WorldWideScience

Sample records for irrigation-induced contamination problems

  1. CyanoHAB occurrence and water irrigation cyanotoxin contamination: ecological impacts and potential health risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saqrane, Sana; Oudra, Brahim

    2009-12-01

    The world-wide occurrence of harmful cyanobacteria blooms "CyanoHAB" in fresh and brackish waters creates problems for all life forms. During CyanoHAB events, toxic cyanobacteria produce cyanotoxins at high levels that can cause chronic and sub-chronic toxicities to animals, plants and humans. Cyanotoxicity in eukaryotes has been mainly focused on animals, but during these last years, data, related to cyanotoxin (mainly microcystins, MCs) impact on both aquatic and terrestrials crop plants irrigated by water containing these toxins, have become more and more available. This last cited fact is gaining importance since plants could in a direct or indirect manner contribute to cyanotoxin transfer through the food chain, and thus constitute a potent health risk source. The use of this contaminated irrigation water can also have an economical impact which appears by a reduction of the germination rate of seeds, and alteration of the quality and the productivity of crop plants. The main objective of this work was to discuss the eventual phytotoxicity of cyanotoxins (microcystins) as the major agricultural impacts induced by the use of contaminated water for plant irrigation. These investigations confirm the harmful effects (ecological, eco-physiological, socio-economical and sanitary risk) of dissolved MCs on agricultural plants. Thus, cyanotoxin phytotoxicity strongly suggests a need for the surveillance of CyanoHAB and the monitoring of water irrigation quality as well as for drinking water.

  2. Effect of low-cost irrigation methods on microbial contamination of lettuce irrigated with untreated wastewater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keraita, Bernard; Konradsen, Flemming; Drechsel, P.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the effectiveness of simple irrigation methods such as drip irrigation kits, furrow irrigation and use of watering cans in reducing contamination of lettuce irrigated with polluted water in urban farming in Ghana. METHODS: Trials on drip kits, furrow irrigation and watering...... cans were conducted with urban vegetable farmers. Trials were arranged in a completely randomised block design with each plot having all three irrigation methods tested. This was conducted in both dry and wet seasons. Three hundred and ninety-six lettuce, 72 soil, 15 poultry manure and 32 water samples...... were analysed for thermotolerant coliforms and helminth eggs. RESULTS: Lettuce irrigated with drip kits had the lowest levels of contamination, with, on average, 4 log units per 100 g, fewer thermotolerant coliforms than that irrigated with watering cans. However, drip kits often got clogged, required...

  3. CyanoHAB Occurrence and Water Irrigation Cyanotoxin Contamination: Ecological Impacts and Potential Health Risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saqrane, Sana; Oudra, Brahim

    2009-01-01

    The world-wide occurrence of harmful cyanobacteria blooms “CyanoHAB” in fresh and brackish waters creates problems for all life forms. During CyanoHAB events, toxic cyanobacteria produce cyanotoxins at high levels that can cause chronic and sub-chronic toxicities to animals, plants and humans. Cyanotoxicity in eukaryotes has been mainly focused on animals, but during these last years, data, related to cyanotoxin (mainly microcystins, MCs) impact on both aquatic and terrestrials crop plants irrigated by water containing these toxins, have become more and more available. This last cited fact is gaining importance since plants could in a direct or indirect manner contribute to cyanotoxin transfer through the food chain, and thus constitute a potent health risk source. The use of this contaminated irrigation water can also have an economical impact which appears by a reduction of the germination rate of seeds, and alteration of the quality and the productivity of crop plants. The main objective of this work was to discuss the eventual phytotoxicity of cyanotoxins (microcystins) as the major agricultural impacts induced by the use of contaminated water for plant irrigation. These investigations confirm the harmful effects (ecological, eco-physiological, socio-economical and sanitary risk) of dissolved MCs on agricultural plants. Thus, cyanotoxin phytotoxicity strongly suggests a need for the surveillance of CyanoHAB and the monitoring of water irrigation quality as well as for drinking water. PMID:22069535

  4. Reducing microbial contamination on wastewater-irrigated lettuce by cessation of irrigation before harvesting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keraita, Bernard; Konradsen, Flemming; Drechsel, Pay

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the effectiveness of cessation of irrigation before harvesting in reducing microbial contamination of lettuce irrigated with wastewater in urban vegetable farming in Ghana. METHODS: Assessment was done under actual field conditions with urban vegetable farmers in Ghana. Trials...... were arranged in completely randomized block design and done both in the dry and wet seasons. Seven hundred and twenty-six lettuce samples and 36 water samples were analysed for thermotolerant coliforms and helminth eggs. RESULTS: On average, 0.65 log units for indicator thermotolerant coliforms and 0.......4 helminth eggs per 100 g of lettuce were removed on each non-irrigated day from lettuce in the dry season. This corresponded to a daily loss of 1.4 tonnes/ha of fresh weight of lettuce. As an input for exposure analysis to make risk estimates, the decay coefficient, k, for thermotolerant coliforms was 0...

  5. Irrigation-induced contamination of water, sediment, and biota in the western United States-synthesis of data from the National Irrigation Water Quality Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiler, Ralph L.; Skorupa, Joseph P.; Naftz, David L.; Nolan, B. Thomas

    2003-01-01

    In October 1985 the U.S. Department of the Interior (DOI), through the National Irrigation Water Quality Program (NIWQP), began a series of field investigations at 26 areas in the Western United States to determine whether irrigation drainage has had harmful effects on fish, wildlife, and humans or has reduced beneficial uses of water. In 1992 NIWQP initiated the Data Synthesis Project to evaluate data collected during the field investigations. Geologic, climatologic, and hydrologic data were evaluated and water, sediment, and biota from the 26 areas were analyzed to identify commonalities and dominant factors that result in irrigation-induced contamination of water and biota. Data collected for the 26 area investigations have been compiled and merged into a common data base. The structure of the data base is designed to enable assessment of relations between contaminant concentrations in water, sediment, and biota. The data base is available to the scientific community through the World Wide Web at URL http://www.usbr.gov/niwqp. Analysis of the data base for the Data Synthesis included use of summary statistics, factor analysis, and logistic regression. A Geographic Information System was used to store and analyze spatially oriented digital data such as land use, geology and evaporation rates. In the U.S. Department of the Interior (DOI) study areas, samples of water, bottom sediment, and biota were collected for trace-element and pesticide analysis. Contaminants most commonly associated with irrigation drainage were identified by comparing concentrations in water with established criteria. For surface water, the criteria used were typically chronic criteria for the protection of freshwater aquatic life. Because ground water can discharge to the surface where wildlife can be exposed to it, the criteria used for ground water were both the maximum contaminant levels (MCL's) for drinking water and the chronic criteria for the protection of freshwater aquatic life

  6. 49 Trace Metals' Contamination of Stream Water and Irrigated Crop ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABUBAKAR AHMED

    human consumption as they pose serious health risks due to contamination with the metals. For environmental ... mining activities, industrial and domestic effluents, urban ... drinking and bathing water, irrigation, food, fuel and energy.

  7. Distribution of Arsenic and Risk Assessment of Activities on Soccer Pitches Irrigated with Arsenic-Contaminated Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Martínez-Villegas

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to estimate the risk of human exposure to arsenic due to sporting activities in a private soccer club in Mexico, where arsenic-contaminated water was regularly used for irrigation. For this purpose, the total concentration in the topsoil was considered for risk assessment. This was accomplished through three main objectives: (1 measuring arsenic concentrations in irrigation water and irrigated soils, (2 determining arsenic spatial distribution in shallow soils with Geographical Information Systems (GIS using geostatistical analysis, and (3 collecting field and survey data to develop a risk assessment calculation for soccer activities in the soccer club. The results showed that the average arsenic concentrations in shallow soils (138.1 mg/kg were 6.2 times higher than the Mexican threshold for domestic soils (22 mg/kg. Furthermore, dermal contact between exposed users and contaminated soils accounted for a maximum carcinogenic risk value of 1.8 × 10−5, which is one order of magnitude higher than the recommended risk value, while arsenic concentrations in the irrigation water were higher (6 mg/L than the WHO’s permissible threshold in drinking water, explaining the contamination of soils after irrigation. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first risk study regarding dermal contact with arsenic following regular grass irrigation with contaminated water in soccer pitches.

  8. Health risks of heavy metals in contaminated soils and food crops irrigated with wastewater in Beijing, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, S.; Cao, Q.; Zheng, Y.M.; Huang, Y.Z.; Zhu, Y.G.

    2008-01-01

    Consumption of food crops contaminated with heavy metals is a major food chain route for human exposure. We studied the health risks of heavy metals in contaminated food crops irrigated with wastewater. Results indicate that there is a substantial buildup of heavy metals in wastewater-irrigated soils, collected from Beijing, China. Heavy metal concentrations in plants grown in wastewater-irrigated soils were significantly higher (P ≤ 0.001) than in plants grown in the reference soil, and exceeded the permissible limits set by the State Environmental Protection Administration (SEPA) in China and the World Health Organization (WHO). Furthermore, this study highlights that both adults and children consuming food crops grown in wastewater-irrigated soils ingest significant amount of the metals studied. However, health risk index values of less than 1 indicate a relative absence of health risks associated with the ingestion of contaminated vegetables. - Long-term wastewater irrigation leads to buildup of heavy metals in soils and food crops

  9. Water and solute balances as a basis for sustainable irrigation agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pla-Sentís, Ildefonso

    2015-04-01

    The growing development of irrigated agriculture is necessary for the sustainable production of the food required by the increasing World's population. Such development is limited by the increasing scarcity and low quality of the available water resources and by the competitive use of the water for other purposes. There are also increasing problems of contamination of surface and ground waters to be used for other purposes by the drainage effluents of irrigated lands. Irrigation and drainage may cause drastic changes in the regime and balance of water and solutes (salts, sodium, contaminants) in the soil profile, resulting in problems of water supply to crops and problems of salinization, sodification and contamination of soils and ground waters. This is affected by climate, crops, soils, ground water depth, irrigation and groundwater composition, and by irrigation and drainage management. In order to predict and prevent such problems for a sustainable irrigated agriculture and increased efficiency in water use, under each particular set of conditions, there have to be considered both the hydrological, physical and chemical processes determining such water and solute balances in the soil profile. In this contribution there are proposed the new versions of two modeling approaches (SOMORE and SALSODIMAR) to predict those balances and to guide irrigation water use and management, integrating the different factors involved in such processes. Examples of their application under Mediterranean and tropical climate conditions are also presented.

  10. Occurrence and potential crop uptake of emerging contaminants and related compounds in an agricultural irrigation network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón-Preciado, Diana; Matamoros, Víctor; Bayona, Josep M

    2011-12-15

    Emerging contaminants have received much attention in recent years due to their presence in surface waters, but little attention has been paid to their occurrence in agricultural irrigation waters. This study investigated the occurrence of these compounds in an agricultural irrigation network in northeastern Spain and, for the first time, using two plant uptake models, estimated the concentration of selected micropollutants in crops. The concentration of micropollutants in agricultural irrigation waters ranged from 10 to 5130 ng L(-1) and exhibited some attenuation over the course of the irrigation network. Bromoform, chloroform, diclofenac, caffeine, ibuprofen, naproxen, methyl dihydrojasmonate, galaxolide, butylated hydroxytoluene, and butylated hydroxyanisole were the most abundant contaminants (>200 ng L(-1), on average). The estimated concentration of micropollutants in crops ranged from contaminants detected). Further studies are needed to determine the health implications that the presence of these compounds in fruit and vegetables may have for consumers. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Microbial risk in wastewater irrigated lettuce: comparing Escherichia coli contamination from an experimental site with a laboratory approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makkaew, P; Miller, M; Fallowfield, H J; Cromar, N J

    This study assessed the contamination of Escherichia coli, in lettuce grown with treated domestic wastewater in four different irrigation configurations: open spray, spray under plastic sheet cover, open drip and drip under plastic sheet cover. Samples of lettuce from each irrigation configuration and irrigating wastewater were collected during the growing season. No E. coli was detected in lettuce from drip irrigated beds. All lettuce samples from spray beds were positive for E. coli, however, no statistical difference (p > 0.05) was detected between lettuces grown in open spray or covered spray beds. The results from the field experiment were also compared to a laboratory experiment which used submersion of lettuce in wastewater of known E. coli concentration as a surrogate method to assess contamination following irrigation. The microbial quality of spray bed lettuces was not significantly different from submersed lettuce when irrigated with wastewater containing 1,299.7 E. coli MPN/100 mL (p > 0.05). This study is significant since it is the first to validate that the microbial contamination of lettuce irrigated with wastewater in the field is comparable with a laboratory technique frequently applied in the quantitative microbial risk assessment of the consumption of wastewater irrigated salad crops.

  12. Microbial indicators of fecal contamination in soils under different wastewater irrigation patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contreras-Godinez, C. A.; Palacios-Lopez, O. A.; Munoz-Castellanos, L. N.; Saucedo-Teran, R.; Rubio-Arias, H.; Nevarez-Moorillon, G. V.

    2009-01-01

    The use of wastewater to irrigate produce was a common practice in some suburban areas in Mexico. The continuous use of wastewater can increase the chance of fecal soil contamination, which can percolate in soil and finally cause groundwater contamination. A suburban area in Chihuahua, mexico, has been traditionally irradiated with wastewater for production of agriculture goods, including produce and animal foodstuffs. (Author)

  13. Occurrence and potential crop uptake of emerging contaminants and related compounds in an agricultural irrigation network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calderón-Preciado, Diana; Matamoros, Víctor; Bayona, Josep M.

    2011-01-01

    Emerging contaminants have received much attention in recent years due to their presence in surface waters, but little attention has been paid to their occurrence in agricultural irrigation waters. This study investigated the occurrence of these compounds in an agricultural irrigation network in northeastern Spain and, for the first time, using two plant uptake models, estimated the concentration of selected micropollutants in crops. The concentration of micropollutants in agricultural irrigation waters ranged from 10 to 5130 ng L −1 and exhibited some attenuation over the course of the irrigation network. Bromoform, chloroform, diclofenac, caffeine, ibuprofen, naproxen, methyl dihydrojasmonate, galaxolide, butylated hydroxytoluene, and butylated hydroxyanisole were the most abundant contaminants (> 200 ng L −1 , on average). The estimated concentration of micropollutants in crops ranged from −1 , with the neutral compounds being the most abundant. Moreover, the predicted data obtained by fate models generally agreed with experimental data. Finally, human exposure to micropollutants through fruit and vegetable consumption was estimated to be 9.8 μg per person and week (Σ 27 contaminants detected). Further studies are needed to determine the health implications that the presence of these compounds in fruit and vegetables may have for consumers.

  14. A Novel Wound Retractor Combining Continuous Irrigation and Barrier Protection Reduces Incisional Contamination in Colorectal Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papaconstantinou, Harry T; Ricciardi, Rocco; Margolin, David A; Bergamaschi, Roberto; Moesinger, Robert C; Lichliter, Warren E; Birnbaum, Elisa H

    2018-03-09

    Surgical site infection (SSI) remains a persistent and morbid problem in colorectal surgery. Key to its pathogenesis is the degree of intraoperative bacterial contamination at the surgical site. The purpose of this study was to evaluate a novel wound retractor at reducing bacterial contamination. A prospective multicenter pilot study utilizing a novel wound retractor combining continuous irrigation and barrier protection was conducted in patients undergoing elective colorectal resections. Culture swabs were collected from the incision edge prior to device placement and from the exposed and protected incision edge prior to device removal. The primary and secondary endpoints were the rate of enteric and overall bacterial contamination on the exposed incision edge as compared to the protected incision edge, respectively. The safety endpoint was the absence of serious device-related adverse events. A total of 86 patients were eligible for analysis. The novel wound retractor was associated with a 66% reduction in overall bacterial contamination at the protected incision edge compared to the exposed incision edge (11.9 vs. 34.5%, P contamination (9.5% vs. 33.3%, P contamination. Improved methods to counteract wound contamination represent a promising strategy for SSI prevention (NCT 02413879).

  15. Occurrence and potential crop uptake of emerging contaminants and related compounds in an agricultural irrigation network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calderon-Preciado, Diana [IDAEA-CSIC, Jordi Girona, 18, E-08034 Barcelona (Spain); Matamoros, Victor, E-mail: victor.matamoros@udg.edu [Department of Chemistry, University of Girona, Campus Montilivi, 17071 Girona (Spain); Bayona, Josep M. [IDAEA-CSIC, Jordi Girona, 18, E-08034 Barcelona (Spain)

    2011-12-15

    Emerging contaminants have received much attention in recent years due to their presence in surface waters, but little attention has been paid to their occurrence in agricultural irrigation waters. This study investigated the occurrence of these compounds in an agricultural irrigation network in northeastern Spain and, for the first time, using two plant uptake models, estimated the concentration of selected micropollutants in crops. The concentration of micropollutants in agricultural irrigation waters ranged from 10 to 5130 ng L{sup -1} and exhibited some attenuation over the course of the irrigation network. Bromoform, chloroform, diclofenac, caffeine, ibuprofen, naproxen, methyl dihydrojasmonate, galaxolide, butylated hydroxytoluene, and butylated hydroxyanisole were the most abundant contaminants (> 200 ng L{sup -1}, on average). The estimated concentration of micropollutants in crops ranged from < 1 to 7677 ng kg{sup -1}, with the neutral compounds being the most abundant. Moreover, the predicted data obtained by fate models generally agreed with experimental data. Finally, human exposure to micropollutants through fruit and vegetable consumption was estimated to be 9.8 {mu}g per person and week ({Sigma} 27 contaminants detected). Further studies are needed to determine the health implications that the presence of these compounds in fruit and vegetables may have for consumers.

  16. Assessing the fate of antibiotic contaminants in metal contaminated soils four years after cessation of long-term waste water irrigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamtam, Fatima; Oort, Folkert van; Le Bot, Barbara; Dinh, Tuc; Mompelat, Sophie; Chevreuil, Marc; Lamy, Isabelle; Thiry, Medard

    2011-01-01

    Spreading of urban wastewater on agricultural land may lead to concomitant input of organic and inorganic pollutants. Such multiple pollution sites offer unique opportunities to study the fate of both heavy metals and pharmaceuticals. We examined the occurrence and fate of selected antibiotics in sandy-textured soils, sampled four years after cessation of 100 years irrigation with urban wastewater from the Paris agglomeration. Previous studies on heavy metal contamination of these soils guided our sampling strategy. Six antibiotics were studied, including quinolones, with a strong affinity for organic and mineral soil components, and sulfonamides, a group of more mobile molecules. Bulk samples were collected from surface horizons in different irrigation fields, but also in subsurface horizons in two selected profiles. In surface horizons, three quinolones (oxolinic acid, nalidixic acid, and flumequine) were present in eight samples out of nine. Their contents varied spatially, but were well-correlated one to another. Their distributions showed great similarities regarding spatial distribution of total organic carbon and heavy metal contents, consistent with a common origin by wastewater irrigation. Highest concentrations were observed for sampling sites close to irrigation water outlets, reaching 22 μg kg -1 for nalidixic acid. Within soil profiles, the two antibiotic groups demonstrated an opposite behavior: quinolones, found only in surface horizons; sulfamethoxazole, detected in clay-rich subsurface horizons, concomitant with Zn accumulation. Such distribution patterns are consistent with chemical adsorption properties of the two antibiotic groups: immobilization of quinolones in the surface horizons ascribed to strong affinity for organic matter (OM), migration of sulfamethoxazole due to a lower affinity for OM and its interception and retention in electronegative charged clay-rich horizons. Our work suggests that antibiotics may represent a durable

  17. Scenario Studies on Effects of Soil Infiltration Rates, Land Slope, and Furrow Irrigation Characteristics on Furrow Irrigation-Induced Erosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dibal, Jibrin M; Ramalan, A A; Mudiare, O J; Igbadun, H E

    2014-01-01

    Furrow irrigation proceeds under several soil-water-furrow hydraulics interaction dynamics. The soil erosion consequences from such interactions in furrow irrigation in Samaru had remained uncertain. A furrow irrigation-induced erosion (FIIE) model was used to simulate the potential severity of soil erosion in irrigated furrows due to interactive effects of infiltration rates, land slope, and some furrow irrigation characteristics under different scenarios. The furrow irrigation characteristics considered were furrow lengths, widths, and stream sizes. The model itself was developed using the dimensional analysis approach. The scenarios studied were the interactive effects of furrow lengths, furrow widths, and slopes steepness; infiltration rates and furrow lengths; and stream sizes, furrow lengths, and slopes steepness on potential furrow irrigation-induced erosion, respectively. The severity of FIIE was found to relate somewhat linearly with slope and stream size, and inversely with furrow lengths and furrow width. The worst soil erosion (378.05 t/ha/yr) was found as a result of the interactive effects of 0.65 m furrow width, 50 m furrow length, and 0.25% slope steepness; and the least soil erosion (0.013 t/ha/yr) was induced by the combined effects of 0.5 l/s, 200 m furrow length, and 0.05% slope steepness. Evidently considering longer furrows in furrow irrigation designs would be a better alternative of averting excessive FIIE.

  18. Arsenic contamination of soils and agricultural plants through irrigation water in Nepal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahal, B.M.; Fuerhacker, M.; Mentler, A.; Karki, K.B.; Shrestha, R.R.; Blum, W.E.H.

    2008-01-01

    This study monitored the influence of arsenic-contaminated irrigation water on alkaline soils and arsenic uptake in agricultural plants at field level. The arsenic concentrations in irrigation water ranges from -1 where the arsenic concentrations in the soils were measured from 6.1 to 16.7 mg As kg -1 . The arsenic content in different parts of plants are found in the order of roots > shoots > leaves > edible parts. The mean arsenic content of edible plant material (dry weight) were found in the order of onion leaves (0.55 mg As kg -1 ) > onion bulb (0.45 mg As kg -1 ) > cauliflower (0.33 mg As kg -1 ) > rice (0.18 mg As kg -1 ) > brinjal (0.09 mg As kg -1 ) > potato ( -1 ). - The arsenic content in soil and plants is influenced by the degree of arsenic amount in irrigated water

  19. Occurrence of chemical contaminants in peri-urban agricultural irrigation waters and assessment of their phytotoxicity and crop productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margenat, Anna; Matamoros, Víctor; Díez, Sergi; Cañameras, Núria; Comas, Jordi; Bayona, Josep M

    2017-12-01

    Water scarcity and water pollution have increased the pressure on water resources worldwide. This pressure is particularly important in highly populated areas where water demand exceeds the available natural resources. In this regard, water reuse has emerged as an excellent water source alternative for peri-urban agriculture. Nevertheless, it must cope with the occurrence of chemical contaminants, ranging from trace elements (TEs) to organic microcontaminants. In this study, chemical contaminants (i.e., 15 TEs, 34 contaminants of emerging concern (CECs)), bulk parameters, and nutrients from irrigation waters and crop productivity (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cv. Bodar and Lactuca sativa L. cv. Batavia) were seasonally surveyed in 4 farm plots in the peri-urban area of the city of Barcelona. A pristine site, where rain-groundwater is used for irrigation, was selected for background concentrations. The average concentration levels of TEs and CECs in the irrigation water impacted by treated wastewater (TWW) were 3 (35±75μgL -1 ) and 13 (553±1050ngL -1 ) times higher than at the pristine site respectively. Principal component analysis was used to classify the irrigation waters by chemical composition. To assess the impact of the occurrence of these contaminants on agriculture, a seed germination assay (Lactuca sativa L) and real field-scale study of crop productivity (i.e., lettuce and tomato) were used. Although irrigation waters from the peri-urban area exhibited a higher frequency of detection and concentration of the assessed chemical contaminants than those of the pristine site (P1), no significant differences were found in seed phytotoxicity or crop productivity. In fact, the crops impacted by TWW showed higher productivity than the other farm plots studied, which was associated with the higher nutrient availability for plants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Irrigation of steppe soils in the south of Russia: Problems and solutions (Analysis of Irrigation Practices in 1950-1990)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minashina, N. G.

    2009-07-01

    Experience in irrigation of chernozems in the steppe zone of Russia for a period from 1950 to 1990 is analyzed. By the end of this period and in the subsequent years, the areas under irrigation reduced considerably, and the soil productivity worsened. This was caused by the improper design of irrigation systems, on the one hand, and by the low tolerance of chernozems toward increased moistening upon irrigation, on the other hand. The analysis of the factors and regimes of soil formation under irrigation conditions shows that irrigation-induced changes in the soil hydrology also lead to changes in the soil physicochemical, biochemical, and other properties. In particular, changes in the composition of exchangeable cations lead to the development of solonetzic process. In many areas, irrigation of chernozems was accompanied by the appearance of solonetzic, vertic, saline, and eroded soils. The development of soil degradation processes is described. In general, the deterioration of irrigated chernozems was related to the absence of adequate experience in irrigation of steppe soils, unskilled personnel, improper regime of irrigation, and excessively high rates of watering. In some cases, the poor quality of irrigation water resulted in the development of soil salinization and alkalization. To improve the situation, the training of personnel is necessary; the strategy of continuous irrigation should be replaced by the strategy of supplementary irrigation in the critical periods of crop development.

  1. Arsenic contamination of soils and agricultural plants through irrigation water in Nepal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahal, B.M. [Institute of Soil Research, University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences (BOKU), Peter Jordan Strasse 82, A-1190 Vienna (Austria); Institute of Sanitary Engineering and Water Pollution Control, University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences (BOKU), Muthgasse 18, A-1190 Vienna (Austria); Environment and Public Health Organization (ENPHO), P.O. Box 4102, Kathmandu (Nepal); Fuerhacker, M. [Institute of Sanitary Engineering and Water Pollution Control, University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences (BOKU), Muthgasse 18, A-1190 Vienna (Austria); Mentler, A. [Institute of Soil Research, University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences (BOKU), Peter Jordan Strasse 82, A-1190 Vienna (Austria); Karki, K.B. [Soil Science Division, Nepal Agricultural Research Council, Khumaltar, Lalitpur (Nepal); Shrestha, R.R. [UN Habitat-Nepal, UN House, Pulchwok, P.O. Box 107, Kathmandu (Nepal); Blum, W.E.H. [Institute of Soil Research, University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences (BOKU), Peter Jordan Strasse 82, A-1190 Vienna (Austria)], E-mail: winfried.blum@boku.ac.at

    2008-09-15

    This study monitored the influence of arsenic-contaminated irrigation water on alkaline soils and arsenic uptake in agricultural plants at field level. The arsenic concentrations in irrigation water ranges from <0.005 to 1.014 mg L{sup -1} where the arsenic concentrations in the soils were measured from 6.1 to 16.7 mg As kg{sup -1}. The arsenic content in different parts of plants are found in the order of roots > shoots > leaves > edible parts. The mean arsenic content of edible plant material (dry weight) were found in the order of onion leaves (0.55 mg As kg{sup -1}) > onion bulb (0.45 mg As kg{sup -1}) > cauliflower (0.33 mg As kg{sup -1}) > rice (0.18 mg As kg{sup -1}) > brinjal (0.09 mg As kg{sup -1}) > potato (<0.01 mg As kg{sup -1}). - The arsenic content in soil and plants is influenced by the degree of arsenic amount in irrigated water.

  2. Study of arsenic accumulation in rice and evaluation of protective effects of Chorchorus olitorius leaves against arsenic contaminated rice induced toxicities in Wistar albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosen, Saeed Mohammed Imran; Das, Dipesh; Kobi, Rupkanowar; Chowdhury, Dil Umme Salma; Alam, Md Jibran; Rudra, Bashudev; Bakar, Muhammad Abu; Islam, Saiful; Rahman, Zillur; Al-Forkan, Mohammad

    2016-10-14

    In the present study, we investigated the arsenic accumulation in different parts of rice irrigated with arsenic contaminated water. Besides, we also evaluated the protective effects of Corchorus olitorius leaves against arsenic contaminated rice induced toxicities in animal model. A pot experiment was conducted with arsenic amended irrigation water (0.0, 25.0, 50.0 and 75.0 mg/L As) to investigate the arsenic accumulation in different parts of rice. In order to evaluate the protective effects of Corchorus olitorius leaves, twenty Wistar albino rats were divided into four different groups. The control group (Group-I) was supplied with normal laboratory pellets while groups II, III, and IV received normal laboratory pellets supplemented with arsenic contaminated rice, C. olitorius leaf powder (4 %), arsenic contaminated rice plus C. olitorius leaf powder (4 %) respectively. Different haematological parameters and serum indices were analyzed to evaluate the protective effects of Corchorus olitorius leaves against arsenic intoxication. To gather more supportive evidences of Corchorus olitorius potentiality against arsenic intoxication, histopathological analysis of liver, kidney, spleen and heart tissues was also performed. From the pot experiment, we have found a significant (p ≤ 0.05) increase of arsenic accumulation in different parts of rice with the increase of arsenic concentrations in irrigation water and the trend of accumulation was found as root > straw > husk > grain. Another part of the experiment revealed that supplementation of C. olitorius leaves with arsenic contaminated rice significantly (p rice induced toxicities. Arsenic accumulation in different parts of rice increased dose-dependently. Hence, for irrigation purpose arsenic contaminated water cannot be used. Furthermore, arsenic contaminated rice induced several toxicities in animal model, most of which could be minimized with the food supplementation of Corchorus olitorius

  3. Cross-Contamination of Residual Emerging Contaminants and Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria in Lettuce Crops and Soil Irrigated with Wastewater Treated by Sunlight/H2O2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferro, Giovanna; Polo-López, María I; Martínez-Piernas, Ana B; Fernández-Ibáñez, Pilar; Agüera, Ana; Rizzo, Luigi

    2015-09-15

    The sunlight/H2O2 process has recently been considered as a sustainable alternative option compared to other solar driven advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) in advanced treatment of municipal wastewater (WW) to be reused for crop irrigation. Accordingly, in this study sunlight/H2O2 was used as disinfection/oxidation treatment for urban WW treatment plant effluent in a compound parabolic collector photoreactor to assess subsequent cross-contamination of lettuce and soil by contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) (determined by QuEChERS extraction and LC-QqLIT-MS/MS analysis) and antibiotic resistant (AR) bacteria after irrigation with treated WW. Three CECs (carbamazepine (CBZ), flumequine (FLU), and thiabendazole (TBZ) at 100 μg L(-1)) and two AR bacterial strains (E. coli and E. faecalis, at 10(5) CFU mL(-1)) were spiked in real WW. A detection limit (DL) of 2 CFU mL(-1) was reached after 120 min of solar exposure for AR E. coli, while AR E. faecalis was more resistant to the disinfection process (240 min to reach DL). CBZ and TBZ were poorly removed after 90 min (12% and 50%, respectively) compared to FLU (94%). Lettuce was irrigated with treated WW for 5 weeks. CBZ and TBZ were accumulated in soil up to 472 ng g(-1) and 256 ng g(-1) and up-taken by lettuce up to 109 and 18 ng g(-1), respectively, when 90 min treated WW was used for irrigation; whereas no bacteria contamination was observed when the bacterial density in treated WW was below the DL. A proper treatment time (>90 min) should be guaranteed in order to avoid the transfer of pathogens from disinfected WW to irrigated crops and soil.

  4. Analysis Of The Socioeconomic And Environmental Impacts Of Irrigated Agriculture In The Irrigated Perimeter Of Pau Dos Ferros (Rn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Jobson Garcia de Almeida

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian Government implemented irrigated perimeters to ameliorate problems of drought and poverty in the Northeast. In this sense, the objective of this work was to analyze the social, economic and environmental impacts generated by the practice of irrigated agriculture in the municipality of Pau dos Ferros-RN, resulting from the impacts caused by the activity. Obtained references on the topic, on-site visits and interviews with producers of the perimeter. It was observed the presence of negative impacts in the area, such as waste, contamination and water salinisation, compaction and soil erosion, deforestation caused by the removal of the native vegetation, high consumption of energy and public health problems.

  5. A metagenomic assessment of viral contamination on fresh parsley plants irrigated with fecally tainted river water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Cassi, X; Timoneda, N; Gonzales-Gustavson, E; Abril, J F; Bofill-Mas, S; Girones, R

    2017-09-18

    Microbial food-borne diseases are still frequently reported despite the implementation of microbial quality legislation to improve food safety. Among all the microbial agents, viruses are the most important causative agents of food-borne outbreaks. The development and application of a new generation of sequencing techniques to test for viral contaminants in fresh produce is an unexplored field that allows for the study of the viral populations that might be transmitted by the fecal-oral route through the consumption of contaminated food. To advance this promising field, parsley was planted and grown under controlled conditions and irrigated using contaminated river water. Viruses polluting the irrigation water and the parsley leaves were studied by using metagenomics. To address possible contamination due to sample manipulation, library preparation, and other sources, parsley plants irrigated with nutritive solution were used as a negative control. In parallel, viruses present in the river water used for plant irrigation were analyzed using the same methodology. It was possible to assign viral taxons from 2.4 to 74.88% of the total reads sequenced depending on the sample. Most of the viral reads detected in the river water were related to the plant viral families Tymoviridae (66.13%) and Virgaviridae (14.45%) and the phage viral families Myoviridae (5.70%), Siphoviridae (5.06%), and Microviridae (2.89%). Less than 1% of the viral reads were related to viral families that infect humans, including members of the Adenoviridae, Reoviridae, Picornaviridae and Astroviridae families. On the surface of the parsley plants, most of the viral reads that were detected were assigned to the Dicistroviridae family (41.52%). Sequences related to important viral pathogens, such as the hepatitis E virus, several picornaviruses from species A and B as well as human sapoviruses and GIV noroviruses were detected. The high diversity of viral sequences found in the parsley plants

  6. Outbreak of infection in a burns unit due to Pseudomonas aeruginosa originating from contaminated tubing used for irrigation of patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolmos, H J; Thuesen, B; Nielsen, S V

    1993-01-01

    water used for irrigation of the burns, as part of the first-aid treatment which the patients received when entering the hospital. Contamination was restricted to showers and tubing that were permanently connected to the taps, and the outbreak stopped after they had been disinfected. Tubing and showers...... used for irrigation of burns should be dismantled and heat-disinfected after each patient and not reconnected to the taps until immediately before the next treatment. Taps used for irrigation of burns should be monitored regularly for the presence of P. aeruginosa and other potentially pathogenic......Five patients with extensive deep burns developed septicaemia due to Pseudomonas aeruginosa serogroup O-7.8 and phage type 21 or 21/188 shortly after they had been admitted to hospital. Four other burned patients became colonized with the same strain. The source of infection was contaminated tap...

  7. Irrigation Water Quality for Leafy Crops: A Perspective of Risks and Potential Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allende, Ana; Monaghan, James

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing evidence of the contribution of irrigation water in the contamination of produce leading to subsequent outbreaks of foodborne illness. This is a particular risk in the production of leafy vegetables that will be eaten raw without cooking. Retailers selling leafy vegetables are increasingly targeting zero-risk production systems and the associated requirements for irrigation water quality have become more stringent in regulations and quality assurance schemes (QAS) followed by growers. Growers can identify water sources that are contaminated with potential pathogens through a monitoring regime and only use water free of pathogens, but the low prevalence of pathogens makes the use of faecal indicators, particularly E. coli, a more practical approach. Where growers have to utilise water sources of moderate quality, they can reduce the risk of contamination of the edible portion of the crop (i.e., the leaves) by treating irrigation water before use through physical or chemical disinfection systems, or avoid contact between the leaves and irrigation water through the use of drip or furrow irrigation, or the use of hydroponic growing systems. This study gives an overview of the main problems in the production of leafy vegetables associated with irrigation water, including microbial risk and difficulties in water monitoring, compliance with evolving regulations and quality standards, and summarises the current alternatives available for growers to reduce microbial risks. PMID:26151764

  8. Irrigation Water Quality for Leafy Crops: A Perspective of Risks and Potential Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Allende

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available There is increasing evidence of the contribution of irrigation water in the contamination of produce leading to subsequent outbreaks of foodborne illness. This is a particular risk in the production of leafy vegetables that will be eaten raw without cooking. Retailers selling leafy vegetables are increasingly targeting zero-risk production systems and the associated requirements for irrigation water quality have become more stringent in regulations and quality assurance schemes (QAS followed by growers. Growers can identify water sources that are contaminated with potential pathogens through a monitoring regime and only use water free of pathogens, but the low prevalence of pathogens makes the use of faecal indicators, particularly E. coli, a more practical approach. Where growers have to utilise water sources of moderate quality, they can reduce the risk of contamination of the edible portion of the crop (i.e., the leaves by treating irrigation water before use through physical or chemical disinfection systems, or avoid contact between the leaves and irrigation water through the use of drip or furrow irrigation, or the use of hydroponic growing systems. This study gives an overview of the main problems in the production of leafy vegetables associated with irrigation water, including microbial risk and difficulties in water monitoring, compliance with evolving regulations and quality standards, and summarises the current alternatives available for growers to reduce microbial risks.

  9. Irrigation Water Quality for Leafy Crops: A Perspective of Risks and Potential Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allende, Ana; Monaghan, James

    2015-07-03

    There is increasing evidence of the contribution of irrigation water in the contamination of produce leading to subsequent outbreaks of foodborne illness. This is a particular risk in the production of leafy vegetables that will be eaten raw without cooking. Retailers selling leafy vegetables are increasingly targeting zero-risk production systems and the associated requirements for irrigation water quality have become more stringent in regulations and quality assurance schemes (QAS) followed by growers. Growers can identify water sources that are contaminated with potential pathogens through a monitoring regime and only use water free of pathogens, but the low prevalence of pathogens makes the use of faecal indicators, particularly E. coli, a more practical approach. Where growers have to utilise water sources of moderate quality, they can reduce the risk of contamination of the edible portion of the crop (i.e., the leaves) by treating irrigation water before use through physical or chemical disinfection systems, or avoid contact between the leaves and irrigation water through the use of drip or furrow irrigation, or the use of hydroponic growing systems. This study gives an overview of the main problems in the production of leafy vegetables associated with irrigation water, including microbial risk and difficulties in water monitoring, compliance with evolving regulations and quality standards, and summarises the current alternatives available for growers to reduce microbial risks.

  10. Assessments of aquifer sensitivity on Navajo Nation and adjacent lands and ground-water vulnerability to pesticide contamination on the Navajo Indian Irrigation Project, Arizona, New Mexico, and Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, Paul J.

    2002-01-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency requested that the Navajo Nation conduct an assessment of aquifer sensitivity on Navajo Nation lands and an assessment of ground-water vulnerability to pesticide contamination on the Navajo Indian Irrigation Project. Navajo Nation lands include about 17,000 square miles in northeastern Arizona, northwestern New Mexico, and southeastern Utah. The Navajo Indian Irrigation Project in northwestern New Mexico is the largest area of agriculture on the Navajo Nation. The Navajo Indian Irrigation Project began operation in 1976; presently (2001) about 62,000 acres are available for irrigated agriculture. Numerous pesticides have been used on the Navajo Indian Irrigation Project during its operation. Aquifer sensitivity is defined by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency as 'The relative ease with which a contaminant [pesticide] applied on or near a land surface can migrate to the aquifer of interest. Aquifer sensitivity is a function of the intrinsic characteristics of the geologic material in question, any underlying saturated materials, and the overlying unsaturated zone. Sensitivity is not dependent on agronomic practices or pesticide characteristics.' Ground-water vulnerability is defined by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency as 'The relative ease with which a contaminant [pesticide] applied on or near a land surface can migrate to the aquifer of interest under a given set of agronomic management practices, pesticide characteristics, and aquifer sensitivity conditions.' The results of the aquifer sensitivity assessment on Navajo Nation and adjacent lands indicated relative sensitivity within the boundaries of the study area. About 22 percent of the study area was not an area of recharge to bedrock aquifers or an area of unconsolidated deposits and was thus assessed to have an insignificant potential for contamination. About 72 percent of the Navajo Nation study area was assessed to be in the categories of most potential

  11. Outbreak of infection in a burns unit due to Pseudomonas aeruginosa originating from contaminated tubing used for irrigation of patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolmos, H J; Thuesen, B; Nielsen, S V

    1993-01-01

    water used for irrigation of the burns, as part of the first-aid treatment which the patients received when entering the hospital. Contamination was restricted to showers and tubing that were permanently connected to the taps, and the outbreak stopped after they had been disinfected. Tubing and showers...... used for irrigation of burns should be dismantled and heat-disinfected after each patient and not reconnected to the taps until immediately before the next treatment. Taps used for irrigation of burns should be monitored regularly for the presence of P. aeruginosa and other potentially pathogenic...

  12. Impact of Potentially Contaminated River Water on Agricultural Irrigated Soils in an Equatorial Climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan M. Trujillo-González

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Globally, it is estimated that 20 million hectares of arable land are irrigated with water that contains residual contributions from domestic liquids. This potentially poses risks to public health and ecosystems, especially due to heavy metals, which are considered dangerous because of their potential toxicity and persistence in the environment. The Villavicencio region (Colombia is an equatorial area where rainfall (near 3000 mm/year and temperature (average 25.6 °C are high. Soil processes in tropical conditions are fast and react quickly to changing conditions. Soil properties from agricultural fields irrigated with river water polluted by a variety of sources were analysed and compared to non-irrigated control soils. In this study, no physico-chemical alterations were found that gave evidence of a change due to the constant use of river water that contained wastes. This fact may be associated with the climatic factors (temperature and precipitation, which contribute to fast degradation of organic matter and nutrient and contaminants (such as heavy metals leaching, or to dilution of wastes by the river.

  13. Decadal Variation of Precipitation in Saudi Arabia induced by Agricultural Irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, M. H.; Wey, H. W.; Wada, Y.; IM, E. S.; Chien, R. Y.; Wu, R. J.

    2017-12-01

    Decadal variation of wet-season precipitation has been found in the arid region of central Saudi Arabia. 1980s has been a rather wet decade compared with the decades before. Previous studies have mentioned that the irrigation moisture may contribute to the precipitation anomalies in Saudi Arabia. In the current study, we show from observational data that the contribution of the variation comes mostly from February to May. As the irrigation is a localized forcing, we therefore use the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model to simulate the response of the land-atmosphere interaction to the wet soil moisture resulted from additional irrigation moisture supply. Preliminary result shows in the irrigated simulation that precipitation in central Saudi Arabia is enhanced, indicating the possible link between irrigation expansion in the 1980s and the decadal precipitation variation over central Saudi Arabia. We propose it is the anomalous convergence induced by irrigation as well as additional moisture that contribute to the enhanced precipitation over heavily irrigation region in the central Saudi Arabian. In addition, analysis on the daily precipitation from the WRF outputs indicates that positive rainfall anomalies tend to happen when there is rainfall originally; that is, irrigation enhances rainfall but not creates rainfall.

  14. Leaching of human pathogens in repacked soil lysimeters and contamination of potato tubers under subsurface drip irrigation in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forslund, Anita; Plauborg, Finn; Andersen, Mathias Neumann

    2011-01-01

    The risk for contamination of potatoes and groundwater through subsurface drip irrigation with low quality water was explored in 30 large-scale lysimeters containing repacked coarse sand and sandy loam soils. The human pathogens, Salmonella Senftenberg, Campylobacter jejuni and Escherichia coli O......, phage 28B was detected in low concentrations (2 pfu ml1) in leachate from both sandy loam soil and coarse sand lysimeters. After 27 days, phage 28B continued to be present in similar concentrations in leachate from lysimeters containing coarse sand, while no phage were found in lysimeters with sandy....... The findings of bacterial pathogens and phage 28 on all potato samples suggest that the main risk associated with subsurface drip irrigation with low quality water is faecal contamination of root crops, in particular those consumed raw....

  15. Modeling irrigation behavior in groundwater systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Timothy; Brozović, Nicholas; Butler, Adrian P.

    2014-08-01

    Integrated hydro-economic models have been widely applied to water management problems in regions of intensive groundwater-fed irrigation. However, policy interpretations may be limited as most existing models do not explicitly consider two important aspects of observed irrigation decision making, namely the limits on instantaneous irrigation rates imposed by well yield and the intraseasonal structure of irrigation planning. We develop a new modeling approach for determining irrigation demand that is based on observed farmer behavior and captures the impacts on production and water use of both well yield and climate. Through a case study of irrigated corn production in the Texas High Plains region of the United States we predict optimal irrigation strategies under variable levels of groundwater supply, and assess the limits of existing models for predicting land and groundwater use decisions by farmers. Our results show that irrigation behavior exhibits complex nonlinear responses to changes in groundwater availability. Declining well yields induce large reductions in the optimal size of irrigated area and irrigation use as constraints on instantaneous application rates limit the ability to maintain sufficient soil moisture to avoid negative impacts on crop yield. We demonstrate that this important behavioral response to limited groundwater availability is not captured by existing modeling approaches, which therefore may be unreliable predictors of irrigation demand, agricultural profitability, and resilience to climate change and aquifer depletion.

  16. Spatial Variation of Arsenic in Soil, Irrigation Water, and Plant Parts: A Microlevel Study

    OpenAIRE

    Kabir, M. S.; Salam, M. A.; Paul, D. N. R.; Hossain, M. I.; Rahman, N. M. F.; Aziz, Abdullah; Latif, M. A.

    2016-01-01

    Arsenic pollution became a great problem in the recent past in different countries including Bangladesh. The microlevel studies were conducted to see the spatial variation of arsenic in soils and plant parts contaminated through ground water irrigation. The study was performed in shallow tube well command areas in Sadar Upazila (subdistrict), Faridpur, Bangladesh, where both soil and irrigation water arsenic are high. Semivariogram models were computed to determine the spatial dependency of s...

  17. Effect of Irrigation with Contaminated Water by Cloth Detergent on Seed Germination Traits and Early Growth of Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan HEIDARI

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available One of the sources for irrigation is sewage. Contaminated water may affect seed germination and plant growth. A laboratory experiment and a pot experiment were conducted in 2012 to determine the effect of different doses of detergent on seed germination traits and early growth of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.. The experiments included eight doses of cloth detergent (0, 0.00002, 0.0002, 0.002, 0.02, 0.2, 2, 20 g/L. Results showed that 20 and 2 g/L of detergent severely reduced seed germination, plant height, leaf number per plant, total biomass and stem weight. 20 g/L of detergent reduced shoot length, root length, seedling weight and seed vigor. Seed germination stage was more sensitive to contaminated water than early growth stage. The results demonstrated that irrigating sunflower by contaminated water with household cleaning products at high concentration should be avoided.

  18. Irrigation in dose assessments models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergstroem, Ulla; Barkefors, Catarina [Studsvik RadWaste AB, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    2004-05-01

    SKB has carried out several safety analyses for repositories for radioactive waste, one of which was SR 97, a multi-site study concerned with a future deep bedrock repository for high-level waste. In case of future releases due to unforeseen failure of the protective multiple barrier system, radionuclides may be transported with groundwater and may reach the biosphere. Assessments of doses have to be carried out with a long-term perspective. Specific models are therefore employed to estimate consequences to man. It has been determined that the main pathway for nuclides from groundwater or surface water to soil is via irrigation. Irrigation may cause contamination of crops directly by e.g. interception or rain-splash, and indirectly via root-uptake from contaminated soil. The exposed people are in many safety assessments assumed to be self-sufficient, i.e. their food is produced locally where the concentration of radionuclides may be the highest. Irrigation therefore plays an important role when estimating consequences. The present study is therefore concerned with a more extensive analysis of the role of irrigation for possible future doses to people living in the area surrounding a repository. Current irrigation practices in Sweden are summarised, showing that vegetables and potatoes are the most common crops for irrigation. In general, however, irrigation is not so common in Sweden. The irrigation model used in the latest assessments is described. A sensitivity analysis is performed showing that, as expected, interception of irrigation water and retention on vegetation surfaces are important parameters. The parameters used to describe this are discussed. A summary is also given how irrigation is proposed to be handled in the international BIOMASS (BIOsphere Modelling and ASSessment) project and in models like TAME and BIOTRAC. Similarities and differences are pointed out. Some numerical results are presented showing that surface contamination in general gives the

  19. Irrigation in dose assessments models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergstroem, Ulla; Barkefors, Catarina

    2004-05-01

    SKB has carried out several safety analyses for repositories for radioactive waste, one of which was SR 97, a multi-site study concerned with a future deep bedrock repository for high-level waste. In case of future releases due to unforeseen failure of the protective multiple barrier system, radionuclides may be transported with groundwater and may reach the biosphere. Assessments of doses have to be carried out with a long-term perspective. Specific models are therefore employed to estimate consequences to man. It has been determined that the main pathway for nuclides from groundwater or surface water to soil is via irrigation. Irrigation may cause contamination of crops directly by e.g. interception or rain-splash, and indirectly via root-uptake from contaminated soil. The exposed people are in many safety assessments assumed to be self-sufficient, i.e. their food is produced locally where the concentration of radionuclides may be the highest. Irrigation therefore plays an important role when estimating consequences. The present study is therefore concerned with a more extensive analysis of the role of irrigation for possible future doses to people living in the area surrounding a repository. Current irrigation practices in Sweden are summarised, showing that vegetables and potatoes are the most common crops for irrigation. In general, however, irrigation is not so common in Sweden. The irrigation model used in the latest assessments is described. A sensitivity analysis is performed showing that, as expected, interception of irrigation water and retention on vegetation surfaces are important parameters. The parameters used to describe this are discussed. A summary is also given how irrigation is proposed to be handled in the international BIOMASS (BIOsphere Modelling and ASSessment) project and in models like TAME and BIOTRAC. Similarities and differences are pointed out. Some numerical results are presented showing that surface contamination in general gives the

  20. The Politics, Development and Problems of Small Irrigation Dams in Malawi: Experiences from Mzuzu ADD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryson Gwiyani Nkhoma

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines the progress made regarding the development of small irrigation dams in Malawi with the view of establishing their significance in improving rural livelihoods in the country. The paper adopts a political economy theory and a qualitative research approach. Evidence from Mzuzu Agricultural Development Division (ADD, where small reservoirs acquire specific relevance, shows that despite the efforts made, the development of small dams is making little progress. The paper highlights that problems of top-down planning, high investment costs, negligence of national and local interests, over-dependency on donors, and conflicts over the use of dams – which made large-scale dams unpopular in the 1990s – continue to affect the development of small irrigation dams in Malawi. The paper argues that small irrigation dams should not be simplistically seen as a panacea to the problems of large-scale irrigation dams. Like any other projects, small dams are historically and socially constructed through interests of different actors in the local settings, and can only succeed if actors, especially those from formal institutions, develop adaptive learning towards apparent conflicting relations that develop among them in the process of implementation. In the case of Mzuzu ADD, it was the failure of the government to develop this adaptive learning to the contestations and conflicts among these actors that undermined successful implementation of small irrigation dams. The paper recommends the need to consider local circumstances, politics, interests, rights and institutions when investing in small irrigation dams.

  1. Contamination of Dining Tables with Pesticides in Kibirigwi Irrigation Scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimani, V.W; McDermont, J.J

    1999-01-01

    Kibirigwi irrigation scheme is a small holder area in Central Kenya, where the main activity is production of horticultural crops. Pesticides are widely misused. This study investigated the extent of house hold pesticide exposure in 40 randomly selected farms in JUly-August, 1995. Exposure measures collected included pesticide levels on dining table swabs. Fifty coytton clothes measuring 30 cm *30cm were prepared in the laboratory by soaking overnight in methanol. In each of the selected homesteads, the table used for meals was swabbed with the piece of cloth. In the laboratory, the residues chemicals extracted from these swabs using conventional residual analysis procedures and the extracts were analysed by gas liquid chromatography. Information on which pesticide (s) were recently handled in the home and when, were also recorded. Cypermethrin (9/40), malathion (9/40), Diazinon (5/40), dimethoate (4/40), chloropyrifos (4/40) and fenitrothion (1/40) were detected in these samples. The range of individual organophosphate pesticides detected was 0.01-8.7ug/cm 2 of table area and for cypermethrin the range was 0.0024 ng-5.8 ng/cm 2 . It was concluded that farmers and their family members are likely to be contaminated with pesticides from tables either dermally or through contamination of food placed on such tables

  2. Lettuce irrigated with contaminated water: Photosynthetic effects, antioxidative response and bioaccumulation of microcystin congeners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittencourt-Oliveira, Maria do Carmo; Cordeiro-Araújo, Micheline Kézia; Chia, Mathias Ahii; Arruda-Neto, João Dias de Toledo; de Oliveira, Ênio Tiago; dos Santos, Flávio

    2016-06-01

    The use of microcystins (MCs) contaminated water to irrigate crop plants represents a human health risk due to their bioaccumulation potential. In addition, MCs cause oxidative stress and negatively influence photosynthetic activities in plants. The present study was aimed at investigating the effect of MCs on photosynthetic parameters and antioxidative response of lettuce. Furthermore, the bioaccumulation factor (BAF) of total MCs, MC-LR and MC-RR in the vegetable after irrigation with contaminated water was determined. Lettuce crops were irrigated for 15 days with water containing cyanobacterial crude extracts (Microcystis aeruginosa) with MC-LR (0.0, 0.5, 2.0, 5.0 and 10.0 µg L(-1)), MC-RR (0.0, 0.15, 0.5, 1.5 and 3.0 µg L(-1)) and total MCs (0.0, 0.65, 2.5, 6.5 and 13.0 µg L(-1)). Increased net photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, leaf tissue transpiration and intercellular CO2 concentration were recorded in lettuce exposed to different MCs concentrations. Antioxidant response showed that glutathione S-transferase activity was down-regulated in the presence of MCs. On the other hand, superoxide dismutase, catalase and peroxidase activities were upregulated with increasing MCs concentrations. The bioaccumulation factor (BAF) of total MCs and MC-LR was highest at 6.50 and 5.00 µg L(-1), respectively, while for MC-RR, the highest BAF was recorded at 1.50 µg L(-1) concentration. The amount of total MCs, MC-LR and MC-RR bioacumulated in lettuce was highest at the highest exposure concentrations. However, at the lowest exposure concentration, there were no detectable levels of MC-LR, MC-RR and total MCs in lettuce. Thus, the bioaccumulation of MCs in lettuce varies according to the exposure concentration. In addition, the extent of physiological response of lettuce to the toxins relies on exposure concentrations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Cadmium accumulation in soils caused by contaminated irrigation water in relation to safety level of enviromental water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, H; Iimura, K

    1974-01-01

    Adsorption of cadmium on the soil from irrigation water contaminated by human production activites were investigated. Both in the equilibrium and column experiments, the soils adsorbed more than 90 per cent of cadmium from the water containing 0.01 ppm cadmium and 18 or 300 ppm calcium. The amounts of cadmium adsorbed by the soils in the equilibrium experiments increased with the increasing concentrations (0.001-10 ppm) in accordance with the Freundlich's adsorption formula, the indices of which were near unity. In column experiments, the proportions of cadmium adsorbed by the soils from the water containing 0.01 ppm cadmium and 18 ppm calcium were equal to or more than those of calcium. It was estimated that if the water containing 0.01 ppm cadmium, that is the safety level of environmental water for human health by WHO and adopted as the permissible concentration by the Japanese Government, were irrigated in paddy fields, cadmium contents of the soils would exceed 1 ppm within a few years. Furthermore, on some of those contaminated soils, brown rice containing more than 1 ppm cadmium, that is the permissible concentration in brown rice authorised by the Japanese Government, will be produced. From the viewpoint of soil conservation from contamination, it is suggested that the permissible concentration of cadmium in the environment water should be lowered to at least one tenth of the present level. The exchange equilibriums in the soils between Cd and Ca and Cd and Na were discussed.

  4. Risk Assessment of Heavy Metal Contamination on Vegetables Grown in Long-term Wastewater Irrigated Urban Farming Sites in Accra, Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lente, I.; Keraita, Bernard; Drechsel, P.

    2012-01-01

    Assessment was done of heavy-metal contamination and its related health risks in urban vegetable farming in Accra. Samples of irrigation water (n = 120), soil (n = 144) and five different kinds of vegetable (n = 240) were collected and analyzed for copper, zinc, lead, cadmium, chromium, nickel an...

  5. Spatial distribution of Cd and Cu in soils in Shenyang Zhangshi Irrigation Area (SZIA), China*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Li-na; Yang, Xiao-bo; Wang, Wen-qing; Ma, Li; Chen, Su

    2008-01-01

    Heavy metal contamination of soils, derived from sewage irrigation, mining and inappropriate utilization of various agrochemicals and pesticides, and so on, has been of wide concern in the last several decades. The Shenyang Zhangshi Irrigation Area (SZIA) in China is a representative area of heavy metal contamination of soils resulting from sewage irrigation for about 30 years. This study investigated the spatial distribution and temporal variation of soil cadmium (Cd) and copper (Cu) contamination in the SZIA. The soil samples were collected from the SZIA in 1990 and 2004; Cd and Cu in soils was analyzed and then the spatial distribution and temporal variation of Cd and Cu in soils were modeled using Kriging methods. The results show that long-term sewage irrigation had caused serious Cd and Cu contamination in soils. The mean and the maximum of soil Cd are markedly higher than the levels in second grade standard soil (LSGSS) in China, and the maximum of soil Cu is close to the LSGSS in China in 2004 and is more than the LSGSS in China in 1990. The contamination magnitude of soil Cd and the soil extent of Cd contamination had evidently increased since sewage irrigation ceased in 1992. The contamination magnitude of soil Cu and the soil extent of Cu contamination had evidently increased in topsoil, but obviously decresed in subsoil. The soil contamination of Cd and Cu was mainly related to Cd and Cu reactivation of contaminated sediments in Shenyang Xi River and the import of Cd and Cu during irrigation. The eluviation of Cd and Cu in contaminated topsoil with rainfall and irrigation water was another factor of temporal-spatial variability of Cd and Cu contamination in soils. PMID:18357631

  6. Heavy-metal contamination of agricultural soils irrigated with industrial effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nabi, G.; Ashraf, M.; Aslam, M. R.

    2001-01-01

    Pakistan is facing a thread of degradation of water and land-resources by industrial effluents. To evaluated the suitability of these effluents as a source of irrigation for agriculture and the study their effects on soil chemical properties, experiments were conducted in the industrial area of Sheikhupura, where effluent from Paper and Board Mill (PBM), Leather Industry (LI) and Fertilizer Industry (FI) were being used for irrigation. At each site, two fields were selected, one irrigated with industrial effluents and the other with tube-well/canal water. The soil samples were collected and analyzed for pH, ECe, SAR and for heavy metals, such as Cu, Cd, Cr, Zn, Pb, Mn, Fe, Al and Ni. Soil receiving effluent from LI showed higher ECe and SAR values, as compared to the soils receiving other effluents. The concentration of Al was high in the soil irrigated with LI effluent. The Mn and Fe contents were higher in soils irrigated with PBM effluent. Effluent from LI is not fit for irrigation, since its recipient soil showed high concentration of Cr and also high sodicity values. Except Cr, the heavy metals were not of environmental concern. (author)

  7. [Effect of Recycled Water Irrieation on Heavy Metal Pollution in Irrigation Soil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yi-qi; Liu, Yun-xia; Fu, Hui-min

    2016-01-15

    With acceleration of urbanization, water shortages will become a serious problem. Usage of reclaimed water for flushing and watering of the green areas will be common in the future. To study the heavy metal contamination of soils after green area irrigation using recycled wastewater from special industries, we selected sewage and laboratory wastewater as water source for integrated oxidation ditch treatment, and the effluent was used as irrigation water of the green area. The irrigation units included broad-leaved forest, bush and lawn. Six samples sites were selected, and 0-20 cm soil of them were collected. Analysis of the heavy metals including Cr, Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd and Pb in the soil showed no significant differences with heavy metals concentration in soil irrigated with tap water. The heavy metals in the soil irrigated with recycled water were mainly enriched in the surface layer, among which the contents of Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn and Pb were below the soil background values of Beijing. A slight pollution of As and Cd was found in the soil irrigated by recycled water, which needs to be noticed.

  8. Can nitrate contaminated groundwater be remediated by optimizing flood irrigation rate with high nitrate water in a desert oasis using the WHCNS model?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Hao; Qi, Zhiming; Hu, Kelin; Prasher, Shiv O; Zhang, Yuanpei

    2016-10-01

    Nitrate contamination of groundwater is an environmental concern in intensively cultivated desert oases where this polluted groundwater is in turn used as a major irrigation water resource. However, nitrate fluxes from root zone to groundwater are difficult to monitor in this complex system. The objectives of this study were to validate and apply the WHCNS (soil Water Heat Carbon Nitrogen Simulator) model to simulate water drainage and nitrate leaching under different irrigation and nitrogen (N) management practices, and to assess the utilization of groundwater nitrate as an approach to remediate nitrate contaminated groundwater while maintain crop yield. A two-year field experiment was conducted in a corn field irrigated with high nitrate groundwater (20 mg N L(-1)) in Alxa, Inner Mongolia, China. The experiment consisted of two irrigation treatments (Istd, standard, 750 mm per season; Icsv, conservation, 570 mm per season) factorially combined with two N fertilization treatments (Nstd, standard, 138 kg ha(-1); Ncsv, conservation, 92 kg ha(-1)). The validated results showed that the WHCNS model simulated values of crop dry matter, yield, soil water content and soil N concentration in soil profile all agreed well with the observed values. Compared to the standard water management (Istd), the simulated drainage and nitrate leaching decreased about 65% and 59%, respectively, under the conservation water management (Icsv). Nearly 55% of input N was lost by leaching under the IstdNstd and IstdNcsv treatments, compared to only 26% under the IcsvNstd and IcsvNcsv treatments. Simulations with more than 240 scenarios combing different levels of irrigation and fertilization indicated that irrigation was the main reason leading to the high risk of nitrate leaching, and the nitrate in irrigation groundwater can be best utilized without corn yield loss when the total irrigation was reduced from the current 750 mm to 491 mm. This reduced irrigation rate facilitated

  9. Some problems in calibrating surface contamination meters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Zigen; LI Xingyuan; Shuai Xiaoping.

    1984-01-01

    It is necessary that instruments are calibrated accurately in order to obtain reliable survey data of surface contamination. Some problems in calibrating surface contamination meters are expounded in this paper. Measurement comparison for beta surface contamination meters is organized within limited scope, thus survey quality is understood, questions are discovered, significance of calibration is expounded further. (Author)

  10. Insufficient irrigation induces peri-implant bone resorption: an in vivo histologic analysis in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trisi, Paolo; Berardini, Marco; Falco, Antonello; Podaliri Vulpiani, Michele; Perfetti, Giorgio

    2014-06-01

    To measure in vivo impact of dense bone overheating on implant osseointegration and peri-implant bone resorption comparing different bur irrigation methods vs. no irrigation. Twenty TI-bone implants were inserted in the inferior edge of mandibles of sheep. Different cooling procedures were used in each group: no irrigation (group A), only internal bur irrigation (group B), both internal and external irrigation (group C), and external irrigation (group D). The histomorphometric parameters calculated for each implant were as follows: %cortical bone-implant contact (%CBIC) and %cortical bone volume (%CBV). Friedman's test was applied to test the statistical differences. In group A, we found a huge resorption of cortical bone with %CBIC and %CBV values extremely low. Groups B and C showed mean %CBIC and %BV values higher than other groups The mean %CBV value was significantly different when comparing group B and group C vs. group A (P bone caused massive resorption of the cortical bone and implant failure. Drilling procedures on hard bone need an adequate cooling supply because the bone matrix overheating may induce complete resorption of dense bone around implants. Internal-external irrigation and only internal irrigation showed to be more efficient than other types of cooling methods in preventing bone resorption around implants. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. Estimate of uptake and translocation of emerging organic contaminants from irrigation water concentration in lettuce grown under controlled conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurtado, Carlos; Domínguez, Carmen; Pérez-Babace, Lorea; Cañameras, Núria; Comas, Jordi; Bayona, Josep M

    2016-03-15

    The widespread distribution of emerging organic contaminants (EOCs) in the water cycle can lead to their incorporation in irrigated crops, posing a potential risk for human consumption. To gain further insight into the processes controlling the uptake of organic microcontaminants, Batavia lettuce (Lactuca sativa) grown under controlled conditions was watered with EOCs (e.g., non-steroidal anti-inflammatories, sulfonamides, β-blockers, phenolic estrogens, anticonvulsants, stimulants, polycyclic musks, biocides) at different concentrations (0-40μgL(-1)). Linear correlations were obtained between the EOC concentrations in the roots and leaves and the watering concentrations for most of the contaminants investigated. However, large differences were found in the root concentration factors ( [Formula: see text] =0.27-733) and leaf translocation concentration factors ( [Formula: see text] =0-3) depending on the persistence of the target contaminants in the rhizosphere and the specific physicochemical properties of each one. With the obtained dataset, a simple predictive model based on a linear regression and the root bioconcentration and translocation factors can be used to estimate the concentration of the target EOCs in leaves based on the dose supplied in the irrigation water or the soil concentration. Finally, enantiomeric fractionation of racemic ibuprofen from the initial spiking mixture suggests that biodegradation mainly occurs in the rhizosphere. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Reduction in bioavailability of arsenic in contaminated irrigated soil using zinc and organic manure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batool, S.Q.

    2012-01-01

    The experiments were conducted to reduce the bioavailability of arsenic with application of organic and inorganic materials from contaminated soils irrigated with arsenic contaminated water. The results showed that the amount of extractable arsenic increased with submergence and decreased with application of organic material. However, amount of such decrease altered with inorganic material i.e. zinc and decrease was greater with As5Zn10 (0.17 to 0.0 mg/kg) where zinc was applied at the rate of 10 mg/kg. Among the different organic materials, arsenic content in soil remarkably decreased with application of farmyard manure. The decrease in arsenic content was less than upper toxic limit of arsenic in soil i.e.10mg/kg for paddy soils. Other manures also showed decrease in arsenic concentration but with desorption after half interval of treatment. Best remediating agents used for arsenic retention was zinc sulphate> organic compost >farmyard manure. (author)

  13. Sustainable mitigation of arsenic contaminated groundwater in Bihar, India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghosh, A.; Borges Freitas, S.C.

    2014-01-01

    The “water surplus” state of Bihar is faced with the serious problem of arsenic contaminated aquifers whose water is used both for drinking and irrigation purposes. A large number of mitigation strategies are being adopted by the authorities, without obtaining the desired results of clean water

  14. Parasitological Contamination of Wastewater Irrigated and Raw ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tadesse

    Occurrence of infective stages of intestinal parasites on wastewater- irrigated vegetables ..... reported the health hazards of agricultural reuse of untreated wastewater through detection of .... State of knowledge in land treatment of wastewater.

  15. A Review of Environmental Contamination and Health Risk Assessment of Wastewater Use for Crop Irrigation with a Focus on Low and High-Income Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalid, Sana; Shahid, Muhammad; Bibi, Irshad; Sarwar, Tania; Shah, Ali Haidar; Niazi, Nabeel Khan

    2018-05-01

    Population densities and freshwater resources are not evenly distributed worldwide. This has forced farmers to use wastewater for the irrigation of food crops. This practice presents both positive and negative effects with respect to agricultural use, as well as in the context of environmental contamination and toxicology. Although wastewater is an important source of essential nutrients for plants, many environmental, sanitary, and health risks are also associated with the use of wastewater for crop irrigation due to the presence of toxic contaminants and microbes. This review highlights the harmful and beneficial impacts of wastewater irrigation on the physical, biological, and chemical properties of soil (pH, cations and anions, organic matter, microbial activity). We delineate the potentially toxic element (PTEs) build up in the soil and, as such, their transfer into plants and humans. The possible human health risks associated with the use of untreated wastewater for crop irrigation are also predicted and discussed. We compare the current condition of wastewater reuse in agriculture and the associated environmental and health issues between developing and developed countries. In addition, some integrated sustainable solutions and future perspectives are also proposed, keeping in view the regional and global context, as well as the grounded reality of wastewater use for crop production, sanitary and planning issues, remedial techniques, awareness among civil society, and the role of the government and the relevant stakeholders.

