and ischemic heart disease (IHD), and longevity.......Because elastase in alpha(1)-antitrypsin deficiency may attack elastin in the arterial wall, we tested whether alpha(1)-antitrypsin deficiency is associated with reduced blood pressure, risk of ischemic cerebrovascular (ICVD) and ischemic heart disease (IHD), and longevity....

  1. Fine motor control

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gross (large, general) motor control. An example of gross motor control is waving an arm in greeting. Problems ... out the child's developmental age. Children develop fine motor skills over time, by practicing and being taught. To ...

  2. [Effect of "Xingnao Kaiqiao Zhenfa" (Acupuncture Technique for Restoring Consciousness) Combined with Rehabilitation Training on Nerve Repair and Expression of Growth-associated Protein-43 of Peri-ischemic Cortex in Ischemic Stroke Rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lei; Yan, Xing-Zhou; Li, Zhen-Yu; Cao, Xiao-Fang; Wang, Min

    2017-06-25

    To observe the effect of "Xingnao Kaiqiao Zhenfa" (acupuncture technique for restoring consciousness) combined with enriched rehabilitation training on motor function and expression of growth-associated protein-43 (GAP-43) of peri-ischemic cortex in ischemic stroke rats, so as to investigate its mechanism underlying improvement of ischemic stroke. SD rats were randomly divided into sham operation, model, rehabilitation and comprehensive rehabilitation groups, which were further divided into 3 time-points:7, 14 and 21 d ( n =6 in each). Cerebral ischemia(CI) model was established by occlusion of the middle cerebral artery with heat-coagulation. The rehabilitation group was treated by enriched rehabilitation training, once a day. The comprehensive rehabilitation group was treated by acupuncture combined with enriched rehabilitation training. Acupuncture was applied to bilateral "Neiguan"(PC 6) and "Shuigou"(GV 26) for 30 min, once a day. The neurological function score, balance-beam walking test and rotating-rod walking test were evaluated at the end of the corresponding treatment time. The expression of GAP-43 in peri-ischemic cortex was detected by immunohistochemistry. In comparison with the sham operation group, the scores of neurological function, beam walking test and rotating-rod walking test were significantly higher in the model group ( P beam walking and rotating-rod walking tests in the rehabilitation group compared with the model group on day 7 ( P >0.05). Compared with the model group at the other time points, the scores of neurological function, balance-beam walking test and rotating-rod walking test were significantly lower in the rehabilitation and comprehensive rehabilitation groups ( P beam walking test and rotating-rod walking test were significantly lower in the comprehensive rehabilitation group ( P <0.05). In comparison with the sham operation group, the number of GAP-43 positive cells of peri-ischemic cortex was significantly higher in the

  3. Rehabilitación en pacientes con trauma ocular Rehabilitation of ocular trauma patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Ariel Ramos Gómez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available La rehabilitación en oftalmología tiene como función fundamental lograr el máximo aprovechamiento posible del resto visual. El traumatismo ocular es considerado una de las entidades nosológicas frecuentes que conllevan a una rehabilitación visual. Las causas que provocan este tipo de trauma son variadas y dentro de estas, las agresiones con intención de provocar daños con secuelas son muy frecuentes. Es objetivo de esta revisión puntualizar la importancia de la rehabilitación en pacientes con traumatismo ocular e incentivar el buen accionar de todos los oftalmólogos en cuanto a su atención.The main goal of rehabilitation in ophthalmology is to use as much as possible the residual vision. Ocular trauma is considered one of the common diseases that imply visual rehabilitation. The causes of eye injuries are varied; among them assaults with intent to cause damage are the most common. The objective of this article was to point out the importance of rehabilitation in patients with ocular trauma and to encourage all the ophthalmologists to act accordingly.

  4. Buccal Epithelium in treating Ocular Surface Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivas KR

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Background - Ocular surface disorders due to limbal stem cell deficiency are an important cause of ocular morbidity and visual loss. Although autologous limbal stem cell transplants have helped in the management of unilateral disease, allografts in those with bilateral disease often fail due to immunological reasons. The use of autologous buccal epithelium cultivated on amniotic membrane has been described as a useful approach in the management of this condition. It is the purpose of this study to explore the feasibility of using a novel thermo-gelatin polymer (TGP as a substrate to culture these cells, and to characterize them using RNA extraction and RT-PCR. Methods - Oral cheek mucosal biopsies were obtained from 5 adult patients undergoing Modified Osteo-Odonto Keratoprosthesis surgery. The specimens were transported to the laboratory in transport medium. The cells were released using enzymatic digestion and seeded in both convention culture medium and TGP. The resulting cellular growth was characterized using RNA extraction and RT-PCR. Results - Cells could be cultured from 4 of the 5 specimens. In one specimen, contamination occurred and this was discarded. In the other specimens, the cheek epithelial cells could be cultured in both the conventional culture medium and TGP, with equal ease. RT-PCR revealed the presence of K3, a marker for epithelial cells, and GAPDH indicating the presence of some adipose tissue as well. Conclusions - It is possible to culture autologous cheek mucosal epithelial cells using TGP, a synthetic scaffold, without the need for other biological substrates. Since the specimens are obtained from the oral cavity, stringent asepsis is required. Further studies are required for histopathological characterization of the cultured cells and to create a model for delivery onto the ocular surface of eyes with bilateral surface disease due to limbal stem cell deficiency.

  5. Estimation of ocular volume from axial length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagra, Manbir; Gilmartin, Bernard; Logan, Nicola S

    2014-12-01

    To determine which biometric parameters provide optimum predictive power for ocular volume. Sixty-seven adult subjects were scanned with a Siemens 3-T MRI scanner. Mean spherical error (MSE) (D) was measured with a Shin-Nippon autorefractor and a Zeiss IOLMaster used to measure (mm) axial length (AL), anterior chamber depth (ACD) and corneal radius (CR). Total ocular volume (TOV) was calculated from T2-weighted MRIs (voxel size 1.0 mm(3)) using an automatic voxel counting and shading algorithm. Each MR slice was subsequently edited manually in the axial, sagittal and coronal plane, the latter enabling location of the posterior pole of the crystalline lens and partitioning of TOV into anterior (AV) and posterior volume (PV) regions. Mean values (±SD) for MSE (D), AL (mm), ACD (mm) and CR (mm) were -2.62±3.83, 24.51±1.47, 3.55±0.34 and 7.75±0.28, respectively. Mean values (±SD) for TOV, AV and PV (mm(3)) were 8168.21±1141.86, 1099.40±139.24 and 7068.82±1134.05, respectively. TOV showed significant correlation with MSE, AL, PV (all p<0.001), CR (p=0.043) and ACD (p=0.024). Bar CR, the correlations were shown to be wholly attributable to variation in PV. Multiple linear regression indicated that the combination of AL and CR provided optimum R(2) values of 79.4% for TOV. Clinically useful estimations of ocular volume can be obtained from measurement of AL and CR. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  6. Ocular safety of Viagra, (sildenafil citrate).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laties, A M; Fraunfelder, F T

    1999-01-01

    To date, sildenafil citrate (Viagra) gives every evidence of being a safe drug for the eye despite a series of expressed concerns. A review of how its ocular safety profile has been identified offers insights into the strengths and weaknesses of present systems and resources for judging the ocular safety of Viagra or, for that matter, of any new drug. Such insights include: The great value of careful, informed assessment of preclinical information gleaned from laboratory experiments. By and large, such assessments point the way toward appropriate clinical evaluation. For Viagra, early in its development it was noted that besides exerting a major inhibitory effect on the intended target, the vascular-associated enzyme phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE5), the drug also exerts a lesser but definite inhibitory effect on the closely related PDE6, located in the retina. For this reason, preclinical evaluation of the drug included electroretinography plus postmortem histology. In addition, an extended eye examination was incorporated into clinical protocols. The often chaotic but invaluable information stream that becomes available once marketing approval has been gained and large populations begin to use a drug. False alarms, misattribution, and erroneous information are the order of the day. Nevertheless, as information accumulates, patterns of response clarify and the true nature of special susceptibility for subpopulations, if any, becomes apparent. A role for the astute clinician remains: Subtle changes or unusual risks for subpopulations can be missed entirely for long periods of time. A manifest need for improvement in evaluation of postmarketing side-effects. This need has led to the establishment of a new discipline: pharmacoepidemiology. In ophthalmology, the National Registry of Drug Induced Ocular Side-Effects maintains a constant and invaluable surveillance. Examples are supplied to illustrate each of these major points: Our presentation will include data gleaned from

  7. Silk film biomaterials for ocular surface repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Brian David

    Current biomaterial approaches for repairing the cornea's ocular surface upon injury are partially effective due to inherent material limitations. As a result there is a need to expand the biomaterial options available for use in the eye, which in turn will help to expand new clinical innovations and technology development. The studies illustrated here are a collection of work to further characterize silk film biomaterials for use on the ocular surface. Silk films were produced from regenerated fibroin protein solution derived from the Bombyx mori silkworm cocoon. Methods of silk film processing and production were developed to produce consistent biomaterials for in vitro and in vivo evaluation. A wide range of experiments was undertaken that spanned from in vitro silk film material characterization to in vivo evaluation. It was found that a variety of silk film properties could be controlled through a water-annealing process. Silk films were then generated that could be use in vitro to produce stratified corneal epithelial cell sheets comparable to tissue grown on the clinical standard substrate of amniotic membrane. This understanding was translated to produce a silk film design that enhanced corneal healing in vivo on a rabbit injury model. Further work produced silk films with varying surface topographies that were used as a simplified analog to the corneal basement membrane surface in vitro. These studies demonstrated that silk film surface topography is capable of directing corneal epithelial cell attachment, growth, and migration response. Most notably epithelial tissue development was controllably directed by the presence of the silk surface topography through increasing cell sheet migration efficiency at the individual cellular level. Taken together, the presented findings represent a comprehensive characterization of silk film biomaterials for use in ocular surface reconstruction, and indicate their utility as a potential material choice in the

  8. Serological IgG avidity test for ocular toxoplasmosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh S

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Subramaniam Suresh1, Saidin Nor-Masniwati1, Muhd Nor Nor-Idahriani1, Wan-Hitam Wan-Hazabbah1, Mohamed Zeehaida2, Embong Zunaina11Department of Ophthalmology, 2Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kelantan, MalaysiaBackground: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the immunoglobulin (Ig G avidity of serological toxoplasmosis testing in patients with ocular inflammation and to determine the clinical manifestations of ocular toxoplasmosis.Methods: A retrospective review of all patients presenting with ocular inflammation to the Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kelantan, Malaysia between 2005 and 2009 was undertaken. Visual acuity, clinical manifestations at presentation, toxoplasmosis antibody testing, and treatment records were analyzed.Results: A total of 130 patients with ocular inflammation were reviewed retrospectively. The patients had a mean age of 38.41 (standard deviation 19.24, range 6–83 years. Seventy-one patients (54.6% were found to be seropositive, of whom five (3.8% were both IgG and IgM positive (suggestive of recently acquired ocular toxoplasmosis while one (0.8% showed IgG avidity ≤40% (suggestive of recently acquired ocular toxoplasmosis and 65 patients (50.0% showed IgG avidity >40% (suggestive of reactivation of toxoplasmosis infection. Chorioretinal scarring as an ocular manifestation was significantly more common in patients with seropositive toxoplasmosis (P = 0.036. Eighteen patients (13.8% were diagnosed as having recent and/or active ocular toxoplasmosis based on clinical manifestations and serological testing.Conclusion: Ocular toxoplasmosis is a clinical diagnosis, but specific toxoplasmosis antibody testing helps to support the diagnosis and to differentiate between reactivation of infection and recently acquired ocular toxoplasmosis.Keywords: ocular toxoplasmosis, chorioretinal scar, toxoplasmosis antibody, IgG avidity test

  9. Hyphema as a Complication of Blunt Ocular Trauma and Additional Ocular Findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Giray Ersöz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To investigate the frequency of angle recession, commotio retinae, and other ocular findings in patients with hyphema due to blunt ocular trauma. Materials and Methods: The medical records of 66 patients hospitalized between July 2010 and May 2012 with a diagnosis of traumatic hyphema were retrospectively reviewed. The age, gender, period between injury and the first examination, visual acuity at presentation, intraocular pressure (IOP, time of disappearance of hyphema, cause of blunt injury, additional ocular findings, medical and/or surgical treatment, follow-up time, and visual outcome were noted. Results: The mean age of the patients was 23.8±19.2 years. Males constituted the 83.3% of the whole group. Game-related injury (43.9% and work-related injury (22.7% were the most common causes of blunt trauma. The bead gun was the most common tool involved in injury. Angle recession was detected in 36 patients (54.5%. Development of secondary glaucoma was higher in the patients with angle recession (chi-square test, p<0.05. Commotio retinae was observed in 47% of patients. The mean visual acuity at presentation was 0.4±0.3, while at the last visit, it was 0.8±0.3. There was a statistically significant difference between baseline and final visual acuity (paired-samples t-test, p<0.001. Conclusion: Hyphema due to blunt ocular trauma is observed mostly in young men and children. The most common blunt ocular injuries are game-and work-related. Angle recession and commotio retinae are the main complications of blunt ocular trauma causing hyphema. In cases with blunt ocular trauma, the presence of hyphema makes it difficult to examine the anterior chamber angle and the fundus. It is important to perform these investigations at the earliest stage to manage the complications since commotio retinae and angle recession accompany many cases with hyphema. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2014; 44: 19-22

  10. Ocular and systemic pharmacokinetics of lidocaine hydrochloride ophthalmic gel in rabbits after topical ocular administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bing; Ding, Li; Xu, Xiaowen; Lin, Hongda; Sun, Chenglong; You, Linjun

    2015-12-01

    Lidocaine hydrochloride ophthalmic gel is a novel ophthalmic preparation for topical ocular anesthesia. The study is aimed at evaluating the ocular and systemic pharmacokinetics of lidocaine hydrochloride 3.5 % ophthalmic gel in rabbits after ocular topical administration. Thirty-six rabbits were randomly placed in 12 groups (3 rabbits per group). The rabbits were quickly killed according to their groups at 0 (predose), 0.0833, 0.167, 0.333, 0.667, 1, 1.5, 2, 3, 4, 6, and 8 h postdose and then the ocular tissue and plasma samples were collected. All the samples were analyzed by a validated LC-MS/MS method. The test result showed that the maximum concentration (C max) of lidocaine in different ocular tissues and plasma were all achieved within 20 min after drug administration, and the data of C max were (2,987 ± 1814) μg/g, (44.67 ± 12.91) μg/g, (26.26 ± 7.19) μg/g, (11,046 ± 2,734) ng/mL, and (160.3 ± 61.0) ng/mL for tear fluid, cornea, conjunctiva, aqueous humor, and plasma, respectively. The data of the elimination half-life in these tissues were 1.5, 3.2, 3.5, 1.9, and 1.7 h for tear fluid, cornea, conjunctiva, aqueous humor, and plasma, respectively. The intraocular lidocaine levels were significantly higher than that in plasma, and the elimination half-life of lidocaine in cornea, conjunctiva, and aqueous humor was relatively longer than that in tear fluid and plasma. The high intraocular penetration, low systemic exposure, and long duration in the ocular tissues suggested lidocaine hydrochloride 3.5 % ophthalmic gel as an effective local anesthetic for ocular anesthesia during ophthalmic procedures.

  11. Effects of Ischemic Preconditioning of Different Intraoperative Ischemic Times of Vascularized Bone Graft Rabbit Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Sukari Halim

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundIschemic preconditioning has been shown to improve the outcomes of hypoxic tolerance of the heart, brain, lung, liver, jejunum, skin, and muscle tissues. However, to date, no report of ischemic preconditioning on vascularized bone grafts has been published.MethodsSixteen rabbits were divided into four groups with ischemic times of 2, 6, 14, and 18 hours. Half of the rabbits in each group underwent ischemic preconditioning. The osteomyocutaneous flaps consisted of the tibia bone, from which the overlying muscle and skin were raised. The technique of ischemic preconditioning involved applying a vascular clamp to the pedicle for 3 cycles of 10 minutes each. The rabbits then underwent serial plain radiography and computed tomography imaging on the first, second, fourth, and sixth postoperative weeks. Following this, all of the rabbits were sacrificed and histological examinations were performed.ResultsThe results showed that for clinical analysis of the skin flaps and bone grafts, the preconditioned groups showed better survivability. In the plain radiographs, except for two non-preconditioned rabbits with intraoperative ischemic times of 6 hours, all began to show early callus formation at the fourth week. The computed tomography findings showed more callus formation in the preconditioned groups for all of the ischemic times except for the 18-hour group. The histological findings correlated with the radiological findings. There was no statistical significance in the difference between the two groups.ConclusionsIn conclusion, ischemic preconditioning improved the survivability of skin flaps and increased callus formation during the healing process of vascularized bone grafts.

  12. Occurrence and predictors of persistent impaired glucose tolerance after acute ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack

    OpenAIRE

    Fonville, Susanne; Hertog, Heleen; Zandbergen, Adrienne; Koudstaal, Peter Jan; Lingsma, Hester

    2014-01-01

    textabstractBackground Impaired glucose tolerance is often present in patients with a transient ischemic attack (TIA) or ischemic stroke and doubles the risk of recurrent stroke. This impaired glucose tolerance can be transient, reflecting an acute stress response, or persistent, representing undiagnosed impaired glucose metabolism possibly requiring treatment. We aimed to assess the occurrence of persistent impaired glucose tolerance after a stroke or TIA and to develop a prediction model to...

  13. The effect of the superficial temporal to middle cerebral artery bypass based on the data of motor activation single photon emission computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawaguchi, Shoichiro; Uranishi, Ryunosuke; Morimoto, Tetsuya; Sakaki, Toshisuke; Imai, Teruhiko; Ohishi, Hajime [Nara Medical Univ., Kashihara (Japan)

    1999-07-01

    We evaluated and analyzed the effect of the superficial temporal to middle cerebral artery (STA-MCA) bypass for the pure motor function in the ischemic cerebrovascular diseases (CVDs) using the motor activation single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Motor activation SPECT was performed on the 25 cases with ischemic CVD treated with STA-MCA bypass. Motor activation SPECT studies using the finger opposition task on the affected side were performed before surgery, at 1 month, and at 3 months after the bypass. The result of the motor activation SPECT was expressed as negative and positive by the visual inspection. During the follow-up period (mean; 2.2 years), there has been no recurrent or worsening clinical symptom. Before bypass, 10 cases were positive in the motor activation SPECT. The other 15 cases were negative. At one month after bypass, 14 cases were positive in the motor activation SPECT. At three months after bypass, 23 cases were positive in the motor activation SPECT. Twenty-two cases showed the improvement of the resting CBF. STA-MCA bypass is useful for pure motor function in the ischemic CVDs based on the motor activation SPECT coupling with their clinical symptoms. (author)

  14. The effect of the superficial temporal to middle cerebral artery bypass based on the data of motor activation single photon emission computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawaguchi, Shoichiro; Uranishi, Ryunosuke; Morimoto, Tetsuya; Sakaki, Toshisuke; Imai, Teruhiko; Ohishi, Hajime

    1999-01-01

    We evaluated and analyzed the effect of the superficial temporal to middle cerebral artery (STA-MCA) bypass for the pure motor function in the ischemic cerebrovascular diseases (CVDs) using the motor activation single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Motor activation SPECT was performed on the 25 cases with ischemic CVD treated with STA-MCA bypass. Motor activation SPECT studies using the finger opposition task on the affected side were performed before surgery, at 1 month, and at 3 months after the bypass. The result of the motor activation SPECT was expressed as negative and positive by the visual inspection. During the follow-up period (mean; 2.2 years), there has been no recurrent or worsening clinical symptom. Before bypass, 10 cases were positive in the motor activation SPECT. The other 15 cases were negative. At one month after bypass, 14 cases were positive in the motor activation SPECT. At three months after bypass, 23 cases were positive in the motor activation SPECT. Twenty-two cases showed the improvement of the resting CBF. STA-MCA bypass is useful for pure motor function in the ischemic CVDs based on the motor activation SPECT coupling with their clinical symptoms. (author)

  15. Rehabilitation Outcomes: Ischemic versus Hemorrhagic Strokes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perna, Robert; Temple, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    Background. Ischemic and hemorrhagic strokes have different pathophysiologies and possibly different long-term cerebral and functional implications. Hemorrhagic strokes expose the brain to irritating effects of blood and ischemic strokes reflect localized or diffuse cerebral vascular pathology. Methods. Participants were individuals who suffered either an ischemic (n = 172) or hemorrhagic stroke (n = 112) within the past six months and were involved in a postacute neurorehabilitation program. Participants completed three months of postacute neurorehabilitation and the Mayo Portland Adaptability Inventory-4 (MPAI-4) at admission and discharge. Admission MPAI-4 scores and level of functioning were comparable. Results. Group ANOVA comparisons show no significant group differences at admission or discharge or difference in change scores. Both groups showed considerably reduced levels of productivity/employment after discharge as compared to preinjury levels. Conclusions. Though the pathophysiology of these types of strokes is different, both ultimately result in ischemic injuries, possibly accounting for lack of findings of differences between groups. In the present study, participants in both groups experienced similar functional levels across all three MPAI-4 domains both at admission and discharge. Limitations of this study include a highly educated sample and few outcome measures.

  16. Rehabilitation Outcomes: Ischemic versus Hemorrhagic Strokes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Perna

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Ischemic and hemorrhagic strokes have different pathophysiologies and possibly different long-term cerebral and functional implications. Hemorrhagic strokes expose the brain to irritating effects of blood and ischemic strokes reflect localized or diffuse cerebral vascular pathology. Methods. Participants were individuals who suffered either an ischemic (n=172 or hemorrhagic stroke (n=112 within the past six months and were involved in a postacute neurorehabilitation program. Participants completed three months of postacute neurorehabilitation and the Mayo Portland Adaptability Inventory-4 (MPAI-4 at admission and discharge. Admission MPAI-4 scores and level of functioning were comparable. Results. Group ANOVA comparisons show no significant group differences at admission or discharge or difference in change scores. Both groups showed considerably reduced levels of productivity/employment after discharge as compared to preinjury levels. Conclusions. Though the pathophysiology of these types of strokes is different, both ultimately result in ischemic injuries, possibly accounting for lack of findings of differences between groups. In the present study, participants in both groups experienced similar functional levels across all three MPAI-4 domains both at admission and discharge. Limitations of this study include a highly educated sample and few outcome measures.

  17. Ischemic Stroke during Pregnancy and Puerperium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta Del Zotto

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ischemic stroke during pregnancy and puerperium represents a rare occurrence but it could be a serious and stressful event for mothers, infants, and also families. Whenever it does occur, many concerns arise about the safety of the mother and the fetus in relation to common diagnostic tests and therapies leading to a more conservative approach. The physiological adaptations in the cardiovascular system and in the coagulability that accompany the pregnant state, which are more significant around delivery and in the postpartum period, likely contribute to increasing the risk of an ischemic stroke. Most of the causes of an ischemic stroke in the young may also occur in pregnant patients. Despite this, there are specific conditions related to pregnancy which may be considered when assessing this particular group of patients such as pre-eclampsia-eclampsia, choriocarcinoma, peripartum cardiomiopathy, amniotic fluid embolization, and postpartum cerebral angiopathy. This article will consider several questions related to pregnancy-associated ischemic stroke, dwelling on epidemiological and specific etiological aspects, diagnostic issue concerning the use of neuroimaging, and the related potential risks to the embryo and fetus. Therapeutic issues surrounding the use of anticoagulant and antiplatelets agents will be discussed along with the few available reports regarding the use of thrombolytic therapy during pregnancy.

  18. Short Telomere Length and Ischemic Heart Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madrid, Alexander Scheller; Rode, Line; Nordestgaard, Børge Grønne

    2016-01-01

    are associated with high risk of ischemic heart disease using a Mendelian randomization approach free of reverse causation and of most confounding. METHODS: We genotyped 3 genetic variants in OBFC1 (oligonucleotide/oligosaccharide binding fold containing 1), TERT (telomerase reverse transcriptase), and TERC...

