Isaac Newton: Man, Myth, and Mathematics.
Rickey, V. Frederick
1987-01-01
This article was written in part to celebrate the anniversaries of landmark mathematical works by Newton and Descartes. It's other purpose is to dispel some myths about Sir Isaac Newton and to encourage readers to read Newton's works. (PK)
Cox, Carol
2001-01-01
Presents the Isaac Newton Olympics in which students complete a hands-on activity at seven stations and evaluate what they have learned in the activity and how it is related to real life. Includes both student and teacher instructions for three of the activities. (YDS)
May, Andrew
2015-01-01
Isaac Newton had an extraordinary idea. He believed the physical universe and everything in it could be described in exact detail using mathematical relationships. He formulated a law of gravity that explained why objects fall downwards, how the moon causes the tides, and why planets and comets orbit the sun. While Newton's work has been added to over the years, his basic approach remains at the heart of the scientific worldview. Yet Newton's own had little in common with that of a modern scientist. He believed the universe was created to a precise and rational design - a design that was fully
Isaac Newton Institute of Chile: The fifteenth anniversary of its "Yugoslavia" Branch
Dimitrijević, M. S.
In 2002, the Isaac Newton Institute of Chile established in Belgrade its "Yugoslavia" Branch, one of 15 branches in nine countries in Eastern Europe and Eurasia. On the occasion of fifteen years since its foundation, the activities of "Yugoslavia" Branch of the Isaac Newton Institute of Chile are briefly reviewed.
[Isaac Newton's Anguli Contactus method].
Wawrzycki, Jarosław
2014-01-01
In this paper we discuss the geometrical method for calculating the curvature of a class of curves from the third Book of Isaac Newton's Principia. The method involves any curve which is generated from an elementary curve (actually from any curve whose curvature we known of) by means of transformation increasing the polar angular coordinate in a constant ratio, but unchanging the polar radial angular coordinate.
Isaac Newton and the Royal Mint
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 11; Issue 12. Isaac Newton and the Royal Mint. Biman Nath. Article-in-a-Box Volume 11 Issue 12 December 2006 pp 6-7. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/011/12/0006-0007 ...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
E. A. Venter
1964-03-01
Full Text Available Die geweldige oplewing van die Christelike wetenskaps- gedagte in ons geeslose tyd, is ongetwyfeld ’n haas onverklaar- bare verskynsel. Dwarsdeur die eeue het Christene ook wetenskap beoefen saam met ongelowiges, maar dit was eers in ons leeftyd dat die principia van die Christelike religie ook vrugbaar gemaak is vir die wetenskapsbeoefening. In hierdie verband sal die name van Dooyeweerd, Vollenhoven, Stoker e.a. steeds met eer vermeld word. Natuurlik het belydende Christene ook voorheen wel deeglik saamgewerk aan die gebou van die wetenskap. Die intieme verband tussen religie, wysbegeerte en wetenskaps beoefening is toe egter nog nie suiwer ingesien nie. Uit hier die tydperk dateer die arbeid van sir Isaac Newton.
Newton's gift how Sir Isaac Newton unlocked the system of the world
Berlinski, David
2000-01-01
Sir Isaac Newton, creator of the first and perhaps most important scientific theory, is a giant of the scientific era. Despite this, he has remained inaccessible to most modern readers, indisputably great but undeniably remote. In this witty, engaging, and often moving examination of Newton's life, David Berlinski recovers the man behind the mathematical breakthroughs. The story carries the reader from Newton's unremarkable childhood to his awkward undergraduate days at Cambridge through the astonishing year in which, working alone, he laid the foundation for his system of the world, his Principia Mathematica, and to the subsequent monumental feuds that poisoned his soul and wearied his supporters. An edifying appreciation of Newton's greatest accomplishment, Newton's Gift is also a touching celebration of a transcendent man.
Newton's apple Isaac Newton and the English scientific renaissance
Aughton, Peter
2003-01-01
In the aftermath of the English Civil War, the Restoration overturned England's medieval outlook and a new way of looking at the world allowed the genius of Isaac Newton (b. 1642) and his contemporaries to flourish. Newton had a long and eventful life apart from his scentific discoveries. He was born at the beginnings of the Civil War, his studies were disrupted by the twin disasters of the Great Plague and the Fire of London; a brilliant and enigmatic genius, Newton dabbled in alchemy, wrote over a million words on the Bible, quarrelled with his contemporaries and spent his last years as Master of the Royal Mint as well as President of the Royal Society. This book sets Newton's life and work against this dramatic intellectual rebirth; among his friends and contemporaries were Samuel Pepys, the colourful diarist, John Evelyn, the eccentric antiquarian, the astronomers Edmund Halley and John Flamsteed, and Christopher Wren, the greatest architect of his age. They were all instrumental in the founding of the Ro...
Isaac Newton and the astronomical refraction.
Lehn, Waldemar H
2008-12-01
In a short interval toward the end of 1694, Isaac Newton developed two mathematical models for the theory of the astronomical refraction and calculated two refraction tables, but did not publish his theory. Much effort has been expended, starting with Biot in 1836, in the attempt to identify the methods and equations that Newton used. In contrast to previous work, a closed form solution is identified for the refraction integral that reproduces the table for his first model (in which density decays linearly with elevation). The parameters of his second model, which includes the exponential variation of pressure in an isothermal atmosphere, have also been identified by reproducing his results. The implication is clear that in each case Newton had derived exactly the correct equations for the astronomical refraction; furthermore, he was the first to do so.
On the Shoulders of Sir Isaac Newton and Arthur Storer
Martin, Helen E.; Evans-Gondo, Bonita
2013-01-01
Helen E. Martin, the author of this article, is a retired National Board Certified Teacher who has been researching Sir Isaac Newton's unpublished manuscripts for over three decades. While researching the work of Newton, a teacher she was mentoring asked for some hands-on activities to study planetary motion. The description of the activity…
"To Improve upon Hints of Things": Illustrating Isaac Newton.
Schilt, Cornelis J
2016-01-01
When Isaac Newton died in 1727 he left a rich legacy in terms of draft manuscripts, encompassing a variety of topics: natural philosophy, mathematics, alchemy, theology, and chronology, as well as papers relating to his career at the Mint. One thing that immediately strikes us is the textuality of Newton's legacy: images are sparse. Regarding his scholarly endeavours we witness the same practice. Newton's extensive drafts on theology and chronology do not contain a single illustration or map. Today we have all of Newton's draft manuscripts as witnesses of his working methods, as well as access to a significant number of books from his own library. Drawing parallels between Newton's reading practices and his natural philosophical and scholarly work, this paper seeks to understand Newton's recondite writing and publishing politics.
Isaac Newton: Eighteenth-century Perspectives
Hall, A. Rupert
1999-05-01
This new product of the ever-flourishing Newton industry seems a bit far-fetched at first sight: who but a few specialists would be interested in the historiography of Newton biography in the eighteenth century? On closer inspection, this book by one of the most important Newton scholars of our day turns out to be of interest to a wider audience as well. It contains several biographical sketches of Newton, written in the decades after his death. The two most important ones are the Eloge by the French mathematician Bernard de Fontenelle and the Italian scholar Paolo Frisi's Elogio. The latter piece was hitherto unavailable in English translation. Both articles are well-written, interesting and sometimes even entertaining. They give us new insights into the way Newton was revered throughout Europe and how not even the slightest blemish on his personality or work could be tolerated. An example is the way in which Newton's famous controversy with Leibniz is treated: Newton is without hesitation presented as the wronged party. Hall has provided very useful historical introductions to the memoirs as well as footnotes where needed. Among the other articles discussed is a well-known memoir by John Conduitt, who was married to Newton's niece. This memoir, substantial parts of which are included in this volume, has been a major source of personal information for Newton biographers up to this day. In a concluding chapter, Hall gives a very interesting overview of the later history of Newton biography, in which he describes the gradual change from adoration to a more critical approach in Newton's various biographers. In short, this is a very useful addition to the existing biographical literature on Newton. A J Kox
The Newton papers the strange and true odyssey of Isaac Newton's manuscripts
Dry, Sarah
2014-01-01
When Isaac Newton died at 85 without a will on March 20, 1727, he left a mass of disorganized papers-upwards of 8 million words-that presented an immediate challenge to his heirs. Most of these writings, on subjects ranging from secret alchemical formulas to impassioned rejections of the Holy Trinity to notes and calculations on his core discoveries in calculus, universal gravitation, and optics, were summarily dismissed by his heirs as "not fit to be printed." Rabidly heretical, alchemically obsessed, and possibly even mad, the Newton presented in these papers threatened to undermine not just his personal reputation but the status of science itself. As a result, the private papers of the world's greatest scientist remained hidden to all but a select few for over two hundred years. In The Newton Papers, Sarah Dry divulges the story of how this secret archive finally came to light-and the complex and contradictory man it revealed. Covering a broad swath of history, Dry explores who controlled Newton's legacy, ...
Medium-resolution isaac newton telescope library of empirical spectra
Sanchez-Blazquez, P.; Peletier, R. F.; Jimenez-Vicente, J.; Cardiel, N.; Cenarro, A. J.; Falcon-Barroso, J.; Gorgas, J.; Selam, S.; Vazdekis, A.
2006-01-01
A new stellar library developed for stellar population synthesis modelling is presented. The library consists of 985 stars spanning a large range in atmospheric parameters. The spectra were obtained at the 2.5-m Isaac Newton Telescope and cover the range lambda lambda 3525-7500 angstrom at 2.3
The Newtonian Moment - Isaac Newton and the Making of Modern Culture
Feingold, Mordechai
2004-12-01
Isaac Newton is a legendary figure whose mythical dimension threatens to overshadow the actual man. The story of the apple falling from the tree may or may not be true, but Isaac Newton's revolutionary discoveries and their importance to the Enlightenment era and beyond are undeniable. The Newtonian Moment , a companion volume to a forthcoming exhibition by the New York Public Library, investigates the effect that Newton's theories and discoveries had, not only on the growth of science, but also on the very shape of modern culture and thought. Newton's scientific work at Cambridge was groundbreaking. From his optical experiments with prisms during the 1660s to the publication of both Principia (1687) and Opticks (1704), Newton's achievements were widely disseminated, inciting tremendous interest and excitement. Newtonianism developed into a worldview marked by many tensions: between modernity and the old guard, between the humanities and science, and the public battles between great minds. The Newtonian Moment illuminates the many facets of his colossal accomplishments, as well as the debates over the kind of knowledge that his accomplishments engendered. The book contributes to a greater understanding of the world today by offering a panoramic view of the profound impact of Newtonianism on the science, literature, art, and religion of the Enlightenment. Copiously illustrated with items drawn from the collections of the New York Public Library as well as numerous other libraries and museums, The Newtonian Moment enlightens its audience with a guided and in-depth look at the man, his world, and his enduring legacy.
A gravitação universal na filosofia da natureza de Isaac Newton
Garcia, Valdinei Gomes
2010-01-01
Resumo: Esta pesquisa apresenta um estudo sobre o conceito de força gravitacional na filosofia da natureza de Isaac Newton. O presente texto foi elaborado a partir dos argumentos desenvolvidos por Newton para defender esse conceito em sua obra mais importante, o Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica (1687). Será visto que, em tais argumentos, Newton restringe o conceito de força gravitacional a partir de um tratamento matemático, que ele próprio elaborou em sua obra. Por outro lado, Ne...
How to manage a revolution: Isaac Newton in the early twentieth century
Clarke, Imogen
2014-01-01
In the first half of the twentieth century, dramatic developments in physics came to be viewed as revolutionary, apparently requiring a complete overthrow of previous theories. British physicists were keen to promote quantum physics and relativity theory as exciting and new, but the rhetoric of revolution threatened science's claim to stability and its prestigious connections with Isaac Newton. This was particularly problematic in the first decades of the twentieth century, within the broader context of political turmoil, world war, and the emergence of modernist art and literature. This article examines how physicists responded to their cultural and political environment and worked to maintain disciplinary connections with Isaac Newton, emphasizing the importance of both the old and the new. In doing so they attempted to make the physics ‘revolution’ more palatable to a British public seeking a sense of permanence in a rapidly changing world.
Alquimia: Isaac Newton revisitado Alchemy: Isaac Newton Revisited
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Reginaldo Carmello Corrêa de Moraes
1997-01-01
Full Text Available Nota sobre publicações recentes que revelam aspectos pouco conhecidos da biblioteca de Newton - os numerosos textos religiosos, místicos e herméticos. Os biógrafos de Newton resistiram muito até admitir que os escritos esotéricos fossem genuíno interesse do sábio e que tivessem importância para entender sua trajetória intelectual. As publicações aqui indicadas afirmam o contrário, seguindo trilha aberta por ensaio pioneiro de J. M. Keynes (1946.A note on recent books about an unexplored side of Newtons library: religious, mystical and hermetic texts. Newton's biographers had resisted so much to believe that esoteric writings were in Newtons field of interest. Even if they recognized that, they didn't believe those strange works were important elements to understand his intellectual trajectory. The studies we mention here are saying just the opposite thing, exploring the way opened by the pioneer essay of J. M. Keynes (1946.
From the Landgrave in Kassel to Isaac Newton
Høg, E.
2018-01-01
Landgrave Wilhelm IV established in 1560 the first permanent astronomical observatory in Europe. When he met the young Tycho Brahe in 1575 he recognized the genius and recommended him warmly to the Danish king Frederik II. Wilhelm and Tycho must share the credit for renewing astronomy with very accurate observations of positions of stars by new instrumentation and new methods. Tycho's observations of planets during 20 years enabled Johannes Kepler to derive the laws of planetary motion. These laws set Isaac Newton in a position to publish the laws of physical motion and universal gravitation in 1687 - the basis for the technical revolution.
Catch a falling apple: Isaac Newton and myths of genius.
Fara, P
1999-01-01
Newton has become a legendary figure belonging to the distant past rather than a historical person who lived at a specific time. Historians and scientists have constantly reinterpreted many anecdotal tales describing Newton's achievements and behaviour, but the most famous concerns the falling apple in his country garden. Newton's apple conjures up multiple allegorical resonances, and examining its historical accuracy is less important than uncovering the mythical truths embedded within this symbol. Because interest groups fashion different collective versions of the past, analysing mythical tales can reveal fundamental yet conflicting attitudes towards science and its practices.
Isaac Newton learns Hebrew: Samuel Johnson's Nova cubi Hebræi tabella
Joalland, Michael; Mandelbrote, Scott
2016-01-01
This article concerns the earliest evidence for Isaac Newton's use of Hebrew: a manuscript copy by Newton of part of a work intended to provide a reader of the Hebrew alphabet with the ability to identify or memorize more than 1000 words and to begin to master the conjugations of the Hebrew verb. In describing the content of this unpublished manuscript and establishing its source and original author for the first time, we suggest how and when Newton may have initially become acquainted with the language. Finally, basing our discussion in part on an examination of the reading marks that Newton left in the surviving copies of Hebrew grammars and lexicons that he owned, we will argue that his interest in Hebrew was not intended to achieve linguistic proficiency but remained limited to particular theological queries of singular concern.
Isaac Newton's scientific method turning data into evidence about gravity and cosmology
Harper, William L.
2014-01-01
Isaac Newton's Scientific Method examines Newton's argument for universal gravity and his application of it to resolve the problem of deciding between geocentric and heliocentric world systems by measuring masses of the sun and planets. William L. Harper suggests that Newton's inferences from phenomena realize an ideal of empirical success that is richer than prediction. Any theory that can achieve this rich sort of empirical success must not only be able to predict the phenomena it purports to explain, but also have those phenomena accurately measure the parameters which explain them. Harper explores the ways in which Newton's method aims to turn theoretical questions into ones which can be answered empirically by measurement from phenomena, and to establish that propositions inferred from phenomena are provisionally accepted as guides to further research. This methodology, guided by its rich ideal of empirical success, supports a conception of scientific progress that does not require construing it as progr...
Judaism in the theology of Sir Isaac Newton
Goldish, Matt
1998-01-01
This book is based on my doctoral dissertation from the Hebrew University of Jerusalem (1996) of the same title. As a master's student, working on an entirely different project, I was well aware that many of Newton's theological manuscripts were located in our own Jewish National and University Library, but I was under the mistaken assumption that scores of highly qualified scholars must be assiduously scouring them and publishing their results. It never occurred to me to look at them at all until, having fmished my master's, I spoke to Professor David Katz at Tel-Aviv University about an idea I had for doctoral research. Professor Katz informed me that the project I had suggested was one which he himself had just fmished, but that I might be interested in working on the famous Newton manuscripts in the context of a project being organized by him, Richard Popkin, James Force, and the late Betty Jo Teeter Dobbs, to study and publish Newton's theological material. I asked him whether he was not sending me into ...
Bellon, Richard
2014-01-01
For Victorian men of science, the scientific revolution of the seventeenth century represented a moral awakening. Great theoretical triumphs of inductive science flowed directly from a philosophical spirit that embraced the virtues of self-discipline, courage, patience and humility. Isaac Newton exemplified this union of moral and intellectual excellence. This, at least, was the story crafted by scientific leaders like David Brewster, Thomas Chalmers, John Herschel, Adam Sedgwick and William Whewell. Not everyone accepted this reading of history. Evangelicals who decried the 'materialism' of mainstream science assigned a different meaning to Newton's legacy on behalf of their 'scriptural' alternative. High-church critics of science like John Henry Newman, on the other hand, denied that Newton's secular achievements carried any moral significance at all. These debates over Newtonian standards of philosophical behavior had a decisive influence on Charles Darwin as he developed his theory of evolution by natural selection. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Newton and scholastic philosophy.
Levitin, Dmitri
2016-03-01
This article examines Isaac Newton's engagement with scholastic natural philosophy. In doing so, it makes two major historiographical interventions. First of all, the recent claim that Newton's use of the concepts of analysis and synthesis was derived from the Aristotelian regressus tradition is challenged on the basis of bibliographical, palaeographical and intellectual evidence. Consequently, a new, contextual explanation is offered for Newton's use of these concepts. Second, it will be shown that some of Newton's most famous pronouncements - from the General Scholium appended to the second edition of the Principia (1713) and from elsewhere - are simply incomprehensible without an understanding of specific scholastic terminology and its later reception, and that this impacts in quite significant ways on how we understand Newton's natural philosophy more generally. Contrary to the recent historiographical near-consensus, Newton did not hold an elaborate metaphysics, and his seemingly 'metaphysical' statements were in fact anti-scholastic polemical salvoes. The whole investigation will permit us a brief reconsideration of the relationship between the self-proclaimed 'new' natural philosophy and its scholastic predecessors.
Isaac newton et la gravitation universelle un scientifique au tempérament rageur
Mettra, Pierre
2015-01-01
Découvrez enfin tout ce qu'il faut savoir sur Newton et la théorie de la gravitation universelle en moins d'une heure ! Figure incontournable de l'histoire des sciences, Isaac Newton bouleverse le monde avec sa théorie de la gravitation universelle. Secrètement passionné d'alchimie, il fait accomplir à l'optique et à l'analyse mathématique d'incroyables progrès, devenant aux yeux de ses contemporains l'un des savants les plus novateurs et les plus respectés au monde, ce que la postérité ne démentira pas.Ce livre vous permettra d'en savoir plus sur : La vie de New
Enlarging the bounds of moral philosophy: Why did Isaac Newton conclude the Opticks the way he did?
Henry, John
2017-01-01
This paper draws attention to the remarkable closing words of Isaac Newton's Optice (1706) and subsequent editions of the Opticks (1718, 1721), and tries to suggest why Newton chose to conclude his book with a puzzling allusion to his own unpublished conclusions about the history of religion. Newton suggests in this concluding passage that the bounds of moral philosophy will be enlarged as natural philosophy is ‘perfected’. Asking what Newton might have had in mind, the paper first considers the idea that he was foreshadowing the ‘moral Newtonianism’ developed later in the eighteenth century; then it considers the idea that he was perhaps pointing to developments in natural theology. Finally, the paper suggests that Newton wanted to at least signal the importance of attempting to recover the true original religion, and perhaps was hinting at his intention to publish his own extensive research on the history of the Church.
Westfall, Richard S
2007-01-01
Definitive, concise, and very interesting... From William Shakespeare to Winston Churchill, the Very Interesting People series provides authoritative bite-sized biographies of Britain's most fascinating historical figures - people whose influence and importance have stood the test of time. Each book in the series is based upon the biographical entry from the world-famous Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. -
Hendry, Archibald W.
2007-01-01
Isaac Newton may have seen an apple fall, but it was Robert Hooke who had a better idea of where it would land. No one really knows whether or not Isaac Newton actually saw an apple fall in his garden. Supposedly it took place in 1666, but it was a tale he told in his old age more than 60 years later, a time when his memory was failing and his…
Fara, Patricia
2015-04-13
Isaac Newton's reputation was initially established by his 1672 paper on the refraction of light through a prism; this is now seen as a ground-breaking account and the foundation of modern optics. In it, he claimed to refute Cartesian ideas of light modification by definitively demonstrating that the refrangibility of a ray is linked to its colour, hence arguing that colour is an intrinsic property of light and does not arise from passing through a medium. Newton's later significance as a world-famous scientific genius and the apparent confirmation of his experimental results have tended to obscure the realities of his reception at the time. This paper explores the rhetorical strategies Newton deployed to convince his audience that his conclusions were certain and unchallengeable. This commentary was written to celebrate the 350th anniversary of the journal Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society.
VizieR Online Data Catalog: Isaac Newton Telescope Wide Field Survey (CASU 2002)
Cambridge Astronomical Survey Unit
2002-04-01
The INT Wide Field Survey (WFS) is using the Wide Field Camera (~0.3 square degrees) on the 2.5m Isaac Newton Telescope (INT). The project was initiated in August 1998 and is expected to have a duration of up to five years. Multicolour data will be obtained over 200+ square degrees to a typical depth of ~25 mag (u' through z'). The data is publically accessible via the Cambridge Astronomical Survey Unit to UK and NL communities from day one, with access to the rest of the world after one year. This observation log lists all observations older than the one year proprietary period. (1 data file).
Fara, Patricia
2015-01-01
Isaac Newton's reputation was initially established by his 1672 paper on the refraction of light through a prism; this is now seen as a ground-breaking account and the foundation of modern optics. In it, he claimed to refute Cartesian ideas of light modification by definitively demonstrating that the refrangibility of a ray is linked to its colour, hence arguing that colour is an intrinsic property of light and does not arise from passing through a medium. Newton's later significance as a world-famous scientific genius and the apparent confirmation of his experimental results have tended to obscure the realities of his reception at the time. This paper explores the rhetorical strategies Newton deployed to convince his audience that his conclusions were certain and unchallengeable. This commentary was written to celebrate the 350th anniversary of the journal Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society. PMID:25750143
The Service Programme of the Isaac Newton Group of Telescopes
Méndez, J.
2013-05-01
The Service Programme of the Isaac Newton Group of Telescopes (Roque de los Muchachos Observatory, La Palma, Spain) aims at providing astronomers with a rapid and flexible tool for obtaining small sets of observations on the William Herschel Telescope up to 8 hours. This can be used to try new ideas or complement a regular observing programme allocated on the ING telescopes, for instance. Proposals are accepted from principal investigators working in an institution located in the United Kingdom, the Netherlands or Spain, but also regardless the nationality of the host institution. A monthly deadline for application submission takes place at midnight on the last day of each month but urgent requests submitted at any time can also be accepted. Proposals are generally withdrawn from the scheme after a one year period. In this poster we provide an overview of the programme and some statistics. More information can be obtained at http://www.ing.iac.es/astronomy/service/.
HARPS3 for a roboticized Isaac Newton Telescope
Thompson, Samantha J.; Queloz, Didier; Baraffe, Isabelle; Brake, Martyn; Dolgopolov, Andrey; Fisher, Martin; Fleury, Michel; Geelhoed, Joost; Hall, Richard; González Hernández, Jonay I.; ter Horst, Rik; Kragt, Jan; Navarro, Ramón; Naylor, Tim; Pepe, Francesco; Piskunov, Nikolai; Rebolo, Rafael; Sander, Louis; Ségransan, Damien; Seneta, Eugene; Sing, David; Snellen, Ignas; Snik, Frans; Spronck, Julien; Stempels, Eric; Sun, Xiaowei; Santana Tschudi, Samuel; Young, John
2016-08-01
We present a description of a new instrument development, HARPS3, planned to be installed on an upgraded and roboticized Isaac Newton Telescope by end-2018. HARPS3 will be a high resolution (R≃115,000) echelle spectrograph with a wavelength range from 380-690 nm. It is being built as part of the Terra Hunting Experiment - a future 10- year radial velocity measurement programme to discover Earth-like exoplanets. The instrument design is based on the successful HARPS spectrograph on the 3.6m ESO telescope and HARPS-N on the TNG telescope. The main changes to the design in HARPS3 will be: a customised fibre adapter at the Cassegrain focus providing a stabilised beam feed and on-sky fibre diameter ≍1:4 arcsec, the implementation of a new continuous ow cryostat to keep the CCD temperature very stable, detailed characterisation of the HARPS3 CCD to map the effective pixel positions and thus provide an improved accuracy wavelength solution, an optimised integrated polarimeter and the instrument integrated into a robotic operation. The robotic operation will optimise our programme which requires our target stars to be measured on a nightly basis. We present an overview of the entire project, including a description of our anticipated robotic operation.
Bohlin transformation: the hidden symmetry that connects Hooke to Newton
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Saggio, Maria Luisa
2013-01-01
Hooke's name is familiar to students of mechanics thanks to the law of force that bears his name. Less well-known is the influence his findings had on the founder of mechanics, Isaac Newton. In a lecture given some twenty years ago, W Arnol'd pointed out the outstanding contribution to science made by Hooke, and also noted the controversial issue of the attribution of important discoveries to Newton that were actually inspired by Hooke. It therefore seems ironic that the two most famous force laws, named after Hooke and Newton, are two geometrical aspects of the same law. This relationship, together with other illuminating aspects of Newtonian mechanics, is described in Arnol'd's book and is worth remembering in standard physics courses. In this didactical paper the duality of the two forces is expounded and an account of the more recent contributions to the subject is given. (paper)
Nunan, E.
1973-01-01
Presents a brief biography of Sir Isaac Newton, lists contemporary scientists and scientific developments and discusses Newton's optical research and conceptual position concerning the nature of light. (JR)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Francesco Fiorentino
2015-11-01
Full Text Available This contribution investigates a hidden and surely singular – but far from marginal – aspect of the Scientific Revolution of the 17th century, in other words the interpretation of the Holy Scriptures. First of all, this work analyzes the situation immediately before the advent of the fathers of the 17th Century Scientific Revolution like Galileo Galilei and Isaac Newton, starting from the Council of Trent. This reconstruction aims to throw light on the particular way that Galileo and Newton intended to approach the interpretation of the Holy Scriptures with respect to the main tendencies of the Catholic Reformation of biblical hermeneutics. Their way is important both in itself and in relation to the Scientific Revolution. In itself because Galileo and Newton elaborate original theories that are not entirely in agreement with the predominant views and that are decidedly no less interesting than their pure scientific theories. In relation to the Scientific Revolution because the interpretation of the Holy Scriptures is addressed in an original fashion by both Galileo and Newton, also with the intent of facilitating the spread and approval of their own scientific theories in their respective socio-cultural environments. The primacy of nature is not manifested only in contrast to and outside the book of Scriptures, but conditions the Book of Scriptures, locating it within a precise cultural perspective and religious sense that are by no means contrary to Galileo and Newton’s views.
Ryder, L. H.
1987-01-01
Discusses the history of scientific thought in terms of the theories of inertia and absolute space, relativity and gravitation. Describes how Sir Isaac Newton used the work of earlier scholars in his theories and how Albert Einstein used Newton's theories in his. (CW)
Conference | From Newton to Hawking and beyond | 28 May
2013-01-01
From Newton to Hawking and beyond: Why disability equality is relevant to the world of particle physics, Dr Tom Shakespeare. Tuesday, 28 May 2013 - 11.30 am - 1 pm Main Auditorium – Room 500-1-001 Conference organised by the CERN Diversity Programme English with French interpretation According to the recent world report on disability, 15% of the world’s population is disabled. Among that group could be numbered famous physicists such as Isaac Newton and Paul Dirac, neither of whom could be classed as “neuro-typical”, and Stephen Hawking. This presentation will provide some basic data about global disability, and the socially imposed barriers which disabled people face. It will also include some stories about high achieving people with disabilities. Finally, some practical suggestions will be offered on how to respect and include people with disabilities in the workplace. Tom Shakespeare is a social sci...
Hall, Alfred Rupert
1982-01-01
The near century (1630–1720) that separates the important astronomical findings of Galileo Galilei (1564–1642) and the vastly influential mathematical work of Sir Isaac Newton (1642–1727) represents a pivotal stage of transition in the history of science. Tracing the revolution in physics initiated by Galileo and culminating in Newton's achievements, this book surveys the work of Huygens, Leeuwenhoek, Boyle, Descartes, and others. 35 illustrations.
2008-01-01
Isaac Newton, besides being the founder of modern physics, was also master of Britain's mint. That is a precedent which many British physicists must surely wish had become traditional. At the moment, money for physics is in short supply in Britain.
Newton's Metaphysics of Space as God's Emanative Effect
Jacquette, Dale
2014-09-01
In several of his writings, Isaac Newton proposed that physical space is God's "emanative effect" or "sensorium," revealing something interesting about the metaphysics underlying his mathematical physics. Newton's conjectures depart from Plato and Aristotle's metaphysics of space and from classical and Cambridge Neoplatonism. Present-day philosophical concepts of supervenience clarify Newton's ideas about space and offer a portrait of Newton not only as a mathematical physicist but an independent-minded rationalist philosopher.
Voltaire-Newton... Renversant!
2004-01-01
The encounter, even improbable, between François Marie Arouet, said Voltaire, and Isaac Newton could occur only in Pays de Gex, near his city... It's indeed right above of the accelerator, in Saint-Genis, that the meeting between this two "monsters" of the 18e century took place
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fábio Marineli
Full Text Available O presente trabalho busca analisar a estrutura argumentativa e as características dos argumentos que aparecem no texto em que Isaac Newton descreve sua "Nova teoria sobre luz e cores", escrito em 1672. Para tanto, o padrão de Toulmin é utilizado como ferramenta analítica. A identificação da estrutura argumentativa de um texto científico pode ajudar na compreensão da construção do argumento na ciência e servir de apoio à utilização da argumentação na educação científica, inclusive na elaboração de textos didáticos. A análise realizada caracterizou os argumentos apresentados no texto e mostrou como se relacionam na elaboração da explicação de Newton para o fenômeno da formação de cores devido à refração da luz em um prisma.
Problem in Two Unknowns: Robert Hooke and a Worm in Newton's Apple.
Weinstock, Robert
1992-01-01
Discusses the place that Robert Hooke has in science history versus the scientific contributions he made. Examines the relationship between Hooke and his contemporary, Isaac Newton, and Hooke's claims that Newton built on his ideas without receiving Newton's recognition. (26 references) (MDH)
Science and Society: The Case of Acceptance of Newtonian Optics in the Eighteenth Century
Silva, Cibelle Celestino; Moura, Breno Arsioli
2012-01-01
The present paper presents a historical study on the acceptance of Newton's corpuscular theory of light in the early eighteenth century. Isaac Newton first published his famous book "Opticks" in 1704. After its publication, it became quite popular and was an almost mandatory presence in cultural life of Enlightenment societies. However, Newton's…
British physics Newton's law of funding
2007-01-01
In Britain, fundamental physics is in a pickle ISAAC NEWTON, besides being the founder of modern physics, was also master of Britain's mint. That is a precedent which many British physicists must surely wish had become traditional. At the moment, money for physics is in short supply in Britain.
How Two Differing Portraits of Newton Can Teach Us about the Cultural Context of Science
Tucci, Pasquale
2015-01-01
Like several scientists, Isaac Newton has been represented many times over many different periods, and portraits of Newton were often commissioned by the scientist himself. These portraits tell us a lot about the scientist, the artist and the cultural context. This article examines two very different portraits of Newton that were realized more…
Introducing Newton and classical physics
Rankin, William
2002-01-01
The rainbow, the moon, a spinning top, a comet, the ebb and flood of the oceans ...a falling apple. There is only one universe and it fell to Isaac Newton to discover its secrets. Newton was arguably the greatest scientific genius of all time, and yet he remains a mysterious figure. Written and illustrated by William Rankin, "Introducting Newton and Classical Physics" explains the extraordinary ideas of a man who sifted through the accumulated knowledge of centuries, tossed out mistaken beliefs, and single-handedly made enormous advances in mathematics, mechanics and optics. By the age of 25, entirely self-taught, he had sketched out a system of the world. Einstein's theories are unthinkable without Newton's founding system. He was also a secret heretic, a mystic and an alchemist, the man of whom Edmund Halley said "Nearer to the gods may no man approach!". This is an ideal companion volume to "Introducing Einstein".
Socrates Bardi, Jason
2010-01-01
In 1696 Isaac Newton made what seems like a bizarre career move. Abandoning Cambridge University and the mathematical pursuits that made him famous, the 53-year-old scientist upped sticks for London to become warden of the Royal Mint. Part administrator, part coining expert, and part criminal prosecutor, this new role would occupy Newton for the remaining three decades of his life.
Damonte, Kathleen
2004-01-01
One thing scientists study is how objects move. A famous scientist named Sir Isaac Newton (1642-1727) spent a lot of time observing objects in motion and came up with three laws that describe how things move. This explanation only deals with the first of his three laws of motion. Newton's First Law of Motion says that moving objects will continue…
Proving Newton Right or Wrong with Blur Photography
Davidhazy, Andrew
2012-01-01
Sir Isaac Newton determined that the acceleration constant for gravity was 32 ft./per/sec/sec. This is a fact that most students become familiar with over time and through various means. This article describes how this can be demonstrated in a technology classroom using simple photographic equipment. (Contains 5 figures.)
You err, Einstein.. Newton, Einstein, Heisenberg, and Feynman discuss quantum physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fritzsch, Harald
2008-01-01
Harald Fritzsch and his star physicists Einstein, Heisenberg, and Feynman explain the central concept of nowadays physics, quantum mechanics, without it nothing goes in modern world. And the great Isaac newton puts the questions, which all would put
Goethe's Exposure of Newton's theory a polemic on Newton's theory of light and colour
Goethe, Johann Wolfgang von
2016-01-01
Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, although best known for his literary work, was also a keen and outspoken natural scientist. In the second polemic part of Zur Farbenlehre (Theory of Colours), for example, Goethe attacked Isaac Newton's ground-breaking revelation that light is heterogeneous and not immutable, as was previously thought.This polemic was unanimously rejected by the physicists of the day, and has often been omitted from compendia of Goethe's works. Indeed, although Goethe repeated all of Newton's key experiments, he was never able to achieve the same results. Many reasons have been proposed for this, ranging from the psychological — such as a blind hatred of Newtonism, self-deceit and paranoid psychosis — to accusations of incapability — Goethe simply did not understand the experiments. Yet Goethe was never to be dissuaded from this passionate conviction.This translation of Goethe's second polemic, published for the first time in English, makes it clear that Goethe did understand the thrust of Ne...
A primeira Lei de Newton: uma abordagem didática
da Silva, Saulo Luis Lima
2018-01-01
Resumo No estudo da mecânica Newtoniana o essencial é a compreensão das leis de Newton em profundidade. Se isso acontecer, ficará fácil perceber que todos os outros fenômenos a serem estudados são consequências dessas três leis básicas do movimento formuladas por Isaac Newton. Dentre elas, a primeira lei de Newton, conhecida como lei da Inércia, é a de maior complexidade filosófica e a menos compreendida pelos alunos ao saírem de um curso de física básica. Não é incomum encontrar alunos descr...
Edwards, Howell G M; Hassan, Nik F N; Wilson, Andrew S
2004-10-01
The Raman spectra of two historical specimens of human hair attributed to the engineer Robert Stephenson and scientist Sir Isaac Newton, preserved in private collections are reported. Comparisons are made with the Raman spectra of modern hair specimens and with hair from archaeological excavations. The hair spectra collected with a laser excitation of 785 nm are of a better quality than those collected using 1064 nm. The historical hair specimens are remarkably well-defined spectroscopically in terms of the amide I vibrational mode and the [small nu](SS), ascribed to a predominantly gauche-gauche-gauche CSSC conformation. The contrast with degraded hair specimens recovered from archaeological excavations is striking. The presence of a weak feature near 2590 cm(-1) in the hair samples attributed to a [small nu](SH) vibration could be indicative of a reduction process operative on the CSSC cystine keratotic linkages and a possible origin of this is bacterial biodegradation identified histologically. This study demonstrates the molecular information available from non-destructive Raman spectroscopic analysis from single hair shafts or small bundles of fibres which complements information available from histological and destructive analytical techniques for rare biological specimens subjected to conservation or curation procedures in museums or private collections.
The history of the priority di∫pute between Newton and Leibniz mathematics in history and culture
Sonar, Thomas
2018-01-01
This book provides a thrilling history of the famous priority dispute between Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz and Isaac Newton, presenting the episode for the first time in the context of cultural history. It introduces readers to the background of the dispute, details its escalation, and discusses the aftermath of the big divide, which extended well into recent times. One of the unique features of the book is that the mathematics behind the story is very intelligibly explained – an approach that offers general readers interested in the history of sciences and mathematics a window into the world of these two giants in their field. From the epilogue to the German edition by Eberhard Knobloch: Thomas Sonar has traced the emergence and the escalation of this conflict, which was heightened by Leibniz’s rejection of Newton’s gravitation theory, in a grandiose, excitingly written monograph. With absolute competence, he also explains the mathematical context so that non-mathematicians will also profit from the book....
Astronomical and Cosmological Symbolism in Art Dedicated to Newton and Einstein
Sinclair, R.
2013-04-01
Separated by two and a half centuries, Isaac Newton (1642-1727) and Albert Einstein (1879-1955) had profound impacts on our understanding of the universe. Newton established our understanding of universal gravitation, which was recast almost beyond recognition by Einstein. Both discovered basic patterns behind astronomical phenomena and became the best-known scientists of their respective periods. I will describe here how artists of the 18th and 20th centuries represented the achievements of Newton and Einstein. Representations of Newton express reverence, almost an apotheosis, portraying him as the creator of the universe. Einstein, in a different age, is represented often as a comic figure, and only rarely do we find art that hints at the profound view of the universe he developed.
Newton and the origin of civilization
Buchwald, Jed Z
2012-01-01
Isaac Newton's Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms Amended, published in 1728, one year after the great man's death, unleashed a storm of controversy. And for good reason. The book presents a drastically revised timeline for ancient civilizations, contracting Greek history by five hundred years and Egypt's by a millennium. Newton and the Origin of Civilization tells the story of how one of the most celebrated figures in the history of mathematics, optics, and mechanics came to apply his unique ways of thinking to problems of history, theology, and mythology, and of how his radical ideas produced an uproar that reverberated in Europe's learned circles throughout the eighteenth century and beyond. Jed Buchwald and Mordechai Feingold reveal the manner in which Newton strove for nearly half a century to rectify universal history by reading ancient texts through the lens of astronomy, and to create a tight theoretical system for interpreting the evolution of civilization on the basis of population dynamics. It was duri...
Jaeger, W
1984-04-01
Since Aristotle there have been two colour order systems: The first is according to the subjective luminosity of colours, and the second is that which is found in the rainbow. Almost all the medieval concepts of colour order were based on the subjective luminosity of colours. At the beginning of the 17th century Franciscus Aguilonius still described the traditional sequence according to subjective luminosity: white, yellow, red, blue and black in his colour order system. - Athanasius Kircher demonstrated two sequences: The first was the same as Aguilonius 's, completed by lists of symbolic qualities attributed to the respective colours; The second was the sequence of the prismatic spectrum; red, orange, yellow, green and blue. Violet was still missing from his spectrum. For that reason the idea of arranging the colours in a closed circle did not occur to him. - Isaac Newton added violet to the prismatic spectrum. Hence he was able to bring the ends of the spectrum together, forming a colour circle. He completed the colours of his spectrum "with those purple hues which, although not present in the spectrum, were familiar to painters and dyers , and in this way closed up the colour-circle into a band returning on itself" (W. Ostwald). Thus he combined the perceptual concept of the colour wheel, containing pairs of complementary colours, with the physical concept of the prismatic spectrum.
Newton's Path to Universal Gravitation: The Role of the Pendulum
Boulos, Pierre J.
2006-01-01
Much attention has been given to Newton's argument for Universal Gravitation in Book III of the "Principia". Newton brings an impressive array of phenomena, along with the three laws of motion, and his rules for reasoning to deduce Universal Gravitation. At the centre of this argument is the famous "moon test". Here it is the empirical evidence…
Spyromilio, J.; Cuby, J.; Lidman, C.; Johnson, R.; Jaunsen, A. O.; Mason, E.; Ivanov, V. D.; Schmidtobreick, L.
2014-03-01
ISAAC was switched off, almost certainly for the final time, on 12 December 2013. The last observing block executed was OB1030962, the target, Supernova 2013ct, for a programme whose principal investigator just happened to be the first instrument scientist for ISAAC. "All constraints were respected and spectra of the target detected" are the public comments in the log. A short history of ISAAC, from the instrument scientists' viewpoint, is presented.
Newton's Investigation of Light and Color: Historical and Experimental Notes. Experiment No. 7.
Devons, Samuel
The life and work of Isaac Newton and his investigations of light and color are described in detail. Notes include preliminary observations of chromatic dispersion; dispersion by an equilateral prism; the "Experimentum Crucos" or the composite nature of white light; the nature of colored light and illumination; transmissions and reflections; and…
Steinberg, Melvin S.; And Others
Recent research has shown that serious misconceptions frequently survive high school and university instruction in mechanics. It is interesting to inquire whether Newton himself encountered conceptual difficulties before he wrote the "Principia." This paper compares Newton's pre-"Principia" beliefs, based upon his writings,…
Devons, Samuel
This paper attempts to promote an understanding of physics through its history and replication of the oscillation experiments of Isaac Newton and Daniel Bernoulli from the 17th and 18th centuries. The experiments described can be treated at a level of sophistication to suit the interests and capabilities of the student. Reproductions in the…
Gilbert, Robert; Kajiwara, Joji
2000-01-01
This book is the Proceedings of the Second ISAAC Congress. ISAAC is the acronym of the International Society for Analysis, its Applications and Computation. The president of ISAAC is Professor Robert P. Gilbert, the second named editor of this book, e-mail: gilbert@math.udel.edu. The Congress is world-wide valued so highly that an application for a grant has been selected and this project has been executed with Grant No. 11-56 from *the Commemorative Association for the Japan World Exposition (1970). The finance of the publication of this book is exclusively the said Grant No. 11-56 from *. Thus, a pair of each one copy of two volumes of this book will be sent to all contributors, who registered at the Second ISAAC Congress in Fukuoka, free of charge by the Kluwer Academic Publishers. Analysis is understood here in the broad sense of the word, includ ing differential equations, integral equations, functional analysis, and function theory. It is the purpose of ISAAC to promote analysis, its applications, and...
Westfall, Richard S
1994-01-01
Le plus célèbre des savants, Isaac Newton, est aussi celui qui a le plus de biographes. Avant même sa mort, en 1727, l'un d'eux publiait un récit de la vie du grand homme. Richard Westfall, universitaire américain, est aujourd'hui le meilleur connaisseur d'un personnage en tout point extraordinaire, dont Aldous Huxley disait : « En tant qu'homme, c'est un fiasco ; en tant que monstre, il est superbe ! » Découvrant à 24 ans la loi de la gravitation universelle, établissant peu après les lois de l'optique tout en poursuivant des études alchimiques et théologiques, cet homme capable de rester des jours entiers sans manger ni dormir, absorbé par les énigmes du savoir, connaît une grave dépression dont il réchappe de justesse... pour se consacrer à l'économie de son pays : il devient directeur de la Monnaie de Londres, organisant une impitoyable chasse aux faux-monnayeurs ! L'image d'Épinal de Newton regardant une pomme tomber sort enrichie et complexifiée de ce livre fruit d'une vie de reche...