  16. Bioaccumulation and toxicity assessment of irrigation water contaminated with boron (B) using duckweed (Lemna gibba L.) in a batch reactor system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Türker, Onur Can; Yakar, Anıl; Gür, Nurcan

    2017-02-15

    The present study assesses ability of Lemna gibba L. using a batch reactor approach to bioaccumulation boron (B) from irrigation waters which were collected from a stream in largest borax reserve all over the world. The important note that bioaccumulation of B from irrigation water was first analyzed for first time in a risk assessment study using a Lemna species exposed to various B concentrations. Boron toxicity was evaluated through plant growth and biomass production during phytoremediation process. The result from the present experiment indicated that L. gibba was capable of removing 19-63% B from irrigation water depending upon contaminated level or initial concentration. We also found that B was removed from aqueous solution following pseudo second order kinetic model and Langmuir isotherm model better fitted equilibrium obtained for B phytoremediation. Maximum B accumulation in L. gibba was determined as 2088mgkg -1 at average inflow B concentration 17.39mgL -1 at the end of the experiment. Conversely, maximum bioconcentration factor obtained at lowest inflow B concentrations were 232 for L. gibba. The present study suggested that L. gibba was very useful B accumulator, and thus L. gibba-based techniques could be a reasonable phytoremediation option to remove B directly from water sources contaminated with B. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Saline water irrigation for crop production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, A R [Directorate of Water Management Research, Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR), Walmi Complex, P.O. - Phulwari Sharif, Patna (India); [Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste (Italy); Singh, S S; Singh, S R [Directorate of Water Management Research, Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR), Walmi Complex, P.O. - Phulwari Sharif, Patna (India)

    2001-05-01

    Salinity is one of agriculture's most complex production problems. Excessive salts from irrigation water or high water tables can severely limit crop production. Years of saline water irrigation on poorly drained soils can eventually make economic crop production impossible. About 10% of all land are affected by salinity problems. They occur in every continent in different proportions, more frequently in arid and semi-arid areas. This paper discusses a range of problems related to use of saline water for crop irrigation.

  18. Saline water irrigation for crop production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A.R.; Singh, S.S.; Singh, S.R.

    2001-05-01

    Salinity is one of agriculture's most complex production problems. Excessive salts from irrigation water or high water tables can severely limit crop production. Years of saline water irrigation on poorly drained soils can eventually make economic crop production impossible. About 10% of all land are affected by salinity problems. They occur in every continent in different proportions, more frequently in arid and semi-arid areas. This paper discusses a range of problems related to use of saline water for crop irrigation

  19. IRRIGATION USING SOLAR PUMP

    OpenAIRE

    Prof. Nitin P.Choudhary*1 & Ms. Komal Singne2

    2017-01-01

    In this report the described design of a PV and soil moisture sensor based automated irrigation system is introduced. This project aims to provide a human friendly, economical and automated water pumping system which eliminates the problems of over irrigation and helps in irrigation water optimization and manage it in accordance with the availability of water. Our project not only tries to modernize the irrigation practices and ensure the optimum yield by carefully fulfilling the requirements...

  20. Distribution and accumulation of endocrine-disrupting chemicals and pharmaceuticals in wastewater irrigated soils in Hebei, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Feng; Ying Guangguo; Kong Lingxiao; Wang Li; Zhao Jianliang; Zhou Lijun; Zhang Lijuan

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the occurrence of 43 emerging contaminants including 9 endocrine-disrupting chemicals and 34 pharmaceuticals in three sites in Hebei Province, north China. Each site has a wastewater irrigated plot and a separate groundwater irrigated plot for comparison purpose. The results showed that the concentrations of the target compounds in the wastewater irrigated soils were in most cases higher than those in the groundwater irrigated soils. Among the 43 target compounds, nine compounds bisphenol-A, triclocarban, triclosan, 4-nonylphenol, salicylic acid, oxytetracycline, tetracycline, trimethoprim and primidone were detected at least once in the soils. Preliminary environmental risk assessment showed that triclocarban might pose high risks to terrestrial organisms while the other detected compounds posed minimal risks. Irrigation with wastewater could lead to presence or accumulation of some emerging contaminants to some extent in irrigated soils. - Highlights: → Some EDCs and PPCPs were detected in the wastewater irrigated soils. → Application of reclaimed water could lead to accumulation of some compounds. → Groundwater has been contaminated by some compounds. → Triclocarban posed high risks to soil organisms. - Application of reclaimed wastewater on agricultural land could lead to the presence or accumulation of wastewater-related contaminants in soils.

  1. Distribution and accumulation of endocrine-disrupting chemicals and pharmaceuticals in wastewater irrigated soils in Hebei, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Chen [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Ying Guangguo, E-mail: guangguo.ying@gmail.com [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Lingxiao, Kong [Institute of Plant Protection, Hebei Academy of Agriculture and Forestry Science, Baoding 07100 (China); Li, Wang; Jianliang, Zhao; Lijun, Zhou; Lijuan, Zhang [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China)

    2011-06-15

    This study investigated the occurrence of 43 emerging contaminants including 9 endocrine-disrupting chemicals and 34 pharmaceuticals in three sites in Hebei Province, north China. Each site has a wastewater irrigated plot and a separate groundwater irrigated plot for comparison purpose. The results showed that the concentrations of the target compounds in the wastewater irrigated soils were in most cases higher than those in the groundwater irrigated soils. Among the 43 target compounds, nine compounds bisphenol-A, triclocarban, triclosan, 4-nonylphenol, salicylic acid, oxytetracycline, tetracycline, trimethoprim and primidone were detected at least once in the soils. Preliminary environmental risk assessment showed that triclocarban might pose high risks to terrestrial organisms while the other detected compounds posed minimal risks. Irrigation with wastewater could lead to presence or accumulation of some emerging contaminants to some extent in irrigated soils. - Highlights: > Some EDCs and PPCPs were detected in the wastewater irrigated soils. > Application of reclaimed water could lead to accumulation of some compounds. > Groundwater has been contaminated by some compounds. > Triclocarban posed high risks to soil organisms. - Application of reclaimed wastewater on agricultural land could lead to the presence or accumulation of wastewater-related contaminants in soils.

  2. Urban atmospheric contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldasano Jose, M.

    1997-01-01

    The problems of contamination are not only limited to this century, pale pathology evidences of the effects of the contamination of the air exist in interiors in the health of the old ones; the article mention the elements that configure the problem of the atmospheric contamination, atmospheric pollutants and emission sources, orography condition and effects induced by the urbanization process

  3. Study of the influence of stable cadmium on the transfer of zinc-65 in an ecosystem irrigated by submersion (irrigated rice field)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myttenaere, C.; Merlini, M.; Dabin, P.; Mousny, J.M.; Pozzi, G.; Bittel, R.

    1975-01-01

    Irrigation water contains varying amounts of stable cadmium from industrial disposal. The presence of this element is capable of modifying the transfer of and affecting the mechanisms of absorption of zinc-65, a radionuclide which is discharged into water by nuclear power stations. This type of interaction between a nuclear contaminant and a conventional contaminant was studied in a rice-field irrigated by submersion. This ecosystem was reproduced under controlled 'mini-rice-field' conditions: the water was enriched in stable zinc (1 ppm) and in stable cadmium (2,5x10 -3 ; 50x10 -3 ppm) so as to reproduce the actual conditions; the stable zinc was traced by means of zinc-65. Fish (20 Carassius auratus L.) were introduced into each compartment of the ecosystem. Samples of irrigation water and surface water were taken during cultivation, and at the end of cultivation the content of stable zinc, radioactive zinc and stable cadmium was determined in each component of the ecosystem. The results show the important influence of a conventional contaminant on the transfer of a radionuclide and justify the use of the term 'associate contaminant' to describe it. (author)

  4. Analysis of Irrigation Water Quality at Kadawa Irrigation Project for Improved Productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AR Sanda

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In the face of water scarcity and the several negative consequences, such as water wastage, flooding, water logging, soil losses and production losses, conserving the finite amount of fresh water is a must. The quality of irrigation water must therefore be ascertained. The chemical quality of three sources of irrigation water from canal and drainage water, namely drainage water, fresh irrigation water from canal, and drainage/irrigation water mixture, were analyzed from Kadawa irrigation Project for year 2013 and 2014 cropping seasons, with the view to evaluating the potential risks associated with their use in irrigation and hence their suitability or otherwise for irrigation purposes. The analysis revealed that the use of drainage water alone for irrigation may result in problems associated with salinity, while a blend of drainage/irrigation water in the ratio of 1:1 is a viable means of water conservation and a good means of crop production. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v3i3.11082 International Journal of Environment Vol.3(3 2014: 235-240

  5. Biochar- and phosphate-induced immobilization of heavy metals in contaminated soil and water: implication on simultaneous remediation of contaminated soil and groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yuan; Cao, Xinde; Zhao, Ling; Arellano, Eduardo

    2014-03-01

    Long-term wastewater irrigation or solid waste disposal has resulted in the heavy metal contamination in both soil and groundwater. It is often separately implemented for remediation of contaminated soil or groundwater at a specific site. The main objective of this study was to demonstrate the hypothesis of simultaneous remediation of both heavy metal contaminated soil and groundwater by integrating the chemical immobilization and pump-and-treat methods. To accomplish the objective, three experiments were conducted, i.e., an incubation experiment was first conducted to determine how dairy-manure-derived biochar and phosphate rock tailing induced immobilization of Cd in the Cd-contaminated soils; second, a batch sorption experiment was carried out to determine whether the pre-amended contaminated soil still had the ability to retain Pb, Zn and Cd from aqueous solution. BCR sequential extraction as well as XRD and SEM analysis were conducted to explore the possible retention mechanism; and last, a laboratory-scale model test was undertaken by leaching the Pb, Zn, and Cd contaminated groundwater through the pre-amended contaminated soils to demonstrate how the heavy metals in both contaminated soil and groundwater were simultaneously retained and immobilized. The incubation experiment showed that the phosphate biochar were effective in immobilizing soil Cd with Cd concentration in TCLP (toxicity characteristics leaching procedure) extract reduced by 19.6 % and 13.7 %, respectively. The batch sorption experiment revealed that the pre-amended soil still had ability to retain Pb, Zn, and Cd from aqueous solution. The phosphate-induced metal retention was mainly due to the metal-phosphate precipitation, while both sorption and precipitation were responsible for the metal stabilization in the biochar amendment. The laboratory-scale test demonstrated that the soil amended with phosphate removed groundwater Pb, Zn, and Cd by 96.4 %, 44.6 %, and 49.2 %, respectively, and the

  6. Irrigation water quality influences heavy metal uptake by willows in biosolids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laidlaw, W Scott; Baker, Alan J M; Gregory, David; Arndt, Stefan K

    2015-05-15

    Phytoextraction is an effective method to remediate heavy metal contaminated landscapes but is often applied for single metal contaminants. Plants used for phytoextraction may not always be able to grow in drier environments without irrigation. This study investigated if willows (Salix x reichardtii A. Kerner) can be used for phytoextraction of multiple metals in biosolids, an end-product of the wastewater treatment process, and if irrigation with reclaimed and freshwater influences the extraction process. A plantation of willows was established directly onto a tilled stockpile of metal-contaminated biosolids and irrigated with slightly saline reclaimed water (EC ∼2 dS/cm) at a wastewater processing plant in Victoria, Australia. Biomass was harvested annually and analysed for heavy metal content. Phytoextraction of cadmium, copper, nickel and zinc was benchmarked against freshwater irrigated willows. The minimum irrigation rate of 700 mm per growing season was sufficient for willows to grow and extract metals. Increasing irrigation rates produced no differences in total biomass and also no differences in the extraction of heavy metals. The reclaimed water reduced both the salinity and the acidity of the biosolids significantly within the first 12 months after irrigation commenced and after three seasons the salinity of the biosolids had dropped to metal extraction. Reclaimed water irrigation reduced the biosolid pH and this was associated with reductions of the extraction of Ni and Zn, it did not influence the extraction of Cu and enhanced the phytoextraction of Cd, which was probably related to the high chloride content of the reclaimed water. Our results demonstrate that flood-irrigation with reclaimed water was a successful treatment to grow willows in a dry climate. However, the reclaimed water can also change biosolids properties, which will influence the effectiveness of willows to extract different metals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  7. Agriculture and wildlife: ecological implications of subsurface irrigation drainage

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. Dennis Lemly

    1994-01-01

    Subsurface agricultural irrigation drainage is a wastewater with the potential to severely impact wetlands and wildlife populations. Widespread poisoning of migratory birds by drainwater contaminants has occurred in the western United States and waterfowl populations are threatened in the Pacific and Central flyways. Irrigated agriculture could produce subsurface...

  8. Removal of bacterial contaminants and antibiotic resistance genes by conventional wastewater treatment processes in Saudi Arabia: Is the treated wastewater safe to reuse for agricultural irrigation?

    KAUST Repository

    Aljassim, Nada I.; Ansari, Mohd Ikram; Harb, Moustapha; Hong, Pei-Ying

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to assess the removal efficiency of microbial contaminants in a local wastewater treatment plant over the duration of one year, and to assess the microbial risk associated with reusing treated wastewater in agricultural irrigation

  9. Statistical Analysis Of Heavy Metals Concentration In Watermelon Plants Irrigated By Wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanjani, M. J.; Maghsoudi moud, A. A.; Saffari, V. R.; Hashamipor, S. M.; Soltanizadeh, M.

    2008-01-01

    Concentration of heavy metals in vegetables irrigated by urban wastewater is a cause of serious concern due to the potentials health problems of consuming contaminated produce. In this study it is tried to model the concentration of heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe,…) as a function of their concentration in watermelon roots and stems. Our study shows there is a good relationship between them for most of collected data. By measuring the concentration in root and stem of watermelon plant samples before harvesting, the concentration of heavy metal in watermelon's fruit can be estimated by presented mathematical models. This study shows the concentrations of heavy metals in fruits, roots and stems of watermelon plants are very high and in dangerous level when irrigated by municipal waste water.

  10. Sensing technologies for precision irrigation

    CERN Document Server

    Ćulibrk, Dubravko; Minic, Vladan; Alonso Fernandez, Marta; Alvarez Osuna, Javier; Crnojevic, Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    This brief provides an overview of state-of-the-art sensing technologies relevant to the problem of precision irrigation, an emerging field within the domain of precision agriculture. Applications of wireless sensor networks, satellite data and geographic information systems in the domain are covered. This brief presents the basic concepts of the technologies and emphasizes the practical aspects that enable the implementation of intelligent irrigation systems. The authors target a broad audience interested in this theme and organize the content in five chapters, each concerned with a specific technology needed to address the problem of optimal crop irrigation. Professionals and researchers will find the text a thorough survey with practical applications.

  11. Dwarf cashew growth irrigated with saline waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Orlando Carvallo Guerra

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The cashew production is one of the most important agricultural activities from the social-economical viewpoint for the North East of Brazil; besides to produce a great deal of hand labor, it is very important as an exporting commodity. The inadequate use of irrigation in the semi arid regions of the North East of Brazil has induced soil salinization and consequently problems for the irrigated agriculture. In spite of this, few works have been conducted to study the effect of saline stress on the growth and development of the cashew. Because of the lack of information for this crop, an experiment was conducted to study the effect of salinity stress on the phytomass production and nutrient accumulation on the different organs of the precocious dwarf cashew (Anacardium occidentale L. clone CCP76. The study was conducted under controlled conditions using as statistical scheme a randomized block design factorial with six replicates. Five salinity treatments were considered for the irrigation water (electrical conductivities of 0.8, 1.6, 2.4, 3.2 and 4.0 dS m-1 at 25oC. The increasing in salinity of the irrigation water reduced the phytomass at different organs of the studied plant. The nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, chloride and sodium in the plant varied with the salinity of the irrigation water according with the part of the plant analyzed; in some parts increased, in others decreased, in others increased initially and decreased afterwards, and finally, in other part of the plant the salinity of the irrigation water did not affect the nutrient concentration.

  12. Use of the food-chain model FOOD III and the soil model SCEMR to assess irrigation as a biosphere pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheppard, S.C.

    1985-02-01

    Irrigation of contaminated water onto crop land is a relatively direct pathway for radionuclides to deliver a radiation dose to man. Irrigation was not originally included in the SYVAC assessment model for the Precambrian Shield because no irrigation is currently practised in the region. This report re-evaluates this decision. An analysis of meteorological data shows that crop yield in northern Ontario would benefit from irrigation. Thus, incentives are present for subsistence-scale, and perhaps commercial-scale, irrigation of surface or well water. A food-chain analysis indicated that irrigation with contaminated water could deliver a dose comparable to direct consumption (drinking) of the same water, for some radionuclides. Long-term contamination of soil through irrigation was predicted to be a substantial hazard, even when soil leaching was incorporated into the food-chain model. This report presents parameter estimates that could be used to incorporate irrigation as a pathway in the SYVAC code and will constitute the basis for further decisions concerning this pathway

  13. Heavy Metal Contamination and Ecological Risk Assessment of Swine Manure Irrigated Vegetable Soils in Jiangxi Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Maolan; Liu, Ronghao; Lu, Xiuying; Zhu, Ziyi; Wang, Hailin; Jiang, Lei; Liu, Jingjing; Wu, Zhihua

    2018-05-01

    Heavy metal are often added to animal fodder and accumulate in the soils with swine manure. In this study, heavy metal (Cu, Pb, Cd, Zn, As and Cr) concentrations were determined in agricultural soils irrigated with swine manure in Jiangxi Province, China. Results showed that the average concentrations of Cu, Zn, As and Cr (32.8, 93.7, 21.3 and 75.8 mg/kg, respectively) were higher than the background values, while Pb and Cd (15.2 and 0.090 mg/kg, respectively) were lower than the background values. Contamination factors [Formula: see text] indicated that they were generally moderate for Cu, Zn, As and Cr and generally low for Pb and Cd. The contamination degree (C d ) was calculated to be 7.5-10.0 indicating a moderate degree of contamination. The geoaccumulation index (I geo ) indicated that the soils were unpolluted with Zn, Cd and Pb, while unpolluted to moderately pollute with Cr, Cu and As. The single ecological risk factor [Formula: see text] revealed that the six heavy metals all belonged to low ecological risk. The ecological risk indices suggested that all the sampling sites were at low risk level.

  14. Arsenic contamination in food chain: Thread to food security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekhar Azad Kashyap, Chandra; Singh, Swati

    2017-04-01

    The supply of good quality food is a necessity for economic and social health welfare of urban and rural population. Over the last several decades groundwater contamination in developing countries has assumed dangerous levels as a result millions of people are at risk. This is so particularly with respect to arsenic that has registered high concentration in groundwater in countries like India and Bangladesh. The arsenic content in groundwater varies from 10 to 780 µg/L, which is far above the levels for drinking water standards prescribed by World Health Organization (WHO). Currently arsenic has entered in food chain due to irrigation with arsenic contaminated water. In the present study reports the arsenic contamination in groundwater that is being used for irrigating paddy in Manipur and West Bengal. The arsenic content in irrigation water is 475 µg/L and 780 µg/L in Manipur and West Bengal, respectively. In order to assess the effect of such waters on the rice crop, we collected rice plant from Manipur and determined the arsenic content in roots, stem, and grain. The arsenic content in grain varies from 110 to 190 mg/kg while the limit of arsenic intake by humans is 10 mg/kg (WHO). This problem is not confine to the area, it spread global level, and rice being cultivated in these regions is export to the other countries like USA, Middle East and Europe and will be thread to global food security.

  15. Evaluation of sanitary quality of lettuce (Lactuca sativa, L. irrigated with reused water in comparison with commercialized lettuce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudinei Fonseca Souza

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Inadequate use of water resources reduces their availability and therefore, research focused on their reutilization is required. This work evaluated the sanitary quality of lettuce irrigated with reused water in comparison with samples of lettuce commercialized in Taubaté (SP market. An experiment was developed in a greenhouse with three beds of lettuce irrigated with reused water and three beds of lettuce irrigated with urban water supply. After lettuce biological cycle had been completed, lettuce samples were collected from the beds (irrigated and non-irrigated with reused water and from samples of lettuce commercialized in the city market that were analyzed in the laboratory. The analyses were done using the multiple tubes methodology. The results showed that the samples from lettuce irrigated with urban water supply were not contaminated by either total or thermotolerant coliforms while samples of irrigated lettuce with reused water were contaminated by total coliforms. Samples from commercialized lettuce were contaminated by both kinds of coliforms. Results indicated that the application of reused water for agricultural purposes should occur only after carefully treatment to allow a safe use and to contribute to the water use sustainability.

  16. Sources of groundwater contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assaf, H.; Al-Masri, M. S.

    2007-09-01

    In spite of the importance of water for life, either for drinking, irrigation, industry or other wide uses in many fields, human beings seem to contaminate it and make it unsuitable for human uses. This is due to disposal of wastes in the environment without treatment. In addition to population increase and building expanding higher living costs, industrial and economical in growth that causes an increase in water consumption. All of these factors have made an increase pressure on our water environment quantitatively and qualitatively. In addition, there is an increase of potential risks to the water environmental due to disposal of domestic and industrial wastewater in areas near the water sources. Moreover, the use of unacceptable irrigation systems may increase soil salinity and evaporation rates. The present report discusses the some groundwater sources and problem, hot and mineral waters that become very important in our life and to our health due to its chemical and radioactivity characteristics.(authors)

  17. Problems of irrigated agriculture in saline groundwater areas: farmers' perceptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, S.; Yasin, M.; Ahmad, M.M.; Hussain, Z.; Khan, Z.; Akbar, G.

    2005-01-01

    A research study was conducted using participatory interactive dialogue in the brackish groundwater area of Mona SCARP-II, Bhalwal district Sargodha, Pakistan. The Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) was conducted in thirteen villages to identify macro- and micro-level issues related to irrigated agriculture in saline groundwater areas. SCARP tube wells have been abandoned or few have been handed over to farmers' organizations. Groundwater in the Indus basin contributes around 35% to the total water available for agriculture. Water quality of 60% area of the Indus basin is marginal to brackish. Minimum land holding of cultivated land in the elected villages varied from 0.10 to 4 ha. The maximum land holding of cultivated area in selected villages varied for 6 to 50 ha. However, the average size of farm was around 4 ha. The average salt-affected area per household was 17% of the total cultivated area. The salt-affected lands in 8 villages out of 13 were barren, where mainly rice crop is grown during kharif season. About 67% farms had access to conjunctive use of water, as water from both canal and private tube wells is available. In addition, 10% farms were having tube well water only. Therefore, 77% farms are having access to the groundwater. According to the farmers' perceptions, 100% villages have fresh groundwater to a depth of 7.5 m and 62% villages had depth ranging from 15-30 m. Furthermore, in all thirteen selected villages, groundwater quality beyond 30 m depth was brackish. Laboratory analysis confirmed the farmer's perception that groundwater quality is a function of depth. About 92% farmers groups indicated that non-availability and high price of inputs was a major problem. The second major issue was related to the shortage of canal water supplies and 77% villages are facing this problem. Moreover, 31% farmers' groups of selected villages indicated that water logging and salinity are the major concerns affecting agricultural productivity. This figure is

  18. Modernized Irrigation Technologies in West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Büyükcangaz

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Crop production in West Africa is mostly dependent upon rainfed agriculture. Irrigation is a vital need due to uneven distribution of rainfall and seasonality of water resources. However, management and sustainability of irrigation are under risk due to notably weak database, excessive cost, unappropriate soil or land use, environmental problems and extreme pessimism in some quarters since rainfed agriculture is seen as potentially able to support the present population. This paper focuses on modernized irrigation technologies and systems that utilize less water. Information about irrigation systems in Ghana and Liberia were gathered through: 1 Irrigation development authorities in both countries, by reviewing past literatures, online publications, reports and files about irrigation in West Africa, specifically Ghana and Liberia; 2 International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI; 3 Collation of information, reports and data from Ghana Irrigation Development Authority (GIDA and 4 International Water Management Institute (IWMI. The result shows that both countries have higher irrigation potential. However, the areas developed for irrigation is still a small portion as compare to the total land available for irrigation. On the other hand, as seen in the result, Liberia as compare to Ghana has even low level of irrigation development.

  19. Irrigation water quality in southern Mexico City based on bacterial and heavy metal analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solis, C.; Sandoval, J.; Perez-Vega, H.; Mazari-Hiriart, M.

    2006-01-01

    Xochimilco is located in southern Mexico City and represents the reminiscence of the pre-Columbian farming system, the 'chinampa' agriculture. 'Chinampas' are island plots surrounded by a canal network. At present the area is densely urbanized and populated, with various contaminant sources contributing to the water quality degradation. The canal system is recharged by a combination of treated-untreated wastewater, and precipitation during the rainy season. Over 40 agricultural species, including vegetables, cereals and flowers, are produced in the 'chinampas'. In order to characterize the quality of Xochimilcos' water used for irrigation, spatial and temporal contaminant indicators such as microorganisms and heavy metals were investigated. Bacterial indicators (fecal coliforms, fecal enterococcus) were analyzed by standard analytical procedures, and heavy metals (such as Fe, Cu, Zn and Pb) were analyzed by particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE). The more contaminated sites coincide with the heavily populated areas. Seasonal variation of contaminants was observed, with the higher bacterial counts and heavy metal concentrations reported during the rainy season

  20. Irrigation water quality in southern Mexico City based on bacterial and heavy metal analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solís, C.; Sandoval, J.; Pérez-Vega, H.; Mazari-Hiriart, M.

    2006-08-01

    Xochimilco is located in southern Mexico City and represents the reminiscence of the pre-Columbian farming system, the "chinampa" agriculture. "Chinampas" are island plots surrounded by a canal network. At present the area is densely urbanized and populated, with various contaminant sources contributing to the water quality degradation. The canal system is recharged by a combination of treated-untreated wastewater, and precipitation during the rainy season. Over 40 agricultural species, including vegetables, cereals and flowers, are produced in the "chinampas". In order to characterize the quality of Xochimilcos' water used for irrigation, spatial and temporal contaminant indicators such as microorganisms and heavy metals were investigated. Bacterial indicators (fecal coliforms, fecal enterococcus) were analyzed by standard analytical procedures, and heavy metals (such as Fe, Cu, Zn and Pb) were analyzed by particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE). The more contaminated sites coincide with the heavily populated areas. Seasonal variation of contaminants was observed, with the higher bacterial counts and heavy metal concentrations reported during the rainy season.

  1. Managing Water Resources for Environmentally Sustainable Irrigated Agriculture in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Afzal

    1996-01-01

    Pakistan’s agriculture is almost wholly dependent on irrigation and irrigated land supplies more than 90 percent of agricultural production. Irrigation is central to Pakistan’s economy. Massive investments in irrigation contributed to the development of one of the largest Indus Basin Irrigation System. Despite heavy budgetary inputs in irrigation system, it is facing shortage of resources and suffering from operational problems. The sustainability of irrigated agriculture is threatened due to...

  2. Temporal stability of Escherichia coli concentration patterns in two irrigation ponds in Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fecal contamination of water sources is an important water quality issue for agricultural irrigation ponds. Escherichia coli is a common microbial indicator used to evaluate recreational and irrigation water quality. We hypothesized that there is a temporally stable pattern of E.coli concentrations ...

  3. Arsenic contamination in food chain: Thread to global food security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashyap, C. A.

    2016-12-01

    The supply of good quality food is a necessity for economic and social health of urban and rural population. Over the last several decades groundwater contamination in developing countries has assumed dangerous levels as a result millions of people are at risk. This is so particularly with respect to arsenic that has registered high concentration in groundwater in countries like India and Bangladesh. The arsenic content in groundwater varies from 10 to 780 µg/L, which is far above the levels for drinking water standards prescribed by World Health Organization (WHO). Currently arsenic has entered in food chain due to irrigation with arsenic contaminated water. In the present study reports the arsenic contamination in groundwater that is being used for irrigating paddy in Manipur and West Bengal. The arsenic content in irrigation water is 475 µg/L and 780 µg/L in Manipur and West Bengal, respectively. In order to assess the effect of such waters on the rice crop, we collected rice plant from Manipur and determined the arsenic content in roots, stem, and grain. The arsenic content in grain varies from 110 to 190 mg/kg while the limit of arsenic intake by humans is 10 mg/kg (WHO). This problem is not confine to the area, it spread global level, and rice being cultivated in these regions is export to the other countries like USA, Middle East and Europe and will be thread to global food security.

  4. Underground waters and soil contamination studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, Vinicius V.M.; Camargos, Claudio C.; Santos, Rosana A.M.

    2009-01-01

    Maybe the greatest problem associated to the nuclear energy is what to do with the waste generated. As example, in Portugal, two of the most important of uranium mines produced a significant amount of waste, now deposited in several storage facilities. To evaluate the impacts generated, samples of water, sediments and soils were analyzed. The space distribution of these samples revealed that the contamination is restricted in the vicinity of the mining areas, and the biggest problem happened due to the illegal use of waters for irrigation, originated from the mine effluents treatment stations. In Brazil, the radioactive waste remains a problem for the authorities and population, since there is not until now a final repository to storage them. The objective of this work is to do studies with the software FRAC3DVS, which simulates the contamination of soils and underground waters due to radioactive and no radioactive sources of pollution. The obtained results show that this tool can help in environmental evaluations and decision making processes in the site selection of a radioactive waste repository. (author)

  5. effect of deficit irrigation on growth and yield of okro

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    reduce the demand for irrigation water (Boland et al., 1993). Deficit irrigation is another way in which water use efficiency can be maximized for higher yields per unit of irrigation water. Stegman (1982) reported that the yield of maize, sprinkler irrigated to induce a 30 - 40 percent depletion of available water between.

  6. Microbial community analysis in rice paddy soils irrigated by acid mine drainage contaminated water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Min; Xiao, Tangfu; Ning, Zengping; Xiao, Enzong; Sun, Weimin

    2015-03-01

    Five rice paddy soils located in southwest China were selected for geochemical and microbial community analysis. These rice fields were irrigated with river water which was contaminated by Fe-S-rich acid mine drainage. Microbial communities were characterized by high-throughput sequencing, which showed 39 different phyla/groups in these samples. Among these phyla/groups, Proteobacteria was the most abundant phylum in all samples. Chloroflexi, Acidobacteria, Nitrospirae, and Bacteroidetes exhibited higher relative abundances than other phyla. A number of rare and candidate phyla were also detected. Moreover, canonical correspondence analysis suggested that pH, sulfate, and nitrate were significant factors that shaped the microbial community structure. In addition, a wide diversity of Fe- and S-related bacteria, such as GOUTA19, Shewanella, Geobacter, Desulfobacca, Thiobacillus, Desulfobacterium, and Anaeromyxobacter, might be responsible for biogeochemical Fe and S cycles in the tested rice paddy soils. Among the dominant genera, GOUTA19 and Shewanella were seldom detected in rice paddy soils.

  7. Irrigation Water Sources and Time Intervals as Variables on the Presence of Campylobacter spp. and Listeria monocytogenes on Romaine Lettuce Grown in Muck Soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guévremont, Evelyne; Lamoureux, Lisyanne; Généreux, Mylène; Côté, Caroline

    2017-07-01

    Irrigation water has been identified as a possible source of vegetable contamination by foodborne pathogens. Risk management for pathogens such as Campylobacter spp. and Listeria monocytogenes in fields can be influenced by the source of the irrigation water and the time interval between last irrigation and harvest. Plots of romaine lettuce were irrigated with manure-contaminated water or aerated pond water 21, 7, or 3 days prior to harvesting, and water and muck soil samples were collected at each irrigation treatment. Lettuce samples were collected at the end of the trials. The samples were tested for the presence of Campylobacter spp. and L. monocytogenes. Campylobacter coli was isolated from 33% of hog manure samples (n = 9) and from 11% of the contaminated water samples (n = 27), but no lettuce samples were positive (n = 288). L. monocytogenes was not found in manure, and only one sample of manure-contaminated irrigation water (n = 27) and one lettuce sample (n = 288) were positive. No Campylobacter or L. monocytogenes was recovered from the soil samples (n = 288). Because of the low incidence of pathogens, it was not possible to link the contamination of either soil or lettuce with the type of irrigation water. Nevertheless, experimental field trials mimicking real conditions provide new insights into the survival of two significant foodborne pathogens on romaine lettuce.

  8. Value added cleaning and disinfection of the root canal: laser-activated irrigation and laser-induced photoporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Moor, Roeland J. G.; Meire, Maarten A.

    2016-03-01

    Among present-day marketed systems ultrasonic activation appears to be the best way to activate and potentiate endodontic irrigants. An alternative for ultrasonic activation of irrigants is laser activated irrigation (LAI) or photoninitiated acoustic streaming. Based on present-day research it appears that LAI (especially with Erbium lasers) can be more efficient for debris removal out of root canals and interaction with the endodontic biofilms thanks to the induction of specific cavitation phenomena and acoustic streaming. Other wavelengths are now explored to be used for LAI. Another way to interact with biofilms is to rely on laser-induced photoporation in combination with gold nanoparticles ( AuNPs). The latter is an alternative physical method for delivering macromolecules in cells. Nanosized membrane pores can be created upon pulsed laser illumination. Depending on the laser energy, pores are created through either direct heating of the AuNPs or by vapour nanobubbles that can emerge around the AuNPs.

  9. Irrigation Capability Evaluation of Illushi Floodplain, Edo State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.S. Umweni

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Many irrigation projects, especially in the developing tropical regions, are embarked upon without any land capability assessment, resulting in avoidable and undesirable ecological consequences. The aim of this study is to assess the irrigation capability potentials of the soils of a rice growing Illushi/Ega community in Edo State of Nigeria. Soils of Illushi/Ega (200 ha were studied to establish their irrigation capabilities. Water samples were collected from the rivers within and near the sites at the proposed points of intake structures and analyzed for salinity (ECw, permeability (SAR and ion toxicity [Chlorine (Cl and Boron (B]. Gravity irrigation suitability assessment was carried out following the guidelines of the United States Bureau for Land Reclamation (USBR, 1953 and FAO (1979. Results showed that about 5.5 % of the land was non-irrigable, 11.5 % was marginally irrigable, 30.5% was moderately irrigable and 52.5 % highly irrigable.Thus about 83 % of the total land area was found to be irrigable. The results of analyses of irrigation water [ECw, SAR and Cl and B (ion toxicity problems in water sources were 0.1 – 0.7 dS m-1, 1.2 – 1.7, 0.6 – 1.8 cmol kg-1 and 0.5 – 0.7 mg kg-1] also show that there is no indication of salinity or ion toxicity problem.

  10. Field based plastic contamination sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    The United States has a long-held reputation of being a dependable source of high quality, contaminant-free cotton. Recently, increased incidence of plastic contamination from sources such as shopping bags, vegetable mulch, surface irrigation tubing, and module covers has threatened the reputation o...

  11. Irrigant flow during photon-induced photoacoustic streaming (PIPS) using Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Jon D; Jaramillo, David E; DiVito, Enrico; Peters, Ove A

    2016-03-01

    This study aimed to compare fluid movements generated from photon-induced photoacoustic streaming (PIPS) and passive ultrasonic irrigation (PUI). Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) was performed using 6-μm melamine spheres in water. Measurement areas were 3-mm-long sections of the canal in the coronal, midroot and apical regions for PIPS (erbium/yttrium-aluminium garnet (Er:YAG) laser set at 15 Hz with 20 mJ), or passive ultrasonic irrigation (PUI, non-cutting insert at 30% unit power) was performed in simulated root canals prepared to an apical size #30/0.04 taper. Fluid movement was analysed directly subjacent to the apical ends of ultrasonic insert or fiber optic tips as well as at midroot and apically. During PUI, measured average velocities were around 0.03 m/s in the immediate vicinity of the sides and tip of the ultrasonic file. Speeds decayed to non-measureable values at a distance of about 2 mm from the sides and tip. During PIPS, typical average speeds were about ten times higher than those measured for PUI, and they were measured throughout the length of the canal, at distances up to 20 mm away. PIPS caused higher average fluid speeds when compared to PUI, both close and distant from the instrument. The findings of this study could be relevant to the debriding and disinfecting stage of endodontic therapy. Irrigation enhancement beyond needle irrigation is relevant to more effectively eradicate microorganisms from root canal systems. PIPS may be an alternative approach due to its ability to create high streaming velocities further away from the activation source compared to ultrasonic activation.

  12. Contamination of Phthalate Esters (PAEs in Typical Wastewater-Irrigated Agricultural Soils in Hebei, North China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Zhang

    Full Text Available The Wangyang River (WYR basin is a typical wastewater irrigation area in Hebei Province, North China. This study investigated the concentration and distribution of six priority phthalate esters (PAEs in the agricultural soils in this area. Thirty-nine soil samples (0-20 cm were collected along the WYR to assess the PAE residues in soils. Results showed that PAEs are ubiquitous environmental contaminants in the topsoil obtained from the irrigation area. The concentrations of Σ6PAEs range from 0.191 μg g-1 dw to 0.457 μg g-1 dw with an average value of 0.294 μg g-1 dw. Di(2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP and di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP are the dominant PAE species in the agricultural soils. Among the DEHP concentrations, the highest DEHP concentration was found at the sites close to the villages; this result suggested that dense anthropogenic activities and random garbage disposal in the rural area are possible sources of PAEs. The PAE concentrations were weakly and positively correlated with soil organic carbon and soil enzyme activities; thus, these factors can affect the distribution of PAEs. This study further showed that only dimethyl phthalate (DMP concentrations exceeded the recommended allowable concentrations; no remediation measures are necessary to control the PAEs in the WYR area. However, the PAEs in the topsoil may pose a potential risk to the ecosystem and human health in this area. Therefore, the exacerbating PAE pollution should be addressed.

  13. Modeling Soil Sodicity Problems under Dryland and Irrigated Conditions: Case Studies in Argentina and Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pla-Sentís, Ildefonso

    2014-05-01

    Salt-affected soils, both saline and sodic, my develop both under dryland and irrigated conditions, affecting negatively the physical and chemical soil properties, the crop production and the animal and human health.Among the development processes of salt-affected soils, the processes of sodification have been generally received less attention and is less understood than the development of saline soils. Although in both of them, hydrological processes are involved in their development, in the case of sodic soils we have to consider some additional chemical and physicochemical reactions, making more difficult their modeling and prediction. In this contribution we present two case studies: one related to the development of sodic soils in the lowlands of the Argentina Pampas, under dryland conditions and sub-humid temperate climate, with pastures for cattle production; the other deals with the development of sodic soils in the Colombia Cauca Valley, under irrigated conditions and tropical sub-humid climate, in lands used for sugarcane cropping dedicated to sugar and ethanol production. In both cases the development of sodicity in the surface soil is mainly related to the effects of the composition and level of groundwater, affected in the case of Argentina Pampas by the off-site changes in dryland use and management in the upper zones and by the drainage conditions in the lowlands, and in the case of the Cauca Valley, by the on-site irrigation and drainage management in lands with sugarcane. There is shown how the model SALSODIMAR, developed by the main author, based on the balance of water and soluble componentes of both the irrigation water and groundwater under different water and land management conditions, may be adapted for the diagnosis and prediction of both problems, and for the selection of alternatives for their management and amelioration.

  14. Characterizing contaminant concentrations with depth by using the USGS well profiler in Oklahoma, 2003-9

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, S. Jerrod; Becker, Carol J.

    2011-01-01

    Since 2003, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Oklahoma Water Science Center has been using the USGS well profiler to characterize changes in water contribution and contaminant concentrations with depth in pumping public-supply wells in selected aquifers. The tools and methods associated with the well profiler, which were first developed by the USGS California Water Science Center, have been used to investigate common problems such as saline water intrusion in high-yield irrigation wells and metals contamination in high-yield public-supply wells.

  15. Irrigation water quality in southern Mexico City based on bacterial and heavy metal analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solis, C. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apdo Postal 20-364, 01000 Mexico, DF (Mexico)]. E-mail: corina@fisica.unam.mx; Sandoval, J. [Instituto de Ecologia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apdo Postal 70-275, 04510 Mexico, DF (Mexico); Perez-Vega, H. [Ciencias Agropecuarias, Universidad Juarez Autonoma de Tabasco, Ave. Universidad S/N. Zona de la Cultura, 86040 Villa Hermosa, Tabasco (Mexico); Mazari-Hiriart, M. [Instituto de Ecologia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apdo Postal 70-275, 04510 Mexico, DF (Mexico)

    2006-08-15

    Xochimilco is located in southern Mexico City and represents the reminiscence of the pre-Columbian farming system, the 'chinampa' agriculture. 'Chinampas' are island plots surrounded by a canal network. At present the area is densely urbanized and populated, with various contaminant sources contributing to the water quality degradation. The canal system is recharged by a combination of treated-untreated wastewater, and precipitation during the rainy season. Over 40 agricultural species, including vegetables, cereals and flowers, are produced in the 'chinampas'. In order to characterize the quality of Xochimilcos' water used for irrigation, spatial and temporal contaminant indicators such as microorganisms and heavy metals were investigated. Bacterial indicators (fecal coliforms, fecal enterococcus) were analyzed by standard analytical procedures, and heavy metals (such as Fe, Cu, Zn and Pb) were analyzed by particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE). The more contaminated sites coincide with the heavily populated areas. Seasonal variation of contaminants was observed, with the higher bacterial counts and heavy metal concentrations reported during the rainy season.

  16. Monitoring priority substances, other organic contaminants and heavy metals in a volcanic aquifer from different sources and hydrological processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estevez, Esmeralda; Cabrera, María del Carmen; Fernández-Vera, Juan Ramón; Molina-Díaz, Antonio; Robles-Molina, José; Palacios-Díaz, María del Pino

    2016-05-01

    Irrigation with reclaimed water (R) is necessary to guarantee the sustainability of semi-arid areas. Results obtained during a two years monitoring network (2009-2011) in Gran Canaria are presented, including the analysis of chemical parameters, N and S isotopes, priority substances (2008/105/EC, 2013/39/EU), other organic contaminants and heavy metals in groundwater and R used to irrigate a golf course. The aims of this work are to evaluate the contamination in a volcanic aquifer, relate the presence of organic contaminants and heavy metals with the hydrogeochemistry and identify pollution sources in the area. No priority substance exceeded the EU thresholds for surface water, although seventeen were detected in R. The most frequent compounds were hexachlorobenzene, chlorpyrifos ethyl, fluorene, phenanthrene and pyrene. These compounds were detected at low concentration, except chlorpyrifos. Chlorpyrifos ethyl, terbuthylazine, diuron, terbutryn, procymidone, atrazine and propazine exceeded the European threshold concentration for pesticides in groundwater (100ngL(-1)). Therefore, the priority substances chlorpyrifos ethyl and diuron must be included in monitoring studies. The priority pesticides chlorfenvinphos and diazinon were always detected in R but rarely in groundwater. Besides, the existence of contaminants not related to the current R irrigation has been identified. Absence of environmental problems related to heavy metals can be expected. The relationship among contaminant presence, hydrogeochemistry, including the stable isotopic prints of δ(18)O, δ(15)N and δ(34)S and preferential recharge paths has been described. The coastal well shows high values of EC, nitrate, a variable chemistry, and 50% of organic contaminants detected above 100ngL(-1). The well located in the recharge area presents a stable hydrochemistry, the lowest value of δ(15)N and the lowest contaminants occurrence. The area is an example of a complex volcanic media with several

  17. To study the effects of groundwater contamination in Kasur due to Nallah Rohi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghumman, A.R.; Shamim, M.A.

    2005-01-01

    Groundwater contamination is a worldwide known problem. Pakistan, being a developing country, is also facing the problem created by groundwater pollution. Disposal of domestic wastes and agricultural treatments has been reported to be a considerable factor for causing the pollution, especially the groundwater contamination. In the rural areas of Pakistan, latrines and septic tanks have become common because of the advancement in the living standards. All of the domestic wastes is disposed off into the ponds or nearby passing streams. In the similar fashion, drains in the big and well developed cities of Pakistan lead the domestic waste, along with the industrial waste, into the passing by streams, canals and rivers. All of such disposed off waste is untreated because of the lack of legislation and its improper implementation. The contaminated water affects the health of human beings and also destroys the crops when this water is used for irrigation. So this paper deals with the effects and condition of the disposal of the harmful chemicals, which ultimately through seepage reach the groundwater and make it hazardous. Also, the lateral distances of the contaminated groundwater were found out. For experimentation, major city of Kasur which is in the vicinity of Nullah Rohi, was selected. All the wastes including both the industrial as well as domestic, of the whole area, is disposed off into the Nullah. The percolation of the harmful chemicals and its mixing with groundwater has resulted in the hazardous effects on the inhabitants of the area on the irrigation land as well. So the water in the vicinity, at different locations was tested and the degree of contamination and the lateral distances of contaminated water were also worked out. (author)

  18. Sediment Transport Model for a Surface Irrigation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damodhara R. Mailapalli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Controlling irrigation-induced soil erosion is one of the important issues of irrigation management and surface water impairment. Irrigation models are useful in managing the irrigation and the associated ill effects on agricultural environment. In this paper, a physically based surface irrigation model was developed to predict sediment transport in irrigated furrows by integrating an irrigation hydraulic model with a quasi-steady state sediment transport model to predict sediment load in furrow irrigation. The irrigation hydraulic model simulates flow in a furrow irrigation system using the analytically solved zero-inertial overland flow equations and 1D-Green-Ampt, 2D-Fok, and Kostiakov-Lewis infiltration equations. Performance of the sediment transport model was evaluated for bare and cropped furrow fields. The results indicated that the sediment transport model can predict the initial sediment rate adequately, but the simulated sediment rate was less accurate for the later part of the irrigation event. Sensitivity analysis of the parameters of the sediment module showed that the soil erodibility coefficient was the most influential parameter for determining sediment load in furrow irrigation. The developed modeling tool can be used as a water management tool for mitigating sediment loss from the surface irrigated fields.

  19. Experimental bifurcation analysis—Continuation for noise-contaminated zero problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schilder, Frank; Bureau, Emil; Santos, Ilmar Ferreira

    2015-01-01

    Noise contaminated zero problems involve functions that cannot be evaluated directly, but only indirectly via observations. In addition, such observations are affected by a non-deterministic observation error (noise). We investigate the application of numerical bifurcation analysis for studying...... the solution set of such noise contaminated zero problems, which is highly relevant in the context of equation-free analysis (coarse grained analysis) and bifurcation analysis in experiments, and develop specialized algorithms to address challenges that arise due to the presence of noise. As a working example......, we demonstrate and test our algorithms on a mechanical nonlinear oscillator experiment using control based continuation, which we used as a main application and test case for development of the Coco compatible Matlab toolbox Continex that implements our algorithms....

  20. STUDY ON MICROBIAL COMMUNITIES AND SOIL ORGANIC MATTER IN IRRIGATED AND NON-IRRIGATED VERTISOL FROM BOIANU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorina Dumitru

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Irrigation, when administered correctly, confers the producers the possibility to overcome drought effects and obtain higher yields, supplementing the quality of food for animals or human consumers. In the mean time, soil erosion, pathogens attack and nutrients or pesticides spreading can be prevented by an adequate management of irrigation water. As a consequence, soil microbial community structure, composition and activities, as well as the organic matter quality can be different from those in non-irrigated soil. Research have been carried out in order to assess changes in bacterial and fungal communities and activity in irrigated Vertisol from Boianu, as compared with non-irrigated. The paper presents the results concerning the taxonomical composition of bacterial and fungalmicroflora in the horizons of the two soil profiles, as well as the level of CO2 released by microorganisms. Chromatographic aspects of humus fractions were used to characterize the organic matter in irrigated and nonirrigated soil. Increased moisture and lowered temperature in Ap horizon of irrigated soil increased bacterial counts(18 x106 viable cells x g-1 dry soil and their metabolic activity expressed by carbon dioxide released (46.838mg CO2 x g-1 dry soil comparatively with non- irrigated soil. Fungal microflora was more abundant after 25-50cm under irrigation. Species diversity slightly increased under irrigation in both upper and lower part of soil profile. In irrigated soil, associations of species belonging to bacterial genera Pseudomonas and Bacillus were dominant in surface and white actinomycetes in the depth. Fungal consortia of Penicillium, Aspergillus and Fusarium dominated in both soil profiles.Irrigation induced changes in the quantity and quality of soil organic matter, as well as in the aspect of their migration pattern, as revealed on circular chromatograms.

  1. Soil and water management in spate irrigation systems in Eritrea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hadera, M.T.

    2001-01-01

    Spate irrigation has been practised over 100 years in the Red Sea coastal zone of Eritrea such as the Sheeb area. Main problem of the spate irrigation system is water shortage caused by irregular rainfall in the highlands of Eritrea and breaching of the irrigation structures by destructive

  2. A monitoring of chemical contaminants in waters used for field irrigation and livestock watering in the Veneto region (Italy), using bioassays as a screening tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Liguoro, Marco; Bona, Mirco Dalla; Gallina, Guglielmo; Capolongo, Francesca; Gallocchio, Federica; Binato, Giovanni; Di Leva, Vincenzo

    2014-03-01

    In this study, 50 livestock watering sources (ground water) and 50 field irrigation sources (surface water) from various industrialised areas of the Veneto region were monitored for chemical contaminants. From each site, four water samples (one in each season) were collected during the period from summer 2009 through to spring 2010. Surface water samples and ground water samples were first screened for toxicity using the growth inhibition test on Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata and the immobilisation test on Daphnia magna, respectively. Then, based on the results of these toxicity tests, 28 ground water samples and 26 surface water samples were submitted to chemical analysis for various contaminants (insecticides/acaricides, fungicides, herbicides, metals and anions) by means of UPLC-MS(n) HPLC-MS(n), AAS and IEC. With the exception of one surface water sample where the total pesticides concentration was greater than 4 μg L(-1), positive samples (51.9 %) showed only traces (nanograms per liter) of pesticides. Metals were generally under the detection limit. High concentrations of chlorines (up to 692 mg L(-1)) were found in some ground water samples while some surface water samples showed an excess of nitrites (up to 336 mg L(-1)). Detected levels of contamination were generally too low to justify the toxicity recorded in bioassays, especially in the case of surface water samples, and analytical results painted quite a reassuring picture, while tests on P. subcapitata showed a strong growth inhibition activity. It was concluded that, from an ecotoxicological point of view, surface waters used for field irrigation in the Veneto region cannot be considered safe.

  3. Irrigation and Rural Welfare: Implications of Schistosomiasis among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines the effects of the prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis infection on the socio-economic health of irrigation farmers in the rural districts of Kazaure Area, Northern Nigeria. It first reviews some general consideration of irrigation environment and schistosomiasis, its major associated health problem.

  4. Optimization of modern irrigation for biosaline agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahid, S.A.; Hasbini, B.

    2007-01-01

    Supplementation water is a must to offset the water requirement to produce profitable crops in most arid and semiarid zones, where fresh water resources are insufficient to meet the pressure of irrigated agriculture. This necessitates the use of poor quality water resources. These waters if not properly managed and used can cause serious soil related problems (salinity, sodicity, destruction of soil structure) in addition to decline in crop yields. Biosaline agriculture (using saline water on saline soils to grow salt-tolerant crops) becomes the only option for the farmer when both soil and water resources are saline and the water resource is scarce. In this regards key design considerations must be taken into account when irrigating with salty waters to optimize water uses and to reduce subsequent soil salinity development. Sprinkler irrigation systems are commonly used in irrigation of large-scale irrigational production systems. However they tend to concentrate salts on the leaves of plants. For this reason discharge and degree of overlap between consecutive sprinkler heads, are key design parameters when applying salty waters. Trickle irrigation is the most efficient system and is gaining importance in the GCC countries in the agriculture and landscape irrigation. The objective of this study was to optimize modern irrigation systems through development of design standards for drip (emitters spacing) and sprinkler irrigation systems (single head jet and overlapping) by applying saline water. The effect of emitter spacing (drip) and overlapping (sprinkler) were tested for the formation of salt contours in soil. The leaching ratio (LR) is the overall soil sanity within rhizosphere divided by the average irrigation water salinity. In this study LR is used to evaluate the effectiveness of irrigation systems in developing soil sanity. From the present investigations it is concluded that when using saline water for irrigation, the soil sanity development can be

  5. Improving efficiencies of irrigation and nitrogen uptake in wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bazza, M.

    2000-01-01

    Three years of field studies and lysimeter experiments on irrigated wheat had the objective of finding ways of managing irrigation and N fertilization to minimize losses and reduce contamination of groundwater. Applied N had significant positive effects on crop-water consumptive use. The highest N losses occurred during early growth. Irrigation had little effect on N loss when it was practiced efficiently. Under the prevailing conditions, it is recommended that no N be applied to wheat at planting, in order to limit N losses by leaching caused by the high precipitation that usually occurs during early development when crop-N requirements are small. No more than 120 kg N ha -1 should be applied in total to minimize groundwater pollution and maximize N-uptake efficiency and economic returns. Also, for economic and environmental reasons, irrigation should be limited to 80% of the total requirement and to depths of 40 to 60 mm. (author)

  6. Effect of soil contamination due to wastewater irrigation on total cesium as determined by destructive and nondestructive analytical techniques in some soils of egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Sabour, M.F.; Abdel-Lattif, A.

    2005-01-01

    Fifteen soil samples were chosen from different locations to represent different soils irrigated with different sources of contaminated wastewater (sewage and industrial effluent). Sequential extraction experiment was carried out to determine different forms of Cs in soils. Moreover, Soil samples were analyzed for total Cs using two analytical methods i.e. destructive wet digestion technique (Atomic Absorption Spectrometry, AAS or by summation of all sequential extracted fractions, SUM) and non-destructive technique (Neutron Activation Analysis, NAA). The aim of this study was to evaluate soil total Cs-forms (especially, bio-available fraction) as affected by soil pollution. Cesium was mostly concentrated in the residual fraction, and its values ranged from 57.4% to 82.9 % of total Cs in sandy soils and from 31.5% to 64.5 % of total Cs in tested clayey soil. Then organically bound Cs- fraction followed by Cs-occluded in Fe-Mn fraction, carbonate, exchangeable and water soluble fractions. Results suggested that, Cs level is affected by soil organic matter content, Fe-Mn oxides and clay content. The mobile Cs fraction (the sum of soluble and exchangeable fractions) ranged from 2% up to 9.9 % of total Cs in sandy soils. However, a higher value (9.82% to 15.31 %) could be observed in case of the tested clayey soils. Soils D and E were more contaminated than other tested soils. Data show obviously, that soil contaminated due to the irrigation with either sewage effluent or industrial wastewater has resulted in a drastic increase in both metal-organic and occluded in Fe and Mn oxide fractions followed by the carbonate fraction

  7. Arsenic contamination in irrigation water, agricultural soil and maize crop from an abandoned smelter site in Matehuala, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruíz-Huerta, Esther Aurora; de la Garza Varela, Alonso; Gómez-Bernal, Juan Miguel; Castillo, Francisco; Avalos-Borja, Miguel; SenGupta, Bhaskar; Martínez-Villegas, Nadia

    2017-10-05

    Mobility of Arsenic (As) from metallurgical wastes in Matehuala, Mexico has been accounted for ultra-high concentration of As in water (4.8-158mg/L) that is used for recreational purposes as well as cultivation of maize. In this study, we (i) measured As concentrations in soils irrigated with this water, (ii) investigated the geochemical controls of available As, and (iii) measured bioaccumulation of As in maize. Water, soil, and maize plant samples were collected from 3 different plots to determine As in environmental matrices as well as water soluble As in soils. Soil mineralogy was determined by X-ray diffraction analysis. Bioaccumulation of As in maize plants was estimated from the bioconcentration and translocation factors. We recorded As built-up in agricultural soils to the extent of 172mg/kg, and noted that this As is highly soluble in water (30% on average). Maize crops presented high bioaccumulation, up to 2.5 times of bioconcentration and 45% of translocation. Furthermore, we found that water extractable As was higher in soils rich in calcite, while it was lower in soils containing high levels of gypsum, but As bioconcentration showed opposite trend. Results from this study show that irrigation with As rich water represents a significant risk to the population consuming contaminated crops. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Impact of upstream industrial effluents on irrigation water quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    is acidic, thus enhancing leaching and corrosive tendencies of the irrigation ... of heavy metals in the soil indicated contamination from the effluent from the .... well (SAR = 11.1), which contained high pH (pH= 6.65) and high Chloride ion (Cl-of.

  9. The Power to Resist: Irrigation Management Transfer in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Suhardiman

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In the last two decades, international donors have promoted Irrigation Management Transfer (IMT as an international remedy to management problems in government irrigation systems in many developing countries. This article analyses the political processes that shape IMT policy formulation and implementation in Indonesia. It links IMT with the issue of bureaucratic reform and argues that its potential to address current problems in government irrigation systems cannot be achieved if the irrigation agency is not convinced about the need for management transfer. IMT’s significance cannot be measured only through IMT outcomes and impacts, without linking these with how the irrigation agency perceives the idea of management transfer in the first place, how this perception (redefines the agency’s position in IMT, and how it shapes the agency’s action and strategy in the policy formulation and implementation. I illustrate how the irrigation agency contested the idea of management transfer by referring to IMT policy adoption in 1987 and its renewal in 1999. The article concludes that for management transfer to be meaningful it is pertinent that the issue of bureaucratic reform is incorporated into current policy discussions.

  10. Effects of ten years treated wastewater drip irrigation on soil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SWEET

    soil contamination and the cumulative impact of wastewater, we compared two plots, all under orange- ... A slight increase in the concentration of soil enteric bacteria and soil fungal densities was ..... could be used for fruit tree irrigation.

  11. Copper Contamination Impairs Herbivore Initiation of Seaweed Inducible Defenses and Decreases Their Effectiveness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandria M Warneke

    Full Text Available Seaweed-herbivore interactions are often mediated by environmental conditions, yet the roles of emerging anthropogenic stressors on these interactions are poorly understood. For example, chemical contaminants have unknown consequences on seaweed inducible resistance and herbivore response to these defenses despite known deleterious effects of contaminants on animal inducible defenses. Here, we investigated the effect of copper contamination on the interactions between a snail herbivore and a brown seaweed that displays inducible resistance to grazing. We examined seaweed inducible resistance and its effectiveness for organisms exposed to copper at two time points, either during induction or after herbivores had already induced seaweed defenses. Under ambient conditions, non-grazed tissues were more palatable than grazed tissues. However, copper additions negated the preference for non-grazed tissues regardless of the timing of copper exposure, suggesting that copper decreased both how herbivores initiated these inducible defenses and their subsequent effectiveness. Copper decreased stimulation of defenses, at least in part, by suppressing snail grazing pressure-the cue that turns inducible defenses on. Copper decreased effectiveness of defenses by preventing snails from preferentially consuming non-grazed seaweed. Thus, contaminants can potentially stress communities by changing seaweed-herbivore interactions mediated via inducible defenses. Given the ubiquity of seaweed inducible resistance and their potential influence on herbivores, we hypothesize that copper contamination may change the impact of these resistant traits on herbivores.

  12. Contamination of rice (Oryza sativa L) with Cadmium and Arsenic by irrigation with the Bogota River water in rice soils of the Lower Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montenegro, Omar; Mejia L

    2001-01-01

    In this study, field and greenhouse experiments were simultaneously carried out with rice (oryza sativa l., variedad oryzica-1) in soils of the Bogota River lower basin (Los Manueles Series, a member of the clayed, mixed, isohipertermic family of the Fluventic Vertic Haplustepts) to evaluate the effect of Cd and As content of the irrigation waters (of the Bogota River and greenhouse) on soils and: 1) rice growth physiological parameters; 2) Cd and As accumulated in different parts of rice plants; 3) yields and other aspects and properties of rice crop. The results lead to the following conclusions: 1) The Cd and As content of the Bogota River water, increased during the driest months and was minimum in those with the highest precipitation; Cd and As concentrations in both seasons surpassed the maximum permissible limits. 2) Rice height was highest when irrigation water does have neither Cd nor As. Effects of both elements showed an inverse lineal tendency. 3) The gradual increase of Cd in irrigation water reduced in 12.5% the number of grains per panicle; the increase of As induced a 10% reduction. 4) The highest concentration of Cd and As in irrigation waters significantly reduced yields; maximum yields l were obtained when Cd and As were absent from irrigation waters. 5) For any concentration of As in irrigation water the highest concentration of Cd was accumulated in rice leafs when concentration of Cd 2 was 2mg/l; above this value Cd accumulation in leafs el decreased with the gradual increase of As concentration. 6) Cd and As accumulated in rice grains increased with the gradual increment of both elements in the irrigation waters; Cd and As accumulated were respectively 50 and 15 times higher than the maximum critical levels proposed for rice grains. 7) Cd and As accumulated progressively on soils with gradual increase of both elements in irrigation waters 8) Cd and As concentration in irrigation waters apparently does not affect the rice mill behavior

  13. Field accumulation risks of heavy metals in soil and vegetable crop irrigated with sewage water in western region of Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balkhair, Khaled S.; Ashraf, Muhammad Aqeel

    2015-01-01

    Wastewater irrigated fields can cause potential contamination with heavy metals to soil and groundwater, thus pose a threat to human beings . The current study was designed to investigate the potential human health risks associated with the consumption of okra vegetable crop contaminated with toxic heavy metals. The crop was grown on a soil irrigated with treated wastewater in the western region of Saudi Arabia during 2010 and 2011. The monitored heavy metals included Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn for their bioaccumulation factors to provide baseline data regarding environmental safety and the suitability of sewage irrigation in the future. The pollution load index (PLI), enrichment factor (EF) and contamination factor (CF) of these metals were calculated. The pollution load index of the studied soils indicated their level of metal contamination. The concentrations of Ni, Pb, Cd and Cr in the edible portions were above the safe limit in 90%, 28%, 83% and 63% of the samples, respectively. The heavy metals in the edible portions were as follows: Cr > Zn > Ni > Cd > Mn > Pb > Cu > Fe. The Health Risk Index (HRI) was >1 indicating a potential health risk. The EF values designated an enhanced bio-contamination compared to other reports from Saudi Arabia and other countries around the world. The results indicated a potential pathway of human exposure to slow poisoning by heavy metals due to the indirect utilization of vegetables grown on heavy metal-contaminated soil that was irrigated by contaminated water sources. The okra tested was not safe for human use, especially for direct consumption by human beings. The irrigation source was identified as the source of the soil pollution in this study. PMID:26858563

  14. Presence and persistence of Salmonella enterica serotype typhimurium in the phyllosphere and rhizosphere of spray-irrigated parsley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisluk, Guy; Yaron, Sima

    2012-06-01

    Salmonella enterica is one of the major food-borne pathogens associated with ready-to-eat fresh foods. Although polluted water might be a significant source of contamination in the field, factors that influence the transfer of Salmonella from water to the crops are not well understood, especially under conditions of low pathogen levels in water. The aim of this study was to investigate the short- and long-term (1 h to 28 days) persistence of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium in the phyllosphere and the rhizosphere of parsley following spray irrigation with contaminated water. Plate counting and quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR)-based methods were implemented for the quantification. By applying qRT-PCR with enrichment, we were able to show that even irrigation with water containing as little as ∼300 CFU/ml resulted in the persistence of S. Typhimurium on the plants for 48 h. Irrigation with water containing 8.5 log CFU/ml resulted in persistence of the bacteria in the phyllosphere and the rhizosphere for at least 4 weeks, but the population steadily declined with a major reduction in bacterial counts, of ∼2 log CFU/g, during the first 2 days. Higher levels of Salmonella were detected in the phyllosphere when plants were irrigated during the night compared to irrigation during the morning and during winter compared to the other seasons. Further elucidation of the mechanisms underlying the transfer of Salmonella from contaminated water to crops, as well as its persistence over time, will enable the implementation of effective irrigation and control strategies.

  15. Modelling of the radioactive daughter elements in soil to assess radiation impact due to contaminated irrigation water by parents of 231Pa, 226Ra, 238U, 237Np and 239Pu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bela Kanyar; Katalin Eged; Tunde Katona; Gerhard Proehl; Ulla Bergstroem; Bengt Hallberg; Shelly Mobbs; Geert Olyslaegers; Theo Zeevaert; Palome Pinedo; Inmaculade Simon

    2004-01-01

    Radioactive wastes may contain both parent and daughter radionuclides. In some cases the transfer parameters of the daughter radio-elements differ significantly from that of the parent ones and therefore the dose contributions in the different pathways might be important to assess separately. The present work has compared 5 different site specific models by a scenario, using contaminated water for drinking and irrigation. Altogether 5 radionuclides from the investigated 10 ones contained radioactive daughter elements. In general, for long term studies in biosphere the steady-state formulations of processes are adequate to assess the contamination, except the infiltration into the deeper soil and sediment layers. According to the results of the modelling and computer simulations, the following daughters are to be assessed separately from their parents with respect to the radiation impact: for parent 231 Pa the daughter 227 Ac, for parent 226 Ra the daughters 222 Rn, 210 Pb and 210 Po and for parent 237 Np the daughter 233 Pa. The dose contributions of the daughters from parents 238 U and 239 Pu are less significant during the considered 100-10000 years. In case of contamination of irrigation water with 1 Bq x m -3 of the parent radionuclide 231 Pa, more than 90% of the external dose from soil exposure comes from the daughter 227 Ac (annually 15 nSv). By a similar contamination with 226 Ra as a parent radionuclide, 60% of the ingestion dose is due to food contamination with the daughters 210 Pb and 210 Po (approximately 150 nSv x a -1 ). (author)

  16. Rapid totally diverting loop sigmoid colostomy with noncontaminating rectal irrigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachatello, C R; Maull, K I

    1977-08-01

    Loop sigmoid colostomy employing a stapling device and catheter irrigation of the distal segment is less time-consuming and has lest potential for contamination than the standard double-barrel colostomy. Unlike the standard loop colostomy, it is totally diverting.

  17. Specific-activity relationships for calculating doses from irrigation with contaminated groundwater: the case of 129I, 14C and 36Cl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amiro, B.D.

    1996-01-01

    The postclosure assessment of the Canadian concept for disposal of nuclear fuel waste uses mathematical models to estimate the radiological dose to humans from a deep geological vault. A model BIOTRAC is used to calculate radionuclide transport through the biosphere over very long times. Although BIOTRAC is our most comprehensive tool for estimating the transport and potential consequences of radionuclides in the biosphere, we have also used specific-activity models as an independent method to ensure that doses are not underestimated. Specific-activity models are based on the concept that a radionuclide and its corresponding stable isotope behave similarly. This is a reasonable assumption for radionuclides that are mobile and have a large inventory of stable isotopes in the biosphere. A simple assumption is that the specific activity of a radionuclide in humans is the same as that in contaminated groundwater. This results in an upper limit to dose because further isotopic dilution in the biosphere will decrease the specific activity. This relationship holds if the radionuclide and stable isotope behave similarly, which should happen if they are in the same chemical form. However, this is a very high limit and is likely overly conservative because there are other stable isotope pools in the biosphere to enhance isotopic dilution. Also, the primary pathway for radionuclides to enter the biosphere is through irrigation with contaminated waste, and some of the radionuclide and stable element will be lost to the atmosphere or leached from the soil. This begs the question: What is reasonable specific activity to use for calculating doses to humans from an irrigation scenario?

  18. Charts for Guiding Adjustments of Irrigation Interval to Actual Weather Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kipkorir, E.C.