  19. Colonic ischemic necrosis following therapeutic embolization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shenoy, S.S.; Satchidanand, S.; Wesp, E.H.; State Univ. of New York, Buffalo

    1981-01-01

    Transcatheter embolization of the middle colic artery for diverticular bleeding was followed by ischemic necrosis in the transverse colon at the site of previous anastomosis and stricture formation. This is a potential complication of intra-arterial embolization for colonic bleeding. (orig.)

  20. CT diagnosis of hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Xiang; Ma Jiwei; Wu Lide

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To explore CT characteristics of hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE), and to improve the accuracy of CT diagnosis. Methods: 50 cases of neonatal asphyxia in perinatal period diagnosed as hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy by CT was analyzed. Results: The main manifestation of hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy is cerebral edema and intracranial hemorrhage. Focal or diffuse hypo-dense lesion and hyper-dense area in various location and morphology were seen on CT images. (1) Localized diffuse hypo-dense area in 1 or 2 cerebral lobe were found in 17 cases, and the lesions were localized in frontal lobe (n=6), in frontotemporal lobe (n=5), and in temporo-occipital lobe (n=6). (2) Hypo-density region involving more than three cerebral lobes were found in 18 cases, and abnormalities were found in frontotemporal and parietal lobe (n=8), accompanying with subarachnoid hemorrhage (n=2); in frontal, temporal and occipital lobe (n=6), in which cerebral hemorrhage was complicated (n=1); and in other cerebral lobe (n=4). (3) Diffuse low-density region in all cerebral lobe were found in 15 cases, in which subarachnoid hemorrhage was complicated in 4 cases, and ventricular hemorrhage was found in 2 case. Conclusion: CT imaging plays an important role in diagnosis of hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy and has shown its clinical value

  1. Colonic ischemic necrosis following therapeutic embolization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shenoy, S S; Satchidanand, S; Wesp, E H

    1981-07-15

    Transcatheter embolization of the middle colic artery for diverticular bleeding was followed by ischemic necrosis in the transverse colon at the site of previous anastomosis and stricture formation. This is a potential complication of intra-arterial embolization for colonic bleeding.

  2. Radiopharmaceuticals for diagnosis of ischemic heart disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komarek, P; Chalabala, M [Institut pro Dalsi Vzdelavani Lekaru a Farmaceutu, Prague (Czechoslovakia)

    1982-01-01

    Radiopharmaceuticals used for diagnosing ischemic heart disease in the experimental and clinical practice are reviewed. The mechanism of their retention by the heart muscle is briefly described. The respective radiopharmaceuticals are divided into preparations imaging disorders in the blood supply of the cardiac muscle, diagnosing the myocardial infarction, and evaluating the contractility of the heart.

  3. ischemic brain injury in neonatal rats

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pharmacotherapy Group, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Benin, Benin City, ... Methods: Forty-eight rats (P7-pups) were randomly assigned to one of four groups: ... Keywords: Hypoxic–ischemic brain injury, α-Lipoic acid, Cerebral infarct area, Edema, Antioxidants, .... Of the 48 rats initially used in the current study, 5.

  4. Magnetic resonance imaging in acute ischemic stroke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohta, Kouichi [Mito Red Cross Hospital (Japan)

    2000-01-01

    This paper summarizes current MRI technology used in the diagnosis of acute cerebral infarction and discusses tasks for further improvement of MRI technology. First, the principles and methods of MRI imaging are described in terms of 1) diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and ADC maps, 2) perfusion imaging, 3) the fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) method, and 4) MR angiography (MRA). Then, the actual use of MRI in the early phase of ischemic cerebrovascular disorders is discussed focusing on general MRI procedures, cases in which an ischemic lesion dose not yield a high signal with DWI in the acute phase, and chronological changes in DWI signal strength and ADC. Third, chronological changes in acute cerebrovascular disorder in an animal model of local cerebral ischemia are summarized in terms of expansion of reduced ADC areas and ischemic penumbras in the acute phase of cerebral ischemia. Finally, chronological changes in acute ischemic disorders in patients with cerebrovascular disorders are assessed by reviewing the development of reduced ADC and expansion of DWI lesions. Whether MRI can identify cerebral tissues that can be rescued by the reperfusion method by examining the mismatchs between perfusion images and DWI, relative CBV, and ADC is also discussed. (K.H.)

  5. Radiotherapy for the primary ocular adnexal lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Dahai; Sun Sanyuan; Zhuo Shichao; Wang Haiwei

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To study the pathological and clinical characteristics of primary lymphoma of ocular adnexae, analyze the treatment results and discuss the methods to prevent radiation complications. Methods: From Feb. 1995 to Feb. 2004, 25 patients with primary ocular adnexal lymphoma were treated in the second hospital and the forth hospital of Xuzhou, including 11 males and 14 females. The diagnosis was confirmed pathologically by biopsy in 19 patients and lumpectomy in 6 patients, including 22 mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma and 3 non-MALT lymphoma. According to the Ann Arbor Staging System, there were 21 patients with tumor in stage I E, 3 in stage II E and 1 in stage III E. The primary tumor was found in the eyelid or conjunctiva in 19 eyes and orbit in 9 eyes. Radiotherapy were given to 22 patients (25 eyes) by deep X-rays, 60 Co γ-rays or mixed beams. The total irradiation dose ranged from 30.0 to 57.6 Gy. Kaplan-Meier method was used to calculate the survival rate and Logrank test was used to detect the difference between the different groups. Results: The 5-, 10-year accumulated survival rates (SR) of the whole group were 90% and 82%. The 10-year SR of patients with primary, eyelid or conjunctiva tumor and orbit tumor were 100% and 58% (P=0.032). The local control rates of the radiotherapy group and non-radiotherapy group were 92% and 33 % (P=0.006). The 10-year SR of patients with tumor completely removed and those with residues were 83% and 82% (P=0.907). The 10-year SR of MALT lymphoma and non-MALT lymphoma were 90.0% and 33.3% (P=0.009). After radiotherapy, 8 eyes (36%) had cataract formation and 7 eyes (28%) had xerophalmic symptoms. Conclusions: The results of radiothera- py for the primary ocular adnexal lymphoma are satisactory. The prognosis of patients with primary, eyelid or conjunctiva tumor is better than those with orbit tumor. The vast majority of the primary ocular adnexal lymphomas are MALT lymphomas. The survival rate of

  6. Corticosteroids as adjuvant therapy for ocular toxoplasmosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasper, Smitha; Vedula, Satyanarayana S; John, Sheeja S; Horo, Saban; Sepah, Yasir J; Nguyen, Quan Dong

    2017-01-26

    Ocular infection caused by Toxoplasma gondii, a parasite, may result in inflammation in the retina, choroid, and uvea, and consequently lead to complications such as glaucoma, cataract, and posterior synechiae. The objective of this systematic review was to assess the effects of adjunctive use of corticosteroids to anti-parasitic therapy versus anti-parasitic therapy alone for ocular toxoplasmosis. We searched CENTRAL (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Trials Register (2016; Issue 11)), MEDLINE Ovid, Epub Ahead of Print, In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations, MEDLINE Ovid Daily (January 1946 to December 2016), Embase (January 1980 to December 2016), Latin American and Caribbean Literature on Health Sciences (LILACS (January 1982 to December 2016)), the ISRCTN registry (www.isrctn.com/editAdvancedSearch), ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov), and the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP; www.who.int/ictrp/search/en). We used no date or language restrictions in the electronic searches for trials. We last searched the electronic databases on 7 December 2016. We had planned to include randomized and quasi-randomized controlled trials. Eligible trials would have enrolled participants of any age who were immunocompetent and were diagnosed with acute ocular toxoplasmosis. Included trials would have compared anti-parasitic therapy plus corticosteroids versus anti-parasitic therapy alone, different doses or times of initiation of corticosteroids. Two authors independently screened titles and abstracts retrieved through the electronic searches. We retrieved full-text reports of studies categorized as 'unsure' or 'include' after we reviewed the abstracts. Two authors independently reviewed each full-text report for eligibility. Discrepancies were resolved through discussion. We identified no completed or ongoing trial that was eligible for this Cochrane review. Although research has identified a wide

  7. Penetrating ocular trauma from trampoline spring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spokes, David; Siddiqui, Salina; Vize, Colin

    2010-02-01

    The case is presented of a 12-year old boy who sustained severe penetrating ocular trauma while playing on a domestic trampoline. A main spring broke under tension and the hook had struck the eye at high velocity and penetrated the sclera. Primary repair was undertaken but on review it became apparent the eye could not be salvaged. Evisceration was carried out and an orbital implant was placed. Post-operative cosmesis is acceptable. This type of injury has not been reported before. Adult supervision of children on trampolines is recommended to minimise the chance of serious injury.

  8. Motor control for a brushless DC motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, William J. (Inventor); Faulkner, Dennis T. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    This invention relates to a motor control system for a brushless DC motor having an inverter responsively coupled to the motor control system and in power transmitting relationship to the motor. The motor control system includes a motor rotor speed detecting unit that provides a pulsed waveform signal proportional to rotor speed. This pulsed waveform signal is delivered to the inverter to thereby cause an inverter fundamental current waveform output to the motor to be switched at a rate proportional to said rotor speed. In addition, the fundamental current waveform is also pulse width modulated at a rate proportional to the rotor speed. A fundamental current waveform phase advance circuit is controllingly coupled to the inverter. The phase advance circuit is coupled to receive the pulsed waveform signal from the motor rotor speed detecting unit and phase advance the pulsed waveform signal as a predetermined function of motor speed to thereby cause the fundamental current waveform to be advanced and thereby compensate for fundamental current waveform lag due to motor winding reactance which allows the motor to operate at higher speeds than the motor is rated while providing optimal torque and therefore increased efficiency.

  9. Seasonal and diurnal variations of ocular pressure in ocular hypertensive subjects in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, I A; Xiao, R X; Yang, B H; Zhang, J; Xiang, D W; Hui, J L

    1999-05-01

    Studies have been shown that intraocular pressure (IOP) shows a diurnal variation in ocular hypertensive subjects, but the amount of change differs from study to study. In recent years it has been noted that intraocular pressure is a dynamic function and is subjected to many influences both acutely and over the long term. The variability in the results may be due to negligence of factors that can affect IOP. Moreover, seasonal variations in the ocular hypertensive subjects have never been described. After placing control on those factors that can affect IOP, this study investigated seasonal and diurnal variations in IOP of ocular hypertensive subjects. IOP was measured each month over the course of 12 months with the Goldmann applanation tonometer in 91 ocular hypertensive male subjects. To see the diurnal changes, subjects were asked to stay in the hospital for 24 hours. The average IOP in the winter months was higher than those in spring, summer, and autumn. The IOP difference between winter and summer was (mean +/- sem) 2.9 +/- 0.9 mmHg (p < 0.001). The peak of mean IOP in diurnal variation curve (25.7 +/- 1.2 mmHg) appeared in the morning when the subjects had just awaken. The mean diurnal variation was found to be 4.2 +/- 0.6 mmHg (p < 0.001). This study confirms that seasons influence IOP and it shows diurnal variations. As compared to other nations, diurnal variations in ocular hypertensive subjects seem to be somewhat less in Pakistan. Knowledge of the seasonal and diurnal variations in IOP may help glaucoma screeners.

  10. Temporal dynamics of ocular position dependence of the initial human vestibulo-ocular reflex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, Benjamin T; Tian, Junru; Demer, Joseph L

    2006-04-01

    While an ideal vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) generates ocular rotations compensatory for head motion, during visually guided movements, Listing's Law (LL) constrains the eye to rotational axes lying in Listing's Plane (LP). The present study was conducted to explore the recent proposal that the VOR's rotational axis is not collinear with the head's, but rather follows a time-dependent strategy intermediate between LL and an ideal VOR. Binocular LPs were defined during visual fixation in eight normal humans. The VOR was evoked by a highly repeatable transient whole-body yaw rotation in darkness at a peak acceleration of 2800 deg/s2. Immediately before rotation, subjects regarded targets 15 or 500 cm distant located at eye level, 20 degrees up, or 20 degrees down. Eye and head responses were compared with LL predictions in the position and velocity domains. LP orientation varied both among subjects and between individual subject's eyes, and rotated temporally with convergence by 5 +/- 5 degrees (+/-SEM). In the position domain, the eye compensated for head displacement even when the head rotated out of LP. Even within the first 20 ms from onset of head rotation, the ocular velocity axis tilted relative to the head axis by 30% +/- 8% of vertical gaze position. Saccades increased this tilt. Regardless of vertical gaze position, the ocular rotation axis tilted backward 4 degrees farther in abduction than in adduction. There was also a binocular vertical eye velocity transient and lateral tilt of the ocular axis. These disconjugate, short-latency axis perturbations appear intrinsic to the VOR and may have neural or mechanical origins.

  11. Clinical application of ocular trauma score for mechanical ocular injury in armed forces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying ZHANG

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective To evaluate the predictive value of ocular trauma score(OTS in mechanical ocular injuries occurring in military forces,and compare the difference of OTS application between ocular injury caused by military training and non-military training.Methods The data of 633 inpatients from armed forces suffering from injury of 665 eyes were retrospectively reviewed.Of the 665 injured eyes,326 were injured during military training and 339 during non-military training.The likelihood of final visual acuity(VA calculated with the OTS score was compared with that by the present OTS study,and the correlation between the score and final VA was then analyzed.Results Compared with the distribution of final VA in standard OTS score,the ratio in category 1 was statistically different in present study(P 0.05.There were significant differences in ratio of category 3 between eyes injured by military and non-military training(P < 0.05,and both ratios in category 1 were significantly different compared with those in standard OTS(P < 0.01,e.g.the ratio of NLP was lower(50% vs 73%,P < 0.01;43% vs 73%,P < 0.01;and the ratio in category 2 was significantly different between the eyes injured by non-military training and standard OTS(P < 0.05.However,the OTS showed positive correlation with final VA in present study(P < 0.0001.Conclusion OTS calculated at initial examination may primarily provide a piece of prognostic information of mechanical ocular injuries,and is of special benefit for deciding a prompt management or for evacuation decision for severe ocular injuries caused by military training.

  12. Human Recombinant Peptide Sponge Enables Novel, Less Invasive Cell Therapy for Ischemic Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michiyuki Miyamoto

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Bone marrow stromal cell (BMSC transplantation has the therapeutic potential for ischemic stroke. However, it is unclear which delivery routes would yield both safety and maximal therapeutic benefits. We assessed whether a novel recombinant peptide (RCP sponge, that resembles human collagen, could act as a less invasive and beneficial scaffold in cell therapy for ischemic stroke. BMSCs from green fluorescent protein-transgenic rats were cultured and Sprague–Dawley rats were subjected to permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo. A BMSC-RCP sponge construct was transplanted onto the ipsilateral intact neocortex 7 days after MCAo. A BMSC suspension or vehicle was transplanted into the ipsilateral striatum. Rat motor function was serially evaluated and histological analysis was performed 5 weeks after transplantation. The results showed that BMSCs could proliferate well in the RCP sponge and the BMSC-RCP sponge significantly promoted functional recovery, compared with the vehicle group. Histological analysis revealed that the RCP sponge provoked few inflammatory reactions in the host brain. Moreover, some BMSCs migrated to the peri-infarct area and differentiated into neurons in the BMSC-RCP sponge group. These findings suggest that the RCP sponge may be a promising candidate for animal protein-free scaffolds in cell therapy for ischemic stroke in humans.

  13. Modulation of Synaptic Plasticity by Exercise Training as a Basis for Ischemic Stroke Rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Jingjing; Yang, Xiaosu

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, rehabilitation of ischemic stroke draws more and more attention in the world, and has been linked to changes of synaptic plasticity. Exercise training improves motor function of ischemia as well as cognition which is associated with formation of learning and memory. The molecular basis of learning and memory might be synaptic plasticity. Research has therefore been conducted in an attempt to relate effects of exercise training to neuroprotection and neurogenesis adjacent to the ischemic injury brain. The present paper reviews the current literature addressing this question and discusses the possible mechanisms involved in modulation of synaptic plasticity by exercise training. This review shows the pathological process of synaptic dysfunction in ischemic roughly and then discusses the effects of exercise training on scaffold proteins and regulatory protein expression. The expression of scaffold proteins generally increased after training, but the effects on regulatory proteins were mixed. Moreover, the compositions of postsynaptic receptors were changed and the strength of synaptic transmission was enhanced after training. Finally, the recovery of cognition is critically associated with synaptic remodeling in an injured brain, and the remodeling occurs through a number of local regulations including mRNA translation, remodeling of cytoskeleton, and receptor trafficking into and out of the synapse. We do provide a comprehensive knowledge of synaptic plasticity enhancement obtained by exercise training in this review.

  14. CT findings in isolated ischemic proctosigmoiditis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiesner, Walter; Mortele, Koenraad J.; Ji, Hoon; Khurana, Bharti; Ros, Pablo R.; Glickman, Jonathan N.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to describe the CT features of ischemic proctosigmoiditis in correlation with clinical, laboratory, endoscopic, and histopathologic findings. Our study included seven patients with isolated ischemic proctosigmoiditis. Patients were identified by a retrospective review of all histopathologic records of colonoscopic biopsies performed during a time period of 4 years. All patients presented with left lower abdominal quadrant pain, bloody stools, and leukocytosis, and four patients had fever at the time of presentation. Four of seven patients suffered from diarrhea, one of seven was constipated and two of seven had normal stool consistency. The CT examinations were reviewed by two authors by consensus and compared with clinical and histopathologic results as well as with the initial CT diagnosis. The CT showed a wall thickening confined to the rectum and sigmoid colon in seven of seven patients, stranding of the pararectal fat in four of seven, and stranding of the perisigmoidal fat in one of seven patients. There were no enlarged lymph nodes, but five of seven patients showed coexistent diverticulosis and in three of these patients CT findings were initially misinterpreted as sigmoid diverticulitis. Endoscopies and histopathologic analyses of endoscopic biopsies confirmed non-transmural ischemic proctosigmoiditis in all patients. Isolated ischemic proctosigmoiditis often presents with unspecific CT features and potentially misleading clinical and laboratory findings. In an elderly patient or a patient with known cardiovascular risk factors the diagnosis of ischemic proctosigmoiditis should be considered when wall thickening confined to the rectum and sigmoid colon is seen that is associated with perirectal fat stranding. (orig.)

  15. Usefulness of colonoscopy in ischemic colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano-Maya, M; Ponferrada-Díaz, A; González-Asanza, C; Nogales-Rincón, O; Senent-Sánchez, C; Pérez-de-Ayala, V; Jiménez-Aleixandre, P; Cos-Arregui, E; Menchén-Fernández-Pacheco, P

    2010-07-01

    the ischemic colitis is intestinal the most frequent cause of ischemia. With this work we determine the demographic and clinical characteristics, and the usefulness of the colonoscopy in the patients with ischemic colitis diagnosed in our centre in relation to a change of therapeutic attitude. retrospective study in which were selected 112 patients diagnosed with ischemic colitis by colonoscopy and biopsy, in a period of five years. It was analyzed: age, sex, reason for examination, factors of cardiovascular risk, endoscopic degree of ischemia, change in the therapeutic attitude, treatment and outcome. the average age was of 73.64 + or - 12.10 years with an equal incidence in women (50.9%) and the men (49.1%). The associated factors were the HTA (61.1%), tobacco (37.2%) and antecedents of cardiovascular episode (52.2%). The most frequent reason for colonoscopy was rectorrhagia (53.6%) followed of the abdominal pain (30.4%), being urgent the 65.3%. Colonoscopy allowed a change in the therapeutic attitude in the 50 increasing in the urgent one to the 65.75%. Global mortality was of 27.67%. The serious ischemic colitis (25%) was more frequent in men (64.3%) in urgent indication (85.71%) and attends with high mortality (53.57%). Surgical treatment in the 57.14% was made with a good evolution in the 50%, whereas the patients with mild or moderate ischemic colitis had a better prognosis (favourable evolution in 80.95%) with smaller requirement of the surgical treatment (4.76%), p change of attitude according to the result of the same one. The evidence of a serious colitis supposed an increase of the necessity of surgery and worse prognosis.

  16. Remote Ischemic Conditioning and Renal Protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannopoulos, Georgios; Vrachatis, Dimitrios A; Panagopoulou, Vasiliki; Vavuranakis, Manolis; Cleman, Michael W; Deftereos, Spyridon

    2017-07-01

    Over the course of the last 2 decades, the concept of remote ischemic conditioning (RIC) has attracted considerable research interest, because RIC, in most of its embodiments offers an inexpensive way of protecting tissues against ischemic damage inflicted by a number of medical conditions or procedures. Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common side effect in the context of various medical procedures, and RIC has been suggested as a means of reducing its incidence. Outcomes regarding kidney function have been reported in numerous studies that evaluated the effects of RIC in a variety of settings (eg, cardiac surgery, interventions requiring intravenous administration of contrast media). Although several individual studies have implied a beneficial effect of RIC in preserving kidney function, 3 recently published randomized controlled trials evaluating more than 1000 patients each (Effect of Remote Ischemic Preconditioning in the Cardiac Surgery, Remote Ischaemic Preconditioning for Heart Surgery, and ERICCA) were negative. However, AKI or any other index of renal function was not a stand-alone primary end point in any of these trials. On the other hand, a range of meta-analyses (each including thousands of participants) have reported mixed results, with the most recent among them showing benefit from RIC, pinpointing at the same time a number of shortcomings in published studies, adversely affecting the quality of available data. The present review provides a critical appraisal of the current state of this field of research. It is the opinion of the authors of this review that there is a clear need for a common clinical trial framework for ischemic conditioning studies. If the current babel of definitions, procedures, outcomes, and goals persists, it is most likely that soon ischemic conditioning will be "yesterday's news" with no definitive conclusions having been reached in terms of its real clinical utility.

  17. Effect of STA-MCA bypass based on the motor activation SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawaguchi, Shoichiro; Uranishi, Ryunosuke; Sakaki, Toshisuke; Imai, Teruhiko; Ohishi, Hajime [Nara Medical Univ., Kashihara (Japan)

    1999-07-01

    The effect of STA-MCA bypass for ischemic cerebrovascular diseases (CVDs) on pure motor function using motor activation SPECT was evaluated and analyzed, and this effect with the resting cerebral blood flow and reserved capacity was compared. Motor activation SPECT were carried out on 22 cases with STA-MCA bypass for symptomatic ischemic CVDs. All motors activation SPECT using the finger opposition task on the affected side were performed before bypass, at 1 month, and 3 months after the bypass. Visual inspection was used to determine whether the result of the motor activation SPECT was as negative or positive. The activated region was detected anatomically precisely by superimposing the SPECT on the MRI. Before this study, the same examination was performed on normal controls. In controls, 91% showed the activated area on the sensorimotor cortex after the finger opposition tasks. Before bypass, the resting SPECT revealed reduction of cerebral blood flow (CBF) on the affected side in all cases. All cases also showed a disturbed response to acetazolamide (ACZ). Nine cases were positive in the motor activation SPECT. One month after bypass, the resting CBF increased in 11 cases. Seven showed preoperative positive motor activation. Fifteen cases were positive in the motor activation SPECT. Three months after bypass, 20 cases showed improvement in the resting CBF, and 19 cases were positive in the motor activation SPECT. Ten cases were negative in the preoperative motor activation SPECT. At one month after surgery, ACZ activation SPECT was performed in 12 cases. Five showed improvement of the response to ACZ. At 3 months after surgery, 8 of 12 cases treated with ACZ activation SPECT showed improved response to ACZ. In most of the cases, improved response to ACZ could be seen after response to motor activation improved. STA-MCA bypass is useful not only for resting CBF but also for pure motor function based on motor activation SPECT. (K.H.)