The calculus gallery masterpieces from Newton to Lebesgue
Dunham, William
2008-01-01
More than three centuries after its creation, calculus remains a dazzling intellectual achievement and the gateway into higher mathematics. This book charts its growth and development by sampling from the work of some of its foremost practitioners, beginning with Isaac Newton and Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz in the late seventeenth century and continuing to Henri Lebesgue at the dawn of the twentieth--mathematicians whose achievements are comparable to those of Bach in music or Shakespeare in literature. William Dunham lucidly presents the definitions, theorems, and proofs. ""Students of literat
Newtonian cosmology Newton would understand
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lemons, D.S.
1988-01-01
Isaac Newton envisioned a static, infinite, and initially uniform, zero field universe that was gravitationally unstable to local condensations of matter. By postulating the existence of such a universe and using it as a boundary condition on Newtonian gravity, a new field equation for gravity is derived, which differs from the classical one by a time-dependent cosmological term proportional to the average mass density of the universe. The new field equation not only makes Jeans' analysis of the gravitational instability of a Newtonian universe consistent, but also gives rise to a family of Newtonian evolutionary cosmologies parametrized by a time-invariant expansion velocity. This Newtonian cosmology contrasts with both 19th-century ones and with post general relativity Newtonian cosmology
Space and motion in nature and Scripture: Galileo, Descartes, Newton.
Janiak, Andrew
2015-06-01
In the Scholium to the Definitions in Principia mathematica, Newton departs from his main task of discussing space, time and motion by suddenly mentioning the proper method for interpreting Scripture. This is surprising, and it has long been ignored by scholars. In this paper, I argue that the Scripture passage in the Scholium is actually far from incidental: it reflects Newton's substantive concern, one evident in correspondence and manuscripts from the 1680s, that any general understanding of space, time and motion must enable readers to recognize the veracity of Biblical claims about natural phenomena, including the motion of the earth. This substantive concern sheds new light on an aspect of Newton's project in the Scholium. It also underscores Newton's originality in dealing with the famous problem of reconciling theological and philosophical conceptions of nature in the seventeenth century. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
280 one-opposition near-Earth asteroids recovered by the EURONEAR with the Isaac Newton Telescope
Vaduvescu, O.; Hudin, L.; Mocnik, T.; Char, F.; Sonka, A.; Tudor, V.; Ordonez-Etxeberria, I.; Díaz Alfaro, M.; Ashley, R.; Errmann, R.; Short, P.; Moloceniuc, A.; Cornea, R.; Inceu, V.; Zavoianu, D.; Popescu, M.; Curelaru, L.; Mihalea, S.; Stoian, A.-M.; Boldea, A.; Toma, R.; Fields, L.; Grigore, V.; Stoev, H.; Lopez-Martinez, F.; Humphries, N.; Sowicka, P.; Ramanjooloo, Y.; Manilla-Robles, A.; Riddick, F. C.; Jimenez-Lujan, F.; Mendez, J.; Aceituno, F.; Sota, A.; Jones, D.; Hidalgo, S.; Murabito, S.; Oteo, I.; Bongiovanni, A.; Zamora, O.; Pyrzas, S.; Génova-Santos, R.; Font, J.; Bereciartua, A.; Perez-Fournon, I.; Martínez-Vázquez, C. E.; Monelli, M.; Cicuendez, L.; Monteagudo, L.; Agulli, I.; Bouy, H.; Huélamo, N.; Monguió, M.; Gänsicke, B. T.; Steeghs, D.; Gentile-Fusillo, N. P.; Hollands, M. A.; Toloza, O.; Manser, C. J.; Dhillon, V.; Sahman, D.; Fitzsimmons, A.; McNeill, A.; Thompson, A.; Tabor, M.; Murphy, D. N. A.; Davies, J.; Snodgrass, C.; Triaud, A. H. M. J.; Groot, P. J.; Macfarlane, S.; Peletier, R.; Sen, S.; İkiz, T.; Hoekstra, H.; Herbonnet, R.; Köhlinger, F.; Greimel, R.; Afonso, A.; Parker, Q. A.; Kong, A. K. H.; Bassa, C.; Pleunis, Z.
2018-01-01
Context. One-opposition near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) are growing in number, and they must be recovered to prevent loss and mismatch risk, and to improve their orbits, as they are likely to be too faint for detection in shallow surveys at future apparitions. Aims: We aimed to recover more than half of the one-opposition NEAs recommended for observations by the Minor Planet Center (MPC) using the Isaac Newton Telescope (INT) in soft-override mode and some fractions of available D-nights. During about 130 h in total between 2013 and 2016, we targeted 368 NEAs, among which 56 potentially hazardous asteroids (PHAs), observing 437 INT Wide Field Camera (WFC) fields and recovering 280 NEAs (76% of all targets). Methods: Engaging a core team of about ten students and amateurs, we used the THELI, Astrometrica, and the Find_Orb software to identify all moving objects using the blink and track-and-stack method for the faintest targets and plotting the positional uncertainty ellipse from NEODyS. Results: Most targets and recovered objects had apparent magnitudes centered around V 22.8 mag, with some becoming as faint as V 24 mag. One hundred and three objects (representing 28% of all targets) were recovered by EURONEAR alone by Aug. 2017. Orbital arcs were prolonged typically from a few weeks to a few years; our oldest recoveries reach 16 years. The O-C residuals for our 1854 NEA astrometric positions show that most measurements cluster closely around the origin. In addition to the recovered NEAs, 22 000 positions of about 3500 known minor planets and another 10 000 observations of about 1500 unknown objects (mostly main-belt objects) were promptly reported to the MPC by our team. Four new NEAs were discovered serendipitously in the analyzed fields and were promptly secured with the INT and other telescopes, while two more NEAs were lost due to extremely fast motion and lack of rapid follow-up time. They increase the counting to nine NEAs discovered by the EURONEAR in 2014 and
[A case of Isaacs' syndrome associated with dextrocardia].
Torres, L; Cosentino, C; Vélez, M; Anicama, A
Isaacs syndrome is a disorder of unknown etiology characterized by muscular rigidity, cramps and myokymias. Described by Isaacs in 1961 and called by him as continuous muscular activity syndrome. There are few reports in Latino american countries. A 31 year-old man with sustained muscular contractions in lower limbs and diffuse myokymias since he was eighteen-year old. Dextrocardia was disclosed on clinical examination. We report the case of a patient with Isaacs syndrome and dextrocardia.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dias, Penha Maria Cardozo; Stuchi, T J
2013-01-01
In a letter to Robert Hooke, Isaac Newton drew the orbit of a mass moving under a constant attracting central force. The drawing of the orbit may indicate how and when Newton developed dynamic categories. Some historians claim that Newton used a method contrived by Hooke; others that he used some method of curvature. We prove that Hooke’s method is a second-order symplectic area-preserving algorithm, and the method of curvature is a first-order algorithm without special features; then we integrate the Hamiltonian equations. Integration by the method of curvature can also be done, exploring the geometric properties of curves. We compare three methods: Hooke’s method, the method of curvature and a first-order method. A fourth-order algorithm sets a standard of comparison. We analyze which of these methods best explains Newton’s drawing. (paper)
Cardozo Dias, Penha Maria; Stuchi, T. J.
2013-11-01
In a letter to Robert Hooke, Isaac Newton drew the orbit of a mass moving under a constant attracting central force. The drawing of the orbit may indicate how and when Newton developed dynamic categories. Some historians claim that Newton used a method contrived by Hooke; others that he used some method of curvature. We prove that Hooke’s method is a second-order symplectic area-preserving algorithm, and the method of curvature is a first-order algorithm without special features; then we integrate the Hamiltonian equations. Integration by the method of curvature can also be done, exploring the geometric properties of curves. We compare three methods: Hooke’s method, the method of curvature and a first-order method. A fourth-order algorithm sets a standard of comparison. We analyze which of these methods best explains Newton’s drawing.
Programming for the Newton software development with NewtonScript
McKeehan, Julie
1994-01-01
Programming for the Newton: Software Development with NewtonScript focuses on the processes, approaches, operations, and principles involved in software development with NewtonScript.The publication first elaborates on Newton application design, views on the Newton, and protos. Discussions focus on system protos, creating and using user protos, linking and naming templates, creating the views of WaiterHelper, Newton application designs, and life cycle of an application. The text then elaborates on the fundamentals of NewtonScript, inheritance in NewtonScript, and view system and messages. Topi
2000-02-01
hectic behaviour of stars at the end of their life". The Calibration and Performance Verification phase for XMM-Newton's science instruments is to begin on 3 March, with routine science operations starting in June. (*)Pictures available on the ESA website at http://www.esa.int, then Image Gallery, then News and at http://sci.esa.int/xmm/firstimages Following in Newton's footsteps The European Space Agency has decided to honour one of the world's most illustrious scientists by giving the name of Isaac Newton to the XMM mission. The X-ray space telescope is henceforth called the XMM-Newton observatory. The work of Sir Isaac Newton (1642-1727) in the field of mathematics, optics and physics laid the foundations for modern science. He made a major impact on theoretical and practical astronomy and today one cannot evoke an apple, a reflecting telescope, a light-splitting prism and or a sextant without recalling Newton's contributions to science. "We have chosen this name because Sir Isaac Newton was the man who invented spectroscopy and XMM is a spectroscopy mission" explains Prof. Roger Bonnet ESA Director of Science. "The name of Newton is associated with the falling apple, which is the symbol of gravity and with XMM I hope that we will find a large number of black hole candidates which are of course associated with the theory of gravity. There was no better choice of name than XMM-Newton for this mission". Stargazing with XMM-Newton On the occasion of the presentation of the X-ray observatory's first images, the European Space Agency is launching "Stargazing", the third XMM-Newton competition. European youngsters, 16 to 18 years old at the end of secondary school, will be able to win observing time using the X-ray telescope. "We are extending the concept of backyard astronomy" says Prof. Bonnet. "Through this telescope's ability to be operated from the ground in a friendly way, young people will be offered a unique opportunity to learn how to operate and manage an
[The Galenic content of Isaac Beeckman's medical ideas (1617-1629)].
Moreau, Elisabeth
2011-01-01
The Journal tenu par Isaac Beeckman de 1604 à 1634 has been studied in the history of the seventeenth-century scientific revolution following the theme of Isaac Beeckman's physical mathematical mechanistic view, his proto-molecular theory and his atomistic Lucretian influence. This article goes deeper into the medical ideas of the Journal: how Isaac Beeckman (1588-1637) settles the structure of living matter according to his intensive reading of Galen. It develops a different analysis from the traditionally triumphalist approach in the history of science, focused on the victory of Cartesian mechanism, particularly in the history of medicine taking up Galenism very briefly because of its obsolete physiology. The Galenic corpus inside Isaac Beeckman's Journal consists of the many commentaries of Galen which Beeckman has put down in writing since 1616 until 1627, after when the passages linked to Galen became fewer. Isaac Beeckman's study of Galenic medicine is analyzed according to three approaches: the teleological dimension of Galenism showing up the organic conception of human body corresponding to the divine Providence and consistent with Beeckman's Calvinist belief, the physiologic angle of Galenism, based on natural faculties, stressing the purely speculative aspect of Beeckman's commentaries, while the pathologic and therapeutic angle supports the Hippocratic humourism influence.
Stuchi, Teresa; Cardozo Dias, P.
2013-05-01
Abstract (2,250 Maximum Characters): On a letter to Robert Hooke, Isaac Newton drew the orbit of a mass moving under a constant attracting central force. How he drew the orbit may indicate how and when he developed dynamic categories. Some historians claim that Newton used a method contrived by Hooke; others that he used some method of curvature. We prove geometrically: Hooke’s method is a second order symplectic area preserving algorithm, and the method of curvature is a first order algorithm without special features; then we integrate the hamiltonian equations. Integration by the method of curvature can also be done exploring geometric properties of curves. We compare three methods: Hooke’s method, the method of curvature and a first order method. A fourth order algorithm sets a standard of comparison. We analyze which of these methods best explains Newton’s drawing.
Ruzhansky, Michael; Analytic Methods in Interdisciplinary Applications
2015-01-01
The book includes lectures given by the plenary and key speakers at the 9th International ISAAC Congress held 2013 in Krakow, Poland. The contributions treat recent developments in analysis and surrounding areas, concerning topics from the theory of partial differential equations, function spaces, scattering, probability theory, and others, as well as applications to biomathematics, queueing models, fractured porous media and geomechanics.
Westfall, Richard S.
2015-10-01
Acknowledgements; A note about dates; 1. A sober, silent, thinking lad; 2. The solitary scholar; 3. Anni Mirabilis; 4. Lucasian professor; 5. Publication and crisis; 6. Rebellion; 7. Years of silence; 8. Principia; 9. Revolution; 10. The Mint; 11. President of the Royal Society; 12. The priority dispute; 13. Years of decline; Biographical essay; Index.
McIsaac criteria for diagnosis of acute group-A β-hemolytic streptococcal pharyngitis
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Imanuel Y. Malino
2013-10-01
Conclusion A McIsaac criteria total score of <4 is favorable for excluding a diagnosis of GABHS pharyngitis. A McIsaac total criteria score of ≥4 requires further examination to confirm a diagnosis of GABHS pharyngitis.
'Speaking Kleinian': Susan Isaacs as Ursula Wise and the Inter-War Popularisation of Psychoanalysis.
Shapira, Michal
2017-10-01
How did the complex concepts of psychoanalysis become popular in early twentieth-century Britain? This article examines the contribution of educator and psychoanalyst Susan Isaacs (1885-1948) to this process, as well as her role as a female expert in the intellectual and medical history of this period. Isaacs was one of the most influential British psychologists of the inter-war era, yet historical research on her work is still limited. The article focuses on her writing as 'Ursula Wise', answering the questions of parents and nursery nurses in the popular journal Nursery World, from 1929 to 1936. Researched in depth for the first time, Isaacs' important magazine columns reveal that her writing was instrumental in disseminating the work of psychoanalyst Melanie Klein in Britain. Moreover, Isaacs' powerful rebuttals to behaviourist, disciplinarian parenting methods helped shift the focus of caregivers to the child's perspective, encouraging them to acknowledge children as independent subjects and future democratic citizens. Like other early psychoanalysts, Isaacs was not an elitist; she was in fact committed to disseminating her ideas as broadly as possible. Isaacs taught British parents and child caregivers to 'speak Kleinian', translating Klein's intellectual ideas into ordinary language and thus enabling their swift integration into popular discourse.
Advanced nursing practice and Newton's three laws of motion.
Sturgeon, David
This article considers the reasons for the development of advanced practice roles among nurses and other healthcare professions. It explores the implications of financial constraints, consumer preferences and the development of new healthcare services on the reorganization of professional boundaries. It makes use of Sir Isaac Newton's three laws of motion to demonstrate how professional development in nursing has taken place in response to a number of external influences and demands. It also considers the significance of skill mix for the nursing profession, in particular the development and likely expansion of the physician assistant role. The application of different professionals and grades within a healthcare team or organization is central to the Government's Agenda for Change proposals and nurses have successfully adopted a number of roles traditionally performed by doctors. Nurses have demonstrated that they are capable of providing high quality care and contributing directly to positive patient outcome. Advanced nursing roles should not only reflect the changing nature of healthcare work, they should also be actively engaged in reconstructing healthcare boundaries.
Gorozave-Car, Karla; Barraza-Villarreal, Albino; Escamilla-Núñez, Consuelo; Hernandez-Cadena, Leticia; Sanín-Aguirre, Luz Helena; Cortez-Lugo, Marlene; Blanco-Muñoz, J.; Riojas-Rodríguez, Horacio; Moreno-Macias, Hortensia; Romieu, Isabelle
2013-01-01
Background. In Mexico, several studies have been conducted under the ISAAC methodology; nevertheless, no validation studies of the ISAAC questionnaire based on objective clinical testing in our country have been published. Aims of the Study. To validate the ISAAC questionnaire, used in a study of prevalence of allergic diseases, based on medical, respiratory, and allergic evaluations of schoolchildren being 11 to 16 years old in Mexicali, Mexico. Material and Methods. We conducted a cross-sec...
Mechanics and Newton-Cartan-like gravity on the Newton-Hooke space-time
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tian Yu; Guo Hanying; Huang Chaoguang; Xu Zhan; Zhou Bin
2005-01-01
We focus on the dynamical aspects on Newton-Hooke space-time NH + mainly from the viewpoint of geometric contraction of the de Sitter spacetime with Beltrami metric. (The term spacetime is used to denote a space with non-degenerate metric, while the term space-time is used to denote a space with degenerate metric.) We first discuss the Newton-Hooke classical mechanics, especially the continuous medium mechanics, in this framework. Then, we establish a consistent theory of gravity on the Newton-Hooke space-time as a kind of Newton-Cartan-like theory, parallel to the Newton's gravity in the Galilei space-time. Finally, we give the Newton-Hooke invariant Schroedinger equation from the geometric contraction, where we can relate the conservative probability in some sense to the mass density in the Newton-Hooke continuous medium mechanics. Similar consideration may apply to the Newton-Hooke space-time NH - contracted from anti-de Sitter spacetime
BSDES IN GAMES, COUPLED WITH THE VALUE FUNCTIONS.ASSOCIATED NONLOCAL BELLMAN-ISAACS EQUATIONS
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Tao HAO; Juan LI
2017-01-01
We establish a new type of backward stochastic differential equations (BSDEs) connected with stochastic differential games (SDGs),namely,BSDEs strongly coupled with the lower and the upper value functions of SDGs,where the lower and the upper value functions are defined through this BSDE.The existence and the uniqueness theorem and comparison theorem are proved for such equations with the help of an iteration method.We also show that the lower and the upper value functions satisfy the dynamic programming principle.Moreover,we study the associated Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman-Isaacs (HJB-Isaacs) equations,which are nonlocal,and strongly coupled with the lower and the upper value functions.Using a new method,we characterize the pair (W,U) consisting of the lower and the upper value functions as the unique viscosity solution of our nonlocal HJB-Isaacs equation.Furthermore,the game has a value under the Isaacs' condition.
Birks, J. L.
2013-03-01
In 1712 Sir Isaac Newton and Dr Edmund Halley, acting on behalf of the Royal Society, printed some 400 copies of the star catalogue Historia Coelestis under the name of John Flamsteed, including his observations of the positions of nearly 3000 stars made at Greenwich from 1676. Flamsteed had not been allowed to check the proofs of this work before it was published, and he was enraged to see what he considered to be a travesty of his life's work. This became a great scientific scandal of the early eighteenth century, which echoes down to the present day.
1378-IJBCS-Article-Isaac Bertrand Mbowou Gbambi
African Journals Online (AJOL)
hp
Ti-bearing aenigmatite from Djinga Tadorgal (Adamawa plateau) and Sao. Tomé (Cameroon Line) phonolites: geochemical implications and application of the QUILF thermobarometer for the crystallization conditions. Isaac Bertrand Gbambié MBOWOU 1*, Dagwaï NGUIHDAMA 2, Fadimatou Ngounouno. YAMGOUOT 3 ...
The Principia and its author - a physicist's viewpoint
Evans, W. A. B.
1987-11-01
The author discusses the place of Sir Isaac Newton's 'Principia' in the history of physics. He provides a short biography of Newton and his work and discusses the importance of Newton's work in modern physics teaching.
IVF and embryo transfer: historical origin and development.
Biggers, John D
2012-08-01
IVF and embryo transfer for the treatment of human infertility has now resulted in the birth of over 4 million babies. The technique did not arise as a quantum event but was built on the efforts of many earlier workers in the fields of reproductive endocrinology and development. One should remember the famous saying of Isaac Newton: 'If I have seen further than most, it is because I have stood on the shoulder's of giants'. Ethical and moral issues have always arisen when investigators study early mammalian development, particularly human development. This paper documents these earlier studies and also draws attention to the ethical and moral arguments that inevitably arose. Copyright © 2012 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Fractal aspects and convergence of Newton`s method
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Drexler, M. [Oxford Univ. Computing Lab. (United Kingdom)
1996-12-31
Newton`s Method is a widely established iterative algorithm for solving non-linear systems. Its appeal lies in its great simplicity, easy generalization to multiple dimensions and a quadratic local convergence rate. Despite these features, little is known about its global behavior. In this paper, we will explain a seemingly random global convergence pattern using fractal concepts and show that the behavior of the residual is entirely explicable. We will also establish quantitative results for the convergence rates. Knowing the mechanism of fractal generation, we present a stabilization to the orthodox Newton method that remedies the fractal behavior and improves convergence.
Jorge Isaacs: El espíritu radical de un poeta y sus frustraciones políticas
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Raúl Vallejo Corral
2015-02-01
Full Text Available Jorge Isaacs es conocido por María (1867, novela cumbre del romanticismo americano. Pero Isaacs, además, fue un político liberal radical que llevó adelante una revolución, en enero de 1880, movido por sus principios ideológicos en medio de lo que él consideraba la traición de los liberales. La revolución, embebida de romanticismo, fue una empresa romántica destinada al fracaso desde un principio. Este artículo, a partir del estudio de los documentos de la época, analiza de qué manera Isaacs desarrolló sus actividades militantes, como superintendente de Educación, primero, como congresista, después, y como revolucionario, en el marco del proceso de recuperación del poder por parte de los conservadores. Asimismo, este artículo se enfoca en el espíritu romántico que animó a Isaacs y cómo se expresó a través de la palabra encendida de los manifiestos, proclamas, cartas e informes recopilados por el propio Isaacs en su libro La revolución radical en Antioquia (1880. Jorge Isaacs is well-known for Maria (1867, which is considered the most important novel of Latin American romanticism. But Isaacs was also a radical liberal politician who carried forward a revolution, in January 1880, moved by his ideological principles in the midst of what he considered to be the treason of the liberals. From the very beginning, this revolution, which was immersed in romanticism, was an enterprise destined to fail. This article, based on the study of documents from that time, analyzes the way in which Isaacs developed his militant activities firstly as an Education inspector, then as a congressman, and finally as a revolutionary in the framework of the recovery process by the conservative party. Likewise, this article focuses on the romantic spirit that inspired Isaacs and how he expressed himself through his passionate words present in manifestos, proclamations, letters, and reports compiled by Isaacs himself in The Radical Revolution in
« Very much in the dark about light » : Franklin, lumières et critiques
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James Delbourgo
2009-12-01
Full Text Available Cet essai considère une critique des expériences électriques de Benjamin Franklin, publiée anonymement à Londres en 1777. L'auteur s'interroge pour savoir s'il est légitime de regarder ces expériences comme « natural philosophy » dans la tradition d’Isaac Newton. Cette critique des lumières frankliniennes est considérée en connection avec les conflits de la Révolution américaine, les angoisses sociales sur la dextérité mécanique, et la hiérarchie géographique des savoirs. Les débats sur le caractère de la vraie philosophie naturelle qui touchaient les expériences de Franklin portaient également sur la constitution sociale, politique et géographique de l’autorité.This essay discusses a critical account of Benjamin Franklin’s experiments with electricity published anonymously in London in 1777. The fundamental question raised was whether Franklin’s famous experiments constituted legitimate natural philosophy in the tradition of Isaac Newton. This dim view of Franklinist enlightenment is linked to the conflicts of the American Revolution, social anxieties about mechanical ingenuity, and geographical hierarchies of knowledge-making. It is argued that debates over the legitimacy of the proper character of natural philosophy that addressed Franklinist science were also debates over the social, political and geographical constitution of authority.
Tradição em língua portuguesa do «Livro de Isaac»
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César Nardelli Cambraia
2011-10-01
Full Text Available Resumo: No presente trabalho examina-se a tradição em língua portuguesa do Livro de Isaac, preservada atualmente em quatro manuscritos medievais. Neste estudo, apresenta-se um estema representando a relação genética entre esses manuscritos, constituindo-se, assim, a base para a realização de uma edição crítica dessa obra.Palavras-chave: Crítica textual; estemática; língua portuguesa; Isaac de Ninive.Resumé: Dans le présent travail on examine la tradition en langue portugaise du Livro de Isaac, preservé actuellement en quatre manuscrits medievaux. Dans cette étude, on présente un stemma représentant la relation génétique entre ces manuscrits, en fixant, alors, la base pour la réalisation d´une édition critique de cette oeuvre.Mots-clés: Critique textuelle; stemmatique; langue portugaise; Isaac de Ninive.Keywords: Textual criticism; stemmatics; Portuguese; Isaac of Nineveh.
A combined modification of Newton`s method for systems of nonlinear equations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Monteiro, M.T.; Fernandes, E.M.G.P. [Universidade do Minho, Braga (Portugal)
1996-12-31
To improve the performance of Newton`s method for the solution of systems of nonlinear equations a modification to the Newton iteration is implemented. The modified step is taken as a linear combination of Newton step and steepest descent directions. In the paper we describe how the coefficients of the combination can be generated to make effective use of the two component steps. Numerical results that show the usefulness of the combined modification are presented.
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Arturo Laguado
1983-06-01
Full Text Available 1867 marca una fecha de importancia para la literatura sudamericana; en este año Jorge Isaacs publica la "María". Poco queda por agregar sobre esta novela, leída y releída por varias generaciones, incansablemente analizada por los críticos más autorizados de la literatura universal, pero existen ciertos aspectos anecdóticos, que pueden ayudarnos a conocer mejor las circunstancias que rodearon el nacimiento de la obra.
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Fábio Marineli
2014-01-01
Full Text Available This paper aimed to analyze the argumentative structure and the characteristics of arguments used in Isaac Newton’s paper where his “New theory about light and colors”, written in 1672, is described. For this purpose, we have used “Toulmin’s Argument Pattern” as an analytical tool. The identification of argumentative structure in a scientific text can help one to understand the argument construction in science and support this reasoning on science education, particularly on textbooks organization. This analysis has characterized the arguments presented in the text and shown its relation to Newton’s explanation on color in light refraction phenomenon through a prism.
Isaac Newton and Student College Completion
Tinto, Vincent
2013-01-01
Success in college is built upon classroom success, but success in the classroom does not in itself ensure college completion. Completion arises from success in a sequence of classes one after another over time. It does so most frequently when students are presented with coherent course pathways to degree completion, are able to gain degree credit…
Integrated Solar-Panel Antenna Array for CubeSats (ISAAC)
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project will develop a new subsystem technology for CubeSats. Integrated Solar-Panel Antenna Array for CubeSats (ISAAC) is an efficient, compact, high gain, low...
10th International ISAAC Congress
Rodino, Luigi
2016-01-01
This book collects lectures given by the plenary speakers at the 10th International ISAAC Congress, held in Macau, China in 2015. The contributions, authored by eminent specialists, present some of the most exciting recent developments in mathematical analysis, probability theory, and related applications. Topics include: partial differential equations in mathematical physics, Fourier analysis, probability and Brownian motion, numerical analysis, and reproducing kernels. The volume also presents a lecture on the visual exploration of complex functions using the domain coloring technique. Thanks to the accessible style used, readers only need a basic command of calculus.
Restless Gentleman: Jorge Isaacs in Nineteenth-Century Colombia
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Marco Palacios
2012-10-01
Full Text Available María (1867 is one of the most widely read Spanish-American novels of all times; this work compares it to the ups and downs in its author's life. Jorge Isaacs had been rich and fallen on hard times; had been a conservative Catholic and turned into an anti-clerical liberal; had been a merchant and rose up in arms; later he was exiled from his native province. The parable of his life deserves an explanation and this paper offers two clues: Isaacs' ineptitude for business and the high price he had to pay for changing his political-ideological sign into one that ten years later opposed the political regime of La Regeneración (1878-1900. Ironically, a later conservative regime (1900-1930 crafted the literary canonization of María, a nostalgic and sentimental novel, and established it as a national model of immutable private morality.
Lojasiewicz exponents and Newton polyhedra
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pham Tien Son
2006-07-01
In this paper we obtain the exact value of the Lojasiewicz exponent at the origin of analytic map germs on K n (K = R or C under the Newton non-degeneracy condition, using information from their Newton polyhedra. We also give some conclusions on Newton non-degenerate analytic map germs. As a consequence, we obtain a link between Newton non-degenerate ideals and their integral closures, thus leading to a simple proof of a result of Saia. Similar results are also considered to polynomial maps which are Newton non-degenerate at infinity. (author)
Famous face recognition, face matching, and extraversion.
Lander, Karen; Poyarekar, Siddhi
2015-01-01
It has been previously established that extraverts who are skilled at interpersonal interaction perform significantly better than introverts on a face-specific recognition memory task. In our experiment we further investigate the relationship between extraversion and face recognition, focusing on famous face recognition and face matching. Results indicate that more extraverted individuals perform significantly better on an upright famous face recognition task and show significantly larger face inversion effects. However, our results did not find an effect of extraversion on face matching or inverted famous face recognition.
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Solution to 'On an Intriguing Limit Problem'. S C Duffa Roy. Solution to 'How Many Couples will Survive?' Soubhik Chakraborty. BOOK REVIEWS. 60 Not a Plaster Saint. Bimon Noth. REFLECTIONS. 63 Newton's Principia. D Speiser. Front Cover. Title page of Newton's Principia. Back Cover. Isaac Newton. (1642/43 - 17271.
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Julian Chaur González
2017-12-01
Full Text Available El trabajo desarrollado consiste en la formalización y comprobación ante hipótesis de carga de una bóveda axilsimétrica no construida. Esta bóveda es un proyecto utópico del arquitecto Louis Etienne Boullée, arquitecto francés con un volumen de obra muy significativo de carácter casi "surrealista". La obra de este autor alcanza normalmente unas proporciones titánicas y carentes de ornamento, basando sus formas principalmente en volúmenes geométricos sencillos. El proyecto que nos atañe será el cenotafio de Isaac Newton, una gigantesca bóveda axil simétrica con un espesor muy reducido en algunos puntos. Con el uso del programa de cálculo Maple, un programa de ánalisis matemático combinado con la tecnología CAD/CAM basada en los dibujos existentes de este proyecto comprobaremos la estabilidad geométrica y estructural de esta bóveda de proporciones titánicas. Con esto mostraremos las posibilidades de aplicación de los programas de cálculo geométrico a los modelos estructurales históricos y teóricos, como una herramienta mucho más visible y didáctica que los cálculos numéricos al uso. La visualización de los esfuerzos que resultan en las diferentes dovelas de la bóveda, conjuntamente con la comprensión y constatación del funcionamiento axil simétrico del modelo será determinante a la hora de comprender el funcionamiento de este sistema estructural y resolverá la duda que nos atañe. ¿Se podría construir el cenotafio de Newton? ¿Es una construcción estable geométrica y materialmente? Abstract The work developed in this paper consists in the formalization and verification of the load hypothesis of a non-constructed axilsymmetric vault. This vault is a utopian project by the architect Louis Etienne Boullée, French architect with a very significant volume of work of "surrealist" character. The works topic of this author usually resembles itself in buildings of titanic proportions and devoid of ornament, that
Asthma prevalence among high school students in East Jakarta, 2001, based on ISAAC questionnaire
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Faisal Yunus
2003-09-01
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess asthma prevalence in children between 13-14 years of age in East Jakarta. This study is a cross sectional study which surveyed 2234 high school students between the ages of 13 and 14 years in East Jakarta in 2001 using the ISAAC questionnaire. Bronchial challenge test was applied by using methacholine substance to 186 students. Reports based on the ISAAC questionnaire indicate that 7.2% of teenage have had wheezing experience, 4.1% have wheezing within the last 12 months, 1.8% have ever suffered severe asthma attack within the last 12 months, 3.3% have suffered wheezing after exercise, and 6.3% have got night cough while they were not suffering from cold. Prevalence of atopy diseases such as rhinitis and eczema were 14.2% and 3.9%, meanwhile rhinitis and eczema prevalence within the last 12 months according to this study were 10.6% and 2.9% respectively. Statistically, there is a significant correlation between wheezing symptom and atopy (p < 0.05. From indepth questionnaire, a significant value of kappa 0.84 related with wheezing within the last 12 months was found. Bronchial challenge test results indicate that sensitivity was 90%, specificity 83.58%, positive predictive value 68.12% and negative predictive value was 95.73%. Asthma prevalence in East Jakarta at 2001 based on ISAAC questionnaire was 8.9%, and cumulative prevalence 11.5%. The ISAAC questionnaire can be used to study asthma prevalence in children at multicenter in Indonesia. (Med J Indones 2003; 12: 178-86Keywords: bronchial challenge, high school student, ISAAC questionnaire, East Jakarta, asthma prevalence
Gilbert, Robert; Wen, Guo-Chun
1999-01-01
This volume of the Proceedings of the congress ISAAC '97 collects the contributions of the four sections 1. Function theoretic and functional analytic methods for pde, 2. Applications of function theory of several complex variables to pde, 3. Integral equations and boundary value problems, 4. Partial differential equations. Most but not all of the authors have participated in the congress. Unfortunately some from Eastern Europe and Asia have not managed to come because of lack of financial support. Nevertheless their manuscripts of the proposed talks are included in this volume. The majority of the papers deal with complex methods. Among them boundary value problems in particular the Riemann-Hilbert, the Riemann (Hilbert) and related problems are treated. Boundary behaviour of vector-valued functions are studied too. The Riemann-Hilbert problem is solved for elliptic complex equations, for mixed complex equations, and for several complex variables. It is considered in a general topological setting for mapping...
Serendipity and its role in dermatology
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Arijit Coondoo
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Serendipity is a pleasant surprise of finding a particularly useful information while not looking for it. Significant historic events occurring as a result of serendipity include the discovery of the law of buoyancy (Archimedes principle by the Greek mathematician Archimedes, of the Americas by Christopher Columbus and of gravity by Sir Isaac Newton. The role of serendipity in science has been immensely beneficial to mankind. A host of important discoveries in medical science owe their origin to serendipity of which perhaps the most famous is the story of Sir Alexander Fleming and his discovery of Penicillin. In the field of dermatology, serendipity has been responsible for major developments in the therapy of psoriasis, hair disorders, aesthetic dermatology and dermatosurgery. Besides these many other therapeutic modalities in dermatology were born as a result of such happy accidents.
Serendipity and its role in dermatology.
Coondoo, Arijit; Sengupta, Sujata
2015-01-01
Serendipity is a pleasant surprise of finding a particularly useful information while not looking for it. Significant historic events occurring as a result of serendipity include the discovery of the law of buoyancy (Archimedes principle) by the Greek mathematician Archimedes, of the Americas by Christopher Columbus and of gravity by Sir Isaac Newton. The role of serendipity in science has been immensely beneficial to mankind. A host of important discoveries in medical science owe their origin to serendipity of which perhaps the most famous is the story of Sir Alexander Fleming and his discovery of Penicillin. In the field of dermatology, serendipity has been responsible for major developments in the therapy of psoriasis, hair disorders, aesthetic dermatology and dermatosurgery. Besides these many other therapeutic modalities in dermatology were born as a result of such happy accidents.
Sometimes "Newton's Method" Always "Cycles"
Latulippe, Joe; Switkes, Jennifer
2012-01-01
Are there functions for which Newton's method cycles for all non-trivial initial guesses? We construct and solve a differential equation whose solution is a real-valued function that two-cycles under Newton iteration. Higher-order cycles of Newton's method iterates are explored in the complex plane using complex powers of "x." We find a class of…
‘Speaking Kleinian’: Susan Isaacs as Ursula Wise and the Inter-War Popularisation of Psychoanalysis
Shapira, Michal
2017-01-01
How did the complex concepts of psychoanalysis become popular in early twentieth-century Britain? This article examines the contribution of educator and psychoanalyst Susan Isaacs (1885–1948) to this process, as well as her role as a female expert in the intellectual and medical history of this period. Isaacs was one of the most influential British psychologists of the inter-war era, yet historical research on her work is still limited. The article focuses on her writing as ‘Ursula Wise’, answering the questions of parents and nursery nurses in the popular journal Nursery World, from 1929 to 1936. Researched in depth for the first time, Isaacs’ important magazine columns reveal that her writing was instrumental in disseminating the work of psychoanalyst Melanie Klein in Britain. Moreover, Isaacs’ powerful rebuttals to behaviourist, disciplinarian parenting methods helped shift the focus of caregivers to the child’s perspective, encouraging them to acknowledge children as independent subjects and future democratic citizens. Like other early psychoanalysts, Isaacs was not an elitist; she was in fact committed to disseminating her ideas as broadly as possible. Isaacs taught British parents and child caregivers to ‘speak Kleinian’, translating Klein’s intellectual ideas into ordinary language and thus enabling their swift integration into popular discourse. PMID:28901872
Black Hole Results from XMM-Newton
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Norbert Schartel
2014-12-01
Full Text Available XMM-Newton is one of the most successful science missions of the European Space Agency. Since 2003 every year about 300 articles are published in refereed journals making directly use of XMM-Newton data. All XMM-Newton calls for observing proposals are highly oversubscribed by factors of six and more. In the following some scientic highlights of XMM-Newton observations of black holes are summarized.
Newton-Cartan gravity revisited
Andringa, Roel
2016-01-01
In this research Newton's old theory of gravity is rederived using an algebraic approach known as the gauging procedure. The resulting theory is Newton's theory in the mathematical language of Einstein's General Relativity theory, in which gravity is spacetime curvature. The gauging procedure sheds
Some Peculiarities of Newton-Hooke Space-Times
Tian, Yu
2011-01-01
Newton-Hooke space-times are the non-relativistic limit of (anti-)de Sitter space-times. We investigate some peculiar facts about the Newton-Hooke space-times, among which the "extraordinary Newton-Hooke quantum mechanics" and the "anomalous Newton-Hooke space-times" are discussed in detail. Analysis on the Lagrangian/action formalism is performed in the discussion of the Newton-Hooke quantum mechanics, where the path integral point of view plays an important role, and the physically measurab...
Isaacs' syndrome in a patient with dermatomyositis: case report and review of the literature.
Lertnawapan, Ratchaya; Kulkantrakorn, Kongkiat
2017-08-01
This is a case report of Isaacs' syndrome in dermatomyositis. The patient presented with proximal muscle weakness, rash, elevated muscle enzyme, myopathic electromyograph and typical muscle biopsy. Ultimately he developed typical symptoms of Isaacs' syndrome which is an autoimmune channelopathy from voltage gated potassium channel antibody (anti-VGKC) leading to dysfunction of axonal discharge at neuromuscular junctions. It shares some similar characteristics with dermatomyositis such as autoimmunity, its association with malignancy and the response to treatment. © 2016 Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.
The illusion of fame: how the nonfamous become famous.
Landau, Joshua D; Leed, Stacey A
2012-01-01
This article reports 2 experiments in which nonfamous faces were paired with famous (e.g., Oprah Winfrey) or semifamous (e.g., Annika Sorenstam) faces during an initial orienting task. In Experiment 1, the orienting task directed participants to consider the relationship between the paired faces. In Experiment 2, participants considered distinctive qualities of the paired faces. Participants then judged the fame level of old and new nonfamous faces, semifamous faces, and famous faces. Pairing a nonfamous face with a famous face resulted in a higher fame rating than pairing a nonfamous face with a semifamous face. The fame attached to the famous people was misattributed to their nonfamous partners. We discuss this pattern of results in the context of current theoretical explanations of familiarity misattributions.
A POPULARIZAÇÃO NA CIÊNCIA: A ÓPTICA DE NEWTON NO SÉCULO XVIII
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Boniek Silva Venceslau
2009-03-01
Full Text Available RESUMO As atuais aulas de ciências, geralmente, não apresentam discussões referentes à aspectos da natureza da ciência, por exemplo, como uma teoria se desenvolve com o tempo e a influência de fatores não-racionais na sua construção. Tais aspectos são relevantes na hora do aluno desenvolver uma visão mais adequada na sua compreensão de como uma teoria ou modelo é construído. Além disso, as abordagens mais tradicionais, também, já não garantem a aprendizagem de teorias físicas. Com a inserção de discussões, que envolvam a História e a Filosofia da Ciência (HFC, os alunos poderão vivenciar o desenvolvimentos de teorias físicas e, também, realizar estudos sobre a natureza da ciência, colocando em evidência aspectos não abordados nas práticas mais tradiconais. Este estudo é baseado em uma pesquisa bibliográfica, que contempla a história da óptica, e, em especial, a controvérsia existente em relação a natureza da luz com destaque a influência newtoniana para a aceitação da teoria corpuscular no século XVIII. Neste trabalho problematizaremos uma visão ingênua do desenvolvimento histórico da ciência, onde, geralmente, ela é vista de forma contínua e fatores não-racionais são excluídos da construção de teorias físicas. PALAVRAS-CHAVE: história e filosofia da ciência, popularização na ciência, Isaac Newton. THE POPULARIZATION IN SCIENCE: THE NEWTON APPROACH IN THE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY ABSTRACT The current science classes generally do not have discussions concerning aspects of the nature of science, for example, as a theory developed over time, the influence of non-rational factors in its construction. These aspects are relevant at the time of the student developing a more appropriate method in their understanding of how a theory or model is built. In addition to more traditional approaches, too, no longer guaranteeing the physical theories of learning. With the insertion of discussions, involving
NEWTON'S SECOND LAW OF MOTION, F=MA; EULER'S OR NEWTON'S?
Ajay Sharma
2017-01-01
Objective: F =ma is taught as Newton’s second law of motion all over the world. But it was given by Euler in 1775, forty-eight years after the death of Newton. It is debated here with scientific logic. Methods/Statistical analysis: The discussion partially deals with history of science so various aspects are quoted from original references. Newton did not give any equation in the Principia for second, third laws motion and law of gravitation. Conceptually, in Newton’s time, neither accele...
Truncated Newton-Raphson Methods for Quasicontinuum Simulations
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Liang, Yu; Kanapady, Ramdev; Chung, Peter W
2006-01-01
.... In this research, we report the effectiveness of the truncated Newton-Raphson method and quasi-Newton method with low-rank Hessian update strategy that are evaluated against the full Newton-Raphson...
Accounts of famous North American Wolves, Canis lupus
Gipson, P.S.; Ballard, W.B.
1998-01-01
We examined historical accounts of 59 famous North American Gray Wolves (Canis lupus) reported during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Fifty of the 59 wolves were purportedly responsible for great losses to livestock, but for 29 reports, evidence suggested that ???2 wolves (e.g., packs) were responsible for the purported kills; in addition, seven wolves had traits that suggested they were hybrids with dogs, and one wolf was probably not from the area where the damage purportedly occurred. Reported livestock losses, especially to Longhorn cattle, from individual wolves appeared excessively high in relation to current literature. Most famous wolves were old and/or impaired from past injuries: 19 were reportedly ???10 years old, 18 had mutilated feet from past trap injuries, and one had a partially severed trachea from being in a snare. Old age and physical impairments probably contributed to livestock depredations by some famous wolves. Several accounts appeared exaggerated, inaccurate, or fabricated. Historical accounts of famous wolves should be interpreted with great caution, especially when considering impacts of wolf reintroductions or when modeling predation rates.
Supernatural Themes in Selected Children's Stories of Isaac Bashevis Singer.
Schlessinger, June H.; Vanderryst, June D.
1989-01-01
Discusses the impact of the traditional folklore theme of good versus evil on children's development and analyzes the development of this theme using magical and supernatural situations in the work of Isaac Bashevis Singer. A selected bibliography of work by and literary criticisms of Singer's writings is provided. (five references) (CLB)
Turning around Newton's Second Law
Goff, John Eric
2004-01-01
Conceptual and quantitative difficulties surrounding Newton's second law often arise among introductory physics students. Simply turning around how one expresses Newton's second law may assist students in their understanding of a deceptively simple-looking equation.