    2002-01-01

    Major problems in irrigation management at short time-step during the season are unreliability of rainfall and absence of guidance. By considering the climate of region, crop and soil characteristics, the irrigation method and local irrigation practices, this paper presents the concept of irrigation charts. The charts are based on soil water technique. As an example irrigation chart for a typical irrigation system located in the semi-arid area in Naivasha, Kenya is presented. The chart guides the user in adjustment of irrigation interval to the actual weather conditions throughout the growing season. It is believed that the simplicity of the chart makes it a useful tool for a better utilisation of the limited irrigation water

  19. Diverse Land Use and the Impact on (Irrigation Water Quality and Need for Measures — A Case Study of a Norwegian River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gro S. Johannessen

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Surface water is used for irrigation of food plants all over the World. Such water can be of variable hygienic quality, and can be contaminated from many different sources. The association of contaminated irrigation water with contamination of fresh produce is well established, and many outbreaks of foodborne disease associated with fresh produce consumption have been reported. The objective of the present study was to summarize the data on fecal indicators and selected bacterial pathogens to assess the level of fecal contamination of a Norwegian river used for irrigation in an area which has a high production level of various types of food commodities. Sources for fecal pollution of the river were identified. Measures implemented to reduce discharges from the wastewater sector and agriculture, and potential measures identified for future implementation are presented and discussed in relation to potential benefits and costs. It is important that the users of the water, independent of intended use, are aware of the hygienic quality and the potential interventions that may be applied. Our results suggest that contamination of surface water is a complex web of many factors and that several measures and interventions on different levels are needed to achieve a sound river and safe irrigation.

  20. Decontamination of soils by irrigation with solutions containing complexing agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pimpl, M.; Schuettelkopf, H.

    1982-01-01

    Experiments in laboratory scale were performed to increase the mobility of Pu, Am, and Cm in soil. Soil columns of 30 cm in diameter and 40 cm of length were contaminated on the surface with 5 μCi of Pu, Am, and Cm, applied as nitrates. By irrigation with 0.1 M DTPA-solution the actinides were mobilized and migrated with the irrigation solution through the columns. The migration velocity was measured and compared to the calculated one. Conclusions for the application of this procedure in field experiments are drawn. (author)

  1. Irrigation System through Intelligent Agents Implemented with Arduino Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo SALAZAR

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The water has become in recent years a valuable and increasingly scarce. Its proper use in agriculture has demanded incorporate new technologies, mainly in the area of ICT. In this paper we present a smart irrigation system based on multi-agent architecture using fuzzy logic. The architecture incorporates different types of intelligent agents that an autonomous way monitor and are responsible for deciding if required enable / disable the irrigation system. This project proposes a real and innovative solution to the problem of inadequate water use with current irrigation systems employed in agricultural projects. This article presents the different technologies used, their adaptation to the solution of the problem and briefly discusses the first results obtained.

  2. Uptake and Accumulation of Pharmaceuticals in Overhead- and Surface-Irrigated Greenhouse Lettuce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhalsod, Gemini D; Chuang, Ya-Hui; Jeon, Sangho; Gui, Wenjun; Li, Hui; Ryser, Elliot T; Guber, Andrey K; Zhang, Wei

    2018-01-31

    Understanding the uptake and accumulation of pharmaceuticals in vegetables under typical irrigation practices is critical to risk assessment of crop irrigation with reclaimed water. This study investigated the pharmaceutical residues in greenhouse lettuce under overhead and soil-surface irrigations using pharmaceutical-contaminated water. Compared to soil-surface irrigation, overhead irrigation substantially increased the pharmaceutical residues in lettuce shoots. The increased residue levels persisted even after washing for trimethoprim, monensin sodium, and tylosin, indicating their strong sorption to the shoots. The postwashing concentrations in fresh shoots varied from 0.05 ± 0.04 μg/kg for sulfadiazine to 345 ± 139 μg/kg for carbamazepine. Root concentration factors ranged from 0.04 ± 0.14 for tylosin to 19.2 ± 15.7 for sulfamethoxazole. Translocation factors in surface-irrigated lettuce were low for sulfamethoxalzole, trimethoprim, monensin sodium, and tylosin (0.07-0.15), but high for caffeine (4.28 ± 3.01) and carbamazepine (8.15 ± 2.87). Carbamazepine was persistent in soil and hyperaccumulated in shoots.

  3. Influence of season growth, soils and irrigation water composition on the concentration of uranium in two lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) varieties. Field experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu, M. M.; Neves, O.; Marcelino, M.

    2012-04-01

    Former uranium mines areas are frequently the sources of environmental radionuclides problems even many years after the closure of mining operations. A concern for inhabitants from mining areas is the use of contaminated land or irrigation water for agriculture, and the potential transfer of metals from soils to vegetables, and to humans through the food chain. The main aim of this study was to compare the uranium concentration in lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. varieties Marady and Romana) grown in different seasons (autumn and summer) and exposed to high and low uranium concentrations both in irrigation water and agricultural soil. The content of uranium in irrigation water, soil (total and available fraction) and in lettuce leaf samples was analyzed in a certified laboratory. In the field experiments, two agricultural soils were divided into two plots (four replicates each); one of them was irrigated with uranium contaminated water (0.94 to 1.14 mg/L) and the other with uncontaminated water (< 0.02 mg/L). Irrigation with contaminated water together with highest soil uranium available concentration (10 to 13 mg/kg) had negative effects on both studied lettuce varieties, namely yield reduction (up to 53% and 87% in autumn and summer experiments, respectively) and increase of uranium leaf concentration (up to 1.4 and 7 fold in autumn and summer, respectively). Effect on lettuce yield was mainly due to the high soil salinity (1.01 to 6.31 mS/cm) as a consequence of high irrigation water electrical conductivity (up to 1.82 mS/cm) and low lettuce soil salinity tolerance (1 to 3 mS/cm). The highest lettuce uranium concentration (dry weight) observed was 2.13 and 5.37 mg/kg for Marady and Romana variety, respectively. The highest uranium lettuce concentration in Romana variety was also the effect of its growing in summer season when it was subject to greatest frequency and amount of water irrigation. The consumption by an adult of the lettuce that concentrate more uranium

  4. The fluid mechanics of root canal irrigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulabivala, K; Ng, Y-L; Gilbertson, M; Eames, I

    2010-12-01

    Root canal treatment is a common dental operation aimed at removing the contents of the geometrically complex canal chambers within teeth; its purpose is to remove diseased or infected tissue. The complex chamber is first enlarged and shaped by instruments to a size sufficient to deliver antibacterial fluids. These irrigants help to dissolve dying tissue, disinfect the canal walls and space and flush out debris. The effectiveness of the procedure is limited by access to the canal terminus. Endodontic research is focused on finding the instruments and clinical procedures that might improve success rates by more effectively reaching the apical anatomy. The individual factors affecting treatment outcome have not been unequivocally deciphered, partly because of the difficulty in isolating them and in making the link between simplified, general experimental models and the complex biological objects that are teeth. Explicitly considering the physical processes within the root canal can contribute to the resolution of these problems. The central problem is one of fluid motion in a confined geometry, which makes the dispersion and mixing of irrigant more difficult because of the absence of turbulence over much of the canal volume. The effects of treatments can be understood through the use of scale models, mathematical modelling and numerical computations. A particular concern in treatment is that caustic irrigant may penetrate beyond the root canal, causing chemical damage to the jawbone. In fact, a stagnation plane exists beyond the needle tip, which the irrigant cannot penetrate. The goal is therefore to shift the stagnation plane apically to be coincident with the canal terminus without extending beyond it. Needle design may solve some of the problems but the best design for irrigant penetration conflicts with that for optimal removal of the bacterial biofilm from the canal wall. Both irrigant penetration and biofilm removal may be improved through canal fluid

  5. The fluid mechanics of root canal irrigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulabivala, K; Ng, Y-L; Gilbertson, M; Eames, I

    2010-01-01

    Root canal treatment is a common dental operation aimed at removing the contents of the geometrically complex canal chambers within teeth; its purpose is to remove diseased or infected tissue. The complex chamber is first enlarged and shaped by instruments to a size sufficient to deliver antibacterial fluids. These irrigants help to dissolve dying tissue, disinfect the canal walls and space and flush out debris. The effectiveness of the procedure is limited by access to the canal terminus. Endodontic research is focused on finding the instruments and clinical procedures that might improve success rates by more effectively reaching the apical anatomy. The individual factors affecting treatment outcome have not been unequivocally deciphered, partly because of the difficulty in isolating them and in making the link between simplified, general experimental models and the complex biological objects that are teeth. Explicitly considering the physical processes within the root canal can contribute to the resolution of these problems. The central problem is one of fluid motion in a confined geometry, which makes the dispersion and mixing of irrigant more difficult because of the absence of turbulence over much of the canal volume. The effects of treatments can be understood through the use of scale models, mathematical modelling and numerical computations. A particular concern in treatment is that caustic irrigant may penetrate beyond the root canal, causing chemical damage to the jawbone. In fact, a stagnation plane exists beyond the needle tip, which the irrigant cannot penetrate. The goal is therefore to shift the stagnation plane apically to be coincident with the canal terminus without extending beyond it. Needle design may solve some of the problems but the best design for irrigant penetration conflicts with that for optimal removal of the bacterial biofilm from the canal wall. Both irrigant penetration and biofilm removal may be improved through canal fluid

  6. Comparative antibacterial efficacies of hydrodynamic and ultrasonic irrigation systems in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cachovan, Georg; Schiffner, Ulrich; Altenhof, Saskia; Guentsch, Arndt; Pfister, Wolfgang; Eick, Sigrun

    2013-09-01

    To ensure root canal treatment success, endodontic microbiota should be efficiently reduced. The in vitro bactericidal effects of a hydrodynamic system and a passive ultrasonic irrigation system were compared. Single-rooted extracted teeth (n = 250) were contaminated with suspensions of Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212, mixed aerobic cultures, or mixed anaerobic cultures. First, the antibacterial effects of the hydrodynamic system (RinsEndo), a passive ultrasonic irrigation system (Piezo smart), and manual rinsing with 0.9% NaCl (the control) were compared. Colony-forming units were counted. Second, the 2 systems were used with 1.5% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) alone or NaOCl + 0.2% chlorhexidine (CHX). The colony-forming units in the treated and untreated roots were determined during a period of 5 days. Both irrigation systems reduced bacterial numbers more effectively than manual rinsing (P irrigation reduced bacterial counts significantly better than hydrodynamic irrigation (P = .042). The NaOCl + CHX combination was more effective than NaOCl alone for both systems (P irrigation was more effective with NaOCl + CHX than the passive ultrasonic irrigation system. Both irrigation systems, when combined with NaOCl + CHX, removed bacteria from root canals. Copyright © 2013 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Trash-polluted irrigation: characteristics and impact on agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulaeman, D.; Arif, SS; Sudarmadji

    2018-04-01

    Trash pollution has been a problem in sustainable water resources management. Trash pollutes not only rivers, lakes and seas, but also irrigation canals and rice fields. This study aimed to identify the characteristics of solid waste (type, time of occurrence and sources of trash) and its impact on agriculture. The study was conducted in four irrigation areas, namely Gamping, Merdiko, Nglaren and Karangploso in Bantul District, Yogyakarta Special Region. We applied the Irrigation Rapid Trash Assessment (IRTA) as our field survey instrument. The results showed that trash was found throughout irrigation canals and rice fields, and the occurrence was influenced by water flow, time and farmer activities. The irrigation was dominantly polluted by plastic trash (52.2%), biodegradable waste (17.91%) and miscellaneous trash (12.3%). The IRTA score showed that Gamping Irrigation Area was at marginal condition, bearing a high risk of disturbing the operation and maintenance of the irrigation canals as well as farmers’ health. Trash in irrigation also generated technical impact of the irrigation operation and maintenance, environmental quality, and social life. This research also offered environmental policy integration approach and water-garbage governance approach as an alternative solution to manage water resources and agriculture in a sustainable manner, under the pressure of increasing amount of trash.

  8. A synoptic summary approach to better understanding groundwater contamination problems and evaluating long-term environmental consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, R.W.

    1990-09-01

    A summary approach has been developed within groundwater hydrology to communicate with a broad audience and more completely evaluate the long-term impacts of subsurface contamination problems. This synoptic approach both highlights the dominant features occurring in subsurface contamination problems and emphasizes the information required to determine the long-term environmental impacts. The special merit of a summary approach is in providing a better understanding of subsurface contamination problems to adjoining technical disciplines, public decision makers, and private citizens. 14 refs

  9. Thermal infrared sensors for postharvest deficit irrigation of peach

    Science.gov (United States)

    California has been in a historic drought and the lack of water has been a major problem for agriculture especially for crops that depend on irrigation. A multi-year field study was carried out to demonstrate the feasibility of applying thermal infrared sensors for managing deficit irrigation in an ...

  10. Colostomy irrigation in the elderly. Effective recovery regardless of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venturini, M; Bertelli, G; Forno, G; Grandi, G; Dini, D

    1990-12-01

    One hundred forty elderly cancer outpatients with colostomy in the authors' rehabilitation department were included in an analysis of the feasibility, effectiveness, and safety of periodic irrigation of remaining colon with lukewarm tap water with the aim of regaining full continence. Sixteen patients did not have a sufficiently long remaining bowel (cecostomy, transverse colostomy) and 17 were considered unsuitable to learn the technique because of advanced neoplastic disease with poor life expectancy, intercurrent disease, or stomal problems. One hundred seven patients were proposed to perform the irrigation: 17 refused to do so with the remaining 90 able to learn the method without problems. Nearly all patients achieved full continence for at least 24 hours. Three patients refused to continue, and nine interrupted for minor complications. The median duration of irrigation in the whole group is 257 days (range, 1 to 2669 days): 32 patients have been irrigating from one to five years, and 9 patients for more than 5 years. Based on these results, we recommend irrigation as standard rehabilitative treatment for elderly patients.

  11. Optimized Subsurface Irrigation System: The Future of Sugarcane Irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. H. J. P. Gunarathna

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Climate change may harm the growth and yield of sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L. without the introduction of appropriate irrigation facilities. Therefore, new irrigation methods should be developed to maximize water use efficiency and reduce operational costs. OPSIS (optimized subsurface irrigation system is a new solar-powered automatic subsurface irrigation system that creates a phreatic zone below crop roots and relies on capillarity to supply water to the root zone. It is designed for upland crops such as sugarcane. We investigated the performance of OPSIS for irrigating sugarcane and evaluated its performance against sprinkler irrigation under subtropical conditions. We conducted field experiments in Okinawa, Japan, over the period from 2013 to 2016 and took measurements during spring- and summer-planted main crops and two ratoon crops of the spring-planted crop. Compared with sprinkler irrigation, OPSIS produced a significantly higher fresh cane yield, consumed less irrigation water and provided a higher irrigation water use efficiency. We conclude that OPSIS could be adopted as a sustainable solution to sugarcane irrigation in Okinawa and similar environments.

  12. Drip Irrigation Aided Phytoremediation for Removal of TCE FR-om Groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilde, E.W.

    2003-01-01

    Groundwater in D-Area at the Savannah River Site (SRS) is contaminated with trichloroethylene (TCE) and by-products resulting FR-om discharges of this organic solvent during past disposal practices. This contaminated groundwater occurs primarily at depths of 9 meters to 15 meters below ground surface, well below the depths that are typically penetrated by plant roots. The process investigated in this study involved pumping water FR-om the contaminated aquifer and discharging the water into overlying test plots two inches below the surface using drip irrigation. The field treatability study was conducted FR-om 8/31/00 to 4/18/02 using six 0.08 hectare test plots, two each containing pines, cottonwoods, and no vegetation (controls). The primary objective was to determine the overall effectiveness of the process for TCE removal and to determine the principal biotic and abiotic pathways for its removal. Results demonstrated that the process provides a viable method to remove TCE-contaminated groundwater. The data clearly showed that the presence of trees reduced volatilization of TCE FR-om the drip irrigation system to the atmosphere. Influent groundwater TCE concentrations averaging 89 mg/L were reduced to non-detectable levels (less than 5 mg/L) within the upper two feet of soil (rhizosphere)

  13. Quantitative assessment of human exposure to extended spectrum and AmpC β-lactamases bearing E. coli in lettuce attributable to irrigation water and subsequent horizontal gene transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Njage, Patrick Murigu Kamau; Buys, E. M.

    2017-01-01

    and irrigation water E. coli isolates was previously reported. This stochastic modeling was aimed at quantitatively assessing human exposure to ESBL/AmpC bearing E. coli through lettuce attributable to irrigation water and subsequent horizontal gene transfer. Modular process risk approach was used.......15), and prevalence of E. coli in irrigation water (ρ=0.16) had highest influence on consumer exposure. The most effective single methods in reducing consumer exposure were reduction in irrigation water microbial quality variation (87.4% reduction), storage period (49.9-87.4% reduction) and growth rate reduction...... irrigation water quality variation. The exposure levels may impose higher consumer risk than acceptable for irrigation water risk. E. coli contamination and growth related measures, as well as measures to reduce contamination with antimicrobial resistant E. coli from lettuce production environment...

  14. Monitoring priority substances, other organic contaminants and heavy metals in a volcanic aquifer from different sources and hydrological processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estevez, Esmeralda; Cabrera, María del Carmen; Fernández-Vera, Juan Ramón; Molina-Díaz, Antonio; Robles-Molina, José; Palacios-Díaz, María del Pino

    2016-01-01

    Irrigation with reclaimed water (R) is necessary to guarantee the sustainability of semi-arid areas. Results obtained during a two years monitoring network (2009–2011) in Gran Canaria are presented, including the analysis of chemical parameters, N and S isotopes, priority substances (2008/105/EC, 2013/39/EU), other organic contaminants and heavy metals in groundwater and R used to irrigate a golf course. The aims of this work are to evaluate the contamination in a volcanic aquifer, relate the presence of organic contaminants and heavy metals with the hydrogeochemistry and identify pollution sources in the area. No priority substance exceeded the EU thresholds for surface water, although seventeen were detected in R. The most frequent compounds were hexachlorobenzene, chlorpyrifos ethyl, fluorene, phenanthrene and pyrene. These compounds were detected at low concentration, except chlorpyrifos. Chlorpyrifos ethyl, terbuthylazine, diuron, terbutryn, procymidone, atrazine and propazine exceeded the European threshold concentration for pesticides in groundwater (100 ng L"−"1). Therefore, the priority substances chlorpyrifos ethyl and diuron must be included in monitoring studies. The priority pesticides chlorfenvinphos and diazinon were always detected in R but rarely in groundwater. Besides, the existence of contaminants not related to the current R irrigation has been identified. Absence of environmental problems related to heavy metals can be expected. The relationship among contaminant presence, hydrogeochemistry, including the stable isotopic prints of δ"1"8O, δ"1"5N and δ"3"4S and preferential recharge paths has been described. The coastal well shows high values of EC, nitrate, a variable chemistry, and 50% of organic contaminants detected above 100 ng L"−"1. The well located in the recharge area presents a stable hydrochemistry, the lowest value of δ"1"5N and the lowest contaminants occurrence. The area is an example of a complex volcanic media with

  15. Monitoring priority substances, other organic contaminants and heavy metals in a volcanic aquifer from different sources and hydrological processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Estevez, Esmeralda, E-mail: eestevez@proyinves.ulpgc.es [Dpt. Física (GEOVOL), Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, 35017 Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Canary Islands (Spain); Agrifood and Phytopathological Laboratory (Cabildo de Gran Canaria), 35413 Arucas, Canary Islands (Spain); Cabrera, María del Carmen, E-mail: mcarmen.cabrera@ulpgc.es [Dpt. Física (GEOVOL), Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, 35017 Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Canary Islands (Spain); IMDEA Water Institute, Alcalá de Henares, Madrid (Spain); Fernández-Vera, Juan Ramón, E-mail: jrfernandezv@grancanaria.com [Agrifood and Phytopathological Laboratory (Cabildo de Gran Canaria), 35413 Arucas, Canary Islands (Spain); Molina-Díaz, Antonio, E-mail: amolina@ujaen.es [Analytical Chemistry Research Group, Department of Physical and Analytical Chemistry, University of Jaen, 23071 Jaen (Spain); Robles-Molina, José, E-mail: jroblesmol@gmail.com [Analytical Chemistry Research Group, Department of Physical and Analytical Chemistry, University of Jaen, 23071 Jaen (Spain); Palacios-Díaz, María del Pino, E-mail: mp.palaciosdiaz@ulpgc.es [Dpt. de Patología Animal, Producción Animal, Bromatología y Tecnología de los Alimentos (GEOVOL), Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, 35413 Arucas, Canary Islands (Spain)

    2016-05-01

    Irrigation with reclaimed water (R) is necessary to guarantee the sustainability of semi-arid areas. Results obtained during a two years monitoring network (2009–2011) in Gran Canaria are presented, including the analysis of chemical parameters, N and S isotopes, priority substances (2008/105/EC, 2013/39/EU), other organic contaminants and heavy metals in groundwater and R used to irrigate a golf course. The aims of this work are to evaluate the contamination in a volcanic aquifer, relate the presence of organic contaminants and heavy metals with the hydrogeochemistry and identify pollution sources in the area. No priority substance exceeded the EU thresholds for surface water, although seventeen were detected in R. The most frequent compounds were hexachlorobenzene, chlorpyrifos ethyl, fluorene, phenanthrene and pyrene. These compounds were detected at low concentration, except chlorpyrifos. Chlorpyrifos ethyl, terbuthylazine, diuron, terbutryn, procymidone, atrazine and propazine exceeded the European threshold concentration for pesticides in groundwater (100 ng L{sup −1}). Therefore, the priority substances chlorpyrifos ethyl and diuron must be included in monitoring studies. The priority pesticides chlorfenvinphos and diazinon were always detected in R but rarely in groundwater. Besides, the existence of contaminants not related to the current R irrigation has been identified. Absence of environmental problems related to heavy metals can be expected. The relationship among contaminant presence, hydrogeochemistry, including the stable isotopic prints of δ{sup 18}O, δ{sup 15}N and δ{sup 34}S and preferential recharge paths has been described. The coastal well shows high values of EC, nitrate, a variable chemistry, and 50% of organic contaminants detected above 100 ng L{sup −1}. The well located in the recharge area presents a stable hydrochemistry, the lowest value of δ{sup 15}N and the lowest contaminants occurrence. The area is an example of a complex

  16. A prospect of the administration against problems of environmental contamination caused by radioactive nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osako, Masahiro

    2012-01-01

    At first, focusing on the problem of radioactive contaminated wastes caused by Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Accident, the Author described an outline of the waste management policy based on the law on special measures against the environmental contamination by radioactive nuclides. Next, the Author discussed a prospect of the environmental administration against the radioactive contamination problem. The most important mission of the environmental administration for the future must be to establish a social basis for the sustainable development, in other words the building-up of a newly social value added, through the measures against this unprecedented disaster. (author)

  17. Design and implementation of expert decision system in Yellow River Irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuping, Wang; Bingbing, Lei; Jie, Pan

    2018-03-01

    How to make full use of water resources in the Yellow River irrigation is a problem needed to be solved urgently. On account of the different irrigation strategies in various growth stages of wheat, this paper proposes a novel irrigation expert decision system basing on fuzzy control technique. According to the control experience, expert knowledge and MATLAB simulation optimization, we obtain the irrigation fuzzy control table stored in the computer memory. The controlling irrigation is accomplished by reading the data from fuzzy control table. The experimental results show that the expert system can be used in the production of wheat to achieve timely and appropriate irrigation, and ensure that wheat growth cycle is always in the best growth environment.

  18. Evaluation of soil and water salinity for irrigation in North-eastern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREG

    2013-05-08

    May 8, 2013 ... For sound land use and water management in irrigated area, knowledge of the chemical ... Nowadays, soil salinity has become important problem in irrigated ... hoe, shovel, plastic bags, hard paper or labeling, markers, rope,.

  19. Alkaline Sodium Hypochlorite Irrigant and Its Chemical Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia P. Wright

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Endodontic irrigating solutions may interact chemically with one another. This is important, because even when solutions are not admixed, they will come into contact with one another during an alternating irrigation technique, forming unwanted by-products, which may be toxic or irritant. Mixing or alternating irrigants can also reduce their ability to clean and disinfect the root canal system of teeth by changing their chemical structure with subsequent loss of the active agent, or by inducing precipitate formation in the root canal system. Precipitates occlude dental tubules, resulting in less penetration of antimicrobials and a loss of disinfection efficacy. Sodium hypochlorite is not only a very reactive oxidizing agent, but is also the most commonly used endodontic irrigant. As such, many interactions occurring between it and other irrigants, chelators and other antimicrobials, may occur. Of particular interest is the interaction between sodium hypochlorite and the chelators EDTA, citric acid and etidronate and between sodium hypochlorite and the antimicrobials chlorhexidine, alexidine, MTAD and octenisept.

  20. Optodynamic Phenomena During Laser-Activated Irrigation Within Root Canals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukač, Nejc; Gregorčič, Peter; Jezeršek, Matija

    2016-07-01

    Laser-activated irrigation is a powerful endodontic treatment for smear layer, bacteria, and debris removal from the root canal. In this study, we use shadow photography and the laser-beam-transmission probe to examine the dynamics of laser-induced vapor bubbles inside a root canal model and compare ultrasonic needle irrigation to the laser method. Results confirm important phenomenological differences in the two endodontic methods with the laser method resulting in much deeper irrigation. Observations of simulated debris particles show liquid vorticity effects which in our opinion represents the major cleaning mechanism.

  1. Opportunities for woody crop production using treated wastewater in Egypt. II. Irrigation strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evett, Steven R; Zalesny, Ronald S; Kandil, Nabil F; Stanturf, John A; Soriano, Chris

    2011-01-01

    An Egyptian national program targets annual reuse of 2.4 billion m3 of treated wastewater (TWW) to irrigate 84,000 ha of manmade forests in areas close to treatment plants and in the desert. To evaluate the feasibility of such afforestation efforts, we describe information about TWW irrigation strategies based on (1) water use of different tree species, (2) weather conditions in different climate zones of Egypt, (3) soil types and available irrigation systems, and (4) the requirement to avoid deep percolation losses that could lead to groundwater contamination. We conclude that drip irrigation systems are preferred, that they should in most cases use multiple emitters per tree in order to increase wetted area and decrease depth of water penetration, that deep rooting should be encouraged, and that in most situations irrigation system automation is desirable to achieve several small irrigations per day in order to avoid deep percolation losses. We describe directed research necessary to fill knowledge gaps about depth of rooting of different species in sandy Egyptian soils and environments, tree crop coefficients needed for rational irrigation scheduling, and depth of water penetration under different irrigation system designs. A companion paper addresses recommendations for afforestation strategies (see Zalesny et al. 2011, this issue).

  2. Portable photovoltaic irrigation pumps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furber, J. D.

    1980-07-01

    Experiences in developing a solar-powered irrigation pump to meet the needs of poor farmers in developing nations are summarized. The design which evolved is small and portable, employing a high-efficiency electric pump, powered by photovoltaic panels. Particular emphasis is placed on how the system works, and on early field problems experienced with the first prototypes. The resolution of these problems and the performance of actual systems in various countries is presented and user responses are noted.

  3. Unsaturated flow dynamics during irrigation with wastewater: field and modelling study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Hernandez, V.; de Miguel, A.; Meffe, R.; Leal, M.; González-Naranjo, V.; de Bustamante, I.

    2012-04-01

    To deal with water scarcity combined with a growing water demand, the reuse of wastewater effluents of wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) for industrial and agricultural purposes is considered as a technically and economically feasible solution. In agriculture, irrigation with wastewater emerges as a sustainable practice that should be considered in such scenarios. Water infiltration, soil moisture storage and evapotranspiration occurring in the unsaturated zone are fundamental processes that play an important role in soil water balance. An accurate estimation of unsaturated flow dynamics (during and after irrigation) is essential to improve wastewater management (i.e. estimating groundwater recharge or maximizing irrigation efficiency) and to avoid possible soil and groundwater affections (i.e. predicting contaminant transport). The study site is located in the Experimental Plant of Carrión de los Céspedes (Seville, Spain). Here, treated wastewater is irrigated over the soil to enhance plants growth. To obtain physical characteristics of the soil (granulometry, bulk density and water retention curve), soil samples were collected at different depths. A drain gauge passive capillary lysimeter was installed to determine the volume of water draining from the vadose zone. Volumetric water content of the soil was monitored by measuring the dielectric constant using capacitance/frequency domain technology. Three soil moisture probes were located at different depths (20, 50 and 70 cm below the ground surface) to control the variation of the volumetric water content during infiltration. The main aim of this study is to understand water flow dynamics through the unsaturated zone during irrigation by using the finite element model Hydrus-1D. The experimental conditions were simulated by a 90 cm long, one dimensional solution domain. Specific climatic conditions, wastewater irrigation rates and physical properties of the soil were introduced in the model as input parameters

  4. Evaluating two irrigation controllers under subsurface drip irrigated tomato crop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Ghobari, H.M.; Mohammad, F.S.; El Marazky, M.S.A.

    2016-01-01

    Smart systems could be used to improve irrigation scheduling and save water under Saudi Arabia’s present water crisis scenario. This study investigated two types of evapotranspiration-based smart irrigation controllers, SmartLine and Hunter Pro-C2, as promising tools for scheduling irrigation and quantifying plants’ water requirements to achieve water savings. The effectiveness of these technologies in reducing the amount of irrigation water was compared with the conventional irrigation scheduling method as a control treatment. The two smart irrigation sensors were used for subsurface irrigation of a tomato crop (cv. Nema) in an arid region. The results showed that the smart controllers significantly reduced the amount of applied water and increased the crop yield. In general, the Hunter Pro-C2 system saved the highest amount of water and produced the highest crop yield, resulting in the highest water irrigation efficiency compared with the SmartLine controller and the traditional irrigation schedule. It can be concluded that the application of advanced scheduling irrigation techniques such as the Hunter controller under arid conditions can realise economic benefits by saving large amounts of irrigation water.

  5. Evaluating two irrigation controllers under subsurface drip irrigated tomato crop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Ghobari, H.M.; Mohammad, F.S.; El Marazky, M.S.A.

    2016-07-01

    Smart systems could be used to improve irrigation scheduling and save water under Saudi Arabia’s present water crisis scenario. This study investigated two types of evapotranspiration-based smart irrigation controllers, SmartLine and Hunter Pro-C2, as promising tools for scheduling irrigation and quantifying plants’ water requirements to achieve water savings. The effectiveness of these technologies in reducing the amount of irrigation water was compared with the conventional irrigation scheduling method as a control treatment. The two smart irrigation sensors were used for subsurface irrigation of a tomato crop (cv. Nema) in an arid region. The results showed that the smart controllers significantly reduced the amount of applied water and increased the crop yield. In general, the Hunter Pro-C2 system saved the highest amount of water and produced the highest crop yield, resulting in the highest water irrigation efficiency compared with the SmartLine controller and the traditional irrigation schedule. It can be concluded that the application of advanced scheduling irrigation techniques such as the Hunter controller under arid conditions can realise economic benefits by saving large amounts of irrigation water.

  6. Colonic irrigation for defecation disorders after dynamic graciloplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Sacha M; Uludağ, Ozenç; El Naggar, Kadri; van Gemert, Wim G; Baeten, Cor G

    2008-02-01

    Dynamic graciloplasty (DGP) improves anal continence and quality of life for most patients. However, in some patients, DGP fails and fecal incontinence is unsolved or only partially improved. Constipation is also a significant problem after DGP, occurring in 13-90%. Colonic irrigation can be considered as an additional or salvage treatment for defecation disorders after unsuccessful or partially successful DGP. In this study, the effectiveness of colonic irrigation for the treatment of persistent fecal incontinence and/or constipation after DGP is investigated. Patients with defecation disorders after DGP visiting the outpatient clinic of the University Hospital Maastricht were selected for colonic irrigation as additional therapy or salvage therapy in the period between January 1999 and June 2003. The Biotrol(R) Irrimatic pump or the irrigation bag was used for colonic irrigation. Relevant physical and medical history was collected. The patients were asked to fill out a detailed questionnaire about colonic irrigation. Forty-six patients were included in the study with a mean age of 59.3 +/- 12.4 years (80% female). On average, the patients started the irrigation 21.39 +/- 38.77 months after the DGP. Eight patients started irrigation before the DGP. Fifty-two percent of the patients used the irrigation as additional therapy for fecal incontinence, 24% for constipation, and 24% for both. Irrigation was usually performed in the morning. The mean frequency of irrigation was 0.90 +/- 0.40 times per day. The mean amount of water used for the irrigation was 2.27 +/- 1.75 l with a mean duration of 39 +/- 23 min. Four patients performed antegrade irrigation through a colostomy or appendicostomy, with good results. Overall, 81% of the patients were satisfied with the irrigation. Thirty-seven percent of the patients with fecal incontinence reached (pseudo-)continence, and in 30% of the patients, the constipation completely resolved. Side effects of the irrigation were

  7. Automation in irrigation process in family farm with Arduino platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kianne Crystie Bezerra da Cunha

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The small farmers tend not to use mechanical inputs in the irrigation process due to the high cost than conventional irrigation systems have and in other cases, the lack of knowledge and technical guidance makes the farmer theme using the system. Thus, all control and monitoring are made by hand without the aid of machines and this practice can lead to numerous problems from poor irrigation, and water waste, energy, and deficits in production. It is difficult to deduce when to irrigate, or how much water applied in cultivation, measure the soil temperature variables, temperature, and humidity, etc. The objective of this work is to implement an automated irrigation system aimed at family farming that is low cost and accessible to the farmer. The system will be able to monitor all parameters from irrigation. For this to occur, the key characteristics of family farming, Arduino platform, and irrigation were analyzed.

  8. Communication between irrigation engineers and farmers : the case of project design in North Senegal

    OpenAIRE

    Scheer, S.H.

    1996-01-01

    Introduction

    Irrigation schemes all over the world are often marked by a large number of related problems that have an important human dimension and are too complex to be straightforwardly solved. A starting point of this thesis is that these problems have to be dealt with in a learning process that involves all groups and organizations that are relevant to the irrigation scheme. This thesis explores communication processes between irrigation design engineers and ...

  9. Hygienic-sanitary conditions of vegetables and irrigation water from kitchen gardens in the municipality of Campinas, SP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simões Marise

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available We examined samples of irrigation water and vegetables from kitchen gardens in Campinas, Brazil. The bacterial analysis condemned 22.3% of the vegetable samples, and the parasitological examination condemned 14.5%. The criteria established by the Brazilian legislation condemned 11.8% of the irrigation water samples. Parasites were significantly more frequent in vegetables in the rainy season, while excessive fecal coliforms were more frequent in the dry season. A proper monitoring of the irrigation water supply is important to avoid the contamination of vegetables.

  10. Irrigation Depletions 1928-1989 : 1990 Level of Irrigation, Snake Yakima and Deschutes River Basins.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administation; A.G. Crook Company

    1993-07-01

    The vast amount of irrigation in relation to the available water and extensive system of reservoirs located in the Snake River Basin above Brownlee reservoir precludes this area from using methods such as Blaney-Criddle for estimating irrigation depletions. Also the hydrology, irrigation growth patterns, and water supply problems are unique and complex. Therefore regulation studies were utilized to reflect the net effect on streamflow of the changes in irrigated acreage in terms of corresponding changes in storage regulation and in the amount of water depleted and diverted from and returned to the river system. The regulation study for 1990 conditions was conducted by the Idaho Department of Water Resources. The end product of the basin simulation is 61 years of regulated flows at various points in the river system that are based on 1990 conditions. Data used by the Idaho Department of Water Resources is presented in this section and includes natural gains to the river system and diversions from the river system based on a 1990 level of development and operation criteria. Additional information can be obtained for an Idaho Department of Water Resources Open-File Report ``Stream Flows in the Snake River Basin 1989 Conditions of Use and Management`` dated June 1991. Similar considerations apply to the Yakima and Deschutes river basins.

  11. Principles of root water uptake, soil salinity and crop yield for optimizing irrigation management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dirksen, C.

    1983-01-01

    The paper reviews the principles of water and salt transport, root water uptake, crop salt tolerance, water quality, and irrigation methods which should be considered in optimizing irrigation management for sustained, viable agriculture with protection of the quality of land and water resources. In particular, the advantages of high-frequency irrigation at small leaching fractions with closed systems are discussed, for which uptake-weighted mean salinity is expected to correlate best with crop yields. Optimization of irrigation management depends on the scale considered. Non-technical problems which are often much harder to solve than technical problems, may well be most favourable for new projects in developing countries. (author)

  12. Assessment of groundwater quality and contamination problems ascribed to an abandoned uranium mine (Cunha Baixa region, Central Portugal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, O.; Matias, M. J.

    2008-02-01

    The assessment of groundwater quality and its environmental implications in the region of the abandoned Cunha Baixa uranium mine (Central Portugal) was carried out from 1995 to 2004. Shallow groundwater is the major water supply source for irrigation in the neighbourhood of Cunha Baixa village. Water samples from the mine site as well as from private wells were collected in order to identify the mining impact on water composition, the extent of contamination and the seasonal and temporal groundwater quality variations. Some of the sampled private wells contain waters having low pH (risks. Nevertheless, this study indicates that groundwater contamination suffered a small decrease from 1999 to 2004. The bioaccumulation of toxic metals such as Al, Mn, and U within the food chain may cause a serious health hazard to the Cunha Baixa village inhabitants.

  13. Farmers Knowledge, Attitudes, Practices and Health Problems Associated with Pesticide Use in Rural Irrigation Villages, Southwest Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gesesew, Hailay Abrha; Woldemichael, Kifle; Massa, Desalegn; Mwanri, Lillian

    2016-01-01

    In Ethiopia, pesticides are widely used for a variety of purposes. The occurrence of contamination and poisoning for farmers is highly reported due to unsafe handling practices and their usage. We assessed knowledge, attitudes and experiences of previous pesticide exposure, and related health problems among farmers who use irrigation in Jimma Zone, Southwest Ethiopia. A community based cross-sectional study was conducted among farmers living in the zone. Respondents were 796 irrigation farmers from 20 kebeles (lowest administration unit) in Jimma Zone. Data were collected using a pretested and structured questionnaire via face-to-face interviews. Both descriptive and inferential statistics analysis were performed. A binary logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with attitudes of farmers towards the safe use of pesticides at P value of ≤ 0.05 in the final model. Among the participants, 54.4% (95%CI, 50.7-58%) knew at least one pesticide control method and 53.7% had positive attitudes towards safe use of pesticide. The mean score of attitudes was found to be 3.9(±0.4). Knowledge including each of the following: the names of the pesticides (AOR, 0.41; 95%CI, 0.25-0.67), methods of pest control and the use of gloves during pesticide exposure (AOR, 1.52; 95%CI, 1.07-2.16) was found to be independent predictor of the farmers' attitudes about safe use of pesticides. Past exposure of pesticide was reported by 89.6% of farmers. Participants reported ingestion (88.9%) and inhalation (90.4%) as possible mechanisms of pesticide exposure. Nearly 42% of farmers had never used any personal protective equipment (PPE) to protect themselves against pesticide exposure. Farmers reported several health complications, which were perceived as complications of pesticide exposure, including: headache, nausea and vomiting, skin rash and irritation and abdominal pain. The study exposed the existence of high probability of pesticide exposure, the low safe use of

  14. Farmers Knowledge, Attitudes, Practices and Health Problems Associated with Pesticide Use in Rural Irrigation Villages, Southwest Ethiopia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hailay Abrha Gesesew

    Full Text Available In Ethiopia, pesticides are widely used for a variety of purposes. The occurrence of contamination and poisoning for farmers is highly reported due to unsafe handling practices and their usage. We assessed knowledge, attitudes and experiences of previous pesticide exposure, and related health problems among farmers who use irrigation in Jimma Zone, Southwest Ethiopia.A community based cross-sectional study was conducted among farmers living in the zone. Respondents were 796 irrigation farmers from 20 kebeles (lowest administration unit in Jimma Zone. Data were collected using a pretested and structured questionnaire via face-to-face interviews. Both descriptive and inferential statistics analysis were performed. A binary logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with attitudes of farmers towards the safe use of pesticides at P value of ≤ 0.05 in the final model.Among the participants, 54.4% (95%CI, 50.7-58% knew at least one pesticide control method and 53.7% had positive attitudes towards safe use of pesticide. The mean score of attitudes was found to be 3.9(±0.4. Knowledge including each of the following: the names of the pesticides (AOR, 0.41; 95%CI, 0.25-0.67, methods of pest control and the use of gloves during pesticide exposure (AOR, 1.52; 95%CI, 1.07-2.16 was found to be independent predictor of the farmers' attitudes about safe use of pesticides. Past exposure of pesticide was reported by 89.6% of farmers. Participants reported ingestion (88.9% and inhalation (90.4% as possible mechanisms of pesticide exposure. Nearly 42% of farmers had never used any personal protective equipment (PPE to protect themselves against pesticide exposure. Farmers reported several health complications, which were perceived as complications of pesticide exposure, including: headache, nausea and vomiting, skin rash and irritation and abdominal pain.The study exposed the existence of high probability of pesticide exposure, the low safe use

  15. Soil water sensors:Problems, advances and potential for irrigation scheduling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irrigation water management has to do with the appropriate application of water to soils, in terms of amounts, rates, and timing to satisfy crop water demands, while protecting the soil and water resources from degradation. In this regard, sensors can be used to monitor the soil water status; and so...

  16. Middle East Regional Irrigation Management Information Systems project-Some science products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Similarities in the aridity of environments and water scarcity for irrigation allow common approaches to irrigation management problems and research methods in the Southern Great Plains of the United States and the Middle East. Measurement methods involving weighing lysimeters and eddy covariance sy...

  17. Accumulation, mobility and plant availability of heavy metals in soils irrigated with untreated sewage effluent in Central Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siebe-Grabach, C.

    1994-01-01

    In Irrigation District 03, Tula, Mexico, wastewater from Mexico City has been used for irrigating agricultural land since the beginning of this century. Today, approximately 85 000 ha are irrigated, alfalfa and maize being the main crops. The sewage effluent does not receive any treatment previous to its evacuation to this irrigation district, and only a part of the water is stored in the Endho Dam before being used, receiving in this way a kind or primary treatment through the sedimentation processes taking place. The reuse of wastewater for agricultural purposes represents an economic source of water and nutrients and has become an important disposal alternative for Mexico City. Nevertheless the contaminants and pathogens contained in the water represent a potential public health hazard and the production capacity of the soils. The aim of the present investigation is to determine the actual contamination levels of heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Cu, Zn) in soils, analysing the accumulation tendencies in time and space, and also to characterize their mobility and plant availability and thus their ecotoxicity. (orig.) [de

  18. Uptake and Accumulation of Pharmaceuticals in Lettuce Under Surface and Overhead Irrigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhalsod, G.; Chuang, Y. H.; Jeon, S.; Gui, W.; Li, H.; Guber, A.; Zhang, W.

    2015-12-01

    Pharmaceuticals and personal care products are being widely detected in wastewater and surface waters. As fresh water becomes scarcer, interests in using reclaimed water for crop irrigation is intensified. Since reclaimed waters often carry trace levels of pharmaceuticals, accumulation of pharmaceuticals in food crops could increase the risk of human exposure. This study aims to investigate uptake and accumulations of pharmaceuticals in greenhouse-grown lettuce under contrasting irrigation practices (i.e., overhead and surface irrigations). Lettuce was irrigated with water spiked with 11 commonly used pharmaceuticals (acetaminophen, caffeine, carbamazepine, sulfadiazine, sulfamethoxazole, carbadox, trimethoprim, lincomycin hydrochloride, oxytetracycline hydrochloride, monensin sodium, and tylosin). Weekly sampling of lettuce roots, shoots, and soils were continued for 5 weeks, and the samples were freeze dried, extracted for pharmaceuticals and analyzed by LC-MS/MS. Preliminary results indicate that higher concentrations of pharmaceuticals were found in overhead irrigated lettuce compared to surface irrigated lettuce. For carbamezapine, sulfadiazine, trimethoprim, oxytetracycline, and monensin sodium, their concentrations generally increased in lettuce shoots in the overhead treatment over time. However, acetaminophen was found at higher concentrations in both shoots and roots, indicating that acetaminophen can be easily transported in the plant system. This study provides insight on developing better strategies for using reclaimed water for crop irrigations, while minimizing the potential risks of pharmaceutical contamination of vegetables.

  19. ASPECTS OF DRIP IRRIGATION ON SLOPES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oprea Radu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, water and its supply raise problems of strategic importance, of great complexity, being considered one of the keys to sustainable human development. Drip irrigation consists in the slow and controlled administration of water in the area of the root system of the plants for the purposes of fulfilling their physiological needs and is considered to be one of the variants of localized irrigation. Water is distributed in a uniform and slow manner, drop by drop, in a quantity and with a frequency that depend on the needs of the plant, thanks to the exact regulation of the water flow rate and pressure, as well as to the activation of the irrigation based on the information recorded by the tensiometer with regard to soil humidity. This method enables the exact dosage of the water quantity necessary in the various evolution stages of the plant, thus eliminating losses. By applying the irrigation with 5 liters of water per linear meter, at a 7 days interval, in the month of august, for a vine cultivated on a slope, in layers covered with black film and irrigated via dropping, soil humidity immediately after irrigation reaches its highest level, but within the limits of active humidity, on the line of the irrigation band. Three days later, the water content of the soil in the layer is relatively uniform, and, after this interval, it is higher in the points situated at the basis of the film. This technology of cultivation on slopes favors the accumulation, in the soil, of the water resulted from heavy rains and reduces soil losses as a result of erosion.

  20. Gain-P: A new strategy to increase furrow irrigation efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitz, G.H.; Wohling, T.; Paly, M. D.; Schutze, N.

    2007-01-01

    The new methodology GAIN-P combines Genetic Algorithms, Artificial Intelligence techniques and rigorous Process modeling for substantially improving irrigation efficiency. The new strategy simultaneously identifies optimal values of both scheduling and irrigation parameters for an entire growing season and can be applied to irrigation systems with adequate or deficit water supply. In this contribution, GAIN-P is applied to furrow irrigation tackling the more difficult subject of the more effective deficit irrigation. A physically -based hydrodynamic irrigation model is iteratively coupled with a 2D subsurface flow model for generating a database containing all realistically feasible scenarios of water application in furrow irrigation. It is used for training a problem-adapted artificial neural network based on self-organized maps, which in turn portrays the inverse solution of the hydrodynamic furrow irrigation model and thus enormously speeds up the overall performance of the complete optimization tool. Global optimization with genetic algorithm finds the schedule with maximum crop yield for the given water volume. The impact of different irrigation schedules on crop yield is calculated by the coupled furrow irrigation model which also simulates soil evaporation, precipitation and root water uptake by the plants over the whole growing seasons, as well as crop growth and yield. First results with the new optimization strategy show that GAIN-P has a high potential to increase irrigation efficiency. (author)

  1. Irrigation vs. natural evacuation of left colostomy: a comparative study of 340 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terranova, O; Sandei, F; Rebuffat, C; Maruotti, R; Bortolozzi, E

    1979-01-01

    A comparative study of two methods of managing left colostomy (irrigation and natural evacuation) was carried out on 340 patients who were examined and interviewed at the Stoma Rehabilitation Clinic of the Institute of Surgical Pathology of the University of Padua. Ninety-two per cent of patients who irrigated their colostomies gained fecal continence. No patient who irrigated his colostomy had any cutaneous problem, and this group had significantly better results in preventing leakage of gas and odors compared with those patients using natural evacuation. For most patients who irrigated, the ability to predict or control bowel movements overcame fears of "being dirty" and related psychological problems. These patients also had more normal social and working lives than did those patients not irrigating their colostomies. Only one patient in our series had a colonic perforation, and any chance of a repeat incident will probably disappear with the cone-shaped catheters now available. The authors conclude that in properly selected patients, irrigation is the method of choice for management of left colostomy.

  2. Revascularization and periapical repair after endodontic treatment using apical negative pressure irrigation versus conventional irrigation plus triantibiotic intracanal dressing in dogs' teeth with apical periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Lea Assed Bezerra; Nelson-Filho, Paulo; da Silva, Raquel Assed Bezerra; Flores, Daniel Silva Herzog; Heilborn, Carlos; Johnson, James D; Cohenca, Nestor

    2010-05-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate in vivo the revascularization and the apical and periapical repair after endodontic treatment using 2 techniques for root canal disinfection (apical negative pressure irrigation versus apical positive pressure irrigation plus triantibiotic intracanal dressing) in immature dogs' teeth with apical periodontitis. Two test groups of canals with experimentally induced apical periodontitis were evaluated according to the disinfection technique: Group 1, apical negative pressure irrigation (EndoVac system), and Group 2, apical positive pressure irrigation (conventional irrigation) plus triantibiotic intracanal dressing. In Group 3 (positive control), periapical lesions were induced, but no endodontic treatment was done. Group 4 (negative control) was composed of sound teeth. The animals were killed after 90 days and the maxillas and mandibles were subjected to histological processing. The sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin and Mallory Trichrome and examined under light microscopy. A description of the apical and periapical features was done and scores were attributed to the following histopathological parameters: newly formed mineralized apical tissue, periapical inflammatory infiltrate, apical periodontal ligament thickness, dentin resorption, and bone tissue resorption. Intergroup comparisons were done by the Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn's tests (alpha = 0.05). Although statistically significant difference was found only for the inflammatory infiltrate (P irrigation with the EndoVac system can be considered as a promising disinfection protocol in immature teeth with apical periodontitis, suggesting that the use of intracanal antibiotics might not be necessary. Copyright (c) 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Safety assessment of greenhouse hydroponic tomatoes irrigated with reclaimed and surface water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Galvez, Francisco; Allende, Ana; Pedrero-Salcedo, Francisco; Alarcon, Juan Jose; Gil, Maria Isabel

    2014-11-17

    The impact of reclaimed and surface water on the microbiological safety of hydroponic tomatoes was assessed. Greenhouse tomatoes were irrigated with reclaimed and surface water and grown on two hydroponic substrates (coconut fiber and rock wool). Water samples (n=208) were taken from irrigation water, with and without the addition of fertilizers and drainage water, and hydroponic tomatoes (n=72). Samples were analyzed for indicator microorganisms, generic Escherichia coli and Listeria spp., and pathogenic bacteria such as Salmonella spp. and Shiga-toxigenic E. coli (STEC), using multiplex real-time PCR (RT-PCR) after enrichment. The correlation between climatological parameters such as temperature and the levels of microorganisms in water samples was also determined. In irrigation water, generic E. coli counts were higher in reclaimed than in surface water whereas Listeria spp. numbers increased after adding the fertilizers in both water sources. In drainage water, no clear differences in E. coli and Listeria numbers were observed between reclaimed and surface water. No positive samples for STEC were found in irrigation water. Presumptive positives for Salmonella spp. were found in 7.7% of the water samples and 62.5% of these samples were reclaimed water. Salmonella-positive samples by RT-PCR could not be confirmed by conventional methods. Higher concentrations of E. coli were associated with Salmonella-presumptive positive samples. Climatological parameters, such as temperature, were not correlated with the E. coli and Listeria spp. counts. Tomato samples were negative for bacterial pathogens, while generic E. coli and Listeria spp. counts were below the detection limit. The prevalence of presumptive Salmonella spp. found in irrigation water (reclaimed and surface water) was high, which might present a risk of contamination. The absence of pathogens on greenhouse hydroponic tomatoes indicates that good agricultural practices (GAP) were in place, avoiding the

  4. Multiple-use Management of Irrigation Systems: Technical Constraints and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowing, J.; Li, Q.; Mayilswami, C.; Gunawardhana, K.

    selected distributary commands combined with longitudinal studies based on available long- term data from the full command. The reliability and duration of flows and/or storages represent a constraint to effective integration of aquaculture within the case-study sys- tems. Although fish production is non-consumptive and can be seen as a complemen- tary use of irrigation water, the challenge is to devise operating procedures that will 1 guarantee reliability and duration of flows and/or storages for fish production without increasing total water-use within the system. This is a particular problem during the rainy season when irrigation demand fluctuates widely and rapidly. The problem is ex- acerbated by deficient information systems, which constrain the scope for responsive management in these extensive canal systems. 2

  5. A 12-Month Study of Food Crops Contaminated by Heavy Metals, Lusaka, Zambia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, J. A.; Malamud, B. D.; Chishala, B. H.; Kapungwe, E.; Volk, J.; Harpp, K. S.

    2009-04-01

    We investigate heavy-metal contamination of irrigation water used for urban agriculture and subsequent contamination of food crops in Chunga, NW Lusaka, the capital of Zambia. Inhabitants of the Chunga area rely on urban agriculture as both a major source of income and food. From August 2004 to July 2005, monthly samples of irrigation water used and edible portions of food crops were taken from a farmer's plot at Chunga. The food crops (cabbage, Chinese cabbage, pumpkin leaves, rape, sweet potato leaves and tomatoes) are grown using irrigation throughout the year. Irrigation water samples and digested food crop samples were analysed using ICP-MS at the Department of Geology, Colgate University, USA for Al, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Cd, Ba, Hg, Tl, Pb, and U. We find heavy-metal concentrations present in both irrigation water and food crop samples. Zambian sample concentrations were compared to Zambian and international legislative and guideline limits for concentrations of heavy metals in industrial effluent, heavy metals in irrigation water and heavy metals in foods. In irrigation water samples recommended national and/or international legislative limits for Al, Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Hg, Pb and U were exceeded. Limits for Hg were exceeded by up to 130 times. There were heavy-metal concentrations above recommended limits in food crops for Cr, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, Hg and Pb throughout the different food crops grown and throughout the year. In all 14 samples recommended limits for Cr, Fe and Hg were exceeded. Zambian legislated limits for food crops were exceeded by up to 16 times for Pb and 58 times for Hg. The results of this study show that heavy metal contamination is present in irrigation water used and food crops grown in urban agriculture in Chunga, Lusaka, Zambia. Recommended maximum limits for heavy metals in irrigation water and food are exceeded in some samples indicating there may be a risk to health.

  6. Research advances on thereasonable water resources allocation in irrigation district

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xuebin, Qi; Zhongdong, Huang; Dongmei, Qiao

    2015-01-01

    The rational allocation of water resources for irrigation is important to improve the efficiency in utilization of water resources and ensuring food security, but also effective control measures need to be in place for the sustainable utilization of water resources in an irrigation area. The prog......The rational allocation of water resources for irrigation is important to improve the efficiency in utilization of water resources and ensuring food security, but also effective control measures need to be in place for the sustainable utilization of water resources in an irrigation area...... mechanism of water resources is not perfect, the model for optimal water resources allocation is not practical, and the basic conditions for optimal allocation of water resources is relatively weak. In order to solve those problems in water resources allocation practice, six important as?pects must...... in irrigation districts, studying the water resources control technology in irrigation districts by hydrology ecological system, studying the technologies of real?time risk dispatching and intelligent management in irrigation districts, and finally studying the technology of cou?pling optimal allocation...

  7. Ancestral irrigation method by kanis in Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roldán-Cañas, José; Chipana, René; Fátima Moreno-Pérez, María

    2015-04-01

    Irrigation in the Andean region is an ancient practice. For centuries, farmers were able to use the waters of rivers, lakes and springs to complement or supplement the scarce rainfall regime. The inter-Andean valleys of the Department of La Paz are the best areas for the study of traditional irrigation systems. This work has been carried out in the community of Jatichulaya located in te town of Charazani, 300 km from the city of La Paz, which lies 3250 meters above sea level. The annual rainfall ranges around 450 mm distributed mainly between the months of December to March. Therefore, water is needed to achieve adequate crop yields. The traditional irrigation system is done by the method of Kanis, consisting of a surface irrigation already developed by traditional Andean cultures of the country, in harmony with the ecological and productive characteristics of the area. Water enters the irrigation plot through a main channel (mama kani) from which the secondary channels (juchuy kanis) are derived. The fundamental characteristic of this irrigation is that these channels are open at the same time the water enters into the plot. The system works properly, adapting to the topography of the area. The irrigation method practiced in this community does not cause water erosion of soils because water management within the plot is based on the ancient knowledge of farmers following the contour lines. This practice allows good irrigation development and soil protection without causing any problems. However, it was evident a high use of labor in irrigation practice. Irrigation scheduling is done according to requests made by the irrigators in a given period. Delivering of water to the farmers is made by the so-called Water Agent (Agente de Aguas) or person in charge of the distribution of water. The Water Agent is elected annually and its functions include the maintenance and care of all system waterworks. The period between August and January is the highest water demand and

  8. Forest Irrigation of Tritiated Water: A Proven Tritiated Water Management Tool - 13357

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prater, Phil; Blount, Gerald; Kmetz, Thomas; Vangelas, Karen [Savannah River National Laboratory, Bldg. 773-42A, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Tritium releases from the Old Radioactive Waste Burial Ground (ORWBG) at the SRS in South Carolina has impacted groundwater and surface water. Tritiated groundwater plumes discharge into Fourmile Branch which is a small tributary of the Savannah River, a regional water resource. Taking advantage of the groundwater flow paths and the local topography a water collection and irrigation system was constructed and has been used at the SRS for over a decade to reduce these tritiated water releases to Fourmile Branch. The tritiated water is transferred to the atmosphere by evaporation from the pond surface, and after irrigation, wetted surface evaporation and evapotranspiration through the forest vegetation. Over the last decade SRS has irrigated over 120,000,000 gallons of tritiated water, which diverted over 6000 curies away from Fourmile Branch and the Savannah River. The system has been effective in reducing the flux of tritiated groundwater by approximately 70%. Mass balance studies of tritium in the forest soils before operations and over the last decade indicate that approximately 90% of the tritiated water that is irrigated is transferred to the atmosphere. Dose studies indicate that exposure to site workers and offsite maximally exposed individual is very low, approximately 6 mrem/year and 0.004 mrem/year, respectively. To consistently meet the flux reduction goal of tritium into Fourmile Branch optimization activities are proposed. These efforts will increase irrigation capacity and area. An additional 17 acres are proposed for an expansion of the area to be irrigated and a planting of approximately 40 acres of pine forest plantations is underway to expand irrigation capacity. Co-mingled with the tritiated groundwater are low concentrations of chlorinated volatile organic compounds (cVOCs), and 1,4-dioxane. Research studies and SRS field data indicate the forest irrigation system may have an added benefit of reducing the mass of these co-contaminants via

  9. Participatory Rural Appraisal for Diagnostic Analysis of spate irrigation systems in Raya Valley, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulio Castelli

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Spate irrigation is a complex and unique form of water management, which represent the main source of irrigation water in semi-arid river catchments. Water is diverted from seasonal rivers by using diversion structures made by stones, earth and brushwood, located within the river bed. The modernisation of spate irrigation realised in Raya Valley (northern Ethiopia resulted in disappointing performances. One of the main reasons for this failure was the poor consideration of the characteristics of seasonal catchments and local communities’ needs and preferences. Local farmers, who showed a deep knowledge of the river system, were involved only at the level of consultation. The aim of this research was to develop a participatory Diagnostic Analysis (DA for a traditional non-modernised spate irrigation system in Raya Valley, in order to involve local farmers within the development process, and to build a solid knowledge basis for effective improvements. A Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA of the Harosha spate irrigation system was undertaken. PRA techniques focusing on spatial, temporal, socio-economical and spatiotemporal aspects of the system were performed with local farmers in order to identify and rank main problems and constraints to development. Farmers recognised the need of more resistant diversion structures and gabion walls for the stabilisation of the river bank. The involvement of farmers also helped to highlight that not only irrigation-related problems, but also flood-related problems threaten agricultural production and rural livelihoods. Rather than an irrigation system approach, an approach integrating irrigation development and flood risk mitigation is suggested for framing future development strategies.

  10. Condensation irrigation a system for desalination and irrigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindblom, J.; Nordell, B

    2006-01-01

    condensation irrigation is a system for both desalination and irrigation. The principles is that humidified air is let into an underground horizontal pipe system, where the air is cooled by the ground and humidity falls out as fresh water. The humidification could e.g. be achieved by evaporation of seawater in solar stills or any other heat source. By using drainage pipes for underground air transportation the water percolates into the soil, thereby irrigating the land. This study focuses on drinking water production, which means that humid air is led into plan pipes where the condensed water is collected at the pipe endings. Numerical simulations gave a study-state diurnal mean water production of 1.8 kg per meter of pipe over a 50 m pipe. Shorter pipes result in a greater mean production rate. Since the heat transfer of drainage pipes would be greater, current study indicates that condensation irrigation is a promising method for desalination and irrigation. Performed studies in condensation irrigation started at LTU in 2003. Current paper reports the initial theoretical work on the system.(Author)

  11. Field Evidence Supporting Conventional Onion Curing Practices as a Strategy To Mitigate Escherichia coli Contamination from Irrigation Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Daniel; Feibert, Erik; Reitz, Stuart; Shock, Clint; Waite-Cusic, Joy

    2018-03-01

    The Produce Safety Rule of the U.S. Food Safety Modernization Act includes restrictions on the use of agricultural water of poor microbiological quality. Mitigation options for poor water quality include the application of an irrigation-to-harvest interval of onion production includes an extended irrigation-to-harvest interval (onion fields (randomized block design; n = 5) via drip tape on the final day of irrigation. Onions remained undisturbed for 7 days and were then lifted to the surface to cure for an additional 21 days before harvest. Water, onions, and soil were tested for presence of rifampin-resistant E. coli. One day after irrigation, 13.3% of onions (20 of 150) receiving the poorest quality water (3 log CFU/mL) tested positive for E. coli; this prevalence was reduced to 4% (6 of 150 onions) after 7 days. Regardless of inoculum level, E. coli was not detected on any onions beyond 15 days postirrigation. These results support conventional dry bulb onion curing practices as an effective strategy to mitigate microbiological concerns associated with poor quality irrigation water.

  12. Review of ultrasonic irrigation in endodontics: increasing action of irrigating solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozo, Sandra; Llena, Carmen

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Effective irrigant delivery and agitation are prerequisites for successful endodontic treatment. Ultrasonic irrigation can be performed with or without simultaneous ultrasonic instrumentation. Existing literature reveals that ultrasonic irrigation may have a very positive effect on chemical, biological and physical debridement of the root canal system as investigated in many in vitro studies. Objective: The purpose of this review article was to summarize and discuss the available information concerning ultrasonic irrigation in endodontics. Methods: This article presents an overview of ultrasonic irrigation methods and their debridement efficacy. In this paper the relevant literature on passive ultrasonic irrigation is reviewed. Information from original scientific papers or reviews listed in MEDLINE and Cochrane were included in the review. Results: The use of ultrasound in the irrigation procedure results in improved canal cleanliness, better irrigant transfer to the canal system, soft tissue debridement, and removal of smear layer and bacteria. There are many in vitro studies, but there is a need to standardize protocols, and correlate the clinical efficacy of ultrasonic devices with improved treatment outcomes. Understanding the basis of ultrasonic irrigation is fundamental for clinicians and researchers to improve the design and use of ultrasonic irrigation. Key words:Ultrasonic irrigation, ultrasound, smear layer, endodontics. PMID:22143738

  13. Salinity effect of irrigation with treated wastewater in basal soil respiration in SE of Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morugan, A.; Garcia-Orenes, F.; Mataix-Solera, J.

    2012-04-01

    The use of treated wastewater for the irrigation of agricultural soils is an alternative to utilizing better-quality water, especially in semiarid regions where water shortage is a very serious problem. Wastewater use in agriculture is not a new practice, all over the world this reuse has been common practice for a long time, but the concept is of greater importance currently because of the global water crisis. Replacement of freshwater by treated wastewater is seen as an important conservation strategy contributing to agricultural production, substantial benefits can derive from using this nutrient-rich waste water but there can also be a negative impact. For this reason it is necessary to know precisely the composition of water before applying it to the soil in order to guarantee minimal impact in terms of contamination and salinization. In this work we have been studying, for more than three years, different parameters in calcareous soils irrigated with treated wastewater in an agricultural Mediterranean area located at Biar (Alicante, SE Spain), with a crop of grape (Vitis labrusca). Three types of waters were used for the irrigation of the soil: fresh water (control) (TC), and treated wastewater from secondary (T2) and tertiary treatment (T3). Three different doses of irrigation have been applied to fit the efficiency of the irrigation to the crop and soil type during the study period. A soil sampling was carried out every four months. We show the results of the evolution of basal soil respiration (BSR), and its relationship with other parameters. We observed a similar pattern of behavior for BSR between treatments, a decrease at the first eighteen months of irrigation and an increase at the end of study. In our study case, the variations of BSR obtained for all the treatments seem to be closely related to the dose and frequency of irrigation and the related soil wetting and drying cycles. However, the results showed a negative correlation between BSR and

  14. Chlorinated and ultraviolet radiation -treated reclaimed irrigation water is the source of Aeromonas found in vegetables used for human consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Latif-Eugenín, Fadua; Beaz-Hidalgo, Roxana; Silvera-Simón, Carolina [Unidad de Microbiología, Facultad de Medicina y Ciencias de la Salud, IISPV, Universidad Rovira i Virgili, Reus (Spain); Fernandez-Cassi, Xavi [Departamento de Microbiología, Facultad de Biología, Universidad de Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain); Figueras, María J., E-mail: mariajose.figueras@urv.cat [Unidad de Microbiología, Facultad de Medicina y Ciencias de la Salud, IISPV, Universidad Rovira i Virgili, Reus (Spain)

    2017-04-15

    Wastewater is increasingly being recognized as a key water resource, and reclaimed water (or treated wastewater) is used for irrigating vegetables destined for human consumption. The aim of the present study was to determine the diversity and prevalence of Aeromonas spp. both in reclaimed water used for irrigation and in the three types of vegetables irrigated with that water. Seven of the 11 (63.6%) samples of reclaimed water and all samples of vegetables were positive for the presence of Aeromonas. A total of 216 Aeromonas isolates were genotyped and corresponded to 132 different strains that after identification by sequencing the rpoD gene belonged to 10 different species. The prevalence of the species varied depending on the type of sample. In the secondary treated reclaimed water A. caviae and A. media dominated (91.4%) while A. salmonicida, A. media, A. allosaccharophila and A. popoffii represented 74.0% of the strains in the irrigation water. In vegetables, A. caviae (75.0%) was the most common species, among which a strain isolated from lettuce had the same genotype (ERIC pattern) as a strain recovered from the irrigation water. Furthermore, the same genotype of the species A. sanarellii was recovered from parsley and tomatoes demonstrating that irrigation water was the source of contamination and confirming the risk for public health. - Highlights: • Reclaimed water (= treated wastewater) is used for the irrigation of vegetables. • Aeromonas was found in reclaimed water and irrigated vegetables with this water. • The prevalence of Aeromonas spp. varied between irrigation water and vegetables. • Epidemiological relationships were found between irrigation water and vegetables. • The water was the source of contamination which means a risk for the public health.

  15. Chlorinated and ultraviolet radiation -treated reclaimed irrigation water is the source of Aeromonas found in vegetables used for human consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latif-Eugenín, Fadua; Beaz-Hidalgo, Roxana; Silvera-Simón, Carolina; Fernandez-Cassi, Xavi; Figueras, María J.