  18. Effect of STA-MCA bypass based on the motor activation SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawaguchi, Shoichiro; Uranishi, Ryunosuke; Sakaki, Toshisuke; Imai, Teruhiko; Ohishi, Hajime

    1999-01-01

    The effect of STA-MCA bypass for ischemic cerebrovascular diseases (CVDs) on pure motor function using motor activation SPECT was evaluated and analyzed, and this effect with the resting cerebral blood flow and reserved capacity was compared. Motor activation SPECT were carried out on 22 cases with STA-MCA bypass for symptomatic ischemic CVDs. All motors activation SPECT using the finger opposition task on the affected side were performed before bypass, at 1 month, and 3 months after the bypass. Visual inspection was used to determine whether the result of the motor activation SPECT was as negative or positive. The activated region was detected anatomically precisely by superimposing the SPECT on the MRI. Before this study, the same examination was performed on normal controls. In controls, 91% showed the activated area on the sensorimotor cortex after the finger opposition tasks. Before bypass, the resting SPECT revealed reduction of cerebral blood flow (CBF) on the affected side in all cases. All cases also showed a disturbed response to acetazolamide (ACZ). Nine cases were positive in the motor activation SPECT. One month after bypass, the resting CBF increased in 11 cases. Seven showed preoperative positive motor activation. Fifteen cases were positive in the motor activation SPECT. Three months after bypass, 20 cases showed improvement in the resting CBF, and 19 cases were positive in the motor activation SPECT. Ten cases were negative in the preoperative motor activation SPECT. At one month after surgery, ACZ activation SPECT was performed in 12 cases. Five showed improvement of the response to ACZ. At 3 months after surgery, 8 of 12 cases treated with ACZ activation SPECT showed improved response to ACZ. In most of the cases, improved response to ACZ could be seen after response to motor activation improved. STA-MCA bypass is useful not only for resting CBF but also for pure motor function based on motor activation SPECT. (K.H.)

  19. Electroacupuncture acutely improves cerebral blood flow and attenuates moderate ischemic injury via an endothelial mechanism in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Hyun Kim

    Full Text Available Electroacupuncture (EA is a novel therapy based on traditional acupuncture combined with modern eletrotherapy that is currently being investigated as a treatment for acute ischemic stroke. Here, we studied whether acute EA stimulation improves tissue and functional outcome following experimentally induced cerebral ischemia in mice. We hypothesized that endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS-mediated perfusion augmentation was related to the beneficial effects of EA by interventions in acute ischemic injury. EA stimulation at Baihui (GV20 and Dazhui (GV14 increased cerebral perfusion in the cerebral cortex, which was suppressed in eNOS KO, but there was no mean arterial blood pressure (MABP response. The increased perfusion elicited by EA were completely abolished by a muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR blocker (atropine, but not a β-adrenergic receptor blocker (propranolol, an α-adrenergic receptor blocker (phentolamine, or a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR blocker (mecamylamine. In addition, EA increased acetylcholine (ACh release and mAChR M3 expression in the cerebral cortex. Acute EA stimulation after occlusion significantly reduced infarct volume by 34.5% when compared to a control group of mice at 24 h after 60 min-middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO (moderate ischemic injury, but not 90-min MCAO (severe ischemic injury. Furthermore, the impact of EA on moderate ischemic injury was totally abolished in eNOS KO. Consistent with a smaller infarct size, acute EA stimulation led to prominent improvement of neurological function and vestibule-motor function. Our results suggest that acute EA stimulation after moderate focal cerebral ischemia, but not severe ischemia improves tissue and functional recovery and ACh/eNOS-mediated perfusion augmentation might be related to these beneficial effects of EA by interventions in acute ischemic injury.

  20. Vagus nerve stimulation during rehabilitative training improves forelimb strength following ischemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodaparast, N; Hays, S A; Sloan, A M; Hulsey, D R; Ruiz, A; Pantoja, M; Rennaker, R L; Kilgard, M P

    2013-12-01

    Upper limb impairment is a common debilitating consequence of ischemic stroke. Physical rehabilitation after stroke enhances neuroplasticity and improves limb function, but does not typically restore normal movement. We have recently developed a novel method that uses vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) paired with forelimb movements to drive specific, long-lasting map plasticity in rat primary motor cortex. Here we report that VNS paired with rehabilitative training can enhance recovery of forelimb force generation following infarction of primary motor cortex in rats. Quantitative measures of forelimb function returned to pre-lesion levels when VNS was delivered during rehab training. Intensive rehab training without VNS failed to restore function back to pre-lesion levels. Animals that received VNS during rehab improved twice as much as rats that received the same rehabilitation without VNS. VNS delivered during physical rehabilitation represents a novel method that may provide long-lasting benefits towards stroke recovery. © 2013.

  1. Motorcycle related ocular injuries in Irrua Specialist Teaching ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This is a prospective study of all cases of motorcycle related accidents with involvement of the eyes seen at the Irrua Specialist Teaching Hospital from January 2005 to December 2005. The study was conducted to assess the severity of ocular trauma, ocular structures mostly affected and initial effect on visual acuity in such ...

  2. Orbital Roof Fractures as an Indicator for Concomitant Ocular Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-12

    Longoria 19b. TELEPHONE NUMBER (Include area code) 210-292-7141 Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8/98) Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39.18 Adobe Professional ...risk for ocular and periocular injury. Laryngoscope. 2016 Feb;126 Suppl 4:S5·11. 3. Cook T. Ocular and periocular Injuries from orbital fractures

  3. Ocular melanoma: Detection using iodine-123-iodoamphetamine and SPECT imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dewey, S.H.; Leonard, J.C.

    1990-01-01

    Uptake of iodine-123-iodoamphetamine has been demonstrated in malignant melanoma using planar imaging techniques and has been used to detect an ocular melanoma at 12 hr postinjection. Using SPECT technique, an ocular melanoma is identified in a 64-yr-old male at 1 hr postinjection

  4. Measurement of normal ocular volume by the use of computed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-09-03

    Sep 3, 2012 ... ocular axial length measurements from which ocular volume can be calculated. ... The CT scans were performed in axial planes at a thickness of 3 mm and a .... dimension assessing capability, it gives anatomic details .... have larger skeletal size and bone mass than females, despite comparable body size.

  5. Ocular Injuries: Another Example of the Heavy Prize of Terrorism ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Injuries to the face and ocular structures could occur at the war front not only to the enemies, but also to unsuspecting friends of the security agents. We report here a case of ocular injury involving an air force personnel (lance corporal) who was mistakenly hit on the face by the back blast of a rocket‑propelled grenade shot ...

  6. An uncommon case of noninvasive ocular surface squamous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We describe a rare case of noninvasive OSSN involving the entire cornea in a human immunodeficiency virus‑negative patient. The patient was successfully treated with no recurrence, after intact surgical removal, mitomycin C treatment, and cryotherapy. Keywords: Noninvasive ocular surface squamous neoplasia, ocular ...

  7. Hutchinson's sign as a marker of ocular involvement in HIVpositive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. A positive Hutchinsonfs sign indicates an increased risk of ocular involvement in herpes zoster ophthalmicus (HZO). We examined the sensitivity of Hutchinsonfs sign as an indicator of ocular involvement in a consecutive series of patients presenting with HZO. Methods. We conducted a descriptive ...

  8. Ocular Complications among Cases of Head Injury Seen in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Head injuries with ocular involvement are of great importance due to the visual morbidity and mortality which may result. Objective: To determine the pattern of ocular complications among cases of head injury seen in Memphys Hospital for Neurosurgery, Enugu, in south-eastern Nigeria. Patients and Methods: ...

  9. Long term ocular and neurological involvement in severe congenital toxoplasmosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meenken, C.; Assies, J.; van Nieuwenhuizen, O.; Holwerda-van der Maat, W. G.; van Schooneveld, M. J.; Delleman, W. J.; Kinds, G.; Rothova, A.

    1995-01-01

    This study was set up to determine the long term ocular and systemic sequelae in patients with severe congenital toxoplasmosis. Cross sectional and retrospective study of 17 patients with severe congenital toxoplasmosis. In addition to chorioretinitis (100%), the most common abnormal ocular features

  10. An Unusual Ocular Injury Following Facial Trauma: A Case Report ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To report a case of an unusual ocular injury following a road traffic accident. Materials and Methods: A case report of a sixty – year – old female patient seen by the authors. The literature on ocular injures following facial trauma is reviewed. Results: An eye globe initially confirmed missing from its socket on clinical ...

  11. Ocular injuries and eye care seeking patterns following injuries ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The work environment of cocoa farmers exposes them to several ocular hazards that predispose them to eye diseases and injuries. However, the extent of ocular injuries and health seeking patterns following these injuries are unknown among cocoa farmers in Ghana. Objectives: To determine the prevalence ...

  12. Recircular accelerator to proton ocular therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabelo, Luisa A.; Campos, Tarcisio P.R., E-mail: luisarabelo88@gmail.com, E-mail: tprcampos@pq.cnpq.br [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear

    2013-07-01

    Proton therapy has been used for the treatment of Ocular Tumors, showing control in most cases as well as conservation of the eyeball, avoiding the enucleation. The protons provide higher energetic deposition in depth with reduced lateral spread, compared to the beam of photons and electrons, with characteristic dose deposition peak (Bragg peak). This technique requires large particle accelerators hampering the deployment a Proton Therapy Center in some countries due to the need for an investment of millions of dollars. This study is related to a new project of an electromagnetic unit of proton circular accelerator to be coupled to the national radiopharmaceutical production cyclotrons, to attend ocular therapy. This project evaluated physical parameters of proton beam circulating through classical and relativistic mechanical formulations and simulations based on an ion transport code in electromagnetic fields namely CST (Computer Simulation Technology). The structure is differentiated from other circular accelerations (patent CTIT/UFMG NRI research group/UFMG). The results show the feasibility of developing compact proton therapy equipment that works like pre-accelerator or post-accelerator to cyclotrons, satisfying the interval energy of 15 MeV to 64 MeV. Methods of reducing costs of manufacture, installation and operation of this equipment will facilitate the dissemination of the proton treatment in Brazil and consequently advances in fighting cancer. (author)

  13. Relation between axial length and ocular parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue-Qiu Yang

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigatethe relation between axial length(AL, age and ocular parameters.METHODS: A total of 360 subjects(360 eyeswith emmetropia or myopia were recruited. Refraction, center corneal thickness(CCT, AL, intraocular pressure(IOPwere measured by automatic-refractor, Pachymeter, A-mode ultrasound and non-contact tonometer, respectively. Corneal curvature(CC, anterior chamber depth(ACDand white-to-white distance(WWDwere measured by Orbscan II. Three dimensional frequency domain coherent optical tomography(3D-OCTwas used to examine the retinal nerve fiber layer thickness(RNFLT. The Pearson correlation coefficient(rand multiple regression analysis were performed to evaluate the relationship between AL, age and ocular parameters.RESULTS: The average AL was 24.15±1.26mm. With elongation of the AL, spherical equivalent(SE(r=-0.742,Pr=-0.395, Pr=-0.374, Pr=0.411, Pr=0.099, P=0.060and WWD(r=0.061, P=0.252. There was also a significant correlation between AL and age(P=0.001, SE(PPPCONCLUSION: In longer eyes, there is a tendency toward myopia, a flatter cornea, a deeper ACD and a thinner RNFLT. Age is an influencing factor for the AL as well.

  14. Recircular accelerator to proton ocular therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabelo, Luisa A.; Campos, Tarcisio P.R.

    2013-01-01

    Proton therapy has been used for the treatment of Ocular Tumors, showing control in most cases as well as conservation of the eyeball, avoiding the enucleation. The protons provide higher energetic deposition in depth with reduced lateral spread, compared to the beam of photons and electrons, with characteristic dose deposition peak (Bragg peak). This technique requires large particle accelerators hampering the deployment a Proton Therapy Center in some countries due to the need for an investment of millions of dollars. This study is related to a new project of an electromagnetic unit of proton circular accelerator to be coupled to the national radiopharmaceutical production cyclotrons, to attend ocular therapy. This project evaluated physical parameters of proton beam circulating through classical and relativistic mechanical formulations and simulations based on an ion transport code in electromagnetic fields namely CST (Computer Simulation Technology). The structure is differentiated from other circular accelerations (patent CTIT/UFMG NRI research group/UFMG). The results show the feasibility of developing compact proton therapy equipment that works like pre-accelerator or post-accelerator to cyclotrons, satisfying the interval energy of 15 MeV to 64 MeV. Methods of reducing costs of manufacture, installation and operation of this equipment will facilitate the dissemination of the proton treatment in Brazil and consequently advances in fighting cancer. (author)

  15. Ocular toxoplasmosis in immunosuppressed nonhuman primates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holland, G.N.; O' Connor, G.R.; Diaz, R.F.; Minasi, P.; Wara, W.M.

    1988-06-01

    To investigate the role of cellular immunodeficiency in recurrent toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis, six Cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) with healed toxoplasmic lesions of the retina were immunosuppressed by total lymphoid irradiation. Three months prior to irradiation 30,000 Toxoplasma gondii organisms of the Beverley strain had been inoculated onto the macula of eye in each monkey via a pars plana approach. Toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis developed in each animal, and lesions were allowed to heal without treatment. During total lymphoid irradiation animals received 2000 centigrays (cGy) over a 7-week period. Irradiation resulted in an immediate drop in total lymphocyte counts and decreased ability to stimulate lymphocytes by phytohemagglutinin. Weekly ophthalmoscopic examinations following irradiation failed to show evidence of recurrent ocular disease despite persistent immunodeficiency. Four months after irradiation live organisms were reinoculated onto the nasal retina of the same eye in each animal. Retinochoroidal lesions identical to those seen in primary disease developed in five of six animals. Toxoplasma organisms therefore were able to proliferate in ocular tissue following the administration of immunosuppressive therapy. This study fails to support the hypothesis that cellular immunodeficiency alone will initiate recurrent toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis. Results suggest that reactivation of disease from encysted organisms involves factors other than suppression of Toxoplasma proliferation. If reactivation occurs by other mechanisms, however, cellular immunodeficiency then may allow development of extensive disease.

  16. Ocular toxoplasmosis in immunosuppressed nonhuman primates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holland, G.N.; O'Connor, G.R.; Diaz, R.F.; Minasi, P.; Wara, W.M.

    1988-01-01

    To investigate the role of cellular immunodeficiency in recurrent toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis, six Cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) with healed toxoplasmic lesions of the retina were immunosuppressed by total lymphoid irradiation. Three months prior to irradiation 30,000 Toxoplasma gondii organisms of the Beverley strain had been inoculated onto the macula of eye in each monkey via a pars plana approach. Toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis developed in each animal, and lesions were allowed to heal without treatment. During total lymphoid irradiation animals received 2000 centigrays (cGy) over a 7-week period. Irradiation resulted in an immediate drop in total lymphocyte counts and decreased ability to stimulate lymphocytes by phytohemagglutinin. Weekly ophthalmoscopic examinations following irradiation failed to show evidence of recurrent ocular disease despite persistent immunodeficiency. Four months after irradiation live organisms were reinoculated onto the nasal retina of the same eye in each animal. Retinochoroidal lesions identical to those seen in primary disease developed in five of six animals. Toxoplasma organisms therefore were able to proliferate in ocular tissue following the administration of immunosuppressive therapy. This study fails to support the hypothesis that cellular immunodeficiency alone will initiate recurrent toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis. Results suggest that reactivation of disease from encysted organisms involves factors other than suppression of Toxoplasma proliferation. If reactivation occurs by other mechanisms, however, cellular immunodeficiency then may allow development of extensive disease

  17. [Bilateral non-arteritic ischemic optic neuropathy during treatment of viral hepatitis C with pegylated interferon and Ribavirin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iferkhass, S; Elasri, F; Chatioui, S; Khoyaali, A; Bargach, T; Reda, K; Oubaaz, A

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis C is a serious viral infection, for which the current treatment is based on the combination of pegylated interferon (IFN) and Ribavirin(®). Ophthalmic complications observed with PEG-IFN are infrequent and of variable prognosis. They often include an ischemic retinopathy with typical cotton-wool spots, hemorrhage and retinal edema, and rarely acute non-arteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy as illustrated by our report. We report the case of a 51-year-old man followed for chronic active hepatitis C, who presented in the fourth month of treatment with pegylated interferon and vidarabine with a sharp decline in visual acuity secondary to acute bilateral non-arteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy. The hepatitis C treatment was discontinued. His course was notable by the third week for a significant regression of papilledema with improvement in visual acuity in the right eye and no change in the left eye, remaining at counting fingers. After regressing for four years, the disease progressed to bilateral temporal optic atrophy without change in visual acuity. Pegylated interferon and Ribavirin(®) are commonly used in the treatment of chronic hepatitis C. They are the source of various ophthalmologic complications of varied severity. The pathophysiology of this ocular toxicity currently remains hypothetical. Non-arteritic ischemic optic neuropathy is still a relatively rare complication with a poor functional prognosis, often requiring discontinuation of treatment. Thus, careful ophthalmologic monitoring before and during antiviral treatment of patients with hepatitis C appears necessary. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. High efficiency motors; Motores de alta eficiencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uranga Favela, Ivan Jaime [Energia Controlada de Mexico, S. A. de C. V., Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1993-12-31

    This paper is a technical-financial study of the high efficiency and super-premium motors. As it is widely known, more than 60% of the electrical energy generated in the country is used for the operation of motors, in industry as well as in commerce. Therefore the importance that the motors have in the efficient energy use. [Espanol] El presente trabajo es un estudio tecnico-financiero de los motores de alta eficiencia y los motores super premium. Como es ampliamente conocido, mas del 60% de la energia electrica generada en el pais, es utilizada para accionar motores, dentro de la industria y el comercio. De alli la importancia que los motores tienen en el uso eficiente de la energia.

  19. High efficiency motors; Motores de alta eficiencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uranga Favela, Ivan Jaime [Energia Controlada de Mexico, S. A. de C. V., Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1992-12-31

    This paper is a technical-financial study of the high efficiency and super-premium motors. As it is widely known, more than 60% of the electrical energy generated in the country is used for the operation of motors, in industry as well as in commerce. Therefore the importance that the motors have in the efficient energy use. [Espanol] El presente trabajo es un estudio tecnico-financiero de los motores de alta eficiencia y los motores super premium. Como es ampliamente conocido, mas del 60% de la energia electrica generada en el pais, es utilizada para accionar motores, dentro de la industria y el comercio. De alli la importancia que los motores tienen en el uso eficiente de la energia.

  20. Coloboma ocular: alterações oculares e sistêmicas associadas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzelikis Patrick Frensel de Moraes

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar e comparar com a literatura o perfil dos pacientes portadores de colobomas oculares, bem como verificar a acuidade visual, alterações oculares associadas e alterações sistêmicas apresentadas pelos mesmos. MÉTODOS: Foram estudados retrospectivamente 18 pacientes com diagnóstico de coloboma ocular matriculados no serviço de Visão Subnormal do Hospital São Geraldo da Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (HSG - HCUFMG. Foram avaliados: sexo, idade, raça, história familiar de anomalias oculares, história gestacional, tipo de coloboma, localização, bilateralidade, presença de microftalmia ou anoftalmia, alterações oculares concomitantes, e associação com doenças sistêmicas e acuidade visual. RESULTADO: Dez (55,6% pacientes eram do sexo feminino, 15 (83,3% eram leucodérmicos. A idade variou de 4 a 57 anos, com média de 9,5 anos. Apenas 3 (16,7% apresentavam história familiar para coloboma. Todos apresentavam história gestacional negativa para qualquer intercorrência. Houve acometimento bilateral em 100% dos casos, com microftalmia presente em 6 (33,3% casos. O coloboma foi típico em 14 (77,8% pacientes, sendo o coloboma mais comum o retinocoroidal ocorrendo em 16 (88,9% pacientes. 50% dos pacientes apresentavam o coloboma como achado isolado, e a outra metade associado a alguma doença sistêmica. Em 14 (77,8% pacientes foi encontrado algum tipo de alteração ocular além do coloboma. CONCLUSÃO: O exame oftalmológico completo é muito importante tanto no diagnóstico quanto no prognóstico de pacientes com coloboma, visto que este pode estar associado a uma baixa visual importante, além de poder estar relacionados a diferentes anomalias ou síndromes.

  1. Analysis of acute ischemic stroke presenting classic lacunar syndrome. A study by diffusion-weighted MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terai, Satoshi; Ota, Kazuki; Tamaki, Kinya [Hakujyuji Hospital, Fukuoka (Japan)

    2002-03-01

    We retrospectively assessed the pathophysiological features of acute ischemic stroke presenting ''classic'' lacunar syndrome by using diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI). Subjects were 16 patients who were admitted to our hospital within 24 hours of stroke onset and underwent DWI examination on admission. These were divided into three categorical groups; pure motor hemiplegia (PMH) in 8, sensorimotor stroke (SMS) in 7, and dysarthria-clumsy hand syndrome (DCHS) in 1. The fresh responsible lesions were identified by DWI in the perforating territory in 7 patients with PMH and 7 with SMS. Four (one had two possible response lesions; pons and corona radiata) and five patients in the respective groups were diagnosed as lacunar infarction on admission (the largest dimension of the lesion measuring smaller than 15 mm). On the contralateral side to the neurological symptoms, DWI revealed high intensities in cortex, subcortical white matter, and anterior and posterior border zones in the remaining one patient with PMH and in the precentral arterial region in one with DCHS. They were diagnosed as atherothrombotic infarction resulting from the occlusion of the internal carotid artery and cerebral embolism due to atrial fibrillation, respectively. Three patients with PMH showed progressive deterioration after admission and follow-up DWI study in an acute stage revealed enlargement of heir ischemic lesions. The present study suggests that DWI is a useful imaging technique for diagnosis of clinical categories and observation for pathophsiological alteration in the acute ischemic stroke patients with ''classic'' lacunar syndrome. Our results also indicate a necessity to be aware that various types of fresh ischemic lesions other than a single lacune might possibly be developing in cases with this syndrome. (author)

  2. Aberrant functional connectivity of resting state networks in transient ischemic attack.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Transient ischemic attack (TIA is usually defined as a neurologic ischemic disorder without permanent cerebral infarction. Studies have showed that patients with TIA can have lasting cognitive functional impairment. Inherent brain activity in the resting state is spatially organized in a set of specific coherent patterns named resting state networks (RSNs, which epitomize the functional architecture of memory, language, attention, visual, auditory and somato-motor networks. Here, we aimed to detect differences in RSNs between TIA patients and healthy controls (HCs. METHODS: Twenty one TIA patients suffered an ischemic event and 21 matched HCs were enrolled in the study. All subjects were investigated using cognitive tests, psychiatric tests and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. Independent component analysis (ICA was adopted to acquire the eight brain RSNs. Then one-sample t-tests were calculated in each group to gather the spatial maps of each RSNs, followed by second level analysis to investigate statistical differences on RSNs between twenty one TIA patients and 21 controls. Furthermore, a correlation analysis was performed to explore the relationship between functional connectivity (FC and cognitive and psychiatric scales in TIA group. RESULTS: Compared with the controls, TIA patients exhibited both decreased and increased functional connectivity in default mode network (DMN and self-referential network (SRN, and decreased functional connectivity in dorsal attention network (DAN, central-executive network (CEN, core network (CN, somato-motor network (SMN, visual network (VN and auditory network (AN. There was no correlation between neuropsychological scores and functional connectivity in regions of RSNs. CONCLUSIONS: We observed selective impairments of RSN intrinsic FC in TIA patients, whose all eight RSNs had aberrant functional connectivity. These changes indicate that TIA is a disease with widely abnormal brain

  3. Ocular Drug Delivery Barriers—Role of Nanocarriers in the Treatment of Anterior Segment Ocular Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachu, Rinda Devi; Chowdhury, Pallabitha; Al-Saedi, Zahraa H. F.; Karla, Pradeep K.; Boddu, Sai H. S.