NITSOL: A Newton iterative solver for nonlinear systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pernice, M. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Walker, H.F. [Utah State Univ., Logan, UT (United States)
1996-12-31
Newton iterative methods, also known as truncated Newton methods, are implementations of Newton`s method in which the linear systems that characterize Newton steps are solved approximately using iterative linear algebra methods. Here, we outline a well-developed Newton iterative algorithm together with a Fortran implementation called NITSOL. The basic algorithm is an inexact Newton method globalized by backtracking, in which each initial trial step is determined by applying an iterative linear solver until an inexact Newton criterion is satisfied. In the implementation, the user can specify inexact Newton criteria in several ways and select an iterative linear solver from among several popular {open_quotes}transpose-free{close_quotes} Krylov subspace methods. Jacobian-vector products used by the Krylov solver can be either evaluated analytically with a user-supplied routine or approximated using finite differences of function values. A flexible interface permits a wide variety of preconditioning strategies and allows the user to define a preconditioner and optionally update it periodically. We give details of these and other features and demonstrate the performance of the implementation on a representative set of test problems.
Canonical understanding of the sacrifice of Isaac: The influence of ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
2016-07-08
Jul 8, 2016 ... Martyrdom has granted benefits to the people of ... Testament, as the authoritative text and understands the text primarily in the canonical context ... This is more significant in terms of ..... This image of the Father-Son relation recurs in the NT, ..... this passage is Abraham's obedience, not Isaac's self-sacrifice.
Huang, Chao-Guang; Guo, Han-Ying; Tian, Yu; Xu, Zhan; Zhou, Bin
2004-01-01
Based on the Beltrami-de Sitter spacetime, we present the Newton-Hooke model under the Newton-Hooke contraction of the $BdS$ spacetime with respect to the transformation group, algebra and geometry. It is shown that in Newton-Hooke space-time, there are inertial-type coordinate systems and inertial-type observers, which move along straight lines with uniform velocity. And they are invariant under the Newton-Hooke group. In order to determine uniquely the Newton-Hooke limit, we propose the Gal...
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Dupuis, Paul; Wang, Hui
2005-01-01
Previous papers by authors establish the connection between importance sampling algorithms for estimating rare-event probabilities, two-person zero-sum differential games, and the associated Isaacs equation...
Intermittent Solar Ammonia Absorption Cycle (ISAAC) refrigeration for lesser developed countries
Erickson, Donald C.
1990-02-01
The Intermittent Solar Ammonia Absorption Cycle (ISAAC) refrigerator is a solar thermal technology which provides low cost, efficient, reliable ice-making to areas without ready access to electricity. An ISAAC refrigeration system consists of a compound parabolic solar collector, two pressure vessels, a condenser, a cold box or refrigerated space, and simple connective piping -- no moving parts or electrical components. Most parts are simple construction or plumbing grade materials, locally available in many remote areas. This technology has numerous potential benefits in lesser developed countries both by providing a cheap, reliable source of ice, and, since manufacture requires only semi-skilled labor, a source of employment to the local economy. Applications include vaccine storage for health care clinics; fish, meat, and dairy product storage; and personal consumption. Importantly, this technology increases the quality of life for people in lesser developed countries without depleting fossil fuel resources or increasing the release of greenhouse gases such as CO2 and chlorofluorocarbons.
Prevalence of asthma in Latin America. Critical look at ISAAC and other studies
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jaime Ocampo
2017-06-01
Full Text Available Currently, the ISAAC (International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood project is a global approach to assess the prevalence of asthma and other allergies in different latitudes. One of the great advantages of this project is that it compares using the same methodology, the prevalence of asthma in more than 50 cities during the same period of time, nevertheless the reproducibility of these results when compared with other studies of prevalence in each region has not been evaluated. In this review we aim to compare the epidemiological data provided by the ISAAC against the data identified in some regional cohort studies and by means of a critical evaluation to highlight the main similarities and to analyze the differences between these epidemiological data.
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Our slightly extended article-in-a-box and back cover portrait this time celebrate the great universalist and intellectual giant. Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, who was a contemporary of Isaac. Newton. The two of them independently invented the differen- tial calculus - called by Newton the "method of fluxions" - and this led to one ...
Newton flows for elliptic functions
Helminck, G.F.; Twilt, F.
2015-01-01
Newton flows are dynamical systems generated by a continuous, desingularized Newton method for mappings from a Euclidean space to itself. We focus on the special case of meromorphic functions on the complex plane. Inspired by the analogy between the rational (complex) and the elliptic (i.e., doubly
Sauerheber, Richard D.
2012-01-01
Methods of teaching the Calculus are presented in honour of Sir Isaac Newton, by discussing an extension of his original proofs and discoveries. The methods, requested by Newton to be used that reflect the historical sequence of the discovered Fundamental Theorems, allow first-time students to grasp quickly the basics of the Calculus from its…
Subsampled Hessian Newton Methods for Supervised Learning.
Wang, Chien-Chih; Huang, Chun-Heng; Lin, Chih-Jen
2015-08-01
Newton methods can be applied in many supervised learning approaches. However, for large-scale data, the use of the whole Hessian matrix can be time-consuming. Recently, subsampled Newton methods have been proposed to reduce the computational time by using only a subset of data for calculating an approximation of the Hessian matrix. Unfortunately, we find that in some situations, the running speed is worse than the standard Newton method because cheaper but less accurate search directions are used. In this work, we propose some novel techniques to improve the existing subsampled Hessian Newton method. The main idea is to solve a two-dimensional subproblem per iteration to adjust the search direction to better minimize the second-order approximation of the function value. We prove the theoretical convergence of the proposed method. Experiments on logistic regression, linear SVM, maximum entropy, and deep networks indicate that our techniques significantly reduce the running time of the subsampled Hessian Newton method. The resulting algorithm becomes a compelling alternative to the standard Newton method for large-scale data classification.
Hurricane Isaac: observations and analysis of coastal change
Guy, Kristy K.; Stockdon, Hilary F.; Plant, Nathaniel G.; Doran, Kara S.; Morgan, Karen L.M.
2013-01-01
Understanding storm-induced coastal change and forecasting these changes require knowledge of the physical processes associated with a storm and the geomorphology of the impacted coastline. The primary physical process of interest is sediment transport that is driven by waves, currents, and storm surge associated with storms. Storm surge, which is the rise in water level due to the wind, barometric pressure, and other factors, allows both waves and currents to impact parts of the coast not normally exposed to these processes. Coastal geomorphology reflects the coastal changes associated with extreme-storm processes. Relevant geomorphic variables that are observable before and after storms include sand dune elevation, beach width, shoreline position, sediment grain size, and foreshore beach slope. These variables, in addition to hydrodynamic processes, can be used to quantify coastal change and are used to predict coastal vulnerability to storms (Stockdon and others, 2007). The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Assessment of Coastal Change Hazards (NACCH) project (http://coastal.er.usgs.gov/national-assessment/) provides hazard information to those concerned about the Nation’s coastlines, including residents of coastal areas, government agencies responsible for coastal management, and coastal researchers. Extreme-storm research is a component of the NACCH project (http://coastal.er.usgs.gov/hurricanes/) that includes development of predictive understanding, vulnerability assessments using models, and updated observations in response to specific storm events. In particular, observations were made to determine morphological changes associated with Hurricane Isaac, which made landfall in the United States first at Southwest Pass, at the mouth of the Mississippi River, at 0000 August 29, 2012 UTC (Coordinated Universal Time) and again, 8 hours later, west of Port Fourchon, Louisiana (Berg, 2013). Methods of observation included oblique aerial photography
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Dupuis, Paul; Wang, Hui
2005-01-01
It has been established that importance sampling algorithms for estimating rare-event probabilities are intimately connected with two-person zero-sum differential games and the associated Isaacs equation...
Newton's Cradle in Physics Education
Gauld, Colin F.
2006-01-01
Newton's Cradle is a series of bifilar pendulums used in physics classrooms to demonstrate the role of the principles of conservation of momentum and kinetic energy in elastic collisions. The paper reviews the way in which textbooks use Newton's Cradle and points out the unsatisfactory nature of these treatments in almost all cases. The literature…
Leadership among people who use AAC: ISAAC's Project LEAD
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Bryen, DN
2008-08-01
Full Text Available stream_source_info Bryen_2008.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 23272 Content-Encoding UTF-8 stream_name Bryen_2008.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 Leadership in ISAAC: Leading the Way... Diane Nelson Bryen, USA Sarah Lever, USA Sayomdeb Mujherjee, India Martin Pistorius, South Africa Melinda Smith, Australia Leading the Way � square6 Powerful conference title square6 Important call for leadership development Across the Globe...
Low-rank Quasi-Newton updates for Robust Jacobian lagging in Newton methods
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brown, J.; Brune, P.
2013-01-01
Newton-Krylov methods are standard tools for solving nonlinear problems. A common approach is to 'lag' the Jacobian when assembly or preconditioner setup is computationally expensive, in exchange for some degradation in the convergence rate and robustness. We show that this degradation may be partially mitigated by using the lagged Jacobian as an initial operator in a quasi-Newton method, which applies unassembled low-rank updates to the Jacobian until the next full reassembly. We demonstrate the effectiveness of this technique on problems in glaciology and elasticity. (authors)
Newton flows for elliptic functions: A pilot study
Twilt, F.; Helminck, G.F.; Snuverink, M.; van den Brug, L.
2008-01-01
Elliptic Newton flows are generated by a continuous, desingularized Newton method for doubly periodic meromorphic functions on the complex plane. In the special case, where the functions underlying these elliptic Newton flows are of second-order, we introduce various, closely related, concepts of
Teorías de la luz y el color en la época de las Luces. De Newton a Goethe
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Pimentel, Juan
2015-10-01
Full Text Available This article opens with a review of Isaac Newton’s theory of light, focusing on the controversial character of his crucial experiment. It then proceeds to examine certain aspects of his legacy in a century that was perhaps more Newtonian than his own optics. We analyse some of the metaphors connected with light and the symbolic role of light as the metaphor for knowledge. The article concludes with Goethe’s colour theory, his challenge to Newtonian theory, and his reinstatement of human beings and the history of science in order to achieve a better understanding not only of light, the eye and chromatic phenomena, but also of scientific activity as a whole.En este artículo comenzamos por revisar la teoría de la luz de Isaac Newton, centrándonos en el carácter controvertido del experimento crucial. Después nos detenemos en algunos aspectos de su legado en un siglo quizás más newtoniano que su propia óptica, analizando algunas metáforas bajo las que fue entendida la luz, así como el papel simbólico de la luz, metáfora del conocimiento por excelencia. Finalmente repasamos la teoría de los colores de Goethe, su impugnación de la óptica newtoniana y su empeño en recuperar al ser humano y la historia de la ciencia para entender mejor no sólo qué son la luz, el ojo o los fenómenos cromáticos, sino la actividad científica en su conjunto.
Improvement of core degradation model in ISAAC
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, Dong Ha; Kim, See Darl; Park, Soo Yong
2004-02-01
If water inventory in the fuel channels depletes and fuel rods are exposed to steam after uncover in the pressure tube, the decay heat generated from fuel rods is transferred to the pressure tube and to the calandria tube by radiation, and finally to the moderator in the calandria tank by conduction. During this process, the cladding will be heated first and ballooned when the fuel gap internal pressure exceeds the primary system pressure. The pressure tube will be also ballooned and will touch the calandria tube, increasing heat transfer rate to the moderator. Although these situation is not desirable, the fuel channel is expected to maintain its integrity as long as the calandria tube is submerged in the moderator, because the decay heat could be removed to the moderator through radiation and conduction. Therefore, loss of coolant and moderator inside and outside the channel may cause severe core damage including horizontal fuel channel sagging and finally loss of channel integrity. The sagged channels contact with the channels located below and lose their heat transfer area to the moderator. As the accident goes further, the disintegrated fuel channels will be heated up and relocated onto the bottom of the calandria tank. If the temperature of these relocated materials is high enough to attack the calandria tank, the calandria tank would fail and molten material would contact with the calandria vault water. Steam explosion and/or rapid steam generation from this interaction may threaten containment integrity. Though a detailed model is required to simulate the severe accident at CANDU plants, complexity of phenomena itself and inner structures as well as lack of experimental data forces to choose a simple but reasonable model as the first step. ISAAC 1.0 was developed to model the basic physicochemical phenomena during the severe accident progression. At present, ISAAC 2.0 is being developed for accident management guide development and strategy evaluation. In
Cortical mechanisms of person representation: recognition of famous and personally familiar names.
Sugiura, Motoaki; Sassa, Yuko; Watanabe, Jobu; Akitsuki, Yuko; Maeda, Yasuhiro; Matsue, Yoshihiko; Fukuda, Hiroshi; Kawashima, Ryuta
2006-06-01
Personally familiar people are likely to be represented more richly in episodic, emotional, and behavioral contexts than famous people, who are usually represented predominantly in semantic context. To reveal cortical mechanisms supporting this differential person representation, we compared cortical activation during name recognition tasks between personally familiar and famous names, using an event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Normal subjects performed familiar- or unfamiliar-name detection tasks during visual presentation of personally familiar (Personal), famous (Famous), and unfamiliar (Unfamiliar) names. The bilateral temporal poles and anterolateral temporal cortices, as well as the left temporoparietal junction, were activated in the contrasts Personal-Unfamiliar and Famous-Unfamiliar to a similar extent. The bilateral occipitotemporoparietal junctions, precuneus, and posterior cingulate cortex showed activation in the contrasts Personal-Unfamiliar and Personal-Famous. Together with previous findings, differential activation in the occipitotemporoparietal junction, precuneus, and posterior cingulate cortex between personally familiar and famous names is considered to reflect differential person representation. The similar extent of activation for personally familiar and famous names in the temporal pole and anterolateral temporal cortex is consistent with the associative role of the anterior temporal cortex in person identification, which has been conceptualized as a person identity node in many models of person identification. The left temporoparietal junction was considered to process familiar written names. The results illustrated the neural correlates of the person representation as a network of discrete regions in the bilateral posterior cortices, with the anterior temporal cortices having a unique associative role.
Never at rest: a biography of Isaac Newton
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Westfall, Richard S
1980-01-01
... Paulo, Delhi, Dubai, Tokyo, Mexico City Cambridge University Press 32 Avenue of the Americas, New York, NY 10013-2473, © Cambridge University Press 1980 USA www.cambridge.org Information on this title: www.cambridge.org/9780521231435 This publication is in copyright. Subject to statutory exception and to the provisions of relevant...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Song, Y.M.; Kim, D.H.; Nijhawan, Sunil
2015-01-01
Amongst the applications of integrated severe accident analysis codes like ISAAC, the principal are to a) help develop an understanding of the severe accident progression and its consequences; b) support the design of mitigation measures by providing for them the state of the reactor following an accident; and c) to provide a training platform for accident management actions. After Fukushima accident there is an increased awareness of the need to implement effective and appropriate mitigation measures and empower the operators with training and understanding about severe accident progression and control opportunities. An updated code with reduced uncertainties can better serve these needs of the utility making decisions about mitigation measures and corrective actions. Optimal deployment of systems such as PARS and filtered containment venting require information on reactor transients for a number of critical parameters. Thus there is a greater consensus now for a demonstrated ability to perform accident progression and consequence assessment analyses with reduced uncertainties. Analyses must now provide source term transients that represent the best in available understanding and so meaningfully support mitigation measures. This requires removal of known simplifications and inclusion of all quantifiable and risk significant phenomena. Advances in understanding of CANDU6 severe accident progression reflected in the severe accident integrated code ROSHNI are being incorporated into ISAAC using CANDU specific component and system models developed and verified for Wolsong CANDU 6 reactors. A significant and comprehensive upgrade of core behavior models is being implemented in ISAAC to properly reflect the large variability amongst fuel channels in feeder geometry, fuel thermal powers and burnup. The paper summarizes the models that have been added and provides some results to illustrate code capabilities. ISAAC is being updated to meet the current requirements and
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Song, Y.M.; Kim, D.H. [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Nijhawan, Sunil [Prolet Inc. 98 Burbank Drive, Toronto (Canada)
2015-05-15
Amongst the applications of integrated severe accident analysis codes like ISAAC, the principal are to a) help develop an understanding of the severe accident progression and its consequences; b) support the design of mitigation measures by providing for them the state of the reactor following an accident; and c) to provide a training platform for accident management actions. After Fukushima accident there is an increased awareness of the need to implement effective and appropriate mitigation measures and empower the operators with training and understanding about severe accident progression and control opportunities. An updated code with reduced uncertainties can better serve these needs of the utility making decisions about mitigation measures and corrective actions. Optimal deployment of systems such as PARS and filtered containment venting require information on reactor transients for a number of critical parameters. Thus there is a greater consensus now for a demonstrated ability to perform accident progression and consequence assessment analyses with reduced uncertainties. Analyses must now provide source term transients that represent the best in available understanding and so meaningfully support mitigation measures. This requires removal of known simplifications and inclusion of all quantifiable and risk significant phenomena. Advances in understanding of CANDU6 severe accident progression reflected in the severe accident integrated code ROSHNI are being incorporated into ISAAC using CANDU specific component and system models developed and verified for Wolsong CANDU 6 reactors. A significant and comprehensive upgrade of core behavior models is being implemented in ISAAC to properly reflect the large variability amongst fuel channels in feeder geometry, fuel thermal powers and burnup. The paper summarizes the models that have been added and provides some results to illustrate code capabilities. ISAAC is being updated to meet the current requirements and
Choosing the forcing terms in an inexact Newton method
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Eisenstat, S.C. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Walker, H.F. [Utah State Univ., Logan, UT (United States)
1994-12-31
An inexact Newton method is a generalization of Newton`s method for solving F(x) = 0, F: {Re}{sup n} {r_arrow} {Re}{sup n}, in which each step reduces the norm of the local linear model of F. At the kth iteration, the norm reduction is usefully expressed by the inexact Newton condition where x{sub k} is the current approximate solution and s{sub k} is the step. In many applications, an {eta}{sub k} is first specified, and then an S{sub k} is found for which the inexact Newton condition holds. Thus {eta}{sub k} is often called a {open_quotes}forcing term{close_quotes}. In practice, the choice of the forcing terms is usually critical to the efficiency of the method and can affect robustness as well. Here, the authors outline several promising choices, discuss theoretical support for them, and compare their performance in a Newton iterative (truncated Newton) method applied to several large-scale problems.
77 FR 58900 - Mississippi Disaster #MS-00060
2012-09-24
... 09/11/2012. Incident: Hurricane Isaac. Incident Period: 08/26/2012 through 09/11/2012. DATES..., Newton, Pearl River, Perry, Pike, Smith, Stone, Walthall, Wayne, Wilkinson. The Interest Rates are...
Forces. Physical Science in Action[TM]. Schlessinger Science Library. [Videotape].
2000
Forces are all around. Without them, there would be no movement. In fact, Sir Isaac Newton theorized that a force called inertia actually works to keep things exactly as they are at any given moment! Students will learn about Newton's laws and about how forces affect many aspects of life. With clear demonstrations and a unique hands-on activity,…
Symposium on Recent Advances in Experimental Mechanics : in honor of Isaac M. Daniel
2002-01-01
This book contains 71 papers presented at the symposium on “Recent Advances in Experimental Mechanics” which was organized in honor of Professor Isaac M. Daniel. The symposium took place at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University on th June 23-28, 2002, in conjunction with the 14 US National Congress of Applied Mechanics. The book is a tribute to Isaac Daniel, a pioneer of experimental mechanics and composite materials, in recognition of his continuous, original, diversified and outstanding contributions for half a century. The book consists of invited papers written by leading experts in the field. It contains original contributions concerning the latest developments in experimental mechanics. It covers a wide range of subjects, including optical methods of stress analysis (photoelasticity, moiré, etc.), composite materials, sandwich construction, fracture mechanics, fatigue and damage, nondestructive evaluation, dynamic problems, fiber optic sensors, speckle metrology, digital image process...
Newton-Cartan gravity and torsion
Bergshoeff, Eric; Chatzistavrakidis, Athanasios; Romano, Luca; Rosseel, Jan
2017-10-01
We compare the gauging of the Bargmann algebra, for the case of arbitrary torsion, with the result that one obtains from a null-reduction of General Relativity. Whereas the two procedures lead to the same result for Newton-Cartan geometry with arbitrary torsion, the null-reduction of the Einstein equations necessarily leads to Newton-Cartan gravity with zero torsion. We show, for three space-time dimensions, how Newton-Cartan gravity with arbitrary torsion can be obtained by starting from a Schrödinger field theory with dynamical exponent z = 2 for a complex compensating scalar and next coupling this field theory to a z = 2 Schrödinger geometry with arbitrary torsion. The latter theory can be obtained from either a gauging of the Schrödinger algebra, for arbitrary torsion, or from a null-reduction of conformal gravity.
Famous North American wolves and the credibility of early wildlife literature
Gipson, P.S.; Ballard, W.B.; Nowak, R.M.
1999-01-01
We evaluated the credibility of early literature about famous North American wolves (Canis lupus). Many famous wolves were reported to be older than they actually were, and we estimated they did not live long enough to have caused purported damage to livestock and game animals. Wolf kill rates on free-ranging livestock appeared to be inflated compared to recently published kill rates on native ungulates and livestock. Surplus killing of sheep and goats may have accounted for some high kill rates, but surplus killing of free-ranging longhorn cattle probably did not occur. Some famous wolves may actually have been dogs (C. familiaris), wolf-dog hybrids, or possibly coyote (C. latrans)-dog hybrids. We documented instances where early authors appeared to embellish or fabricate information about famous wolves. Caution should be exercised when using early literature about wolves as a basis for wolf management decisions.
On Newton-Cartan trace anomalies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Auzzi, Roberto; Baiguera, Stefano; Nardelli, Giuseppe
2016-01-01
We classify the trace anomaly for parity-invariant non-relativistic Schrödinger theories in 2+1 dimensions coupled to background Newton-Cartan gravity. The general anomaly structure looks very different from the one in the z=2 Lifshitz theories. The type A content of the anomaly is remarkably identical to that of the relativistic 3+1 dimensional case, suggesting the conjecture that an a-theorem should exist also in the Newton-Cartan context.
On Newton-Cartan trace anomalies
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Auzzi, Roberto [Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore,Via Musei 41, 25121 Brescia (Italy); INFN Sezione di Perugia,Via A. Pascoli, 06123 Perugia (Italy); Baiguera, Stefano [Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore,Via Musei 41, 25121 Brescia (Italy); Nardelli, Giuseppe [Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore,Via Musei 41, 25121 Brescia (Italy); TIFPA - INFN, c/o Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Trento,38123 Povo (Italy)
2016-02-01
We classify the trace anomaly for parity-invariant non-relativistic Schrödinger theories in 2+1 dimensions coupled to background Newton-Cartan gravity. The general anomaly structure looks very different from the one in the z=2 Lifshitz theories. The type A content of the anomaly is remarkably identical to that of the relativistic 3+1 dimensional case, suggesting the conjecture that an a-theorem should exist also in the Newton-Cartan context.
First Images and Spectra from ISAAC on UT1
1998-11-01
New VLT Instrument Delivers Spectacular Infrared Views of the Southern Sky The VLT Infrared Spectrometer And Array Camera (ISAAC) [1] was installed at the first 8.2-m VLT Unit Telescope (UT1) on November 14, 1998, cf. ESO PR Photos 42a-h/98. ISAAC is the second major VLT instrument to be installed at the VLT and the first to be fully designed and developed at ESO within its Instrumentation Division. Following evacuation of its large vacuum vessel, cooling to cryogenic temperature and alignment with the telescope according to the planned schedule, it successfully achieved technical first light during the night between November 16 and 17, 1998. ESO PR Photo 46a/98 ESO PR Photo 46a/98 [JPEG: 800 x 847 pix - 432k] [High-Res - JPEG: 3000 x 3175 pix - 2.9Mb] PR Photo 46a/98 shows ISAAC as it is now mounted at the UT1 Nasmyth B adaptor-rotator (right; blue colour). The co-rotator system (left) through which the various cables are fed to the instrument, is also well visible. (Photo obtained on November 16, 1998). The first focus tests on stars yielded images of excellent sharpness, around 0.45 arcsec full-width-half-maximum (FWHM). During the following nights, even better images, as small as 0.25 arcsec in relatively short exposures, were obtained, testifying to the quality of the site as well as the optical quality of both the telescope and instrument. Observations were executed using the new VLT Control and Data Flow Systems which are driven by Observation Blocks that define all details of the required astronomical exposures. In addition to direct images in various infrared colours (selected with different optical filters), spectroscopic observations were also made during the first few nights of operation. This Press Release is accompanied by several images and spectra which illustrate some of the exceptional new astronomical capabilities offered by this instrument. Star-Forming Region RCW38 in the Milky Way ESO PR Photo 46b/98 ESO PR Photo 46b/98 [Preview - JPEG: 800 x
THE NOTORIOUS, REPUTED AND FAMOUS TRADEMARKS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Andreea LIVĂDARIU
2015-07-01
Full Text Available The owner of a trademark that has a reputation in Romania or in the European Union may request to court to forbid the infringer from using, without its consent, a sign identical or similar to its trademark, but for products or services different from those which are sold or provided under said trademark. According to Law no. 84/1998, the notorious (well-known trademark is the trademark which does not necessarily have to be registered under the Trademark law protection. The Romanian doctrine sustains that famous trademarks do exist. In this paper, we shall attempt to find (if it really does exist the difference between notorious (well-known, reputed and famous trademarks, the criteria by means of which these trademarks shall be distinguished and the evidence by means of which the notoriety, reputation or fame of a trademark may be argued. We shall also present the legal regime and our analysis will be based on the Trademark law, doctrine and case-law studies.
Field-Split Preconditioned Inexact Newton Algorithms
Liu, Lulu
2015-06-02
The multiplicative Schwarz preconditioned inexact Newton (MSPIN) algorithm is presented as a complement to additive Schwarz preconditioned inexact Newton (ASPIN). At an algebraic level, ASPIN and MSPIN are variants of the same strategy to improve the convergence of systems with unbalanced nonlinearities; however, they have natural complementarity in practice. MSPIN is naturally based on partitioning of degrees of freedom in a nonlinear PDE system by field type rather than by subdomain, where a modest factor of concurrency can be sacrificed for physically motivated convergence robustness. ASPIN, originally introduced for decompositions into subdomains, is natural for high concurrency and reduction of global synchronization. We consider both types of inexact Newton algorithms in the field-split context, and we augment the classical convergence theory of ASPIN for the multiplicative case. Numerical experiments show that MSPIN can be significantly more robust than Newton methods based on global linearizations, and that MSPIN can be more robust than ASPIN and maintain fast convergence even for challenging problems, such as high Reynolds number Navier--Stokes equations.
Field-Split Preconditioned Inexact Newton Algorithms
Liu, Lulu; Keyes, David E.
2015-01-01
The multiplicative Schwarz preconditioned inexact Newton (MSPIN) algorithm is presented as a complement to additive Schwarz preconditioned inexact Newton (ASPIN). At an algebraic level, ASPIN and MSPIN are variants of the same strategy to improve the convergence of systems with unbalanced nonlinearities; however, they have natural complementarity in practice. MSPIN is naturally based on partitioning of degrees of freedom in a nonlinear PDE system by field type rather than by subdomain, where a modest factor of concurrency can be sacrificed for physically motivated convergence robustness. ASPIN, originally introduced for decompositions into subdomains, is natural for high concurrency and reduction of global synchronization. We consider both types of inexact Newton algorithms in the field-split context, and we augment the classical convergence theory of ASPIN for the multiplicative case. Numerical experiments show that MSPIN can be significantly more robust than Newton methods based on global linearizations, and that MSPIN can be more robust than ASPIN and maintain fast convergence even for challenging problems, such as high Reynolds number Navier--Stokes equations.
Newton-type methods for optimization and variational problems
Izmailov, Alexey F
2014-01-01
This book presents comprehensive state-of-the-art theoretical analysis of the fundamental Newtonian and Newtonian-related approaches to solving optimization and variational problems. A central focus is the relationship between the basic Newton scheme for a given problem and algorithms that also enjoy fast local convergence. The authors develop general perturbed Newtonian frameworks that preserve fast convergence and consider specific algorithms as particular cases within those frameworks, i.e., as perturbations of the associated basic Newton iterations. This approach yields a set of tools for the unified treatment of various algorithms, including some not of the Newton type per se. Among the new subjects addressed is the class of degenerate problems. In particular, the phenomenon of attraction of Newton iterates to critical Lagrange multipliers and its consequences as well as stabilized Newton methods for variational problems and stabilized sequential quadratic programming for optimization. This volume will b...
The Work of John Isaac Plummer at Orwell Park Observatory in the years 1874 to 1890
Whiting, P. J.
2006-12-01
This paper builds on the unpublished collation by the Orwell Astronomical Society entitled John Isaac Plummer. It takes the form of a chronology and critique of papers published by John Isaac Plummer (1844-1925) in the Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society and Astronomische Nachrichten on work undertaken at the Orwell Park Observatory, Ipswich, in the years 1874 to 1890. This work, mainly, although not exclusively, in England, took the form of measuring the positions and deriving the orbits of as many comets as could be observed from Orwell Park. Plummer also published papers in other journals, such as Nature and The Observatory, but these are to be the subject of future research.
Newton's law in de Sitter brane
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ghoroku, Kazuo; Nakamura, Akihiro; Yahiro, Masanobu
2003-01-01
Newton potential has been evaluated for the case of dS brane embedded in Minkowski, dS 5 and AdS 5 bulks. We point out that only the AdS 5 bulk might be consistent with the Newton's law from the brane-world viewpoint when we respect a small cosmological constant observed at present universe
3, 2, 1 ... Discovering Newton's Laws
Lutz, Joe; Sylvester, Kevin; Oliver, Keith; Herrington, Deborah
2017-01-01
"For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction." "Except when a bug hits your car window, the car must exert more force on the bug because Newton's laws only apply in the physics classroom, right?" Students in our classrooms were able to pick out definitions as well as examples of Newton's three laws; they could…
Newton-Krylov methods applied to nonequilibrium radiation diffusion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Knoll, D.A.; Rider, W.J.; Olsen, G.L.
1998-01-01
The authors present results of applying a matrix-free Newton-Krylov method to a nonequilibrium radiation diffusion problem. Here, there is no use of operator splitting, and Newton's method is used to convert the nonlinearities within a time step. Since the nonlinear residual is formed, it is used to monitor convergence. It is demonstrated that a simple Picard-based linearization produces a sufficient preconditioning matrix for the Krylov method, thus elevating the need to form or store a Jacobian matrix for Newton's method. They discuss the possibility that the Newton-Krylov approach may allow larger time steps, without loss of accuracy, as compared to an operator split approach where nonlinearities are not converged within a time step
Newton`s iteration for inversion of Cauchy-like and other structured matrices
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pan, V.Y. [Lehman College, Bronx, NY (United States); Zheng, Ailong; Huang, Xiaohan; Dias, O. [CUNY, New York, NY (United States)
1996-12-31
We specify some initial assumptions that guarantee rapid refinement of a rough initial approximation to the inverse of a Cauchy-like matrix, by mean of our new modification of Newton`s iteration, where the input, output, and all the auxiliary matrices are represented with their short generators defined by the associated scaling operators. The computations are performed fast since they are confined to operations with short generators of the given and computed matrices. Because of the known correlations among various structured matrices, the algorithm is immediately extended to rapid refinement of rough initial approximations to the inverses of Vandermonde-like, Chebyshev-Vandermonde-like and Toeplitz-like matrices, where again, the computations are confined to operations with short generators of the involved matrices.
Síndrome de Isaacs: relato de três casos
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
SCOLA ROSANA HERMÍNIA
1999-01-01
Full Text Available Relatamos três casos de síndrome de Isaacs, que apresentavam mioquímia clínica, cãibras, dificuldades para o relaxamento muscular, hipertrofia muscular e aumento da sudorese. A eletromiografia de agulha mostrou atividade muscular contínua involuntária, caracterizada como descargas mioquímicas. Os estudos da condução nervosa foram normais. Biópsia de músculo, realizado nos três casos, mostrou atrofia de fibras do tipo 2. Dois casos apresentaram melhora clínica com a utilização de carbamazepina e um com prednisona.
Newton-Krylov-Schwarz methods in unstructured grid Euler flow
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Keyes, D.E. [Old Dominion Univ., Norfolk, VA (United States)
1996-12-31
Newton-Krylov methods and Krylov-Schwarz (domain decomposition) methods have begun to become established in computational fluid dynamics (CFD) over the past decade. The former employ a Krylov method inside of Newton`s method in a Jacobian-free manner, through directional differencing. The latter employ an overlapping Schwarz domain decomposition to derive a preconditioner for the Krylov accelerator that relies primarily on local information, for data-parallel concurrency. They may be composed as Newton-Krylov-Schwarz (NKS) methods, which seem particularly well suited for solving nonlinear elliptic systems in high-latency, distributed-memory environments. We give a brief description of this family of algorithms, with an emphasis on domain decomposition iterative aspects. We then describe numerical simulations with Newton-Krylov-Schwarz methods on an aerodynamic application emphasizing comparisons with a standard defect-correction approach and subdomain preconditioner consistency.
Conformal mechanics in Newton-Hooke spacetime
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Galajinsky, Anton
2010-01-01
Conformal many-body mechanics in Newton-Hooke spacetime is studied within the framework of the Lagrangian formalism. Global symmetries and Noether charges are given in a form convenient for analyzing the flat space limit. N=2 superconformal extension is built and a new class on N=2 models related to simple Lie algebras is presented. A decoupling similarity transformation on N=2 quantum mechanics in Newton-Hooke spacetime is discussed.
Good Intentions!: Ten Great Books Which Introduce Readers To a Famous Writer.
Van Deusen, Ann; Hepler, Susan
2000-01-01
Offers short descriptions of 10 books for children in which a famous writer appears as an essential character and a catalyst for the plot or content (while another character tells the story). Includes such famous writers as Benjamin Franklin, Emily Dickinson, and William Shakespeare. (SR)
Newton's law of cooling revisited
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vollmer, M
2009-01-01
The cooling of objects is often described by a law, attributed to Newton, which states that the temperature difference of a cooling body with respect to the surroundings decreases exponentially with time. Such behaviour has been observed for many laboratory experiments, which led to a wide acceptance of this approach. However, the heat transfer from any object to its surrounding is not only due to conduction and convection but also due to radiation. The latter does not vary linearly with temperature difference, which leads to deviations from Newton's law. This paper presents a theoretical analysis of the cooling of objects with a small Biot number. It is shown that Newton's law of cooling, i.e. simple exponential behaviour, is mostly valid if temperature differences are below a certain threshold which depends on the experimental conditions. For any larger temperature differences appreciable deviations occur which need the complete nonlinear treatment. This is demonstrated by results of some laboratory experiments which use IR imaging to measure surface temperatures of solid cooling objects with temperature differences of up to 300 K.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Frank G. Bosman
2018-04-01
Full Text Available The game The Binding of Isaac is an excellent example of a game that incorporates criticism of religion. Isaac is a roguelike dungeon crawler with randomly generated dungeons. Both from the perspective of narrative and of game design, McMillen built The Binding of Isaac around the Biblical story of Genesis 22:1-19, which has the same name in Jewish and Christian tradition, but he placed it in a modern-day setting in which a young boy is endangered by a mentally disturbed mother who hears “voices from above” that instruct her to sacrifice her only child. Multiple critical references to Christianity can be found in addition to the narrative: hostile embodiments of the seven deadly sins, rosaries, Bibles, and crucifixes, and unlockable characters, such as Mary Magdalene, Judas Iscariot, Samson, and Cain, who are all depicted negatively in both Jewish and Christian traditions. McMillen’s inspiration came from his own experiences with his family, which was made up of both Catholics and born-again Christians. The game describes both the dark creativity and the mental and physical abuse associated with religion. In this article, we analyse the narrative of The Binding of Isaac by performing an intertextual comparison with the Biblical narrative of Genesis 22:1-19. We then analyse the three-fold narrative structure of the game which enhances and nuances the criticism the game directs at religion.
The evolving universe and the origin of life the search for our cosmic roots
Teerikorpi, Pekka; Lehto, Harry; Chernin, Arthur; Byrd, Gene; Lehto, K
2008-01-01
Sir Isaac Newton famously said, regarding his discoveries, "If I have seen further it is by standing upon the shoulders of giants." The Evolving Universe and the Origin of Life describes, complete with fascinating biographical details of the thinkers involved, the ascent to the metaphorical shoulders accomplished by the greatest minds in history. For the first time, a single book can take the reader on a journey through the history of the universe as interpreted by the expanding body of knowledge of humankind. From subatomic particles to the protein chains that form life, and expanding in scale to the entire universe, this book covers the science that explains how we came to be. The Evolving Universe and the Origin of Life contains a great breadth of knowledge, from astronomy to physics, from chemistry to biology. It includes over 350 figures that enhance the comprehension of concepts both basic and advanced, and is a non-technical, easy-to-read text at an introductory college level that is ideal for anyone i...
A simple model for research interest evolution patterns
Jia, Tao; Wang, Dashun; Szymanski, Boleslaw
Sir Isaac Newton supposedly remarked that in his scientific career he was like ``...a boy playing on the sea-shore ...finding a smoother pebble or a prettier shell than ordinary''. His remarkable modesty and famous understatement motivate us to seek regularities in how scientists shift their research focus as the career develops. Indeed, despite intensive investigations on how microscopic factors, such as incentives and risks, would influence a scientist's choice of research agenda, little is known on the macroscopic patterns in the research interest change undertaken by individual scientists throughout their careers. Here we make use of over 14,000 authors' publication records in physics. By quantifying statistical characteristics in the interest evolution, we model scientific research as a random walk, which reproduces patterns in individuals' careers observed empirically. Despite myriad of factors that shape and influence individual choices of research subjects, we identified regularities in this dynamical process that are well captured by a simple statistical model. The results advance our understanding of scientists' behaviors during their careers and open up avenues for future studies in the science of science.
Special people visit the ATLAS cavern
Muriel
ATLAS has been host to many important visitors lately. Here are a selected few: Professor Stephen Hawking visits the ATLAS cavern On Tuesday 26 September 2006 the ATLAS Collaboration was honoured by a very special visit to the detector in the underground cavern. We were pleased to guide Professor Stephen Hawking, the famous cosmologist holding the post of Lucasian Professor of Mathematics at Cambridge University (position held by Isaac Newton in the 17th century), on a tour of the ATLAS pit and the LHC tunnel. The visit was accompanied by a few colleagues from the CERN Theory group, and was only possible thanks to the professional assistance of Olga Beltramello and Bernard Lebegue, who had also taken care of all the necessary preparatory work in the cavern. Professor Hawking was very keen to check for himself the status of the detector installation, and he admired, in particular, the spectacular TGC big wheel on side C. (left) Stephen Hawking in the ATLAS cavern side-C (right) and in the LHC tunnel...
Newton slopes for Artin-Schreier-Witt towers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Davis, Christopher; Wan, Daqing; Xiao, Liang
2016-01-01
We fix a monic polynomial f(x)∈Fq[x] over a finite field and consider the Artin-Schreier-Witt tower defined by f(x); this is a tower of curves ⋯→Cm→Cm−1→⋯→C0=A1, with total Galois group Zp. We study the Newton slopes of zeta functions of this tower of curves. This reduces to the study of the Newton...... slopes of L-functions associated to characters of the Galois group of this tower. We prove that, when the conductor of the character is large enough, the Newton slopes of the L-function form arithmetic progressions which are independent of the conductor of the character. As a corollary, we obtain...
On the topology of the Newton boundary at infinity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pham Tien Son
2007-07-01
We will be interested in a global version of Le-Ramanujam μ -constant theorem from the Newton polyhedron point of view. More precisely, we prove a stability theorem which says that the global monodromy fibration of a polynomial with Newton non-degenerate is uniquely determined by its Newton boundary at infinity. Besides, the continuity of atypical values for a family of complex polynomial functions also is considered. (author)
How fast is famous face recognition?
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gladys eBarragan-Jason
2012-10-01
Full Text Available The rapid recognition of familiar faces is crucial for social interactions. However the actual speed with which recognition can be achieved remains largely unknown as most studies have been carried out without any speed constraints. Different paradigms have been used, leading to conflicting results, and although many authors suggest that face recognition is fast, the speed of face recognition has not been directly compared to fast visual tasks. In this study, we sought to overcome these limitations. Subjects performed three tasks, a familiarity categorization task (famous faces among unknown faces, a superordinate categorization task (human faces among animal ones and a gender categorization task. All tasks were performed under speed constraints. The results show that, despite the use of speed constraints, subjects were slow when they had to categorize famous faces: minimum reaction time was 467 ms, which is 180 ms more than during superordinate categorization and 160 ms more than in the gender condition. Our results are compatible with a hierarchy of face processing from the superordinate level to the familiarity level. The processes taking place between detection and recognition need to be investigated in detail.
Verlet, Loup
1993-01-01
En 1936, une vente publique ramena au jour le contenu d'une malle où Newton avait enfermé ses manuscrits. Ô surprise, les travaux du savant y voisinaient avec les spéculations de l'exégète et de l'alchimiste. Ce n'est pas seulement la face cachée d'un exceptionnel génie scientifique qui nous était ainsi révélée, mais, au-delà du mystère d'un homme, le secret partage qui gouverne notre univers, comme le montre cette lecture originale de la naissance de la physique moderne.Dans quel monde suis-je tombé ? Pourquoi les choses sont-elles ainsi ? Comment faire avec ? Questions lancinantes de l'enfant quand la mère fait défaut, du chercheur face à la nature qui se dérobe. La réponse, Newton sait où la trouver : Dieu le Père, à jamais insaisissable, est présent «partout et toujours», Il se révèle par la bouche des prophètes, se devine dans les arcanes de l'alchimie, se manifeste par les lois admirables qui règlent le cours ordinaire des choses. Ses écrits de l'ombre l'attestent, Newton ...
Me & Isaac Newton. [Videotape and] KIDSNET Guide for Educators.
2001
This videotape records the stories of 7 scientists, 3 women and 4 men who range in age from 33 to 81. Beginning with their earliest scientific questions and including their most personal ponderings, the scientists reveal their histories and professional obligations to affect the world. Director Michael Apted allows the personal adventures of the…
Newtonian boreal forest ecology
Hari, Pertti; Aakala, Tuomas; Aalto, Juho; Bäck, Jaana; Hollmén, Jaakko; Jõgiste, Kalev; Koupaei, Kourosh Kabiri; Kähkönen, Mika A.; Korpela, Mikko; Kulmala, Liisa; Nikinmaa, Eero; Pumpanen, Jukka; Salkinoja-Salonen, Mirja; Schiestl-Aalto, Pauliina; Simojoki, Asko
2017-01-01
Isaac Newton's approach to developing theories in his book Principia Mathematica proceeds in four steps. First, he defines various concepts, second, he formulates axioms utilising the concepts, third, he mathematically analyses the behaviour of the system defined by the concepts and axioms obtaining predictions and fourth, he tests the predictions with measurements. In this study, we formulated our theory of boreal forest ecosystems, called NewtonForest, following the four steps introduced by...