    2017-01-01

    Wastewater is increasingly being recognized as a key water resource, and reclaimed water (or treated wastewater) is used for irrigating vegetables destined for human consumption. The aim of the present study was to determine the diversity and prevalence of Aeromonas spp. both in reclaimed water used for irrigation and in the three types of vegetables irrigated with that water. Seven of the 11 (63.6%) samples of reclaimed water and all samples of vegetables were positive for the presence of Aeromonas. A total of 216 Aeromonas isolates were genotyped and corresponded to 132 different strains that after identification by sequencing the rpoD gene belonged to 10 different species. The prevalence of the species varied depending on the type of sample. In the secondary treated reclaimed water A. caviae and A. media dominated (91.4%) while A. salmonicida, A. media, A. allosaccharophila and A. popoffii represented 74.0% of the strains in the irrigation water. In vegetables, A. caviae (75.0%) was the most common species, among which a strain isolated from lettuce had the same genotype (ERIC pattern) as a strain recovered from the irrigation water. Furthermore, the same genotype of the species A. sanarellii was recovered from parsley and tomatoes demonstrating that irrigation water was the source of contamination and confirming the risk for public health. - Highlights: • Reclaimed water (= treated wastewater) is used for the irrigation of vegetables. • Aeromonas was found in reclaimed water and irrigated vegetables with this water. • The prevalence of Aeromonas spp. varied between irrigation water and vegetables. • Epidemiological relationships were found between irrigation water and vegetables. • The water was the source of contamination which means a risk for the public health.

  16. Irrigation water quality and the benefits of implementing good agricultural practices during tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum) production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada-Acosta, M; Jiménez, M; Chaidez, C; León-Félix, J; Castro-Del Campo, N

    2014-07-01

    The implementation of good agricultural practices (GAP) from irrigation water to the tomato packaging process enhances the safety of fresh produce and its value throughout the food chain. The aim of the present study was to show that fresh produce farms that apply and enforce GAP could reduce the presence of Salmonella in finished produce. Samples were collected biweekly from six packing houses from the central region of Sinaloa, México, for the isolation of Salmonella spp by the ISO 6579:2002 method, and the isolated strains were serotyped and genotyped by the Kauffmman-White scheme and pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), respectively. Salmonella strains were detected in 13 (36.1 %) irrigation water samples, while only two tomato samples were positive (5.5 %). Eight different serotypes were identified in irrigation water, and Salmonella Oranienburg (34 %) was the most prevalent; however, only Salmonella Agona and Salmonella Weltevreden were present on tomatoes. Salmonella Oranienburg was the most widely dispersed and variable serotype, with 10 different PFGE profiles. Salmonella Weltevreden was isolated from both types of samples, albeit with distinct genetic profiles, implying that the sources of contamination differ. These results confirm the utility of implementing good agricultural practices to reduce Salmonella contamination in irrigation water and the packaging process.

  17. Irrigation performance assessment in Crimea, Ukraine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pavlov, S.S.; Roerink, G.J.; Hellegers, P.J.G.J.; Popovych, V.F.

    2006-01-01

    After the collapse of the Soviet Union the performance of irrigated agriculture decreased drastically in Ukraine, due to problems related to the transition from a centrally planned economy to a market economy. Before formulating recommendations on required actions to modify this problematic

  18. Effect of Fertilizers and Irrigation on Distribution of Mobile Forms of Mn, Zn and Cu in Typical Chernozems of the Republic of Moldova

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leah T. Gh.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the study results of mobile forms of Mn, Zn and Cu in irrigated fertilized and unfertilized chernozems typical. Irrigation affects the content and distribution of mobile forms of trace elements, increasing their removal beyond the 150 cm of soil layer. The fertilization increase the migration of Cu until 130 cm, fixed Mn and Zn in 0-60 cm of the irrigated soils. During irrigation constitutes a danger of soil contamination with Mn, Cu and Zn.

  19. Environmental and health risks associated with reuse of wastewater for irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman Shakir

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study focuses on the environmental and health risks associated with the use of treated wastewater produced from Al-Rustamia third extension plant for irrigation. The measured data are used to evaluate comprehensive pollution index (CPI and organic pollution index (OPI. The average CPI was found as 0.69 which indicated to be slightly polluted for all seasons and a similar result was also obtained with OPI, which is found to slightly vary in the range 1.29–1.60 which indicates as being to be contaminated. Also to evaluate its suitability for irrigation purposes, Sodium Adsorption Ratio (SAR, Soluble Sodium Percentage (SSP and Residual Sodium Carbonate (RSC were calculated following standard equations and found experimentally as (8.70, (74.76 and (2.68 respectively. Irrigation water classes are used for Salinity hazard (EC and Sodium hazard (SAR to assess water suitability for irrigation, and it is found that samples in summer and autumn in the class of C3-S1, indicate high salinity and low sodium water, while in spring and winter in the class of C4-S1, they indicate very high-salinity. Furthermore, the data indicate a slight to moderate degree of restriction on the use of this treated wastewater in irrigation due to chloride hazard. RSC value is more than 1.25 at all seasons, indicating that samples in summer and autumn are doubtful for irrigation purposes, while the samples in spring and winter are unsuitable for irrigation.

  20. Soil quality and rice productivity problems in Sahelian irrigation schemes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asten, van P.J.A.

    2003-01-01

    In irrigation schemes in theSahel, rice yields and cropping

  1. Tactic-operational problems of soldiers, civilians and environmental protection against contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krauze, M.

    1994-01-01

    The military problems connected with the probable use in warfare the chemical and nuclear weapon have been discussed. The concept of soldiers, civilians and environmental protection against the chemical and radiological contamination has been presented from the view point of military tactics

  2. Irrigation and Autocracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Jeanet Sinding; Kaarsen, Nicolai; Wingender, Asger Moll

    We show that societies with a history of irrigation-based agriculture have been less likely to adopt democracy than societies with a history of rainfed agriculture. Rather than actual irrigation, the empirical analysis is based on how much irrigation potentially can increase yields.Irrigation pot...

  3. Effects of soil texture and drought stress on the uptake of antibiotics and the internalization of Salmonella in lettuce following wastewater irrigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yuping; Sallach, J. Brett; Hodges, Laurie; Snow, Daniel D.; Bartelt-Hunt, Shannon L.; Eskridge, Kent M.; Li, Xu

    2016-01-01

    Treated wastewater is expected to be increasingly used as an alternative source of irrigation water in areas facing fresh water scarcity. Understanding the behaviors of contaminants from wastewater in soil and plants following irrigation is critical to assess and manage the risks associated with wastewater irrigation. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of soil texture and drought stress on the uptake of antibiotics and the internalization of human pathogens into lettuce through root uptake following wastewater irrigation. Lettuce grown in three soils with variability in soil texture (loam, sandy loam, and sand) and under different levels of water stress (no drought control, mild drought, and severe drought) were irrigated with synthetic wastewater containing three antibiotics (sulfamethoxazole, lincomycin and oxytetracycline) and one Salmonella strain a single time prior to harvest. Antibiotic uptake in lettuce was compound-specific and generally low. Only sulfamethoxazole was detected in lettuce with increasing uptake corresponding to increasing sand content in soil. Increased drought stress resulted in increased uptake of lincomycin and decreased uptake of oxytetracycline and sulfamethoxazole. The internalization of Salmonella was highly dependent on the concentration of the pathogen in irrigation water. Irrigation water containing 5 Log CFU/mL Salmonella resulted in limited incidence of internalization. When irrigation water contained 8 Log CFU/mL Salmonella, the internalization frequency was significantly higher in lettuce grown in sand than in loam (p = 0.009), and was significantly higher in lettuce exposed to severe drought than in unstressed lettuce (p = 0.049). This work demonstrated how environmental factors affected the risk of contaminant uptake by food crops following wastewater irrigation. - Highlights: • Higher sand content in soil caused higher internalization of sulfamethoxazole and Salmonella in lettuce. • Drought

  4. Chernobyl, 25 years later, demographical situation and health problems in the contaminated territories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandajevski, Yury I.; Bandajevskaya, G.S.; Dubovaya, Natalia; Kadun, O.N.

    2011-04-01

    On April 26, 1986, the reactor no.4 of the Chernobyl power plant (Ukraine) exploded. The real human impact of this catastrophe is still unknown. Today, 1.4 million people, included 260.000 children, are living in contaminated areas. What is the population situation of these areas and what are the actual health problems encountered? Written by scientists who have worked for 25 years in contaminated areas, this book follows two goals: - providing the reader with verified and reliable information about the accident impacts on public health and demography; - proposing a remedial action plan aiming at improving the health of the populations living in the contaminated areas (named 'model of life system in a radioactivity contaminated territory'). (J.S.)

  5. Drip irrigation using a PLC based adaptive irrigation system

    OpenAIRE

    Shahidian, S.; Serralheiro, R. P.; Teixeira, J. L.; Santos, F. L.; Oliveira, M. R. G.; Costa, J. L.; Toureiro, C.; Haie, Naim; Machado, R. M.

    2009-01-01

    Most of the water used by man goes to irrigation. A major part of this water is used to irrigate small plots where it is not feasible to implement full-scale Evapotranspiration based irrigation controllers. During the growth season crop water needs do not remain constant and varies depending on the canopy, growth stage and climate conditions such as temperature, wind, relative humidity and solar radiation. Thus, it is necessary to find an economic irrigation controller that can adapt the dail...

  6. Irrigation water policy analysis using a business simulation game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchholz, M.; Holst, G.; Musshoff, O.

    2016-10-01

    Despite numerous studies on farmers' responses to changing irrigation water policies, uncertainties remain about the potential of water pricing schemes and water quotas to reduce irrigation. Thus far, policy impact analysis is predominantly based upon rational choice models that assume behavioral assumptions, such as a perfectly rational profit-maximizing decision maker. Also, econometric techniques are applied which could lack internal validity due to uncontrolled field data. Furthermore, such techniques are not capable of identifying ill-designed policies prior to their implementation. With this in mind, we apply a business simulation game for ex ante policy impact analysis of irrigation water policies at the farm level. Our approach has the potential to reveal the policy-induced behavioral change of the participants in a controlled environment. To do so, we investigate how real farmers from Germany, in an economic experiment, respond to a water pricing scheme and a water quota intending to reduce irrigation. In the business simulation game, the participants manage a "virtual" cash-crop farm for which they make crop allocation and irrigation decisions during several production periods, while facing uncertain product prices and weather conditions. The results reveal that a water quota is able to reduce mean irrigation applications, while a water pricing scheme does not have an impact, even though both policies exhibit equal income effects for the farmers. However, both policies appear to increase the variation of irrigation applications. Compared to a perfectly rational profit-maximizing decision maker, the participants apply less irrigation on average, both when irrigation is not restricted and when a water pricing scheme applies. Moreover, the participants' risk attitude affects the irrigation decisions.

  7. Chemical colostomy irrigation with glyceryl trinitrate solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Bichere, A; Bossom, C; Gangoli, S; Green, C; Phillips, R K

    2001-09-01

    Colostomy irrigation may improve patient quality of life, but is time consuming. This study tests the hypothesis that irrigation with glyceryl trinitrate solution, by inducing gastrointestinal smooth muscle relaxation, may accelerate expulsion of stool by passive emptying, thereby reducing irrigation time. Fifteen colostomy irrigators(with more than 3 years' experience) performed washout with tap water compared with water containing 0.025 mg/kg glyceryl trinitrate. Fluid inflow time, total washout time, and hemodynamic changes occurring during glyceryl trinitrate irrigation were documented by an independent observer. Subjects recorded episodes of fecal leakage and overall satisfaction on a visual analog scale. Cramps, headaches, and whether or not a stoma bag was used were expressed as a percentage of number of irrigations. Comparison of fluid inflow time, total washout time, leakage, and satisfaction was by Wilcoxon's signed-rank test and headaches, cramps, and stoma bag use was by McNemar's test. Pulse rate (paired t-test), systolic and diastolic blood pressures (Wilcoxon's test) at 20 and 240 minutes after washout with glyceryl trinitrate solution were compared with baseline. Fifteen patients (9 female), with a mean age of 53 (31-73) years, provided 30 sessions (15 with water and 15 with glyceryl trinitrate). Medians (interquartile ranges) for water vs. glyceryl trinitrate were fluid inflow time 7 (4-10) vs. 4, (3-5; P = 0.001); total washout time 40 (30-55) vs. 21, (15-24; P colostomy irrigation time compared with the generally recommended tap water. Patients suffer fewer leakages and are highly satisfied, but side effects are potential drawbacks. Other colonoplegic agent solutions should now be evaluated.

  8. Assesing the suitability of water for irrigation theoretical and practical approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hannan, A.; Javad, M.A.; Arif, M.; Rashid, A.

    2006-01-01

    Forced by the surface water shortage and prevalent drought like conditions in the country the farmers have started exploiting groundwater resource. On the other hand, seventy percent of the groundwater being marginal to unfit is a threat to the sustainability of irrigated agriculture. The judicious groundwater exploitation and application has also become imperative in context of ever increasing demographic pressure on soil, crop and water resources. Different classes of irrigation waters established by various research scientists / organizations within the country or abroad are not ultimate under all conditions but these serve as general guidelines. In some cases brackish water requires only minor modification under existing irrigation and ogronomic practices, while in most of the cases it requires major changes regarding type of crops grown, method of water application and the use of soil and water amendments. Therefore, before recommending water for irrigation. Soil characteristics, water management practices, drainage condition of the filed and climatic events must be taken into account as waters generally classified unsuitable for irrigation can be used successfully to grow crops without long term hazardous consequences to crops or soils. This can be attempted simply with the use of improved farming and management practices. Use of brackish water for irrigation may increase the resource base for irrigated agriculture in Pakistan. This article reviews various water classification schemes, salinity-crop yield interrelation with detailed discussion on brackish water application and associated problems. The article also covers a number of management options so as to mitigate the problem and sustain food security in the country. (author)

  9. The effects of different irrigation levels on flowering and flower ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water usage is a vital issue for all agricultural crops as well as for ornamental crops. To obtain high quality flowers, it is essential to supply water when it is required. A problem which is common with cut flower growers are determining when to irrigate and the amount of water to apply. The effect of two irrigation intervals (I1: ...

  10. D-Area Drip Irrigation/Phytoremediation Project: SRTC Report on Phase 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilde, E.W.

    2001-01-01

    The overall objective of this project is to evaluate a novel drip irrigation-phytoremediation process for remediating volatile organic contaminants (VOCs), primarily trichloroethylene (TCE), from groundwater in D-Area at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The process is expected to be less expensive and more beneficial to the environment than alternative TCE remediation technologies

  11. The efficiency of drip irrigation unpacked

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooij, van der S.; Zwarteveen, M.Z.; Boesveld, H.; Kuper, M.

    2013-01-01

    Drip irrigation figures prominently in water policy debates as a possible solution to water scarcity problems, based on the assertion that it will improve water use efficiencies. We use this article to carefully trace the scientific basis of this assertion. Through a systematic review of the

  12. Stoma management in a tropical country: colostomy irrigation versus natural evacuation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, A F; Yunos, A B

    1999-11-01

    People with ostomies in Singapore were initially resistant to colostomy irrigation. This study, a prospective crossover study of 26 patients who underwent abdominoperineal resection, compared colostomy irrigation with the natural evacuation method. During the colostomy-irrigation phase of the study, all 26 patients reported an improvement in continence and fewer problems with sleep, sex, and skin complications compared to the natural-evacuation phase. The study also found a reduction in monthly expenses with colostomy irrigation compared to natural evacuation. Patient satisfaction scores were also superior during the colostomy-irrigation phase. This difference in satisfaction scores was less marked in those who were more than 1-year postsurgery than in those who were less than 1-year postsurgery. The difference in satisfaction between colostomy irrigation and natural evacuation scores was statistically significant in the group that was less than 1-year postsurgery, but not in the group that was more than 1-year postsurgery. The study concluded that colostomy irrigation after abdominoperineal resection is superior to natural evacuation in terms of cost and patient satisfaction and should be introduced soon after surgery.

  13. Heavy metals contamination of soils in response to wastewater irrigation in Rawalpindi region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mushtaq, N.; Khan, K.S.

    2010-01-01

    The study was conducted to evaluate the quality of effluents/ waste water samples from Rawalpindi region for irrigation purpose and to elucidate effects of their application on heavy metal contents in soils of area. Results indicated that the EC, SAR, RSC and TDS of most effluent/ waste water samples were above the critical limits. Cadmium and Cr were above the critical limits in almost all the effluent samples, whereas Ni was high in 14, Pb was high in 10, Cu was high in 5 and the Fe was high in 3 effluent samples as compared to critical limits. Regarding heavy metals contents of soils irrigated by these effluents/ waste water, total Fe, total Cd and total Ni were higher in almost all the sampled sites, whereas total Cr was high at 7 sampled sites. AB-DTPA extractable Fe and Zn were higher at all the sampled sites, while the extractable Cd was higher at 2 sampled sites. Overall, the effluent samples collected from Adiala showed high concentrations of heavy metals, whereas soils of Wah factory and Islamabad area had higher heavy metal contents (total and AB-DTPA extractable). On the basis of results it is concluded that quality of effluents/ waste water samples collected from different locations of Rawalpindi is not good for irrigation and the long term use of these effluents for crop production caused accumulation of some toxic metals in soils above critical limits which is harmful for soil health and may lead to elevated levels of heavy metals in crop plants. (author)

  14. ROOT CANAL IRRIGANTS AND IRRIGATION TECHNIQUES: A REVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Aniketh; Mohamed; Geeta; Nandakishore; Gourav Kumar; Patrick Timothy; Jayson Mathew; Sahle Abdul

    2015-01-01

    Root canal irrigation is not much emphasised in endodontic therapy. Most articles discussed are on root canal shaping and obturation not much emphasis is given for irrigation. There are many irrigation solutions which are introduced into market. The primary objective of root canal therapy is the ret ention of the pulpless or pulpally involved tooth with its associated periapical tissues in a healthy state. Achievement of this objective requires that the pulpal spaces and con...

  15. Grand challenge problems in environmental modeling and remediation: groundwater contaminant transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todd Arbogast; Steve Bryant; Clint N. Dawson; Mary F. Wheeler

    1998-08-31

    This report describes briefly the work of the Center for Subsurface Modeling (CSM) of the University of Texas at Austin (and Rice University prior to September 1995) on the Partnership in Computational Sciences Consortium (PICS) project entitled Grand Challenge Problems in Environmental Modeling and Remediation: Groundwater Contaminant Transport.

  16. Leaching of N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) in turfgrass soils during wastewater irrigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, J; Bondarenko, S; Ernst, F; Yang, W; Ries, S B; Sedlak, D L

    2006-01-01

    N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) is a carcinogenic by-product of chlorination that is frequently found in municipal wastewater effluent. NDMA is miscible in water and negligibly adsorbed to soil, and therefore may pose a threat to ground water when treated wastewater is used for landscape irrigation. A field study was performed in the summer months under arid Southern California weather conditions to evaluate the leaching potential of NDMA in turfgrass soils during wastewater irrigation. Wastewater was used to irrigate multiple turfgrass plots at 110 to 160% evapotranspiration rate for about 4 mo, and leachate was continuously collected and analyzed for NDMA. The treated wastewater contained relatively high levels of NDMA (114-1820 ng L(-1); mean 930 ng L(-1)). NDMA was detected infrequently in the leachate regardless of the soil type or irrigation schedule. At a method detection limit of 2 ng L(-1), NDMA was only detected in 9 out of 400 leachate samples and when it was detected, the NDMA concentration was less than 5 ng L(-1). NDMA was relatively persistent in the turfgrass soils during laboratory incubation, indicating that mechanisms other than biotransformation, likely volatilization and/or plant uptake, contributed to the rapid dissipation. Under conditions typical of turfgrass irrigation with wastewater effluent it is unlikely that NDMA will contaminate ground water.

  17. Effects of soil texture and drought stress on the uptake of antibiotics and the internalization of Salmonella in lettuce following wastewater irrigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuping; Sallach, J Brett; Hodges, Laurie; Snow, Daniel D; Bartelt-Hunt, Shannon L; Eskridge, Kent M; Li, Xu

    2016-01-01

    Treated wastewater is expected to be increasingly used as an alternative source of irrigation water in areas facing fresh water scarcity. Understanding the behaviors of contaminants from wastewater in soil and plants following irrigation is critical to assess and manage the risks associated with wastewater irrigation. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of soil texture and drought stress on the uptake of antibiotics and the internalization of human pathogens into lettuce through root uptake following wastewater irrigation. Lettuce grown in three soils with variability in soil texture (loam, sandy loam, and sand) and under different levels of water stress (no drought control, mild drought, and severe drought) were irrigated with synthetic wastewater containing three antibiotics (sulfamethoxazole, lincomycin and oxytetracycline) and one Salmonella strain a single time prior to harvest. Antibiotic uptake in lettuce was compound-specific and generally low. Only sulfamethoxazole was detected in lettuce with increasing uptake corresponding to increasing sand content in soil. Increased drought stress resulted in increased uptake of lincomycin and decreased uptake of oxytetracycline and sulfamethoxazole. The internalization of Salmonella was highly dependent on the concentration of the pathogen in irrigation water. Irrigation water containing 5 Log CFU/mL Salmonella resulted in limited incidence of internalization. When irrigation water contained 8 Log CFU/mL Salmonella, the internalization frequency was significantly higher in lettuce grown in sand than in loam (p = 0.009), and was significantly higher in lettuce exposed to severe drought than in unstressed lettuce (p = 0.049). This work demonstrated how environmental factors affected the risk of contaminant uptake by food crops following wastewater irrigation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Preferential flow, nitrogen transformations and 15N balance under urine-affected areas of irrigated and non-irrigated clover-based pastures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakro, Naser; Dillon, Peter

    1995-12-01

    Urine-affected areas can lead to considerable losses of N by leaching, ammonia volatilisation and denitrification from dairy pastures in the southeast of South Australia. Potable groundwater supplies are considered to have become contaminated by nitrate as a result of leaching from these leguminous pastures. Dairy cow urine, labelled with 15N urea, was applied to micro-plots and mini-lysimeters installed in two adjacent irrigated (white clover-rye grass) and non-irrigated (subterranean clover-annual grasses) paddocks of a dairy farm on four occasions representing different seasonal conditions. These experiments allowed measurement of nitrogen transformations, recovery of 15N in the pasture and soil, and leaching below various depths. Gaseous losses were calculated from the nitrogen balance. The results of the four experiments showed that within a day of urine application up to 40% of the applied urinary-N was leached below a depth of 150 mm as a result of macropore flow in the irrigated paddock, and up to 24% in the non-irrigated one. After application to the irrigated paddock 17% of the urinary-N moved immediately below 300 mm but only 2% below the 450-mm depth. The urinary-N remaining in the soil was converted from urea to ammonium within a day regardless of season. Within the first 7 days of application six times more nitrate was produced in summer than in winter. This has obvious implications for leaching potential. Leaching of 15N from the top 150 mm of soil, following urine applications in all seasons, was between 41% and 62% of the applied 15N in the irrigated paddock and 25-51% in the non-irrigated paddock. However, leaching losses measured at depths of 300 or 450 mm were smaller by a factor of 2-4. The leaching loss of 15N applied in spring in both paddocks was 41% below 150 mm and 12% below 450 mm. Recovery of 15N from the soil-plant system in the 450-nm deep lysimeters was ˜60% of that applied. Estimated ammonia was ˜9% of applied 15N with no paddock

  19. Long-term fate of exogenous metals in a sandy Luvisol subjected to intensive irrigation with raw wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dere, C.; Lamy, I.; Jaulin, A.; Cornu, S.

    2007-01-01

    From 1899 to 2002, sandy Luvisol in the Paris region has been intensively irrigated with raw wastewater, resulting in major soil pollution by metallic trace elements (MTE). To identify the soil phases implicated in retaining these metals, sequential extractions were performed on a solum irrigated with untreated wastewater and another reference solum. The endogenous and exogenous fractions of MTE in the contaminated soil were discriminated using correlations between MTE and major elements defined from unpolluted soils of the area. In the contaminated soil no exogenous lead and chromium are present below the surface horizon, whereas exogenous zinc and copper are found down to the base of the solum. The endogenous MTE are mainly found in the residual fraction. Exogenous MTE appear to be associated with organic matter in the surface horizon, and exogenous zinc seems to be readsorbed on iron and manganese oxyhydroxides in the underlying horizons. - After 100 years of intensive irrigation with wastewater, no exogenous Pb and Cr are found in the subsoil, while exogenous Zn and Cu are found down to the base of the solum, mostly readsorbed

  20. Development of predictions of future pollution problems. Socio-economic environmental studies series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flinn, J.E.; Reimers, R.S.

    1974-03-01

    The report describes the results of a program to identify, rank and project short- and intermediate-term future pollution problems. Identification was accomplished using three independent search approaches based on industrial production, environmental, and societal trends and activity. Primary emphasis was placed on the environmental trends as gleaned from EPA, Battelle, Literature, and other sources. An initial list of problems was compiled with specific stressors identified with each. Nine ranking factors were devised to select ten most serious problems from the initial list. The factors included: persistence; mobility/pervasiveness; environmental, technological, social, and political complexity; physiological risk; research needs; and bulk or volume of the pollutant. The ten problems selected by this method were further ranked in order of relative importance. The ten selected problems in rank order are as follows: (1) Impacts of new energy initiatives; (2) Geophysical modifications of the earth; (3) Trace element (metal) contaminants; (4) Proliferating hazardous and toxic chemicals; (5) Emissions from new automobile fuels, additives, and control devices; (6) Disposal of waste sludges, liquids, and solid residues; (7) Critical radiation problems; (8) Fine particulates; (9) Expanding drinking water contamination; (10) Irrigation (impoundment) practices. Five to ten year projections were made of the ten problems which resulted

  1. Evaluation of hazardous metal pollution in irrigation and drinking water systems in the vicinity of a coal mine area of northwestern Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhuiyan, Mohammad A H; Islam, M A; Dampare, Samuel B; Parvez, Lutfar; Suzuki, Shigeyuki

    2010-07-15

    An integrated approach of pollution evaluation indices, principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis (CA) was employed to evaluate the intensity and sources of pollution in irrigation and drinking water systems of northwestern Bangladesh. Temperature, BOD, chemical oxygen demand (COD), Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu and Pb levels in most of the water samples exceed the Bangladesh and international standards. The heavy metal pollution index (HPI) and degree of contamination (C(d)) yield different results despite significant correlations between them. The heavy metal evaluation index (HEI) shows strong correlations with HPI and C(d), and gives a better assessment of pollution levels. Modifications to the existing HPI and C(d) schemes show comparable results with HEI, and indicate that about 55% of the mine drainage/irrigation waters and 50% of the groundwaters are moderately to highly contaminated. The CA, PCA and pollution indices suggest that the mine drainage water (DW) is contaminated by anthropogenic (mining operation and agrogenic) sources, and the proximal parts are more contaminated than the distal part. The groundwater system in the vicinity of the coal mine site is also heavily polluted by anthropogenic sources. The pollution status of irrigation and drinking water systems in the study area are of great environmental and health concerns. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Problems of the assessment of contaminated mining sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wichterey, K.; Gehrcke, K.; Kuemmel, M.

    1999-01-01

    In Germany there are numerous relics of former mining activities with enhanced levels of radionuclides of the uranium/radium series. Of special importance are the relics of uranium and other non-ferrous ore mining in the three Federal States of Saxony, Thuringia and Saxony-Anhalt. The majority of these relics is situated in densely populated areas. This gives rise to the question whether measures have to be taken to protect the population from detrimental health impacts. Public concern often concentrates on radioactivity. Health impacts may, however, originate from chemically hazardous substances, too. Such substances like, for instance, arsenic, often accompany radioactive contamination in mining relics. Also, mining safety, landscape conservation and other aspects may play a significant role in the decision-making process, especially for large and complex mining sites. This is, however, outside the scope of the present paper, which is confined to the discussion of problems associated with the assessment of mining sites contaminated with both enhanced levels of naturally occurring radionuclides and chemically toxic/carcinogenic substances. Sites with mixed contaminants like mining relics may cause special problems in the assessment of hazards to human health. Different scientific approaches and historic developments led to considerable differences in existing regulations. Both, on the national and international scale efforts are made towards a harmonization. Having reviewed studies carried out in Germany we arrived at the conclusion that generation of a common risk scale for all kinds of hazards seems to be a too challenging problem to be solved within a foreseeable time scale. It is reasonable, at least in principle, to define a unified metric for carcinogenic effects of ionizing radiation and harmful chemicals. Even this needs a lot of research work as a basis for adaptations in the legal systems. What seems to be reasonable and in our opinion is much more

  3. Green and blue water footprint reduction in irrigated agriculture: effect of irrigation techniques, irrigation strategies and mulching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chukalla, A. D.; Krol, M. S.; Hoekstra, A. Y.

    2015-12-01

    Consumptive water footprint (WF) reduction in irrigated crop production is essential given the increasing competition for freshwater. This study explores the effect of three management practices on the soil water balance and plant growth, specifically on evapotranspiration (ET) and yield (Y) and thus the consumptive WF of crops (ET / Y). The management practices are four irrigation techniques (furrow, sprinkler, drip and subsurface drip (SSD)), four irrigation strategies (full (FI), deficit (DI), supplementary (SI) and no irrigation), and three mulching practices (no mulching, organic (OML) and synthetic (SML) mulching). Various cases were considered: arid, semi-arid, sub-humid and humid environments in Israel, Spain, Italy and the UK, respectively; wet, normal and dry years; three soil types (sand, sandy loam and silty clay loam); and three crops (maize, potato and tomato). The AquaCrop model and the global WF accounting standard were used to relate the management practices to effects on ET, Y and WF. For each management practice, the associated green, blue and total consumptive WF were compared to the reference case (furrow irrigation, full irrigation, no mulching). The average reduction in the consumptive WF is 8-10 % if we change from the reference to drip or SSD, 13 % when changing to OML, 17-18 % when moving to drip or SSD in combination with OML, and 28 % for drip or SSD in combination with SML. All before-mentioned reductions increase by one or a few per cent when moving from full to deficit irrigation. Reduction in overall consumptive WF always goes together with an increasing ratio of green to blue WF. The WF of growing a crop for a particular environment is smallest under DI, followed by FI, SI and rain-fed. Growing crops with sprinkler irrigation has the largest consumptive WF, followed by furrow, drip and SSD. Furrow irrigation has a smaller consumptive WF compared with sprinkler, even though the classical measure of "irrigation efficiency" for furrow

  4. Microbial quality of irrigation water used in leafy green production in Southern Brazil and its relationship with produce safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decol, Luana Tombini; Casarin, Letícia Sopeña; Hessel, Claudia Titze; Batista, Ana Carolina Fösch; Allende, Ana; Tondo, Eduardo César

    2017-08-01

    Irrigation water has been recognized as an important microbial risk factor for fruits and vegetables in many production areas, but there is still a lack of information about how the microbiological quality of different irrigation water sources and climatic conditions influence the safety of vegetables produced in Brazil. This study evaluated the distribution of generic E. coli and the prevalence of E. coli O157:H7 in two different water sources (ponds and streams bordering farmlands and urban areas) used for irrigation and on commercially produced lettuces in Southern Brazil. We also evaluated the effect of agricultural factors and meteorological conditions in the potential contamination of water and produce samples. A longitudinal study was conducted on four farms during a year (July 2014 to August 2015). The results showed generic E. coli prevalence of 84.8% and 38.3% in irrigation water samples and on lettuces, respectively, indicating irrigation water as an important source of contamination of lettuces. No significant differences were detected in the counts of E. coli between the two different surface water sources. The climatic conditions, particularly rainfall and environmental temperature, have influenced the high concentration of E. coli. The highest loads of E. coli in irrigation water and on lettuces were found during the warmest time of the year. E. coli O157:H7 was detected by qualitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) in 13 water samples but only 4 were confirmed by isolation in culture media. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Root canal irrigants

    OpenAIRE

    Kandaswamy, Deivanayagam; Venkateshbabu, Nagendrababu

    2010-01-01

    Successful root canal therapy relies on the combination of proper instrumentation, irrigation, and obturation of the root canal. Of these three essential steps of root canal therapy, irrigation of the root canal is the most important determinant in the healing of the periapical tissues. The primary endodontic treatment goal must thus be to optimize root canal disinfection and to prevent reinfection. In this review of the literature, various irrigants and the interactions between irrigants are...

  6. BIOPROTA: Key issues in biosphere aspects of assessment of the long-term impact of contaminant releases associated with radioactive waste management. Theme 2 Task 1: Model review and comparison for spray irrigation pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergstroem, U.; Albrecht, A.; Kanyar, B.; Smith, G.; Thorne, M.C.; Yoshida, H.; Wasiolek, M.

    2006-04-15

    The objective of Task 1 within Theme 2 was to investigate the modelling of the concentrations of radionuclides on vegetation arising from interception by growing crops using contaminated irrigation water and the consequent contamination of the food consumed by humans. This Task 1 report includes model descriptions provided by participants and the specification and results of model test calculations designed to investigate the significance of the different model assumptions. A significant array of modelling methods has been presented and explained. The equations used and the data adopted have also been presented. This compilation may be useful for future reference. Although the methods vary, most assessment results are within a factor of ten of each other. This is not a large range given the generic nature of the assessment question asked. This is generally due to compensating effects. For example, a high initial assumed retention factor is compensated for when weathering and translocation are then taken into account. That is to say, while different modelling approaches are taken, each conceptual model is internally consistent. Overall, the results lend considerable confidence to the assessment community's ability to assess doses as a result of food contamination due to the direct effects of irrigation. The biggest reasons for discrepancies in results are associated with the treatment of weathering and translocation, post deposition. Values for translocation vary considerably between the participants and there are different interpretations of weathering and translocation data. Another significant reason for differences in models and in results concerns the different irrigation practices used in different areas. These are largely climate driven. Overall it appears that relatively simple models provide very similar results to the more process orientated and data demanding models. Further consideration of the adequacy of the data for assessment purposes will

  7. BIOPROTA: Key issues in biosphere aspects of assessment of the long-term impact of contaminant releases associated with radioactive waste management. Theme 2 Task 1: Model review and comparison for spray irrigation pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergstroem, U.; Albrecht, A.; Kanyar, B.; Smith, G.; Thorne, M.C.; Yoshida, H.; Wasiolek, M.

    2006-04-01

    The objective of Task 1 within Theme 2 was to investigate the modelling of the concentrations of radionuclides on vegetation arising from interception by growing crops using contaminated irrigation water and the consequent contamination of the food consumed by humans. This Task 1 report includes model descriptions provided by participants and the specification and results of model test calculations designed to investigate the significance of the different model assumptions. A significant array of modelling methods has been presented and explained. The equations used and the data adopted have also been presented. This compilation may be useful for future reference. Although the methods vary, most assessment results are within a factor of ten of each other. This is not a large range given the generic nature of the assessment question asked. This is generally due to compensating effects. For example, a high initial assumed retention factor is compensated for when weathering and translocation are then taken into account. That is to say, while different modelling approaches are taken, each conceptual model is internally consistent. Overall, the results lend considerable confidence to the assessment community's ability to assess doses as a result of food contamination due to the direct effects of irrigation. The biggest reasons for discrepancies in results are associated with the treatment of weathering and translocation, post deposition. Values for translocation vary considerably between the participants and there are different interpretations of weathering and translocation data. Another significant reason for differences in models and in results concerns the different irrigation practices used in different areas. These are largely climate driven. Overall it appears that relatively simple models provide very similar results to the more process orientated and data demanding models. Further consideration of the adequacy of the data for assessment purposes will depend on

  8. Risk assessment for pesticide contamination of groundwater with sparse available data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardowicks, K.; Heredia, O.; Billib, M.; Fernández Cirelli, A.; Boochs, P.

    2009-04-01

    The contamination of the water resources by agrochemicals is recognized in industrial countries as a very important environmental problem, nevertheless in most of developing and threshold countries the risks for health and environmental problems are not considered. In these countries agrochemicals, which are forbidden since several years in Europe (e.g. atrazine), are still in use. In some threshold countries monitoring systems are already installed for nutrients (N, P) and also a few for heavy metals, but so far the contamination by pesticides is hardly ever controlled, thus there is no data available about pesticide concentrations in soil and water. The aim of this research is to develop a methodology to show farmers and other water users (water agencies, drinking water supply companies) in basins of developing or threshold countries with sparse available data the risk of contamination of the groundwater resources by pesticides. A few data like pesticide application, precipitation, irrigation, potential evaporation and soil types are available in some regions. If these data is reliable it can be used together with some justified estimated parameters to perform simulations of the fate of pesticides to the groundwater. Therefore in two study cases in Argentina and Chile pesticide models (e.g. PESTAN, IPTM-CS) were used to evaluate the risk of contamination of the groundwater. The results were compared with contamination indicators, like one developed by O. Heredia, for checking their plausibility. Afterwards the results of the models were used as input data for simulations at the catchment scale, for instance for a groundwater simulation model (VISUAL MODFLOW). The results show a great risk for the contamination of the groundwater resources in the selected study areas, especially by atrazine. On this account the findings will be used by local researchers to improve the knowledge and the awareness of farmers and other stakeholders about the contamination of the

  9. Effect of antiseptic irrigation on infection rates of traumatic soft tissue wounds: a longitudinal cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, B; Neuenschwander, R; Brill, F; Wurmitzer, F; Wegner, C; Assadian, O; Kramer, A

    2017-03-02

    Acute traumatic wounds are contaminated with bacteria and therefore an infection risk. Antiseptic wound irrigation before surgical intervention is routinely performed for contaminated wounds. However, a broad variety of different irrigation solutions are in use. The aim of this retrospective, non-randomised, controlled longitudinal cohort study was to assess the preventive effect of four different irrigation solutions before surgical treatment, on wound infection in traumatic soft tissue wounds. Over a period of three decades, the prophylactic application of wound irrigation was studied in patients with contaminated traumatic wounds requiring surgical treatment, with or without primary wound closure. The main outcome measure was development of wound infection. From 1974-1983, either 0.04 % polihexanide (PHMB), 1 % povidone-iodine (PVP-I), 4 % hydrogen peroxide, or undiluted Ringer's solution were concurrently in use. From 1984-1996, only 0.04 % PHMB or 1 % PVP-I were applied. From 1997, 0.04 % PHMB was used until the end of the study period in 2005. The combined rate for superficial and deep wound infection was 1.7 % in the 0.04 % PHMB group (n=3264), 4.8 % in the 1 % PVP-I group (n=2552), 5.9 % in the Ringer's group (n=645), and 11.7 % in the 4 % hydrogen peroxide group (n=643). Compared with all other treatment arms, PHMB showed the highest efficacy in preventing infection in traumatic soft tissue wounds (p<0.001). However, compared with PVP-I, the difference was only significant for superficial infections. The large patient numbers in this study demonstrated a robust superiority of 0.04 % PHMB to prevent infection in traumatic soft tissue wounds. These retrospective results may further provide important information as the basis for power calculations for the urgently needed prospective clinical trials in the evolving field of wound antisepsis.

  10. Groundwater quality for irrigation of deep aquifer in southwestern zone of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirza A.T.M. Tanvir Rahman

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In coastal regions of Bangladesh, sources of irrigation are rain, surface and groundwater. Due to rainfall anomaly andsaline contamination, it is important to identify deep groundwater that is eligible for irrigation. The main goal of the study wasto identify deep groundwater which is suitable for irrigation. Satkhira Sadar Upazila, at the southwestern coastal zone ofBangladesh, was the study area, which was divided into North, Center and South zones. Twenty samples of groundwaterwere analyzed for salinity (0.65-4.79 ppt, sodium absorption ratio (1.14-11.62, soluble sodium percentage (32.95-82.21, electricalconductivity (614-2082.11 μS/cm, magnesium adsorption ratio (21.96-26.97, Kelly’s ratio (0.48-4.62, total hardness(150.76-313.33 mg/l, permeability index (68.02-94.16 and residual sodium bi-carbonate (79.68-230.72 mg/l. Chemical constituentsand values were compared with national and international standards. Northern deep groundwater has the highest salinityand chemical concentrations. Salinity and other chemical concentrations show a decreasing trend towards the south. Lowchemical concentrations in the southern region indicate the best quality groundwater for irrigation.

  11. Strategies of smallholder irrigation management in Zimbabwe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manzungu, E.

    1999-01-01

    The smallholder irrigation sub-sector in Zimbabwe, according to literature sources, is under threat due to what are called management problems. Poor water management and low crop yields have been cited, as has also been poor financial and economic viability, resulting in heavy government

  12. Low-cost options for reducing consumer health risks from farm to fork where crops are irrigated with polluted water in West Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amoah, Philip; Keraita, Bernard; Akple, Maxwell

    To identify interventions which reduce health risks of consumers where highly polluted irrigation water is used to irrigate vegetables in West Africa, scientists worked over 5 years with farmers, market traders and street food vendors in Ghana. The most promising low-cost interventions with high......) guidelines. The tested market-based interventions were important to prevent new or additional contamination...

  13. Influence of irrigation on the occurrence of organic and inorganic pollutants in soil, water and sediments of a Spanish agrarian basin (Lerma)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abrahao, R.; Sarasa, J.; Causape, J.; Garcia-Garizabal, I.; Ovelleiro, J. L.

    2011-07-01

    In order to understand the several possible environmental impacts caused by irrigation, the existence of a study area under transition from unirrigated to irrigated land is a great advantage. This work investigates the presence of 44 pesticides and metabolites, 11 organo chlorinated compounds, 17 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), 13 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and several metals and metalloids such as Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn, As, Se and Hg, in the soil, water and sediments of an agrarian basin in Northeast Spain. The study area was unirrigated until 2006, when irrigation began. The objective of this work was to verify if the first irrigation years influenced the concentrations of the substances and elements analyzed. The main contaminants detected were organo chlorinated compounds, Paths and metals in the soil; atrazine, desethyl atrazine, terbuthylazine, dicofol and pp'-DDT in the water; and PAHs, 1,2,4 trichlorobenzene and metals in the sediments. Until the conclusion of this study, no serious contamination issues existed related to the analyzed substances, and for the moment, irrigation has not significantly influenced the concentrations of such substances in the basin. Nevertheless, slightly elevated punctual values were observed for endrin in the soil, pp'-DDT in the water, and Ni and Zn in the sediments. (Author) 45 refs.

  14. Public health risk assessment of groundwater contamination in Batman, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalbantcilar, M Tahir; Pinarkara, Sukru Yavuz

    2016-08-01

    In this study, a comprehensive analysis of groundwater was performed to assess contamination and phenol content in Batman, Turkey, particularly in residential areas near agriculture, livestock and oil industry facilities. From these areas, where potentially contaminated groundwater used for drinking and irrigation threatens public health, 30 groundwater samples were collected and analyzed for heavy metal concentrations (Al, As, B, Ba, Ca, Cd, Cl, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Li, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Ni, NO3, P, Pb, phenol, S, Sb, Se, SO4, Sr, U, and Zn). Compared with the standards of the Environmental Protection Agency, Al, Fe, and Mn concentrations in groundwater exceeded secondary drinking water regulations, NO3 concentrations were high for maximum contaminant levels, and As, Pb, and U concentrations exceeded maximum contaminant level goals in all samples. Ni, Sb, and Se concentrations also exceeded limits set by the Turkish Standards Institution. Nearly all samples revealed concentrations of Se, Sb, Hg, and phenol due to nearby petroleum refineries, oil storage plants, and agricultural and livestock areas. The results obtained from this study indicate that the groundwater in Batman contains elements in concentrations that approach or exceed limits and thus threatens public health with increased blood cholesterol, decreased blood sugar, and circulatory problems.

  15. Contamination of the ground waters and surface waters by boron in Lerma Valley, NW-Argentina - an inventory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bundschuh, J.

    1992-01-01

    Ground- and surface waters in areas unaffected by pollution from borax and boric acid producing plants exhibit low boron concentrations of less than 300 μg B/l. Only at the boric acid plant 'Mineratea' is the groundwater contaminated, with up to 6200 μg B/l occurring within an area of 8 to 10 km 2 with more than 1000 μg boron/l. Even higher boron concentrations (up to 18 μg B/l) are present in polluted surface waters. Not the boron concentration in the irrigation water, but the absolute amount of boron added to the plants by irrigation is what determines plant toxicity. For the contaminated area of the boric acid 'Mineratea', characterized by boron concentrations of between 1000 and 6000 μg B/l, the maximal amounts of irrigation water that can be applied lies between 300 and 8 mm. In order to protect the local groundwater resoures from present and future contamination, environmental impact assessment on industrial projects in the area are required. In this way, the quality of the drinking and irrigation water can be guaranteed through suitable measures, without hindering further necessary industrial development of the region. (orig./UWA) [de

  16. Factors affecting irrigant extrusion during root canal irrigation: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boutsioukis, C.; Psimma, Z.; van der Sluis, L.W.M.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to conduct a systematic review and critical analysis of published data on irrigant extrusion to identify factors causing, affecting or predisposing to irrigant extrusion during root canal irrigation of human mature permanent teeth. An electronic search was conducted

  17. Vegetated Treatment Systems for Removing Contaminants Associated with Surface Water Toxicity in Agriculture and Urban Runoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Brian S; Phillips, Bryn M; Voorhees, Jennifer P; Cahn, Michael

    2017-05-15

    Urban stormwater and agriculture irrigation runoff contain a complex mixture of contaminants that are often toxic to adjacent receiving waters. Runoff may be treated with simple systems designed to promote sorption of contaminants to vegetation and soils and promote infiltration. Two example systems are described: a bioswale treatment system for urban stormwater treatment, and a vegetated drainage ditch for treating agriculture irrigation runoff. Both have similar attributes that reduce contaminant loading in runoff: vegetation that results in sorption of the contaminants to the soil and plant surfaces, and water infiltration. These systems may also include the integration of granulated activated carbon as a polishing step to remove residual contaminants. Implementation of these systems in agriculture and urban watersheds requires system monitoring to verify treatment efficacy. This includes chemical monitoring for specific contaminants responsible for toxicity. The current paper emphasizes monitoring of current use pesticides since these are responsible for surface water toxicity to aquatic invertebrates.

  18. Modeled effects of irrigation on surface climate in the Heihe River Basin, Northwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuezhen; Xiong, Zhe; Tang, Qiuhong

    2017-08-01

    In Northwest China, water originates from the mountain area and is largely used for irrigation agriculture in the middle reaches. This study investigates the local and remote impact of irrigation on regional climate in the Heihe River Basin, the second largest inland river basin in Northwest China. An irrigation scheme was developed and incorporated into the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model with the Noah-MP land surface scheme (WRF/Noah-MP). The effects of irrigation is assessed by comparing the model simulations with and without consideration of irrigation (hereafter, IRRG and NATU simulations, respectively) for five growth seasons (May to September) from 2009 to 2013. As consequences of irrigation, daily mean temperature decreased by 1.7°C and humidity increased by 2.3 g kg-1 (corresponding to 38.5%) over irrigated area. The temperature and humidity of IRRG simulation matched well with the observations, whereas NATU simulation overestimated temperature and underestimated humidity over irrigated area. The effects on temperature and humidity are generally small outside the irrigated area. The cooling and wetting effects have opposing impacts on convective precipitation, resulting in a negligible change in localized precipitation over irrigated area. However, irrigation may induce water vapor convergence and enhance precipitation remotely in the southeastern portion of the Heihe River Basin.

  19. Coastal surface water suitability analysis for irrigation in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahtab, Mohammad Hossain; Zahid, Anwar

    2018-03-01

    Water with adequate quality and quantity is very important for irrigation to ensure the crop yields. Salinity is common problem in the coastal waters in Bangladesh. The intensity of salinity in the coastal zone in Bangladesh is not same. It fluctuates over the year. Sodium is another hazard which may hamper permeability and ultimately affects the fertility. It can reduce the crop yields. Although surface water is available in the coastal zone of Bangladesh, but its quality for irrigation needs to be monitored over the year. This paper will investigate the overall quality of coastal surface waters. Thirty-three water samples from different rivers were collected both in wet period (October-December) and in dry period (February-April). Different physical and chemical parameters are considered for investigation of the adequacy of water with respect to international irrigation water quality standards and Bangladesh standards. A comparison between the dry and wet period coastal surface water quality in Bangladesh will also be drawn here. The analysis shows that coastal surface water in Bangladesh is overall suitable for irrigation during wet period, while it needs treatment (which will increase the irrigation cost) for using for irrigation during dry period. Adaptation to this situation can improve the scenario. An integrated plan should be taken to increase the water storing capacity in the coastal area to harvest water during wet period.

  20. Sustainable management after irrigation system transfer : experiences in Colombia - the RUT irrigation district

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Urrutia Cobo, N.

    2006-01-01

    Colombiais a tropical country located in South America. It has a total area of 114 million ha. In Colombia two irrigation sectors are distinguished: the small-scale irrigation and the large-scale irrigation sector. The small-scale irrigation sector is developed on lands

  1. Using Plants for the Bioremediation (Phyto-remediation) of Chromium-Contaminated Soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Sabour, M.F.; Al-Salama, Y.J.

    2003-01-01

    A trial was made to study the use of hyper accumulator plant species to extract Cr out of contaminated soils. Three soils (A,B, and C) were selected in this experiment, Soil A: Polluted soil from El-Gabal El-Asfer farm. (subjected to sewage effluent irrigation for more than 75 years). Soil B: Polluted soil from Bahtem area (subjected to sewage effluent irrigation for more than 30 years). Soil C: Polluted soil from Mostorud area (irrigated with contaminated water for more than 30 years due to direct discharge of industrial wastewater to irrigation water canals). Four Kg of each air-dried surface soil sample (0-20 cm) were packed in plastic containers in three replicates. Four plant species tested in this study namely, Sorghum (Sorghum Vulgar L.), Clover (Trifolium Pretense L.), Panikum (Panicum antidotal) and Canola (Brassica Napous.); were grown on each tested soil in a complete randomized block experimental design. Plant shoots were harvested every 60 days (three cuts) for sorghum, clover and panikum. In case of canola plants, the shoots were harvested after 60 days (vegetative stage) and 85 days(fruiting stage). The roots of all species were collected after the final cut. Initial and final soil samples were taken for Cr analyses using neutron activation analyses technique (NAA)

  2. Bench Scale Treatability Studies of Contaminated Soil Using Soil Washing Technique

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, M. K.; Srivastava, R. K.; Singh, A. K.

    2010-01-01

    Soil contamination is one of the most widespread and serious environmental problems confronting both the industrialized as well as developing nations like India. Different contaminants have different physicochemical properties, which influence the geochemical reactions induced in the soils and may bring about changes in their engineering and environmental behaviour. Several technologies exist for the remediation of contaminated soil and water. In the present study soil washing technique using...

  3. Extended use of grey water for irrigating home gardens in an arid environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ismaili, Abdulrahim M; Ahmed, Mushtaque; Al-Busaidi, Ahmed; Al-Adawi, Seif; Tandlich, Roman; Al-Amri, Mohammed

    2017-05-01

    The use of treated grey water (GW) for home gardens, peri-urban agriculture and landscaping is becoming popular in many water stressed countries such as Oman. This study aims to investigate the treatment efficacy, health and chemical concerns, cost-benefits and maintenance protocol of a GW treatment system as well as the effect of irrigation with GW on crop yield. Therefore, a decentralized homemade GW treatment system was installed in a newly constructed house in Muscat, Oman and studied over a 2-year period. The treated GW was found to be suitable for irrigation as per Omani standards. GW when mixed with kitchen effluent substituted the use of nutrient supplements for plants and did not show any harmful chemical or biological contamination. The capital cost of the system was around US $980, and the annual operating cost was US $78 with annual income and savings from the system being around US $572 indicating a payback period of nearly 2 years. It was found that the system required simple but regular maintenance particularly cleaning of the top layer of the filter. It can be concluded from this study that such a GW system should be technically, economically and environmentally feasible in Oman. Also, wider acceptance by the general public to the idea of GW reuse will help in mitigating the water shortage problem of the country to some extent.

  4. Optimal design of pressurized irrigation systems. Application cases (Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Mireya Lapo Pauta

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents research completed with the intention of finding the most economical solution in the design of pressurized irrigation networks, while efficiently meet service delivery. A systematic methodology is proposed that combines two optimization techniques through a “hybrid method” in, which linear programming, nonlinear programming and genetic algorithms are fused. The overall formulations of the problem of optimal dimensioning consist of minimizing an objective function constituted through the associated cost of the pipes that form the network. This methodology was implemented in three networks a fictitious irrigation and two irrigation networks (Tuncarta and Cariyacu located in the cities of Loja and Chimborazo which yielded optimal design  solutions. Finally different scenarios were simulated in both models to obtain an overview of the operation of the hydraulic variables

  5. [Stricture of the colon induced by hyperthermia--in connection with irrigation via sigmoidostomy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Søholm, L M; Bonde, C T; Balleby, L; Meisner, S

    1999-08-23

    A case of thermal injury following the introduction of excessively hot tap water into the colon during irrigation of a sigmoid colostomy is described. The radiological proof of a subsequently developed colon stricture made it necessary to remove the injured part and reconstruct the colostomy. Only two other cases of this kind have been reported in English literature. The case emphasizes that care must be taken in selecting the right temperature of the water for irrigation.

  6. Automated Irrigation System using Weather Prediction for Efficient Usage of Water Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susmitha, A.; Alakananda, T.; Apoorva, M. L.; Ramesh, T. K.

    2017-08-01

    In agriculture the major problem which farmers face is the water scarcity, so to improve the usage of water one of the irrigation system using drip irrigation which is implemented is “Automated irrigation system with partition facility for effective irrigation of small scale farms” (AISPF). But this method has some drawbacks which can be improved and here we are with a method called “Automated irrigation system using weather prediction for efficient usage of water resources’ (AISWP), it solves the shortcomings of AISPF process. AISWP method helps us to use the available water resources more efficiently by sensing the moisture present in the soil and apart from that it is actually predicting the weather by sensing two parameters temperature and humidity thereby processing the measured values through an algorithm and releasing the water accordingly which is an added feature of AISWP so that water can be efficiently used.

  7. Irrigation efficiency and water-policy implications for river basin resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, C. A.; Vicuña, S.; Blanco-Gutiérrez, I.; Meza, F.; Varela-Ortega, C.

    2014-04-01

    Rising demand for food, fiber, and biofuels drives expanding irrigation withdrawals from surface water and groundwater. Irrigation efficiency and water savings have become watchwords in response to climate-induced hydrological variability, increasing freshwater demand for other uses including ecosystem water needs, and low economic productivity of irrigation compared to most other uses. We identify three classes of unintended consequences, presented here as paradoxes. Ever-tighter cycling of water has been shown to increase resource use, an example of the efficiency paradox. In the absence of effective policy to constrain irrigated-area expansion using "saved water", efficiency can aggravate scarcity, deteriorate resource quality, and impair river basin resilience through loss of flexibility and redundancy. Water scarcity and salinity effects in the lower reaches of basins (symptomatic of the scale paradox) may partly be offset over the short-term through groundwater pumping or increasing surface water storage capacity. However, declining ecological flows and increasing salinity have important implications for riparian and estuarine ecosystems and for non-irrigation human uses of water including urban supply and energy generation, examples of the sectoral paradox. This paper briefly considers three regional contexts with broadly similar climatic and water-resource conditions - central Chile, southwestern US, and south-central Spain - where irrigation efficiency directly influences basin resilience. The comparison leads to more generic insights on water policy in relation to irrigation efficiency and emerging or overdue needs for environmental protection.

  8. Irrigation efficiency and water-policy implications for river-basin resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, C. A.; Vicuña, S.; Blanco-Gutiérrez, I.; Meza, F.; Varela-Ortega, C.

    2013-07-01

    Rising demand for food, fiber, and biofuels drives expanding irrigation withdrawals from surface- and groundwater. Irrigation efficiency and water savings have become watchwords in response to climate-induced hydrological variability, increasing freshwater demand for other uses including ecosystem water needs, and low economic productivity of irrigation compared to most other uses. We identify three classes of unintended consequences, presented here as paradoxes. Ever-tighter cycling of water has been shown to increase resource use, an example of the efficiency paradox. In the absence of effective policy to constrain irrigated-area expansion using "saved water", efficiency can aggravate scarcity, deteriorate resource quality, and impair river-basin resilience through loss of flexibility and redundancy. Water scarcity and salinity effects in the lower reaches of basins (symptomatic of the scale paradox) may partly be offset over the short-term through groundwater pumping or increasing surface water storage capacity. However, declining ecological flows and increasing salinity have important implications for riparian and estuarine ecosystems and for non-irrigation human uses of water including urban supply and energy generation, examples of the sectoral paradox. This paper briefly examines policy frameworks in three regional contexts with broadly similar climatic and water-resource conditions - central Chile, southwestern US, and south-central Spain - where irrigation efficiency directly influences basin resilience. The comparison leads to more generic insights on water policy in relation to irrigation efficiency and emerging or overdue needs for environmental protection.

  9. Impact of potentially contaminated river water on agricultural irrigated soils in an equatorial climate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trujillo-González, Juan Manuel; Mahecha-Pulido, Juan D.; Torres-Mora, Marco Aurelio; Brevik, Eric C.; Keesstra, Saskia D.; Jiménez-Ballesta, Raimundo

    2017-01-01

    Globally, it is estimated that 20 million hectares of arable land are irrigated with water that contains residual contributions from domestic liquids. This potentially poses risks to public health and ecosystems, especially due to heavy metals, which are considered dangerous because of their

  10. Furan: A critical heat induced dietary contaminant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mariotti, María S.; Granby, Kit; Rozowski, Jaime

    2013-01-01

    The presence of furan in a broad range of heat processed foods (0-6000 μg kg-1) has received considerable attention due to the fact that this heat induced contaminant is considered as a "possible carcinogenic compound to humans". Since a genotoxic mode of action could be associated with furan...... of some critical factors such as heating conditions, pH and matrix microstructure are discussed in order to propose some potential methodologies for furan mitigation in a wide range of heated foods. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry....

  11. Irrigation Training Manual. Planning, Design, Operation, and Management of Small-Scale Irrigation Systems [and] Irrigation Reference Manual. A Technical Reference to Be Used with the Peace Corps Irrigation Training Manual T0076 in the Selection, Planning, Design, Operation, and Management of Small-Scale Irrigation Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, LeRoy; And Others

    This resource for trainers involved in irrigated agriculture training for Peace Corps volunteers consists of two parts: irrigation training manual and irrigation reference manual. The complete course should fully prepare volunteers serving as irrigation, specialists to plan, implement, evaluate and manage small-scale irrigation projects in arid,…

  12. Arsenic accumulation in irrigated agricultural soils in Northern Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casentini, B; Hug, S J; Nikolaidis, N P

    2011-10-15

    The accumulation of arsenic in soils and food crops due to the use of arsenic contaminated groundwater for irrigation has created worldwide concern. In the Chalkidiki prefecture in Northern Greece, groundwater As reach levels above 1000μg/L within the Nea Triglia geothermal area. While this groundwater is no longer used for drinking, it represents the sole source for irrigation. This paper provides a first assessment of the spatial extent of As accumulation and of As mobility during rainfall and irrigation periods. Arsenic content in sampled soils ranged from 20 to 513mg/kg inside to 5-66mg/kg outside the geothermal area. Around irrigation sprinklers, high As concentrations extended horizontally to distances of at least 1.5m, and to 50cm in depth. During simulated rain events in soil columns (pH=5, 0μg As/L), accumulated As was quite mobile, resulting in porewater As concentrations of 500-1500μg/L and exposing plant roots to high As(V) concentrations. In experiments with irrigation water (pH=7.5, 1500μg As/L), As was strongly retained (50.5-99.5%) by the majority of the soils. Uncontaminated soils (500mg/kg) could not retain any of the added As. Invoked mechanisms affecting As mobility in those soils were adsorption on solid phases such as Fe/Mn-phases and As co-precipitation with Ca. Low As accumulation was found in collected olives (0.3-25μg/kg in flesh and 0.3-5.6μg/kg in pits). However, soil arsenic concentrations are frequently elevated to far above recommended levels and arsenic uptake in faster growing plants has to be assessed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Experimental studies on decontamination in first aid for contaminated wounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusama, Tomoko; Ogaki, Kazushi; Yoshizawa, Yasuo

    1982-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the decontamination procedures in first aid for wounds contaminated with radionuclides. Abrasion of mouse skin was contaminated with 58 CoCl 2 . Irrigation by decontamination fluids began at 2 min after administration of the radionuclide and continued for 14 min. Tap water, 0.5% Hyamine solution or 10% Ca-DTPA solution were used as the decontamination fluids. Radioactivities of whole body, wounded skin surface and washed solution were measured with an animal counter with 5 cm NaI(Tl) and a well-type auto-gamma-counter. Decontamination effectiveness were expressed as follows: (1) absorption rate of radionuclide through the wound and (2) residual rate of radionuclide on the wound. More than 20% of the radionuclide applied on the wounded skin was absorbed in 15 min after contamination. The absorption rate decreased to 2% by the decontamination procedures. The Ca-DTPA solution reduced the residual rate of radionuclide on the wounds. The results suggested that the decontamination for the contaminated wounds should begin as soon as possible. Irrigation with 0.5% Hyamine solution has been advocated for the decontamination in the first aid. (author)

  14. Feed contamination with Fusarium mycotoxins induces a corticosterone stress response in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonissen, G; De Baere, S; Devreese, M; Van Immerseel, F; Martel, A; Croubels, S

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of the Fusarium mycotoxins deoxynivalenol (DON) and fumonisins (FBs) on the stress response in broiler chickens, using corticosterone (CORT) in plasma as a biomarker. Chickens were fed either a control diet, a DON contaminated diet, a FBs contaminated diet, or a DON and FBs contaminated diet for 15 d at concentrations close to the European Union maximum guidance levels for DON and FBs in poultry. Mean plasma CORT levels were significantly higher in broiler chickens fed a DON contaminated and a DON and FBs contaminated diet compared to birds fed a control diet. A similar trend was observed for animals fed a FBs contaminated diet. Consequently, feeding broilers a diet contaminated with DON and/or FBs induced a CORT stress response, which may indicate a negative effect on animal welfare. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  15. Trace metals accumulation in soil irrigated with polluted water and assessment of human health risk from vegetable consumption in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Md Atikul; Romić, Davor; Akber, Md Ali; Romić, Marija

    2018-02-01

    Trace metals accumulation in soil irrigated with polluted water and human health risk from vegetable consumption was assessed based on the data available in the literature on metals pollution of water, soil, sediment and vegetables from the cites of Bangladesh. The quantitative data on metal concentrations, their contamination levels and their pollution sources have not been systematically gathered and studied so far. The data on metal concentrations, sources, contamination levels, sample collection and analytical tools used were collected, compared and discussed. The USEPA-recommended method for health risk assessment was used to estimate human risk from vegetable consumption. Concentrations of metals in water were highly variable, and the mean concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu and As in water were found to be higher than the FAO irrigation water quality standard. In most cases, mean concentrations of metals in soil were higher than the Bangladesh background value. Based on geoaccumulation index (I geo ) values, soils of Dhaka city are considered as highly contaminated. The I geo shows Cd, As, Cu, Ni, Pb and Cr contamination of agricultural soils and sediments of the cities all over the Bangladesh. Polluted water irrigation and agrochemicals are identified as dominant sources of metals in agricultural soils. Vegetable contamination by metals poses both non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risks to the public. Based on the results of the pollution and health risk assessments, Cd, As, Cr, Cu, Pb and Ni are identified as the priority control metals and the Dhaka city is recommended as the priority control city. This study provides quantitative evidence demonstrating the critical need for strengthened wastewater discharge regulations in order to protect residents from heavy metal discharges into the environment.

  16. A generalized fuzzy credibility-constrained linear fractional programming approach for optimal irrigation water allocation under uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chenglong; Guo, Ping

    2017-10-01

    The vague and fuzzy parametric information is a challenging issue in irrigation water management problems. In response to this problem, a generalized fuzzy credibility-constrained linear fractional programming (GFCCFP) model is developed for optimal irrigation water allocation under uncertainty. The model can be derived from integrating generalized fuzzy credibility-constrained programming (GFCCP) into a linear fractional programming (LFP) optimization framework. Therefore, it can solve ratio optimization problems associated with fuzzy parameters, and examine the variation of results under different credibility levels and weight coefficients of possibility and necessary. It has advantages in: (1) balancing the economic and resources objectives directly; (2) analyzing system efficiency; (3) generating more flexible decision solutions by giving different credibility levels and weight coefficients of possibility and (4) supporting in-depth analysis of the interrelationships among system efficiency, credibility level and weight coefficient. The model is applied to a case study of irrigation water allocation in the middle reaches of Heihe River Basin, northwest China. Therefore, optimal irrigation water allocation solutions from the GFCCFP model can be obtained. Moreover, factorial analysis on the two parameters (i.e. λ and γ) indicates that the weight coefficient is a main factor compared with credibility level for system efficiency. These results can be effective for support reasonable irrigation water resources management and agricultural production.

  17. Quality of tube well water intended for irrigation and human consumption with special emphasis on arsenic contamination at the area of Punjab, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasool, Atta; Xiao, Tangfu; Farooqi, Abida; Shafeeque, Muhammad; Liu, Yizhang; Kamran, Muhammad Aqeel; Katsoyiannis, Ioannis A; Eqani, Syed Ali Musstjab Akber Shah

    2017-08-01

    In the present study, the tube well water quality and the associated health risks, emphasizing on arsenic contamination, were investigated in rural and urban samples from Tehsil Mailsi located in Punjab, Pakistan. Arsenic concentrations (μg/L) were ranged from 12 to 448.5 and which exceeded the WHO recommended limit (10 μg/L) in all cases. The calculated average daily dose (3.3 × 10 -0.4 to 1.2 × 10 -0.2  mg/kg day) and hazard quotient (1.1-40) reflected the potential health risk to local population due to tube well water consumption as drinking purpose. Sodium percent (Na%), sodium absorption ratio, residual sodium carbonate, Kelly's index and magnesium absorption ratio were also determined to assess the suitability of tube well water for irrigation purpose. The resulting piper plot revealed the Na-Ca-HCO 3 type water chemistry of the area and generally alkaline environment. The spatial distribution of arsenic in the tube well waters pinpoints the significant contribution of anthropogenic activities to arsenic pollution. Nevertheless, different statistical tools, including principal component analysis, hierarchical cluster analysis and correlation matrices, revealed the contribution of both natural and anthropogenic activities and alkaline type of aquifers toward the high level of arsenic contamination.

  18. Clinical value of colonic irrigation in patients with continence disturbances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briel, J W; Schouten, W R; Vlot, E A; Smits, S; van Kessel, I

    1997-07-01

    considered the treatment as a major improvement to the quality of their lives. If patients who discontinued treatment because of washout-related problems are included in the assessment of final outcome, the success rate is 79 and 38 percent respectively. Patients with fecal soiling benefit more from colonic irrigation than patients with incontinence for liquid or solid stools. If creation of a stoma is considered, especially in patients with intractable and disabling soiling, it might be worthwhile to treat these patients first by colonic irrigation.

  19. Regulations of irrigation on regional climate in the Heihe watershed, China, and its implications to water budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X.