    2018-01-01

    Ocular drug delivery is challenging due to the presence of anatomical and physiological barriers. These barriers can affect drug entry into the eye following multiple routes of administration (e.g., topical, systemic, and injectable). Topical administration in the form of eye drops is preferred for treating anterior segment diseases, as it is convenient and provides local delivery of drugs. Major concerns with topical delivery include poor drug absorption and low bioavailability. To improve the bioavailability of topically administered drugs, novel drug delivery systems are being investigated. Nanocarrier delivery systems demonstrate enhanced drug permeation and prolonged drug release. This review provides an overview of ocular barriers to anterior segment delivery, along with ways to overcome these barriers using nanocarrier systems. The disposition of nanocarriers following topical administration, their safety, toxicity and clinical trials involving nanocarrier systems are also discussed. PMID:29495528

  4. Iontoforese no transporte ocular de drogas Iontophoresis for ocular drug delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sílvia Ligório Fialho

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available O método mais comum de administração de drogas no olho é por meio de colírios. Entretanto, por este método, não é possível atingir a concentração terapêutica nos fluidos e tecidos posteriores do olho. A administração sistêmica apresenta reduzido acesso ao segmento posterior do olho devido à presença das barreiras oculares. Injeções subconjuntivais e retrobulbares não são capazes de proporcionar níveis adequados da droga, e a injeção intravítrea é método invasivo, inconveniente e que apre-senta riscos de perfuração do bulbo ocular ou descolamento da retina. A iontoforese, no entanto, apresenta-se como alternativa para o transporte de doses terapêuticas de drogas para o segmento posterior do olho. A iontoforese é uma técnica que consiste na administração de drogas para o organismo através dos tecidos, utilizando um campo elétrico. O eletrodo ativo, que se encontra em contato com a droga, é colocado no local a ser tratado, e um segundo eletrodo, com a finalidade de fechar o circuito elétrico, é colocado em outro local do organismo. O campo elétrico facilita o transporte da droga, que deve se encontrar, preferencialmente, na forma ionizada. A iontoforese pode ser considerada como um método seguro e não invasivo de transporte de drogas para locais específicos do olho. Aplicada experimentalmente para o tratamento de doenças oculares, esta técnica tem evoluído muito nos últimos anos e, atualmente, testes clínicos de fase III encontram-se em andamento.The most traditional method of ocular drug delivery is through the use of eyedrops. However, by this method, the therapeutic concentration in deep ocular fluids and tissues can not be efficiently reached. Systemic administration presents poor access to the posterior segment of the eye due to ocular barriers. Subconjuntival and retrobulbar injections are not able to produce adequate levels of the drug, and intravitreal injection is an invasive and problematic

  5. Traumatic brain injury and vestibulo-ocular function: current challenges and future prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wallace B

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Bridgett Wallace,1–4 Jonathan Lifshitz4–8 1360 Balance and Hearing, Department of Physical Therapy, Austin, TX, 2Concussion Health, Department of Clinical Education, Austin, TX, 3Conquering Concussions, Scottsdale, AZ, 4Barrow Neurological Institute at Phoenix Children’s Hospital, Phoenix, AZ, 5Department of Child Health, University of Arizona College of Medicine-Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ, 6The CACTIS Foundation, Scottsdale, 7Phoenix VA Healthcare System, Phoenix, AZ, 8Department of Psychology, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, USA Abstract: Normal function of the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR coordinates eye movement with head movement, in order to provide clear vision during motion and maintain balance. VOR is generated within the semicircular canals of the inner ear to elicit compensatory eye movements, which maintain stability of images on the fovea during brief, rapid head motion, otherwise known as gaze stability. Normal VOR function is necessary in carrying out activities of daily living (eg, walking and riding in a car and is of particular importance in higher demand activities (eg, sports-related activities. Disruption or damage in the VOR can result in symptoms such as movement-related dizziness, blurry vision, difficulty maintaining balance with head movements, and even nausea. Dizziness is one of the most common symptoms following traumatic brain injury (TBI and is considered a risk factor for a prolonged recovery. Assessment of the vestibular system is of particular importance following TBI, in conjunction with oculomotor control, due to the intrinsic neural circuitry that exists between the ocular and vestibular systems. The purpose of this article is to review the physiology of the VOR and the visual-vestibular symptoms associated with TBI and to discuss assessment and treatment guidelines for TBI. Current challenges and future prospects will also be addressed. Keywords: traumatic brain injury, concussion, vestibular, ocular

  6. Ontogeny of mouse vestibulo-ocular reflex following genetic or environmental alteration of gravity sensing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu Beraneck

    Full Text Available The vestibular organs consist of complementary sensors: the semicircular canals detect rotations while the otoliths detect linear accelerations, including the constant pull of gravity. Several fundamental questions remain on how the vestibular system would develop and/or adapt to prolonged changes in gravity such as during long-term space journey. How do vestibular reflexes develop if the appropriate assembly of otoliths and semi-circular canals is perturbed? The aim of present work was to evaluate the role of gravity sensing during ontogeny of the vestibular system. In otoconia-deficient mice (ied, gravity cannot be sensed and therefore maculo-ocular reflexes (MOR were absent. While canals-related reflexes were present, the ied deficit also led to the abnormal spatial tuning of the horizontal angular canal-related VOR. To identify putative otolith-related critical periods, normal C57Bl/6J mice were subjected to 2G hypergravity by chronic centrifugation during different periods of development or adulthood (Adult-HG and compared to non-centrifuged (control C57Bl/6J mice. Mice exposed to hypergravity during development had completely normal vestibulo-ocular reflexes 6 months after end of centrifugation. Adult-HG mice all displayed major abnormalities in maculo-ocular reflexe one month after return to normal gravity. During the next 5 months, adaptation to normal gravity occurred in half of the individuals. In summary, genetic suppression of gravity sensing indicated that otolith-related signals might be necessary to ensure proper functioning of canal-related vestibular reflexes. On the other hand, exposure to hypergravity during development was not sufficient to modify durably motor behaviour. Hence, 2G centrifugation during development revealed no otolith-specific critical period.

  7. Ischemic stroke: carotid and vertebral artery disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vilela, P.; Goulao, A. [Hospital Garcia de Orta, Servico de Neurorradiologia, Almada (Portugal)

    2005-03-01

    Ischemic strokes may have distinct aetiologies, including several different intrinsic arterial pathological disorders. The diagnosis and understanding of these arterial diseases is critical for the correct management of stroke as different treatment approaches are undertaken according to the aetiology. Atherosclerosis is by far the most common arterial disease among adults, and other pathological processes include arterial dissection, small vessel disease, inflammatory and non-inflammatory vasculopathy and vasomotor disorders. In children, there are several vasculopathies responsible for vaso-occlusive disease such as sickle-cell anemia, acute regressive angiopathy and Moya-Moya disease, neurofibromatosis, dissections, vasculitis associated with intracranial and systemic infections. An overview of the major carotid and vertebral pathological diseases responsible for ischemic stroke in adults and children, highlighting the accuracy of the different imaging modalities for its diagnosis and the imaging appearance of these diseases, is given. (orig.)

  8. Ischemic Stroke: Advances in Diagnosis and Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassella, Courtney R; Jagoda, Andy

    2017-11-01

    Acute ischemic stroke carries the risk of morbidity and mortality. Since the advent of intravenous thrombolysis, there have been improvements in stroke care and functional outcomes. Studies of populations once excluded from thrombolysis have begun to elucidate candidates who might benefit and thus should be engaged in the process of shared decision-making. Imaging is evolving to better target the ischemic penumbra salvageable with prompt reperfusion. Availability and use of computed tomography angiography identifies large-vessel occlusions, and new-generation endovascular therapy devices are improving outcomes in these patients. With this progress in stroke treatment, risk stratification tools and shared decision-making are fundamental. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Sickle cell-induced ischemic colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Camille L; Ménard, Geraldine E

    2009-07-01

    Sickle cell-induced ischemic colitis is a rare yet potentially fatal complication of sickle cell anemia. Frequent pain crises with heavy analgesia may obscure and prolong this important diagnosis. Our patient was a 29-year-old female with sickle cell disease who was admitted with left lower quadrant abdominal pain. A diagnostic workup, including chemistries, complete blood count, blood cultures, chest x-ray, computerized tomography scanning, and colonoscopy, was performed to identify the etiology of her symptoms. This case highlights the importance of differentiating simple pain crisis from more serious and life-threatening ischemic bowel. A review of the literature compares this case to others reported and gives a method for diagnosing and treating this complication of sickle cell disease.

  10. Isolated naratriptan-associated ischemic colitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissan, George; Chaudhry, Priyanka; Rangasamy, Priya; Mudrovich, Steven

    2016-01-01

    We report a 41-year-old woman who developed histology- and colonoscopy-proven ischemic colitis with the use of naratriptan not exceeding the maximum 2 doses a day and 3 days per week and without a known medical or cardiovascular history. By exclusion of other causes of colonic ischemia, naratriptan was considered the sole causal agent. Discontinuation of naratriptan resulted in a complete clinical recovery. To date, our patient is the youngest known patient to develop ischemic colitis on isolated naratriptan in the setting of no known medical risk factors or predisposing medical condition. Even though triptans are commonly used for the abortive treatment of migraine headaches, such a reported side effect is rare; however, careful assessment and individual patient-based treatment is advised. PMID:27695179

  11. Ischemic stroke: carotid and vertebral artery disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilela, P.; Goulao, A.

    2005-01-01

    Ischemic strokes may have distinct aetiologies, including several different intrinsic arterial pathological disorders. The diagnosis and understanding of these arterial diseases is critical for the correct management of stroke as different treatment approaches are undertaken according to the aetiology. Atherosclerosis is by far the most common arterial disease among adults, and other pathological processes include arterial dissection, small vessel disease, inflammatory and non-inflammatory vasculopathy and vasomotor disorders. In children, there are several vasculopathies responsible for vaso-occlusive disease such as sickle-cell anemia, acute regressive angiopathy and Moya-Moya disease, neurofibromatosis, dissections, vasculitis associated with intracranial and systemic infections. An overview of the major carotid and vertebral pathological diseases responsible for ischemic stroke in adults and children, highlighting the accuracy of the different imaging modalities for its diagnosis and the imaging appearance of these diseases, is given. (orig.)

  12. Headaches with ocular localization and involvement Cefaleas de localización y compromiso oculares

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    Marta Lucía Muñoz Cardona

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available The most frequent primary headaches, including migraine variants, and intrinsic optic nerve disorders that produce headache, are reviewed. The latter are often accompanied by autonomic nervous system alterations which lead to vasomotor changes, frequently present in neuralgic processes known as headaches with disautonomic involvement. Epidemiological, semiological, clinical, and therapeutical aspects of different cranial, facial and ocular diseases that produce headache are included. Some physiopathological elements that may help to analyze painful craniofacial processes are discussed. Secondary headaches and common facial neuralgias, on the other hand, are also considered because they may confuse the differential diagnosis. Se revisan las cefaleas primarias más frecuentes que comprometen las estructuras oculares y vecinas al globo ocular, las variantes de la migraña y las alteraciones propias del nervio óptico que alteran la función visual y que se acompañan no solamente de síntomas dolorosos sino también de trastornos vasomotores debidos a alteraciones del sistema nervioso autónomo que suelen ser comunes en algunos procesos neurálgicos llamados ahora cefaleas con compromiso disautonómico. En este artículo se comentan los elementos epidemiológicos de las diferentes enfermedades craneales, faciales y oculares que cursan con cefalea; las diferencias clínicas entre las mismas y su presentación semiológica, al igual que algunos elementos terapéuticos. Se discuten además algunos elementos fisiopatológicos de gran utilidad en el análisis de los procesos dolorosos craneofaciales y el perfil temporal de los mismos; también se comentan algunas cefaleas secundarias que comparten con las primarias elementos que se prestan a confusión en la clínica. Finalmente, se hace un análisis de las neuralgias faciales comunes.

  13. Ischemic Colitis after Weight-Loss Medication

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    Dan Comay

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Previous weight-loss medications have received cautious support due to their association with pulmonary hypertension and valvular heart disease. However, newer drugs are increasingly being recommended as potentially safer and more efficacious. We report a case of ischemic colitis possibly linked to the use of a weight-loss drug, and review the literature to highlight an important latent consequence of these medications.

  14. Stem cell therapy for ischemic heart diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hong; Lu, Kai; Zhu, Jinyun; Wang, Jian'an

    2017-01-01

    Ischemic heart diseases, especially the myocardial infarction, is a major hazard problem to human health. Despite substantial advances in control of risk factors and therapies with drugs and interventions including bypass surgery and stent placement, the ischemic heart diseases usually result in heart failure (HF), which could aggravate social burden and increase the mortality rate. The current therapeutic methods to treat HF stay at delaying the disease progression without repair and regeneration of the damaged myocardium. While heart transplantation is the only effective therapy for end-stage patients, limited supply of donor heart makes it impossible to meet the substantial demand from patients with HF. Stem cell-based transplantation is one of the most promising treatment for the damaged myocardial tissue. Key recent published literatures and ClinicalTrials.gov. Stem cell-based therapy is a promising strategy for the damaged myocardial tissue. Different kinds of stem cells have their advantages for treatment of Ischemic heart diseases. The efficacy and potency of cell therapies vary significantly from trial to trial; some clinical trials did not show benefit. Diverged effects of cell therapy could be affected by cell types, sources, delivery methods, dose and their mechanisms by which delivered cells exert their effects. Understanding the origin of the regenerated cardiomyocytes, exploring the therapeutic effects of stem cell-derived exosomes and using the cell reprogram technology to improve the efficacy of cell therapy for cardiovascular diseases. Recently, stem cell-derived exosomes emerge as a critical player in paracrine mechanism of stem cell-based therapy. It is promising to exploit exosomes-based cell-free therapy for ischemic heart diseases in the future. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  15. Ischemic Colitis in an Endurance Runner

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    Chase Grames

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A 20-year-old female running the Marine Corps Marathon developed diarrhea at mile 12. After finishing the race she noted that she was covered in bloody stool. A local emergency department suspected ischemic colitis. After discharge, her primary care physician instructed her to discontinue the use of all nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Her symptoms resolved and she returned to running without any complications. This paper describes the pathophysiology, diagnostic approach, and management options.

  16. Colloidal drug delivery system: amplify the ocular delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Javed; Fazil, Mohd; Qumbar, Mohd; Khan, Nazia; Ali, Asgar

    2016-01-01

    The ocular perceivers are the most voluntarily accessible organs in terms of location in the body, yet drug distribution to these tissues is one of the most intriguing and challenging endeavors and problematic to the pharmaceutical scientist. The most of ocular diseases are treated with topical application of conventional formulation, i.e. solutions, suspensions and ointment. Typically on installation of these conventional formulations, only <5% of the applied dose penetrates the cornea and reaches intraocular tissues, while a major fraction of the instilled dose is wastage due to the presence of many ocular barriers like external barriers, rapid loss of the instilled solution from the precorneal area and nasolacrimal drainage system. Systemic absorption caused systemic side effects varying from mild to life-threatening events. The main objective of this review is to explore the role of colloidal delivery of drug to minimize the drawbacks associated with them. This review provides an insight into the various constraints associated with ocular drug delivery, summarizes recent findings and applications of colloidal delivery systems, i.e. nanoparticles, nanosuspensions, liposomes, niosomes, dendrimers and contact lenses containing nanoparticles have the capacity to distribute ocular drugs to categorical target sites and hold promise to revolutionize the therapy of many ocular perceiver diseases and minimized the circumscription of conventional delivery. Form the basis of literature review, it has been found that the novel delivery system have greater impact to maximize ocular drug absorption, and minimize systemic absorption and side effects.

  17. Influence of ocular perfusion pressure fluctuation on glaucoma

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    Min-Zi Ren

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To investigate the influence of ocular perfusion pressure fluctuation on glaucoma. METHODS:Forty patients with primary open angle glaucoma from January 2013 to June 2015 in our hospital were used as observation group and 40 families were used as control group. Circadian fluctuation of intraocular pressure, blood pressure and ocular perfusion pressure in 24h were determined to obtain systolic ocular perfusion pressure(SOPP, diastolic ocular perfusion pressure(DOPPand mean ocular perfusion pressure(MOPP. Pearson linear correlation was used to analyze the correlation of circadian MOPP fluctuation with cup-disc ratio, mean defect(MDand the picture standard deviation(PSD. RESULTS:The fluctuation of MOPP, SOPP and DOPP of observation group were significantly higher than those of control group(Pr=-0.389, 95%CI:-0.612~-0.082; P=0.011, was positively correlated with PSD(r=0.512, 95%CI:0.139 ~0.782; P=0.008; no correlation was found between it and the vertical cup-disc ratio(r=0.115, 95%CI:0.056~0.369; P=0.355. CONCLUSION:Ocular perfusion pressure fluctuations in patients with primary open angle glaucoma may reflect the severity of the disease and may make the situation aggravating. Therefore through perfusion pressure monitor in 24h may help us understand the ocular blood flow and the development of primary open-angle glaucoma.

  18. Use of Lumbar Punctures in the Management of Ocular Syphilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reekie, Ian; Reddy, Yaviche

    2018-01-01

    Ocular syphilis has become rare in the developed world, but is a common presentation to ophthalmology departments in South Africa. We investigated the proportion of patients diagnosed with ocular syphilis who went on to receive lumbar punctures, and determined the fraction of these who had cerebrospinal fluid findings suggestive of neurosyphilis. We aimed to determine whether the use of lumbar punctures in ocular syphilis patients was beneficial in picking up cases of neurosyphilis. Retrospective study of case notes of patients admitted to two district hospitals in Durban, South Africa, with ocular syphilis over a 20-month period. A total of 31 of 68 ocular syphilis patients underwent lumbar puncture, and of these, eight (25.8%) had findings suggestive of neurosyphilis. Lumbar puncture in ocular syphilis patients should continue to be a routine part of the investigation of these patients; a large proportion of ocular syphilis patients show cerebrospinal fluid findings suggestive of neurosyphilis, are at risk of the complications of neurosyphilis, and should be managed accordingly.

  19. The Impact of Visual Guided Order Picking on Ocular Comfort, Ocular Surface and Tear Function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelika Klein-Theyer

    Full Text Available We investigated the effects of a visual picking system on ocular comfort, the ocular surface and tear function compared to those of a voice guided picking solution.Prospective, observational, cohort study.Institutional.A total of 25 young asymptomatic volunteers performed commissioning over 10 hours on two consecutive days.The operators were guided in the picking process by two different picking solutions, either visually or by voice while their subjective symptoms and ocular surface and tear function parameters were recorded.The visual analogue scale (VAS values, according to subjective dry eye symptoms, in the visual condition were significantly higher at the end of the commissioning than the baseline measurements. In the voice condition, the VAS values remained stable during the commissioning. The tear break-up time (BUT values declined significantly in the visual condition (pre-task: 16.6 sec and post-task: 9.6 sec in the right eyes, that were exposed to the displays, the left eyes in the visual condition showed only a minor decline, whereas the BUT values in the voice condition remained constant (right eyes or even increased (left eyes over the time. No significant differences in the tear meniscus height values before and after the commissioning were observed in either condition.In our study, the use of visually guided picking solutions was correlated with post-task subjective symptoms and tear film instability.

  20. New nanomicelle curcumin formulation for ocular delivery: improved stability, solubility, and ocular anti-inflammatory treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mengshuang; Xin, Meng; Guo, Chuanlong; Lin, Guiming; Wu, Xianggen

    2017-11-01

    A stable topical ophthalmic curcumin formulation with high solubility, stability, and efficacy is needed for pharmaceutical use in clinics. The objective of this article was to describe a novel curcumin containing a nanomicelle formulation using a polyvinyl caprolactam-polyvinyl acetate-polyethylene glycol (PVCL-PVA-PEG) graft copolymer. Nanomicelle curcumin was formulated and optimized and then further evaluated for in vitro cytotoxicity/in vivo ocular irritation, in vitro cellular uptake/in vivo corneal permeation, and in vitro antioxidant activity/in vivo anti-inflammatory efficacy. The solubility, chemical stability, and antioxidant activity were greatly improved after the encapsulation of the PVCL-PVA-PEG nanomicelles. The nanomicelle curcumin ophthalmic solution was simple to prepare and the nanomicelles are stable to the storage conditions, and it had good cellular tolerance. Nanomicelle curcumin also had excellent ocular tolerance in rabbits. The use of nanomicelles significantly improved in vitro cellular uptake and in vivo corneal permeation as well as improved anti-inflammatory efficacy when compared with a free curcumin solution. These findings indicate that nanomicelles could be promising topical delivery systems for the ocular administration of curcumin.

  1. OCULAR PATHOLOGY IN PATIENTS AFTER KIDNEY TRANSPLANTATION

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    L. K. Moshetova

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Structural changes in eyes are present in all patients with chronic kidney disease. A study to detect ocular patho- logy in patients with end-stage chronic renal failure after kidney transplantation in the early and late postopera- tive period compared with patients receiving replacement therapy with hemodialysis. Revealed that in the early post-transplant period in recipients of kidneyas in patients on hemodialysis, continued angioretinopatiya, 40% of patients had «dry eye syndrome». In the delayed post-transplant period, patients showed significant impro- vement in the retina and retinal vessels, the improvement of spatial-temporal parameters of visual perception. However, a decrease of visual acuity on the background of the development of posterior subcapsular cataract caused by prolonged corticosteroid, and an increased incidence of viral and bacterial conjunctivitis. 

  2. Ocular Tuberculosis II: Diagnosis and Treatment

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    Sumru Önal

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies on the clinical importance of tuberculin skin tests (TST, interferon-gamma release assays (IGRAs, chest computed tomography (CT and polymerase chain reaction have provided a new approach to diagnosing ocular tuberculosis (TBC. However, both TST and IGRAs cannot distinguish between latent TBC infection and active disease. Another corroborative test in the diagnosis of intraocular TBC is the evaluation of the lungs by either chest radiography or CT. Direct evidence for the diagnosis can be obtained by examination of smears and staining for acid-fast organisms, cultures of intraocular tissue/fluid for Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and nucleic acid amplification analysis. In recent years, guidelines have been suggested for the diagnosis of intraocular TBC. The current treatment of intraocular TBC consists of use of four drugs (isoniazid, rifampicin, ethambutol and pyrazinamide taken for a long period of time (total 9-15 months. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2011; 41: 182-90

  3. Unusual Presentation of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis: Ocular Leishmaniasis

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    Masoud Doroodgar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The leishmaniases are parasitic diseases that are transmitted to humans by infected female sandflies. Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL is one of 3 main forms of the disease. CL is the most common form of the disease and is endemic in many urban and rural parts of Iran and usually caused by two species of Leishmania: L. major and L. tropica. We report a case of unusual leishmaniasis with 25 lesions on exposed parts of the body and right eyelid involvement (ocular leishmaniasis. The patient was a 75-year-old male farmer referred to health care center in Aran va Bidgol city. The disease was diagnosed by direct smear, culture, and PCR from the lesions. PCR was positive for Leishmania major.

  4. A Role for PPAR/ in Ocular Angiogenesis

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    David Bishop-Bailey

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The uses of highly selective PPAR/ ligands and PPAR/ knockout mice have shown a direct ability of PPAR/ to regulate angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo in animal models. PPAR/ ligands induce the proangiogenic growth factor VEGF in many cells and tissues, though its actions in the eye are not known. However, virtually, all tissue components of the eye express PPAR/. Both angiogenesis and in particular VEGF are not only critical for the development of the retina, but they are also a central component in many common pathologies of the eye, including diabetic retinopathy and age-related macular degeneration, the most common causes of blindness in the Western world. This review, therefore, will discuss the recent evidence of PPAR/-mediated angiogenesis and VEGF release in the context of ocular disorders.

  5. Surgical management of advanced ocular adnexal amyloidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrinely, J R; Koch, D D

    1992-06-01

    Ocular adnexal amyloidosis is characterized by amyloid deposition within the deep connective tissue layers of the eyelids, conjunctiva, and anterior orbit. Management of advanced cases has traditionally been unsatisfactory, with either no surgery offered because of fear of hemorrhage or an en bloc resection performed of the entire involved area. We present two cases of advanced periorbital amyloidosis successfully managed by preserving the anatomic planes of the eyelids and meticulously debulking the deposits with a spooned curette. Lax eyelid tendons and aponeuroses were simultaneously repaired, and no sacrifice of eyelid tissues was necessary. One patient remained asymptomatic for 2 years after surgery before developing early reaccumulation in the lower eyelids. The other patient required additional eyelid debulking and ptosis revision 8 months after surgery, but was in stable condition at follow-up 2 years after surgery. This technique offers safe, easily repeatable, nondestructive treatment for advanced periocular amyloidosis.