A Construção lógica do "Estilo Newtoniano" The logical construction of the "Newtonian Style"
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Raquel Anna Sapunaru
2008-01-01
Full Text Available O historiador da ciência Isaac Bernard Cohen batizou o novo método de "fazer ciência", criado por Isaac Newton, de "estilo newtoniano". Segundo Cohen, o cerne do "estilo newtoniano"seria a adaptação sucessiva das "construções mentais" - matemáticas - às comparações com a natureza e haveria dinâmica direta entre as "construções mentais" - matemáticas - e os sistemas físicos. Uma das principais características do "estilo newtoniano", portanto, seria primeiramente a matemática e, posteriormente, uma série de experimentos - e não o contrário. Brilhantemente, enquanto escrevia os Princípios Matemáticos de Filosofia Natural, Newton teria concluído que descrever o movimento de planetas e satélites, ou o movimento em geral, com precisão absoluta era imensamente mais complicado do que seus contemporâneos e antecessores poderiam ter pensado. A solução encontrada por ele foi, partindo de simples casos idealizados, passar progressivamente para casos mais complicados, também idealizados, e depois percorrer o caminho oposto, isto é: pelo desmembramento dos casos mais complicados provar os mais simples, embora sempre em direção à verdade.The science historian, Isaac Bernard Cohen named the new method of "making science" created by Isaac Newton by the name of "newtonian style". The central point of this "newtonian style", according to the definition of Cohen himself is the successive adaptation from "mental constructions" - to mathematical - to comparisons with nature. This means that, according to Cohen, a direct dynamic between "mental constructions" - mathematical - and physical systems should exist. For this reason, one of the most important characteristics of the "newtonian style" would be, first, mathematics and, afterwards, a series of experiments - and not the other way round. Newton would have brilliantly concluded, while writing the "Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy", that, to describe with absolute
Famous puzzles of great mathematicians
Petković, Miodrag S
2009-01-01
This entertaining book presents a collection of 180 famous mathematical puzzles and intriguing elementary problems that great mathematicians have posed, discussed, and/or solved. The selected problems do not require advanced mathematics, making this book accessible to a variety of readers. Mathematical recreations offer a rich playground for both amateur and professional mathematicians. Believing that creative stimuli and aesthetic considerations are closely related, great mathematicians from ancient times to the present have always taken an interest in puzzles and diversions. The goal of this
Newton's law in braneworlds with an infinite extra dimension
Ito, Masato
2001-01-01
We study the behavior of the four$-$dimensional Newton's law in warped braneworlds. The setup considered here is a $(3+n)$-brane embedded in $(5+n)$ dimensions, where $n$ extra dimensions are compactified and a dimension is infinite. We show that the wave function of gravity is described in terms of the Bessel functions of $(2+n/2)$-order and that estimate the correction to Newton's law. In particular, the Newton's law for $n=1$ can be exactly obtained.
Hukum Newton Tentang Gerak Dalam Ruang Fase Tak Komutatif
Purwanto, Joko
2014-01-01
In this paper, the Newton's law of motions in a noncomutative phase space has been investigated. Its show that correction to the Newton's first and second law appear if we assume that the phase space has symplectic structure consistent with the rules of comutation of the noncomutative quantum mechanics. In the free particle and harmonic oscillator case the equations of motion are derived on basis of the modified Newton's second law in a noncomutative phase space.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
MR Masjedi
2008-07-01
Full Text Available Introduction: International study on asthma was conducted to study the prevalence of Asthma symptoms among 13-14 year old children using written and video questionnaires during the early 90's. The aim of the present study (ISAAC was to evaluate the agreement between the two questionnaires which were self-completed by the children. Methods: This study, which was a part of the third phase of International Study of Asthma and Allergy in Childhood (ISAAC and performed exactly similar to phase1, was performed by National Research Institute of Tuberculosis and Lung Diseases (NRITLD in two cities of Iran; Rasht and Tehran. All stages of the study were performed in accordance with ISAAC protocol. The present study discusses data related to children of Tehran. A total of 3100 school children aged 13-14 years were questioned about asthma symptoms using written and video questionnaires of ISAAC study. For statistical analysis, initially a descriptive study of the available data was performed. Thereafter, chance corrected agreement between the two questionnaires was evaluated using Cohen’s Kappa co-efficiency. Results: Of the total of 3100 children, 52.4% were male and 47.6% female, with a mean age of 13.6 years. Although the questions discussed in the two questionnaires were not exactly similar, the results of the video questionnaires showed a statistically significant lower positive response to asthma symptoms as compared to the written version. Kappa co-efficiency ranged between 0.06- 0.21 (mean=0.12, which is considered poor for all variables. Conclusion: Positive responses to having asthma symptoms were significantly higher using the written questionnaire compared to the video questionnaire. Similar to previous studies, agreement between the two was considered poor for all variables. Although factors such as language, culture, dwelling area, e.t.c. have special effects on results of these questionnaires, results indicate that the two questionnaires
La politización en las lecturas canónicas: Miguel Antonio Caro, lector de Jorge Isaacs
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Carlos Arturo López Jiménez
2008-12-01
Full Text Available The article herein shows some conceptual features of Miguel Antonio Caro’s intellectual project and its intrinsic strengths. Furthermore, it details the type of politicization which Caro imposed on some of the work of his contemporaries politicization which, in turn, was later imposed on him-self by contemporary historiography. More to the point, I evidence how Caro, when asserting that a particular text by Jorge Isaacs (The native tribes of the Magdalena basin was scientific, immediately proceeded to politicize Isaac’s work, among other things, because he (Caro did not have the relevant arguments needed to confront Isaacs’ text in its own terms and framework. Thus, in order to dismiss Isaacs’ objections raised against the government of Nuñez, Caro places the aforementioned work by the author of María, among the texts that threatened social order by presenting it as part and parcel of positivism, empiricism, liberalism, and all other intellectual efforts based on a damaging sensualism.//Aquí muestran algunos aspectos conceptuales del proyecto intelectual de Miguel Antonio Caro y su consistencia interna. Además, preciso el tipo específico de politización que este escritor impuso sobre algunos trabajos que le fueron contemporáneos –politización de la cual el mismo Caro ha sido objeto por parte de historiografía contemporánea–. Específicamente, presento cómo Miguel Antonio Caro, al afirmar que un texto de Isaacs (Las tribus indígenas del Magdalena es científico, politiza su trabajo por la imposibilidad de atacarlo dentro de los límites argumentativos del texto de Isaacs. De esta forma, para hacer a un lado las objeciones que Isaac eleva contra el gobierno de Núñez, Caro ubica el trabajo del autor de María en el grupo de escritos que amenazan el orden social, al presentarlo de la mano con el positivismo, empirismo, liberalismo y demás esfuerzos intelectuales fundados en un “nocivo” criterio sensualista.
Some Elementary Examples from Newton's Principia -R-ES ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
ing both differential and integral calculus. Newton used many geometrical methods extensively to derive the re- sults in spite of his having discovered calculus. Geome- try, judiciously used with limiting procedures, was one principal strategy used by Newton in the Principia. The Principia presents an enormous range of ...
XMM-Newton On-demand Reprocessing Using SaaS Technology
Ibarra, A.; Fajersztejn, N.; Loiseau, N.; Gabriel, C.
2014-05-01
We present here the architectural design of the new on-the-fly reprocessing capabilities that will be soon developed and implemented in the new XMM-Newton Science Operation Centre. The inclusion of processing capabilities into the archive, as we plan, will be possible thanks to the recent refurbishment of the XMM-Newton science archive, its alignment with the latest web technologies and the XMM-Newton Remote Interface for Science Analysis (RISA), a revolutionary idea of providing processing capabilities through internet services.
Newton's Contributions to Optics
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
creativity is apparent, even in ideas and models in optics that were ... Around Newton's time, a number of leading figures in science ..... successive circles increased as integers, i.e. d increases by inte- ... of easy reflections and transmission".
Disformal transformation in Newton-Cartan geometry
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Huang, Peng [Zhejiang Chinese Medical University, Department of Information, Hangzhou (China); Sun Yat-Sen University, School of Physics and Astronomy, Guangzhou (China); Yuan, Fang-Fang [Nankai University, School of Physics, Tianjin (China)
2016-08-15
Newton-Cartan geometry has played a central role in recent discussions of the non-relativistic holography and condensed matter systems. Although the conformal transformation in non-relativistic holography can easily be rephrased in terms of Newton-Cartan geometry, we show that it requires a nontrivial procedure to arrive at the consistent form of anisotropic disformal transformation in this geometry. Furthermore, as an application of the newly obtained transformation, we use it to induce a geometric structure which may be seen as a particular non-relativistic version of the Weyl integrable geometry. (orig.)
Bargmann structures and Newton-Cartan theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Duval, C.; Burdet, G.; Kuenzle, H.P.; Perrin, M.
1985-01-01
It is shown that Newton-Cartan theory of gravitation can best be formulated on a five-dimensional extended space-time carrying a Lorentz metric together with a null parallel vector field. The corresponding geometry associated with the Bargmann group (nontrivially extended Galilei group) viewed as a subgroup of the affine de Sitter group AO(4,1) is thoroughly investigated. This new global formalism allows one to recast classical particle dynamics and the Schroedinger equation into a purely covariant form. The Newton-Cartan field equations are readily derived from Einstein's Lagrangian on the space-time extension
The fundamental constants a mystery of physics
Fritzsch, Harald
2009-01-01
The speed of light, the fine structure constant, and Newton's constant of gravity — these are just three among the many physical constants that define our picture of the world. Where do they come from? Are they constant in time and across space? In this book, physicist and author Harald Fritzsch invites the reader to explore the mystery of the fundamental constants of physics in the company of Isaac Newton, Albert Einstein, and a modern-day physicist
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Axelsson, Owe; Sysala, Stanislav
2015-01-01
Roč. 70, č. 11 (2015), s. 2621-2637 ISSN 0898-1221 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-18652S Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : system of nonlinear equations * Newton method * load increment method * elastoplasticity Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science Impact factor: 1.398, year: 2015 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0898122115003818
A description of the FAMOUS (version XDBUA climate model and control run
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. Osprey
2008-12-01
Full Text Available FAMOUS is an ocean-atmosphere general circulation model of low resolution, capable of simulating approximately 120 years of model climate per wallclock day using current high performance computing facilities. It uses most of the same code as HadCM3, a widely used climate model of higher resolution and computational cost, and has been tuned to reproduce the same climate reasonably well. FAMOUS is useful for climate simulations where the computational cost makes the application of HadCM3 unfeasible, either because of the length of simulation or the size of the ensemble desired. We document a number of scientific and technical improvements to the original version of FAMOUS. These improvements include changes to the parameterisations of ozone and sea-ice which alleviate a significant cold bias from high northern latitudes and the upper troposphere, and the elimination of volume-averaged drifts in ocean tracers. A simple model of the marine carbon cycle has also been included. A particular goal of FAMOUS is to conduct millennial-scale paleoclimate simulations of Quaternary ice ages; to this end, a number of useful changes to the model infrastructure have been made.
Newton force from wave function collapse: speculation and test
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Diósi, Lajos
2014-01-01
The Diosi-Penrose model of quantum-classical boundary postulates gravity-related spontaneous wave function collapse of massive degrees of freedom. The decoherence effects of the collapses are in principle detectable if not masked by the overwhelming environmental decoherence. But the DP (or any other, like GRW, CSL) spontaneous collapses are not detectable themselves, they are merely the redundant formalism of spontaneous decoherence. To let DP collapses become testable physics, recently we extended the DP model and proposed that DP collapses are responsible for the emergence of the Newton gravitational force between massive objects. We identified the collapse rate, possibly of the order of 1/ms, with the rate of emergence of the Newton force. A simple heuristic emergence (delay) time was added to the Newton law of gravity. This non-relativistic delay is in peaceful coexistence with Einstein's relativistic theory of gravitation, at least no experimental evidence has so far surfaced against it. We derive new predictions of such a 'lazy' Newton law that will enable decisive laboratory tests with available technologies. The simple equation of 'lazy' Newton law deserves theoretical and experimental studies in itself, independently of the underlying quantum foundational considerations.
INVESTIGATION OF THE MISCONCEPTION IN NEWTON II LAW
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yudi Kurniawan
2018-04-01
Full Text Available This study aims to provide a comprehensive description of the level of the number of students who have misconceptions about Newton's II Law. This research is located at one State Junior High School in Kab. Pandeglang. The purposive sampling was considering used in this study because it is important to distinguish students who do not know the concept of students who experience misconception. Data were collected using a three tier-test diagnostic test and analyzed descriptively quantitatively. The results showed that the level of misconception was in the two categories of high and medium levels. It needs an innovative teaching technique for subsequent research to treat Newton's Newton misconception.
Preconditioned Inexact Newton for Nonlinear Sparse Electromagnetic Imaging
Desmal, Abdulla
2014-05-04
Newton-type algorithms have been extensively studied in nonlinear microwave imaging due to their quadratic convergence rate and ability to recover images with high contrast values. In the past, Newton methods have been implemented in conjunction with smoothness promoting optimization/regularization schemes. However, this type of regularization schemes are known to perform poorly when applied in imagining domains with sparse content or sharp variations. In this work, an inexact Newton algorithm is formulated and implemented in conjunction with a linear sparse optimization scheme. A novel preconditioning technique is proposed to increase the convergence rate of the optimization problem. Numerical results demonstrate that the proposed framework produces sharper and more accurate images when applied in sparse/sparsified domains.
Preconditioned Inexact Newton for Nonlinear Sparse Electromagnetic Imaging
Desmal, Abdulla
2014-01-06
Newton-type algorithms have been extensively studied in nonlinear microwave imaging due to their quadratic convergence rate and ability to recover images with high contrast values. In the past, Newton methods have been implemented in conjunction with smoothness promoting optimization/regularization schemes. However, this type of regularization schemes are known to perform poorly when applied in imagining domains with sparse content or sharp variations. In this work, an inexact Newton algorithm is formulated and implemented in conjunction with a linear sparse optimization scheme. A novel preconditioning technique is proposed to increase the convergence rate of the optimization problem. Numerical results demonstrate that the proposed framework produces sharper and more accurate images when applied in sparse/sparsified domains.
Preconditioned Inexact Newton for Nonlinear Sparse Electromagnetic Imaging
Desmal, Abdulla; Bagci, Hakan
2014-01-01
Newton-type algorithms have been extensively studied in nonlinear microwave imaging due to their quadratic convergence rate and ability to recover images with high contrast values. In the past, Newton methods have been implemented in conjunction with smoothness promoting optimization/regularization schemes. However, this type of regularization schemes are known to perform poorly when applied in imagining domains with sparse content or sharp variations. In this work, an inexact Newton algorithm is formulated and implemented in conjunction with a linear sparse optimization scheme. A novel preconditioning technique is proposed to increase the convergence rate of the optimization problem. Numerical results demonstrate that the proposed framework produces sharper and more accurate images when applied in sparse/sparsified domains.
Hiesmayr, Beatrix C.
2015-07-01
About 50 years ago John St. Bell published his famous Bell theorem that initiated a new field in physics. This contribution discusses how discrete symmetries relate to the big open questions of quantum mechanics, in particular: (i) how correlations stronger than those predicted by theories sharing randomness (Bell's theorem) relate to the violation of the CP symmetry and the P symmetry; and its relation to the security of quantum cryptography, (ii) how the measurement problem (“why do we observe no tables in superposition?”) can be polled in weakly decaying systems, (iii) how strongly and weakly interacting quantum systems are affected by Newton's self gravitation. These presented preliminary results show that the meson-antimeson systems and the hyperon- antihyperon systems are a unique laboratory to tackle deep fundamental questions and to contribute to the understand what impact the violation of discrete symmetries has.
Parand, K.; Nikarya, M.
2017-11-01
In this paper a novel method will be introduced to solve a nonlinear partial differential equation (PDE). In the proposed method, we use the spectral collocation method based on Bessel functions of the first kind and the Jacobian free Newton-generalized minimum residual (JFNGMRes) method with adaptive preconditioner. In this work a nonlinear PDE has been converted to a nonlinear system of algebraic equations using the collocation method based on Bessel functions without any linearization, discretization or getting the help of any other methods. Finally, by using JFNGMRes, the solution of the nonlinear algebraic system is achieved. To illustrate the reliability and efficiency of the proposed method, we solve some examples of the famous Fisher equation. We compare our results with other methods.
Quasi-Newton methods for implicit black-box FSI coupling
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Bogaers, Alfred EJ
2014-09-01
Full Text Available In this paper we introduce a new multi-vector update quasi-Newton (MVQN) method for implicit coupling of partitioned, transient FSI solvers. The new quasi-Newton method facilitates the use of 'black-box' field solvers and under certain circumstances...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fu Yuhua
2014-06-01
Full Text Available Neutrosophy is a new branch of philosophy, and "Quad-stage" (Four stages is the expansion of Hegel’s triad thesis, antithesis, synthesis of development. Applying Neutrosophy and "Quad-stage" method, the purposes of this paper are expanding Newton Mechanics and making it become New Newton Mechanics (NNW taking law of conservation of energy as unique source law. In this paper the examples show that in some cases other laws may be contradicted with the law of conservation of energy. The original Newton's three laws and the law of gravity, in principle can be derived by the law of conservation of energy. Through the example of free falling body, this paper derives the original Newton's second law by using the law of conservation of energy, and proves that there is not the contradiction between the original law of gravity and the law of conservation of energy; and through the example of a small ball rolls along the inclined plane (belonging to the problem cannot be solved by general relativity that a body is forced to move in flat space, derives improved Newton's second law and improved law of gravity by using law of conservation of energy. Whether or not other conservation laws (such as the law of conservation of momentum and the law of conservation of angular momentum can be utilized, should be tested by law of conservation of energy. When the original Newton's second law is not correct, then the laws of conservation of momentum and angular momentum are no longer correct; therefore the general forms of improved law of conservation of momentum and improved law of conservation of angular momentum are presented. In the cases that law of conservation of energy cannot be used effectively, New Newton Mechanics will not exclude that according to other theories or accurate experiments to derive the laws or formulas to solve some specific problems. For example, with the help of the result of general relativity, the improved Newton's formula of universal
Dynamic Newton-Puiseux Theorem
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mannaa, Bassel; Coquand, Thierry
2013-01-01
A constructive version of Newton-Puiseux theorem for computing the Puiseux expansions of algebraic curves is presented. The proof is based on a classical proof by Abhyankar. Algebraic numbers are evaluated dynamically; hence the base field need not be algebraically closed and a factorization...
Luo, Jing; Fu, Chang-geng; Xu, Hao
2015-04-01
The inheritance of famous old traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) doctors plays an essential role in the fields of TCM research. Qualitative interviews allow for subjectivity and individuality within clinical experience as well as academic ideas of doctors, making it a potential appropriate research method for inheritance of famous old TCM doctors. We summarized current situations of inheritance research on famous old TCM doctors, and then discussed the feasibility of applying qualitative interviews in inheritance of famous old TCM doctors. By combining our experience in research on inheritance of famous old TCM doctors, we gave some advice on study design, interview implementation, data transcription and analyses , and report writing, providing a reference for further relevant research.
Genetic Diversity in Durum Wheat in Palestine: A Comparative Study
African Journals Online (AJOL)
NNU
2012-08-16
Aug 16, 2012 ... natural habitats and field edges and landraces grown under traditional farming systems (Isaac and Gasteyer,. 1995). Morphological variation exists among these ... have become a basic and essential tool for detecting genetic variation and elucidating unknown DNA sequences (Newton and Graham, 1994).
Discovery of a Probable Nova in M81 and Photometry of Three M81 Novae
Hornoch, K.; Errmann, R.; Carlisle, Ch.; Vaduvescu, O.
2015-02-01
We report the discovery of a probable nova in M81 on a co-added 1600-s narrow-band H-alpha CCD image taken with the 2.5-m Isaac Newton Telescope (INT) + WFC at La Palma under ~1.6" seeing on 2015 Jan.
Takahashi, Hirokatsu; Mori, Masahiro; Sekiguchi, Yukari; Misawa, Sonoko; Sawai, Setsu; Hattori, Takamichi; Kuwabara, Satoshi
2008-12-15
Autoantibodies against voltage-gated potassium channels (VGKC-Abs) are associated with acquired neuromyotonia (Isaacs' syndrome) and related disorders such as Morvan's syndrome and some cases of limbic encephalitis. The mechanisms underlying the various phenotypes induced by VGKC-Abs are not fully understood. Recently, we reported a case of LE with VGKC-Abs accompanied by severe intestinal pseudo-obstruction and thymoma. Thymectomy and immunosuppressive therapy induced dramatic clinical improvement of LE symptoms, and VGKC-Abs titers decreased from 1254 pM to 549 pM (normal>100 pM). Seventeen months later, the patient developed progressive generalized muscle cramping, paresthesias in his lower extremities, excessive sweating, and severe constipation. There was no recurrence of the LE. Electromyography showed fasciculation potentials and myokymic discharges, and the plasma VGKC-Abs titer was again elevated to 879 pM. Here we report a case of Isaacs' syndrome after complete remission of LE with VGKC-Abs that may provide an insight into a possible link among VGKC-Abs associated syndromes.
Newton\\'s equation of motion in the gravitational field of an oblate ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
In this paper, we derived Newton's equation of motion for a satellite in the gravitational scalar field of a uniformly rotating, oblate spheriodal Earth using spheriodal coordinates. The resulting equation is solved for the corresponding precession and the result compared with similar ones. JONAMP Vol. 11 2007: pp. 279-286 ...
Recognizing famous voices: influence of stimulus duration and different types of retrieval cues.
Schweinberger, S R; Herholz, A; Sommer, W
1997-04-01
The current investigation measured the effects of increasing stimulus duration on listeners' ability to recognize famous voices. In addition, the investigation studied the influence of different types of cues on the naming of voices that could not be named before. Participants were presented with samples of famous and unfamiliar voices and were asked to decide whether or not the samples were spoken by a famous person. The duration of each sample increased in seven steps from 0.25 s up to a maximum of 2 s. Voice recognition improvements with stimulus duration were with a growth function. Gains were most rapid within the first second and less pronounced thereafter. When participants were unable to name a famous voice, they were cued with either a second voice sample, the occupation, or the initials of the celebrity. Initials were most effective in eliciting the name only when semantic information about the speaker had been accessed prior to cue presentation. Paralleling previous research on face naming, this may indicate that voice naming is contingent on previous activation of person-specific semantic information.
Coupling of partitioned physics codes with quasi-Newton methods
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Haelterman, R
2017-03-01
Full Text Available , A class of methods for solving nonlinear simultaneous equations. Math. Comp. 19, pp. 577–593 (1965) [3] C.G. Broyden, Quasi-Newton methods and their applications to function minimization. Math. Comp. 21, pp. 368–381 (1967) [4] J.E. Dennis, J.J. More...´, Quasi-Newton methods: motivation and theory. SIAM Rev. 19, pp. 46–89 (1977) [5] J.E. Dennis, R.B. Schnabel, Least Change Secant Updates for quasi- Newton methods. SIAM Rev. 21, pp. 443–459 (1979) [6] G. Dhondt, CalculiX CrunchiX USER’S MANUAL Version 2...
Various Newton-type iterative methods for solving nonlinear equations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Manoj Kumar
2013-10-01
Full Text Available The aim of the present paper is to introduce and investigate new ninth and seventh order convergent Newton-type iterative methods for solving nonlinear equations. The ninth order convergent Newton-type iterative method is made derivative free to obtain seventh-order convergent Newton-type iterative method. These new with and without derivative methods have efficiency indices 1.5518 and 1.6266, respectively. The error equations are used to establish the order of convergence of these proposed iterative methods. Finally, various numerical comparisons are implemented by MATLAB to demonstrate the performance of the developed methods.
Determinants of famous name processing speed: age of acquisition versus semantic connectedness.
Smith-Spark, James H; Moore, Viv; Valentine, Tim
2013-02-01
The age of acquisition (AoA) and the amount of biographical information known about celebrities have been independently shown to influence the processing of famous people. In this experiment, we investigated the facilitative contribution of both factors to famous name processing. Twenty-four mature adults participated in a familiarity judgement task, in which the names of famous people were grouped orthogonally by AoA and by the number of bits of biographical information known about them (number of facts known; NoFK). Age of acquisition was found to have a significant effect on both reaction time (RT) and accuracy of response, but NoFK did not. The RT data also revealed a significant AoA×NoFK interaction. The amount of information known about a celebrity played a facilitative role in the processing of late-acquired, but not early-acquired, celebrities. Once AoA is controlled, it would appear that the semantic system ceases to have a significant overall influence on the processing of famous people. The pre-eminence of AoA over semantic connectedness is considered in the light of current theories of AoA and how their influence might interact. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Non-Relativistic Twistor Theory and Newton-Cartan Geometry
Dunajski, Maciej; Gundry, James
2016-03-01
We develop a non-relativistic twistor theory, in which Newton-Cartan structures of Newtonian gravity correspond to complex three-manifolds with a four-parameter family of rational curves with normal bundle O oplus O(2)}. We show that the Newton-Cartan space-times are unstable under the general Kodaira deformation of the twistor complex structure. The Newton-Cartan connections can nevertheless be reconstructed from Merkulov's generalisation of the Kodaira map augmented by a choice of a holomorphic line bundle over the twistor space trivial on twistor lines. The Coriolis force may be incorporated by holomorphic vector bundles, which in general are non-trivial on twistor lines. The resulting geometries agree with non-relativistic limits of anti-self-dual gravitational instantons.
On the classification of plane graphs representing structurally stable rational Newton flows
Jongen, H.Th.; Jonker, P.; Twilt, F.
1991-01-01
We study certain plane graphs, called Newton graphs, representing a special class of dynamical systems which are closely related to Newton's iteration method for finding zeros of (rational) functions defined on the complex plane. These Newton graphs are defined in terms of nonvanishing angles
Chastagner, Claude
2008-01-01
« Weegee the famous » : le surnom dont s’est affublé Arthur H. Fellig évoque plus, dans sa vantardise ironique, le bonimenteur de cirque, le carnival barker, que le photographe de talent. Rien non plus dans son allure physique qui incite à l’inclure dans le cercle fermé des « vrais » artistes, des grands photographes américains célébrés par les magazines et les rétrospectives, comme Ansel Adams ou Walker Evans, même si lui aussi a eu les honneurs d’Hollywood, de Vogue et du MOMA. Avec ses com...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Claude Chastagner
2008-08-01
Full Text Available « Weegee the famous » : le surnom dont s’est affublé Arthur H. Fellig évoque plus, dans sa vantardise ironique, le bonimenteur de cirque, le carnival barker, que le photographe de talent. Rien non plus dans son allure physique qui incite à l’inclure dans le cercle fermé des « vrais » artistes, des grands photographes américains célébrés par les magazines et les rétrospectives, comme Ansel Adams ou Walker Evans, même si lui aussi a eu les honneurs d’Hollywood, de Vogue et du MOMA. Avec ses com...
Mills, Randy K.; Woods, John C.
1996-01-01
Utilizes selections from 17th century philosophical writing as instructional material for a series of learning activities that reveal the influence of the material on early American democratic thought. Activities involve selections from Isaac Newton, John Locke, Montesquieu, Rousseau, The Declaration of Independence, and Bishop Bossuet. (MJP)
Cataclysmic variables from a ROSAT/2MASS selection - I. Four new intermediate polars
Gänsicke, B.T.; Marsh, T.R.; Edge, A.; Rodríguez-Gil, P.; Steeghs, D.; Araujo-Betancor, S.; Harlaftis, E.; Giannakis, O.; Pyrzas, S.; Morales-Rueda, L.; Aungwerojwit, A.
2005-01-01
We report the first results from a new search for cataclysmic variables (CVs) using a combined X-ray (ROSAT)/infrared (2MASS) target selection that discriminates against background active galactic nuclei. Identification spectra were obtained at the Isaac Newton Telescope for a total of 174 targets,
Discovery of an Apparent Nova in M81
Hornoch, K.; Alfaro, M. Diaz; Ordonez-Etxeberria, I.; Vaduvescu, O.
2015-01-01
We report the discovery of an apparent nova in M81 on a co-added 1600-s narrow-band H-alpha CCD image taken with the 2.5-m Isaac Newton Telescope (INT) + WFC at La Palma under ~2.4" seeing on 2015 Jan. 15.126 UT.
Characterising atmospheric optical turbulence using stereo-SCIDAR
Osborn, James; Butterley, Tim; Föhring, Dora; Wilson, Richard
2015-04-01
Stereo-SCIDAR (SCIntillation Detection and Ranging) is a development to the well known SCIDAR method for characterisation of the Earth's atmospheric optical turbulence. Here we present some interesting capabilities, comparisons and results from a recent campaign on the 2.5 m Isaac Newton Telescope on La Palma.
An evolutionary link between Seyfert I and II galaxies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Penston, M.V.; Perez, E.
1984-01-01
First spectra from the newly sited Isaac Newton Telescope show NGC 4151 and 3C 390.3 to have taken on a classification very close to Seyfert II. It is proposed that Seyfert II galaxies are Seyfert Is in which the continuum source is temporarily off. (author)
Living Classrooms: Learning Guide for Famous & Historic Trees.
American Forest Foundation, Washington, DC.
This guide provides information to create and care for a Famous and Historic Trees Living Classroom in which students learn American history and culture in the context of environmental change. The booklet contains 10 hands-on activities that emphasize observation, critical thinking, and teamwork. Worksheets and illustrations provide students with…
Eigenvalue Decomposition-Based Modified Newton Algorithm
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wen-jun Wang
2013-01-01
Full Text Available When the Hessian matrix is not positive, the Newton direction may not be the descending direction. A new method named eigenvalue decomposition-based modified Newton algorithm is presented, which first takes the eigenvalue decomposition of the Hessian matrix, then replaces the negative eigenvalues with their absolute values, and finally reconstructs the Hessian matrix and modifies the searching direction. The new searching direction is always the descending direction. The convergence of the algorithm is proven and the conclusion on convergence rate is presented qualitatively. Finally, a numerical experiment is given for comparing the convergence domains of the modified algorithm and the classical algorithm.
Newton da Costa and the school of Curitiba
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Artibano Micali
2011-06-01
Full Text Available This paper intends to report on the beginning of the publications of Newton da Costa outside Brazil. Two mathematicians played an important role in this beginning: Marcel Guillaume from the University of Clermont-Ferrand and Paul Dedecker from the Universities of Lille and Liège. At the same time we recall the role played by Newton da Costa and Jayme Machado Cardoso in the development of what we call here the School of Curitiba [Escola de Curitiba]. Paraconsistent logic was initiated in this school under the influence of Newton da Costa. As another contribution of this school we mention the development of the theory of quasigroups; Jayme Machado Cardoso's name has been given, by Sade, to some particular objects which are now called Cardoso quasigroups.
Students’ misconceptions about Newton's second law in outer space
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Temiz, B K; Yavuz, A
2014-01-01
Students’ misconceptions about Newton's second law in frictionless outer space were investigated. The research was formed according to an epistemic game theoretical framework. The term ‘epistemic’ refers to students’ participation in problem-solving activities as a means of constructing new knowledge. The term ‘game’ refers to a coherent activity that consists of moves and rules. A set of questions in which students are asked to solve two similar Newton's second law problems, one of which is on the Earth and the other in outer space, was administered to 116 undergraduate students. The findings indicate that there is a significant difference between students’ epistemic game preferences and race-type (outer space or frictional surface) question. So students who used Newton's second law on the ground did not apply this law and used primitive reasoning when it came to space. Among these students, voluntary interviews were conducted with 18 students. Analysis of interview transcripts showed that: (1) the term ‘space’ causes spontaneity among students that prevents the use of the law; (2) students hesitate to apply Newton's second law in space due to the lack of a condition—the friction; (3) students feel that Newton's second law is not valid in space for a variety of reasons, but mostly for the fact that the body in space is not in contact with a surface. (paper)
Newton's Contributions to Optics
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 11; Issue 12. Newton's Contributions to Optics. Arvind Kumar. General Article Volume 11 Issue 12 December 2006 pp 10-20. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/011/12/0010-0020. Keywords.
Can Newton's Third Law Be "Derived" from the Second?
Gangopadhyaya, Asim; Harrington, James
2017-01-01
Newton's laws have engendered much discussion over several centuries. Today, the internet is awash with a plethora of information on this topic. We find many references to Newton's laws, often discussions of various types of misunderstandings and ways to explain them. Here we present an intriguing example that shows an assumption hidden in…
A variational principle for Newton-Cartan theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Goenner, H.F.M.
1984-01-01
In the framework of a space-time theory of gravitation a variational principle is set up for the gravitational field equations and the equations of motion of matter. The general framework leads to Newton's equations of motion with an unspecified force term and, for irrotational motion, to a restriction on the propagation of the shear tensor along the streamlines of matter. The field equations obtained from the variation are weaker than the standard field equations of Newton-Cartan theory. An application to fluids with shear and bulk viscosity is given. (author)
The Celestial Mechanics of Newton
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
hannes Kepler had announced his first two laws of plan- etary motion (AD 1609), ... "Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy" .... He provided two different sets of proofs .... the Sun. Newton then formulated a theory of tides based on the.
The Moral and Ethical Implications of Precision-Guided Munitions
2007-03-01
state was secured permanently on the world political stage. Grotius was to jurisprudence and the just-war tradition as Francis Bacon and Rene ... Descartes were to philosophy and Galileo Galilei and Sir Isaac Newton were to applied science. Grotius’ interpretation of the just-war tra- dition as it
Rockets: An Educator's Guide with Activities in Science, Mathematics, and Technology.
National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.
This educational guide discusses rockets and includes activities in science, mathematics, and technology. It begins with background information on the history of rocketry, scientific principles, and practical rocketry. The sections on scientific principles and practical rocketry focus on Sir Isaac Newton's Three Laws of Motion. These laws explain…
INT WFC follow-up photometry of the M31 nova M31N 2017-10a
Hermosa-Munoz, L.; Garcia-Rivas, M.; Gonzalez-Cuesta, L.; Jimenez-Gallardo, A.; Mantero-Castaneda, E. A.; Arce-Tord, C.; Prendin, M. G.; Rodriguez-Sanchez, M.; Esteban-Gutierrez, A.; Garcia-Broock, E.; Hernandez-Sanchez, M.; Lopez-Navas, E.; Otero-Santos, J.; Perez-Fournon, I.
2017-12-01
We report follow-up photometry in the Sloan g, r, and i bands, 240s per band, of the nova M31N 2017-10a ( = PNV J00423905+4123006) from observations on the night of 29 October 2017 with the Wide Field Camera of the Isaac Newton Telescope*.
African Journals Online (AJOL)
2013 Isaac Newton and student college completion. Journal of College Student Retention. 15, 1-7. 2012 Completing College: Rethinking institutional action. Chicago: The University of. Chicago Press. 2011 Moving from theory to action: A model of institutional action for student success. In A. Seidman (Ed.), College Student ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Usha N Bhosle. Acknowledgements. This work was initiated during the author's visit to the Isaac Newton Institute, Cambridge,. UK as a visiting fellow to participate in the programme Moduli Spaces (MOS) during. June 2011. She would like to thank the Institute for hospitality and excellent working environment. References.
Achievements, agreements and quarrels of forefathers of mechanics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Okrouhlík M.
2015-12-01
Full Text Available The presented paper is devoted to deeds of Galileo Galilei, Johannes Kepler, Robert Hooke, Christiaan Huygens and Isaac Newton with an intention to show their achievements in mechanics, their intellectual and scientific heritage, and also their personal vanities that sometimes led to harmful mutual relations.
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Home; Fellowship. Fellow Profile. Elected: 1935 Honorary. Lewis, Prof. Gilbert Newton. Date of birth: 25 October 1875. Date of death: 24 March 1946. YouTube; Twitter; Facebook; Blog. Academy News. IAS Logo. 29th Mid-year meeting. Posted on 19 January 2018. The 29th Mid-year meeting of the Academy will be held ...
Life after Newton: an ecological metaphysic.
Ulanowicz, R E
1999-05-01
Ecology may indeed be 'deep', as some have maintained, but perhaps much of the mystery surrounding it owes more simply to the dissonance between ecological notions and the fundamentals of the modern synthesis. Comparison of the axioms supporting the Newtonian world view with those underlying the organicist and stochastic metaphors that motivate much of ecosystems science reveals strong disagreements--especially regarding the nature of the causes of events and the scalar domains over which these causes can operate. The late Karl Popper held that the causal closure forced by our mechanical perspective on nature frustrates our attempts to achieve an 'evolutionary theory of knowledge.' He suggested that the Newtonian concept of 'force' must be generalized to encompass the contingencies that arise in evolutionary processes. His reformulation of force as 'propensity' leads quite naturally to a generalization of Newton's laws for ecology. The revised tenets appear, however, to exhibit more scope and allow for change to arise from within a system. Although Newton's laws survive (albeit in altered form) within a coalescing ecological metaphysic, the axioms that Enlightenment thinkers appended to Newton's work seem ill-suited for ecology and perhaps should yield to a new and coherent set of assumptions on how to view the processes of nature.
Raju, C. K.
1991-01-01
A study of time in Newtonian physics is presented. Newton's laws of motion, falsifiability and physical theories, laws of motion and law of gravitation, and Laplace's demon are discussed. Short bibliographic sketches of Laplace and Karl Popper are included. (KR)
Síndrome de Isaacs: relato de um caso
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hélio Ghizoni Teive
1988-06-01
Full Text Available Relato do caso de paciente do sexo feminino com 40 anos de idade, com quadro progressivo de diminuição de força, disfonia, disfagia, dispnéia e hiperidrose. O exame físico revelava contratura em flexão das mãos, déficit de força muscular, fasciculações, mioquimia facial e pseudomiotonia nas mãos, A eletromiografia mostrou atividade elétrica contínua em repouso. O estudo histoquímico muscular revelou atrofia de fibras do tipo II, enquanto a microscopia eletrônica mostrou dilatação importante das cisternas do retículo sarcoplasmático. O diagnóstico de síndrome de Isaacs foi firmado. Excelente resposta clínica ao emprego de carbamazepina foi observada. São discutidos e revistos vários aspectos relacionados a essa rara síndrome.
Entropic corrections to Newton's law
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Setare, M R; Momeni, D; Myrzakulov, R
2012-01-01
In this short paper, we calculate separately the generalized uncertainty principle (GUP) and self-gravitational corrections to Newton's gravitational formula. We show that for a complete description of the GUP and self-gravity effects, both the temperature and entropy must be modified. (paper)
Sparse contrast-source inversion using linear-shrinkage-enhanced inexact Newton method
Desmal, Abdulla
2014-07-01
A contrast-source inversion scheme is proposed for microwave imaging of domains with sparse content. The scheme uses inexact Newton and linear shrinkage methods to account for the nonlinearity and ill-posedness of the electromagnetic inverse scattering problem, respectively. Thresholded shrinkage iterations are accelerated using a preconditioning technique. Additionally, during Newton iterations, the weight of the penalty term is reduced consistently with the quadratic convergence of the Newton method to increase accuracy and efficiency. Numerical results demonstrate the applicability of the proposed method.
Sparse contrast-source inversion using linear-shrinkage-enhanced inexact Newton method
Desmal, Abdulla; Bagci, Hakan
2014-01-01
A contrast-source inversion scheme is proposed for microwave imaging of domains with sparse content. The scheme uses inexact Newton and linear shrinkage methods to account for the nonlinearity and ill-posedness of the electromagnetic inverse scattering problem, respectively. Thresholded shrinkage iterations are accelerated using a preconditioning technique. Additionally, during Newton iterations, the weight of the penalty term is reduced consistently with the quadratic convergence of the Newton method to increase accuracy and efficiency. Numerical results demonstrate the applicability of the proposed method.
Newton's Principia: Myth and Reality
Smith, George
2016-03-01
Myths about Newton's Principia abound. Some of them, such as the myth that the whole book was initially developed using the calculus and then transformed into a geometric mathematics, stem from remarks he made during the priority controversy with Leibniz over the calculus. Some of the most persistent, and misleading, arose from failures to read the book with care. Among the latter are the myth that he devised his theory of gravity in order to explain the already established ``laws'' of Kepler, and that in doing so he took himself to be establishing that Keplerian motion is ``absolute,'' if not with respect to ``absolute space,'' then at least with respect to the fixed stars taken as what came later to be known as an inertial frame. The talk will replace these two myths with the reality of what Newton took himself to have established.
1998-01-23
Morinosato Wakamiya, Atsugi-shi, Kanagawa, 243-01, Japan. t present address: University of Tokyo, Institute for Industrial Science, 7-22-1 Roppongi...Lluis Sole i Sabaris 1-3, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain. 3CNM, "Instituto de Microelectrönica de Madrid", Isaac Newton 8, Parque Tecnologico de Madrid, E
Drazin, Philip
1987-01-01
Outlines the contents of Volume II of "Principia" by Sir Isaac Newton. Reviews the contributions of subsequent scientists to the physics of fluid dynamics. Discusses the treatment of fluid mechanics in physics curricula. Highlights a few of the problems of modern research in fluid dynamics. Shows that problems still remain. (CW)
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Admin
The word 'theory' is derived from the Greek theoria: a speculation or a view. ... In the context of these results Isaac Newton made certain fundamental ... This process is therefore referred to as the hypothetico-deductive method. .... theories, and however satisfactory they may seem from our perspective, one can never be.
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
circles, upon which geometry is founded, belongs to mechanics. Geometry does not teach us to draw these lines, but requires them to be drawn. Sir Isaac Newton. (1643 to 1727). Figure 12. The Egyptians created right triangles from ropes divided into 12 equal segments .. 4ddress for Correspondence. Jasbir S Chahal.
ZUIDERWIJK, EJ; MARTIN, R; RAIMOND, E; VANDIEPEN, GNJ
The operation of the La Palma Data Archive is described in detail. The archive contains data taken since early 1986 with the Isaac Newton Group; 74% of the 260,000 entries are of astronomical sources. Several hundreds of queries are made on the catalog each year, resulting in approximately one
Newton Binomial Formulas in Schubert Calculus
Cordovez, Jorge; Gatto, Letterio; Santiago, Taise
2008-01-01
We prove Newton's binomial formulas for Schubert Calculus to determine numbers of base point free linear series on the projective line with prescribed ramification divisor supported at given distinct points.
[The establishment of research inherit mode of famous academic thoughts].
Zhou, Xue-ping; Wu, Mian-hua; Guo, Wei-feng
2011-12-01
To study and summarize the academic thoughts of famous Chinese medicine doctors is the main pathway of developing Chinese medicine theories. It is of important significance in enriching and developing the Chinese medicine theories by combining traditional and modern research methods, merging multiple disciples to study the research inherit mode of famous academic thoughts. The major study links include: (1) To refine scientific hypotheses from huge amount of clinical case records; (2) To find the literature sources; (3) To embody the practice significance of the innovative theories by clinical studies; (4) To reveal the scientific connotation of Chinese medicine theories by experimental studies. We hope to reach the goal of innovating and developing Chinese medicine theories on the basis of inheritance by integrating clinical case records, tracing the literature sources, clinical and experimental studies.
Three lectures on Newton's laws
Kokarev, Sergey S.
2009-01-01
Three small lectures are devoted to three Newton's laws, lying in the foundation of classical mechanics. These laws are analyzed from the viewpoint of our contemporary knowledge about space, time and physical interactions. The lectures were delivered for students of YarGU in RSEC "Logos".
Newton law on the generalized singular brane with and without 4d induced gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jung, Eylee; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Park, D.K.
2003-01-01
Newton law arising due to the gravity localized on the general singular brane embedded in AdS 5 bulk is examined in the absence or presence of the 4d induced Einstein term. For the RS brane, apart from the subleading correction, Newton potential obeys 4d- and 5d-type gravitational law at long- and short-ranges if it were not for the induced Einstein term. The 4d induced Einstein term generates an intermediate range at short distance, in which the 5d Newton potential 1/r 2 emerges. For Neumann brane the long-range behavior of Newton potential is exponentially suppressed regardless of the existence of the induced Einstein term. For Dirichlet brane the expression of Newton potential is dependent on the renormalized coupling constant v ren . At particular value of v ren Newton potential on Dirichlet brane exhibits a similar behavior to that on RS brane. For other values the long-range behavior of Newton potential is exponentially suppressed as that in Neumann brane
Famous problems of geometry and how to solve them
Bold, Benjamin
1982-01-01
Amateur puzzlists as well as students of mathematics and geometry will relish this rare opportunity to match wits with Archimedes, Euclid, Newton, Descartes, and other great mathematicians. Each chapter explores an individual type of geometric challenge, with commentary and practice problems, and reveals a milestone in the development of mathematics. Solutions.