    2015-12-01

    In the arid area, such as the Heihe watershed in Northwest China, agriculture is heavily dependent on the irrigation. Irrigation suggests human-induced hydro process, which modifies the local climate and water budget. In this study, we simulated the irrigation-induced changes in surface energy/moisture budgets and modifications on regional climate, using the WRF-NoahMP modle with an irrigation scheme. The irrigation scheme was implemented following the roles that soil moisture is assigned a saturated value once the mean soil moisture of all root layers is lower than 70% of fileld capacity. Across the growth season refering from May to September, the simulated mean irrigation amount of the 1181 cropland gridcells is ~900 mm, wihch is close to the field measurments of around 1000 mm. Such an irrigation largely modified the surface energy budget. Due to irrigation, the surface net solar radiation increased by ~76.7 MJ (~11 Wm-2) accouting for ~2.3%, surface latent and senbile heat flux increased by 97.7 Wm-2 and decreased by ~79.7 Wm-2 respectively; and local daily mean surface air temperature was thereby cooling by ~1.1°C. Corresponding to the surface energy changes, wind and circulation were also modified and regional water budget is therefore regulated. The total rainfall in the irrigation area increased due to more moisture from surface. However, the increased rainfall is only ~6.5mm (accounting for ~5% of background rainfall) which is much less than the increased evaporation of ~521.5mm from surface. The ~515mm of water accounting for 57% of total irrigation was transported outward by wind. The other ~385 mm accounting for 43% of total irrigation was transformed to be runoff and soil water. These results suggest that in the Heihe watershed irrigation largely modify local energy budget and cooling surface. This study also implicate that the existing irrigation may waste a large number of water. It is thereby valuable to develope effective irrigation scheme to

  20. ANTIMICROBIAL AND STRUCTURAL EFFECTS OF DIFFERENT IRRIGATION SOLUTIONS ON GUTTA-PERCHA CONES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevinç Aktemur Türker

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate the alterations on the surface of gutta-percha cones (GPCs on exposure to the different irrigation solutions and their possible antibacterial effect against Enterococcus faecalis. (E. faecalis Materials and Methods: Disinfection ability of different solutions (5.25% sodium hypochlorite, 2% chlorhexidine, 1% peracetic acid, and QMix were tested with 96 GPCs and the time of exposure to each solution was 5 and10 minutes, respectively. GPCs used in this study were contaminated with E.faecalis. After disinfection, GPCs were placed in tubes containing the medium and incubated at 37˚C for 7 days. All tubes were visually checked for turbidity at 24-hour intervals. About 92 new GPCs were analyzed by means of SEM/EDS to assess the topography and chemical elements present on their surface. The data generated was analyzed using Pearson chi-square test, p0.05. SEM/EDS analyses showed no alteration in the superficial features of GPCs after treating with various irrigation solutions. Conclusion: QMix was found to be an effective agent for rapid disinfection of GPCs as well-known irrigation solutions. Irrigation solutions were found to have sterilized the GPCs after both 5 and 10 minutes of exposure.

  1. A simplified technique for a totally diverting transverse loop colostomy and distal irrigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, D; Koniges, F; Frazier, T G

    1985-12-01

    This technique of totally diverting loop colostomy may be performed as an independent procedure or with exploratory laparotomy and surgical treatment on the distal part of the colon. Either a transverse or sigmoid loop colostomy can be used for diversion without the risk of fecal contamination of the peritoneal cavity, particularly when working with unprepared intestine. When distal irrigation is desired to purge the intestine of fecal material, either intraoperatively or as part of a subsequent intestinal preparation, it can easily be accomplished by placing an irrigating catheter distal to the staple line. In addition, the use of a small rubber suspension bar facilitates application of standard colostomy appliances for the stoma.

  2. Detailed study of water quality, bottom sediment, and biota associated with irrigation drainage in the Salton Sea area, California, 1988-90

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setmire, J.G.; Schroeder, R.A.; Densmore, J.N.; Goodbred, S.O.; Audet, D.J.; Radke, W.R.

    1993-01-01

    Results of a detailed study by the National Irrigation Water-Quality Program (NIWQP), U.S. Department of the Interior, indicate that factors controlling contaminant concentrations in subsurface irrigation drainwater in the Imperial Valley are soil characteristics, hydrology, and agricultural practices. Higher contaminant concentrations commonly were associated with clayey soils, which retard the movement of irrigation water and thus increase the degree of evaporative concentration. Regression of hydrogen- and oxygen-isotope ratios in samples collected from sumps yields a linear drainwater evaporation line that extrapolates through the isotopic composition of Colorado River water, thus demonstrating that Colorado River water is the sole source of subsurface drainwater in the Imperial Valley. Ratios of selenium to chloride indicate that selenium present in subsurface drainwater throughout the Imperial Valley originates from the Colorado River. The selenium load discharged to the Salton Sea from the Alamo River, the largest contributor, is about 6.5 tons/yr. Biological sampling and analysis showed that drainwater contaminants, including selenium, boron, and DDE, are accumulating in tissues of migratory and resident birds that use food sources in the Imperial Valley and the Salton Sea. Selenium concentration in fish-eating birds, shorebirds, and the endangered Yuma clapper rail were at levels that could affect reproduction. Boron concentrations in migratory waterfowl and resident shorebirds were at levels that potentially could cause reduced growth in young. As a result of DDE contamination of food sources, waterfowl and fish-eating birds in the Imperial Valley may be experiencing reproductive impairment.

  3. Impact of environmental contamination on laser induced damage of silica optics in Laser MegaJoule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bien-Aime, K.

    2009-11-01

    Laser induced damage impact of molecular contamination on fused polished silica samples in a context of high power laser fusion facility, such as Laser MegaJoule (LMJ) has been studied. One of the possible causes of laser induced degradation of optical component is the adsorption of molecular or particular contamination on optical surfaces. In the peculiar case of LMJ, laser irradiation conditions are a fluence of 10 J/cm 2 , a wavelength of 351 nm, a pulse duration of 3 ns for a single shot/days frequency. Critical compounds have been identified thanks to environmental measurements, analysis of material outgassing, and identification of surface contamination in the critical environments. Experiments of controlled contamination involving these compounds have been conducted in order to understand and model mechanisms of laser damage. Various hypotheses are proposed to explain the damage mechanism. (author)

  4. Successful treatment with a combination of endoscopic injection and irrigation with coca cola for gastric bezoar-induced gastric outlet obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chen-Sheng; Tung, Chun-Fang; Peng, Yen-Chun; Chow, Wei-Keung; Chang, Chi-Sen; Hu, Wei-Hsiung

    2008-01-01

    We report a case of gastric bezoar-induced gastric outlet obstruction that was successfully treated with a combination of endoscopic injection and irrigation with Coca Cola. A 73-year-old diabetic woman had a history of perforated peptic ulcer and had received pyloroplasty more than 20 years previously. She had been ingesting Pho Pu Zi (Cordia dichotoma Forst. f.) as an appetizer for 1 month. She presented with epigastric pain, nausea, and vomiting. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, performed at a local hospital, showed 2 gastric bezoars in the stomach, and 1 of them impacted at the pylorus. She was referred to our emergency department for removal of the gastric bezoars that were suspected to be causing gastric outlet obstruction. All attempts at endoscopic removal using a polypectomy snare, biopsy forceps and Dormia basket failed. We then injected Coca Cola directly into the bezoar mass, followed by irrigation with Coca Cola. Follow-up endoscopy was performed the next day, which revealed that the gastric bezoars had dissolved spontaneously.

  5. Relationship between Aflatoxin Contamination and Physiological Responses of Corn Plants under Drought and Heat Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nacer Bellaloui

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Increased aflatoxin contamination in corn by the fungus Aspergillus flavus is associated with frequent periods of drought and heat stress during the reproductive stages of the plants. The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between aflatoxin contamination and physiological responses of corn plants under drought and heat stress. The study was conducted in Stoneville, MS, USA under irrigated and non-irrigated conditions. Five commercial hybrids, P31G70, P33F87, P32B34, P31B13 and DKC63-42 and two inbred germplasm lines, PI 639055 and PI 489361, were evaluated. The plants were inoculated with Aspergillus flavus (K-54 at mid-silk stage, and aflatoxin contamination was determined on the kernels at harvest. Several physiological measurements which are indicators of stress response were determined. The results suggested that PI 639055, PI 489361 and hybrid DKC63-42 were more sensitive to drought and high temperature stress in the non-irrigated plots and P31G70 was the most tolerant among all the genotypes. Aflatoxin contamination was the highest in DKC63-42 and PI 489361 but significantly lower in P31G70. However, PI 639055, which is an aflatoxin resistant germplasm, had the lowest aflatoxin contamination, even though it was one of the most stressed genotypes. Possible reasons for these differences are discussed. These results suggested that the physiological responses were associated with the level of aflatoxin contamination in all the genotypes, except PI 639055. These and other physiological responses related to stress may help examine differences among corn genotypes in aflatoxin contamination.

  6. Relationship between aflatoxin contamination and physiological responses of corn plants under drought and heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kebede, Hirut; Abbas, Hamed K; Fisher, Daniel K; Bellaloui, Nacer

    2012-11-20

    Increased aflatoxin contamination in corn by the fungus Aspergillus flavus is associated with frequent periods of drought and heat stress during the reproductive stages of the plants. The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between aflatoxin contamination and physiological responses of corn plants under drought and heat stress. The study was conducted in Stoneville, MS, USA under irrigated and non-irrigated conditions. Five commercial hybrids, P31G70, P33F87, P32B34, P31B13 and DKC63-42 and two inbred germplasm lines, PI 639055 and PI 489361, were evaluated. The plants were inoculated with Aspergillus flavus (K-54) at mid-silk stage, and aflatoxin contamination was determined on the kernels at harvest. Several physiological measurements which are indicators of stress response were determined. The results suggested that PI 639055, PI 489361 and hybrid DKC63-42 were more sensitive to drought and high temperature stress in the non-irrigated plots and P31G70 was the most tolerant among all the genotypes. Aflatoxin contamination was the highest in DKC63-42 and PI 489361 but significantly lower in P31G70. However, PI 639055, which is an aflatoxin resistant germplasm, had the lowest aflatoxin contamination, even though it was one of the most stressed genotypes. Possible reasons for these differences are discussed. These results suggested that the physiological responses were associated with the level of aflatoxin contamination in all the genotypes, except PI 639055. These and other physiological responses related to stress may help examine differences among corn genotypes in aflatoxin contamination.

  7. Effect of drought/irrigation on proximate composition and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enset [Ensete ventricosum (Welw.) Cheesman] is an important root crop serving as a carbohydrate rich food source in Ethiopia. Perennial crops, like enset, are often exposed to recurrent dry periods which could greatly affect their growth, physiology and yield. The effect of induced drought/irrigation on the proximate ...

  8. A comprehensive guide for designing more efficient irrigation systems with respect to application control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaddam, Issam; Schuetze, Niels

    2017-04-01

    The worldwide water scarcity problems are expected to aggravate due to the increasing population and the need to produce more food. Irrigated agriculture is considered the highest consumer of fresh water resources with a rate exceeds 70% of global consumption. Consequently, an improvement in the efficiency of all irrigation methods, such as furrow or drip irrigation, becomes more necessary and urgent. Therefore, a more precise knowledge about soil water distribution in the root zone and the water balance components is required. For this purpose and as a part of the SAPHIR project (Saxonian Platform for high Performance Irrigation), a 2D simulation- based study was performed with virtual field conditions. The study investigates the most important design parameters of many irrigation systems, such as irrigation intensity and duration, and shows there influence on the water distribution efficiency. Furthermore, three main soil textures are used to test the impact of the soil hydraulic properties on irrigation effectiveness. A numerous number of irrigation scenarios of each irrigation system was simulated using HYDRUS 2D. Thereafter, the results were digitally calculated, compiled and made available online in the so called "Irrigation Atlases". The irrigation atlases provide graphical results of the soil moisture and pressure head distributions in the root zone. Moreover, they contain detailed information of the water balance for all simulated scenarios. The most studies evaluate the irrigation water demands on local, regional or global scales and for that an efficient water distribution is required. In this context, the irrigation atlases can serve as a valuable tool for the implementation of planned irrigation measures.

  9. Can plastic mulching replace irrigation in dryland agriculture?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, L.; Daryanto, S.; Jacinthe, P. A.

    2017-12-01

    Increasing water use efficiency (WUE) is a key strategy to maintaining crops yield without over-exploiting the scarce water resource. Plastic mulching technology for wheat and maize has been commonly used in China, but their effect on yield, soil moisture, evapotranspiration (ET), and WUE has not been compared with traditional irrigation method. Using a meta-analysis approach, we quantitatively examined the efficacy of plastic mulching in comparison with traditional irrigation in dryland agriculture. Our results showed that plastic mulching technique resulted in yield increase comparable to irrigated crops but used 24% less water. By covering the ridges with plastic and channeling rainwater into a very narrow planting zone (furrow), plastic mulching increased WUE and available soil moisture. Higher WUE in plastic-mulched croplands was likely a result of greater proportion of available water being used for transpiration than evaporation. If problems related to production costs and residual plastic pollution could be managed, plastic mulching technology would become a promising strategy for dryland farming in other regions.

  10. Public Health Risk Assessment of Heavy Metal Uptake by Vegetables Grown at a Waste-water-Irrigated Site in Dhaka, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Shakhaoat Hossain

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions. Higher values in the metal pollution index and health risk index indicate heavy metal contamination in wastewater-irrigated soils that present the potential for a significant negative impact on human health.

  11. The Temporal Variation of Leaf Water Potential in Pistachio under Irrigated and Non-Irrigated Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf AYDIN

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out in the experimental field of Pistachio Research Institute on pistachio trees which has uzun variety that was 30 years old. The aim of this research was to determine the Leaf Water Potential (LWP of Pistacia vera L. under irrigated and non-irrigated conditions. In the study, the leaf water potential of pistachio was investigated under fully irrigated and non irrigated conditions. The leaf water potential values were measured one day before and after irrigation by using pressure chamber technique at the beginning, mid and end of irrigation season. According to the results obtained from measurements, the LWP value at the beginning of the irrigation season was -3.7 MPa at noon time due to relatively high temperature for both treatments. At the time of pre-dawn and sunset, this value increased and reached to - 1.6 MPa due to relatively low temperature. In general, the LWP values during the mid of irrigation season, in the irrigated treatments, reached to almost -2.5 MPa in the non-irrigated treatment and the value was measured as -3.68 MPa.

  12. Strategy of Irrigation Branch in Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeyliger, A.; Ermolaeva, O.

    2012-04-01

    At this moment, at the starting time of the program on restoration of a large irrigation in Russia till 2020, the scientific and technical community of irrigation branch does not have clear vision on how to promote a development of irrigated agriculture and without repeating of mistakes having a place in the past. In many respects absence of a vision is connected to serious backlog of a scientific and technical and informational and technological level of development of domestic irrigation branch from advanced one. Namely such level of development is necessary for the resolving of new problems in new conditions of managing, and also for adequate answers to new challenges from climate and degradation of ground & water resources, as well as a rigorous requirement from an environment. In such important situation for irrigation branch when it is necessary quickly generate a scientific and technical politics for the current decade for maintenance of translation of irrigated agriculture in the Russian Federation on a new highly effective level of development, in our opinion, it is required to carry out open discussion of needs and requirements as well as a research for a adequate solutions. From political point of view a framework organized in FP6 DESIRE 037046 project is an example of good practice that can serve as methodical approach how to organize and develop such processes. From technical point of view a technology of operational management of irrigation at large scale presents a prospective alternative to the current type of management based on planning. From point of view ICT operational management demands creation of a new platform for the professional environment of activity. This platform should allow to perceive processes in real time, at their partial predictability on signals of a straight line and a feedback, within the framework of variability of decision making scenarious, at high resolution and the big ex-awning of sensor controls and the gauges

  13. Modeling of Cr contamination in the agricultural lands of three villages near the leather industry in Kasur, Pakistan, using statistical and GIS techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafiq, Muhammad; Shaukat, Tahira; Nazir, Aisha; Bareen, Firdaus-E-

    2017-08-01

    Kasur is one of the hubs of leather industry in the Punjab, Pakistan, where chrome tanning method of leather processing is extensively being used. Chromium (Cr) accumulation levels in the irrigation water, soil, and seasonal vegetables were studied in three villages located in the vicinity of wastewater treatment plant and solid waste dumping site operated by the Kasur Tanneries Waste Management Agency (KTWMA). The data was interpreted using analysis of variance (ANOVA), clustering analysis (CA), and principal component analysis (PCA). Interpolated surface maps for Cr were generated using the actual data obtained for the 30 sampling sites in each of the three villages for irrigation water, soil, and seasonal vegetables. The level of contamination in the three villages was directly proportional to their distance from KTWMA wastewater treatment plant and the direction of water runoff. The highest level of Cr contamination in soil (mg kg -1 ) was observed at Faqeeria Wala (37.67), intermediate at Dollay Wala (30.33), and the least in Maan (25.16). A gradational variation in Cr accumulation was observed in the three villages from contaminated wastewater having the least contamination level (2.02-4.40 mg L -1 ), to soil (25.16-37.67 mg kg -1 ), and ultimately in the seasonal vegetable crops (156.67-248.33 mg kg -1 ) cultivated in the region, having the highest level of Cr contamination above the permissible limit. The model used not only predicted the current situation of Cr contamination in the three villages but also indicated the trend of magnification of Cr contamination from irrigation water to soil and to the base of the food chain. Among the multiple causes of Cr contamination of vegetables, soil irrigation with contaminated groundwater was observed to be the dominant one.

  14. Oasis Irrigation-Induced Hydro-Climatic Effects: A Case Study in the Hyper-Arid Region of Northwest China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Shan

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The response of potential evapotranspiration (ET0 to widespread irrigation is important to fully understand future regional climate changes and to infer adaptive management of agricultural water resources. The quantitative impact of irrigation on ET0 from 1960 to 2013 was evaluated using historical time series data of daily meteorological observations in the hyper-arid region of northwest China. The decreasing trends in ET0 were accelerated for meteorological stations in regions with oasis agriculture, especially in the summer and during the growing season. Irrigation led to a cooling effect on temperature, increased relative humidity and precipitation. All of these changes contributed to a larger decrease of ET0 trend. The findings of this study advance our insight into the effects of irrigation on dynamics in ET0 and meteorological factors. Further investigations to understand how ET0 responds to climate change and agricultural irrigation could provide guidance for determining effective measures of water resources for adapting to global change.

  15. Technical Evaluation of Sprinkler Irrigation Systems which were Implemented in Tea Fields of the Guilan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    kourosh majdsalimi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Designing and management of sprinkler irrigation systems depend on the situation and location of its implementation and often rely on professional and long-term tests (9. Having a good irrigation system depends on knowledge of the relationship between soil, water, plants, irrigation scheduling, the required amount of irrigation water to the water-holding capacity of soil, climate and plant growth (6.The less use of sprinkler irrigation systems and less performed research projects in the Guilan province, lack of correct design parameters due to shortage of the required parameters for local and regional planning, has led to reliance on charts and tables. Therefore, planning water resources cannot be performed well and with accurate details. According to many researchers (8, the technical evaluation should be a regular and short-term process to review the problems and possible performance of irrigation systems. Merriam and Keller (10 defined the assessment of an irrigation system analysis, based on field measurements in real terms during the normal work of the system. Therefore, to develop these systems over the next few years, it is essential to evaluate the use of irrigation systems and review the performance of existing problems and utilizing the results to improve it. The aim of this study was to assess the current status of implemented irrigation systems in the tea plantations of Guilan and evaluate their performance. Materials and Methods: In this study, six classic sprinkler irrigation systems in tea fields of Guilan province were evaluated during two years. Sprinkler irrigation systems of semi-portable, solid-set and solid-set (hand-move sprinkler were selected randomly. To evaluate this irrigation systems, Christiansen’s uniformity coefficient (CU, distribution uniformity (DU, potential application efficiency of low-quarter (PELQ and application efficiency of low-quarter (AELQ in the form of trial blocks were estimated by

  16. Contribution to the improvement of irrigation management practices through water - deficit irrigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bazza, M.

    1995-01-01

    The study aimed at identifying irrigation management practices which could result in water savings through -water deficit irrigation. Two field experiments, one on wheat and the other on sugar beet, were conducted and consisted of refraining from supplying water during specific stages of the cycle so as to identy the period(s) during which water deficit would have a limited effect on crop production. In the case of wheat, high water deficit occurred during the early and during these stages was the most beneficial for the crop. However, one water application during the tillering stage allowed the yield to be lower only to that of the treatement with three irrigations. Irrigation during the stage of grain filling caused the kernel weight to be as high as under three irrigations. The lowest value corresponded to the treatement with one irrigation during grain filling and that under rainfed conditions. For sugar beet, when water stress was was applied early in the crop cycle, its effect could be almost entirely recovered with adequate watering during the rest of the growing season. On the opposite, good watering early in cycle, followed by a stress, resulted in the second lowest yield. Water deficit during the maturity stage had also a limited effect on yield. The most crucial periods for adequate watering were which correspond to late filiar development and root growth which coincided with the highest water requirements period. For the same amount of water savings through deficit irrigation, it was better to partition the stress throughout the cycle than during the critical stages of the crop. However, at the national level, it would have been more important to practice deficit irrigation and the irrigated area. For both crops, high yields as high as water - use efficiency values could have been obtained. 8 tabs; 5 refs ( Author )

  17. Automation of irrigation systems to control irrigation applications and crop water use efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agricultural irrigation management to slow water withdrawals from non-replenishing quality water resources is a global endeavor and vital to sustaining irrigated agriculture and dependent rural economies. Research in site-specific irrigation management has shown that water use efficiency, and crop p...

  18. Internalisation of microbes in vegetables: microbial load of Ghanaian vegetables and the relationship with different water sources of irrigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donkor, Eric S; Lanyo, R; Kayang, Boniface B; Quaye, Jonathan; Edoh, Dominic A

    2010-09-01

    The occurrence of pathogens in the internal parts of vegetables is usually associated with irrigation water or contaminated soil and could pose risk to consumers as the internalised pathogens are unaffected by external washing. This study was carried out to assess the rate of internalisation of microbes in common Ghanaian vegetables. Standard microbiological methods were employed in microbial enumeration of vegetables collected at the market and farm levels, as well as irrigation water and soil samples. The overall mean counts of vegetables were 4.0 x 10(3) cfu g(-1); 8.1 x 10(2) cfu g(-1); 2.0 x 10(2) cfu g(-1); 3.5 x 10(2) cfu g(-1) for total bacteria, coliform counts, faecal coliform counts and yeast counts, respectively. The rate of internalisation of coliforms in vegetables irrigated with stream/well water was 2.7 times higher than those irrigated with pipe water. The mean coliform counts (4.7 x 10(7) cfu g(-1)) and faecal coliform counts (1.8 x 10(6) cfu g(-1)) of soil samples were similar to those of stream water suggesting both sources exerted similar contamination rates on the vegetables. Generally, there were no significant variations between the rates of internalisation of microbes at the market and farm levels at p vegetables mainly occurred at the farm level. The study has shown that microbial contamination of vegetables in Ghana is not limited to the external surface, but internal vegetable parts could harbour high microbial loads and pose risk to consumers. Safety practices associated with the commodity should therefore not be limited to external washing only. There is the additional need of heating vegetables to eliminate microbes both externally and internally before consumption.

  19. Ghana - Agriculture - Irrigation

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — The Millennium Development Authority (MiDA) financed the construction of a new irrigation scheme in Kpong and the renovation of two irrigation schemes in Botanga and...

  20. Atmospheric contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruetter, Juerg

    1997-01-01

    It is about the levels of contamination in center America, the population's perception on the problem, effects of the atmospheric contamination, effects in the environment, causes of the atmospheric contamination, possibilities to reduce the atmospheric contamination and list of Roeco Swisscontac in atmospheric contamination

  1. Financial viability and profitability of irrigation in Crimea, Ukraine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hellegers, P.J.G.J.; Roerink, G.J.

    2006-01-01

    Following the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, the financial sustainability of irrigated agriculture in Crimea (Ukraine) has been endangered due to transitional problems. The undefined state of ownership, absence of secure agricultural markets and lack of farmers' funds for operations and

  2. Oxidative stress induced on Cyprinus carpio by contaminants present in the water and sediment of Madin Reservoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galar-Martinez, Marcela; Gomez-Olivan, Leobardo Manuel; Amaya-Chavez, Araceli; Razo-Estrada, Celene; Garcia-Medina, Sandra

    2010-01-01

    Madin Reservoir (MR), located in the State of Mexico, is fed mainly by the Rio Tlalnepantla. MR supplies potable water to the municipalities of Naucalpan and Atizapan, and various recreational activities take place in its vicinity, such as sailing and the fishing of diverse species including the common carp Cyprinus carpio. The purpose of this study was to determine the toxic effects of contaminants present in MR water and sediment on C. carpio. Five sampling stations were selected (those considered to have the most problems due to discharges). Water and sediment samples were taken and toxicity studies were performed, including acute toxicity (lethality) and subacute toxicity assays. The biomarkers used in the subacute assays were lipid peroxidation (LPX) and activity of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) in the liver and brain of test organisms. These biomarkers were also evaluated in local carp, i.e. carp with chronic exposure in situ to reservoir contaminants. Results show that contaminants in the water and sediment of the different sampling stations induce oxidative stress, this toxicity being more evident in samples from stations near the entry point of the Rio Tlalnepantla tributary and in local carp. This may be due to high contaminant levels as well as the fact that the physicochemical characteristics of the matrices might favor their bioavailability. Thus, both the water and sediment of this reservoir are contaminated with xenobiotics hazardous to C. carpio, a species consumed by the local human population.

  3. Phytoremediation efficiency of Portulaca tuberosa rox and Portulaca oleracea L. naturally growing in an industrial effluent irrigated area in Vadodra, Gujrat, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, K K; Dwivedi, S; Mishra, S; Srivastava, S; Tripathi, R D; Singh, N K; Chakraborty, S

    2008-12-01

    Phytoremediation is a novel, solar-driven and cost-effective technology for the remediation of heavy metal contaminated environments through exploitation of plants ability to accumulate heavy metals in their harvestable shoot parts. In the present investigation, we collected plants of two species of Portulaca i.e. P. tuberosa and P. oleracea from field sites in Vadodra, Gujrat, India. At one site, field was being irrigated with industrial effluent while at other with tube well water. Analysis of heavy metals was performed in industrial effluent, tube well water, soils irrigated with them, and in different parts viz., roots, stem, leaves and flowers of the plant samples. Industrial effluent and soil irrigated with it had very high level of heavy metals (Fe, Zn, Cd, Cr and As) as compared to the tube well water and soil irrigated with that. Plants of both the species growing in effluent irrigated soils showed high accumulation of metals in all plant parts with the maximum being in roots and the least in flowers. Interestingly, both species of Portulaca hyperaccumulated more than one heavy metal viz., Cd, Cr and As. The total shoot concentrations (microg g(-1) dw) of Cd, Cr and As in P. tuberosa were 1,571, 7,957 and 3,118, respectively while in P. oleracea, these were 1,128, 7,552 and 2,476, respectively. Portulaca plants have good biomass and high regeneration potential; hence appear to be suitable for the remediation of effluent (metal) contaminated areas.

  4. Changes in soil aggregate stability under different irrigation doses of waste water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morugán, Alicia; García-Orenes, Fuensanta; Mataix-Solera, Jorge; Arcenegui, Victoria; Bárcenas, Gema

    2010-05-01

    Freshwater availability and soil degradation are two of the most important environmental problems in the Mediterranean area acerbated by incorrect agricultural use of irrigation in which organic matter is not correctly managed, the use of low quality water for irrigation, and the inefficiency of dose irrigation. For these reasons strategies for saving water and for the restoration of the mean properties of soil are necessary. The use of treated waste water for the irrigation of agricultural land could be a good solution to these problems, as it reduces the utilization of fresh water and could potentially improve key soil properties. In this work we have been studying, for more than three years, the effects on soil properties of different doses of irrigation with waste water. Here we show the results on aggregate stability. The study is located in an agricultural area at Biar (Alicante, SE of Spain), with a crop of grape (Vitis labrusca). Three types of waters are being used in the irrigation of the soil: fresh water (control) (TC), and treated waste water from secondary (T2) and tertiary treatment (T3). Three different doses of irrigation have been applied to fit the efficiency of the irrigation to the crop and soil type: D10 (10 L m-2 every week during 17 months), D50 (50 L m-2 every fifteen days during 14 moths) and D30 (30 L m-2 every week during 6 months up to present day). The results showed a clear decrease of aggregate stability during the period we used the second dose (D50) independent of the type of water used. That dose of irrigation and frequency produced strong wetting and drying cycles (WD) in the soil, and this is suspected to be the main factor responsible for the results. When we changed the dose of irrigation to D30, reducing the quantity per event and increasing the frequency, the soil aggregate stability started to improve. This dose avoids strong drying periods between irrigation events and the aggregate stability is confirmed to be slowly

  5. Assess the potential of solar irrigation systems for sustaining pasture lands in arid regions - A case study in Northwestern China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Yingdong; Liu, Jiahong; Wang, Hao; Liu, Miao

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → We figured out the appropriate indicators for solar irrigation. → We analyzed the economic benefits of solar irrigation system. → The geographic allocation of grasslands suitable for solar irrigation in Qinghai province is presented. → The appropriate region for solar irrigation is also discussed. → The problems and countermeasures of PV pumping irrigation are considered. - Abstract: The combined impact of global climate change and increasing human activities has led to the severe deterioration of grasslands in China. Using the solar irrigation systems is an effective way for sustaining pasture lands in arid regions. A solar irrigation system is the device that uses the solar cell from the sun's radiation to generate electricity for driving the pump. And photovoltaic pump consists of an array of photovoltaic cells and pumps water from a well or reservoir for irrigation. Although ecologists and organizations constantly work and find ways to conserve grasslands through irrigation systems that use solar energy, issues on water resources are not yet thoroughly discussed. This paper takes into account the main factors in the study of water resources, including precipitation and groundwater, to analyze the feasibility of using a photovoltaic (PV) pumping irrigation. The appropriate area for such a PV pumping irrigation in Qinghai Province is also presented. The results show that the grasslands appropriate for PV pumping cover about 8.145 million ha, accounting for 22.3% of the grasslands in the entire province. Finally, the problems and countermeasures of PV pumping irrigation, including the impact on regional water balance, groundwater level and highland permafrost, are also considered.

  6. Red cabbage yield, heavy metal content, water use and soil chemical characteristics under wastewater irrigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunc, Talip; Sahin, Ustun

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this 2-year field study was to evaluate the effects of drip irrigation with urban wastewaters reclaimed using primary (filtration) and secondary (filtration and aeration) processes on red cabbage growth and fresh yield, heavy metal content, water use and efficiency and soil chemical properties. Filtered wastewater (WW1), filtered and aerated wastewater (WW2), freshwater and filtered wastewater mix (1:1 by volume) (WW3) and freshwater (FW) were investigated as irrigation water treatments. Crop evapotranspiration decreased significantly, while water use efficiency increased under wastewater treatments compared to FW. WW1 treatment had the lowest value (474.2 mm), while FW treatments had the highest value (556.7 mm). The highest water use efficiency was found in the WW1 treatment as 8.41 kg m(-3), and there was a twofold increase with regard to the FW. Wastewater irrigation increased soil fertility and therefore red cabbage yield. WW2 treatment produced the highest total fresh yield (40.02 Mg ha(-1)). However, wastewater irrigation increased the heavy metal content in crops and soil. Cd content in red cabbage heads was above the safe limit, and WW1 treatment had the highest value (0.168 mg kg(-1)). WW3 treatment among wastewater treatments is less risky in terms of soil and crop heavy metal pollution and faecal coliform contamination. Therefore, WW3 wastewater irrigation for red cabbage could be recommended for higher yield and water efficiency with regard to freshwater irrigation.

  7. Irrigation et paludisme : un couple infernal?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mergeai, G.

    2016-01-01

    water basins, as natural transmission of the disease was low in these places. There are many possible ways of attenuating the negative effects of irrigation, while maintaining agricultural productivity, such as: alternate wetting and drying of rice paddies, rotation of rice cultivation with non-irrigated crops, proper maintenance of irrigation canals, in order to prevent the formation of ponds caused by leaks, using farm animals to attract mosquitos and keeping mosquito breeding sites away from alternative food sources, such as maize pollen, on which they feed. When irrigation projects are first planned, it is vital that measures are devised, in order to limit the spread of malaria, together with systems aimed at monitoring their impact on health. As well as the above-mentioned production techniques, this also applies to initiatives in the field of education, access to mosquito nets, cautious use of pesticides, diagnosis and early treatment of disease. It is important that all stakeholders in agricultural development are made more aware of these problems. The creation of affordable health insurance systems for farmers is also a solution that will rapidly get malaria victims back on their feet. Hoping to have sensitized to this important problematic all those of you who are concerned, I wish you an excellent reading of this issue.

  8. Inhibition of tomato shoot growth by over-irrigation is linked to nitrogen deficiency and ethylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiebig, Antje; Dodd, Ian C

    2016-01-01

    Although physiological effects of acute flooding have been well studied, chronic effects of suboptimal soil aeration caused by over-irrigation of containerized plants have not, despite its likely commercial significance. By automatically scheduling irrigation according to soil moisture thresholds, effects of over-irrigation on soil properties (oxygen concentration, temperature and moisture), leaf growth, gas exchange, phytohormone [abscisic acid (ABA) and ethylene] relations and nutrient status of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum Mill. cv. Ailsa Craig) were studied. Over-irrigation slowly increased soil moisture and decreased soil oxygen concentration by 4%. Soil temperature was approximately 1°C lower in the over-irrigated substrate. Over-irrigating tomato plants for 2 weeks significantly reduced shoot height (by 25%) and fresh weight and total leaf area (by 60-70%) compared with well-drained plants. Over-irrigation did not alter stomatal conductance, leaf water potential or foliar ABA concentrations, suggesting that growth inhibition was not hydraulically regulated or dependent on stomatal closure or changes in ABA. However, over-irrigation significantly increased foliar ethylene emission. Ethylene seemed to inhibit growth, as the partially ethylene-insensitive genotype Never ripe (Nr) was much less sensitive to over-irrigation than the wild type. Over-irrigation induced significant foliar nitrogen deficiency and daily supplementation of small volumes of 10 mM Ca(NO3 )2 to over-irrigated soil restored foliar nitrogen concentrations, ethylene emission and shoot fresh weight of over-irrigated plants to control levels. Thus reduced nitrogen uptake plays an important role in inhibiting growth of over-irrigated plants, in part by stimulating foliar ethylene emission. © 2015 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  9. Fresh produce and their soils accumulate cyanotoxins from irrigation water: Implications for public health and food security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seungjun; Jiang, Xuewen; Manubolu, Manjunath; Riedl, Ken; Ludsin, Stuart A; Martin, Jay F; Lee, Jiyoung

    2017-12-01

    Microcystin (MC), a hepatotoxin that can adversely affect human health, has become more prevalent in freshwater ecosystems worldwide, owing to an increase in toxic cyanobacteria blooms. While consumption of water and fish are well-documented exposure pathways of MCs to humans, less is known about the potential transfer to humans through consumption of vegetables that have been irrigated with MC-contaminated water. Likewise, the impact of MC on the performance of food crops is understudied. To help fill these information gaps, we conducted a controlled laboratory experiment in which we exposed lettuce, carrots, and green beans to environmentally relevant concentrations of MC-LR (0, 1, 5, and 10μg/L) via two irrigation methods (drip and spray). We used ELISA and LC-MS/MS to quantify MC-LR concentrations and in different parts of the plant (edible vs. inedible fractions), measured plant performance (e.g., size, mass, edible leaves, color), and calculated human exposure risk based on accumulation patterns. MC-LR accumulation was positively dose-dependent, with it being greater in the plants (2.2-209.2μg/kg) than in soil (0-19.4μg/kg). MC-LR accumulation varied among vegetable types, between plant parts, and between irrigation methods. MC-LR accumulation led to reduced crop growth and quality, with MC-LR persisting in the soil after harvest. Observed toxin accumulation patterns in edible fractions of plants also led to estimates of daily MC-LR intake that exceeded both the chronic reference dose (0.003μg/kg of body weight) and total daily intake guidelines (0.04μg/kg of body weight). Because the use of MC-contaminated water is common in many parts of the world, our collective findings highlight the need for guidelines concerning the use of MC-contaminated water in irrigation, as well as consumption of these crops. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Reconnaissance investigation of water quality, bottom sediment, and biota associated with irrigation drainage in the American Falls Reservoir area, Idaho, 1988-89

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Walton H.; Mullins, William H.

    1990-01-01

    Increased concern about the quality of irrigation drainage and its potential effects on human health, fish, and wildlife prompted the Department of the Interior to begin a program during late 1985 to identify irrigation-induced water-quality problems that might exist in the Western States. During `988, the Task Group on Irrigation Drainage selected the American Falls Reservoir area, Idaho, for study to determine whether potentially toxic concentrations of trace elements or organochlorine compounds existed in water, bottom sediment, and biota. The 91-square mile American Falls Reservoir has a total capacity of 1.7 million acre-feet and is used primarily for irrigation-water supply and power generation. Irrigated land upstream from the reservoir totals about 550,000 acres. Total water inflow to the reservoir is about 5.8 million acre-feet per year, of which about 63 percent is from surface-water runoff, 33 percent is from ground-water discharge, and about 4 percent is from ungaged tributaries, canals, ditches, sloughs, and precipitation. Ground-water discharge to the reservoir originates, in part, from irrigation of land upstream from and adjacent to the reservoir. The 1988 water year was a drought year, and water discharge was about 34 percent less than during 1939-88. Water samples were collected during the post-irrigation (October 1987) and irrigation (July 1988) seasons and were analyzed for major ions and trace elements. Bottom-sediment samples were collected during the irrigation season and were analyzed for trace elements and organochlorine compounds. Biota samples were collected during May, June, July, and August 1988 and were analyzed for trace elements and organochlorine compounds. Dissolved-solids concentrations in water ranged from 216 to 561 milligrams per liter. The similarity of dissolved-solids concentrations between the irrigation and post-irrigation seasons can be attributed to the large volume of ground-water discharge in the study area. Most trace

  11. Traditional Irrigation Management in Betmera-Hiwane, Ethiopia: The Main Peculiarities for the Persistence of Irrigation Practices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Solomon Habtu; Kitamura Yoshinobu

    2006-01-01

    Traditional irrigation, as part of the ancient agricultural practices in northern Ethiopia (Tigray), has persisted for long time since 500 B.C.,while many newly introduced irrigation projects have usually failed there. The main objective of this study is thus to investigate the peculiarities pertinent to irrigation management and those having contributed for the persistence of traditional irrigation practices for a long period of time. The experience gained from such areas can definitely help make irrigation management system of new irrigation schemes sustainable. Betmera-Hiwane, one of the ancient traditional irrigation areas in Tigray region, was selected for the field study. Direct observations through field visits accompanied by interviews to farmers, local officials, local knowledgeable individuals and higher officials were made. After analyzing the collected primary and secondary information, the main peculiarities that contributed to the persistence of traditional irrigation areas were identified, and they are: the presence of communally constructed local rules, locally designed hydraulic control structures, ownership feeling of the irrigators and accountability of water distributors to the irrigation management, the culture for mobilizing communal resources and the culture of self-initiating local water management strategies.

  12. On the waterfront : water distribution, technology and agrarian change in a South Indian canal irrigation system

    OpenAIRE

    Mollinga, P.P.

    1998-01-01

    This book discusses water distribution in the Tungabhadra Left Bank Canal irrigation system in Raichur district, Karnataka, India. The system is located in interior South India, where rainfall is limited (approximately 600 mm annually) and extremely variable. The region suffered from failed harvests and famines in the past. A large scale irrigation system was constructed to solve these problems. The system is operational since 1953 and was completed in 1968. The area to be irrigated ...

  13. Irrigation in endodontic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basrani, Bettina

    2011-01-01

    The primary endodontic treatment goal is to optimize root canal disinfection and to prevent reinfection. Successful root canal therapy relies on the combination of proper instrumentation, irrigation, and obturation of the root canal system. In this review of the literature, various irrigants and the interactions between irrigants are discussed and new delivery systems are introduced.

  14. The effect of irrigation time and type of irrigation fluid on cartilage surface friction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stärke, F; Awiszus, F; Lohmann, C H; Stärke, C

    2018-01-01

    It is known that fluid irrigation used during arthroscopic procedures causes a wash-out of lubricating substances from the articular cartilage surface and leads to increased friction. It was the goal of this study to investigate whether this effect depends on the time of irrigation and type of fluid used. Rabbit hind legs were used for the tests. The knees were dissected and the friction coefficient of the femoral cartilage measured against glass in a boundary lubrication state. To determine the influence of irrigation time and fluid, groups of 12 knees received either no irrigation (control), 15, 60 or 120min of irrigation with lactated Ringer's solution or 60min of irrigation with normal saline or a sorbitol/mannitol solution. The time of irrigation had a significant effect on the static and kinetic coefficient of friction (CoF), as had the type of fluid. Longer irrigation time with Ringer's solution was associated with increased friction coefficients (relative increase of the kinetic CoF compared to the control after 15, 60 and 120min: 16%, 76% and 88% respectively). The sorbitol/mannitol solution affected the static and kinetic CoF significantly less than either Ringer's or normal saline. The washout of lubricating glycoproteins from the cartilage surface and the associated increase of friction can be effectively influenced by controlling the time of irrigation and type of fluid used. The time of exposure to the irrigation fluid should be as short as possible and monosaccharide solutions might offer a benefit compared to salt solutions in terms of the resultant friction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Carbon and water footprints of irrigated corn and non-irrigated wheat in Northeast Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahão, Raphael; Carvalho, Monica; Causapé, Jesús

    2017-02-01

    Irrigation increases yields and allows several crops to be produced in regions where it would be naturally impossible due to limited rainfall. However, irrigation can cause several negative environmental impacts, and it is important to understand these in depth for the correct application of mitigation measures. The life cycle assessment methodology was applied herein to compare the main irrigated and non-irrigated crops in Northeast Spain (corn and wheat, respectively), identifying those processes with greater contribution to environmental impacts (carbon and water footprint categories) and providing scientifically-sound information to facilitate government decisions. Due to concerns about climate change and water availability, the methods selected for evaluation of environmental impacts were IPCC 2013 GWP (carbon footprint) and water scarcity indicator (water footprint). The area studied, a 7.38-km 2 basin, was monitored for 12 years, including the period before, during, and after the implementation of irrigation. The functional unit, to which all material and energy flows were associated with, was the cultivation of 1 ha, throughout 1 year. The overall carbon footprint for irrigated corn was higher, but when considering the higher productivity achieved with irrigation, the emissions per kilogram of corn decrease and finally favor this irrigated crop. When considering the water footprint, the volumes of irrigation water applied were so high that productivity could not compensate for the negative impacts associated with water use in the case of corn. Nevertheless, consideration of productivities and gross incomes brings the results closer. Fertilizer use (carbon footprint) and irrigation water (water footprint) were the main contributors to the negative impacts detected.

  16. The Swedish study of Irrigation-fluid temperature in the evacuation of Chronic subdural hematoma (SIC!)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartley, Andreas; Jakola, Asgeir S; Bartek, Jiri

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chronic subdural hematoma (cSDH) is one of the most common conditions encountered in neurosurgical practice. Recurrence, observed in 5-30% of patients, is a major clinical problem. The temperature of the irrigation fluid used during evacuation of the hematoma might theoretically...... and health-related quality of life. DISCUSSION: Irrigation-fluid temperature might influence recurrence rates in the evacuation of chronic subdural hematomas. We present a study protocol for a multicenter randomized controlled trial investigating our hypothesis that irrigation fluid at body temperature...

  17. Gypsiferous mine water use in irrigation on rehabilitated open-cast mine land: Crop production, soil water and salt balance

    OpenAIRE

    Annandale, J.; Jovanovic, N.; Pretorius, J.; Lorentz, S.; Rethman, N.; Tanner, P.

    2001-01-01

    The use of gypsiferous mine water for irrigation of agricultural crops is a promising technology, which could alleviate a shortage of irrigation water and address the problem of disposal of mine effluent. A field trial was established at Kleinkopje Colliery in Witbank (Mpumalanga Province, South Africa) during the 1997-1998 season. Sugar beans and wheat were irrigated with three center pivots, on both virgin and rehabilitated land. The objectives were to determine crop response to irrigation ...

  18. Internalization of Murine Norovirus 1 by Lactuca sativa during Irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jie; Jin, Yan; Sims, Tom; Kniel, Kalmia E.

    2011-01-01

    Romaine lettuce (Lactuca sativa) was grown hydroponically or in soil and challenged with murine norovirus 1 (MNV) under two conditions: one mimicking a severe one-time contamination event and another mimicking a lower level of contamination occurring over time. In each condition, lettuce was challenged with MNV delivered at the roots. In the first case, contamination occurred on day one with 5 × 108 reverse transcriptase quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) U/ml MNV in nutrient buffer, and irrigation water was replaced with virus-free buffer every day for another 4 days. In the second case, contamination with 5 × 105 RT-qPCR U/ml MNV (freshly prepared) occurred every day for 5 days. Virus had a tendency to adsorb to soil particles, with a small portion suspended in nutrient buffer; e.g., ∼8 log RT-qPCR U/g MNV was detected in soil during 5 days of challenge with virus inoculums of 5 × 108 RT-qPCR U/ml at day one, but sativa. PMID:21296944

  19. Making the user visible: analysing irrigation practices and farmers’ logic to explain actual drip irrigation performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benouniche, M.; Kuper, M.; Hammani, A.; Boesveld, H.

    2014-01-01

    The actual performance of drip irrigation (irrigation efficiency, distribution uniformity) in the field is often quite different from that obtained in experimental stations. We developed an approach to explain the actual irrigation performance of drip irrigation systems by linking measured

  20. Synchrotron radiation-induced contamination on LiF window: Characterization by Raman spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yadav, P. K., E-mail: praveenyadav@rrcat.gov.in [Material Research Laboratory, Indus Synchrotron Utilization Division (India); Swami, M. K. [Laser Biomedical Applications & Instrumentation Division, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore-452013 (India)

    2016-05-23

    Characterization of synchrotron induced contamination on optical elements and their cleaning are serious issues in beam lines. We used Raman spectroscopy for characterization of synchrotron induced contamination layer on LiF window (used in high resolution vacuum ultra violet beam line). Three peaks at 1035 cm{sup −1} (corresponding to C-C sp{sup 3} vibrations), 1563 cm{sup −1} and 1375 cm{sup −1} (corresponding to G and D bands of carbon) are observed. By data fitting I(D)/I(G) ratio (0.84) and FWHM(G)=124 cm{sup −1} was obtained. Comparison with available literature indicates that the carbon might be present in the form of rings of hydrogenated amorphous carbon a-C:H (GLHC) with atomic hydrogen concentration about 15% with both sp{sup 2} and sp{sup 3} hybridization.

  1. Nematode Community Composition under Various Irrigation Schemes in a Citrus Soil Ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porazinska, D L; McSorley, R; Duncan, L W; Graham, J H; Wheaton, T A; Parsons, L R

    1998-06-01

    Interest in the sustainability of farming practices has increased in response to environmental problems associated with conventional agricultural management often adopted for the production of herbaceous crops, ornamentals, and fruit crops. Availability of measures of the status of the soil ecosystem is of immediate importance, particularly for environmental assessment and monitoring programs. This study investigated the effects of various irrigation regimes (an example of an agricultural management practice) on the structure of the nematode fauna in a citrus orchard in the sandy ridge area of Central Florida. Ecological measures such as community structure indices, diversity indices, and maturity indices were assessed and related to irrigation intensity. Maturity index was an effective measure in distinguishing differences between irrigation regimes, whereas other indices of community structure were not. Of various nematode genera and trophic groups, only omnivores and the omnivore genera. Aporcelaimellus and Eudorylaimus responded to irrigation treatments.

  2. Successful Treatment with a Combination of Endoscopic Injection and Irrigation with Coca Cola for Gastric Bezoar-induced Gastric Outlet Obstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Sheng Lin

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of gastric bezoar-induced gastric outlet obstruction that was successfully treated with a combination of endoscopic injection and irrigation with Coca Cola. A 73-year-old diabetic woman had a history of perforated peptic ulcer and had received pyloroplasty more than 20 years previously. She had been ingesting Pho Pu Zi (Cordia dichotoma Forst. f. as an appetizer for 1 month. She presented with epigastric pain, nausea, and vomiting. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, performed at a local hospital, showed 2 gastric bezoars in the stomach, and 1 of them impacted at the pylorus. She was referred to our emergency department for removal of the gastric bezoars that were suspected to be causing gastric outlet obstruction. All attempts at endoscopic removal using a polypectomy snare, biopsy forceps and Dormia basket failed. We then injected Coca Cola directly into the bezoar mass, followed by irrigation with Coca Cola. Follow-up endoscopy was performed the next day, which revealed that the gastric bezoars had dissolved spontaneously.

  3. How Patients Experience Antral Irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Blomgren

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Antral irrigation earlier had an important role in the diagnosis and treatment of rhinosinusitis. Nowadays, it is often considered too unpleasant. However, the experience of patients of this procedure has been very seldom evaluated. Nor has the effect on pain in rhinosinusitis been evaluated. The aim of this study was to evaluate patients’ experience of discomfort and pain during antral irrigation. We also assessed facial pain caused by rhinosinusitis before the procedure and pain soon after the procedure. Methods Doctors and 121 patients completed their questionnaires independently after antral irrigation in a university clinic, in a private hospital, and at a communal health center. Results Patients experienced mild pain during antral irrigation (mean and median visual analog scale score: <3. Their experience of pain during antral irrigation was closely comparable to pain during dental calculus scaling. Facial pain assessed before antral irrigation decreased quickly after the procedure. Conclusions Antral irrigation was well tolerated as an outpatient procedure. The procedure seems to relieve facial pain caused by the disease quickly. The role of antral irrigation in the treatment of acute rhinosinusitis will need further investigation.

  4. Modernisation Strategy for National Irrigation Systems in the Philippines: Balanac and Sta. Maria River Irrigation Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delos Reyes, M.L.F.

    2017-01-01

    This book examines the nature and impact of irrigation system rehabilitation on increasing the actual area irrigated by the publicly funded canal irrigation systems of the Philippines. It proposes a system diagnosis approach for the development of a more appropriate and climate-smart irrigation

  5. Assessment of the contamination of fresh water ecosystems by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper assessed reports and records of the contamination of fresh water ecosystem by pesticides and herbicides in irrigated rice fields and their effects on fish production. It highlights pesticides and herbicides application in agriculture in view of the transfer and degradation processes. The pesticides often remain ...

  6. Evaluation of the Effect of Different Irrigation Levels of Drip Irrigation (Tape on Yield and Yield Components of Corn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mohammad karimi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: One of the serious problems in the further development of maize cultivation is increasing irrigation efficiency. Using conventional irrigation causes a shortage of water resources to increase the acreage of the crop. With regard to the development of maize cultivation, agronomic and executable methods must be studied to reduce water consumption. Using drip irrigation system is most suitable for row crops. Hamedi et al. (2005 compared drip (tape and surface irrigation systems on yield of maize in different levels of water requirement and indicated that drip irrigation increases the amount of yield to 2015 kg/ha and water use efficiency to 3 time. Kohi et al. (2005 investigated the effects of deficit irrigation use of drip (tape irrigation on water use efficiency on maize in planting of one and two rows. The results showed that maximum water use efficiency related to crop density, water requirement and planting pattern 85000, 125% and two rows, respectively with 1.46 kg/m3. Jafari and Ashrafi (2011 studied the effects of irrigation levels, plant density and planting pattern in drip irrigation (tape on corn. The results showed that the amount of irrigation water and crop density on the level of 1% and their interactions and method of planting were significant at the 5 and 10% on water use efficiency, respectively. The yield was measured under different levels of irrigation, crop density and method of planting and the difference was significant on the level of 1%. Lamm et al. (1995 studied water requirement of maize in field with silt loam texture under sub drip irrigation and reported that water use reduced to 75%; but yield of maize remained at maximum amount of 12.5 t/ha. The objective of this study was to evaluate the drip (tape irrigation method for corn production practices in the Qazvin province in Iran. Materials and Methods: In this study, yield and yield components of corn (SC 704 were investigated under different levels of

  7. Analytical steady-state solutions for water-limited cropping systems using saline irrigation water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skaggs, T. H.; Anderson, R. G.; Corwin, D. L.; Suarez, D. L.

    2014-12-01

    Due to the diminishing availability of good quality water for irrigation, it is increasingly important that irrigation and salinity management tools be able to target submaximal crop yields and support the use of marginal quality waters. In this work, we present a steady-state irrigated systems modeling framework that accounts for reduced plant water uptake due to root zone salinity. Two explicit, closed-form analytical solutions for the root zone solute concentration profile are obtained, corresponding to two alternative functional forms of the uptake reduction function. The solutions express a general relationship between irrigation water salinity, irrigation rate, crop salt tolerance, crop transpiration, and (using standard approximations) crop yield. Example applications are illustrated, including the calculation of irrigation requirements for obtaining targeted submaximal yields, and the generation of crop-water production functions for varying irrigation waters, irrigation rates, and crops. Model predictions are shown to be mostly consistent with existing models and available experimental data. Yet the new solutions possess advantages over available alternatives, including: (i) the solutions were derived from a complete physical-mathematical description of the system, rather than based on an ad hoc formulation; (ii) the analytical solutions are explicit and can be evaluated without iterative techniques; (iii) the solutions permit consideration of two common functional forms of salinity induced reductions in crop water uptake, rather than being tied to one particular representation; and (iv) the utilized modeling framework is compatible with leading transient-state numerical models.

  8. RNA Sequencing of Contaminated Seeds Reveals the State of the Seed Permissive for Pre-Harvest Aflatoxin Contamination and Points to a Potential Susceptibility Factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josh Clevenger

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Pre-harvest aflatoxin contamination (PAC is a major problem facing peanut production worldwide. Produced by the ubiquitous soil fungus, Aspergillus flavus, aflatoxin is the most naturally occurring known carcinogen. The interaction between fungus and host resulting in PAC is complex, and breeding for PAC resistance has been slow. It has been shown that aflatoxin production can be induced by applying drought stress as peanut seeds mature. We have implemented an automated rainout shelter that controls temperature and moisture in the root and peg zone to induce aflatoxin production. Using polymerase chain reaction (PCR and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC, seeds meeting the following conditions were selected: infected with Aspergillus flavus and contaminated with aflatoxin; and not contaminated with aflatoxin. RNA sequencing analysis revealed groups of genes that describe the transcriptional state of contaminated vs. uncontaminated seed. These data suggest that fatty acid biosynthesis and abscisic acid (ABA signaling are altered in contaminated seeds and point to a potential susceptibility factor, ABR1, as a repressor of ABA signaling that may play a role in permitting PAC.

  9. RNA Sequencing of Contaminated Seeds Reveals the State of the Seed Permissive for Pre-Harvest Aflatoxin Contamination and Points to a Potential Susceptibility Factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clevenger, Josh; Marasigan, Kathleen; Liakos, Vasileios; Sobolev, Victor; Vellidis, George; Holbrook, Corley; Ozias-Akins, Peggy

    2016-01-01

    Pre-harvest aflatoxin contamination (PAC) is a major problem facing peanut production worldwide. Produced by the ubiquitous soil fungus, Aspergillus flavus, aflatoxin is the most naturally occurring known carcinogen. The interaction between fungus and host resulting in PAC is complex, and breeding for PAC resistance has been slow. It has been shown that aflatoxin production can be induced by applying drought stress as peanut seeds mature. We have implemented an automated rainout shelter that controls temperature and moisture in the root and peg zone to induce aflatoxin production. Using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), seeds meeting the following conditions were selected: infected with Aspergillus flavus and contaminated with aflatoxin; and not contaminated with aflatoxin. RNA sequencing analysis revealed groups of genes that describe the transcriptional state of contaminated vs. uncontaminated seed. These data suggest that fatty acid biosynthesis and abscisic acid (ABA) signaling are altered in contaminated seeds and point to a potential susceptibility factor, ABR1, as a repressor of ABA signaling that may play a role in permitting PAC. PMID:27827875

  10. Effect of Irrigation with Reclaimed Water on Fruit Characteristics and Photosynthesis of Olive Trees under Two Irrigation Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Ashrafi

    2016-02-01

    (Ci, and stomatal conductance (gs between (09.30 – 11.30 h on a fully expanded current season leaves situated at mid canopy height. Statistical assessments of differences between mean values were performed by the LSD test at P = 0.05. Results and Discussion The results revealed that reclaimed water enhanced fruit yield, weight (15%, volume (23% and leaf photosynthesis (22% in plants compared with clear water. Recycled water was found to supply more nutrients than clear water. High nutrient concentrations in RW, compared to those in clear water, result in nutrient accumulation in the soil, making them available to plant roots to promote overall plant growth and fruit production. Improved N, P, K nutrition of wastewater-irrigated plants has been reported (Farooq et al, 2006. Olive leaves and stems represent storage organs for N and release it in response to the metabolic demands of developing reproductive and vegetative organs (Fernandez-Escobar et al., 2004. However, Al-Abasi et al. (2009 found no statistical differences. Irrigation with SLI systems increased the photosynthesis (33%, and stomatal conductance (57% when compared with surface irrigation systems. The results showed that reclaimed water had a significant effect on photosynthesis and stomatal conductance. However, fruit length and firmness had no significant difference. Substomatal CO2 decreased when the SI systems were used for irrigation. Also SLI system could enhance fruit yield (65%, weight (17%, photosynthesis (32% and chlorophyll Fluorescence (Fv/Fm (18%. The SLI systems with recycled water induced greater shoot growth, total leaf surface area, and transpiration during the entire growing period. This led to an overall positive effect on mean fruit weight and total fruit production per tree. The SLI system applying RW led to more photosynthesis by 34% as compared to the SI system. In the present study, the SLI system delivered water directly in the root zone and improved water availability, which

  11. Antibacterial Efficacy of Calcium Hypochlorite with Vibringe Sonic Irrigation System on Enterococcus faecalis: An In Vitro Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumani, Aysin; Guvenmez, Hatice Korkmaz; Yilmaz, Sehnaz; Yoldas, Oguz; Kurklu, Zeliha Gonca Bek

    2016-01-01

    Aim. The purpose of this study was to compare the in vitro efficacy of calcium hypochlorite (Ca[OCl]2) and sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) associated with sonic (Vibringe) irrigation system in root canals which were contaminated with Enterococcus faecalis. Material and Methods. The root canals of 84 single-rooted premolars were enlarged up to a file 40, autoclaved, inoculated with Enterococcus faecalis, and incubated for 21 days. The samples were divided into 7 groups according to the irrigation protocol: G0: no treatment; G1: distilled water; G2: 2.5% NaOCl; G3: 2.5% Ca(OCl)2; G4: distilled water with sonic activation; G5: 2.5% NaOCl with sonic activation; and G6: 2.5% Ca(OCl)2 with sonic activation. Before and after decontamination procedures microbiological samples were collected and the colony-forming units were counted and the percentages of reduction were calculated. Results. Distilled water with syringe irrigation and sonic activation groups demonstrated poor antibacterial effect on Enterococcus faecalis compared to other experimental groups (p irrigation systems with Ca(OCl)2 and NaOCl. Conclusion. The antimicrobial property of Ca(OCl)2 has been investigated and compared with that of NaOCl. Both conventional syringe irrigation and sonic irrigation were found effective at removing E. faecalis from the root canal of extracted human teeth. PMID:27218106

  12. Year-Round Irrigation Schedule for a Tomato–Maize Rotation System in Reservoir-Based Irrigation Schemes in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ephraim Sekyi-Annan

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Improving irrigation management in semi-arid regions of Sub-Saharan Africa is crucial to respond to increasing variability in rainfall and overcome deficits in current irrigation schemes. In small-scale and medium-scale reservoir-based irrigation schemes in the Upper East region of Ghana, we explored options for improving the traditional, dry season irrigation practices and assessed the potential for supplemental irrigation in the rainy season. The AquaCrop model was used to (i assess current water management in the typical tomato-maize rotational system; (ii develop an improved irrigation schedule for dry season cultivation of tomato; and (iii determine the requirement for supplemental irrigation of maize in the rainy season under different climate scenarios. The improved irrigation schedule for dry season tomato cultivation would result in a water saving of 130–1325 mm compared to traditional irrigation practices, accompanied by approximately a 4–14% increase in tomato yield. The supplemental irrigation of maize would require 107–126 mm of water in periods of low rainfall and frequent dry spells, and 88–105 mm in periods of high rainfall and rare dry spells. Therefore, year-round irrigated crop production may be feasible, using water saved during dry season tomato cultivation for supplemental irrigation of maize in the rainy season.

  13. Agricultural and Management Practices and Bacterial Contamination in Greenhouse versus Open Field Lettuce Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holvoet, Kevin; Sampers, Imca; Seynnaeve, Marleen; Jacxsens, Liesbeth; Uyttendaele, Mieke

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to gain insight into potential differences in risk factors for microbial contamination in greenhouse versus open field lettuce production. Information was collected on sources, testing, and monitoring and if applicable, treatment of irrigation and harvest rinsing water. These data were combined with results of analysis on the levels of Escherichia coli as a fecal indicator organism and the presence of enteric bacterial pathogens on both lettuce crops and environmental samples. Enterohemorragic Escherichia coli (EHEC) PCR signals (vt1 or vt2 positive and eae positive), Campylobacter spp., and Salmonella spp. isolates were more often obtained from irrigation water sampled from open field farms (21/45, 46.7%) versus from greenhouse production (9/75, 12.0%). The open field production was shown to be more prone to fecal contamination as the number of lettuce samples and irrigation water with elevated E. coli was significantly higher. Farmers comply with generic guidelines on good agricultural practices available at the national level, but monitoring of microbial quality, and if applicable appropriateness of water treatment, or water used for irrigation or at harvest is restricted. These results indicate the need for further elaboration of specific guidelines and control measures for leafy greens with regard to microbial hazards. PMID:25546272

  14. A controlled trial of colostomy management by natural evacuation, irrigation and foam enema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doran, J; Hardcastle, J D

    1981-10-01

    Twenty patients entered a prospective controlled trial of colostomy management by three techniques--natural evacuation, colostomy irrigation and foam enema. Every patient spent 2 months using each technique. The mean number of colostomy actions weekly was 17 during natural evacuation, 6 during irrigation and 10 with the enema. There was no significant difference in the time taken to manage the colostomy by each technique. Eighteen patients considered that both irrigation and the foam enema improved the quality of their life, and opted to continue with irrigation on completion of the study. There were no major complications during the trial but leakage of foam and an increase in flatus were problems with the foam enema. It is concluded that patients should be made aware of the alternative methods available for colostomy management and be encouraged to use the method of their choice.

  15. The Response and Repairing of Three Kinds of Crops on Xi’an’s Sewage Irrigation Area Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, H.; Zhimei, Z.; Lei, H.; Huan, L.; Tian, Z.

    2017-10-01

    This paper focuses on the XiChaZhai village’s vegetable soil which is located in the northern suburbs of Xi’an and on its vegetables, thus analyzes the quality of sewage irrigation region soil and its influence on vegetables through the measurement of Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd’s content in samples. The results show that the research area soil contains apparently excessive heavy metals, and there exists significant differences of different elements’ integrated intensity in soil, the content declines in sequence from Cd, Zn, Pb to Cu. The four heavy metals’ contents in sewage irrigation region soil vary greatly from that in non-sewage irrigation region soil(Prepairing effects on Xi’an sewage irrigation region soil are Raphanus sativus, Ottelia acuminate and Brassica chinensis, in that order. Different crop tissues differ in the accumulation of heavy metal, the order according as roots, stem and leaves, fruits. Therefore, based on differences of various crops on heavy metals’ absorption and translocation, appropriate crops should be scientifically planted in heavy metal contaminated area soil.

  16. Risk screening for exposure to groundwater pollution in a wastewater irrigation district of the Mexico City region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, T J; Cifuentes-García, E; Suffet, I M

    1999-07-01

    Untreated wastewater from the Mexico City basin has been used for decades to irrigate cropland in the Mezquital Valley, State of Hidalgo, Mexico. Excess irrigation water recharges the near-surface aquifer that is used as a domestic water supply source. We assessed the groundwater quality of three key groundwater sources of domestic water by analyzing for 24 trace metals, 67 target base/neutral/acid (BNA) organic compounds, nontarget BNA organics, 23 chlorinated pesticides, 20 polychlorinated biphenyls, and nitrate, as well as microbiological contaminants--coliforms, Vibrio cholerae, and Salmonella. Study participants answered a questionnaire that estimated ingestion and dermal exposure to groundwater; 10% of the sample reported frequent diarrhea and 9% reported persistent skin irritations. Detection of V. cholerae non-01 in surface waters at all sites suggested a potential risk (surrogate indicator present) of diarrheal disease for canal and river bathers by accidental ingestion, as well as potential Vibrio contamination of near-surface groundwater and potential cholera risk, magnified by lapses in disinfection. High total coliform levels in surface water and lower levels in groundwater at all sites indicated fecal contamination and a potential risk of gastrointestinal disease in populations exposed to inadequately disinfected groundwater. Using chemical criteria, no significant risk from ingestion or dermal contact was identified at the method detection limits at any site, except from nitrate exposure: infants and young children are at risk from methemoglobinemia at all sites. Results suggest that pathogen risk interventions are a priority, whereas nitrate risk needs further characterization to determine if formal treatment is needed. The risks exist inside and outside the irrigation district. The method was highly cost-effective.

  17. Mechanisms for enlarging lesion size during irrigated tip radiofrequency ablation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Helen Høgh; Roman-Gonzalez, Javier; Johnson, Susan B

    2004-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Irrigated tip radiofrequency ablation of cardiac arrhythmias was developed to increase the size of the radiofrequency-induced lesion, since cooling of the electrode tip allows use of higher power settings. The purpose of this study was to determine if the increased lesion size during...

  18. Irrigation water sources and irrigation application methods used by U.S. plant nursery producers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paudel, Krishna P.; Pandit, Mahesh; Hinson, Roger

    2016-02-01

    We examine irrigation water sources and irrigation methods used by U.S. nursery plant producers using nested multinomial fractional regression models. We use data collected from the National Nursery Survey (2009) to identify effects of different firm and sales characteristics on the fraction of water sources and irrigation methods used. We find that regions, sales of plants types, farm income, and farm age have significant roles in what water source is used. Given the fraction of alternative water sources used, results indicated that use of computer, annual sales, region, and the number of IPM practices adopted play an important role in the choice of irrigation method. Based on the findings from this study, government can provide subsidies to nursery producers in water deficit regions to adopt drip irrigation method or use recycled water or combination of both. Additionally, encouraging farmers to adopt IPM may enhance the use of drip irrigation and recycled water in nursery plant production.

  19. Wireless sensor networks for irrigation management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sustaining an adequate food supply for the world's population will require advancements in irrigation technology and improved irrigation management. Site-specific irrigation and automatic irrigation scheduling are examples of strategies to deal with declining arable land and limited fresh water reso...

  20. Scintigraphic assessment of colostomy irrigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, P.; Olsen, N.; Krogh, K.; Laurberg, S.

    2002-09-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study aims to evaluate colonic transport following colostomy irrigation with a new scintigraphic technique. MATERIALS AND METHODS: To label the bowel contents 19 patients (11 uncomplicated colostomy irrigation, 8 complicated colostomy irrigation) took 111In-labelled polystyrene pellets one and two days before investigation. 99mTc-DTPA was mixed with the irrigation fluid to assess its extent within the bowel. Scintigraphy was performed before and after a standardized washout procedure. The colon was divided into three segments 1: the caecum andascending colon; 2: the transverse colon; 3: the descending and sigmoid colon. Assuming ordered evacuation of the colon, the contribution of each colonic segment to the total evacuation was expressed as a percentage of the original segmental counts. These were added to reach a total defaecation score (range: 0-300). RESULTS: In uncomplicated colostomy irrigation, the median defaecation score was 235 (range: 145-289) corresponding to complete evacuation of the descending and transverse colon and 35% evacuation of the caecum/ascending colon. In complicated colostomy irrigation it was possible to distinguish specific emptying patterns. The retained irrigation fluid reached the caecum in all but one patient. CONCLUSION: Scintigraphy can be used to evaluate colonic emptying following colostomy irrigation.