  6. Cerebral palsy characterization by estimating ocular motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Jully; Atehortúa, Angélica; Moncayo, Ricardo; Romero, Eduardo

    2017-11-01

    Cerebral palsy (CP) is a large group of motion and posture disorders caused during the fetal or infant brain development. Sensorial impairment is commonly found in children with CP, i.e., between 40-75 percent presents some form of vision problems or disabilities. An automatic characterization of the cerebral palsy is herein presented by estimating the ocular motion during a gaze pursuing task. Specifically, After automatically detecting the eye location, an optical flow algorithm tracks the eye motion following a pre-established visual assignment. Subsequently, the optical flow trajectories are characterized in the velocity-acceleration phase plane. Differences are quantified in a small set of patients between four to ten years.

  7. TOWARD THE QUESTION OF ISCHEMIC MYOCARDIAL DYSFUNCTION

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    V. V. Kalyuzhin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors of the review have analyzed papers published on the problem of ischemic myocardial dysfunction. They begin with a definition of the term “ischemia” (derived from two Greek words: ischō, meaning to hold back, and haima, meaning blood - a condition at which the arterial blood flow is insufficient to provide enough oxygen to prevent intracellular respiration from shifting from the aerobic to the anaerobic form. The poor rate of ATP generation from this process causes a decrease in cellular ATP, a concomitant rise in ADP, and ultimately, to depression inotropic (systolic and lusitropic (diastolic function of the affected segments of the myocardium. But with such simplicity of basic concepts, the consequences of ischemia so diverse. Influence of an ischemia on myocardial function so unequally at different patients, which is almost impossible to find two identical cases (as in the case of fingerprints. It depends on the infinite variety of lesions of coronary arteries, reperfusion (time and completeness of restoration of blood flow and reactions of a myocardium which, apparently, has considerable flexibility in its response. Ischemic myocardial dysfunction includes a number of discrete states, such as acute left ventricular failure in angina, acute myocardial infarction, ischemic cardiomyopathy, stunning, hibernation, pre- and postconditioning. There are widely differing underlying pathophysiologic states. The possibility exists that several of these states can coexist.

  8. Refining the ischemic penumbra with topography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirugnanachandran, Tharani; Ma, Henry; Singhal, Shaloo; Slater, Lee-Anne; Davis, Stephen M; Donnan, Geoffrey A; Phan, Thanh

    2018-04-01

    It has been 40 years since the ischemic penumbra was first conceptualized through work on animal models. The topography of penumbra has been portrayed as an infarcted core surrounded by penumbral tissue and an extreme rim of oligemic tissue. This picture has been used in many review articles and textbooks before the advent of modern imaging. In this paper, we review our understanding of the topography of the ischemic penumbra from the initial experimental animal models to current developments with neuroimaging which have helped to further define the temporal and spatial evolution of the penumbra and refine our knowledge. The concept of the penumbra has been successfully applied in clinical trials of endovascular therapies with a time window as long as 24 h from onset. Further, there are reports of "good" outcome even in patients with a large ischemic core. This latter observation of good outcome despite having a large core requires an understanding of the topography of the penumbra and the function of the infarcted regions. It is proposed that future research in this area takes departure from a time-dependent approach to a more individualized tissue and location-based approach.

  9. Neurovascular regulation in the ischemic brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackman, Katherine; Iadecola, Costantino

    2015-01-10

    The brain has high energetic requirements and is therefore highly dependent on adequate cerebral blood supply. To compensate for dangerous fluctuations in cerebral perfusion, the circulation of the brain has evolved intrinsic safeguarding measures. The vascular network of the brain incorporates a high degree of redundancy, allowing the redirection and redistribution of blood flow in the event of vascular occlusion. Furthermore, active responses such as cerebral autoregulation, which acts to maintain constant cerebral blood flow in response to changing blood pressure, and functional hyperemia, which couples blood supply with synaptic activity, allow the brain to maintain adequate cerebral perfusion in the face of varying supply or demand. In the presence of stroke risk factors, such as hypertension and diabetes, these protective processes are impaired and the susceptibility of the brain to ischemic injury is increased. One potential mechanism for the increased injury is that collateral flow arising from the normally perfused brain and supplying blood flow to the ischemic region is suppressed, resulting in more severe ischemia. Approaches to support collateral flow may ameliorate the outcome of focal cerebral ischemia by rescuing cerebral perfusion in potentially viable regions of the ischemic territory.

  10. ACE Gene in Egyptian Ischemic Stroke Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostafa, Magdy A; El-Nabiel, Lobna M; Fahmy, Nagia Aly; Aref, Hany; Shreef, Edrees; Abd El-Tawab, Fathy; Abdulghany, Osama M

    2016-09-01

    Angiotensin-1-converting enzyme (ACE) is a crucial player in vascular homeostasis and in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and hypertension. The present study was conducted to determine whether there is an association between the ACE insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism and ischemic stroke in Egyptian population. Also, we analyzed the ACE gene I/D polymorphism as a risk factor for small-vessel (SV) versus large-vessel (LV) disease. Sixty patients with ischemic stroke were included: 30 with SV disease and 30 with LV disease. In addition, a control group of 30 apparent healthy subjects were studied. Clinical assessment, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging brain, and genetic study using the polymerase chain reaction of ACE gene were done for all subjects. We found that the distribution of ACE gene polymorphism frequency was significantly different between the 3 groups. The DD genotype was far more common in stroke patients compared to controls. It was also significantly more common in each of the patient groups compared to controls but rather similar in the 2 patient groups with SV and LV diseases. We found that the ACE gene deletion/deletion genotype is common in Egyptian patients with non-cardioembolic ischemic stroke but does not appear to be specific neither to SV nor to LV disease. Copyright © 2016 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. [Ischemic stroke in the young adult].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvet, D

    2016-01-01

    Ischemic stroke is not rare in young adults since one in ten stroke patients are less than 50 years old. This incidence increased over the past last years, mainly due to the rise in the prevalence of traditional vascular risk factors in this sub-group of age but also of illegal drug use. Even though both survival and functional outcome of young stroke patients are better than those observed in older patients, socio-economic and quality of life consequences make this disease a main objective in terms of primary and secondary prevention. Identifying the cause of ischemic stroke in young adults is of major importance to prevent stroke recurrence. However, given the wide variety of potential underlying causes, the etiologic work-up of stroke in young adults requires a different approach from that in the elderly. In this context, a sequential diagnostic work-up is needed in order to optimize the yield of diagnostic tests, to reduce their cost and risks for the patient. Arterial dissection is the most frequent cause of stroke in young adults but other less frequent causes are numerous. Despite a comprehensive work-up, about one third of cases remains unexplained leading to the diagnosis of cryptogenic ischemic stroke. Copyright © 2015 Société nationale française de médecine interne (SNFMI). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Hypercholesterolemia in patients of ischemic stroke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saeed, E.; Ali, R.; Din, M.J.U.; Saeed, A.; Jadoon, R.J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Stroke is a common neurological disease that results in significant mortality and morbidity globally. Several risk factors have been identified for stroke among which hyperlipidaemia is one of the modifiable risk factors. Recent clinical trials have shown a reduction in ischemic stroke for patients taking lipid lowering medications. Therefore, the aim of this study was to find out the frequency of hypercholesterolemia in patients of ischemic stroke in Hazara region. Method: This cross sectional study was carried out in the Medical Department of Ayub Teaching Hospital, Abbottabad. Ninety patients of stroke confirmed as ischemic by CT scan brain were enrolled in the study after informed consent. The frequency of hypercholesterolemia in patients was recorded. Results: There were 55 (61.1 percentage) males. The mean age of patients was 64.4±11.5 years. The mean serum cholesterol in all patients was 4.16±1.1 mmol/l. The mean serum cholesterol of male patients was 4.3±1.2 mmol/l and 4.0±10.9 mmol/l in the case of females. Conclusions: Hypercholesterolemia could not be established as a major risk factor for stroke in our setup through this study that allude to the fact that other risk factors might be contributing more to the incidence of cerebrovascular accident in our population. (author)

  13. Ocular abnormalities in atopic dermatitis in Indian patients

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    Kaujalgi Radhika

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Atopic dermatitis (AD is a common skin disease. Long-standing, severe AD with repeated scratching and rubbing of the face, which requires continuous dermatologic care, predisposes the patient to various ocular complications. The knowledge of the frequency and significance of these ocular complications may allow their early diagnosis and treatment. The present study assesses the ocular complications in Indian children suffering from AD. Methods: In order to study the ocular complications in AD, 100 patients (61 male and 39 female between the ages of 1 and 14 years were recruited. All the patients had complete dilated fundus examination with indirect ophthalmoscopy. The lid, conjunctiva and cornea were examined. Also, any evidence of cataract formation and retinal disorders were recorded. Results: The mean age of the children was 5.4 years. Forty-three (43.0% AD patients showed ocular abnormalities in the form of lid and conjunctival changes. Of these, 18 (41.9% patients showed only lid involvement, 16 (37.2% only conjunctival involvement and both conjunctival and lid changes were seen in nine (20.9% patients. Conjunctival changes were mostly in the form of a cobblestone appearance of the papillae, with mild to moderate papillary reaction and papillary hypertrophy. Variables observed to have a significant impact on the development of ocular abnormalities were age more than 5 years, duration of illness> 12 months, positive family history of atopy, presence of palmar hyperlinearity and a combination of both xerosis and Dennie-Morgan fold. Conclusions: The present study is the first of its kind from India to document an association between AD in children and various ocular manifestations. The ocular manifestations observed in our cohort were not associated with significant ocular morbidity or visual impairment possibly because of a less-severe disease in Indians.

  14. Different techniques in fabrication of ocular prosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cevik, Pinar; Dilber, Erhan; Eraslan, Oguz

    2012-11-01

    Loss of an eye caused by cancer, trauma, or congenital defect creates a deep psychological impact on an individual's life especially social and professional life. Custom-made prosthesis, compared to stock prosthesis, provides a better fit to the eye socket, better cosmetic results, and less discomfort to the patient in the long term. The main objective of this article was to describe 3 different alternative and practical techniques of fabricating custom-made ocular prosthesis. An impression of anophthalmic socket was made with the addition of cured silicone-based precision impression material in all techniques. A master cast was prepared and duplicated with condensation silicone. A self-cure acrylic resin was polymerized in the silicone model and was fitted into the patient's eye socket. A digital photograph of the patient's iris was made using a digital camera and printed on good-quality photo paper in various shades and sizes in the first and the second techniques. Then the photo paper was coated with PVC so as not to allow any color flowing. The proper iris was then inserted to the acrylic base. The prosthesis was final processed using orthodontic heat polymerizing clear acrylic resin.In the other technique, after the trying-in process with wax pattern, an acrylic base was fabricated using heat polymerizing scleral acrylic resin. The prosthetic iris was fabricated from a transparent contact lens by painting the lens with watercolor paints and attaching it to an acrylic resin with tissue conditioner. The final process was made with heat polymerizing transparent acrylic resin. Custom-made prosthesis allows better esthetic and functional results to the patient in comparison to stock prosthesis. Further follow-up is necessary to check the condition and fit of the ocular prosthesis in such patients.

  15. Crohn’s Disease Ocular Manifestations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koev Kr.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Crohn’s disease is an inflammatory bowel disease which causes inflammation of the digestive tract. Crohn’s disease most frequently affects the ileum and the colon. In the active stage of the disease signs and symptoms may include diarrhea, abdominal pain and cramping, blood in the stools, reduced appetite and weight loss. In patients with severe Crohn’s disease the following signs and symptoms may be observed: fever, fatigue, arthritis, eye inflammation, oral ulcers, skin disorders, inflammation of the liver or bile ducts or delayed growth. Heredity and dysfunctions of the immune system are considered to cause the development of Crohn’s disease. About 10% of people with inflammatory bowel disease have also ocular problems. The most common ocular manifestations of Crohn’s disease are uveitis, iritis, episcleritis, keratopathy, keratoconjunctivitis and retinal vasculitis. Untreated uveitis may cause glaucoma and vision loss. Uveitis and iritis are four times more common in women than in men. In patients in the active stage of the disease, episcleritis also flares. Symptoms of episcleritis include inflammation, bright red spots on the sclera and localized pain. Keratoconjunctivitis in Crohn’s disease is caused by decreased tear production or increased tear film evaporation. Dry eyes can cause itching, burning or infection. Keratopathy usually causes no pain or vision loss, therefore in most cases no treatment is needed. In retinal vasculitis tortuosity of retinal veins, retinal edema at the posterior pole and intraretinal blood near blood vessels are observed. Intravenous fluorescein angiography shows intraretinal neovascularisation and haemorrhage in the posterior pole.

  16. Factors affecting outcome in ocular myasthenia gravis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzoli, Marco; Ariatti, Alessandra; Valzania, Franco; Kaleci, Shaniko; Tondelli, Manuela; Nichelli, Paolo F; Galassi, Giuliana

    2018-01-01

    50%-60% of patients with ocular myasthenia gravis (OMG) progress to generalized myasthenia gravis (GMG) within two years. The aim of our study was to explore factors affecting prognosis of OMG and to test the predictive role of several independent clinical variables. We reviewed a cohort of 168 Caucasian patients followed from September 2000 to January 2016. Several independent variables were considered as prognostic factors: gender, age of onset, results on electrophysiological tests, presence and level of antibodies against acetylcholine receptors (AChR Abs), treatments, thymic abnormalities. The primary outcome was the progression to GMG and/or the presence of bulbar symptoms. Secondary outcomes were either achievement of sustained minimal manifestation status or worsening in ocular quantitative MG subscore (O-QMGS) or worsening in total QMG score (T-QMGS), assessed by Myasthenia Gravis Foundation of America (MGFA) quantitative scores. Changes in mental and physical subscores of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) were assessed with SF-36 questionnaire. Variance analysis was used to interpret the differences between AChR Ab titers at different times of follow up among the generalized and non-generalized patients. Conversion to GMG occurred in 18.4% of patients; it was significantly associated with sex, later onset of disease and anti-AChR Ab positivity. Antibody titer above the mean value of 25.8 pmol/mL showed no significant effect on generalization. Sex and late onset of disease significantly affected T-QMGS worsening. None of the other independent variables significantly affected O-QMGS and HRQoL. Sex, later onset and anti-AChR Ab positivity were significantly associated with clinical worsening.

  17. The Role of Prosthesis Spacer for Ocular Prostheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, Luiza Alencar De Andrade; Sampaio, Aline Araújo; Souza, Samilly Evangelista; Ferreira, Fernando José Rigolin; Buzzá, Edmur Pereira; Rizzatti-Barbosa, Celia Marisa

    2017-06-01

    Eye defects can lead to emotional, psychological, and social changes, impacting negatively the quality of life of the patient. When these structures cannot be satisfactorily repaired by reconstructive surgery, the prosthetic rehabilitation is the better treatment option to restore lost ocular anatomy and promote the social integration of the individual. The aim of this clinical report is to report and discuss a case of ocular prosthesis confection eviscerated patient with opening limitation eyelid and shortening of the distance between palpebral commissure, to obtain a more natural and comfortable to the patient ocular rehabilitation.

  18. An introduction to the mathematics of ocular kinematics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graeme E MacKenzie

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The research surrounding ocular kinematics has widespread applications including the study of binocular vision, virtual reality and the detec-tion of ocular and neurologic pathologies. This field promises to have a significant impact on optometric diagnostic techniques. This paper in-troduces the terminology used in the description of eye rotations and explores a number of the mathematical approaches pertinent to the topic of ocular kinematics.

  19. Kabuki Syndrome: a case report with severe ocular abnormalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavio Mac Cord Medina

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Kabuki syndrome is a rare congenital anomaly, characterized by five fundamental features, the "Pentad of Niikawa": dysmorphic facies, skeletal anomalies, dermatoglyphic abnormalities, mild to moderate mental retardation and postnatal growth deficiency. Patients present characteristic external ocular features, nonetheless they may also present significant ocular abnormalities. We report a case of a brazilian child diagnosed with Kabuki syndrome, addressing the clinical features observed, with emphasis on the ocular manifestations. This case highlights the existence of this syndrome and all of its complexity. The identification of preventable causes of loss of vision underlines the value of detailed ophthalmologic examination of Kabuki syndrome patients.

  20. Ocular Features in 16 Brazilian Patients with Williams-Beuren Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viana, Melissa Machado; Frasson, Maria; Galvão, Henrique; Leão, Letícia Lima; Stofanko, Martin; Gonçalves-Dornelas, Higgor; da Silva Cunha, Pricila; Burle de Aguiar, Marcos José

    2015-01-01

    Williams-Beuren Syndrome (WBS) is a multisystem disorder caused by the deletion of contiguous genes on chromosome 7q11.23. Ophthalmologic abnormalities and deficits in visual motor integration are important features of WBS. Here we describe our experience with Brazilian WBS patients and their ophthalmologic features. Sixteen patients with confirmed WBS went through thorough ophthalmologic examination. The most frequent ocular findings in our group of patients were stellate iris pattern (81.2%), hyperopic astigmatism (50%), hyperopia (37.5%), tortuosity of retinal vessel (37.5%) and strabismus (18.7%). This is the second report of ophthalmologic abnormalities in a group of Brazilian individuals with WBS. It is extremely valuable that specific populations are studied so that clinical diagnosis can be refined and management of patients can be driven to the most common presentations of the disease.

  1. Axial diffusivity changes in the motor pathway above stroke foci and functional recovery after subcortical infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Gang; Peng, Kangqiang; Dang, Chao; Tan, Shuangquan; Chen, Hongbing; Xie, Chuanmiao; Xing, Shihui; Zeng, Jinsheng

    2018-01-01

    Secondary degeneration of the fiber tract of the motor pathway below infarct foci and functional recovery after stroke have been well demonstrated, but the role of the fiber tract above stroke foci remains unclear. This study aimed to investigate diffusion changes in motor fibers above the lesion and identify predictors of motor improvement within 12 weeks after subcortical infarction. Diffusion tensor imaging and the Fugl-Meyer (FM) scale were conducted 1, 4, and 12 weeks (W) after a subcortical infarct. Proportional recovery model residuals were used to assign patients to proportional recovery and poor recovery groups. Region of interest analysis was used to assess diffusion changes in the motor pathway above and below a stroke lesion. Multivariable linear regression was employed to identify predictors of motor improvement within 12 weeks after stroke. Axial diffusivity (AD) in the underlying white matter of the ipsilesional primary motor area (PMA) and cerebral peduncle (CP) in both proportional and poor recovery groups was lower at W1 compared to the controls and values in the contralesional PMA and CP (all P motor improvement within 12 weeks after stroke in patients with proportional or poor recovery. Increases of AD in the motor pathway above stroke foci may be associated with motor recovery after subcortical infarction. Early measurement of diffusion metrics in the ipsilesional non-ischemic motor pathway has limited value in predicting future motor improvement patterns (proportional or poor recovery).

  2. New Treatments for Nonarteritic Anterior Ischemic Optic Neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foroozan, Rod

    2017-02-01

    Despite increasing knowledge about the risk factors and clinical findings of nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION), the treatment of this optic neuropathy has remained limited and without clear evidence-based benefit. Historical treatments of NAION are reviewed, beginning with the Ischemic Optic Neuropathy Decompression Trial. More recent treatments are placed within the historical context and illustrate the need for evidence-based therapy for ischemic optic neuropathy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Improving the Translation of Animal Ischemic Stroke Studies to Humans

    OpenAIRE

    Jickling, Glen C; Sharp, Frank R

    2014-01-01

    Despite testing more than 1026 therapeutic strategies in models ischemic stroke and 114 therapies in human ischemic stroke, only one agent tissue plasminogen activator has successfully been translated to clinical practice as a treatment for acute stroke. Though disappointing, this immense body of work has led to a rethinking of animal stroke models and how to better translate therapies to patients with ischemic stroke. Several recommendations have been made, including the STAIR recommendation...

  4. Neonatal ischemic brain injury: what every radiologist needs to know

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badve, Chaitra A.; Khanna, Paritosh C.; Ishak, Gisele E. [Seattle Children' s Hospital, University of Washington Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2012-05-15

    We present a pictorial review of neonatal ischemic brain injury and look at its pathophysiology, imaging features and differential diagnoses from a radiologist's perspective. The concept of perinatal stroke is defined and its distinction from hypoxic-ischemic injury is emphasized. A brief review of recent imaging advances is included and a diagnostic approach to neonatal ischemic brain injury is suggested. (orig.)

  5. Review of external ocular compression: clinical applications of the ocular pressure estimator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korenfeld MS

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Michael S Korenfeld,1,2 David K Dueker3 1Comprehensive Eye Care, Ltd. Washington, MO, USA; 2Washington University Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, St Louis, MO, USA; 3Ophthalmology, Hamad Medical Corporation, Doha, Qatar Purpose: The authors have previously validated an Ocular Pressure Estimator (OPE that can estimate the intraocular pressure (IOP during external ocular compression (EOC. The authors now apply the OPE in clinical states where EOC is clinically important. The original work is described for two periods of risk: during sleep and during the digital ocular massage (DOM maneuver used by surgeons after trabeculectomy to keep the operation functional. Other periods of risk for external ocular compression are then reviewed.Methods: The first protocol estimated the IOP in the dependent eye during simulated sleep. Subjects had their IOPs initially measured in an upright-seated position, immediately upon assuming a right eye dependent side sleeping position (with nothing contacting the eye, and then 5 minutes later while still in this position. While maintaining this position, the fluid filled bladder of the OPE was then placed between the subject’s closed eye and a pillow during simulated sleep. The IOP was continuously estimated in this position for 5 minutes. The subjects then had the IOP measured in both eyes in an upright-seated position. The second protocol determined if a larger vertical cup-to-disc ratio was more common on the side that patients reported they preferred to sleep on. The hypothesis was that chronic asymmetric, compression induced, elevations of IOP during sleep would be associated with otherwise unexplained asymmetry of the vertical cup-to-disc ratio. The third protocol assessed the IOP during DOM. The OPE was used to characterize the IOP produced during the DOM maneuver of five glaucoma surgeons. After this, 90 mmHg was chosen as a target pressure for DOM. The surgeons were then verbally coached

  6. Electric motor handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Chalmers, B J

    2013-01-01

    Electric Motor Handbook aims to give practical knowledge in a wide range of capacities such as plant design, equipment specification, commissioning, operation and maintenance. The book covers topics such as the modeling of steady-state motor performance; polyphase induction, synchronous, and a.c. commutator motors; ambient conditions, enclosures, cooling and loss dissipation; and electrical supply systems and motor drives. Also covered are topics such as variable-speed drives and motor control; materials and motor components; insulation types, systems, and techniques; and the installation, sit

  7. Factors associated with childhood ocular morbidity and blindness in three ecological regions of Nepal: Nepal pediatric ocular disease study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, Srijana; Shrestha, Mohan Krishna; Adhikari, Kamala; Maharjan, Nhukesh; Shrestha, Ujjowala Devi

    2014-10-23

    Nepal Pediatric Ocular Diseases Study is a three year longitudinal population based study. Here we present the baseline survey report which aims to investigate various risk factors associated with childhood ocular morbidity and blindness in three ecological regions of Nepal. This baseline survey is a population based cross sectional study. The investigation was conducted in a district from each of the following regions: Terai, Hill and Mountain. The Village Development Committees (VDCs) from each district were selected by random sampling. Three Community health workers were given training on vision screening and identification of abnormal ocular signs in children. They conducted a house to house survey in their respected districts examining the children and gathering a standardized set of data variables. Children with abnormal vision or ocular signs were then further examined by pediatric ophthalmologists. A total of 10950 children aged 0-10 years (5403 from Terai, 3204 from the hills, 2343 from the mountains) were enrolled in the study. However 681 (6.2%) were non responders. The male to female ratio was 1.03. The overall prevalence of ocular morbidity was 3.7% (95% CI of 3.4%-4%) and blindness was 0.07% (95% CI of 0.02%-0.12%). Ocular morbidity was more prevalent in the mountain region whereas blindness was more prevalent in the Terai region.Children from the Terai region were more likely to suffer from congenital ocular anomalies compared to the other regions. Children whose mother smoked, drank alcohol, or was illiterate were significantly afflicted with ocular diseases (p Blindness was more prevalent in children who suffered from a systemic illness. Females and under-nourished children were more likely to have ocular morbidity and blindness. It was found that childhood blindness was more prevalent in the Terai region, the undernourished, females and in those with co-morbid systemic illnesses. This study strongly suggests that prevention of childhood

  8. Temporal delta wave and ischemic lesions on MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inui, Koji; Kawamoto, Hozumi; Kawakita, Masahiko; Wako, Kazuhisa; Nakashima, Hiromichi; Kamihara, Masanori; Nomura, Junichi

    1994-01-01

    The present study was designed to determine the clinical significance of a temporal low-voltage irregular delta wave (TLID) on EEG. Among 808 EEG records examined during one year at our hospital, the TLID was commonly detected in patients with clinically diagnosed ischemic brain diseases such as multiple infarction. Subsequently, a relation of the TLID to ischemic lesions on MRI was examined in 50 elderly depressive patients. It was found that there was a close correlation between the occurrence of the TLID and small ischemic lesions on MRI (p<0.001). These results suggest that the TLID is a valuable indicator of minor ischemic changes of the brain. (author)

  9. Ischemic perinatal brain damage. Neuropathologic and CT correlations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crisi, G; Mauri, C; Canossi, G; Della Giustina, E

    1986-01-01

    The term ''hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy'' covers a large part of neonatal neuropathology including the various forms of intracerebral haemorrhage. In the present work the term is confined to ischemic brain edema and actual infarction, be it diffuse or focal. Eighteen newborns with CT evidence of ischemic brain lesions and infarctual necrosis were selected. Emphasis is placed on current data on neuropathology of ischemic brain edema and its CT appearance. Particular entities such as periventricular leukomalacia and multicystic encephalopathy are discussed. Relationship between CT and temporal profile of cerebral damage is emphasized in order to predict the structural sequelae and the longterm prognosis. 31 refs.