XMM-Newton operations beyond the design lifetime
Parmar, Arvind N.; Kirsch, Marcus G. F.; Muñoz, J. Ramon; Santos-Lleo, Maria; Schartel, Norbert
2012-09-01
After more than twelve years in orbit and two years beyond the design lifetime, XMM-Newton continues its near faultless operations providing the worldwide astronomical community with an unprecedented combination of imaging and spectroscopic X-ray capabilities together with simultaneous optical and ultra-violet monitoring. The interest from the scientific community in observing with XMM-Newton remains extremely high with the last annual Announcement of Observing Opportunity (AO-11) attracting proposals requesting 6.7 times more observing time than was available. Following recovery from a communications problem in 2008, all elements of the mission are stable and largely trouble free. The operational lifetime if currently limited by the amount of available hydrazine fuel. XMM-Newton normally uses reaction wheels for attitude control and fuel is only used when offsetting reaction wheel speed away from limiting values and for emergency Sun acquisition following an anomaly. Currently, the hydrazine is predicted to last until around 2020. However, ESA is investigating the possibility of making changes to the operations concept and the onboard software that would enable lower fuel consumption. This could allow operations to well beyond 2026.
Newton's Telescope in Print: the Role of Images in the Reception of Newton's Instrument
Dupré, Sven
2008-01-01
While Newton tried to make his telescope into a proof of the supremacy of his theory of colours over older theories, his instrument was welcomed as a way to shorten telescopes, not as a way to solve the problem of chromatic aberration. This paper argues that the image published together with the
2016-12-01
could understand the world with flexible and deep thinking through his lessons. At last, I can understand Isaac Newton: “If I have seen further, it is...To overcome this crisis, the North Korean government got down to business with China when Wen Jiabao, who was the Premier of the People’s Republic
Reading on the Shoulders of Giants
Ben-Chaim, Michael; Riendeau, Michael
2012-01-01
Reflecting on his successful scientific career, Isaac Newton highlighted his intellectual debt to his predecessors. "If I have seen further," he wrote, "it was "only" by standing on the shoulders of giants." The authors have chosen the title of their article as a token of recognition of their debt to the teachings of…
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Page 1. Resonance - December 2006. Isaac Newton. (1642/43 – 1727). Regn No. CPMG/KA/BGE-340/2006-08 WPP No.6. Posted at RT Nagar Head Post Office, Bangalore 12.12.06. Registered with Registrar of Newspapers in India vide Regn. No. 66273/96. ISSN 0971-8044. Price per copy: Rs 40.
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Some three and a half centuries ago, Galileo Galilei declared that the book of nature was written in the language of mathematics. Isaac Newton following after him set up a comprehensive scheme for the description of physical phenomena, and aptly called it "Mathematical Principles of. Natural Philosophy". For a couple of ...
Harder–Narasimhan filtration for rank 2 tensors and stable coverings
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
We call σ the Harder–Narasimhan section of the covering. Acknowledgements. The author wishes to thank Usha Bhosle, Tomás L Gómez and Peter Newstead for useful discussions, and to the Isaac Newton Institute for Mathematical Sciences in Cambridge,. United Kingdom, where part of this work was done, for hospitality.
Holisme as 'n postmodernistiese filosofie in teologiese lig
African Journals Online (AJOL)
mentation characteristic of the modern mind since René Decartes and Isaac Newton ....[T]he thirst for postmodernity is the thirst for a renewed sense of the whole'. Tog is die konsep 'postmodemisme' (maar ook 'postmoderniteit') nie maklik defmieerbaar nie (kyk Szegedy-Maszák 1987:42). Wat as verduidelikend daaroor ge-.
The frictional Schroedinger-Newton equation in models of wave function collapse
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Diosi, Lajos [Research Institute for Particle and Nuclear Physics, H-1525 Budapest 114, PO Box 49 (Hungary)
2007-05-15
Replacing the Newtonian coupling G by -iG, the Schroedinger--Newton equation becomes {sup f}rictional{sup .} Instead of the reversible Schroedinger-Newton equation, we advocate its frictional version to generate the set of pointer states for macroscopic quantum bodies.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hiesmayr, Beatrix C
2015-01-01
About 50 years ago John St. Bell published his famous Bell theorem that initiated a new field in physics. This contribution discusses how discrete symmetries relate to the big open questions of quantum mechanics, in particular:(i) how correlations stronger than those predicted by theories sharing randomness (Bell's theorem) relate to the violation of the CP symmetry and the P symmetry; and its relation to the security of quantum cryptography,(ii) how the measurement problem (“why do we observe no tables in superposition?”) can be polled in weakly decaying systems,(iii) how strongly and weakly interacting quantum systems are affected by Newton's self gravitation.These presented preliminary results show that the meson-antimeson systems and the hyperon- antihyperon systems are a unique laboratory to tackle deep fundamental questions and to contribute to the understand what impact the violation of discrete symmetries has. (paper)
Disk-galaxy density distribution from orbital speeds using Newton's law
Nicholson, Kenneth F.
2000-01-01
Given the dimensions (including thickness) of an axisymmetric galaxy, Newton's law is used in integral form to find the density distributions required to match a wide range of orbital speed profiles. Newton's law is not modified and no dark matter halos are required. The speed distributiions can have extreme shapes if they are reasonably smooth. Several examples are given.
N=2 superconformal Newton-Hooke algebra and many-body mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Galajinsky, Anton
2009-01-01
A representation of the conformal Newton-Hooke algebra on a phase space of n particles in arbitrary dimension which interact with one another via a generic conformal potential and experience a universal cosmological repulsion or attraction is constructed. The minimal N=2 superconformal extension of the Newton-Hooke algebra and its dynamical realization in many-body mechanics are studied.
Laboratory Test of Newton's Second Law for Small Accelerations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gundlach, J. H.; Schlamminger, S.; Spitzer, C. D.; Choi, K.-Y.; Woodahl, B. A.; Coy, J. J.; Fischbach, E.
2007-01-01
We have tested the proportionality of force and acceleration in Newton's second law, F=ma, in the limit of small forces and accelerations. Our tests reach well below the acceleration scales relevant to understanding several current astrophysical puzzles such as the flatness of galactic rotation curves, the Pioneer anomaly, and the Hubble acceleration. We find good agreement with Newton's second law at accelerations as small as 5x10 -14 m/s 2
Resonance – Journal of Science Education | Indian Academy of ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 11; Issue 12. Isaac Newton (1642/43-1727). Bikram Phookun. Article-in-a-Box Volume 11 Issue 12 December 2006 pp 3-6. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/011/12/0003-0006 ...
Resonance – Journal of Science Education | News
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 11; Issue 12. Issue front cover thumbnail Issue back cover thumbnail. Volume 11, Issue 12. December 2006, pages 1-102. pp 1-2 Editorial. Editorial · Renuka Ravindran · More Details Fulltext PDF. pp 3-6 Article-in-a-Box. Isaac Newton (1642/43-1727).
Does the Newton's world model revive
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Meszaros, A.
1984-03-01
Newton's world model may have a physical meaning if the gravitation has small non-zero mass and if the observable part of the universe is the interior of a giant finite body. Both possibilities are allowed theoretically. (author)
An experimental test of Newton's law of gravitation for small accelerations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schubert, Sven
2011-10-01
The experiment presented in this thesis has been designed to test Newton's law of gravitation in the limit of small accelerations caused by weak gravitational forces. It is located at DESY, Hamburg, and is a modification of an experiment that was carried out in Wuppertal, Germany, until 2002 in order to measure the gravitational constant G. The idea of testing Newton's law in the case of small accelerations emerged from the question whether the flat rotation curves of spiral galaxies can be traced back to Dark Matter or to a law of gravitation that deviates from Newton on cosmic scales like e.g. MOND (Modified Newtonian Dynamics). The core of this experiment is a microwave resonator which is formed by two spherical concave mirrors that are suspended as pendulums. Masses between 1 and 9 kg symmetrically change their distance to the mirrors from far to near positions. Due to the increased gravitational force the mirrors are pulled apart and the length of the resonator increases. This causes a shift of the resonance frequency which can be translated into a shift of the mirror distance. The small masses are sources of weak gravitational forces and cause accelerations on the mirrors of about 10 -10 m/s 2 . These forces are comparable to those between stars on cosmic scales and the accelerations are in the vicinity of the characteristic acceleration of MOND a 0 ∼ 1.2.10 -10 m/s 2 , where deviations from Newton's law are expected. Thus Newton's law could be directly checked for correctness under these conditions. First measurements show that due to the sensitivity of this experiment many systematic influences have to be accounted for in order to get consistent results. Newton's law has been confirmed with an accuracy of 3%. MOND has also been checked. In order to be able to distinguish Newton from MOND with other interpolation functions the accuracy of the experiment has to be improved. (orig.)
What are the Hidden Quantum Processes Behind Newton's Laws?
Ostoma, Tom; Trushyk, Mike
1999-01-01
We investigate the hidden quantum processes that are responsible for Newton's laws of motion and Newton's universal law of gravity. We apply Electro-Magnetic Quantum Gravity or EMQG to investigate Newtonian classical physics. EQMG is a quantum gravity theory that is manifestly compatible with Cellular Automata (CA) theory, a new paradigm for physical reality. EMQG is also based on a theory of inertia proposed by R. Haisch, A. Rueda, and H. Puthoff, which we modified and called Quantum Inertia...
Gustave Flaubert, Charles Dickens, and Isaac Pulvermacher's "magic band".
Waits, Robert K
2013-01-01
Around 1850, Isaac L. Pulvermacher (1815-1884) joined the ranks of so-called "galvanists" who had, for nearly a century, been touting the shocks and sparks of electricity as a miracle cure for all ills, including neurological complaints such as palsy and hemiplegia. The famed authors, Gustave Flaubert (1821-1880), in France, and Charles Dickens (1812-1870), in England, although contemporaries, apparently never met or corresponded. But during their lives, they both became aware of Pulvermacher and his patented Hydro-Electric Chains, claimed to impart vigor and cure nearly every complaint. Pulvermacher's chains made a cameo appearance in Madame Bovary (1857), Flaubert's controversial (and most successful) novel. Among Dickens's last letters (1870) was an order for I. L. Pulvermacher and Company's "magic band." Since the Victorian age, electrical and magnetic cures, for better or worse, continue to be products of both the medical profession and quackery. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Discovery Science: Newton All around You.
Prigo, Robert; Humphrey, Gregg
1993-01-01
Presents activities for helping elementary students learn about Newton's third law of motion. Several activity cards demonstrate the concept of the law of action and reaction. The activities require only inexpensive materials that can be found around the house. (SM)
Fundamentos kantianos dos axiomas do movimento de Newton
Vieira Coutinho Abreu Gomes, Írio
2006-01-01
Esse trabalho se insere na perspectiva fundacionista kantiana, particularmente no que diz respeito às três leis de Newton. Em sua obra de 1786, Princípios Metafísicos da Ciência da Natureza, Kant empreende a tarefa de fundamentar a física mecânica através de princípios metafísicos. Nosso objetivo nessa dissertação foi abordar essa obra especificamente em seu terceiro capítulo onde Kant trata dos axiomas do movimento de Newton. Nessa dissertação elucidamos a argumentação kantiana na fundamenta...
Newton's Law of Cooling Revisited
Vollmer, M.
2009-01-01
The cooling of objects is often described by a law, attributed to Newton, which states that the temperature difference of a cooling body with respect to the surroundings decreases exponentially with time. Such behaviour has been observed for many laboratory experiments, which led to a wide acceptance of this approach. However, the heat transfer…
On-the-fly XMM-Newton Spacecraft Data Reduction on the Grid
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. Ibarra
2006-01-01
Full Text Available We present the results of the first prototype of a XMM-Newton pipeline processing task, parallelized at a CCD level, which can be run in a Grid system. By using the Grid Way application and the XMM-Newton Science Archive system, the processing of the XMM-Newton data is distributed across the Virtual Organization (VO constituted by three different research centres: ESAC (European Space Astronomy Centre, ESTEC (the European Space research and TEchnology Centre and UCM (Complutense University of Madrid. The proposed application workflow adjusts well to the Grid environment, making use of the massive parallel resources in a flexible and adaptive fashion.
The architecture of Newton, a general-purpose dynamics simulator
Cremer, James F.; Stewart, A. James
1989-01-01
The architecture for Newton, a general-purpose system for simulating the dynamics of complex physical objects, is described. The system automatically formulates and analyzes equations of motion, and performs automatic modification of this system equations when necessitated by changes in kinematic relationships between objects. Impact and temporary contact are handled, although only using simple models. User-directed influence of simulations is achieved using Newton's module, which can be used to experiment with the control of many-degree-of-freedom articulated objects.
Classical mechanics from Newton to Einstein : a modern introduction
McCall, Martin
2011-01-01
This new edition of Classical Mechanics, aimed at undergraduate physics and engineering students, presents in a user-friendly style an authoritative approach to the complementary subjects of classical mechanics and relativity. The text starts with a careful look at Newton's Laws, before applying them in one dimension to oscillations and collisions. More advanced applications - including gravitational orbits and rigid body dynamics - are discussed after the limitations of Newton's inertial frames have been highlighted through an exposition of Einstein's Special Relativity. Examples gi
Fine, Leon G
2003-01-01
Charles Edward Isaacs (1811-1860), an anatomist working in New York, undertook a series of studies which attempted to define the microscopic structure of the nephrons in a variety of species. Given that he published his findings 15 years after William Bowman's seminal paper on the subject, he was able to add only a few of the finer details to the picture. He observed the continuity of the epithelium of the glomerular capsule with that of the proximal tubule and he demonstrated that the glomerular tuft is covered by a layer of epithelial cells. In a series of studies on human renal function he erroneously concluded that the glomerulus must have an excretory function in addition to its filtration function and that diuretics act primarily on the glomerlus. The latter conclusion was based upon observations of substances not currently categorized as being diuretic agents. The absence of a major conceptual advance in the writings of Isaacs probably accounts for that fact that his contribution has been largely forgotten.
A Line Search Multilevel Truncated Newton Algorithm for Computing the Optical Flow
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lluís Garrido
2015-06-01
Full Text Available We describe the implementation details and give the experimental results of three optimization algorithms for dense optical flow computation. In particular, using a line search strategy, we evaluate the performance of the unilevel truncated Newton method (LSTN, a multiresolution truncated Newton (MR/LSTN and a full multigrid truncated Newton (FMG/LSTN. We use three image sequences and four models of optical flow for performance evaluation. The FMG/LSTN algorithm is shown to lead to better optical flow estimation with less computational work than both the LSTN and MR/LSTN algorithms.
Murdin, P.
2000-11-01
Cosmologist and theoretical astrophysicist, born in Oxford, England, where he studied physics at University College. Moved to Cambridge to take up research in general relativity and cosmology, became Lucasian professor (an appointment earlier held by ISAAC NEWTON, with whom Hawking has been compared). Hawking worked to develop a valid mathematical treatment of the `singularities' in the theor...
The Music of the Spheres: Cross-Curricular Perspectives on Music and Science
Rogers, George L.
2016-01-01
The integration of music and science is embodied in the music of the spheres, the ancient concept that the universe is ordered in a manner consistent with principles of musical harmony. This idea boasts a long history, from the teachings of Pythagoras (ca. 600 BC) through Isaac Newton in the eighteenth century, and makes a fascinating…
Measuring, Understanding, and Responding to Covert Social Networks: Passive and Active Tomography
2017-11-11
Methods for generating a random sample of networks with desired properties are important tools for the analysis of social , biological, and information...on Theoretical Foundations for Statistical Network Analysis at the Isaac Newton Institute for Mathematical Sciences at Cambridge U. (organized by...Approach SOCIAL SCIENCES STATISTICS EECS Problems span three disciplines Scientific focus is needed at the interfaces
Econophysics: Past and present
de Area Leão Pereira, Eder Johnson; da Silva, Marcus Fernandes; Pereira, H. B. B.
2017-05-01
This paper provides a brief historical review of the relationship between economics and physics, beginning with Adam Smith being influenced by Isaac Newton's ideas up to the present day including the new econophysics discipline and some of the tools applied to the economy. Thus, this work is expected to motivate new researchers who are interested in this new discipline.
Mantero-Castaneda, E. A.; Hernandez-Sanchez, M.; Arce-Tord, C.; Esteban-Gutierrez, A.; Garcia-Broock, E.; Garcia-Rivas, M.; Gonzalez-Cuesta, L.; Hermosa-Munoz, L.; Jimenez-Gallardo, A.; Lopez-Navas, E.; Otero-Santos, J.; Prendin, M. G.; Rodriguez-Sanchez, M.; Perez-Fournon, I.
2017-12-01
We report the pre-discovery detection of the nova M31N 2017-11a (AT2017hvi, PTSS-17zap, TCP J00425419+4130425) with the Isaac Newton Telescope* Wide Field Camera on the night of 29 October 2017, 4.845 days before the discovery observations on 2017/11/04.695 by the PMO-Tsinghua Supernova Survey (PTSS).
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Volume 10 Issue 12 December 2005 pp 76-82. Dark Matter - Dark Matter in the Universe · Bikram Phookun Biman Nath · More Details Fulltext PDF. Volume 11 Issue 12 December 2006 pp 3-6 Article-in-a-Box. Isaac Newton (1642/43-1727) · Bikram Phookun · More Details Fulltext PDF. Volume 15 Issue 11 November 2010 ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
his own failure to match the achievements of. Sir Isaac. I Raphson, an eminent scientist of his day and a friend of New- ton, published the method in his book Analysis Aequationum. Universalis in 1690. Newton described it in Method of Flux- ions written in 1671, but pub- lished in 1736 (l}. Keywords. Implicit function theorem,.
'Epistemology models ontology'− In gesprek met John Polkinghorne
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Test
7 Jun 2011 ... maar met die aard daarvan. Polkinghorne wil met sy boek One World (1996) presies sê wat die titel suggereer. Hiervoor kry hy die oplossing by sy mentor en latere kollega, Paul Dirac. Vir meer as 30 jaar het Dirac dieselfde leerstoel in Fisika aan Cambridge beklee as Isaac Newton (Polkinghorne 2005:34).
VizieR Online Data Catalog: Probing the Local Bubble with DIBs. III. (Farhang+, 2015)
Farhang, A.; Khosroshahi, H. G.; Javadi, A.; van Loon, J. Th.
2015-03-01
All of the observations have been obtained with the Intermediate Dispersion Spectrograph (IDS) at the 2.5m Isaac Newton Telescope at the Roque de Los Muchachos in La Palma; with spectra in the 5750-6040Å region at spectral resolutions of R~2000 (or a velocity resolution of Δv=150km/s). (1 data file).
Sanchez Ron, Jose Manuel
2015-01-01
Lecture synopsis : Having formulated his special theory of relativity (1905), Albert Einstein set about producing a relativistic theory of gravitation that differed from the venerable theory of universal gravitation described by Isaac Newton in 1687. In 1907, he found a piece in the puzzle, the equivalence principle, that would guide him to an eventual solution in 1915: general relativity.
Easter eggs, myths and jokes in famous physics books and papers
Fortunato, Lorenzo
2017-01-01
I will report below on a few examples of raving and insane (or maybe utterly genial) sentences that can be found in famous and otherwise admirable books of physics, because I genuinely believe it is amusing.
On Finding the Source of Human Energy: The Influence of Famous Quotations on Willpower.
Alcoba, Jesús; López, Laura
2017-11-01
Positive psychology focuses on aspects that human beings can improve, thereby enhancing their growth and happiness. One of these aspects is willpower, a quality that has been demonstrated to have various benefits on people, as widely shown in the literature. As a result, a growing body of research is attempting to establish the conditions under which an individual's willpower can be increased. This work attempts to confirm whether the famous quotations that people often use to inspire or motivate themselves can have a real effect on willpower. Two experiments were conducted assigning randomly subjects to a group and priming them with famous quotations, and afterwards comparing their performance in a willpower task with a control group. The second experiment added a willpower depletion task before priming. As a result, primed subjects endured the willpower task significantly more time than control group, demonstrating that famous quotations related to willpower help to increase this capacity and to counteract the effect of willpower depletion.
Variational nature, integration, and properties of Newton reaction path.
Bofill, Josep Maria; Quapp, Wolfgang
2011-02-21
The distinguished coordinate path and the reduced gradient following path or its equivalent formulation, the Newton trajectory, are analyzed and unified using the theory of calculus of variations. It is shown that their minimum character is related to the fact that the curve is located in a valley region. In this case, we say that the Newton trajectory is a reaction path with the category of minimum energy path. In addition to these findings a Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg algorithm to integrate these curves is also proposed.
Variational nature, integration, and properties of Newton reaction path
Bofill, Josep Maria; Quapp, Wolfgang
2011-02-01
The distinguished coordinate path and the reduced gradient following path or its equivalent formulation, the Newton trajectory, are analyzed and unified using the theory of calculus of variations. It is shown that their minimum character is related to the fact that the curve is located in a valley region. In this case, we say that the Newton trajectory is a reaction path with the category of minimum energy path. In addition to these findings a Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg algorithm to integrate these curves is also proposed.
Newton law in DGP brane-world with semi-infinite extra dimension
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Park, D.K.; Tamaryan, S.; Miao Yangang
2004-01-01
Newton potential for DGP brane-world scenario is examined when the extra dimension is semi-infinite. The final form of the potential involves a self-adjoint extension parameter α, which plays a role of an additional mass (or distance) scale. The striking feature of Newton potential in this setup is that the potential behaves as seven-dimensional in long range when α is non-zero. For small α there is an intermediate range where the potential is five-dimensional. Five-dimensional Newton constant decreases with increase of α from zero. In the short range the four-dimensional behavior is recovered. The physical implication of this result is discussed in the context of the accelerating behavior of universe
Newton's constant from a minimal length: additional models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sahlmann, Hanno
2011-01-01
We follow arguments of Verlinde (2010 arXiv:1001.0785 [hep-th]) and Klinkhamer (2010 arXiv:1006.2094 [hep-th]), and construct two models of the microscopic theory of a holographic screen that allow for the thermodynamical derivation of Newton's law, with Newton's constant expressed in terms of a minimal length scale l contained in the area spectrum of the microscopic theory. One of the models is loosely related to the quantum structure of surfaces and isolated horizons in loop quantum gravity. Our investigation shows that the conclusions reached by Klinkhamer regarding the new length scale l seem to be generic in all their qualitative aspects.
A Non-smooth Newton Method for Multibody Dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Erleben, K.; Ortiz, R.
2008-01-01
In this paper we deal with the simulation of rigid bodies. Rigid body dynamics have become very important for simulating rigid body motion in interactive applications, such as computer games or virtual reality. We present a novel way of computing contact forces using a Newton method. The contact problem is reformulated as a system of non-linear and non-smooth equations, and we solve this system using a non-smooth version of Newton's method. One of the main contribution of this paper is the reformulation of the complementarity problems, used to model impacts, as a system of equations that can be solved using traditional methods.
Teaching Newton's Third Law of Motion in the Presence of Student Preconception
Poon, C. H.
2006-01-01
The concept of interaction that underlies Newton's Laws of Motion is compared with the students' commonsense ideas of force and motion. An approach to teaching Newton's Third Law of Motion is suggested that focuses on refining the student's intuitive thinking on the nature of interaction.
POEMS in Newton's Aerodynamic Frustum
Sampedro, Jaime Cruz; Tetlalmatzi-Montiel, Margarita
2010-01-01
The golden mean is often naively seen as a sign of optimal beauty but rarely does it arise as the solution of a true optimization problem. In this article we present such a problem, demonstrating a close relationship between the golden mean and a special case of Newton's aerodynamical problem for the frustum of a cone. Then, we exhibit a parallel…
Local Convergence and Radius of Convergence for Modified Newton Method
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Măruşter Ştefan
2017-12-01
Full Text Available We investigate the local convergence of modified Newton method, i.e., the classical Newton method in which the derivative is periodically re-evaluated. Based on the convergence properties of Picard iteration for demicontractive mappings, we give an algorithm to estimate the local radius of convergence for considered method. Numerical experiments show that the proposed algorithm gives estimated radii which are very close to or even equal with the best ones.
Visual imagery of famous faces: effects of memory and attention revealed by fMRI.
Ishai, Alumit; Haxby, James V; Ungerleider, Leslie G
2002-12-01
Complex pictorial information can be represented and retrieved from memory as mental visual images. Functional brain imaging studies have shown that visual perception and visual imagery share common neural substrates. The type of memory (short- or long-term) that mediates the generation of mental images, however, has not been addressed previously. The purpose of this study was to investigate the neural correlates underlying imagery generated from short- and long-term memory (STM and LTM). We used famous faces to localize the visual response during perception and to compare the responses during visual imagery generated from STM (subjects memorized specific pictures of celebrities before the imagery task) and imagery from LTM (subjects imagined famous faces without seeing specific pictures during the experimental session). We found that visual perception of famous faces activated the inferior occipital gyri, lateral fusiform gyri, the superior temporal sulcus, and the amygdala. Small subsets of these face-selective regions were activated during imagery. Additionally, visual imagery of famous faces activated a network of regions composed of bilateral calcarine, hippocampus, precuneus, intraparietal sulcus (IPS), and the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG). In all these regions, imagery generated from STM evoked more activation than imagery from LTM. Regardless of memory type, focusing attention on features of the imagined faces (e.g., eyes, lips, or nose) resulted in increased activation in the right IPS and right IFG. Our results suggest differential effects of memory and attention during the generation and maintenance of mental images of faces.
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
matical talent brought him close to Newton. In 1697, he was elected a member of the Royal Society. In. 1722, he proposed the famous theorem which bears his name, but never publish~d it. He was one of the members of the commission set up by. Royal Society for setlling the well-known priority dispute between Newton.
Solé, D; Mallol, J; Wandalsen, G F; Aguirre, V
2010-01-01
The aim of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) was to evaluate the prevalence of symptoms of eczema among children living in different parts of Latin America. Data were from centers that participated in ISAAC Phase 3. This was a cross-sectional questionnaire survey of 93,851 schoolchildren (6 to 7 years old) from 35 centers in 14 Latin American countries and 165,917 adolescents (13 to 14 years old) from 56 centers in 17 Latin American countries. The mean prevalence of current flexural eczema in schoolchildren was 11.3%, ranging from 3.2% in Ciudad Victoria (Mexico) to 25.0% in Barranquilla (Colombia). For adolescents, the prevalence varied from 3.4% in Santo André (Brazil) to 30.2% in Barranquilla (mean prevalence, 10.6%). The mean prevalence of current symptoms of severe eczema among schoolchildren was 1.5%, ranging from 0.3% in Ciudad Victoria, Toluca, and Cuernavaca (Mexico) to 4.9% in La Habana (Cuba). For adolescents, the mean prevalence was 1.4%, ranging from 0.1% in Mexicali Valley (Mexico) to 4.2% in Santa Cruz (Bolivia). These prevalence values are among the highest observed during ISAAC Phase 3. In general, the prevalence of current symptoms of eczema was higher among the Spanish-speaking centers for both schoolchildren and adolescents. Environmental risk factors must be evaluated in order to identify potential causes for the differences observed, even in centers from the same country.
The Cooling Law and the Search for a Good Temperature Scale, from Newton to Dalton
Besson, Ugo
2011-01-01
The research on the cooling law began with an article by Newton published in 1701. Later, many studies were performed by other scientists confirming or confuting Newton's law. This paper presents a description and an interpretation of Newton's article, provides a short overview of the research conducted on the topic during the 18th century, and…
The Schrödinger–Newton equation and its foundations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bahrami, Mohammad; Großardt, André; Donadi, Sandro; Bassi, Angelo
2014-01-01
The necessity of quantising the gravitational field is still subject to an open debate. In this paper we compare the approach of quantum gravity, with that of a fundamentally semi-classical theory of gravity, in the weak-field non-relativistic limit. We show that, while in the former case the Schrödinger equation stays linear, in the latter case one ends up with the so-called Schrödinger–Newton equation, which involves a nonlinear, non-local gravitational contribution. We further discuss that the Schrödinger–Newton equation does not describe the collapse of the wave-function, although it was initially proposed for exactly this purpose. Together with the standard collapse postulate, fundamentally semi-classical gravity gives rise to superluminal signalling. A consistent fundamentally semi-classical theory of gravity can therefore only be achieved together with a suitable prescription of the wave-function collapse. We further discuss, how collapse models avoid such superluminal signalling and compare the nonlinearities appearing in these models with those in the Schrödinger–Newton equation. (paper)
Leveraging Social Media Data to Understand Disaster Resilience: A Case Study of Hurricane Isaac
Zou, L.; Lam, N.; Cai, H.
2017-12-01
Coastal communities are facing multiple threats from natural hazards, such as hurricanes, flooding, and storm surge, and show uneven response and recovery behaviors. To build a sustainable coast, it is critical to understand how coastal hazards affect humans and how to enhance disaster resilience. However, understanding community resilience remains challenging, due to the lack of real-time data describing community's response and recovery behaviors during disasters. Public discussion through social media platforms provides an opportunity to understand these behaviors by categorizing real-time social media data into three main phases of emergency management - preparedness, response, and recovery. This study analyzes the spatial-temporal patterns of Twitter use and content during Hurricane Isaac, which struck coastal Louisiana on August 29, 2012. The study area includes counties affected by Hurricane Isaac in Louisiana and Mississippi. The objectives are three-fold. First, we will compute a set of Twitter indices to quantify the Twitter activities during Hurricane Issac and the results will be compared with those of Hurricane Sandy to gain a better understanding of human response in extreme events. Second, county-level disaster resilience in the affected region will be computed and evaluated using the Resilience Inference Measurement (RIM) model. Third, we will examine the relationship between the geographical and social disparities in Twitter use and the disparities in disaster resilience and evaluate the role of Twitter use in disaster resilience. Knowledge gained from this study could provide valuable insights into strategies for utilizing social media data to increase resilience to disasters.
Anisotropic harmonic oscillator, non-commutative Landau problem and exotic Newton-Hooke symmetry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alvarez, Pedro D.; Gomis, Joaquim; Kamimura, Kiyoshi; Plyushchay, Mikhail S.
2008-01-01
We investigate the planar anisotropic harmonic oscillator with explicit rotational symmetry as a particle model with non-commutative coordinates. It includes the exotic Newton-Hooke particle and the non-commutative Landau problem as special, isotropic and maximally anisotropic, cases. The system is described by the same (2+1)-dimensional exotic Newton-Hooke symmetry as in the isotropic case, and develops three different phases depending on the values of the two central charges. The special cases of the exotic Newton-Hooke particle and non-commutative Landau problem are shown to be characterized by additional, so(3) or so(2,1) Lie symmetry, which reflects their peculiar spectral properties
Initiation and propagation of neurodegeneration.
Haass, Christian
2010-11-01
Although substantial progress has been made in understanding the molecular and pathological bases of neurodegeneration, there have been few successes in the clinic and a number of fundamental questions remain unanswered. Is this skepticism misplaced, or do the words of Sir Isaac Newton hold true, that "what we know is a drop, what we don't know is an ocean"?
Bright Not Broken: Gifted Kids, ADHD, and Autism
Kennedy, Diane M.; Banks, Rebecca S.; Grandin, Temple
2011-01-01
The future of our society depends on our gifted children--the population in which we'll find our next Isaac Newton, Albert Einstein, or Virginia Woolf. Yet the gifts and talents of some of our most brilliant kids may never be recognized because these children fall into a group known as twice exceptional, or "2e." Twice exceptional kids are both…
Arce-Tord, C.; Esteban-Gutierrez, A.; Garcia-Broock, E.; Garcia-Rivas, M.; Gonzalez-Cuesta, L.; Hermosa-Muñoz, L.; Hernandez-Sanchez, M.; Jimenez-Gallardo, A.; Lopez-Navas, E.; Mantero-Castañeda, E. A.; Otero-Santos, J.; Prendin, M. G.; Rodriguez-Sanchez, M.; Perez-Fournon, I.
2017-12-01
We report photometry in the Sloan g (3x150s), r (3x100s), and i (3x100s) bands of the recurrent nova candidate M31N 1966-08a = 1968-10c (= PNV J00412371+4114594) from observations with the Wide Field Camera of the Isaac Newton Telescope* on the night of 28 October 2017.
Practical Partnerships--Standing on the Shoulders of Scientists
Thorley, Charlotte
2009-01-01
"If I have seen further, it is because I have stood upon the shoulders of giants." Whenever the author hears this quote from Isaac Newton, she thinks about the work being done by the Royal Society in schools throughout the country, bringing science to life for their students. Much of it is also cutting edge, and represents the best of…
Vaduvescu, Ovidiu; Aznar Macias, Amadeo
2018-01-01
The near-Earth asteroid (NEA) 1993 RA was observed with the 2.5-m Isaac Newton Telescope (INT) in full Moon conditions for 8h total during three successive nights (2017 Oct 3-6). The composite lightcurve could be fit by a 3-order period P = 5.64 ± 0.01 h with amplitude of 0.13 mag; other solutions are possible.
Transforming White Light into Rainbows: Segmentation Strategies for Successful School Tax Elections
Senden, J. Bradford; Lifto, Don E.
2009-01-01
In the late 1600s, British physicist Sir Isaac Newton first demonstrated refraction and dispersion in a triangular prism. He discovered that a prism could decompose white light into a spectrum. Hold a prism up to the light at the correct angle and white light magically splits into vivid colors of the rainbow! So what do prisms and rainbows have to…
2000
A force is a push or a pull. In All About Forces and Gravity, kids will join our host on a parasailing adventure to investigate how forces impact and shape everything that happens in the world around us. Learn about gravity and the work of Sir Isaac Newton, the English scientists whose scientific principles forever changed the way people looked at…
Lack of semantic priming effects in famous person recognition in Mild Cognitive Impairment.
Brambati, Simona M; Peters, Frédéric; Belleville, Sylvie; Joubert, Sven
2012-04-01
Growing evidence indicates that individuals with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) manifest semantic deficits that are often more severe for items that are characterized by a unique semantic and lexical association, such as famous people and famous buildings, than common concepts, such as objects. However, it is still controversial whether the semantic deficits observed in MCI are determined by a degradation of semantic information or by a deficit in intentional access to semantic knowledge. Here we used a semantic priming task in order to assess the integrity of the semantic system without requiring explicit access to this system. This paradigm may provide new insights in clarifying the nature of the semantic deficits in MCI. We assessed the semantic and repetition priming effect in 13 individuals with MCI and 13 age-matched controls who engaged in a familiarity judgment task of famous names. In the semantic priming condition, the prime was the name of a member of the same occupation category as the target (Tom Cruise-Brad Pitt), while in the repetition priming condition the prime was the same name as the target (Charlie Chaplin-Charlie Chaplin). The results showed a defective priming effect in MCI in the semantic but not in the repetition priming condition. Specifically, when compared to controls, MCI patients did not show a facilitation effect in responding to the same occupation prime-target pairs, but they showed an equivalent facilitation effect when the target was the same name as the prime. The present results provide support to the hypothesis that the semantic impairments observed in MCI cannot be uniquely ascribed to a deficit in intentional access to semantic information. Instead, these findings point to the semantic nature of these deficits and, in particular, to a degraded representation of semantic information concerning famous people. Copyright Â© 2011 Elsevier Srl. All rights reserved.
Mohammad, Y; Shaaban, R; Hassan, M; Yassine, F; Mohammad, S; Tessier, J F; Ellwood, P
2014-11-01
The association between environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and asthma symptoms is well documented, but a causal relationship is inconclusive. International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) Phase Three was the first to report a dose-response relationship between current wheezing and exposure to parental cigarette smoke. As exposure of children to water pipe (narghile) smoke is of concern in Syria, in the ISAAC Phase Three Tartous Centre we also examined the role of parental smoking of the narghile. Parents of children aged 6-7 years completed core written questionnaires about the prevalence of symptoms, and an environmental questionnaire for other risk factors, including parental cigarette smoking. We added questions about narghile to the questionnaire. Among 2 734 pupils (49% females) surveyed, we found an association between exposure to ETS of the mother smoking cigarette or narghile and ever wheezing, nocturnal cough and severe wheeze; however, the strongest association was found when the mother smoked narghile. Mother smoking narghile was also associated with exercise wheeze. Father smoking narghile, but not cigarettes, was associated with nocturnal cough, severe wheeze and exercise wheeze. The association with current wheeze became significant when mother smoked both cigarettes and narghile; however, the effect was addititive and not synergic. We recommend that international studies investigating ETS include questions on narghile smoking.
Newton, Goethe and the process of perception: an approach to design
Platts, Jim
2006-06-01
Whereas Newton traced a beam of white light passing through a prism and fanning out into the colours of the rainbow as it was refracted, Goethe looked through a prism and was concerned with understanding what his eye subjectively saw. He created a sequence of experiments which produced what appeared to be anomalies in Newton's theory. What he was carefully illustrating concerns limitations accepted when following a scientifically objective approach. Newton was concerned with the description of 'facts' derived from the analysis of observations. Goethe was concerned with the synthesis of meaning. He then went on to describe subjective techniques for training 'the mind's eye' to work efficiently in the subjective world of the imagination. Derided as 'not science', what he was actually describing is the skill which is central to creative design.
One hundred years of pressure hydrostatics from Stevin to Newton
Chalmers, Alan F
2017-01-01
This monograph investigates the development of hydrostatics as a science. In the process, it sheds new light on the nature of science and its origins in the Scientific Revolution. Readers will come to see that the history of hydrostatics reveals subtle ways in which the science of the seventeenth century differed from previous periods. The key, the author argues, is the new insights into the concept of pressure that emerged during the Scientific Revolution. This came about due to contributions from such figures as Simon Stevin, Pascal, Boyle and Newton. The author compares their work with Galileo and Descartes, neither of whom grasped the need for a new conception of pressure. As a result, their contributions to hydrostatics were unproductive. The story ends with Newton insofar as his version of hydrostatics set the subject on its modern course. He articulated a technical notion of pressure that was up to the task. Newton compared the mathematical way in hydrostatics and the experimental way, and sided with t...
Newton Decatur AL water sample polyfluor compound discovery
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — All the pertinent information for recreation of the published (hopefully) tables and figures. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Newton, S.,...
Is Queen Victoria Lecturing Today? Teaching Human Sexuality Using Famous Personalities.
Parrot, Andrea
1987-01-01
Describes a technique for teaching human sexuality in the undergraduate classroom in which the teacher portrays a famous person presenting sexuality topics from his or her perspective. Describes the content of several of these "guest lecturers." Explains the benefits and potential problems of the method. (AEM)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Agung Wahyu Nurcahyo
2017-07-01
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to describe the increase in problem-solving abilities Newton's laws of motion and students' perceptions of cooperative problem solving (CPS learning. Analysis of the data is based on the student's written answers to the five problems, the results of questionnaires and interviews. This study concluded that: (1 learning CPS make a strong impact (d-effect size = 1.81 to increase problem-solving ability of students Newton's laws of motion, (2 cooperation in the learning group CPS makes the problem easier to solve and misconceptions can be corrected. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah mendeskripsikan peningkatan kemampuan pemecahan masalah hukum gerak Newton, kesulitan yang dialami, dan persepsi mahasiswa terhadap pembelajaran cooperative problem solving (CPS. Analisa data didasarkan pada jawaban tertulis mahasiswa terhadap lima permasalahan, hasil angket dan wawancara. Penelitian ini berkesimpulan bahwa (1 pembelajaran CPS memberikan dampak yang kuat (d-effect size=1,81 terhadap peningkatan kemampuan pemecahan masalah hukum gerak Newton mahasiswa dan (2 kerjasama kelompok dalam pembelajaran CPS membuat permasalahan lebih mudah dipecahkan dan miskonsepsi dapat diperbaiki.
A Fast Newton-Shamanskii Iteration for a Matrix Equation Arising from M/G/1-Type Markov Chains
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Pei-Chang Guo
2017-01-01
Full Text Available For the nonlinear matrix equations arising in the analysis of M/G/1-type and GI/M/1-type Markov chains, the minimal nonnegative solution G or R can be found by Newton-like methods. We prove monotone convergence results for the Newton-Shamanskii iteration for this class of equations. Starting with zero initial guess or some other suitable initial guess, the Newton-Shamanskii iteration provides a monotonically increasing sequence of nonnegative matrices converging to the minimal nonnegative solution. A Schur decomposition method is used to accelerate the Newton-Shamanskii iteration. Numerical examples illustrate the effectiveness of the Newton-Shamanskii iteration.
Application of Quasi-Newton methods to the analysis of axisymmetric pressure vessels
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Parisi, D.A.C.
1987-01-01
This work studies the application of Quasi-Newton techniques to material nonlinear analysis of axisymmetrical pressure vessels by the finite element method. In the formulation the material bahavior is described by an isotropic elastoplastic model with strain hardening. The continum is discretized through triangular finite elements of axisymmetrical solids with linear interpolation of the displacement field. The incremental governing equations are derived by the virtual work. The solution of the system of simultaneous nonlinear equations is solved iteratively by the Quasi-Newton method employing the BFGS update. The numerical performance of the proposed method is compared with the Newton-Raphson method and some of its variants through some selected examples. (author) [pt
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
P. Hanappe
2011-09-01
Full Text Available We have optimised the atmospheric radiation algorithm of the FAMOUS climate model on several hardware platforms. The optimisation involved translating the Fortran code to C and restructuring the algorithm around the computation of a single air column. Instead of the existing MPI-based domain decomposition, we used a task queue and a thread pool to schedule the computation of individual columns on the available processors. Finally, four air columns are packed together in a single data structure and computed simultaneously using Single Instruction Multiple Data operations.
The modified algorithm runs more than 50 times faster on the CELL's Synergistic Processing Element than on its main PowerPC processing element. On Intel-compatible processors, the new radiation code runs 4 times faster. On the tested graphics processor, using OpenCL, we find a speed-up of more than 2.5 times as compared to the original code on the main CPU. Because the radiation code takes more than 60 % of the total CPU time, FAMOUS executes more than twice as fast. Our version of the algorithm returns bit-wise identical results, which demonstrates the robustness of our approach. We estimate that this project required around two and a half man-years of work.