  1. Assessment of Irrigation Water Quality and Suitability for Irrigation in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A number of factors like geology, soil, effluents, sewage disposal and other environmental conditions in which the water stays or moves and interacts are among the factors that affect the quality of irrigation water. This study was conducted to determine the quality and suitability of different water sources for irrigation purpose ...

  2. Effect of irrigation on heavy metals content of wastewater irrigated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is an urgent need to educate farmers on the dangers of the presence of heavy metals in soils as well as the quality of irrigation water especially if it comes from tanning industries for increased crop production. Accordingly, soil and irrigation wastewater study was conducted to assess the concentrations of heavy ...

  3. An assessment of colostomy irrigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laucks, S S; Mazier, W P; Milsom, J W; Buffin, S E; Anderson, J M; Warwick, M K; Surrell, J A

    1988-04-01

    One hundred patients with permanent sigmoid colostomies were surveyed to determine their satisfaction and success with the "irrigation" technique of colostomy management. Most patients who irrigate their colostomies achieve continence. Odors and skin irritation are minimized. The irrigation method is economical, time efficient, and allows a reasonably liberal diet. It avoids bulky appliances and is safe. In appropriately selected patients, the irrigation technique is the method of choice for management of an end-sigmoid colostomy.

  4. Irrigation and Autocracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Jeanet Sinding; Kaarsen, Nicolai; Wingender, Asger Moll

    2017-01-01

    . We argue that the effect has historical origins: irrigation allowed landed elites in arid areas to monopolize water and arable land. This made elites more powerful and better able to oppose democratization. Consistent with this conjecture, we show that irrigation dependence predicts land inequality...

  5. Design of Remote Monitoring System of Irrigation based on GSM and ZigBee Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao xi, Zheng; Fang, Zhao; Shuaifei, Shao

    2018-03-01

    To solve the problems of low level of irrigation and waste of water resources, a remote monitoring system for farmland irrigation based on GSM communication technology and ZigBee technology was designed. The system is composed of sensors, GSM communication module, ZigBee module, host computer, valve and so on. The system detects and closes the pump and the electromagnetic valve according to the need of the system, and transmits the monitoring information to the host computer or the user’s Mobile phone through the GSM communication network. Experiments show that the system has low power consumption, friendly man-machine interface, convenient and simple. It can monitor agricultural environment remotely and control related irrigation equipment at any time and place, and can better meet the needs of remote monitoring of farmland irrigation.

  6. A comparison of E. coli persistence on basil plants and soil using drip and overhead irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction: It is estimated that each year in the US there are 63,153 cases of foodborne illnesses caused by E.coli O157 serotypes and 112,752 illnesses caused by non-O157 shiga-toxin producing E.coli. Irrigation water is recognized as a pre-harvest contamination source and has been linked with o...

  7. Correlations of natural radionuclides in soil with those in sediment from the Danube and nearby irrigation channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krmar, M.; Varga, E.; Slivka, J.

    2013-01-01

    The correlation between activity concentrations of some natural radionuclides ( 238 U, 226 Ra, 232 Th, 40 K) measured in soil and in sediment taken from the Danube River and nearby irrigation channels was studied. The soil samples were collected from the northern part of Serbia and the sediment from the Serbian part of the Danube River and from the surrounding irrigation channels. The correlation between 238 U and other natural radionuclides in irrigation channel sediments was not as good as in the Danube. One of the possible explanations for this weak correlation can be the different chemical dynamics of 238 U in the irrigation channel sediment or changes of the 238 U activity concentration in irrigation channel sediment due to some human activities. The evaluation of ratios of activity concentrations of some natural radionuclides could be a more sensitive method for the determination of contaminant, rather than the straightforward analysis of activity concentrations. -- Highlights: ► 238 U, 232 Th and 40 K were measured in soil, Danube and surrounding channel sediment. ► Correlation of activity concentrations were observed. ► In cannel sediment natural radionuclides are not well correlated as in Danube one. ► Ratios of 238 U, 232 Th and 40 K can be good indicator for TENORM monitoring

  8. Phytotoxicity data safeguard the performance of the recipient plants in leachate irrigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, C.Y. [Department of Biology, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, N.T., Hong Kong (China); Chu, L.M. [Department of Biology, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, N.T., Hong Kong (China)]. E-mail: leemanchu@cuhk.edu.hk

    2007-01-15

    Leachates from an operating and a closed landfill were examined for their phytotoxicity by seed germination/root elongation tests using seeds of Brassica chinensis and Lolium perenne. Their EC50s ranged from 3% to 46% v/v, which varied remarkably with the operating status of the landfills. Seedlings of twelve tree species were grown in pots, which were irrigated with landfill leachate at the EC50 levels, with tap water as control. No tree mortality or growth inhibition was observed after 90 days of leachate application. Chlorophyll fluorescence measurement also showed that plants receiving leachate did not suffer from a decline in photosynthetic efficiency. Litsea glutinosa and Hibiscus tiliaceus had remarkable growth, and other non-N-fixers were not inferior to the N-fixing Acacia auriculiformis. Leachate irrigation improved soil N content, though P deficiency is still a problem. The seed bioassay provided a conservative estimate of the phytotoxicity of landfill leachate. Plants irrigated can be protected from growth inhibition when the leachate irrigation plan is designed with reference to phytotoxicity data. - Irrigated plants could be benefited by leachate when the application rate was determined according to phytotoxicity data.

  9. Phytotoxicity data safeguard the performance of the recipient plants in leachate irrigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, C.Y.; Chu, L.M.

    2007-01-01

    Leachates from an operating and a closed landfill were examined for their phytotoxicity by seed germination/root elongation tests using seeds of Brassica chinensis and Lolium perenne. Their EC50s ranged from 3% to 46% v/v, which varied remarkably with the operating status of the landfills. Seedlings of twelve tree species were grown in pots, which were irrigated with landfill leachate at the EC50 levels, with tap water as control. No tree mortality or growth inhibition was observed after 90 days of leachate application. Chlorophyll fluorescence measurement also showed that plants receiving leachate did not suffer from a decline in photosynthetic efficiency. Litsea glutinosa and Hibiscus tiliaceus had remarkable growth, and other non-N-fixers were not inferior to the N-fixing Acacia auriculiformis. Leachate irrigation improved soil N content, though P deficiency is still a problem. The seed bioassay provided a conservative estimate of the phytotoxicity of landfill leachate. Plants irrigated can be protected from growth inhibition when the leachate irrigation plan is designed with reference to phytotoxicity data. - Irrigated plants could be benefited by leachate when the application rate was determined according to phytotoxicity data

  10. Concentrations of Mercury, Lead, Chromium, Cadmium, Arsenic and Aluminum in Irrigation Water Wells and Wastewaters Used for Agriculture in Mashhad, Northeastern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SR Mousavi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Contamination of water by toxic chemicals has become commonly recognized as an environmental concern. Based on our clinical observation in Mashhad, northeastern Iran, many people might be at risk of exposure to high concentrations of toxic heavy metals in water. Because wastewater effluents as well as water wells have been commonly used for irrigation over the past decades, there has been some concern on the toxic metal exposure of crops and vegetables irrigated with the contaminated water. Objective: To measure the concentrations of mercury, lead, chromium, cadmium, arsenic and aluminium in irrigation water wells and wastewaters used for agriculture in Mashhad, northeastern Iran. Methods: 36 samples were taken from irrigation water wells and a wastewater refinery in North of Mashhad at four times—May 2008, March 2009, and June and July 2010. Atomic absorption spectrometry was used to measure the concentration of toxic metals. Graphite furnace was used for the measurement of lead, chromium, cadmium and aluminum. Mercury and arsenic concentrations were measured by mercury/hydride system. Results: Chromium, cadmium, lead and arsenic concentrations in the samples were within the standard range. The mean±SD concentration of mercury in irrigation wells (1.02±0.40 μg/L exceeded the FAO maximum permissible levels. The aluminum concentration in irrigation water varied significantly from month to month (p=0.03. All wastewater samples contained high mercury concentrations (6.64±2.53 μg/L. Conclusion: For high mercury and aluminum concentrations, the water sources studied should not be used for agricultural use. Regular monitoring of the level of heavy metals in water and employing the necessary environmental interventions in this area are strongly recommended.

  11. Ground-water hydrology of the Punjab region of West Pakistan, with emphasis on problems caused by canal irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenman, D.W.; Swarzenski, W.V.; Bennett, G.D.

    1967-01-01

    Rising water tables and the salinization of land as the result of canal irrigation threaten the agricultural economy of the Punjab. Since 1954 the Water and Soils Investigation Division of the West Pakistan Water and Power Development Authority has inventoried the water and soils resources of the Punjab and investigated the relations between irrigation activities, the natural hydrologic factors, and the incidence of waterlogging and subsurface-drainage problems. This report summarizes the findings of the investigation, which was carried out under a cooperative agreement between the Government of Pakistan and the U.S. Agency for International Development, and its predecessor, the U.S. International Cooperation Administration. Leakage from the canal systems, some of which have been in operation for more than 100 years, is the principal cause of rising water levels and constitutes the major component of ground-water recharge in the Punjab. Geologic studies have shown that virtually the entire Punjab is underlain to depths of 1,000 feet or more by unconsolidated alluvium, which is saturated to within a few feet of land surface. The alluvium varies in texture from medium sand to silty clay, but sandy sediments predominate. Large capacity wells, yielding 4 cfs or more, can be developed almost everywhere. Ground water occurring within a depth of 500 feet below the surface averages less than 1,000 ppm of dissolved solids throughout approximately two-thirds of the Punjab. It is estimated that the volume of usable ground water in storage in this part of the alluvial aquifer is on the order of 2 billion acre-feet. In the other one-third of the Punjab, total dissolved solids range from 1,000 to about 20,000 ppm. In about one-half of this area (one-sixth of the area of the Punjab) some ground water can be utilized by diluting with surface water from canals. The ground-water reservoir underlying the Punjab is an unexploited resource of enormous economic value. It is recognized

  12. Actual and potential salt-related soil degradation in an irrigated rice scheme in the Sahelian zone of Mauritania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asten, van P.J.A.; Barbi'ro, L.; Wopereis, M.C.S.; Maeght, J.L.; Zee, van der S.E.A.T.M.

    2003-01-01

    Salt-related soil degradation due to irrigation activities is considered a major threat to the sustainability of rice cropping under semi-arid conditions in West Africa. Rice productivity problems related to soil salinity, alkalinity and topographic position were observed in an irrigated rice scheme

  13. Are There Infinite Irrigation Trees?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernot, M.; Caselles, V.; Morel, J. M.

    2006-08-01

    In many natural or artificial flow systems, a fluid flow network succeeds in irrigating every point of a volume from a source. Examples are the blood vessels, the bronchial tree and many irrigation and draining systems. Such systems have raised recently a lot of interest and some attempts have been made to formalize their description, as a finite tree of tubes, and their scaling laws [25], [26]. In contrast, several mathematical models [5], [22], [10], propose an idealization of these irrigation trees, where a countable set of tubes irrigates any point of a volume with positive Lebesgue measure. There is no geometric obstruction to this infinitesimal model and general existence and structure theorems have been proved. As we show, there may instead be an energetic obstruction. Under Poiseuille law R(s) = s -2 for the resistance of tubes with section s, the dissipated power of a volume irrigating tree cannot be finite. In other terms, infinite irrigation trees seem to be impossible from the fluid mechanics viewpoint. This also implies that the usual principle analysis performed for the biological models needs not to impose a minimal size for the tubes of an irrigating tree; the existence of the minimal size can be proven from the only two obvious conditions for such irrigation trees, namely the Kirchhoff and Poiseuille laws.

  14. Impacts of long-term waste-water irrigation on the development of sandy Luvisols: consequences for metal pollutant distributions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oort, van F.; Jongmans, A.G.; Lamy, I.; Baize, D.; Chevallier, P.

    2008-01-01

    Studies relating macro- and microscopic aspects of impacts of long-term contaminative practices on soils are scarce. We performed such an approach by assessing the fate of metal pollutants in an area close to Paris, where sandy Luvisols were irrigated for 100 years with urban waste water. As a

  15. Local land-atmosphere feedbacks limit irrigation demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Mark; Ma, Shaoxiu; Pitman, Andy

    2017-05-01

    Irrigation is known to influence regional climate but most studies forecast and simulate irrigation with offline (i.e. land only) models. Using south eastern Australia as a test bed, we demonstrate that irrigation demand is fundamentally different between land only and land-atmosphere simulations. While irrigation only has a small impact on maximum temperature, the semi-arid environment experiences near surface moistening in coupled simulations over the irrigated regions, a feedback that is prevented in offline simulations. In land only simulations that neglect the local feedbacks, the simulated irrigation demand is 25% higher and the standard deviation of the mean irrigation rate is 60% smaller. These local-scale irrigation-driven feedbacks are not resolved in coarse-resolution climate models implying that use of these tools will overestimate irrigation demand. Future studies of irrigation demand must therefore account for the local land-atmosphere interactions by using coupled frameworks, at a spatial resolution that captures the key feedbacks.

  16. Hydrological, ecological, land use, economic, and sociocultural evidence for resilience of traditional irrigation communities in New Mexico, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernald, A.; Guldan, S.; Boykin, K.; Cibils, A.; Gonzales, M.; Hurd, B. H.; Lopez, S.; Ochoa, C. G.; Ortiz, M.; Rivera, J.; Rodriguez, S.; Steele, C. M.

    2014-02-01

    Southwestern US irrigated landscapes are facing upheaval due to climate change-induced water scarcity and economic change-induced land use conversion. Clues to community longevity are found in the traditionally irrigated valleys of northern New Mexico. Human systems have interacted with hydrologic processes over the last 400 yr in river fed irrigated valleys to create linked systems. In this study, we asked if concurrent data from multiple disciplines show that human adapted hydrologic and socioeconomic systems have created conditions for resilience. We identify and describe several areas of resilience: hydrological, ecological, land use, economic, and sociocultural. We found that there are multiple hydrologic benefits of the water seepage from the traditional irrigation systems; it recharges groundwater that recharges rivers, supports threatened biodiversity by maintaining riparian vegetation, and ameliorates impacts of climate change by prolonging streamflow hydrographs. In terms of land use and economics, place-based adaptability manifests itself in transformations of irrigation infrastructure and specific animal and crop systems; as grazing has diminished over time on public land watersheds, it has increased on irrigated valley pastures while outside income allows irrigators to retain their land. Sociocultural evidence shows that traditional local knowledge about the hydrosocial cycle of acequia operations is a key factor in acequia resilience. When irrigators are confronted with unexpected disturbances or changing climate that affect water supply, they adapt specific practices while maintaining community cohesion. Our ongoing work will quantify the multiple disciplinary components of these systems, translate them into a common language of causal loop diagrams, and model future scenarios to identify thresholds and tipping points of sustainability. Early indications are that these systems are not immune to upheaval, but have astonishing resilience.

  17. Characterization of contamination, source and degradation of petroleum between upland and paddy fields based on geochemical characteristics and phospholipid fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Juan; Wang, Renqing; Du, Xiaoming; Li, Fasheng; Dai, Jiulan

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate contamination caused by petroleum, surface soil samples were collected from both upland and paddy fields along the irrigation canals in the Hunpu wastewater irrigation region in northeast China. N-alkanes, terpanes, steranes, and phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA) in the surface soil samples were analyzed. The aliphatic hydrocarbon concentration was highest in the samples obtained from the upland field near an operational oil well; it was lowest at I-3P where wastewater irrigation promoted the downward movement of hydrocarbons. The Hunpu region was found contaminated by heavy petroleum from oxic lacustrine fresh water or marine deltaic source rocks. Geochemical parameters also indicated significantly heavier contamination and degradation in the upland fields compared with the paddy fields. Principal component analysis based on PLFA showed various microbial communities between petroleum contaminated upland and paddy fields. Gram-negative bacteria indicated by 15:0, 3OH 12:0, and 16:1(9) were significantly higher in the paddy fields, whereas Gram-positive bacteria indicated by i16:0 and 18:1(9)c were significantly higher in the upland fields (p petroleum contamination. Poly-unsaturated PLFA (18:2omega6, 9; indicative of hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria and fungi) was also significantly elevated in the upland fields. This paper recommends more sensitive indicators of contamination and degradation of petroleum in soil. The results also provide guidelines on soil pollution control and remediation in the Hunpu region and other similar regions.

  18. Irrigation water as a source of drinking water: is safe use possible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Hoek, W; Konradsen, F; Ensink, J H; Mudasser, M; Jensen, P K

    2001-01-01

    In arid and semi-arid countries there are often large areas where groundwater is brackish and where people have to obtain water from irrigation canals for all uses, including domestic ones. An alternative to drawing drinking water directly from irrigation canals or village water reservoirs is to use the water that has seeped from the irrigation canals and irrigated fields and that has formed a small layer of fresh water on top of the brackish groundwater. The objective of this study was to assess whether use of irrigation seepage water for drinking results in less diarrhoea than direct use of irrigation water and how irrigation water management would impact on health. The study was undertaken in an irrigated area in the southern Punjab, Pakistan. Over a one-year period, drinking water sources used and diarrhoea episodes were recorded each day for all individuals of 200 households in 10 villages. Separate surveys were undertaken to collect information on hygiene behaviour, sanitary facilities, and socio-economic status. Seepage water was of much better quality than surface water, but this did not translate into less diarrhoea. This could only be partially explained by the generally poor quality of water in the in-house storage vessels, reflecting considerable in-house contamination of drinking water. Risk factors for diarrhoea were absence of a water connection and water storage facility, lack of a toilet, low standard of hygiene, and low socio-economic status. The association between water quality and diarrhoea varied by the level of water availability and the presence or absence of a toilet. Among people having a high quantity of water available and a toilet, the incidence rate of diarrhoea was higher when surface water was used for drinking than when seepage water was used (relative risk 1.68; 95% CI 1.31-2.15). For people with less water available the direction of the association between water quality and diarrhoea was different (relative risk 0.80; 95% CI 0

  19. The effect of long-term irrigation using wastewater on heavy metal contents of soils under vegetables in Harare, Zimbabwe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mapanda, F.; Mangwayana, E.N.; Nyamangara, J.; Giller, K.E.

    2005-01-01

    The magnitude of contamination, regulatory compliance and annual loadings of soils with copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), cadmium (Cd), nickel (Ni), chromium (Cr) and lead (Pb) were determined at three sites in Harare where wastewater was used to irrigate vegetable gardens for at least 10 years. Heavy metal

  20. Heavy metal and microbial loads in sewage irrigated vegetables of Kabul, Afghanistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Buerkert

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the heavy metal and microbial contamination of vegetables produced in Central Asian cities. We therefore measured the concentration of cadmium (Cd, copper (Cu, lead (Pb, and zinc (Zn and of faecal pathogens (Coliform bacteria, Salmonella sp., Shigella sp., Ascaris lubricoides, Entamoeba sp. and pinworms [Oxyuris vermicularis syn. Enterobius vermicularis] in soil, irrigation water, and marketed vegetables of Kabul City, Afghanistan. Leaf Pb and Zn concentrations of leafy vegetables were with 1–5 and 33–160 mg kg^{-1} dry weight (DW several-fold above respective international thresholds of 0.3 mg Pb kg^{-1} and 50 mg Zn kg^{-1}. The tissue concentration of Cu was below threshold limits in all samples except for spinach in one farm. Above-threshold loads of microbes and parasites on vegetables were found in five out of six gardens with coliforms ranging from 0.5–2 × 10^7 cells 100g^{-1} fresh weight (FW, but no Salmonella and Shigella were found. Contamination with 0.2 × 10^7 eggs 100g^{-1} FW of Ascaris was detected on produce of three farms and critical concentrations of Entamoeba in a single case, while Oxyuris vermicularis, and Enterobius vermicularis were found on produce of three and four farms, respectively. Irrigation water had Ascaris, Coliforms, Salmonella, Shigella, Entamoeba, and Oxyuris vermicularis syn. Enterobius vermicularis ranging from 0.35 × 10^7 to 2 × 10^7 cells l^{-1}. The heavy metal and microbial loads on fresh UPA vegetables are likely the result of contamination from rising traffic, residues of the past decades of war and lacking treatment of sewage which needs urgent attention.

  1. Nematode suppression and growth stimulation in corn plants (Zea mays L.) irrigated with domestic effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Kenia Kelly; do Nascimento, Clístenes Williams Araújo; Florencio, Lourdinha

    2012-01-01

    Treated wastewater has great potential for agricultural use due to its concentrations of nutrients and organic matter, which are capable of improving soil characteristics. Additionally, effluents can induce suppression of plant diseases caused by soil pathogens. This study evaluates the effect of irrigation with effluent in a UASB reactor on maize (Zea mays L.) development and on suppression of the diseases caused by nematodes of the genus Meloidogyne. Twelve lysimeters of 1 m(3) each were arranged in a completely randomized design, with four treatments and three replicates. The following treatments were used: T1 (W+I), irrigation with water and infestation with nematodes; T2 (W+I+NPK), irrigation with water, infestation with nematodes and fertilization with nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K); T3 (E+I), irrigation with effluent and infestation with nematodes; and T4 (E+I+P), irrigation with effluent, infestation with nematodes and fertilization with phosphorus. The plants irrigated with the effluent plus the phosphorus fertilizer had better growth and productivity and were more resistant to the disease symptoms caused by the nematodes. The suppression levels may have been due to the higher levels of Zn and NO(3)(-) found in the leaf tissue of the plants irrigated with the effluent and phosphorus fertilizer.

  2. Irrigation management of sigmoid colostomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jao, S W; Beart, R W; Wendorf, L J; Ilstrup, D M

    1985-08-01

    Questionnaires were sent to 270 patients who had undergone abdominoperineal resection and sigmoid colostomy at the Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn, during the ten years from 1972 to 1982; 223 patients returned their questionnaires with evaluable data. Sixty percent of the patients were continent with irrigation, and 22% were incontinent with irrigation. Eighteen percent had discontinued irrigation for various reasons. The proportion continent was higher in women, younger patients, and previously constipated patients. A poorly constructed colostomy may cause acute angle, parastoma hernia, stomal prolapse, or stenosis and thus be the cause of failure of irrigation.

  3. Closing the irrigation deficit in Cambodia: Implications for transboundary impacts on groundwater and Mekong River flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erban, Laura E.; Gorelick, Steven M.

    2016-04-01

    Rice production in Cambodia, essential to food security and exports, is largely limited to the wet season. The vast majority (96%) of land planted with rice during the wet season remains fallow during the dry season. This is in large part due to lack of irrigation capacity, increases in which would entail significant consequences for Cambodia and Vietnam, located downstream on the Mekong River. Here we quantify the extent of the dry season ;deficit; area in the Cambodian Mekong River catchment, using a recent agricultural survey and our analysis of MODIS satellite data. Irrigation of this land for rice production would require a volume of water up to 31% of dry season Mekong River flow to Vietnam. However, the two countries share an aquifer system in the Mekong Delta, where irrigation demand is increasingly met by groundwater. We estimate expansion rates of groundwater-irrigated land to be >10% per year in the Cambodian Delta using LANDSAT satellite data and simulate the effects of future expansion on groundwater levels over a 25-year period. If groundwater irrigation continues to expand at current rates, the water table will drop below the lift limit of suction pump wells, used for domestic supply by >1.5 million people, throughout much of the area within 15 years. Extensive groundwater irrigation jeopardizes access for shallow domestic water supply wells, raises the costs of pumping for all groundwater users, and may exacerbate arsenic contamination and land subsidence that are already widespread hazards in the region.

  4. Experimental study of the radio-active contamination of certain cultivated plants by irrigation water; Etude experimentale de la contamination radioactive par l'eau d'irrigation de certaines plantes cultivees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michon, G [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; Barbier, G; Le Blaye, P; Brossard, M [Station Centrale d' Agronomie, 78 - Versailles (France); Fioramonti, S; Marty, J R [Station Agronomique de Toulouse, 31 (France); Benard, P; Flanzy, M [Station Centrale de Technologie des Produits Vegetaux, 11 - Narbonne (France); Delas, J; Delmas, J; Demias, Ch [Station d' Agronomie de Bordeaux (Pont de la Maye), 33 (France); Huguet, C [Station Agronomique d' Avignon, 84 (France)

    1964-07-01

    This report follows on to the CEA reports no 1860 and 2159 and gives the results obtained during the years 1961 and 1962. These results confirm for the most part those obtained previously and deal also with a larger variety of vegetables. Vines and artificial prairies were also dealt with during the course of this work. The large dispersion of the limiting values of the coefficient r (the ratio between the amount of radio-elements in a kilogram of product harvested, to the amount of radio-elements present in a litre of irrigation water) with different types of soil, different plant types, etc... , makes it impossible to draw any general conclusions. Each case of rejection requires a special study of which the outlive is given. At all events it is to be expected that in the majority of cases these studies will lead to a decrease in the norms now in force. (authors) [French] Ce rapport fait suite aux rapports CEA no 1860 et 2159 et rapporte les resultats obtenus pendant les annees 1961 et 1962. Ces resultats confirment dans l'ensemble ceux precedemment obtenus tout en augmentant la variete des legumes etudies. La vigne et les prairies artificielles ont egalement fait l'objet d'etudes. La grande dispersion des valeurs limites du coefficient r (rapport entre la quantite de radioelements dans un kg de produits recoltes a la quantite de radioelements presente dans un litre d'eau d'irrigation) en rapport avec la nature des sols, le type vegetal, etc.., ne permet pas de degager de conclusions generales. Chaque cas de rejet necessite une etude particuliere dont le schema est donne. En tout etat de cause l'on doit s'attendre a ce que dans la plupart des cas ces etudes conduisent a une diminution des normes actuellement utilisees. (auteurs)

  5. Assessing the changes of groundwater recharge / irrigation water use between SRI and traditional irrigation schemes in Central Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shih-Kai; Jang, Cheng-Shin; Tsai, Cheng-Bin

    2015-04-01

    To respond to agricultural water shortage impacted by climate change without affecting rice yield in the future, the application of water-saving irrigation, such as SRI methodology, is considered to be adopted in rice-cultivation in Taiwan. However, the flooded paddy fields could be considered as an important source of groundwater recharge in Central Taiwan. The water-saving benefit of this new methodology and its impact on the reducing of groundwater recharge should be integrally assessed in this area. The objective of this study was to evaluate the changes of groundwater recharge/ irrigation water use between the SRI and traditional irrigation schemes (continuous irrigation, rotational irrigation). An experimental paddy field located in the proximal area of the Choushui River alluvial fan (the largest groundwater pumping region in Taiwan) was chosen as the study area. The 3-D finite element groundwater model (FEMWATER) with the variable boundary condition analog functions, was applied in simulating groundwater recharge process and amount under traditional irrigation schemes and SRI methodology. The use of effective rainfall was taken into account or not in different simulation scenarios for each irrigation scheme. The simulation results showed that there were no significant variations of infiltration rate in the use of effective rainfall or not, but the low soil moisture setting in deep soil layers resulted in higher infiltration rate. Taking the use of effective rainfall into account, the average infiltration rate for continuous irrigation, rotational irrigation, and SRI methodology in the first crop season of 2013 were 4.04 mm/day, 4.00 mm/day and 3.92 mm/day, respectively. The groundwater recharge amount of SRI methodology was slightly lower than those of traditional irrigation schemes, reducing 4% and 2% compared with continuous irrigation and rotational irrigation, respectively. The field irrigation requirement amount of SRI methodology was significantly

  6. Rejection of organic micro-pollutants from water by a tubular, hydrophilic pervaporative membrane designed for irrigation applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sule, May N; Templeton, Michael R; Bond, Tom

    2016-01-01

    The links between chemical properties, including those relating to molecular size, solubility, hydrophobicity and vapour pressure, and rejection of model aromatic micro-pollutants by a tubular, hydrophilic polymer pervaporation membrane designed for irrigation applications were investigated. Open air experiments were conducted at room temperature for individual solutions of fluorene, naphthalene, phenol, 1,2-dichlorobenzene, 1,2-diethylbenzene and 2-phenoxyethanol. Percentage rejection generally increased with increased molecular size for the model micro-pollutants (47-86%). Molecular weight and log Kow had the strongest positive relationships with rejection, as demonstrated by respective correlation coefficients of r = 0.898 and 0.824. Rejection was also strongly negatively correlated with aqueous solubility and H-bond δ. However, properties which relate to vapour phase concentrations of the micro-pollutants were not well correlated with rejection. Thus, physicochemical separation processes, rather than vapour pressure, drive removal of aromatic contaminants by the investigated pervaporation tube. This expanded knowledge could be utilized in considering practical applications of pervaporative irrigation systems for treating organic-contaminated waters such as oilfield-produced waters.

  7. Water quality, pesticide occurrence, and effects of irrigation with reclaimed water at golf courses in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swancar, Amy

    1996-01-01

    Reuse of treated wastewater for golf course irrigation is an increasingly popular water management option in Florida, where growth has put stress on potable water supplies. Surface water, ground water, and irrigation water were sampled at three pairs of golf courses quarterly for one year to determine if pesticides were present, and the effect of irrigation with treated effluent on ground-water quality, with an emphasis on interactions of effluent with pesticides. In addition to the six paired golf courses, which were in central Florida, ground water was sampled for pesticides and other constituents at three more golf courses in other parts of the State. This study was the first to analyze water samples from Florida golf courses for a broad range of pesticides. Statistical methods based on the percentage of data above detection limits were used to determine the effects of irrigation with reclaimed water on ground-water quality. Shallow ground water at golf courses irrigated with treated effluent has higher concentrations of chloride, lower concentrations of bicarbonate, and lower pH than ground water at golf courses irrigated with water from carbonate aquifers. There were no statistically significant differences in nutrient concentrations in ground water between paired golf courses grouped by irrigation water type at a 95 percent confidence level. The number of wells where pesticides occurred was significantly higher at the paired golf courses using ground water for irrigation than at ones using reclaimed water. However, the limited occurrences of individual pesticides in ground water make it difficult to correlate differences in irrigation- water quality with pesticide migration to the water table. At some of the golf courses, increased pesticide occurrences may be associated with higher irrigation rates, the presence of well-drained soils, and shallow depths to the surficial aquifer. Pesticides used by golf courses for turf grass maintenance were detected in

  8. Irrigation water management: Basic principles and applications

    OpenAIRE

    Ella, Victor B.

    2007-01-01

    This presentation defines the term, irrigation, as well as explains the common methods of irrigation in attempt to define the fundamental principles needed to wisely design an irrigation system. It outlines a typical drip irrigation set-up, and discusses management of an irrigation system, including water volume application suggestions. LTRA-5 (Agroforestry and Sustainable Vegetable Production)

  9. Irrigation-based livelihood challenges and opportunities : a gendered technology of irrigation development intervention in the Lower Moshi irrigation scheme Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kissawike, K.

    2008-01-01

    This thesis is a study of a modernised irrigation scheme in Tanzania. It aims to
    understand how irrigation and agricultural technologies have interacted with local
    society to transform production, paying particular attention to gender relations and
    changes for women farmers. The

  10. Comparative study of irrigation water use and groundwater recharge under various irrigation schemes in an agricultural region, central Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shih-Kai; Jang, Cheng-Shin; Tsai, Cheng-Bin

    2016-04-01

    The risk of rice production has increased notably due to climate change in Taiwan. To respond to growing agricultural water shortage without affecting normal food production in the future, the application of water-saving irrigation will be a substantial resolution. However, the adoption of water-saving irrigation may result in the reducing of groundwater recharge because continuous flooding in the paddy fields could be regarded as an important source for groundwater recharge. The aim of this study was to evaluate the irrigation water-saving benefit and groundwater recharge deficit when adopting the System of Rice Intensification, known as SRI methodology, in the Choushui River alluvial fan (the largest groundwater pumping and the most important rice-cropping region in central Taiwan). The three-dimensional finite element groundwater model, FEMWATER, was applied to simulate the infiltration process and groundwater recharge under SRI methodology and traditional irrigation schemes including continuous irrigation, and rotational irrigation in two rice-crop periods with hydro-climatic data of 2013. The irrigation water use was then calculated by water balance. The results showed that groundwater recharge amount of SRI methodology was slightly lower than those of traditional irrigation schemes, reduced 3.6% and 1.6% in the first crop period, and reduced 3.2% and 1.6% in the second crop period, compared with continuous irrigation and rotational irrigation, respectively. However, the SRI methodology achieved notably water-saving benefit compared to the disadvantage of reducing the groundwater recharge amount. The field irrigation requirement amount of SRI methodology was significantly lower than those of traditional irrigation schemes, saving 37% and 20% of irrigation water in the first crop period, and saving 53% and 35% in the second crop period, compared with continuous irrigation and rotational irrigation, respectively. Therefore, the amount of groundwater pumping for

  11. Where Does the Irrigation Water Go? An Estimate of the Contribution of Irrigation to Precipitation Using MERRA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jiangfeng; Dirmeyer, Paul A.; Wisser, Dominik; Bosilovich, Michael G.; Mocko, David M.

    2013-01-01

    Irrigation is an important human activity that may impact local and regional climate, but current climate model simulations and data assimilation systems generally do not explicitly include it. The European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) Interim Re-Analysis (ERA-Interim) shows more irrigation signal in surface evapotranspiration (ET) than the Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) because ERA-Interim adjusts soil moisture according to the observed surface temperature and humidity while MERRA has no explicit consideration of irrigation at the surface. But, when compared with the results from a hydrological model with detailed considerations of agriculture, the ET from both reanalyses show large deficiencies in capturing the impact of irrigation. Here, a back-trajectory method is used to estimate the contribution of irrigation to precipitation over local and surrounding regions, using MERRA with observation-based corrections and added irrigation-caused ET increase from the hydrological model. Results show substantial contributions of irrigation to precipitation over heavily irrigated regions in Asia, but the precipitation increase is much less than the ET increase over most areas, indicating that irrigation could lead to water deficits over these regions. For the same increase in ET, precipitation increases are larger over wetter areas where convection is more easily triggered, but the percentage increase in precipitation is similar for different areas. There are substantial regional differences in the patterns of irrigation impact, but, for all the studied regions, the highest percentage contribution to precipitation is over local land.

  12. The problems of hygienic classification of radioactive waste under restoration of contaminated areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savkin, M.; Shandala, N.; Novikova, N.; Petukhova, E.; Shishkin, V.; Egorov, B.; Ziborov, A.

    2002-01-01

    Experience on restoration of contaminated areas in the past ten years reveals a specific problem in the general problem of solid radioactive waste management as a result of decontamination of the settlements. That specific problem concerns conventionally radioactive waste (CRW), which might be to some extent dangerous for human being. In the documents of IAEA and ICRP the approaches aimed at exemption or exclusion insignificant amount of radioactive wastes from regulatory control are actively being developed. In turn, Russia does not have so far either methodic or regulatory documents on management of very low level radioactive waste. Two approaches are considered in the paper under development of derived levels for CRW in case of restoration of contaminated areas. The first one is based on restriction of individual risk at level about 10 -6 per year (negligible level). The second one accounts for global man-made background and uses acceptable factor of excess of that background as a criterion.Under the first approach (restriction of individual risk) the lowest boundary of CRW is estimated to be equal to 3 Bq kg -1 for 239 Pu; 30 Bq kg -1 for 90 Sr; and 300 Bq kg -1 for 137 Cs, respectively. Those levels of specific activity approximately correspond to the areas contaminated by the above mentioned radionuclides 0.3 kBq m -2 , 3 kBq m -2 , and 30 kBq m -2 , respectively. Under the second approach if one accepts factor of 3 of excess of global man-made background, than the levels of specific activity will be 0.05 kBq m -2 for 239 Pu; 2.5 kBq m -2 for 90 Sr, and 7.2 kBq m -2 for 137 Cs. Comparison of the levels obtained according to the second approach shows that they will be several times lower than that according to the first approach. (author)

  13. Effective colostomy irrigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazier, W P; Dignan, R D; Capehart, R J; Smith, B G

    1976-06-01

    The ultimate goal of the cone method of colostomy irrigation is to return patients with colostomies to their former role in society with confidence in themselves to the extent that having a colostomy is not considered a handicap. The results have generally been excellent. We believe all patients with stomas should be afforded the opportunity to attempt colostomy irrigation.

  14. Potato yield and yield structure depending on irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milić Stanko

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the agroclimatic conditions of the Vojvodina Province, the application of an economic water regime and modern technology is necessary for stable and intensive potato production. A two-year experiment on calcareous chernozem was carried out to determine how irrigation and different pre-irrigation soil moisture affect potato yield and distribution of tuber fraction in the potato yield. The block-design trial had four replicates and was adapted for sprinkler irrigation conditions. It included four treatments: irrigation with pre-irrigation moisture levels of 60 % of field water capacity (FC, irrigation with pre-irrigation moisture levels of 70 % (FC, irrigation with pre-irrigation moisture levels of 80% (FC, and a non-irrigated control treatment. Irrigation significantly increased the yield of potato, which increased from 37.27 % to 75.86 %. Under irrigation, the percentage of small fractions decreased in favour of the 55 mm one, or fractions above the 45-55 mm range. On average, irrigated treatments produced significantly more tubers than the conditions of natural water supply. .

  15. Determining the potential link between irrigation water quality and the microbiological quality of onions by phenotypic and genotypic characterization of Escherichia coli isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    du Plessis, Erika M; Duvenage, Francois; Korsten, Lise

    2015-04-01

    The potential transfer of human pathogenic bacteria present in irrigation water onto fresh produce was investigated, because surface water sources used for irrigation purposes in South Africa have increasingly been reported to be contaminated with enteric bacterial pathogens. A microbiological analysis was performed of a selected river in Limpopo Province, South Africa, that is often contaminated with raw sewage from municipal sewage works and overhead irrigated onions produced on a commercial farm. Counts of Escherichia coli, coliforms, aerobic bacteria, fungi, and yeasts and the prevalence of E. coli O157:H7, Salmonella, and Listeria monocytogenes were determined. Identities of bacterial isolates from irrigation water and onions were confirmed using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry, PCR, and biochemical tests. To establish a potential link between the microbiological quality of the irrigation source and the onions, the E. coli isolates from both were subjected to antibiotic resistance, virulence gene, and enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus PCR analyses. River water E. coli counts exceeded South African Department of Water Affairs and World Health Organization irrigation water guidelines. Counts of aerobic bacteria, coliforms, fungi, and yeasts of onions from the market were acceptable according to Department of Health Directorate, Food Control, South Africa, microbiological guidelines for ready-to-eat fresh fruits and vegetables. E. coli O157:H7, Salmonella, and L. monocytogenes were not detected in onions, whereas only Salmonella was detected in 22% of water samples. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry and PCR identification of E. coli isolates from water and onions correlated. Of the 45 E. coli isolates from water and onions, 42.2% were resistant to multiple antibiotics. Virulence genes eae, stx1, and stx2 were detected in 2.2, 6.6, and 2.2% of the E. coli isolates

  16. Aligning the multiplicities in natural resource governance: a study on the governance of water and land resources in irrigated agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Özerol, Gül

    2013-01-01

    In many countries, irrigated agriculture is crucial for food security and poverty reduction. Despite these socio-economic prospects, irrigation agriculture often leads to negative impacts that threaten environmental sustainability. Particularly in semi-arid and arid regions, the coupled problems of

  17. Comparative evaluation of environmental contamination and DNA damage induced by electronic-waste in Nigeria and China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alabi, Okunola A; Bakare, Adekunle A; Xu, Xijin; Li, Bin; Zhang, Yuling; Huo, Xia

    2012-04-15

    In the last decade, China and Nigeria have been prime destinations for the world's e-waste disposal leading to serious environmental contamination. We carried out a comparative study of the level of contamination using soils and plants from e-waste dumping and processing sites in both countries. Levels of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were analyzed using gas chromatography/spectrophotometry and heavy metals using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. DNA damage was assayed in human peripheral blood lymphocytes using an alkaline comet assay. Soils and plants were highly contaminated with toxic PAHs, PCBs, PBDEs, and heavy metals in both countries. Soil samples from China and plant samples from Nigeria were more contaminated. There was a positive correlation between the concentrations of organics and heavy metals in plant samples and the surrounding soils. In human lymphocytes, all tested samples induced significant (pwaste components/constituents can accumulate, in soil and surrounding vegetation, to toxic and genotoxic levels that could induce adverse health effects in exposed individuals. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Rice Field Geochemistry and Hydrology: An Explanation for Why Groundwater Irrigated Fields in Bangladesh are Net Sinks of Arsenic from Groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Rebecca B.; St. Vincent, Allison P.; Roberts, Linda C.; Badruzzaman, A. Borhan M.; Ali, M. Ashraf; Harvey, Charles F.

    2011-01-01

    Irrigation of rice fields in Bangladesh with arsenic-contaminated groundwater transfers tens of cubic kilometers of water and thousands of tons of arsenic from aquifers to rice fields each year. Here we combine observations of infiltration patterns with measurements of porewater chemical composition from our field site in Munshiganj Bangladesh to characterize the mobility of arsenic in soils beneath rice fields. We find that very little arsenic delivered by irrigation returns to the aquifer, and that recharging water mobilizes little, if any, arsenic from rice field subsoils. Arsenic from irrigation water is deposited on surface soils and sequestered along flow paths that pass through bunds, the raised soil boundaries around fields. Additionally, timing of flow into bunds limits the transport of biologically available organic carbon from rice fields into the subsurface where it could stimulate reduction processes that mobilize arsenic from soils and sediments. Together, these results explain why groundwater irrigated rice fields act as net sinks of arsenic from groundwater. PMID:21332196

  19. Determination of cyanide and nitrate concentrations in drinking, irrigation, and wastewaters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Reza Mousavi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The chemical contamination of water is a major concern for the environmental and health authorities globally. Some anions present in the water are required for human health, but some of them are harmful. Free cyanide and nitrate are amongst the toxic agents in the aquatic environment. Cyanide is highly toxic for human beings. Industrial plants could be attributed to a major source of these toxic agents. Therefore, cyanide and nitrate concentrations in the drinking and irrigation water wells in the high industrial plants were evaluated. Materials and Methods: The samples (57 were taken from drinking and irrigation water wells as well as from a wastewater refinery in north of Mashhad in three stages - March 2009, June 2010, and July 2010. Determination of cyanide and nitrate were performed by a spectrophotometer using commercially available kits according to the manufacturer′s protocols. Results: Cyanide and nitrate concentrations in the drinking water samples of the three stages were 0.0050 ± 0.0007, 0.0070 ± 0.0018, 0.0008 ± 0.0014 mg/L and 6.50 ± 2.80, 7.20 ± 1.80, 7.50 ± 1.90 mg/L, respectively. Cyanide mean concentration during March, June, and July was significant (P = 0.001, whereas nitrate mean concentration was not (P = 0.5. Cyanide and nitrate concentrations in the irrigation water samples of the three stages were 0.0140 ± 0.0130, 0.0077 ± 0.0025, 0.0087 ± 0.0047 mg/L and 12.37 ± 8.12, 8.04 ± 3.99, 8.40 ± 2.60 mg/L, respectively. Cyanide (P = 0.754 and nitrate (P = 0.705 concentrations were not significant during three occasions. Cyanide and nitrate concentrations in the wastewaters of the three stages were 0.1020 ± 0.033, 0.1180 ± 0.033, 0.1200 ± 0.035 mg/L and 1633.80 ± 40.74, 279.00 ± 152.17, 298.40 ± 304.74 mg/L, respectively. Cyanide (P = 0.731 and nitrate (P = 0.187 concentration in wastewaters were not significant during different months. Conclusion: Although nitrate and cyanide concentrations in

  20. The future of irrigated agriculture under environmental flow requirements restrictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastor, Amandine; Palazzo, Amanda; Havlik, Petr; Kabat, Pavel; Obersteiner, Michael; Ludwig, Fulco

    2016-04-01

    Water is not an infinite resource and demand from irrigation, household and industry is constantly increasing. This study focused on including global water availability including environmental flow requirements with water withdrawal from irrigation and other sectors at a monthly time-step in the GLOBIOM model. This model allows re-adjustment of land-use allocation, crop management, consumption and international trade. The GLOBIOM model induces an endogenous change in water price depending on water supply and demand. In this study, the focus was on how the inclusion of water resources affects land-use and, in particular, how global change will influence repartition of irrigated and rainfed lands at global scale. We used the climate change scenario including a radiative forcing of 8.5 W/m2 (RCP8.5), the socio-economic scenario (SSP2: middle-of-road), and the environmental flow method based on monthly flow allocation (the Variable Monthly Flow method) with high and low restrictions. Irrigation withdrawals were adjusted to a monthly time-step to account for biophysical water limitations at finer time resolution. Our results show that irrigated land might decrease up to 40% on average depending on the choice of EFR restrictions. Several areas were identified as future hot-spots of water stress such as the Mediterranean and Middle-East regions. Other countries were identified to be in safe position in terms of water stress such as North-European countries. Re-allocation of rainfed and irrigated land might be useful information for land-use planners and water managers at an international level to decide on appropriate legislations on climate change mitigation/adaptation when exposure and sensitivity to climate change is high and/or on adaptation measures to face increasing water demand. For example, some countries are likely to adopt measures to increase their water use efficiencies (irrigation system, soil and water conservation practices) to face water shortages, while

  1. Implementing the Prepaid Smart Meter System for Irrigated Groundwater Production in Northern China: Status and Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaowei Wang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available To reduce the gap between groundwater demand and supply caused by agricultural groundwater over-exploitation, the Prepaid Smart Meter System (PSMS is being strongly implemented by the Chinese government in northern China. This study reports the analysis and results of PSMS field surveys in six typical provinces in northern China as well as domestic literature reviews. Based on the architecture and implementation policies of the system, the implementation differences between areas and the influencing factors were analyzed, particularly the acknowledgment of farmers, the installation proportion of tube wells, the social benefits. Great achievements have been gained in the implementation, and the management targets have been achieved, including accurately metering overall irrigation groundwater production, assisting in the total amount control and quota management, reducing groundwater exploitation, and improving water use efficiency. However, shortcomings remain in the implementation process, such as single initial investment channels, imperfect policy system construction, a lack of retrieving and analyzing data, and the unbalanced development between areas. Countermeasures and suggestions for these problems are discussed in this article.

  2. Performing drip irrigation by the farmer managed Seguia Khrichfa irrigation system, Morocco

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooij, van der S.

    2016-01-01

    Drip irrigation is represented in literature and agricultural policies as a modern and water saving technology. Because this technology is often associated with ‘modern’ agriculture and development, it seems out-of-place in ‘traditional’ farmer managed irrigation systems (FMIS). Thinking along

  3. Physicochemical Properties, Contamination and Suitability of Canal Water for Irrigation, Lahore Branch Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayyaba Aftab

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The pollution status of Lahore branch canal was determined by physical, chemical and metal constituents because the water is used for irrigation of lands in and around the city. The average result of each physical, chemical and metal parameter at 12 different sites (Location-1 to Location-12 of Lahore branch canal was compared with Food and Agricultural organization (FAO. All physical and chemical parameters were within standards limit while metals concentrations were found in variable quantities in canal water samples. cadmium, copper and chromium concentration was found much higher than the permissible FAO standards.

  4. Scheduling of Irrigation and Leaching Requirements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amer Hassan Al-haddad

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Iraq depends mainly on Tigris and Euphrates Rivers to provide high percentage of agricultural water use for thousands years. At last years, Iraq is suffering from shortage in water resources due to global climate changes and unfair water politics of the neighboring countries, which affected the future of agriculture plans for irrigation, added to that the lack of developed systems of water management in the irrigation projects and improper allocation of irrigation water, which reduces water use efficiency and lead to losing irrigation water and decreasing in agricultural yield. This study aims at studying the usability of irrigation and leaching scheduling within the irrigating projects and putting a complete annual or seasonal irrigation program as a solution for the scarcity of irrigation water, the increase of irrigation efficiency, lessening the salinity in the projects and preparing an integral irrigation calendar through field measurements of soil physical properties and chemical for project selected and compared to the results of the irrigation scheduling and leaching with what is proposed by the designers. The process is accomplished by using a computer program which was designed by Water Resources Department at the University of Baghdad, with some modification to generalize it and made it applicable to various climatic zone and different soil types. Study area represented by large project located at the Tigris River, and this project was (Al-Amara irrigation project. Sufficient samples of project's soil were collected so as to identify soil physical and chemical properties and the salinity of soil and water as well as identifying the agrarian cycles virtually applied to this project. Finally, a comparison was conducted between the calculated water quantities and the suggested ones by the designers. The research results showed that using this kind of scheduling (previously prepared irrigation and leaching scheduling with its properties

  5. Biological degradation of chernozems under irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oksana Naydyonova

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We studied the changes in the state of microbial cenosis of Ukraine’s chernozems under irrigation. Considerable part of Ukraine’s chernozems is located in the areas where humidification is insufficient and unstable. Irrigation is a soil-reclamation measure for chernozems of Ukrainian Forest-steppe and Steppe which enables getting the assured yield, especially vegetable and fodder crops. At the same time, irrigation is a powerful anthropogenic factor that affects the soil, causes a significant transformation of many of its properties and regimes including biological ones. Often these changes are negative. The purpose of our investigation was to identify changes in the state of microbial cenoses of chernozem soils under irrigation which depend on such factors as the quality of irrigation water, the duration and intensity of irrigation, the initial properties of soil, the structure of crop rotation, usage of fertilizing systems and agroameliorative techniques. We identified direction and evaluated a degree of changes in biological properties of chernozems under influence of irrigation in different agro-irrigational and soil-climatic conditions. In the long-term stationary field experiments we identified the following biological indices of irrigated soils and their non-irrigated analogues: a number of microorganisms which belong to main ecological-trophic groups, activity of soil enzymes (dehydrogenase, invertase, phenol oxidase, soil phytotoxic activity, cellulose destroying capacity of soil, indices of oligotrophy and mineralization, summary biological index (SBI and index of biological degradation (BDI. Results of researches showed that irrigation unbalanced the soil ecosystem and stipulated the forming of microbial cenosis with new parameters. Long-term intensive irrigation of typical chernozem (Kharkiv Region with fresh water under condition of 4-fields vegetable crop rotation led to the degradation changes of its microbial cenosis such as

  6. Irrigation Analysis Based on Long-Term Weather Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James R. Mahan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Irrigation management is based upon delivery of water to a crop in the correct amount and time, and the crop’s water need is determined by calculating evapotranspiration (ET using weather data. In 1994, an ET-network was established in the Texas High Plains to manage irrigation on a regional scale. Though producers used the ET-network, by 2010 public access was discontinued. Why did producers allow a valuable irrigation-management tool to be eliminated? Our objective was to analyze the effect of declining well capacities on the usefulness of cotton ET (ETc for irrigation. Thirty years (1975–2004 of daily ETc data were used to compare irrigation demand vs. irrigation responses at four locations, analyzed for multiple years and range of well capacities for three irrigation-intervals. Results indicated that when well capacities declined to the point that over-irrigation was not possible, the lower well capacities reduced the value of ETc in terms of the number of irrigations and total amount of water applied. At well capacities <1514 L·min−1 the fraction of irrigations for which ETc information was used to determine the irrigation amount was <35% across years and irrigation intervals. The value of an ETc-based irrigation may fall into disuse when irrigation-water supplies decline.

  7. Carbon retention in the soil–plant system under different irrigation regimes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yaosheng; Liu, Fulai; Andersen, Mathias Neumann

    2010-01-01

    their environmental impacts. Tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum L., var. Cedrico) were grown in split-root pots in a climate-controlled glasshouse and were subjected to full irrigation (FI), deficit irrigation (DI) and alternate partial root-zone irrigation (PRI) at early fruiting stage. In Exp. I, each plant...... to a greater microbial activity in the two treatments; particularly the PRI induced drying and wetting cycles of the soils may cause an increase of microbial activities and respiration rate, which could lead to more C losses from the soil. However, in both experiments the total C concentration in the PRI...... in the two experiments might have affected the C retention in the soil and in the plant biomass. Nevertheless, with a same degree of water saving, PRI was superior to DI in terms of enhancing C concentration in the plant biomass, which might have contributed to a better fruit quality in tomatoes as reported...

  8. Evaluation of hydraulic performance of downstream-controlled Maira-PHLC irrigation canals under crop-based irrigation operations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Munir, S.; Schultz, B.; Suryadi, F.X.; Bharati, L.

    2012-01-01

    Demand-based irrigation systems are operated according to crop water requirements. As crop water requirements remain variable throughout the growing season, the discharges in the canal also vary to meet demands. The irrigation system under study is a demand-based semi-automatic irrigation system,

  9. Role of sediment in the design and management of irrigation canals : Sunsari Morang Irrigation Scheme, Nepal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paudel, K.

    2010-01-01

    Sediment transport in irrigation canals The sediment transport aspect is a major factor in irrigation development as it determines to a large extent the sustainability of an irrigation scheme, particularly in case of unlined canals in alluvial soils. Investigations in this respect started since

  10. Infrastructure performance of irrigation canal to irrigation efficiency of irrigation area of Candi Limo in Mojokerto District

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisnanto, S.; Hadiani, R. R. R.; Ikhsan, C.

    2018-03-01

    Performance is a measure of infrastructure success in delivering the benefits corresponding it’s design implementation. Debit efficiency is a comparison between outflow debit and inflow debit. Irrigation canal performance is part of the overall performance aspects of an irrigation area. The greater of the canal performance will be concluded that the canal is increasingly able to meet the planned benefits, need to be seen its comparison between the performance and debit efficiency of the canal. The existing problems in the field that the value of the performance of irrigation canals are not always comparable to the debit efficiency. This study was conducted to describe the relationship between the performance of the canal to the canal debit efficiency. The study was conducted at Candi Limo Irrigation Area in Mojokerto Disctrict under the authority of Pemerintahan Provinsi Jawa Timur. The primary canal and secondary canal are surveyed to obtain data. The physical condition of the primary and secondary canals into the material of this study also. Primary and secondary canal performance based on the physical condition in the field. Measurement inflow and outflow debit into the data for the calculation of the debit efficiency. The instrument used in this study such as the current meter for debit measurements in the field as a solution when there is a building measure in the field were damaged, also using the meter and the camera. Permen PU No.32 is used to determine the value of the performance of the canal, while the efficiency analysis to calculate a comparison value between outflow and inflow debit. The process of data running processing by performing the measurement and calculation of the performance of the canal, the canal debit efficiency value calculation, and display a graph of the relationship between the value of the performance with the debit efficiency in each canal. The expected results of this study that the performance value on the primary canal in the

  11. Newer Root Canal Irrigants in Horizon: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushma Jaju

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Sodium hypochloride is the most commonly used endodontic irrigant, despite limitations. None of the presently available root canal irrigants satisfy the requirements of ideal root canal irrigant. Newer root canal irrigants are studied for potential replacement of sodium hypochloride. This article reviews the potential irrigants with their advantages and limitations with their future in endodontic irrigation.

  12. Long Term Effects of Acid Irrigation at the Hoeglwald on Seepage Water Chemistry and Nutrient Cycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weis, Wendelin; Baier, Roland; Huber, Christian; Goettlein, Axel

    2007-01-01

    In order to test the hypothesis of aluminium toxicity induced by acid deposition, an experimental acid irrigation was carried out in a mature Norway spruce stand in Southern Germany (Hoeglwald). The experiment comprised three plots: no irrigation, irrigation (170 mm a -1 ), and acid irrigation with diluted sulphuric acid (pH of 2.6-2.8). During the seven years of acid irrigation (1984-1990) water containing 0.43 mol c m -2 a -1 of protons and sulphate was added with a mean pH of 3.2 (throughfall + acid irrigation water) compared to 4.9 (throughfall) on both control plots. Most of the additional proton input was consumed in the organic layer and the upper mineral soil. Acid irrigation resulted in a long lasting elevation of sulphate concentrations in the seepage water. Together with sulphate both aluminium and appreciable amounts of base cations were leached from the main rooting zone. The ratio between base cations (Ca + Mg + K) and aluminium was 0.79 during acid irrigation and 0.92 on the control. Neither tree growth and nutrition nor the pool of exchangeable cations were affected significantly. We conclude that at this site protection mechanisms against aluminium toxicity exist and that additional base cation runoff can still be compensated without further reduction of the supply of exchangeable base cations in the upper mineral soil

  13. Decentralised water and wastewater treatment technologies to produce functional water for irrigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Battilani, Adriano; Steiner, Michele; Andersen, Martin

    2010-01-01

    The EU project SAFIR aimed to help farmers solve problems related to the use of low quality water for irrigation in a context of increasing scarcity of conventional freshwater resources. New decentralised water treatment devices (prototypes) were developed to allow a safe direct or indirect reuse...... of wastewater produced by small communities/industries or the use of polluted surface water. Water treatment technologies were coupled with irrigation strategies and technologies to obtain a flexible, easy to use, integrated management of the system. The challenge is to apply new strategies and technologies...... which allow using the lowest irrigation water quality without harming food safety or yield and fruit or derivatives quality. This study presents the results of prototype testing of a small-scale compact pressurized membrane bioreactor and of a modular field treatment system including commercial gravel...

  14. Application of terpene-induced cell for enhancing biodegradation of TCE contaminated soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekawan Luepromchai

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Trichloroethylene (TCE, a chlorinated solvent, is a major water pollutant originating from spillage and inappropriate disposal of dry cleaning agents, degreasing solvents, and paint strippers. Due to its widespread contamination and potential health threat, remediation technology to clean-up TCE is necessary. Aerobic biodegradation of TCE is reported to occur via cometabolism, by which TCE degrading bacteria utilize other compounds such as toluene, phenol, and methane as growth substrate and enzyme inducer. Although toluene is reported to be the most effective inducer, it is regulated as a hazardous material and should not be applied to the environment. The objectives of this study were to identify an alternative enzyme inducer as well as to apply the induced bacteria for degradation of TCE in contaminated soil. We investigated the effect of terpenes, the main components in volatile essential oils of plants, on induction of TCE degradation in Rhodococcus gordoniae P3, a local Gram (+ bacterium. Selected terpenes including cumene, limonene, carvone and pinene at various concentrations were used in the study. Results from liquid culture showed that 25 mg l-1 cumeneinduced R. gordoniae P3 cells resulted in 75% degradation of 10 ppm TCE within 24 hrs. Soil microcosms were later employed to investigate the ability of cumene to enhance TCE biodegradation in the environment. There were two bioremediation treatments studied, including bioaugmentation, the inoculation of cumeneinduced R. gordoniae P3, and biostimulation, the addition of cumene to induce soil indigenous microorganisms to degrade TCE. Bioaugmentation and biostimulation were shown to accelerate TCE reduction significantly more than control treatment at the beginning of study. The results suggest that cumene-induced R. gordoniae P3 and cumene can achieve rapid TCE biodegradation.

  15. Irrigation Water Management in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aureo S de Oliveira

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Latin American countries show a great potential for expanding their irrigated areas. Irrigation is important for strengthening local and regional economy and for enhancing food security. The present paper aimed at providing a brief review on key aspects of irrigation management in Latin America. Poor irrigation management can have great impact on crop production and on environment while good management reduces the waste of soil and water and help farmers maximizing their profits. It was found that additional research is needed to allow a better understanding of crop water requirements under Latin American conditions as well as to provide farmers with local derived information for irrigation scheduling. The advantages of deficit irrigation practices and the present and future opportunities with the application of remote sensing tools for water management were also considered. It is clear that due to the importance of irrigated agriculture, collaborative work among Latin American researchers and institutions is of paramount importance to face the challenges imposed by a growing population, environment degradation, and competition in the global market.

  16. [Irrigants and intracanal medicaments in endodontics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zehnder, Matthias; Lehnert, Birgit; Schönenberger, Kathrin; Waltimo, Tuomas

    2003-01-01

    Modern, biologic root canal therapy should be performed with suitable irrigating solutions and intracanal medicaments. The goal of endodontic treatment is to free the treated tooth from infection and prevent reinfection as thoroughly as possible by means which do not put the organism at risk. In this review of the literature, an evidence-based concept for irrigation and medication of root canal systems is presented. Irrigants and medicaments are discussed with respect to their antimicrobial, tissue-dissolving and endotoxin-decontaminating capacity in relation to their systemic toxicity. Recent findings pertaining to interactions of root canal medicaments and irrigating solutions and their impact on a sound irrigating and medicating concept are discussed.

  17. Release of Growth Factors into Root Canal by Irrigations in Regenerative Endodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Qian; Nguyen, Sean; Zhang, Hongming; Chebrolu, Hari Priya; Alzebdeh, Dalia; Badi, Mustafa A; Kim, Jong Ryul; Ling, Junqi; Yang, Maobin

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the release of growth factors into root canal space after the irrigation procedure of regenerative endodontic procedure. Sixty standardized root segments were prepared from extracted single-root teeth. Nail varnish was applied to all surfaces except the root canal surface. Root segments were irrigated with 1.5% NaOCl + 17% EDTA, 2.5% NaOCl + 17% EDTA, 17% EDTA, or deionized water. The profile of growth factors that were released after irrigation was studied by growth factor array. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to validate the release of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) at 4 hours, 1 day, and 3 days after irrigation. The final concentrations were calculated on the basis of the root canal volume measured by cone-beam computed tomography. Dental pulp stem cell migration on growth factors released from root segments was measured by using Transwell assay. Total of 11 of 41 growth factors were detected by growth factors array. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay showed that TGF-β1 was released in all irrigation groups. Compared with the group with 17% EDTA (6.92 ± 4.49 ng/mL), the groups with 1.5% NaOCl + 17% EDTA and 2.5% NaOCl + 17% EDTA had significantly higher release of TGF-β1 (69.04 ± 30.41 ng/mL and 59.26 ± 3.37 ng/mL, respectively), with a peak release at day 1. The release of bFGF was detected at a low level in all groups (0 ng/mL to 0.43 ± 0.22 ng/mL). Migration assay showed the growth factors released from root segments induced dental pulp stem cell migration. The root segment model in present study simulated clinical scenario and indicated that the current irrigation protocol released a significant amount of TGF-β1 but not bFGF. The growth factors released into root canal space induced dental pulp stem cell migration. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. [Influence of water deficit and supplemental irrigation on nitrogen uptake by winter wheat and nitrogen residual in soil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhaohui; Wang, Bing; Li, Shengxiu

    2004-08-01

    Pot experiment in greenhouse showed that water deficit at all growth stages and supplemental irrigation at tillering stage significantly decreased the nitrogen uptake by winter wheat and increased the mineral N residual (79.8-113.7 mg x kg(-1)) in soil. Supplemental irrigation at over-wintering, jointing or filling stage significantly increased the nitrogen uptake by plant and decreased the nitrogen residual (47.2-60.3 mg x kg(-1)) in soil. But, the increase of nitrogen uptake caused by supplemental irrigation did not always mean a high magnitude of efficient use of nitrogen by plants. Supplemental irrigation at over-wintering stage didn't induce any significant change in nitrogen content of grain, irrigation at filling stage increased the nitrogen content by 20.9%, and doing this at jointing stage decreased the nitrogen content by 19.6%, as compared to the control.

  19. Communication between irrigation engineers and farmers : the case of project design in North Senegal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheer, S.H.

    1996-01-01

    Introduction

    Irrigation schemes all over the world are often marked by a large number of related problems that have an important human dimension and are too complex to be straightforwardly solved. A starting point of this thesis is that these problems have to be dealt

  20. Water as an economic good in irrigated agriculture: theory and practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hellegers, P.J.G.J.; Perry, C.J.

    2004-01-01

    This report describes the results of the Water Valuation and Pricing project, which aims to provide insight into the relevance of economics to typical problems found in irrigated agriculture. It first considers the theoretical basis for the use of economic instruments, then considers their

  1. Bayesian Belief Networks Approach for Modeling Irrigation Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andriyas, S.; McKee, M.

    2012-12-01

    Canal operators need information to manage water deliveries to irrigators. Short-term irrigation demand forecasts can potentially valuable information for a canal operator who must manage an on-demand system. Such forecasts could be generated by using information about the decision-making processes of irrigators. Bayesian models of irrigation behavior can provide insight into the likely criteria which farmers use to make irrigation decisions. This paper develops a Bayesian belief network (BBN) to learn irrigation decision-making behavior of farmers and utilizes the resulting model to make forecasts of future irrigation decisions based on factor interaction and posterior probabilities. Models for studying irrigation behavior have been rarely explored in the past. The model discussed here was built from a combination of data about biotic, climatic, and edaphic conditions under which observed irrigation decisions were made. The paper includes a case study using data collected from the Canal B region of the Sevier River, near Delta, Utah. Alfalfa, barley and corn are the main crops of the location. The model has been tested with a portion of the data to affirm the model predictive capabilities. Irrigation rules were deduced in the process of learning and verified in the testing phase. It was found that most of the farmers used consistent rules throughout all years and across different types of crops. Soil moisture stress, which indicates the level of water available to the plant in the soil profile, was found to be one of the most significant likely driving forces for irrigation. Irrigations appeared to be triggered by a farmer's perception of soil stress, or by a perception of combined factors such as information about a neighbor irrigating or an apparent preference to irrigate on a weekend. Soil stress resulted in irrigation probabilities of 94.4% for alfalfa. With additional factors like weekend and irrigating when a neighbor irrigates, alfalfa irrigation

  2. Evaluation model development for sprinkler irrigation uniformity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    Sprinkle and trickle irrigation. The. Blackburn Press, New Jersey, USA. Li JS, Rao MJ (1999). Evaluation method of sprinkler irrigation nonuniformity. Trans. CSAE. 15(4): 78-82. Lin Z, Merkley GP (2011). Relationships between common irrigation application uniformity indicators. Irrig Sci. Online First™, 27 January. 2011.

  3. Effect of different infusion regimens on colonic motility and efficacy of colostomy irrigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gattuso, J M; Kamm, M A; Myers, C; Saunders, B; Roy, A

    1996-10-01

    The colonic motility response and short-term clinical effectiveness of colonic irrigation was studied in five patients with an end-colostomy, each of whom was studied on up to six occasions, using volumes of 500 and 1500 ml water infused under gravity and over a period of 2.5 and 5 min with a pump. The median baseline colonic luminal pressure was 14 cmH2O and rose to 42 cmH2O with a 500-ml infusion, and to 74 cmH2O with a 1500-ml infusion. Irrigation induced high-pressure (over 200 cmH2O) propagated waves which caused the efflux of colonic contents. These were more numerous after a 1500- than a 500-ml infusion (median 4.5 versus 2.0 respectively). There was no difference between the two volumes infused in the incidence of colostomy break-through before subsequent irrigation. Colostomy irrigation with 500-1500 ml water appears to produce intracolonic pressure rises that are safe. These volumes can be infused rapidly under gravity alone.