  10. Ischemic Preconditioning of One Forearm Enhances Static and Dynamic Apnea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeld, Thomas; Rasmussen, Mads Reinholdt; Jattu, Timo

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Ischemic preconditioning enhances ergometer cycling and swimming performance. We evaluated whether ischemic preconditioning of one forearm (four times for 5 min) also affects static breath hold and underwater swimming, whereas the effect of similar preconditioning on ergometer rowing...... preconditioning reduced the forearm oxygen saturation from 65% ± 7% to 19% ± 7% (mean ± SD; P right thigh.......05). CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that while the effect of ischemic preconditioning (of one forearm) on ergometer rowing was minimal, probably because of reduced muscle oxygenation during the warm-up, ischemic preconditioning does enhance both static and dynamic apnea, supporting that muscle ischemia is an important...

  11. Handbook on linear motor application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-10-01

    This book guides the application for Linear motor. It lists classification and speciality of Linear Motor, terms of linear-induction motor, principle of the Motor, types on one-side linear-induction motor, bilateral linear-induction motor, linear-DC Motor on basic of the motor, linear-DC Motor for moving-coil type, linear-DC motor for permanent-magnet moving type, linear-DC motor for electricity non-utility type, linear-pulse motor for variable motor, linear-pulse motor for permanent magneto type, linear-vibration actuator, linear-vibration actuator for moving-coil type, linear synchronous motor, linear electromagnetic motor, linear electromagnetic solenoid, technical organization and magnetic levitation and linear motor and sensor.

  12. Progressive hemifacial atrophy with ciliary body atrophy and ocular hypotony

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Ashwini Kini

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Progressive hemifacial atrophy (PHA is a disease of unknown etiology affecting one-half of the face. Ocular involvement is uncommon. Atrophy of iris is rare, with only a few cases of partial atrophy being reported in the literature. We report a case of total atrophy of iris and ciliary body with associated ocular hypotony in a 16-year-old girl with PHA. We believe this is the first reported case of complete atrophy of iris and ciliary body in PHA. Ocular hypotony in PHA was thought to be due to intra-ocular inflammation. However in our case it appears to be secondary to severe atrophy of the ciliary body.

  13. The effects of lateral head tilt on ocular astigmatic axis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Fesharaki

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: Any minimal angle of head tilt may cause erroneous measurement of astigmatic axis and should be avoided during refraction. One cannot rely on the compensatory function of ocular counter-torsion during the refraction.

  14. 21 CFR 886.4610 - Ocular pressure applicator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 886.4610 Ocular pressure applicator. (a... bulb, a dial indicator, a band, and bellows, intended to apply pressure on the eye in preparation for...

  15. Ocular Injuries: Another Example of the Heavy Prize of Terrorism

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-12-13

    Dec 13, 2016 ... A 25‑year‑old air force personnel (lance corporal) presented to our accident and emergency ... Ocular Injuries: Another Example of the Heavy Prize of. Terrorism ..... Singapore: World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd.; 2011. p.

  16. Ocular Dynamics of Bolus Ingestion of Eleis guineensis Sap (Palm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Elaeis guineensis), and is widely consumed among the various ethnic nationalities in Nigeria. The effect of bolus ingestion of 600ml, palm wine was undertaken so as to determine its ocular dynamics in healthy volunteers. Results showed that ...

  17. ocular findings in children with cerebral palsy attending a tertiary

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ocular abnormalities among children with cerebral palsy that attended the neurology clinic of University of. Ilorin Teaching ... recognize faces or hand-held toys (Chen, Weinberg and Catalano ... palsy that is also blind/visually impaired pose a.

  18. Prognostic analysis of 216 cases with penetrating ocular injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Guo

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To analyze the factors of penetrating ocular injury, and to investigate the prognostic factors and treatment strategies. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of 216 ocular trauma patients(221 eyes, in our hospital from November 2009 to November 2011, was completed. RESULTS: The eyeball atrophy inevitably occurred in 13 eye wounds more than 30mm. Retinal prolapse of the eyes, 78%(35/45completed vitrectomy, 33%(15/45were eyeball atrophy. The 51%(20/39of subchoroidal hemorrhage eyes were eyeball atrophy. Retinal prolapse and subchoroidal hemorrhage increased the risk of ocular atrophy(PPCONCLUSION: Serious ocular trauma prognosis related to many factors. The retina prolapse and the subchoroidal hemorrhage were important prognosis testify. A scleral buckling condensation surgery and vitrectomy have a therapeutic effect, and can improve visual function.

  19. The importance of vitamin D in systemic and ocular wellness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart P. Richer

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin D is good for bones and teeth. It may also have a role in preventing and treating diabetes, certain cancers, atherosclerosis, multiple sclerosis, hip fractures and ocular conditions such as age-related macular degeneration.

  20. Intraocular Inflammation Associated with Ocular Toxoplasmosis : Relationships at Initial Examination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dodds, Emilio M.; Holland, Gary N.; Stanford, Miles R.; Yu, Fei; Siu, Willie O.; Shah, Kayur H.; Loon, Ninette Ten Dam-Van; Muccioli, Cristina; Hovakimyan, Anna; Barisani-Asenbauer, Talin

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE: To describe characteristics of intraocular inflammation in eyes with active ocular toxoplasmosis and to identify relationships between signs of inflammation, complications (including elevated intraocular pressure [IOP]), other disease features, and host characteristics. DESIGN: Multicenter,

  1. Ocular injuries and eye care seeking patterns following injuries ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, the extent of ocular injuries and health seeking patterns following these injuries are unknown among cocoa farmers in ... policy exists in Ghana for the occupational health and safety of ...... Cambridge,. UK:University Press.1963. 29.

  2. An Uncommon Case of Noninvasive Ocular Surface Squamous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eye, which gradually increased in size [Figure 1]. ... eye and no history of any ocular surgery in the past. ... carcinoma in situ (CIS), and invasive squamous cell ... author is credited and the new creations are licensed under the identical terms.

  3. Validation of farsi translation of the ocular surface disease index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzad Pakdel

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: The obtained F-OSDI showed acceptable internal consistency and test-retest reliability. This F-OSDI could be used for assessment of dry eye, ocular surface discomfort and quality of life in Iranian and Farsi speaking populations.

  4. Infection and Replication of Influenza Virus at the Ocular Surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creager, Hannah M; Kumar, Amrita; Zeng, Hui; Maines, Taronna R; Tumpey, Terrence M; Belser, Jessica A

    2018-04-01

    Although influenza viruses typically cause respiratory tract disease, some viruses, particularly those with an H7 hemagglutinin, have been isolated from the eyes of conjunctivitis cases. Previous work has shown that isolates of multiple subtypes from both ocular and respiratory infections are capable of replication in human ex vivo ocular tissues and corneal or conjunctival cell monolayers, leaving the determinants of ocular tropism unclear. Here, we evaluated the effect of several variables on tropism for ocular cells cultured in vitro and examined the potential effect of the tear film on viral infectivity. All viruses tested were able to replicate in primary human corneal epithelial cell monolayers subjected to aerosol inoculation. The temperature at which cells were cultured postinoculation minimally affected infectivity. Replication efficiency, in contrast, was reduced at 33°C relative to that at 37°C, and this effect was slightly greater for the conjunctivitis isolates than for the respiratory ones. With the exception of a seasonal H3N2 virus, the subset of viruses studied in multilayer corneal tissue constructs also replicated productively after either aerosol or liquid inoculation. Human tears significantly inhibited the hemagglutination of both ocular and nonocular isolates, but the effect on viral infectivity was more variable, with tears reducing the infectivity of nonocular isolates more than ocular isolates. These data suggest that most influenza viruses may be capable of establishing infection if they reach the surface of ocular cells but that this is more likely for ocular-tropic viruses, as they are better able to maintain their infectivity during passage through the tear film. IMPORTANCE The potential spread of zoonotic influenza viruses to humans represents an important threat to public health. Unfortunately, despite the importance of cellular and tissue tropism to pathogenesis, determinants of influenza virus tropism have yet to be fully

  5. Interacting adiabatic quantum motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruch, Anton; Kusminskiy, Silvia Viola; Refael, Gil; von Oppen, Felix

    2018-05-01

    We present a field-theoretic treatment of an adiabatic quantum motor. We explicitly discuss a motor called the Thouless motor which is based on a Thouless pump operating in reverse. When a sliding periodic potential is considered to be the motor degree of freedom, a bias voltage applied to the electron channel sets the motor in motion. We investigate a Thouless motor whose electron channel is modeled as a Luttinger liquid. Interactions increase the gap opened by the periodic potential. For an infinite Luttinger liquid the coupling-induced friction is enhanced by electron-electron interactions. When the Luttinger liquid is ultimately coupled to Fermi liquid reservoirs, the dissipation reduces to its value for a noninteracting electron system for a constant motor velocity. Our results can also be applied to a motor based on a nanomagnet coupled to a quantum spin Hall edge.

  6. Chronic motor tic disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronic vocal tic disorder; Tic - chronic motor tic disorder ... Chronic motor tic disorder is more common than Tourette syndrome . Chronic tics may be forms of Tourette syndrome. Tics usually start ...

  7. Ocular manifestations of Gaucher disease: case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mejía-Turizo, Juan Carlos

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of a patient with Gaucher disease (GD type 3b, with a homozygous GBA gene mutation (c.1448T > C p.L483P (L444P. Ocular findings characteristic of this mutation are described, including vitreous condensation and macular edema. To our knowledge this is the first case reported in Colombia with these characteristics. A review of the ocular manifestations of this disease is also presented.

  8. Clinical value of different detection methods in blunt ocular trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Li

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Blunt ocular can cause persistent change of eye structure and function, the method of detection which is closely related to eye injury including B-can ultrasonography, UBM, OCT, FFA, scanning laser polarimetry, fundus autofluorescence, each examination with particular emphasis. This paper aims to review the advantages and disadvantages of different inspection methods in order to provide reference for clinical diagnosis and treatment of blunt ocular trauma.

  9. Profile of ocular trauma in industries-related hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shashikala, P; Sadiqulla, Mohammed; Shivakumar, D; Prakash, K H

    2013-05-01

    Ocular trauma is a worldwide cause of visual morbidity, a significant proportion of which occurs in the industrial workplace and includes a spectrum of simple ocular surface foreign bodies, abrasions to devastating perforating injuries causing blindness. Being preventable is of social and medical concern. A prospective case series study, to know the profile of ocular trauma at a hospital caters exclusively to factory employees and their families, to co-relate their demographic and clinical profile and to identify the risk factors. Patients with ocular trauma who presented at ESIC Model hospital, Rajajinagar, Bangalore, from June 2010 to May 2011 were taken a detailed demographic data, nature and cause of injury, time interval between the time of injury and presentation along with any treatment received. Ocular evaluation including visual acuity, anterior and posterior segment findings, intra-ocular pressure and gonio-scopy in closed globe injuries, X-rays for intraocular foreign body, B-scan and CT scan were done. Data analyzed as per the ocular trauma classification group. The rehabilitation undertaken medically or surgically was analyzed. At follow-up, the final best corrected visual acuity was noted. A total of 306 cases of ocular trauma were reported; predominantly in 20-40 year age group (72.2%) and in men (75%). The work place related cases were 50.7%and of these, fall of foreign bodies led the list. Visual prognosis was poorer in road traffic accidents rather than work place injuries owing to higher occurrence of open globe injuries and optic neuropathy. Finally, 11% of injured cases ended up with poor vision. Targeting groups most at risk, providing effective eye protection, and developing workplace safety cultures may together reduce occupational eye injuries.

  10. Multiple ocular abnormalities associated with trisomy 4p.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Samin; Kang, Sung Yong; Seong, Gong Je; Shin, Joo Youn; Kim, Chan Yun

    2008-01-01

    Ocular features associated with trisomy 4p have rarely been described. The authors have experienced multiple ocular abnormalities (bilateral cataracts, posterior synechiae, and posterior segment changes) associated with this chromosomal abnormality. It was presumed that these intraocular findings might be associated with the previous inflammatory process. In the current case, the patient recovered some useful vision after surgical removal of cataracts and intraocular lens implantations in both eyes. A detailed ophthalmic examination for patients with the autosomal imbalance is recom-mended.

  11. INCIDENCE OF OCULAR TRAUMA IN A TERTIARY HOSPITAL IN VISAKHAPATNAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkata Madusudanarao Kanukollu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Ocular trauma is a major cause of preventable ocular blindness in the world. The present available data represents the tip of iceberg. The data pertaining to ocular trauma is just hospital based data which does not accurately represent the population at risk. The ocular morbidity may be disproportionate to the severity of injury. Though eyes represent only 0.21% of body surface area and 4% of facial area, they are the third most common trauma exposed areas after hands and feet. MATERIALS AND METHODS Our study group consisted of 341 patients who attended ophthalmology OPD with history of ocular trauma of whom 221 were males and 121 were females. The study was conducted over a period of one year. A complete anterior and posterior segment evaluation of all the patients was done. Other accessory ocular and systemic investigations wherever essential were done. RESULTS The ocular trauma was more common in males (64.52% predominantly affecting patients of 20-40 years age group (36.07%. Most often the injuries were occupation related (73.90% and the most common work related injury observed was extraocular foreign body in 134 patients (39.29%. Closed globe injuries were more common as compared to open globe injuries. Eyes with better visual acuity at presentation had better visual prognosis. Blinding trauma was observed in 29 patients (8.50%. CONCLUSION Ocular injuries are more commonly occupation related and mostly effect young males who are the main work force of our society. Stringent implementation of preventive norms in industries to all the workers and safety precautions during sports, driving need to be enforced.

  12. Clinical analysis on 159 cases of mechanical ocular trauma

    OpenAIRE

    Zi-Yao Liu; Ya-Zhi Fan; Yu-Ping Zheng; Jian-Ming Wang

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To provide the basis of security guidance and decreasing the incidence through a general investigation of the mechanical ocular trauma among all the common causes, occasions where getting hurt as well as the characteristics of the high-risk group, and by further analysis and monitoring of the clinical cases and follow-up visit, study the related key factors of influencing the prognosis statistically. METHODS: The data of the 159 cases with mechanical ocular trauma were recorded.RESULTS: ...

  13. Ocular myasthenia gravis in a setting of thyrotoxicosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarabjeet Chhabra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ocular myasthenia gravis in conjunction with thyroid disorders, although rare, has been reported in the past. However, the similarity in the presentation of both the entities and the tendency of myasthenia gravis to get overlooked easily, even by experienced clinicians, necessitates a thorough knowledge, a strong consideration, and a vigilant approach, to aid in its diagnosis. We discuss a case of a female in a thyrotoxic state, with symptoms of ocular myasthenia gravis, and a brief overview of this entity.

  14. Long term ocular and neurological involvement in severe congenital toxoplasmosis.

    OpenAIRE

    Meenken, C; Assies, J; van Nieuwenhuizen, O; Holwerda-van der Maat, W G; van Schooneveld, M J; Delleman, W J; Kinds, G; Rothova, A

    1995-01-01

    AIMS--This study was set up to determine the long term ocular and systemic sequelae in patients with severe congenital toxoplasmosis. METHODS--Cross sectional and retrospective study of 17 patients with severe congenital toxoplasmosis. RESULTS--In addition to chorioretinitis (100%), the most common abnormal ocular features were optic nerve atrophy (83%), visual acuity of less than 0.1 (85%), strabismus, and microphthalmos. In 50% of cases we observed iridic abnormalities and about 40% develop...

  15. Choroidal thickness in Chinese patients with non-arteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Libin; Chen, Lanlan; Qiu, Xiujuan; Jiang, Ran; Wang, Yaxing; Xu, Liang; Lai, Timothy Y Y

    2016-08-31

    Non-arteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (NA-AION) is one of the most common types of ischemic optic neuropathy. Several recent studies suggested that abnormalities of choroidal thickness might be associated with NA-AION. The main objective of this case-control study was to evaluate whether choroidal thickness is an ocular risk factor for the development of NA-AION by evaluating the peripapillary and subfoveal choroidal thicknesses in affected Chinese patients. Forty-four Chinese patients with unilateral NA-AION were recruited and compared with 60 eyes of 60 normal age and refractive-error matched control subjects. Peripapillary and subfoveal choroidal thicknesses were measured by enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography. Choroidal thicknesses of eyes with NA-AION and unaffected fellow eyes were compared with normal controls. Choroidal thicknesses of NA-AION eyes with or without optic disc edema were also compared. The correlation between choroidal thickness and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness, logMAR best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), and the mean deviation (MD) of Humphrey static perimetry in NA-AION eyes were analyzed. The peripapillary choroidal thicknesses at the nasal, nasal inferior and temporal inferior segments in NA-AION eyes with optic disc edema were significantly thicker compared with that of normal subjects (P optic disc edema and normal eyes (all P > 0.05). No significant correlation between choroidal thickness and RNFL thickness, logMAR BCVA and perimetry MD was found in eyes affected by NA-AION (all P > 0.05). Increase in peripapillary choroid thickness in some segments was found in NA-ION eyes with optic disc edema. However, our findings do not support the hypothesis that choroidal thickness is abnormal in Chinese patients with NA-AION compared with normal subjects with similar age and refractive error status.

  16. Acute Effect of Hypervolemic Hemodilution on Retrobulbar Hemodynamics in Anterior Ischemic Optic Neuropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion Bienert

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Ischemic ocular disorders may be treated by hypervolemic hemodilution. The presumed therapeutic benefit is based on a volume effect and improved rheological factors. The aim was to investigate the acute effect of intravenous hydroxyethyl starch on retrobulbar hemodynamics in patients with nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION. Methods. 24 patients with acute NAION were included. Retrobulbar hemodynamics were measured using color Doppler imaging before and 15 min after intravenous infusion of 250 cc 10% hydroxyethyl starch (HES. Peak systolic velocity (PSV, end diastolic velocity (EDV, and Pourcelot’s resistive index (RI were measured in the ophthalmic artery (OA, central retinal artery (CRA, and short posterior ciliary arteries (PCAs. Results. After infusion of HES blood flow velocities significantly increased in the CRA (PSV from 7.53±2.33 to 8.32±2.51  (p<0.001; EDV from 2.16±0.56 to 2.34±0.55  (p<0.05 and in the PCAs (PSV from 7.18±1.62 to 7.56±1.55  (p<0.01; EDV from 2.48±0.55 to 2.66±0.6 cm/sec (p<0.01. The RI of all retrobulbar vessels remained unaffected. Blood pressure and heart rate remained unchanged. Conclusions. Hypervolemic hemodilution has an acute effect on blood flow velocities in the CRA and PCAs in NAION patients. Increased blood flow in the arteries supplying the optic nerve head may lead to a better perfusion in NAION patients. This trial is registered with DRKS00012603.

  17. Piezoelectric Motors, an Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Karl Spanner; Burhanettin Koc

    2016-01-01

    Piezoelectric motors are used in many industrial and commercial applications. Various piezoelectric motors are available in the market. All of the piezoelectric motors use the inverse piezoelectric effect, where microscopically small oscillatory motions are converted into continuous or stepping rotary or linear motions. Methods of obtaining long moving distance have various drive and functional principles that make these motors categorized into three groups: resonance-drive (piezoelectric ult...

  18. Trauma ocular aberto: características de casos atendidos no complexo Hospitalar Padre Bento de Guarulhos Ocular open trauma: characteristics of admitted cases at the Padre Bento Hospital of Guarulhos, SP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Weyll

    2005-08-01

    room with a diagnosis of open ocular trauma were included. After ophthalmologic examination, all patients hospitalized, with intravenous antibiotic therapy, occlusive tamper and preparation for surgery. RESULTS: Twenty-three patients with ocular perforating trauma were attended. Mean age was 34.35 years, with males representing 87.00% of all cases. Motor vehicle accidents were the most frequent type of trauma with 43.50% of the patients. Visual acuity loss was an important predictor of looking for early medical emergency service, with 92.30% of the patients doing this in less than twelve hours. CONCLUSION: Penetrating corneal trauma was the most frequent. Open ocular trauma was more frequent in young men, victims of automobile accident. The right eye was the most affected. Low vision was the mostly observed immediate complication.

  19. Fundus Autofluorescence Imaging in an Ocular Screening Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Kolomeyer

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To describe integration of fundus autofluorescence (FAF imaging into an ocular screening program. Methods. Fifty consecutive screening participants were included in this prospective pilot imaging study. Color and FAF (530/640 nm exciter/barrier filters images were obtained with a 15.1MP Canon nonmydriatic hybrid camera. A clinician evaluated the images on site to determine need for referral. Visual acuity (VA, intraocular pressure (IOP, and ocular pathology detected by color fundus and FAF imaging modalities were recorded. Results. Mean ± SD age was 47.4 ± 17.3 years. Fifty-two percent were female and 58% African American. Twenty-seven percent had a comprehensive ocular examination within the past year. Mean VA was 20/39 in the right eye and 20/40 in the left eye. Mean IOP was 15 mmHg bilaterally. Positive color and/or FAF findings were identified in nine (18% individuals with diabetic retinopathy or macular edema (n=4, focal RPE defects (n=2, age-related macular degeneration (n=1, central serous retinopathy (n=1, and ocular trauma (n=1. Conclusions. FAF was successfully integrated in our ocular screening program and aided in the identification of ocular pathology. Larger studies examining the utility of this technology in screening programs may be warranted.