Magnetic Levitation and Newton's Third Law
Aguilar, Horacio Munguia
2007-01-01
Newton's third law is often misunderstood by students and even their professors, as has already been pointed out in the literature. Application of the law in the context of electromagnetism can be especially problematic, because the idea that the forces of "action" and "reaction" are equal and opposite independent of the medium through which they…
The importance of being equivalent: Newton's two models of one-body motion
Pourciau, Bruce
2004-05-01
As an undergraduate at Cambridge, Newton entered into his "Waste Book" an assumption that we have named the Equivalence Assumption (The Younger): "If a body move progressively in some crooked line [about a center of motion] ..., [then this] crooked line may bee conceived to consist of an infinite number of streight lines. Or else in any point of the croked line the motion may bee conceived to be on in the tangent". In this assumption, Newton somewhat imprecisely describes two mathematical models, a "polygonal limit model" and a "tangent deflected model", for "one-body motion", that is, for the motion of a "body in orbit about a fixed center", and then claims that these two models are equivalent. In the first part of this paper, we study the Principia to determine how the elder Newton would more carefully describe the polygonal limit and tangent deflected models. From these more careful descriptions, we then create Equivalence Assumption (The Elder), a precise interpretation of Equivalence Assumption (The Younger) as it might have been restated by Newton, after say 1687. We then review certain portions of the Waste Book and the Principia to make the case that, although Newton never restates nor even alludes to the Equivalence Assumption after his youthful Waste Book entry, still the polygonal limit and tangent deflected models, as well as an unspoken belief in their equivalence, infuse Newton's work on orbital motion. In particular, we show that the persuasiveness of the argument for the Area Property in Proposition 1 of the Principia depends crucially on the validity of Equivalence Assumption (The Elder). After this case is made, we present the mathematical analysis required to establish the validity of the Equivalence Assumption (The Elder). Finally, to illustrate the fundamental nature of the resulting theorem, the Equivalence Theorem as we call it, we present three significant applications: we use the Equivalence Theorem first to clarify and resolve questions
A comparison of different quasi-newton acceleration methods for partitioned multi-physics codes
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Haelterman, R
2018-02-01
Full Text Available & structures, 88/7, pp. 446–457 (2010) 8. J.E. Dennis, J.J. More´, Quasi-Newton methods: motivation and theory. SIAM Rev. 19, pp. 46–89 (1977) A Comparison of Quasi-Newton Acceleration Methods 15 9. J.E. Dennis, R.B. Schnabel, Least Change Secant Updates... Dois Metodos de Broyden. Mat. Apl. Comput. 1/2, pp. 135– 143 (1982) 25. J.M. Martinez, A quasi-Newton method with modification of one column per iteration. Com- puting 33, pp. 353–362 (1984) 26. J.M. Martinez, M.C. Zambaldi, An Inverse Column...
Brunwasser, Steven M; Gebretsadik, Tebeb; Gold, Diane R; Turi, Kedir N; Stone, Cosby A; Datta, Soma; Gern, James E; Hartert, Tina V
2018-01-01
The International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Children (ISAAC) Wheezing Module is commonly used to characterize pediatric asthma in epidemiological studies, including nearly all airway cohorts participating in the Environmental Influences on Child Health Outcomes (ECHO) consortium. However, there is no consensus model for operationalizing wheezing severity with this instrument in explanatory research studies. Severity is typically measured using coarsely-defined categorical variables, reducing power and potentially underestimating etiological associations. More precise measurement approaches could improve testing of etiological theories of wheezing illness. We evaluated a continuous latent variable model of pediatric wheezing severity based on four ISAAC Wheezing Module items. Analyses included subgroups of children from three independent cohorts whose parents reported past wheezing: infants ages 0-2 in the INSPIRE birth cohort study (Cohort 1; n = 657), 6-7-year-old North American children from Phase One of the ISAAC study (Cohort 2; n = 2,765), and 5-6-year-old children in the EHAAS birth cohort study (Cohort 3; n = 102). Models were estimated using structural equation modeling. In all cohorts, covariance patterns implied by the latent variable model were consistent with the observed data, as indicated by non-significant χ2 goodness of fit tests (no evidence of model misspecification). Cohort 1 analyses showed that the latent factor structure was stable across time points and child sexes. In both cohorts 1 and 3, the latent wheezing severity variable was prospectively associated with wheeze-related clinical outcomes, including physician asthma diagnosis, acute corticosteroid use, and wheeze-related outpatient medical visits when adjusting for confounders. We developed an easily applicable continuous latent variable model of pediatric wheezing severity based on items from the well-validated ISAAC Wheezing Module. This model prospectively associates with
Twisted Acceleration-Enlarged Newton-Hooke Hopf Algebras
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Daszkiewicz, M.
2010-01-01
Ten Abelian twist deformations of acceleration-enlarged Newton-Hooke Hopf algebra are considered. The corresponding quantum space-times are derived as well. It is demonstrated that their contraction limit τ → ∞ leads to the new twisted acceleration-enlarged Galilei spaces. (author)
The cooling law and the search for a good temperature scale, from Newton to Dalton
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Besson, Ugo
2011-01-01
The research on the cooling law began with an article by Newton published in 1701. Later, many studies were performed by other scientists confirming or confuting Newton's law. This paper presents a description and an interpretation of Newton's article, provides a short overview of the research conducted on the topic during the 18th century, and discusses the relationships between the research on cooling laws and the definition of a temperature scale, as it was treated in Newton's article and in the work of Dalton, including Dalton's search for the absolute zero of temperature. It is shown that these scientists considered the exponential cooling law as a fundamental principle rather than a conjecture to be tested by means of experiments. The faith in the simplicity of natural laws and the spontaneous idea of proportionality between cause and effect seem to have strongly influenced Newton and Dalton. The topic is developed in a way that can be suitable for both undergraduate students and general physicists.
Newton solution of inviscid and viscous problems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Venkatakrishnan, V.
1988-01-01
The application of Newton iteration to inviscid and viscous airfoil calculations is examined. Spatial discretization is performed using upwind differences with split fluxes. The system of linear equations which arises as a result of linearization in time is solved directly using either a banded matrix solver or a sparse matrix solver. In the latter case, the solver is used in conjunction with the nested dissection strategy, whose implementation for airfoil calculations is discussed. The boundary conditions are also implemented in a fully implicit manner, thus yielding quadratic convergence. Complexities such as the ordering of cell nodes and the use of a far field vortex to correct freestream for a lifting airfoil are addressed. Various methods to accelerate convergence and improve computational efficiency while using Newton iteration are discussed. Results are presented for inviscid, transonic nonlifting and lifting airfoils and also for laminar viscous cases. 17 references
An experimental test of Newton's law of gravitation for small accelerations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schubert, Sven
2011-10-15
The experiment presented in this thesis has been designed to test Newton's law of gravitation in the limit of small accelerations caused by weak gravitational forces. It is located at DESY, Hamburg, and is a modification of an experiment that was carried out in Wuppertal, Germany, until 2002 in order to measure the gravitational constant G. The idea of testing Newton's law in the case of small accelerations emerged from the question whether the flat rotation curves of spiral galaxies can be traced back to Dark Matter or to a law of gravitation that deviates from Newton on cosmic scales like e.g. MOND (Modified Newtonian Dynamics). The core of this experiment is a microwave resonator which is formed by two spherical concave mirrors that are suspended as pendulums. Masses between 1 and 9 kg symmetrically change their distance to the mirrors from far to near positions. Due to the increased gravitational force the mirrors are pulled apart and the length of the resonator increases. This causes a shift of the resonance frequency which can be translated into a shift of the mirror distance. The small masses are sources of weak gravitational forces and cause accelerations on the mirrors of about 10{sup -10} m/s{sup 2}. These forces are comparable to those between stars on cosmic scales and the accelerations are in the vicinity of the characteristic acceleration of MOND a{sub 0} {approx} 1.2.10{sup -10} m/s{sup 2}, where deviations from Newton's law are expected. Thus Newton's law could be directly checked for correctness under these conditions. First measurements show that due to the sensitivity of this experiment many systematic influences have to be accounted for in order to get consistent results. Newton's law has been confirmed with an accuracy of 3%. MOND has also been checked. In order to be able to distinguish Newton from MOND with other interpolation functions the accuracy of the experiment has to be improved. (orig.)
An evaluation of nodalization/decay heat/ volatile fission product release models in ISAAC code
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Song, Yong Mann; Park, Soo Yong; Kim, Dong Ha
2003-03-01
An ISAAC computer code, which was developed for a Level-2 PSA during 1995, has developed mainly with fundamental models for CANDU-specific severe accident progression and also the accident-analyzing experiences are limited to Level-2 PSA purposes. Hence the system nodalization model, decay model and volatile fission product release model, which are known to affect fission product behavior directly or indirectly, are evaluated to both enhance understanding for basic models and accumulate accident-analyzing experiences. As a research strategy, sensitivity studies of model parameters and sensitivity coefficients are performed. According to the results from core nodalization sensitivity study, an original 3x3 nodalization (per loop) method which groups horizontal fuel channels into 12 representative channels, is evaluated to be sufficient for an optimal scheme because detailed nodalization methods have no large effect on fuel thermal-hydraulic behavior, total accident progression and fission product behavior. As ANSI/ANS standard model for decay heat prediction after reactor trip has no needs for further model evaluation due to both wide application on accident analysis codes and good comparison results with the ORIGEN code, ISAAC calculational results of decay heat are used as they are. In addition, fission product revaporization in a containment which is caused by the embedded decay heat, is demonstrated. The results for the volatile fission product release model are analyzed. In case of early release, the IDCOR model with an in-vessel Te release option shows the most conservative results and for the late release case, NUREG-0772 model shows the most conservative results. Considering both early and late release, the IDCOR model with an in-vessel Te bound option shows mitigated conservative results.
De las Leyes de Newton a la Guerra de Troya
Plastino, Ángel Ricardo
2014-01-01
La publicación en 1687 del libro Philosophia Naturalis Principia Mathematica por Issac Newton marcó un importante hito en la historia del pensamiento humano. Sobre la base de tres sencillos principios de movimiento y de la ley de gravitación universal, y mediante razonamientos matemáticos, Newton logró explicar y unificar dentro de un esquema conceptual coherente una gran cantidad de fenómenos naturales: el movimiento de los planetas, las mareas, la forma de la Tierra, entre otros. Más aún, N...
Applied investigation of Moessbauer effect for the famous ancient chinese porcelains
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gao Zhengyao; Chen Songhua; Shen Zuocheng
1996-10-01
The famous Ru porcelain, Jun porcelain and Guan porcelain of Song Dynasty and Yuan Dynasty are analyzed. The Moessbauer parameters of the ancient porcelains and the imitative ancient porcelains are compared. The firing techniques, coloring mechanism and microstructures of the ancient Chinese porcelains have been discussed. (7 figs., 4 tabs.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Murthy, M.S.S.
1995-01-01
Sir Isaac Newton is credited to have said that he stood on the shoulders of giants and hence could see farther beyond. That is the case at all times in the progress of science and technology. Wilhelm Conrad Roentgen stood on the shoulders of giants and saw the invisible radiation that changed once and for all, the practice of medicine and surgery. 4 figs
Non-relativistic conformal symmetries and Newton-Cartan structures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Duval, C; Horvathy, P A
2009-01-01
This paper provides us with a unifying classification of the conformal infinitesimal symmetries of non-relativistic Newton-Cartan spacetime. The Lie algebras of non-relativistic conformal transformations are introduced via the Galilei structure. They form a family of infinite-dimensional Lie algebras labeled by a rational 'dynamical exponent', z. The Schroedinger-Virasoro algebra of Henkel et al corresponds to z = 2. Viewed as projective Newton-Cartan symmetries, they yield, for timelike geodesics, the usual Schroedinger Lie algebra, for which z = 2. For lightlike geodesics, they yield, in turn, the Conformal Galilean Algebra (CGA) of Lukierski, Stichel and Zakrzewski (alias 'alt' of Henkel), with z = 1. Physical systems realizing these symmetries include, e.g. classical systems of massive and massless non-relativistic particles, and also hydrodynamics, as well as Galilean electromagnetism.
EFL Students' Perceptions of Social Issues in Famous Works of Art
Bautista Urrego, Lizmendy Zuhey; Parra Toro, Ingrid Judith
2016-01-01
This article reports on a qualitative, descriptive, and interpretative research intervention case study of English as a foreign language students' construction of perceptions on social issues found in famous works of art. Participants in this study engaged in the practice of critical thinking as a strategy to appreciate art that expresses social…
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Suci Furwati
2017-08-01
Full Text Available Abstract: Students who have good conceptual acquisition will be able to represent the concept by using multi representation. This study aims to determine the improvement of students' understanding of the concept of Newton's Law material, and the quality of representation used in solving problems on Newton's Law material. The results showed that the concept acquisition of students increased from the average of 35.32 to 78.97 with an effect size of 2.66 (strong and N-gain of 0.68 (medium. The quality of each type of student representation also increased from level 1 and level 2 up to level 3. Key Words: concept aquisition, represetation quality, multi representation learning, Newton’s Law Abstrak: Siswa yang memiliki penguasaan konsep yang baik akan mampu merepresentasikan konsep dengan menggunakan multi representasi. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui peningkatan pemahaman konsep siswa SMP pada materi Hukum Newton, dan kualitas representasi yang digunakan dalam menyelesaikan masalah pada materi Hukum Newton. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa penguasaan konsep siswa meningkat dari rata-rata 35,32 menjadi 78,97 dengan effect size sebesar 2,66 (kuat dan N-gain sebesar 0,68 (sedang. Kualitas tiap jenis representasi siswa juga mengalami peningkatan dari level 1 dan level 2 naik menjadi level 3. Kata kunci: hukum Newton, kualitas representasi, pemahaman konsep, pembelajaran multi representasi
Preconditioned Inexact Newton for Nonlinear Sparse Electromagnetic Imaging
Desmal, Abdulla; Bagci, Hakan
2014-01-01
with smoothness promoting optimization/regularization schemes. However, this type of regularization schemes are known to perform poorly when applied in imagining domains with sparse content or sharp variations. In this work, an inexact Newton algorithm
The problem of Newton dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Roman Roldan, R.
1998-01-01
The problem of the teaching of Newton's principles of dynamics at High School level is addressed. Some usages, reasoning and wording, are pointed as the responsible for the deficient results which are revealed in the background of the first year University students in Physics. A methodology based on simplifying the common vocabulary is proposed in order to provide to the students with a clearer view of the dynamic problems. Some typical examples are shown which illustrate the proposal. (Author)
Predikanten in ballingschap. De carrièrekansen van Jean en Isaac Claude in de Republiek
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
David van der Linden
2012-01-01
Full Text Available After the revocation of the Edict of Nantes in 1685, over 400 Huguenot ministers made their way to the Dutch Republic in search of a new pulpit. They stood a good chance, because the Huguenot exodus resulted in a corresponding demand for French preachers, while Dutch authorities offered financial support. Yet a surplus of ministers also meant fierce competition over positions. The careers of Jean and Isaac Claude show that on this highly competitive market Huguenot ministers succeeded in gaining a position in the Dutch Republic by virtue of their reputation, networks, and religious and political ideas.
Epistemologi dan Keterbatasan Teori Gravitasi
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Erwin Erwin
2017-08-01
Full Text Available Peristiwa tentang kecenderungan jatuhnya benda-benda menuju pusat bumi dan keteraturan peredaran planet dan benda-benda langit lainnya dalam tata surya dahulu dianggap dua fenomena yang berbeda. Mekanika benda langit dan mekanika bumi yang sebelumnya merupakan dua pengetahuan yang terpisah, dianggap satu kesatuan oleh Sir Isaac Newton. Newton mengemukakan hukum gravitasi umum yaitu gaya tarik menarik antara dua benda besarnya sebanding dengan massa masing-masing benda dan berbanding terbalik dengan kuadrat jarak antara kedua benda. Hukum gravitasi ini sukses menjalaskan bagaimana benda cendrung jatuh menuju pusat bumi dan peredaran planet dan benda-benda langit lain mengelilingi matahari dalam sistem tata surya. Namun hukum gravitasi Newton ternyata tidak sepenuhnya tepat, beberapa hal dapat dijelaskan dengan hukum relativitas Einstein, namun demikian hukum relativitas Einstein juga dicurigai masih perlu diamandemen agar dapat menjelaskan fenomena alam dengan tepat.
EPISTEMOLOGI DAN KETERBATASAN TEORI GRAVITASI
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Erwin Erwin
2017-08-01
Full Text Available Peristiwa tentang kecenderungan jatuhnya benda-benda menuju pusat bumi dan keteraturan peredaran planet dan benda-benda langit lainnya dalam tata surya dahulu dianggap dua fenomena yang berbeda. Mekanika benda langit dan mekanika bumi yang sebelumnya merupakan dua pengetahuan yang terpisah, dianggap satu kesatuan oleh Sir Isaac Newton. Newton mengemukakan hukum gravitasi umum yaitu gaya tarik menarik antara dua benda besarnya sebanding dengan massa masing-masing benda dan berbanding terbalik dengan kuadrat jarak antara kedua benda. Hukum gravitasi ini sukses menjalaskan bagaimana benda cendrung jatuh menuju pusat bumi dan peredaran planet dan benda-benda langit lain mengelilingi matahari dalam sistem tata surya. Namun hukum gravitasi Newton ternyata tidak sepenuhnya tepat, beberapa hal dapat dijelaskan dengan hukum relativitas Einstein, namun demikian hukum relativitas Einstein juga dicurigai masih perlu diamandemen agar dapat menjelaskan fenomena alam dengan tepat.
The cooling law and the search for a good temperature scale, from Newton to Dalton
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Besson, Ugo, E-mail: ugo.besson@unipv.it [Department of Physics ' A Volta' , University of Pavia, Via A Bassi 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy)
2011-03-15
The research on the cooling law began with an article by Newton published in 1701. Later, many studies were performed by other scientists confirming or confuting Newton's law. This paper presents a description and an interpretation of Newton's article, provides a short overview of the research conducted on the topic during the 18th century, and discusses the relationships between the research on cooling laws and the definition of a temperature scale, as it was treated in Newton's article and in the work of Dalton, including Dalton's search for the absolute zero of temperature. It is shown that these scientists considered the exponential cooling law as a fundamental principle rather than a conjecture to be tested by means of experiments. The faith in the simplicity of natural laws and the spontaneous idea of proportionality between cause and effect seem to have strongly influenced Newton and Dalton. The topic is developed in a way that can be suitable for both undergraduate students and general physicists.
Weight, the Normal Force and Newton's Third Law: Dislodging a Deeply Embedded Misconception
Low, David; Wilson, Kate
2017-01-01
On entry to university, high-achieving physics students from all across Australia struggle to identify Newton's third law force pairs. In particular, less than one in ten can correctly identify the Newton's third law reaction pair to the weight of (gravitational force acting on) an object. Most students incorrectly identify the normal force on the…
Franklin Delano Roosevelt: a famous patient.
Hart, Curtis W
2014-08-01
Franklin Delano Roosevelt is arguably one of the greatest of American Presidents. His encounter with the polio that crippled him at an early age and its transformative impact upon him are here discussed with particular reference to his relationship with his physician, Dr. George Draper. This transformation liberated energy in Roosevelt to lead and to show empathy for others in ways that both challenged the political and social status quo in the U.S.A. as well as helped save the world from the threat of Fascism in World War II. This essay seeks to demonstrate how an investigation of the life and struggles of this famous patient is one avenue for relating the study of the humanities to medical education. An earlier version of this paper was presented as the Heberden Lecture in the History of Medicine at the New York Academy of Medicine in 2012.
DE NEWTON A EINSTEIN: A DEBATE EL DESTINO DEL UNIVERSO
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
ROGELIO PARREIRA
2010-01-01
Full Text Available En este artículo se describe la historia del pensamiento científico en términos de las teorías de la inercia, el espacio absoluto, la relatividad y la gravitación; de cómo Newton utilizó el trabajo de los primeros investigadores en sus teorías, y Einstein las teorías de Newton en la suya, para tratar de explicar el destino del universo. Es la descripción de un proceso revolucionario del conocimiento científico, y sus aportes al desarrollo de muchos otros campos del saber
Designing stellarator coils by a modified Newton method using FOCUS
Zhu, Caoxiang; Hudson, Stuart R.; Song, Yuntao; Wan, Yuanxi
2018-06-01
To find the optimal coils for stellarators, nonlinear optimization algorithms are applied in existing coil design codes. However, none of these codes have used the information from the second-order derivatives. In this paper, we present a modified Newton method in the recently developed code FOCUS. The Hessian matrix is calculated with analytically derived equations. Its inverse is approximated by a modified Cholesky factorization and applied in the iterative scheme of a classical Newton method. Using this method, FOCUS is able to recover the W7-X modular coils starting from a simple initial guess. Results demonstrate significant advantages.
Quasi-Newton methods for the acceleration of multi-physics codes
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Haelterman, R
2017-08-01
Full Text Available .E. Dennis, J.J. More´, Quasi-Newton methods: motivation and theory. SIAM Rev. 19, pp. 46–89 (1977) [11] J.E. Dennis, R.B. Schnabel, Least Change Secant Updates for quasi- Newton methods. SIAM Rev. 21, pp. 443–459 (1979) [12] G. Dhondt, CalculiX CrunchiX USER...) [25] J.M. Martinez, M.C. Zambaldi, An Inverse Column-Updating Method for solving large-scale nonlinear systems of equations. Optim. Methods Softw. 1, pp. 129–140 (1992) [26] J.M. Martinez, On the convergence of the column-updating method. Comp. Appl...
Convergence and Applications of a Gossip-Based Gauss-Newton Algorithm
Li, Xiao; Scaglione, Anna
2013-11-01
The Gauss-Newton algorithm is a popular and efficient centralized method for solving non-linear least squares problems. In this paper, we propose a multi-agent distributed version of this algorithm, named Gossip-based Gauss-Newton (GGN) algorithm, which can be applied in general problems with non-convex objectives. Furthermore, we analyze and present sufficient conditions for its convergence and show numerically that the GGN algorithm achieves performance comparable to the centralized algorithm, with graceful degradation in case of network failures. More importantly, the GGN algorithm provides significant performance gains compared to other distributed first order methods.
Deviations from Newton's law in supersymmetric large extra dimensions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Callin, P.; Burgess, C.P.
2006-01-01
Deviations from Newton's inverse-squared law at the micron length scale are smoking-gun signals for models containing supersymmetric large extra dimensions (SLEDs), which have been proposed as approaches for resolving the cosmological constant problem. Just like their non-supersymmetric counterparts, SLED models predict gravity to deviate from the inverse-square law because of the advent of new dimensions at sub-millimeter scales. However SLED models differ from their non-supersymmetric counterparts in three important ways: (i) the size of the extra dimensions is fixed by the observed value of the dark energy density, making it impossible to shorten the range over which new deviations from Newton's law must be seen; (ii) supersymmetry predicts there to be more fields in the extra dimensions than just gravity, implying different types of couplings to matter and the possibility of repulsive as well as attractive interactions; and (iii) the same mechanism which is purported to keep the cosmological constant naturally small also keeps the extra-dimensional moduli effectively massless, leading to deviations from general relativity in the far infrared of the scalar-tensor form. We here explore the deviations from Newton's law which are predicted over micron distances, and show the ways in which they differ and resemble those in the non-supersymmetric case
On deviations from Newton's law and the proposal for a 'Fifth Force'
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ferreira, L.A.; Malbouisson, A.P.C.
1986-01-01
The results of geophysical and laboratory measurements of Newton's constant of gravitation, seem to disagree by one percent. Attempts to explain this have led to the revival of the proposal for a fifth interaction in Nature. The experimental results on measurements of G and tests of Newton's inverse square law are reviewed. The recent reanalysis of the Eoetvoes experiment and proposals for new experiments are discussed. (Author) [pt
The Messy Nature of Science: Famous Scientists Can Help Clear Up
Sinclair, Alex; Strachan, Amy
2016-01-01
Having embraced the inclusion of evolution in the National Curriculum for primary science in England and briefly bemoaned the omission of any physics in key stage 1 (ages 5-7), it was time to focus on the biggest change, that of working scientifically. While the authors were aware of the non-statutory suggestions to study famous scientists such as…
Disk-galaxy density distribution from orbital speeds using Newton's law, version 1.1
Nicholson, Kenneth F.
2000-01-01
Given the dimensions(including thickness) of an axisymmetric galaxy, Newton's law is used in integral form to find the density distributions required to match a wide range of orbital speed profiles. Newton's law is not modified and no dark-matter halos are required. The speed distributions can have extreme shapes if they are reasonably smooth. Several examples are given.
A Newton-type neural network learning algorithm
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ivanov, V.V.; Puzynin, I.V.; Purehvdorzh, B.
1993-01-01
First- and second-order learning methods for feed-forward multilayer networks are considered. A Newton-type algorithm is proposed and compared with the common back-propagation algorithm. It is shown that the proposed algorithm provides better learning quality. Some recommendations for their usage are given. 11 refs.; 1 fig.; 1 tab
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Silcowitz, Morten; Niebe, Sarah Maria; Erleben, Kenny
2009-01-01
contact response. In this paper, we present a new approach to contact force determination. We reformulate the contact force problem as a nonlinear root search problem, using a Fischer function. We solve this problem using a generalized Newton method. Our new Fischer - Newton method shows improved...... qualities for specific configurations where the most widespread alternative, the Projected Gauss-Seidel method, fails. Experiments show superior convergence properties of the exact Fischer - Newton method....
A Newton Algorithm for Multivariate Total Least Squares Problems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
WANG Leyang
2016-04-01
Full Text Available In order to improve calculation efficiency of parameter estimation, an algorithm for multivariate weighted total least squares adjustment based on Newton method is derived. The relationship between the solution of this algorithm and that of multivariate weighted total least squares adjustment based on Lagrange multipliers method is analyzed. According to propagation of cofactor, 16 computational formulae of cofactor matrices of multivariate total least squares adjustment are also listed. The new algorithm could solve adjustment problems containing correlation between observation matrix and coefficient matrix. And it can also deal with their stochastic elements and deterministic elements with only one cofactor matrix. The results illustrate that the Newton algorithm for multivariate total least squares problems could be practiced and have higher convergence rate.
Running Newton constant, improved gravitational actions, and galaxy rotation curves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Reuter, M.; Weyer, H.
2004-01-01
A renormalization group (RG) improvement of the Einstein-Hilbert action is performed which promotes Newton's constant and the cosmological constant to scalar functions on spacetime. They arise from solutions of an exact RG equation by means of a 'cutoff identification' which associates RG scales to the points of spacetime. The resulting modified Einstein equations for spherically symmetric, static spacetimes are derived and analyzed in detail. The modifications of the Newtonian limit due to the RG evolution are obtained for the general case. As an application, the viability of a scenario is investigated where strong quantum effects in the infrared cause Newton's constant to grow at large (astrophysical) distances. For two specific RG trajectories exact vacuum spacetimes modifying the Schwarzschild metric are obtained by means of a solution-generating Weyl transformation. Their possible relevance to the problem of the observed approximately flat galaxy rotation curves is discussed. It is found that a power law running of Newton's constant with a small exponent of the order 10 -6 would account for their non-Keplerian behavior without having to postulate the presence of any dark matter in the galactic halo
Camera-pose estimation via projective Newton optimization on the manifold.
Sarkis, Michel; Diepold, Klaus
2012-04-01
Determining the pose of a moving camera is an important task in computer vision. In this paper, we derive a projective Newton algorithm on the manifold to refine the pose estimate of a camera. The main idea is to benefit from the fact that the 3-D rigid motion is described by the special Euclidean group, which is a Riemannian manifold. The latter is equipped with a tangent space defined by the corresponding Lie algebra. This enables us to compute the optimization direction, i.e., the gradient and the Hessian, at each iteration of the projective Newton scheme on the tangent space of the manifold. Then, the motion is updated by projecting back the variables on the manifold itself. We also derive another version of the algorithm that employs homeomorphic parameterization to the special Euclidean group. We test the algorithm on several simulated and real image data sets. Compared with the standard Newton minimization scheme, we are now able to obtain the full numerical formula of the Hessian with a 60% decrease in computational complexity. Compared with Levenberg-Marquardt, the results obtained are more accurate while having a rather similar complexity.
Images of Famous People in Political Advertising: Youth Perceptions and Position
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Liubov I. Ryumshina
2013-01-01
Full Text Available The article touches upon the issues of youth awareness about the recent political events and its attitude to the political advertising, examines youth perception and position in respect of famous people, as well as candidates participation in political advertising on the example of the last presidential campaign. The study describes the most attractive elements of the political advertising for youth
Photometry and polarimetry of AM Herculis
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bailey, J A; Jones, D H.P. [Royal Greenwich Observatory, Hailsham (UK); Parkes, G E; Mason, K O
1978-06-01
Some new high-speed photometric and polarmetric observations of AM Herculare is presented. These new data obtained during 1977 with the 2.5 m Isaac Newton telescope are compared to previous observations. Several properties are noted to have changed, in particular the size and structure of the periodic linear-polarization events. There is no evidence for periodic variation of the polarization apart from the 3-hr orbital period.
CCD photometry of Cepheid sequences in four nearby galaxies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Metcalfe, N.; Shanks, T.
1991-01-01
We present Isaac Newton Telescope B and V CCD observations of deep photometric sequences in the vicinity of Cepheid variable stars in three nearby galaxies - M31, M33 and NGC 2403. We have also checked the photometry of the brightest stars in M81 and its dwarf companion, Holmberg IX. We use our data, combined with other recent results, to re-analyse the Cepheid distances to these galaxies. (author)
Photometry and polarimetry of AM Herculis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bailey, J.A.; Jones, D.H.P.; Parkes, G.E.; Mason, K.O.
1978-01-01
Some new high-speed photometric and polarmetric observations of AM Herculare is presented. These new data obtained during 1977 with the 2.5 m Isaac Newton telescope are compared to previous observations. Several properties are noted to have changed, in particular the size and structure of the periodic linear-polarization events. There is no evidence for periodic variation of the polarization apart from the 3-hr orbital period. (author)
VizieR Online Data Catalog: sigma Ori low-mass stars (Kenyon+, 2005)
Kenyon, M. J.; Jeffries, R. D.; Naylor, T.; Oliveira, J. M.; Maxted, P. F. L.
2005-04-01
We observed the field around sigma Ori with the Wide Field Camera (WFC) on the 2.5-m Isaac Newton Telescope using Harris R and Sloan i filters on the nights of 1999 September 2730. Spectra were obtained with the Wide Field Fiber Optic Spectrograph (WYFFOS) mounted at the Nasmyth focus of the 4.2-m William Herschel Telescope during the nights of 1999 December 11 and 12. (5 data files).
MPPT for Photovoltaic Modules via Newton-Like Extremum Seeking Control
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ramon Leyva
2012-07-01
Full Text Available The paper adapts the Newton-like Extremum-Seeking Control technique to extract the maximum power from photovoltaic panels. This technique uses the gradient and Hessian of the panel characteristic in order to approximate the operating point to its optimum. The paper describes in detail the gradient and Hessian estimations carried out by means of sinusoidal dithering signals. Furthermore, we compare the proposed technique with the common Extremum Seeking Control that only uses the gradient. The comparison is done by means of PSIM simulations and it shows the different transient behaviors and the faster response of the Newton-like Extremum-Seeking Control solution.
Newton-Cartan supergravity with torsion and Schrödinger supergravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bergshoeff, Eric; Rosseel, Jan; Zojer, Thomas
2015-01-01
We derive a torsionfull version of three-dimensional N=2 Newton-Cartan supergravity using a non-relativistic notion of the superconformal tensor calculus. The “superconformal” theory that we start with is Schrödinger supergravity which we obtain by gauging the Schrödinger superalgebra. We present two non-relativistic N=2 matter multiplets that can be used as compensators in the superconformal calculus. They lead to two different off-shell formulations which, in analogy with the relativistic case, we call “old minimal” and “new minimal” Newton-Cartan supergravity. We find similarities but also point out some differences with respect to the relativistic case.
Newton-Cartan supergravity with torsion and Schrödinger supergravity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bergshoeff, Eric [Van Swinderen Institute for Particle Physics and Gravity, University of Groningen,Nijenborgh 4, 9747 AG Groningen (Netherlands); Rosseel, Jan [Institute for Theoretical Physics, Vienna University of Technology,Wiedner Hauptstr. 8-10/136, A-1040 Vienna (Austria); Albert Einstein Center for Fundamental Physics, University of Bern,Sidlerstrasse 5, 3012 Bern (Switzerland); Zojer, Thomas [Van Swinderen Institute for Particle Physics and Gravity, University of Groningen,Nijenborgh 4, 9747 AG Groningen (Netherlands)
2015-11-25
We derive a torsionfull version of three-dimensional N=2 Newton-Cartan supergravity using a non-relativistic notion of the superconformal tensor calculus. The “superconformal” theory that we start with is Schrödinger supergravity which we obtain by gauging the Schrödinger superalgebra. We present two non-relativistic N=2 matter multiplets that can be used as compensators in the superconformal calculus. They lead to two different off-shell formulations which, in analogy with the relativistic case, we call “old minimal” and “new minimal” Newton-Cartan supergravity. We find similarities but also point out some differences with respect to the relativistic case.
Newton-Cartan supergravity with torsion and Schrodinger supergravity
Bergshoeff, Eric; Rosseel, Jan; Zojer, Thomas
2015-01-01
We derive a torsionfull version of three-dimensional N - 2 Newton-Cartan supergravity using a non-relativistic notion of the superconformal tensor calculus. The "superconformal" theory that we start with is Schrodinger supergravity which we obtain by gauging the Schrodinger superalgebra. We present
Torsional Newton-Cartan geometry and the Schrodinger algebra
Bergshoeff, Eric A.; Hartong, Jelle; Rosseel, Jan
2015-01-01
We show that by gauging the Schrodinger algebra with critical exponent z and imposing suitable curvature constraints, that make diffeomorphisms equivalent to time and space translations, one obtains a geometric structure known as (twistless) torsional Newton-Cartan geometry (TTNC). This is a version
Emilie du Châtelet between Leibniz and Newton
Hagengruber, Ruth
2012-01-01
This book describes Emilie du Chatelet known as "Emilia Newtonmania", and her innovative and outstanding position within the controversy between Newton and Leibniz, one of the fundamental scientific discourses of her time.
3D CSEM data inversion using Newton and Halley class methods
Amaya, M.; Hansen, K. R.; Morten, J. P.
2016-05-01
For the first time in 3D controlled source electromagnetic data inversion, we explore the use of the Newton and the Halley optimization methods, which may show their potential when the cost function has a complex topology. The inversion is formulated as a constrained nonlinear least-squares problem which is solved by iterative optimization. These methods require the derivatives up to second order of the residuals with respect to model parameters. We show how Green's functions determine the high-order derivatives, and develop a diagrammatical representation of the residual derivatives. The Green's functions are efficiently calculated on-the-fly, making use of a finite-difference frequency-domain forward modelling code based on a multi-frontal sparse direct solver. This allow us to build the second-order derivatives of the residuals keeping the memory cost in the same order as in a Gauss-Newton (GN) scheme. Model updates are computed with a trust-region based conjugate-gradient solver which does not require the computation of a stabilizer. We present inversion results for a synthetic survey and compare the GN, Newton, and super-Halley optimization schemes, and consider two different approaches to set the initial trust-region radius. Our analysis shows that the Newton and super-Halley schemes, using the same regularization configuration, add significant information to the inversion so that the convergence is reached by different paths. In our simple resistivity model examples, the convergence speed of the Newton and the super-Halley schemes are either similar or slightly superior with respect to the convergence speed of the GN scheme, close to the minimum of the cost function. Due to the current noise levels and other measurement inaccuracies in geophysical investigations, this advantageous behaviour is at present of low consequence, but may, with the further improvement of geophysical data acquisition, be an argument for more accurate higher-order methods like those
The Doppler effect and the three most famous experiments for special relativity
Klinaku, Shukri
Using the general formula for the Doppler effect at any arbitrary angle, the three famous experiments for special theory of relativity will be examined. Explanation of the experiments of Michelson, Kennedy-Thorndike and Ives-Stilwell will be given in a precise and elegant way without postulates, arbitrary assumptions or approximations.
Modified Block Newton method for the lambda modes problem
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
González-Pintor, S., E-mail: segonpin@isirym.upv.es [Departamento de Ingeniería Química y Nuclear, Universidad Politécnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera 14, 46022 Valencia (Spain); Ginestar, D., E-mail: dginestar@mat.upv.es [Instituto de Matemática Multidisciplinar, Universidad Politécnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera 14, 46022 Valencia (Spain); Verdú, G., E-mail: gverdu@iqn.upv.es [Departamento de Ingeniería Química y Nuclear, Universidad Politécnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera 14, 46022 Valencia (Spain)
2013-06-15
Highlights: ► The Modal Method is based on expanding the solution in a set of dominant modes. ► Updating the set of dominant modes improve its performance. ► A Modified Block Newton Method, which use previous calculated modes, is proposed. ► The method exhibits a very good local convergence with few iterations. ► Good performance results are also obtained for heavy perturbations. -- Abstract: To study the behaviour of nuclear power reactors it is necessary to solve the time dependent neutron diffusion equation using either a rectangular mesh for PWR and BWR reactors or a hexagonal mesh for VVER reactors. This problem can be solved by means of a modal method, which uses a set of dominant modes to expand the neutron flux. For the transient calculations using the modal method with a moderate number of modes, these modes must be updated each time step to maintain the accuracy of the solution. The updating modes process is also interesting to study perturbed configurations of a reactor. A Modified Block Newton method is studied to update the modes. The performance of the Newton method has been tested for a steady state perturbation analysis of two 2D hexagonal reactors, a perturbed configuration of the IAEA PWR 3D reactor and two configurations associated with a boron dilution transient in a BWR reactor.
A smooth generalized Newton method for a class of non-smooth equations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Uko, L. U.
1995-10-01
This paper presents a Newton-type iterative scheme for finding the zero of the sum of a differentiable function and a multivalued maximal monotone function. Local and semi-local convergence results are proved for the Newton scheme, and an analogue of the Kantorovich theorem is proved for the associated modified scheme that uses only one Jacobian evaluation for the entire iteration. Applications in variational inequalities are discussed, and an illustrative numerical example is given. (author). 24 refs
Heat kernel for Newton-Cartan trace anomalies
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Auzzi, Roberto [Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Via Musei 41, Brescia, 25121 (Italy); INFN Sezione di Perugia, Via A. Pascoli, Perugia, 06123 (Italy); Nardelli, Giuseppe [Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Via Musei 41, Brescia, 25121 (Italy); TIFPA - INFN, Università di Trento,c/o Dipartimento di Fisica, Povo, TN, 38123 (Italy)
2016-07-11
We compute the leading part of the trace anomaly for a free non-relativistic scalar in 2+1 dimensions coupled to a background Newton-Cartan metric. The anomaly is proportional to 1/m, where m is the mass of the scalar. We comment on the implications of a conjectured a-theorem for non-relativistic theories with boost invariance.
Newton's First Law: A Learning Cycle Approach
McCarthy, Deborah
2005-01-01
To demonstrate how Newton's first law of motion applies to students' everyday lives, the author developed a learning cycle series of activities on inertia. The discrepant event at the heart of these activities is sure to elicit wide-eyed stares and puzzled looks from students, but also promote critical thinking and help bring an abstract concept…
CAIXA: a catalogue of AGN in the XMM-Newton archive. III. Excess variance analysis
Ponti, G.; Papadakis, I.; Bianchi, S.; Guainazzi, M.; Matt, G.; Uttley, P.; Bonilla, N.F.
2012-01-01
Context. We report on the results of the first XMM-Newton systematic "excess variance" study of all the radio quiet, X-ray un-obscured AGN. The entire sample consist of 161 sources observed by XMM-Newton for more than 10 ks in pointed observations, which is the largest sample used so far to study
Improved Quasi-Newton method via PSB update for solving systems of nonlinear equations
Mamat, Mustafa; Dauda, M. K.; Waziri, M. Y.; Ahmad, Fadhilah; Mohamad, Fatma Susilawati
2016-10-01
The Newton method has some shortcomings which includes computation of the Jacobian matrix which may be difficult or even impossible to compute and solving the Newton system in every iteration. Also, the common setback with some quasi-Newton methods is that they need to compute and store an n × n matrix at each iteration, this is computationally costly for large scale problems. To overcome such drawbacks, an improved Method for solving systems of nonlinear equations via PSB (Powell-Symmetric-Broyden) update is proposed. In the proposed method, the approximate Jacobian inverse Hk of PSB is updated and its efficiency has improved thereby require low memory storage, hence the main aim of this paper. The preliminary numerical results show that the proposed method is practically efficient when applied on some benchmark problems.
What Makes Your Writing Style Unique? Significant Differences Between Two Famous Romanian Orators
Dascalu, Mihai; Gifu, Daniela; Trausan-Matu, Stefan
2016-01-01
This paper introduces a novel, in-depth approach of analyzing the differences in writing style between two famous Romanian orators, based on automated textual complexity indices for Romanian language. The considered authors are: (a) Mihai Eminescu, Romania’s national poet and a
Newton-Hooke spacetimes, Hpp-waves and the cosmological constant
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gibbons, G W; Patricot, C E
2003-01-01
We show explicitly how the Newton-Hooke groups N ± 10 act as symmetries of the equations of motion of non-relativistic cosmological models with a cosmological constant. We give the action on the associated non-relativistic spacetimes M ± 4 and show how these may be obtained from a null reduction of five-dimensional homogeneous pp-wave Lorentzian spacetimes M ± 5 . This allows us to realize the Newton-Hooke groups and their Bargmann-type central extensions as subgroups of the isometry groups of M ± 5 . The extended Schroedinger-type conformal group is identified and its action on the equations of motion given. The non-relativistic conformal symmetries also have applications to time-dependent harmonic oscillators. Finally we comment on a possible application to Gao's generalization of the matrix model
Study on the algorithm for Newton-Rapson iteration interpolation of NURBS curve and simulation
Zhang, Wanjun; Gao, Shanping; Cheng, Xiyan; Zhang, Feng
2017-04-01
In order to solve the problems of Newton-Rapson iteration interpolation method of NURBS Curve, Such as interpolation time bigger, calculation more complicated, and NURBS curve step error are not easy changed and so on. This paper proposed a study on the algorithm for Newton-Rapson iteration interpolation method of NURBS curve and simulation. We can use Newton-Rapson iterative that calculate (xi, yi, zi). Simulation results show that the proposed NURBS curve interpolator meet the high-speed and high-accuracy interpolation requirements of CNC systems. The interpolation of NURBS curve should be finished. The simulation results show that the algorithm is correct; it is consistent with a NURBS curve interpolation requirements.
The XMM-Newton Science Archive and its integration into ESASky
Loiseau, N.; Baines, D.; Colomo, E.; Giordano, F.; Merín, B.; Racero, E.; Rodríguez, P.; Salgado, J.; Sarmiento, M.
2017-07-01
We describe the variety of functionalities of the XSA (XMM-Newton Science Archive) that allow to search and access the XMM-Newton data and catalogues. The web interface http://nxsa.esac.esa.int/ is very flexible allowing different kinds of searches by a single position or target name, or by a list of targets, with several selecting options (target type, text in the abstract, etc.), and with several display options. The resulting data can be easily broadcast to Virtual Observatory (VO) facilities for a first look analysis, or for cross-matching the results with info from other observatories. Direct access via URL or command line are also possible for scripts usage, or to link XMM-Newton data from other interfaces like Vizier, ADS, etc. The full metadata content of the XSA can be queried through the TAP (Table access Protocol) via ADQL (Astronomical Data Query Language). We present also the roadmap for future improvements of the XSA including the integration of the Upper Limit server, the on-the-fly data analysis, and the interactive visualization of EPIC sources spectra and light curves and RGS spectra, among other advanced features. Within this modern visualization philosophy XSA is also being integrated into ESASky (http://sky.esa.int). ESASky is the science-driven multi-wavelength discovery portal for all the ESA Astronomy Missions (Integral, HST, Herschel, Suzaku, Planck, etc.), and other space and ground telescope data. The system offers progressive multi-resolution all-sky projections of full mission datasets using HiPS, a new generation of HEALPix projections developed by CDS, precise footprints to connect to individual observations, and direct access to science-ready data from the underlying mission specific science archives. XMM-Newton EPIC and OM all-sky HiPS maps, catalogues and links to the observations are available through ESASky.
The continuous, desingularized Newton method for meromorphic functions
Jongen, H.Th.; Jonker, P.; Twilt, F.
For any (nonconstant) meromorphic function, we present a real analytic dynamical system, which may be interpreted as an infinitesimal version of Newton's method for finding its zeros. A fairly complete description of the local and global features of the phase portrait of such a system is obtained
Easy XMM-Newton Data Analysis with the Streamlined ABC Guide!
Valencic, Lynne A.; Snowden, Steven L.; Pence, William D.