  4. Survey the Effects of Partial Root Zone Deficit Irrigation and Deficit Irrigation on Quantitative, Qualitative and Water Use Efficiency of Pomegranate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mohammad saeed tadaion

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: One of the latest efficient methods on increment of water use efficiency that confirmed by many scientists all over the world is deficit and alternative partial root zone deficit irrigation. In this experiment the effect of deficit and alternative partial root zone deficit irrigation on fruit yield, quality and water use efficiency of pomegranate (Punicagranatum (L. cv. Zarde-anar were investigatedin Arsenjan semi-arid region. Materials and Methods: The experiment was carried out in a constant plots and randomized complete block design (RCBD with four replicationsin five years.Treatmentswere 1- full flood irrigation (100 percent crop water requirement (T1 2- flood irrigation with 100 percent crop water requirement as alternate partial root-zone irrigation(every irrigation conducted on one side of tree (T2 3- flood irrigation with 50 percent crop water requirement as regular deficit irrigation (T3 4- full two-side drip irrigation(with regard to crop water requirement (eight drippers with twolit/hour flow by two different individual networks (T4 5- alternate partial root-zone drip irrigation with 100 percent crop water requirement (T5 6- regular deficit drip irrigation with 50 percent crop water requirement (T6 in every irrigation period. Each experimental treatment includes four trees and 96 similar twelve years old trees overall. Cultivation practice was conducted similarly on all of the trees. Results and Discussion: Results showed that the highest yield and water use efficiency based on statistical analysis belong to both PRD treatments i.e. alternate partial root-zone drip irrigation with 100 percent crop water requirement and alternate partial root-zone flood irrigation with 100 percent crop water requirement, respectively, that both of them decreased water requirement for irrigation up to 35 and 50 percent in comparison tocontrol. Application of partial root drying irrigation on both traditional flood irrigation and drip

  5. NaCl protects against Cd and Cu-induced toxicity in the halophyte Atriplex halimus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bankaji, I.; Sleimi, N.; Gómez-Cadenas, A.; Pérez-Clemente, R.M.

    2016-07-01

    The objective of the present work was to evaluate the extent of Cd- and Cu-induced oxidative stress and the antioxidant response triggered in the halophyte species Atriplex halimus after metallic trace elements exposure. Plants were treated for one month with Cd2+ or Cu2+ (400 µM) in the absence or presence of 200 mM NaCl in the irrigation solution. The interaction between salinity and heavy metal stress was analyzed in relation to plant growth, tissue ion contents (Na+, K+ and Mg2+), oxidative damage and antioxidative metabolism. Data indicate that shoot and root weight significantly decreased as a consequence of Cd2+- or Cu2+-induced stress. Metallic stress leads to unbalanced nutrient uptake by reducing the translocation of K+ and Mg2+ from the root to the shoot. The levels of malondialdehyde increased in root tissue when Cd, and especially Cu, were added to the irrigation solution, indicating that oxidative damage occurred. Results showed that NaCl gave a partial protection against Cd and Cu induced toxicity, although these contaminants had distinct influence on plant physiology. It can be concluded that salinity drastically modified heavy metal absorption and improved plant growth. Salinity also decreased oxidative damage, but differently in plants exposed to Cd or Cu stress.

  6. GOLF COURSES AS A SOURCE OF COASTAL CONTAMINATION AND TOXICITY: A FLORIDA EXPERIENCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The chemical and biological impacts of two coastal golf courses that receive wastewater spray irrigation were determined during a two-year period. A variety of techniques were used to assess the spatial and temporal variability of contaminant levels and their bioavailability in t...

  7. Irrigation as an Historical Climate Forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Benjamin I.; Shukla, Sonali P.; Puma, Michael J.; Nazarenko, Larissa S.

    2014-01-01

    Irrigation is the single largest anthropogenic water use, a modification of the land surface that significantly affects surface energy budgets, the water cycle, and climate. Irrigation, however, is typically not included in standard historical general circulation model (GCM) simulations along with other anthropogenic and natural forcings. To investigate the importance of irrigation as an anthropogenic climate forcing, we conduct two 5-member ensemble GCM experiments. Both are setup identical to the historical forced (anthropogenic plus natural) scenario used in version 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project, but in one experiment we also add water to the land surface using a dataset of historically estimated irrigation rates. Irrigation has a negligible effect on the global average radiative balance at the top of the atmosphere, but causes significant cooling of global average surface air temperatures over land and dampens regional warming trends. This cooling is regionally focused and is especially strong in Western North America, the Mediterranean, the Middle East, and Asia. Irrigation enhances cloud cover and precipitation in these same regions, except for summer in parts of Monsoon Asia, where irrigation causes a reduction in monsoon season precipitation. Irrigation cools the surface, reducing upward fluxes of longwave radiation (increasing net longwave), and increases cloud cover, enhancing shortwave reflection (reducing net shortwave). The relative magnitude of these two processes causes regional increases (northern India) or decreases (Central Asia, China) in energy availability at the surface and top of the atmosphere. Despite these changes in net radiation, however, climate responses are due primarily to larger magnitude shifts in the Bowen ratio from sensible to latent heating. Irrigation impacts on temperature, precipitation, and other climate variables are regionally significant, even while other anthropogenic forcings (anthropogenic aerosols

  8. Colostomy irrigation: are we offering it enough?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodhouse, Fran

    This article discusses the use of irrigation for suitable colostomists and reasons why it can have a very positive effect on lifestyle. While it is evidence-based it also includes anecdotal tips from patients who irrigate. The suitability of patients to irrigate and ways to 'get started' with irrigation are discussed.

  9. Changes of soil organic matter and microbial activity in irrigated and non irrigated olive groves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavvadias, Victor; Papadopoulou, Maria; Theocharopoulos, Sideris; Vavoulidou, Evagelia; Doula, Maria; Reppas, Spiros

    2014-05-01

    The implementation of olive cultivation techniques in Greece has not been systematically tested under the prevailing Mediterranean conditions. A LIFE+ project was initiated (oLIVE-CLIMA; LIFE 11/ENV/000942) aiming to introduce new management practices in olive tree crops that lead to increased carbon dioxide uptake by plants as well as carbon sequestration from the atmosphere and reverse the trend of soil organic matter decline, erosion and desertification. This paper presents data on soil organic matter and microbial activity from a soil campaign in a pilot region in Greece, and particularly in the area of Chora, prefecture of Messinia, South west Peloponnese. The soil campaign took place during the period December 2012-February 2013. Twelve soil parcels of olive groves were selected (6 irrigated and 6 rainfed) and in each soil parcel six composite soil samples were taken from 0-10 cm depth at equal intervals along a straight line of the trunk of the tree to the middle of the distance from the nearest tree of the next tree series. The first three samples were under olive tree canopy. An additional composite sample was taken at depth of 10-40 cm. Soil samples were analyzed for soil physicochemical and biological properties. In this study results for total organic carbon (TOC), soil basal microbial respiration (BR), microbial biomass C (MB-C) from the region of Messinia, are presented. Organic matter was determined by dichromate oxidation. The microbial activity was measured by the amount of CO2 evolution, while microbial biomass C was determined by substrate-induced respiration, after the addition of glucose. The results showed considerable differences in TOC, BR and MB-C associated with the sampling position and soil depth. The higher TOC, BR and MB-C values, in most cases, were determined in samples taken from points under the canopy, but not close to the tree trunk compared to the sampling points outside the canopy. This indicates the positive effect of

  10. A scintigraphic study of colostomy irrigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasuda, Shinji; Fujii, Hisao; Nakano, Hiroshige (Nara Medical Univ., Kashihara (Japan))

    1991-09-01

    Colostomy irrigation was investigated by colonoscintigraphy. Twelve rectal cancer and one sigmoid colon cancer patients were examined. The tepid water whose volume was determined by barium enema was mixed with {sup 99m}Tc-DTPA. Dynamic scanning was started on commencement of colostomy irrigation. The sampling time was 3 seconds and scanning was performed for 30 minutes. The mean volume of remnant colon as measured by barium enema was 650 ml. The mean number of mass movements was 4.3. The mean evacuation time was 11 minutes 56 seconds and the mean half emptying time was calculated to be 9.5 minutes. The evacuation time in the patients who underwent colostomy irrigation for more than 2 years was greater than that in the patients who underwent irrigation for less than 2 years. Colonic motility was thought to have weakened. The half emptying time and the number of mass movements in the patients whose irrigation water went into the terminal ileum was more than that in the patients whose irrigation water was within the colon and cecum. Irrigation water which went into the terminal ileum was caused evacuation after the contents of the remnant colon were washed out. In conclusion, patients should have their colostomy irrigated with the tepid water, volume is determined by barium enema. Furthermore single infusion of the water is recommended. (author).

  11. A scintigraphic study of colostomy irrigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasuda, Shinji; Fujii, Hisao; Nakano, Hiroshige

    1991-01-01

    Colostomy irrigation was investigated by colonoscintigraphy. Twelve rectal cancer and one sigmoid colon cancer patients were examined. The tepid water whose volume was determined by barium enema was mixed with 99m Tc-DTPA. Dynamic scanning was started on commencement of colostomy irrigation. The sampling time was 3 seconds and scanning was performed for 30 minutes. The mean volume of remnant colon as measured by barium enema was 650 ml. The mean number of mass movements was 4.3. The mean evacuation time was 11 minutes 56 seconds and the mean half emptying time was calculated to be 9.5 minutes. The evacuation time in the patients who underwent colostomy irrigation for more than 2 years was greater than that in the patients who underwent irrigation for less than 2 years. Colonic motility was thought to have weakened. The half emptying time and the number of mass movements in the patients whose irrigation water went into the terminal ileum was more than that in the patients whose irrigation water was within the colon and cecum. Irrigation water which went into the terminal ileum was caused evacuation after the contents of the remnant colon were washed out. In conclusion, patients should have their colostomy irrigated with the tepid water, volume is determined by barium enema. Furthermore single infusion of the water is recommended. (author)

  12. Evaluation of Populus and Salix continuously irrigated with landfill leachate II. soils and early tree development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalesny, Ronald S; Bauer, Edmund O

    2007-01-01

    Soil contaminant levels and early tree growth data are helpful for assessing phytoremediation systems. Populus (DN17, DN182, DN34, NM2, and NM6) and Salix (94003, 94012, S287, S566, and SX61) genotypes were irrigated with landfill leachate or municipal water and tested for differences in (1) element concentrations (P, K, Ca, Mg, S, Zn, B, Mn, Fe, Cu, Al, and Na) of a topsoil layer and a layer of sand in tanks with a cover crop of trees or no trees and (2) height, diameter, volume, and dry mass of leaves, stems, and roots. Trees were irrigated with leachate or water during the final 12 wk of the 18-wk study. Differences in most soil element concentrations were negligible (P > 0.05) for irrigation treatments and cover main effects. Phosphorous, K, Mg, S, Zn, Mn, Fe, and Al concentrations were greater in topsoil than sand (P = 0.0011 for Mg; P tree yield. From a practical standpoint, these results may be used as a baseline for the development of future remediation systems.

  13. Control of everyday contamination problems in a hot cell laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buch, R.

    1983-01-01

    For handling unsealed radioactive materials, contamination monitoring and the application of appropriate methods for the prevention of contamination are essential measures to achieve radiation protection safety at the working place and during operation. It is essential to know which are the contamination sources and which circumstances may lead to contamination release and diffusion. Depending on the kind of contamination and the extent of the resulting radiation exposure, suitable easy-to-use measuring equipment is necessary. The lecture shows how contamination release can be limited or prevented, and detected in due time by the use of appropriate measuring instruments, so that contaminations and the ways of decontaminating do not necessarily cause increased dose rates. (orig.) [de

  14. The influence of the microbial quality of wastewater, lettuce cultivars and enumeration technique when estimating the microbial contamination of wastewater-irrigated lettuce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makkaew, P; Miller, M; Cromar, N J; Fallowfield, H J

    2017-04-01

    This study investigated the volume of wastewater retained on the surface of three different varieties of lettuce, Iceberg, Cos, and Oak leaf, following submersion in wastewater of different microbial qualities (10, 10 2 , 10 3 , and 10 4 E. coli MPN/100 mL) as a surrogate method for estimation of contamination of spray-irrigated lettuce. Uniquely, Escherichia coli was enumerated, after submersion, on both the outer and inner leaves and in a composite sample of lettuce. E. coli were enumerated using two techniques. Firstly, from samples of leaves - the direct method. Secondly, using an indirect method, where the E. coli concentrations were estimated from the volume of wastewater retained by the lettuce and the E. coli concentration of the wastewater. The results showed that different varieties of lettuce retained significantly different volumes of wastewater (p 0.01) were detected between E. coli counts obtained from different parts of lettuce, nor between the direct and indirect enumeration methods. Statistically significant linear relationships were derived relating the E. coli concentration of the wastewater in which the lettuces were submerged to the subsequent E. coli count on each variety the lettuce.

  15. Integrated water-crop-soil-management system for evaluating the quality of irrigation water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pla-Sentis, I.

    1983-01-01

    The authors make use of an independent balance of the salts and ions present in the water available for irrigation, based on the residence times in the soil solution that are allowed by solubility limits and drainage conditions, to develop an efficient system for evaluating the quality of such water which combines the factors: water, crop, soil and management. The system is based on the principle that such quality depends not only on the concentration and composition of the salts dissolved in the water, but also on existing possibilities and limitations in using and managing it in respect of the soil and crops, with allowance for the crop's tolerance of salinity, drainage conditions and hydrological properties of the soils, climate and current or potential practices for the management of the irrigation. If this system is used to quantify approximately the time behaviour of the concentration and composition of the salts in the soil solution, it is possible not only to predict the effects on soil, crops and drainage water, but also to evaluate the various combinations of irrigation water, soil, crops and management and to select the most suitable. It is also useful for fairly accurately diagnosing current problems of salinity and for identifying alternatives and possibilities for reclamation. Examples of its use for these purposes in Venezuela are presented with particular reference to the diagnosis of the present and future development of ''salino-sodic'' and ''sodic'' soils by means of low-salt irrigation water spread over agricultural soils with very poor drainage in a sub-humid or semi-arid tropical climate. The authors also describe the use of radiation techniques for gaining an understanding of the relations between the factors making up the system and for improving the quantitative evaluations required to diagnose problems and to select the best management methods for the available irrigation water. (author)

  16. Soil water movement in the unsaturated zone of an inland arid region: Mulched drip irrigation experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Dongmei; Zhou, Tiantian

    2018-04-01

    Agricultural irrigation with trans-basin water diversion can effectively relieve the water paucity in arid and semi-arid regions, however, this may be accompanied by eco-environmental problems (e.g., saline soils, rising groundwater levels, water quality problems). The mechanism of soil water movement under irrigation in the unsaturated zone of arid regions is a key scientific problem that should be solved in order to evaluate agricultural water management and further improve current irrigation practices. This study investigated the impact of drip irrigation on soil water movement in the unsaturated zone of a cotton field in an inland arid region (the Karamay Agricultural Development Area), northwest China. Combining in situ observational physical data with temporal variation in stable isotopic compositions of soil water, we described the soil water flow system and mechanism in severe (Plot 1) and mild (Plot 2) saline-alkali cotton fields. The infiltration depths are 0-150 cm for both plots. Drip irrigation scheduling makes no significant contribution to local groundwater recharge, however, groundwater can move into the unsaturated zone through capillary rise during cotton flowering and boll periods. Plot 2 is less prone to having secondary soil salinization than Plot 1 due to the existence of a middle layer (approximately 100 cm thick), which elongated the distance between the root zone and aquifer. Rise in the water table (approximately 60 cm for Plot 1 and 50 cm for Plot 2) could be caused by lateral groundwater flow instead of vertical infiltration. We estimated the soil water storage changes in the unsaturated zone and proposed a conceptual model for deciphering the movement process of soil water. This study provides a scientific basis for determining the rise of groundwater levels and potential development of saline soils and improving agricultural water management in arid regions.

  17. Quantitative assessment of human exposure to extended spectrum and AmpC β-lactamases bearing E. coli in lettuce attributable to irrigation water and subsequent horizontal gene transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njage, P M K; Buys, E M

    2017-01-02

    The contribution of the fresh produce production environment to human exposure with bacteria bearing extended spectrum β-lactamases and AmpC β-lactamases (ESBL/AmpC) has not been reported. High prevalence of ESBLs/AmpC bearing E. coli as well as a high gene transfer efficiency of lettuce and irrigation water E. coli isolates was previously reported. This stochastic modeling was aimed at quantitatively assessing human exposure to ESBL/AmpC bearing E. coli through lettuce attributable to irrigation water and subsequent horizontal gene transfer. Modular process risk approach was used for the quantitative exposure assessment and models were constructed in Ms. Excel spreadsheet with farm to consumption chain accounted for by primary production, processing, retail and consumer storage. Probability distributions were utilised to take into account the variability of the exposure estimates. Exposure resulting from ESBL/AmpC positive E. coli and gene transfer was taken into account. Monte Carlo simulation was carried out using @Risk software followed by sensitivity and scenario analysis to assess most effective single or combinations of mitigation strategies for the ESBL/AmpC positive E. coli events from farm to fork. Three percent of South African lettuce consumers are exposed to lettuce contaminated with about 10 6.4 ±10 6.7 (95% CI: 10 5.1 -10 7 ) cfu of ESBL/AmpC positive E. coli per serving. The contribution of originally positive isolates and conjugative genetic transfer was 10 6 ±10 6.7 (95% CI: 10 5 -10 7 ) and 10 5.2 ±10 5.6 (95% CI: 10 3.9 -10 5.8 ) cfu per serving respectively. Proportion of ESBL/AmpC positive E. coli (Spearman's correlation coefficient (ρ)=0.85), conjugative gene transfer (ρ=0.05-0.14), washing in chlorine water (ρ=0.18), further rinsing (ρ=0.15), and prevalence of E. coli in irrigation water (ρ=0.16) had highest influence on consumer exposure. The most effective single methods in reducing consumer exposure were reduction in irrigation

  18. Impacts of Irrigation on the Heat Fluxes and Near-Surface Temperature in an Inland Irrigation Area of Northern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Jiang

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Irrigated agriculture has the potential to alter regional to global climate significantly. We investigate how irrigation will affect regional climate in the future in an inland irrigation area of northern China, focusing on its effects on heat fluxes and near-surface temperature. Using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF model, we compare simulations among three land cover scenarios: the control scenario (CON, the irrigation scenario (IRR, and the irrigated cropland expansion scenario (ICE. Our results show that the surface energy budgets and temperature are sensitive to changes in the extent and spatial pattern of irrigated land. Conversion to irrigated agriculture at the contemporary scale leads to an increase in annual mean latent heat fluxes of 12.10 W m−2, a decrease in annual mean sensible heat fluxes of 8.85 W m−2, and a decrease in annual mean temperature of 1.3 °C across the study region. Further expansion of irrigated land increases annual mean latent heat fluxes by 18.08 W m−2, decreases annual mean sensible heat fluxes by 12.31 W m−2, and decreases annual mean temperature by 1.7 °C. Our simulated effects of irrigation show that changes in land use management such as irrigation can be an important component of climate change and need to be considered together with greenhouse forcing in climate change assessments.

  19. Bacterial contamination of intraocular lens surgery.

    OpenAIRE

    Vafidis, G C; Marsh, R J; Stacey, A R

    1984-01-01

    One hundred sterile intraocular lenses were placed on the external eye of 50 patients during cataract surgery. Half of the specimens were cultured for bacteria, the other half were examined under the light microscope after fixing and staining. A bacterial contamination rate of 26% was recorded. This is significantly higher than that found in conjunctival swabs (6%) or irrigation specimens (8%) taken at the same time, and higher than that recorded in a group of control lenses (15.2%) exposed t...

  20. Agriculture Irrigation and Water Use

    OpenAIRE

    Bajwa, Rajinder S.; Crosswhite, William M.; Hostetler, John E.; Wright, Olivia W.; United States Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service

    1992-01-01

    The 17 Western States, plus Arkansas, Florida, and Louisiana, account for 91 percent of all U.S. irrigated acreage, with the Western States alone contributing over 85 percent. This report integrates data on the distribution, characteristics, uses, and management of water resources from a wide variety of data sources. The report includes charts and tables on water use in irrigation; farm data comparing selected characteristics of irrigated and nonirrigated farms; and data on water applicatio...

  1. Online decision support system for surface irrigation management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenchao; Cui, Yuanlai

    2017-04-01

    Irrigation has played an important role in agricultural production. Irrigation decision support system is developed for irrigation water management, which can raise irrigation efficiency with few added engineering services. An online irrigation decision support system (OIDSS), in consist of in-field sensors and central computer system, is designed for surface irrigation management in large irrigation district. Many functions have acquired in OIDSS, such as data acquisition and detection, real-time irrigation forecast, water allocation decision and irrigation information management. The OIDSS contains four parts: Data acquisition terminals, Web server, Client browser and Communication system. Data acquisition terminals are designed to measure paddy water level, soil water content in dry land, ponds water level, underground water level, and canals water level. A web server is responsible for collecting meteorological data, weather forecast data, the real-time field data, and manager's feedback data. Water allocation decisions are made in the web server. Client browser is responsible for friendly displaying, interacting with managers, and collecting managers' irrigation intention. Communication system includes internet and the GPRS network used by monitoring stations. The OIDSS's model is based on water balance approach for both lowland paddy and upland crops. Considering basic database of different crops water demands in the whole growth stages and irrigation system engineering information, the OIDSS can make efficient decision of water allocation with the help of real-time field water detection and weather forecast. This system uses technical methods to reduce requirements of user's specialized knowledge and can also take user's managerial experience into account. As the system is developed by the Browser/Server model, it is possible to make full use of the internet resources, to facilitate users at any place where internet exists. The OIDSS has been applied in

  2. Irrigating The Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamson, D.

    2017-12-01

    Water insecurity and water inequality are international issues that reduce economic growth. Countries are adopting alternative approaches to rebalance the share of water between all users to mitigate economic loss for this and future generations. However, recent reforms have struggled to provide the necessary arguments to obtain political protection of the process. In the absence of proof, rent-seeking arguments have challenged the benefit of restoring environmental flows by arguing that policy design fails to maximise the environmental benefits. This is a problem in Australia's Murray-Darling Basin (MDB), where despite establishing 3,200GL of environmental water, the policy is still under threat. Applied water economic policy advice fails, when it does not deal with uncertainty. The state-contingent analysis approach can map how individual decision makers can adapt to alternative states of water supply (i.e. drought, normal and wet) by reallocating inputs to obtain state-described outputs. By modelling changes to the states, or the frequency of the states occurring, climate change can modelled, and decision management responses explored. By treating the environment as another set of production systems, lessons learnt from managing perennial and annual agricultural production systems during the Millennium Drought in the MDB can be applied to explore the limits of irrigating the environment. The demand for water by a production system is a combination of state-general (must be irrigated every year e.g. perennial crop or permanent wetland) and state specific inputs (irrigate in response to the realise state). In simple terms, the greater the component of state-general water requirements a production system has, the less resilience it has when water supply is highly variable and if water is not available then production systems are irreversibly lost. While production systems that only need state-allocable water can adapt to alternative levels of scarcity without

  3. Μetal Uptake by Sunflower (Helianthus annuus) Irrigated with Water Polluted with Chromium and Nickel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoikou, Vasiliki; Andrianos, Vangelis; Stasinos, Sotiris; Kostakis, Marios G; Attiti, Sofia; Thomaidis, Nikolaos S; Zabetakis, Ioannis

    2017-07-17

    The water aquifers of the regions of Asopos River in Viotia and Messapia in Evia (Greece) have been contaminated with hexavalent chromium (Cr (VI)) and bivalent nickel (Ni (II)). Given that these areas are the two biggest tuber producing regions of Greece, in our previous work, the cross-contamination of the food chain with these two heavy metals was quantified. In the present study, the potential of sunflower ( Helianthus annuus ) cultivation in these regions is evaluated. The scope of our study was to investigate the uptake of chromium and nickel by sunflower, in a greenhouse experiment. The study included two cultivation periods of plants in six irrigation lines with different levels of Cr (VI) and Ni (II) ranging from 0 μg/L (control) to 10,000 μg/L. In all plant parts, statistically significant increased levels of Cr (VI) and Ni (II) were found when compared to control ones. Also, a positive correlation, both for Cr and Ni, between levels of heavy metals in irrigation water and plants was observed. Following European Food Safety Authority recommendations, the obtained oil was evaluated as safe for consumption, therefore, sunflower cultivation could be a valid bioremediation solution for the Asopos and Messapia regions.

  4. The Impact of Regular and Periodic Irrigation on the Fertility and Productivity of an Ordinary Chernozem of the Azov Irrigation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shchedrin, V. N.

    2016-02-01

    The effect of regular and periodic irrigation on the fertility and productivity of an ordinary chernozem cultivated under different conditions within the same cereal-fodder crop rotation is discussed. The investigation object is located in the area of the Azov irrigation system on the second terrace of the Don River in Rostov oblast. Irrigation water for the system is taken from the Veselovsk water reservoir. Its salinity is 1.7-2.1 g/dm3, and the salt composition is sulfate-sodium. The field experiments were performed in 2006-2013 on three experimental plots. Two of them were regularly irrigated; the third plot was periodically irrigated with alternation of 2-year-long periods with and without irrigation. Our study proved that periodic irrigation could be applied in the chernozemic zone. This new irrigation mode contributes to the preservation of the natural soil-forming process and stops the development of unfavorable processes typical of the lands irrigated with water of inadequate quality. In eight years of cultivation of the ordinary chernozem with periodic irrigation, the soil humus content increased by 10% (from 3.80 to 4.15%), and the yield reached 66.0 t/ha of fodder units. This was 9% higher than the yield obtained upon regular irrigation without agroameliorative measures and 12% lower than the yield upon regular irrigation in combination with soil-protective measures. Our data suggest that periodic irrigation is promising for the chernozemic zone, because it ensures lower water loads and preservation of the irrigated chernozems.

  5. 21 CFR 876.5895 - Ostomy irrigator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ostomy irrigator. 876.5895 Section 876.5895 Food... DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5895 Ostomy irrigator. (a) Identification. An ostomy irrigator is a device that consists of a container for fluid, tubing with a cone-shaped...

  6. Sorption behavior of nonylphenol (NP) on sewage-irrigated soil: Kinetic and thermodynamic studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao, Xiaoping; Zhang, Caixiang; Yao, Linlin; Li, Jiale; Liu, Min; Xu, Liang; Evalde, Mulindankaka

    2014-01-01

    The reuse of wastewater for irrigation of agricultural land is a well established resources management practice but has the disadvantage of inputting various forms of contaminants into the terrestrial environment including nonylphenol (NP), a well known endocrine disrupting substance. To elucidate the environmental fate and transport of NP, the sorption behavior on sewage-irrigated soil was studied by batch experiment. It was found that sorption processes of NP on different sorbents (soil, humic acid (HA) and silica) could be expressed well using two compartment pseudo first-order model, where both surface and intra-particle diffusion were probable rate-controlling processes. Linear model could better express the sorption of NP on soil, black carbon (BC) and mineral (e.g., SiO 2 ) except HA than Freundlich model. The large value of distribution coefficients of normalized organic carbon (K oc ) on soils indicated that NP was limited to migrate to deep soil. The higher desorption partition coefficient of NP on soil showed enhanced hysteresis. According to the experimental data, the calculated thermodynamic parameters implied that the sorption reaction on sewage-irrigation was spontaneous, exothermic and entropy decreasing process. The amount of soil organic matter (SOM) dominated the sorption capacity, whereas the sorption behavior of NP on soil showed no significant correlation with ionic strength. - Highlights: • Both surface and intra-particle diffusion were rate-controlling processes. • Soil composition influences the partition activity of NP. • Soil organic matter has dominated the sorption capacity of NP on soil. • NP molecule was limited to migrate to deep soil in sewage-irrigated area

  7. Screening of emerging contaminants and priority substances (2008/105/EC) in reclaimed water for irrigation and groundwater in a volcanic aquifer (Gran Canaria, Canary Islands, Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estévez, Esmeralda; Cabrera, María del Carmen; Molina-Díaz, Antonio; Robles-Molina, José; Palacios-Díaz, María del Pino

    2012-09-01

    In semiarid regions, reclaimed water can be an important source of emerging pollutants in groundwater. In Gran Canaria Island, reclaimed water irrigation has been practiced for over thirty years and currently represents 8% of water resources. The aim of this study was to monitor contaminants of emerging concern and priority substances (2008/105/EC) in a volcanic aquifer in the NE of Gran Canaria where the Bandama Golf Course has been sprinkled with reclaimed water since 1976. Reclaimed water and groundwater were monitoring quarterly from July 2009 to May 2010. Only 43% of the 183 pollutants analysed were detected: 42 pharmaceuticals, 20 pesticides, 12 polyaromatic hydrocarbons, 2 volatile organic compounds and 2 flame retardants. The most frequent compounds were caffeine, nicotine, chlorpyrifos ethyl, fluorene, phenanthrene and pyrene. Concentrations were always below 50 ng L(-1), although some pharmaceuticals and one pesticide, cholrpyrifos ethyl, were occasionally detected at higher concentrations. This priority substance for surface water exceeded the maximum threshold (0.1 μg L(-1)) for pesticide concentration in groundwater (2006/118/EC). Sorption and degradation processes in soil account for more compounds being detected in reclaimed water than in groundwater, and that some contaminants were always detected in reclaimed water, but never in groundwater (flufenamic acid, propyphenazone, terbutryn and diazinon). Furthermore, erythromycin was always detected in reclaimed water (exceeding occasionally 0.1 μg L(-1)), and was detected only once in groundwater. In contrast, some compounds (phenylephrine, nifuroxazide and miconazole) never detected in reclaimed water, were always detected in groundwater. This fact and the same concentration range detected for the groups, regardless of the water origin, indicated alternative contaminant sources (septic tanks, agricultural practices and sewerage breaks). The widespread detection of high adsorption potential compounds

  8. Prevalence of Parasitic Contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Yazan

    2016-01-01

    One of the main ways in transmitting parasites to humans is through consuming contaminated raw vegetables. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of parasitological contamination (helminthes eggs, Giardia and Entamoeba histolytica cysts) of salad vegetables sold at supermarkets and street vendors in Amman and Baqa’a – Jordan. A total of 133 samples of salad vegetables were collected and examined for the prevalence of parasites. It was found that 29% of the samples were contaminated with different parasites. Of the 30 lettuce, 33 tomato, 42 parsley and 28 cucumber samples examined the prevalence of Ascaris spp. eggs was 43%, 15%, 21% and 4%; Toxocara spp. eggs was 30%, 0%, 0% and 4%; Giardia spp. cysts was 23%, 6%, 0% and 0%; Taenia/Echinococcus eggs was 20%, 0%, 5% and 0%; Fasciola hepatica eggs was 13%, 3%, 2% and 0%; and E. histolytica cysts was 10%, 6%, 0% and 0%, respectively. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of parasite in salad vegetables either between supermarkets and street vendors, or between Amman and Baqa’a, Ascaris spp. was found to be the highest prevalent parasite in salad vegetables from supermarkets and street vendors and from Amman and Baqa’a. Our results pointed out that, the parasitic contamination of salad vegetables found in our study might be caused by irrigating crops with faecal contaminated water. We concluded that salad vegetables sold in Amman and Baqa’a may cause a health risk to consumers.

  9. Effects of bleaching wastewater irrigation on soil quality of constructed reed wetlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Ding

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Constructed reed wetland microcosms (CRWs in a lab of east China have been irrigated with bleaching wastewater per month for a reed growth season. The soil physicochemical properties, enzyme activities (i.e. urease, invertase, polyphenol oxidase, alkaline phosphatase and cellulase and soil microbial diversity were assayed before and after the exposure experiment. Compared to the river water irrigated controls (CKs, bleaching wastewater application has no marked influence on soil pH, but significantly increased soil Na+, total halogen and absorbable organic halogen (AOX contents, which induced the increasing of soil electrical conductivity. Furthermore, soil enzyme activities displayed significant variation (except for polyphenol oxidase. Bleaching wastewater irrigation decreased Sorenson’s pairwise similarity coefficient (Cs, which indicated the changes of the structure of bacterial and fungal communities. However, only the diversity of bacterial community was inhibited and has no effect on the diversity of fungal community, as evidenced by the calculated Shannon–Wiener index (H.

  10. Intra-Operative Surgical Irrigation of the Surgical Incision: What Does the Future Hold-Saline, Antibiotic Agents, or Antiseptic Agents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmiston, Charles E; Leaper, David J

    2016-12-01

    Intra-operative surgical site irrigation (lavage) is common practice in surgical procedures in general, with all disciplines advocating some form of irrigation before incision closure. This practice, however, has been neither standardized nor is there compelling evidence that it effectively reduces the risk of surgical site infection (SSI). This narrative review addresses the laboratory and clinical evidence that is available to support the practice of irrigation of the abdominal cavity and superficial/deep incisional tissues, using specific irrigation solutions at the end of an operative procedure to reduce the microbial burden at wound closure. Review of PubMed and OVID for pertinent, scientific, and clinical publications in the English language was performed. Incision irrigation was found to afford a three-fold benefit: First, to hydrate the bed; second, to assist in allowing better examination of the area immediately before closure; and finally, by removing superficial and deep incisional contamination and lowering the bioburden, expedite the healing process. The clinical practice of intra-operative peritoneal lavage is highly variable and is dependent solely on surgeon preference. By contrast, intra-operative irrigation after device-related procedures has become a standard of care for the prophylaxis of acute peri-prosthetic infection. The clinical evidence that supports the use of antibiotic irrigation is limited and based on retrospective analysis and few acceptable randomized controlled trials. The results of laboratory and animal studies using aqueous 0.05% chlorhexidine gluconate are favorable, suggesting that further studies are justified to determine its clinical efficacy. The adoption of appropriate and standardized intra-operative irrigation practices into peri-operative care bundles, which include other evidence-based strategies (weight-based antimicrobial prophylaxis, antimicrobial sutures, maintenance of normothermia, and glycemic control), offers

  11. Removal of bacterial contaminants and antibiotic resistance genes by conventional wastewater treatment processes in Saudi Arabia: Is the treated wastewater safe to reuse for agricultural irrigation?

    KAUST Repository

    Aljassim, Nada I.

    2015-04-01

    This study aims to assess the removal efficiency of microbial contaminants in a local wastewater treatment plant over the duration of one year, and to assess the microbial risk associated with reusing treated wastewater in agricultural irrigation. The treatment process achieved 3.5 logs removal of heterotrophic bacteria and up to 3.5 logs removal of fecal coliforms. The final chlorinated effluent had 1.8×102 MPN/100mL of fecal coliforms and fulfils the required quality for restricted irrigation. 16S rRNA gene-based high-throughput sequencing showed that several genera associated with opportunistic pathogens (e.g. Acinetobacter, Aeromonas, Arcobacter, Legionella, Mycobacterium, Neisseria, Pseudomonas and Streptococcus) were detected at relative abundance ranging from 0.014 to 21 % of the total microbial community in the influent. Among them, Pseudomonas spp. had the highest approximated cell number in the influent but decreased to less than 30 cells/100mL in both types of effluent. A culture-based approach further revealed that Pseudomonas aeruginosa was mainly found in the influent and non-chlorinated effluent but was replaced by other Pseudomonas spp. in the chlorinated effluent. Aeromonas hydrophila could still be recovered in the chlorinated effluent. Quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) determined that only chlorinated effluent should be permitted for use in agricultural irrigation as it achieved an acceptable annual microbial risk lower than 10-4 arising from both P. aeruginosa and A. hydrophila. However, the proportion of bacterial isolates resistant to 6 types of antibiotics increased from 3.8% in the influent to 6.9% in the chlorinated effluent. Examples of these antibiotic-resistant isolates in the chlorinated effluent include Enterococcus and Enterobacter spp. Besides the presence of antibiotic-resistant bacterial isolates, tetracycline resistance genes tetO, tetQ, tetW, tetH, tetZ were also present at an average 2.5×102, 1.6×102, 4.4×102, 1

  12. Nitrate Contamination of Deep Aquifers in the Salinas Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, J. E.; Esser, B. K.; Hillegonds, D. J.; Holtz, M.; Roberts, S. K.; Singleton, M. J.; Visser, A.; Kulongoski, J. T.; Belitz, K.

    2011-12-01

    The Salinas Valley, known as 'the salad bowl of the world', has been an agricultural center for more than 100 years. Irrigated row crops such as lettuce and strawberries dominate both land use and water use. Groundwater is the exclusive supply for both irrigation and drinking water. Some irrigation wells and most public water supply wells in the Salinas Valley are constructed to draw water from deep portions of the aquifer system, where contamination by nitrate is less likely than in the shallow portions of the aquifer system. However, a number of wells with top perforations greater than 75 m deep, screened below confining or semi-confining units, have nitrate concentrations greater than the Maximum Contaminant Limit (MCL) of 45 mg/L as NO3-. This study uses nitrate concentrations from several hundred irrigation, drinking water, and monitoring wells (Monterey County Water Resources Agency, 1997), along with tritium-helium groundwater ages acquired at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory through the State of California Groundwater Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) program (reported in Kulongoski et al., 2007 and in Moran et al., in press), to identify nitrate 'hot spots' in the deep aquifer and to examine possible modes of nitrate transport to the deep aquifer. In addition, observed apparent groundwater ages are compared with the results of transport simulations that use particle tracking and a stochastic-geostatistical framework to incorporate aquifer heterogeneity to determine the distribution of travel times from the water table to each well (Fogg et al., 1999). The combined evidence from nitrate, tritium, tritiogenic 3He, and radiogenic 4He concentrations, reveals complex recharge and flow to the capture zone of the deep drinking water wells. Widespread groundwater pumping for irrigation accelerates vertical groundwater flow such that high nitrate groundwater reaches some deep drinking water wells. Deeper portions of the wells often draw in water that recharged

  13. Investigation of the contamination induced by the cars travelling in the restricted area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinomura, Koji; Yamada, Norikazu; Inoue, Ryo

    2012-12-01

    Traffic on the Route 6 will increase after the revision of the evacuation area and the restricted one. The purpose of this investigation is to study on the contamination induced by cars travelling in the current restricted area. This study focuses on the police cars patrolling all over the restricted area, whose total number is up to 101 cars. The measurement issues are shown as the following, 1. Background contamination, 2. Initial contamination of a car, regarding a radiator, a tire and a tire-house in the front and the rear, just before going into the restricted area, 3. Subsequent contamination of the same parts just after leaving the area, 4. Question about the travelling routes, the districts, and the environmental conditions of every car. Each background contamination at 1cm, 30cm and 1.0m height shows about 200 cpm and keeps stable. The histogram of the contamination difference between the initial and the subsequent one corresponds to normal distribution, whose mean value lies about zero in the measurement cases of the radiators and the front and rear tires of all the cars. It means that no additional contamination by travelling in the restricted area has occurred on such parts. On other hands, the possibility of additional contamination which exceeds 500 cpm per day has been suggested particulary on the tire-houses. The contamination difference of the car travelling on roads between with and without pavements has not been identified as well as in weather conditions at least based on the obtained histograms. Eventually, patrolling around the restricted area or passing mountainous zones in the area has been recognized as a common factors which increases additional contamination to more than 500 cpm per day, but in such a case the accumulated contamination trend with daily travelling has not been identified. The average contamination level basically remains low against the screening one, 13,000 cpm, defined in the regulation. However, much attention should be

  14. Heavy metal accumulation in soils, plants, and hair samples: an assessment of heavy metal exposure risks from the consumption of vegetables grown on soils previously irrigated with wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massaquoi, Lamin Daddy; Ma, Hui; Liu, Xue Hui; Han, Peng Yu; Zuo, Shu-Mei; Hua, Zhong-Xian; Liu, Dian-Wu

    2015-12-01

    It is common knowledge that soils irrigated with wastewater accumulate heavy metals more than those irrigated with cleaner water sources. However, little is known on metal concentrations in soils and cultivars after the cessation of wastewater use. This study assessed the accumulation and health risk of heavy metals 3 years post-wastewater irrigation in soils, vegetables, and farmers' hair. Soils, vegetables, and hair samples were collected from villages previously irrigating with wastewater (experimental villages) and villages with no history of wastewater irrigation (control villages). Soil samples were digested in a mixture of HCL/HNO3/HCLO4/HF. Plants and hair samples were digested in HNO3/HCLO4 mixture. Inductive coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometer (ICP-OES) was used to determine metal concentrations of digested extracts. Study results indicate a persistence of heavy metal concentration in soils and plants from farms previously irrigated with wastewater. In addition, soils previously irrigated with wastewater were severely contaminated with cadmium. Hair metal concentrations of farmers previously irrigating with wastewater were significantly higher (P metal concentrations in hair samples of farmers previously irrigating with wastewater were not associated with current soil metal concentrations. The study concludes that there is a persistence of heavy metals in soils and plants previously irrigated with wastewater, but high metal concentrations in hair samples of farmers cannot be associated with current soil metal concentrations.

  15. Metal immobilization and phosphorus leaching after stabilization of pyrite ash contaminated soil by phosphate amendments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zupančič, Marija; Lavrič, Simona; Bukovec, Peter

    2012-02-01

    In this study we would like to show the importance of a holistic approach to evaluation of chemical stabilization using phosphate amendments. An extensive evaluation of metal stabilization in contaminated soil and an evaluation of the leaching of phosphorus induced after treatment were performed. The soil was highly contaminated with Cu (2894 mg kg(-1)), Zn (3884 mg kg(-1)), As (247 mg kg(-1)), Cd (12.6 mg kg(-1)) and Pb (3154 mg kg(-1)). To immobilize the metals, mixtures of soil with phosphate (from H(3)PO(4) and hydroxyapatite (HA) with varying ratios) were prepared with a constant Pb : P molar ratio of 1: 10. The acetic acid extractable concentration of Pb in the mixture with the highest amount of added phosphoric acid (n(H(3)PO(4)) : n(HA) = 3 : 1) was reduced to 1.9% (0.62 mg L(-1)) of the extractable Pb concentration in the untreated soil, but the content of water extractable phosphorus in the samples increased from 0.04 mg L(-1) in the untreated soil sample up to 14.3 mg L(-1) in the same n(H(3)PO(4)) : n(HA) = 3 : 1 mixture. The high increase in arsenic mobility was also observed after phosphate addition. The PBET test showed phosphate induced reduction in Pb bioavailability. In attempting to stabilize Pb in the soil with the minimum treatment-induced leaching of phosphorus, it was found that a mixture of soil with phosphate addition in the molar ratio of H(3)PO(4) : HA of 0.75 : 1 showed the most promising results, with an acetic acid extractable Pb concentration of 1.35 mg L(-1) and a water extractable phosphorus concentration of 1.76 mg L(-1). The time-dependent leaching characteristics of metals and phosphorus for this mixture were evaluated by a column experiment, where irrigation of the soil mixture with the average annual amount of precipitation in Slovenia (1000 mm) was simulated. The phosphorus concentration in the leachates decreased from 2.60 mg L(-1) at the beginning of irrigation to 1.00 mg L(-1) at the end.

  16. Comparison of traditional and ET-based irrigation scheduling of surface-irrigated cotton in the arid southwestern USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of irrigation scheduling tools to produce cotton under-surface irrigation in the arid southwesternUSA is minimal. In the State of Arizona, where traditional irrigation scheduling is the norm, producersuse an average of 1460 mm annually to grow a cotton crop. The purpose of this paper was to ...

  17. Widespread microbiological groundwater contamination in the South-eastern Salento (Puglia-Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugoli, F; Leopizzi, M I; Bagordo, F; Grassi, T; Guido, M; De Donno, A

    2011-01-01

    In the Salento peninsula (Puglia Region, South-East Italy), underground waters are a fundamental resource for the population because they constitute the principal reservoir for drinking water and irrigation. They are, however, affected by overexploitation. The risk factors in the Salento arise mainly from anthropic activities, especially tourism and agriculture (leaking wells, sewage and inadequate waste disposal procedures). The Southern Salento is recognized to be at high risk of pathologies characterised by oral-faecal transmission. From 2001 to 2009 the incidence of typhoid fever in the Salento was 12.11/100,000 inhabitants as against 2.91 in Italy. Enteritis caused by rotaviruses is an important cause of hospitalization of paediatric-aged children in the Salento, with high social costs. An effective monitoring system for the conservation and management of water bodies and the protection of public health is therefore fundamental. The present study sought to determine the microbiological and chemical-physical quality of groundwater in the Salento and to analyse the factors associated with contamination. The results indicated widespread pollution from salt and microbial contamination. Contamination from faecal microorganisms posed a significant risk of human infection in 100% of samples. Furthermore, the water was unsuitable even for irrigation in a high percentage of cases (31.8%), which is of considerable significance given that agriculture is one of the most important economic activities in the area under study. The high salt concentration was probably due to excessive extraction of water for intensive irrigation, especially in summer. Under these circumstances, some of mitigation activity is necessary. Furthermore, it would be advisable to decrease the pollution load from anthropic activities in the territory and to reduce water consumption in order to conserve groundwater resources especially.

  18. Groundwater recharge and agricultural contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhlke, J.K.

    2002-01-01

    Agriculture has had direct and indirect effects on the rates and compositions of groundwater recharge and aquifer biogeochemistry. Direct effects include dissolution and transport of excess quantities of fertilizers and associated materials and hydrologic alterations related to irrigation and drainage. Some indirect effects include changes in water–rock reactions in soils and aquifers caused by increased concentrations of dissolved oxidants, protons, and major ions. Agricultural activities have directly or indirectly affected the concentrations of a large number of inorganic chemicals in groundwater, for example NO3–, N2, Cl, SO42–, H+, P, C, K, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, Ra, and As, as well as a wide variety of pesticides and other organic compounds. For reactive contaminants like NO3–, a combination of chemical, isotopic, and environmental-tracer analytical approaches might be required to resolve changing inputs from subsequent alterations as causes of concentration gradients in groundwater. Groundwater records derived from multi-component hydrostratigraphic data can be used to quantify recharge rates and residence times of water and dissolved contaminants, document past variations in recharging contaminant loads, and identify natural contaminant-remediation processes. These data indicate that many of the world's surficial aquifers contain transient records of changing agricultural contamination from the last half of the 20th century. The transient agricultural groundwater signal has important implications for long-term trends and spatial heterogeneity in discharge.

  19. Effects of metal-contaminated soil on the performance of young trees growing in model ecosystems under field conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hermle, Sandra; Guenthardt-Goerg, Madeleine S.; Schulin, Rainer

    2006-01-01

    Young Populus tremula, Salix viminalis, Betula pendula and Picea abies trees were grown together in large open-top chambers. The treatments were: without or with (Cu/Zn/Cd/Pb = 640/3000/10/90 mg kg -1 ) metal contamination in the topsoil, irrigation pH 3.5 or 5.5, and acidic or calcareous subsoil. Growth, metal allocation to foliage and wood, as well as leaf gas exchange were measured. Biomass was reduced in P. tremula and B. pendula by the metal-contaminated topsoil relative to uncontaminated topsoil, whereas in P. tremula photosynthesis and transpiration were decreased. These effects were related to the elevated foliar Zn accumulation in P. tremula. S. viminalis showed a significant reduction in growth and an increased Zn and Cd accumulation on acidic vs. calcareous subsoil. Acidic irrigation produced only a few significant effects. P. abies showed the lowest metal uptake and no growth response to metal contamination. - Four tree species had different responses to metal treatments

  20. Effects of seedbed preparation, irrigation, and water harvesting of seedling emergence at the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkel, V.K.; Ostler, W.K.; Gabbert, W.D.; Lyon, G.E.

    1994-02-01

    Approximately 800 hectares on the US Department of Energy Nevada Test Site and vicinity are contaminated with plutonium. As part of a cleanup effort, both the indigenous vegetation and the top 5--10 cm of soil may be removed, and the soil may or may not be replaced. Technologies must be developed to stabilize and revegetate these lands. A study was developed to determine adaptable plant species, methods to prepare seedbeds for direct seeding and water harvesting, and proper irrigation rates. Plots were cleared of indigenous vegetation, and then prepared with various seedbed/water harvesting treatments including, pitting, land imprinting, and mulching. Other plots were treated with large water harvesting structures. Three irrigation treatments were superimposed over the seedbed/water harvesting treatments. Seedling emergence data was collected, and the treatment combinations compared. Supporting meteorological and soil data were collected with an automatic data-logger. Specific data included precipitation, and air temperature. In a year of above-average precipitation, irrigation did not generally aid germination and emergence of seeded species, and only slightly increased densities of species from the native seedbank. With the exception of increased shrub seedling densities in desert strips, there were no strong seedbed preparation/water harvesting treatment effects. In years of above-average rainfall, mulching and water harvesting treatments, irrigation may not be necessary to insure adequate germination and emergence of adapted perennial grasses, forbs, and shrubs in the Mojave/Great Basin Transition Desert. Future collection of survival data will determine whether a maintenance irrigation program is necessary to ensure establishmnent of native plants

  1. Surveillance for previously unmonitored organic contaminants in the San Francisco Estuary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oros, Daniel R; Jarman, Walter M; Lowe, Theresa; David, Nicole; Lowe, Sarah; Davis, Jay A

    2003-09-01

    The San Francisco Estuary Regional Monitoring Program initiated surveillance monitoring to identify previously unmonitored synthetic organic contaminants in the San Francisco Estuary. Organic extracts of water samples were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in full scan mode. The major contaminant classes identified in the samples were fire retardants, pesticides, personal care product ingredients, and plasticizers. Evidence from the literature suggests that some of these contaminants can persist in the environment, induce toxicity, and accumulate in marine biota and in higher food chain consumers. The major sources of these contaminants into the marine environment are the discharge of municipal and industrial wastewater effluents, urban stormwater, and agricultural runoff. As a proactive effort, it is suggested that surveillance studies be used routinely in monitoring programs to identify and prevent potential problem contaminants from harming the marine environment.

  2. 75 FR 43958 - Turlock Irrigation District and Modesto Irrigation District; Notice of Application for Amendment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-27

    ... to the Turlock Irrigation District's Tuolumne Substation; (2) 23-mile-long, 69-kV Don Pedro-Hawkins Line extending from the Don Pedro switchyard to the Turlock Irrigation District's Hawkins Substation...

  3. Influence of a deficit irrigation regime during ripening on berry composition in grapevines (Vitis vinifera L.) grown in semi-arid areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, María-Isabel; Sánchez, María-Teresa; Díaz, Antonio; Ramírez, Pilar; Morales, José

    2007-11-01

    A study was made of the effects of irrigation management strategies during ripening on the quality of Spanish field-grown grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) cultivars (Baladi, Airén, Montepila, Muscat Blanc à Petits Grains and Pedro Ximénez) grown under the "Montilla-Moriles" Appellation of Origin in Cordoba, Spain. From 1999 to 2002, two water-availability regimes were established: irrigation and non-irrigation. The study aimed to ascertain the effect of irrigation on berry development and ripening, and hence on grape juice quality. Changes in phenological stages, vegetative growth, vineyard yield, berry weight, total soluble solids, titrable acidity, pH, tartaric acid, malic acid, and potassium content were monitored. No significant differences were noted in phenological phases between the non-irrigation and deficit irrigation regimes. The Ravaz index, pruning weight, vineyard yield and berry weight were significantly higher in all varieties and years under deficit irrigation. Deficit irrigation induced higher titrable acidity, higher malic acid and potassium contents and a lower pH, but had no significant effects on berry sugar accumulation or tartaric acid content. Deficit irrigation thus appears to be a promising technique for the production of quality young wines in semi-arid areas.

  4. Experimental study of the radio-active contamination of certain cultivated plants by irrigation water; Etude experimentale de la contamination radioactive par l'eau d'irrigation de certaines plantes cultivees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michon, G. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; Barbier, G.; Le Blaye, P.; Brossard, M. [Station Centrale d' Agronomie, 78 - Versailles (France); Fioramonti, S.; Marty, J.R. [Station Agronomique de Toulouse, 31 (France); Benard, P.; Flanzy, M. [Station Centrale de Technologie des Produits Vegetaux, 11 - Narbonne (France); Delas, J.; Delmas, J.; Demias, Ch. [Station d' Agronomie de Bordeaux (Pont de la Maye), 33 (France); Huguet, C. [Station Agronomique d' Avignon, 84 (France)

    1964-07-01

    This report follows on to the CEA reports no 1860 and 2159 and gives the results obtained during the years 1961 and 1962. These results confirm for the most part those obtained previously and deal also with a larger variety of vegetables. Vines and artificial prairies were also dealt with during the course of this work. The large dispersion of the limiting values of the coefficient r (the ratio between the amount of radio-elements in a kilogram of product harvested, to the amount of radio-elements present in a litre of irrigation water) with different types of soil, different plant types, etc... , makes it impossible to draw any general conclusions. Each case of rejection requires a special study of which the outlive is given. At all events it is to be expected that in the majority of cases these studies will lead to a decrease in the norms now in force. (authors) [French] Ce rapport fait suite aux rapports CEA no 1860 et 2159 et rapporte les resultats obtenus pendant les annees 1961 et 1962. Ces resultats confirment dans l'ensemble ceux precedemment obtenus tout en augmentant la variete des legumes etudies. La vigne et les prairies artificielles ont egalement fait l'objet d'etudes. La grande dispersion des valeurs limites du coefficient r (rapport entre la quantite de radioelements dans un kg de produits recoltes a la quantite de radioelements presente dans un litre d'eau d'irrigation) en rapport avec la nature des sols, le type vegetal, etc.., ne permet pas de degager de conclusions generales. Chaque cas de rejet necessite une etude particuliere dont le schema est donne. En tout etat de cause l'on doit s'attendre a ce que dans la plupart des cas ces etudes conduisent a une diminution des normes actuellement utilisees. (auteurs)

  5. Measuring Transpiration to Regulate Winter Irrigation Rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samuelson, Lisa [Auburn University

    2006-11-08

    Periodic transpiration (monthly sums) in a young loblolly pine plantation between ages 3 and 6 was measured using thermal dissipation probes. Fertilization and fertilization with irrigation were better than irrigation alone in increasing transpiration of young loblolly pines during winter months, apparently because of increased leaf area in fertilized trees. Irrigation alone did not significantly increase transpiration compared with the non-fertilized and non-irrigated control plots.

  6. Application of Canal Automation at the Central Arizona Irrigation and Drainage District

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Central Arizona Irrigation and Drainage District (CAIDD) began delivering water to users in 1987. Although designed for automatic control, the system was run manually until a homemade SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition) system was developed by a district employee. In 2002, problem...

  7. Can irrigation water use be guided by market forces? Theory and practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hellegers, P.J.G.J.; Perry, C.J.

    2006-01-01

    This paper provides insight into the relevance of market forces to typical problems found in irrigated agriculture. It first considers the theoretical basis for the use of economic instruments, such as volumetric water charges and tradable water rights, then considers their usefulness in the context

  8. Colostomy irrigation: an important issue for Muslim individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karadag, Ayise; Baykara, Zehra Göçmen

    2009-01-01

    Colostomy irrigation (CI) is a bowel management method in individuals with permanent colostomy, as an alternative to pouch use, which may provide continence. CI helps the individuals with an artificial stoma to adjust to the stoma and may increase their quality of life (QOL). An uncontrolled intestinal gas discharge invalidates ablution, and noisy gas discharge and smell prevents congregational prayers, which cause problems to Muslims with stomas. Therefore, CI may be an appropriate solution for this patient group. Using the example of one affected individual we discuss how the praying problem can be resolved with teaching to self-perform CI and emphasize the beneficial effects on QOL.

  9. Management of poor quality irrigation water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Change, M.H.; Leghari, A.M.; Sipio, Q.A.

    2000-01-01

    The effect of poor quality drainage effluent on moderately saline sodic, medium textured soil at different growth stages of wheat and cotton is reported. The irrigation treatments were: I) All canal irrigations, II) one irrigation of 75 mm with saline drainage effluent (EC = 3 dS m1) after four weeks sowing of the crop, III) one irrigation of 75 mm with saline drainage effluent after seven weeks sowing of the crop, and IV) one irrigation of 75 mm with saline drainage effluent after ten weeks sowing of the crop. The treatments receiving saline water gave significant decrease in crop yields as compared to canal irrigation treatment. The higher yield of wheat and seed cotton was recorded T1 followed by T2, T3 and T4. The trend of produce was T1< T2< T3< T4 respectively. Electrical conductivity of the soil (Ece) in T1 was decreased and in other three treatments was increased, whereas, pH decreased in T1 and T2. The SAR of soil decreased in all the treatments as compared with initial values. Treatment receiving an irrigation with saline water after four weeks of sowing (T2) was better in reducing soil salinity as compared to treatments receiving such water after 7 or 10 weeks os sowing. Poor quality water (EC = 3 d Sm/sup -1/) can be managed for irrigation after four weeks of swing of crops provided certain soil and water management practices like good seed bed preparation and proper drainage measures are adopted. (author)

  10. Uncertainties in modelling the climate impact of irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vrese, Philipp; Hagemann, Stefan

    2017-11-01

    Irrigation-based agriculture constitutes an essential factor for food security as well as fresh water resources and has a distinct impact on regional and global climate. Many issues related to irrigation's climate impact are addressed in studies that apply a wide range of models. These involve substantial uncertainties related to differences in the model's structure and its parametrizations on the one hand and the need for simplifying assumptions for the representation of irrigation on the other hand. To address these uncertainties, we used the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology's Earth System model into which a simple irrigation scheme was implemented. In order to estimate possible uncertainties with regard to the model's more general structure, we compared the climate impact of irrigation between three simulations that use different schemes for the land-surface-atmosphere coupling. Here, it can be shown that the choice of coupling scheme does not only affect the magnitude of possible impacts but even their direction. For example, when using a scheme that does not explicitly resolve spatial subgrid scale heterogeneity at the surface, irrigation reduces the atmospheric water content, even in heavily irrigated regions. Contrarily, in simulations that use a coupling scheme that resolves heterogeneity at the surface or even within the lowest layers of the atmosphere, irrigation increases the average atmospheric specific humidity. A second experiment targeted possible uncertainties related to the representation of irrigation characteristics. Here, in four simulations the irrigation effectiveness (controlled by the target soil moisture and the non-vegetated fraction of the grid box that receives irrigation) and the timing of delivery were varied. The second experiment shows that uncertainties related to the modelled irrigation characteristics, especially the irrigation effectiveness, are also substantial. In general the impact of irrigation on the state of the land

  11. Accumulation of pharmaceuticals, Enterococcus, and resistance genes in soils irrigated with wastewater for zero to 100 years in central Mexico.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Dalkmann

    Full Text Available Irrigation with wastewater releases pharmaceuticals, pathogenic bacteria, and resistance genes, but little is known about the accumulation of these contaminants in the environment when wastewater is applied for decades. We sampled a chronosequence of soils that were variously irrigated with wastewater from zero up to 100 years in the Mezquital Valley, Mexico, and investigated the accumulation of ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin, sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim, clarithromycin, carbamazepine, bezafibrate, naproxen, diclofenac, as well as the occurrence of Enterococcus spp., and sul and qnr resistance genes. Total concentrations of ciprofloxacin, sulfamethoxazole, and carbamazepine increased with irrigation duration reaching 95% of their upper limit of 1.4 µg/kg (ciprofloxacin, 4.3 µg/kg (sulfamethoxazole, and 5.4 µg/kg (carbamazepine in soils irrigated for 19-28 years. Accumulation was soil-type-specific, with largest accumulation rates in Leptosols and no time-trend in Vertisols. Acidic pharmaceuticals (diclofenac, naproxen, bezafibrate were not retained and thus did not accumulate in soils. We did not detect qnrA genes, but qnrS and qnrB genes were found in two of the irrigated soils. Relative concentrations of sul1 genes in irrigated soils were two orders of magnitude larger (3.15 × 10(-3 ± 0.22 × 10(-3 copies/16S rDNA than in non-irrigated soils (4.35 × 10(-5± 1.00 × 10(-5 copies/16S rDNA, while those of sul2 exceeded the ones in non-irrigated soils still by a factor of 22 (6.61 × 10(-4 ± 0.59 × 10(-4 versus 2.99 × 10(-5 ± 0.26 × 10(-5 copies/16S rDNA. Absolute numbers of sul genes continued to increase with prolonging irrigation together with Enterococcus spp. 23S rDNA and total 16S rDNA contents. Increasing total concentrations of antibiotics in soil are not accompanied by increasing relative abundances of resistance genes. Nevertheless, wastewater irrigation enlarges the absolute concentration of resistance genes in soils due to a

  12. [Irrigated perimeters as a geopolitical strategy for the development of the semi-arid region and its implications for health, labor and the environment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontes, Andrezza Graziella Veríssimo; Gadelha, Diego; Freitas, Bernadete Maria Coêlho; Rigotto, Raquel Maria; Ferreira, Marcelo José Monteiro

    2013-11-01

    An analysis was made of irrigated perimeters as a geopolitical strategy for expanding Brazilian agricultural frontiers and the "development" of the northeastern semi-arid region with respect to social determinants in health in rural communities. Research was conducted in the Chapada do Apodi in the states of Ceará and Rio Grande do Norte between 2007 and 2011. Various research techniques and tools were adopted, such as research-action, ethnographic studies, questionnaires and laboratory exams, water contamination analyses, social cartography and focal groups. In the context of agribusiness expansion, it was revealed that public policies of irrigation have had consequences for health, labor and the environment with the implementation of the Jaguaribe-Apodi Irrigated Perimeter in Ceará. The social and environmental conflict and resistance in the phase prior to the installation of the Santa Cruz do Apodi Irrigated Perimeter in Rio Grande do Norte was significant as it had consequences for the health-disease process on rural communities. It is important for the evaluation of public irrigation policies to consider the impacts of the perimeters on the lifestyle, labor, health and the environment of the affected territories.

  13. Associations of planting date, drought stress, and insects with Fusarium ear rot and fumonisin B1 contamination in California maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, M W; Munkvold, G P

    2010-05-01

    Fusarium ear rot, caused by Fusarium verticillioides, is one of the most common diseases of maize, causing yield and quality reductions and contamination of grain by fumonisins and other mycotoxins. Drought stress and various insects have been implicated as factors affecting disease severity. Field studies were conducted to evaluate the interactions and relative influences of drought stress, insect infestation, and planting date upon Fusarium ear rot severity and fumonisin B1 contamination. Three hybrids varying in partial resistance to Fusarium ear rot were sown on three planting dates and subjected to four irrigation regimes to induce differing levels of drought stress. A foliar-spray insecticide treatment was imposed to induce differing levels of insect injury. Populations of thrips (Frankliniella spp.), damage by corn earworm (Helicoverpa zeae), Fusarium ear rot symptoms, and fumonisin B1 levels were assessed. There were significant effects of hybrid, planting date, insecticide treatment, and drought stress on Fusarium ear rot symptoms and fumonisin B1 contamination, and these factors also had significant interacting effects. The most influential factors were hybrid and insecticide treatment, but their effects were influenced by planting date and drought stress. The more resistant hybrids and the insecticide-treated plots consistently had lower Fusarium ear rot severity and fumonisin B1 contamination. Later planting dates typically had higher thrips populations, more Fusarium ear rot, and higher levels of fumonisin B1. Insect activity was significantly correlated with disease severity and fumonisin contamination, and the correlations were strongest for thrips. The results of this study confirm the influence of thrips on Fusarium ear rot severity in California, USA, and also establish a strong association between thrips and fumonisin B1 levels.

  14. Effect of irrigation return flow on groundwater recharge in an overexploited aquifer in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touhidul Mustafa, Syed Md.; Shamsudduha, Mohammad; Huysmans, Marijke

    2016-04-01

    Irrigated agriculture has an important role in the food production to ensure food security of Bangladesh that is home to over 150 million people. However, overexploitation of groundwater for irrigation, particularly during the dry season, causes groundwater-level decline in areas where abstraction is high and surface geology inhibits direct recharge to underlying shallow aquifer. This is causing a number of potential adverse socio-economic, hydrogeological, and environmental problems in Bangladesh. Alluvial aquifers are primarily recharged during monsoon season from rainfall and surface sources. However, return flow from groundwater-fed irrigation can recharge during the dry months. Quantification of the effect of return flow from irrigation in the groundwater system is currently unclear but thought to be important to ensure sustainable management of the overexploited aquifer. The objective of the study is to investigate the effect of irrigation return flow on groundwater recharge in the north-western part of Bangladesh, also known as Barind Tract. A semi-physically based distributed water balance model (WetSpass-M) is used to simulate spatially distributed monthly groundwater recharge. Results show that, groundwater abstraction for irrigation in the study area has increased steadily over the last 29 years. During the monsoon season, local precipitation is the controlling factor of groundwater recharge; however, there is no trend in groundwater recharge during that period. During the dry season, however, irrigation return-flow plays a major role in recharging the aquifer in the irrigated area compared to local precipitation. Therefore, during the dry season, mean seasonal groundwater recharge has increased and almost doubled over the last 29 years as a result of increased abstraction for irrigation. The increase in groundwater recharge during dry season has however no significant effect in the improvement of groundwater levels. The relation between groundwater

  15. Treatment of plutonium contaminations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lafuma, J.

    1983-01-01

    Three kinds of plutonium contaminations were considered: skin contamination; contaminated wounds; contamination by inhalation. The treatment of these contaminations was studied for insoluble (oxide and metal forms) and soluble plutonium (complexes). The use of DTPA and therapeutic problems encountered with stable plutonium complexes were analyzed. The new possibilities of internal decontamination using Puchel and LICAM were evaluated [fr

  16. Evaluation of Modern Irrigation Techniques with Brackish Water

    OpenAIRE

    Aboulila, Tarek Selim

    2012-01-01

    Modern irrigation techniques are becoming increasingly important in water-scarce countries especially in arid and semiarid regions. Higher crop production and better water use efficiency are usually achieved by drip irrigation as compared to other irrigation methods. Furthermore, by using drip irrigation simultaneously with brackish irrigation water, some of the water stress due to shortage of fresh water resources can be managed. The objective of the current study was to investigate the infl...

  17. Comparative evaluation of environmental contamination and DNA damage induced by electronic-waste in Nigeria and China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alabi, Okunola A. [Analytic Cytology Laboratory and the Key Immunopathology Laboratory of Guangdong Province, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou (China); Biosciences and Biotechnology Department, Babcock University, Ilisan-remo, Ogun State (Nigeria); Cell Biology and Genetics Unit, Department of Zoology, University of Ibadan, Ibadan (Nigeria); Bakare, Adekunle A. [Cell Biology and Genetics Unit, Department of Zoology, University of Ibadan, Ibadan (Nigeria); Xu, Xijin; Li, Bin; Zhang, Yuling [Analytic Cytology Laboratory and the Key Immunopathology Laboratory of Guangdong Province, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou (China); Huo, Xia, E-mail: xhuo@stu.edu.cn [Analytic Cytology Laboratory and the Key Immunopathology Laboratory of Guangdong Province, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou (China)

    2012-04-15

    In the last decade, China and Nigeria have been prime destinations for the world's e-waste disposal leading to serious environmental contamination. We carried out a comparative study of the level of contamination using soils and plants from e-waste dumping and processing sites in both countries. Levels of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were analyzed using gas chromatography/spectrophotometry and heavy metals using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. DNA damage was assayed in human peripheral blood lymphocytes using an alkaline comet assay. Soils and plants were highly contaminated with toxic PAHs, PCBs, PBDEs, and heavy metals in both countries. Soil samples from China and plant samples from Nigeria were more contaminated. There was a positive correlation between the concentrations of organics and heavy metals in plant samples and the surrounding soils. In human lymphocytes, all tested samples induced significant (p < 0.05) concentration-dependent increases in DNA damage compared with the negative control. These findings suggest that e-waste components/constituents can accumulate, in soil and surrounding vegetation, to toxic and genotoxic levels that could induce adverse health effects in exposed individuals. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The study showed that Nigeria environment is highly contaminated by electronic waste. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The contamination level by heavy metals and organics in soils and plants in Nigeria as a result of the electronic waste is as high as the environment in China, even though China is the recipient of about 70% of the world's e-waste. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The study showed that e-waste leachate is genotoxic and mutagenic.

  18. Study of Chrysopogon Zizanioides ability to decontaminate irrigation water in Southwest Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galea Grajera, F. A.