  20. Fundus autofluorescence imaging in an ocular screening program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolomeyer, A M; Nayak, N V; Szirth, B C; Khouri, A S

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. To describe integration of fundus autofluorescence (FAF) imaging into an ocular screening program. Methods. Fifty consecutive screening participants were included in this prospective pilot imaging study. Color and FAF (530/640 nm exciter/barrier filters) images were obtained with a 15.1MP Canon nonmydriatic hybrid camera. A clinician evaluated the images on site to determine need for referral. Visual acuity (VA), intraocular pressure (IOP), and ocular pathology detected by color fundus and FAF imaging modalities were recorded. Results. Mean ± SD age was 47.4 ± 17.3 years. Fifty-two percent were female and 58% African American. Twenty-seven percent had a comprehensive ocular examination within the past year. Mean VA was 20/39 in the right eye and 20/40 in the left eye. Mean IOP was 15 mmHg bilaterally. Positive color and/or FAF findings were identified in nine (18%) individuals with diabetic retinopathy or macular edema (n = 4), focal RPE defects (n = 2), age-related macular degeneration (n = 1), central serous retinopathy (n = 1), and ocular trauma (n = 1). Conclusions. FAF was successfully integrated in our ocular screening program and aided in the identification of ocular pathology. Larger studies examining the utility of this technology in screening programs may be warranted.

  1. Clusterin Seals the Ocular Surface Barrier in Mouse Dry Eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauskar, Aditi; Mack, Wendy J; Mauris, Jerome; Argüeso, Pablo; Heur, Martin; Nagel, Barbara A; Kolar, Grant R; Gleave, Martin E; Nakamura, Takahiro; Kinoshita, Shigeru; Moradian-Oldak, Janet; Panjwani, Noorjahan; Pflugfelder, Stephen C; Wilson, Mark R; Fini, M Elizabeth; Jeong, Shinwu

    2015-01-01

    Dry eye is a common disorder caused by inadequate hydration of the ocular surface that results in disruption of barrier function. The homeostatic protein clusterin (CLU) is prominent at fluid-tissue interfaces throughout the body. CLU levels are reduced at the ocular surface in human inflammatory disorders that manifest as severe dry eye, as well as in a preclinical mouse model for desiccating stress that mimics dry eye. Using this mouse model, we show here that CLU prevents and ameliorates ocular surface barrier disruption by a remarkable sealing mechanism dependent on attainment of a critical all-or-none concentration. When the CLU level drops below the critical all-or-none threshold, the barrier becomes vulnerable to desiccating stress. CLU binds selectively to the ocular surface subjected to desiccating stress in vivo, and in vitro to the galectin LGALS3, a key barrier component. Positioned in this way, CLU not only physically seals the ocular surface barrier, but it also protects the barrier cells and prevents further damage to barrier structure. These findings define a fundamentally new mechanism for ocular surface protection and suggest CLU as a biotherapeutic for dry eye.

  2. Inferior ectopic pupil and typical ocular coloboma in RCS rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, Naho; Ozaki, Kiyokazu; Narama, Isao; Matsuura, Tetsuro

    2011-08-01

    Ocular coloboma is sometimes accompanied by corectopia in humans and therefore ectopic pupil may indicate ocular coloboma in experimental animals. The RCS strain of rats has a low incidence of microphthalmia. We found that inferior ectopic pupil is associated exclusively with small-sized eyes in this strain. The objective of the current study was to evaluate whether inferior ectopic pupil is associated with iridal coloboma and other types of ocular coloboma in RCS rats. Both eyes of RCS rats were examined clinically, and those with inferior ectopic pupils underwent morphologic and morphometric examinations. In a prenatal study, coronal serial sections of eyeballs from fetuses at gestational day 16.5 were examined by using light microscopy. Ectopic pupils in RCS rats were found exclusively in an inferior position, where the iris was shortened. Fundic examination revealed severe chorioretinal coloboma in all cases of inferior ectopic pupil. The morphologic characteristics closely resembled those of chorioretinal coloboma in humans. Histopathologic examination of primordia showed incomplete closure of the optic fissure in 4 eyeballs of RCS fetuses. Neither F(1) rats nor N(2) (progeny of RCS × BN matings) displayed any ocular anomalies, including ectopic pupils. The RCS strain is a suitable model for human ocular coloboma, and inferior ectopic pupil appears to be a strong indicator of ocular coloboma.

  3. Evaluation of the ocular protection for low intensity therapeutic lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cordon, Rosely

    2003-01-01

    The low intensity laser therapy (LILT) has been extensively used in medicine and dentistry presenting positive effects. However, the laser radiation can also cause adverse effects. Due to the ocular focalization property, in the wavelength from 400 to 1400 nm, the retina is more susceptible to damage by radiation than any other part of the human body. Then, the ocular protection is frequently emphasized. This protection must attenuate the radiation to a safe level. The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) standard IEC 60825-1 suggests safety requirements for medical laser equipment, including the ocular protection, based on maximum permissible exposure levels. The Brazilian legislation adopts a corresponding IEC standard, the NBR IEC 601.2.22, for safety requirements. The aim of this study was to analyze the adequacy of the ocular protectors furnished by four laser equipment manufacturers, commercially available in Brazil, commonly used for LILT. For this purpose, the laser equipment and the respective ocular protectors were characterized. The adequacy was verified according to the IEC standards. It was found, among other results, ocular protectors attenuating to safe levels the radiation emitted by the respective laser equipment, however, presenting inadequate visual transmission. Inefficient protection and protection indicated in cases where they were not necessary were also observed. (author)

  4. Clusterin Seals the Ocular Surface Barrier in Mouse Dry Eye.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditi Bauskar

    Full Text Available Dry eye is a common disorder caused by inadequate hydration of the ocular surface that results in disruption of barrier function. The homeostatic protein clusterin (CLU is prominent at fluid-tissue interfaces throughout the body. CLU levels are reduced at the ocular surface in human inflammatory disorders that manifest as severe dry eye, as well as in a preclinical mouse model for desiccating stress that mimics dry eye. Using this mouse model, we show here that CLU prevents and ameliorates ocular surface barrier disruption by a remarkable sealing mechanism dependent on attainment of a critical all-or-none concentration. When the CLU level drops below the critical all-or-none threshold, the barrier becomes vulnerable to desiccating stress. CLU binds selectively to the ocular surface subjected to desiccating stress in vivo, and in vitro to the galectin LGALS3, a key barrier component. Positioned in this way, CLU not only physically seals the ocular surface barrier, but it also protects the barrier cells and prevents further damage to barrier structure. These findings define a fundamentally new mechanism for ocular surface protection and suggest CLU as a biotherapeutic for dry eye.

  5. Ocular Injury in Cosmetic Laser Treatments of the Face.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Amy; Phillips, Arianna; Adar, Tony; Hui, Andrea

    2018-02-01

    BACKGROUND: The eye is a vulnerable and commonly injured organ in cosmetic laser procedures of the face. Treatment of the eyelids and periorbital areas increases this risk, especially when ocular protection devices are not used or are removed during the procedure. A study has shown that injury from laser epilation of the periocular areas is one of the most common causes of litigation in cutaneous laser surgery. OBJECTIVE: The goal of this review is to determine the causes of ocular injury in cosmetic laser procedures and derive lessons on critical safety elements to prevent future injury. METHODS: We conducted a review of the current literature through a PubMed search on case reports of ocular injury in cosmetic laser treatments of the face. Twenty-one cases are examined. RESULTS: In more than 62 percent of cases, ocular protection was not used or protection was used but removed during the procedure to treat areas close to the eye. However, despite the proper use of intraocular corneal shields and wavelength-specific goggles, accidents occurred in 33 percent of cases. CONCLUSION: Ocular protection devices are essential to prevent most cases of laser-induced eye injury. Use of high fluence and long wavelength lasers increases the risk of ocular injury due to deeper penetration of the organ by radiation. Inadequate cooling between pulses also predisposes to injury by cosmetic lasers.

  6. Fundus autofluorescence in blunt ocular trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Luz Leitão Guerra

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Descrever os achados do exame de autofluorescência do fundo de olho (AFF em pacientes vítimas de trauma ocular contuso. Métodos: Estudo retrospectivo, não intervencionista, realizado através da revisão de prontuários e exames de imagem. Os dados analisados foram: sexo, idade, lateralidade, etiologia do trauma, tempo decorrente entre o trauma e a realização do exame, acuidade visual, alterações na periferia da retina, diagnóstico fundoscópico e achados ao exame de AFF (realizada no aparelho Topcon TRC-50DX Retinal Camera. Resultados: Oito olhos de 8 pacientes foram estudados. A idade média foi de 27,6 anos (de 19 a 43 anos, o sexo masculino (n=7 foi mais acometido do que o feminino (n=1, agressão física foi a etiologia mais comum do trauma (n=3, seguido de acidente com fogos de artifício (n=2. Outras causas foram acidente automobilístico (n=1, trauma ocupacional com lixadeira (n=1 e pedrada (n=1. A acuidade visual variou de 20/80 a percepção luminosa. Epiteliopatia pigmentar traumática (EPT foi identificada em 5 casos, rotura de coroide em 3, hemorragia subretiniana em 3 e retinopatia de Purtscher em 1 caso. Hipoautofluorescência foi observada nos casos de rotura de coroide, hemorragia subretiniana recente, hemorragia intrarretiniana e em 2 casos de EPT. Hiperautofluorescência foi visualizada nos casos de hemorragia subretiniana em degradação, na borda de 2 casos de roturas de coroide e discretamente no polo posterior na retinopatia de Purtcher. Três casos de EPT apresentaram hipoautofluorescência com pontos hiperautofluorescentes difusos. Conclusão: O exame de AFF permite avaliar as alterações do segmento posterior do olho decorrentes do trauma ocular contuso de forma não invasiva, somando informações valiosas. Foram descritos achados do exame em casos de epiteliopatia pigmentar traumática, rotura de coroide, hemorragia sub-retiniana e retinopatia de Purtscher.

  7. Updates in the treatment of ocular allergies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osmo Kari

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Osmo Kari1, K Matti Saari21Department of Allergology, Skin and Allergy Hospital, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki, Finland; 2Department of Ophthalmology, University of Turku, Turku, FinlandAbstract: Allergic diseases have greatly increased in industrialized countries. About 30% of people suffer from allergic symptoms and 40%–80% of them have symptoms in the eyes. Atopic conjunctivitis can be divided into seasonal allergic conjunctivitis (SAC and perennial allergic conjunctivitis (PAC. The treatment of SAC is simple; antihistamines, anti-inflammatory agents, or chromoglycate. In severe cases of SAC, subcutaneous or sublingual immunotherapy is helpful. PAC needs longer therapy, often year round, with mast cell stabilizers, antihistamines, and sometimes local steroids. Atopic keratoconjunctivitis is a more severe disease showing chronic blepharitis often connected with severe keratitis. It needs, in many cases, continuous treatment of the lid eczema and keratoconjunctivitis. Blepharitis is treated with tacrolimus or pimecrolimus ointment. Conjunctivitis additionally needs corticosteroids and, if needed, cyclosporine A (CsA drops are administered for longer periods. Basic conjunctival treatment is with mast cell-stabilizing agents and in addition, antihistamines are administered. Vernal keratoconjunctivitis is another chronic and serious allergic disease that mainly affects children and young people. It is a long-lasting disease which commonly subsides in puberty. It demands intensive therapy often for many years to avoid serious complicating corneal ulcers. Treatment is mast cell-stabilizing drops and additionally antihistamines. In relapses, corticosteroids are needed. When the use of corticosteroids is continuous, CsA drops should be used, and in relapses, corticosteroids should be used additionally. Nonallergic eosinophilic conjunctivitis (NAEC is a less known, but rather common, ocular disease. It affects mostly middle-aged and

  8. Electric Motor Thermal Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennion, Kevin S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-01

    Thermal management enables more efficient and cost-effective motors. This Annual Merit Review presentation describes the technical accomplishments and progress in electric motor thermal management R&D over the last year. This project supports a broad industry demand for data, analysis methods, and experimental techniques to improve and better understand motor thermal management.

  9. Programmable dc motor controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopwood, J. E.

    1982-11-01

    A portable programmable dc motor controller, with features not available on commercial instruments was developed for controlling fixtures during welding processes. The controller can be used to drive any dc motor having tachometer feedback and motor requirements not exceeding 30 volts, 3 amperes. Among the controller's features are delayed start time, upslope time, speed, and downslope time.

  10. Tranexamic Acid Does Not Influence Cardioprotection by Ischemic Preconditioning and Remote Ischemic Preconditioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Caster, Patrick; Eiling, Sandra; Boekholt, Yvonne; Behmenburg, Friederike; Dorsch, Marianne; Heinen, André; Hollmann, Markus W.; Huhn, Ragnar

    2018-01-01

    Prior studies have suggested that the antifibrinolytic drug aprotinin increases the infarct size after ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) and attenuates the effect of ischemic preconditioning (IPC). Aprotinin was replaced by tranexamic acid (TXA) in clinical practice. Here, we investigated whether TXA

  11. Cancer in young adults with ischemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarnio, Karoliina; Joensuu, Heikki; Haapaniemi, Elena; Melkas, Susanna; Kaste, Markku; Tatlisumak, Turgut; Putaala, Jukka

    2015-06-01

    Cancer is a risk factor for ischemic stroke. Little is known about cancer among young adults with ischemic stroke. We studied the frequency of cancer and its association with long-term risk of death among young patients with first-ever ischemic stroke. 1002 patients aged 15 to 49 years, registered in the Helsinki Young Stroke Registry, and with a median follow-up of 10.0 years (interquartile range 6.5-13.8) after stroke were included. Historical and follow-up data were derived from the Finnish Care Register and Statistics Finland. Survival between groups was compared with the Kaplan-Meier life-table method, and Cox proportional hazard models were used to identify factors associated with mortality. One or more cancer diagnosis was made in 77 (7.7%) patients, of whom 39 (3.9%) had cancer diagnosed prestroke. During the poststroke follow-up, 41 (53.2%) of the cancer patients died. Median time from prestroke cancer to stroke was 4.9 (1.0-9.5) years and from stroke to poststroke cancer was 6.7 (2.7-10.9) years. Poststroke cancer was associated with age>40 years, heavy drinking, and cigarette smoking. The cumulative mortality was significantly higher among the cancer patients (68.6%, 95% confidence interval 52.0%-85.3%) compared with patients without cancer (19.7%, 95% confidence interval 16.3%-23.2%). Active cancer at index stroke, melanoma, and lung/respiratory tract cancer had the strongest independent association with death during the follow-up when adjusted for known poststroke mortality prognosticators. Cancer, and especially active cancer and no other apparent cause for stroke, is associated with unfavorable survival among young stroke patients. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  12. Structural genomic variation in ischemic stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matarin, Mar; Simon-Sanchez, Javier; Fung, Hon-Chung; Scholz, Sonja; Gibbs, J. Raphael; Hernandez, Dena G.; Crews, Cynthia; Britton, Angela; Wavrant De Vrieze, Fabienne; Brott, Thomas G.; Brown, Robert D.; Worrall, Bradford B.; Silliman, Scott; Case, L. Douglas; Hardy, John A.; Rich, Stephen S.; Meschia, James F.; Singleton, Andrew B.

    2008-01-01

    Technological advances in molecular genetics allow rapid and sensitive identification of genomic copy number variants (CNVs). This, in turn, has sparked interest in the function such variation may play in disease. While a role for copy number mutations as a cause of Mendelian disorders is well established, it is unclear whether CNVs may affect risk for common complex disorders. We sought to investigate whether CNVs may modulate risk for ischemic stroke (IS) and to provide a catalog of CNVs in patients with this disorder by analyzing copy number metrics produced as a part of our previous genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based association study of ischemic stroke in a North American white population. We examined CNVs in 263 patients with ischemic stroke (IS). Each identified CNV was compared with changes identified in 275 neurologically normal controls. Our analysis identified 247 CNVs, corresponding to 187 insertions (76%; 135 heterozygous; 25 homozygous duplications or triplications; 2 heterosomic) and 60 deletions (24%; 40 heterozygous deletions;3 homozygous deletions; 14 heterosomic deletions). Most alterations (81%) were the same as, or overlapped with, previously reported CNVs. We report here the first genome-wide analysis of CNVs in IS patients. In summary, our study did not detect any common genomic structural variation unequivocally linked to IS, although we cannot exclude that smaller CNVs or CNVs in genomic regions poorly covered by this methodology may confer risk for IS. The application of genome-wide SNP arrays now facilitates the evaluation of structural changes through the entire genome as part of a genome-wide genetic association study. PMID:18288507

  13. Movimentos oculares anómalos – a propósito de um caso clínico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Bordalo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introdução: Os tiques são as perturbações hipercinéticas mais comuns na infância. Correspondem a movimentos e/ou sons repetitivos, breves, intermitentes e sem objetivo. Podem classificar-se como motores/vocais e simples/complexos. Caso clínico: Menina de 5 anos, observada por movimentos anómalos oculares à esquerda, com dois dias de evolução. Ao exame objetivo destacava-se pestanejar frequente seguido de movimentos irregulares do olho esquerdo, com duração de segundos. O desenvolvimento psicomotor era adequado e o restante exame objetivo, nomeadamente, o exame neurológico, era normal. Posteriormente iniciou movimentos anómalos, também no olho direito. Por suspeita de síndrome opsoclonus–mioclonus realizou ressonância magnética cerebral e toraco-abdomino-pélvica e efetuou doseamento de catecolaminas urinárias. Todos estes exames foram normais. Foi avaliada em consulta de Neuropediatria, sendo diagnosticado tique motor ocular complexo. Verificou-se melhoria gradual da sintomatologia sem necessidade de terapêutica. Discussão: Os tiques podem ter impacto negativo na vida da criança. Habitualmente são transitórios, melhorando na adolescência, não requerendo tratamento. Os autores apresentam este caso porque a complexidade dos movimentos oculares sugeriu outra hipótese de diagnóstico, potencialmente grave, que exigia investigação e pronta atuação.

  14. Achados oculares em pacientes com mielomeningocele: 72 casos Ocular findings in 72 patients with meningomyelocele

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Fialho Cronemberger

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Estudar as alterações oculares em pacientes com mielomeningocele. Material e Método: Realizado estudo retrospectivo em 72 pacientes com mielomeningocele, descrevendo as alterações oculares presentes nessa população, além de correlacionar com a presença ou não de hidrocefalia. Resultados: Dos 72 pacientes com mielomeningocele, com idade variando de 5 meses a 18 anos, 64 (88,9% pacientes tinham hidrocefalia. Destes 64 pacientes, 36 (56,3% tinham estrabismo, sendo que 21 (58,3% eram endotrópicos, 13 (36,1% exotrópicos, 1 (2,8% exofórico e 1 (2,8% com estrabismo discinético. Do total dos 72 pacientes estudados 38 (52,8% eram estrábicos. A anisotropia foi encontrada em 16 (22,2% pacientes, sendo que em 14 (87,5% em A e em 2 (12,5% em V. Todos os 16 pacientes com anisotropia apresentavam hidrocefalia. O erro refrativo mais freqüente foi a hipermetropia encontrada em 64 (44,4% olhos. Atrofia óptica foi encontrada em 9 (12,5% pacientes. Conclusão: A mielomeningocele, associada a hidrocefalia, apresenta uma porcentagem de estrabismo maior do que o encontrado na população normal.Purpose: To study ocular findings in patients with meningomyelocele. Methods: A retrospective study of 72 patients with myelomeningocele was performed to evaluate ocular motility disorders, refractive errors and indirect ophthalmoscopy findings. Results: In a group of 72 patients with myelomeningocele, aged 5 month -- 18 years, 64 (88.9% had hydrocephalus. Of this group of 64 patients, 36 (56.3% had strabismus, 21 (58.3% of whom were esotropic, and 13 (36.1% exotropic, 1 (2.8% exophoric and 1 (2.8% presented sometimes esotropia and sometimes exotropia. Of the total of 72 studied patients, 38 (52.8% had strabismus. Anisotropia was found in 16 (22.2% patients, 14 (87.5% with an A pattern and 2 (12.5% with a V pattern. The most frequent refractive error was hyperopia, found in 64 (44.4% eyes. All the 16 patients with anisotropia had hydrocephalus

  15. Microbiota conjuntival em pacientes com alergia ocular Conjunctival microbiota in patients with ocular allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Mattoso Libório

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a presença de microbiota aeróbia da conjuntiva de portadores de alergia ocular e comparar a um grupo controle. MÉTODOS: Foram examinados 133 pacientes no período de abril a junho de 2001 divididos em 2 grupos. O grupo A foi composto de 63 portadores de conjuntivite alérgica (sem uso de medicação e o grupo B de 70 pacientes do ambulatório geral (controle. Foram coletadas amostras do fundo de saco conjuntival do olho direito de todos os pacientes e o material foi semeado em meios sólidos de cultura (ágar sangue, chocolate e Sabouraud. RESULTADOS: No grupo A, 30 culturas (47,7% foram positivas e no grupo B, 6 (8,6%. Sete bactérias foram isoladas no grupo A e 4 no B. A análise estatística revelou associação significante entre a positividade dos cultivos e conjuntivite alérgica. CONCLUSÃO: Microbiota bacteriana foi mais freqüentemente encontrada nos pacientes com alergia ocular.PURPOSE: To evaluate de presence of conjunctival aerobic microbiota in patients with ocular allergy as compared to a control group. METHODS: One hundred and thirty-three patients were evaluated from April to June 2001 and divided into 2 groups. Sixty-three patients with allergic conjunctivitis (without medication were in group A and 70 patients from the general outpatient clinic were in group B (control group. Samples from the conjunctival sac of the right eye were collected and cultured in solid media (blood, chocolate and Sabouraud agar. RESULTS: In group A, 30 cultures (47.7% were positive and 6 (8.6% in group B. Seven bacteria were isolated from group A and 4 from group B. Statistical analysis revealed significant association between positive cultures and allergic conjunctivitis. CONCLUSION: Bacterial microbiota was more frequently found in patients with ocular allergy.

  16. Ventricular tachycardia in ischemic heart disease substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olujimi A. Ajijola

    2014-01-01

    This review will discuss the central role of the ischemic heart disease substrate in the development MMVT. Electrophysiologic characterization of the post-infarct myocardium using bipolar electrogram amplitudes to delineate scar border zones will be reviewed. Functional electrogram determinants of reentrant circuits such as isolated late potentials will be discussed. Strategies for catheter ablation of reentrant ventricular tachycardia, including structural and functional targets will also be examined, as will the role of the epicardial mapping and ablation in the management of recurrent MMVT.

  17. CT fogging effect with ischemic cerebral infarcts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, H.; Desch, H.; Hacker, H.; Pencz, A.; Frankfurt Univ.

    1979-01-01

    Systematic CT studies on ten patients with persistent ischemic cerebral infarct revealed a constant phenomenon, the fogging effect. The hypodense infarct at the beginning will be isodense, or close to isodense, on the plain CT during the second or third week and at a later stage will be hypodense again. The fogging infarcted area shows homogeneous intensive contrast enhancement. Knowledge of the fogging effect is important for correct interpretation of the CT image and the indication for contrast medium CT. CT without contrast medium may lead to misinterpretation during the second and third week after the onset of cerebral infarction. (orig.) [de

  18. CT fogging effect with ischemic cerebral infarcts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, H; Desch, H; Hacker, H; Pencz, A [Frankfurt Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Abt. fuer Neurologie; Frankfurt Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Abt. fuer Neuroradiologie)

    1979-01-01

    Systematic CT studies on ten patients with persistent ischemic cerebral infarct revealed a constant phenomenon, the fogging effect. The hypodense infarct at the beginning will be isodense, or close to isodense, on the plain CT during the second or third week and at a later stage will be hypodense again. The fogging infarcted area shows homogeneous intensive contrast enhancement. Knowledge of the fogging effect is important for correct interpretation of the CT image and the indication for contrast medium CT. CT without contrast medium may lead to misinterpretation during the second and third week after the onset of cerebral infarction.

  19. MR of the normal and ischemic hip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, D.G.

    1988-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) appears to be more sensitive than traditional radiographic and radionuclide methods for detecting early avascular necrosis (AVN) of the femoral head. The authors have found that in addition to its proven value for early detection, MRI can help us characterize individual lesions and understand the pathophysiology of AVN. This chapter reviews the clinical and pathological features of AVN of the femoral head, and describes recent contributions of MRI toward understanding the normal and ischemic hip. This review summarizes the 5-year experience of the MR group at the Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania

  20. Malignant Peritoneal Mesothelioma Mimicking Ischemic Colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuusuke Mitsuka

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The prognosis of malignant peritoneal mesothelioma is extremely poor with a mean survival time of 12 months. The initial symptoms are poor and atypical. Because of its rare entity and little knowledge of its treatments, there are few reports of long-term survival. We encountered a very unique case with strong impression on radiological findings of malignant peritoneal methothelioma. We had misdiagnosed it because of the findings and because the time course was similar to that of ischemic colitis. The radiological findings on CT and enema disappeared within one week after antibiotic therapy.