2016-01-01
The US XMM-Newton GOF has streamlined the time-honored XMM-Newton ABC Guide, making it easier to find and use what users may need to analyze their data. It takes into account what type of data a user might have, if they want to reduce the data on their own machine or over the internet with Web Hera, and if they prefer to use the command window or a GUI. The GOF has also included an introduction to analyzing EPIC and RGS spectra, and PN Timing mode data. The guide is provided for free to students, educators, and researchers for educational and research purposes. Try it out at: http://heasarc.gsfc.nasa.gov/docs/xmm/sl/intro.html
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mylonakis, Antonios G.; Varvayanni, M.; Catsaros, N.
2017-01-01
Highlights: •A Newton-based Jacobian-free Monte Carlo/thermal-hydraulic coupling approach is introduced. •OpenMC is coupled with COBRA-EN with a Newton-based approach. •The introduced coupling approach is tested in numerical experiments. •The performance of the new approach is compared with the traditional “serial” coupling approach. -- Abstract: In the field of nuclear reactor analysis, multi-physics calculations that account for the bonded nature of the neutronic and thermal-hydraulic phenomena are of major importance for both reactor safety and design. So far in the context of Monte-Carlo neutronic analysis a kind of “serial” algorithm has been mainly used for coupling with thermal-hydraulics. The main motivation of this work is the interest for an algorithm that could maintain the distinct treatment of the involved fields within a tight coupling context that could be translated into higher convergence rates and more stable behaviour. This work investigates the possibility of replacing the usually used “serial” iteration with an approximate Newton algorithm. The selected algorithm, called Approximate Block Newton, is actually a version of the Jacobian-free Newton Krylov method suitably modified for coupling mono-disciplinary solvers. Within this Newton scheme the linearised system is solved with a Krylov solver in order to avoid the creation of the Jacobian matrix. A coupling algorithm between Monte-Carlo neutronics and thermal-hydraulics based on the above-mentioned methodology is developed and its performance is analysed. More specifically, OpenMC, a Monte-Carlo neutronics code and COBRA-EN, a thermal-hydraulics code for sub-channel and core analysis, are merged in a coupling scheme using the Approximate Block Newton method aiming to examine the performance of this scheme and compare with that of the “traditional” serial iterative scheme. First results show a clear improvement of the convergence especially in problems where significant
The long history of iron in the Universe and in health and disease.
Sheftel, Alex D; Mason, Anne B; Ponka, Prem
2012-03-01
Not long after the Big Bang, iron began to play a central role in the Universe and soon became mired in the tangle of biochemistry that is the prima essentia of life. Since life's addiction to iron transcends the oxygenation of the Earth's atmosphere, living things must be protected from the potentially dangerous mix of iron and oxygen. The human being possesses grams of this potentially toxic transition metal, which is shuttling through his oxygen-rich humor. Since long before the birth of modern medicine, the blood-vibrant red from a massive abundance of hemoglobin iron-has been a focus for health experts. We describe the current understanding of iron metabolism, highlight the many important discoveries that accreted this knowledge, and describe the perils of dysfunctional iron handling. Isaac Newton famously penned, "If I have seen further than others, it is by standing upon the shoulders of giants". We hope that this review will inspire future scientists to develop intellectual pursuits by understanding the research and ideas from many remarkable thinkers of the past. The history of iron research is a long, rich story with early beginnings, and is far from being finished. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Transferrins: Molecular mechanisms of iron transport and disorders. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Hořava-Lifshitz gravity from dynamical Newton-Cartan geometry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hartong, Jelle; Obers, Niels A.
2015-01-01
Recently it has been established that torsional Newton-Cartan (TNC) geometry is the appropriate geometrical framework to which non-relativistic field theories couple. We show that when these geometries are made dynamical they give rise to Hořava-Lifshitz (HL) gravity. Projectable HL gravity corresponds to dynamical Newton-Cartan (NC) geometry without torsion and non-projectable HL gravity corresponds to dynamical NC geometry with twistless torsion (hypersurface orthogonal foliation). We build a precise dictionary relating all fields (including the scalar khronon), their transformations and other properties in both HL gravity and dynamical TNC geometry. We use TNC invariance to construct the effective action for dynamical twistless torsional Newton-Cartan geometries in 2+1 dimensions for dynamical exponent 1
Hořava-Lifshitz gravity from dynamical Newton-Cartan geometry
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hartong, Jelle [Physique Théorique et Mathématique and International Solvay Institutes, Université Libre de Bruxelles,C.P. 231, 1050 Brussels (Belgium); Obers, Niels A. [The Niels Bohr Institute, Copenhagen University,Blegdamsvej 17, DK-2100 Copenhagen Ø (Denmark)
2015-07-29
Recently it has been established that torsional Newton-Cartan (TNC) geometry is the appropriate geometrical framework to which non-relativistic field theories couple. We show that when these geometries are made dynamical they give rise to Hořava-Lifshitz (HL) gravity. Projectable HL gravity corresponds to dynamical Newton-Cartan (NC) geometry without torsion and non-projectable HL gravity corresponds to dynamical NC geometry with twistless torsion (hypersurface orthogonal foliation). We build a precise dictionary relating all fields (including the scalar khronon), their transformations and other properties in both HL gravity and dynamical TNC geometry. We use TNC invariance to construct the effective action for dynamical twistless torsional Newton-Cartan geometries in 2+1 dimensions for dynamical exponent 1
Wang, Chun-yu; He, Lin; Li, Yan; Shuai, Chang-geng
2018-01-01
In engineering applications, ship machinery vibration may be induced by multiple rotational machines sharing a common vibration isolation platform and operating at the same time, and multiple sinusoidal components may be excited. These components may be located at frequencies with large differences or at very close frequencies. A multi-reference filtered-x Newton narrowband (MRFx-Newton) algorithm is proposed to control these multiple sinusoidal components in an MIMO (multiple input and multiple output) system, especially for those located at very close frequencies. The proposed MRFx-Newton algorithm can decouple and suppress multiple sinusoidal components located in the same narrow frequency band even though such components cannot be separated from each other by a narrowband-pass filter. Like the Fx-Newton algorithm, good real-time performance is also achieved by the faster convergence speed brought by the 2nd-order inverse secondary-path filter in the time domain. Experiments are also conducted to verify the feasibility and test the performance of the proposed algorithm installed in an active-passive vibration isolation system in suppressing the vibration excited by an artificial source and air compressor/s. The results show that the proposed algorithm not only has comparable convergence rate as the Fx-Newton algorithm but also has better real-time performance and robustness than the Fx-Newton algorithm in active control of the vibration induced by multiple sound sources/rotational machines working on a shared platform.
Physics-based preconditioning and the Newton-Krylov method for non-equilibrium radiation diffusion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mousseau, V.A.; Knoll, D.A.; Rider, W.J.
2000-01-01
An algorithm is presented for the solution of the time dependent reaction-diffusion systems which arise in non-equilibrium radiation diffusion applications. This system of nonlinear equations is solved by coupling three numerical methods, Jacobian-free Newton-Krylov, operator splitting, and multigrid linear solvers. An inexact Newton's method is used to solve the system of nonlinear equations. Since building the Jacobian matrix for problems of interest can be challenging, the authors employ a Jacobian-free implementation of Newton's method, where the action of the Jacobian matrix on a vector is approximated by a first order Taylor series expansion. Preconditioned generalized minimal residual (PGMRES) is the Krylov method used to solve the linear systems that come from the iterations of Newton's method. The preconditioner in this solution method is constructed using a physics-based divide and conquer approach, often referred to as operator splitting. This solution procedure inverts the scalar elliptic systems that make up the preconditioner using simple multigrid methods. The preconditioner also addresses the strong coupling between equations with local 2 x 2 block solves. The intra-cell coupling is applied after the inter-cell coupling has already been addressed by the elliptic solves. Results are presented using this solution procedure that demonstrate its efficiency while incurring minimal memory requirements
Ideas of Physical Forces and Differential Calculus in Ancient India
Girish, T. E.; Nair, C. Radhakrishnan
2010-01-01
We have studied the context and development of the ideas of physical forces and differential calculus in ancient India by studying relevant literature related to both astrology and astronomy since pre-Greek periods. The concept of Naisargika Bala (natural force) discussed in Hora texts from India is defined to be proportional to planetary size and inversely related to planetary distance. This idea developed several centuries prior to Isaac Newton resembles fundamental physical forces in natur...
DYNAMICS OF THIN VISCOUS LAYERS
ROJAS, NICOLAS
2011-01-01
As Isaac Newton discovered in Mechanics, and published in his Principia Mathematica in 1687, inertial effects are essential to describe natural phenomena. In the case of Fluid Dynamics, inertia was included by Claude-Louis Navier and George Gabriel Stokes almost two centuries after in 1822 when calculating the mass and momentum conservation of au infinitesimal fluid elemeut. Although Navier-Stokes equations are very useful for describing any event of any liquid or gas and there...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Whitehead, M.J.; Meaburn, J.; Clayton, C.A.
1989-01-01
Optical observations of the 1-arcmin core of the complex supernova remnant CTB 80 have been made with the Manchester echelle spectrometer, in both its imaging and spectral modes, on the Isaac Newton and William Herschel telescopes. Four 'shells' (A-D) are found in the light of Hα but only the central two of these (A and B) are bright at [N II]. Ionization by shocks of shells with different velocities is implied. (author)
The 1974 Type I supernova in NGC 4414
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Patchett, B.; Wood, R.
1976-01-01
Spectra of Miss Burgat's supernova in NGC 4414 were taken with the Isaac Newton 2.5-m reflector during 1974 April and May. The spectra cover the period from just before maximum light to 20 days post-maximum, and show many features typical of Type I supernovae. In addition secondary features in the spectrum indicate the presence of thin shell or filamentary structure. A photographic light curve and direct plate are presented. (author)
Demonstrating Kinematics and Newton's Laws in a Jump
Kamela, Martin
2007-01-01
When students begin the study of Newton's laws they are generally comfortable with static equilibrium type problems, but dynamic examples where forces are not constant are more challenging. The class exercise presented here helps students to develop an intuitive grasp of both the position-velocity-acceleration relation and the force-acceleration…
Gamow on Newton: Another Look at Centripetal Acceleration
Corrao, Christian
2012-01-01
Presented here is an adaptation of George Gamow's derivation of the centripetal acceleration formula as it applies to Earth's orbiting Moon. The derivation appears in Gamows short but engaging book "Gravity", first published in 1962, and is essentially a distillation of Newton's work. While "TPT" contributors have offered several insightful…
Solé, Dirceu; Mallol, Javier; Camelo-Nunes, Inês C; Wandalsen, Gustavo F
2010-02-01
The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of rhinitis-related symptoms among children living in different parts of Latin America (LA) considering all centers involved in ISAAC Phase Three (Ph3). 93,851 children (6-7 yr-old) from 35 centers in 14 LA countries and 165,917 adolescents (13-14 yr-old) from 56 centers in 17 LA countries were enrolled. The mean prevalence rate of current rhinoconjunctivitis was 12.7% and ranged from 5.5% in Rosario City (Argentina) to 21.2% in Caracas (Venezuela) for the schoolchildren. The mean prevalence rate of current rhinoconjunctivitis was 18.5% and ranged from 7.1% in Cuernavaca (México) to 45.1% in Asunción (Paraguay) for the adolescents. These indexes were among the higher observed during ISAAC Ph3. In general the prevalence of rhinitis-related symptoms was higher among the Spanish speaking centers. Environmental risk factors must be evaluated in order to explain the differences observed even in centers from the same country. © 2009 John Wiley & Sons A/S.
Self-adaptive Newton-based iteration strategy for the LES of turbulent multi-scale flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Daude, F.; Mary, I.; Comte, P.
2014-01-01
An improvement of the efficiency of implicit schemes based on Newton-like methods for the simulation of turbulent flows by compressible LES or DNS is proposed. It hinges on a zonal Self-Adaptive Newton method (hereafter denoted SAN), capable of taking advantage of Newton convergence rate heterogeneities in multi-scale flow configurations due to a strong spatial variation of the mesh resolution, such as transitional or turbulent flows controlled by small actuators or passive devices. Thanks to a predictor of the local Newton convergence rate, SAN provides computational savings by allocating resources in regions where they are most needed. The consistency with explicit time integration and the efficiency of the method are checked in three test cases: - The standard test-case of 2-D linear advection of a vortex, on three different two-block grids. - Transition to 3-D turbulence on the lee-side of an airfoil at high angle of attack, which features a challenging laminar separation bubble with a turbulent reattachment. - A passively-controlled turbulent transonic cavity flow, for which the CPU time is reduced by a factor of 10 with respect to the baseline algorithm, illustrates the interest of the proposed algorithm. (authors)
Personality Traits Characterized by Adjectives in a Famous Chinese Novel of the 18th Century
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Junpeng Zhu
2015-06-01
Full Text Available The personality-descriptive adjectives used in a famous Chinese novel of the 18th century, A Dream of Red Mansions, which is thought to broadly reflect Chinese culture, might help depict personality structure. Four hundred ninety-three personality-descriptive adjectives from the first 80 chapters of the novel were administered to 732 Chinese university students. After factor analyses, the one- to seven-factor solutions were extracted, and the five-factor one was relatively clearer. The five factors of personality titled Wicked, Intelligent, Amiable, Conscientious, and Frank, were intercorrelated. Men scored higher on Wicked and Conscientious but lower on Amiable compared with women. As a preliminary trial, our study demonstrates that personality-descriptive adjectives in a famous Chinese novel characterize the personality structure.
On topological modifications of Newton's law
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Floratos, E.G.; Leontaris, G.K.
2012-01-01
Recent cosmological data for very large distances challenge the validity of the standard cosmological model. Motivated by the observed spatial flatness the accelerating expansion and the various anisotropies with preferred axes in the universe we examine the consequences of the simple hypothesis that the three-dimensional space has a global R 2 × S 1 topology. We take the radius of the compactification to be the observed cosmological scale beyond which the accelerated expansion starts. We derive the induced corrections to the Newton's gravitational potential and we find that for distances smaller than the S 1 radius the leading 1/r-term is corrected by convergent power series of multipole form in the polar angle making explicit the induced anisotropy by the compactified third dimension. On the other hand, for distances larger than the compactification scale the asymptotic behavior of the potential exhibits a logarithmic dependence with exponentially small corrections. The change of Newton's force from 1/r 2 to 1/r behavior implies a weakening of the deceleration for the expanding universe. Such topologies can also be created locally by standard Newtonian axially symmetric mass distributions with periodicity along the symmetry axis. In such cases we can use our results to obtain measurable modifications of Newtonian orbits for small distances and flat rotation spectra, for large distances at the galactic level
Special relativity, electrodynamics, and general relativity from Newton to Einstein
Kogut, John B
2018-01-01
Special Relativity, Electrodynamics and General Relativity: From Newton to Einstein, Second Edition, is intended to teach (astro)physics, astronomy, and cosmology students how to think about special and general relativity in a fundamental, but accessible, way. Designed to render any reader a "master of relativity," everything on the subject is comprehensible and derivable from first principles. The book emphasizes problem solving, contains abundant problem sets, and is conveniently organized to meet the needs of both student and instructor. Fully revised, updated and expanded second edition Includes new chapters on magnetism as a consequence of relativity and electromagnetism Contains many improved and more engaging figures Uses less algebra resulting in more efficient derivations Enlarged discussion of dynamics and the relativistic version of Newton's second law
Newton's Law: Not so Simple after All
Robertson, William C.; Gallagher, Jeremiah; Miller, William
2004-01-01
One of the most basic concepts related to force and motion is Newton's first law, which essentially states, "An object at rest tends to remain at rest unless acted on by an unbalanced force. An object in motion in a straight line tends to remain in motion in a straight line unless acted upon by an unbalanced force." Judging by the time and space…
Laurent Guiraud
2000-01-01
A CD with the wishes for the 21st century from thousands of readers of the science magazine "Newton", was buried at the Atlas construction site on 16.03.2000 (handling the CD: Giorgio Riviecco, Editor of "Newton")
Newton's 'Principia Mathematica Philosophia' and Planck's elementary constants
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rompe, R.; Treder, H.J.
1987-01-01
Together with Planck's elementary constants Newton's principles prove a guaranteed basis of physics and 'exact' sciences of all directions. The conceptions in physics are competent at all physical problems as well as technology too. Classical physics was founded in such a way to reach far beyond the physics of macroscopic bodies. (author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Voß Rebekka
2015-03-01
Full Text Available This special section examines Isaac Wetzlar‘s Love Letter, a Yiddish proposal for the improvement of Jewish society, written in 1748/49 in Northern Germany. The articles concentrate on the links between Libes briv and the contours of German Pietism in order to initiate exploration of the complex relationship between Central European Judaism and eighteenth-century Pietism. This largely unrecognized arena of Jewish-Christian encounter is presented as a significant factor in a century that promoted modernity
Gauld, Colin F.
2009-01-01
Books I and III of Newton's "Principia" develop Newton's dynamical theory and show how it explains a number of celestial phenomena. Book II has received little attention from historians or educators because it does not play a major role in Newton's argument. However, it is in Book II that we see most clearly Newton both as a theoretician and an…
Decentralized Quasi-Newton Methods
Eisen, Mark; Mokhtari, Aryan; Ribeiro, Alejandro
2017-05-01
We introduce the decentralized Broyden-Fletcher-Goldfarb-Shanno (D-BFGS) method as a variation of the BFGS quasi-Newton method for solving decentralized optimization problems. The D-BFGS method is of interest in problems that are not well conditioned, making first order decentralized methods ineffective, and in which second order information is not readily available, making second order decentralized methods impossible. D-BFGS is a fully distributed algorithm in which nodes approximate curvature information of themselves and their neighbors through the satisfaction of a secant condition. We additionally provide a formulation of the algorithm in asynchronous settings. Convergence of D-BFGS is established formally in both the synchronous and asynchronous settings and strong performance advantages relative to first order methods are shown numerically.
Female body as a fetish in Helmut Newton's photography
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Pantović Katarina
2017-01-01
Full Text Available The paper illuminates some of the principles by which Helmut Newton's photographic poetics functions. It is examined from the perspectives of recent art history, feminist critique and psychoanalytic theory. His photographs came to a standstill not far from pornography, yet they stayed within the jet-set community, reflecting at the same time the sexual revolution in the 60s and 70s of the twentieth century and the rising of the fashion and film industries and other Western emancipatory movements. Newton's obscure photojournalism provoked conventions, presenting the female body as a fetish and object of erotic pleasure, affirming, nonetheless, a new feminine self-consciousness and freedom. Thus, he constituted modern eroticism by connecting fetishism, voyeurism and sadomasochism, creating a provocative hybrid photography that embraced fashion, eroticism and portrait, hence documenting, in highly stylistic manner, the decadency and eccentricity of the lifestyle of the rich.
Stabilized quasi-Newton optimization of noisy potential energy surfaces
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schaefer, Bastian; Goedecker, Stefan, E-mail: stefan.goedecker@unibas.ch [Department of Physics, University of Basel, Klingelbergstrasse 82, CH-4056 Basel (Switzerland); Alireza Ghasemi, S. [Institute for Advanced Studies in Basic Sciences, P.O. Box 45195-1159, IR-Zanjan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Roy, Shantanu [Computational and Systems Biology, Biozentrum, University of Basel, CH-4056 Basel (Switzerland)
2015-01-21
Optimizations of atomic positions belong to the most commonly performed tasks in electronic structure calculations. Many simulations like global minimum searches or characterizations of chemical reactions require performing hundreds or thousands of minimizations or saddle computations. To automatize these tasks, optimization algorithms must not only be efficient but also very reliable. Unfortunately, computational noise in forces and energies is inherent to electronic structure codes. This computational noise poses a severe problem to the stability of efficient optimization methods like the limited-memory Broyden–Fletcher–Goldfarb–Shanno algorithm. We here present a technique that allows obtaining significant curvature information of noisy potential energy surfaces. We use this technique to construct both, a stabilized quasi-Newton minimization method and a stabilized quasi-Newton saddle finding approach. We demonstrate with the help of benchmarks that both the minimizer and the saddle finding approach are superior to comparable existing methods.
On Newton's third law and its symmetry-breaking effects
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pinheiro, Mario J
2011-01-01
The law of action-reaction, considered by Ernst Mach as the cornerstone of physics, is thoroughly used to derive the conservation laws of linear and angular momentum. However, the conflict between momentum conservation law and Newton's third law, on experimental and theoretical grounds, calls for more attention. We give a background survey of several questions raised by the action-reaction law and, in particular, the role of the physical vacuum is shown to provide an appropriate framework for clarifying the occurrence of possible violations of the action-reaction law. Then, in the framework of statistical mechanics, using a maximizing entropy procedure, we obtain an expression for the general linear momentum of a body particle. The new approach presented here shows that Newton's third law is not verified in systems out of equilibrium due to an additional entropic gradient term present in the particle's momentum.
Stabilized quasi-Newton optimization of noisy potential energy surfaces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schaefer, Bastian; Goedecker, Stefan; Alireza Ghasemi, S.; Roy, Shantanu
2015-01-01
Optimizations of atomic positions belong to the most commonly performed tasks in electronic structure calculations. Many simulations like global minimum searches or characterizations of chemical reactions require performing hundreds or thousands of minimizations or saddle computations. To automatize these tasks, optimization algorithms must not only be efficient but also very reliable. Unfortunately, computational noise in forces and energies is inherent to electronic structure codes. This computational noise poses a severe problem to the stability of efficient optimization methods like the limited-memory Broyden–Fletcher–Goldfarb–Shanno algorithm. We here present a technique that allows obtaining significant curvature information of noisy potential energy surfaces. We use this technique to construct both, a stabilized quasi-Newton minimization method and a stabilized quasi-Newton saddle finding approach. We demonstrate with the help of benchmarks that both the minimizer and the saddle finding approach are superior to comparable existing methods
Newton, Isaac
1995-01-01
Sir Isaac Newton's Principia Mathematica (Mathematical Principles) (1687) is considered to be among the finest scientific works ever published. His grand unifying idea of gravitation, with effects extending throughout the solar system, explains by one principle such diverse phenomena as the tides, the precession of the equinoxes, and the irregularities of the moon's motion. Newton's brilliant and revolutionary contributions to science explained the workings of a large part of inanimate nature mathematically and suggested that the remainder might be understood in a similar fashion. By taking known facts, forming a theory that explained them in mathematical terms, deducing consequences from the theory, and comparing the results with observed and experimental facts, Newton united, for the first time, the explication of physical phenomena with the means of prediction. By beginning with the physical axioms of the laws of motion and gravitation, he converted physics from a mere science of explanation into a genera...
Newton's second law in a non-commutative space
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Romero, Juan M.; Santiago, J.A.; Vergara, J. David
2003-01-01
In this Letter we show that corrections to Newton's second law appear if we assume a symplectic structure consistent with the commutation rules of the non-commutative quantum mechanics. For central field we find that the correction term breaks the rotational symmetry. For the Kepler problem, this term is similar to a Coriolis force
Has ESA's XMM-Newton cast doubt over dark energy?
2003-12-01
Galaxy cluster RXJ0847 hi-res Size hi-res: 100k Galaxy cluster RXJ0847 The fuzzy object at the centre of the frame is one of the galaxy clusters observed by XMM-Newton in its investigation of the distant Universe. The cluster, designated RXJ0847.2+3449, is about 7 000 million light years away, so we see it here as it was 7 000 million years ago, when the Universe was only about half of its present age. This cluster is made up of several dozen galaxies. Observations of eight distant clusters of galaxies, the furthest of which is around 10 thousand million light years away, were studied by an international group of astronomers led by David Lumb of ESA's Space Research and Technology Centre (ESTEC) in the Netherlands. They compared these clusters to those found in the nearby Universe. This study was conducted as part of the larger XMM-Newton Omega Project, which investigates the density of matter in the Universe under the lead of Jim Bartlett of the College de France. Clusters of galaxies are prodigious emitters of X-rays because they contain a large quantity of high-temperature gas. This gas surrounds galaxies in the same way as steam surrounds people in a sauna. By measuring the quantity and energy of X-rays from a cluster, astronomers can work out both the temperature of the cluster gas and also the mass of the cluster. Theoretically, in a Universe where the density of matter is high, clusters of galaxies would continue to grow with time and so, on average, should contain more mass now than in the past. Most astronomers believe that we live in a low-density Universe in which a mysterious substance known as 'dark energy' accounts for 70% of the content of the cosmos and, therefore, pervades everything. In this scenario, clusters of galaxies should stop growing early in the history of the Universe and look virtually indistinguishable from those of today. In a paper soon to be published by the European journal Astronomy and Astrophysics, astronomers from the XMM-Newton
When Newton's cooling law doesn't hold
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tarnow, E.
1994-01-01
What is the fastest way to cool something? If the object is macroscopic it is to lower the surrounding temperature as much as possible and let Newton's cooling law take effect. If we enter the microscopic world where quantum mechanics rules, this procedure may no longer be the best. This is shown in a simple example where we calculate the optimum cooling rate for an asymmetric two-state system
Ho, Nicola C; Park, Susan S; Maragh, Kevin D; Gutter, Emily M
2003-04-15
Famous people with genetic disorders have always been a subject of interest because such news feeds the curiosity the public has for celebrities. It gives further insight into their lives and provides a medical basis for any unexplained or idiosyncratic feature or behavior they exhibit. It draws admiration from society of those who excel in their specialized fields despite the impositions of their genetic illnesses and also elicits sympathy even in the most casual observer. Such news certainly catapults a rare genetic disorder into the realm of public awareness. We hereby present six famous figures: King George III, Toulouse-Lautrec, Queen Victoria, Nicolo Paganini, Abraham Lincoln, and Vincent van Gogh, all of whom made a huge indelible mark in either the history of politics or that of the arts. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Koom, Woong Sub; Lee, Jeong Shin; Kim, Yong Bae; Choi, Mi Yeon; Park, Eun Jung; Kim, Ju Hye; Kim, Sun Hyun
2016-01-01
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of art therapy to control fatigue in cancer patients during course of radiotherapy and its impact on quality of life (QoL). Fifty cancer patients receiving radiotherapy received weekly art therapy sessions using famous painting appreciation. Fatigue and QoL were assessed using the Brief Fatigue Inventory (BFI) Scale and the Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Fatigue (FACIT-F) at baseline before starting radiotherapy, every week for 4 weeks during radiotherapy, and at the end of radiotherapy. Mean changes of scores over time were analyzed using a generalized linear mixed model. Of the 50 patients, 34 (68%) participated in 4 sessions of art therapy. Generalized linear mixed models testing for the effect of time on mean score changes showed no significant changes in scores from baseline for the BFI and FACIT-F. The mean BFI score and FACIT-F total score changed from 3.1 to 2.7 and from 110.7 to 109.2, respectively. Art therapy based on the appreciation of famous paintings led to increases in self-esteem by increasing self-realization and forming social relationships. Fatigue and QoL in cancer patients with art therapy do not deteriorate during a period of radiotherapy. Despite the single-arm small number of participants and pilot design, this study provides a strong initial demonstration that art therapy of appreciation for famous painting is worthy of further study for fatigue and QoL improvement. Further, it can play an important role in routine practice in cancer patients during radiotherapy
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Koom, Woong Sub; Lee, Jeong Shin; Kim, Yong Bae [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Mi Yeon; Park, Eun Jung; Kim, Ju Hye; Kim, Sun Hyun [Graduate School of Clinical Art Therapy, CHA University, Pocheon (Korea, Republic of)
2016-06-15
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of art therapy to control fatigue in cancer patients during course of radiotherapy and its impact on quality of life (QoL). Fifty cancer patients receiving radiotherapy received weekly art therapy sessions using famous painting appreciation. Fatigue and QoL were assessed using the Brief Fatigue Inventory (BFI) Scale and the Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Fatigue (FACIT-F) at baseline before starting radiotherapy, every week for 4 weeks during radiotherapy, and at the end of radiotherapy. Mean changes of scores over time were analyzed using a generalized linear mixed model. Of the 50 patients, 34 (68%) participated in 4 sessions of art therapy. Generalized linear mixed models testing for the effect of time on mean score changes showed no significant changes in scores from baseline for the BFI and FACIT-F. The mean BFI score and FACIT-F total score changed from 3.1 to 2.7 and from 110.7 to 109.2, respectively. Art therapy based on the appreciation of famous paintings led to increases in self-esteem by increasing self-realization and forming social relationships. Fatigue and QoL in cancer patients with art therapy do not deteriorate during a period of radiotherapy. Despite the single-arm small number of participants and pilot design, this study provides a strong initial demonstration that art therapy of appreciation for famous painting is worthy of further study for fatigue and QoL improvement. Further, it can play an important role in routine practice in cancer patients during radiotherapy.
Newton's laws through a science adventure
Šuštar, Sara
2013-01-01
The main purpose of my diploma thesis is to create a scientific adventure based on the Newton's laws. My aim has been to introduce this topic to the kids in elementary school as well as the general public. That is why the adventure will take place in the House of Experiments. The first part is dedicated to theory and various experiments, which lead to deeper understanding of the laws. I implemented experiments on rollerblades, such as free movement, movement with the help of springs which wer...
Observations of MCG-5-23-16 with Suzaku, XMM-Newton and Nustar
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zoghbi, A.; Cackett, E. M.; Reynolds, C.
2014-01-01
MCG-5-23-16 is one of the first active galactic nuclei (AGNs) where relativistic reverberation in the iron K line originating in the vicinity of the supermassive black hole was found, based on a short XMM-Newton observation. In this work, we present the results from long X-ray observations using...... Suzaku, XMM-Newton, and NuSTAR designed to map the emission region using X-ray reverberation. A relativistic iron line is detected in the lag spectra on three different timescales, allowing the emission from different regions around the black hole to be separated. Using NuSTAR coverage of energies above...
The Doppler effect and the three most famous experiments for special relativity
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shukri Klinaku
Full Text Available Using the general formula for the Doppler effect at any arbitrary angle, the three famous experiments for special theory of relativity will be examined. Explanation of the experiments of Michelson, Kennedy–Thorndike and Ives–Stilwell will be given in a precise and elegant way without postulates, arbitrary assumptions or approximations. Keywords: Doppler effect, Michelson experiment, Kennedy–Thorndike experiment, Ives–Stilwell experiment
Listening in the Silences for Fred Newton Scott
Mastrangelo, Lisa
2009-01-01
As part of her recent sabbatical, the author proposed going to the University of Michigan Bentley Archives to do research on Fred Newton Scott, founder and chair of the Department of Rhetoric and teacher from 1889 to 1926 at the University of Michigan. Scott ran the only graduate program in rhetoric and composition in the country between those…
Dramatic (and Simple!) Demonstration of Newton's Third Law
Feldman, Gerald
2011-01-01
An operational understanding of Newton's third law is often elusive for students. Typical examples of this concept are given for contact forces that are closer to the students' everyday experience. While this is a good thing in general, the reaction force can sometimes be taken for granted, and the students can miss the opportunity to really think…
The flight of Newton's cannonball
Pesnell, W. Dean
2018-05-01
Newton's Cannon is a thought experiment used to motivate orbital motion. Cannonballs were fired from a high mountain at increasing muzzle velocity until they orbit the Earth. We will use the trajectories of these cannonballs to describe the shape of orbital tunnels that allow a cannonball fired from a high mountain to pass through the Earth. A sphere of constant density is used as the model of the Earth to take advantage of the analytic solutions for the interior trajectories that exist for that model. For the example shown, the cannonball trajectories that pass through the Earth intersect near the antipodal point of the cannon.
Earth Science Data Usages & Diverse Applications based on “User Tickets” at GES DISC
Shie, Chung-Lin; Greene, Mary; Acker, James; Lei, Guang-Dih; Al-Jazrawi, Atheer F.; Meyer, David J.
2018-01-01
Motivation: Arguably the most renowned anecdote in the history of science could be: Young Isaac Newton was hit on his head by a falling apple (the Data!) when he sat in his garden, which inspired Newton’s brilliant insight and his eventual understanding and demonstrating of gravitational force (the Science!). This well-known coupling of “Data & Science” was the trigger for this “data analysis” study. Background: This “Data & Science” analysis was mainly based on avai...
VizieR Online Data Catalog: RV and [Fe/H] in 5 open clusters (Carrera+, 2015)
Carrera, R.; Casamiquela, L.; Ospina, N.; Balaguer-Nunez, L.; Jordi, C.; Monteagudo, L.
2015-05-01
Medium-resolution spectra in the region of the near-infrared CaII triplet (CaT) at ~8500Å were obtained using the Intermediate Dispersion Spectrograph (IDS) mounted at the Cassegrain focus of the 2.5m Isaac Newton Telescope (INT) located at Roque de los Muchachos Observatory, Spain. Berkeley 23 was observed in service mode on 2013 January 17 and 18, and the other clusters were observed on 2014 July 18 and 19. (1 data file).
Teaching students about informatics and astronomy using real data for detection of asteroids
Boldea, A. L.; Vaduvescu, O.
2017-09-01
In this paper we approach the astronomy teaching process for students in computer sciences through a controlled investigation method using real astronomical data, including data reduction and quality control of the astrometry of near-Earth asteroids. The method used data collected on the Isaac Newton Telescope located at the ORM observatory on the island of La Palma in the Spanish Canary Islands and was successfully tested with a group of students in their second year of study.
Atomic Pioneers Book 1 From Ancient Greece to the 19th Century
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hiebert, Ray [University of Maryland; Hiebert, Roselyn
1970-01-01
This brief booklet gives a snapshot view of 25 men, each of whom contributed an important building block to the foundations of atomic science. The 25 men are: Anaxagoras; Archimedes; Avogadro, Amedeo; Berthollet, Claude Louis; Berzelius, Jons Jakob; Boyle, Robert; Bruno, Giordano; Copernicus; Dalton, John; Davy, Humphry; Democritus; Descartes, Rene; Empedocles; Fpicurus; Franklin, Benjamin; Galilei, Galileo; Gassendi, Pierre; Gay-Lussac, Joseph Louis; Lavoisier, Antoine; Leucippus; Lucretius; Newton, Isaac; Proust, Joseph Louis; Pythagoras; and Wollaston, William Hyde.
Illustrating Newton's Second Law with the Automobile Coast-Down Test.
Bryan, Ronald A.; And Others
1988-01-01
Describes a run test of automobiles for applying Newton's second law of motion and the concept of power. Explains some automobile thought-experiments and provides the method and data of an actual coast-down test. (YP)
Extension of Newton's Dynamical Spectral Shift for Photons in ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Extension of Newton's Dynamical Spectral Shift for Photons in Gravitational Fields of Static Homogeneous Spherical Massive Bodies. ... is perfectly in agreement with the physical fact that gravitational scalar potential is negative and increase in recession leads to decrease in kinetic energy and hence decrease in frequency.
How Pressure Became a Scalar, Not a Vector
Chalmers, Alan
2018-04-01
The gradual emergence of a science of hydrostatics during the course of the seventeenth century is testament to the fact that a technical concept of pressure that was up to the task was far from obvious. The first published version of a theory of hydrostatics containing the essentials of the modern theory appeared in book 2 of Isaac Newton's Principia. Newton derived the propositions of hydrostatics from a definition of a fluid as a medium unable to withstand a distorting force. Newton's reasoning required that pressure be understood as a force per unit area acting on either side of imaginary planes within the body of a fluid. For a fluid in equilibrium, the forces at some location within a fluid are independent of the orientation of such planes. As Newton came to realize, within the body of a liquid, pressure acts equally in all directions so that there is no resultant pressing in any direction. Pressure has an intensity but not a direction. In modern terms, it is a scalar, not a vector. Although earlier scholars such as Simon Stevin, Blaise Pascal, and Robert Boyle helped set the scene for Newton's innovations, they were unable to transcend the common sense of pressure as a directed force acting on the solid surfaces bounding a fluid.
Dark Matter Search Using XMM-Newton Observations of Willman 1
Lowenstein, Michael; Kusenko, Alexander
2012-01-01
We report the results of a search for an emission line from radiatively decaying dark matter in the ultra-faint dwarf spheroidal galaxy Willman 1 based on analysis of spectra extracted from XMM-Newton X-ray Observatory data. The observation follows up our analysis of Chandra data of Willman 1that resulted in line flux upper limits over the Chandra bandpass and evidence of a 2.5 keY feature at a significance below the 99% confidence threshold used to define the limits. The higher effective area of the XMM-Newton detectors, combined with application of recently developing methods for extended-source analysis, allow us to derive improved constraints on the combination of mass and mixing angle of the sterile neutrino dark matter candidate. We do not confirm the Chandra evidence for a 2.5 keV emission line.
Efficient management of high level XMM-Newton science data products
Zolotukhin, Ivan
2015-12-01
Like it is the case for many large projects, XMM-Newton data have been used by the community to produce many valuable higher level data products. However, even after 15 years of the successful mission operation, the potential of these data is not yet fully uncovered, mostly due to the logistical and data management issues. We present a web application, http://xmm-catalog.irap.omp.eu, to highlight an idea that existing public high level data collections generate significant added research value when organized and exposed properly. Several application features such as access to the all-time XMM-Newton photon database and online fitting of extracted sources spectra were never available before. In this talk we share best practices we worked out during the development of this website and discuss their potential use for other large projects generating astrophysical data.
ESA's XMM-Newton gains deep insights into the distant Universe
2003-07-01
First image from the XMM-LSS survey hi-res Size hi-res: 87 kb Credits: ESA First image from the XMM-LSS survey The first image from the XMM-LSS survey is actually a combination of fourteen separate 'pointings' of the space observatory. It represents a region of the sky eight times larger than the full Moon and contains around 25 clusters. The circles represent the sources previously known from the 1991 ROSAT All-Sky Survey. A computer programme zooms in on an interesting region hi-res Size hi-res: 86 kb Credits: ESA A computer programme zooms in on an interesting region A computer programme zooms in on an interesting region of the image and identifies the possible cluster. Each point on this graph represents a single X-ray photons detected by XMM-Newton. Most come from distant actie galaxies and the computer must perform a sophisticated, statistical computation to determine which X-ray come from clusters. Contour map of clusters hi-res Size hi-res: 139 kb Credits: ESA Contour map of clusters The computer programme transforms the XMM-Newton data into a contour map of the cluster's probable extent and superimposes it over the CFHT snapshot, allowing the individual galaxies in the cluster to be targeted for further observations with ESO's VLT, to measure its distance and locate the cluster in the universe. Unlike grains of sand on a beach, matter is not uniformly spread throughout the Universe. Instead, it is concentrated into galaxies like our own which themselves congregate into clusters. These clusters are 'strung' throughout the Universe in a web-like structure. Astronomers have studied this large-scale structure of the nearby Universe but have lacked the instruments to extend the search to the large volumes of the distant Universe. Thanks to its unrivalled sensitivity, in less than three hours, ESA's X-ray observatory XMM-Newton can see back about 7000 million years to a cosmological era when the Universe was about half its present size, and clusters of galaxies
Modified Newton-Raphson GRAPE methods for optimal control of spin systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Goodwin, D. L.; Kuprov, Ilya
2016-01-01
Quadratic convergence throughout the active space is achieved for the gradient ascent pulse engineering (GRAPE) family of quantum optimal control algorithms. We demonstrate in this communication that the Hessian of the GRAPE fidelity functional is unusually cheap, having the same asymptotic complexity scaling as the functional itself. This leads to the possibility of using very efficient numerical optimization techniques. In particular, the Newton-Raphson method with a rational function optimization (RFO) regularized Hessian is shown in this work to require fewer system trajectory evaluations than any other algorithm in the GRAPE family. This communication describes algebraic and numerical implementation aspects (matrix exponential recycling, Hessian regularization, etc.) for the RFO Newton-Raphson version of GRAPE and reports benchmarks for common spin state control problems in magnetic resonance spectroscopy.
Modified Newton-Raphson GRAPE methods for optimal control of spin systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Goodwin, D. L.; Kuprov, Ilya, E-mail: i.kuprov@soton.ac.uk [School of Chemistry, University of Southampton, Highfield Campus, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom)
2016-05-28
Quadratic convergence throughout the active space is achieved for the gradient ascent pulse engineering (GRAPE) family of quantum optimal control algorithms. We demonstrate in this communication that the Hessian of the GRAPE fidelity functional is unusually cheap, having the same asymptotic complexity scaling as the functional itself. This leads to the possibility of using very efficient numerical optimization techniques. In particular, the Newton-Raphson method with a rational function optimization (RFO) regularized Hessian is shown in this work to require fewer system trajectory evaluations than any other algorithm in the GRAPE family. This communication describes algebraic and numerical implementation aspects (matrix exponential recycling, Hessian regularization, etc.) for the RFO Newton-Raphson version of GRAPE and reports benchmarks for common spin state control problems in magnetic resonance spectroscopy.
The Jewish modernist: Isaac Grünewald in Bertel Hintze’s art history
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ludwig Qvarnström
2016-12-01
Full Text Available In the Finland-Swedish art historian and chef curator Bertel Hintze’s art historical handbook Modern konst: 1900-talet (Modern Art: Twentieth century, published in 1930, he introduce the Swedish artist Isaac Grünewald with a racial and anti-Semitic rhetoric. In this article Hintze’s rhetoric is analyzed in relation to a widespread everyday anti-Semitism and the language used in earlier art critical discussion on Grünewald’s art. The article concludes that earlier anti-Semitic expressions, visible in the negative and nationalistically oriented criticism, have been incorporated into Hintze’s ambivalent, but basically positive, characterization of Grünewald. In doing so Hintze translocate the anti-Semitic rhetoric from a negative and disparaging criticism into ‘normal’ art history, an example of how the voice of anti-Semitism have been built into the language and structure of Swedish art historiography, even where anti-Semitism was not the object.
Koom, Woong Sub; Choi, Mi Yeon; Lee, Jeongshim; Park, Eun Jung; Kim, Ju Hye; Kim, Sun-Hyun; Kim, Yong Bae
2016-01-01
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of art therapy to control fatigue in cancer patients during course of radiotherapy and its impact on quality of life (QoL). Materials and Methods: Fifty cancer patients receiving radiotherapy received weekly art therapy sessions using famous painting appreciation. Fatigue and QoL were assessed using the Brief Fatigue Inventory (BFI) Scale and the Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Fatigue (FACIT-F) at baseline before starting radiotherapy, every week for 4 weeks during radiotherapy, and at the end of radiotherapy. Mean changes of scores over time were analyzed using a generalized linear mixed model. Results: Of the 50 patients, 34 (68%) participated in 4 sessions of art therapy. Generalized linear mixed models testing for the effect of time on mean score changes showed no significant changes in scores from baseline for the BFI and FACIT-F. The mean BFI score and FACIT-F total score changed from 3.1 to 2.7 and from 110.7 to 109.2, respectively. Art therapy based on the appreciation of famous paintings led to increases in self-esteem by increasing self-realization and forming social relationships. Conclusion: Fatigue and QoL in cancer patients with art therapy do not deteriorate during a period of radiotherapy. Despite the single-arm small number of participants and pilot design, this study provides a strong initial demonstration that art therapy of appreciation for famous painting is worthy of further study for fatigue and QoL improvement. Further, it can play an important role in routine practice in cancer patients during radiotherapy. PMID:27306778
Q-Step methods for Newton-Jacobi operator equation | Uwasmusi ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
The paper considers the Newton-Jacobi operator equation for the solution of nonlinear systems of equations. Special attention is paid to the computational part of this method with particular reference to the q-step methods. Journal of the Nigerian Association of Mathematical Physics Vol. 8 2004: pp. 237-241 ...
Fast and exact Newton and Bidirectional fitting of Active Appearance Models.