    2009-04-01

    Conventional agriculture is characterized by the increasing use of agrochemicals to maintain and improve soil fertility. One of the main problems arising from this practise is the generation of leachates, which contain a high concentration of nitrate, nitrite, phosphate and other contaminating components, causing soil and water pollution. This is a common problem in irrigated areas such as Las Vegas Bajas del Guadiana (Extremadura, Spain). Different techniques are being developed and used to control leachate generation, however, these practises happen to be very expensive. In this situation, the emergence of alternative technologies such as phytoremediation, based on the ability of some plants to absorb and accumulate high concentrations of pollutants such as heavy metals, organic compounds and radiactive components, is being explored to restore the degraded lands and it seems very feasible, economical and environment-friendly. The Vetiver grass (Chrysopogon zizanioides) is a perennial grass originally from India, widely known for its ability to retain soil and prevent erosion. Recently, the new use of this grass for phytoremediation has stimulated research in this area. It produces up to two meter high plant with a strong dense and mainly vertical root system with emerging secondary roots which form a dense and strong network that grows horizontally and vertically to depths greater than 5 meters, useful in soil erosion control. It is vegetatively propagated and is non-invasive, resistant to pests and diseases and widely used worldwide for soil and moisture conservation and soil restoration. This study, carried out in Badajoz, in the Southwest of the Iberian Peninsula, focuses in the use of Vetiver in the area. Its adaptation to climatic and soil conditions was tested for three years. Bunches of selected species were first grown in pots and later planted in experimental plots exposed to the weather conditions in the area. When adaptation to edaphic and climatic

  19. Characterisation of the nitrate contamination process in the Seville-Carmona aquifer system; Caracterizacion del proceso de contaminacion por nitratos en el sistema acuifero Sevilla-Carmona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Vazquez, J.C.; Grande Gil, J.A. [Universidad de Huelva (Spain); Barragan de la Rosa, F.J.; Jimenez Sanchez, J.C. [Universidad de Sevilla (Spain)

    1998-07-01

    The aim of this work is to characterize the aquifer Sevilla-Carmona by a graphic treatment, in order to determine the environmental problem owing to high concentration of nitrates because of the fact that there are an excessive agricultural fertilization. There is a relationship between the highest nitrate contamination and the crop of the area, mainly cotton and potato. Two factors have been observed to have an influence on this aquifer: excess doses of N- fertilizers and irrigation devices whose excessive water discharge results in leaching of nitrate accumulated in soil and finally toward saturated zone because of rain. (Author) 18 refs.

  20. Evaluation some Forage Legumes in Limited Irrigation Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Moniri Far

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Forage legumes respond differently to limited irrigation regimes. Their evaluation may, thus, help to select drought tolerant types for limited irrigation conditions. In this study four type of forage legume were studied for two years in Tikma-Dash Research Station of East Azarbaijan Agricultural and Natural Research Center, Tabriz, Iran, in a randomized complete block design using split-plot experiment in 2011-2013 years. Irrigation regimes (without irrigation, one irrigation and two irrigations were assigned to main plots and four forage types (hairy vetch, grass pea, Pannonica sativa and lathyrus were assigned to subplots. The results of analysis of variance showed that the effect of irrigation on plant height, number of shoots, leaf area and plant fresh and dry weights were not significant. Howere, legume types affected these traits significantly (P≤0.01. The effect of irrigation levels and legume types on protein content of hay were significant (P

  1. Enteric Viruses in Raw Vegetables and Groundwater Used for Irrigation in South Korea▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheong, Sooryun; Lee, Cheonghoon; Song, Sung Won; Choi, Weon Cheon; Lee, Chan Hee; Kim, Sang-Jong

    2009-01-01

    Raw vegetables irrigated with groundwater that may contain enteric viruses can be associated with food-borne viral disease outbreaks. In this study, we performed reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) and cell culture-PCR to monitor the occurrence of enteric viruses in groundwater samples and in raw vegetables that were cultivated using that groundwater in South Korea. Samples were collected 10 times from three farms located in Gyeonggi Province, South Korea. RT-PCR and cell culture-PCR were performed to detect adenoviruses (AdVs), enteroviruses (EVs), noroviruses (NoVs), and rotaviruses, followed by sequence analyses of the detected strains. Of the 29 groundwater samples and the 30 vegetable samples, five (17%) and three (10%) were positive for enteric viruses, respectively. AdVs were the most frequently detected viruses in four groundwater and three vegetable samples. EVs and NoVs were detected in only one groundwater sample and one spinach sample, respectively. The occurrence of enteric viruses in groundwater and vegetable samples was not correlated with the water temperature and the levels of indicator bacteria, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that most of the detected AdVs were temporally distributed, irrespective of sample type. Our results indicate that raw vegetables may be contaminated with a broad range of enteric viruses, which may originate from virus-infected farmers and virus-contaminated irrigation water, and these vegetables may act as a potential vector of food-borne viral transmission. PMID:19854919

  2. Effect of dry land transformation and quality of water use for crop irrigation on the soil bacterial community in the Mezquital Valley, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüneberg, Kathia; Schneider, Dominik; Daniel, Rolf; Siebe, Christina

    2017-04-01

    Soil bacteria are important determinants of soil fertility and ecosystem services as they participate in all biogeochemical cycles. Until now the comprehension of compositional and functional response that bacterial communities have to land use change and management, specifically in dry land its limited. Dry lands cover 40% of the world's land surface and its crop production supports one third of the global population. In this regions soil moisture is limited constraining farming to the rainy season or oblige to irrigate, as fresh water resources become scarce, to maintain productivity, treated or untreated wastewater for field irrigation is used. In this study the transformation of semiarid shrubland to agriculture under different land systems regarding quantity and quality of water use for crop irrigation on bacterial communities was investigated. The land systems included maize rain-fed plantations and irrigation systems with freshwater, untreated wastewater stored in a dam and untreated wastewater during dry and rainy season. Bacterial community structure and function was heavily affected by land use system and soil properties, whereas seasonality had a slighter effect. A soil moisture, nutrient and contaminant-content increasing gradient among the land use systems, going from rain fed plantation over fresh water, dam wastewater to untreated wastewater irrigated plantations was detected, this gradient diminished the abundance of Actinobacteria and Cyanobacteria, but enhanced the one from Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria. Discernible clustering of the dry land soil communities coincides with the moisture, nutrient and contaminant gradient, being shrubland soil communities closer to the rain-fed's system and farer to the one from untreated wastewater irrigated soil. Soil moisture together with sodium content and pH were the strongest drivers of the community structure. Seasonality promoted shifts in the composition of soil bacteria under irrigation with

  3. Modified Streamflows 1990 Level of Irrigation : Columbia River and Coastal Basins, 1928-1989.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration; A.G. Crook Company

    1993-04-01

    The annual operation plans described in the following sections require detailed system regulation computer model studies. These system regulation studies are necessary to evaluate potential new projects and to develop operational rule curves for the existing system of projects. The objective is to provide a basis for evaluating alternative system regulation scenarios. This provides essential input for optimizing the management of existing projects and planning future projects for the most beneficial use of the water supply and resources in the entire region. Historical streamflows per se are inadequate for system regulation studies because the pattern of observed flow has continually changed with each successive stage of irrigation and e development. The problem, therefore, is to adjust for past operation of storage projects and to determine the necessary adjustments that should be made to recorded flows to reflect current stages of irrigation development. Historical flows which have been adjusted to a common level of irrigation development by correcting for the effects of diversion demand, return flow, and change-of-contents and evaporation in upstream reservoirs and lakes are referred to as modified flows. This report describes the development of irrigation depletion adjustments and modified flows for the 1990 level of development for the 61-year period 1928--1989. incremental depletion adjustments were computed in this report for each month of the 61-year period to adjust the effects of actual irrigation in each year up to that which would have been experienced with the irrigation as practiced in 1990.

  4. Acoustic streaming induced by an ultrasonically oscillating endodontic file

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhaagen, B.; Boutsioukis, C.; van der Sluis, L.W.M.; Versluis, M.

    2014-01-01

    Ultrasonically activated irrigation is an advanced dental technique for irrigation of the root canal system during a root canal treatment. The basic cleaning mechanism is a result of acoustic streaming induced by an oscillating file, leading to mixing of the irrigant and pressure and shear stresses

  5. Acoustic streaming induced by an ultrasonically oscillating endodontic file

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhaagen, B.; Boutsioukis, C.; van der Sluis, L. W. M.; Versluis, M.

    Ultrasonically activated irrigation is an advanced dental technique for irrigation of the root canal system during a root canal treatment. The basic cleaning mechanism is a result of acoustic streaming induced by an oscillating file, leading to mixing of the irrigant and pressure and shear stresses

  6. Comparison of the Antimicrobial Effect of Chlorhexidine and Saline for Irrigating a Contaminated Open Fracture Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    bladder irrigation fluid,10 and periodontal rinse.11 Interestingly, despite its reputation as an effective antiseptic with low toxicity and its...treating compound fracture, abscess , and so forth; with observations on the conditions of suppuration. Lancet. 1867; 89:326, 357, 387, 507. 2. Browning...topical application of chlorhexidine on the development of dental plaque and gingivitis in man. J Periodontal Res. 1970;5:79–83. J Orthop Trauma

  7. Converting Surface Irrigation to Pressurized Irrigation Systems and its Effecton Yield of OrangeTrees (Case Study:North of Khouzestan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Khorramian

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: North of the Khouzestan is one of the most important citrus production center. Usually border irrigation is used to irrigate citrus in this area. This system has generally low application efficiency. Several investigations in other arid region have demonstrated in addition to improved irrigation efficiency with low-volume pressurized irrigation systems, citrus trees have adapted with these new irrigation systems. However limited information exists on the performance of mature orchards converted from border surface irrigation to pressurized irrigation systems. Therefore, the current research was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of converting surface irrigation to pressurized irrigation systems on mature citrus trees in climate conditions of North Khouzestan. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted during three years at Safiabad Agricultural Research Center to evaluate the yield of citrus trees and the quality of fruits for two Marss and Valencia varieties which grow 7 years previously with surface irrigation and converted to pressurized irrigation systems. The treatments consisted of six irrigation methods including Overhead sprinkle irrigation (OHSI, Under tree sprinkle irrigation(UTSI, Trickle irrigation(TI(six 8 L/h Netafim emitters, Microjet irrigation (MI(two 180 microjet were located under canopy near of the trunk at opposite sides of trunk,Bubbler irrigation(BI(a single located under the canopy of each treeandSurface irrigation(SI method.Soil texture was clay loam well drained without salinity(ECe=0.69ds m-1, with 1.25 percent organic carbon. The experimental design was completely randomized design. The trees were irrigated during spring and summer seasons. For calculating irrigation water depth in TI, MI and BI systems, daily evaporation from a class A evaporation pan of the Safiabad weather station (nearby the experimental field was collected, and evapotranspiration of the citrus trees was calculated applying a

  8. Yield of cherry tomatoes as a function of water salinity and irrigation frequency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre N. Santos

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The use of brackish water in agriculture can cause salinization of soils and reduce plant yield. This problem can be minimized by hydroponic cultivation, which improves plant development. The aim of this study was to evaluate the yield of cherry tomatoes grown in hydroponic system with substrate under salinity levels of the nutrient solution (NS, exposure time to salinity and irrigation frequency. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse, in a randomized complete block design, in a 6 x 2 x 2 factorial scheme with five replicates: six salinity levels of NS prepared with brackish water (3.01; 4.51; 5.94; 7.34; 8.71 and 10.40 dS m-1; two exposure times to NS (60 and 105 days and two irrigation frequencies (one irrigation per day and irrigation every two days. Yield and production components of cherry tomatoes cv. 'Rita' were evaluated. NS salinity affected plant yield, reducing fruit production, which was more significant when plants were subjected to a longer time of exposure to salinity. There was no difference between NS applications on fruit production, when these applications were performed once a day or once every two days.

  9. Metabolomics reveals mycoplasma contamination interferes with the metabolism of PANC-1 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Tao; Wang, Yongtao; Zhang, Huizhen; Johnson, Caroline H; Jiang, Yiming; Li, Xiangjun; Wu, Zeming; Liu, Tian; Krausz, Kristopher W; Yu, Aiming; Gonzalez, Frank J; Huang, Min; Bi, Huichang

    2016-06-01

    Mycoplasma contamination is a common problem in cell culture and can alter cellular functions. Since cell metabolism is either directly or indirectly involved in every aspect of cell function, it is important to detect changes to the cellular metabolome after mycoplasma infection. In this study, liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC/MS)-based metabolomics was used to investigate the effect of mycoplasma contamination on the cellular metabolism of human pancreatic carcinoma cells (PANC-1). Multivariate analysis demonstrated that mycoplasma contamination induced significant metabolic changes in PANC-1 cells. Twenty-three metabolites were identified and found to be involved in arginine and purine metabolism and energy supply. This study demonstrates that mycoplasma contamination significantly alters cellular metabolite levels, confirming the compelling need for routine checking of cell cultures for mycoplasma contamination, particularly when used for metabolomics studies. Graphical abstract Metabolomics reveals mycoplasma contamination changes the metabolome of PANC-1 cells.

  10. GSM BASED IRRIGATION CONTROL AND MONITORING SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    GODFREY A. MILLS; STEPHEN K. ARMOO; AGYEMAN K. ROCKSON; ROBERT A. SOWAH; MOSES A. ACQUAH

    2013-01-01

    Irrigated agriculture is one of the primary water consumers in most parts of the world. With developments in technology, efforts are being channeled into automation of irrigation systems to facilitate remote control of the irrigation system and optimize crop production and cost effectiveness. This paper describes an on-going work on GSM based irrigation monitoring and control systems. The objective of the work is to provide an approach that helps farmers to easily access, manage and regulate ...

  11. Comparative efficiency of trickle and furrow irrigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanif, M.; Qureshi, R.H.; Sandhu, G.R.

    1976-01-01

    Comparison of furrow and trickle methods of irrigation to know their relative efficiency with respect to water applied and fertilizer used on tomatoes, cauliflower and lettuce as test crops using canal water, showed a significant saving of about 44 and 41 per cent respectively for irrigation water and fertilizer applied with trickle as compared to furrow irrigation. Trickle irrigated crops also showed a better response as regards the rate of survival, crop growth and time of maturity

  12. The removal of microorganisms and organic micropollutants from wastewater during infiltration to aquifers after irrigation of farmland in the Tula Valley, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chavez, Alma; Maya, Catalina [Instituto de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 D.F. (Mexico); Gibson, Richard [Instituto de Geografia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 D.F. (Mexico); Jimenez, Blanca, E-mail: bjimenezc@iingen.unam.mx [Instituto de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 D.F. (Mexico)

    2011-05-15

    The Tula Valley receives untreated wastewater from Mexico City for agricultural irrigation, half of which infiltrates to aquifers from where drinking water is extracted. Samples of wastewater and infiltrated water from three areas of the valley were analyzed for microorganisms, organic micropollutants, and some basic parameters. Concentrations of microorganisms in the infiltrated water were generally very low but the incidence of fecal coliforms (present in 68% of samples), somatic bacteriophages (36%), Giardia spp. (14%), and helminth eggs (8%) suggested a health risk. Organic micropollutants, often present at high concentrations in the wastewater, were generally absent from the infiltrated water except carbamazepine which was in 55% of samples (up to 193 ng/L). There was no correlation between carbamazepine concentrations and the presence of microorganisms but highest concentrations of carbamazepine and boron coincided. A treatment such as nanofiltration would be necessary for the infiltrated water to be a safe potable supply. - Highlights: > Wastewater from Mexico City used for crop irrigation infiltrates to aquifers. > Infiltration through the soil removes many contaminants. > Occasional contamination of infiltrated water with microorganisms occurs. > Carbamazepine is widely present in the infiltrated water. > Safe use of this water for drinking would need nanofiltration or another treatment. - Water extracted from aquifers fed by wastewater used for irrigation may contain microorganisms and persistent polar organic micropollutants and requires treatment to be a potable supply.

  13. The removal of microorganisms and organic micropollutants from wastewater during infiltration to aquifers after irrigation of farmland in the Tula Valley, Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chavez, Alma; Maya, Catalina; Gibson, Richard; Jimenez, Blanca

    2011-01-01

    The Tula Valley receives untreated wastewater from Mexico City for agricultural irrigation, half of which infiltrates to aquifers from where drinking water is extracted. Samples of wastewater and infiltrated water from three areas of the valley were analyzed for microorganisms, organic micropollutants, and some basic parameters. Concentrations of microorganisms in the infiltrated water were generally very low but the incidence of fecal coliforms (present in 68% of samples), somatic bacteriophages (36%), Giardia spp. (14%), and helminth eggs (8%) suggested a health risk. Organic micropollutants, often present at high concentrations in the wastewater, were generally absent from the infiltrated water except carbamazepine which was in 55% of samples (up to 193 ng/L). There was no correlation between carbamazepine concentrations and the presence of microorganisms but highest concentrations of carbamazepine and boron coincided. A treatment such as nanofiltration would be necessary for the infiltrated water to be a safe potable supply. - Highlights: → Wastewater from Mexico City used for crop irrigation infiltrates to aquifers. → Infiltration through the soil removes many contaminants. → Occasional contamination of infiltrated water with microorganisms occurs. → Carbamazepine is widely present in the infiltrated water. → Safe use of this water for drinking would need nanofiltration or another treatment. - Water extracted from aquifers fed by wastewater used for irrigation may contain microorganisms and persistent polar organic micropollutants and requires treatment to be a potable supply.

  14. Energy performance of sprinkler irrigated maize, wheat and sunflower in Vigia irrigation district

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Sandra; Rodrigues, Goncalo Caleia; Paredes, Paula; Pereira, Luis S. [Centro de Engenharia dos Biossistemas (CEER/ISA), Lisboa (Portugal)], E-mail: lspereira@isa.utl.pt

    2008-07-01

    The energy potential of a crop may be evaluated through life cycle assessment methodologies. These refer to the computation of the crop's energy balance and other related indicators, such as the energy ratio and the energetic efficiency, that may be used as to assess how a given irrigated crop may be used for production of biofuel. This study concerns sprinkler irrigated sunflower, wheat and maize crops using data relative to the campaign of 2007 in the Vigia Irrigation District, Alentejo. A model was developed and various scenarios were considered. The modelling results lead to the conclusion that the maize crop is the most efficient in producing energy and sunflower is the least one for all the alternative scenarios considered. (author)

  15. Green waste compost as an amendment during induced phytoextraction of mercury-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolinska, Beata

    2015-03-01

    Phytoextraction of mercury-contaminated soils is a new strategy that consists of using the higher plants to make the soil contaminant nontoxic. The main problem that occurs during the process is the low solubility and bioavailability of mercury in soil. Therefore, some soil amendments can be used to increase the efficiency of the Hg phytoextraction process. The aim of the investigation was to use the commercial compost from municipal green wastes to increase the efficiency of phytoextraction of mercury-contaminated soil by Lepidium sativum L. plants and determine the leaching of Hg after compost amendment. The result of the study showed that Hg can be accumulated by L. sativum L. The application of compost increased both the accumulation by whole plant and translocation of Hg to shoots. Compost did not affect the plant biomass and its biometric parameters. Application of compost to the soil decreased the leaching of mercury in both acidic and neutral solutions regardless of growing medium composition and time of analysis. Due to Hg accumulation and translocation as well as its potential leaching in acidic and neutral solution, compost can be recommended as a soil amendment during the phytoextraction of mercury-contaminated soil.

  16. Mapping Soil hydrologic features in a semi-arid irrigated area in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Aguirre, M.° Teresa; Isidoro, Daniel; Usón, Asunción

    2016-04-01

    The lack of soil information is a managerial problem in irrigated areas in Spain. The Violada Irrigation District (VID; 5234 ha) is a gypsic, semi-arid region in the Middle Ebro River Basin, northeast Spain. VID is under irrigation since the 1940's. The implementation of the flood irrigation system gave rise to waterlogging problems, solved along the years with the installation of an artificial drainage network. Aggregated water balances have been performed in VID since the early 1980's considering average soil properties and aggregated irrigation data for the calculations (crop evapotranspiration, canal seepage, and soil drainage). In 2008-2009, 91% of the VID was modernized to sprinkler irrigation. This new system provides detailed irrigation management information that together with detailed soil information would allow for disaggregated water balances for a better understanding of the system. Our goal was to draw a semi-detailed soil map of VID presenting the main soil characteristics related to irrigation management. A second step of the work was to set up pedotransfer functions (PTF) to estimate the water content and saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks) from easily measurable parameters. Thirty four pits were opened, described and sampled for chemical and physical properties. Thirty three additional auger holes were sampled for water holding capacity (WHC; down to 60 cm), helping to draw the soil units boundaries. And 15 Ks tests (inverse auger hole method) were made. The WHC was determined as the difference between the field capacity (FC) and wilting point (WP) measured in samples dried at 40°C during 5 days. The comparison with old values dried at 105°C for 2 days highlighted the importance of the method when gypsum is present in order to avoid water removal from gypsum molecules. The soil map was drawn down to family level. Thirteen soil units were defined by the combination of five subgroups [Typic Calcixerept (A), Petrocalcic Calcixerept (B), Gypsic

  17. Impact of the reusing of food manufacturing wastewater for irrigation in a closed system on the microbiological quality of the food crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beneduce, Luciano; Gatta, Giuseppe; Bevilacqua, Antonio; Libutti, Angela; Tarantino, Emanuele; Bellucci, Micol; Troiano, Eleonora; Spano, Giuseppe

    2017-11-02

    In order to evaluate if the reuse of food industry treated wastewater is compatible for irrigation of food crops, without increased health risk, in the present study a cropping system, in which ground water and treated wastewater were used for irrigation of tomato and broccoli, during consecutive crop seasons was monitored. Water, crop environment and final products were monitored for microbial indicators and pathogenic bacteria, by conventional and molecular methods. The microbial quality of the irrigation waters influenced sporadically the presence of microbial indicators in soil. No water sample was found positive for pathogenic bacteria, independently from the source. Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes were detected in soil samples, independently from the irrigation water source. No pathogen was found to contaminate tomato plants, while Listeria monocytogenes and E. coli O157:H7 were detected on broccoli plant, but when final produce were harvested, no pathogen was detected on edible part. The level of microbial indicators and detection of pathogenic bacteria in field and plant was not dependent upon wastewater used. Our results, suggest that reuse of food industry wastewater for irrigation of agricultural crop can be applied without significant increase of potential health risk related to microbial quality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Moduli mediation without moduli-induced gravitino problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akita, Kensuke [Department of Physics, Waseda University, Tokyo, 169-8555 (Japan); Kobayashi, Tatsuo [Department of Physics, Hokkaido University,Sapporo, 060-0810 (Japan); Oikawa, Akane; Otsuka, Hajime [Department of Physics, Waseda University, Tokyo, 169-8555 (Japan)

    2016-05-30

    We study the moduli-induced gravitino problem within the framework of the phenomenologically attractive mirage mediations. The huge amount of gravitino generated by the moduli decay can be successfully diluted by introducing an extra light modulus field which does not induce the supersymmetry breaking. Since the lifetime of extra modulus field becomes longer than usually considered modulus field, our proposed mechanism is applied to both the low- and high-scale supersymmetry breaking scenarios. We also point out that such an extra modulus field appears in the flux compactification of type II string theory.

  19. Irrigation management in organic greenhouse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voogt, W.; Balendonck, J.; Berkelmans, R.; Enthoven, N.

    2017-01-01

    Irrigation in protected cultivation is essential due to the absence of natural precipitation. High evapotranspiration, due to higher temperature and prolonged cropping period, requires ample an adequate supply of water. The water supply in a greenhouse is solely carried out by irrigation and thus

  20. [Optimal irrigation index for cotton drip irrigation under film mulching based on the evaporation from pan with constant water level].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xiao-Jun; Zhang, Ji-Yang; Sun, Jing-Sheng; Gao, Yang; Li, Ming-Si; Liu, Hao; Yang, Gui-Sen

    2013-11-01

    A field experiment with two irrigation cycles and two irrigating water quotas at squaring stage and blossoming-boll forming stage was conducted in Urumqi of Xinjiang Autonomous Region, Northwest China in 2008-2009, aimed to explore the high-efficient irrigation index of cotton drip irrigation under film mulching. The effects of different water treatments on the seed yield, water consumption, and water use efficiency (WUE) of cotton were analyzed. In all treatments, there was a high correlation between the cotton water use and the evaporation from pan installed above the plant canopy. In high-yield cotton field (including the treatment T4 which had 10 days and 7 days of irrigation cycle with 30.0 mm and 37.5 mm of irrigating water quota at squaring stage and blossoming-boll forming stage, respectively in 2008, and the treatment T1 having 7 days of irrigation cycle with 22.5 mm and 37.5 mm of irrigating water quota at squaring stage and blossoming-boll forming stage, respectively in 2009), the pan-crop coefficient (Kp) at seedling stage, squaring stage, blossoming-boll forming stage, and boll opening stage was 0.29-0.30, 0.52-0.53, 0.74-0.88, and 0.19-0.20, respectively. As compared with the other treatments, T4 had the highest seed cotton yield (5060 kg x hm(-2)) and the highest WUE (1.00 kg x m(-3)) in 2008, whereas T1 had the highest seed cotton yield (4467 kg x hm(-2)) and the highest WUE (0.99 kg x m(-3)) in 2009. The averaged cumulative pan evaporation in 7 days and 10 days at squaring stage was 40-50 mm and 60-70 mm, respectively, and that in 7 days at blossoming-boll forming stage was 40-50 mm. It was suggested that in Xinjiang cotton area, irrigating 45 mm water for seedling emergence, no irrigation both at seedling stage and at boll opening stage, and irrigation was started when the pan evaporation reached 45-65 mm and 45 mm at squaring stage and blossoming-boll stage, respectively, the irrigating water quota could be determined by multiplying cumulative

  1. performance evaluation of sprinkler irrigation system at mambilla

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HOD

    ratio (DPR), irrigation productivity (IP), labour requirements and water quality. Standard procedure was ... The exchangeable cations analysis of Kakara irrigation ... Keywords: Tea, irrigation System, Performance Evaluation. 1. INTRODUCTION.

  2. Expanding the Annual Irrigation Maps (AIM) Product to the entire High Plains Aquifer (HPA): Addressing the Challenges of Cotton and Deficit-Irrigated Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapp, J. R.; Deines, J. M.; Kendall, A. D.; Hyndman, D. W.

    2017-12-01

    The High Plains Aquifer (HPA) is the most extensively irrigated aquifer in the continental United States and is the largest major aquifer in North America with an area of 500,000 km2. Increased demand for agricultural products has led to expanded irrigation extent, but brought with it declining groundwater levels that have made irrigation unsustainable in some locations. Understanding these irrigation dynamics and mapping irrigated areas through time are essential for future sustainable agricultural practices and hydrological modeling. Map products using remote sensing have only recently been able to track annual dynamics at relatively high spatial resolution (30 m) for a large portion of the northern HPA. However follow-on efforts to expand these maps to the entire HPA have met with difficulty due to the challenge of distinguishing irrigation in crop types that are commonly deficit- or partially-irrigated. Expanding these maps to the full HPA requires addressing unique features of partially irrigated fields and irrigated cotton, a major water user in the southern HPA. Working in Google Earth Engine, we used all available Landsat imagery to generate annual time series of vegetation indices. We combined this information with climate covariables, planting dates, and crop specific training data to algorithmically separate fully irrigated, partially irrigated, and non-irrigated field locations. The classification scheme was then applied to produce annual maps of irrigation across the entire HPA. The extensive use of ancillary data and the "greenness" time series for the algorithmic classification generally increased accuracy relative to previous efforts. High-accuracy, representative map products of irrigation extent capable of detecting crop type and irrigation intensity within aquifers will be an essential tool to monitor the sustainability of global aquifers and to provide a scientific bases for political and economic decisions affecting those aquifers.

  3. Assessing the ecological long-term impact of wastewater irrigation on soil and water based on bioassays and chemical analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Elisabeth; Hecht, Fabian; Schnellbacher, Nadine; Ternes, Thomas A; Wick, Arne; Wode, Florian; Coors, Anja

    2015-11-01

    The reuse of treated wastewater for irrigation and groundwater recharge can counteract water scarcity and reduce pollution of surface waters, but assessing its environmental risk should likewise consider effects associated to the soil. The present study therefore aimed at determining the impact of wastewater irrigation on the habitat quality of water after soil passage and of soil after percolation by applying bioassays and chemical analysis. Lab-scale columns of four different soils encompassing standard European soil and three field soils of varying characteristics and pre-contamination were continuously percolated with treated wastewater to simulate long-term irrigation. Wastewater and its percolates were tested for immobilization of Daphnia magna and growth inhibition of green algae (Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata) and water lentils (Lemna minor). The observed phytotoxicity of the treated wastewater was mostly reduced by soil passage, but in some percolates also increased for green algae. Chemical analysis covering an extensive set of wastewater-born organic pollutants demonstrated that many of them were considerably reduced by soil passage, particularly through peaty soils. Taken together, these results indicated that wastewater-born phytotoxic substances may be removed by soil passage, while existing soil pollutants (e.g. metals) may leach and impair percolate quality. Soils with and without wastewater irrigation were tested for growth of plants (Avena sativa, Brassica napus) and soil bacteria (Arthrobacter globiformis) and reproduction of collembolans (Folsomia candida) and oligochaetes (Enchytraeus crypticus, Eisenia fetida). The habitat quality of the standard and two field soils appeared to be deteriorated by wastewater percolation for at least one organism (enchytraeids, plants or bacteria), while for two pre-contaminated field soils it also was improved (for plants and/or enchytraeids). Wastewater percolation did not seem to raise soil concentrations

  4. The effect of repeated irrigation with varying total organic carbon content on the persistence of E. coli O157:H7 on baby spinach

    Science.gov (United States)

    In response to U.S. foodborne illnesses caused by contaminated spinach, growers have adopted regulations stated in the California Leafy Greens Marketing Agreement (LGMA). The LGMA permits a maximum population mean of 126 Most Probable Number (MPN) generic E. coli per 100 ml irrigation water. These...

  5. An improved delivery system for bladder irrigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moslemi, Mohammad K; Rajaei, Mojtaba

    2010-10-05

    Occasionally, urologists may see patients requiring temporary bladder irrigation at hospitals without stocks of specialist irrigation apparatus. One option is to transfer the patient to a urology ward, but often there are outstanding medical issues that require continued specialist input. Here, we describe an improved system for delivering temporary bladder irrigation by utilizing readily available components and the novel modification of a sphygmomanometer blub. This option is good for bladder irrigation in patients with moderate or severe gross hematuria due to various causes. In this prospective study from March 2007 to April 2009, we used our new system in eligible cases. In this system, an irrigant bag with 1 L of normal saline was suspended 80 cm above the indwelled 3-way Foley catheter, and its drainage tube was inserted into the irrigant port of the catheter. To increase the flow rate of the irrigant system, we inserted a traditional sphygmomanometer bulb at the top of the irrigant bag. This closed system was used for continuous bladder irrigation (CBI) in patients who underwent open prostatectomy, transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP), or transurethral resection of the bladder (TURB). This high-pressure system is also used for irrigation during cystourethroscopy, internal urethrotomy, and transurethral lithotripsy. Our 831 eligible cases were divided into two groups: group 1 were endourologic cases and group 2 were open prostatectomy, TURP, and TURB cases. The maximum and average flow rates were evaluated. The efficacy of our new system was compared prospectively with the previous traditional system used in 545 cases. In group 1, we had clear vision at the time of endourologic procedures. The success rate of this system was 99.5%. In group 2, the incidence of clot retention decreased two fold in comparison to traditional gravity-dependent bladder flow system. These changes were statistically significant (P = 0.001). We did not observe any adverse

  6. Review of root canal irrigant delivery techniques and devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeon-Jee Yoo

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Eliminating the residual debris and bacteria in the root canal system is one of the main purposes of the endodontic treatment. However, the complexity on the anatomy of the root canal system makes it difficult to eliminate the bacterial biofilm existing along the root canal surface and necrotic pulp tissue by mechanical instrumentation and chemical irrigation. Recently, more effective irrigant delivery systems for root canal irrigation have been developed. The purpose of this review was to present an overview of root canal irrigant delivery techniques and devices available in endodontics. Review The contents of this paper include as follows; - syringe-needle irrigation, manual dynamic irrigation, brushes - sonic and ultrasonic irrigation, passive ultrasonic irrigation, rotary brush, RinsEndo, EndoVac, Laser Conclusion Though technological advances during the last decade have brought to fruition new agitation devices that rely on various mechanisms, there are few evidence based study to correlate the clinical efficacy of these devices with improved outcomes except syringe irrigation with needle and ultrasonic irrigation. The clinicians should try their best efforts to deliver antimicrobial and tissue solvent solutions in predictable volumes safely to working length.

  7. Screening of plants for phytoremediation of oil-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeura, Hiromi; Kawasaki, Yu; Kaimi, Etsuko; Nishiwaki, Junko; Noborio, Kosuke; Tamaki, Masahiko

    2016-01-01

    Several species of ornamental flowering plants were evaluated regarding their phytoremediation ability for the cleanup of oil-contaminated soil in Japanese environmental conditions. Thirty-three species of plants were grown in oil-contaminated soil, and Mimosa, Zinnia, Gazania, and cypress vine were selected for further assessment on the basis of their favorable initial growth. No significant difference was observed in the above-ground and under-ground dry matter weight of Gazania 180 days after sowing between contaminated and non-contaminated plots. However, the other 3 species of plants died by the 180th day, indicating that Gazania has an especially strong tolerance for oil-contaminated soil. The total petroleum hydrocarbon concentration of the soils in which the 4 species of plants were grown decreased by 45-49% by the 180th day. Compared to an irrigated plot, the dehydrogenase activity of the contaminated soil also increased significantly, indicating a phytoremediation effect by the 4 tested plants. Mimosa, Zinnia, and cypress vine all died by the 180th day after seeding, but the roots themselves became a source of nutrients for the soil microorganisms, which led to a phytoremediation effect by increase in the oil degradation activity. It has been indicated that Gazania is most appropriate for phytoremediation of oil-contaminated soil.

  8. Fundamental Studies of the Removal of Contaminants from Ground and Waste Waters via Reduction by Zero-Valent Metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yarmoff, Jory A.; Amrhein, Christopher

    1999-01-01

    Contaminated groundwater and surface waters are a problem throughout the United States and the world. In many instances, the types of contamination can be directly attributed to man's actions. For instance, the burial of chemical wastes, casual disposal of solvents in unlined pits, and the development of irrigated agriculture have all contributed to groundwater and surface water contamination. The kinds of contaminants include chlorinated solvents and toxic trace elements (including radioisotopes) that are soluble and mobile in soils and aquifers. Oxyanions of uranium, selenium, chromium, arsenic, technetium, and chlorine (as perchlorate) are frequently found as contaminants on many DOE sites. Uranium is a particularly widespread contaminant at most DOE sites including Oak Ridge, Rocky Flats, Hanford, Idaho (INEEL), and Fernald. The uranium contamination is associated with mining and milling of uranium ore (UMTRA sites), isotope separation and enrichment, and mixed waste and TRU waste burial. In addition, the careless disposal of halogenated solvents, such as carbon tetrachloride and trichloroethylene, has further contaminated many groundwaters at these sites. A potential remediation method for many of these oxyanions and chlorinated-solvents is to react the contaminated water with zero-valent iron. In this reaction, the iron serves as both an electron source and as a catalyst. Elemental iron is already being used on an experimental basis at many DOE sites. Both in situ reactive barriers and above-ground reactors are being developed for this purpose. However, the design and operation of these treatment systems requires a detailed process-level understanding of the interactions between the contaminants and the iron surfaces. We are performing fundamental investigations of the interactions of the relevant chlorinated solvents and trace element-containing compounds with single- and poly-crystalline Fe surfaces. The aim of this work is to develop th e fundamental

  9. Size and stochasticity in irrigated social-ecological systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puy, Arnald; Muneepeerakul, Rachata; Balbo, Andrea L.

    2017-03-01

    This paper presents a systematic study of the relation between the size of irrigation systems and the management of uncertainty. We specifically focus on studying, through a stylized theoretical model, how stochasticity in water availability and taxation interacts with the stochastic behavior of the population within irrigation systems. Our results indicate the existence of two key population thresholds for the sustainability of any irrigation system: or the critical population size required to keep the irrigation system operative, and N* or the population threshold at which the incentive to work inside the irrigation system equals the incentives to work elsewhere. Crossing irretrievably leads to system collapse. N* is the population level with a sub-optimal per capita payoff towards which irrigation systems tend to gravitate. When subjected to strong stochasticity in water availability or taxation, irrigation systems might suffer sharp population drops and irreversibly disintegrate into a system collapse, via a mechanism we dub ‘collapse trap’. Our conceptual study establishes the basis for further work aiming at appraising the dynamics between size and stochasticity in irrigation systems, whose understanding is key for devising mitigation and adaptation measures to ensure their sustainability in the face of increasing and inevitable uncertainty.

  10. Assessing the Efficacy of the SWAT Auto-Irrigation Function to Simulate Irrigation, Evapotranspiration, and Crop Response to Management Strategies of the Texas High Plains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Chen

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In the semi-arid Texas High Plains, the underlying Ogallala Aquifer is experiencing continuing decline due to long-term pumping for irrigation with limited recharge. Accurate simulation of irrigation and other associated water balance components are critical for meaningful evaluation of the effects of irrigation management strategies. Modelers often employ auto-irrigation functions within models such as the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT. However, some studies have raised concerns as to whether the function is able to adequately simulate representative irrigation practices. In this study, observations of climate, irrigation, evapotranspiration (ET, leaf area index (LAI, and crop yield derived from an irrigated lysimeter field at the USDA-ARS Conservation and Production Research Laboratory at Bushland, Texas were used to evaluate the efficacy of the SWAT auto-irrigation functions. Results indicated good agreement between simulated and observed daily ET during both model calibration (2001–2005 and validation (2006–2010 periods for the baseline scenario (Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency; NSE ≥ 0.80. The auto-irrigation scenarios resulted in reasonable ET simulations under all the thresholds of soil water deficit (SWD triggers as indicated by NSE values > 0.5. However, the auto-irrigation function did not adequately represent field practices, due to the continuation of irrigation after crop maturity and excessive irrigation when SWD triggers were less than the static irrigation amount.

  11. Light contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cepeda Pena, William Enrique

    1998-01-01

    The article tries on the wrong use of the artificial light, of the main problems of the light contamination, dispersion of the light, noxious effects of the light contamination, ecological effects, effects on the man's biological rhythm, economic effects and effects about the civic and vial security, among other topics

  12. How to expand irrigated land in a sustainable way ?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastor, Amandine V.; Ludwig, Fulco; Palazzo, Amanda; Havlik, Petr; Kabat, Pavel

    2015-04-01

    Allocation of agriculture commodities and water resources is subject to changes due to climate change, population increase and changes in dietary patterns. This study focused on including global water availability including environmental flow requirements with water withdrawal from irrigation and other sectors (industry, household and hydropower) at a monthly time-step in the GLOBIOM model. This model allows re-adjustment of land-use allocation, crop management, consumption and international trade. The GLOBIOM model induces an endogenous change in water price depending on water supply and demand. In this study, the focus was on how the inclusion of water resources affects land-use and, in particular, how global change will influence repartition of irrigated and rainfed lands at global scale. We used the climate change scenario including a radiative forcing of 2.6 W/m2 (RCP2.6), the socio-economic scenario (SSP2: middle-of-road), and the environmental flow method based on monthly flow allocation (the Variable Monthly Flow method) with high and low restrictions. Irrigation withdrawals were adjusted to a monthly time-step to account for biophysical water limitations at finer time resolution. Our results show that irrigated land might decrease up to 37% on average depending on the choice of EFR restrictions. Several areas were identified as future hot-spots of water stress such as the Mediterranean and Middle-East regions and parts of South-East Asia where the Water Stress Indicator (WSI) ranges from 0.4 to 1 by 2050. Other countries were identified to be in safe position in terms of water stress such as North-European countries. Some countries such as India expect a significant increase in water demand which might be compensated by an increase in water supply with climate change scenario. Re-allocation of rainfed and irrigated land might be useful information for land-use planners and water managers at an international level to decide on appropriate legislations on

  13. Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals in Abandoned Mine Lands as Signifcant Contamination Problem in Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, E.; Jordan, G.; Fugedi, U.; Bartha, A.; Kuti, L.; Heltai, G.; Kalmar, J.; Waldmann, I.; Napradean, I.; Damian, G.

    2009-04-01

    INTRODUCTION Wide-spread environmental contamination associated with historic mining in Europe has triggered social responses to improve related environmental legislation, the environmental assessment and management methods for the mining industry. Pollution by acid mine drainage (AMD) from ore and coal mining is the outstanding and most important source of mining-induced environmental pollution. Younger et al. (2002) estimates that watercourses polluted by coal mine drainage could be in the order of 2,000 to 3,000 km, and 1,000 to 1,500 km polluted by metal mine discharges for the EU 15 Member States (Younger et al. 2002). Significance of contamination risk posed by mining is also highlighted by mine accidents such as those in Baia Mare, Romania in 2002 and in Aznalcollar, Spain in 1999 (Jordan and D'Alessandro 2004). The new EU Mine Waste Directive (Directive 2006/21/EC) requires the risk-based inventory of abandoned mines in the EU. The cost-effective implementation of the inventory is especially demanding in countries with extensive historic mining and great number of abandoned mine sites, like Romania. The problem is further complicated in areas with trans-boundary effects. The objective of this investigation to carry out the risk-based contamination assessment of a mine site with possible trans-boundary effects in Romania. Assessment follows the source-pathway-receptor chain with a special attention to heavy metal leaching from waste dumps as sources and to transport modelling along surface water pathways. STUDY AREA In this paper the Baiut mine catchment located in the Gutai Mts., Romania, close to the Hungarian border is studied. The polymetallic deposites in the Tertiary Inner-Carpathian Volcanic Arc are exposed by a series of abandoned Zn and Pb mines first operated in the 14th century. Elevation in the high relief catchment ranges from 449m to 1044m. Geology is characterised by andesites hosting the ore deposits and paleogene sediments dominating at the

  14. Intervention processes and irrigation institutions : sustainability of farmer managed irrigation systems in Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Pant, D.R.

    2000-01-01

    With the support from various donors, His Majesty's Government of Nepal has implemented support programmes with a view to transform water availability, improve production, and increase the institutional capabilities of farmers to develop and sustain efficient, fair and reliable irrigation management practices in irrigation systems in Nepal. In this respect, this study aimed to understand the social, administrative and political processes involved in the social and institutional chang...

  15. Untangling the effects of shallow groundwater and deficit irrigation on irrigation water productivity in arid region: New conceptual model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Jingyuan; Huo, Zailin; Wang, Fengxin; Kang, Shaozhong; Huang, Guanhua

    2018-04-01

    Water scarcity and salt stress are two main limitations for agricultural production. Groundwater evapotranspiration (ET g ) with upward salt movement plays an important role in crop water use and water productivity in arid regions, and it can compensate the impact of deficit irrigation on crop production. Thus, comprehensive impacts of shallow groundwater and deficit irrigation on crop water use results in an improvement of irrigation water productivity (IWP). However, it is difficult to quantify the effects of groundwater and deficit irrigation on IWP. In this study, we built an IWP evaluation model coupled with a water and salt balance model and a crop yield estimation model. As a valuable tool of IWP simulation, the calibrated model was used to investigate the coupling response of sunflower IWP to irrigation water depths (IWDs), groundwater table depth (GTDs) and groundwater salinities (GSs). A total of 210 scenarios were run in which five irrigation water depths (IWDs) and seven groundwater table depths (GTDs) and six groundwater salinities (GSs) were used. Results indicate that increasing GS clearly increases the negative effect on a crop's actual evapotranspiration (ET a ) as salt accumulation in root zone. When GS is low (0.5-1g/L), increasing GTD produces more positive effect than negative effect. In regard to relatively high GS (2-5g/L), the negative effect of shallow-saline groundwater reaches a maximum at 2m GTD. Additionally, the salt concentration in the root zone maximizes its value at 2.0m GTD. In most cases, increasing GTD and GS reduces the benefits of irrigation water and IWP. The IWP increases with decreasing irrigation water. Overall, in arid regions, capillary rise of shallow groundwater can compensate for the lack of irrigation water and improve IWP. By improving irrigation schedules and taking advantages of shallow saline groundwater, we can obtain higher IWP. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Irrigation and avifaunal change in coastal Northwest Mexico: has irrigated habit attracted threatened migratory species?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grason, Emily; Navarro-Sigüenza, Adolfo G.

    2015-01-01

    Irrigation in desert ecosystems can either reduce or increase species diversity. Groundwater pumping often lowers water tables and reduces natural wetlands, whereas canal irrigation often creates mesic habitat, resulting in great increases in avian diversity from irrigation. Here we compare a dataset of potential natural vegetation to recent datasets from areal and satellite imagery to show that 60% of the land in the coastal plain of southern Sonora and northern Sinaloa lying below 200 m elevation has been converted by irrigation to more mesic habitats. We then use the record of bird specimens in the world’s museums from this same region of Mexico to examine the avian community before and after the development of extensive irrigation. In general these museum records show an increase in the abundance and diversity of breeding birds associated with mesic habitats. Although thorn forest birds have likely decreased in total numbers, most are common enough in the remaining thorn forest that collection records did not indicate their probable decline. Four migrants having most of their breeding ranges in the US or Canada, Yellow-billed Cuckoo, Cliff Swallow, Bell’s Vireo, and Orchard Oriole, apparently have increased dramatically as breeders in irrigated habitats of NW Mexico. Because these species have decreased or even largely disappeared as breeding birds in parts of the US or Canada, further research should assess whether their increases in new mesic habitats of NW Mexico are linked to their declines as breeding birds in Canada and the US For Bell’s Vireo recent specimens from Sinaloa suggest its new breeding population in NW Mexico may be composed partly of the endangered Least Bell’s Vireo. PMID:26312181

  17. Accumulation of Pharmaceuticals, Enterococcus, and Resistance Genes in Soils Irrigated with Wastewater for Zero to 100 Years in Central Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siebe, Christina; Willaschek, Elisha; Sakinc, Tuerkan; Huebner, Johannes; Amelung, Wulf; Grohmann, Elisabeth; Siemens, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Irrigation with wastewater releases pharmaceuticals, pathogenic bacteria, and resistance genes, but little is known about the accumulation of these contaminants in the environment when wastewater is applied for decades. We sampled a chronosequence of soils that were variously irrigated with wastewater from zero up to 100 years in the Mezquital Valley, Mexico, and investigated the accumulation of ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin, sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim, clarithromycin, carbamazepine, bezafibrate, naproxen, diclofenac, as well as the occurrence of Enterococcus spp., and sul and qnr resistance genes. Total concentrations of ciprofloxacin, sulfamethoxazole, and carbamazepine increased with irrigation duration reaching 95% of their upper limit of 1.4 µg/kg (ciprofloxacin), 4.3 µg/kg (sulfamethoxazole), and 5.4 µg/kg (carbamazepine) in soils irrigated for 19–28 years. Accumulation was soil-type-specific, with largest accumulation rates in Leptosols and no time-trend in Vertisols. Acidic pharmaceuticals (diclofenac, naproxen, bezafibrate) were not retained and thus did not accumulate in soils. We did not detect qnrA genes, but qnrS and qnrB genes were found in two of the irrigated soils. Relative concentrations of sul1 genes in irrigated soils were two orders of magnitude larger (3.15×10−3±0.22×10−3 copies/16S rDNA) than in non-irrigated soils (4.35×10−5±1.00×10−5 copies/16S rDNA), while those of sul2 exceeded the ones in non-irrigated soils still by a factor of 22 (6.61×10–4±0.59×10−4 versus 2.99×10−5±0.26×10−5 copies/16S rDNA). Absolute numbers of sul genes continued to increase with prolonging irrigation together with Enterococcus spp. 23S rDNA and total 16S rDNA contents. Increasing total concentrations of antibiotics in soil are not accompanied by increasing relative abundances of resistance genes. Nevertheless, wastewater irrigation enlarges the absolute concentration of resistance genes in soils due to a long-term increase in

  18. improving of irrigation management: a learning based approach

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p2333147

    Irrigation farms are small businesses and like any other business, the managers or ... human factors and constraints that impact on the adoption of irrigation ... Informal interaction with other irrigation farmers and social networks played a ...

  19. Human health risk assessment: heavy metal contamination of vegetables in Bahawalpur, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafiza Hira Iqbal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dietary exposure of toxic metals is a vital concern for human health through vegetable consumption, especially in developing countries. Aim of the current study was to determine the health risk related to vegetables contamination of heavy metals by irrigated with sewage and turbine water. Irrigation water sources, soils and vegetables were analyzed for selected metals viz: Pb, Cd, Cr and Ni. Heavy metals in water samples were within the permissible limits except Cd in sewage water. The concentration of heavy metals in soil and vegetables irrigated with turbine water were lower than the safe limits. In case of vegetables irrigated with sewage water, Cd was higher in soil while Pb, Cd and Cr were higher in most of the vegetables. Daily intake of metals, health risk index and Bio-concentration factor was also determined. Health risk index values for Cd, Pb and Ni were exceeded the permissible limits (European Union, 2002. Bio-concentration factor (BCF found to be maximum (16.4 mg/kg in Coriandrum sativum cultivated with sewage water. Raphanus caudatus, Coriandrum sativum, Daucus carota, Allium sativum and Solanum tuberosum showed Health Risk Index of Cd > 1 in adults and children. Allium sativum also showed HRI of Pb > 1 in children. We conclude that the quality of vegetables irrigated with sewage water is poor and not fit for human health, evident from the high concentration of Pb, Cd and Cr. Urgent measures are required to prevent consumption and production vegetables irrigated with of sewage water in the study area.

  20. Contamination of tomatoes with coliforms and Escherichia coli on farms and in markets of northwest Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenge, Kenneth C; Whong, Clement M Z; Yakubu, Lydia L; Omolehin, Raphael A; Erbaugh, J Mark; Miller, Sally A; LeJeune, Jeffrey T

    2015-01-01

    Although recent reports indicated that produce contamination with foodborne pathogens is widespread in Nigeria, the sources and magnitude of microbial contamination of fruits and vegetables on farms and in markets have not been thoroughly identified. To ascertain possible pathways of contamination, the frequency and magnitude of coliform and Escherichia coli contamination of tomatoes produced in northwest Nigeria was assessed on farms and in markets. Eight hundred twenty-six tomato fruit samples and 36 irrigation water samples were collected and assessed for fecal indicator organisms. In addition, the awareness and use of food safety practices by tomato farmers and marketers were determined. Median concentration of coliforms on all field- and market-sourced tomato fruit samples, as well as in irrigation water sources, in Kaduna, Kano, and Katsina states exceeded 1,000 most probable number (MPN) per g. Median E. coli counts from 73 (17%) of 420 field samples and 231 (57%) of 406 market tomato fruit samples exceeded 100 MPN/g. Median E. coli concentrations on tomato fruits were higher (P market tomato fruit samples (2.66 Log MPN/g) were higher (P marketers were generally unaware of the relationship between food safety practices and microbial contamination on fresh produce. Good agricultural practices pertaining to food safety on farms and in local markets were seldom used. Adoption of food safety practices on-farm, during transport, and during marketing could improve the microbial quality of tomatoes available to the public in this region of the world.

  1. Distribution of heavy metals in plants cultivated with wastewater irrigated soils during different periods of time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solis, C.; Andrade, E.; Mireles, A.; Reyes-Solis, I.E.; Garcia-Calderon, N.; Lagunas-Solar, M.C.; Pina, C.U.; Flocchini, R.G.

    2005-01-01

    The Mezquital valley is a vast area near Mexico city that has been irrigated with wastewater from Mexico city for more than 50 years. At present, this water source continues to be used while new irrigation areas are being incorporated according to rural demand. This research study was conducted to evaluate the relationship between the accumulation of metals in soils and plants and the physicochemical properties of soils irrigated in this manner for 50 and 100 years, respectively. Soil properties such as pH and total organic carbon (TOC) were determined by conventional methods. Plant and soil total trace metals Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn and Pb were determined using particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE). Lower pH and TOC contents were obtained for soils irrigated during 100 years, indicating a higher metal bioavailability. This is not reflected in plant content for most of the reported elements, but Zn and Pb show a higher absorption in 100 years old plots (26-79%) than in 50-year-olds plots, indicating a pH dependence

  2. Alternate furrow irrigation of four fresh-market tomato cultivars under semi-arid condition of Ethiopia – Part II: Physiological response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashinie Bogale

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the variation in physiological response to deficit irrigation together with better knowledge on physiological characteristics of different genotypes that contribute to drought adaptation mechanisms would be helpful in transferring different irrigation technologies to farmers. A field experiment was carried to investigate the physiological response of four tomato cultivars (Fetan, Chali, Cochoro and ARP Tomato d2 to moderate water deficit induced by alternate furrow irrigation (AFI and deficit irrigation (DI under semi-arid condition of Ethiopia during 2013 and 2014. The study also aimed at identifying physiological attributes to the fruit yield of tomato under different deficit irrigation techniques. A factorial combination of irrigation treatments and cultivar were arranged in a complete randomized design with three replicates. Results showed that stomatal conductance (g_s was significantly reduced while photosynthetic performance measured as chlorophyll fluorescence (Fv’/Fm’, relative water content (RWC and leaf ash content remained unaffected under deficit irrigations. Significant differences among cultivars were found for water use efficiency (WUE, g_s, chlorophyll content (Chl_SPAD, normal difference vegetation index (NDVI, leaf ash content and fruit growth rate. However, cultivar differences in WUE were more accounted for by the regulation of g_s, therefore, g_s could be useful for breeders for screening large numbers of genotypes with higher WUE under deficit irrigation condition. The study result also demonstrated that cultivar with traits that contribute to achieve higher yields under deficit irrigation strategies has the potential to increase WUE.

  3. Modeling water scarcity over south Asia: Incorporating crop growth and irrigation models into the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troy, Tara J.; Ines, Amor V. M.; Lall, Upmanu; Robertson, Andrew W.

    2013-04-01

    Large-scale hydrologic models, such as the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model, are used for a variety of studies, from drought monitoring to projecting the potential impact of climate change on the hydrologic cycle decades in advance. The majority of these models simulates the natural hydrological cycle and neglects the effects of human activities such as irrigation, which can result in streamflow withdrawals and increased evapotranspiration. In some parts of the world, these activities do not significantly affect the hydrologic cycle, but this is not the case in south Asia where irrigated agriculture has a large water footprint. To address this gap, we incorporate a crop growth model and irrigation model into the VIC model in order to simulate the impacts of irrigated and rainfed agriculture on the hydrologic cycle over south Asia (Indus, Ganges, and Brahmaputra basin and peninsular India). The crop growth model responds to climate signals, including temperature and water stress, to simulate the growth of maize, wheat, rice, and millet. For the primarily rainfed maize crop, the crop growth model shows good correlation with observed All-India yields (0.7) with lower correlations for the irrigated wheat and rice crops (0.4). The difference in correlation is because irrigation provides a buffer against climate conditions, so that rainfed crop growth is more tied to climate than irrigated crop growth. The irrigation water demands induce hydrologic water stress in significant parts of the region, particularly in the Indus, with the streamflow unable to meet the irrigation demands. Although rainfall can vary significantly in south Asia, we find that water scarcity is largely chronic due to the irrigation demands rather than being intermittent due to climate variability.

  4. Introduction: Panda or Hydra? The untold stories of drip irrigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuper, M.; Venot, J.P.; Zwarteveen, M.; Venot, J.P.; Kuper, M.; Zwarteveen, M.

    2017-01-01

    Irrigated areas in the world are witnessing a transformation from open canal systems to more ‘modern’ irrigation methods such as drip irrigation that convey water through closed pipe systems. Initially associated with hi-tech irrigated agriculture, drip irrigation is now being used by a wide range

  5. [Ecological risks of reclaimed water irrigation: a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei-Ping; Zhang, Wei-Ling; Pan, Neng; Jiao, Wen-Tao

    2012-12-01

    Wastewater reclamation and reuse have become an important approach to alleviate the water crisis in China because of its social, economic and ecological benefits. The irrigation on urban green space and farmland is the primary utilization of reclaimed water, which has been practiced world widely. To understand the risk of reclaimed water irrigation, we summarized and reviewed the publications associated with typical pollutants in reclaimed water including salts, nitrogen, heavy metals, emerging pollutants and pathogens, systematically analyzed the ecological risk posed by reclaimed water irrigation regarding plant growth, groundwater quality and public health. Studies showed that salt and salt ions were the major risk sources of reclaimed water irrigation, spreading disease was another potential risk of using reclaimed water, and emerging pollutants was the hot topic in researches of ecological risk. Based on overseas experiences, risk control measures on reclaimed water irrigation in urban green space and farmland were proposed. Five recommendations were given to promote the safe use of reclaimed water irrigation including (1) strengthen long-term in situ monitoring, (2) promote the modeling studies, (3) build up the connections of reclaimed water quality, irrigation management and ecological risk, (4) evaluate the soil bearing capacity of reclaimed water irrigation, (5) and establish risk management system of reclaimed water reuse.

  6. Ocean-Atmosphere Interactions Modulate Irrigation's Climate Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krakauer, Nir Y.; Puma, Michael J.; Cook, Benjamin I.; Gentine, Pierre; Nazarenko, Larissa

    2016-01-01

    Numerous studies have focused on the local and regional climate effects of irrigated agriculture and other land cover and land use change (LCLUC) phenomena, but there are few studies on the role of ocean- atmosphere interaction in modulating irrigation climate impacts. Here, we compare simulations with and without interactive sea surface temperatures of the equilibrium effect on climate of contemporary (year 2000) irrigation geographic extent and intensity. We find that ocean-atmosphere interaction does impact the magnitude of global-mean and spatially varying climate impacts, greatly increasing their global reach. Local climate effects in the irrigated regions remain broadly similar, while non-local effects, particularly over the oceans, tend to be larger. The interaction amplifies irrigation-driven standing wave patterns in the tropics and mid-latitudes in our simulations, approximately doubling the global-mean amplitude of surface temperature changes due to irrigation. The fractions of global area experiencing significant annual-mean surface air temperature and precipitation change also approximately double with ocean-atmosphere interaction. Subject to confirmation with other models, these findings imply that LCLUC is an important contributor to climate change even in remote areas such as the Southern Ocean, and that attribution studies should include interactive oceans and need to consider LCLUC, including irrigation, as a truly global forcing that affects climate and the water cycle over ocean as well as land areas.

  7. Adsorption and desorption of contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palumbo, A.V.; Strong-Gunderson, J.M.; DeFlaun, M.; Ensley, B.

    1994-01-01

    The microbial remediation of sites Contaminated with organics is well documented, however, there are some significant problems that remain to be solved in the areas of contaminants sorbed to soils and non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) contamination. Methods of in situ bioremediation techniques employ either the stimulation of indigenous populations by nutrient addition, or the addition of prepared bacterial cultures to the subsurface environment. Problems of contaminant sorption and NAPL's are related in that both encompass reduced contaminant bioavailability. Non-aqueous phase liquids have been identified as a priority area for research in the In situ Program due to their presence at DOE sites and the lack of adequate technology to effectively treat this contamination. Bioremediation technologies developed as a result of this project are easily transferred to industry

  8. Mapping Irrigation Potential in the Upper East Region of Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akomeah, E.; Odai, S. N.; Annor, F. O.; Adjei, K. A.; Barry, B.

    2009-04-01

    The Upper East Region together with the other two regions in Northern Ghana (Upper West and Northern Region) is seen as the locus of perennial food deficit (GPRS, 2003). Despite, the provision of over 200 small scale dams and various mechanisms aimed at poverty alleviation, the region is still plagued with poverty and yearly food shortages. To achieve food security and alleviate poverty in the region however, modernization of agriculture through irrigation is deemed inevitable. While it is true that considerable potential still exists for future expansion of irrigation, it cannot be refuted that water is becoming scarcer in the regions where the need for irrigation is most important, hence mapping the irrigation potential of the region will be the first step toward ensuring sound planning and sustainability of the irrigation developments. In this study, an attempt has been made to map out the irrigation potential of the Upper East Region. The river basin approach was used in assessing the irrigation potential. The catchments drained by The White Volta river, Red volta river, River Sissili and River Kulpawn were considered in the assessment. The irrigation potential for the sub basins was computed by combining information on gross irrigation water requirements for the selected cash crops, area of soil suitable for irrigation and available water resources. The capacity of 80%, 70%, 60% and 50% time of exceedance flow of the available surface water resources in the respective sub basins was estimated. The area that can be irrigated with this flow was computed with selected cropping pattern. Combining the results of the potential irrigable areas and the land use map of the respective sub basins, an irrigation potential map has been generated showing potential sites in the upper east region that can be brought under irrigation. Keywords: Irrigation potential, irrigation water requirement, land evaluation, dependable flow

  9. Using a water-food-energy nexus approach for optimal irrigation management during drought events in Nebraska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campana, P. E.; Zhang, J.; Yao, T.; Melton, F. S.; Yan, J.

    2017-12-01

    Climate change and drought have severe impacts on the agricultural sector affecting crop yields, water availability, and energy consumption for irrigation. Monitoring, assessing and mitigating the effects of climate change and drought on the agricultural and energy sectors are fundamental challenges that require investigation for water, food, and energy security issues. Using an integrated water-food-energy nexus approach, this study is developing a comprehensive drought management system through integration of real-time drought monitoring with real-time irrigation management. The spatially explicit model developed, GIS-OptiCE, can be used for simulation, multi-criteria optimization and generation of forecasts to support irrigation management. To demonstrate the value of the approach, the model has been applied to one major corn region in Nebraska to study the effects of the 2012 drought on crop yield and irrigation water/energy requirements as compared to a wet year such as 2009. The water-food-energy interrelationships evaluated show that significant water volumes and energy are required to halt the negative effects of drought on the crop yield. The multi-criteria optimization problem applied in this study indicates that the optimal solutions of irrigation do not necessarily correspond to those that would produce the maximum crop yields, depending on both water and economic constraints. In particular, crop pricing forecasts are extremely important to define the optimal irrigation management strategy. The model developed shows great potential in precision agriculture by providing near real-time data products including information on evapotranspiration, irrigation volumes, energy requirements, predicted crop growth, and nutrient requirements.

  10. Irrigation ponds: Possibility and potentials for the treatment of drainage water from paddy fields in Zhanghe Irrigation System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Bin; MAO Zhi; BROWN Larry; CHEN XiuHong; PENG LiYuan; WANG JianZhang

    2009-01-01

    Excessive application of fertilizers and pesticides as well as discharge of undecontaminated and un-recycled waste of livestock and poultry into farmland has caused serious non-point source pollution (NSP) of farmland in China.With the traditional mode of irrigation and drainage in rice-based irrigation systems, the pollution of farmland drainage water has become more and more serious.Traditional ir-rigation and drainage systems only focus on issues concerning water quantity, i.e.the capacity of irri-gation in drought and drainage in waterlogging period, yet have no requirement on water quality im-provement, how to clean the water quality of farmland drainage through remodeling the existing irriga-tion and drainage systems has a very important realistic meaning.Pond is an important irrigation facil-ity in rice-based irrigation systems in southern China, which has the functions of not only a storage of water from canals but also collections of surface runoffs and farmland drainage for recycling use.Such water storage features of pond provide the possibility and potential capacity for drainage water treat-ment by managing such features as treatment basins as the growth of aquatic plants as well as living of fishes, batrachia and microorganisms in pond forms a soil-plant-microorganism ecological system.To explore the potential capacity of pond for drainage water nutrient reduction, the Zhanghe Irrigation System of Hubei, a typical "melon-on-the-vine" system in southern China is selected as the research site.The results of pond survey and field experiments demonstrate that plenty of ponds are suitable for collecting and cleaning paddy field drainage, and the ponds are favorable in reducing N, P nutrients in the drainage water.Other issues, e.g.how to maximize such capacity and what strategies should be sought to make existing treatment basins hydraulically more efficient, are also discussed.

  11. Irrigation ponds:Possibility and potentials for the treatment of drainage water from paddy fields in Zhanghe Irrigation System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BROWN; Larry

    2009-01-01

    Excessive application of fertilizers and pesticides as well as discharge of undecontaminated and unrecycled waste of livestock and poultry into farmland has caused serious non-point source pollution (NSP) of farmland in China. With the traditional mode of irrigation and drainage in rice-based irrigation systems, the pollution of farmland drainage water has become more and more serious. Traditional irrigation and drainage systems only focus on issues concerning water quantity, i.e. the capacity of irrigation in drought and drainage in waterlogging period, yet have no requirement on water quality improvement. how to clean the water quality of farmland drainage through remodeling the existing irrigation and drainage systems has a very important realistic meaning. Pond is an important irrigation facility in rice-based irrigation systems in southern China, which has the functions of not only a storage of water from canals but also collections of surface runoffs and farmland drainage for recycling use. Such water storage features of pond provide the possibility and potential capacity for drainage water treatment by managing such features as treatment basins as the growth of aquatic plants as well as living of fishes, batrachia and microorganisms in pond forms a soil-plant-microorganism ecological system. To explore the potential capacity of pond for drainage water nutrient reduction, the Zhanghe Irrigation System of Hubei, a typical "melon-on-the-vine" system in southern China is selected as the research site. The results of pond survey and field experiments demonstrate that plenty of ponds are suitable for collecting and cleaning paddy field drainage, and the ponds are favorable in reducing N, P nutrients in the drainage water. Other issues, e.g. how to maximize such capacity and what strategies should be sought to make existing treatment basins hydraulically more efficient, are also discussed.

  12. Nuclear techniques in flower production. Soil and irrigation fertility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    Bad soil management; the nutrients and water used in ornamental cultivation are the cause for considerable reductions in productivity here in Ecuador. It's essential to take measures to reduce the accumulation of salts and the degeneration of soils to minimum, and to put back those nutrients that have been exported by the harvesting of ornamental crops. In this way we can maintain an ecologically, socially and economically sustainable flower industry. Nuclear techniques such as radioisotopes and stable isotopes are used to track the final destination of the fertilizers that have been applied to the soil and to determine the availability of these for plants. The Ecuadorian Atomic Energy Commission (CEEA) in collaboration with the Central University of Ecuador have carried out studies using the isotopic tracers Nitrogen 15 (N-15), Phosforus 32 (P-32), Rubide-85 (Rb-85) as tracers for Potassium (K). These studies have shown that only a part of the nigrogenized fertilizer applied to the soil is useful in the growing of roses, and a large part of the nitrogen escapes in the the environment thereby contaminating the water table in the form of nitrites, depending on he way and the time of year that the fertilizer has been applied. The best form of fertilizer in rose growing for example is with the nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and other nutrients in fractioned from always using fertilized irrigation with a dose of 1300 kg of N, 200 Kg of P, 1600 kg of K per hectare/year. This differs form norm in plantations where a weekly-fertilized irrigation is used whilst on other days only watering is used. A 30% increase in production was achieved with a 50% increase in the absorption of nitrogen and a 40% increase in potassium. These studies have shown the tremendous cost saving in terms of the importing of fertilizers, as well as the decrease in the use of contaminating fertilizers. (The author)

  13. Laser induced explosive vapor and cavitation resulting in effective irrigation of the root canal. Part 1: a visualization study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanken, Jan; De Moor, Roeland Jozef Gentil; Meire, Maarten; Verdaasdonk, Rudolf

    2009-09-01

    Limited information exists regarding the induction of explosive vapor and cavitation bubbles in an endodontic rinsing solution. It is also not clear whether a fiber has to be moved in the irrigation solution or can be kept stationary. No information is available on