  1. Atrial fibrillation is not uncommon among patients with ischemic stroke and transient ischemic stroke in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaomeng; Li, Shuya; Zhao, Xingquan; Liu, Liping; Jiang, Yong; Li, Zixiao; Wang, Yilong; Wang, Yongjun

    2017-12-04

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is reported to be a less frequent cause of ischemic stroke in China than in Europe and North America, but it is not clear whether this is due to underestimation. Our aim was to define the true frequency of AF-associated stroke, to determine the yield of 6-day Holter ECG to detect AF in Chinese stroke patients, and to elucidate predictors of newly detected AF. Patients with acute ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA) were enrolled in a prospective, multicenter cohort study of 6-day Holter monitoring within 7 days after stroke onset at 20 sites in China between 2013 and 2015. Independent predictors of newly-detected AF were determined by multivariate analysis. Among 1511 patients with ischemic stroke and TIA (mean age 63 years, 33.1% women), 305 (20.2%) had either previously known (196, 13.0%) or AF newly-detected by electrocardiography (53, 3.5%) or by 6-day Holter monitoring (56/1262, 4.4%). A history of heart failure (OR = 4.70, 95%CI, 1.64-13.5), advanced age (OR = 1.06, 95%CI, 1.04-1.09), NIHSS at admission (OR = 1.06, 95%CI, 1.02-1.10), blood high density lipoprotein (HDL) (OR = 1.52, 95%CI, 1.09-2.13), together with blood triglycerides (OR = 0.64, 95%CI, 0.45-0.91) were independently associated with newly-detected AF. Contrary to previous reports, AF-associated stroke is frequent (20%) in China if systemically sought. Prolonged noninvasive cardiac rhythm monitoring importantly increases AF detection in patients with recent ischemic stroke and TIA in China. Advanced age, history of heart failure, and higher admission NIHSS and higher level of HDL were independent indicators of newly-detected AF. NCT02156765 (June 5, 2014).

  2. Ischemic stroke and transient ischemic attack in young adults: risk factors, diagnostic yield, neuroimaging, and thrombolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Ruijun; Schwamm, Lee H; Pervez, Muhammad A; Singhal, Aneesh B

    2013-01-01

    Approximately 10% to 14% of ischemic strokes occur in young adults. To investigate the yield of diagnostic tests, neuroimaging findings, and treatment of ischemic strokes in young adults. We retrospectively reviewed data from our Get with the Guidelines-Stroke database from 2005 through 2010. University hospital tertiary stroke center. A total of 215 consecutive inpatients aged 18 to 45 years with ischemic stroke/transient ischemic attack. The mean (SD) age was 37.5 (7) years; 51% were male. There were high incidence rates of hypertension (20%), diabetes mellitus (11%), dyslipidemia (38%), and smoking (34%). Relevant abnormalities were shown on cerebral angiography in 136 of 203 patients, on cardiac ultrasonography in 100 of 195, on Holter monitoring in 2 of 192; and on hypercoagulable panel in 30 of 189 patients. Multiple infarcts were observed in 31% and were more prevalent in individuals younger than age 35 years. Relevant arterial lesions were frequently detected in the middle cerebral artery (23%), internal carotid artery (13%), and vertebrobasilar arteries (13%). Cardioembolic stroke occurred in 47% (including 17% with isolated patent foramen ovale), and 11% had undetermined stroke etiology. The median National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score was 3 (interquartile range, 0-9) and 81% had good outcome at hospital discharge. Of the 29 patients receiving thrombolysis (median National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score, 14; interquartile range, 9-17), 55% had good outcome at hospital discharge and none developed symptomatic brain hemorrhage. This study shows the contemporary profile of ischemic stroke in young adults admitted to a tertiary stroke center. Stroke etiology can be determined in nearly 90% of patients with modern diagnostic tests. The causes are heterogeneous; however, young adults have a high rate of traditional vascular risk factors. Thrombolysis appears safe and short-term outcomes are favorable.

  3. Compromised Motor Dexterity Confounds Processing Speed Task Outcomes in Stroke Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Essie Low

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Most conventional measures of information processing speed require motor responses to facilitate performance. However, although not often addressed clinically, motor impairment, whether due to age or acquired brain injury, would be expected to confound the outcome measure of such tasks. The current study recruited 29 patients (20 stroke and 9 transient ischemic attack with documented reduction in dexterity of the dominant hand, and 29 controls, to investigate the extent to which 3 commonly used processing speed measures with varying motor demands (a Visuo-Motor Reaction Time task, and the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-IV Symbol Search and Coding subtests may be measuring motor-related speed more so than cognitive speed. Analyses include correlations between indices of cognitive and motor speed obtained from two other tasks (Inspection Time and Pegboard task, respectively with the three speed measures, followed by hierarchical regressions to determine the relative contribution of cognitive and motor speed indices toward task performance. Results revealed that speed outcomes on tasks with relatively high motor demands, such as Coding, were largely reflecting motor speed in individuals with reduced dominant hand dexterity. Thus, findings indicate the importance of employing measures with minimal motor requirements, especially when the assessment of speed is aimed at understanding cognitive rather than physical function.

  4. Q fever: a new ocular manifestation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udaondo P

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available P Udaondo1,3, S Garcia-Delpech1,2, D Salom1,2, M Garcia-Pous1, M Diaz-Llopis1,21Department of Ophthalmology, Nuevo Hospital Universitario y Politecnico La Fe, Valencia, Spain; 2Faculty of Medicine, Universitat de València, Valencia, Spain; 3Universidad Cardenal Herrera CEU, Valencia, SpainAbstract: Q Fever is a zoonosis caused by Coxiella burnetii. Ocular manifestations are rare in this infection. We describe the case of a man complaining of an intense retro-orbital headache, fever, arthralgia, and bilateral loss of vision, who showed an anterior uveitis accompanied by exudative bilateral inferior retinal detachment and optic disk edema. At the beginning, a Vogt–Koyanagi–Harada (VKH syndrome was suspected, but the patient was diagnosed with Q fever and treatment with doxycycline was initiated, with complete resolution after 2 weeks. We wondered if Q fever could unleash VKH syndrome or simulate a VKH syndrome by a similar immunological process.Keywords: Q fever, Vogt–Koyanagi–Harada syndrome, panuveitis, exudative retinal detachment

  5. Brillouin microscopy: assessing ocular tissue biomechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Seok Hyun; Chernyak, Dimitri

    2018-07-01

    Assessment of corneal biomechanics has been an unmet clinical need in ophthalmology for many years. Many researchers and clinicians have identified corneal biomechanics as source of variability in refractive procedures and one of the main factors in keratoconus. However, it has been difficult to accurately characterize corneal biomechanics in patients. The recent development of Brillouin light scattering microscopy heightens the promise of bringing biomechanics into the clinic. The aim of this review is to overview the progress and discuss prospective applications of this new technology. Brillouin microscopy uses a low-power near-infrared laser beam to determine longitudinal modulus or mechanical compressibility of tissue by analyzing the return signal spectrum. Human clinical studies have demonstrated significant difference in the elastic properties of normal corneas versus corneas diagnosed with mild and severe keratoconus. Clinical data have also shown biomechanical changes after corneal cross-linking treatment of keratoconus patients. Brillouin measurements of the crystalline lens and sclera have also been demonstrated. Brillouin microscopy is a promising technology under commercial development at present. The technique enables physicians to characterize the biomechanical properties of ocular tissues.

  6. Update on pathology of ocular parasitic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Dipankar; Ramachandra, Varsha; Islam, Saidul; Bhattacharjee, Harsha; Biswas, Jyotirmay; Koul, Akanksha; Deka, Panna; Deka, Apurba

    2016-11-01

    Parasites are a group of eukaryotic organisms that may be free-living or form a symbiotic or parasitic relationship with the hosts. Consisting of over 800,000 recognized species, parasites may be unicellular (Protozoa) or multicellular (helminths and arthropods). The association of parasites with human population started long before the emergence of civilization. Parasitic zoonotic diseases are prevalent worldwide including India. Appropriate epidemiological data are lacking on existing zoonotic parasitic diseases, and newer diseases are emerging in our scenario. Systemic diseases such as cysticercosis, paragonimiasis, hydatidosis, and toxoplasmosis are fairly common. Acquired Toxoplasma infections are rising in immune-deficient individuals. Amongst the ocular parasitic diseases, various protozoas such as Cystoidea, trematodes, tissue flagellates, sporozoas etc. affect humans in general and eyes in particular, in different parts of the world. These zoonoses seem to be a real health related problem globally. Recent intensification of research throughout the world has led to specialization in biological fields, creating a conducive situation for researchers interested in this subject. The basics of parasitology lie in morphology, pathology, and with recent updates in molecular parasitology, the scope has extended further. The current review is to address the recent update in ophthalmic parasites with special reference to pathology and give a glimpse of further research in this field.

  7. Facial and Ocular Features of Marfan Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan C. Leoni

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Marfan syndrome is the most common inherited disorder of connective tissue affecting multiple organ systems. Identification of the facial, ocular and skeletal features should prompt referral for aortic imaging since sudden death by aortic dissection and rupture remains a major cause of death in patients with unrecognized Marfan syndrome. Echocardiography is recommended as the initial imaging test, and once a dilated aortic root is identified magnetic resonance or computed tomography should be done to assess the entire aorta. Prophylactic aortic root replacement is safe and has been demonstrated to improve life expectancy in patients with Marfan syndrome. Medical therapy for Marfan syndrome includes the use of beta blockers in older children and adults with an enlarged aorta. Addition of angiotensin receptor antagonists has been shown to slow the progression of aortic root dilation compared to beta blockers alone. Lifelong and regular follow up in a center for specialized care is important for patients with Marfan syndrome. We present a case of a patient with clinical features of Marfan syndrome and discuss possible therapeutic interventions for her dilated aorta.

  8. Delusion and bi-ocular vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Masi, Franco

    2015-10-01

    The delusional experience is the result of a grave disjunction in the psyche whose outcome is not readily predictable. Examination of the specific mode of disjunction may help us understand the nature and radical character of delusion. I will present the therapy of a psychotic patient who after many years of analysis and progresses in his life continues to show delusional episodes although limited and contained. In his case, the two visions, one delusional and the other real, remain distinct and differentiated from each other because they both possess the same perceptual character, that of reality. He has a bi-ocular vision of reality and not a binocular one because his vision lacks integration, as would necessarily be the case if the two visions could be compared with each other. The principle of non-contradiction ceases to apply in delusion. A corollary of the failure of the principle of non-contradiction is that, if a statement and its negation are both true, then any statement is true. Logicians call this consequence the principle of explosion. For this reason, the distinction between truth, reality, improbability, probability, possibility and impossibility is lost in the delusional system, thus triggering an omnipotent, explosive mechanism with a potentially infinite progression. The paper presents some thoughts for a possible analytic transformation of the delusional experience. Copyright © 2015 Institute of Psychoanalysis.

  9. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and its ocular complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rao Narsing

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus infection is the first major pandemic of the 20th century. At present, almost 10 million people are known to be infected with this virus, and it is estimated that by the year 2000, approximately 40 million people will be infected. Transmission of this deadly infection is predominantly by sexual contact. Individuals infected with this virus pass through several predictable stages with progressive decrease in circulating CD4+ T cells. During the advanced stage, these patients develop various opportunistic infections or malignancies, or both. It is this advanced stage that was first recognized as AIDS, which has a 100% mortality rate. The opportunistic organisms that can involve the eye in patients with AIDS include cytomegalovirus, herpes zoster, Toxoplasma gondii, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Cryptococcus neoformans, Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare, Pneumocystis carinii, Histoplasma capsulatum, Candida, and others. Intraocular lesions from these agents often represent disseminated infections. Visual morbidity occurs secondary to retinitis due to cytomegalovirus, herpes zoster, or Toxoplasma gondii. Anti-viral agents such as ganciclovir or foscarnet are effective against cytomegalovirus infection. The role of the ophthalmologist in the diagnosis and management of AIDS is becoming increasingly important. Not only does the eye reflect systemic disease, but ocular involvement may often precede systemic manifestations. In the AIDS patient, the ophthalmologist thus has an opportunity to make not only a slight-saving, but also life-saving diagnosis of disseminated opportunistic infections.

  10. Neurological and ocular fascioliasis in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mas-Coma, Santiago; Agramunt, Verónica H; Valero, María Adela

    2014-01-01

    Fascioliasis is a food-borne parasitic disease caused by the trematode species Fasciola hepatica, distributed worldwide, and Fasciola gigantica, restricted to given regions of Africa and Asia. This disease in humans shows an increasing importance, which relies on its recent widespread emergence related to climate and global changes and also on its pathogenicity in the invasive, biliary, and advanced chronic phases in the human endemic areas, mainly of developing countries. In spite of the large neurological affection capacity of Fasciola, this important pathogenic aspect of the disease has been pronouncedly overlooked in the past decades and has not even appear within the numerous reviews on the parasitic diseases of the central nervous system. The aim of this wide retrospective review is an in-depth analysis of the characteristics of neurological and ocular fascioliasis caused by these two fasciolid species. The terms of neurofascioliasis and ophthalmofascioliasis are restricted to cases in which the direct affection of the central nervous system or the eye by a migrant ectopic fasciolid fluke is demonstrated by an aetiological diagnosis of recovered flukes after surgery or spontaneous moving-out of the fluke through the orbit. Cases in which the ectopic fluke is not recovered and the symptoms cannot be explained by an indirect affection at distance may also be included in these terms. Neurofascioliasis and ophthalmofascioliasis cases are reviewed and discussed. With regard to fascioliasis infection giving an indirect rise to neurological affection, the distribution and frequency of cases are analysed according to geography, sex, and age. Minor symptoms and major manifestations are discussed. Three main types of cases are distinguished depending on the characteristics of their manifestations: genuine neurological, meningeal, and psychiatric or neuropsychic. The impressive symptoms and signs appearing in each type of these cases are included. Brain examination

  11. Update on pathology of ocular parasitic disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipankar Das

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Parasites are a group of eukaryotic organisms that may be free-living or form a symbiotic or parasitic relationship with the hosts. Consisting of over 800,000 recognized species, parasites may be unicellular (Protozoa or multicellular (helminths and arthropods. The association of parasites with human population started long before the emergence of civilization. Parasitic zoonotic diseases are prevalent worldwide including India. Appropriate epidemiological data are lacking on existing zoonotic parasitic diseases, and newer diseases are emerging in our scenario. Systemic diseases such as cysticercosis, paragonimiasis, hydatidosis, and toxoplasmosis are fairly common. Acquired Toxoplasma infections are rising in immune-deficient individuals. Amongst the ocular parasitic diseases, various protozoas such as Cystoidea, trematodes, tissue flagellates, sporozoas etc. affect humans in general and eyes in particular, in different parts of the world. These zoonoses seem to be a real health related problem globally. Recent intensification of research throughout the world has led to specialization in biological fields, creating a conducive situation for researchers interested in this subject. The basics of parasitology lie in morphology, pathology, and with recent updates in molecular parasitology, the scope has extended further. The current review is to address the recent update in ophthalmic parasites with special reference to pathology and give a glimpse of further research in this field.

  12. The ocular biometric differences of diabetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocatürk, Tolga; Zengin, Mehmet Özgür; Cakmak, Harun; Evliçoglu, Gökhan Evren; Dündar, Sema Oruç; Omürlü, Imran Kurt; Unübol, Mustafa; Güney, Engin

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the differences in ocular biometric and keratometric characteristics in comparison with biometric measurements using the noncontact optical low coherence reflectometer (OLCR) (Lenstar LS 900, Haag-Streit) on diabetic patients. The eyes of 170 patients were included in this study, including 81 diabetic and 89 nondiabetic subjects. Optical biometric measurements of diabetic and nondiabetic patients (between the ages of 25 and 85 years) who applied to the ophthalmology clinic were noted from March to June 2013. Detailed ophthalmologic examinations were done for every subject. Biometric measurements were done using the noncontact OLCR device. Patient age ranged from 29 to 83 years. Subgroup analyses were done in diabetic patients according to their Hba1C levels. The minimum Hba1C value was 5.3, maximum was 12.4, and mean was 7.56 ± 1.48. The median duration of diabetes was 5 years (25th-75th percentile 3.00-11.75). Diabetic patients were found to have thicker lens and shallower anterior chamber in both eyes compared to nondiabetic control subjects. There were no statistical differences between the groups according to central corneal thickness, axial length, or keratometric values in both eyes. However, lens thicknesses were found to be thicker and anterior chamber depth values were found to be shallower in the diabetic group in both eyes. It may useful to determine eyeglasses prescription, refractive surgery calculation, lens selection, and previous cataract surgery according to biometric measurements after the regulation of blood glucose.

  13. Evaluation of the ocular protection for low intensity therapeutic lasers; Avaliacao da protecao ocular para lasers terapeuticos em baixa intensidade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cordon, Rosely

    2003-07-01

    The low intensity laser therapy (LILT) has been extensively used in medicine and dentistry presenting positive effects. However, the laser radiation can also cause adverse effects. Due to the ocular focalization property, in the wavelength from 400 to 1400 nm, the retina is more susceptible to damage by radiation than any other part of the human body. Then, the ocular protection is frequently emphasized. This protection must attenuate the radiation to a safe level. The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) standard IEC 60825-1 suggests safety requirements for medical laser equipment, including the ocular protection, based on maximum permissible exposure levels. The Brazilian legislation adopts a corresponding IEC standard, the NBR IEC 601.2.22, for safety requirements. The aim of this study was to analyze the adequacy of the ocular protectors furnished by four laser equipment manufacturers, commercially available in Brazil, commonly used for LILT. For this purpose, the laser equipment and the respective ocular protectors were characterized. The adequacy was verified according to the IEC standards. It was found, among other results, ocular protectors attenuating to safe levels the radiation emitted by the respective laser equipment, however, presenting inadequate visual transmission. Inefficient protection and protection indicated in cases where they were not necessary were also observed. (author)

  14. The neuroprotective effects of intramuscular insulin-like growth factor-I treatment in brain ischemic rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heng-Chih Chang

    Full Text Available Brain ischemia leads to muscle inactivity-induced atrophy and may exacerbate motor function deficits. Intramuscular insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I injection has been shown to alleviate the brain ischemia-induced muscle atrophy and thus improve the motor function. Motor function is normally gauged by the integrity and coordination of the central nervous system and peripheral muscles. Whether brain ischemic regions are adaptively changed by the intramuscular IGF-I injection is not well understood. In this study, the effect of intramuscular IGF-I injection was examined on the central nervous system of brain ischemic rats. Rats were divided into 4 groups: sham control, brain ischemia control, brain ischemia with IGF-I treatment, and brain ischemia with IGF-I plus IGF-I receptor inhibitor treatment. Brain ischemia was induced by right middle cerebral artery occlusion. IGF-I and an IGF-1 receptor inhibitor were injected into the affected calf and anterior tibialis muscles of the treated rats for 4 times. There was an interval of 2 days between each injection. Motor function was examined and measured at the 24 hours and 7 days following a brain ischemia. The affected hind-limb muscles, sciatic nerve, lumbar spinal cord, and motor cortex were collected for examination after euthanizing the rats. IGF-I expression in the central nervous system and affected muscles were significantly decreased after brain ischemia. Intramuscular IGF-I injection increased the IGF-I expression in the affected muscles, sciatic nerve, lumbar spinal cord, and motor cortex. It also increased the p-Akt expression in the affected motor cortex. Furthermore, intramuscular IGF-I injection decreased the neuronal apoptosis and improved the motor function. However, co-administration of the IGF-I receptor inhibitor eliminated these effects. Intramuscular IGF-I injection after brain ischemia attenuated or reversed the decrease of IGF-I in both central and peripheral tissues, and

  15. Motor/generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickam, Christopher Dale [Glasford, IL

    2008-05-13

    A motor/generator is provided for connecting between a transmission input shaft and an output shaft of a prime mover. The motor/generator may include a motor/generator housing, a stator mounted to the motor/generator housing, a rotor mounted at least partially within the motor/generator housing and rotatable about a rotor rotation axis, and a transmission-shaft coupler drivingly coupled to the rotor. The transmission-shaft coupler may include a clamp, which may include a base attached to the rotor and a plurality of adjustable jaws.

  16. Profile of ocular injury in pediatric age group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanishk Singh

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To study the clinical profile of ocular injuries in children in a tertiary care center in Northern India.METHODS: This was a hospital based descriptive study. All children of ocular injuries up to 16y of age were included. Data regarding the socio-economic status, medical/surgical treatment, and condition at discharge were recorded. Follow-up to 3mo was done in the study. Initial and final visual acuity was recorded. Ocular Trauma Classification Group guidelines and Birmingham Eye Trauma Terminology were used for the definitions and classifications of ocular trauma. Socio-economic status grading is done according to modified B.G. Prasad classification and Kuppuswamy's socio-economic scale.RESULTS: Out of 42 children, male to female ratio was 3.6:1.Maximum number(50%of injuries occurred between 11-16y of age. Most of the children(59.52%belonged to lower socio-economic class and were from arural background. Ocular injuries occurred at home in 20(47.61%children followed by 6(14.28%each in school, playground, and street. Open globe injuries were seen in 19(45.24%children and 23(54.75%children had closed globe injuries. Injuries by wooden stick, stone, firework, fall, toy were 12(28.57%, 5(11.90%, 3(7.14%, 3(7.14%, and 2(4.76%. Seventeen(40.47%children required medical management and 25(59.53%were treated surgically.CONCLUSION:Male children in rural regions and of lower socio-economic background were more prone to ocular injuries. Children were more risk of ocular injuries at home. Wooden sticks and stone were the commonest cause of ocular injuries. Ocular morbidity and poor visual outcome were seen more in open globe injuries. Further population-based studies are required to reinforce findings of present study. Based on this, a long term strategy can be planned to prevent ocular injuries in children in this region.

  17. Adherence to treatment of patients with past ischemic stroke.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Je. Azarenko

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The main task of the general practitioner is managing patients with the effects of ischemic stroke. The improvement of patients adherence to treatment in a significant way contributes to successful secondary prevention of ischemic stroke. Adherence to treatment can be determined through various questionnaires, including Morissky-Green. Currently, the adherence to a long-term drug therapy remains insufficient.

  18. Sonographic and Endoscopic Findings in Cocaine-Induced Ischemic Colitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth, Thomas; Wilkens, Rune; Bonderup, Ole Kristian

    2015-01-01

    Cocaine-induced ischemic colitis is a recognized entity. The diagnosis is based on clinical and endoscopic findings. However, diagnostic imaging is helpful in the evaluation of abdominal symptoms and prior studies have suggested specific sonographic findings in ischemic colitis. We report...

  19. Diffusion-weighted MRI in acute posterior ischemic optic neuropathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivasan, Sivasubramanian; Moorthy, Srikant; Sreekumar, KP; Kulkarni, Chinmay

    2012-01-01

    Blindness following surgery, especially cardiac surgery, has been reported sporadically, the most common cause being ischemic optic neuropathy. The role of MRI in the diagnosis of this condition is not well established. We present a case of postoperative posterior ischemic optic neuropathy that was diagnosed on diffusion-weighted MRI

  20. Effects of glycyrrhizin pre-treatment on transient ischemic brain ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of glycyrrhizin pre-treatment on transient ischemic brain injury in mice. ... on transient ischemic brain injury in mice. Chiyeon Lim, Sehyun Lim, Young-Jun Lee, Bokcheul Kong, Byoungho Lee, Chang-Hyun Kim, Buyeo Kim, Suin Cho ... induced brain damage. Keywords: Glycyrrhizin, licorice, stroke, apoptosis ...