Kossaifi, Jean; Tzimiropoulos, Yorgos; Pantic, Maja
2016-12-21
Active Appearance Models (AAMs) are generative models of shape and appearance that have proven very attractive for their ability to handle wide changes in illumination, pose and occlusion when trained in the wild, while not requiring large training dataset like regression-based or deep learning methods. The problem of fitting an AAM is usually formulated as a non-linear least squares one and the main way of solving it is a standard Gauss-Newton algorithm. In this paper we extend Active Appearance Models in two ways: we first extend the Gauss-Newton framework by formulating a bidirectional fitting method that deforms both the image and the template to fit a new instance. We then formulate a second order method by deriving an efficient Newton method for AAMs fitting. We derive both methods in a unified framework for two types of Active Appearance Models, holistic and part-based, and additionally show how to exploit the structure in the problem to derive fast yet exact solutions. We perform a thorough evaluation of all algorithms on three challenging and recently annotated inthe- wild datasets, and investigate fitting accuracy, convergence properties and the influence of noise in the initialisation. We compare our proposed methods to other algorithms and show that they yield state-of-the-art results, out-performing other methods while having superior convergence properties.
The Use of Kruskal-Newton Diagrams for Differential Equations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fishaleck, T.; White, R.B.
2008-01-01
The method of Kruskal-Newton diagrams for the solution of differential equations with boundary layers is shown to provide rapid intuitive understanding of layer scaling and can result in the conceptual simplification of some problems. The method is illustrated using equations arising in the theory of pattern formation and in plasma physics.
Newton's Laws, Euler's Laws and the Speed of Light
Whitaker, Stephen
2009-01-01
Chemical engineering students begin their studies of mechanics in a department of physics where they are introduced to the mechanics of Newton. The approach presented by physicists differs in both perspective and substance from that encountered in chemical engineering courses where Euler's laws provide the foundation for studies of fluid and solid…
The role of competing knowledge structures in undermining learning: Newton's second and third laws
Low, David J.; Wilson, Kate F.
2017-01-01
We investigate the development of student understanding of Newton's laws using a pre-instruction test (the Force Concept Inventory), followed by a series of post-instruction tests and interviews. While some students' somewhat naive, pre-existing models of Newton's third law are largely eliminated following a semester of teaching, we find that a particular inconsistent model is highly resilient to, and may even be strengthened by, instruction. If test items contain words that cue students to think of Newton's second law, then students are more likely to apply a "net force" approach to solving problems, even if it is inappropriate to do so. Additional instruction, reinforcing physical concepts in multiple settings and from multiple sources, appears to help students develop a more connected and consistent level of understanding. We recommend explicitly encouraging students to check their work for consistency with physical principles, along with the standard checks for dimensionality and order of magnitude, to encourage reflective and rigorous problem solving.
Boller, François; Bogousslavsky, Julien
2015-01-01
Reports of postamputation pain and problems linked to phantom limbs have increased in recent years, particularly in relation to war-related amputations. These problems are still poorly understood and are considered rather mysterious, and they are difficult to treat. In addition, they may shed light on brain physiology and neuropsychology. Functional neuroimaging techniques now enable us to better understand their pathophysiology and to consider new rehabilitation techniques. Several artists have suffered from postamputation complications and this has influenced not only their personal life but also their artistic work. Paul Wittgenstein (1887-1961), a pianist whose right arm was amputated during the First World War, became a famous left-handed concert performer. His case provides insight into Post-World War I musical and political history. More specifically, the impact on the artistic life of this pianist illustrates various postamputation complications, such as phantom limb, stump pain, and especially moving phantom. The phantom movements of his right hand helped him develop the dexterity of his left hand. Wittgenstein played piano works that were written especially for him (the most famous being Ravel's Concerto for the Left Hand) and composed some of his own. Additionally, several famous composers had previously written for the left hand. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Meins, Elizabeth; Fernyhough, Charles; Harris-Waller, Jayne
2014-03-01
The four studies reported here sought to explore the nature of the construct of mind-mindedness. In Study 1, involving 37 mothers of 5- to 8-year-old children, mothers' verbal mind-minded descriptions of their children were positively correlated with their mind-minded descriptions of their current romantic partner. Participants in Studies 2 (N=114), 3 (N=173), and 4 (N=153) were young adults who provided written descriptions of: a close friend and their current romantic partner (Study 2); two specified famous people, two works of art, and a close friend (Study 3); a specified famous person, a famous person of the participant's choice, and a close friend (Study 4). Study 2 obtained paper-and-pen written descriptions, whereas participants completed descriptions in electronic format in Studies 3 and 4. Mind-minded descriptions of friends and partners were positively correlated, but there was no relation between mind-minded descriptions of a friend and the tendency to describe famous people or works of art in mind-minded terms. Levels of mind-mindedness were higher in descriptions of friends compared with descriptions of famous people or works of art. Administration format was unrelated to individuals' mind-mindedness scores. The results suggest that mind-mindedness is a facet of personal relationships rather than a trait-like quality. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Producción de entropía y ley de enfriamiento de newton
Barragán, Daniel
2010-01-01
Para un sistema con una fuente interna de generación de calor se analizan, en el marco de la termodinámica de los procesos irreversibles, las ecuaciones evolutivas que describen la transferencia de calor según la ley de enfriamiento de Newton. A partir del balance de flujo de entropía se muestra que la generación de entropía no es mínima en el estado estacionario descrito por la ley de enfriamiento de Newton. Igualmente, se discute cómo realizar el balance de flujos en el sistema, su conex...
HIGH-RESOLUTION XMM-NEWTON SPECTROSCOPY OF THE COOLING FLOW CLUSTER A3112
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bulbul, G. Esra; Smith, Randall K.; Foster, Adam [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Cottam, Jean; Loewenstein, Michael; Mushotzky, Richard; Shafer, Richard, E-mail: ebulbul@cfa.harvard.edu [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (United States)
2012-03-01
We examine high signal-to-noise XMM-Newton European Photon Imaging Camera (EPIC) and Reflection Grating Spectrometer (RGS) observations to determine the physical characteristics of the gas in the cool core and outskirts of the nearby rich cluster A3112. The XMM-Newton Extended Source Analysis Software data reduction and background modeling methods were used to analyze the XMM-Newton EPIC data. From the EPIC data, we find that the iron and silicon abundance gradients show significant increase toward the center of the cluster while the oxygen abundance profile is centrally peaked but has a shallower distribution than that of iron. The X-ray mass modeling is based on the temperature and deprojected density distributions of the intracluster medium determined from EPIC observations. The total mass of A3112 obeys the M-T scaling relations found using XMM-Newton and Chandra observations of massive clusters at r{sub 500}. The gas mass fraction f{sub gas} = 0.149{sup +0.036}{sub -0.032} at r{sub 500} is consistent with the seven-year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe results. The comparisons of line fluxes and flux limits on the Fe XVII and Fe XVIII lines obtained from high-resolution RGS spectra indicate that there is no spectral evidence for cooler gas associated with the cluster with temperature below 1.0 keV in the central <38'' ({approx}52 kpc) region of A3112. High-resolution RGS spectra also yield an upper limit to the turbulent motions in the compact core of A3112 (206 km s{sup -1}). We find that the contribution of turbulence to total energy is less than 6%. This upper limit is consistent with the energy contribution measured in recent high-resolution simulations of relaxed galaxy clusters.
Should Research Always be OPEN
Taylor, Mike
2014-01-01
"If I have seen further it is by standing on the shoulders of giants", said Isaac Newton. Since the earliest days of science, progress has always been achieved by the free exchange and re-use of ideas. Understanding this, scientists have always leaned in the direction of openness. Science outside of trade secrets and state secrets has a natural tendency to be open. Until recently, the principle barrier to sharing science has been the logistic difficulty of printing and distributing copies...
VizieR Online Data Catalog: Spectral types of stars in CoRoT fields (Sebastian+, 2012)
Sebastian, D.; Guenther, E. W.; Schaffenroth, V.; Gandolfi, D.; Geier, S.; Heber, U.; Deleuil, M.; Moutou, C.
2012-03-01
Spectroscopic classification for 2950 O-, B-, and A-type stars in the CoRoT-fields IRa01, LRa01, and LRa02. Stars are named by their CoRoT-identifier and Coordinates are given. The visual magnitudes were obtained with the Wide Field Camera filter-system of the Isaac Newton Telescope at Roque de los Muchachos Observatory on La Palma and can be converted into Landolt standards, as shown in Deleuil et al. (2009AJ....138..649D). (1 data file).
Spectral properties of near-Earth asteroids on cometary orbits
Popescu, M.; Vaduvescu, O.; de Leon, J.; Boaca, I. L.; Gherase, R. M.; Nedelcu, D. A.; INT students, I. N. G.
2017-09-01
We studied the spectral distributions of near-Earth asteroids on cometary orbits (NEACOs) in order to identify potential dormant or extinct comets among these objects. We present the spectral observations for 19 NEACOs obtained with Isaac Newton Telescope and Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF). Although initially classified as asteroid, one of our targets - 2007 VA85 was confirmed to be active comet 333P/LINEAR on its 2016 appearance. We found that the NEACOs population is a mixing of different compositional classes.
VizieR Online Data Catalog: Ji light curves of WTS-2 (Birkby+, 2014)
Birkby, J. L.; Cappetta, M.; Cruz, P.; Koppenhoefer, J.; Ivanyuk, O.; Mustill, A. J.; Hodgkin, S. T.; Pinfield, D. J.; Sipocz, B.; Kovacs, G.; Saglia, R.; Pavlenko, Y.; Barrado, D.; Bayo, A.; Campbell, D.; Catalan, S.; Fossati, L.; Galvez-Ortiz, M.-C.; Kenworthy, M.; Lillo-Box, J.; Martin, E. L.; Mislis, D.; de Mooij, E. J. W.; Nefs, S. V.; Snellen, I. A. G.; Stoev, H.; Zendejas, J.; Del Burgo, C.; Barnes, J.; Goulding, N.; Haswell, C. A.; Kuznetsov, M.; Lodieu, N.; Murgas, F.; Palle, E.; Solano, E.; Steele, P.; Tata, R.
2015-07-01
The infrared light curves of the WTS were generated from time series photometry taken with the WFCAM imager mounted at the prime focus of UKIRT. In order to confirm the transit of WTS-2 b and to help constrain the transit model, on 2010 July 18 we obtained further time series photometry in the Sloan i band using the Wide Field Camera (WFC) on the 2.5m Isaac Newton Telescope (INT) at Roque de Los Muchachos, La Palma. (2 data files).
On the revolution of heavenly spheres
Copernicus, Nicolaus
1995-01-01
The Ptolemaic system of the universe, with the earth at the center, had held sway since antiquity as authoritative in philosophy, science, and church teaching. Following his observations of the heavenly bodies, Nicolaus Copernicus (1473-1543) abandoned the geocentric system for a heliocentric model, with the sun at the center. His remarkable work, On the Revolutions of Heavenly Spheres, stands as one of the greatest intellectual revolutions of all time, and profoundly influenced, among others, Galileo and Sir Isaac Newton.
A direct Newton-Raphson economic dispatch
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lin, C.E.; Chen, S.T.; Huang, C.L.
1992-01-01
This paper presents a new method to solve the real-time economic dispatch problem using an alternative Jacobian matrix considering system constraints. The transition loss is approximately expressed in terms of generating powers and the generalized generation shift distribution factor. Based on this expression, a set of simultaneous equations of Jacobian matrix is formulated and solved by the Newton-Raphson method. The proposed method eliminates the penalty factor calculation, and solves the economic dispatch directly. The proposed method obtains very fast solution speed and maintains good accuracy from test examples. It is good approach to solve the economic dispatch problem
Gauld, Colin F.
2010-01-01
Newton's experiments into the resistance which fluids offer to moving bodies provide some insight into the way he related theory and experiment. His theory demonstrates a way of thought typical of 17th century physics and his experiments are simple enough to be replicated by present day students. Newton's investigations using pendulums were…
Quantum Mechanics from Newton's Second Law and the Canonical Commutation Relation [X,P]=i
Palenik, Mark C.
2014-01-01
Despite the fact that it has been known since the time of Heisenberg that quantum operators obey a quantum version of Newton's laws, students are often told that derivations of quantum mechanics must necessarily follow from the Hamiltonian or Lagrangian formulations of mechanics. Here, we first derive the existing Heisenberg equations of motion from Newton's laws and the uncertainty principle using only the equations $F=\\frac{dP}{dt}$, $P=m\\frac{dV}{dt}$, and $\\left[X,P\\right]=i$. Then, a new...
REPENSANDO A MARÍA ESCLAVISMO, ANTISEMITISMO Y MACHISMO EN LA OBRA DE JORGE ISAACS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Juan Camilo Galeano Sánchez
2011-01-01
Full Text Available El presente artículo propone una lectura de la novela María, del escritor colombiano Jorge Isaacs, desde la perspectiva de texto constructor de identidad nacional en virtud de su obligatorio estudio en los procesos formativos de los ciudadanos colombianos. Se hace un rastreo de elementos como actitudes frente a los esclavos, en la época en que la esclavitud fue abolida en el país; consideraciones frente a la situación de los inmigrantes judíos y la posición que ocupa la mujer en la fundación del país, asumiéndola como pilar fundamental de la sociedad. Se llega a la conclusión de que la obra debe ser entendida a la luz del contexto histórico en el que fue escrita y deninguna manera como paradigma axiomático vigente en la actualidad.
Adaptation of XMM-Newton SAS to GRID and VO architectures via web
Ibarra, A.; de La Calle, I.; Gabriel, C.; Salgado, J.; Osuna, P.
2008-10-01
The XMM-Newton Scientific Analysis Software (SAS) is a robust software that has allowed users to produce good scientific results since the beginning of the mission. This has been possible given the SAS capability to evolve with the advent of new technologies and adapt to the needs of the scientific community. The prototype of the Remote Interface for Science Analysis (RISA) presented here, is one such example, which provides remote analysis of XMM-Newton data with access to all the existing SAS functionality, while making use of GRID computing technology. This new technology has recently emerged within the astrophysical community to tackle the ever lasting problem of computer power for the reduction of large amounts of data.
A multigrid Newton-Krylov method for flux-limited radiation diffusion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rider, W.J.; Knoll, D.A.; Olson, G.L.
1998-01-01
The authors focus on the integration of radiation diffusion including flux-limited diffusion coefficients. The nonlinear integration is accomplished with a Newton-Krylov method preconditioned with a multigrid Picard linearization of the governing equations. They investigate the efficiency of the linear and nonlinear iterative techniques
2016 Newton County, Georgia ADS100 4-Band 8 Bit Imagery
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set consists of 0.5-foot pixel resolution, natural color orthoimages covering Newton County, Georgia. An orthoimage is remotely sensed image data in which...
Newton's second law and the multiplication of distributions
Sarrico, C. O. R.; Paiva, A.
2018-01-01
Newton's second law is applied to study the motion of a particle subjected to a time dependent impulsive force containing a Dirac delta distribution. Within this setting, we prove that this problem can be rigorously solved neither by limit processes nor by using the theory of distributions (limited to the classical Schwartz products). However, using a distributional multiplication, not defined by a limit process, a rigorous solution emerges.
Inexact proximal Newton methods for self-concordant functions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Li, Jinchao; Andersen, Martin Skovgaard; Vandenberghe, Lieven
2016-01-01
with an application to L1-regularized covariance selection, in which prior constraints on the sparsity pattern of the inverse covariance matrix are imposed. In the numerical experiments the proximal Newton steps are computed by an accelerated proximal gradient method, and multifrontal algorithms for positive definite...... matrices with chordal sparsity patterns are used to evaluate gradients and matrix-vector products with the Hessian of the smooth component of the objective....
A Magnetic Set-Up to Help Teach Newton's Laws
Panijpan, Bhinyo; Sujarittham, Thanida; Arayathanitkul, Kwan; Tanamatayarat, Jintawat; Nopparatjamjomras, Suchai
2009-01-01
A set-up comprising a magnetic disc, a solenoid and a mechanical balance was used to teach first-year physics students Newton's third law with the help of a free body diagram. The image of a floating magnet immobilized by the solenoid's repulsive force should help dispel a common misconception of students as regards the first law: that stationary…
Accelerating Inexact Newton Schemes for Large Systems of Nonlinear Equations
Fokkema, D.R.; Sleijpen, G.L.G.; Vorst, H.A. van der
Classical iteration methods for linear systems, such as Jacobi iteration, can be accelerated considerably by Krylov subspace methods like GMRES. In this paper, we describe how inexact Newton methods for nonlinear problems can be accelerated in a similar way and how this leads to a general
Newton Power Flow Methods for Unbalanced Three-Phase Distribution Networks
Sereeter, B.; Vuik, C.; Witteveen, C.
2017-01-01
Two mismatch functions (power or current) and three coordinates (polar, Cartesian andcomplex form) result in six versions of the Newton–Raphson method for the solution of powerflow problems. In this paper, five new versions of the Newton power flow method developed forsingle-phase problems in our
Is 27 really a dangerous age for famous musicians? Retrospective cohort study.
Wolkewitz, Martin; Allignol, Arthur; Graves, Nicholas; Barnett, Adrian G
2011-12-20
To test the "27 club" hypothesis that famous musicians are at an increased risk of death at age 27. Design Cohort study using survival analysis with age as a time dependent exposure. Comparison was primarily made within musicians, and secondarily relative to the general UK population. The popular music scene from a UK perspective. Musicians (solo artists and band members) who had a number one album in the UK between 1956 and 2007 (n = 1046 musicians, with 71 deaths, 7%). Risk of death by age of musician, accounting for time dependent study entry and the number of musicians at risk. Risk was estimated using a flexible spline which would allow a bump at age 27 to appear. We identified three deaths at age 27 amongst 522 musicians at risk, giving a rate of 0.57 deaths per 100 musician years. Similar death rates were observed at ages 25 (rate = 0.56) and 32 (0.54). There was no peak in risk around age 27, but the risk of death for famous musicians throughout their 20s and 30s was two to three times higher than the general UK population. The 27 club is unlikely to be a real phenomenon. Fame may increase the risk of death among musicians, but this risk is not limited to age 27.
Parallel Newton-Krylov-Schwarz algorithms for the transonic full potential equation
Cai, Xiao-Chuan; Gropp, William D.; Keyes, David E.; Melvin, Robin G.; Young, David P.
1996-01-01
We study parallel two-level overlapping Schwarz algorithms for solving nonlinear finite element problems, in particular, for the full potential equation of aerodynamics discretized in two dimensions with bilinear elements. The overall algorithm, Newton-Krylov-Schwarz (NKS), employs an inexact finite-difference Newton method and a Krylov space iterative method, with a two-level overlapping Schwarz method as a preconditioner. We demonstrate that NKS, combined with a density upwinding continuation strategy for problems with weak shocks, is robust and, economical for this class of mixed elliptic-hyperbolic nonlinear partial differential equations, with proper specification of several parameters. We study upwinding parameters, inner convergence tolerance, coarse grid density, subdomain overlap, and the level of fill-in in the incomplete factorization, and report their effect on numerical convergence rate, overall execution time, and parallel efficiency on a distributed-memory parallel computer.
Newton-Krylov-Schwarz algorithms for the 2D full potential equation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cai, Xiao-Chuan [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Gropp, W.D. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Keyes, D.E. [Old Dominion Univ. Norfolk, VA (United States)] [and others
1996-12-31
We study parallel two-level overlapping Schwarz algorithms for solving nonlinear finite element problems, in particular, for the full potential equation of aerodynamics discretized in two dimensions with bilinear elements. The main algorithm, Newton-Krylov-Schwarz (NKS), employs an inexact finite-difference Newton method and a Krylov space iterative method, with a two-level overlapping Schwarz method as a preconditioner. We demonstrate that NKS, combined with a density upwinding continuation strategy for problems with weak shocks, can be made robust for this class of mixed elliptic-hyperbolic nonlinear partial differential equations, with proper specification of several parameters. We study upwinding parameters, inner convergence tolerance, coarse grid density, subdomain overlap, and the level of fill-in in the incomplete factorization, and report favorable choices for numerical convergence rate and overall execution time on a distributed-memory parallel computer.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Doğa Filiz Subaşı
2017-01-01
Full Text Available This paper focuses on the use of parenthetical glosses in Yildiź y sus secretos: el reino de Abdul Ḥamid, a historiographical work written in Judeo-Spanish using Hebrew letters (Istanbul, 1909 by Isaac Gabbay. The glosses are first displayed in tables according to their grammatical categories, origins and forms, followed by a discussion of the lack of any systematic use of the glosses throughout the work alongside a graphical analysis. The paper also discusses the reason for the use of the glosses.
Numerical evaluation of general n-dimensional integrals by the repeated use of Newton-Cotes formulas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nihira, Takeshi; Iwata, Tadao.
1992-07-01
The composites Simpson's rule is extended to n-dimensional integrals with variable limits. This extension is illustrated by means of the recursion relation of n-fold series. The structure of calculation by the Newton-Cotes formulas for n-dimensional integrals is clarified with this method. A quadrature formula corresponding to the Newton-Cotes formulas can be readily constructed. The results computed for some examples are given, and the error estimates for two or three dimensional integrals are described using the error term. (author)
Implementing WebQuest Based Instruction on Newton's Second Law
Gokalp, Muhammed Sait; Sharma, Manjula; Johnston, Ian; Sharma, Mia
2013-01-01
The purpose of this study was to investigate how WebQuests can be used in physics classes for teaching specific concepts. The study had three stages. The first stage was to develop a WebQuest on Newton's second law. The second stage involved developing a lesson plan to implement the WebQuest in class. In the final stage, the WebQuest was…
Newton-like methods for Navier-Stokes solution
Qin, N.; Xu, X.; Richards, B. E.
1992-12-01
The paper reports on Newton-like methods called SFDN-alpha-GMRES and SQN-alpha-GMRES methods that have been devised and proven as powerful schemes for large nonlinear problems typical of viscous compressible Navier-Stokes solutions. They can be applied using a partially converged solution from a conventional explicit or approximate implicit method. Developments have included the efficient parallelization of the schemes on a distributed memory parallel computer. The methods are illustrated using a RISC workstation and a transputer parallel system respectively to solve a hypersonic vortical flow.
Constraining the neutron star equation of state using XMM-Newton
Kaastra, J.; Mendez, M.; In 't Zand, J. J. M.; Jonker, P.G.
We have identified three possible ways in which future XMM-Newton observations can provide significant constraints on the equation of state of neutron stars. First, using a long observation of the neutron star X-ray transient Cen X-4 in quiescence one can use the RGS spectrum to constrain the
Constraining the neutron star equation of state using XMM-Newton
Jonker, P.G.; Kaastra, J.S.; Méndez, M.; in 't Zand, J.J.M.
2008-01-01
We have identified three possible ways in which future XMM-Newton observations can provide significant constraints on the equation of state of neutron stars. First, using a long observation of the neutron star X-ray transient Cen X-4 in quiescence one can use the RGS spectrum to constrain the
Design of reciprocal unit based on the Newton-Raphson approximation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gundersen, Anders Torp; Winther-Almstrup, Rasmus; Boesen, Michael
A design of a reciprocal unit based on Newton-Raphson approximation is described and implemented. We present two different designs for single precisions where one of them is extremely fast but the trade-off is an increase in area. The solution behind the fast design is that the design is fully...
Waveform control for magnetic testers using a quasi-Newton method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yamamoto, Ken-ichi; Hanba, Shigeru
2008-01-01
A nonlinear iterative learning algorithm is proposed to make a voltage waveform in the secondary coil sinusoidal in this paper. The algorithm employs a globally convergent Jacobian-free quasi-Newton type solver that has a BFGS-like structure. This method functions well, and it is demonstrated using typical soft magnetic materials
Newton-sor iterative method for solving the two-dimensional porous ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
In this paper, we consider the application of the Newton-SOR iterative method in obtaining the approximate solution of the two-dimensional porous medium equation (2D PME). The nonlinear finite difference approximation equation to the 2D PME is derived by using the implicit finite difference scheme. The developed ...
Old/Past/Ancient/Historic Frontiers in Black Hole Astrophysics
Trimble, Virginia
Basic questions about black holes, some of which are fairly old, include (1) What is a black hole? (2) Do black holes exist? And the answer to this depends a good deal on the answer to (1), (3) Where, when, why, and how have they formed? and (4) What are they good for? Here I attempt some elaboration of the questions and partial answers, noting that general relativity is required to described some of the phenomena, while dear old Isaac Newton is OK for others.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schuch, N.J.
1983-01-01
An optical and a radio survey have been carried out. The optical observations consist of a spectroscopic survey in which redshift data for cluster galaxies and optical identifications of radio sources were obtained with the 98-inch Isaac Newton telescope at the Royal Greenwich Observatory, and the 200-inch Hale telescope; the photographic survey in B, V and R colors was made with the 48-inch Schmidt telescope at Palomar. Some results on the galaxy distribution in the Ursa Major supercluster are briefly discussed. (Auth.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Meaburn, J.; Clayton, C.A.
1987-01-01
In a previous paper the authors reported the discovery of a 'jet' of ionized gas ≅ 2 arcsec across emerging from a dark area of M17 with approaching speeds up to 115 km s -1 . The vicinity of this jet has now been observed in detail in the light of [O III] 5007 A with the Manchester echelle, with a five-element multi-slit, on the Isaac Newton Telescope. A variety of new high-speed phenomena has been discovered in the ionized gas. (author)
From falling bodies to radio waves classical physicists and their discoveries
Segrè, Emilio
1984-01-01
Meet a diverse group of highly original thinkers and learn about their lives and achievements: Galileo, a founding father of astronomy and physics; Christiaan Huygens, a seventeenth-century pioneer of wave-particle duality; and Isaac Newton, the English mathematician and physicist who laid the groundwork for a scientific revolution and promoted radical investigation as the means to reveal nature's hidden workings.This chronicle of physics and physicists traces the development of scientific thought from these originators to their successors, among them Faraday, Watts, Helmholtz, Maxwell, Boltzm
Manton, Jonathan H.
2012-01-01
The Newton iteration is a popular method for minimising a cost function on Euclidean space. Various generalisations to cost functions defined on manifolds appear in the literature. In each case, the convergence rate of the generalised Newton iteration needed establishing from first principles. The present paper presents a framework for generalising iterative methods from Euclidean space to manifolds that ensures local convergence rates are preserved. It applies to any (memoryless) iterative m...
Searching for propeller-phase ULXs in the XMM-Newton Serendipitous Source Catalogue
Earnshaw, H. P.; Roberts, T. P.; Sathyaprakash, R.
2018-05-01
We search for transient sources in a sample of ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs) from the 3XMM-DR4 release of the XMM-Newton Serendipitous Source Catalogue in order to find candidate neutron star ULXs alternating between an accreting state and the propeller regime, in which the luminosity drops dramatically. By examining their fluxes and flux upper limits, we identify five ULXs that demonstrate long-term variability of over an order of magnitude. Using Chandra and Swift data to further characterize their light curves, we find that two of these sources are detected only once and could be X-ray binaries in outburst that only briefly reach ULX luminosities. Two others are consistent with being super-Eddington accreting sources with high levels of inter-observation variability. One source, M51 ULX-4, demonstrates apparent bimodal flux behaviour that could indicate the propeller regime. It has a hard X-ray spectrum, but no significant pulsations in its timing data, although with an upper limit of 10 per cent of the signal pulsed at ˜1.5 Hz a pulsating ULX cannot be excluded, particularly if the pulsations are transient. By simulating XMM-Newton observations of a population of pulsating ULXs, we predict that there could be approximately 200 other bimodal ULXs that have not been observed sufficiently well by XMM-Newton to be identified as transient.
Yeckel, Andrew; Lun, Lisa; Derby, Jeffrey J.
2009-12-01
A new, approximate block Newton (ABN) method is derived and tested for the coupled solution of nonlinear models, each of which is treated as a modular, black box. Such an approach is motivated by a desire to maintain software flexibility without sacrificing solution efficiency or robustness. Though block Newton methods of similar type have been proposed and studied, we present a unique derivation and use it to sort out some of the more confusing points in the literature. In particular, we show that our ABN method behaves like a Newton iteration preconditioned by an inexact Newton solver derived from subproblem Jacobians. The method is demonstrated on several conjugate heat transfer problems modeled after melt crystal growth processes. These problems are represented by partitioned spatial regions, each modeled by independent heat transfer codes and linked by temperature and flux matching conditions at the boundaries common to the partitions. Whereas a typical block Gauss-Seidel iteration fails about half the time for the model problem, quadratic convergence is achieved by the ABN method under all conditions studied here. Additional performance advantages over existing methods are demonstrated and discussed.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Cynthia Vilaça
2015-12-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we present an analysis of the use of the ascetic treatise Libro dell’Abate Isaac of Syria by academicians of the Crusca as a source of accreditations for the preparation of the Vocabolario degli Accademici della Crusca, noted Italian lexicographical work, in light of the criteria used for the construction of the educated norm discussed by Bechara (2000
Supporting the learning of Newton's laws with graphical data
Piggott, David
Teaching physics provides the opportunity for a very unique interaction between students and instructor that is not found in chemistry or biology. Physics has a heavy emphasis on trying to alter students' misconceptions about how things work in the real word. In chemistry and microbiology this is not an issue because the topics of discussion in those classes are a new experience for the students. In the case of physics the students have everyday experience with the different concepts discussed. This causes the students to build incorrect mental models explaining how different things work. In order to correct these mental models physics teachers must first get the students to vocalize these misconceptions. Then the teacher must confront the students with an example that exposes the false nature of their model. Finally, the teacher must help the student resolve these discrepancies and form the correct model. This study attempts to resolve these discrepancies by giving the students concrete evidence via graphs of Newton's laws. The results reported here indicate that this method of eliciting the misconception, confronting the misconception, and resolving the misconception is successful with Newton's third law, but only marginally successful for first and second laws.
Gravitation: Field theory par excellence Newton, Einstein, and beyond
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yilmaz, H.
1984-01-01
Newtonian gravity satifies the two principles of equivalence m/sub i/ = m/sub p/ (the passive principle) and m/sub a/ = m/sub p/ (the active principle). A relativistic gauge field concept in D = s+1 dimensional curved-space will, in general, violate these two principles as in m/sub p/ = αm/sub i/, m/sub a/ = lambdam/sub p/ where α = D: 3 and lambda measures the presence of the field stress-energy t/sup ν//sub μ/ in the field equations. It is shown that α = 1, lambda = 0 corresponds to general relativity and α = 1, lambda = 1 to the theory of the author. It is noted that the correspondence limit of general relativity is not Newton's theory but a theory suggested by Robert Hooke a few years before Newton published his in Principia. The gauge is independent of the two principles but had to do with local special relativistic correspondence and compatibility with quantum mechanics. It is shown that unless α = 1, lambda = 1 the generalized theory cannot predict correctly many observables effects, including the 532'' per century Newtonian part in Mercury's perihelion advance
XMM-Newton detects X-ray 'solar cycle' in distant star
2004-05-01
The Sun as observed by SOHO hi-res Size hi-res: 708 Kb The Sun as observed by SOHO The Sun as observed by the ESA/NASA SOHO observatory near the minimum of the solar cycle (left) and near its maximum (right). The signs of solar activity near the maximum are clearly seen. New XMM-Newton observations suggest that this behaviour may be typical of stars like the Sun, such as HD 81809 in the constellation Hydra. Solar flare - 4 November 2003 The huge flare produced on 4 November 2003 This image of the Sun, obtained by the ESA/NASA SOHO observatory, shows the powerful X-ray flare that took place on 4 November 2003. The associated coronal mass ejection, coming out of the Sun at a speed of 8.2 million kilometres per hour, hit the Earth several hours later and caused disruptions to telecommunication and power distribution lines. New XMM-Newton observations suggest that this behaviour may be typical of stars like the Sun, such as HD 81809 in the constellation Hydra. Since the time Galileo discovered sunspots, in 1610, astronomers have measured their number, size and location on the disc of the Sun. Sunspots are relatively cooler areas on the Sun that are observed as dark patches. Their number rises and falls with the level of activity of the Sun in a cycle of about 11 years. When the Sun is very active, large-scale phenomena take place, such as the flares and coronal mass ejections observed by the ESA/NASA solar observatory SOHO. These events release a large amount of energy and charged particles that hit the Earth and can cause powerful magnetic storms, affecting radio communications, power distribution lines and even our weather and climate. During the solar cycle, the X-ray emission from the Sun varies by a large amount (about a factor of 100) and is strongest when the cycle is at its peak and the surface of the Sun is covered by the largest number of spots. ESA's X-ray observatory, XMM-Newton, has now shown for the first time that this cyclic X-ray behaviour is common to
Scalable Newton-Krylov solver for very large power flow problems
Idema, R.; Lahaye, D.J.P.; Vuik, C.; Van der Sluis, L.
2010-01-01
The power flow problem is generally solved by the Newton-Raphson method with a sparse direct solver for the linear system of equations in each iteration. While this works fine for small power flow problems, we will show that for very large problems the direct solver is very slow and we present
Non-relativistic spinning particle in a Newton-Cartan background
Barducci, Andrea; Casalbuoni, Roberto; Gomis, Joaquim
2018-01-01
We construct the action of a non-relativistic spinning particle moving in a general torsionless Newton-Cartan background. The particle does not follow the geodesic equations, instead the motion is governed by the non-relativistic analog of Papapetrou equation. The spinning particle is described in terms of Grassmann variables. In the flat case the action is invariant under the non-relativistic analog of space-time vector supersymmetry.
ASCA and XMM-Newton observations of the galactic supernova remnant G311.5−0.3
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Pannuti T.G.
2017-01-01
Full Text Available We present an analysis of X-ray observations made with ASCA and XMM-Newton of the Galactic supernova remnant (SNR G311.5−0.3. Prior infrared and radio observations of this SNR have revealed a shell-like morphology at both wavelengths. The spectral index of the radio emission is consistent with synchrotron emission, while the infrared colors are consistent with emission from shocked molecular hydrogen. Also previous CO observations have indicated an interaction between G311.5−0.3 and an adjacent molecular cloud. Our previous analysis of the pointed ASCA observation made of this SNR detected X-ray emission from the source for the first time but lacked the sensitivity and the angular resolution to rigorously investigate its X-ray properties. We have analyzed an archival XMM-Newton observation that included G311.5−0.3 in the field of view: this is the first time that XMM-Newton data has been used to probe the X-ray properties of this SNR. The XMM-Newton observation confirms that the X-ray emission from G311.5−0.3 is centrally concentrated and supports the classification of this source as a mixed-morphology SNR. In addition, our joint fitting of extracted ASCA and XMM-Newton spectra favor a thermal origin for the X-ray emission over a non-thermal origin. The spectral fitting parameters for our TBABS×APEC fit to the extracted spectra are NH = 4.63+1.87 −0.85×1022 cm −2 and kT = 0.68+0.20−0.24 keV. From these fit parameters, we derive the following values for physical parameters of the SNR: ne = 0.20 cm −3, np = 0.17 cm −3, MX = 21.4 M· and P/k = 3.18×106 K cm −3.
Carrera, R.; Casamiquela, L.; Ospina, N.; Balaguer-Núñez, L.; Jordi, C.; Monteagudo, L.
2015-06-01
Context. Open clusters are key to studying the formation and evolution of the Galactic disc. However, there is a deficiency of radial velocity and chemical abundance determinations for open clusters in the literature. Aims: We intend to increase the number of determinations of radial velocities and metallicities from spectroscopy for open clusters. Methods: We acquired medium-resolution spectra (R ~ 8000) in the infrared region Ca ii triplet lines (~8500 Å) for several stars in five open clusters with the long-slit IDS spectrograph on the 2.5 m Isaac Newton Telescope (Roque de los Muchachos Observatory, Spain). Radial velocities were obtained by cross-correlation fitting techniques. The relationships available in the literature between the strength of infrared Ca ii lines and metallicity were also used to derive the metallicity for each cluster. Results: We obtain ⟨Vr⟩ = 48.6 ± 3.4, -58.4 ± 6.8, 26.0 ± 4.3, and -65.3 ± 3.2 km s-1 for Berkeley 23, NGC 559, NGC 6603, and NGC 7245, respectively. We found [ Fe/H ] = -0.25 ± 0.14 and -0.15 ± 0.18 for NGC 559 and NGC 7245, respectively. Berkeley 23 has low metallicity, [ Fe/H ] = -0.42 ± 0.13, which is similar to other open clusters in the outskirts of the Galactic disc. In contrast, we derived high metallicity ([ Fe/H ] = +0.43 ± 0.15) for NGC 6603, which places this system among the most metal-rich known open clusters. To our knowledge, this is the first determination of radial velocities and metallicities from spectroscopy for these clusters, except NGC 6603, for which radial velocities had been previously determined. We have also analysed ten stars in the line of sight to King 1. Because of the large dispersion obtained in both radial velocity and metallicity, we cannot be sure that we have sampled true cluster members. Based on observations made with the 2.5 m Isaac Newton Telescope operated on the island of La Palma by the Isaac Newton Group in the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nojiri, Shin'ichi; Odintsov, Sergei D.
2007-01-01
We consider class of modified f(R) gravities with the effective cosmological constant epoch at the early and late universe. Such models pass most of solar system tests as well they satisfy to cosmological bounds. Despite their very attractive properties, it is shown that one realistic class of such models may lead to significant Newton law corrections at large cosmological scales. Nevertheless, these corrections are small at solar system as well as at the future universe. Another realistic model with acceptable Newton law regime shows the matter instability
Song, Guanli; Wang, Yinghui; Zhang, Runshun; Liu, Baoyan; Zhou, Xuezhong; Zhou, Xiaji; Zhang, Hong; Guo, Yufeng; Xue, Yanxing; Xu, Lili
2014-09-01
The current modes of experience inheritance from famous specialists in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) include master and disciple, literature review, clinical-epidemiology-based clinical research observation, and analysis and data mining via computer and database technologies. Each mode has its advantages and disadvantages. However, a scientific and instructive experience inheritance mode has not been developed. The advent of the big data era as well as the formation and practice accumulation of the TCM clinical research paradigm in the real world have provided new perspectives, techniques, and methods for inheriting experience from famous TCM specialists. Through continuous exploration and practice, the research group proposes the innovation research mode based on the real-world TCM clinical research paradigm, which involves the inheritance and innovation of the existing modes. This mode is formulated in line with its own development regularity of TCM and is expected to become the main mode of experience inheritance in the clinical field.
Derivation of special relativity from Maxwell and Newton.
Dunstan, D J
2008-05-28
Special relativity derives directly from the principle of relativity and from Newton's laws of motion with a single undetermined parameter, which is found from Faraday's and Ampère's experimental work and from Maxwell's own introduction of the displacement current to be the -c(-2) term in the Lorentz transformations. The axiom of the constancy of the speed of light is quite unnecessary. The behaviour and the mechanism of the propagation of light are not at the foundations of special relativity.
Newton's method for solving a quadratic matrix equation with special coefficient matrices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Seo, Sang-Hyup; Seo, Jong Hyun; Kim, Hyun-Min
2014-01-01
We consider the iterative method for solving a quadratic matrix equation with special coefficient matrices which arises in the quasi-birth-death problem. In this paper, we show that the elementwise minimal positive solvents to quadratic matrix equations can be obtained using Newton's method. We also prove that the convergence rate of the Newton iteration is quadratic if the Fréchet derivative at the elementwise minimal positive solvent is nonsingular. However, if the Fréchet derivative is singular, the convergence rate is at least linear. Numerical experiments of the convergence rate are given.(This is summarized a paper which is to appear in Honam Mathematical Journal.)
Deductive Reasoning to Teach Newton's Law of Motion
Lee, Han Su; Park, Jongwon
2013-01-01
Finding out about and then understanding the forces acting on a moving object, based on a description of the change in motion of this object, is an important part of the conceptual understanding of Newton's law of motion. Using Hempel's deductive-normative model for scientific explanation, we developed a deductive explanation task (DET),…
Moffatt, Keith; Kephart, Thomas
2014-10-01
This online volume contains a selection of papers arising from two workshops organised within the six-month programme Topological Dynamics in the Physical and Biological Sciences held at the Isaac Newton Institute for Mathematical Sciences, Cambridge, from July to December 2012. The first of these was a 'satellite workshop' held at the International Centre for Mathematical Sciences (ICMS), Edinburgh, 15-19 October 2012, under the title Tangled Magnetic Fields in Astro- and Plasma Physics, and with Scientific Organising Committee: Konrad Bajer (Warsaw), Mitchell Berger (Exeter), Steve Cowley (Culham Centre for Fusion Energy), Andrew Gilbert (Exeter), Gunnar Hornig (Dundee), and Clare Parnell (St Andrews). The second was the workshop Quantised Flux in Tightly Knotted and Linked Systems held at the Newton Institute, 3- 7 December 2012, with Scientific Organising Committee: Natalia Berloff (DAMTP, Cambridge), Anne-Christine Davis (DAMTP, Cambridge), Jason Cantarella (University of Georgia), Thomas Kephart (Vanderbilt University), Paul Sutcliffe (Durham University), and Tanmay Vachaspati (Arizona State University). Videos of the lectures given at this second workshop can be viewed at http://www.newton.ac.uk/webseminars. The papers published here follow a natural progression through the following topics: helicity and related invariants of magnetic fields in ideal MHD; relaxation under topological constraints; lower bounds on magnetic energy; current and vortex filaments; applications in the solar corona, tokamak plasmas, and cyclone dynamics; higher-order invariants; topology of curves and surfaces, and energy measures; tight knots; applications to Bose-Einstein condensates, QCD, and cosmic superstring theory. Some of the papers span more than one of these areas. We owe a great debt of gratitude to Konrad Bajer, who was one of the guiding spirits behind the whole Newton Institute program, and who took particular responsibility for the Satellite Workshop at ICMS
Famous Stone Patients and Their Disease
Moran, Michael E.
2007-04-01
The fact that stone patients have endured much throughout the ages and that prior to our current era, when the ultimate horror, "being cut for the stone" was the only alternative to the repeated episodes of colic, should be recalled from time to time. Urolithiasis has affected humanity throughout the ages and has been indiscriminate to those lives it touched. A full accounting of those who have suffered and recorded their agonies is beyond the scope of this investigation; however, even a partial accounting is valuable for present day physicians who care for those with stone disease. For the present work, the historical accounts of stone disease literature were scrutinized for individual sufferers who could be cross-referenced from other sources as legitimately afflicted by stones. Only those patients that could be documented and were (or are) well known were included, because the internet is now a verdant repository of thousands of "not so well knowns." Reliable historical data was found for a variety of persons from the pre-Christian era to the present, including those remembered as philosophers and scientists, physicians, clergy, leaders and rulers, entertainers, athletes and fictitious/Hollywood-type individuals. Verified accounts of famous stone formers were chosen for this paper, and are presented in chronological order. The list of urolithiasis sufferers presented here is undoubtedly incomplete, but it is not through lack of trying that they are missing. Most often, the suffering do so silently, and that is always allowed.
Albert Einstein, visto desde la filosofía, en el año internacional de la física
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Javier Monserrat Puchades
2012-05-01
Full Text Available En el año 1905 aparecieron una serie de artículos de Albert Einstein en quese contenían ya algunas de sus decisivas aportaciones a la ciencia física.Este annus mirabilis sólo es comparable quizá en la historia de la física a otroannus mirabilis, de 1665 a 1666, en que Isaac Newton estableció las bases delcálculo integral, la ley de la gravitación y la teoría de los colores. [...
An introduction to the electron theory of solids
Stringer, John; Hopkins, D W; Finniston, H M
2013-01-01
An Introduction to the Electron Theory of Solids introduces the reader to the electron theory of solids. Topics covered range from the breakdown of classical theory to atomic spectra and the old quantum theory, as well as the uncertainty principle of Heisenberg and the foundations of quantum mechanics. Some problems in wave mechanics and a wave-mechanical treatment of the simple harmonic oscillator and the hydrogen atom are also presented.Comprised of 12 chapters, this book begins with an introduction to Isaac Newton's theory of classical mechanics and how the scientists after him discounted h